WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Solar chimney  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Solar Chimney is an interesting unconventional method for production of electricity from the sun. It consists of a large greenhouse which purpose is to heat the air and create air flow directing it to the base of the chimney and then through the pressure-staged turbine array. Solar Chimney can be used for pick load operation. Australia plans 200 MW solar plant for the and of 2004, which will be the tallest man made structure in the world with a height of almost 1 km and greenhouse diameter reaching 7.5 km. It is a result of Australia's commitment to find alternative energy solutions in order to reduce the environmental impact of fossil and nuclear technologies for electric power production. (Author)

2

Parameterization Studies of Solar Chimneys in the Tropics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper examines the effect of the solar chimney’s stack height, depth, width and inlet position on the interior performance (air temperature and speed at 1.20 m height above the ground as well as proposes an optimal tropical solar chimney design. Simulations show that the output air temperature remains constant while the solar chimney’s width is the most significant factor influencing output air speed. The solar chimney’s inlet position has limited influence on the output air speed although regions near the solar chimney’s inlet show an increase in air speed. Furthermore, a regression model is developed based on the solar chimney’s stack height, depth and width to predict the interior air speed. To optimize solar chimney in the tropics, the recommendation is to first maximize its width as the interior’s width, while allowing its stack height to be the building’s height. Lastly, the solar chimney’s depth is determined from the regression model by allocating the required interior air speed.

Alex Yong Kwang Tan

2013-01-01

3

DESIGN OF A SMALL ? SCALE SOLAR CHIMNEY FOR SUSTAINABLE POWER  

Science.gov (United States)

After several months of design and testing it has been determined that a small scale solar chimney can be built using nearly any local materials and simple hand tools without needing superior construction knowledge. The biggest obstacle to over come was the weather conditions....

4

Design and measured performance of a solar chimney for natural-circulation solar-energy dryers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The design and construction of a solar chimney which was undertaken as part of a study on natural-circulation solar-energy dryers is reported. The experimental solar chimney consists of a 5.3m high and 1.64m diameter cylindrical polyethylene-clad vertical chamber, supported structurally by steel framework and draped internally with a selectively-absorbing surface. The performance of the chimney which was monitored extensively with and without the selective surface in place (to study the effectiveness of this design option) is also reported. (author). 14 refs, 7 figs

5

A performance analysis of solar chimney thermal power systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this study was to evaluate the solar chimney performance theoretically (techno-economic). A mathematical model was developed to estimate the following parameter: Power output, Pressure drop across the turbine, the max chimney height, Airflow temperature, and the overall efficiency of solar chimney. The mathematical model was validated with experimental data from the prototype in Manzanares power. It can be concluded that the differential pressure of collector-chimney tr...

Al-Dabbas Awwad Mohammed

2011-01-01

6

Marketable solar chimney passive solar system components: research and development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report describes research to develop a marketable passive solar system incorporating a solar chimney in which heated air rises and produces a natural convection air flow within a double envelope construction. The equipment consists of a heat capturing element, another element to distribute and accumulate heat and a control system. Research activities involved: the study of feasible configurations and performance requirements; the design of a selected configuration; a computerized simulation of the system; and the development of two prototype modules to be lab tested at a facility equipped with real time data acquisition systems. The coordinated effort strove to obtain a multi-use system capable of providing summer cooling, as well as, winter heating and a system which would be accepted by both the construction industry and potential home buyers.

De Pascali, P.; Andreotti, P.; Scudo, G.; Silingardi, A.; Gabbi, L.; Grasselli, C.; Cattivelli, F.; Farruggia, S.; Giannotti, A.M. (Ist. Cooperativo per l' Innovazione, Rome (Italy); Milan Politecnico (Italy); Coopsette scrl, Castelnovo Sotto (Italy))

