WorldWideScience

Sample records for constructal solar chimney

  1. Integrating a solar chimney:

    OpenAIRE

    Akerboom, R.; Gkerou, V.

    2014-01-01

    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0533 Innovation & Sustainability. This designer’s manual presents an overview of integration methods of a solar chimney during refurbishment of office buildings and describes step by step the design methods. A lot of research has been made the past years on the efficiency of the solar chimney. However none of them focuses on the integration of the system in the buildings. In the most available case studies were the solar chimn...

  2. Parameterization Studies of Solar Chimneys in the Tropics

    OpenAIRE

    Alex Yong Kwang Tan; Nyuk Hien Wong

    2013-01-01

    The paper examines the effect of the solar chimney’s stack height, depth, width and inlet position on the interior performance (air temperature and speed at 1.20 m height above the ground) as well as proposes an optimal tropical solar chimney design. Simulations show that the output air temperature remains constant while the solar chimney’s width is the most significant factor influencing output air speed. The solar chimney’s inlet position has limited influence ...

  3. A simple theoretical model of a solar chimney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple theoretical model of a solar chimney to predict its performance under varying ambient and geometrical features was proposed. Steady state heat transfer equations were set up using a thermal resistance network and solved using matrix inversion. Surface temperatures of the heat absorbing wall and glass and induced air flow velocity in the chimney are predicted. An experiment model 2 m high x 0.45 m wide with air channel gaps of 0.1, to 0.3 m wide was constructed. Outdoor tests were performed by exposure to both direct and diffuse solar radiation. The effects of air channel gap and solar radiation intensity were investigated. Air velocities between 0.25 to 0.39 ms-1 at radiation intensities up to 650 W m-2 were obtained. No reserve air circulation was observed at the chimney exit. The model was found more suitable for solar chimney with large air gaps

  4. Experimental Investigations on Performance and Design Parameters of Solar Chimney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?brahim ÜÇGÜL

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a solar chimney system, which is suitable for climate conditions of Isparta and its surroundings, is designed theoretically. With the aim of studying experimentally as based on that design, a prototype solar chimney has been constructed in the university campus area of Süleyman Demirel University-RACRER (Research and Application Center for Renewable Energy Resources. Additionally, after the experimental studies, the system is modelled theoretically with depending on the design. Then, this model constituted the basis for developed computer programme and performance parameters of the system are obtained. The obtained findings showed that the solar chimney, which is suitable for climate conditions of Isparta and its surroundings, are sufficient for determining design and performance parameters. The results showed that electricity generation with solar chimney is suitable for areas which have high solar incident and long sunshine duration and similar climate conditions as such as Isparta and its surroundings. When the results are evaluated, it is seen that electricity generation power of solar chimney depends on the region solar data, the chimney height and the size of greenhouse area.

  5. Parameterization Studies of Solar Chimneys in the Tropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Yong Kwang Tan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the effect of the solar chimney’s stack height, depth, width and inlet position on the interior performance (air temperature and speed at 1.20 m height above the ground as well as proposes an optimal tropical solar chimney design. Simulations show that the output air temperature remains constant while the solar chimney’s width is the most significant factor influencing output air speed. The solar chimney’s inlet position has limited influence on the output air speed although regions near the solar chimney’s inlet show an increase in air speed. Furthermore, a regression model is developed based on the solar chimney’s stack height, depth and width to predict the interior air speed. To optimize solar chimney in the tropics, the recommendation is to first maximize its width as the interior’s width, while allowing its stack height to be the building’s height. Lastly, the solar chimney’s depth is determined from the regression model by allocating the required interior air speed.

  6. Simulation and optimization of geometric parameters of a solar chimney in Tehran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A fundamental mathematical of solar chimney model was described. • The performance of solar chimney power plant was analytically simulated. • The results of predictions were compared with the experimental data. • The velocity magnitude can be raised 4–25% in different cases. - Abstract: An analytical and numerical study for geometrical optimizing of a solar chimney prototype at University of Tehran was performed. A fundamental mathematical model that describes the flow was presented, and the performance evaluation of solar chimney was simulated with operational and geometric configurations. The numerical predictions were validated through comparison with the experimental data of the solar chimney pilot which was constructed in height of 2 m and collector radius of 3 m. The results show that, the collector inlet of 6 cm, the chimney height of 3 m, and the chimney diameter of 10 cm were the best alternatives for the constructed solar chimney pilot. It is found that the velocity magnitude can be raised to 4–25% in different cases; also the analysis indicated that the height and diameter of the chimney are the most important physical variables for solar chimney design

  7. DESIGN OF A SMALL ? SCALE SOLAR CHIMNEY FOR SUSTAINABLE POWER

    Science.gov (United States)

    After several months of design and testing it has been determined that a small scale solar chimney can be built using nearly any local materials and simple hand tools without needing superior construction knowledge. The biggest obstacle to over come was the weather conditions....

  8. Design and measured performance of a solar chimney for natural-circulation solar-energy dryers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design and construction of a solar chimney which was undertaken as part of a study on natural-circulation solar-energy dryers is reported. The experimental solar chimney consists of a 5.3m high and 1.64m diameter cylindrical polyethylene-clad vertical chamber, supported structurally by steel framework and draped internally with a selectively-absorbing surface. The performance of the chimney which was monitored extensively with and without the selective surface in place (to study the effectiveness of this design option) is also reported. (author). 14 refs, 7 figs

  9. EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF A VELOCITY FIELD USING VARIABLE CHIMNEY DIAMETER FOR SOLAR UPDRAFT TOWER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Mehla,

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A solar updraft tower consists of an air collector 1.4 m in diameter and 80 cm tall chimney was set upin NIT Hamirpur, Himachal-Pradesh, India. The objective of the study was to investigate the variation of velocity with essential geometricparameter of the system. The solar updraft tower system consists of three essential elements- collector, chimney height and wind turbine. The output power of a system is depended on the input velocity to the wind turbine. Turbine inlet velocity (V is the function of five parameter of the solar updraft tower systems such as collector diameter (Dc, roof glass angle (?, entrance height (h, tower's height (Ht, tower's diameter (D, out of which variable roof angle and the chimney height is analysis. It was found that the solar chimney diameter of 8 cm is having the maximum velocity for the constructed setup, and the ratio of chimney diameter to chimney heightwas found to be 0.1.

  10. Solar Chimney Model Parameters to Enhance Cooling PV Panel Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Sh Elden; Sopian, K.; Alghoul, Fatah O.; Abdelnasser Abouhnik; Ae. Muftah M.

    2013-01-01

    The concept of using the Solar Chimney plays an important role in a wide range of topics to improve cooling system efficiency such as drying process, and single and multi-story buildings ventilation against temperature rising. In this paper, study the effective solar cooling chimney parameter model to enhance the performance of photovoltaic (PV) cooling system. First, a brief description of theoretical performance predictions of the solar cooling chimney also discusses the effect of the ambie...

  11. Simulation of a sloped solar chimney power plant in Lanzhou

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: ? A sloped solar chimney power plant in Lanzhou, China is investigated. ? The configuration sizes are designed separately. ? The system has high periodicity and stability but low efficiency. ? The sloped solar chimney power system is of high value for Northwest China. -- Abstract: Solar chimney power system is one large-scale utilization style of solar energy, which has drawn high attentions worldwide. Though scholars all over the world have made many researches on the solar chimney power system, reports of sloped solar chimney power system are still few. A sloped solar chimney power plant, which is expected to provide electric power for remote villages in Northwest China, has been designed for Lanzhou City in this paper. The designed plant, in which the height and radius of the chimney are 252.2 m and 14 m respectively, the radius and angle of the solar collector are 607.2 m and 31o respectively, is designed to produce 5 MW electric power on a monthly average all year. The performances, such as the airflow temperature increase, pressure, the airflow speed, system efficiency and solar collector efficiency, of the built sloped solar chimney power plant are simulated and presented. Simulation results show that parameters of the sloped solar chimney power plant are symmetrical and stable; the power plant has better performances in spring and autumn days; the overall efficiency of the power plant is low. Considering the abundant sol low. Considering the abundant solar radiation, environmental friendliness, easy management and low population density, the sloped solar chimney power system is of high value to Northwest China.

  12. Performance of a Solar Chimney Under Egyptian Weather Conditions: Numerical Simulation and Experimental Validation

    OpenAIRE

    A. A. Mostafa; M. F. Sedrak; Adel M. Abdel Dayem

    2011-01-01

    High solar radiation and ambient temperature, and large desert in Egypt are excellent conditions to install efficiently solar chimney power plants there. Therefore this research aimed to develop a validated mathematical model and governing equations of solar chimney. It is proposed to improve the performance of solar chimney under effects of various parameters, and study of possibility of installing solar chimney in Egypt. The mathematical simulation of the solar chimney has been developed in...

  13. Solar chimney in the land of Don Quixote

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    England, J.

    La Mancha/Spain is a semi-arid plateau. Near Manzanares about 150 km south of Madrid, is working the world's first prototype solar chimney. The solar chimney is a German-Spanish project. It is testing a 50-year-old idea for generating electricity simply and cheaply. The chimney converts sun-rays into electrical energy by combining the elements of greenhouse, chimney and wind turbine generator. The Manzanares chimney is 200 m high, with a diameter of 10 m. The collector roof has a diameter of 250 m. The wind turbine can be run of a maximum of 170 rpm and can be switched from a 100 kW, AC generator to a 40 kW unit for maximum generation of electricity at night.

  14. Power generation from wind turbines in a solar chimney

    OpenAIRE

    Tudor Foote, Ramesh K. Agarwal

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that shrouded wind turbines can generate greater power compared to bare turbines. A solar chimney generates an upward draft of wind inside a tower and a shroud around the wind turbine. There are numerous empty silos on farms in the U.S. that can be converted to solar chimneys with minor modifications at modest cost. The objective of this study is to determine the potential of these silos/chimneys for generating wind power. The study is conducted through analytical/co...

  15. Solar Chimney Model Parameters to Enhance Cooling PV Panel Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Sh Elden

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of using the Solar Chimney plays an important role in a wide range of topics to improve cooling system efficiency such as drying process, and single and multi-story buildings ventilation against temperature rising. In this paper, study the effective solar cooling chimney parameter model to enhance the performance of photovoltaic (PV cooling system. First, a brief description of theoretical performance predictions of the solar cooling chimney also discusses the effect of the ambient wind velocity on the photovoltaic panel. Second, analysis air velocities at different points in solar cooling chimney are predicted and the temperature drop also estimated to predicted air velocities in the duct. Finally, from simulation result it was found for chimney height range 0.3 m - 3 m and at 60 oC, the air velocity increase from 0.6 to 1.78 m/s and Pressure difference between inlet and outlet increase from 0.5 to 5.3 KPa, which improve the PV panel voltage 8%.

  16. A performance analysis of solar chimney thermal power systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Dabbas Awwad Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the solar chimney performance theoretically (techno-economic. A mathematical model was developed to estimate the following parameter: Power output, Pressure drop across the turbine, the max chimney height, Airflow temperature, and the overall efficiency of solar chimney. The mathematical model was validated with experimental data from the prototype in Manzanares power. It can be concluded that the differential pressure of collector-chimney transition section in the system, is increase with the increase of solar radiation intensity. The specific system costs are between 2000 Eur/kW and 5000 Eur/kW depending on the system size, system concept and storage size. Hence, a 50 MWe solar thermal power plant will cost 100-250 Eur million. At very good sites, today’s solar thermal power plants can generate electricity in the range of 0.15 Eur/kWh, and series production could soon bring down these costs below 0.10 Eur /kWh.

  17. A NUMERICAL study of solar chimney power plants in Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahar F, Attig; S, Guellouz M.; M, Sahraoui; S, Kaddeche

    2015-04-01

    A 3D CFD (Computational fluid dynamics) model of a Solar Chimney Power Plant (SCPP) was developed and validated through comparison with the experimental data of the Manzanares plant. Then, it was employed to study the SCPP performance for locations throughout Tunisia.

  18. Performance of a Solar Chimney Under Egyptian Weather Conditions: Numerical Simulation and Experimental Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Mostafa

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available High solar radiation and ambient temperature, and large desert in Egypt are excellent conditions to install efficiently solar chimney power plants there. Therefore this research aimed to develop a validated mathematical model and governing equations of solar chimney. It is proposed to improve the performance of solar chimney under effects of various parameters, and study of possibility of installing solar chimney in Egypt. The mathematical simulation of the solar chimney has been developed including all its performance parameters, dimensions (of collector, chimney and turbine and the metrological data; which were considered as inputs of the simulation program. A comparison between the mathematical and experimental performance has been investigated to validate the mathematical simulation. The mathematical model has been used to predict the performance of the solar chimney power plant over a year in Egypt. It is used to study of effects of geometrical parameters, and investigate possibility of the optimum geometrical dimensions. It is obtained that there is in fact no optimum physical size for such plants without considering the economical constraints. The chimney height has a significant effect in the chimney performance. Visualizing of annual performance of the solar chimney would seem to be essentially a power generator in Egypt if it installed in a large scale.Key words: Solar chimney; Numerical simulation; Annual performance; Experimental validation; Optimization

  19. Power generation from wind turbines in a solar chimney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudor Foote, Ramesh K. Agarwal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that shrouded wind turbines can generate greater power compared to bare turbines. A solar chimney generates an upward draft of wind inside a tower and a shroud around the wind turbine. There are numerous empty silos on farms in the U.S. that can be converted to solar chimneys with minor modifications at modest cost. The objective of this study is to determine the potential of these silos/chimneys for generating wind power. The study is conducted through analytical/computational approach by employing the commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD software. Computations are performed for five different geometric configurations consisting of a turbine, a cylindrical silo, and/or a venturi and/or a diffuser using the dimensions of typical silos and assuming Class 3 wind velocity. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations with the Boussinesq approximation and a two equation realizable k – ? model are employed in the calculations, and the turbine is modeled as an actuator disk. The power coefficient (Cp and generated power are calculated for the five cases. Consistent with recent literature, it was found that the silos with diffusers increase the Cp beyond Betz’s limit significantly and thus the generated power. It should be noted that Cp is calculated by normalizing it by the turbine area swept by the wind. This study shows the potential of using abandoned silos in the mid-west and other parts of the country for localized wind power generation.

  20. Power generation from wind turbines in a solar chimney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foote, Tudor [Graduate Student, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Washington University in St. Louis, Jolley Hall, Campus Box 1185, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, Missouri, 63130 (United States); Agarwal, Ramesh K. [William Palm Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Washington University in St. Louis, Jolley Hall, Campus Box 1185, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, Missouri, 63130 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Recent studies have shown that shrouded wind turbines can generate greater power compared to bare turbines. A solar chimney generates an upward draft of wind inside a tower and a shroud around the wind turbine. There are numerous empty silos on farms in the U.S. that can be converted to solar chimneys with minor modifications at modest cost. The objective of this study is to determine the potential of these silos/chimneys for generating wind power. The study is conducted through analytical/computational approach by employing the commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software. Computations are performed for five different geometric configurations consisting of a turbine, a cylindrical silo, and/or a venturi and/or a diffuser using the dimensions of typical silos and assuming Class 3 wind velocity. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations with the Boussinesq approximation and a two equation realizable {kappa}-{epsilon} model are employed in the calculations, and the turbine is modeled as an actuator disk. The power coefficient (Cp) and generated power are calculated for the five cases. Consistent with recent literature, it was found that the silos with diffusers increase the Cp beyond Betz’s limit significantly and thus the generated power. It should be noted that Cp is calculated by normalizing it by the turbine area swept by the wind. This study shows the potential of using abandoned silos in the mid-west and other parts of the country for localized wind power generation.

  1. Numerical Simulation and Comparison of Conventional and Sloped Solar Chimney Power Plants: The Case for Lanzhou

    OpenAIRE

    Fei Cao; Huashan Li; Yang Zhang,; Liang Zhao

    2013-01-01

    The solar chimney power plant (SCPP) generates updraft wind through the green house effect. In this paper, the performances of two SCPP styles, that is, the conventional solar chimney power plant (CSCPP) and the sloped solar chimney power plant (SSCPP), are compared through a numerical simulation. A simplified Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model is built to predict the performances of the SCPP. The model is validated through a comparison with the reported results from the Manzanares prot...

  2. Solar chimney power generation project - The case for Botswana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Import of a huge proportion of electrical energy from the Southern African Power Pool, and the geographical location and population distribution of Botswana stimulated the need to consider renewable energy as an alternative to imported power. The paper describes a systematic experimental study on a mini-solar chimney system. Particular attention is given to measurements of air velocity, temperature and solar radiation. The results for the selected 5 and 6 clear days of October and November, respectively, are presented. These results enable the relationship between average insolation, temperature difference and velocity for selected clear days to be discussed. (author)

  3. Review on the Enhancement Techniques and Introduction of an Alternate Enhancement Technique of Solar Chimney Power Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Al-kayiem, Hussain H.; Aja Ogboo Chikere; Zainal Ambri Abdul Karim

    2011-01-01

    Due to the low plant efficiency associated with Solar Chimney Power Plant, there is a need for the plant performance enhancement. This study presents the enhancement techniques of solar chimney power plant. It reviews previous works that had been done in performance enhancement of solar chimney power plants. It also, introduces an alternative approach to enhance the solar chimney performance by hybridizing the solar operation mode and waste heat energy from flue gas. The new idea is to conver...

  4. Basement Kind Effects on Air Temperature of a Solar Chimney in Baghdad - Iraq Weather

    OpenAIRE

    Miqdam Tariq Chaichan

    2011-01-01

    A solar updraft tower power plant (solar tower) is a solar thermal power plant that utilizes a combination of solar air collector and central updraft tube to generate an induced convective flow which drives pressure staged turbines to generate electricity. This paper presents practical results of a prototype of a solar chimney with thermal mass, where the glass surface is replaced by transparence plastic cover. The study focused on chimney's basements kind effect on collected air temperatur...

  5. Numerical investigation on thermal and fluid dynamic behaviors of solar chimney building systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Buildings as big energy-consuming systems require large amount of energy to operate. Globally, buildings are responsible for approximately 40% of total world annual energy consumption. Sustainable buildings with renewable energy systems are trying to operate independently without consumption of conventional resources. Renewable energy is a significant approach to reduce resource consumption in sustainable building. A solar chimney is essentially divided into two parts, one - the solar air heater (collector) and second - the chimney. Two configurations of solar chimney are usually used: vertical solar chimney with vertical absorber geometry, and roof solar chimney. For vertical solar chimney, vertical glass is used to gain solar heat. Designing a solar chimney includes height, width and depth of cavity, type of glazing, type of absorber, and inclusion of insulation or thermal mass. Besides these system parameters, other factors such as the location, climate, and orientation can also affect its performance. In this paper a numerical investigation on a prototypal solar chimney system integrated in a south facade of a building is presented. The analysis is carried out on a three-dimensional model in air flow and the governing equations are given in terms of k-s turbulence model. Two geometrical configurations are investigated: 1) a channel with vertical parallel walls and 2) a channel with principal walls one vertical and the other inclined. The problem is solved by means of the commercial code Ansys-Fluent and the results are performed for a uniform wall heat flux on the vertical wall is equal to 300 and 600 W/m2. Results are given in terms of wall temperature distributions, air velocity and temperature fields and transversal profiles in order to evaluate the differences between the two base configurations and thermal and fluid dynamic behaviors. Further, the ground effect on thermal performances is examined. key words: mathematical modeling, solar chimney, renewable energy

  6. 33 CFR 165.T01-0176 - Regulated Navigation Area; Lake Champlain Bridge Construction, Crown Point, New York and Chimney...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...Navigation Area; Lake Champlain Bridge Construction, Crown Point, New York and...Navigation Area; Lake Champlain Bridge Construction, Crown Point, New York and...south of the Lake Champlain Bridge construction zone at Crown Point, New York and Chimney...

  7. Numerical analysis on the performance of solar chimney power plant system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Power generating technology based on renewable energy resources will definitely become a new trend of future energy utilization. Numerical simulations on air flow, heat transfer and power output characteristics of a solar chimney power plant model with energy storage layer and turbine similar to the Spanish prototype were carried out in this paper, and mathematical model of flow and heat transfer for the solar chimney power plant system was established. The influences of solar radiation and pressure drop across the turbine on the flow and heat transfer, output power and energy loss of the solar chimney power plant system were analyzed. The numerical simulation results reveal that: when the solar radiation and the turbine efficiency are 600 W/m2 and 80%, respectively, the output power of the system can reach 120 kW. In addition, large mass flow rate of air flowing through the chimney outlet become the main cause of energy loss in the system, and the collector canopy also results in large energy loss.

  8. Computational studies on the effect of geometric parameters on the performance of a solar chimney power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: This work is aimed at optimizing the geometry of the major components of a solar chimney power plant using ANSYS-CFX. The collector inlet opening, collector height, collector outlet diameter, the chimney throat diameter and the chimney divergence angle were varied for the same chimney height and collector diameter and the performance of the plant was studied in terms of the available power and an optimum configuration was obtained. The temperature and velocity variations in the collector and along the chimney height were also studied. - Highlights: • Geometry of the major components of a solar chimney power plant optimized using CFX. • Collector inlet opening, height, outlet diameter, chimney throat diameter, and the chimney divergence angle were varied. • Temperature and velocity variations and available power were obtained for different configurations. • Optimum values of collector outlet height and diameter and the divergence angle were obtained. - Abstract: A solar chimney power plant (SCPP) is a renewable-energy power plant that transforms solar energy into electricity. The SCPP consists of three essential elements – solar air collector, chimney tower, and wind turbine(s). The present work is aimed at optimizing the geometry of the major components of the SCPP using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software ANSYS-CFX to study and improve the flow characteristics inside the SCPP. The overall chimney height and the collector diameter of the SCPP were kept constant at 10 m and 8 m respectively. The collector inlet opening was varied from 0.05 m to 0.2 m. The collector outlet diameter was also varied from 0.6 m to 1 m. These modified collectors were tested with chimneys of different divergence angles (0°–3°) and also different chimney inlet openings of 0.6 m to 1 m. The diameter of the chimney was also varied from 0.25 m to 0.3 m. Based on the CFX computational results, the best configuration was achieved using the chimney with a divergence angle of 2° and chimney diameter of 0.25 m together with the collector opening of 0.05 m and collector outlet diameter of 1 m. The temperature inside the collector is higher for the lower opening resulting in a higher flow rate and power

  9. Analysis and feasibility of implementing solar chimney power plants in the Mediterranean region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyzes the feasibility of solar chimney power plants as an environmentally acceptable energy source for small settlements and islands of countries in the Mediterranean region. For the purpose of these analyses, two characteristic geographic locations (Split and Dubrovnik) in Croatia were chosen and simplified model for calculation of produced electric power output is also developed. These locations possess typical characteristics of the Mediterranean climate. The solar characteristics of the chosen geographic locations are shown along with characteristic meteorological data. A solar chimney (SC) power plant with a chimney height of 550 m and a collector roof diameter of 1250 m would produce 2.8-6.2 MW of power. The average annual electric power production of this SC power plant would range between 4.9 and 8.9 GWh/year, but in reality from 5.0 to 6.0 GWh/year in average. An approximate costs analysis, which included a total investment estimate, was performed. The levelized electricity cost was also calculated. It is found that the price of produced electric energy by solar chimney power plant in Mediterranean region is considerably higher compared to the other power sources. (author)

  10. Numerical study on mixed buoyancy-wind driving induced flow in a solar chimney for building ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamora, B.; Kaiser, A.S. [Dpto. Ingenieria Termica y de Fluidos, Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena, Doctor Fleming s/n, 30202 Cartagena (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    In a solar chimney, the buoyancy induced flow of air generates ventilation of the building where the chimney is attached. When atmospheric wind blows over the upper part of a solar chimney, a mixed buoyancy-wind driving induced flow appears, and then the thermal behaviour of the chimney changes drastically. Assuming that the chimney is devoid of any protective device at its upper part, numerical results for the pressure difference coefficients, average Nusselt number and the induced mass flow rate are obtained for values of Rayleigh number varying from 10{sup 7} to 10{sup 12} (symmetrically, isothermal heating condition) and 10{sup 11} to 10{sup 15} (symmetrically, uniform heat flux heating condition), with wind speeds from 0 to 10 m/s. A correlation for the non-dimensional mass flow rate is presented, which is valid for the complete range of relevant parameters regarded, with an average deviation about 6%. (author)

  11. Basement Kind Effects on Air Temperature of a Solar Chimney in Baghdad - Iraq Weather

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miqdam Tariq Chaichan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A solar updraft tower power plant (solar tower is a solar thermal power plant that utilizes a combination of solar air collector and central updraft tube to generate an induced convective flow which drives pressure staged turbines to generate electricity. This paper presents practical results of a prototype of a solar chimney with thermal mass, where the glass surface is replaced by transparence plastic cover. The study focused on chimney's basements kind effect on collected air temperatures. Three basements were used: concrete, black concrete and black pebbles basements. The study was conducted in Baghdad from August to November 2009. The results show that the best chimney efficiency attained was 49.7% for pebbles base. The highest collected air temperature reached was 49ºC when using the black pebbles basement also.also, the maximum basement temperature measured was 59ºC for black pebbles. High increaments in collected air temperatures were achieved in comparison with the ambient air temperatures for the three basement kinds. The highest temperature difference reached was 22ºC with the pebble ground.

  12. Solar chimney: A sustainable approach for ventilation and building space conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lal, S.,

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The residential and commercial buildings demand increase with rapidly growing population. It leads to the vertical growth of the buildings and needs proper ventilation and day-lighting. The natural air ventilation system is not significantly works in conventional structure, so fans and air conditioners are mandatory to meet the proper ventilation and space conditioning. Globally building sector consumed largest energy and utmost consumed in heating, ventilation and space conditioning. This load can be reduced by application of solar chimney and integrated approaches in buildings for heating, ventilation and space conditioning. It is a sustainable approach for these applications in buildings. The authors are reviewed the concept, various method of evaluation, modelings and performance of solar chimney variables, applications and integrated approaches.

  13. Design and simulation of a geothermal–solar combined chimney power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A geothermal–solar chimney power plant (GSCPP) is designed and analyzed. • Three different models, viz. full solar model, full geothermal model and geothermal–solar mode are compared. • Power generation under GSM is larger than the sum of FSM and FGM. • GSCPP can effectively solve the continuous operation problem of the SCPP. - Abstract: The solar chimney power plant (SCPP) is dominated by the solar radiation, and therefore its discontinuous operation is an unavoidable problem. In this paper, low temperature geothermal water is introduced into the SCPP for overcoming this problem. Based on a developed transient model, theoretical analyses are carried out to investigate the performance of the geothermal–solar chimney power plant (GSCPP) with main dimensions the same as the Manzanares prototype in Spain. Three operation models, viz. the full solar model, the full geothermal model and the geothermal–solar combined model are compared in typical summer and winter days and throughout the year. It is found that the GSCPP can attractively run in the GSM to deliver power continuously. Due to the ambient-dependant geothermal water outlet temperature, introducing the geothermal water makes greater contribution in winter days than in summer days, in the night than in the daytime. Power generation under GSM is larger than the sum of FSM and FGM. GSM is not the simple superposition of FSM and FGM, but makes better utilization of solar and geothermal energy. In addition, introducing high temperature and mass flow rate geothermal water can doubled and redoubled improve the GSCPP’s power capacity

  14. A scaling investigation of the laminar convective flow in a solar chimney for natural ventilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Scaling investigation of a solar chimney for ventilation is carried out. • Three distinct flow regimes are identified depending on the Rayleigh number. • Scaling relations are proposed to describe the transient flow development and are verified by numerical data. -- Abstract: The flow behavior due to natural convection of air (with a Prandtl number less than 1) inside a solar chimney with an imposed heat flux on a vertical absorber wall is investigated by a scaling analysis and a corresponding numerical simulation. Three distinct flow regimes are identified, one with a distinct thermal boundary layer and the other two without a distinct thermal boundary layer, depending on the Rayleigh number. The two regimes without a distinct thermal boundary layer are further classified into low and medium Rayleigh number sub-regimes respectively. These sub-regimes are characterized by conduction dominance in which the thermal boundary layer grows to encompass the entire width of the channel before convection becomes important. Flow development in each of these flow regimes and sub-regimes is characterized through transient scaling, and scaling correlations are developed to describe the temperature, flow velocity and mass flow rate, which characterize the ventilation performance of the solar chimney. The scaling arguments are validated by the corresponding numerical data

  15. Application of Solar Chimney Concept to Solve Potential Safety Issues of Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper two main events and their causes have been investigated and a potential alternative supporting system will be provided. The first event to be addressed is the Station Blackout (SBO) caused by the inherent unreliability of the Emergency Diesel Generators (EDGs) and Alternative AC (AAC) power sources. Different parameters affect The EDG unreliability; for instance, mechanical, operational, maintenance and surveillance. Those parameters will be analyzed and linked to plant safety and Core Damage Frequency (CDF). Also the AACs, the SBO diesel generators, will be studied and their operational requirements similarity with the EDGs will be discussed. The second event to be addressed is the Loss of Ultimate Heat Sink (LUHS) caused by the degradation of heat exchange effectiveness, that is, the poor heat transfer to the Ultimate Heat Sink (UHS). Different causes to such case were observed; intake lines blockages due to ice and foreign biological matters formation and oil spill near the heat sink causing the oil leakage to the heat exchangers tubes. The later cause, oil spill, has been given a special attention here due its potential effects for different nuclear power plants (NPPs) around the world; for example, Finland and the United Arab Emirates (UAE). For the Finnish case, the Finnish nuclear regulator (STUK) took already countermeasures for such scenario by introducing alternative heat sink, cooling towers, for the primary used heat sink, sea water, for one of its nuclear power plants. The abundance of the solar irradiation in the UAE region provides a perfect condition for the implementation of solar power applications. Utilizing this unique characteristic of that region may provide promising alternative and diverse options for solving potential safety related issues of their NPPs. The Solar Chimney Power Plant (SCPP) could be employed to serve as a supporting system to provide emergency power, in the case of SBO, and emergency cooling, in the case of LUHS. In addition to its dual functionality; it provides a complete independent and diverse means of safety functions supporting, a free carbon oxide power production source and allow following the world's trend toward the usage of renewable energy sources. The Solar Chimney Power Plant was suggested to be employed as a supporting system for NPPs to provide emergency power, in case of SBO, and emergency cooling, in case of LUHS. It provides a complete independent and diverse means of safety function supporting. Following the SCPP operation requirements of the availability of high solar irradiation, the UAE region provides a perfect environment for its implementation; furthermore, it can be linked to the under-construction NPPs at Al-Barakah site to deliver alternative emergency power and emergency cooling. Due to the inherent unreliability of the currently utilized EDGs and the AAC power sources, a postulated SBO event could affect the safety of the NPP in general, and for the specific case of the UAE NPPs, a LUHS caused by oil spill accident in the UHS could be experienced, given the massive oil related activates being performed in the Arabian Gulf. Comparing the similarity between Al-Barakah site and the Loviisa NPP in Finland; looking for solution and alternatives for the enhancement of their reactors safety should be considered by the UAE nuclear regulator

  16. Simulation of solar chimney power plant with an external heat source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solar chimney power plant is a sustainable source of power production. The key parameter to increase the system power output is to increase its size but the plant cannot operate during night hours. This study deals with simulation work to validate results of pilot plant at Manzanares and include the effects of waste heat from a gas turbine power plant in the system. The effects show continuous night operation, a 38.8 percent increase in power at 1000 W/m2 global solar irradiation at daytime and 1.14 percent increase in overall efficiency.

  17. Evaluation of the influence of soil thermal inertia on the performance of a solar chimney power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solar chimney power plants are a technology capable to generate electric energy through a wind turbine using the solar radiation as energy source; nevertheless, one of the objectives pursued since its invention is to achieve energy generation during day and night. Soil under the power plant plays an important role on the energy balance and heat transfer, due to its natural behavior as a heat storage system. The characteristics of the soil influence the ability of the solar chimney power plant to generate power continuously. Present work analyzes the thermodynamic behavior and the power output of a solar chimney power plant over a daily operation cycle taking into account the soil as a heat storage system, through a numerical modeling under non-steady conditions. The influence of the soil thermal inertia and the effects of soil compaction degree on the output power generation are studied. A sizeable increase of 10% in the output power is obtained when the soil compaction increases. -- Highlights: ? Solar chimney power plants are a technology capable to generate renewable energy from solar radiation. ? The ground under the solar chimney can act as a heat storage system. ? The soil thermal inertia plays a relevant role in a scenario where the plant operates continuously. ? A higher compaction of soil causes a relevant increase on total energy generation.

  18. A parametric study on the feasibility of solar chimney power plants in North Cyprus conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A parametric for solar chimney power plants (SCPPs) feasibility approach is proposed. • We found the annual electricity production of a 30 MW SCPP to be 94.5 GW h. • We compare this production with the same capacity fossil fuel thermal power plant. • We assess the effect of varying some parameters on economic viability of the SCPP. • Capital expenditure plays a critical role in assessing SCPP economic feasibility. - Abstract: The present work investigates the feasibility of installing a solar chimney power plant (SCPP) under North Cyprus (NC) conditions. The method utilized for the simulations of electricity production was compared and verified by the experimental recordings of the prototype in Manzanares, Spain, before carrying out performance predictions for different plant sizes, collector diameters and chimney heights. The annual electricity production of a 30 MW hypothetical SCPP system is estimated to be 94.5 GW h, which can cater for annual electricity needs of over 22,128 residences without any CO2, NOx and SOx emissions. For an installation cost of €145 million, it was estimated that the savings-to-investment ratio (SIR) would be 1.14, indicating a marginal economic feasibility. It is important to find ways of reducing the installation cost in order to strengthen the economic viability of the system. Considering that, at present, fuel oil no. 6 is being used in NC to produce electricity; the SCPP would cause avoidance of 24,840 tonnes of CO2 delivered into the atmosphere annually, if it replaced an equivalently-sized conventional power unit. To identify the most feasible cost option for the installation of the SCPP, a parametric cost analysis is carried out by varying the parameters such as; capital investment costs, carbon dioxide emission trading system price, chimney height, collector diameter and SCPP plant capacity. In all cases, the effect of these parameters on the economic feasibility indicators, such as SIR, net present value (NPV) and internal rate of return (IRR) were calculated. The results showed that SCPP investment cost, capacity of the plant and chimney height are critical in assessing the project viability

  19. Thermodynamic analysis of a low-temperature waste heat recovery system based on the concept of solar chimney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A low grade waste heat recovery system based on the concept of solar chimney is proposed. • The effects of three key factors on the system performance are examined. • Thermodynamics analysis is to find a better way to utilize low grade heat source efficiently. - Abstract: The utilization of low-temperature waste heat draws more and more attention due to serious energy crisis nowadays. This paper proposes a low-temperature waste heat recovery system based on the concept of solar chimney. In the system, low-temperature waste heat is used to heat air to produce an air updraft in the chimney tower. The air updraft propels a turbine fixed at the base of the chimney tower to convert waste heat into electricity. The mathematical model of the system is established based on first law and second law of thermodynamics. Hot water is selected as the representative of low-temperature waste heat sources for researching. The heat source temperature, ambient air temperature and area of heat transfer are examined to evaluate their effects on the system performance such as velocity of updraft, mass flow rate of air, power output, conversion efficiency, and exergy efficiency. The velocity of air demonstrates a better stability than the mass flow rate of air and the pressure difference when temperature of heat source, ambient air temperature or area of heat transfer changes

  20. A cost-benefit analysis of power generation from commercial reinforced concrete solar chimney power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We develop an economic model different from related models. • We evaluate the initial investment cost of a plant built in northwest China. • We analyze the cost and benefit of a plant built in northwest China. • By the sensitivity analysis, we examine the sensitivity of TNPV to many parameters. - Abstract: This paper develops a model different from existing models to analyze the cost and benefit of a reinforced concrete solar chimney power plant (RCSCPP) built in northwest China. Based on the model and some assumptions for values of parameters, this work calculates total net present value (TNPV) and the minimum electricity price in each phase by dividing the whole service period into four phases. The results show that the minimum electricity price in the first phase is higher than the current market price of electricity, but the minimum prices in the other phases are far less than the current market price. The analysis indicates that huge advantages of the RCSCPP over coal-fired power plants can be embodied in phases 2–4. In addition, the sensitivity analysis performed in this paper discovers TNPV is very sensitive to changes in the solar electricity price and inflation rate, but responds only slightly to changes in carbon credits price, income tax rate and interest rate of loans. Our analysis predicts that RCSCPPs have very good application prospect. To encourage the development of RCSCPPs, the government should provide subsidy by setting higher electricity price in the first phase, then lower electricity price in the other phases

  1. Using heated chimneys and reduced collector air gap height to improve the performance of indirect passive solar dryers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassey, M.W. (International Development Research Centre (Canada), Dakar, Senegal); Oosthuizen, P.H. (Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Sarr, J. (Centre d' Etudes et de Recherches sur les Energies Renouvelables, Dakar, (Senegal))

    1994-01-01

    The performance of indirect passive solar dryers tends to be rather poor because of the low air flow rates which occur through such dryers. These low air flow rates can cause the efficiency of the solar collector to be low and also limit the rate of drying that can be achieved with such systems. Two ways of trying to improve the performance of such dryers are: to use waste fuel to increase the buoyancy forces by heating the air in a chimney attached to the dryer, and to reduce the air gap between the upper transparent cover and the absorber plate in the collector in order to increase heat transfer to the air. This paper, therefore, presents the results of an experimental study in Senegal in which the effects of heating the air in a chimney fitted to the dryer and the effects of varying the collector gap on the dryer performance have been measured. (author)

  2. Mathematical modelling and validation of the drying process in a Chimney-Dependent Solar Crop Dryer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? The simulation code predicts temperatures to within 1.5% of recorded data. ? The ventilation is predicted to within 5% accuracy. ? Effects of heat inertia cause the actual drying path to deviate from the simulated path. ? The two paths converge in the end with a final moisture content prediction to within 10%. ? The simulation code can be used to compare and refine the dryer designs for optimum drying performance. - Abstract: A simulation procedure describing the drying process within a Chimney-Dependent Solar Crop Dryer (CDSCD) has been developed. The simulation follows the authors’ experimental work on the effect of varying drying chamber roof inclination on the ventilation and drying processes, and their work on the development of simulation code to help optimise ventilation in such dryers. The current paper presents the modelling and subsequent validation of the drying process inside the dryer, to come out with a design tool for the CDSCD. The work considers the height of the crop shelf above the drying-chamber base, crop resistance to airflow and the shading on the drying-chamber base and their effects on the drying process. The under-load condition temperatures and velocities are predicted to within a relative difference of 1.5% and 10%, respectively of the observed values. Even though the heat inertia of the physical model causes deviation between the predicted drying path and the observed drying path, the two paths tend to converge at the end of each drying cycle, with a general prediction to within 10% relative difference of the observed crop moisture content. The validation results show that the simulation code can serve as an effective tool for comparing and refining the designs of the CDSCD for optimum drying performance

  3. Passive solar construction handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, E.; Evans, D.; Gardstein, C.

    1981-08-01

    Many of the basic elements of passive solar design are reviewed. The unique design constraints presented in passive homes are introduced and many of the salient issues influencing design decisions are described briefly. Passive solar construction is described for each passive system type: direct gain, thermal storage wall, attached sunspace, thermal storage roof, and convective loop. For each system type, important design and construction issues are discussed and case studies illustrating designed and built examples of the system type are presented. Construction details are given and construction and thermal performance information is given for the materials used in collector components, storage components, and control components. Included are glazing materials, framing systems, caulking and sealants, concrete masonry, concrete, brick, shading, reflectors, and insulators. The Load Collector Ratio method for estimating passive system performance is appended, and other analysis methods are briefly summarized. (LEW)

  4. Passive-solar construction handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, E.; Evans, D.; Gardstein, C.

    1981-02-01

    Many of the basic elements of passive solar design are reviewed. Passive solar construction is covered according to system type, each system type discussion including a general discussion of the important design and construction issues which apply to the particular system and case studies illustrating designed and built examples of the system type. The three basic types of passive solar systems discussed are direct gain, thermal storage wall, and attached sunspace. Thermal performance and construction information is presented for typical materials used in passive solar collector components, storage components, and control components. Appended are an overview of analysis methods and a technique for estimating performance. (LEW)

  5. Improved chimney lining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magee, W.

    1989-09-06

    A cementitious mixture for use in lining chimney flues, in situ includes pumice in aggregate form. The cement content of the mixture may be provided in the form of a sulphate resisting cement and the mixture may also include an air entraining agent and plasticiser and additionally a coarse building sand. A method of lining a chimney flue with the composition of the invention includes pumping the liquid mixture to surround a void former located in the chimney flue.

  6. Análisis de la ventilación inducida en un espacio habitable, mediante un sistema de Chimenea Hidro-Solar / Analisys of Ventilation induced in a Livable Space through a hydro-solar Chimney System

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    H, Pérez Castro; J, Flores; A, López.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available El Cuerpo Académico Arquitectura y Tecnología Ambiental de la Universidad Juárez Autónoma de Tabasco, desarrolla la Línea de Investigación Arquitectura y Medio Ambiente, realiza análisis sobre el diseño y la arquitectura bioclimática, teniendo como premisa la sustentabilidad entre usuario, entorno y [...] espacio construido. Este último, en sitios con clima cálido húmedo, presenta incomodidad térmica debido a los altos índices de temperatura y humedad relativa, condición mitigada mediante equipos de aire acondicionado que repercuten en el gasto energético y la economía del usuario. De acuerdo con la arquitectura bioclimática una técnica pasiva para este hecho es la ventilación. La presente investigación es la tercera etapa de una propuesta de ventilación inducida. Consistió en la simulación del sistema denominado Chimenea Hidro-Solar, empleando tubería de cobre y agua como elementos captores de calor. Se planteó el diseño, construcción y evaluación del prototipo. Se construyeron modelos, del espacio proyectado y de referencia, a escala 1:6, observando las dimensiones establecidas por el Reglamento de Construcción para una recámara. El análisis se centró en obtener, valorar y categorizar los datos de magnitud del viento que conllevaron a evaluar el comportamiento del espacio. Los datos validaron el sistema propuesto, proporcionando alternativas de acondicionamiento pasivo al espacio habitable. Abstract in english The academic group called Architecture and Environmental Technology of the Universidad Juárez Autónoma de Tabasco, develops Line Architecture and Environmental Research, producing analyzes on the design and bioclimatic architecture, with the premise of sustainability between user space and built env [...] ironment. The latter, presents thermal discomfort due to the high levels of temperature and relative humidity, condition is mitigated by air conditioners that affect energy expenditure and the economy user. According to the bioclimatic architecture a passive technique for this, is ventilation. This research is the third stage of a proposal on ventilator-induced. It consisted of the simulation system called Hydro-Solar Chimney, using copper tubing and water and heat sensors elements. The steps contemplated the design, construction and evaluation of the prototype. Models were constructed, the projected space and reference, 1:6 scale, noting the dimensions set by the Building Code of the State of Tabasco. The analysis focused on obtaining, evaluating and categorizing the magnitude of the wind data that led to evaluate the behavior within the space. Schematized data validated the proposed system, providing passive conditioning alternative to living space.

  7. Fairy chimneys in Peru

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2011-01-01

    Erosion creates beautiful landscapes. A large part of them is known just by the local population. Google Maps can help in locating the places, study them and start any project for preservation. An interesting example is given by a landscape of fairy chimneys in Peru, near San Pedro de Larcay. It is remarkable the fact that some of them have been adapted as dwelling places.

  8. Effects of acid smut production on Design of industrial chimneys

    OpenAIRE

    Shahin, M. M.

    1990-01-01

    Atmospheric, mechanical and chemical kinds of attacks on industrial chimneys constructed of brickwork, concrete and steel are discussed. Acid smut production in chimneys is described. Two of the factors, widely regarded as critical, to avoid acid condensation are identified as thermal insulation and flue gas velocity. The measurements taken by several researchers studying these factors are reviewed. The conslusions of this paper suggests that the 6 mm annular air gap around the steel shell, a...

  9. Psychology and photography: chimneys dreaming and chimneys warriors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilde Giani Gallino

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article covers two aspects related to Psychology and Art. The first aspect concerns the similarities found between photography and various Schools of experimental psychology. For instance, the scientists of Psychology of ethological theory, and Non-verbal communication (NVC, observe with particular methodologies the non-verbal messages that animals and humans transmit to their peers through expressions, posture, gestures. The same is done by photographers (those who use the “camera” with a good knowledge of the medium and a “photographic  eye” when they look around, careful to catch an expression, any unusual attitude, or a gesture of friendship. Another School of psychology, the Gestalpsychologie (Gestalt: form, figure, configuration, attributes a decisive value to the perception of space, the foreground and the background, the perspective and vanishing points, the contrast between black and white. All aspects that effectively interest psychologists just as much as photographers. Finally, the second aspect relates to the art of Antony Gaudì and makes some hypothesis about the personality and behavior of the great architect, with regard to the construction of two houses, "Casa Batllo" and "Casa Mila": particularly because of the configuration or Gestalt of the "chimneys" that dominate the two buildings. In this study, cooperate each other psychological analysis and the art of photography. The last enables us to study also the details of the work of Gaudì, as can be seen in the pictures of this essay.

  10. Dimensioning, construction and commissioning of a coffee beans drying system with use of solar collectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A system of low-cost solar drying of coffee beans is dimensioned, built and commissioned by using solar collectors based on recycled aluminum cans. The information is collected from literature about the drying of coffee, types of drying and the various types of solar dryers.The coffee beans drying system is conceptualized and sized based on a solar collector constructed of aluminum cans as solar radiation absorbing material. The grain drying system is then built in coffee benefit CoopeTarrazu to all provided by the company and help materials and labor facilities. A guide to implementation of solar drying technology with general information is tailored to implement, select, build and maintain a solar grain dryer in Central America. The launch of the drying system was made by checking the proper functioning of the system and measurement instruments variables selected to calculate the efficiency of the system. The drying system is tested with a load of 45 kg of coffee bean, using a flow of air through natural convection to operate the system with the exclusive use of renewable energy. The grain is drying from a humidity of 50% (b.n), up to a humidity between 11% and 13% (b.n), which is the range generally used for the safe storage of grain. Facts of solar radiation, temperature, air velocity, relative humidity and grain humidity were taken to determine the behavior of the sized system. The maximum thermal efficiency achieved by the solar collector is determined constructed of 18%, with an air flow of 0.013 kg/s and a solar radiation 1138 W/m2. The average drying efficiency during experimentation was 17.8%, which is among the range of efficiencies for the type of drying equipment. Best thermal efficiencies were obtained from the solar collector built that the commercial solar collector compared. Controlling the flow of air into the equipment is recommended in order to improve the thermal efficiency and drying equipment, using blowers, fans or induced draft chimney. (author)

  11. Solar building construction. Town planning - construction planning. 2. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book discusses the problems of solar energy use under the following aspects: Town planing; Typology of green solar architecture; Typologie of solar architecture; Vegetation in green solar architecture; Planning and simulation; Building materials; Ventilation, illumination; Research projects. (HW)

  12. Novel concept for producing energy integrating a solar collector with a man made mountain hollow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Xinping [School of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Luoyu Road, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Yang, Jiakuan; Wang, Jinbo; Xiao, Bo [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Luoyu Road Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China)

    2009-03-15

    The concept of the solar chimney thermal power technology was proven with the successful operation of the Manzanares prototype built in the 1980s. However, all previous attempts at producing energy from a commercial solar chimney thermal power plant on a large scale have failed because of bad engineering and safety. A novel concept for producing energy by integrating a solar collector with a mountain hollow is presented and described. Solar energy is collected in the collector and heats the ground, which is used to store heat energy and heat the indoor air. Then, the hot air is forced by the pressure difference between it and the ambient air to move along the tilted segment and up the vertical segment of the 'chimney', driving the turbine generators to generate electricity. The mountain hollow, formed by excavation in a large-elevation mountain, can avoid the safety issues of erecting a gigantic concrete chimney, which is needed for commercial solar chimney thermal power plants. Furthermore, it can also save a great amount of construction materials for constructing a robust chimney structure and reduce the energy cost to a level less than that of a clean coal power plant, providing a good solution to the reclamation and utilization of undeveloped mountains, especially in mountainous countries. (author)

  13. Novel concept for producing energy integrating a solar collector with a man made mountain hollow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Xinping [School of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Luoyu Road, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China)], E-mail: zhxpmark@hotmail.com; Yang Jiakuan; Wang Jinbo; Xiao Bo [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Luoyu Road Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China)

    2009-03-15

    The concept of the solar chimney thermal power technology was proven with the successful operation of the Manzanares prototype built in the 1980s. However, all previous attempts at producing energy from a commercial solar chimney thermal power plant on a large scale have failed because of bad engineering and safety. A novel concept for producing energy by integrating a solar collector with a mountain hollow is presented and described. Solar energy is collected in the collector and heats the ground, which is used to store heat energy and heat the indoor air. Then, the hot air is forced by the pressure difference between it and the ambient air to move along the tilted segment and up the vertical segment of the 'chimney', driving the turbine generators to generate electricity. The mountain hollow, formed by excavation in a large-elevation mountain, can avoid the safety issues of erecting a gigantic concrete chimney, which is needed for commercial solar chimney thermal power plants. Furthermore, it can also save a great amount of construction materials for constructing a robust chimney structure and reduce the energy cost to a level less than that of a clean coal power plant, providing a good solution to the reclamation and utilization of undeveloped mountains, especially in mountainous countries.

  14. Gas Chimneys -A Key to Risking Prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gas chimneys can indicate fluid migration pathways between a source rock and the seabed, as well as indicate hydrocarbon charged reservoirs, leaky faults and dry reservoirs. To be able to map gas chimneys in a consistent manner, a method was developed for detecting chimneys in 3D seismic data. The method makes use of multi-attributes, which are fed into a neural network. The networks trained on these attributes to recognize chimneys. The output is a seismic cube which exhibits the shape and spatial distribution of the chimneys. Application of this recently developed method shows consistency in the way chimneys appear above hydrocarbon charged reservoirs, and above dry reservoirs. Alternatively, or in combination with chimneys, mud volcanoes can give similar indications. Examples from the Nigerian Continental Slope, as well as the Norwegian Shelf, the Gulf of Mexico and the Caspian Sea show how the mapping of gas chimneys (and mud volcanoes) can be used to high-grade or down- it. grade prospects. The presence of chimneys in seismic data are in numerous cases observed to coincide with faults, suggesting these faults are acting, or have data between source rocks and reservoirs and between reservoirs and the seabed. Chimneys may also take the shape of widely extended clouds, in which case they do not seem to be related to faults. Different scenarios of chimney appearance can be related to dry or hydrocarbon charged reservoirs

  15. Design and Construction of a Passive Solar Power Clothing Dryer

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Alahmer; Mohammed Al-Dabbas

    2014-01-01

    This manuscript presents the design and construction of the energy efficient, time saving, cost effective of passive solar powered clothes dryer. This manuscript begins with a derivation of mathematical model represents of solar dryer followed with an analysis of the elements necessary for successfully designing the various components of a solar dryer. The solar drying performance achieved an average drying rate of 0.35 kg/h and drying time of 3 h in a typical day, even under local low ambien...

  16. Nonlinear analysis of a collapsed reinforced concrete chimney

    OpenAIRE

    Gould, Phillip L.; Huang, Wei

    2009-01-01

    During the Ismit (Kocaeli) Earthquake of August 17, 1999, a 115 m. High reinforced concrete chimney or heater stack, located at the Tüpras Refinery, collapsed. The falling debris cut 63 pipes, which contributed to interrupted production for more than 14 months. This stack was designed and constructed according to international standards and is representative of similar structures at refineries throughout the world, including those in earthquake-prone regions. It was distinguis...

  17. Solar Glazing Tips for School Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Glazing can be optimized to enhance passive solar heating and daylight harvesting by exceeding the prescriptive limits of the energy code. This savings can be garnered without the high cost of external overhangs or expensive glazing products. The majority of savings from solar glazing are attributable to the increase in solar heating and…

  18. Analysis of Self-Supporting Chimney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajkumar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Chimneys are tall structures and the major loads acting on these are self weight of the structure, wind load, live load due to lining, earthquake load & temperature loads. In this paper a RC chimneys will be designed considering dead load, wind load and earthquake load. The Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS design codes procedures will be used for the design of chimney. The present paper discusses the parametric study of RC chimney which is made by obtaining the results from software for different heights, diameter, earthquake zones, wind zones, type of soils and various load conditions because of changes in the dimensions of chimney, structural analysis such as response to earthquake and wind oscillations have become more critical to influence on the response and design of chimney. Parametric study on chimney from height 150 meters to 250 meters at an interval of 5 meters, for Zone II, Hard soil & Critical Zone of Zone V, Soft soil with wind speed varying from 33 meters/sec to 55 meters/sec with an internal temperature of 100 Degrees. The response of the chimney is studied & recorded in Tables & Graphs. The analysis is carried out using programming software Microsoft Visual Basic 6.0. The results obtained from the above cases are compared. Finally, the maximum values obtained in wind analysis and seismic analyses are then compared for deciding the design value.

  19. Solar thermal systems successful planning and construction

    CERN Document Server

    Peuser, Dr Felix A; Schnauss, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Solar Thermal Systems summarizes the theoretical and practical knowledge gained from over 20 years of research, implementation and operation of thermal solar installations. This work provides answers to a variety of key questions by examining current solar installations, drawing upon past experiences and making proposals for future planning.- how do system components and materials behave under continuous operation?- which components have proven themselves and how are they used properly?- what are the causes of defects and how can they be avoided?- how long is the service life of modern solar i

  20. Experimental study of the resulting flow of plume-thermosiphon interaction: application to chimney problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinoubi, J.; Maad, R.B.; Belghith, A. [Faculte des Sciences de Tunis, Tunis (Tunisia). Departement de Physique, Laboratoire d' Energetique et des Transferts de Chaleur et de Masse

    2005-03-01

    The quality of the surrounding air depends on the various dismissals of the combustion gases (exhaust cars, smokes of chimneys, ...), their scattering in the environment. Urban development around industrial zones and overexploitation of lands near factories triggered responsible interest in the problem of pollution. In order to decrease the impact of air pollution, several chimneys have been constructed in the different industrial facilities. So the improvement of the industrial chimney range became one of the current research problems. In order to improve the industrial chimney efficiency and to increase the vertical scattering of combustion products, we studied a system that could be integrated to the industrial chimney exit. This system is essentially constituted of an open-ended vertical cylinder of larger diameter. Thermal radiance emitted by smoke heats the internal cylinder wall. The heating of the fluid at the cylinder-inlet is the cause of the thermosiphon effect around the thermal plume. To study the problem in the laboratory we simulated the plume exiting of a chimney by a disk heated uniformly by the Joule effect at constant temperature. Different configurations were studied, while acting, on the source-cylinder spacing and the cylinder height. The study of the average fields permits, in a first stage, to get better information about the mechanism of the resulting flow development, and in a second stage, to determine the spacing of the source-cylinder and cylinder height optima, for which a clean increase of fluid flow rate is obtained. (author)

  1. Piping systems, containment pre-stressing and steel ventilation chimney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Units 5 and 6 of NPP Kozloduy have been designed initially for seismic levels which are considered too low today. In the frame of an IAEA Coordinated Research Programme, a Swiss team has been commissioned by Natsionalna Elektricheska Kompania, Sofia, to analyse the relevant piping system, the containment prestressing and the steel ventilation chimney and to recommend upgrade measures for adequate seismic capacity where applicable. Seismic input had been specified by and agreed upon earlier by IAEA experts. The necessary investigations have been performed in 1995 and discussed with internationally recognized experts. The main results may be summarized as follows: Upgrades are necessary at different piping sy ports (additional snubbers or viscous dampers). These fixes can be done easily at low cost. The containment prestressing tendons are adequately designed for the specified load combinations. However, unfavourable construction features endanger the reliability. It is therefore strongly recommended to replace the tendons stepwise and to upgrade the existing monitoring system. Finally, the steel ventilation chimney may not withstand a seismic event, however the containment and diesel generator building will not be destroyed at possible impact by the chimney. On the other hand the roof of the main building has to be reinforced partially. It is recommended to continue the project for 1996 and 1997 to implement the upgrade measures mentioned above, to analyse the remaining piping systems and to consolidate all results obtained by different research groups of the IAEA programme with respect to piping systems including components and tanks

  2. Design and Construction of a Domestic Passive Solar Food Dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oguntola J. ALAMU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The solar drying system utilizes solar energy to heat up air and to dry any food substance loaded, which is not only beneficial in that it reduces wastage of agricultural produce and helps in preservation of agricultural produce, but it also makes transportation of such dried produce easy and promotes the health and welfare of the people. This paper presents the design and construction of a domestic passive solar food dryer. The dryer is composed of solar collector (air heater and a solar drying chamber containing rack of four cheese cloth (net trays both being integrated together. The air allowed in through air inlet is heated up in the solar collector and channeled through the drying chamber where it is utilized in drying (removing the moisture content from the food substance or agricultural produce loaded. The design was based on the geographical location which is Abeokuta and meteorological data were obtained for proper design specification. Locally available materials were used for the construction, chiefly comprising of wood (gmelina, polyurethane glass, mild steel metal sheet and net cloth for the trays.

  3. Investigation and Construction of a Thermosyphoning Solar Hot Water System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Harvey

    1978-01-01

    Describes how a thermosyphoning solar water heater capable of heating 110 kilogram of water to 80 degree Celsius and maintaining this temperature for 24 hours was constructed by four students in the fifth form of Sekolah Date Abdul Razak, Seremban, Malaysia in 1976. (HM)

  4. Construction status of the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullin, Joseph P.; Rimmele, Thomas R.; Martínez Pillet, Valentin; Berger, Thomas E.; Casini, Roberto; Craig, Simon C.; Elmore, David F.; Goodrich, Bret D.; Hegwer, Steve L.; Hubbard, Robert P.; Johansson, Erik M.; Kuhn, Jeffrey R.; Lin, Haosheng; McVeigh, William; Schmidt, Wolfgang; Shimko, Steve; Tritschler, Alexandra; Warner, Mark; Wöger, Friedrich

    2014-07-01

    The Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST, renamed in December 2013 from the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope) will be the largest solar facility built when it begins operations in 2019. Designed and developed to meet the needs of critical high resolution and high sensitivity spectral and polarimetric observations of the Sun, the observatory will enable key research for the study of solar magnetism and its influence on the solar wind, flares, coronal mass ejections and solar irradiance variations. The 4-meter class facility will operate over a broad wavelength range (0.38 to 28 microns, initially 0.38 to 5 microns), using a state-of-the-art adaptive optics system to provide diffraction-limited imaging and the ability to resolve features approximately 25 km on the Sun. Five first-light instruments will be available at the start of operations: Visible Broadband Imager (VBI; National Solar Observatory), Visible SpectroPolarimeter (ViSP; NCAR High Altitude Observatory), Visible Tunable Filter (VTF; Kiepenheuer Institut für Sonnenphysik), Diffraction Limited Near InfraRed SpectroPolarimeter (DL-NIRSP; University of Hawai'i, Institute for Astronomy) and the Cryogenic Near InfraRed SpectroPolarimeter (Cryo-NIRSP; University of Hawai'i, Institute for Astronomy). As of mid-2014, the key subsystems have been designed and fabrication is well underway, including the site construction, which began in December 2012. We provide an update on the development of the facilities both on site at the Haleakal? Observatories on Maui and the development of components around the world. We present the overall construction and integration schedule leading to the handover to operations in mid 2019. In addition, we outline the evolving challenges being met by the project, spanning the full spectrum of issues covering technical, fiscal, and geographical, that are specific to this project, though with clear counterparts to other large astronomical construction projects.

  5. Design and Construction of a Passive Solar Power Clothing Dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Alahmer

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript presents the design and construction of the energy efficient, time saving, cost effective of passive solar powered clothes dryer. This manuscript begins with a derivation of mathematical model represents of solar dryer followed with an analysis of the elements necessary for successfully designing the various components of a solar dryer. The solar drying performance achieved an average drying rate of 0.35 kg/h and drying time of 3 h in a typical day, even under local low ambient humidity of around 35% and at moderate outdoor wind speed. Also, the computational fluid dynamic CFD of transient thermal behavior based on Navier-Stokes equations was used to demonstrate the prevailing temperature rises in the solar natural-ventilation system associated with the internal heat flux due to solar radiation and moisture removal. The efficiency of solar dryer was improved using Nano coating technology. The result showed good agreement between the computational solid simulation and the experimental measurements obtained from this system.

  6. Design, Construction and Testing of a Parabolic Solar Steam Generator

    OpenAIRE

    Folaranmi, Joshua

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the design, construction and testing of a parabolic dish solar steam generator. Using concentrating collector, heat from the sun is concentrated on a black absorber located at the focus point of the reflector in which water is heated to a very high temperature to form steam. It also describes the sun tracking system unit by manual tilting of the lever at the base of the parabolic dish to capture solar energy. The whole arrangement is mounted on a hinged frame supported with...

  7. Design, Construction and Testing of Simple Solar Maize Dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua FOLARANMI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This project reports the design, construction and testing of a simple solar maize dryer. It is design in such a way that solar radiation is not incident directly on the maize, but preheated air warmed during its flow through a low pressure thermosphonic solar energy air heater or collector made up of an insulating material (polystyrene of size 100mmx50mmx25.4mm, absorber plate (aluminium sheet painted black of size 100mmx50mm and a cover glass (5mm thickness measuring 100mmx50mm all arranged in this order contributed to the heating. The test results gave temperature above 45OC in the drying chamber, and the moisture content of 50kg of maize reduced to about 12.5% in three days of 9hours each day of drying.

  8. Suitability of locally constructed solar dryers for vegetable drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indigenous vegetables and spices are usually common and abundant during the rainy season but unfortunately, almost disappear during the dry season due to inadequate processing because of their high moisture content, poor storage and marketing facilities. A study was therefore conducted to find the possibilities of drying vegetables using locally constructed solar dryers at the Mechanisation section of the University of Education, Mampong Campus. The study was done during the months of March to September, 2004 and six designs of solar panels were used. The panels were constructed using hard wood, binding materials (nails), chicken mesh, nylon net, and black and white polythene sheets. Variations in panels resulted from the type of polythene sheet used (white, black or both), drying platform and shape of the roof. The panels with their interior lined with the black polythene sheet recorded higher temperatures than those with their bases covered with only the chicken mesh and nylon nettings. All the designs recorded higher temperatures than the ambient temperature. The drying of vegetables was observed to be faster in the panels with their drying platforms lined with the black polythene sheet than those with their bases covered with only the chicken mesh and nylon net. Appearance of the vegetables after drying in the solar panels was almost the same as before drying as compared to the open sun drying that got mouldy after drying. Those vegetables that were dried directly Those vegetables that were dried directly on the black polythene sheet however were slightly darker in colour. Solar drying with these locally constructed panels would be a better means of drying vegetables by rural folks. (au)

  9. Energy efficient and solar construction. Themes 2008; Energieeffizientes und solares Bauen. Themen 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadermann, Gerd (ed.)

    2009-04-15

    Within the annual meeting of the Renewable Energy Research Association (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) at 29th to 30th September, 2008, the lectures were held to the following themes: (a) Energy efficient and solar construction - a change of paradigm; (b) Revolution in construction technology; (c) Energetic sanitation of old buildings; (d) Innovative technologies of energy supply; (e) Integrated facility management; (f) Demonstration and practice of new technologies; (g) Market, politics, and sustainability.

  10. Design, Construction and Effectiveness Analysis of Hybrid Automatic Solar Tracking System for Amorphous and Crystalline Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Bhupendra Gupta

    2013-01-01

    - This paper concerns the design and construction of a Hybrid solar tracking system. The constructed device was implemented by integrating it with Amorphous & Crystalline Solar Panel, three dimensional freedom mechanism and microcontroller. The amount of power available from a photovoltaic panel is determined by three parameters, the type of solar tracker, materials of solar panel and the intensity of the sunlight. The objective of this paper is to present analysis on the use of two differ...

  11. Construction of Solar-Wind-Like Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Dana Aaron

    2012-01-01

    Fluctuations in the solar wind fields tend to not only have velocities and magnetic fields correlated in the sense consistent with Alfven waves traveling from the Sun, but they also have the magnitude of the magnetic field remarkably constant despite their being broadband. This paper provides, for the first time, a method for constructing fields with nearly constant magnetic field, zero divergence, and with any specified power spectrum for the fluctuations of the components of the field. Every wave vector, k, is associated with two polarizations the relative phases of these can be chosen to minimize the variance of the field magnitude while retaining the\\random character of the fields. The method is applied to a case with one spatial coordinate that demonstrates good agreement with observed time series and power spectra of the magnetic field in the solar wind, as well as with the distribution of the angles of rapid changes (discontinuities), thus showing a deep connection between two seemingly unrelated issues. It is suggested that using this construction will lead to more realistic simulations of solar wind turbulence and of the propagation of energetic particles.

  12. Design, Construction and Testing of a Parabolic Solar Steam Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua FOLARANMI

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the design, construction and testing of a parabolic dish solar steam generator. Using concentrating collector, heat from the sun is concentrated on a black absorber located at the focus point of the reflector in which water is heated to a very high temperature to form steam. It also describes the sun tracking system unit by manual tilting of the lever at the base of the parabolic dish to capture solar energy. The whole arrangement is mounted on a hinged frame supported with a slotted lever for tilting the parabolic dish reflector to different angles so that the sun is always directed to the collector at different period of the day. On the average sunny and cloud free days, the test results gave high temperature above 200°C.

  13. Pendulum Dampers for Tall RC Chimney Subjected To Wind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. B K Raghu Prasad,

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Chimneys are a part of industrial growth in any country. Most current chimney design standards require analysis of dynamic analysis of chimney for earthquake and wind induced loads. Because of variation in dimensions of chimney along its height structural analysis such as wind oscillations have become more critical. If ductility is an important consideration in earthquake resistant design, control of deflection become critical in wind induced vibrations. Pendulum dampers are of the devices to control the deflection. In the present work pendulum dampers of different natural frequencies have been tried. The one which has the largest equivalent logarithmic decrement is found to reduce the response significantly. The response is compared with that of chimney with a tip mass. The paper discusses the dynamic analysis of 150m high RCC chimney subjected to wind. Analysis has been carried out for fixed base case.

  14. Distribution of Archaea in a Black Smoker Chimney Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Takai, Ken; Komatsu, Tetsushi; Inagaki, Fumio; Horikoshi, Koki

    2001-01-01

    Archaeal community structures in microhabitats in a deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimney structure were evaluated through the combined use of culture-independent molecular analyses and enrichment culture methods. A black smoker chimney was obtained from the PACMANUS site in the Manus Basin near Papua New Guinea, and subsamples were obtained from vertical and horizontal sections. The elemental composition of the chimney was analyzed in different subsamples by scanning electron microscopy and ene...

  15. Solar building construction - new technologies; Solares Bauen - Neue Technologien fuer Gebaeude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luther, J.; Voss, K.; Wittwer, V. [Fraunhofer-Inst. fuer Solare Energiesysteme, Freiburg (Germany). Abt. ``Thermische und Optische Systeme``

    1998-02-01

    There is an increasing demand for integrated building concepts in order to reduce energy consumption. Building design, construction and heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) technology are decisive in this respect. Thus, an essentially higher energy efficiency is achieved and solar energy becomes the main energy source. An `active building envelope` assumes the task of controlling the energy flows between inside and outside. This paper reports on new components, system concepts and planning tools for solar building. (orig.) [Deutsch] Fuer zukuenftige Bauten werden in hohem Masse Forderungen nach integrierten Konzepten zur Begrenzung des Energieverbrauchs gestellt. Gestalt, Konstruktion und Klimatechnik sind dabei massgebliche Einflussfaktoren. Hierdurch wird eine wesentlich hoehere Energieeffizienz erzielt und Solarenergie kann die uebrigen Energiequellen zurueckdraengen. Eine `aktive Gebaeudehuelle` uebernimmt die Aufgabe, den Energiefluss zwischen Innen und Aussen zu steuern. Der Beitrag berichtet ueber neue Komponenten, Systemkonzepte und Planungswerkzeuge fuer das Solare Bauen. (orig.)

  16. 77 FR 59275 - Establishment of the Chimney Rock National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-27

    ...usually found farther south grow there, including...archaeoastronomical resources in North America. Virtually all building...Mexico, about 100 miles south of Chimney Rock. Chimney...opportunities to understand how geology, ecology, and archaeology...the United States of America, by the authority...

  17. Analysis of Cantilever Steel Chimney As Per Indian Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakshith B D

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Chimneys are tall and slender structures which are used to discharge waste/flue gases at higher elevation with sufficient exit velocity such that the gases and suspended solids(ash are dispersed in to the atmosphere over a defined spread such that their concentration , on reaching the ground is within acceptable limits specified by pollution control regulatory authorities. This paper summarizes the analysis and design concepts of chimneys as per Indian codal provisions incorporation was also made through finite element analysis. Effect of inspection manhole on the behavior of Cantilever steel chimney, two chimney models one with the manhole and other without manhole were taken into consideration. These models are analyzed by finite element software STAAD Pro, emphasis also placed on effect of geometric limitations on the design aspects in designing chimney

  18. Design manual for HANARO in-chimney bracket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a supplementary structure supporting the irradiation facilities, the in-chimney bracket holds guide tubes whose holding position in CT or IR is the middle part of the instrumented facility between the hole spider and the robot arm already provided in the reactor pool liner. Also, the bracket grips the upper part of the guide tubes when it is applied to hold the instrumented facility loaded in OR sites. The irradiation test will be successfully conducted since this bracket reduces the flow-induced vibration (FIV) and the dynamic response to seismic load. The installation position of the bracket is 60 cm below the top of the chimney, i.e., thermo siphoning hole position. To evaluate the structural integrity on the in-chimney bracket and the related reactor structures, ANSYS finite element analysis model is developed and the dynamic characteristics are analyzed. The seismic response analyses were performed for the in-chimney bracket and the related reactor structures of HANARO under the design earthquake response spectrum loads of OBE and SSE. The analysis results show that the stress values in main points of reactor structures and in-chimney bracket for the seismic loads are also within the ASME code limits. It is also confirmed that the fatigue usage factor is much less than 1.0. Therefore any damage on structural integrity is not expected when the in-chimney bracket is installed at the upper part of the reactor chimney. This bracket had been designed and manufactured based on the dimensions of the as-built chimney. In the process of design and preliminary installation, chimney measurement tools, dummy chimney, and installation tools were developed and the installation procedure was prepared and verified through the installation rehearsal

  19. Design, Construction and Effectiveness Analysis of Hybrid Automatic Solar Tracking System for Amorphous and Crystalline Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhupendra Gupta

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available - This paper concerns the design and construction of a Hybrid solar tracking system. The constructed device was implemented by integrating it with Amorphous & Crystalline Solar Panel, three dimensional freedom mechanism and microcontroller. The amount of power available from a photovoltaic panel is determined by three parameters, the type of solar tracker, materials of solar panel and the intensity of the sunlight. The objective of this paper is to present analysis on the use of two different material of Solar panel like Amorphous & Crystalline in a Solar tracking system at Stationary, Single Axis, Dual Axis & Hybrid Axis solar tracker to have better performance with minimum losses to the surroundings, as this device ensures maximum intensity of sun rays hitting the surface of the panel from sunrise to sunset

  20. Construction of a Small Scale Laboratory for Solar Collectors and Solar Cells in a Developing Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gentile Niko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the field of renewable energy, self-provided research in developing countries is barely present, but most welcomed. The creation of know-how and self-development of technologies should reduce the dependence on industrialized countries for both materials and knowledge. This work presents technological and social issues related to the construction of a low budget solar laboratory in Mozambique. The goal is to demonstrate that scientific level research can be carried out in developing countries by using affordable solutions without sacrificing quality of the results. For this investigation, a solar laboratory was built in 2011 at Universidade Eduardo Mondlane of Maputo. The laboratory enables measurements to evaluate solar thermal and photovoltaic-thermal hybrid collectors. Thanks to the flexibility of the system, students and teaching staff can add/remove equipment and develop customised local research programs. In addition, a course on the principles of solar energy and collector simulation for local students was taught. The needed data acquisition devices usually used in Europe were compared with cheaper and easy-maintenance ones. Calibration and estimation of the uncertainty were successfully performed. Approximately 9% of inaccuracy in the measurement was introduced by the cheaper equipment, but the investment cost was reduced by more than 90%. Other issues, results and future recommendations are shown.

  1. Self-construction of a solar water heater; Calentador solar de agua de auto-construccion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lentz Herrera, Alvaro E.; Rincon Mejia, Eduardo A. [Universidad Autonoma de la Ciudad de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    In this work a flat receiver of self construction is shown with relatively low cost and easy manufacture, but with a thermal efficiency superior to 40% for applications at temperatures less than 60 degrees Celsius, that allows satisfying international standards in this respect. The heater has been matter of study in open courses distributed in the Universidad Autonoma de la Ciudad de Mexico (UACM) oriented to that the participants construct their own system, in addition to its installation and tests. The obtained results have been excellent. The massive use of efficient solar receivers of self-construction can truly help to the decreasing of the gas discharges of greenhouse effect. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presenta un captador plano de auto construccion con relativamente bajo costo y facil manufactura, pero con un rendimiento termico superior a 40% para aplicaciones a temperatura menos de 60 grados centigrados que le permite satisfacer estandares internacionales a este respecto. El calentador ha sido materia de estudio en cursos abiertos impartidos en la Universidad Autonoma de la Ciudad de Mexico (UACM) orientados a que los participantes construyan su propio sistema, ademas de su instalacion y pruebas. Los resultados obtenidos han sido excelentes. El uso masivo de captadores solares eficientes de autoconstruccion puede en verdad coadyuvar a la disminucion de las emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero.

  2. Hybrid solar-electric oven construction prototype; Construccion de prototipo de horno hibrido solar-electrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez Roman, M. A; Pineda Pinon, J; Arcos Pichardo, A [CICATA, Santiago de Queretaro, Queretaro (Mexico)

    2013-03-15

    The oven construction consists of a solar collector system of cylindrical parabolic type, a heating through electrical resistance and a curing chamber. The warm fluid is air, which is injected into the chamber through forced draft. The temperature required in the system is within a range of 150 to 300 degrees Celsius. [Spanish] La construccion del horno consta de un sistema de captacion solar del tipo cilindrico parabolico, un sistema de calentamiento a traves de resistencias electricas y una camara de curado. El fluido a calentar es aire, el cual es inyectado dentro de la camara a traves de tiro forzado. La temperatura solicitada en el sistema es dentro de un rango de 150 a 300 grados centigrados.

  3. Constructal Optimization of Top Contact Metallization of a Photovoltaic Solar Cell

    OpenAIRE

    Santanu Bandyopadhyay; Aditya Bhakta

    2005-01-01

    A top contact metallization of a photovoltaic solar cell collects the current generated by incident solar radiation. Several power-loss mechanisms are associated with the current flow through the front contact grid. The design of the top metal contact grid is one of the most important areas of efficient photovoltaic solar cell design. In this paper, an approach based on the constructal theory is proposed to design the grid pattern in a photovoltaic solar cell, minimizing total resistive losse...

  4. Seismic response Analyses of Hanaro in-chimney bracket structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The in-chimney bracket will be installed in the upper part of chimney, which holds the capsule extension pipes in upper one-third of length. For evaluating the effects on the capsules and related reactor structures, ANSYS finite element analysis model is developed and the dynamic characteristics are analyzed. The seismic response anlayses of in-chimney bracket and related reactor structures of HANARO under the design earthquake response spectrum loads of OBE (0.1 g) and SSE (0.2 g) are performed. The maximum horizontal displacements of the flow tubes are within the minimum half gaps between close flow tubes, it is expected that these displacement will not produce any contact between neighbor flow tubes. The stress values in main points of reactor structures and in-chimney bracket for the seismic loads are also within the ASME Code limits. It is also confirmed that the fatigue usage factor is much less than 1.0. So, any damage on structural integrity is not expected when an in-chimney bracket is installed to upper part of the reactor chimney. (author). 12 refs., 24 tabs., 37 figs

  5. Design, construction and evaluation of solarized airlift tubular photobioreactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An innovative photobioreactor is developed for growing algae in simulated conditions. The proposed design comprises of a continuous tubular irradiance loop and air induced liquid circulation with gas separation through air lift device. The unique features of air lift system are to ensure the shear free circulation of sensitive algal culture and induce light/dark cycles to the photosynthetic micro-organisms. The design strategy employs to model and construct a 20-liter laboratory scale unit using Boro-silicate glass tubing. The material is selected to ensure maximum photon transmission. All components of the device are designed to have flexibility to be replaced with an alternative design, providing fair chance of modification for future investigators. The principles of fluid mechanics are applied to describe geometrical attributes of the air lift system. Combination of LEDs and Florescent tube lights (Warm white) were used to illuminate the photosynthesis reaction area providing a possibility to control both illumination duration and light intensity. 200 Watt Solar PV system is designed to power up the device which included air pump (100 Watt) and illumination system (100 Watt). Algal strain Chlorella sp was inoculated in photobioreactor which was sparged with air and carbon dioxide. The growth was sustained in the batch mode with daily monitoring of temperature, pH and biomass concentration. The novel photobioreactor recorded a maximum experimental average yield of 0 a maximum experimental average yield of 0.65 g/l.day (11.3 g/m2.day) as compared to theoretical modeled yield of 0.82 g/l.day (14.26 g/m2.day), suggesting the device can be efficiently and cost-effectively employed in the production of algal biomass for biofuels, concomitantly mitigating CO2.

  6. Construction and characterization of spherical Si solar cells combined with SiC electric power inverter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oku, Takeo; Matsumoto, Taisuke; Hiramatsu, Kouichi; Yasuda, Masashi; Shimono, Akio; Takeda, Yoshikazu; Murozono, Mikio

    2015-02-01

    Spherical silicon (Si) photovoltaic solar cell systems combined with an electric power inverter using silicon carbide (SiC) field-effect transistor (FET) were constructed and characterized, which were compared with an ordinary Si-based converter. The SiC-FET devices were introduced in the direct current-alternating current (DC-AC) converter, which was connected with the solar panels. The spherical Si solar cells were used as the power sources, and the spherical Si panels are lighter and more flexible compared with the ordinary flat Si solar panels. Conversion efficiencies of the spherical Si solar cells were improved by using the SiC-FET.

  7. Light modular construction: analysis of the relationship between modular construction system and space layout in solar houses from 2005 and 2007 solar decathlon competition

    OpenAIRE

    Ovando Vacarezza, Graciela; Lauret Aguirregabiria, Benito

    2009-01-01

    Present and future research will be oriented towards both industrial construction techniques and sustainability, and in this sense combination of mass production and sustainable houses is of a special relevance. Modular construction is a very successful building method in some countries such as Japan and U.S.A., and could be easily applied in solar houses production. In this way it is worth to refer to Solar Decathlon competition, promoted by the U.S.A. Department of Energy, as one major labo...

  8. Design, construction and testing of parabolic solar energy cooker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parabolic solar energy cooker was designed using locally available materials such as pieces of iron and plane mirrors. The diameter of the dish was 12 x 10-3 mm and pieces of glass mirrors were adhered to its concave surface using abro silicon gum as solar energy reflectors. The solar cooker was used to cook different food materials such as rice, bean, yam and stew between 11am and 3pm. The time taken to cook the food materials were measured and compared to the time it takes to cook similar food samples of the same quantity using kerosene and electric stove. It took the kerosene and electric stoves two hours, forty minutes (2.40) and two hours, ten minutes (2.10) respectively to cook beans with all the ingredients while the fabricated solar cooker took only one hour fifteen minutes. Due to high solar energy absorption capacity of the solar cooker and insolation rate, the study has reveled that it is faster, safer and takes less time to cook using cooker than either kerosene or electric stove.

  9. The gas chimney formation during the steam explosion premixing phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crucial part in isothermal premixing experiment simulation is the correct prediction of the gas chimney, which forms when the spheres penetrate into water. The first simulation results with the developed original combined multiphase model showed that the gas chimney starts to close at the wrong place at the top of the chimney and not in the middle, like it was observed in the experiments. To find the physical explanation for this identified weakness of our numerical model a comprehensive parametric analysis (mesh size, initial water-air surface thickness, water density, momentum coupling starting position) has been performed. It was established that the reason for the unphysical gas chimney closing at the top could be the gradual air-water density transition in the experiment model, since there is due to the finite differences description always a transition layer with intermediate phases density over the pure water phase. It was shown that this difference between our numerical model and the experiment can be somewhat compensated if the spheres interfacial drag coefficient at the upmost mesh plane of the unphysical air-water transition layer is artificially risen. On this way a more correct gas chimney formation can be obtained.(author)

  10. Ages of barite-sulfide chimneys from the Mariana Trough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Active and inactive hydrothermal chimneys from the Mariana Trough have young ages ranging from 0.5 to 2.5 years. These estimates are based on disequilibrium between 228Th and 228Ra in barite-rich samples. Mineralogical investigations revealed that the chimneys contain a mixture of barite, galena, sphalerite and chalcopyrite which appear to have formed contemporaneously. Based on radium isotope ratios and Ra/Ba ratios, leaching of freshly exposed basaltic rock must have been the source of the barium found in these deposits. (orig.)

  11. Experimental and theoretical analysis of a NPP chimney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the frame of a research project of seismic refraction survey four underground explosions were carried out in April 1987 close to Garigliano NPP, in decommissioning phase since 1978. With the aim to obtain information on soil structure interaction phenomenon, design hypothesis and numerical modeling of structures ENEL and ENEA recorded the four explosions at selected points on the NPP and on the ground. In this report the results of the analyses carried out on accelerograms recorded on the NPP chimney are presented along with optimal values of parameters to be employed in numerical modeling of the chimney, estimated by a simple procedure of system identification

  12. Influence of Chimney Width in Natural Convection Heat Transfer on a Vertical Finned Plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The RCCS adopts the chimney system to increase the flow rate. Also the fins installed in the inner walls of the chimney will provide an additional cooling performance by increasing the heat transfer area. On the other hand, the fins also increase the friction loss i. e. the pressure drop. Thus, in order to improve the heat transfer performance of the RCCS, an optimization among the fin parameters is necessary. Many experimental and numerical studies regarding the fin and the chimney are available. In this study, the natural convection heat transfer of the fin system located inside the chimney was measured. Based on the analogy concept, heat transfer experiments were replaced by mass transfer experiments using a sulfuric acid-copper sulfate (H2SO4-CuSO4) electroplating system. The experiments were conducted by varying fin spacing, fin height, chimney width, and chimney height. This study experimentally investigated the natural convection heat transfer of the vertical finned plate in the chimney. Using an analogy, the heat transfer systems were replaced by mass transfer systems. The measured mass transfer coefficients was the difference with the existing heat transfer correlations due to the large value of the Pr, but exhibited similar trends with the existing heat transfer correlations. The heat transfer rate is increased by the decrease of the fin spacing and the increased fin height due to increased heat transfer area and chimney flow pattern. The chimney effect enhances heat transfer rate of vertical finned plate and the chimney effect on the Nus In this study, the heat transfer rate on vertical finned plate in the chimney was confirmed by experiment for high values of Ra was stronger for the narrow chimney width, and became stronger by the higher chimney. The chimney effect was not observed when the chimney width becomes larger than a certain value depending on the Ras

  13. Evaluation of height chimney effect in a research reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The STHIRP-1 computer code uses the principles of subchannels approach and has the ability to simulate the thermal and hydraulic phenomena which occur in the core of a water-refrigerated research reactor under a natural convection regime. As the reactor cooling occurs predominantly by natural convection of pool water the driving forces are supplied by the buoyancy of the heated water in the core. A chimney is an unheated extension of the core. The height of the chimney above the upper grid plate depends on the reactor power. At the top of the chimney the water temperature and density are again equal to the bulk water and it can be assumed that the liquid is again motionless. Thermal hydraulic calculations were carried out for the IPR-R1 Triga reactor (CDTN/CNEN) operating at the steady-state power levels of 50, 70 and 100 kW. The height of chimney effect in the reactor core was evaluated from the temperature values calculated at the inlet and outlet of subchannels (author)

  14. Research on gas transport in chimneys: a progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of the AGRINI and TIERRA experiments have led us to study three general topics: collapse phenomenology, CO2 content measurement, and gas transport in chimneys. Our results so far are fragmentary, but we have been able to come to some tentative conclusions: (1) a layer of strong material between depths of 24 and 32 m, and perhaps some relatively strong material deeper, may have caused the AGRINI crater shape. This layer was absent at the nearby LABAN and CROWDIE events. We were unable to locate the layer with a surface penetrometer or surface seismic methods, but it may be possible to measure strength vs depth in situ by examining the penetration depth of a projectile. (2) We can probably improve our knowledge of the in situ CO2 content by calibrating a commercial carbon/oxygen logging system for NTS conditions. (3) It is possible to measure the response of the gas in a chimney to changes in atmospheric pressure. There can be significantly different gas transport in chimneys with the same pressure response, depending on the porosity and the distribution of the porosity. It is possible to perform an inexpensive experiment to study the gas transport in an existing chimney

  15. Experimental and numerical analysis of pollutant dispersion from a chimney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Said, N.M.; Mhiri, H. [Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Monastir, Tunisie (Tunisia). Laboratorie de Mecanique des Fluides et Thermique; Le Palec, G.; Bournot, P. [UNIMECA, Marseille (France). Institut de Mecanique de Marseille, Equipe IMFT

    2005-03-01

    Particle image velocimetry (PIV) is used to extract and characterize the underlying organized motions, i.e. coherent structures, within the near-wake region of a turbulent round jet discharged perpendicularly from a chimney into a crossflow. This flow has been found to be quite complex owing to its three-dimensional nature and the interactions between several flow regions. Analyses of the underlying coherent structures, which play an important role in the physics of the flow, are still rare and mostly based on flow-visualization techniques. Using a PIV technique, we examined the wake regions of the chimney and plume at levels near the top of the chimney. The complex geometry of these structures in the wake of the plume as well as their interaction with the plume as it bends over after emission is discussed. In this paper we describe the Kelvin-Helmholtz vortex structures, the downwash phenomena and the effect of the height of the chimney. Extensive wind tunnel experimental results are presented and compared with numerical simulation. A good level of agreement was found between the results of flow visualization and numerical simulation. (author)

  16. Design and Construction of Solar Power-Based Lighting System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oke A. O.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the years, security posed a major concern at night due to the total darkness. The need to supply light without manually switching it on and off arises as years roll by. Automatic Street Light Control System is a simple yet powerful concept, which uses transistor as a switch. This paper presents how solar energy is being harnessed to power street light and virtually removes manual works to 100%. The system automatically switches ON lights when the sunlight goes below the visible region of the eyes. This is done by a sensor called Light Dependant Resistor (LDR which senses the light actually like the human eyes. It automatically switches OFF lights whenever the sunlight comes, visible to the eyes. By using this system energy consumption is also reduced because presently the manually operated street lights are not switched off at sunlight nor switched on earlier before sunset

  17. NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF HEAT STORAGE OF SOLAR HEAT IN FLOOR CONSTRUCTION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weitzmann, Peter; Holck, Ole

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, heat storage of solar heating in the floor construction of single-family houses is examined. A floor construction with two concrete decks is investigated. The lower is used as heat storage while the upper deck has a floor heating system. The potential for a reduction of the energy consumption for heating, by using heat storage in the floor construction is calculated using a dynamic simulation model of solar collector, solar tank and heat storage coupled to a building model, using the Danish Design Ref-erence Year as input. The model calculates the performance of the solar heating system room temperature and energy consumption. A single-family house with and without heat recovery unit on the ventilation system of 130 m² with heating demand of approximately 70 kWh/m² and 40 kWh/m² is investigated. A parametrical analysis was performed for the solar collector area, and floor layouts including pipe spacing, storage materials, and distribution of insulation around the thermal storage layer. The energy consump-tion, reduction due to the heat storage and total performance of the solar heating system was calculated. The largest reduction of 100 kWh/m² solar collector occurred in the house with the highest energy con-sumption. The reduction depends on the solar collector area, distribution of the insulation thickness, heat-ing demand and control strategy, but not on pipe spacing and layer thickness and material. Finally, it is shown that the system can also be used for comfort heating of tiled floors during the summer period.

  18. The computational optimization of heat exchange efficiency in stack chimneys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Goch, T.A.J.

    2012-02-15

    For many industrial processes, the chimney is the final step before hot fumes, with high thermal energy content, are discharged into the atmosphere. Tapping into this energy and utilizing it for heating or cooling applications, could improve sustainability, efficiency and/or reduce operational costs. Alternatively, an unused chimney, like the monumental chimney at the Eindhoven University of Technology, could serve as an 'energy channeler' once more; it can enhance free cooling by exploiting the stack effect. This study aims to identify design parameters that influence annual heat exchange in such stack chimney applications and optimize these parameters for specific scenarios to maximize the performance. Performance is defined by annual heat exchange, system efficiency and costs. The energy required for the water pump as compared to the energy exchanged, defines the system efficiency, which is expressed in an efficiency coefficient (EC). This study is an example of applying building performance simulation (BPS) tools for decision support in the early phase of the design process. In this study, BPS tools are used to provide design guidance, performance evaluation and optimization. A general method for optimization of simulation models will be studied, and applied in two case studies with different applications (heating/cooling), namely; (1) CERES case: 'Eindhoven University of Technology monumental stack chimney equipped with a heat exchanger, rejects heat to load the cold source of the aquifer system on the campus of the university and/or provides free cooling to the CERES building'; and (2) Industrial case: 'Heat exchanger in an industrial stack chimney, which recoups heat for use in e.g. absorption cooling'. The main research question, addressing the concerns of both cases, is expressed as follows: 'what is the optimal set of design parameters so heat exchange in stack chimneys is optimized annually for the cases in which a stack chimney heat exchanger is used for heating or cooling applications, what is the expected performance and how do the design parameters relate to this performance'. Simulation models were developed in the BPS tool ESP-r. The most important design parameters and their relative influence on the performance indicators were analysed based on sensitivity analysis (SA). From this analysis general design guidelines were derived ('optimal set of design parameters'). A multi objective optimization of the design parameters was performed on the simulation models, using the responsive surface methods and artificial neural network capabilities of optimization environment ModEContier to speed up the iteration process. In this optimization, 'heat exchange in stack chimneys is optimized annually'. The uncertainty in the optimized results has been analysed using uncertainty analysis (UA). Finally, the appropriateness of deploying a complex, high resolution simulation has been evaluated by studying current modelling resolution selection methodology found in literature.

  19. The use of a rubble chimney for denitrification of irrigation return waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological denitrification has been proposed as a means of removing nitrates from waste waters to control eutrophication in receiving waters. A potential use for this method is the treatment of irrigation return waters containing high concentrations of nitrate-nitrogen, since direct discharge of such wastes may cause objectionable algal growth in the receiving waters. For example, the process may be used to treat agricultural waste waters in the San Joaquin Valley in California, where an estimated 580,000 acre-feet/year of return waters, containing 20 mg/l of nitrate-nitrogen, will require disposal by A.D. 2020. Two methods of biological denitrification are presently under study for possible use in the San Joaquin Valley. In one method nitrates are reduced to nitrogen gas by bacterial action in deep ponds; in the other method bacterial denitrification takes place in biological filters. In biological filters, bacteria are grown on columns of submerged stones. A possible alternative to the conventional construction of these filters is the creation of a rubble chimney by a contained nuclear explosion. This paper presents the results of a preliminary investigation of the feasibility of using a rubble chimney as a biological filter for denitrification. (author)

  20. The construction of a process line for high efficiency silicon solar cells under clean-room conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this research project was to plan, construct and test a clean-room technology laboratory for the manufacturing of silicon solar cells with 20% efficiency (1.5AM). In addition to the establishment of the laboratory, there existed the case of establishing the material and technological fundamentals of high-efficiency solar cells, testing and optimizing all stages of production as well as constructing test stands for accompanying characterisation work. The following final report describes the construction of the laboratory and characterisation systems, the material elements of high-efficiency solar cells as well as the most important results of solar cell production and optimisation. (orig./BWI)

  1. Mesoscale eddies and chimneys in the marginal ice zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandven, S.; Johannessen, O. M.; Johannessen, J. A.

    1991-07-01

    A review of observation and modeling of mesoscale eddies and chimneys in the marginal ice zone is presented. Deep water formation, which is important for the global climate, occurs only in a few locations of the world ocean mainly at high latitudes. Some of these locations are associated with eddies in or near the marginal ice zone of the Arctic as well as the Antarctic. Deep water formation is not a well understood process, investigations so far indicate that it can occur intermittently in winter time in narrow chimneys of very low stability which have a horizontal extent of order 10 km and are located in the upper few hundred meters of the water column.

  2. Design, engineering, and construction of photosynthetic microbial cell factories for renewable solar fuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblad, Peter; Lindberg, Pia; Oliveira, Paulo; Stensjö, Karin; Heidorn, Thorsten

    2012-01-01

    There is an urgent need to develop sustainable solutions to convert solar energy into energy carriers used in the society. In addition to solar cells generating electricity, there are several options to generate solar fuels. This paper outlines and discusses the design and engineering of photosynthetic microbial systems for the generation of renewable solar fuels, with a focus on cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria are prokaryotic microorganisms with the same type of photosynthesis as higher plants. Native and engineered cyanobacteria have been used by us and others as model systems to examine, demonstrate, and develop photobiological H(2) production. More recently, the production of carbon-containing solar fuels like ethanol, butanol, and isoprene have been demonstrated. We are using a synthetic biology approach to develop efficient photosynthetic microbial cell factories for direct generation of biofuels from solar energy. Present progress and advances in the design, engineering, and construction of such cyanobacterial cells for the generation of a portfolio of solar fuels, e.g., hydrogen, alcohols, and isoprene, are presented and discussed. Possibilities and challenges when introducing and using synthetic biology are highlighted. PMID:22434446

  3. Design, Engineering, and Construction of Photosynthetic Microbial Cell Factories for Renewable Solar Fuel Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindblad, Peter; Lindberg, Pia; Stensjoe, Karin (Photochemistry and Molecular Science, Dept. of Chemistry-Aangstroem Laboratory, Uppsala Univ., Uppsala (Sweden)), E-mail: Peter.Lindblad@kemi.uu.se; Oliveira, Paulo (Instituto de Biologia Molecular e Celular, Porto (Portugal)); Heidorn, Thorsten (Bioforsk-Norwegian Inst. for Agricultural and Environmental Research, Aas Oslo, (Norway))

    2012-03-15

    There is an urgent need to develop sustainable solutions to convert solar energy into energy carriers used in the society. In addition to solar cells generating electricity, there are several options to generate solar fuels. This paper outlines and discusses the design and engineering of photosynthetic microbial systems for the generation of renewable solar fuels, with a focus on cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria are prokaryotic microorganisms with the same type of photosynthesis as higher plants. Native and engineered cyanobacteria have been used by us and others as model systems to examine, demonstrate, and develop photobiological H{sub 2} production. More recently, the production of carbon-containing solar fuels like ethanol, butanol, and isoprene have been demonstrated. We are using a synthetic biology approach to develop efficient photosynthetic microbial cell factories for direct generation of biofuels from solar energy. Present progress and advances in the design, engineering, and construction of such cyanobacterial cells for the generation of a portfolio of solar fuels, e.g., hydrogen, alcohols, and isoprene, are presented and discussed. Possibilities and challenges when introducing and using synthetic biology are highlighted

  4. 75 FR 21990 - Safety Zone; Extended Debris Removal in the Lake Champlain Bridge Construction Zone (Between...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ...Removal in the Lake Champlain Bridge Construction Zone (Between Vermont and...surrounding the Lake Champlain Bridge construction zone between Chimney Point...south of the Lake Champlain Bridge construction site. The Captain of...

  5. Formation of Chimneys in Mushy Layers: Experiment and Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Anthony M; Worster, Grae

    2011-01-01

    In this fluid dyanmics video, we show experimental images and simulations of chimney formation in mushy layers. A directional solidification apparatus was used to freeze 25 wt % aqueous ammonium chloride solutions at controlled rates in a narrow Hele-Shaw cell (1mm gap). The convective motion is imaged with schlieren. We demonstrate the ability to numerically simulate mushy layer growth for direct comparison with experiments.

  6. Evaluation of a stack: A concrete chimney with brick liner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, J.R.; Amin, J.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Porthouse, R.A. [Chimney Consultants, West Lebanon, NH (United States)

    1995-12-31

    A 200 ft. tall stack, consisting of a concrete chimney with an independent acid proof brick liner built in the 1950`s, serving the Separations facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS), was evaluated for the performance category 3 (PC3) level of Natural Phenomena Hazards (NPH) effects. The inelastic energy absorption capacity of the concrete chimney was considered in the evaluation of the earthquake resistance, in particular, to compute the F{sub {mu}} factor. The calculated value of F{sub {mu}} exceeded 3.0, while the seismic demand for the PC3 level, using an F{sub {mu}} value of 1.5, was found to be less than the capacity of the concrete chimney. The capacity formulation of ACI 307 was modified to incorporate the effect of an after design opening on the tension side. There are considerable uncertainties in determining the earthquake resistance of the independent brick liner. The critical liner section, located at the bottom of the breeching opening, does not meet the current recommendations. A discussion is provided for the possible acceptable values for the ``Moment Reduction Factor``, R{sub w} or F{sub {mu}} for the liner. Comments are provided on the comparison of stack demands using response spectra (RS) versus time history (TH) analysis, with and without soil structure interaction (SSI) effects.

  7. Evaluation of a stack: A concrete chimney with brick liner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 200 ft. tall stack, consisting of a concrete chimney with an independent acid proof brick liner built in the 1950's, serving the Separations facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS), was evaluated for the performance category 3 (PC3) level of Natural Phenomena Hazards (NPH) effects. The inelastic energy absorption capacity of the concrete chimney was considered in the evaluation of the earthquake resistance, in particular, to compute the F? factor. The calculated value of F? exceeded 3.0, while the seismic demand for the PC3 level, using an F? value of 1.5, was found to be less than the capacity of the concrete chimney. The capacity formulation of ACI 307 was modified to incorporate the effect of an after design opening on the tension side. There are considerable uncertainties in determining the earthquake resistance of the independent brick liner. The critical liner section, located at the bottom of the breeching opening, does not meet the current recommendations. A discussion is provided for the possible acceptable values for the ''Moment Reduction Factor'', Rw or F? for the liner. Comments are provided on the comparison of stack demands using response spectra (RS) versus time history (TH) analysis, with and without soil structure interaction (SSI) effects

  8. Wisdom Way Solar Village: Design, Construction, and Analysis of a Low Energy Community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, R.

    2012-08-01

    This report describes work conducted at the Wisdom Way Solar Village (WWSV), a community of 10 high performance duplexes (20 homes) in Greenfield, MA, constructed by Rural Development, Inc. (RDI). Building America's CARB team monitored temperatures and comfort in several homes during the winter of 2009-2010, and tracked utility bill information from 13 occupied homes. Because of efficient lights, appliances, and conscientious home occupants, the energy generated by the solar electric systems exceeded the electric energy used in most homes.

  9. Bismarck, North Dakota, office commercial solar demonstration design and construction report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-05

    The demonstration consisted of adding 5,000 square feet of flat, plate collector to an existing four story, 75,000 square feet office building. The existing mechanical system is an electric water to water heat pump system with 60,000 gallons of thermal storage. The retrofit design converted one 20,000 gallon tank for use as solar storage and added the 5,000 square feet of double glazed, selective surface, flat plate collector. The solar collector is mounted as a ground mounted array which is stepped down a hillside. The array is expected to provide 1,944 x 10/sup 6/ BTU of useable energy annually. That energy is equivalent to 34% of the building heating energy. Construction progressed smoothly, however, time delays occurred as a result of slow shipment of the solar collectors and an extremely severe winter at the construction site. Construction was not completed until late spring of 1978; therefore will not be made fully operational until winter 1978. No operational data has yet been collected. The panels have been stagnating since installation and no deterioration of the cupric oxide selective coating is apparent. One post construction problem has become apparent and is not yet repaired. That is a problem of bowing of some of the collector side panels. The bowing is apparently caused from a thermal expansion of the aluminum extrusion. A bracing member will be instaled to eliminate the problem.

  10. Improvement of the Vertical Dispersion of Pollutants Resulting From Chimneys by Thermosiphon Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoud, A. O. M.; Zinoubi, J.; Maad, R. B.; Belghith, A.

    2006-01-01

    The dispersion of pollutants, resulting from industrial chimneys, in the surrounding atmosphere made the interest in realizing emitting conditions appears. It also encourages the vertical dispersion of these pollutants. At a given wind velocity, the height of this dispersion is essentially a function of the thermal power and the flow rate at the chimney exit. To improve these qualities, we propose a system that could be integrated to the industrial chimney exit. An open-ended vertical cylinde...

  11. Wind load analysis of tall chimneys with piled raft foundation considering the flexibility of soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayalekshmi, B. R.; Jisha, S. V.; Shivashankar, R.

    2015-04-01

    Soil-structure interaction (SSI) analysis was carried out for tall reinforced concrete chimneys with piled raft foundation subjected to wind loads. To understand the significance of SSI, four types of soil were considered based on different material properties. Chimneys of different elevations and different ratios of height to base diameter of chimney were selected for the parametric study. The thickness of raft of piled raft foundation was also varied based on different ratios of outer diameter to thickness of raft. The chimneys were assumed to be located in open terrain and subjected to a maximum wind speed of 50 m/s. The along-wind and across-wind loads were computed according to IS: 4998 (Part 1)-1992 and applied along the height of the chimney. The analysis was carried out using three-dimensional finite element technique based on the direct method of SSI. The linear elastic material behaviour was assumed for the integrated chimney-foundation-soil system. The radial and tangential moments, lateral deflection and base moment of chimney were evaluated through SSI analysis and compared with the response obtained from chimney with fixed base. The base moment of chimney considerably reduces due to the effect of SSI. It is found that the variation of different responses in chimney due to the effect of SSI depends significantly on the geometrical properties of chimney and foundations. The response variation at base for a distance of 1/40th of the height of chimney should be considered for a safe design.