1989-02-01

7

Simulation of a sloped solar chimney power plant in Lanzhou  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Research highlights: {yields} A sloped solar chimney power plant in Lanzhou, China is investigated. {yields} The configuration sizes are designed separately. {yields} The system has high periodicity and stability but low efficiency. {yields} The sloped solar chimney power system is of high value for Northwest China. -- Abstract: Solar chimney power system is one large-scale utilization style of solar energy, which has drawn high attentions worldwide. Though scholars all over the world have made many researches on the solar chimney power system, reports of sloped solar chimney power system are still few. A sloped solar chimney power plant, which is expected to provide electric power for remote villages in Northwest China, has been designed for Lanzhou City in this paper. The designed plant, in which the height and radius of the chimney are 252.2 m and 14 m respectively, the radius and angle of the solar collector are 607.2 m and 31{sup o} respectively, is designed to produce 5 MW electric power on a monthly average all year. The performances, such as the airflow temperature increase, pressure, the airflow speed, system efficiency and solar collector efficiency, of the built sloped solar chimney power plant are simulated and presented. Simulation results show that parameters of the sloped solar chimney power plant are symmetrical and stable; the power plant has better performances in spring and autumn days; the overall efficiency of the power plant is low. Considering the abundant solar radiation, environmental friendliness, easy management and low population density, the sloped solar chimney power system is of high value to Northwest China.

Cao, Fei [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Zhao, Liang, E-mail: lzhao@mail.xjtu.edu.c [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Guo, Liejin [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China)

2011-06-15

8

Simulation of a sloped solar chimney power plant in Lanzhou  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Research highlights: ? A sloped solar chimney power plant in Lanzhou, China is investigated. ? The configuration sizes are designed separately. ? The system has high periodicity and stability but low efficiency. ? The sloped solar chimney power system is of high value for Northwest China. -- Abstract: Solar chimney power system is one large-scale utilization style of solar energy, which has drawn high attentions worldwide. Though scholars all over the world have made many researches on the solar chimney power system, reports of sloped solar chimney power system are still few. A sloped solar chimney power plant, which is expected to provide electric power for remote villages in Northwest China, has been designed for Lanzhou City in this paper. The designed plant, in which the height and radius of the chimney are 252.2 m and 14 m respectively, the radius and angle of the solar collector are 607.2 m and 31o respectively, is designed to produce 5 MW electric power on a monthly average all year. The performances, such as the airflow temperature increase, pressure, the airflow speed, system efficiency and solar collector efficiency, of the built sloped solar chimney power plant are simulated and presented. Simulation results show that parameters of the sloped solar chimney power plant are symmetrical and stable; the power plant has better performances in spring and autumn days; the overall efficiency of the power plant is low. Considering the abundant sol low. Considering the abundant solar radiation, environmental friendliness, easy management and low population density, the sloped solar chimney power system is of high value to Northwest China.

9

Performance of a Solar Chimney Under Egyptian Weather Conditions: Numerical Simulation and Experimental Validation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

High solar radiation and ambient temperature, and large desert in Egypt are excellent conditions to install efficiently solar chimney power plants there. Therefore this research aimed to develop a validated mathematical model and governing equations of solar chimney. It is proposed to improve the performance of solar chimney under effects of various parameters, and study of possibility of installing solar chimney in Egypt. The mathematical simulation of the solar chimney has been developed in...

Mostafa, A. A.; Sedrak, M. F.; Abdel Dayem, Adel M.

2011-01-01

10

Solar chimney in the land of Don Quixote  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

La Mancha/Spain is a semi-arid plateau. Near Manzanares about 150 km south of Madrid, is working the world's first prototype solar chimney. The solar chimney is a German-Spanish project. It is testing a 50-year-old idea for generating electricity simply and cheaply. The chimney converts sun-rays into electrical energy by combining the elements of greenhouse, chimney and wind turbine generator. The Manzanares chimney is 200 m high, with a diameter of 10 m. The collector roof has a diameter of 250 m. The wind turbine can be run of a maximum of 170 rpm and can be switched from a 100 kW, AC generator to a 40 kW unit for maximum generation of electricity at night.

England, J.

11

Solar Chimney Model Parameters to Enhance Cooling PV Panel Performance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The concept of using the Solar Chimney plays an important role in a wide range of topics to improve cooling system efficiency such as drying process, and single and multi-story buildings ventilation against temperature rising. In this paper, study the effective solar cooling chimney parameter model to enhance the performance of photovoltaic (PV cooling system. First, a brief description of theoretical performance predictions of the solar cooling chimney also discusses the effect of the ambient wind velocity on the photovoltaic panel. Second, analysis air velocities at different points in solar cooling chimney are predicted and the temperature drop also estimated to predicted air velocities in the duct. Finally, from simulation result it was found for chimney height range 0.3 m - 3 m and at 60 oC, the air velocity increase from 0.6 to 1.78 m/s and Pressure difference between inlet and outlet increase from 0.5 to 5.3 KPa, which improve the PV panel voltage 8%.