  12. Antecedent and progress of the project on the treatment of chimney gases with electrons in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the realization of the chimney gases treatment seminar with electrons, organized jointly among the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), in August of 1990 and following one of the received recommendations, it was elaborated an economic technical feasibility study of this process in Mexico, using technical data of a thermoelectric power station of Federal Commission of Electricity, where is being consumed fuel oil. This study is good to know some technical parameters of a plant of this process, proposed to settle in Mexico, so as some economic estimates of installation and operation costs of this plant; also, it is traced about the construction of a demonstration plant of the process, with capacity of 20,000 m3N/h, using the same data of the thermoelectric power station considered previously, as the first step in the scaling of this process toward industrial level. (Author)

  13. Design, construction and experimental study of Electric Cum Solar Oven-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As in many developing countries, 35-40% of the population of Costa Rica still use firewood for domestic cooking. Considering the fact that Costa Rica is blessed with good sunshine, good hydroelectric potential, and a good electric network, a hybrid solar oven was thought to be useful. In the present paper the construction and working of a new type of Electric Cum Solar Oven (ECSO) has been described. This oven can be used for cooking and baking any type of meal at any time during the year employing solar and/or electric energy but consuming the minimum quantity of electric energy in case it is required. (author). 9 refs, 6 figs, 1 tab

  14. 10-MWe solar-thermal central-receiver pilot plant: collector subsystem foundation construction. Revision No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-18

    Bid documents are provided for the construction of the collector subsystem foundation of the Barstow Solar Pilot Plant, including invitation to bid, bid form, representations and certifications, construction contract, and labor standards provisions of the Davis-Bacon Act. Instructions to bidders, general provisions and general conditions are included. Technical specifications are provided for the construction. (LEW)

  15. Natural convection solar crop-dryers of commercial scale in Ghana: design, construction and performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forson, F.K.; Nazha, M.A.A. [De Montfort University, Leicester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mechanical and Manufacture Engineering; Akuffo, F.O. [UST Kumasi (Ghana). Dept. of Mechanical and Manufacture Engineering

    1996-07-01

    Traditional open sun-drying, the predominant method of food preservation in Ghana, has serious drawbacks leading to significant post-harvest losses (between 20 and 30%). Mechanical dryers can provide high quality products with minimum losses but they require sources of electrical or chemical energy which, in the case of Ghana, are costly or scarce. This makes the development of an effective natural convection solar dryer an attractive alternative. A mixed-mode natural convection solar crop-dryer (a dryer in which the crop is dried by a combination of the direct absorption of solar radiation and by natural convection where air, heated by solar energy, is passed over the crop) has been designed. Two commercial dryers, based on this design and capable of handling between 1,000 and 1,500 kg of various agricultural products (such as cassava, pepper, maize, okra, etc.) have been constructed and partially tested at Agona-Asafo in the central region of Ghana. The results of these preliminary tests indicate that it takes 3-5 days to dry 1,000 kg of pepper from moisture content level of 78% to a safe storage level of 8%. The design, construction details, and the results of the preliminary tests are presented in this paper. (author)

  16. Atmospheric concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during chimney sweeping.

    OpenAIRE

    Knecht, U.; Bolm-audorff, U.; Woitowitz, H. J.

    1989-01-01

    Air sampled from the breathing zone of chimney sweeps during "dirty work" and soot samples were analysed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). A total of 20 PAH were quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in 115 air samples and 18 soot samples. These included benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), chrysene, dibenz(a,h)anthracene, and indeno (1,2,3-cd)pyrene, all of which are animal carcinogens. The summed atmospheric concentration of these compounds depended on the type...

  17. Guide for a building energy label. Promoting bio-climatic and solar construction and renovation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Technically speaking, building experts have the knowledge to deal with thermal inertia of buildings, solar gains, insulation, efficient ventilation, and daylighting... to get low energy buildings that provide comfort for the users. Buildings should always be designed according to the specificities of the local climate, according to a ''solar and bio-climatic construction'' approach. It is not always possible to fully apply these principles, particularly in urban areas with high density. However, this is unacceptable to keep building with such errors as insufficient insulation and direct electrical heating, single glazing, thermal bridges, low efficiency heating systems. This guide aims at encouraging the building experts to take into account the energy efficiency. Implementing a building energy label will allow general public to be aware of this issue and then, and will then lead to develop better practices. (author)

  18. Total solar irradiance variations: The construction of a composite and its comparison with models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehlich, Claus; Lean, Judith

    1997-01-01

    Measurements of the total solar irradiance (TSI) during the last 18 years from spacecraft are reviewed. Corrections are determined for the early measurements made by the HF radiometer within the ERB experiment on NIMBUS 7 and the factor to refer active cavity radiometer irradiation monitoring (ACRIM) 2 to the ACRIM 1 irradiance scale. With these corrections, a composite TSI is constructed with a model that combines a magnetic brightness proxy with observed sunspot darkening and explains nearly 90 percent of the observed short and long term variance. Possible, but still unverified degradation of the radiometers hampers conclusions about irradiance changes on decadal time scales and longer.

  19. Design, construction and characterization of a rural solar furnace; Diseno, construccion y caracterizacion de un horno solar rural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez Luna, Gabriela

    2001-06-15

    This thesis presents the design, construction and characterization of a solar furnace, box type, for its use in rural communities in the inter-tropical zone. The work presented in this thesis departs from the opto-geometric design of a solar furnace, box type, proposed by an enthusiastic group of young students from the Centro de Investigacion de Energia (CIE) of the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM). The contents of this thesis includes the systematization of the work previously made by these authors: the design and the optimization of geometry, the experimental evaluation of the same, as well as a theoretical model of the thermal behavior of the solar furnace based on a global balance of energy that assumes thermal states in cuasi-equilibrium of the internal components of the furnace. In this thesis a theoretical model of the solar concentration of energy by the reflectors of the furnace based on the model of Peres and Karsson (1993) is developed. The predictions of this model are satisfactorily compared with the experimental results of Jaramillo et al. (1999). Counting on the opto-geometric design of the furnace, the design is completed selecting the materials to be used in the different parts of the same, as well as defining constructive details. The material selected for the inner and outer boxes and the reflectors is stainless steel mirror finishing. Mineral wool is used As insulating mineral. The upper part of the furnace is protected by a glass that allows the entrance of the solar energy and diminishes the energy convective and radiation losses. For the thermal evaluation of the furnace an experimental methodology, based on the international procedures standardized for tests of furnaces and solar stoves is followed. Three tests for each one of the following operation conditions were performed: without load, with oil and with water. The maximum temperature registered in the inside air of the furnace, for the first condition was of 150 centigrade, followed of the condition using 6 liters of oil, in which a maximum temperature of 115 centigrade was obtained and in the tests with 6 liters of water as load a maximum temperature of 95 centigrade was registered. In these tests the temperature of the oil surpasses 60 centigrade during an approximate period of 7 hours and is higher than 80 centigrade by a lapse of 5 hours. The water temperature is higher than 60 centigrade for a period of more than 5 hours and during 3 hours is higher than 80 centigrade. These results are satisfactory, because they assure the accomplishment of the process of baking inside the furnace. A calculation program was elaborated to implement the theoretical model of the concentration. This program reads the data of radiation intensity in the horizontal plane supplied by the weather station of the CIE and determines the incident radiation in the furnace collector. The theoretical model of the thermal behavior was implemented in another computer program; this program reads the data of the incident radiation in the collector of the furnace and the data of room temperature and calculates the temperature of the furnace as a time function. The model overestimates the temperature reached in the furnace, nevertheless reproduces qualitatively the thermal behavior of the same. In spite of the limitations of the theoretical model, this can be of utility in achieving the reproduction of the temperature of the load experimentally registered, through an effective coefficient of heat losses and an effective coefficient of heat capacity, characteristic of each one of the conditions of the test. [Spanish] Esta tesis presenta el diseno, construccion y caracterizacion de un horno solar tipo caja para su uso en comunidades rurales en la zona intertropical. El trabajo presentado en esta tesis parte del diseno opto-geometrico de un horno solar tipo caja propuesto por un entusiasta grupo de jovenes estudiantes (Acosta et al., 1996, Vazquez et al., 1998, Jaramillo et al., 1999) del Centro de Investigacion en Energia (CIE) de la Universidad Nacional Autonom

  20. Fairy chimney erosion rates on Cappadocia ignimbrites, Turkey: Insights from cosmogenic nuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarikaya, Mehmet Akif; Çiner, Attila; Zreda, Marek

    2015-04-01

    Cappadocia, in the Central Anatolian Plateau of Turkey, is famous for its unique landscape and unusual rock formations. The development of this landscape dates back to Late Miocene epoch (c. 10 million years) when volcanoes spread pyroclastic deposits over an area of about 20,000 km2. The volcanism continued for several millions of years and laid down thick and colorful ignimbrite layers. The evolution of the Cappadocian landscape starts with nearly-horizontal plateaus, which are then dissected, usually along cooling fractures, to form mushroom-like structures (hoodoos) locally known as "fairy chimneys". Different layers of ignimbrites have different resistance to erosion: softer layers (necks) are easier to erode compared to the harder ignimbrites (caps). When the chimneys are isolated, the caps play an important role in slowing further erosion of softer layers. When the caps finally drop or completely erode away, the soft necks of the chimneys are quickly destroyed. Here, for the first time, we have determined the bedrock erosion rates at the three evolution stages of fairy chimneys using the cosmogenic chlorine-36 (36Cl): the pre-chimney (plateaus) stage, the chimney stage and the post-chimney stage. The data show that the plateaus erode at a very low rate between 0.58 ± 0.02 cm/ky and 0.93 ± 0.05 cm/ky. When dissection of a plateau starts, the erosion rate increases to about 4.5 ± 0.6 cm/ky. The caps of chimneys have erosion rates between 3.21 ± 0.36 cm/ky and 3.39 ± 0.36 cm/ky. Once the chimneys disappear, erosion rates increase significantly to 28.0 ± 9.9 cm/ky.

  1. Diffused vs. Focused Flow - Metaproteogenomic Insights into Effects of Hydrothermal Fluid Flow on Metal-Sulfide Chimney Colonizing Biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pjevac, P.; Markert, S.; Richter, M.; Gruber-Vodicka, H.; Schweder, T.; Amann, R.; Meyerdierks, A.

    2014-12-01

    At many sites of hydrothermal discharge in the deep-sea, the deposition of metal sulfides from hydrothermal fluids leads to the formation of geological structures known as hydrothermal chimneys. The mixing of reduced hydrothermal fluids with oxygenated seawater leads to the formation of steep redox gradients within the chimney walls. These gradients facilitate the co-existence of metabolically diverse microorganisms in the narrow habitable zone of hydrothermal chimney walls. However, the overall composition of chimney-associated microbial community is usually of low complexity and represents an environment suitable for metaomic-based studies. We used metagenomic and metaproteomic tools to compare microbial communities colonizing two metal-sulfide chimneys from the Manus Basin back-arc spreading center in the Bismarck Sea off Papua New Guinea. These chimneys were supplied by the same source hydrothermal fluids, but exhibited different fluid flow regimes. One chimney (RMR5) had a focused venting edifice, while the other (RMR-D) displayed diffuse fluid efflux on its entire outer surface. Although the microbial diversity of both chimneys is similar and dominated by mesophilic Epsilonproteobacteria, our results indicate a strong structuring effect of hydrothermal fluid flow regime on chimney-associated biofilms. The microbial community composition indicates a homogeneous colonization of the diffuse chimney walls. In contrast, the walls of the focused venting chimney appear to be colonized in layers reflecting different temperature tolerances of the dominant microorganisms. Sulfide-oxidation is likely the key metabolism in both chimneys, which is in line with the high sulfide content of the source hydrothermal fluid. However, preliminary metaproteome analysis indicates high activity of low-abundant methanotrophic Bacteria in the diffuser chimney walls. This finding is particularly interesting in light of the very low methane content of the source hydrothermal fluid. Overall, this study is among the first metaprotoemic investigations of hydrothermal vent associated communities and provides deep insights into the metabolic versatility of hydrothermal chimney colonizing microbes.

  2. Large-size deployable construction heated by solar irradiation in free space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestrenina, Irena; Kondyurin, Alexey; Pestrenin, Valery; Kashin, Nickolay; Naymushin, Alexey

    Large-size deployable construction in free space with subsequent direct curing was invented more than fifteen years ago (Briskman et al., 1997 and Kondyurin, 1998). It caused a lot of scientific problems, one of which is a possibility to use the solar energy for initiation of the curing reaction. This paper is devoted to investigate the curing process under sun irradiation during a space flight in Earth orbits. A rotation of the construction is considered. This motion can provide an optimal temperature distribution in the construction that is required for the polymerization reaction. The cylindrical construction of 80 m length with two hemispherical ends of 10 m radius is considered. The wall of the construction of 10 mm carbon fibers/epoxy matrix composite is irradiated by heat flux from the sun and radiates heat from the external surface by the Stefan- Boltzmann law. A stage of polymerization reaction is calculated as a function of temperature/time based on the laboratory experiments with certified composite materials for space exploitation. The curing kinetics of the composite is calculated for different inclination Low Earth Orbits (300 km altitude) and Geostationary Earth Orbit (40000 km altitude). The results show that • the curing process depends strongly on the Earth orbit and the rotation of the construction; • the optimal flight orbit and rotation can be found to provide the thermal regime that is sufficient for the complete curing of the considered construction. The study is supported by RFBR grant ? 12-08-00970-a. 1. Briskman V., A.Kondyurin, K.Kostarev, V.Leontyev, M.Levkovich, A.Mashinsky, G.Nechitailo, T.Yudina, Polymerization in microgravity as a new process in space technology, Paper No IAA-97-IAA.12.1.07, 48th International Astronautical Congress, October 6-10, 1997, Turin Italy. 2. Kondyurin A.V., Building the shells of large space stations by the polymerisation of epoxy composites in open space, Int. Polymer Sci. and Technol., v.25, N4, 1998, p. 78-80.

  3. Analysis Study of Solar Tower Power Plant & Its Configuration Effects on Its Performance in Iraq (Baghdad City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed H. Ali

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A solar chimney power plant model, consisting of a solar collector to produce a hot air when the incident solar radiation hit it, a solar chimney and a wind turbine with generator was investigated in this study. The mathematical model as a tool was used to study and analyze the performance of the power plant for electrical production in Baghdad city of Iraq as a result a mathematical equation was obtained for the hot air outlet temperature from the collector as a function of collector’s area and solar radiation. The Manzanares model was used in this study and the results obtained from the proposed model of solar tower, having the height 195 m, diameter of 10 m, and the solar collector diameter of 244 m were compared with the results obtained when the solar tower configuration is changed. The results indicate that the significant impact to improve the output power is by increasing the collector’s diameter from 244 m to 300 m. It is also found that output power is effectively dependent on the chimney’s height, it yields moderate increasing in power output when the height is increased from 195 m to 300 m, and the chimney’s diameter has a lower impact on solar tower output power in comparison with the other configuration of solar tower when it increases from 10 m to 20 m.

  4. Design, construction and performance testing of a solar dryer for agroindustrial by-products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spain generates a big amount of agroindustrial by-products of high moisture that produce a high environmental impact. This fact motivates the aim of this paper, in which a solar dryer prototype is designed, constructed, and performance tested for the analysis of the drying kinetics of these by-products and their possible power valuation. The characteristics of the prototype are presented, together with the variations of the properties of temperature, relative humidity, air mass flow, and efficiency for indirect, mixed, passive, active, and hybrid operation modes. The most efficient operation mode will be the forced-hybrid one, followed by the passive and active modes. The analysis of the drying kinetics of the olive pomace shows the better performance of the hybrid and mixed modes, obtaining reductions of the drying time of a 50% in both cases.

  5. Construction plan of a large liquid argon Time projection chamber for observation of solar neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After explaining briefly the principle of Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (TPC), the past process for planning the ICARUS project, some changes on the project, and the issues of discussion is reviewed. Also the progress of technical development in recent three years and the physical implications of the 1 kilo ton-liquid argon chamber is presented. The fundamental studies have given following two points: (1) The method is developed for measuring the attenuation length from the difference between two peak values, using two ion chambers of different distance between the grids where 207Bi is placed and the cathode. (2) Argon of high purity can be obtained by gas purification method. Now the test of the 2 m3 Liquid Argon TPC is undergone, and its success leads to the construction of the 1000 t Liquid Argon TPC intended exclusively for the detection of the solar neutrinos. (E.Y.)

  6. Numerical Analysis of a Masonry Chimney Supported by In-Situ Assessment Tools

    OpenAIRE

    Valter Lopes; João Paulo Miranda Guedes; Esmeralda Paupério; António Arêde; Aníbal Costa

    2008-01-01

    At the end of the XIX and the beginning of the XX century there was a considerable industrial development in Portugal, characterized by the flourishing of several industrial plants. Brick masonry chimneys represent some of the most interesting examples of the industrial architectural heritage. The paper shows the case study of a chimney from a former ceramic factory near Porto city and that now is part of a cultural and leisure public park. With the main goal of evaluating the ...

  7. Structural Analysis of a Masonry Chimney – In-Situ Assessment Tools

    OpenAIRE

    Valter Lopes; João Paulo Miranda Guedes; Esmeralda Paupério; António Arêde; Aníbal Costa

    2008-01-01

    At the end of the XIX and the beginning of the XX century there was a considerable industrial development in Portugal, characterized by the flourishing of several industrial plants. Brick masonry chimneys represent some of the most interesting examples of the industrial architectural heritage. The paper shows the case study of a chimney from a former ceramic factory near Porto city and that now is part of a cultural and leisure public park. With the main goal of evaluating the ...

  8. The construction of tandem dye-sensitized solar cells from chemically-derived nanoporous photoelectrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hongsik; Hwang, Taehyun; Lee, Sangheon; Nam, Seunghoon; Kang, Joonhyeon; Lee, Byungho; Park, Byungwoo

    2015-01-01

    A tandem dye-sensitized solar cell (tandem-DSSC) was synthesized on the basis of thin-film semiconductor electrodes. The nanoporous p-type NiO films were successfully obtained by simultaneous deposition of Al and Ni, followed by selective etching of Al and oxidation. Likewise, the n-type photoanode was made where Ag was etched in nitric acid after the initial formation of Ag/TiO2 nanocomposites. Such dye-sensitized photoelectrodes were combined to construct a tandem solar cell which exhibited an enhanced open-circuit voltage. Also, the tandem devices were subjected to various light fluxes to correlate the experimental cell parameters (open-circuit voltage, short-circuit current, fill factor, recombination shunt resistance, etc.) with the ideal one-diode model. Interestingly, impedance spectra of the tandem cell was well matched with the parameters from each of the n-type or p-type DSSC, indicative of successfully-designed tandem structure.

  9. Construction of research wind-solar monitoring station 'North-East Bulgaria'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rising energy prices, the lack of conventional energy sources, as well as the growing ecological problems, imposing the development of a new energy strategy of Bulgaria, are the prerequisites for the thorough researches in the field of wind-solar resources and the construction of experimental bases with modern equipment for the detailed investigations on the specificities of these resources with the view of their optimal utilization. The lack of homogenous covering of the territory of the country with meteorological stations, as well as the rather specific microclimatic conditions in the diverse physical-geographic localities in the country make the necessity of building experimental stations for meteo-monitoring under specific local conditions still more indispensable. This work presents the monitoring parameters of wind-solar resources in a real physical-geographic environment, for carrying out scientific-research, applied-practical and educational-training activity. A broad spectrum of scientific methods and approaches - instrumental, topographic, terrain, mathematical-statistical, numerical modeling, cartographic, educational and team-working, are envisaged for attaining the set objective. (author)

  10. Uranium series disequilibrium dating of black smoker chimneys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within New Zealand's Exclusive Economic Zone there exists a vast submarine hydrothermal mineral resource associated with the Kermadec Ridge. Along this ridge twenty-six submarine volcanoes have been explored by GNS lead-researchers, and at least another nine await investigation. Of these, fifteen are known to be hydrothermally active, and each is almost certainly a site of active seafloor mineralisation. Determination of whether this mineralisation is economically viable in terms of grade and tonnage requires detailed seafloor exploration using manned submersibles and/or remotely operated vehicles capable of high-precision imagery and discrete rock and fluid sampling. A key aspect of these investigations is determining the age of the mineralisation, which will have a direct bearing on its mode of formation, time elapsed to amass an economic deposit and, ultimately, its capacity for sustainable extraction. An intact barite-rich 'black-smoker' chimney recovered from Brothers volcano, along with other hydrothermal deposits provide evidence of active mineralisation along the arc. The age range of such massive sulphide deposits can be determined from the disequilibrium between isotopes within the thorium or uranium decay chains. (author). 1 ref., 5 figs., 1 tab

  11. Solar ventilation and tempering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adámek, Karel; Pavlů, Miloš; Bandouch, Milan

    2014-08-01

    The paper presents basic information about solar panels, designed, realized and used for solar ventilation of rooms. Used method of numerical flow simulation gives good overview about warming and flowing of the air in several kinds of realized panels (window, facade, chimney). Yearlong measurements give a good base for calculations of economic return of invested capital. The operation of the system in transient period (spring, autumn) prolongs the period without classical heating of the room or building, in winter the classical heating is supported. In the summer period the system, furnished with chimney, can exhaust inner warm air together with necessary cooling of the system by gravity circulation, only. System needs not any invoiced energy source; it is supplied entirely by solar energy. Large building systems are supported by classical electric fan respectively.

  12. Toward the Understanding and Optimization of Chimneys for Buoyantly Driven Biomass Stoves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prapas, Jason

    The vast majority of indoor combustion devices in the developed world make use of stacks (flues, vents, chimneys, smokestacks) to channel flue gases out of the operator space. In the developing world, where indoor air pollution kills several million people every year, the use of chimneys with biomass cooking and heating stoves has been met with limited success and a high level of controversy. Due to a lack of theoretical understanding, design criteria, poorly executed installation practices, and/or insufficient maintenance routines, many chimney stoves have exhibited inadequate indoor emissions reductions in addition to low thermal efficiencies. This work aims (a) shed light on the physical phenomenon of the "stack effect" as it pertains to dynamic, non-adiabatic, buoyancy-driven stoves (b) apply new understanding toward the optimization of two types of biomass chimney stoves: plancha or griddle type stoves popular in Central America and two-pot stoves common in South America. A numerical heat and fluid flow model was developed that takes into account the highly-coupled variables and dynamic nature of such systems. With a comprehensive physical model, parameter studies were conducted to determine how several field-relevant variables influence the performance of stack-outfitted systems. These parameters include, but are not limited to: power/wood consumption rate, chimney geometry, stove geometry, material properties, heat transfer, and ambient conditions. An instrumented experimental chimney was built to monitor relationships between air flow, differential pressure, gas temperatures, emissions, and thermal efficiency. The draft provided by chimneys was found to have a strong influence over the bulk air-to-fuel ratio of buoyantly-driven cookstoves, greatly affecting the stove's overall performance by affecting gas temperatures, emissions, and efficiency. Armed with new information from the modeling and experimental work, two new stoves were designed and optimized to have significant reductions in fuel use and emissions.

  13. Metagenome reveals potential microbial degradation of hydrocarbon coupled with sulfate reduction in an oil-immersed chimney from Guaymas Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YingHe

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimneys contain a high diversity of microorganisms, yet the metabolic activity and the ecological functions of the microbial communities remain largely unexplored. In this study, a metagenomic approach was applied to characterize the metabolic potential in a Guaymas hydrothermal vent chimney and to conduct comparative genomic analysis among a variety of environments with sequenced metagenomes. Complete clustering of functional gene categories with a comparative metagenomic approach showed that this Guaymas chimney metagenome was clustered most closely with a chimney metagenome from Juan de Fuca. All chimney samples were enriched with genes involved in recombination and repair, chemotaxis and flagellar assembly, highlighting their roles in coping with the fluctuating extreme deep-sea environments. A high proportion of transposases was observed in all the metagenomes from deep-sea chimneys, supporting the previous hypothesis that horizontal gene transfer may be common in the deep-sea vent chimney biosphere. In the Guaymas chimney metagenome, thermophilic sulfate reducing microorganisms including bacteria and archaea were found predominant, and genes coding for the degradation of refractory organic compounds such as cellulose, lipid, pullullan, as well as a few hydrocarbons including toluene, ethylbenzene and o-xylene were identified. Therefore, this oil-immersed chimney supported a thermophilic microbial community capable of oxidizing a range of hydrocarbons that served as electron donors for sulphate reduction under anaerobic conditions.

  14. Design, construction, and implementation of a ground-based solar spectrograph for the National Student Solar Spectrograph Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeler, E.; Moen, D.; Peck, C.; Zimny, C.; Repasky, K.

    2012-10-01

    A solar spectrograph is an instrument that takes incoming sunlight over a specified portion of the sun's emitted electromagnetic spectrum and separates the light into its constituent frequency components, or spectrum. The components are then sent to a detector that measures intensity, which reveals the location of spectral properties of the light such as absorption and emission lines. The National Student Solar Spectrograph Competition (NSSSC) is a Montana Space Grant Consortium sponsored competition where undergraduate student teams from across the country design, build, and implement a ground-based solar spectrograph to perform any solar related task and demonstrate their spectrographs for the competition in May 2012 in Bozeman, MT. Each team is given a 2,000-dollar budget to build their spectrograph, which cannot be exceeded, and all spectrographs must follow regulations in the NSSSC guidelines. This team designed a spectrograph to be capable of imaging the sun across the visible spectrum using spatial filters and a standard photo detector rather than a traditional charge-coupled device due to budget limitations. The spectrograph analyzes the spectrum of small sections of the sun to determine how the spectrum varies across solar features such as the corona, active regions, and quiet regions. In addition to solar imaging, the spectrograph will also analyze atmospheric absorption of the solar spectrum by comparing the measured spectrum to the theoretical spectrum calculated from the blackbody equation.

  15. Vibration test report for in-chimney bracket and instrumented fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The vibration levels of in-chimney bracket structure which is installed in reactor chimney and instrumented fuel assembly(Type-B Bundle) are investigated under the steady state normal operating condition of the reactor. For this purpose, 4 acceleration data on the guide tube of the instrumented fuel assembly and in-chimney bracket structures subjected to fluid induced vibration are measured. For the analysis of the vibration data, vibration analysis program which can perform basic time and frequency domain analysis, is prepared, and its reliability is verified by comparing the analysis results with those of commercial analysis program(I-DEAS). In time domain analysis, maximum amplitudes, and RMS values of accelerations and displacements from the measured vibration signal, are obtained. The frequency components of the vibration data are analyzed by using the frequency domain analysis. These analysis results show that the levels of the measured vibrations are within the allowable level, and the low frequency component near 10 Hz is dominant in the vibration signal. For the evaluation of the structural integrity on the in-chimney bracket and related structures including the instrumented fuel assembly, the static analysis for ANSYS finite element model is carried out. These analysis results show that the maximum stresses are within the allowable stresses of the ASME code, and the maximum displacement of the top of the flow tube is within the displacement limit. Therefore any damage on the structural integrity is not expected when the irradiation test is performed using the in-chimney bracket

  16. Fish assemblages in Tanzanian mangrove creek systems influenced by solar salt farm constructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwandya, Augustine W.; Gullström, Martin; Öhman, Marcus C.; Andersson, Mathias H.; Mgaya, Yunus D.

    2009-04-01

    Deforestation of mangrove forests is common occurrence worldwide. We examined fish assemblage composition in three mangrove creek systems in Tanzania (East Africa), including two creeks where the upper parts were partly clear-cut of mangrove forest due to the construction of solar salt farms, and one creek with undisturbed mangrove forest. Fish were caught monthly for one year using a seine net (each haul covering 170 m 2) within three locations in each creek, i.e. at the upper, intermediate and lower reaches. Density, biomass and species number of fish were lower in the upper deforested sites compared to the mangrove-fringed sites at the intermediate and lower parts in the two creeks affected by deforestation, whereas there were no differences among the three sites in the undisturbed mangrove creek system. In addition, multivariate analyses showed that the structure of fish assemblages varied between forested and clear-cut sites within the two disturbed creeks, but not within the undisturbed creek. Across the season, we found no significant differences except for a tendency of a minor increase in fish densities during the rainy season. At least 75% of the fishes were juveniles and of commercial interest for coastal fisheries and/or aquaculture. Mugil cephalus, Gerres oyena and Chanos chanos were the most abundant species in the forested sites. The dominant species in the clear-cut areas were M. cephalus and Elops machnata, which were both found in relatively low abundances compared to the undisturbed areas. The conversion of mangrove forests into solar salt farms not only altered fish assemblage composition, but also water and sediment conditions. In comparison with undisturbed areas, the clear-cut sites showed higher salinity, water temperature as well as organic matter and chlorophyll a in the sediments. Our results suggest that mangrove habitat loss and changes in environmental conditions caused by salt farm developments will decrease fish densities, biomass and species numbers as well as alter the overall fish assemblage composition in the salt farm area but not downstream in the creek.

  17. Microtexture and distribution of minerals in hydrothermal Barite-Silica chimney from the Franklin seamount, SW Pacific: Constraints on mode of formation.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ray, D.; Kota, D.; Das, P.; SuryaPrakash, L.; Khedekar, V.D.; Paropkari, A.L.; Mudholkar, A.V.

    2014-01-01

    chimney show significant disparity in color, mineral assemblage and major element composition. Electron microscope (SEM) images reveal that the peripheral wall of the chimney is composed of colloform silica, suggesting that incipient precipitation...

  18. Feasibility of utilising solar-induced ventilation in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility of applying solar-induced ventilation in a typical Malaysian house measuring 3 m high x wide x 5 m deep was considered based on experimental results obtained from a laboratory-scale model. A wall-type solar chimney was considered. The design of the solar chimney incorporated providing a glass panel alongside a vertical wall of a building. Openings at the top and bottom of the wall allowed fresh air to be introduced into the building. Simulations obtained from a simple theoretical model showed that the solar chimney was able to induce air flow rates of between 640 to 1040 m3 h-1 with a 0.3 m air gap. These ventilation rates are found to be in compliance with codes specified by ASHRAE and the Uniform Building By-laws. Full scale studies would need to be conducted in order to evaluate its effectiveness especially the flow pattern in the room

  19. Structural Integrity Evaluation of an New In-Chimney Bracket Structures for HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In HANARO are there provided three hexagonal irradiation holes (CT, IR1 and IR2) in the central region of the core while four circular irradiation holes (OR3 ? OR6) in the outer core. There exist two types of irradiation facilities: uninstrumented or instrumented. The uninstrumented irradiation facility is little influenced by the coolant flow. But the dynamic behavior by the flow-induced vibration (FIV) and seismic loads is expected to largely occur in case of the instrumented test facility due to the long guide tube to protect the instrumentation cables. To suppress this dynamic behavior of the facility, the in-chimney bracket was designed. As a supplementary supporting structure for irradiation facility, this bracket will hold guide tubes whose holding position of the instrumented facility in CT or IR is the middle part of the instrumented facility between the hole spider and the robot arm already provided in the reactor pool liner. On the while, the bracket will grip the upper part of the guide tube when it is applied to hold the instrumented facility loaded in OR sites. Therefore it is believed that the irradiation test can be successfully conducted since this bracket can reduce the FIV and dynamic response to seismic load as well. In new in-chimney bracket, IR1 is reserved for IPS(In-Pile Section) so only CT/IR2 guide tubes are supported by CT/IR clamp units and the shape of In-chimney bracket is redesigned. For evaluating the structural integrity on the new in-chimney bracket and related reactor structures, ANSYS finite element analysis model is developed and the dynamic characteristics are analyzed. The seismic response analyses of new in-chimney bracket and related reactor structures of HANARO under the design earthquake response spectrum loads of OBE(0.1g) and SSE(0.2g) are performed. The response shows that the stress values for main points on the reactor structures and the new in-chimney bracket for seismic loads are within the ASME Code limits. It is also confirmed that the fatigue usage factor is much less than 1.0. Therefore any damage on structural integrity is not expected when a new in-chimney bracket is installed in the upper part of the reactor chimney

  20. Use of chemical explosives for emergency solar flare shelter construction and other excavations on the Martian surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The necessity to shelter people on the Martian surface from solar flare particles at short notice and the need for long-term habitats with thick cosmic ray shielding suggests that explosives could be used effectively for excavation of such structures. Modern insensitive high explosives are safe, efficient, and reliable for rock breakage and excavation. Extensive Earth-bound experience leads us to propose several strategies for explosively-constructed shelters based on tunneling, cratering, and rock casting techniques

  1. A numerical study of flow and mixing characteristics inside the chimney structure of a pool type research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Turbulent mixing of two opposing flows inside a chimney structure was studied. ? Numerical simulation was done for full scale prototype and 1/6th scaled down model. ? Increase in upward flow decreases the stagnation depth. ? Increase in downward flow increases the stagnation depth. ? Temperature difference between flows has marginal effect on stagnation depth. -- Abstract: Numerical studies were performed to examine the effects of flow velocities of opposing streams on the flow pattern and turbulent mixing characteristics in a three-dimensional chimney structure using CFD code PHOENICS. This chimney structure facilitates guiding of the radioactive water from the reactor core (i.e., core flow) towards the side outlet nozzles and simultaneously drawing out water from the reactor pool through the chimney top. The radioactive water flows upward and has a tendency to reach to the pool top through the chimney top which is open for fuel and isotope handling. The chimney design allows drawing out a part of the pool water in the downward direction to suppress the upward flowing radioactive water jet. This downward flow through the chimney is compensated by providing additional core bypass flow to the pool. Analyses were carried out on 1:1 chimney structure and also on 1/6th scaled down chimney model to understand the similarity of behaviour of the model and the prototype. Mass flow rate of upward flowing water (i.e. core flow) is considered to be 750 kgflow) is considered to be 750 kg/s and core bypass flow is varied from 0% to 15% that of the core flow. In the model study, mass flow rate was varied from 8.33 to 25 kg/s and core bypass flow was considered to vary from 0% to 15%. Flow mixing pattern inside the chimney and the non-dimensional stagnation depth was predicted for the model and the prototype. It was observed that there is a good similarity in behaviour of the prototype and model.

  2. Plastic Solar Cells: A Multidisciplinary Field to Construct Chemical Concepts from Current Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Rafael; Segura, Jose L.

    2007-01-01

    Examples of plastic solar-cell technology to illustrate core concepts in chemistry are presented. The principles of operations of a plastic solar cell could be used to introduce key concepts, which are fundamentally important to understand photosynthesis and the basic process that govern most novel optoelectronic devices.

  3. Solar Energy School Heating Augmentation Experiment. Design, Construction and Initial Operation. A Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    InterTechnology Corp., Warrenton, VA.

    This report describes an experimental solar heating system, complete with thermal storage and controls, that has met all the heating requirements of five detached classrooms of the Fauquier High School in Warrenton, Virginia. The objectives of the experiment were to (1) demonstrate that solar energy can be used to provide a substantial part of the…

  4. Improved solar models constructed with a formulation of convection for stellar structure and evolution calculations without the mixing-length theory approximations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydon, Thomas J.; Fox, Peter A.; Sofia, Sabatino

    1993-01-01

    We have updated a previous attempt to incorporate within a solar model a treatment of convection based upon numerical simulations of convection rather than mixing-length theory (MLT). We have modified our formulation of convection for a better treatment of the kinetic energy flux. Our solar model has been updated to include a complete range of OPAL opacities, the Debye-Hueckel correction to the equation of state, helium diffusion due to gravitational settling, and atmospheres by Kurucz. We construct a series of models using both MLT and our revised formulation of convection and the compared results to measurements of the solar radius, the solar luminosity, and the depth of the solar convection zone as inferred from helioseismology. We find X(solar) = 0.702 +/- 0.005, Y(solar) = 0.278 +/- 0.005, and Z(solar) = 0.0193 +/- 0.0005.

  5. Nonlinear mushy-layer convection with chimneys: stability and optimal solute fluxes

    CERN Document Server

    Wells, Andrew J; Orszag, Steven A

    2012-01-01

    We model buoyancy-driven convection with chimneys -- channels of zero solid fraction -- in a mushy layer formed during directional solidification of a binary alloy in two-dimensions. A large suite of numerical simulations is combined with scaling analysis in order to study the parametric dependence of the flow. Stability boundaries are calculated for states of finite-amplitude convection with chimneys, which for a narrow domain can be interpreted in terms of a modified Rayleigh number criterion based on the domain width and mushy-layer permeability. For solidification in a wide domain with multiple chimneys, it has previously been hypothesised that the chimney spacing will adjust to optimise the rate of removal of potential energy from the system. For a wide variety of initial liquid concentration conditions, we consider the detailed flow structure in this optimal state and derive scaling laws for how the flow evolves as the strength of convection increases. For moderate mushy-layer Rayleigh numbers these flo...

  6. Diagnostics of a 177 m high RC- chimney using wind excited vibration.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pirner, Miroš; Fischer, Ond?ej

    Eindhoven : UT Eindhoven, 2001 - (Wisse, J.; Kleinman, K.), s. 271-276 ISBN 90-6814-121-X. [European and African conference on Wind Engineering /3./. Eindhoven (NL), 02.07.2001-06.07.2001] R&D Projects: GA ?R GV103/96/K034 Keywords : vibration , cracks, chimney. Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering

  7. Design, construction and test run of a two-tonne capacity solar rice dryer with rice-husk-fired auxiliary heater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design and construction details of a two-tonne per batch capacity natural-circulation solar rice dryer and the highlights of the design of its rice-husk-fired auxiliary heating system which is still under construction are presented. The dryer measures approximately 17.7m long by 9.8m wide by 6m high. Preliminary results of a test run on the solar dryer section only is reported. (author). 5 refs, 3 figs

  8. Experimental investigation and construction of PV solar tracker control system using image processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    morteza taki

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The sun tracking system of a solar panel based on computer image processing of a shadow is investigated. This is done by using a camera to obtain the picture of a shadow on a screen by solar panel displacements. This system is independent respect to geographical location of the solar panel and periodical alignments such as daily or monthly regulations. The collected energy was measured and compared with that on a fixed surface tilted at towards the South. The results indicate that the measured collected solar energy on the moving surface was significantly larger (up to 46.77% compared with the fixed surface. The tracking system developed in this study provides easy installation, simple mechanism and less maintenance. Furthermore, the operation of the system is independent respect to the initial configuration and the start time situation.

  9. Solar project description for Design Construction Association single family dwelling, Big Fork, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-01

    A solar energy system was installed in a 2100 sq ft house located in Big Fork, Montana. The system is designed to provide solar energy for heating and domestic hot water. Solar energy is collected by flat plate collectors with a gross area of 792 square feet. The collector banks are mounted on the roof of the house and face due south at an angle of 45 deg to the horizontal optimizing solar energy collection. Solar energy is transferred from the collector array to a 1500 gallon storage tank. Water is used as the heat collection, transfer and storage medium. Freeze protection is provided by use of a drain down system. Space heating demands are met by circulating hot water from storage through baseboard units in the distribution system of the house. Auxiliary space heating is provided by an electrical heating element in the boiler. Similarly, an electrical heating element in the DHW tank provides energy for water heating. The dwelling was fully instrumented for performance evaluation since October 1977 and the data is integrated into the National Solar Data Network.

  10. Ant mound as an optimal shape in constructal design: solar irradiation and circadian brood/fungi-warming sorties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasimova, R G; Tishin, D; Obnosov, Yu V; Dlussky, G M; Baksht, F B; Kacimov, A R

    2014-08-21

    Sizes, shapes, ambient and in-dome temperature, incoming solar radiation and illumination are measured on a Formica rufa anthill in a mixed forest of the Volga-Kama National Reserve in Russia. These data are used in a conceptual model of insolation of a right conical surface by direct-beam, descending atmospheric and ascending ground-reflected radiation. Unlike a standard calculation of the energy flux intercepted by a solar panel, the anthill is a 3-D structure and double-integration of the cosine of the angle between the solar beams and normal to the surface is carried out for a "cozy trapezium", where the insects expose themselves and the brood to "morning" sunbathing pulses (Jones and Oldroyd, 2007). Several constructal design problems are formulated with the criteria involving either a pure solar energy gained by the dome or this energy, as a mathematical criterion, penalized by additive terms of mechanical energy (potential and friction) lost by the ants in their diurnal forays from a "heartland" of the nest to the sun-basking zone on the surface. The unique and global optima are analytically found, with the optimal tilt angle of the cone explicitly expressed through the zenith angle of the Sun and meteorological constants for the isotropic sky model. PMID:24681404

  11. Design and Construction of a Solar Observatory in a Liberal Arts Environment: Austin College’s Gnomon and Meridian Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, David; Salisbury, D.

    2014-01-01

    Austin College’s indoor solar observatory is one of the most distinctive features in its new IDEA Center science building. Patterned after 16th and 17th century solar observatories in European cathedrals, the IDEA Center solar facility will be used extensively for public events, introductory astronomy courses, and reproductions of important historical scientific measurements. A circular aperture, or gnomon hole, on the roof with diameter 32 mm allows a beam of sunlight to trace a path across the atrium floor 15.37 meters below. At local solar noon, the Sun’s image falls directly on a brass meridian line. Special markers for solstices and equinoxes highlight western, eastern, and indigenous cultural contributions to astronomy: Macedonian symbol of the Sun marks summer solstice, Chinese Sun symbol showcases the equinoxes, and the Mayan symbol of the Sun celebrates winter solstice. The location directly beneath the gnomon hole is marked by the universal scientific symbol of the Sun. Direct solar measurements and mathematical models were used in design and implementation of the meridian line. During IDEA Center building construction in Fall 2012, undergraduate students measured the Sun’s position at various times. The finished floor was set in February 2013, well before a full year’s worth of measurements could be recorded. A mathematical model including the effects of aperture size and atmospheric refraction was needed to predict the size and location of the Sun on the meridian line throughout the year. Confirmation of the meridian line occurred on Summer Solstice 2013 when the Sun’s image precisely hit the Macedonian marker at the correct time.

  12. Constructing a One-solar-mass Evolutionary Sequence Using Asteroseismic Data from Kepler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva Aguirre, V.; Chaplin, W.J.

    2011-01-01

    Asteroseismology of solar-type stars has entered a new era of large surveys with the success of the NASA Kepler mission, which is providing exquisite data on oscillations of stars across the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. From the time-series photometry, the two seismic parameters that can be most readily extracted are the large frequency separation (??) and the frequency of maximum oscillation power (?max). After the survey phase, these quantities are available for hundreds of solar-type stars. By scaling from solar values, we use these two asteroseismic observables to identify for the first time an evolutionary sequence of 1 M sun field stars, without the need for further information from stellar models. Comparison of our determinations with the few available spectroscopic results shows an excellent level of agreement. We discuss the potential of the method for differential analysis throughout the main-sequence evolution and the possibility of detecting twins of very well-known stars.

  13. Design, construction and operation of spherical solar cooker with automatic sun tracking system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, the effect of two axes tracking on a solar cooking system was studied. A dish was built to concentrate solar radiation on a pan that is fixed at the focus of the dish. The dish tracks the sun using a two axes sun tracking system. This system was built and tested. Experimental results obtained show that the temperature inside the pan reached more than 93 oC in a day where the maximum ambient temperature was 32 oC. This temperature is suitable for cooking purposes and this was achieved by using the two axes sun tracking system.

  14. Development of 400 F sealants for flat plate solar collector construction and installation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, L.; Schubert, R. J.

    1980-03-01

    Twenty candidate sealants representing ten different polymer types were evaluated as potential solar collector sealants. Polymer types tested included epichlorohydrin rubber, EPDM rubber, silicone, polysulfide, acrylate rubber, and a fluoroelastomer. Initial screening of sealants consisted of measuring high temperature stability and adhesion retention. Several sealant compositions exhibited satisfactory performance in these tests and were selected for further evaluation. These materials were based on an EPDM rubber, a Viton fluoroelastomer, and silicone polymers. Further testing of these candidate materials included determination of adhesion retention under uv/water/heat conditions, fogging temperature, low temperature flexibility, and physical properties. Four silicone-based materials appeared to be suitable candidates for sealing solar collectors.

  15. Solar thermal utilization--an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solar energy is an ideal renewable energy source and its thermal utilization is one of its most important applications. We review the status of solar thermal utilization, including: (1) developed technologies which are already widely used all over the world, such as solar assisted water heaters, solar cookers, solar heated buildings and so on; (2) advanced technologies which are still in the development or laboratory stage and could have more innovative applications, including thermal power generation, refrigeration, hydrogen production, desalination, and chimneys; (3) major problems which need to be resolved for advanced utilizaiton of solar thermal energy. (authors)

  16. Iron-sulfide-bearing chimneys as potential catalytic energy traps at life's emergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, Randall E; Robinson, Kirtland J; White, Lauren M; McGlynn, Shawn E; McEachern, Kavan; Bhartia, Rohit; Kanik, Isik; Russell, Michael J

    2011-12-01

    The concept that life emerged where alkaline hydrogen-bearing submarine hot springs exhaled into the most ancient acidulous ocean was used as a working hypothesis to investigate the nature of precipitate membranes. Alkaline solutions at 25-70°C and pH between 8 and 12, bearing HS(-)±silicate, were injected slowly into visi-jars containing ferrous chloride to partially simulate the early ocean on this or any other wet and icy, geologically active rocky world. Dependent on pH and sulfide content, fine tubular chimneys and geodal bubbles were generated with semipermeable walls 4-100??m thick that comprised radial platelets of nanometric mackinawite [FeS]±ferrous hydroxide [?Fe(OH)(2)], accompanied by silica and, at the higher temperature, greigite [Fe(3)S(4)]. Within the chimney walls, these platelets define a myriad of micropores. The interior walls of the chimneys host iron sulfide framboids, while, in cases where the alkaline solution has a pH>11 or relatively low sulfide content, their exteriors exhibit radial flanges with a spacing of ?4??m that comprise microdendrites of ferrous hydroxide. We speculate that this pattern results from outward and inward radial flow through the chimney walls. The outer Fe(OH)(2) flanges perhaps precipitate where the highly alkaline flow meets the ambient ferrous iron-bearing fluid, while the intervening troughs signal where the acidulous iron-bearing solutions could gain access to the sulfidic and alkaline interior of the chimneys, thereby leading to the precipitation of the framboids. Addition of soluble pentameric peptides enhances membrane durability and accentuates the crenulations on the chimney exteriors. These dynamic patterns may have implications for acid-base catalysis and the natural proton motive force acting through the matrix of the porous inorganic membrane. Thus, within such membranes, steep redox and pH gradients would bear across the nanometric platelets and separate the two counter-flowing solutions, a condition that may have led to the onset of an autotrophic metabolism through the reduction of carbon dioxide. PMID:22111762

  17. Survey of new forms of organization and financing constructions in the Dutch solar electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the title project the focus is on organizations and projects in the Dutch market for solar electricity, characterized by: minimal dependence on subsidies (state aid), the removal of high initial investments by users (financing), and structures that can easily be extended or replicated (scale)

  18. Constructing a one-solar-mass evolutionary sequence using asteroseismic data from \\textit{Kepler}

    CERN Document Server

    Aguirre, V Silva; Ballot, J; Basu, S; Bedding, T R; Serenelli, A M; Verner, G A; Miglio, A; Monteiro, M J P F G; Weiss, A; Appourchaux, T; Bonanno, A; Broomhall, A M; Bruntt, H; Campante, T L; Casagrande, L; Corsaro, E; Elsworth, Y; Garcia, R A; Gaulme, P; Handberg, R; Hekker, S; Huber, D; Karoff, C; Mathur, S; Mosser, B; Salabert, D; Schonrich, R; Sousa, S G; Stello, D; White, T R; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J; Gilliland, R L; Kawaler, S D; Kjeldsen, H; Houdek, G; Metcalfe, T S; Molenda-Zakowicz, J; Thompson, M J; Caldwell, D A; Christiansen, J L; Wohler, B

    2011-01-01

    Asteroseismology of solar-type stars has entered a new era of large surveys with the success of the NASA \\textit{Kepler} mission, which is providing exquisite data on oscillations of stars across the Hertzprung-Russell (HR) diagram. From the time-series photometry, the two seismic parameters that can be most readily extracted are the large frequency separation ($\\Delta\

  19. Solar Cookers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Richard C.

    1981-01-01

    Describes the use of solar cookers in the science classroom. Includes instructions for construction of a solar cooker, an explanation of how solar cookers work, and a number of suggested activities. (DS)

  20. Designing, Construction and Analysis of Speed Control System of the Fan with PV Feeding Source in an Air Solar Collector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hematian

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy is one of the renewable energy sources which can be received more by designing more accurate systems. In this article a flat solar collector with the area of 2×1m2 and thickness of 0.5mm, made of steel iron in the form of venetian blinds (in order to increase exposure to air has been used. The surface of absorber plate was black and for insulation of the body of the collector glass wool has been used with 5 cm thickness. One of the essential problems of air solar collectors is that the temperature of the exiting air temperature from the collector is variable during the day and their efficiency is low in the last hours of the day and also when the weather suddenly gets cloudy .In this study, to keep constant the exiting air from the collector consistent in the desired limits, a control system is designed and constructed by applying photovoltaic cells, a microcontroller (AVR and temperature sensors (LM35. Three temperature sensors were installed in the exit of the collector .The experiment results showed that by automatic change of the fan's speed in the designed system, the exiting temperature of the collector was obtained in the desired limits which is an outstanding advantage for various applications.

  1. A unique Fe-rich carbonate chimney associated with cold seeps in the Northern Okinawa Trough, East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhilei; Wei, Helong; Zhang, Xunhua; Shang, Luning; Yin, Xijie; Sun, Yunbao; Xu, Lei; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Xianrong

    2015-01-01

    The East China Sea is an important marginal sea of the Western Pacific Ocean, from which natural gas hydrate sample has not been acquired so far. Recently, copious carbonate chimneys have been discovered in turbidite deposits in the olistostrome zone located on the west slope of the northern section of Okinawa Trough. Here, the petrology, geochemistry and chronology of an iron-rich carbonate chimney were characterized, confirming a close relationship between its formation and the dissociation of natural gas hydrate beneath the chimney in OT. A distinctive relationship has been observed between goethite and total carbonate contents along with a negative correlation between Fe and Ca contents. Conversely, abundant Fe accumulated on carbonate substrate by mineralized microorganisms. The ?13C values of the chimney wall were from -27.56 to -43.66‰ (average: -37.18‰, V-PDB), implying anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) as a predominant controlling factor on carbonate precipitation. As no pyrite and organic residues were identified in the iron-rich chimney, it was assumed that AOM was coupled to the iron reduction reaction at least to some extent during the chimney growth owing to the local deficiency of sulfate supply. The ?56Fe values of bulk chimney wall (ranging from -0.316‰ to -0.023‰, average -0.134‰) suggest mass and isotope exchanges between the chimney and ambient environment during its growth history, whereas the enrichment of ?18O of the carbonate implies these carbonate sourcing from hydrate dissociation underlying our sampling site. This assumption has been supported by a distinct bottom simulation reflector (BSR) and a well-developed fault system beneath the sampling site. This is the first report of cold seepage inside the OT and the identified iron-dependent AOM has shed a new light to the Carbon cycle related to the marine methane oxidation, particularly before the Great Oxidation Event ~2.45 Ga ago.

  2. SOLAR POWER PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KALMÁR Ferenc

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The electrical energy import-export balance of Hungary is negative. The renewable energy sources will not solve the power supply of the country but there are cases when these systems offer an optimal solution for energy supply of special establishments. This paper presents the possibilities of power production using solar energy. The efficiency of power production using different systems is analysed taking into consideration the Hungarian climate and design parameters. Different solutions of power plant conception are presented comparing the efficiency of power production process. Beside the well known photovoltaic systems, the solar trough, the solar dish/engine system, the solar power tower, the solar chimney, the solar lake is presented.

  3. Scientific and Cost Effective Monitoring: The Case of an Aerial Insectivore, the Chimney Swift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Rioux

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The increased pace of species listing worldwide, coupled with the scarcity of conservation funding, promote the use of targeted monitoring. We applied the recommendations of Nichols and Williams (Trends in Ecology and Evolution 2006 24:668-673 to optimize the Québec Chimney Swift Monitoring Program, an ongoing volunteer-based monitoring initiative launched in 1998. Past objectives of the program were to fill knowledge gaps about occupancy patterns at roosts sites, determine spatial and temporal distribution of Chimney Swifts (Chaetura pelagica across the province, locate active nest sites, and monitor temporal fluctuations of the population. By applying an adaptive management framework, we modified the current monitoring scheme into a more focused initiative testing newly developed hypotheses about the state of the system. This new approach yielded significant scientific gains as well as annual savings of 19.6%. It may prove pertinent to current and future swift monitoring initiatives and to other aerial insectivore species.

  4. Barometric pressure transient testing applications at the Nevada Test Site. Nuclear chimney analysis. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations of barometric pressure testing of NTS nuclear chimneys were reviewed. This review includes the models used in the interpretation, methods of analysis, and results. Analytic and semi-analytic models were presented and applied to both historical data and new data taken for this current project. An interpretation technique based on non-linear least squares methods was used to analyze this data in terms of historic and more recent chimney models. Finally, a detailed discussion of radioactive gas transport due to surface barometric pressure fluctuations was presented. This mechanism of transport, referred to as ''barometric pumping,'' is presented in terms of conditions likely to be encountered at the NTS. The report concludes with a discussion of the current understanding of gas flow properties in the alluvial and volcanic areas of the NTS, and suggestions for future efforts directed toward increasing this understanding are presented

  5. Barometric pressure transient testing applications at the Nevada Test Site. Nuclear chimney analysis. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, J.M.

    1985-12-01

    Investigations of barometric pressure testing of NTS nuclear chimneys were reviewed. This review includes the models used in the interpretation, methods of analysis, and results. Analytic and semi-analytic models were presented and applied to both historical data and new data taken for this current project. An interpretation technique based on non-linear least squares methods was used to analyze this data in terms of historic and more recent chimney models. Finally, a detailed discussion of radioactive gas transport due to surface barometric pressure fluctuations was presented. This mechanism of transport, referred to as ''barometric pumping,'' is presented in terms of conditions likely to be encountered at the NTS. The report concludes with a discussion of the current understanding of gas flow properties in the alluvial and volcanic areas of the NTS, and suggestions for future efforts directed toward increasing this understanding are presented.

  6. Active reduction of the dominant clear tone component of the noise pollution from power plant chimneys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation of a system for active reduction of an irritating dominant clear tone emitted as a part of the noise pollution from a power plant chimney is described. Experiments were carried out on a scale model with diameters 3-4 times less than the actual chimney. Reduction of 25-30 decibels was achieved in relation to the clear tone in the frequency range in connection with which it could be expected that the noise-muffling system would work. The system was also seen to be able to follow the expected variation in the noise signals and to be stable during a longer period of time. The theories on which the experiment was based, the experimental setup and measurement methods and results are presented. (AB)

  7. Microbial Sulfur Cycle in Two Hydrothermal Chimneys on the Southwest Indian Ridge

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Huiluo; Wang, Yong; Lee, On On; Zeng, Xiang; Shao, Zongze; Qian, Pei-yuan

    2014-01-01

    Sulfur is an important element in sustaining microbial communities present in hydrothermal vents. Sulfur oxidation has been extensively studied due to its importance in chemosynthetic pathways in hydrothermal fields; however, less is known about sulfate reduction. Here, the metagenomes of hydrothermal chimneys located on the ultraslow-spreading Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR) were pyrosequenced to elucidate the associated microbial sulfur cycle. A taxonomic summary of known genes revealed a few...

  8. Endovascular repair of an aortic arch pseudoaneurysm with double chimney stent grafts: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Weimin; Zhou, Wei; Qiu, Jiehua

    2013-01-01

    Aortic arch pseudoaneurysm is a rare condition but carries a high risk of rupture. We report a case of a 45-year-old man with aortic arch pseudoaneurysm between left common carotid artery (LCCA) and left subclavian artery (LSA), in which a endovascular stent graft combined with double chimneys covered stents were successfully placed. There were no any complaints and complications after 12?months follow-up. The CTA demonstrated thrombus formation in the pseudoaneurysm lumen, no endoleak and ...

  9. Analysis Study of Solar Tower Power Plant & Its Configuration Effects on Its Performance in Iraq (Baghdad City)

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed H. Ali

    2013-01-01

    A solar chimney power plant model, consisting of a solar collector to produce a hot air when the incident solar radiation hit it, a solar chimney and a wind turbine with generator was investigated in this study. The mathematical model as a tool was used to study and analyze the performance of the power plant for electrical production in Baghdad city of Iraq as a result a mathematical equation was obtained for the hot air outlet temperature from the collector as a function of collector’s are...

  10. The application of masonry chimney venting tables for oil-fired appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krajewski, R.F.; Strasser, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-04-01

    This paper presents an overview of the results of work in developing a set of rational guidelines for the venting of modern oil-fired appliances. The activities included the continued development and completion of the Oil-Heat Vent Analysis Program (OHVAP), Version 1.0 and the interpretation of nearly 2,000 runs in preparing recommendations for presentation in table form. These results are presented in the form of venting tables for the installation of chimney vent systems for mid- and high-efficiency oil-fired heating appliances using masonry chimneys. A brief description of OHVAP is given as well as a discussion of what the program does. Recommendations based on the results of OHVAP are presented in the form of five tables spanning oil-fired appliance Steady state Efficiencies (Eff{sub ss}) of 80% to 88%. The assumptions used in the calculations and examples of the computed results are presented as well as a discussion of the rationale for masonry chimney system treatment. Working examples are given with suggested diagnostic approaches for application of the table recommendations.

  11. Biogeochemical insights into microbe-mineral-fluid interactions in hydrothermal chimneys using enrichment culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callac, Nolwenn; Rouxel, Olivier; Lesongeur, Françoise; Liorzou, Céline; Bollinger, Claire; Pignet, Patricia; Chéron, Sandrine; Fouquet, Yves; Rommevaux-Jestin, Céline; Godfroy, Anne

    2015-05-01

    Active hydrothermal chimneys host diverse microbial communities exhibiting various metabolisms including those involved in various biogeochemical cycles. To investigate microbe-mineral-fluid interactions in hydrothermal chimney and the driver of microbial diversity, a cultural approach using a gas-lift bioreactor was chosen. An enrichment culture was performed using crushed active chimney sample as inoculum and diluted hydrothermal fluid from the same vent as culture medium. Daily sampling provided time-series access to active microbial diversity and medium composition. Active archaeal and bacterial communities consisted mainly of sulfur, sulfate and iron reducers and hydrogen oxidizers with the detection of Thermococcus, Archaeoglobus, Geoglobus, Sulfurimonas and Thermotoga sequences. The simultaneous presence of active Geoglobus sp. and Archaeoglobus sp. argues against competition for available carbon sources and electron donors between sulfate and iron reducers at high temperature. This approach allowed the cultivation of microbial populations that were under-represented in the initial environmental sample. The microbial communities are heterogeneously distributed within the gas-lift bioreactor; it is unlikely that bulk mineralogy or fluid chemistry is the drivers of microbial community structure. Instead, we propose that micro-environmental niche characteristics, created by the interaction between the mineral grains and the fluid chemistry, are the main drivers of microbial diversity in natural systems. PMID:25778451

  12. The design, construction, and monitoring of photovoltaic power system and solar thermal system on the Georgia Institute of Technology Aquatic Center. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, R.C.

    1996-12-31

    This is a report on the feasibility study, design, and construction of a PV and solar thermal system for the Georgia Tech Aquatic Center. The topics of the report include a discussion of site selection and system selection, funding, design alternatives, PV module selection, final design, and project costs. Included are appendices describing the solar thermal system, the SAC entrance canopy PV mockup, and the PV feasibility study.

  13. Optical and structural characterization od titanium dioxide films used for construction of dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dye-sensitized solar cells are the most serious concept that could replace the silicon solar cells. These are low-cost photovoltaic, and represent a technology which could seriously decrease the cost of the electrical energy they produce. The dye-sensitized solar cells are composed of several layers of materials that belong to the group of inorganic semiconductors. For the efficiency improvement of these cells, there are two basic concepts of research regarding the construction materials. On one side, investigation of new materials that will, as a result of their physical and electrochemical characteristics, increase the cell efficiency, and on the other side, use of materials that will contribute to the long term stability of the cell in atmospheric conditions. As a part of this Master thesis, compact and meso porous Ti(>2 films for dye- sensitized solar cells have been prepared. The compact Ti02 films were deposited with the technique of spray pyrolysis, and the preparation of the meso porous films was made with a blade casting technique. The optical and structural analysis and characterization of the films was done with optical spectroscopy in the visible and ultraviolet spectral region (UV- Vis), Raman spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The crystal structure of the films, surface uniformity, thickness and grain size dependence on the deposition parameters was investigated, this led to calculation of the optical constants for the compact films, as well as the determination of the electron transitions and the determination of the bang gap energy. Also regarding the structure and porosity of the meso porous films, characterization of the quality of the film depending on the chemical composition of the paste used for deposition was made. As a result of the preformed investigations, through defining the structural and optical parameters of quality compact and meso porous TiC>2 films for dye-sensitized solar cells, the optimal parameters for film deposition have been identified, establishing a straightforward and simple process for deposition of quality TiC>2 films with spray pyrolysis and blade casting. (Author)

  14. High Efficiency Quantum Well Waveguide Solar Cells and Methods for Constructing the Same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welser, Roger E. (Inventor); Sood, Ashok K. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Photon absorption, and thus current generation, is hindered in conventional thin-film solar cell designs, including quantum well structures, by the limited path length of incident light passing vertically through the device. Optical scattering into lateral waveguide structures provides a physical mechanism to increase photocurrent generation through in-plane light trapping. However, the insertion of wells of high refractive index material with lower energy gap into the device structure often results in lower voltage operation, and hence lower photovoltaic power conversion efficiency. The voltage output of an InGaAs quantum well waveguide photovoltaic device can be increased by employing a III-V material structure with an extended wide band gap emitter heterojunction. Analysis of the light IV characteristics reveals that non-radiative recombination components of the underlying dark diode current have been reduced, exposing the limiting radiative recombination component and providing a pathway for realizing solar-electric conversion efficiency of 30% or more in single junction cells.

  15. A Contemporary Analysis of the O'Neill-Glaser Model for Space-Based Solar Power and Habitat Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curreri, Peter A.; Detweiler, Michael K.

    2011-01-01

    In 1975 Gerard O Neill published in the journal Science a model for the construction of solar power satellites. He found that the solar power satellites suggested by Peter Glaser would be too massive to launch economically from Earth, but could be financially viable if the workforce was permanently located in free space habitats and if lunar and asteroid materials were used for construction. All new worldwide electrical generating capacity could be then achieved by solar power satellites. The project would financially break even in about 20 years after which it would generate substantial income selling power below fossil fuel prices. Two NASA / Stanford University led studies at Ames Research center during the summers of 1974 and 1976 found the concept technically sound and developed a detailed financial parametric model. Although the project was not undertaken when suggested in the 1970s, several contemporary issues make pursuing the O Neill -- Glaser concept more compelling today. First, our analysis suggests that if in the first ten years of construction that small habitats (compared to the large vista habitats envisioned by O Neill) supporting approximately 300 people were utilized, development costs of the program and the time for financial break even could be substantially improved. Second, the contemporary consensus is developing that carbon free energy is required to mitigate global climate change. It is estimated that 300 GW of new carbon free energy would be necessary per year to stabilize global atmospheric carbon. This is about 4 times greater energy demand than was considered by the O Neill Glaser model. Our analysis suggests that after the initial investments in lunar mining and space manufacturing and transportation, that the profit margin for producing space solar power is very high (even when selling power below fossil fuel prices). We have investigated the financial scaling of ground launched versus space derived space solar power satellites. We find that for the carbon mitigation case even modernized ground launched space solar power satellites are not financially viable. For space derived solar power satellites, however, the increased demand makes them break even substantially sooner and yield much higher profit. Third, current awareness is increasing about the dangers of humanity remaining a single planet species. Our technological power has been increasing relative to the size of the planet Earth. Since the middle of the 20th century our technological power has grown large relative to our planet's size. This presents a very real potential for human self-extinction. We argue that the potential for human self-extinction is increasing with time in proportion to the exponential growth of our technological power making self-extinction likely within this century if humanity remains a single planet species. The O Neill model of multiple independent free space habitats, it is argued, can protect humanity from extinction in the same way that portfolio diversification protects ones assets from total loss. We show that about 1 million people for the electricity only case, and about 1 billion people for the carbon mitigation case, can be provided with permanent space habitats and transportation from Earth in 30 years and can be funded by the space derived solar power satellite program. 1.2 Scope of this Chapter The goal of this chapter is to illustrate the power and importance of the O'Neill-Glaser concept in the context of human survival and maintaining a healthy planet Earth. We argue that at this point in human history our technological power is too dangerous to our selves and our home planet for us not to expand into space. We show by the models presented in the chapter that the imminent dangers of global warming and human self-extinction mandate that humanity move aggressively into the solar system in this generation. We show that the production of solar power satellites using space resources and with a work foe living in space provides a viable financial model to mitigate CO2 preventing the worst global w

  16. 75 FR 2133 - Construction and Operation of the Quartzsite Solar Energy Project, La Paz County, AZ (DOE/EIS-0440)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-14

    ...and Operation of the Quartzsite Solar Energy Project, La Paz County, AZ...EIS) for the proposed Quartzsite Solar Energy Project (Project) in La Paz County...Quartzsite, Arizona. Quartzsite Solar Energy, LLC (QSE) has applied to...

  17. Solar chimney: A sustainable approach for ventilation and building space conditioning

    OpenAIRE

    Lal, S.; Kaushik, S.C.; Bhargav, P.K.

    2013-01-01

    The residential and commercial buildings demand increase with rapidly growing population. It leads to the vertical growth of the buildings and needs proper ventilation and day-lighting. The natural air ventilation system is not significantly works in conventional structure, so fans and air conditioners are mandatory to meet the proper ventilation and space conditioning. Globally building sector consumed largest energy and utmost consumed in heating, ventilation and space conditioning. This lo...

  18. Design and Construction of Variable DC Source for Laboratory Using Solar Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hnin Mar Wai

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to design and construct variable DC power supply for laboratory using switch mode DC to DC converter. The regulated power of a variable output voltage ranging is from 0 to 36 V with a maximum output current of 3A is presented in this paper. This variable DC power supply is based on the step-down and step-up output voltage process which use both buck and boost converter topologies. A switching converter comprise of capacitors, an inductor, a diode and a switch. DC power supply is an essential device for most of electrical circuits and engineering students. The benefits of this design are; reduce size, less expensive and energy save. In this design, a microcontroller is used to control output voltage for precise and stability. The output voltage and duty cycle is displayed with LCD display.

  19. Improvement of the Vertical Dispersion of Pollutants Resulting From Chimneys by Thermosiphon Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O.M. Mahmoud

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The dispersion of pollutants, resulting from industrial chimneys, in the surrounding atmosphere made the interest in realizing emitting conditions appears. It also encourages the vertical dispersion of these pollutants. At a given wind velocity, the height of this dispersion is essentially a function of the thermal power and the flow rate at the chimney exit. To improve these qualities, we propose a system that could be integrated to the industrial chimney exit. An open-ended vertical cylinder of larger diameter essentially constitutes this system. In order to determine the characteristics of the resulting flow, we simulated the problem in the laboratory while studying the evolution of a free thermal plume generated by a disk heated uniformly by the Joule effect at a constant temperature. The thermal plume expands in a quiet environment of isotherm temperature. To study the thermosiphon effect, we surrounded the plume source by a vertical cylinder opened at the extremities. Thermal radiation emitted by the hot disk heats the cylinder wall. The pressure drop due to the acceleration of the flow at the cylinder inlet causes the appearance of thermosiphon effect around the thermal plume. The analysis of the average fields of velocity and temperature shows that the thermosiphon effect entails a good homogenization of the flow at the system exit. Furthermore, the comparison of the results obtained at the exit of the two studied systems shows a relative increase of the flow rate and the thermal power absorbed by the air of the order of 50% under the thermosiphon effect. This result is expressed by a gain in the plume rise of the order of 40%.

  20. Photoluminescence and Raman Spectroscopy of Jurassic Fe-Mn Oxide Rocks Forming Chimney Systems, Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigh, T.; Polgári, M.; Hein, J. R.; Gucsik, A.; Koós, M.; Veres, M.; Tóth, S.; Tóth, A. L.; Bíró, L.

    2009-08-01

    Three ore samples were collected from an inferred hydrothermal vent site at the Úrkút-Csárdahegy open pit mine. The samples are black with a brown rind, blocky or mound-like with stromatolitic texture, cryptocrystalline, and often with vugs infilled by spherulites. Fe-Mn-oxide stromatolitic mounds grew at the sediment/water interface burying preexisting chimneys containing fluid-flow microchannels. The occurrence of amorphous carbon phases in the samples is variable and their distribution is inhomogeneous, and suggests a possible microbial origin. The occurrence of gypsum may reflect a Fe-S precursor phase. These results provide additional evidence for the existence of a local vent system at Csárdahegy.

  1. Retrieval columns of SO2 in industrial chimneys using DOAS passive in traverse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galicia Mejía, Rubén; de la Rosa Vázquez, José Manuel; Sosa Iglesias, Gustavo

    2011-10-01

    The optical Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) is a technique to measure pollutant emissions like SO2, from point sources and total fluxes in the atmosphere. Passive DOAS systems use sunlight like source. Measurements with such systems can be made in situ and in real time. The goal of this work is to report the implementation of hardware and software of a portable system to evaluate the pollutants emitted in the atmosphere by industrial chimneys. We show SO2 measurements obtained around PEMEX refinerys in Tula Hidalgo that enables the identification of their pollution degree with the knowledge of speed wind.

  2. Diffusion of solar energy technologies in the new-construction market: a survey of new solar-home and onventional-home buyers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rains, D.; Dunipace, D.; Woo, C.K.

    1981-02-01

    Comsumer motivations for choosing a solar energy equipped new home when the non-solar or conventional model was also available were investigated. The approach was to test the relative importance of demographic, dwelling unit, and heating system characteristics in household decisions to purchase a home equipped with solar energy devices. Two statistical models were developed: one to examine the relationship between the types of home buyers (as an identifiable market segment) and the decision to purchase a solar home, and the other to compare the energy use of solar vs. conventional homes selected in the sample. (MHR)

  3. Metal sources of black smoker chimneys, Endeavour Segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge: Pb isotope constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrothermal chimney sulfides, vent cap chimney samples, Fe-oxide and basalts from sediment-starving Juan de Fuca Ridge, in the Endeavour segment, exhibit a range of Pb isotope ratios (206Pb/204Pb = 18.658-18.769; 207Pb/204Pb = 15.457-15.566; 208Pb/204Pb = 37.810-38.276). The data array is not parallel to the northern hemisphere mantle reservoirs indicating a possible sediment component within the sulfides. By assuming that the potential end-member sediment component has a 207Pb/204Pb (15.70) similar to Middle Valley sediment, it is suggested the potential end-member sediment component may have 206Pb/204Pb = 18.90; 208Pb/204Pb = 38.82. Basalt-derived Pb for the Endeavour segment hydrothermal system involves about 50/50 leaching of E-MORB and T2-MORB. Detailed observations show the Mothra field derives more Pb from T2-MORB than the Main Endeavour field does. According to the binary mixing model, the results show little Pb (4+, CH4 and Br/Cl ratios in hydrothermal fluids are consistent with a sediment component within the segment. Reconciling the Pb isotope data with the chemistry data of hydrothermal fluids, it is suggested that the sediment component may be located in a lower temperature recharge zone where Pb could not be mobilized frge zone where Pb could not be mobilized from the sediment.

  4. Diffusion of solar energy technologies in the new-construction market: A survey of new solar-home and conventional-home buyers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rains, D.; Dunipace, D.; Woo, C. K.

    1981-02-01

    Consumer motivations for choosing a solar energy equipped home when the nonsolar or conventional model was available were investigated. The approach was to test the relative importance of demographic, dwelling unit, and heating system characteristics in household decisions to purchase a home equipped with solar energy devices. Two statistical models were developed: one to examine the relationship between the types of home buyers (as an identifiable market segment) and the decision to purchase a solar home; and the other to compare the energy use of solar vs. conventional homes selected in the sample.

  5. Geodetical aspects of nuclear power plant construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The requirements of nuclear power plant construction and the problems of site selection are discussed. The need for construction capacity of the Hungarian nuclear power plant project is estimated. The geometrical base point network of the Paks Power Plant was designed and equalized by computer methods. The measurements have been made by electrooptical range finders. After equalization the network was further divided. The results of equalization and error analysis are presented. The requirements for geodetical surveying for the indoor construction are described. The leaning of the auxiliary boiler chimneys of the plant were studied by photogrammetry. (R.J.)

  6. Alternativas de construcción utilizando materiales de bajo costo para la evaluación térmica de cocinas solares tipo caja / Construction alternatives using low-cost materials for the thermal test of box-type solar cookers

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luis Enrique, Mealla Sánchez; Pablo Daniel, Bonaveri Arangoa.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta la evaluación y resultados térmicos de cocinas tipo cajas, realizadas con el objeto de comparar diversos factores constructivos de las mismas utilizando un protocolo de prueba conocido como RICSA (Red Interamericana de Cocción Solar de Alimentos). Para ellos se dispuso de cuatro cocinas [...] en donde se combinaron dos materiales de placa y dos materiales que sirven como aislante. Se sometieron a radiación solar directa calentando la placa colectora y luego al calentamiento utilizando agua como líquido de prueba. Se procedió a medir las perdidas térmicas y la eficiencia térmica. Parámetros adicionales como el tiempo en que alcanza la temperatura de cocción efectiva y el tiempo en que la mantiene sin intervención del operador también fueron medidos. De aquí, el análisis de la información proporcionó un buen rendimiento comparable entre cocinas con placa de hierro y los dos aislantes probados por sobre las cocinas de placa de aluminio; además, por la relación precio-rendimiento, se recomienda su construcción utilizando materiales que tienen alto rendimiento y bajo precio. Abstract in english This document presents the evaluation of a different set of solar ovens in terms of their thermal performance by the RICSA protocol. For this purpose, four solar ovens were constructed differentiated mainly by the type of isolation and plates. All were exposed to direct solar radiation. First, only [...] the collector plate was heated to measure thermal losses and efficiency and second, a determined amount of water was introduced to measure the thermal power of the solar oven. Additional parameters like the time in which it reaches the temperature of effective boiling point and the time in which it maintains functioning without intervention of the operator also were measured. The analysis provide empirical evidence regarding adequate levels of thermal performance of solar ovens constructed using iron on one hand, and aluminum on the other. It is recommended to extend the use of this type of equipments given the priceeffi ciency obtained in the experiments.

  7. Thermal Safety of the Current Buses in the Chimney of the D0 Solenoid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermal and electrical behaviour of the current buses in the chimney of the D0 solenoid during upset conditions is modeled to guide the selection of trip levels for magnet protection circuits which discharge the magnet if abnormal conditions are detected. The current buses in the chimney are designed to operate safely without likelihood of loss of superconductivity as long as normal cooling conditions are maintained. Helium liquid level probes, helium flow instrumentation, and thermometry all are provided to certify that proper cooling conditions exist in the subcooler and chimney at all times. Rising temperatures in any portion of the system, excessive voltage drops on the vapor cooled leads, or decreasing liquid level in the subcooler or flow rate in the system, will each cause the fast discharge system to be triggered. Postulated failures of the helium flow system, somehow undetected by any and all of the aforementioned instrumentation, can in principal eventually lead to loss of superconductivity in the buses. Quenching in one bus will rapidly lead to quenching in the other. Potential taps on the buses and magnet coil halves connected to voltage-detection bridges external to the system provide at least dually redundant signals which will unambiguously trigger the magnet rapid discharge system. The conservative design of the bus system ensures that it will not be damaged during such incidents, however improbable they may be. The transition leads in the subcooley be. The transition leads in the subcooler are equally conservatively designed, and would not be damaged if they were operated in a fully non-superconducting state for several minutes. The loss of liquid helium in the sub cooler required to cause this condition would imply that helium flow from the magnet had stopped, which in turn would imply that flow to the magnet had also stopped. The lack of flow into the sub cooler would result in insufficient flow to the vapor cooled leads. Any or all of these conditions would be detected, as would easily detected spurious voltages on the potential tap system, before damage to the transition leads occurred.

  8. Prototype implementation and experimental analysis of water heating using recovered waste heat of chimneys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Khaled

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This work discusses a waste heat recovery system (WHRS applied to chimneys for heating water in residential buildings. A prototype illustrating the suggested system is implemented and tested. Different waste heat scenarios by varying the quantity of burned firewood (heat input are experimented. The temperature at different parts of the WHRS and the gas flow rates of the exhaust pipes are measured. Measurements showed that the temperature of 95 L tank of water can be increased by 68 °C within one hour. Obtained results show that the convection and radiation exchanges at the bottom surface of the tank have a considerable impact on the total heat transfer rate of the water (as high as 70%.

  9. Characteristics of bubbly flow in chimney model of lead-bismuth-cooled fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characteristics of Pb-Bi-Ar two-phase flow were investigated in a rectangular vessel (400mm in width, 1500mm in height, 50mm in depth) simulating the chimney in the fast reactor. Ar was injected through the nozzles of 4mm into Pb-Bi, and the superficial Ar velocity was 0.01-0.03m/s at atmospheric pressure. The horizontal distributions of the flow structure, such as bubble velocity and chord length and void fraction were measured by seven double sensor electro conductivity probes. The PDF histograms of the bubble velocity and chord length were obtained. It was estimated that the existing drag coefficient to bubble in water is larger than in Pb-Bi by comparing the experimental results with the analytical results. (author)

  10. Innovative chimney-graft technique for endovascular repair of a pararenal abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galiñanes, Edgar Luis; Hernandez-Vila, Eduardo A; Krajcer, Zvonimir

    2015-02-01

    After abdominal aortic aneurysm repair, progressive degeneration of the aneurysm can be challenging to treat. Multiple comorbidities and previous operations place such patients at high risk for repeat surgery. Endovascular repair is a possible alternative; however, challenging anatomy can push the limits of available technology. We describe the case of a 71-year-old man who presented with a 5.3-cm pararenal aneurysm 4 years after undergoing open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. To avoid reoperation, we excluded the aneurysm by endovascular means, using visceral-artery stenting, a chimney-graft technique. Low-profile balloons on a monorail system enabled the rapid exchange of coronary wires via a buddy-wire technique. This novel approach facilitated stenting and simultaneous angioplasty of multiple visceral vessels and the abdominal aorta. PMID:25873796

  11. Origin of pockmarks and chimney structures on the flanks of the Storegga Slide, offshore Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paull, Charles K.; Ussler, William; Holbrook, W. Steven; Hill, Tessa M.; Keaten, Rendy; Mienert, Jurgen; Haflidason, Haflidi; Johnson, Joel E.; Winters, William J.; Lorenson, Thomas D.

    2008-02-01

    Seafloor pockmarks and subsurface chimney structures are common on the Norwegian continental margin north of the Storegga Slide scar. Such features are generally inferred to be associated with fluid expulsion, and imply overpressures in the subsurface. Six long gravity and piston cores taken from the interior of three pockmarks were compared with four other cores taken from the same area but outside the pockmarks, in order to elucidate the origins and stratigraphy of these features and their possible association with the Storegga Slide event. Sulfate gradients in cores from within pockmarks are less steep than those in cores from outside the pockmarks, which indicates that the flux of methane to the seafloor is presently smaller within the pockmarks than in the adjacent undisturbed sediments. This suggests that these subsurface chimneys are not fluid flow conduits lined with gas hydrate. Methane-derived authigenic carbonates and Bathymodiolus shells obtained from a pockmark at >6.3 m below the seafloor indicate that methane was previously available to support a chemosynthetic community within the pockmark. AMS 14C measurements of planktonic Foraminifera overlying and interlayered with the shell-bearing sediment indicate that methane was present on the seafloor within the pockmark prior to 14 ka 14C years b. p., i.e., well before the last major Storegga Slide event (7.2 ka 14C years b. p., or 8.2 ka calendar years b. p.). These observations provide evidence that overpressured fluids existed within the continental margin sediments off Norway during the last major advance of Pleistocene glaciation.

  12. Endovascular Aneurysm Repair Using a Reverse Chimney Technique in a Patient With Marfan Syndrome and Contained Ruptured Chronic Type B Dissection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report endovascular thoracic and abdominal aneurysm repair (EVAR) with reverse chimney technique in a patient with contained ruptured type B dissection. EVAR seems feasible as a bailout option in Marfan patients with acute life-threatening disease.

  13. Prediction of Air Flow and Temperature Profiles Inside Convective Solar Dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Vintil?

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Solar tray drying is an effective alternative for post-harvest processing of fruits and vegetables. Product quality and uniformity of the desired final moisture content are affected by the uneven air flow and temperature distribution inside the drying chamber. The purpose of this study is to numerically evaluate the operation parameters of a new indirect solar dryer having an appropriate design based on thermal uniformity inside the drying chamber, low construction costs and easy accessibility to resources needed for manufacture. The research was focused on both the investigation of different operation conditions and analysis of the influence of the damper position, which is incorporated into the chimney, on the internal cabinet temperature and air flow distribution. Numerical simulation was carried out with Comsol Multiphysics CFD commercial code using a reduced 2D domain model by neglecting any end effects from the side walls. The analysis of the coupled thermal-fluid model provided the velocity field, pressure distribution and temperature distribution in the solar collector and in the drying chamber when the damper was totally closed, half open and fully open and for different operation conditions. The predicted results were compared with measurements taken in-situ. With progressing computing power, it is conceivable that CFD will continue to provide explanations for more fluid flow, heat and mass transfer phenomena, leading to better equipment design and process control for the food industry.

  14. Improving the Power Generation Performance of a Solar Tower Using Thermal Updraft Wind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masataka Motoyama

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to improve the efficiency of the power generation system of a solar tower using fluid dynamics. The power generation system of a solar tower can be designed and constructed at relatively low cost. However, the energy output tends to be low for its physical size compared with other renewable energy production systems. The technical and scientific improvement of these types of generation systems has lost its momentum since the shutdown of the wellknown Spanish pilot plant “Manzanares Solar Chimney” in 1989, although it still has the potential to play a role in renewable energy in the future. We have focused on the tower component of the system to seek possible enhancements of the power output of the internal turbine. As a result of our fluid dynamic shape optimization, a diffuser-shaped tower was employed to increase the internal flow speed of a scaled model. The results show a remarkable improvement in the power output of the internal wind turbine.

  15. Neovejiga ileal con doble chimenea. Anastomosis ureterointestinal / Ileal neobladder with double chimney: Ureterointestinal anastomosis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    F., Aguirre Benites; J.M., Duarte Ojeda; M., Pamplona Casamayor; R., Díaz González; O., Leiva Galvis.

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available La cistoprostatectomía radical es el tratamiento de elección para el cáncer vesical infiltrante. En los últimos años las indicaciones de sustitución vesical se han ampliado debido a las ventajas que aportan sobre otros tipos de derivaciones siendo la neovejiga ileal descrita por Hautmann una de las [...] más utilizadas. Posteriormente se han descrito diversas modificaciones de la técnica original como la utilización de un segmento de asa sin detubulizar a modo de chimenea a la cual se anastomosan los uréteres. Presentamos una variante técnica de la neovejiga de Hautmann utilizando dos "chimeneas" anastomosando cada uréter a la luz previamente abierta de cada asa espatulando el uréter a modo de "palo de golf" para adaptar los calibres. Entre las ventajas de este tipo de anastomosis destacan la utilización de segmentos ureterales más cortos adaptando la longitud del asa lo que posibilita una anastomosis sin tensión y minimiza la isquemia disminuyendo por tanto la aparición de fístulas y estenosis. No precisa la realización de enterotomías adicionales y se facilita el acceso a cada anastomosis por separado en caso de necesidad de reintervención. Abstract in english Radical cystoprostatectomy is accepted as the standard treatment for muscle-invasive bladder cancer. During last years the indications for orthotopic neobladders have increased due to their advantages over other kind of diversions. Hautmann neobladder is one of the most commonly used. Several modifi [...] cations have been later described. For example, after perform the W-shape pouch ureters can be anastomosed to a not-detubularized bowel segment (chimney modification). Here is described a modification of the Hautmann neobladder with two chimneys. Each ureter is spatulated in a golf club manner and anastomosed to the open end of each bowel loop. This kind of anastomosis provides several advantages. It is possible to use shorter ureteral segments by increasing the length of bowel used. It allows an anastomosis without tension, and less ischemia, so the risk of stenosis and fistula is decreased. It is not necessary to perform additional enterothomies and in case of reintervention it is easier to access each anastomosis without damaging the other one.

  16. Malacoceros samurai, a new species of Spionidae (Annelids : Polychaeta) from hydrothermal vent chimney walls on the south East Pacific Rise

    OpenAIRE

    Hourdez, Ste?phane; Desbruyeres, Daniel; Laubier, Lucien

    2006-01-01

    Malacoceros samurai, new species, (Spionidae) is described from deep-sea hydrothermal vents of the southern East Pacific Rise, at 17 degrees 25'S. It is a large species, living on chimney walls along with Avinella spp. Although this species is described in the genus Malacoceros, it possesses unidentate hooded hooks and anterior scalpel-like aristate neurosetae, both characters which clearly differentiate it from other species of the same genus. These unusual characters require the modificatio...

  17. Abundances of Hyperthermophilic Autotrophic Fe(III) Oxide Reducers and Heterotrophs in Hydrothermal Sulfide Chimneys of the Northeastern Pacific Ocean ? †

    OpenAIRE

    Ver Eecke, Helene C.; Kelley, Deborah S; Holden, James F.

    2008-01-01

    The abundances of hyperthermophilic heterotrophs, methanogens, and autotrophic reducers of amorphous Fe(III) oxide in 18 samples of deep-sea hydrothermal vent sulfide chimneys of the Endeavour Segment were measured. The results indicate that conditions favor the growth of iron reducers toward the interiors of these deposits and that of heterotrophs toward the outer surfaces near high-temperature polychaete worms (Paralvinella sulfincola).

  18. Dioxin emissions from coal combustion in domestic stove: Formation in the chimney and coal chlorine content influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paradiz Bostjan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Combustion experiments conducted in domestic stove burning hard coal demonstrated a predominant influence of the coal chlorine content on the PCDD/F emissions, together with a pronounced effect of the flue gas temperature. PCDD/F concentrations of over 100 ng TEQ/m3, three orders of magnitude higher than in a modern waste incinerator, were measured in the flue gases of a domestic stove when combusting high chlorine coal (0.31 %. The PCDD/F concentrations in the flue gases dropped below 0,5 ng TEQ/m3, when low chlorine coal (0.07 % was used. When low chlorine coal was impregnated with NaCl to obtain 0.38 % chlorine content, the emission of the PCDD/Fs increased by two orders of magnitude. Pronounced nonlinearity of the PCDD/F concentrations related to chlorine content in the coal was observed. The combustion of the high chlorine coal yielded PCDD/F concentrations in flue gases one order of magnitude lower in a fan cooled chimney when compared to an insulated one, thus indicating formation in the chimney. The influence of flue gas temperature on the PCDD/F emissions was less pronounced when burning low chlorine coal. The predominant pathway of the PCDD/F emissions is via flue gases, 99 % of the TEQ in the case of the high chlorine coal for insulated chimney.

  19. Thermoelectric properties of ternary and Al-containing quaternary Ru1-xRexSiy chimney-ladder compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermoelectric properties of ternary and Al-containing quaternary Ru1-xRexSiy chimney-ladder phases have been studied as a function of the Re concentration with the use of directionally solidified alloys. The Ru1-xRexSiy chimney-ladder phases exhibit n- and p-type semiconducting behaviors, respectively, at low and high Re concentrations, at which the X(=Si)/M(=Ru + Re) ratios are respectively, larger and smaller than those expected from the VEC (valence electron concentration) = 14 rule. The absolute values of both Seebeck coefficient and electrical resistivity increase as the extent of the deviation from the VEC = 14 rule increases, i.e. as the alloy composition deviates from that corresponding to the p-n transition (x ? 0.5), indicating that the carrier concentration can be controlled by changing the extent of compositional deviation from the ideal VEC = 14 composition. The highest values of the dimensionless figure of merit obtained are 0.47 for ternary (x = 0.60) and 0.56 for Al-containing quaternary alloys. The reasons for the systematic compositional deviation from the ideal VEC = 14 compositions observed for a series of chimney-ladder phases are discussed in terms of atomic packing

  20. Exit chimney joint and method of forming the joint for closed circuit steam cooled gas turbine nozzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdgick, Steven Sebastian (Schenectady, NY); Burns, James Lee (Schenectady, NY)

    2002-01-01

    A nozzle segment for a gas turbine includes inner and outer band portions and a vane extending between the band portions. The inner and outer band portions are each divided into first and second plenums separated by an impingement plate. Cooling steam is supplied to the first cavity for flow through the apertures to cool the outer nozzle wall. The steam flows through a leading edge cavity in the vane into the first cavity of the inner band portion for flow through apertures of the impingement plate to cool the inner nozzle wall. Spent cooling steam flows through a plurality of cavities in the vane, exiting through an exit chimney in the outer band. The exit chimney is secured at its inner end directly to the nozzle vane wall surrounding the exit cavities, to the margin of the impingement plate at a location intermediate the ends of the exit chimney and to margins of an opening through the cover whereby each joint is externally accessible for joint formation and for subsequent inspection.

  1. Construction of 3-dimensional ZnO-nanoflower structures for high quantum and photocurrent efficiency in dye sensitized solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Bayram; Günes, Taylan; Besirli, Ilknur; Sezginer, Merve; Tuzemen, Sebahattin

    2014-11-01

    3-dimensional ZnO nanoflower were obtained on FTO (F:SnO2) substrate by hydrothermal method in order to produce high efficiency dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). We showed that nanoflowers structures have nanoscale branches that stretch to fill gaps on the substrate and these branches of nano-leaves provide both a larger surface area and a direct pathway for electron transport along the channels. It was found that the solar conversion efficiency and quantum efficiency (QE) or incident photon to current conversion efficiencies (IPCE) is highly dependent on nanoflower surface due to high electron injection process. The highest solar conversion efficiency of 5.119 and QE of 60% was obtained using ZnO nanoflowers/N719 dye/I-/I-3 electrolyte. In this study, three dimensional (3D)-nanoflower and one dimensional (1D)-nanowires ZnO nanostructures were also compared against each other in respect to solar conversion efficiency and QE measurements. In the case of the 1D-ZnO nanowire conversion efficiency (?) of 2.222% and IPCE 47% were obtained under an illumination of 100 mW/cm2. It was confirmed that the performance of the 3D-nanoflowers was better than about 50% that of the 1D-nanowire dye-sensitized solar cells.

  2. The energy construction of the Sun and planets of the solar system from the viewpoint of mechanics of the inertless mass

    OpenAIRE

    Shkurchenko, I. Z.

    2010-01-01

    This monograph (1977) is a continuation of the monograph "The construction of the Sun and planets of the solar system from the viewpoint of mechanics of the inertless mass" (refer to: http://arxiv.org/abs/physics/0701258, part 1, http://arxiv.org/abs/physics/0701259, part 2). This manuscript concerning the studies of the energy structure of the Sun and planets was discovered in the archive of the author in 2009. Being a draft version, it contains some remarks of the author o...

  3. Effect of doping concentration on the performance of solar cell constructed from (Muscovite/TiO2/Dye/Al

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Abd Elgani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar cells were fabricated from (Muscovite/ TiO2/Dye/Al, the effect of temperature, concen- tration and light intensity on the electrical prop- erties of (Muscovite/TiO2/Dye/Al was studied. The relationship between current and voltage was found to be algorism, which is in agreement with the ordinary relation for solar cells. When dye concentration was increased the conductivity, fill factor and efficiency were also increased. This result is found to be in conformity with the theoretical relations. The small energy gaps for their samples show that they are semiconductors. The maximum efficiency obtained is 33.2%.

  4. Free release waste characterisation during the decommissioning of windscale Pile 2 Chimney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decommissioning of windscale Pile 2 Chimney resulted in the removal of one of most historically significant and prominent features of the Sellafield site. The project was the first large scale concrete ''free release'' operation to be undertaken on the Sellafield nuclear site, producing 4500 tons of concrete of which 3000 tons was demonstrated to be ''free release''. The paper describes the radiometric techniques employed in the characterisation and segregation of the concrete into low level waste (LLW), very low level waste (VLLW) and free release categories. It examines the robust solutions that were developed to meet the technical and regulatory challenges of the project, which included the definition of free release, the selection of averaging volumes, the testing and validation of the monitoring systems employed for ton quantities of concrete and the identification and removal of small numbers of fuel particles from the free release waste stream. As a result of interest shown by other BNFL and UKAEA decommissioning projects at Sellafield, the paper finishes by discussing ways in which the system may be developed to assay other waste streams. (orig.)

  5. Survey of new forms of organization and financing constructions in the Dutch solar electricity market. Update 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the title project the focus is on organizations and projects in the Dutch market for solar electricity, characterized by: minimal dependence on subsidies (state aid), the removal of high initial investments by users (financing), and structures that can easily be extended or replicated (scale)

  6. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction for the decontamination and closure of the 183-H Solar Evaporation Basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Notice of Construction (NOC) is required by the Washington State Department of Health (DOH), pursuant to Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247-060, for any proposed construction or modification of an existing registered or unregistered emissions unit. The following document is the NOC application to be submitted to the DOH for the establishment of a new environmental analytical laboratory at the 100-N Area on the Hanford Site. The environmental analytical laboratory will contain a radioactive air emissions unit

  7. The influence of certain astronomical and constructive parameters on the concentration of solar radiation with plane heliostats fields

    OpenAIRE

    B?descu, V.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper, we present the influence of some astronomical and constructive parameters on the HFT working. The astronomical parameters are : (1) hour and (2) day. The constructive parameters are : (3, 4) the east-west and north-south distances between heliostats, (5) the mirror size, (6) the tower height, (7) the distance between the tower and the heliostats field. The HFT working is analysed from three points of view : (i) the mirrors orientation, (ii) the heliostats optical performances a...

  8. Geochemical models of metasomatism in ultramafic systems: Serpentinization, rodingitization, and sea floor carbonate chimney precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palandri, J.L.; Reed, M.H.

    2004-01-01

    In a series of water-rock reaction simulations, we assess the processes of serpentinization of harzburgite and related calcium metasomatism resulting in rodingite-type alteration, and seafloor carbonate chimney precipitation. At temperatures from 25 to 300??C (P = 10 to 100 bar), using either fresh water or seawater, serpentinization simulations produce an assemblage commonly observed in natural systems, dominated by serpentine, magnetite, and brucite. The reacted waters in the simulations show similar trends in composition with decreasing water-rock ratios, becoming hyper-alkaline and strongly reducing, with increased dissolved calcium. At 25??C and w/r less than ???32, conditions are sufficiently reducing to yield H2 gas, nickel-iron alloy and native copper. Hyperalkalinity results from OH- production by olivine and pyroxene dissolution in the absence of counterbalancing OH- consumption by alteration mineral precipitation except at very high pH; at moderate pH there are no stable calcium minerals and only a small amount of chlorite forms, limited by aluminum, thus allowing Mg2+ and Ca2+ to accumulate in the aqueous phase in exchange for H+. The reducing conditions result from oxidation of ferrous iron in olivine and pyroxene to ferric iron in magnetite. Trace metals are computed to be nearly insoluble below 300??C, except for mercury, for which high pH stabilizes aqueous and gaseous Hg??. In serpentinization by seawater at 300??C, Ag, Au, Pd, and Pt may approach ore-forming concentrations in sulfide complexes. Simulated mixing of the fluid derived from serpentinization with cold seawater produces a mineral assemblage dominated by calcite, similar to recently discovered submarine, ultramafic rock-hosted, carbonate mineral deposits precipitating at hydrothermal vents. Simulated reaction of gabbroic or basaltic rocks with the hyperalkaline calcium- and aluminum-rich fluid produced during serpentinization at 300??C yields rodingite-type mineral assemblages, including grossular, clinozoisite, vesuvianite, prehnite, chlorite, and diopside. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Magmatic Chimney Beneath Telaga Bodas Revealed by Magnetotellurics Profiling: A Case Study at the Karaha Bodas Geothermal System, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raharjo, I.; Wannamaker, P.; Moore, J. N.; Allis, R.; Chapman, D.

    2002-12-01

    Karaha-Telaga Bodas is a partially vapor-dominated geothermal system located on the flanks of Galunggung Volcano in Java, Indonesia. Fumaroles, hot springs and a shallow acid lake occur at the southern (Telaga Bodas) end of the geothermal area. Enrichments in chloride, fluoride, and sulfur in the lake water and the presence of tourmaline, fluorite, and native sulfur at depth are related to the flux of magmatic gases. Here, temperatures as high as 350 degree C are found at depths of about 2 km. A magnetotellurics profile crossing the Telaga Bodas area is used to test for presence of a magmatic chimney, which is believed to be the source of the magmatic components. The profile was modeled on a grid having 248x48 cells with 46 closely spaced stations aligned along NW-SE direction. The TM mode and vertical H-field data were rotated to strike of 10 degree east and inverted with a 2-D algorithm which damps model departures from an a-priori 1-D structure. The dataset consists of 25 periods running from 0.01024 to 1024 seconds yielding an RMS of 2.3. Five distinctive resistivity features are recognized: (1) resistive thin layer at the surface (about 1.5 km asl); (2)conductive layers sloping to the NW and SE; (3) a slightly resistive region in the center encapsulated by the conductive layers; (4) a vertical conductive structure inside the slightly resistive region; and (5) a resistive basement starting from 2 km below sea level. The sloping conductive layers (structure (< 10 ohm-m) inside this slightly resistive region. The size of the chimney is about 1 km wide and 2.5 km high. The low resistivities are interpreted as representing the presence of advanced argillic alteration assemblages formed by interactions between magmatic sulfur dioxide and the surrounding geothermal waters. The profile suggests that the gases migrate upwards through a vapor-dominated magmatic chimney overlying a cooling intrusion.

  10. The energy construction of the Sun and planets of the solar system from the viewpoint of mechanics of the inertless mass

    CERN Document Server

    Shkurchenko, I Z

    2010-01-01

    This monograph (1977) is a continuation of the monograph "The construction of the Sun and planets of the solar system from the viewpoint of mechanics of the inertless mass" (refer to: http://arxiv.org/abs/physics/0701258, part 1, http://arxiv.org/abs/physics/0701259, part 2). This manuscript concerning the studies of the energy structure of the Sun and planets was discovered in the archive of the author in 2009. Being a draft version, it contains some remarks of the author on other subjects and has a free style. The editor has omitted all the retreats of the author. Thus, the work is a final study and is intended for the reader who is familiar with previous studies of the author that are placed in this Archive.

  11. Experimental Study and Optimization of Thermoelectricity-Driven Autonomous Sensors for the Chimney of a Biomass Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, A.; Astrain, D.; Martínez, A.; Aranguren, P.

    2014-06-01

    In the work discussed in this paper a thermoelectric generator was developed to harness waste heat from the exhaust gas of a boiler in a biomass power plant and thus generate electric power to operate a flowmeter installed in the chimney, to make it autonomous. The main objective was to conduct an experimental study to optimize a previous design obtained after computational work based on a simulation model for thermoelectric generators. First, several places inside and outside the chimney were considered as sites for the thermoelectricity-driven autonomous sensor. Second, the thermoelectric generator was built and tested to assess the effect of the cold-side heat exchanger on the electric power, power consumption by the flowmeter, and transmission frequency. These tests provided the best configuration for the heat exchanger, which met the transmission requirements for different working conditions. The final design is able to transmit every second and requires neither batteries nor electric wires. It is a promising application in the field of thermoelectric generation.

  12. Construction and characteristics of tandem organic solar cells featuring small molecule-based films on polymer-based subcells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, we stacked a small molecule-based cell onto another polymer-based device to fabricate a tandem organic solar cell that extended the absorption range of the entire cell over a wider spectral range. Between the two subcells, we positioned a connecting structure comprising layers of Cs2CO3, Ag and MoO3. Current matching phenomena played an important role in determining the device efficiency. The judicious selection of subcells exhibiting superior current matching improved the performance of the tandem cell. Indeed, in the optimally performing tandem cells we obtained both a high open-circuit voltage (1.21 V) and an improved power conversion efficiency (1.81%). From analyses of the surface morphology and transmission spectra of the middle Ag layers, we deduced that the main function of this film was to provide more sites for efficient recombination of holes and electrons. The thickness of this layer was limited by its transmittance. A thinner Ag layer allowed more light to be harvested by the top cell, increasing the overall performance of the tandem cell.

  13. Basic study for the construction of solar cell using CdS photocatalysts and Na2S4 electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photoexcited electrons pathway from thin film consisting of semiconductor particles to electrode was tried to develop by using conducting polymers. PEDOT/PSS and polyaniline was selected as transparent conducting polymer material. In the case of the cell consisted by using polyaniline, it was confirmed that conductive emeraldine salt stated polyaniline converted to non-conductive emeraldine base state because of contact with strong basic Na2S4 electrolyte solution. On the other hand, as regards the cell with PEDOT/PSS, it was expected that positive and negative electrode short-circuited and/or Schottky junction was formed between CdS and PEDOT/PSS. The formation of Schottky junction between CdS and PEDOT/PSS was reduced the kinetic energy of the photoexcited electrons to 5.1eV which was the Fermi level of PEDOT. These electrons could not reduce Na2S4 electrolyte solution since oxidation-reduction potential was 4.1eV. As a result, it considered that photoexcited electrons transfer was restricted, which read the decreasement of mobility of photoexcited electron, while the cell “without” PEDOT/PSS could operate as a solar cell

  14. Solar-optimized building construction. Concept 1: Integration of an air-filled solar absorber in a building shell. Final report; Solaroptimiertes Bauen. Teilkonzept 1: Integration eines luftdurchstroemten Solar-Absorbers in eine Gebaeudehuelle. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroepf, S.; Renner, G.

    2002-07-01

    The research project was successful in the development of high-efficiency air-filled solar absorbers integrated in the building shell. Several different designs were implemented successfully with regard to absorber integration in the building shell and space HVAC systems. The newly developed solar-air technology provides interesting options for innovative building design in the sense of the EnEV (Energy Conservation Ordinance). The new technology may help to reduce carbon dioxide emissions and help achieve the German government's explicit goal of a reduction of global warming. (orig.) [German] Zu Beginn des Forschungsprojektes gehoerten Luftkollektoren mit durchstroemten und spektral-selektiv beschichteten Absorbern, welche hoechste Wirkungsgrade bei geringem Luftvolumenstrom aufweisen, nicht zum Stand der Technik. Ziel des Forschungsprojektes war die industrielle Herstellung verschiedener, in Gebaeudehuellen integrierbarer Solar-Luft-Systeme, welche auf der Basis luftdurchstroemter Solarabsorber mit dem Prinzip der Grenzschichtabsaugung zu konstruieren waren. Diese sollten bei Volumenstroemen pro m{sup 2}-Kollektorflaeche von kleiner 20 m{sup 3}/h einen Wirkungsgrad von mehr als 0,60 erzielen koennen. Anhand von Simulationen wurden Entwuerfe mit entsprechender Leistungsfaehigkeit konstruiert. Ergebnis des Forschungsprojektes ist die erfolgreiche Entwicklung von in Gebaeudehuellen integrierten, luftdurchstroemten Solar-Absorbern mit, gegenueber hinterstroemten Absorbern, entsprechend der Zielsetzung verbessertem Wirkungsgrad. Mehrere Konstruktionsentwuerfe konnten hinsichtlich Gebaeudeintegration und Systemeinbindung erfolgreich umgesetzt werden. Die neu entwickelte Solar-Luft-Technik bietet interessante Moeglichkeiten fuer innovative Ausfuehrungen der Gebaeudehuelle ganz im Sinne der Zielsetzung der Energieeinsparverordnung (EnEV): Minimierung des Primaerenergiebedarfes. Entsprechende Verbreitung der Ergebnisse vorausgesetzt, kann der flaechendeckende Einsatz des neu entwickelten Absorbersystems zu einer massiven CO{sub 2}-Einsparung fuehren und unterstuetzt damit die Bemuehungen die von der Bundesregierung formulierten Klimaschutzziele zu erreichen. (orig.)