Mohammed Sh Elden

2013-01-01

12

A performance analysis of solar chimney thermal power systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the solar chimney performance theoretically (techno-economic. A mathematical model was developed to estimate the following parameter: Power output, Pressure drop across the turbine, the max chimney height, Airflow temperature, and the overall efficiency of solar chimney. The mathematical model was validated with experimental data from the prototype in Manzanares power. It can be concluded that the differential pressure of collector-chimney transition section in the system, is increase with the increase of solar radiation intensity. The specific system costs are between 2000 Eur/kW and 5000 Eur/kW depending on the system size, system concept and storage size. Hence, a 50 MWe solar thermal power plant will cost 100-250 Eur million. At very good sites, today’s solar thermal power plants can generate electricity in the range of 0.15 Eur/kWh, and series production could soon bring down these costs below 0.10 Eur /kWh.

Al-Dabbas Awwad Mohammed

2011-01-01

13

Performance of a Solar Chimney Under Egyptian Weather Conditions: Numerical Simulation and Experimental Validation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available High solar radiation and ambient temperature, and large desert in Egypt are excellent conditions to install efficiently solar chimney power plants there. Therefore this research aimed to develop a validated mathematical model and governing equations of solar chimney. It is proposed to improve the performance of solar chimney under effects of various parameters, and study of possibility of installing solar chimney in Egypt. The mathematical simulation of the solar chimney has been developed including all its performance parameters, dimensions (of collector, chimney and turbine and the metrological data; which were considered as inputs of the simulation program. A comparison between the mathematical and experimental performance has been investigated to validate the mathematical simulation. The mathematical model has been used to predict the performance of the solar chimney power plant over a year in Egypt. It is used to study of effects of geometrical parameters, and investigate possibility of the optimum geometrical dimensions. It is obtained that there is in fact no optimum physical size for such plants without considering the economical constraints. The chimney height has a significant effect in the chimney performance. Visualizing of annual performance of the solar chimney would seem to be essentially a power generator in Egypt if it installed in a large scale.Key words: Solar chimney; Numerical simulation; Annual performance; Experimental validation; Optimization

A. A. Mostafa

2011-02-01

14

Partial geometric similarity for solar chimney power plant modeling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A solar chimney power plant derives its mechanical power from the kinetic power of the hot air which rises through a tall chimney, the air being heated by solar energy through a transparent roof surrounding the chimney. In our previous studies, the achievement of complete dynamic similarity between a prototype and its models imposed the use of different solar heat fluxes between them. It is difficult to conduct an experiment by using dissimilar heat fluxes with different physical models. Therefore, this study aimed to maintain dynamic similarity for a prototype and its models while using the same solar heat flux. The study showed that, to achieve the same-heat-flux condition, the roof radius between the prototype and its scaled models must be dissimilar, while all other remaining dimensions of the models are still similar to those of the prototype. In other words, the models are 'partially' geometrically similar to the prototype. The functional relationship that provides the condition for this partial similarity is proposed and its validity is proved by scaling the primitive numerical solutions of the flow. Engineering interpretations of the similarity variables are also presented. (author)

Koonsrisuk, Atit; Chitsomboon, Tawit [School of Mechanical Engineering, Institute of Engineering, Suranaree University of Technology, Muang District, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000 (Thailand)

2009-09-15

15

Solar chimney design: Investigating natural ventilation and cooling in offices with the aid of computer simulation  

Science.gov (United States)

Solar chimney design is investigated as a means of improving natural ventilation and passive cooling in office buildings. Existing scientific research and built precedents are generally limited literature review findings on various features of solar chimneys were categorised and used to develop a building simulation strategy. Using UK climatic data, simulations were performed on several computer models in order to investigate solar chimney performance during a single day period and an entire cooling season. Passive cooling with a solar chimney is possible but actual reduction in temperatures in most cases examined could be negligible. Cooling potential is increased on still, warm days, while the prospects for night cooling are further improved. A solar chimney may help reduce considerably the occurrence of resultant temperatures at or above the 25 C and 28 C thresholds. Solar chimney width, height, apertures and integral use of thermal mass are the most significant parameters for cooling. Simulation results showed that a solar chimney can increase significantly natural ventilation rates. Total ventilation rates may be increased by at least 22%. During still days a solar chimney can enhance ventilation rates by 36% or more. Stack ventilation through a solar chimney is typically 20% of cross ventilation during night time this may increase to at least 40-45% and on still days it may reach 100% of typical cross ventilation rates. Solar chimney induced stack ventilation and cross ventilation are interrelated. Resultant air flow patterns may have an important effect on convective heat transfers and thermal comfort. Climate and microclimate conditions should be an integral part of solar chimney design. Key aspects and recommendations regarding solar chimneys, passive cooling and natural ventilation are provided for design guidance and feedback in further research.

Angelis, Nikolaos

16

Numerical Simulation and Comparison of Conventional and Sloped Solar Chimney Power Plants: The Case for Lanzhou  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The solar chimney power plant (SCPP) generates updraft wind through the green house effect. In this paper, the performances of two SCPP styles, that is, the conventional solar chimney power plant (CSCPP) and the sloped solar chimney power plant (SSCPP), are compared through a numerical simulation. A simplified Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model is built to predict the performances of the SCPP. The model is validated through a comparison with the reported results from the Manzanares prot...

Fei Cao; Huashan Li; Yang Zhang(Niels Bohr International Academy and Discovery Center, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark); Liang Zhao

2013-01-01

17

Power generation from wind turbines in a solar chimney  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recent studies have shown that shrouded wind turbines can generate greater power compared to bare turbines. A solar chimney generates an upward draft of wind inside a tower and a shroud around the wind turbine. There are numerous empty silos on farms in the U.S. that can be converted to solar chimneys with minor modifications at modest cost. The objective of this study is to determine the potential of these silos/chimneys for generating wind power. The study is conducted through analytical/computational approach by employing the commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software. Computations are performed for five different geometric configurations consisting of a turbine, a cylindrical silo, and/or a venturi and/or a diffuser using the dimensions of typical silos and assuming Class 3 wind velocity. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations with the Boussinesq approximation and a two equation realizable {kappa}-{epsilon} model are employed in the calculations, and the turbine is modeled as an actuator disk. The power coefficient (Cp) and generated power are calculated for the five cases. Consistent with recent literature, it was found that the silos with diffusers increase the Cp beyond Betz’s limit significantly and thus the generated power. It should be noted that Cp is calculated by normalizing it by the turbine area swept by the wind. This study shows the potential of using abandoned silos in the mid-west and other parts of the country for localized wind power generation.

Foote, Tudor [Graduate Student, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Washington University in St. Louis, Jolley Hall, Campus Box 1185, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, Missouri, 63130 (United States); Agarwal, Ramesh K. [William Palm Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Washington University in St. Louis, Jolley Hall, Campus Box 1185, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, Missouri, 63130 (United States)

2013-07-01

18

Solar chimney power generation project - The case for Botswana  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Import of a huge proportion of electrical energy from the Southern African Power Pool, and the geographical location and population distribution of Botswana stimulated the need to consider renewable energy as an alternative to imported power. The paper describes a systematic experimental study on a mini-solar chimney system. Particular attention is given to measurements of air velocity, temperature and solar radiation. The results for the selected 5 and 6 clear days of October and November, respectively, are presented. These results enable the relationship between average insolation, temperature difference and velocity for selected clear days to be discussed. (author)

19

Review on the Enhancement Techniques and Introduction of an Alternate Enhancement Technique of Solar Chimney Power Plant  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Due to the low plant efficiency associated with Solar Chimney Power Plant, there is a need for the plant performance enhancement. This study presents the enhancement techniques of solar chimney power plant. It reviews previous works that had been done in performance enhancement of solar chimney power plants. It also, introduces an alternative approach to enhance the solar chimney performance by hybridizing the solar operation mode and waste heat energy from flue gas. The new idea is to conver...