  15. Solar Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Calibrated in kilowatt hours per square meter, the solar counter produced by Dodge Products, Inc. provides a numerical count of the solar energy that has accumulated on a surface. Solar energy sensing, measuring and recording devices in corporate solar cell technology developed by Lewis Research Center. Customers for their various devices include architects, engineers and others engaged in construction and operation of solar energy facilities; manufacturers of solar systems or solar related products, such as glare reducing windows; and solar energy planners in federal and state government agencies.

  16. Asbestos Exposure among Construction Workers During Demolition of Old Houses in Tehran, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Kakooei, Hossein; Normohammadi, Mohhammad

    2013-01-01

    Air quality in demolition practices has seldom been evaluated in Iran. Accordingly, we evaluated asbestos exposure among Tehran construction workers during the demolition of old houses. To identify possible sources of asbestos exposure, including thermal insulations, chimney pipes and cement sheets, were all sampled. This study also were taken the personal air samples to evaluate any asbestos exposure during the demolition. The asbestos fibers found in the samples were analyzed...

  17. Design, construction and test run of a solid adsorption solar refrigerator using activated carbon/methanol, as adsorbent/adsorbate pair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design, construction and test run of a solid adsorption solar refrigerator are presented. It used activated carbon/methanol as the adsorbent/adsorbate pair. The refrigerator has three major components: collector/generator/adsorber, condenser and evaporator. Its flat plate type collector/generator/adsorber used clear plane glass sheet of effective exposed area of 1.2 m2. The steel condenser tube with a square plan view was immersed in pool of stagnant water contained in a reinforced sandcrete tank. The evaporator is a spirally coiled copper tube immersed in stagnant water. Adsorbent cooling during the adsorption process is both by natural convection of air over the collector plate and tubes and night sky radiation facilitated by removing the collector box end cover plates. Ambient temperatures during the adsorbate generation and adsorption process varied over 18.5-34 deg. C. The refrigerator yielded evaporator temperatures ranging over 1.0-8.5 deg. C from water initially in the temperature range 24-28 deg. C. Accordingly, the maximum daily useful cooling produced was 266.8 kJ/m2 of collector area

  18. Thermohydraulic instability of boiling natural circulation loop with a chimney. 1. Linear stability analysis using homogeneous two-phase flow model and experiment on thermohydraulic instability induced by flashing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instability of a boiling natural circulation loop with a chimney at low pressure and low heater power was investigated by linear stability analysis and experiment. A homogeneous and thermodynamic equilibrium model for two-phase flow was used. The effect of flashing induced by pressure drop in the heated channels and the chimney was considered. The effects of coupling between two boiling channels were investigated. It was found that in-phase-mode instability was apt to occur when channel inlet subcooling was large and boiling began in the chimney. In-phase-mode instability easily occurred when channel length became short and the chimney became long. Out-of-phase-mode instability was apt to occur when chimney length became small and boiling began in the channel. It was suggested that in-phase-mode instability was density wave oscillation induced by flashing in the chimney and out-of-phase-mode instability was density wave oscillation induced by boiling in the channels. The analytical results agreed qualitatively with experimental results. (author)

  19. Endovascular Repair of Acute Symptomatic Pararenal Aortic Aneurysm With Three Chimney and One Periscope Graft for Complete Visceral Artery Revascularization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PurposeTo describe a modified endovascular technique for complete revascularization of visceral and renal arteries in symptomatic pararenal aortic aneurysm (PRAA).TechniqueArterial access was surgically established in both common femoral arteries (CFAs) and the left subclavian artery (LSA). Revascularization of the left renal artery, the celiac trunk, and the superior mesenteric artery was performed through one single sheath via the LSA. Suitable covered stents were put in the aortic branches but not deployed. The right renal artery was accessed over the left CFA. Due to the longitudinal extension of the presented aneurysm two stent-grafts were introduced via the right CFA. After deploying the aortic stent-grafts, all covered stents in the side branches were deployed consecutively with a minimum overlap of 5 mm over the cranial and caudal stent-graft edges. Simultaneous ballooning was performed to fully expand all stent-grafts and warranty patency. Conclusion: This is the first report in the literature of chimney grafting in PRAA for complete revascularization of visceral and renal branches by using more than two covered stents introduced from one side through one single sheath. However this technique is modified, it should be used only in bailout situations when branched stent-grafts are not available and/or surgery is not suitable.

  20. Solar Thermal Electricity Generating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sambeet; Tripathy, Pratyasha

    2012-08-01

    A Solar Thermal Electricity generating system also known as Solar Thermal Power plant is an emerging renewable energy technology, where we generate the thermal energy by concentrating and converting the direct solar radiationat medium/high temperature (300?C ñ 800?C). The resulting thermal energy is then used in a thermodynamic cycleto produce electricity, by running a heat engine, which turns a generator to make electricity. Solar thermal power is currently paving the way for the most cost-effective solar technology on a large scale and is heading to establish a cleaner, pollution free and secured future. Photovoltaic (PV) and solar thermal technologies are two main ways of generating energy from the sun, which is considered the inexhaustible source of energy. PV converts sunlight directly into electricity whereas in Solar thermal technology, heat from the sun's rays is concentrated to heat a fluid, whose steam powers a generator that produces electricity. It is similar to the way fossil fuel-burning power plants work except that the steam is produced by the collected heat rather than from the combustion of fossil fuels. In order to generate electricity, five major varieties of solar thermal technologies used are:* Parabolic Trough Solar Electric Generating System (SEGS).* Central Receiver Power Plant.* Solar Chimney Power Plant.* Dish Sterling System.* Solar Pond Power Plant.Most parts of India,Asia experiences a clear sunny weather for about 250 to 300 days a year, because of its location in the equatorial sun belt of the earth, receiving fairly large amount of radiation as compared to many parts of the world especially Japan, Europe and the US where development and deployment of solar technologies is maximum.Whether accompanied with this benefit or not, usually we have to concentrate the solar radiation in order to compensate for the attenuation of solar radiation in its way to earthís surface, which results in from 63,2 GW/m2 at the Sun to 1 kW/m2 at Earth¥s surface. The higher the concentration, the higher the temperatures we can achieve when converting solar radiation into thermal energy

  1. Personal PM2.5 and indoor CO in nomadic tents using open and chimney biomass stoves on the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chaoliu; Kang, Shichang; Chen, Pengfei; Zhang, Qianggong; Guo, Junming; Mi, Jue; Basang, Puchi; Luosang, Quzhen; Smith, Kirk R.

    2012-11-01

    Yak dung is the primary source of energy for cooking and heating of nomadic Tibetan herders. Personal PM2.5 and indoor CO concentrations and time-activity patterns were investigated in nomadic tents with open stoves and locally available chimney stoves. Personal PM2.5 monitoring using a light-scattering datalogger was performed with women in five tents with open fires and four with chimney stoves over 3 days. Meanwhile, indoor CO variation was also measured. Results showed that 24 h average concentrations of PM2.5 and CO in the tents with open stoves were 1.42 mg m-3 (n = 5, SD = 3.26) and 6.69 mg m-3 (n = 4; SD = 9.11), respectively, which were significantly higher than the tents with chimney stoves having 0.14 mg m-3 (n = 4; SD = 0.65) and 0.12 mg m-3 (n = 4; SD = 1.01) of PM2.5 and CO, respectively. Although chimney stoves significantly reduced indoor air pollution, the concentration of PM2.5 was still higher than annual WHO Air Quality Guideline (0.035 mg m-3). Diurnal variability of PM2.5 and CO was similar and had multiple peaks. This phenomenon was closely connected with behaviors of the participants within the tents. Average 1-h peak concentrations of PM2.5 and CO exceed 24-h mean values by a factor of 5.0 and 4.3, respectively. Significant correlation between hourly PM2.5 and CO concentrations was revealed. Generally, women and children spent 7 h longer than other family members within the tent each day and were thus exposed to higher levels of pollutants. Secondhand tobacco smoke and burning of yak oil lamps are also present in many households, but are much smaller contributors to the exposures. Therefore, yak dung combustion contributes substantially to the personal exposure of householders in this setting even during the warmest time of year in this setting and that although exposures are greatly reduced with chimney stoves; they are still high by comparison to national standards or WHO guidelines.

  2. Thoracic aortic stent-graft placement combined with left subclavian artery 'chimney operation': therapeutic analysis of 15 cases with insufficient proximal anchor area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To discuss the strategies for the management of insufficient proximal anchoring area during the performance of transluminal stent-graft placement (TSGP), and to evaluate the feasibility of intentional coverage of the left subclavian artery (LSA) together with left subclavian artery stent-graft placement by using 'chimney operation' technique. Methods: A total of 15 patients with thoracic aortic diseases complicated by insufficient proximal anchoring area, who were encountered in authors' hospital during the period from Dec. 2009 to April 2011, were enrolled in this study. The clinical data were retrospectively analyzed. The thoracic aortic diseases included aortic dissection (n=6), aortic pseudoaneurysm (n=1), aortic aneurysm (n=4) and penetrating ulcer (n=4). Of the 15 patients, the distance between the lesion and LSA anchoring site 15 mm in 2. TSGP was carried out. The ostium of LSA was intentionally and completely covered by thoracic aortic stent-graft and left subclavian artery stent-graft placement was subsequently performed. The patients were kept under observation for symptoms of cerebral and upper limb ischemia. The postoperative complications such as endoleak and the patency of LSA were assessed with angiography. Results: Thoracic aortic stent-graft placement was successfully carried out in all 15 patients. In addition, one 'chimney' stent was properly implanted in LSA in each patient. After the procedure, no complications of nervous system or severe ischemia of upper extremity occurred. Follow-up examinations performed between 5 days to 3 months after the treatment revealed that the aortic stent-graft remained in stable condition and no type ? endoleak occurred, meanwhile the blood flow in 'chimney' stent was unobstructed. Conclusion: Intentional LSA coverage with 'chimney operation' can expand the applicability of TSGP with high tolerability. It is especially useful for patients with left vertebral artery blood supply dominance or with cerebral infarction, sleep apnoea syndrome and other brain insufficient blood supply diseases. Some parameters should be assessed before the procedure, which include the diameter and location of the chimney stent. Avoidance of type ? endoleak of aortic stent should be stressed. (authors)

  3. Saurians vs. cuts on reimbursement rates. In the vicinity of Berlin, plans for construction of a solar power plant almost failed because of conservation concerns; Echsen versus Verguetungskuerzung. In der Naehe von Berlin waere der Bau eines Solarkraftwerks beinahe am Naturschutz gescheitert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, Matthias B.

    2010-09-15

    Abandoned industrial or military sites and similar terrains are preferred sites for solar power plant construction. This is a good thing, in principle, as any land pollution will be removed at the same time. However, if construction projects go too fast they may interfere with conservation concerns. The contribution presents the case of the 24 MW 'Finowtower' solar power station. The project almost had to be abandoned because of a small lizard. (orig.)

  4. Impact of the light intensity variation on the performance of solar cell constructed from (Muscovite/TiO2/Dye/Al

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Abd Elgani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the influence of the light intensity as one of the parameters that control the solar cell is studied. The effect of the other main variables, such as temperature, rotation per Minuit of the spin coating instrument, and the samples concentration, was found to be in conformity with other results, but unfortunately the intensity of light does not increase the solar cell efficiency, and fill factor, by other words it was found to play only a secondary role.

  5. Impact of the light intensity variation on the performance of solar cell constructed from (Muscovite/TiO2/Dye/Al)

    OpenAIRE

    Abd Elgani, R.; Hilo, M. H. M.; Abd Allah, M. D.; Al Hassan, A.; Abd Elhai, R.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, the influence of the light intensity as one of the parameters that control the solar cell is studied. The effect of the other main variables, such as temperature, rotation per Minuit of the spin coating instrument, and the samples concentration, was found to be in conformity with other results, but unfortunately the intensity of light does not increase the solar cell efficiency, and fill factor, by other words it was found to play only a secondary role.

  6. 76 FR 54454 - Issuance of Loan Guarantee to Genesis Solar, LLC, for the Genesis Solar Energy Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ...Genesis Solar, LLC, for the Genesis Solar Energy Project AGENCY: U.S. Department...construction and startup of the Genesis Solar Energy Project (GSEP), a 250-megawatt...Impact Statement for the Genesis Solar Energy Project, Riverside County,...

  7. Global and diffuse solar irradiance modelling over north-western Europe using MAR regional climate model : validation and construction of a 30-year climatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumet, Julien; Doutreloup, Sébastien; Fettweis, Xavier; Erpicum, Michel

    2015-04-01

    Solar irradiance modelling is crucial for solar resource management, photovoltaic production forecasting and for a better integration of solar energy in the electrical grid network. For those reasons, an adapted version of the Modèle Atmospheric Regional (MAR) is being developed at the Laboratory of Climatology of the University of Liège in order to provide high quality modelling of solar radiation, wind and temperature over north-western Europe. In this new model version, the radiation scheme has been calibrated using solar irradiance in-situ measurements and CORINE Land Cover data have been assimilated in order to improve the modelling of 10 m wind speed and near-surface temperature. In this study, MAR is forced at its boundary by ERA-40 reanalysis and its horizontal resolution is 10 kilometres. Diffuse radiation is estimated using global radiation from MAR outputs and a calibrated version of Ruiz-Arias et al., (2010) sigmoid model. This study proposes to evaluate the method performance for global and diffuse radiation modelling at both the hourly and daily time scale using data from the European Solar Radiation Atlas database for the weather stations of Uccle (Belgium) and Braunschweig (Germany). After that, a 30-year climatology of global and diffuse irradiance for the 1981-2010 period over western Europe is built. The created data set is then analysed in order to highlight possible regional or seasonal trends. The validity of the results is then evaluated after comparison with trends found in in-situ data or from different studies from the literature.

  8. Geologic, geophysical, and in-situ stress investigations in the vicinity of the Dining Car chimney, Dining Car/Hybla Gold Drifts, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hybla Gold event, detonated on Nov. 1, 1977, was conducted in the U12e.20 drifts of the E-tunnel complex beneath the surface of Rainier Mesa at the Nevada Test Site. Though the proximity of the Hybla Gold working point to the chimney of the Dining Car event was important to the experiment, the observable geologic effects from Dining Car on the Hybla Gold site were minor. Overburden above the working point is approximately 385 m (1263 ft). The pre-Tertiary surface, probably quartzite, lies approximately 254 m (833 ft) below the working point. This report comprises three chapters detailing the geologic, geophysical, and in situ stress data gathered in the period January through June 1977, in the course of mining and drilling in the Hybla Gold/Dining Car region. These investigations confirm several observations reported previously for the Rainier event, i.e., a zone of microfailure observable in thin-section and in physical properties exists adjacent to the chimney. In addition, however, a number of investigations add new information to our understanding of effects near the detonation point. Shear waves were found to be highly diagnostic in the microcracked zone near the chimney as well as zones of failure at greater range not discernible as well as zones of failure at greater range not discernible by other techniques. Extensive in situ stress measurements made by the hydrofracture and overcore techniques indicate changes in the orientation and magnitude of the pre-Dthe orientation and magnitude of the pre-Dining Car stress field. The hydrofracture technique further suggests pronounced gradients in minimum stress magnitudes over short distances at some locations in the postshot stress regime

  9. Exploring Solar Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techtronics Program,

    Students explore the methods engineers have devised for harnessing sunlight to generate power. First, they investigate heat transfer and heat storage through the construction, testing and use of a solar oven. With a lesson focused on photovoltaic cells, students learn the concepts of energy conversion, conservation of energy, current and voltage. By constructing model solar powered cars, students see these conceptual ideas manifested in modern technology. Furthermore, the solar car project provides opportunities to explore a number of other topics, such as gear ratios and simple mechanics. Both of these design and construction projects are examples of engineering design.

  10. Solar Adaptive Optics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R. Rimmele

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive optics (AO has become an indispensable tool at ground-based solar telescopes. AO enables the ground-based observer to overcome the adverse effects of atmospheric seeing and obtain diffraction limited observations. Over the last decade adaptive optics systems have been deployed at major ground-based solar telescopes and revitalized ground-based solar astronomy. The relatively small aperture of solar telescopes and the bright source make solar AO possible for visible wavelengths where the majority of solar observations are still performed. Solar AO systems enable diffraction limited observations of the Sun for a significant fraction of the available observing time at ground-based solar telescopes, which often have a larger aperture than equivalent space based observatories, such as HINODE. New ground breaking scientific results have been achieved with solar adaptive optics and this trend continues. New large aperture telescopes are currently being deployed or are under construction. With the aid of solar AO these telescopes will obtain observations of the highly structured and dynamic solar atmosphere with unprecedented resolution. This paper reviews solar adaptive optics techniques and summarizes the recent progress in the field of solar adaptive optics. An outlook to future solar AO developments, including a discussion of Multi-Conjugate AO (MCAO and Ground-Layer AO (GLAO will be given.

  11. Solar Cooker

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association for the Advancement of Science

    2009-01-01

    Learners build a simple solar oven from a shoebox, black construction paper, and aluminum foil. Over the course of a few hours, the oven heats up water enough to brew tea. When learners set up a free account at Kinetic City, they can answer bonus questions at the end of the activity as a quick assessment. As a larger assessment, learners can complete the Smart Attack game after they've completed several activities.

  12. Solar Neutrinos

    OpenAIRE

    Robertson, R. G. H

    2006-01-01

    Experimental work with solar neutrinos has illuminated the properties of neutrinos and tested models of how the sun produces its energy. Three experiments continue to take data, and at least seven are in various stages of planning or construction. In this review, the current experimental status is summarized, and future directions explored with a focus on the effects of a non-zero theta-13 and the interesting possibility of directly testing the luminosity constraint. Such a ...

  13. Overprinting faulting mechanisms during the development of multiple fault sets in sandstone, Chimney Rock fault array, Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davatzes, Nicholas C.; Aydin, Atilla; Eichhubl, Peter

    2003-02-01

    The deformation mechanisms producing the Chimney Rock normal fault array (San Rafael Swell, Utah, USA) are identified from detailed analyses of the structural components of the faults and their architecture. Faults in this area occur in four sets with oppositely dipping fault pairs striking ENE and WNW. The ENE-striking faults initially developed by formation of deformation bands and associated slip surfaces (deformation mechanism 1). After deformation band formation ceased, three sets of regional joints developed. The oldest two sets of the regional joints, including the most prominent WNW-striking set, were sheared. Localized deformation due to shearing of the WNW-striking regional joints formed WNW-striking map-scale normal faults. The formation mechanism of these faults can be characterized by the shearing of joints that produces splay joints, breccia, and eventually a core of fault rock (deformation mechanism 2). During this second phase of faulting, the ENE-striking faults were reactivated by shear across the slip surfaces and shearing of ENE-striking joints, producing localized splay joints and breccia (similar to deformation mechanism 2) superimposed onto a dense zone of deformation bands from the first phase. We found that new structural components are added to a fault zone as a function of increasing offset for both deformation mechanisms. Conversely, we estimated the magnitude of slip partitioned by the two mechanisms using the fault architecture and the component structures. Our analyses demonstrate that faults in a single rock type and location, with similar length and offset, but forming at different times and under different loading conditions, can have fundamentally different fault architecture. The impact by each mechanism on petrophysical properties of the fault is different. Deformation mechanism 1 produces deformations bands that can act as fluid baffles, whereas deformation mechanism 2 results in networks of joints and breccia that can act as preferred fluid conduits. Consequently, a detailed analysis of fault architecture is essential for establishing an accurate tectonic history, deformation path, and hydraulic properties of a faulted terrain.

  14. Desempenho de sistema decanto-digestor com filtro biológico seguido por alagado construído e reator solar no tratamento de esgoto doméstico / Performance of digester decant system with biological filter followed by constructed wetland and solar reactor in the treatment of domestic sewage

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Glícia Pinto Barra, Reinaldo; Rafael Oliveira, Batista; Paulo Cesar Moura da, Silva; Luis Cesar de Aquino, Lemos Filho; Miguel, Ferreira Neto; Delfran Batista dos, Santos.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou analisar o desempenho de sistema decanto-digestor com filtro biológico seguido por alagado construído e reator solar no tratamento de esgoto doméstico do assentamento rural Milagres em Apodi-RN. Nos meses de outubro e novembro de 2010 realizou-se o monitoramento do sist [...] ema 48 dias após o plantio do capim elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach). Foram coletadas amostras do esgoto doméstico nas distintas etapas de tratamento, em quatro repetições no tempo, para determinação de características físico-químicas e microbiológicas referentes ao desempenho do sistema. Os resultados indicaram que houve remoção significativa de turbidez, Demanda Bioquímica de Oxigênio, Demanda Química de Oxigênio, sólidos totais, sólidos suspensos, fósforo e óleos e graxas com o uso sistema decanto-digestor com filtros biológicos seguidos de alagado construído e reator solar; a associação de radiação solar média de 28,73 MJ m-2 d-1, lâmina de 0,10 m de efluente no reator e tempo de exposição solar de 12 horas permitiu remoção de até 99,99% dos coliformes termotolerantes no esgoto doméstico em Apodi-RN; e o efluente tratado apresenta padrão microbiológico satisfatório às diretrizes brasileiras para uso agrícola com restrição. Abstract in english This study aimed to analyze the performance of digester decant system with biological filter followed by constructed wetland and solar reactor in the treatment of domestic sewage from Milagres rural community in Apodi-RN. The treatment system was monitored for the period of October and November 2010 [...] , 48 days after planting Pennisetum purpureum Schumach. Samples of domestic sewage were collected at different stages of treatment, in four replications on time, to determine physicochemical and microbiological characteristics about the system performance. The results indicated significant removal of turbidity, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total solids, suspended solids, phosphorus and oil and grease using the set digester decant with biological filter, followed by constructed wetland and solar reactor; the association of average solar radiation of 28.73 MJ m-2 d-1, effluent depth of 0.10 m on reactor and time of sun exposure of 12 hours provided removal of fecal coliform up to 99.99% of domestic sewage in Apodi, RN, the treated effluent met microbiological standard of the Brazilian guidelines for agricultural use with restrictions.

  15. Development of 400/sup 0/F sealants for flat plate solar collector construction and installation. Final report, 1 October 1978-30 September 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, L.; Schubert, R.J.

    1980-03-01

    Twenty candidate sealants representing ten different polymer types were evaluated as potential solar collector sealants. Polymer types tested included epichlorohydrin rubber, EPDM rubber, silicone, polysulfide, acrylate rubber, and a fluoroelastomer. Initial screening of sealants consisted of measuring high temperature stability and adhesion retention. Several sealant compositions exhibited satisfactory performance in these tests and were selected for further evaluation. These materials were based on an EPDM rubber, a Viton fluoroelastomer, and silicone polymers. Further testing of these candidate materials included determination of adhesion retention under uv/water/heat conditions, fogging temperature, low temperature flexibility, and physical properties. Four silicone-based materials appeared to be suitable candidates for sealing solar collectors. These include Dow Corning 90-006-02 and 3120, General Electric 1200, and PR-1939 from Products Research and Chemical Corporation.

  16. Enhanced bilateral somatostatin receptor expression in mediastinal lymph nodes (''chimney sign'') in occult metastatic medullary thyroid cancer: a typical site of tumour manifestation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In medullary thyroid cancer (MTC), post-surgically elevated plasma calcitonin and/or carcinoembryonic antigen levels frequently indicate persisting metastatic disease, although conventional diagnostic procedures fail to localize the responsible lesions (occult disease). Somatostatin analogues have been used successfully in disease localization, but recently concerns have been raised that increased thoracic uptake of indium-111 pentetreotide in patients with previous external beam irradiation may represent a false-positive finding, caused by post-irradiation pulmonary fibrosis. We recently examined seven patients with metastatic MTC by somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (six with occult and one with established disease). In four patients, all of whom had stable or slowly rising tumour marker levels over several years, a chimney-like bilateral mediastinal uptake of indium-111 pentetreotide was found. In two patients with persisting hypercalcitonaemia immediately after primary surgery, supraclavicular lymph node metastases were identified as the responsible lesions. None of these seven patients had prior external beam radiation therapy. In two cases, histological confirmation was obtained. In one patient, disease progression could be shown during follow-up. These data suggest that bilateral mediastinal lymph node involvement is a typical site of disease in slowly progressing occult metastatic MTC; the ''chimney sign'' may represent a typical finding with somatostatin anant a typical finding with somatostatin analogues in such cases. Therefore, we believe that even in the case of prior external beam irradiation, mediastinal uptake of octreotide might represent metastatic MTC rather than radiation fibrosis. (orig.). With 2 figs., 1 tab

  17. Space Solar Power Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arif, H.; Barbosa, H.; Bardet, C.; Baroud, M.; Behar, A.; Berrier, K.; Berthe, P.; Bertrand, R.; Bibyk, I.; Bisson, J.; Bloch, L.; Bobadilla, G.; Bourque, D.; Bush, L.; Carandang, R.; Chiku, T.; Crosby, N.; De Seixas, M.; De Vries, J.; Doll, S.; Dufour, F.; Eckart, P.; Fahey, M.; Fenot, F.; Foeckersperger, S.; Fontaine, J.E.; Fowler, R.; Frey, H.; Fujio, H.; Gasa, J.M.; Gleave, J.; Godoe, J.; Green, I.; Haeberli, R.; Hanada, T.; Ha

    1992-08-01

    Information pertaining to the Space Solar Power Program is presented on energy analysis; markets; overall development plan; organizational plan; environmental and safety issues; power systems; space transportation; space manufacturing, construction, operations; design examples; and finance.

  18. Solar Water Heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon B. Gennetten

    Student teams design and build solar water heating devices that mimic those used in residences to capture energy in the form of solar radiation and convert it to thermal energy. In this activity, students gain a better understanding of the three different types of heat transfer, each of which plays a role in the solar water heater design. Once the model devices are constructed, students perform efficiency calculations and compare designs.

  19. Solar energy emplacement developer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Michael; Sauls, Bob

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary design was developed for a Lunar Power System (LPS) composed of photovoltaic arrays and microwave reflectors fabricated from lunar materials. The LPS will collect solar energy on the surface of the Moon, transform it into microwave energy, and beam it back to Earth where it will be converted into usable energy. The Solar Energy Emplacement Developer (SEED) proposed will use a similar sort of solar energy collection and dispersement to power the systems that will construct the LPS.

  20. Reflective Solar Cooker

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald Observatory

    2011-01-01

    In this activity, learners use the Sun's energy to cook marshmallows. Learners construct the solar oven out of simple everyday materials. They experiment to see how the color of the marshmallow (vanilla or chocolate) and height of the straws affect cooking time. Use this activity to introduce learners to solar energy and reflection. Note: this activity requires adult supervision.

  1. Solar Ready: An Overview of Implementation Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, A.; Guidice, L.; Lisell, L.; Doris, L.; Busche, S.

    2012-01-01

    This report explores three mechanisms for encouraging solar ready building design and construction: solar ready legislation, certification programs for solar ready design and construction, and stakeholder education. These methods are not mutually exclusive, and all, if implemented well, could contribute to more solar ready construction. Solar ready itself does not reduce energy use or create clean energy. Nevertheless, solar ready building practices are needed to reach the full potential of solar deployment. Without forethought on incorporating solar into design, buildings may be incompatible with solar due to roof structure or excessive shading. In these cases, retrofitting the roof or removing shading elements is cost prohibitive. Furthermore, higher up-front costs due to structural adaptations and production losses caused by less than optimal roof orientation, roof equipment, or shading will lengthen payback periods, making solar more expensive. With millions of new buildings constructed each year in the United States, solar ready can remove installation barriers and increase the potential for widespread solar adoption. There are many approaches to promoting solar ready, including solar ready legislation, certification programs, and education of stakeholders. Federal, state, and local governments have the potential to implement programs that encourage solar ready and in turn reduce barriers to solar deployment. With the guidance in this document and the examples of jurisdictions and organizations already working to promote solar ready building practices, federal, state, and local governments can guide the market toward solar ready implementation.

  2. Inventory of existing heat pump projects and the use of solar energy for heat pumps in the Dutch house construction sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the title inventory is to learn from the experiences with heat pump projects in the Netherlands. Descriptions are given of practical experiences with heat pump applications in the last 15 years in the housing sector. Possible and feasible heat pump system concepts are analyzed and energy balances and energy consumption are calculated. Special attention is paid to the use of solar energy in combination with electric (compression) heat pumps. One of the most important bottlenecks is the method and availability of heat extraction: the choice for the different options is determined by investment costs, permission, regulations, and local conditions. 14 refs., 4 appendices

  3. Survey of new forms of organization and financing constructions in the Dutch solar electricity market; Inventarisatie van nieuwe organisatievormen en financieringsconstructies in de Nederlandse zonnestroommarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meijer, M.; Laurensse, S.; Simon, T. [Adviesgroep Energie en Duurzaamheid, ARCADIS Nederland, Den Bosch (Netherlands)

    2011-01-15

    In the title project the focus is on organizations and projects in the Dutch market for solar electricity, characterized by: minimal dependence on subsidies (state aid), the removal of high initial investments by users (financing), and structures that can easily be extended or replicated (scale) [Dutch] In het titel project ligt de nadruk op organisaties en projecten in de Nederlandse markt die getypeerd zijn door: Minimale afhankelijkheid van subsidies (overheidssteun); het wegnemen van hoge initiele investeringen bij gebruikers (financiering); en constructies die eenvoudig kunnen worden uitgebreid of nagevolgd (schaalgrootte)

  4. Power plant construction. Plan, build, repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modern thermal power plants can now convert up to 90 % of the energy input into electricity. This increase in efficiency has been made possible through technological progress, but also through improvements in power plant construction. Despite a distinct rise in the proportion of renewable energies in electricity supplies, traditional power stations are still responsible for guaranteeing a large share of our energy supplies. Air pollution control, noise control, protection of natural waters and soils plus careful use of resources are the key themes in the design, construction and maintenance of power plants. Publishing house Ernst and Sohn provides competent, up-to-date information for civil and structural engineers entrusted with such challenging engineering tasks. The special issue ''Power Plant Construction'' brings together the appropriate articles from the journals ''Bautechnik'', ''Stahlbau'', ''Beton- und Stahlbetonbau'' and ''Geomechanics and Tunnelling''. The themes in this compendium cover a wide range of topics, including analysis and design of power plant installations, power station refurbishment and maintenance, special structures such as cooling towers, chimneys and boiler house frames plus the engineering aspects of coal-fired, nuclear and hydroelectric power stations. Reports on current products and projects complement the technical papers. (orig.)

  5. The Contribution of Ionizing Starts to the Far-Infrared and Radio Emission in the Milky Way: Evidence for a Swept-up Shell and Diffuse Ionized Halo Around the W4 Chimney/Supershell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terebey, Susan; Oliversen, R. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Normandeau have proposed that W4 is a galactic chimney, the only chimney to-date identified in our Galaxy. Using the recent approx. 1 min resolution IGA (Infrared Galaxy Atlas) and DRAO (Dominion Royal Astrophysical Observatory) CGPS (Canadian Galactic Plane Survey) galactic plane surveys we analyze the far-infrared and radio structure of the W 4 chimney/supershell. We show W4 has a swept-up partially ionized shell of gas and dust which is powered by the OCl 352 star cluster. Analysis of the dust column density establishes there is dense interstellar material below the shell, directly showing the dense material which caused the lower shell expansion to stall. Due to much lower densities above the Galactic plane, the upper W4 shell achieved 'breakout' to form a Galactic chimney. Although the shell appears ionization bounded, it is very inhomogenous and an ionized halo provides evidence of significant Lyman continuum leakage. A large fraction of the OCl 352 cluster photons escape to large distances and are available to ionize the WIM (warm ionized medium) component of the interstellar medium.

  6. In situ ore formation experiment: Amino acids and amino sugars trapped in artificial chimneys on deep-sea hydrothermal systems at Suiyo Seamount, Izu-Bonin Arc, Pacific Ocean

    CERN Document Server

    Takano,; Marumo,; K.,; Ebashi,; T.,; Gupta,; P., L; Kawahata,; H.,; Kobayashi,; K.,; Yamagishi,; A.,; Kuwabara,; T,

    2013-01-01

    The present study reports on the bio-organic composition of a deep-sea venting hydrothermal system originating from arc volcanism; the origin of the particulates in hydrothermal fluids from the Suiyo Seamount in the southern Izu-Bonin (Ogasawara) Arc is discussed with regard to amino compounds. Chimney samples on deep-sea hydrothermal systems and core samples at Suiyo Seamount were determined for amino acids, and occasionally amino sugars. Two types of chimney samples were obtained from active hydrothermal systems by submersible vehicles: one was natural chimney (NC) on a hydrothermal natural vent; the other was artificial chimneys (AC), mainly formed by the growth and deposition of sulfide-rich particulate components in a Kuwabara-type in situ incubator (KI incubator). Total hydrolyzed amino acids (THAA) and hydrolyzed hexosamines (HA) in AC ranged from 10.7 nmol/g to 64.0 nmol/g and from 0 nmol/g to 8.1 nmol/g, respectively, while THAA in hydrothermally altered core samples ranged from 26.0 nmol/g to 107.4 ...

  7. Seafloor mounds, craters and depressions linked to seismic chimneys breaching fossilized diagenetic bottom simulating reflectors in the central and southern Scotia Sea, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somoza, Luis; León, Ricardo; Medialdea, Teresa; Pérez, Lara F.; González, Francisco J.; Maldonado, Andrés

    2014-12-01

    Based on an extensive dataset including swath bathymetry, chirp sub-bottom profiler (TOPAS) and multichannel seismic reflection profiles obtained during four cruises in the Scotia Sea aboard the R/V Hespérides, we report a variety of seismic and morphological structures related to focused fluid flow in the Scan Basin (southern Scotia Sea) and the central Scotia Sea (Antarctica). We show that both positive-relief (mounds) and negative-relief (craters and elongated depressions) seafloor morphologies are associated with deep seismic chimneys that link the deep source zone to the subsurface structures through a network of fractures that progressively breach sub-horizontal bands of anomalously high-amplitude reflections. Based on the recognition that these bands of reflections generally mimic the seafloor topography and locally cross-cut the stratigraphic seismic reflections, we recognize three different bottom simulating reflectors (BSRs). According to the theoretical model for hydrate and silica diagenesis stability conditions in the central and southern Scotia Sea and the calculations of temperature and seismic polarity for the three BSRs, we infer that BSR-2 and BSR-3 are reflections caused by the transformation between Opal-A/Opal-CT and Opal-CT/Quartz, respectively. We thus postulate that the successive diagenetic fronts were caused by significantly high geothermal gradients during the early-middle Miocene. In contrast, the low temperatures calculated for the depth of the BSR-1 event rule out its diagenetic origin but delineate the base of the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ). An evolutionary model is proposed to explain the plumbing system and chimney structures that help the focused flow of gas-rich fluids to migrate into the subsurface. Firstly, the formation of silica transformation zones may have acted as reservoir traps during Neogene times. Secondly, the progressive decrease of heat flow during the late Pliocene and Quaternary favored the development of the networks of polygonal faults forming collapses and downward tapering chimneys. Finally, seafloor mounds are formed as a result of the continuous injection of gas-enriched fluids through these networks of fractures; they are transformed into gas hydrates above the present base of the GHSZ and move upwards by buoyancy drive as they lose density and increase their volume. We present these structures as type cases that might represent highly concentrated hydrates around local seafloor fluid venting structures. Furthermore, they may be one of the most important conduits into the ocean-atmosphere system for deep methane in the Antarctic seafloor. The breach of BSRs influenced by global warming may induce the catastrophic release of greenhouse gases to the ocean-atmosphere system and, in turn, impact on the Earth's evolution.

  8. Construction management

    CERN Document Server

    Pellicer, Eugenio; Teixeira, José C; Moura, Helder P; Catalá, Joaquín

    2014-01-01

    The management of construction projects is a wide ranging and challenging discipline in an increasingly international industry, facing continual challenges and demands for improvements in safety, in quality and cost control, and in the avoidance of contractual disputes. Construction Management grew out of a Leonardo da Vinci project to develop a series of Common Learning Outcomes for European Managers in Construction. Financed by the European Union, the project aimed to develop a library of basic materials for developing construction management skills for use in a pan-European context. Focused exclusively on the management of the construction phase of a building project from the contractor's point of view, Construction Management covers the complete range of topics of which mastery is required by the construction management professional for the effective delivery of new construction projects. With the continued internationalisation of the construction industry, Construction Management will be required rea...

  9. Solar energy in Amersfoort, Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the first time in the world a newly to be built housing area (Nieuwland in Amersfoort, Netherlands) will be constructed, exclusively on the basis of sustainability. First, the use of three forms of solar energy conversion techniques (thermal solar energy, passive solar energy and photovoltaic energy) is going to be integrated in 50 rental houses. At the end of this century 10,000 m2 of solar cells will be installed with a capacity of 1 MWp. 2 figs

  10. Solar Indices - Solar Irradiance

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  11. Solar Indices - Solar Flares

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  12. Enhancement of the potential biodegradability and the mineralization of a pesticides mixture after being treated by a coupled process of TiO2-based solar photocatalysis with constructed wetlands / Mejora de la biodegradabilidad potencial y la mineralización de una mezcla de pesticidas después de ser tratada con un sistema acoplado de fotocatálisis solar con TiO2 y humedales artificiales

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José, Colina-Márquez; Fiderman, Machuca-Martínez; Wilson, Salas.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La fotocatálisis solar homogénea es un proceso de oxidación avanzada que permite tratar de forma exitosa un gran número de contaminantes recalcitrantes, como: pesticidas, tintas industriales y compuestos farmacéuticos. No obstante, a pesar de su efectividad, los costos de aplicación de este proceso [...] son altos cuando se trata de alcanzar la mineralización completa o de obtener un efluente amigable con el medio ambiente. Los sistemas acoplados fotocatalítico-biológicos se han convertido en una alternativa factible para tratar de forma eficiente estos contaminantes. En este trabajo, un sistema acoplado de dos reactores solares de colectores parabólicos compuestos (CPC) y humedales artificiales de flujos sub-superficial (HFSS) a escala piloto se evaluó para degradar un mezcla de pesticidas comerciales usados en el cultivo de la caña de azúcar. Para medir el desempeño del proceso para eliminar el contaminante, se estimaron el aumento de la relación DBO5/DQO y la reducción del carbono orgánico total (COT) para cada sistema por separado y para el acople. Se consideraron tres diferentes niveles de radiación solar UV acumulada y de flujos de alimentación al HFSS en el diseño experimental. La relación DBO5/DQO aumentó de 0.15 a 0.90 y la reducción de COT (mineralización total) estuvo alrededor del 80% Abstract in english Solar heterogeneous photocatalysis is an advanced oxidation technology, which allows a successful treatment of many recalcitrant and emergent pollutants, such as: pesticides, industrial dyes and pharmaceutical compounds. Nonetheless, despite its effectiveness, the costs of applying this process are [...] high when it is necessary to achieve a complete mineralization or to obtain an environment-friendly effluent. Photocatalytic-biological coupled systems have become in a feasible alternative able to treat efficiently these pollutants. In this work, a coupled system consistent of two compound parabolic collectors (CPC) solar photoreactors and a subsurface flow constructed wetland (SFCW) at pilot-scale was tested for degrading a mixture of commercial pesticides used in sugar cane crops. For measuring the process performance, regarding to the pollutant removal, the increase of the BOD5/COD ratio and the total organic carbon (TOC) removal were estimated for each separated system and the coupled system. Three different levels of solar UV accumulated energy and feed flow-rates to the SFCW were considered for the experimental design. The pilot-scale coupled system increased the BOD5/COD ratio from 0.15 to 0.90, and the TOC removal (total mineralization) was around 80%

  13. Improved performance of hybrid ZnO/polymer solar cell via construction of hierarchical nanostructures and surface modification of ZnO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruankham, Pipat; Yoshikawa, Susumu; Sagawa, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Photovoltaic performance of hybrid ZnO/polymer solar cell is enhanced through the addition of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) onto ZnO nanorod arrays (NRs), and surface modification with squaraine (Sq). The cluster of NPs at the end of NRs is formed during spin coating process but poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), as electron donor, is able to infiltrate into the rod-to-rod space, as confirmed by zero-loss energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (zero-loss EFTEM) observation. Due to the increase in ZnO/P3HT interface area, the NP-coated NR device shows power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 0.49%, which is higher than that of the pristine ZnO NRs/P3HT one (0.26%). Further improvement is achieved by the adsorption of Sq onto the NP-coated ZnO NR surfaces. After the dye-modification, the P3HT infiltration is poorer than the unmodified one. This leads to the ZnO NRs/Sq/air interface, where exciton separation does not occur. However, due to the large surface area of NPs and the light absorption in near IR region of Sq, the PCE increased to 1.37% with relatively higher short circuit current density as compared with the case without the NPs and Sq.

  14. Basic study for the construction of solar cell using CdS photocatalysts and Na{sub 2}S{sub 4} electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mabuchi, Takashi, E-mail: hideyuki@mail.kankyo.tohoku.ac.jp; Hayashi, Tsugumi, E-mail: hideyuki@mail.kankyo.tohoku.ac.jp; Takahashi, Hideyuki, E-mail: hideyuki@mail.kankyo.tohoku.ac.jp; Tohji, Kazuyuki, E-mail: hideyuki@mail.kankyo.tohoku.ac.jp [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan)

    2013-12-10

    Photoexcited electrons pathway from thin film consisting of semiconductor particles to electrode was tried to develop by using conducting polymers. PEDOT/PSS and polyaniline was selected as transparent conducting polymer material. In the case of the cell consisted by using polyaniline, it was confirmed that conductive emeraldine salt stated polyaniline converted to non-conductive emeraldine base state because of contact with strong basic Na{sub 2}S{sub 4} electrolyte solution. On the other hand, as regards the cell with PEDOT/PSS, it was expected that positive and negative electrode short-circuited and/or Schottky junction was formed between CdS and PEDOT/PSS. The formation of Schottky junction between CdS and PEDOT/PSS was reduced the kinetic energy of the photoexcited electrons to 5.1eV which was the Fermi level of PEDOT. These electrons could not reduce Na{sub 2}S{sub 4} electrolyte solution since oxidation-reduction potential was 4.1eV. As a result, it considered that photoexcited electrons transfer was restricted, which read the decreasement of mobility of photoexcited electron, while the cell “without” PEDOT/PSS could operate as a solar cell.

  15. 76 FR 60475 - Issuance of a Loan Guarantee to Tonopah Solar Energy, LLC, for the Crescent Dunes Solar Energy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ...ENERGY Issuance of a Loan Guarantee to Tonopah Solar Energy, LLC, for the Crescent Dunes Solar Energy Project AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy...Act of 2009 (Recovery Act), to Tonopah Solar Energy, LLC (TSE), for construction and...

  16. Constructing Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firlik, Russ

    1997-01-01

    Construction in and around a school building can be disruptive. With planning, communication, and a willingness to be creative, a school can run smoothly and construction can also be used as a learning opportunity for students. (MLF)

  17. Constructive Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calder, Allan

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the question of whether mathematics is discovered or invented. An approach known as constructive mathematics and based on the belief that mathematics can have real meaning if its concepts can be constructed by the human mind is presented. (HM)

  18. Solar Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

    Students learn about solar energy and how to calculate the amount of solar energy available at a given location and time of day on Earth. The importance of determining incoming solar energy for solar devices is discussed.

  19. Solar Lentigo

    Science.gov (United States)

    newsletter | contact Share | Solar Lentigo Information for adults A A A This image displays many solar lentigos due to the patient having many sunburns as a child and teenager. Overview A solar lentigo (plural, solar lentigines), also known as a ...

  20. Cooking with the Sun. How To Build and Use Solar Cookers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halacy, Beth; Halacy, Dan

    For those working with solar energy and/or conservation and the careful use of resources, constructing a solar oven can be a fun and useful activity. This book describes the construction and use of solar ovens for cooking. Construction details are provided for two inexpensive solar ovens and a reflector hot plate that can then be used to cook 100…

  1. Prospectives for China's solar thermal power technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhifeng [Key Laboratory of Solar Thermal Energy and Photovoltaic System of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Electrical Engineering, P.O. Box 2703, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2010-11-15

    China's total installed electrical power capacity reached 700 GW by the end of 2007 and is predicted to surpass 900 GW in 2010. The rapid increase in energy demand and increasing global warming have both pushed China to change its current electrical power structure where coal power accounts for nearly 75% of the total electric power generation. China has already become the world's largest solar water heater producer and user. However, there is still much to be done in the solar thermal power field before its commercialization. Solar thermal power technologies including solar power towers, solar parabolic trough concentrators, solar dish/stirling systems, linear Fresnel reflectors, and solar chimneys have been studied in China since the 1980s. A 10 kW dish/stirling project was funded by the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) during 2000-2005 with a 1 MW solar power tower and research of trough concentrator metal-glass evacuated tubes supported during 2006-2010. This paper describes a continued solar thermal power development roadmap in China in 5-year intervals between 2006 and 2025. (author)

  2. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for earth science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    A teaching manual is provided to aid teachers in introducing renewable energy topics to earth science students. The main emphasis is placed on solar energy. Activities for the student include a study of the greenhouse effect, solar gain for home heating, measuring solar radiation, and the construction of a model solar still to obtain fresh water. Instructions for the construction of apparatus to demonstrate a solar still, the greenhouse effect and measurement of the altitude and azimuth of the sun are included. (BCS)

  3. System analysis of a PV/T hybrid solar window

    OpenAIRE

    Davidsson, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    A building-integrated multifunctional PV/T solar window was suggested and developed by Andreas Fieber. The solar window is constructed of PV cells laminated on solar absorbers placed in a window behind the glazing. To reduce the costs of solar electricity, tiltable reflectors have been introduced in the construction to focus radiation onto the solar cells. The reflectors make it possible to control the amount of radiation transmitted into the building. The insulated reflectors also reduce the...

  4. Construction management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PEFP, Proton Engineering Frontier Project, puts its aim to building 100MeV 20mA linear proton accelerator which is national facility for NT, BT, IT, and future technologies, expected to boost up the national industry competitiveness. This R and D, Construction Management is in charge of the supportive works as site selection, architecture and engineering of conventional facilities, and overall construction management. The major goals of this work are as follows: At first, architecture and engineering of conventional facilities. Second, construction management, audit and inspection on construction of conventional facilities. Lastly, cooperation with the project host organization for adjusting technical issues of overall construction. In this research, We made a conceptual design, basic design and detail design of conventional facilities. Also, we made the engineering support for host site construction as follows : selection of project host organization and host site selection, construction technical work for project host organization and procedure management and impact analysis on the delay of project site selection

  5. Occurrence and distribution of seismic chimneys associated with gas hydrate using 2D multi-channel seismic data in the Ulleung Basin, East Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Nyeon-keon; Yoo, Dong-geun; Yi, Bo-yeon

    2015-04-01

    This study presents an interpretation of 2D multi-channel seismic data for the seismic chimneys in the Ulleung Basin, East Sea. Based on the geometry, seismic reflection pattern, well log response and lithology, we identified two representative types: (a) Type-I and Type-II. Type-I is pipe-like feature seen as the vertically stacked distorted reflectors in the seismic profile. This type is predominantly distributed on the northern part of the basin floor. Most of Type-I is connected to underlying deep seated fault. The well log response and lithology of Type-I indicate that they preserve the primary properties of sediments. Type-II is cone-like feature seen as transparent or chaotic reflection pattern in the seismic profile. The well log interpretation reveals that the Type-II consists of homogeneous and monotonous mud, different from same stratigraphic level. This type dominantly appeared over the mass transport deposit. Moreover, the distribution of Type-II represents a robust relationship to the underlying structural highs located on the northern and eastern basin floor. Our current study suggests that Type-I is a consequence of the natural hydraulic fracturing and Type-II results from the intrusive sediment remobilization. Indeed, the underlying structural highs and mass transport deposit mainly influenced the distribution of Type-II. The deep-seated fault, reactivated during the Quaternary, probably developed the Type-I.

  6. Thoracic type Ia endoleak: direct percutaneous coil embolization of the aortic arch at the blood entry site after TEVAR and double-chimney stent-grafts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bangard, Christopher; Franke, Mareike; Maintz, David; Chang, De-Hua [University Hospital, University of Cologne, Department of Radiology, Cologne (Germany); Pfister, Roman [University Hospital, University of Cologne, Department of Internal Medicine III, Cologne (Germany); Deppe, Antje-Christin [University Hospital, University of Cologne, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Cologne (Germany); Matoussevitch, Vladimir [University Hospital, University of Cologne, Department of Vascular Surgery, Cologne (Germany)

    2014-06-15

    To introduce a novel percutaneous technique to stop blood entry at the lesser aortic arch curvature by coil embolisation in type Ia endoleak after TEVAR. A 61-year-old Marfan patient presented with type Ia endoleak of the aortic arch and a growing aortic arch pseudoaneurysm after TEVAR. Multiple preceding operations and interventions made an endovascular approach unsuccessful. Direct percutaneous puncture of the aneurysmal sac would have cured the sign, but not the cause of blood entry at the lesser curvature of the aortic arch. Direct CT-guided percutaneous puncture of the blood entry site in the aortic arch with fluoroscopically guided coil embolisation using detachable extra-long coils was successfully performed. Three weeks after the intervention, the patient developed fever because of superinfection of the pseudoaneurysm. The blood cultures and CT-guided mediastinal aspirate were sterile. After intravenous administration of antibiotics, the fever disappeared and the patient recovered. Six-month follow-up showed permanent closure of the endoleak and a shrinking aneurysmal sac. Direct percutaneous puncture of the aortic arch at the blood entry site of a thoracic type Ia endoleak after TEVAR and double-chimney stent-grafts with coil embolisation of the wedge-shaped space between the lesser aortic curvature and the stent-graft is possible. (orig.)

  7. Thoracic type Ia endoleak: direct percutaneous coil embolization of the aortic arch at the blood entry site after TEVAR and double-chimney stent-grafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To introduce a novel percutaneous technique to stop blood entry at the lesser aortic arch curvature by coil embolisation in type Ia endoleak after TEVAR. A 61-year-old Marfan patient presented with type Ia endoleak of the aortic arch and a growing aortic arch pseudoaneurysm after TEVAR. Multiple preceding operations and interventions made an endovascular approach unsuccessful. Direct percutaneous puncture of the aneurysmal sac would have cured the sign, but not the cause of blood entry at the lesser curvature of the aortic arch. Direct CT-guided percutaneous puncture of the blood entry site in the aortic arch with fluoroscopically guided coil embolisation using detachable extra-long coils was successfully performed. Three weeks after the intervention, the patient developed fever because of superinfection of the pseudoaneurysm. The blood cultures and CT-guided mediastinal aspirate were sterile. After intravenous administration of antibiotics, the fever disappeared and the patient recovered. Six-month follow-up showed permanent closure of the endoleak and a shrinking aneurysmal sac. Direct percutaneous puncture of the aortic arch at the blood entry site of a thoracic type Ia endoleak after TEVAR and double-chimney stent-grafts with coil embolisation of the wedge-shaped space between the lesser aortic curvature and the stent-graft is possible. (orig.)