Al-kayiem, Hussain H.; Aja Ogboo Chikere; Zainal Ambri Abdul Karim

2011-01-01

20

Experimental investigation of solar chimney assisted bioclimatic architecture  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Human health and human comfort have been perceived as the most important parameters while assessing the indoor environment. Developing countries, constrained by extreme environmental conditions, poor building technologies and limited financial resources, find it difficult to adopt expensive technologies for a better indoor environment. Passive architectures, such as inclusion of solar chimneys, can reduce adverse health effects due to indoor contaminants, while green areas can be developed to reduce outdoor contaminants in the ventilation component. An analysis of bioclimatic architecture, assisted by a wind tower system, is presented for a better indoor environment. (Author)

Kumar, Sanjay [Indian Inst. of Technology, Centre for Atmospheric Sciences, New Delhi (India); Sinha, S. [Institute of Social Forestry and Eco-rehabilitation, ICFRE, Allahabad (India); Kumar, N. [MIT, Civil Engineering Dept., Bihar (India)

1998-12-31

 
 
 
 
21

Basement Kind Effects on Air Temperature of a Solar Chimney in Baghdad - Iraq Weather  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A solar updraft tower power plant (solar tower) is a solar thermal power plant that utilizes a combination of solar air collector and central updraft tube to generate an induced convective flow which drives pressure staged turbines to generate electricity. This paper presents practical results of a prototype of a solar chimney with thermal mass, where the glass surface is replaced by transparence plastic cover. The study focused on chimney's basements kind effect on collec...

Miqdam Tariq Chaichan

2011-01-01

22

Heat and fluid flows analysis in solar chimney power plants for different flow regimes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Solar chimneys are natural generators of power which use solar radiation to increase the internal energy of the air flowing within them. This study investigated the effect of fluid flow regimes on the performance of a solar chimney power plant (SCPP). The originality of the work was related to the mathematical and numerical modelling of fluid flow in a complex geometry with dimensionless variables. The thermal hydrodynamic aspect of flow was analyzed by solving the fluid dynamics equations using a finite volumes method with adequate boundary conditions. The study focused primarily on the performance analysis and cost of SCPPs. The efficiency of the solar chimney was studied from a thermo-fluid point of view under steady state conditions. The results were presented in terms of air flow velocity distributions versus Rayleigh number and some geometrical and physical parameters, such as the height of the chimney and solar radiation. The simulation results were in good agreement with experimental results from the Mansanares solar chimney power plant in Algeria, in terms of electric power generated by the chimney power plant and the fluid flow velocity in the chimney tower. 13 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs.

Gahgah, M.; Chergui, T. [Applied Research Center in Renewable Energies, Adrar (Algeria); Larbi, S. [National Polytechnic School of Algiers, Algiers (Algeria). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Laboratory of Mechanical Engineering and Development; Bouhdjar, A. [Development Center of Renewable Energies, Algiers (Algeria)

2010-07-01

23

Feasibility study on optimization of a typical solar chimney power plant  

Science.gov (United States)

The solar chimney which has been built in Kerman (Kerman city-Iran) is a small scale electrical power plant. The chimney of this unit has 60 m height and 3 m diameter. The collector of this unit is 40 m × 40 m square. To reach nominal power of this unit of power plant, parameters which are effective in optimization are studied. In this regard, we deliberate and propose suggestions to maximize usage of solar energy and kinetic energy. The calculation of maximum power is one of the objectives of this study, so the paper present economic analysis for Kerman solar chimney. A home code has been written for this modeling, in MATLAB.

Najmi, Mohsen; Nazari, Ali; Mansouri, Hossein; Zahedi, Ghazzanfar

2012-03-01

24

A single dimensionless variable for solar chimney power plant modeling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The solar chimney power plant is a relatively new technology for generating electricity from solar energy. In this paper dimensional analysis is used together with engineering intuition to combine eight primitive variables into only one dimensionless variable that establishes a dynamic similarity between a prototype and its scaled models. Three physical configurations of the plant were numerically tested for similarity: fully geometrically similar, partially geometrically similar, and dissimilar types. The values of the proposed dimensionless variable for all these cases were found to be nominally equal to unity. The value for the physical plant actually built and tested previously was also evaluated and found to be about the same as that of the numerical simulations, suggesting the validity of the proposition. The physical meaning of this dimensionless (similarity) variable is also interpreted; and the connection between the Richardson number and this new variable was found. It was found also that, for a fixed solar heat flux, different-sized models that are fully or partially geometrically similar share an equal excess temperature across the roof outlet. (author)

Koonsrisuk, Atit; Chitsomboon, Tawit [School of Mechanical Engineering, Institute of Engineering, Suranaree University of Technology, Muang District, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000 (Thailand)

2009-12-15

25

Cloud Formation in the Plumes of Solar Chimney Power Generation Facilities: A Modeling Study  

Science.gov (United States)

The mounting negative impacts of our dependence on fossil fuels make obvious the need for continued development of alternative power generation technologies. One promising technology is the solar chimney power plant, the concept of which is straightforward and consists of three main components: a solar air collector, the chimney itself, and a power turbine. The solar collector is a large, circular, greenhouse-like structure that gently slopes toward its center; air enters at the outer edge, and as the air parcel warms buoyancy causes it to move upward and toward the center of the collector. When the air has reached the center of the collector, its temperature has increased by an amount ?T, at which point it enters the chimney. The chimney functions as the main thermal engine in the power plant; the available power for electrical conversion is a function of the maximum potential air velocity through the chimney, which depends primarily on its height and on ?T. The actual air velocity is determined by the efficiency of the turbine, which is placed between the solar collector and the chimney. A pilot-scale solar chimney power plant has operated in Manzanares, Spain for two decades, and larger facilities have been proposed in China and Australia. As with all new technologies, it is important to consider the potential adverse impacts of solar chimney power generation facilities. This study considers one such impact- the potential for water vapor in solar chimney plumes to affect both the performance of the facility and the local meteorology. Using a cloud parcel model, the progress of a plume up through and out of a solar chimney was simulated for a range of conditions consistent with the proposed Australian facility. As might be expected, in the absence of any water vapor enhancement the plume demonstrated minimal cloud forming potential. However, our results indicate that in cases of moderate water vapor enhancement, cloud formation can occur after the plume exits the chimney and possibly impact plant performance and local meteorology. In cases of more substantial water vapor enhancement, cloud formation can even occur within the chimney itself.

Vanreken, T. M.; Nenes, A.

2006-12-01

26

Effect of solar chimney inclination angle on space flow pattern and ventilation rate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The solar chimney is a simple and practical idea that is applied to enhance space natural ventilation. The chimney could be vertical or inclined. The chimney inclination angle is an important parameter that greatly affects space flow pattern and ventilation rate. In the present study, the effect of chimney inclination angle on air change per hour and indoor flow pattern was numerically and analytically investigated. A numerical simulation using Ansys, a FEM-based code, was used to predict flow pattern. Then the results were compared with published experimental measurements. A FORTRAN program was developed to iteratively solve the mathematical model that was obtained through an overall energy balance on the solar chimney. The analytical results showed that an optimum air flow rate value was achieved when the chimney inclination is between 45 and 70 for latitude of 28.4 . The numerically predicted flow pattern inside the space supports this finding. Moreover, in the present study a correlation to predict the air change per hour was developed. The correlation was tested within a solar intensity greater than or equal to 500 W/m{sup 2}, and chimney width from 0.1 m to 0.35 m for different inclination angles with acceptable values. (author)

Bassiouny, Ramadan; Korah, Nader S.A. [Department of Mechanical Power Engineering and Energy, Minia University, Minia 61111 (Egypt)

2009-02-15

27

Numerical simulation and comparison of conventional and sloped solar chimney power plants: the case for Lanzhou.  