  8. Tratamento Endovascular de Aneurisma de Aorta Abdominal pela Técnica de Chaminé / Endovascular Repair of Abdominal Aortic Aneurism Using the Chimney Graft Technique

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adriano Gonçalves de, Araujo; Fábio Henrique Ribeiro de, Souza; Fernando Henrique, Fernandes; Flávio Passos, Barbosa; José Antônio, Jatene; Paulo Cézar Guimarães, Câmara.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Paciente idoso, portador de insuficiência renal não dialítica e doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica dependente de oxigênio, foi admitido no pronto-socorro com quadro de dor abdominal lancinante. A angiotomografia de abdome revelou a presença de grande aneurisma aórtico com comprometimento das artéria [...] s viscerais. Devido ao elevado risco cirúrgico, foi proposto o tratamento endovascular pela técnica de chaminé para a preservação dos vasos viscerais. Essa técnica mostra-se promissora por permitir o reparo endovascular desses aneurismas, seja em casos eletivos, em situações de urgência/emergência ou de resgate de uma artéria visceral acidentalmente encoberta por uma endoprótese aórtica. Abstract in english An elderly patient with non-dialysis renal failure and oxygendependent chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was admitted to the emergency room with lancinating abdominal pain. Angiotomography of the abdomen revealed the presence of a large aortic aneurysm with involvement of visceral arteries. Due [...] to the high surgical risk, endovascular repair was proposed, using the chimney graft technique for the preservation of the visceral vessels. This technique is promising because it enables endovascular repair of aneurysms, be it in elective cases, emergencies, or rescue of a visceral artery accidentally covered by an aortic stent graft.

  9. Construction aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, T.I.; Bolen, W.P.

    2007-01-01

    Construction aggregates, primarily stone, sand and gravel, are recovered from widespread naturally occurring mineral deposits and processed for use primarily in the construction industry. They are mined, crushed, sorted by size and sold loose or combined with portland cement or asphaltic cement to make concrete products to build roads, houses, buildings, and other structures. Much smaller quantities are used in agriculture, cement manufacture, chemical and metallurgical processes, glass production and many other products.

  10. Sexy Constructions

    OpenAIRE

    Juhl, Sidsel Sara

    2009-01-01

    Sexy Constructions is a project that treats the notion of gender. It seeks to investigate the tension created between two poles: the idea of a socially constructed gender and the idea of one based on essence. The project introduces theories by Judith Butler, Anne-Fausto Sterling, and Diana Fuss which all represent an anti-essentialist standpoint. As an object of analysis, the project scrutinizes the book "Ta' Mig" by Danish sexologist Joan Ørting. She offers advice to modern relationships, a...

  11. Worldwide construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper lists major construction projects in worldwide processing and pipelining, showing capacities, contractors, estimated costs, and time of construction. The lists are divided into refineries, petrochemical plants, sulfur recovery units, gas processing plants, pipelines, and related fuel facilities. This last classification includes cogeneration plants, coal liquefaction and gasification plants, biomass power plants, geothermal power plants, integrated coal gasification combined-cycle power plants, and a coal briquetting plant

  12. Job creation potential of solar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document defines the size of the job market within Canada's solar industry and presents a preliminary forecast of the employment opportunities through to 2025. The issue of job potential within Canada's solar technologies is complicated by the wide range of different fields and technologies within the solar industry. The largest energy generator of the solar technologies is passive solar, but the jobs in this sector are generally in the construction trades and window manufacturers. The Canadian Solar Industries Association estimates that there are about 360 to 500 firms in Canada with the primary business of solar technologies, employing between 900 to 1,200 employees. However, most solar manufacturing jobs in Canada are for products exports as demonstrated by the 5 main solar manufacturers in Canada who estimate that 50 to 95 per cent of their products are exported. The main reason for their high export ratio is the lack of a Canadian market for their products. The 3 categories of job classifications within the solar industry include manufacturing, installation, and operations and maintenance. The indirect jobs include photovoltaic system hardware, solar hot water heating, solar air ventilation, and glass/metal framing. 17 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

  13. Solar Energy Education. Home economics: student activities. Field test edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-01

    A view of solar energy from the standpoint of home economics is taken in this book of activities. Students are provided information on solar energy resources while performing these classroom activities. Instructions for the construction of a solar food dryer and a solar cooker are provided. Topics for study include window treatments, clothing, the history of solar energy, vitamins from the sun, and how to choose the correct solar home. (BCS)

  14. Construction safety

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Rita Yi Man

    2013-01-01

    A close-to-ideal blend of suburb and city, speedy construction of towers of Babylon, the sparkling proportion of glass and steel buildings’ facade at night showcase the wisdom of humans. They also witness the footsteps, sweats and tears of architects and engineers. Unfortunately, these signatures of human civilizations are swathed in towering figures of construction accidents. Fretting about these on sites, different countries adopt different measures on sites. This book firstly sketches the construction accidents on sites, followed by a review on safety measures in some of the developing countries such as Bermuda, Egypt, Kuwait and China; as well as developed countries, for example, the United States, France and Singapore. It also highlights the enormous compensation costs with the courts’ experiences in the United Kingdom and Hong Kong.

  15. Constructive Criticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberfeld, Lawrence

    1982-01-01

    Many crucial questions need to be answered before a college embarks on a construction project and makes a substantial financial commitment. Computer modeling techniques can be used to make even complex project feasibility analyses. Available from Peat, Marwick, Mitchell & Co., 345 Park Avenue, New York, NY 10154. (MSE)

  16. Solar Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    This educational brief provides an overview of solar activity, including a description of Earth's magnetosphere and of various solar phenomena such as the solar wind, Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs), sunspots, solar flares, and others. A list of links to additional material is also provided.

  17. 78 FR 63276 - Interim Policy, FAA Review of Solar Energy System Projects on Federally Obligated Airports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ...Interim Policy, FAA Review of Solar Energy System Projects on Federally Obligated...obligated airports to construct solar energy systems on airport property. FAA...measuring ocular impact of proposed solar energy systems which are effective...

  18. MINIPILOT SOLAR SYSTEM: DESIGN/OPERATION OF SYSTEM AND RESULTS OF NON-SOLAR TESTING AT MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Minipilot Solar Reactor System (MSRS) with liquid organic feed was designed, constructed and tested without solar input (the Solar Tests were to be done later at DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory). he non-solar tests were done to determine whether use of EPA's sampling...

  19. Airship construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roda, J.

    1975-01-01

    Forty-four years ago the first successful metal airship was completed and delivered to the United States Navy, the ZMC-2. Between those years and the present, very little effort or serious consideration has been given to the manufacture, design, construction, or economic impact of airships. It is important to retain and exploit the small but continually diminishing pool of airship talent that will expedite the success of the United States in what is now a pioneering venture. The relative simplicity of airship construction, utilizing the tremendous technical advances of the last 44 years, leads to the conclusion that this form of transportation holds great promise for reducing costs of military missions and improving the international competitive position of the United States in commercial applications.

  20. Theory Construction

    OpenAIRE

    Sallantin, Jean; Cerri, Stefano A.

    2012-01-01

    Theory construction is a process, i.e., a set of state changes by an autonomous agent, or by an organism composed of several autonomous agents. In the first case, we may recall the approach of Pierce (1931) that considers three logical operations (inference rules) on a knowledge base, i.e., a set of propositions asserted to be valid: abduction, deduction, and induction. Abduction generates new hypotheses from which deduction derives predictions to be confirmed by experience. The confirmed hyp...

  1. Solar Water Heating with Low-Cost Plastic Systems (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-01-01

    Newly developed solar water heating technology can help Federal agencies cost effectively meet the EISA requirements for solar water heating in new construction and major renovations. This document provides design considerations, application, economics, and maintenance information and resources.

  2. DUALPURPOSE SOLAR OVEN

    OpenAIRE

    S H Sengar; A.K. Kurchania

    2010-01-01

    Dual purpose solar oven (DPSO) was designed and constructed. It observed that by using the new design of solar oven, both function of cooking and drying were possible for meeting the requirement of a family. The maximum stagnation temperature of 119°C and water temperature of 93.25°C were obtained in winter in DPSO while using as cooker. The calculated values of figure of merit F in DPSO was 0.119 and the time duration 1 for raising water temperature from 60 C to 90°C in hot box was 120 mi...

  3. Solar energy technologies and project delivery for buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Walker, Andy

    2013-01-01

    An authoritative reference, complete with applications, operating principles, and simple tools for construction, engineering, and design professionals Solar Energy: Technologies and Project Delivery for Buildings enables mainstream MEP engineering, construction, and architectural design firms to meet the growing demand for solar energy in building projects. It provides technical and design information usually only known to solar energy specialists, and simplifies solar design and engineering processes. The sample documentation in this guide enables a staff engineer at a

  4. Achievement report for fiscal 1997. Technological development for practical application of a solar energy power generation system/development of technology to manufacture thin film solar cells (development of technology to manufacture applied type thin film solar cells with new construction) (development of technology to manufacture micro light collection type solar cells); 1997 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, oyogata shinkozo usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (micro shukogata taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    These technological developments are intended to demonstrate module efficiency of a micro light collection type solar cell of 15% by fiscal 2000, and obtain prospect on the module manufacturing cost of 140 yen per watt. Discussions given during fiscal 1997 are as follows: development has been performed on a design method to decide construction of a non-tracking micro light collection type module; in the state of cells being integrated on the module, the cells are arranged minutely and discretely, whereas, with discussions on a method to form them and assessment of the optical system as the main objective, single crystal silicon solar cells with a size smaller than 5 mm were fabricated on a trial basis; problems of forming micro cells by using the wafer cutting process were clarified; micro cells operating on light collection were fabricated trially to extract technological problems in light collecting operation and discuss technical problems in mass production; and development was performed on an evaluation method to analyze the cells' light collecting operation, and discussions were given on a method to estimate power generation amount from the light collection type modules. (NEDO)

  5. Solar Collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Solar Energy's solar panels are collectors for a solar energy system which provides heating for a drive-in bank in Akron, OH. Collectors were designed and manufactured by Solar Energy Products, a firm established by three former NASA employees. Company President, Frank Rom, an example of a personnel-type technology transfer, was a Research Director at Lewis Research Center, which conducts extensive solar heating and cooling research, including development and testing of high-efficiency flat-plate collectors. Rom acquired solar energy expertise which helped the company develop two types of collectors, one for use in domestic/commercial heating systems and the other for drying grain.

  6. Boom Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    AMPS GK-12 Program,

    Student teams design their own booms (bridges) and engage in a friendly competition with other teams to test their designs. Each team strives to design a boom that is light, can hold a certain amount of weight, and is affordable to build. Teams are also assessed on how close their design estimations are to the final weight and cost of their boom "construction." This activity teaches students how to simplify the math behind the risk and estimation process that takes place at every engineering firm prior to the bidding phase—when an engineering firm calculates how much money it will take to build the project and then "bids" against other competitors.

  7. Solar Special

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solar power is growing much faster than most policymakers and analysts realise. As costs come down and feed-in tariffs go up across Europe, a number of countries have started in pursuit of market leader Germany. But in Germany criticism is growing of the multi-billion-euro support schemes that keep the solar industry booming. In this section of the magazine several articles are dedicated to developments in solar energy in Europe. The first article is an overview story on the strong growing global market for solar cells, mainly thanks to subsidy schemes. The second article is on the position of foreign companies in the solar market in Italy. Article number three is dedicated to the conditions for solar technology companies to establish themselves in the German state of Saxony. Also the fifth article deals with the development of solar cells in Saxony: scientists, plant manufacturers and module producers in Saxony are working on new technologies that can be used to produce solar electricity cost-effectively. The goal is to bring the price down to match that of conventionally generated electricity within the next few years. The sixth article deals with the the solar power market in Belgium, which may be overheated or 'oversubsidized'. Article seven is on France, which used to be a pioneer in solar technology, but now produces only a fraction of the solar output of market leader Germany. However, new attractive feed-in-tariffs are changing the solar landscape drastically changing the solar landscape drastically

  8. Solar Imagery

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of solar photographic and illustrated datasets contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide....

  9. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for junior high/middle school science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    Some basic topics on the subject of solar energy are outlined in the form of a teaching manual. The manual is geared toward junior high or middle school science students. Topics include solar collectors, solar water heating, solar radiation, insulation, heat storage, and desalination. Instructions for the construction of apparatus to demonstrate the solar energy topics are provided. (BCS)

  10. Solar Neutrinos

    OpenAIRE

    V. Antonelli; L. Miramonti; Pena-Garay, C.; Serenelli, A

    2012-01-01

    The study of solar neutrinos has given since ever a fundamental contribution both to astroparticle and to elementary particle physics, offering an ideal test of solar models and offering at the same time relevant indications on the fundamental interactions among particles. After reviewing the striking results of the last two decades, which were determinant to solve the long standing solar neutrino puzzle and refine the Standard Solar Model, we focus our attention on the more...

  11. Solar Neutrinos

    OpenAIRE

    McDonald, A. B.

    2002-01-01

    Present results and future measurements of solar neutrinos are discussed. The results to date indicate that solar electron neutrinos are changing to other active types and that transitions solely to sterile neutrinos are disfavored. The flux of $^{8}B$ solar neutrinos produced in the Sun, inferred assuming only active neutrino types, is found to be in very good agreement with solar model calculations. Future measurements will focus on greater accuracy for charged current...

  12. Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ms. Wright

    2009-10-09

    An introduction to to the solar system. How to distinguish between the different planets. Activities to play while getting to know the solar system. Cosmic Cookies Solar System Scavenger Hunt Edible Earth Strawkets and Control Strawkets and Thrust Strawkets and Weight ...

  13. Solar urticaria

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivas C; Fergusson James; Shenoi Shrutakirthi; Pai Satish

    1995-01-01

    A 35-year-old female and a 41-year-old male presented with clinical features suggestive of solar urticaria. The diagnosis of solar urticaria and the effectiveness of a combination of H1 and H2 blocking antihistamines were confirmed by phototesting with a solar simulator

  14. Integrated photoelectrochemical energy storage: solar hydrogen generation and supercapacitor

    OpenAIRE

    Xinhui Xia; Jingshan Luo; Zhiyuan Zeng; Cao Guan; Yongqi Zhang; Jiangping Tu; Hua Zhang; Hong Jin Fan

    2012-01-01

    Current solar energy harvest and storage are so far realized by independent technologies (such as solar cell and batteries), by which only a fraction of solar energy is utilized. It is highly desirable to improve the utilization efficiency of solar energy. Here, we construct an integrated photoelectrochemical device with simultaneous supercapacitor and hydrogen evolution functions based on TiO2/transition metal hydroxides/oxides core/shell nanorod arrays. The feasibility of solar-driven pseud...

  15. Solar Water Heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-27

    Learners work in teams to design and build solar water heating devices that mimic those used in residences to capture energy in the form of solar radiation and convert it to thermal energy. This thermal energy is next transferred to water (to be used as domestic hot water) in the form of heat. In doing this, learners gain a better understanding of the three different types of heat transfer, each of which plays a role in the solar water heater design. Once the model devices are constructed, learners perform efficiency calculations and compare designs. Note: part of this activity must be conducted outdoors on a sunny day (it is okay if it's cold, but it must be sunny).

  16. Solar thermal and concentrated solar power barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European concentrated solar power plant market is steeling itself for tough time ahead. The number of projects under construction is a pittance compared with 2012 that was an excellent year for installations (an additional 802.5 MW of capacity recorded). This drop is the result of the moratorium on renewable energy power plants introduced by the Spanish government. The European solar thermal market is hardly any more encouraging . EurObserv'ER holds that it slipped for the fourth year in a row (it dropped 5.5% between 2011 and 2012). The newly-installed solar thermal collector surface area in the EU now stands at 3.4 million m2, far short of its 2008 installation record of 4.6 million m2. The EU's solar thermal base to date at the end of 2012 is 29.6 GWth with 2.4 GWth installed during the year 2012. This article gives tables gathering the figures of the production for every European country for 2012 and describes the market and the general trend for every EU member

  17. Solar Models and Solar Neutrinos

    OpenAIRE

    Bahcall, John N.

    2003-01-01

    I summarize 40 years of development of the standard solar model that is used to predict solar neutrino fluxes and then describe the current uncertainties in the predictions. I will also attempt to explain why it took so long, about three and a half decades, to reach a consensus view that new physics is being learned from solar neutrino experiments.

  18. Study on Construction Cost of Construction Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Hui Li

    2009-01-01

    China is a country which has the largest investment amount in engineering construction in the world and which has the most construction projects. It is a significant subject for the extensive engineering managers to have effective engineering cost management in construction project management and to reasonably determine and control construction cost on the condition of ensuring construction quality and time limit.On the basis of the status quo of losing control in Chinese construction investm...

  19. Design of SMART waste heat removal dry cooling tower using solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 85% of cooling system are once-through cooling system and closed cycle wet cooling system. However, many countries are trying to reduce the power plant water requirement due to the water shortage and water pollution. Dry cooling system is investigated for water saving advantage. There are two dry cooling system which are direct and indirect cooling system. In direct type, turbine exhaust is directly cooled by air-cooled condenser. In indirect system, turbine steam is cooled by recirculating intermediate cooling water loop, then the loop is cooled by air-cooled heat exchanger in cooling tower. In this paper, the purpose is to remove SMART waste heat, 200MW by using newly designed tower. The possibility of enhancing cooling performance by solar energy is analyzed. The simple cooling tower and solar energy cooling tower are presented and two design should meet the purpose of removing SMART waste heat, 200MW. In first design, when tower diameter is 70m, the height of tower should be 360m high. In second design, the chimney height decrease from 360m to 180m as collector radius increase from 100m to 500m due to collector temperature enhancement by solar energy, To analyze solar cooling tower further, consideration of solar energy performance at night should be analyzed

  20. Building and using the solar greenhouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1983-01-01

    Thorough directions are given for planning, constructing and using a solar greenhouse attached to a house. Included is a method of calculating the savings accruing from the use of the greenhouse. (LEW)

  1. A convective model of solar granulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A convective model of solar granulation is constructed from the numerical integrations of the non-linear equations which describe finite amplitude convection in a compressive medium with polytropic structure

  2. Shuttle Engine Designs Revolutionize Solar Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Main Engine was built under contract to Marshall Space Flight Center by Rocketdyne, now part of Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR). PWR applied its NASA experience to solar power technology and licensed the technology to Santa Monica, California-based SolarReserve. The company now develops concentrating solar power projects, including a plant in Nevada that has created 4,300 jobs during construction.

  3. Solar heat utilization for adsorption cooling device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcho Milan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with possibility of solar system connection with adsorption cooling system. Waste heat from solar collectors in summer is possible to utilize in adsorption cooling systems, which desorption temperatures have to be lower than temperature of heat transport medium operation temperature. For verification of work of this system was constructed on the Department of power engineering on University of Zilina solar adsorption cooling device.

  4. A Theory of Acoustics in Solar Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Himanshu Dehra

    2013-01-01

    A novel theory of acoustics in solar energy supporting the principle of source and sink of solar energy is presented. The significance of the theory is in ascertaining the aftermaths of turning off solar energy. An amplifier constituting of a parallel plate photovoltaic device connected to a potentiometer is illustrated. It was constructed with a pair of glass coated photovoltaic modules and polystyrene filled plywood board as back panel with air ventilation through a parallel plate channel ...

  5. Solar heat utilization for adsorption cooling device

    OpenAIRE

    Malcho Milan; Patsch Marek; Pilát Peter

    2012-01-01

    This article deals with possibility of solar system connection with adsorption cooling system. Waste heat from solar collectors in summer is possible to utilize in adsorption cooling systems, which desorption temperatures have to be lower than temperature of heat transport medium operation temperature. For verification of work of this system was constructed on the Department of power engineering on University of Zilina solar adsorption cooling device.

  6. Solar House

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendy Van Norden

    In this activity students work in teams to design and build a model of a solar house after researching several websites. Students will discover that a solar house takes advantage of solar energy to minimize the use of traditional energy sources and can include design elements that take advantage of the sun's rays to light and heat the house, to heat water, and to set up a favorable flow of air. They also learn that many solar houses contain a solar mass that will absorb the heat during the day and release it slowly at night and a passive solar house will also take into account the angle of the sun's rays, to maximize heating during the winter and shade during the summer. This site contains all of the specifications for planning, building, and testing the model and a rubric for grading the project.

  7. Solar Buildings Research Network: a brief overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes Solar Buildings Research Network (SBRN). Partners and linkages of this program are universities, government, manufacturers, construction industry, engineers, architects and utilities. The vision of SBRN is the development of the solar-optimized building as an integrated advanced technological system that will average zero-energy target and be cost effective

  8. English airplane construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwencke, D

    1930-01-01

    English airplane construction is presented with a particular emphasis on metal construction techniques. Steel rib and fuselage construction are discussed as well as the use of duralumin in construction.

  9. Design, construction, operation, and evaluation of solar systems for industrial process-heat applications in the intermediate-temperature range (212/sup 0/F to 550/sup 0/F). Environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1982-01-01

    The environmental impacts are assessed for a proposed 50,000 square foot field of single axis tracking, concentrating solar collectors along the Ohio River in southern Ohio. The facility is planned to produce process steam for use in the production of polystyrene. Absorbed solar energy would heat an aliphatic hydrocarbon synthetic heat transfer fluid to a maximum temperature of 500/sup 0/F. The existing environment is briefly described, particularly regarding air quality. The potential environmental impacts of the solar process heat system on the air, water, soil, endangered species and archaeological and historical resources are examined, including risks due to flood and glare and a comparison of alternatives. Also included are a Consent Judgment relating to two coal-fired boilers in violation of EPA regulations, property data of Gulf Synfluid 4CS (a candidate heat transfer fluid), piping and instrumentation diagrams and schematics, site grade and drainage plan, geological survey map, subsurface soil investigation, Ohio endangered species list, Ohio Archaeological Counsel certification list, and a study of heat transfer fluids and their properties. (LEW)

  10. How to transform an asphalt concrete pavement into a solar turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We create a system for harvesting energy from asphalt concrete. • We create an artificial porosity in the asphalt concrete. • We connect a chimney to this porosity. • Differences in temperature produce an air flow. • This air flow serves also for cooling down the pavement. - Abstract: Asphalt concrete can absorb a considerable amount of the incident solar radiation. For this reason asphalt roads could be used as solar collectors. There have been different attempts to achieve this goal. All of them have been done by integrating pipes conducting liquid, through the structure of the asphalt concrete. The problem of this system is that all pipes need to be interconnected: if one is broken, the liquid will come out and damage the asphalt concrete. To overcome these limitations, in this article, an alternative concept is proposed:parallel air conduits, where air can circulate will be integrated in the pavement structure. The idea is to connect these artificial pore volumes in the pavement to an updraft or to a downdraft chimney. Differences of temperature between the pavement and the environment can be used to create an air flow, which would allow wind turbines to produce an amount of energy and that would cool the pavement down in summer or even warm it up in winter. To demonstrate that this is possible, an asphalt concrete prototype has been created and basics calculations on the parameters affecting the system have been done. It has been found that different temperatures, volumes of air inside the asphalt and the difference of temperature between the asphalt concrete and the environment are critical to maximize the air flow through the pavement. Moreover, it has been found that this system can be also used to reduce the heat island effect

  11. Yunushan? Köyünün (Alt?nözü-Hatay Kuzey Ve Kuzeybat?s?ndaki Peribacas? Görünümlü Sivri Doruklu Lapya Kompleksleri Pinnacle Lapiaz Complexes That Resemble Fairy Chimneys In The North And Northwest Of Yunushan? Village (Alt?nözü-Hatay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre ÖZ?AH?N

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Current study explains the characteristics of interesting pinnaclelapiaz complexes developed in the north and northwest of Yunushan?village located in the borders of Alt?nözü district, Hatay province. Theseformations resemble fairy chimneys with their columnar shapes.Providing information about the scientific content of theseformations called fairy chimneys although they are not fairy chimneys isimportant to provide insight as to how and where they can be evaluatedsince no previous study exists about these formations in the study field.Also, pinnacle lapiaz complexes are noteworthy formations that can givevaluable information about the geomorphologic development of thestudy field.The study is mostly based on field work. 1/25.000 scaledANTAKYA P36-d3 topography map and geology maps of various scalesobtained through related literature were used in the study as materials.Thematic maps were generated with the help on GeographicalInformation Sysems (GIS method and techniques. Interviews with thelocal public were held as well.It was identified that pinnacle lapiaz complexes were formed as aresult of common impact of the lithological, climactic andgeomorphologic characteristics of the field. These formations whichwere developed under the impact of both fluvial and karstic elementsand processes are not fairy chimneys. The fact that it is not possible toobserve these formations everywhere makes them even more valuable.This rare formation and similarly unique formations are highlysignificant in terms of eco tourism and geomorphotourism. Therefore,providing the area where these formations are situated with the statusof protected areas such as geoparks or geomorphosites will be beneficialboth in the conservation of these formations and in the provision ofsustainable tourism activities. Bu çal??mada Hatay ilinin, Alt?nözü ilçe s?n?rlar? içerisinde yer alan Yunushan? köyünün kuzey ve kuzeybat?s?nda geli?mi? ilginç sivri doruklu lapya komplekslerinin özellikleri aç?klanm??t?r. Sütunsu görünüme sahip bu ?ekiller peribacas?na benzemektedirler.Bu çal??mada, peribacas? olmamas?na ra?men bu ?ekilde isimlendirilen bu olu?umlar?n, bilimsel anlamda ne oldu?unun ortaya konulmas?, inceleme alan? dahilinde bu ?ekiller hakk?nda daha önceden herhangi bir çal??ma yap?lmamas?, bu ?ekillerin nas?l ve ne ?ekilde de?erlendirilebilece?inin ortaya ç?kar?lmas? bak?m?ndan önemlidir. Ayr?ca sivri doruklu lapya kompleksleri sahan?n jeomorfolojik geli?imi hakk?nda önemli ipuçlar? vermesi yönüyle de dikkate de?er olu?umlard?r.Çal??ma yöntem olarak daha çok arazi çal??malar?na dayanmaktad?r. Materyal olarak ise 1/25.000 ölçekli ANTAKYA P36-d3 topografya haritas? ve ilgili literatürden elde edilen çe?itli ölçeklerdeki jeoloji haritalar? kullan?lm??t?r. Bütün bu materyallerden istifade ederek konuyu daha anla??l?r bir ?ekilde sunmak amac?yla da CBS (Co?rafi Bilgi Sistemleri yard?m?yla yeni haritalar olu?turulmu?tur. Ayr?ca yerel halkla görü?meler yap?lm??t?r.Sivri doruklu lapya komplekslerinin sahan?n litolojik, klimatik ve jeomorfolojik özelliklerinin ortak etkisinin sonucunda meydana geldi?i tespit edilmi?tir. Bu ?ekiller peribacas? de?ildir. Bütünüyle hem flüvyal, hem de karstik etmen ve süreçlerin denetiminde olu?mu? ?ekillerdir. Bu ?ekillere her yerde rastlan?lmamas? onlar? daha da de?erli yapmaktad?r. Ender rastlanan bu ve benzeri ?ekillerin eko turizm veya jeomorfoturizm bak?m?ndan önemi büyüktür. Bu nedenle ?ekillerin bulundu?u alan?n jeopark veya jeomorfosit gibi koruma statülerinden birine dahil edilmesi hem ?ekillerin korunmas?, hem de sürdürülebilir turizm faaliyetleri bak?m?ndan yararl? olacakt?r.

  12. Multilayer, Front-Contact Grid for Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milnes, A. G.; Flat, A.

    1982-01-01

    Proposed multilayer, front-contact grid structure for solar cells optimizes collection of photogenerated current with minimum power losses. It is constructed of several layers of conducting grids. With multilayer concept, peak efficiency can occur at higher output-power levels. Because of this, higher solar concentrations can be applied to solar-cell arrays.

  13. Solar Energy Education. Industrial arts: student activities. Field test edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-02-01

    In this teaching manual several activities are presented to introduce students to information on solar energy through classroom instruction. Wind power is also included. Instructions for constructing demonstration models for passive solar systems, photovoltaic cells, solar collectors and water heaters, and a bicycle wheel wind turbine are provided. (BCS)

  14. Study on Construction Cost of Construction Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Li

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available China is a country which has the largest investment amount in engineering construction in the world and which has the most construction projects. It is a significant subject for the extensive engineering managers to have effective engineering cost management in construction project management and to reasonably determine and control construction cost on the condition of ensuring construction quality and time limit.On the basis of the status quo of losing control in Chinese construction investment and of separation of technique and economy in engineering, and guided by basic theories of construction cost control, the author discusses control methods and application of construction cost, sets forth existing issues in construction cost control and influences of these issues on determination and control of construction cost, puts forward that construction cost control should reflect cost control of the entire construction process at the earlier stage of construction, and then introduces some procedures and methods of applying value project cost control at all stages of construction projects.

  15. Solar window

    OpenAIRE

    ??????, ??????? ???????????; ??????, ??????? ??????????; Usenko, Nataliia Mykolaivna; Oliinyk, I. V.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years various companies are developing technology to turn ordinary windows into solar panels. And now the U.S. firm New Energy Technologies has also decided to compete in the creation of new sources of energy generation, providing SolarWindow. When you are citing the document, use the following link http://essuir.sumdu.edu.ua/handle/123456789/22075

  16. Solar Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    University of Colorado Boulder,

    In this activity, students learn how engineers use solar energy to heat buildings by investigating the thermal storage properties of some common materials: sand, salt, water and shredded paper. Students then evaluate the usefulness of each material as a thermal storage material to be used as the thermal mass in a passive solar building.

  17. Solar Sprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabor, Richard; Anderson, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    In the "Solar Sprint" activity, students design, test, and race a solar-powered car built with Legos. The use of ratios is incorporated to simulate the actual work of scientists and engineers. This method encourages fourth-grade students to think about multiple variables and stimulates their curiosity when an activity doesn't come out as…

  18. Solar Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    IEEE

    2014-05-22

    In this activity, learners explore how the power of the sun can be harnessed to heat and cool a building. Learners work in teams of "engineers" to design and build their own solar houses out of everyday items. They test their solar house, evaluate their results, and present to the group.

  19. New instruments for solar research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, David M.; O'Byrne, John W.; Sterner, Raymond E., II

    1990-01-01

    In fulfilment of its goal to develop early detection and warning of emerging solar magnetic fields, the Center for Applied Solar Physics (CASP) has designed and constructed a solar vector magnetograph (VMG) that will provide unique data on the sunspot regions where flares originate. The instrument is reportedly beginning to approach its goals of measuring all three components of the solar magnetic field with a sensitivity of 50 to 100 G and a spatial resolution on the sun of about 700 km (1 arcsec). Importance of new high-resolution capabilities is stressed and the interpretation of VMG measurements is discussed. The performance of the solar VMG, installed in a 6-m dome at the National Solar Observatory at Sacramento Peak in Sunspot, New Mexico, and its construction and environment are described; particular attention is given to the use and function of the filters. Initial results are examined, including a description and analysis of a magnetogram obtained after installation of an improved blocking filter.

  20. Low cost thermal solar collector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solar energy is a good alternative in the economy of the electric energy mainly for the water heating. However, the solar heaters used demand a high initial investment, becoming the warm water from solar energy inaccessible to a large part of the society. Thus, a low cost solar heater was developed, constructed and tested in the chemical engineering department of West Parana State University-Unioeste. This equipment consists of 300 cans, divided in 30 columns of 10 cans each, all painted in black to enhance the obsorption of the solar radiation. The columns are connected to a pipe of pvc of 8 liters with 0.085m of external diameter. The equipment is capable to heat 120 liters of water in temperatures around 60 degree centigrade. The heater is insolated in its inferior part with cardboard and aluminum, covered with a transparent plastic in its superior. The system still counts with a insulated thermal reservoir, which can conserve the water in temperatures adjusted for the night non-solar days domestic use. The advantage of the constructed is it low cost material. The results are given an graphical tabular from showing acceptable efficiencies.(Autho

  1. Bondings for tubular solar collectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied the following four models of constructing solar collectors: tubes bonded above the absorber plate, tubes bonded under the absorber plate tubes in-line with the absorber plate and bondless tubes in-line with the absorber plate. 2 refs, 6 figs

  2. Papers presented at ISES solar world congress 1993 in Budapest, Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papers presented at the ISES Solar World Congress 1993 by researchers employed at the Thermal Insulation Laboratory at the Technical University of Denmark. The subjects dealt with are: the design of small domestic hot water low-flow solar heating systems, heat storage for large low-flow solar heating systems, the monitoring of Danish marketed solar heating systems, conversion of indoor measurements to outdoor long term performances for low flow solar collectors, optimum ventilation rate of solar collectors, the construction of seasonal heat storage based on a pit with clay membrane, a solar house with a new solar collector, and a framing system for solar wall glazings. (AB)

  3. Solar Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is an activity involving observations of the Sun. Learners use pinhole cameras, solar telescopes, and/or solar viewing glasses to make solar observations, draw what they see, and identify sunspots, if they are present. Then, learners go online and compare their drawings to images obtained by the SOHO spacecraft. This activity requires the use a sunny outdoor location. This activity also require use of safe methods for observing the Sun, such as pinhole cameras, telescopes with proper solar filters attached, and/or viewing glasses that are designated for safe solar viewing. No one should look at the Sun unless one or more of these methods is used in a proper fashion.

  4. Build a Solar Oven

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page features a classroom project for secondary science education that integrates engineering design with optics and thermodynamics. Students work on teams to construct a solar oven with flat reflector panels. The project was designed to help learners understand that, to harness the sun as a source of energy, solar energy must be converted from visible light into heat or electricity. The construction kit calls for simple materials such as cardboard and duct tape, and includes a downloadable pattern for building the oven. Background information gives student and teacher support on the subject of solar heat and its applications. Registered teacher-users also have access to supporting lesson plans. This resource is part of a larger collection of hands-on projects and teaching materials on the topic of renewable energy. Editor's Note: Although this resource is designated for use in middle school, the reading level for the student guide is Grade 10, and for background information is Grade 11. Overall, the concepts are appropriate for the cognitive level of Grades 7-8, but teacher scaffolding may be needed for unfamiliar vocabulary. High school students should be expected to complete the activity with minimal scaffolding.

  5. Prototype solar domestic hot water systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Construction of a double wall heat exchanger using soft copper tube coiled around a hot water storage tank was completed and preliminary tests were conducted. Solar transport water to tank potable water heat exchange tests were performed with a specially constructed test stand. Work was done to improve the component hardware and system design for the solar water heater. The installation of both a direct feed system and a double wall heat exchanger system provided experience and site data to enable informative decisions to be made as the solar market expands into areas where freeze protection is required.

  6. Solar thermal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While wind power is widely acknowledged as the most developed of the 'new' renewables, the number two technology, in terms of installed capacity functioning worldwide, is solar heating, or solar thermal. The author has investigated recent industry reports on how these markets are developing. The authors of an International Energy Agency (IEA) survey studied 41 countries in depth at the end of 2004, revealing that 141 million m3 - corresponding to an installed capacity of 98.4 GWth - were installed in the sample countries (these nations represent 3.74 billion people, about 57% of the world's population). The installed capacity within the areas studied represents approximately 85%-90% of the solar thermal market worldwide. The use of solar heating varies greatly between countries - even close neighbours - and between economic regions. Its uptake often has more to do with policy than solar resource. There is also different uptake of technology. In China, Europe and Japan, plants with flat-plate and evacuated tube collectors are used, mainly to heat water and for space heating. Unglazed plastic collectors, used mainly for swimming pool heating, meanwhile, dominate the North American markets. Though the majority of solar heating installations today are installed on domestic rooftops, the larger-scale installations should not be overlooked. One important part of the market is the hotel sector - in particular hotels in locations that serve the seasonal summer holiations that serve the seasonal summer holiday market, where solar is extremely effective. Likewise hospitals and residential homes, multi-family apartment blocks and sports centres are all good examples of places where solar thermal can deliver results. There are also a growing number of industrial applications, where solar thermal can meet the hot water needs (and possibly more) of a range of industries, such as food processing and agriculture. The ability of solar to provide a heat source for cooling is expected to become increasingly important as fuel and electricity prices - and global temperatures - continue their upward curve

  7. Survey of new forms of organization and financing constructions in the Dutch solar electricity market. Update 2011; Inventarisatie van nieuwe organisatievormen en financieringsconstructies in de Nederlandse zonnestroommarkt. Update 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meijer, M. [Energy Indeed, Utrecht (Netherlands); Van Heemstra, W. [Agentschap NL, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2011-11-15

    In the title project the focus is on organizations and projects in the Dutch market for solar electricity, characterized by: minimal dependence on subsidies (state aid), the removal of high initial investments by users (financing), and structures that can easily be extended or replicated (scale) [Dutch] In het titel project ligt de nadruk op organisaties en projecten in de Nederlandse markt die getypeerd zijn door: Minimale afhankelijkheid van subsidies (overheidssteun); het wegnemen van hoge initiele investeringen bij gebruikers (financiering); en constructies die eenvoudig kunnen worden uitgebreid of nagevolgd (schaalgrootte)

  8. Solar electricity and solar fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiers, David J.

    1989-04-01

    The nature of solar radiation and its variation with location is described. The distribution of energy in the solar spectrum places immediate limits on the theoretical efficiency of conversion processes, since practical absorbers cannot convert all wavelengths received to useful energy. The principles of solar energy conversion methods are described. Absorption of solar energy can give rise to direct electrical generation, heating, or chemical change. Electrical generation from sunlight can be achieved by photovoltaic systems directly or by thermal systems which use solar heat to drive a heat engine and generator. The technology used and under research for promising ways of producing electricity or fuel from solar energy is described. Photovoltaic technology is established today for remote area, small power applications, and photovoltaic module sales alone are over 100 million dollars per year at present. The photovoltaic market has grown steadily since the mid-1970's, as prices have fallen continuously. Future energy options are briefly described. The merits of a sustainable energy economy, based on renewable energy resources, including solar energy, are emphasized, as this seems to provide the only hope of eliminating the problems caused by the build-up of atmospheric carbon dioxide, acid rain pollution and nuclear waste disposal. There is no doubt that clean fuels which were derived from solar energy and either did not involve carbon dioxide and used atmospheric carbon dioxide as the source dioxide as the source of carbon would be a worthy ideal. Methods described could one day achieve this.

  9. Solar ponds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayadev, T.S.; Edesess, M.

    1980-04-01

    The different types of solar ponds are described, including the nonconvecting salt gradient pond and various saltless pond designs. Then the availability and cost of salts for salt gradient ponds are discussed and costs are compared. A simple computational model is developed to approximate solar pond performance. This model is later used to size solar ponds for district heating and industrial process heat applications. For district heating, ponds are sized to provide space conditioning for a group of homes, in different regions of the United States. Size requirement is on the order of one acre for a group of 25 to 50 homes. An economic analysis is performed of solar ponds used in two industrial process heat applications. The analysis finds that solar ponds are competitive when conventional heat sources are priced at $5 per million Btu and expected to rise in price at a rate of 10% per year. The application of solar ponds to the generation of electricity is also discussed. Total solar pond potential for displacing conventional energy sources is estimated in the range of from one to six quadrillion Btu per year in the near and intermediate future.

  10. Solar Oven

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Concord Consortium

    2012-05-21

    In many rural parts of the world, people still cook with wood. They often must collect and carry the wood many miles on their backs. They also cut down trees and shrubs instead of letting them grow tall for shade. There is lots of sunshine in these areas, especially if the climate is dry, so a solar cooker would be very useful! Most solar cookers are ovens that convert sunlight into heat energy that is used for cooking. You will design a simple solar oven and improve the design by adding reflectors and insulation while testing heating power with a temperature sensor.

  11. Solar Energy Education. Reader, Part IV. Sun schooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    A collection of magazine articles which focus on solar energy is presented. This is the final book of the four part series of the Solar Energy Reader. The articles include brief discussions on energy topics such as the sun, ocean energy, methane gas from cow manure, and solar homes. Instructions for constructing a sundial and a solar stove are also included. A glossary of energy related terms is provided. (BCS)

  12. Racing with the Sun - Creating a Solar Car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techtronics Program,

    Students use engineering design principles to construct and test a fully solar powered model car. Several options exist, though we recommend the "Junior Solar Sprint" (JSS) Car Kits that can be purchased with direction from the federal government. Using the JSS kit from Solar World, students are provided with a photovoltaic panel that produces ~3V at ~3W. An optional accessory kit also from Solar World includes wheels, axles and drive gears. A chassis must be built additionally. Balsa wood provides an excellent option though many others are available. The testing of the solar car culminates in a solar race between classmates.

  13. Solar energy technologies and project delivery for buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Walker, Andy

    2013-01-01

    Solar Energy is an authoritative reference on the design of solar energy systems in building projects, with applications, operating principles, and simple tools for the construction, engineering, and design professional. The book simplifies the solar design and engineering process, providing sample documentation and special tools that provide all the information needed for the complete design of a solar energy system for buildings to enable mainstream MEP and design firms, and not just solar energy specialists, to meet the growing demand for solar energy systems in building projects.

  14. Closeout of the award DE-FG02-05ER46223; Trustees of the University of Pennsylvania; Project title- "MODULAR DESIGNED PROTEIN CONSTRUCTIONS FOR SOLAR GENERATED H2 FROM WATER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, P. Leslie [University of Pennsylvania

    2015-02-18

    As the title of the grant clearly states, this project has explores a unique way that makes use of manmade proteins to turn solar energy into chemical fuels. A major impetus to the work is that there is growing support for the view that two related forces will impact on future livability of Earth. The first is the finite supply of fossil fuels to power the Earth making it prudent to save this resource for the creation of useful chemicals. The second is that burning fossil fuels to generate power releases “greenhouse” gases into the atmosphere. There is mounting evidence that this is a major contribution to the warming trend in the Earth’s atmosphere and biosphere.

  15. Incorporating a new 2H-[1,2,3]triazolo[4,5-c]pyridine moiety to construct D-A-?-A organic sensitizers for high performance solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaurasia, Sumit; Hung, Wei-I; Chou, Hsien-Hsin; Lin, Jiann T

    2014-06-01

    Two new organic dyes (PTN1 and NPT1) of the configuration D-A-?-A, based on 2H-[1,2,3]triazolo[4,5-c]pyridine (PT) as a central linker, have been synthesized and used as the sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells. Compared with pyridal[2,1,3]thiadiazole-containing congeners, the new dyes have conversion efficiencies nearly 1 order higher due to alleviation of charge trapping. The best conversion efficiency of the cell reaches 6.05% (under AM 1.5G irradiation). Upon addition of the coadsorbent CDCA, the efficiency is boosted to 6.76%, which reaches ?90% of the standard based on N719. PMID:24854832

  16. Construction of optimum controls and trajectories of motion of the center of masses of a spacecraft equipped with the solar sail and low-thrust engine, using quaternions and Kustaanheimo-Stiefel variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapunkov, Ya. G.; Chelnokov, Yu. N.

    2014-11-01

    The problem of optimum rendezvous of a controllable spacecraft (SC) with an uncontrollable spacecraft, moving over a Keplerian elliptic orbit in the gravitational field of the Sun, is considered. Control of the SC is performed using a solar sail and low-thrust engine. For solving the problem, the regular quaternion equations of the two-body problem with the Kustaanheimo-Stiefel variables and the Pontryagin maximum principle are used. The combined integral quality functional, which characterizes energy consumption for controllable SC transition from an initial to final state and the time spent for this transition, is used as a minimized functional. The differential boundary-value optimization problems are formulated, and their first integrals are found. Examples of numerical solution of problems are presented. The paper develops the application [1-6] of quaternion regular equations with the Kustaanheimo-Stiefel variables in the space flight mechanics.

  17. Solar Radio

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Scientists monitor the structure of the solar corona, the outer most regions of the Sun's atmosphere, using radio waves (100?s of MHz to 10?s of GHz). Variations in...

  18. Solar fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viitanen, M.

    1990-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to give a review concerning the storage of solar energy by converting it to chemicai energy. This is based on several articles published during the last fifteen years. The methods to convert solar energy to chemical energy, e.g. to produce hydrogen, can be divided into three different methods. The most common one is probably the usage of solar cells, thus the solar energy is first converted into electrical energy and further the water is splitted electrochemically to produce hydrogen. It could be also done in a photoelectrochemical cell. Or simply photochemically. Photobiological systems can also be considered as photochemical system, although it is discussed separately from the photochemical systems. These three last mentioned methods will be discussed in this paper.

  19. Solar fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viitanen, M.

    1990-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to give a review concerning the storage of solar energy by converting it to chemical energy. This is based on several articles published during the last fifteen years. The methods to convert solar energy to chemical energy, e.g., to produce hydrogen, can be divided into three different methods. The most common one is probably the usage of solar cells; thus the solar energy is first converted into electrical energy and further the water is split electrochemically to produce hydrogen. It could be also done in a photoelectrochemical cell, or simply photochemically. A photobiological system can also be considered as a photochemical system, although it is discussed separately from the photochemical systems. These three last mentioned methods will be discussed in this paper.

  20. Solar prominences

    CERN Document Server

    Engvold, Oddbjørn

    2015-01-01

    This volume presents the latest research results on solar prominences, including new developments on e.g. chirality, fine structure, magnetism, diagnostic tools and relevant solar plasma physics. In 1875 solar prominences, as seen out of the solar limb, were described by P.A. Secchi in his book Le Soleil as "gigantic pink or peach-flower coloured flames". The development of spectroscopy, coronagraphy and polarimetry brought tremendous observational advances in the twentieth century. The authors present and discuss exciting new challenges (resulting from observations made by space and ground-based telescopes in the 1990s and the first decade of the 21st century) concerning the diagnostics of prominences, their formation, their life time and their eruption along with their impact in the heliosphere (including the Earth). The book starts with a general introduction of the prominence “object” with some historical background on observations and instrumentation. In the next chapter, the various forms of promine...

  1. Solar flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerous phenomena in low and high temperature solar flares are reviewed. Attention is paid to observations in the H? line, e.g. the motions in flares and the relation of flares to magnetic fields, and to other aspects of the chromospheric low temperature flare spectra. The impulsive non-thermal effects observed in X-ray, EUV and radio spectral regions are presented as high temperature flare phenomena together with the thermal flare effects that are two or three orders of magnitude hotter than the chromospheric part of the flare. Non-thermal and thermal effects, e.g. coronal condensations, various aspects of soft X-ray emission and gradual microwave bursts, are coupled in the high temperature flare regions in the solar corona. Attention is paid to flare associated optical phenomena. The emission of particles from solar flares is discussed. A survey of various models dealing with different aspects of solar flares is presented

  2. Solar paraphotons

    OpenAIRE

    Troitsky, Sergey V.

    2011-01-01

    I revisit the question of production of paraphotons, or hidden photons, in the Sun and suggest that a simultaneous observations of solar flares by conventional instruments and by axion helioscopes may provide a discovery channel for paraphotons.

  3. Effect of solar-terrestrial phenomena on solar cell's efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is assumed that the solar cell efficiency of PV device is closely related to the solar irradiance, consider the solar parameter Global Solar Irradiance (G) and the meteorological parameters like daily data of Earth Skin Temperature (E), Average Temperature (T), Relative Humidity (H) and Dew Frost Point (D), for the coastal city Karachi and a non-coastal city Jacobabad, K and J is used as a subscripts for parameters of Karachi and Jacobabad respectively. All variables used here are dependent on the location (latitude and longitude) of our stations except G. To employ ARIMA modeling, the first eighteen years data is used for modeling and forecast is done for the last five years data. In most cases results show good correlation among monthly actual and monthly forecasted values of all the predictors. Next, multiple linear regression is employed to the data obtained by ARIMA modeling and models for mean monthly observed G values are constructed. For each station, two equations are constructed, the R values are above 93% for each model, showing adequacy of the fit. Our computations show that solar cell efficiency can be increased if better modeling for meteorological predictors governs the process. (author)

  4. Concrete construction engineering handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Nawy, Edward G

    2008-01-01

    Provides coverage of concrete construction engineering and technology. This work features discussions focusing on: the advances in engineered concrete materials; reinforced concrete construction; specialized construction techniques; and, design recommendations for high performance.

  5. Solar flair.

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel, John S.

    2003-01-01

    Design innovations and government-sponsored financial incentives are making solar energy increasingly attractive to homeowners and institutional customers such as school districts. In particular, the passive solar design concept of daylighting is gaining favor among educators due to evidence of improved performance by students working in daylit classrooms. Electricity-generating photovoltaic systems are also becoming more popular, especially in states such as California that have high electri...

  6. Solar Neutrinos

    OpenAIRE

    Langacker, Paul

    1993-01-01

    The status of solar neutrino experiments and their implications for both nonstandard astrophysics ({\\it e.g.,} cool sun models) and nonstandard neutrino properties ({\\it e.g.,} MSW conversions) are discussed. Assuming that all of the experiments are correct, the relative rates observed by Kamiokande and Homestake are hard to account for by a purely astrophysical solution, while MSW conversions can describe all of the data. Assuming the standard solar model, there are two all...

  7. Solar Sprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard Tabor

    2007-10-01

    In the "Solar Sprint" activity, students design, test, and race a solar-powered car built with Legos. The use of ratios is incorporated to simulate the actual work of scientists and engineers. This method encourages fourth-grade students to think about multiple variables and stimulates their curiosity when an activity doesn't come out as predicted. This activity also integrates the study of electricity and motion into a discussion of alternative energy sources and means of transportation.

  8. Solar generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solar energy might become the main energy resource for mankind in the next 50 years. The author describes the assets of photovoltaic energy and helio-thermodynamics and reviews the conditions required for such a future. The first condition is an integrated approach for the development of solar energy in buildings, it means to develop in parallel the use of low-power appliances, to insulate buildings, to use daylight. Secondly to find an efficient solution to store solar energy. In the building sector this solution could be the use of solar energy (through solar panels) and geothermal heat pump to be able to recover in winter the calories caught in summer and stored in the ground. In a warmer and warmer world, the production of cold from solar calories has the advantage of sparing electricity and to make the demand for calories corresponding with the peak of the resource. A graph shows that the expected cost of photovoltaic electricity in 2020 will be half the 2011 cost and will correspond to the retail price of electricity. (A.C.)

  9. Solar boilers 1995. Five years solar boiler campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview is given of the activities and the results of Marketing Communication Strategy for Solar Water Heaters in the Netherlands, carried out within the framework of the 1990-1994 National Research Program Thermal Solar Energy (NOZ-th) of the Netherlands Agency for Energy and the Environment (NOVEM). Subsequently attention is paid to the sales, the manufacturers and their products, public information activities and reactions from the consumers, the marketing activities of energy distribution companies, the role of installers, local governments and the building construction industry, and market developments. 24 figs., 21 ills., 5 tabs., 18 refs., 2 appendices

  10. A partitioned central solar receiver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Else of solar energy as substitute for conventional fuels at a competitive cost requires efficient conversion from solar radiation to usable forms of energy. In solar thermal or thermochemical applications, high efficiency usually re- quires high temperature and high concentration of incoming radiation. The main form of energy loss from high temperature solar central receivers is thermal emission ('re radiation'), at an effective temperature close to the maximum receiver temperature. This loss is reduced if the aperture is divided into segments, most of which are maintained at lower temperatures. A two-stage partitioned receiver demonstrating this concept is under construction at the Weizman Solar Tower. The high-temperature stage is the DIAPR (Directly Irradiated Annular Pressurized Receiver). The low-temperature stage is made of tubular cavity receivers of simpler design. Preliminary optical and thermal design of the partitioned receiver is presented. For the design exit temperature of 1500 K, the aperture size of the partitioned receiver is about 60% of the equivalent single-stage receiver, indicating a significant increase of conversion efficiency. The exit temperature of the low-temperature stage is around 1100 K, allowing simpler design and inexpensive construction. (authors)

  11. Solar collectors for flat roofs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohse, G.; Reisewitz, G.

    1980-08-01

    The development and construction of solar collectors for flat roofs, preparation for production and service life qualification testing are described. Optimization of collector parts, considering the choice of material and manufacturing techniques, was investigated. The problematic nature of installation techniques which meet technical requirements and guarantee good operation is addressed. Solar collector heat transfer characteristics are shown satisfactory while wind tunnel and weathering environment tests demonstrate the ruggedness of engineering models. For connecting the collector to the interior piping, customized roof penetrating connector elements and pipe support brackets are used.

  12. Use of the solar and eolic energy in the drying of bean seed at rural level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The drying is a camera through which is made pass air heated in a solar collector, by means of a rotational fan impelled by the wind. The dryer is wooden and the zinc consists of five levels where the trays are deposited that contain the product. In the end of the chimney placed above the drying camera this the fan that is a rotor of corrugate fins; when rotating under the action of the wind it extracts air of the ventilation chimney; in the periods that the wind doesn't blow the drying it happens for natural convention. In the collector the badge absorbent is zinc colored corrugate of black; the mark is wooden, isolated in its inferior part with icopor and the cover a sheet of plastic. To evaluate the dryer they were carried out four drying rehearsals with seed of bean variety Calima. One observes that the bean drying with this dryer type is feasible even with cloudy or partially cloudy sky. The drying was satisfactory with the two loads of 200 and 400 kg. With the flow of air through the trays and for the load of 210 kg with flow around them; being the drying uniform for this it finishes. The quality of the seeds was not affected in the drying coke superior temperatures they were presented to 43-centigrade degrees. The dryer can adapt to individual necessities and conditions you specify of operation. It is recommended to carry out rehearsals for other agricultural products that allow knowing the capacity and functionality from the dryer to property levelom the dryer to property level

  13. Ca2Mg(NO3)6×12H2O-structural investigations on a new compound retrieved from chimney deposits of a combined heat and power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlenberg, Volker; Tessadri, Richard; Tribus, Martina; Schmidmair, Daniela; Perfler, Lukas; Haefeker, Udo

    2014-10-01

    Phase analysis of incrustations retrieved from chimney deposits of a combined heat and power plant in Malchow/Germany by X-ray powder diffraction gave evidence for the existence of a previously unknown hydrous calcium magnesium nitrate. Optical investigations of the sample showed the presence of colorless platy crystals with a maximum diameter of about 250 ?m embedded in a partly polycrystalline and partly glassy matrix. Aided by EDX-analysis and Raman spectroscopy, a single-crystal diffraction study performed at ambient conditions demonstrated that the material represents a phase with composition Ca2Mg(NO3)6×12H2O. Basic crystallographic data are as follows: trigonal symmetry, space group type R , a = 10.5583(5) Å, c = 19.5351(10) Å, V = 1885.97(16) Å3, Z = 3, ( R(| F|) = 0.0248). The magnesium ions are coordinated by water molecules to form distorted Mg(H2O)6-octahedra. The calcium atoms are surrounded by nine ligands. The resulting CaO9 tricapped trigonal prisms involve oxygen atoms from additional water moieties as well as from three different bidentate nitrate groups, respectively. Hydrogen bonds link one octahedron with two adjacent prisms into trimers. The trimers in turn are stacked in columns running parallel to [001]. Further hydrogen bonding between neighboring columns results in the formation of a three-dimensional network. To our best knowledge, Ca2Mg(NO3)6×12H2O represents a new structure type. However, column-like topologies with rods consisting of different types of polyhedra have been also observed in other trigonal hydrous nitrates. The structural relationships between these compounds are discussed. It is interesting to note that in previous phase equilibrium studies on the ternary system Ca(NO3)2-Mg(NO3)2-H2O no other hydrous double salt has been described. Finally, the results of the structure analysis allowed a qualitative and quantitative phase analysis of the crystalline part of the chimney deposit by the Rietveld method.

  14. Web based Measurement System for Solar Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shachi Awasthi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We present in this paper, the principles of the measurement system for solar radiation, and our implementation using Web based data logging concept. The photocurrent produced by Silicon PN junction is used as a solar radiation transducer, to make it more viable we have used commercially available solar panels as our transducers. Using a silicon solar cell as sensor, a low cost solar radiometer can be constructed. The photocurrent produced by solar cell is electronically tailored to be measured and stored by our web based data acquisition and monitoring system. Measurement using real solar cell array gives a good measure of actual producible energy by solar arrays. Our portable instrument can be used in remote sites and substitutes the solar monitor and integrator, Current data of solar radiation can be monitored using Ethernet interface available in all PC, Laptops. We store the data into a secure digital card which can be retrieved to plot and analyse the data. We have developed system hardware and software based on ATmega32 AVR Microcontrollers and ENC28J60 Ethernet PHY and MAC network interface chip by Microchip. So the global irradiance data are obtained after correction using the instantaneous measurement of ambient temperature which allows us to calculate the junction temperature and consequently improve the precision of measurement of our data acquisition system.

  15. Solar oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amongst all stars observed to pulsate, the Sun has by far the largest number and variety of modes of oscillation. This presents a unique opportunity to apply and test stellar oscillation theory. To match the observational accuracy, very precise calculations of oscillation frequencies are needed. Asymptotic methods have proved useful in the analysis and interpretation of the frequencies. The results provide tight constraints on solar models; they may also enable a direct determination of properties of the solar interior. There are difficulties in reconciling the amplitudes obtained in Doppler velocity with those observed in the apparent position of the solar limb. The excitation of the oscillations is so far not well understood, although it is probable that the interaction between pulsation and convection plays an important role. (orig.)

  16. Solarization soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solar energy could be used in pest control, in soil sterilization technology. The technique consists of covering humid soils by plastic films steadily fixed to the soil. Timing must be in summer during 4-8 weeks, where soil temperature increases to degrees high enough to control pests or to produce biological and chemical changes. The technique could be applied on many pests soil, mainly fungi, bacteria, nematods, weeds and pest insects. The technique could be used in greenhouses as well as in plastic film covers or in orchards where plastic films present double benefits: soil sterilization and production of black mulch. Mechanism of soil solarization is explained. Results show that soil solarization can be used in pest control after fruit crops cultivation and could be a method for an integrated pest control. 9 refs

  17. Solar flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present state of the art on the problem of solar flares is described and basic results obtained in this field of physics of the Sun in the last few years are summarized. The data on flare morphology and structure in a solar atmosphere height, physical conditions in flares, radiation characteristics in different spectrum ranges, and accelerated particles are presented. Modern theoretical representations on a flare process nature are described along with existing flare models (in particluar, emphasis is placed on different problems of current layer physics). A review of present-day results on a simulation of various aspects of the flare phenomenon using laboratory plasma devices is given. An existing technique of solar flare forecasting is described

  18. DUALPURPOSE SOLAR OVEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Sengar

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Dual purpose solar oven (DPSO was designed and constructed. It observed that by using the new design of solar oven, both function of cooking and drying were possible for meeting the requirement of a family. The maximum stagnation temperature of 119°C and water temperature of 93.25°C were obtained in winter in DPSO while using as cooker. The calculated values of figure of merit F in DPSO was 0.119 and the time duration 1 for raising water temperature from 60 C to 90°C in hot box was 120 min. Cooking trials have also been conducted 0.5 kg of rice in 1 kg of water and 0.250 Kg of green gram split washed in one and half hrs in winter while it took about one hour in summer. The maximum temperature of 58 °C was recorded at 14:00 hrs of the day at level of tray no.2 when used as dryer. The time required to dry maize on different trays upto average moisture content 7.13 %( w.w. for winter and 5.43 %( w.w. for summer (w.w.was 420 minute and 360 minute respectively. The total cost of solar oven was worked out to be Rs(.2,715. Its pay back period varied between 1.3 to 1.86 years depending upon fuel it replaced.

  19. Solar neutrinos and the solar composition problem

    OpenAIRE

    Pena-Garay, Carlos; Serenelli, Aldo

    2008-01-01

    Standard solar models (SSM) are facing nowadays a new puzzle: the solar composition problem. New determinations of solar metal abundances lead SSM calculations to conflict with helioseismological measurements, showing discrepancies that extend from the convection zone to the solar core and can not be easily assigned to deficiencies in the modelling of the solar convection zone. We present updated solar neutrino fluxes and uncertainties for two SSM with high (old) and low (ne...

  20. Solar lighting

    CERN Document Server

    Pode, Ramchandra

    2011-01-01

    Limited availability of grid-based electricity is a major challenge faced by many developing countries, particularly the rural population. Fuel-based lighting, such as the kerosene lantern, is widespread in these areas, but it is a poor alternative, contributing to global warming and causing serious health problems. Several developing countries are therefore now encouraging the use of sustainable lighting. ""Solar Lighting"" gives an in-depth analysis of energy-efficient light production through the use of solar-powered LED systems. The authors pay particular attention to the interplay between

  1. Solar club

    CERN Multimedia

    Solar club

    2013-01-01

    SOLAR CLUB Le  CERN-Solar-Club souhaite une  très bonne année 2013 à tous les Cernois et Cernoises, et remercie encore une fois  tous ceux et celles qui, fin octobre, par leur vote, nous ont permis de finir dans les 5 premiers du concours "Conforama Solidaire" et ainsi financer nôtre projet "énergie solaire et eau potable pour Kilela Balanda" en République Démocratique du Congo (voir : http://www.confo.ch/solidarite/?lang=fr). Nous vous annoncons également notre Assemblée Générale Annuelle jeudi 21 février à 18 h 00 Salle C, 1er étage, Bât. 61 Vous êtes les bienvenus si vous souhaitez en savoir un peu plus sur les énergies renouvelables.

  2. Solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method of producing solar cells is described which consists of producing a substantially monocrystalline tubular body of silicon or other suitable semiconductor material, treating this body to form an annular rectifying junction and then cutting it longitudinally to form a number of nearly flat ribbons from which the solar cells are fabricated. The P=N rectifying junction produced by the formation of silicon dioxide on the layers at the inner and outer surfaces of the body can be formed by ion-implantation or diffusion. (U.K.)

  3. Solar Neutrinos

    OpenAIRE

    Pallavicini, Marco

    2009-01-01

    The Sun is a powerful neutrino source that can be used to study the physical properties of neutrinos and, at the same time, neutrinos are a unique tool to probe the interior of the Sun. For these reasons, solar neutrino physics is both fundamental neutrino and solar physics. In this paper we summarize shortly the main results of the last three decades and then focus on the new results produced by running experiments. We also give a short look at already funded or proposed ne...

  4. The Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    kathrynbyers

    2012-04-05

    What are the parts of our solar system? Let's learn about the parts of our Solar System! First, use the Solar System Chart Now read the Introduction to the Solar System and begin filling out the Solar System Chart by listing one fact for each planet. Now watch the Video 1 on the Solar System and fill out one characteristic about each planet in our Solar System. Now read the Facts about the Solar System and find ...

  5. Constructal theory of global circulation and climate

    OpenAIRE

    Reis, A. Heitor; Bejan, A.

    2006-01-01

    The constructal law states that every flow system evolves in time so that it develops the flow architecture that maximizes flow access under the constraints posed to the flow. Earlier applications of the constructal law recommended it as a self-standing law that is distinct from the second law of thermodynamics. In this paper, we develop a model of heat transport on the earth surface that accounts for the solar and terrestrial radiation as the heat source and heat sink and with natur...

  6. Solar Energy and You.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

    This booklet provides an introduction to solar energy by discussing: (1) how a home is heated; (2) how solar energy can help in the heating process; (3) the characteristics of passive solar houses; (4) the characteristics of active solar houses; (5) how solar heat is stored; and (6) other uses of solar energy. Also provided are 10 questions to…

  7. Photovoltaic assisted solar drying system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A photovoltaic assisted solar drying system has been constructed at the Solar Energy Research Park, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. This drying system uses a custom designed parallel flow V-groove type collector. A fan powered by photovoltaic source assists the air flow through the drying system. A funnel with increasing diameter towards the top with ventilator turbine is incorporated into the system to facilitate the air flow during the absence of photovoltaic energy source. This drying system is designed with high efficiency and portability in mind so that it can readily be used at plantation sites where the crops are harvested or produced. A daily mean efficiency about 44% with mean air flow rate 0.16 kgs-1 has been achieved at mean daily radiation intensity of 800 Wm-2. daily mean temperature of air drying chamber under the above conditions is 46 oC. Study has shown that the air flow and air temperature increase with the increase of solar radiation intensity. On a bright sunny day with instantaneous solar intensity about 600 Wm-2, the temperature of air entering the drying chamber of 45 oC has been measured. In the absence of photovoltaic or in natural convection flow, the instantaneous efficiency decreased when solar radiation increased. The instantaneous efficiency recorded are 35% and 27% respectively at 570 Wm-2 and 745 Wm-2 of solar radiation. The temperature of drying chamber for th. The temperature of drying chamber for the same amount of solar radiation are 42 oC and 48 oC respectively. Thus, the solar dryer shows a great potential for application in drying process of agricultural produce

  8. Concentrating solar thermal power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Steinhagen, Hans

    2013-08-13

    In addition to wind and photovoltaic power, concentrating solar thermal power (CSP) will make a major contribution to electricity provision from renewable energies. Drawing on almost 30 years of operational experience in the multi-megawatt range, CSP is now a proven technology with a reliable cost and performance record. In conjunction with thermal energy storage, electricity can be provided according to demand. To date, solar thermal power plants with a total capacity of 1.3 GW are in operation worldwide, with an additional 2.3 GW under construction and 31.7 GW in advanced planning stage. Depending on the concentration factors, temperatures up to 1000°C can be reached to produce saturated or superheated steam for steam turbine cycles or compressed hot gas for gas turbine cycles. The heat rejected from these thermodynamic cycles can be used for sea water desalination, process heat and centralized provision of chilled water. While electricity generation from CSP plants is still more expensive than from wind turbines or photovoltaic panels, its independence from fluctuations and daily variation of wind speed and solar radiation provides it with a higher value. To become competitive with mid-load electricity from conventional power plants within the next 10-15 years, mass production of components, increased plant size and planning/operating experience will be accompanied by technological innovations. On 30 October 2009, a number of major industrial companies joined forces to establish the so-called DESERTEC Industry Initiative, which aims at providing by 2050 15 per cent of European electricity from renewable energy sources in North Africa, while at the same time securing energy, water, income and employment for this region. Solar thermal power plants are in the heart of this concept. PMID:23816910

  9. Solar Technology Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, Bob

    2011-04-27

    The Department of Energy, Golden Field Office, awarded a grant to the UNLV Research Foundation (UNLVRF) on August 1, 2005 to develop a solar and renewable energy information center. The Solar Technology Center (STC) is to be developed in two phases, with Phase I consisting of all activities necessary to determine feasibility of the project, including design and engineering, identification of land access issues and permitting necessary to determine project viability without permanently disturbing the project site, and completion of a National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Environmental Assessment. Phase II is the installation of infrastructure and related structures, which leads to commencement of operations of the STC. The STC is located in the Boulder City designated 3,000-acre Eldorado Valley Energy Zone, approximately 15 miles southwest of downtown Boulder City and fronting on Eldorado Valley Drive. The 33-acre vacant parcel has been leased to the Nevada Test Site Development Corporation (NTSDC) by Boulder City to accommodate a planned facility that will be synergistic with present and planned energy projects in the Zone. The parcel will be developed by the UNLVRF. The NTSDC is the economic development arm of the UNLVRF. UNLVRF will be the entity responsible for overseeing the lease and the development project to assure compliance with the lease stipulations established by Boulder City. The STC will be operated and maintained by University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV) and its Center for Energy Research (UNLV-CER). Land parcels in the Eldorado Valley Energy Zone near the 33-acre lease are committed to the construction and operation of an electrical grid connected solar energy production facility. Other projects supporting renewable and solar technologies have been developed within the energy zone, with several more developments in the horizon.

  10. Solar Neutrinos

    OpenAIRE

    Langacker, Paul

    1994-01-01

    The status of the solar neutrino problem is reviewed. Attempts to explain the observed deficit and spectral distortion, both by astrophysical and particle physics methods, are described. It is argued that the comparison of all experiments strongly prefers the particle physics solutions.

  11. Solar Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Norman C.; Kane, Joseph W.

    1971-01-01

    Proposes a method of collecting solar energy by using available plastics for Fresnel lenses to focus heat onto a converter where thermal dissociation of water would produce hydrogen. The hydrogen would be used as an efficient non-polluting fuel. Cost estimates are included. (AL)

  12. Solar system

    CERN Document Server

    Homer, Charlene

    2007-01-01

    Thrill young astronomers with a journey through our Solar System. Find out all about the Inner and Outer Planets, the Moon, Stars, Constellations, Asteroids, Meteors and Comets. Using simplified language and vocabulary, concepts such as planetary orbits, the asteroid belt, the lunar cycle and phases of the moon, and shooting stars are all explored.

  13. Solar Neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Bellini, G.; Ranucci, G.

    2010-01-01

    Solar neutrino investigation has represented one of the most active field of particle physics over the past decade, accumulating important and sometimes unexpected achievements. After reviewing some of the most recent impressive successes, the future perspectives of this exciting area of neutrino research will be discussed.

  14. Solar Panel based Milk Pasteurization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten MØlgaard; Pedersen, Tom SØndergaard

    2001-01-01

    This paper treats the subject of analysis, design and development of the control system for a solar panel based milk pasteurization system to be used in small villages in Tanzania. The analysis deals with the demands for an acceptable pasteurization, the varying energy supply and the low cost, low complexity, simple user interface and high reliability demands. Based on these demands a concept for the pasteurization system is established and a control system is developed. A solar panel has been constructed and the energy absorption has been tested in Tanzania. Based on the test, the pasteurization system is dimensioned. A functional prototype of the pasteurization facility with a capacity of 200 l milk/hour has been developed and tested. The system is prepared for solar panels as the main energy source and is ready for a test in Tanzania.

  15. Inspection of solar dryers in Ghana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestergaard Jensen, S. [Teknologisk Institut, Taastrup (Denmark)

    2001-03-01

    The report describes the results from inspection visits to three solar dryers in Ghana. The work is part of the project Test and Research Project into the Drying of Food and Wood Products with Solar Heat financed by Danida (Danish International Development Assis-tance) via the Danish Embassy in Ghana. The project was established based on an initiative by the Energy Commission of Ghana. The present report describes the findings from visits to a solar crop dryer, a solar fish dryer and a solar kiln for drying of wood. The report further contains the results from one week of detailed measurements on the solar crop dryer. The impression from the inspection of the solar dryers is that the dryers show good craftsmanship and that they look nice. It is clear that quite a lot of enthusiasm has been put into the dryers. A week of detailed measurements on the solar crop dryer revealed that the dryer was performing as expected. A few simple tests on the fish dryer indicated that this dryer also was performing as intended. Of the solar wood dryers only the forced open-air dryer was running by the time of the inspection. This dryer seemed to run as expected. The solar kiln was still under construction during the inspection. The solar kiln was soon after the inspection put into operation. Plans for the test of the solar dryers and reporting on the findings from the tests have been developed. Tests on the solar dryers are by the time of writing this being carried out. The tests will show how well the dryers perform and if the aims of the project have been reached. (EHS)

  16. New and precise construction of the local interstellar electron spectrum from the radio background and an application to the solar modulation of cosmic rays showing an incompatability of the electron and nuclei modulation using the spherically symmetric Fokker-Planck equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosmic-ray electrons generate the observed radio-frequency background. Previous attempts in the literature to reconcile quantitatively the measured radio-frequency intensity with the intensity deduced from the electron spectrum measured at earth have culminated in the problem that to get the respective emissivities to agree, an unacceptably high interstellar B field must be chosen. In the light of new experimental data on the emissivity as deduced from H II region studies and on the functional dependence of the diffusion coefficient with solar radius and particle rigidity, the assumptions under which the electron emissivity comparison has been made have been reexamined closely. The paradox between predicted and measured emissivity was resolved by ascribing to the magnetic fields of the galaxy a distribution of magnetic field strengths. From modified synchrotron formulas, the interstellar electron spectrum has been constructed from the radio frequency emission data with greatly improved precision. The interstellar electron spectrum has been determined independently of the solar modulation and provides, therefore, an estimate of the absolute depth of the electron modulation. Then the measured electron, proton, and helium-nuclei fluxes were systematically compared to the predictions of the spherically symmetric Fokker-Planck equation using the electron modulation as a base. A previously unnoticed non-tracking of the modulation parameters was observed during the recent rerameters was observed during the recent recovery that did not occur during the 1965 to 1969 period. Although the argument could be presented just as well by attributing the anomaly to the nuclei, the discussion here arbitrarily tailored it to the electrons, and this new phenomenon was named, the modulation reluctance of the cosmic-ray electrons

  17. Build and Test a Model Solar House

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Concord Consortium

    2012-05-16

    Construct and measure the energy efficiency and solar heat gain of a cardboard model house. Use a light bulb heater to imitate a real furnace and a temperature sensor to monitor and regulate the internal temperature of the house. Use a bright bulb in a gooseneck lamp to model sunlight at different times of the year, and test the effectiveness of windows for passive solar heating.

  18. Principles of solar engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Goswami, D Yogi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction to Solar Energy ConversionGlobal Energy Needs and ResourcesSolar EnergyEnergy StorageEconomics of Solar SystemsSummary of RE ResourcesForecast of Future Energy MixReferencesFundamentals of Solar RadiationThe Physics of the Sun and Its Energy TransportThermal Radiation FundamentalsSun-Earth Geometric RelationshipSolar RadiationEstimation of Terrestrial Solar RadiationModels Based on Long-Term Measured Horizontal Solar RadiationMeasurement of Solar RadiationSolar Radiation Mapping Using Satellite DataReferencesSuggested ReadingsSolar Thermal CollectorsRadiative Properties and Charac

  19. Lyme Disease in Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vaccine.) (Please turn the page.) Lyme Disease in Construction Hazard Alert Check for tick bites every day. ... development, and training arm of the Building and Construction Trades Dept., AFL-CIO: CPWR, Suite 1000, 8484 ...

  20. Visualization of construction engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is required for nuclear power plant construction to reduce construction cost and shorten construction period. An early and accurate construction planning including schedule coordination among the companies has recently become more important and it is possible to obtain necessary information for construction planning in early stage. In this situation, we have been developing a visualization system for construction engineering for nuclear power plants. This system has an interface with the existing Plant Layout 3D-CAD system and consists of three sub systems: (1) Scheduling and simulation system, (2) Yard planning system and (3) Scaffolding planning system. This paper describes overview of this system. This visualization system is very helpful for construction engineers to easily understand situation and environment around installation area, to easily plan a work sequence and confirm the planned schedule, and it is also effective for customers and workers to understand the planning. As a result, this visualization system enables safety and high quality construction. (author)

  1. Web based Measurement System for Solar Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shachi Awasthi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We present in this paper, the principles of themeasurement system for solar radiation, and ourimplementation using Web based data loggingconcept.The photocurrent produced by Silicon PNjunction is used as a solar radiation transducer, tomake it more viable we have used commerciallyavailable solar panels as our transducers. Using asilicon solar cell as sensor, a low cost solarradiometer can be constructed. The photocurrentproduced by solar cell is electronically tailored to bemeasured and stored by our web based dataacquisition and monitoring system. Measurementusing real solar cell array gives a good measure ofactual producible energy by solar arrays. Ourportable instrument can be used in remote sites andsubstitutes the solar monitor and integrator,Current data of solar radiation can be monitoredusing Ethernet interface available in all PC,Laptops. We store the data into a secure digital cardwhich can be retrieved to plot and analyse the data.We have developed system hardware andsoftware based on ATmega32 AVR Microcontrollersand ENC28J60 Ethernet PHY and MAC networkinterface chip by Microchip.So the global irradiance data are obtained aftercorrection using the instantaneous measurement ofambient temperature which allows us to calculatethe junction temperature and consequently improvethe precision of measurement of our dataacquisition system

  2. Helioseismology, solar models and solar neutrinos

    OpenAIRE

    Fiorentini, G.; Ricci, B.

    1999-01-01

    We review recent advances concerning helioseismology, solar models and solar neutrinos. Particularly we shall address the following points: i) helioseismic tests of recent SSMs; ii)the accuracy of the helioseismic determination of the sound speed near the solar center; iii)predictions of neutrino fluxes based on helioseismology, (almost) independent of SSMs; iv)helioseismic tests of exotic solar models.

  3. MHD solar fluctuations and solar neutrinos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    N., Reggiani; M.M., Guzzo; P.C. de, Holanda.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available We analyze how solar neutrino experiments could detect time fluctuations of the solar neutrino flux due to magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) perturbations of the solar plasma. We state that if such time fluctuations are detected, this would provide a unique signature of the Resonant Spin-Flavor Precession ( [...] RSFP) mechanism as a solution to the Solar Neutrino Problem.

  4. Collecting Solar Energy. Solar Energy Education Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Alexander

    This solar energy learning module for use with junior high school students offers a list of activities, a pre-post test, job titles, basic solar energy vocabulary, and diagrams of solar energy collectors and installations. The purpose is to familiarize students with applications of solar energy and titles of jobs where this knowledge could be…

  5. Solar cooking and baking in Central Europe; Kochen mit der Sonne. Solar kochen und backen in Mitteleuropa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behringer, Rolf; Goetz, Michael

    2008-07-01

    Even in the Western and Central European climate, solar cookers can enable environment-friendly cooking and baking on about 100 to 150 days of the year. Some foods taste better when cooked more carefully, and vitamins and nutrients will be better preserved than in conventionally cooked food. After a short historical outline, the authors present some commercial solar cookers suited for our climate. This is followed by a detailed guide on how to construct a simple wooden solar cooker box from commercially available materials. Examples of solar cooking initiatives illustrate the many applications of solar cookers and parabolic trough cookers. The text is supplemented by practical hints and recipes.

  6. Heterotic string construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper an elementary introduction to the principles of four-dimensional string construction will be given. Although the emphasis is on lattice constructions, almost all results have further, and often quite straightforward generalizations to other constructions. Since heterotic strings look phenomenologically more promising than type-II theories the authors only consider the former, although everything can easily be generalized to type-II theories. Some additional aspects of lattice constructions are discussed, and an extensive review can be found

  7. Constructing Homogeneous Gorenstein Ideals

    OpenAIRE

    Gunturkun, Sema; Nagel, Uwe

    2013-01-01

    In 1983 Kustin and Miller introduced a construction of Gorenstein ideals in local Gorenstein rings, starting from smaller such ideals. We review and modify their construction in the case of graded rings and discuss it within the framework of Gorenstein liaison theory. We determine invariants of the constructed ideal. Concerning the problem of when a given Gorenstein ideal can be obtained by the construction, we derive a necessary condition and exhibit a Gorenstein ideal that...

  8. Construction industry forecasting model

    OpenAIRE

    Skribans, Valerijs

    2002-01-01

    In economic literature are shown different methods and instruments of forecasting of separated factors. The most exactly from them take into account economic relations in investigation object. The paper presents the results of research conducted on forecasting in the construction industry. Development of a model for the construction industry is a complicated task. The paper offers a model for forecasting production volumes of the construction industry in Latvian conditions. The construction b...

  9. Solar neutrino with Borexino: results and perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Smirnov, O; Benziger, J; Bick, D; Bonfini, G; Bravo, D; Caccianiga, B; Calaprice, F; Caminata, A; Cavalcante, P; Chavarria, A; Chepurnov, A; D'Angelo, D; Davini, S; Derbin, A; Empl, A; Etenko, A; Fomenko, K; Franco, D; Fiorentini, G; Galbiati, C; Gazzana, S; Ghiano, C; Giammarchi, M; Goeger-Neff, M; Goretti, A; Hagner, C; Hungerford, E; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Kobychev, V; Korablev, D; Korga, G; Kryn, D; Laubenstein, M; Lehnert, B; Lewke, T; Litvinovich, E; Lombardi, F; Lombardi, P; Ludhova, L; Lukyanchenko, G; Machulin, I; Manecki, S; Maneschg, W; Mantovani, F; Marcocci, S; Meindl, Q; Meroni, E; Meyer, M; Miramonti, L; Misiaszek, M; Mosteiro, P; Muratova, V; Oberauer, L; Obolensky, M; Ortica, F; Otis, K; Pallavicini, M; Papp, L; Perasso, L; Pocar, A; Ranucci, G; Razeto, A; Re, A; Ricci, B; Romani, A; Rossi, N; Saldanha, R; Salvo, C; Schoenert, S; Simgen, H; Skorokhvatov, M; Sotnikov, A; Sukhotin, S; Suvorov, Y; Tartaglia, R; Testera, G; Vignaud, D; Vogelaar, R B; von Feilitzsch, F; Wang, H; Winter, J; Wojcik, M; Wright, A; Wurm, M; Zaimidoroga, O; Zavatarelli, S; Zuber, K; Zuzel, G

    2014-01-01

    Borexino is a unique detector able to perform measurement of solar neutrinos fluxes in the energy region around 1 MeV or below due to its low level of radioactive background. It was constructed at the LNGS underground laboratory with a goal of solar $^{7}$Be neutrino flux measurement with 5\\% precision. The goal has been successfully achieved marking the end of the first stage of the experiment. A number of other important measurements of solar neutrino fluxes have been performed during the first stage. Recently the collaboration conducted successful liquid scintillator repurification campaign aiming to reduce main contaminants in the sub-MeV energy range. With the new levels of radiopurity Borexino can improve existing and challenge a number of new measurements including: improvement of the results on the Solar and terrestrial neutrino fluxes measurements; measurement of pp and CNO solar neutrino fluxes; search for non-standard interactions of neutrino; study of the neutrino oscillations on the short baselin...

  10. Solar energy thermalization and storage device

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, John F. (Ames, IA)

    1981-09-01

    A passive solar thermalization and thermal energy storage assembly which is visually transparent. The assembly consists of two substantial parallel, transparent wall members mounted in a rectangular support frame to form a liquid-tight chamber. A semitransparent thermalization plate is located in the chamber, substantially paralled to and about equidistant from the transparent wall members to thermalize solar radiation which is stored in a transparent thermal energy storage liquid which fills the chamber. A number of the devices, as modules, can be stacked together to construct a visually transparent, thermal storage wall for passive solar-heated buildings.

  11. Tehachapi solar thermal system first annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, A. [Southwest Technology Development Inst., Las Cruces, NM (US)

    1993-05-01

    The staff of the Southwest Technology Development Institute (SWTDI), in conjunction with the staff of Industrial Solar Technology (IST), have analyzed the performance, operation, and maintenance of a large solar process heat system in use at the 5,000 inmate California Correctional Institution (CCI) in Tehachapi, CA. This report summarizes the key design features of the solar plant, its construction and maintenance histories through the end of 1991, and the performance data collected at the plant by a dedicated on-site data acquisition system (DAS).

  12. A mobile apparatus for solar collector testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotchkiss, G. B.; Simon, F. F.; Burmeister, L. C.

    1979-01-01

    The design, construction, and operation of a mobile apparatus for solar collector testing (MASCOT) is described. The MASCOT is a self-contained test unit costing about $10,000 whose only external requirement for operation is electrical power and which is capable of testing two water-cooled flat-plate solar collectors simultaneously. The MASCOT is small enough and light enough to be transported to any geographical site for outdoor tests at the location of collector usage. It has been used in both indoor solar simulator tests and outdoor tests.

  13. Feasibility Study & Design of Brightfield Solar Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, Susan

    2014-09-28

    This Congressionally Directed Project originally provided funds to the Township of Lower Providence, Pennsylvania for the purpose of investigating the potential for a renewable energy generation facility to make beneficial reuse of a closed landfill located within the Township, known as Moyer Landfill. Early in the course of the project, it was determined through collaboration and discussion with DOE to alter the scope of the project to include a feasibility assessment of a landfill solar project, as well as to construct a demonstration solar project at the municipal facilities to provide an educational and community outreach opportunity for the Township to offer regarding solar photovoltaic (“PV”) electricity generation.

  14. Development of a Solar Constant Measurement Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklyarov, Yu A.; Brichkov, Yu I.; Vorobyov, V. A.; Bryantsev, I. I.

    1991-01-01

    A group of precision pyrheliometers, designated PVS-7 and PVS-8, for use on the ground, in balloons and in spacecraft, has been constructed and a second-generation solar constant monitor, SCM-2, is under construction. The SCM-2 incorporates a precision solar pointing and tracking system with a pointing accuracy of 0,2°, a value well below the value of 0,5° which is shown to be the limit for precise pyrheliometry. With this type of equipment, high-altitude balloon SC measurements constitute a useful supplement to satellite measurements by providing an absolute link of sufficient accuracy to permit the evaluation of possible SC trends.

  15. CONSTRUCTION PROJECT MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    LOREDANA HEDRE

    2009-01-01

    This work tries to define and present the characteristics and of project management and construction projects. One can find arguments for the need to use project management in the construction industry and the main management procedures making the essence of construction project management.

  16. Solar Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Solar Club

    2010-01-01

    Le CERN Solar-Club vous invite à la présentation de sa participation dans : The Cyprus Institute Solar Car Challenge du 18 au 20 juin à Chypre . en réponse à l’invitation dudit institut, dans le cadre de la demande de Chypre pour joindre le CERN . Le Club y participera avec son vénérable Photon rénové , et la Dyane E-Solaire d’un de ses membres, rénové aussi . Après la présentation, le forum est ouvert pour toutes vos questions et propositions diverses, également dans d’autres domaines des énergies renouvelables . C’est aussi l’occasion pour joindre le Club ! Où, et Quand ? Le Mercredi 7 Avril à 19 h 00, au 6ème étage du Bât. Principal, (60-6-015) à la suite de l’AG des membres du Club , à 18h00 dans...

  17. Fisica solare

    CERN Document Server

    Degl’Innocenti, Egidio Landi

    2008-01-01

    Il volume è un'introduzione alla Fisica Solare che si propone lo scopo di illustrare alla persona che intende avvicinarsi a questa disciplina (studenti, dottori di ricerca, ricercatori) i meccanismi fisici che stanno alla base della complessa fenomenologia osservata sulla stella a noi più vicina. Il volume non ha la pretesa di essere esauriente (basta pensare che la fisica solare spazia su un gran numero di discipline, quali la Fisica Nucleare, la Termodinamica, L'Elettrodinamica, la Fisica Atomica e Molecolare, la Spettoscopia in tutte le bande dello spettro elettromagnetico, la Magnetoidrodinamica, la Fisica del Plasma, lo sviluppo di nuova strumentazione, l'Ottica, ecc.). Piuttosto, sono stati scelti un numero di argomenti di rilevanza fondamentale nello studio presente del Sole (soprattutto nei riguardi delle osservazioni da terra con grandi telescopi) e su tali argomenti si è cercato di dare una panoramica generale, inclusiva dell'evoluzione storica, senza scendere in soverchi dettagli. Siccome la Fis...

  18. Solar Oscillations

    OpenAIRE

    Kosovichev, A. G.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years solar oscillations have been studied in great detail, both observationally and theoretically; so, perhaps, the Sun currently is the best understood pulsating star. The observational studies include long, almost uninterrupted series of oscillation data from the SOHO spacecraft and ground-based networks, GONG and BiSON, and more recently, extremely high-resolution observations from the Hinode mission. These observational data cover the whole oscillation spectru...

  19. Solar control

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhn, T.E.; Wienold, J.

    2003-01-01

    In modern office buildings, maximum priority is given to planning certainty for high-quality working conditions, coupled with low operating costs and low energy consumption. This objective can only be attained if regulation of facade systems and direction-dependent solar irradiation are taken into account when planning the building. Nevertheless, the sensitivity of the utilised systems towards different control strategies or user interventions is frequently neglected. For example, the lowest ...

  20. Solar Chameleons

    OpenAIRE

    Brax, Philippe; Zioutas, Konstantin

    2010-01-01

    We analyse the creation of chameleons deep inside the sun and their subsequent conversion to photons near the magnetised surface of the sun. We find that the spectrum of the regenerated photons lies in the soft X-ray region, hence addressing the solar corona problem. Moreover, these back-converted photons originating from chameleons have an intrinsic difference with regenerated photons from axions: their relative polarisations are mutually orthogonal before Compton interacti...

  1. Solar simulator:

    OpenAIRE

    Roest, S. J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Solar simulator comprising at least at least one high-intensity discharge (HID) lamp type,and at least one halogen lamp type, which lamps are applied simultaneously and are provided with infrared filter means to provide a mixture of light approximating radiated sunlight,wherein the infrared filter means are embodied as heat reflective foil mounted on a trans- parent substrate. The heat reflective foil is preferably provided with a repetitive pattern of perforations.

  2. Solar flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis an electrodynamic model for solar flares is developed. The main theoretical achievements underlying the present study are treated briefly and the observable flare parameters are described within the framework of the flare model of this thesis. The flare model predicts large induced electric fields. Therefore, acceleration processes of charged particles by direct electric fields are treated. The spectrum of the accelerated particles in strong electric fields is calculated, 3 with the electric field and the magnetic field perpendicular and in the vicinity of an X-type magnetic neutral line. An electromagnetic field configuration arises in the case of a solar flare. A rising current filament in a quiescent background bipolar magnetic field causes naturally an X-type magnetic field configuration below the filament with a strong induced electric field perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field. This field configuration drives particles and magnetic energy towards the neutral line, where a current sheet is generated. The global evolution of the fields in the flare is determined by force balance of the Lorentz forces on the filament and the force balance on the current sheet. The X-ray, optical and radio observations of a large solar flare on May 16, 1981 are analyzed. It is found that these data fit the model very well. (Auth.)

  3. Solar System!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

    An introduction to our solar system—the planets, our Sun and Moon. To begin, students learn about the history and engineering of space travel. They make simple rockets to acquire a basic understanding Newton's third law of motion. They explore energy transfer concepts and use renewable solar energy for cooking. They see how engineers design tools, equipment and spacecraft to go where it is too far and too dangerous for humans. They explore the Earth's water cycle, and gravity as applied to orbiting bodies. They learn the steps of the design process as they create their own models of planetary rovers made of edible parts. Students conduct experiments to examine soil for signs of life, and explore orbit transfers. While studying about the International Space Station, they investigate the realities of living in space. Activities explore low gravity on human muscles, eating in microgravity, and satellite tracking. Finally, students learn about the context of our solar system—the universe—as they learn about the Hubble Space Telescope, celestial navigation and spectroscopy.

  4. Towards green construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sustainability is the key to any development works. In the operation phase, hydro power is the most sustainable form of energy. However construction activities for the same power station are usually far from being green. The popular myth is that construction activity converts green into grey. Despite this popular myth, construction of a hydro power project in Nepal has made the project area greener than earlier during the construction phase itself. Choice of construction technology, appropriate level of environmental impact assessment, monitoring of environmental parameters along side the construction progress followed by mitigation at the right time; launching community development programmes side by side, having environmental specification in contractual documents and self-reliance to fulfill environmental obligations by contractors itself are the key factors in the environmental management within the construction activities. The main conclusions in the paper is the need to change the way to think about the project constraints

  5. Solar Sails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Roy

    2006-01-01

    The Solar Sail Propulsion investment area has been one of the three highest priorities within the In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) Project. In the fall of 2003, the NASA Headquarters' Science Mission Directorate provided funding and direction to mature the technology as far as possible through ground research and development from TRL 3 to 6 in three years. A group of experts from government, industry, and academia convened in Huntsville, Alabama to define technology gaps between what was needed for science missions to the inner solar system and the current state of the art in ultra1ightweight materials and gossamer structure design. This activity set the roadmap for development. The centerpiece of the development would be the ground demonstration of scalable solar sail systems including masts, sails, deployment mechanisms, and attitude control hardware and software. In addition, new materials would be subjected to anticipated space environments to quantify effects and assure mission life. Also, because solar sails are huge structures, and it is not feasible to validate the technology by ground test at full scale, a multi-discipline effort was established to develop highly reliable analytical models to serve as mission assurance evidence in future flight program decision-making. Two separate contractor teams were chosen to develop the SSP System Ground Demonstrator (SGD). After a three month conceptual mission/system design phase, the teams developed a ten meter diameter pathfinder set of hardware and subjected it to thermal vacuum tests to compare analytically predicted structural behavior with measured characteristics. This process developed manufacturing and handling techniques and refined the basic design. In 2005, both contractor teams delivered 20 meter, four quadrant sail systems to the largest thermal vacuum chamber in the world in Plum Brook, Ohio, and repeated the tests. Also demonstrated was the deployment and articulation of attitude control mechanisms. In conjunction with these tests, the stowed sails were subjected to launch vibration and ascent vent tests. Other investments studied radiation effects on the solar sail materials, investigated spacecraft charging issues, developed shape measuring techniques and instruments, produced advanced trajectory modeling capabilities, and identified and resolved gossamer structure dynamics issues. Technology validation flight and application to a He1iophysics science mission is on the horizon.

  6. Solar cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the last decade, climate change has moved from being the concern of few to a widely recognized threat to humanity itself and the natural environment. The 1990s were the warmest decade on record, and ever-increasing atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/), could, if left unchecked lead to serious consequences globally, including increased risks of droughts, floods and storms, disruption to agriculture, rising sea levels and the spread of disease. The contribution of anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide has been recognized as the principal cause of the atmospheric changes that drive these climate trends. Globally, buildings are the largest source of indirect carbon emissions. In 2000, the UK Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution estimated that in order to stabilise carbon emissions at levels, which avoid catastrophic alterations in the climate, we would have to reduce emissions from the built environment by at least 60% by 2050 and 80% by 2100 relative to 1997 levels. Studies of the Oxford Ecohouse have demonstrated that it is not difficult to reduce carbon emissions from houses by 60% or more through energy efficiency measures, but it is only possible to reach the 90% level of reductions required by using renewable energy technologies. Solar energy technologies have been the most successfully applied of all renewable to date largely because they are the only systems that can be incorporated easily into the urban fabric.incorporated easily into the urban fabric. In addition, the short fossil fuel horizons that are predicted (c. 40 years left for oil and 65 years for gas) will drive the markets for solar technologies. For these reasons, the cities of the future will be powered by solar energy, to a greater or lesser extent, depending on the city form and location. In recognition of the need to move rapidly towards a renewable energy future, a group of international cities, including Oxford, have started the Solar City Network. In this paper we outline the programmes and strategies of the Oxford Solar Initiative developed to meet the three aims of reducing CO/sub 2/ emissions from the buildings of the city, to stimulate local industry and to ensure that the citizens of Oxford are future-proofed, in safe and comfortable homes, against the risks posed by both climate change and increasingly expensive fossil fuels. (author)

  7. Solar Sail Spaceflight Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisano, Michael; Evans, James; Ellis, Jordan; Schimmels, John; Roberts, Timothy; Rios-Reyes, Leonel; Scheeres, Daniel; Bladt, Jeff; Lawrence, Dale; Piggott, Scott

    2007-01-01

    The Solar Sail Spaceflight Simulation Software (S5) toolkit provides solar-sail designers with an integrated environment for designing optimal solar-sail trajectories, and then studying the attitude dynamics/control, navigation, and trajectory control/correction of sails during realistic mission simulations. Unique features include a high-fidelity solar radiation pressure model suitable for arbitrarily-shaped solar sails, a solar-sail trajectory optimizer, capability to develop solar-sail navigation filter simulations, solar-sail attitude control models, and solar-sail high-fidelity force models.

  8. Early solar physics

    CERN Document Server

    Meadows, A J

    1970-01-01

    Early Solar Physics reviews developments in solar physics, particularly the advent of solar spectroscopy and the discovery of relationships between the various layers of the solar atmosphere and between the different forms of solar activity. Topics covered include solar observations during 1843; chemical analysis of the solar atmosphere; the spectrum of a solar prominence; and the solar eclipse of December 12, 1871. Spectroscopic observations of the sun are also presented. This book is comprised of 30 chapters and begins with an overview of ideas about the sun in the mid-nineteenth century, fo

  9. Solar and Reactor Neutrinos: Upcoming Experiments and Future Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Schoenert, Stefan

    2002-01-01

    Sub-MeV solar neutrino experiments and long-baseline reactor oscillation experiments toe the cutting edge of neutrino research. The upcoming experiments KamLAND and BOREXINO, currently in their startup and final construction phase respectively, will provide essential information on neutrino properties as well as on solar physics. Future projects, at present under development, will measure the primary solar neutrino fluxes via electron scattering and neutrino capture in real ...

  10. Solar solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China is facing enormous energy challenges. Everyone seems to know that we need to increase our energy supply by the equivalent of one power plant per week to support China's economic growth, which is allowing millions of people to enjoy better standards of living. Much less is known of the extent to which China has taken steps to mitigate the impact of that growing energy demand through incentives for greater efficiency and renewable energy. Policies include: Cutting energy intensity - 20 per cent between 2005 and 2010, saving five times as much CO2 as the EU's goals. Cutting major pollutants by 10 per cent by 2010. Setting one of the world's most aggressive renewable energy standards: 15 per cent of national energy from renewables by 2020. Setting targets of 300 megawatts of installed solar by 2010, and 1.8 gigawatts by 2020, in the 2007 National Development and Reform Commission Renewable Energy Development Plan. Dedicating $180 billion for renewable energy by 2020. Imposing energy efficiency targets for the top 1,000 companies, a measure with greater carbon savings potential than most Western initiatives. Establishing building energy codes in all regions and extensive efficiency standards for appliances, which will be particularly important as China continues to grow. Targeting new buildings in major cities like Beijing, Shanghai and Chongqing, to achieve 65 per cent greater energy efficiency than local codes require. Closing thousands of older, smallerquire. Closing thousands of older, smaller, dirtier power plants by 2010. China understands the economic development potential in clean energy technologies. Even the noted journalist Thomas Friedman has remarked that 'China is going green in a big way,' using domestic demand for cleaner energy to build low-cost, scalable green technologies. Suntech Power Holdings - now the world's largest solar photovoltaic (PV) module manufacturer, with operations around the globe - was just one of dozens of solar companies that realised the opportunity provided by China's energy challenges and the government's strong commitment to provide alternatives. Through favourable tax policies, aggressive government procurement and national targets, China is building a world-class export industry in all parts of the solar value chain, as well as encouraging increased use of the sun's energy at home. It is now the third-largest national producer of solar PV for the global market and may soon become the leader. In short, it realises that green energy is the key to both sustainable economic growth and a more pleasant environment.Yet China can still do more, and I'm working closely with the Government to set even more aggressive standards to help drive the development of the country's renewable energy resources. The Government is developing a solar building code with Suntech's participation, and is considering a review of the solar targets in the national renewable energy law - the 1.8 gigawatt goal by 2020 is just a fraction of the country's true potential within that time frame

  11. Urban Options Solar Greenhouse Demonstration Project. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cipparone, L.

    1980-10-15

    The following are included: the design process, construction, thermal performance, horticulture, educational activities, and future plans. Included in appendices are: greenhouse blueprints, insulating curtain details, workshop schedules, sample data forms, summary of performance calculations on the Urban Options Solar Greenhouse, data on vegetable production, publications, news articles on th Solar Greenhouse Project, and the financial statement. (MHR)

  12. Exploring Solar Power at Zion-Benton High

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Rick

    1978-01-01

    Developed to provide students with actual hands-on experience in constructing energy-efficient homes and to increase the community's and students' knowledge of solar power as an alternate source of energy, a building trades program at a high school in Zion, Illinois has its students building single-family solar energy homes. (BM)

  13. Solar Brightness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul Doherty

    2012-07-11

    In this math activity related to light, learners assemble a photometer and use it to estimate the power output of the Sun. Learners construct the photometer by making a grease spot on white paper and compare the brightness of the Sun to the brightness of a lamp. Learners calculate the power output by identifying the position at which the Sun is as bright as the lamp. This resource guide includes a calculation example and explains three complications that arise in this experiment. Instructions for constructing a plastic photometer are also provided.

  14. A heavy water solar neutrino detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The construction of a solar neutrino observatory utilizing 1000 tonnes of D2O in a nickel mine near Sudbury is proposed. The rationale for such an observatory, the characteristics of the detector and its sensitivity are discussed. Recent progress in resolving some of the problems in the construction and operation of the detector are outlined. Technical measurements and engineering designs are in progress with a view to preparing detailed cost estimates. 48 refs

  15. Construction time of PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The construction time of PWRs is studied considering published data about nuclear power plants in the world. For the 268 PWRs in operation in 2010, the mode of the construction time distribution is around 5–6 years, and 80% of the plants were built in less than 120 months. To circumvent the problem of comparing plants with different size we normalized the construction time to plants with 1 GW. We restricted the analysis to 201 PWRs which suffered less from external factors that were beyond the control of the management from 1965 to 2010. The results showed that the normalized construction time did not increase over the years and nor with the plants’ gross power level. The learning rate of the industry regarding normalized construction times showed a reduction with 95% confidence level of about 0.56±0.07 months for each 10 GW of installed capacity. Over the years the normalized construction time decreased and became more predictable. The data showed that countries with more centralized regulatory, construction and operation environments were able to build PWRs in shorter times. Countries less experienced with the nuclear technology built PWRs in longer times. - Highlights: ? The construction time of PWRs is analyzed based on historical data. ? Different factors affecting construction time are considered in the analyses. ? The normalized construction time of PWRs decreased with time and gross power level. ? Countries with more centralized institutions built PWRs more quickly

  16. Microbial Diversity in Samples of High Temperature Vent Chimneys From the 71 °N Hydrothermal Fields at the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinsbu, B. O.; Daae, F.; Ovreaas, L.; Thorseth, I. H.; Pedersen, R. B.

    2007-12-01

    To get a first insight into the diversity of microorganisms present in the recently discovered active hydrothermal fields along the Mohns Ridge in the Norwegian-Greenland Sea, 16S rDNA clone libraries were constructed with DNA extracted from the walls of active smoker pipes from different locations. Enrichments targeting different physiological groups of microorganisms were prepared both under aerobic, micro-aerobic, and strictly anaerobic conditions. Different combinations of substrates and electron acceptors, pH, and temperatures were used. The enrichment cultures were monitored by use of PCR in combination with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and partial 16S rDNA sequencing. Species dominating in the enrichments were isolated, and their 16S rRNA genes were analyzed. The clones obtained from DNA amplified with primers specific for Archaea represented members of the orders Archaeoglobales, Thermococcales, Desulfurococcales, and Thermoproteales, as well as some unidentified groups. Three major fractions of the clones showed highest similarity to hyperthermophiles belonging to the families Pyrodictiaceae and Desulfurococcaceae, and an unidentified group which was given the name "Arctic Ridge Hydrothermal Vent Archaea" (ARHVA). The major fraction of the clones obtained by use of PCR primers specific for Bacteria affiliated with various genera of Aquificales. Clones representing Proteobacteria, Deferribacteres, Bacteroidetes, Deinococcus- Thermus, Chloroflexi and Firmicutes were also detected. Many clones were relatively distantly related to sequences in the GenBank database. Different types of both thermophiles and hyperthermophiles were enriched and isolated. The isolates were phylogenetically affiliated to Thermotogales, Thermales, Nautilales, Aquificales, Archaeoglobales, Thermococcales, and Desulfurococcales. The cultivation experiments documented the presence of microorganisms mediating various metabolic processes including fermentation, reduction of sulfate, ferric iron, nitrate, oxygen and elemental sulfur. The information gained from the clone libraries and enrichment cultures revealed that already well-characterized phylogenetic groups, as well as clusters unique for these hydrothermal fields, were present.

  17. Quantum junction solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jiang; Liu, Huan; Zhitomirsky, David; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Wang, Xihua; Furukawa, Melissa; Levina, Larissa; Sargent, Edward H

    2012-09-12

    Colloidal quantum dot solids combine convenient solution-processing with quantum size effect tuning, offering avenues to high-efficiency multijunction cells based on a single materials synthesis and processing platform. The highest-performing colloidal quantum dot rectifying devices reported to date have relied on a junction between a quantum-tuned absorber and a bulk material (e.g., TiO(2)); however, quantum tuning of the absorber then requires complete redesign of the bulk acceptor, compromising the benefits of facile quantum tuning. Here we report rectifying junctions constructed entirely using inherently band-aligned quantum-tuned materials. Realizing these quantum junction diodes relied upon the creation of an n-type quantum dot solid having a clean bandgap. We combine stable, chemically compatible, high-performance n-type and p-type materials to create the first quantum junction solar cells. We present a family of photovoltaic devices having widely tuned bandgaps of 0.6-1.6 eV that excel where conventional quantum-to-bulk devices fail to perform. Devices having optimal single-junction bandgaps exhibit certified AM1.5 solar power conversion efficiencies of 5.4%. Control over doping in quantum solids, and the successful integration of these materials to form stable quantum junctions, offers a powerful new degree of freedom to colloidal quantum dot optoelectronics. PMID:22881834

  18. Solar Electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    ARCO Solar manufactures PV Systems tailored to a broad variety of applications. PV arrays are routinely used at remote communications installations to operate large microwave repeaters, TV and radio repeaters rural telephone, and small telemetry systems that monitor environmental conditions. Also used to power agricultural water pumping systems, to provide electricity for isolated villages and medical clinics, for corrosion protection for pipelines and bridges, to power railroad signals, air/sea navigational aids, and for many types of military systems. ARCO is now moving into large scale generation for utilities.

  19. Solar Bicycle

    OpenAIRE

    Sridhar, S.; HARSHENDRA. N. SHET. K

    2011-01-01

    The running costs of the present vehicles are rising day by day hence common man is looking for an alternate mode of transport, with low fuel and maintenance cost. Solar bicycle is an attempt to meet these needs. It is an environmentally sustainable and zero running cost vehicle. It uses photovoltaic cells to absorb energy from sunlight. The absorbed energy is stored in battery. The hub motor mounted on the rear wheel uses this energy to run the cycle. A fully charged battery gives a mileage ...

  20. Predicting Solar Deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, R. G., Jr.; Gonzalez, C. C.

    1984-01-01

    Statistical method uses available long term solar irradiance data at selected sites in United States to predict probable deviations from long term monthly averages. Technique useful in sizing solar collectors and backup storage systems to cover solar deficits.

  1. Safety in construction?:

    OpenAIRE

    Swuste, P. H. J. J.

    2013-01-01

    The available literature on Construction Safety is not very optimistic about the chances of evidence-based safety in the construction industry exerting a positive influence. Many articles indicate that the structures and processes that are designed to ensure safety in the industry are poor. Safety management systems do not work, or only partially, the business processes executed are fragmentary, it is not clear who is responsible for safety and parties lower in the construction hierarchy tend...

  2. Construction quality verification program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A system designed to analyze project documents, construction and quality control inspection procedures and verify conformance to contractual requirements is described. Any variance from invoked requirements in the nature of incorrect references, conflicts between project documents to regulatory requirements or omissions, are reported to management as identified items. These Construction Quality Verification Program (CQVP) reports provide management with a quality assurance tool to prevent proliferation of problems that may result in substantial costs to correct or construction schedule delays

  3. Runaway cultural niche construction

    OpenAIRE

    Rendell, Luke; Fogarty, Laurel; Laland, Kevin N.

    2011-01-01

    Cultural niche construction is a uniquely potent source of selection on human populations, and a major cause of recent human evolution. Previous theoretical analyses have not, however, explored the local effects of cultural niche construction. Here, we use spatially explicit coevolutionary models to investigate how cultural processes could drive selection on human genes by modifying local resources. We show that cultural learning, expressed in local niche construction, can trigger a process w...

  4. ACCELERATING CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Kumaraswamy, Mohan M.

    2006-01-01

    The needs for construction industry development are initially viewed from the broader perspectives of imperatives for infrastructure development and national development. All these are clearly more critical in developing countries. A non-exhaustive set of potential drivers and common barriers to construction industry development is identified from previous research. These suggest the usefulness of consolidating a cluster of recent proposals and exercises aiming at (a) construction organizatio...

  5. Solar Walls for concrete renovation : Part 3. Measurment results and recommendations. Final repport.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gramkow, Lotte; Vejen, Niels Kristian

    1996-01-01

    This repport gives a short presentation of three full-scale testing solar walls, the construction including the architectural design, materials and components, transportation and storage of solar enegy, the effect on the construction behind, statics and practical experience.The results of the measurments (energy- and temperature conditions, airchange-, termovisions- and moist measurments), operation- and user experience from the three buildings are describet.

  6. Understanding Construction Project Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Daniel

    Throughout history major construction projects have been designed and built using many different project delivery approaches. Thus, it is important that students studying to be in construction related professions understand various project delivery options and how they may impact the design and construction of their projects. I will attempt to provide an introduction to each of the three most commonly used project delivery approaches. This information could also serve as a simple guide to help construction professionals assist owners as they decide on the approach best suited for their particular project. One objective is to make the point that there is no perfect delivery approach; each has advantages and disadvantages.

  7. History of Solar Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    The California Solar Center offers this history of Solar Energy. Written by John Perlin, author of "From Space to Earth - The Story of Solar Electricity," the article summarizes three major solar energy subjects -- photovoltaics, solar thermal, and passive solar architecture. Visitors can get a quick overview of "how we have learned to capture sunlight and use it to make electricity, heat water and heat our homes."

  8. Solar '94: Technical papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Solar 94 Conference of the American Solar Energy Society met in San Jose, California to provide a forum for state-of-the-art work in all the solar technologies. The following topics were included in the proceedings: Photovoltaic Modules and Systems; Wind Energy; Solar Thermal Systems; Utility Programs; Solar Water Heating; Solar Fuels; Resource Assessment; Economics and Education. A total of 83 papers were indexed separately for the data base

  9. Solar radiation models - review

    OpenAIRE

    M. Jamil Ahmad, G.N. Tiwari, Anil Kumar Singh, Manisha Sharma, H.N. Singh

    2010-01-01

    In the design and study of solar energy, information on solar radiation and its components at a given location is very essential. Solar radiation data are required by solar engineers, architects, agriculturists and hydrologists for many applications such as solar heating, cooking, drying and interior illumination of buildings. For this purpose, in the past, several empirical correlations have been developed in order to estimate the solar radiation around the world. The main objective of this ...

  10. Build Your Own Solar Air Heater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

    The solar air heater is a simple device for catching some of the sun's energy to heat a home. Procedures for making and installing such a heater are presented. Included is a materials list, including tools needed for constructing the heater, sources for obtaining further details, and a list of material specifications. (JN)

  11. EDITORIAL Solar harvest Solar harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-12-01

    The first observations of the photoelectric effect date back to the early 19th century from work by Alexandre Edmond Becquerel, Heinrich Hertz, Wilhelm Hallwachs and J J Thomson. The theory behind the phenomena was clarified in a seminal paper by Einstein in 1905 and became an archetypical feature of the wave-particle description of light. A different manifestation of quantised electron excitation, whereby electrons are not emitted but excited into the valence band of the material, is what we call the photoconductive effect. As well as providing an extension to theories in fundamental physics, the phenomenon has spawned a field with enormous ramifications in the energy industry through the development of solar cells. Among advances in photovoltaic technology has been the development of organic photovoltaic technology. These devices have many benefits over their inorganic counterparts, such as light-weight, flexible material properties, as well as versatile materials' synthesis and low-cost large-scale production—all highly advantageous for manufacturing. The first organic photovoltaic systems were reported over 50 years ago [1], but the potential of the field has escalated in recent years in terms of efficiency, largely through band offsetting. Since then, great progress has been made in studies for optimising the efficiency of organic solar cells, such as the work by researchers in Germany and the Netherlands, where investigations were made into the percentage composition and annealing effects on composites of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and the fullerene derivative [6,6]-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) [2]. Hybrid devices that aim to exploit the advantages of both inorganic and organic constituents have also proven promising. One example of this is the work reported by researchers in Tunisia and France on a systematic study for optimising the composition morphology of TiO2 nanoparticles in poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK), which also led to insights into the charge transport mechanism and trap distribution in these composites [3]. An advantage of investigating solar cell technology based on organic materials rather than silicon is that silicon photovoltaics requires high-purity silicon, whereas the material demands of organic technology are not nearly so strict. Work by researchers in Denmark and Germany highlights the simplicity and tolerance to ambient conditions of organic photovoltaic fabrication in the demonstration of a nanostructured polymer solar cell made from a thermocleavable polymer material and zinc oxide nanoparticles. All the manipulations during device preparation could be carried out in air at around 20 °C and 35% humidity [4]. A possible route to enhancing cell performance is through the improvment of the transport efficiency. Researchers in Taiwan demonstrate how effectively this can be implemented in a hybrid device comprising TiO2 nanorods and poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene] (MEH-PPV) [5]. In addition, inorganic semiconductor nanocrystals that have tunable optical bandgaps can be combined with organic semiconductors for the fabrication of hybrid photovoltaic devices with broad spectral sensitivity. A collaboration of researchers in the UK and the US has now developed a near-infrared sensitive hybrid photovoltaic system with PbS nanocrystals and C60. The reported improvement in device performance is attributed to increased carrier mobility of the PbS nanocrystal film [6]. In this issue, Patrick G Nicholson and Fernando A Castro from the National Physical Laboratory in the UK present a topical review on the principles and techniques for the characterization of organic photovoltaics [7]. The review presents a comprehensive picture of the current state-of-the-art understanding of the working mechanisms behind organic solar cells, and also describes electronic morphological considerations relevant to optimizing the devices, as well as different nanoscale techniques for investigating organic solar cell technology. In spring 2011, Nanotechnology launches a new sect

  12. Comparison of photovoltaic energy systems for the solar village

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piercefrench, Eric C.

    1988-08-01

    Three different solar photovoltaic (PV) energy systems are compared to determine if the electrical needs of a solar village could be supplied more economically by electricity generated by the sun than by existing utility companies. The solar village, a one square mile community of 900 homes and 50 businesses, would be located in a semi-remote area of the Arizona desert. A load survey is conducted and information on the solar PV industry is reviewed for equipment specifications, availability, and cost. Three specific PV designs, designated as Stand-Alone, Stand-Alone with interconnection, and Central Solar Plant, were created and then economically compared through present worth analysis against utility supplied electrical costs. A variety of technical issues, such as array protection, system configuration and operation, and practicability, are discussed for each design. The present worth analysis conclusively shows none of the solar PV designs could supply electricity to the solar village for less cost than utility supplied electricity, all other factors being equal. No construction on a solar village should begin until the cost of solar generated electricity is more competitive with electricity generated by coal, oil, and nuclear energy. However, research on ways to reduce solar PV equipment costs and on ways to complement solar PV energy, such as the use of solar thermal ponds for heating and cooling, should continue.

  13. A solar manifesto. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the decade since the 'Earth Summit' in Rio de Janeiro, the response of the world's governments and authorities to the threats to the global environment has been to enforce the reduction of energy consumption and harmful emissions - solutions primarily based around conventional energy resources and conventional thinking. The question is, though, whether this strategy is radical enough to address the key challenges now facing the environment, and whether it can be effective in avoiding catastrophe on a global scale. For Herman Scheer, the answer is a definite no. In this fully updated edition of A Solar Manifesto, he once more attacks the lack of political will to find answers outside a conventional frame of reference. Climate change, pollution, deforestation, destruction of the ozone layer, poverty and the population explosion are all problems created or exacerbated by the use of conventional energy. Seven years after the first edition of this book, answers are now more urgently required than ever, as current policies serve merely to alleviate the escalating symptoms rather than attempting a cure for what could become a terminal affliction. Herman Scheer shows that this crisis may yet be reversed - but it can only be made to happen through a fundamental change in political and economic strategies, paving the way towards a global solar energy economy sustained by new social principles. A Solar Manifesto champions the replacement of fossil and nuclear fuels with solarent of fossil and nuclear fuels with solar energy, as a real solution to the threat to the environment and associated social consequences. Scheer constructs a radical yet innovative political and economic model and argues the case with passion and conviction for the global solar economy as the route to a sustainable environment. Thought-provoking and profoundly challenging, this book will be an inspiration to anyone concerned with energy and the global environment. (author)

  14. Solar greenhouse training project. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, L.; Kensil, D.; Lazar, B.; Yanda, B.; Yanda, S.

    1979-04-01

    The goals of this project were: (1) To train twenty teams, each from a different region, to organize and run workshops to build inexpensive, practical solar greenhouses. (2) To help create working solar greenhouse experts in the field available to respond to their community's needs. (3) To establish a national model program for solar greenhouse construction workshops. (4) To determine whether the barn-raising style used in the greenhouse construction workshops could be taught in the format of a 3 1/2 day seminar with a follow-up workshop. (5) To determine whether the audio-visual exhibit and printed materials used in the seminar were effective. (MOW)

  15. Solar Week Friday: Learn about Solar Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a reading associated with activities during Solar Week, a twice-yearly event in March and October during which classrooms are able to interact with scientists studying the Sun. Outside of Solar Week, information, activities, and resources are archived and available online at any time. This is a set of biographical readings by which learners can find out more about female solar scientists. This reading activity is scheduled to occur during Friday of Solar Week.

  16. Solar neutrinos: beyond standard solar models

    OpenAIRE

    Castellani, V.; S. Degl'Innocenti; G. Fiorentini; M. Lissia; Ricci, B.

    1996-01-01

    After a short survey of the physics of solar neutrinos, giving an overview of hydrogen burning reactions, predictions of standard solar models and results of solar neutrino experiments, we discuss the solar-model-independent indications in favour of non-standard neutrino properties. The experimental results look to be in contradiction with each other, even disregarding some experiment: unless electron neutrinos disappear in their trip from the sun to the earth, the fluxes of...

  17. Rotation periods and ages of solar analogs and solar twins revealed by the Kepler Mission

    CERN Document Server

    Nascimento, J -D do; Mathur, S; Anthony, F; Barnes, S A; Meibom, S; da Costa, J S; Castro, M; Salabert, D; Ceillier, T

    2014-01-01

    A new sample of solar analogs and twin candidates have been constructed and studied, with particular attention to their light curves from NASA's Kepler mission. This letter aims to assess the evolutionary status, derive their rotation and ages and identify those solar analogs or solar twin candidates. We separate out the subgiants that compose a large fraction of the asteroseismic sample, and which show an increase in the average rotation period as the stars ascend the subgiant branch. The rotation periods of the dwarfs, ranging from 6 to 30 days, and averaged 19d, allow us to assess their individual evolutionary states on the main sequence, and to derive their ages using gyrochronology. These ages are found to be in agreement with a correlation coefficient of r = 0.79 with the independent asteroseismic ages, where available. As a result of this investigation, we are able to identify 34 stars as solar analogs and 22 of them as solar twin candidates.

  18. New analytical and numerical models of solar coronal loop: I. Application to forced vertical kink oscillations

    OpenAIRE

    Murawski, K.; Solov Ev, A.; Kraskiewicz, J.; Srivastava, A. K.

    2014-01-01

    Aims. We construct a new analytical model of a solar coronal loop that is embedded in a gravitationally stratified and magnetically confined atmosphere. On the basis of this analytical model, we devise a numerical model of solar coronal loops. We adopt it to perform the numerical simulations of its vertical kink oscillations excited by an external driver. Methods. Our model of the solar atmosphere is constructed by adopting a realistic temperature distribution and specifying...

  19. Solar Cybertech: A Competition of Digitally Controlled Vehicles Poweredby Solar Panels

    OpenAIRE

    Garci?a, O.; Oliver, J. A.; Di?az, D.; Meneses, D.; Alou, P.; Vasic, M.; Cobos, J. A.

    2013-01-01

    Solar Cybertech is a conquest/subject at Universidad Politecnica de Madrid where student teams deal with electronics and renewable energies. The conquest is based in the design and construction of a vehicle powered by solar panels to complete a circuit that has different zones as a flat region, rising and falling slopes and a shaded region as well where different operating conditions are required. To optimize the energy consumed by the motors of the vehicles from the solar panels, a dc-dc con...

  20. Basic Construction Course Syllabus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickover, Jon

    This course syllabus provides an outline of a basic construction course. Students in this course learned "basic residential construction techniques with an emphasis on framing." The syllabus includes a basic course description and information on some class projects. This document may be downloaded in PDF file format.

  1. School Construction Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Stephen; Perrault, Mark; Teachout, Sara; Hilgendorf, Catherine; James, Brad; Savage, Stuart

    This report addresses the adequacy and availability of the state of Vermont's assistance for K-12 school construction and the issues that are creating state legislative concern. Issues examined are (1) the annual state obligation for school construction expenditures exceeding the amount of capital bill funding projected to be available for this…

  2. Impersonal Constructions in Igbo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihu?ma I. Akinr?mi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Two major perspectives employed in the characterisation of impersonal constructions in linguistic literature are the subject-centred and the agent-centred perspectives (Siewierska, 2008a. In Igbo studies the impersonal element that has received much attention is the impersonal pronoun a/e, and scholars have generally adopted a subject-based perspective in its analysis, while the agent-based perspective has been largely neglected. In addition, the subject-based perspective of the Igbo impersonal pronoun has generally focused on its distributional properties (Anyanwu, 2005, 2012; Nwaozuzu, 2007, while semantic and functional issues relating to the construction based on the impersonal pronoun has received no serious attention. This limits insight into the range of Igbo constructions that may be considered impersonal under the subject-based perspective. With the aim of locating the impersonal pronoun construction in the larger category of impersonal constructions in the language, the paper adopts a subject-based view of impersonal constructions as those that lack a canonical subject and also applies the agent-based perspective to the Igbo impersonal pronoun in its use as an agent-defocusing strategy. Other Igbo constructions which qualify as impersonal in the light of cross-linguistic criteria established in other studies are identified, and the syntactic and semantic features that make it possible to accommodate such constructions as impersonal, which in previous studies have not been linked to the syntax of the Igbo impersonal pronoun, are also highlighted in the paper.

  3. Solar neutrinos (almost) without standard solar models

    OpenAIRE

    Fiorentini, G.; Ricci, B.

    1995-01-01

    We extract information on the fluxes of Be and CNO neutrinos directly from solar neutrino experiments, with minimal assumptions about solar models. Next we compare these results with solar models, both standard and non standard ones. Finally we discuss the expectations for Borexino, both in the case of standard and non standard neutrinos.

  4. Solar Server: Forum for Solar Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Based in Germany, this site provides a forum for news and information regarding all aspects of solar energy. The site provides background information on the technical aspects pertaining to solar energy and photovoltaics. A variety of images and descriptions provide useful background information about photovoltaic roof tiles and their role in solar buildings.

  5. Solar models and solar neutrino oscillations

    OpenAIRE

    Bahcall, John N.; Peña-Garay, Carlos

    2004-01-01

    We provide a summary of the current knowledge, theoretical and experimental, of solar neutrino fluxes and of the masses and mixing angles that characterize solar neutrino oscillations. We also summarize the principal reasons for doing new solar neutrino experiments and what we think may be learned from the future measurements.

  6. VENTILATION NEEDS DURING CONSTRUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.R. Gorrell

    1998-07-23

    The purpose of this analysis is to determine ventilation needs during construction and development of the subsurface repository and develop systems to satisfy those needs. For this analysis, construction is defined as pre-emplacement excavation and development is excavation that takes place simultaneously with emplacement. The three options presented in the ''Overall Development and Emplacement Ventilation Systems'' analysis (Reference 5.5) for development ventilation will be applied to construction ventilation in this analysis as well as adding new and updated ventilation factors to each option for both construction and development. The objective of this analysis is to develop a preferred ventilation system to support License Application Design. The scope of this analysis includes: (1) Description of ventilation conditions; (2) Ventilation factors (fire hazards, dust control, construction logistics, and monitoring and control systems); (3) Local ventilation alternatives; (4) Global ventilation options; and (5) Evaluation of options.

  7. VENTILATION NEEDS DURING CONSTRUCTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this analysis is to determine ventilation needs during construction and development of the subsurface repository and develop systems to satisfy those needs. For this analysis, construction is defined as pre-emplacement excavation and development is excavation that takes place simultaneously with emplacement. The three options presented in the ''Overall Development and Emplacement Ventilation Systems'' analysis (Reference 5.5) for development ventilation will be applied to construction ventilation in this analysis as well as adding new and updated ventilation factors to each option for both construction and development. The objective of this analysis is to develop a preferred ventilation system to support License Application Design. The scope of this analysis includes: (1) Description of ventilation conditions; (2) Ventilation factors (fire hazards, dust control, construction logistics, and monitoring and control systems); (3) Local ventilation alternatives; (4) Global ventilation options; and (5) Evaluation of options

  8. Construction and building research

    CERN Document Server

    Fernández-Plazaola, Igor; Hidalgo-Delgado, Francisco; Martínez-Valenzuela, María; Medina-Ramón, Francisco; Oliver-Faubel, Inmaculada; Rodríguez-Abad, Isabel; Salandin, Andrea; Sánchez-Grandia, Rafael; Tort-Ausina, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Many areas of knowledge converge in the building industry and therefore research in this field necessarily involves an interdisciplinary approach. Effective research requires strong relations between a broad variety of scientific and technological domains and more conventional construction or craft processes, while also considering advanced management processes, where all the main actors permanently interact. This publication takes an interdisciplinary approach grouping various studies on the building industry chosen from among the works presented for the 2nd International Conference on Construction and Building Research. The papers examine aspects of materials and building systems; construction technology; energy and sustainability; construction management; heritage, refurbishment and conservation. The information contained within these pages may be of interest to researchers and practitioners in construction and building activities from the academic sphere, as well as public and private sectors.

  9. Operations management for construction

    CERN Document Server

    March, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Students studying construction management and related subjects need to have a broad understanding of the major aspects of controlling the building processes. Operations Management for Construction is one of three textbooks (Business Organisation, Operations Management and Finance Control) written to systematically cover the field. Focusing on construction sites and operations which are challenging to run, Chris March explores issues such as the setting up of the site, the deciding of the methodology of construction, and the sequence of work and resourcing. As changing and increasing regulations affect the way sites are managed, he also considers the issues and methods of successful administering, safety, quality and environment. Finally, the contractor's responsibility to the environment, including relationships with third parties, selection of materials, waste management and sustainability is discussed. Chris March has a wealth of practical experience in the construction industry, as well as considerable exp...

  10. Shedding Light on Solar Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Glenn Research Center sponsored an SBIR contract with ENTECH, in which the company worked to mold its successful terrestrial concentrator technology into applications that would generate solar power for space missions. ENTECH's first application made use of small, dome-shaped Fresnel lenses to direct sunlight onto high- efficiency photovoltaic cells. After some key adjustments, the mini- dome lens array was flown as part of the U.S. Air Force/NASA Photovoltaic Array Space Power Plus Diagnostics (PASP Plus) flight experiment in 1994. Due to their three-dimensional shape, the mini- dome lenses entailed construction by a batch molding process, which is naturally more costly than a continuous process. To overcome this disadvantage and meet the requirement for precise solar pointing in two axes, ENTECH started developing solar concentrator arrays for space using a line-focus lens that can be mass-produced by a continuous process. This new technology, named Solar Concentrator Array with Refractive Linear Element Technology (SCARLET), was created with support from Glenn and the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization, and was used to power the NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory Deep Space 1 spacecraft.

  11. Solar Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Solar Club

    2012-01-01

      Le  CERN Solar Club tiendra son Assemblée Générale le Mercredi  4 avril, à 18h00 dans la salle C, bat.61, 1e étage de 18h00  à  19h30. Grande table ronde avec  présentations de projets concernant toute forme d’Energie  Renouvelable par des membres du club,  et… par  VOUS, nos invités. Au programme : - L’E-push : petite remorque électrique, qui pousse vôtre vélo par Robert Becker. - Le Stockage Saisonnier Sous-Lacustre d’Energie Solaire (S3LES) par  William van Sprolant. - Compte-Rendu de plusieurs conférences récentes concernant les E.R. par Jacques Dupin. - VOS  Projets ou Sujets (contactez : paul.gelissen@orange.fr). - Partie «administrative» avec rapport d’activités, rapport fina...

  12. Solar Oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Kosovichev, A G

    2010-01-01

    In recent years solar oscillations have been studied in great detail, both observationally and theoretically; so, perhaps, the Sun currently is the best understood pulsating star. The observational studies include long, almost uninterrupted series of oscillation data from the SOHO spacecraft and ground-based networks, GONG and BiSON, and more recently, extremely high-resolution observations from the Hinode mission. These observational data cover the whole oscillation spectrum, and have been extensively used for helioseismology studies, providing frequencies and travel times for diagnostics of the internal stratification, differential rotation, zonal and meridional flows, subsurface convection and sunspots. Together with realistic numerical simulations they lead to better understanding of the excitation mechanism and interactions of the oscillations with turbulence and magnetic fields. However, many problems remain unsolved. In particular, the precision of the helioseismology measurements is still insufficient...

  13. Solar Bicycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SRIDHAR. S

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The running costs of the present vehicles are rising day by day hence common man is looking for an alternate mode of transport, with low fuel and maintenance cost. Solar bicycle is an attempt to meet these needs. It is an environmentally sustainable and zero running cost vehicle. It uses photovoltaic cells to absorb energy from sunlight. The absorbed energy is stored in battery. The hub motor mounted on the rear wheel uses this energy to run the cycle. A fully charged battery gives a mileage of 15-20 km. It is also provided with manual pedaling which increases the cycle’s mileage further. Average speed of the cycle is 15-18 kmph.

  14. A Review of Solar Desiccant Air Conditioner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. U. V. Kongre, D. P. Mahure, P. A. Zamre

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents a detailed study and description of a new solar-based air-conditioning technique. It uses solar energy to produce cold or hot air. This technology can be used to reduce the energy consumption and environmental impact of mechanical cooling system. The use of Desiccant cooling is used to perform air dehumidification operation by utilizing low grade heat source. The solar desiccant air conditioner uses solar power as the main energy source to help in the thermodynamic heat transfer process as well as heat transfer principles to convert ambient air into cooling air. With our constructed design we have seen temperature as well as humidity level drops throughout the desiccant cooling system. A significant advantage of this system is, it have no moving parts consequently they are noiseless, non-corrosive, cheap to maintain, long lasting in addition to being environmentally friendly with zero ozone depletion as well as zero global warming potentials.

  15. Environmental impacts from the solar energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solar energy systems (photovoltaics, solar thermal, solar power) provide significant environmental benefits in comparison to the conventional energy sources, thus contributing, to the sustainable development of human activities. Sometimes however, their wide scale deployment has to face potential negative environmental implications. These potential problems seem to be a strong barrier for a further dissemination of these systems in some consumers. To cope with these problems this paper presents an overview of an Environmental Impact Assessment. We assess the potential environmental intrusions in order to ameliorate them with new technological innovations and good practices in the future power systems. The analysis provides the potential burdens to the environment, which include - during the construction, the installation and the demolition phases, as well as especially in the case of the central solar technologies - noise and visual intrusion, greenhouse gas emissions, water and soil pollution, energy consumption, labour accidents, impact on archaeological sites or on sensitive ecosystems, negative and positive socio-economic effects

  16. Port of Galveston Solar Energy Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falcioni, Diane [Project Director, Port of Galveston; Cuclis, Alex [Project Manager, Houston Advanced Research Center; Freundlich, Alex [Principal Investigator, University of Houston

    2014-03-31

    This study on the performance characteristics of existing solar technologies in a maritime environment was funded by an award given to The Port of Galveston (POG) from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The study includes research performed by The Center for Advanced Materials at the University of Houston (UH). The UH researchers examined how solar cell efficiencies and life spans can be improved by examining the performance of a variety of antireflective (AR) coatings mounted on the top of one of the POG’s Cruise Terminals. Supplemental supporting research was performed at the UH laboratories. An educational Kiosk was constructed with a 55” display screen providing information about solar energy, the research work UH performed at POG and real time data from the solar panels located on the roof of the Cruise Terminal. The Houston Advanced Research Center (HARC) managed the project.

  17. Shenandoah Solar Total-Energy Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, J. A.; Hunke, R. W.

    1982-12-01

    The design and construction of the world's first solar total energy plant in the private sector was completed and checkout is underway. During its operational phase, the solar plant will furnish electrical power, process steam, and other thermal energy to a nearby knitwear factory. The solar system consists of a collector field containing 114 parabolic dish collectors which supply thermal energy at 4000 C to drive a 400 kW multistage Rankine cycle turbine generator. Some steam is extracted from the turbine and supplied to the knitwear manufacturing processes. The system will be grid connected. Presented are a description of the system and components being installed; a summary of performance testing of the extraction turbine and of four prototype parabolic dish collectors; and a discussion of design considerations and insights which have general applicability to solar thermal system designs.

  18. A simple tracking system to monitor solar PV panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We designed and constructed a solar tracking system based on light-dependent resistors (LDRs). • A study was made to determine the optimal angle of LDRs inducing the best precision of the device. • An experimental system was built to test different values of the angle between LDRs. • Results showed a good agreement between the experience and the predicted values. • The obtained results are useful for the design of new trackers based on the use of LDRs. - Abstract: The solar tracking systems are a center of interest of a big number of researchers from the fifties. The deflection of sun rays on a solar photovoltaic panel can reduce its power output until 50%. For concentrators solar trackers are master parts of the systems. A simple tracking system based on light dependent resistors was locally constructed, tested and optimized. Good agreement was recorded between numerical optimization results and experimental ones. These results are useful for the design and construction of new sun trackers

  19. New technologies will give new impetus to aircraft construction; Neue Technologien am Horizont befluegeln die Luftfahrt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klempert, Oliver

    2008-08-11

    The history of solar aircraft was written by courageous men, zaney inventors, and environmentalists. The first solar aircraft prototypes were constructed in the seventies of last century. Recently, a new interest has arisen apart from the thirst for adventure: The passenger aircraft industry would like to become independent of kerosene and is working on propulsion systems fuelled with hydrogen or vegetable oil. (orig.)

  20. Chances with self made collectors in Slovakia. Self-construction movement in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Author presented self-construction movement in Austria together with practical experiences presented by Josef Huschner from Pyhra Solar organisation. As mentioned movement has long tradition in Austria and brought valuable input for next sector of solar energy utilisation development, Austrian partners started discussion about possibilities of initiate similar movement in Slovakia

  1. Pilot Solar Thermal Power Plant Station in Southwest Louisiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terrence Chambers

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Solar thermal plants are basically power plants that generate electricity from high-temperature heat. The difference between them and conventional power plants is that instead of deriving energy from gas, coal or oil, the sun provides the energy that drives the turbines. In this paper we will give a brief demonstration of solar thermal power and different system designs of solar thermal power plants. Then we will see the feasibility of implementing solar power plants in Louisiana which currently depends mostly on its conventional power plants which use traditional fuels such as gas, oil, and coal.  This study was a part of a proposal that was funded by the US the Department of Energy to construct solar thermal plant near Lafayette, Louisiana. The power plant is currently under the construction and it will be completed by Summer of 2013.

  2. The solar house that rotates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article describes an innovative solar building in Weiz, Austria, that uses passive solar technologies, photovoltaics and a ground-coupled heat pump to cover its minimal energy requirements. The house, which follows the sun by rotating around its central axis, is described in detail, including its climatic design and its 'plus-energy' concept. Details are also given on the materials used in the house's construction and the functioning of its thermal insulation. The various operating modes of the house from the systems point of view are described for differing seasons and climatic extremes. Marketing aspects for this standardised house, featuring personal-computer-based on-line definition of facade cladding, fittings, photovoltaic power, furnishings etc. and real-time rendering of the house are also discussed

  3. Analysis of Electrical Characteristics of Photovoltaic Single Crystal Silicon Solar Cells at Outdoor Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, A.

    2011-01-01

    The electrical performance of a photovoltaic (PV) silicon solar cell is described by its current–voltage (I–V) character-istic curve, which is in turn determined by device and material properties. In this study, an investigation of the performance and device parameters of photovoltaic single crystalline silicon (Si.) solar cell of the construction n+pp++ PESC(Passivatted Emitter Solar Cell) at different conditions of solar irradiance, title angle and mirror boosting effects had been studi...

  4. Proceedings of the 18th national passive solar conference. Volume 18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The American Solar Energy Society conducts the National Solar Energy Conference as an annual forum for exchange of information about advances in solar energy technologies, programs, and concepts. The SOLAR 93 conference presented papers on the following topics: passive design tools; passive performance; building case studies; passive components, construction and glazing; daylighting; passive cooling; sustainability theory; sustainability projects; vernacular architecture; emerging architecture; and education. A total of forty-nine papers were indexed separately for the data base

  5. A Solar Energy Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, David L.; Riley, Robert A.

    This document contains 5,000 references to literature through 1976 dealing with various aspects of solar energy. Categories are established according to area of solar research. These categories include: (1) overview; (2) measurement; (3) low-range solar energy collection (below 120 degrees C); (4) intermediate-range solar energy collection (120…

  6. A solar neutrino loophole: standard solar models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The salient aspects of the existence theorem for a unique solution to a system of linear of nonlinear first-order, ordinary differential equations are given and applied to the equilibrium stellar structure equations. It is shown that values of pressure, temperature, mass and luminosity are needed at one point - and for the sun, the logical point is the solar radius. It is concluded that since standard solar model calculations use split boundary conditions, a solar neutrino loophole still remains: solar model calculations that seek to satisfy the necessary condition for a unique solution to the solar structure equations suggest a solar interior quite different from that deduced in standard models. This, in turn, suggests a theory of formation and solar evolution significantly different from the standard theory. (orig.)

  7. Solar Week Thursday: Shoebox Solar Water Heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is an activity during Solar Week, a twice-yearly event in March and October during which classrooms are able to interact with scientists studying the Sun. Outside of Solar Week, information, activities, and resources are archived and available online at any time. This is an activity about reflection. In this hands-on activity, learners will build a solar water heater by lining a box with reflective material, adding a translucent cover, and adding water-filled cans that are painted black. The temperature of the water is taken and recorded every fifteen minutes. This activity can use the same solar cooker built for the Solar Week Thursday: Solar Pizza Box Cooker activity. This activity is scheduled to occur during Thursday of Solar Week, and it requires use of a sunny outdoor location for an extended period of time.

  8. Lean production construction : prospects for the Icelandic construction industry

    OpenAIRE

    Christoph Merschbrock 1978

    2009-01-01

    The emerging concept of lean construction is concerned with the application of the lean paradigm to the construction industry. Purpose – This research paper seeks to identify the prospects and applicability of lean construction techniques at site level construction processes in the Icelandic construction industry. Design/methodology/approach – Firstly, the basis of current project management and tools to control construction in the Icelandic construction industry was identified thro...

  9. Quantitative constructional attributes selection in construction series of types

    OpenAIRE

    P. Gendarz; M. Cielniak

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The main aim of research was to analyze the selection process of quantitative constructional attributes in construction series of types.Design/methodology/approach: The quantitative constructional attributes selection process is based on constructional similarity theory.Findings: The constructional similarity theory allows to select the quantitative constructional attributes.Research limitations/implications: The final construction similarity is not complete because of adjusting the ...

  10. Sustainability Base Construction Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mewhinney, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Construction of the new Sustainability Base Collaborative support facility, expected to become the highest performing building in the federal government continues at NASA's Ames Research Center, Moffet Field, Calif. The new building is designed to achieve a platinum rating under the leadership in Energy and Environment Design (LEED) new construction standards for environmentally sustainable construction developed by the U. S. Green Building Council, Washington, D. C. When completed by the end of 2011, the $20.6 million building will feature near zero net energy consumption, use 90 percent less potable water than conventionally build buildings of equivalent size, and will result in reduced building maintenance costs.

  11. Construction program management

    CERN Document Server

    Delaney, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Although construction is one of the largest industries in the United States, it lags behind other industries in its implementation of modern management techniques such as those contained in the Standard for Program Management (the Standard) by the Project Management Institute (PMI(R)). Construction Program Management details the successful use of the PMI(R) approach for the construction of capital programs. It demonstrates, through case studies, how implementation of PMI's set of tools and techniques can improve the chances of program success. Exploring tactical and strategic management method

  12. Constructing an Educational Mars Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henke, Stephen A.

    2004-01-01

    January 14th 2004, President George Bush announces his plans to catalyst the space program into a new era of space exploration and discovery. His vision encompasses a robotics program to explore our solar system, a return to the moon, the human exploration of Mars, and to promote international prosperity towards our endeavors. We at NASA now have the task of constructing this vision in a very real timeframe. I have been chosen to begin phase 1 of making this vision a reality. I will be working on creating an Educational Mars Simulation of human exploration of Mars to stimulate interest and involvement with the project from investors and the community. GRC s Computer Services Division (CSD) in collaboration with the Office of Education Programs will be designing models, constructing terrain, and programming this simulation to create a realistic portrayal of human exploration on mars. With recent and past technological breakthroughs in computing, my primary goal can be accomplished with only the aid of 3-4 software packages. Lightwave 3D is the modeling package we have selected to use for the creation of our digital objects. This includes a Mars pressurized rover, rover cockpit, landscape/terrain, and habitat. Once we have the models completed they need textured so Photoshop and Macromedia Fireworks are handy for bringing these objects to life. Before directly importing all of this data into a simulation environment, it is necessary to first render a stunning animation of the desired final product. This animation with represent what we hope to capture out of the simulation and it will include all of the accessories like ray-tracing, fog effects, shadows, anti-aliasing, particle effects, volumetric lighting, and lens flares. Adobe Premier will more than likely be used for video editing and adding ambient noises and music. Lastly, V-Tree is the real-time 3D graphics engine which will facilitate our realistic simulation. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  13. Complementary construction of ideal nonimaging concentrators and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, J. M.

    1996-10-01

    A construction principle for ideal nonimaging concentrators based on the complementary edge rays outside the nominal field of view is presented, with illustrations for the trumpet, compound parabolic concentrator, and compound hyperbolic concentrator. A simple string construction for the trumpet concentrator is shown to follow from this observation-the trumpet having been the one ideal concentrator for which no string-construction method had previously been noted. An application of these observations for solar concentrator design when nonisothermal receivers are advantageous is also presented.

  14. Complementary construction of ideal nonimaging concentrators and its applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, J M

    1996-10-01

    A construction principle for ideal nonimaging concentrators based on the complementary edge rays outside the nominal field of view is presented, with illustrations for the trumpet, compound parabolic concentrator, and compound hyperbolic concentrator. A simple string construction for the trumpet concentrator is shown to follow from this observation-the trumpet having been the one ideal concentrator for which no string-construction method had previously been noted. An application of these observations for solar concentrator design when nonisothermal receivers are advantageous is also presented. PMID:21127575

  15. A wide-beam continuous solar simulator for simulating the solar flux at the orbit of Mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the design, construction and testing of a wide-beam continuous solar simulator which can be used to simulate air mass zero (AM0) solar irradiance at fluxes of up to 6.5 solar constants. The instrument has been designed to produce a steady collimated beam with a homogeneous flux distribution across an aperture area of diameter 290 mm. The instrument is being used to test hardware designed to fly on the ESA/JAXA space mission to Mercury, BepiColombo. It has applications for other spacecraft missions which envisage passing inside the orbit of Venus (e.g. Solar Orbiter)

  16. A wide-beam continuous solar simulator for simulating the solar flux at the orbit of Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, N.; Beck, T.; Chakraborty, S.; Gerber, M.; Graf, S.; Piazza, D.; Roethlisberger, G.

    2011-06-01

    We report on the design, construction and testing of a wide-beam continuous solar simulator which can be used to simulate air mass zero (AM0) solar irradiance at fluxes of up to 6.5 solar constants. The instrument has been designed to produce a steady collimated beam with a homogeneous flux distribution across an aperture area of diameter 290 mm. The instrument is being used to test hardware designed to fly on the ESA/JAXA space mission to Mercury, BepiColombo. It has applications for other spacecraft missions which envisage passing inside the orbit of Venus (e.g. Solar Orbiter).

  17. Solar engine system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports the revolutionary solar engine system in Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM). The solar engine is a single cylinder stirling engine driven by solar thermal energy. A first prototype solar engine has been built and demonstrated. A new-concept non-imaging focusing heliostat and a recently invented optical receiver are used in the demonstration. Second generation of prototype solar engine is described briefly. In this paper, the solar engine system development is reported. Measurement for the first prototype engine speed, temperature and specifications are presented. The benefits and potential applications for the future solar engine system, especially for the electricity generating aspect are discussed. (Author)

  18. Fundamentals of solar astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Bhatnagar, Arvind

    2005-01-01

    There are several textbooks available on solar astronomy which deal with advanced astrophysical aspects of solar physics, and books which provide very elementary knowledge about the Sun. This book will help to bridge the gap. It aims to stimulate interest in solar astronomy, presenting at one place the basic methods and techniques used in the field, together with the latest findings and the excitement in solar physics. As solar astronomy is becoming very popular among amateur astronomers and laymen, the book provides the practical knowledge to build simple solar telescopes and other equipment for making solar observations. Amateur astronomers have made important contributions to solar astronomy, and this book will help to guide them in their endeavours. The book can also serve as a text for undergraduate and graduate students starting out on solar physics. Using it, graduate students can easily embark on specific topics of research in solar astronomy.

  19. Solar workshops financial incentives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    Ten one-day workshops were held across the United States. Information in this workbook is compiled in conjunction with those workshops. The following discussions are included: solar as a fuel (history); why alternative fuels are being sought today; the need for conservation; advantages of solar energy; the potential of solar energy; why solar energy is not more widely used; a definition of solar; how solar can help meet energy demands; Federal policies and programs; what solar technologies exist today that can be effectively utilized (thermal applications, fuels from biomass, solar electric). Additional information is presented in three attachments: Energy-Conserving Methods; Domestic Policy Review of Solar Energy; and DOE Secretary's Annual Report to Congress-Solar Section. (MCW)

  20. Management for Construction Materials and Control of Construction Waste in Construction Industry: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Gulghane

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent treads a wide range of building materials is available for the construction of civil engineering structures. The total cost of materials may be up to 60% or more of the total cost incurred in construction project dependent upon the type of project. Effective construction materials management is a key to success for a construction project. Construction waste is another serious problem in construction industry. A large and various types of construction waste with different characteristics are created at all the stages of construction. Construction industries have a larger part in contributing environmental problems. The economic and environmental benefits must be gained from construction waste minimization. This paper presents a review on systematically investigation of the management of construction materials and construction waste, material management techniques, control of construction waste and existing situation of construction management and construction waste in the industry.

  1. Univalence and Constructive Identity

    OpenAIRE

    RODIN, ANDREI

    2012-01-01

    The non-standard identity concept developed in the Homotopy Type theory allows for an alternative analysis of Frege's famous Venus example, which explains how empirical evidences justify judgements about identities and accounts for the constructive aspect of such judgements.

  2. Construction of Antitumor Strain

    International Science & Technology Center (ISTC)

    Construction of the Strain Overproducing the Recombinant L-Asparaginase Erwinia Carotovora and Elaboration of the Large-Scale Method for Purification of Gomogeneous Enzyme with High Antitumor Activity

  3. Construction, fabrication, and installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This standard specifies the construction, fabrication, and installation requirements that apply to concrete containment structures of a containment system designated as class containment components, parts and appurtenances for nuclear power plants

  4. Copula constructions in Rawang

    OpenAIRE

    Lapolla, Randy J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the various uses of the copula in the Rawang language, a Tibeto-Burman language of northern Myanmar, plus other types of copula like-constructions, with data taken mainly from naturally occurring texts.

  5. Solar Radiation Resource Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the Solar Radiation Resource Information page for the RReDC which provides information on several types of renewable energy resources in the United States, in the form of publications, data, and maps. An extensive dictionary of renewable energy related terms is also provided. This page has links to: -Archived Data -NREL Data Collection Activities -Solar Spectra -Solar Codes & Algorithms -Solar Models -Solar Calculators -Publications. Keyword: Photovoltaic, cell, PV.

  6. Solar collector array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, John Champlin; Martins, Guy Lawrence

    2015-09-06

    A method and apparatus for efficient manufacture, assembly and production of solar energy. In one aspect, the apparatus may include a number of modular solar receiver assemblies that may be separately manufactured, assembled and individually inserted into a solar collector array housing shaped to receive a plurality of solar receivers. The housing may include optical elements for focusing light onto the individual receivers, and a circuit for electrically connecting the solar receivers.

  7. Magnetohydrodynamics and Solar Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Rieutord, Michel

    2014-01-01

    In this short review, I present some of the recent progresses on the pending questions of solar physics. These questions let us revisit the solar wind, the solar dynamo problem, the dynamics of the photosphere and finally have a glimpse at other solar type stars. Discussing the use of direct numerical simulations in solar physics, I show that the full numerical calculation of the flow in a single supergranule would require more electric power than the luminosity of the sun i...

  8. Solar Neutrinos in 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Chavarria, Alvaro

    2012-01-01

    I give an overview of the recent developments in the solar neutrino field. I focus on the Borexino detector, which has uncovered the solar neutrino spectrum below 5 MeV, providing new tests and confirmation for solar neutrino oscillations. I report on the updated measurements of the 8B solar neutrino flux by water Cherenkov and organic scintillator detectors. I review the precision measurement of the 7Be solar neutrino flux by Borexino and the search for its day-night asymme...

  9. The Solar Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    David H. Hathaway

    2010-01-01

    The Solar Cycle is reviewed. The 11-year cycle of solar activity is characterized by the rise and fall in the numbers and surface area of sunspots. A number of other solar activity indicators also vary in association with the sunspots including; the 10.7cm radio flux, the total solar irradiance, the magnetic field, flares and coronal mass ejections, geomagnetic activity, galactic cosmic ray fluxes, and radioisotopes in tree rings and ice cores. Individual solar cycles are ch...

  10. Solar Adaptive Optics

    OpenAIRE

    Rimmele, Thomas R.; Jose Marino

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive optics (AO) has become an indispensable tool at ground-based solar telescopes. AO enables the ground-based observer to overcome the adverse effects of atmospheric seeing and obtain diffraction limited observations. Over the last decade adaptive optics systems have been deployed at major ground-based solar telescopes and revitalized ground-based solar astronomy. The relatively small aperture of solar telescopes and the bright source make solar AO possible for visible wavelengths where...

  11. Glossary of Construction Terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Need to know what a cantilever is? Curious about screeding and Type II Moderate cement or cape chisels? Look no further than the Glossary of Construction Terms, provided by the National/California Contractor Referral and License Bureau. While by no means a definitive collection of construction terms, the glossary is fairly comprehensive in terms of the basics, offering short, clear explanations of tools, materials, and concepts. Topics include Carpentry, Concrete, Electrical, Heating and Air Conditioning, Painting, Plumbing, and Roofing, among others.

  12. Constructive Provability Logic

    CERN Document Server

    Simmons, Robert J

    2012-01-01

    We present constructive provability logic, an intuitionstic modal logic that validates the L\\"ob rule of G\\"odel and L\\"ob's provability logic by permitting logical reflection over provability. Two distinct variants of this logic, CPL and CPL*, are presented in natural deduction and sequent calculus forms which are then shown to be equivalent. In addition, we discuss the use of constructive provability logic to justify stratified negation in logic programming within an intuitionstic and structural proof theory.

  13. Constructive Provability Logic

    OpenAIRE

    Simmons, Robert J.; Toninho, Bernardo

    2012-01-01

    We present constructive provability logic, an intuitionstic modal logic that validates the L\\"ob rule of G\\"odel and L\\"ob's provability logic by permitting logical reflection over provability. Two distinct variants of this logic, CPL and CPL*, are presented in natural deduction and sequent calculus forms which are then shown to be equivalent. In addition, we discuss the use of constructive provability logic to justify stratified negation in logic programming within an intui...

  14. KARATE WITH CONSTRUCTIVE LEARNING

    OpenAIRE

    Srikrishna Karanam; Amarjot Singh; Devinder Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Any conventional learning process involves the traditional hierarchy of garnering of information and then recall gathered information. Constructive learning is an important research area having wide impact on teaching methods in education, learning theories, and plays a major role in many education reform movements. It is observed that constructive learning advocates the interconnection between emotions and learning. Human teachers identify the emotions of students with varying degrees of acc...

  15. Constructive Algebraic Topology

    OpenAIRE

    Rubio, Julio; Sergeraert, Francis

    2001-01-01

    The classical ``computation'' methods in Algebraic Topology most often work by means of highly infinite objects and in fact +are_not+ constructive. Typical examples are shown to describe the nature of the problem. The Rubio-Sergeraert solution for Constructive Algebraic Topology is recalled. This is not only a theoretical solution: the concrete computer program +Kenzo+ has been written down which precisely follows this method. This program has been used in various cases, ope...

  16. Constructing 3-Lie algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Bai, RuiPu; WU, YONG

    2013-01-01

    3-Lie algebras are constructed by Lie algebras, derivations and linear functions, associative commutative algebras, whose involutions and derivations. Then the 3-Lie algebras are obtained from group algebras $F[G]$. An infinite dimensional simple 3-Lie algebra $(A, [,,]_{\\omega, \\delta_0})$ and a non-simple 3-Lie algebra $(A, [,,]_{\\omega_1, \\delta})$ are constructed by Laurent polynomials $A=F[t, t^{-1}]$ and its involutions $\\omega$ and $\\omega_1$ and derivations $\\delta$ ...

  17. Béton. Matière de construction

    OpenAIRE

    Voellinger, Thierry; Amstein, Emy

    2013-01-01

    Cet ouvrage présente une compilation des résultats obtenus par les étudiants inscrits à l'unité d'enseignement niveau Master “Béton. Matière de construction” à l'Ecole polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne en 2013. L'unité d'enseignement est dispensée dans le cadre de l'orientation béton “Concrete architecture” qui rassemble les enseignements “Histoire du béton: fabriquer le béton” (Gargiani / divers enseignants), Théorie et critique du projet Master I (Giuliani / Hönger) et “Béton. Construction...

  18. Constructions of algebraic lattices

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A.A, Andrade; A.J, Ferrari; C.W.O, Benedito; S.I.R, Costa.

    Full Text Available In this work we present constructions of algebraic lattices in Euclidean space with optimal center density in dimensions 2, 3, 4, 6, 8 and 12, which are rotated versions of the lattices ?n, for n = 2,3,4,6,8 and K12. These algebraic lattices are constructed through twisted canonical homomorphism via [...] ideals of a ring of algebraic integers. Mathematical subject classification: 18B35, 94A15, 20H10.

  19. CONTRACT CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITY

    OpenAIRE

    ANTOANETA CLAUDIA BUTUZA; LOREDANA VALENTINA HEDRE

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the main types of contractual arrangements used worldwide in construction: traditional contracts, cost reimbursable type contracts, management contracts and other contractual arrangements such as partnership, offering two-phase, contracts in series and turnkey contracts. Also, based on a comparison of the main types of contractual arrangements a number of recommendations are suggested for choosing the appropriate type of contract construction project to be realized.

  20. AP1000 construction schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westinghouse performed this study as part of EPRI interest in advancing the use of computer aided processes to reduce the cost of nuclear power plants. EPRI believed that if one could relate appropriate portions of an advanced light water reactor plant model to activities in its construction sequence, and this relationship could be portrayed visually, then optimization of the construction sequence could be developed as never before. By seeing a 3-D representation of the plant at any point in its construction sequence, more informed decisions can be made on the feasibility or attractiveness of follow on or parallel steps in the sequence. The 3-D representation of construction as a function of time (4-D) could also increase the confidence of potential investors concerning the viability of the schedule and the plant ultimate cost. This study performed by Westinghouse confirmed that it is useful to be able to visualize a plant construction in 3-D as a function of time in order to optimize the sequence of construction activities. (author)