Science.gov (United States)

The solar chimney power plant (SCPP) generates updraft wind through the green house effect. In this paper, the performances of two SCPP styles, that is, the conventional solar chimney power plant (CSCPP) and the sloped solar chimney power plant (SSCPP), are compared through a numerical simulation. A simplified Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model is built to predict the performances of the SCPP. The model is validated through a comparison with the reported results from the Manzanares prototype. The annual performances of the CSCPP and the SSCPP are compared by taking Lanzhou as a case study. Numerical results indicate that the SSCPP holds a higher efficiency and generates smoother power than those of the CSCPP, and the effective pressure in the SSCPP is relevant to both the chimney and the collector heights. PMID:24489515

Cao, Fei; Li, Huashan; Zhang, Yang; Zhao, Liang

2013-01-01

28

Investigation on thermal performance of glazed solar chimney walls  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reports investigation on the thermal performance of glazed solar chimney walls (GSCW) under the tropical climatic conditions of Thailand. The GSCW consisted of double glass panes with an air layer and openings located at the bottom (room side glass pane) and at the top (ambient side glass pane). A prototype of GSCW was integrated into the southern wall of a small room of 2.8m{sup 3} volume. Its dimensions were as follows: 0.74m height, 0.50m width and 0.10m air gap. The size of openings was 0.05x0.5m{sup 2}. With a clear glass of 6mm thickness, velocity field measurement indicated that the induced airflow rate was about 0.13-0.28m{sup 3}/s. The temperature difference between room and ambient was less than that with a single layer clear glass window. The reduction of daylight due to the double glass layer is negligible. Comparison between simulated and experimental results showed a reasonable agreement, therefore, the developed numerical model is valid and could be used as a tool for the design of GSCW. (author)

Chantawong, Preeda; Hirunlabh, Jongjit [Building Scientific Research Center, King Mongkut' s University of Technology, School of Energy and Materials, Thonburi, Bongmod Rasburana, Thungkru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand); Zeghmati, Belkacem [Laboratoire de mecanique acoustique et instrumentation, Universite de Perpignan, 52, Ave Paul Alduy-66860 Perpignan (France); Khedari, Joseph; Teekasap, Sombat; Win, Maung Maung [Engineering Management Program, South-East Asia University, 19/1 Petchkasem Rd., Nongkhaem, Bangkok 10160 (Thailand)

2006-03-15

29

Performance analysis of a solar chimney power plant in the southwestern region of Algeria  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper, we present the performance analysis of a solar chimney power plant expected to provide the remote villages located in Algerian southwestern region with electric power. Solar energy and the psychometric state of the air in the south of Algeria are important to encourage the full development of solar chimney power plant for the thermal and electrical production of energy for various uses. We are interested in Adrar where solar radiation is better than other areas of Algeria. The obtained results show that the solar chimney power plant can produce from 140 to 200 kW of electricity on a site like Adrar during the year, according to an estimate made on the monthly average of sunning. This production is sufficient for the needs of the isolated areas. (author)

Larbi, Salah [Laboratory of Mechanical Engineering and Development, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Polytechnic National School of Algiers, 10, Avenue Hassen Badi, El-Harrach (Algeria); Bouhdjar, Amor [Development Center of Renewable Energies, Bouzeriah, Algiers (Algeria); Chergui, Toufik [Applied Research Center in Renewable Energies, Adrar (Algeria)

2010-01-15

30

Accuracy of theoretical models in the prediction of solar chimney performance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A solar chimney is a solar power plant which generates mechanical energy (usually in terms of turbine shaft work) from a rising hot air that is heated by solar energy. The present paper compares the predictions of performances of solar chimney plants by using five simple theoretical models that have been proposed in the literature. The parameters used in the study were various plant geometrical parameters and the insolation. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation was also conducted and its results compared with the theoretical predictions. The power output and the efficiency of the solar chimney plants as functions of the studied parameters were used to compare relative merits of the five theoretical models. Models that performed better than the rest are finally recommended. (author)

Koonsrisuk, Atit; Chitsomboon, Tawit [School of Mechanical Engineering, Institute of Engineering, Suranaree University of Technology, Muang District, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000 (Thailand)

2009-10-15

31

Evaluation of operational control strategies applicable to solar chimney power plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Numerical simulations are carried out to study the performance of two schemes of power output control applicable to solar chimney power plants. Either the volume flow or the turbine pressure drop is used as independent control variable. Values found in the literature for the optimum ratio of turbine pressure drop to pressure potential vary between 2/3 and 0.97. It is shown that the optimum ratio is not constant during the whole day and it is dependent of the heat transfer coefficients applied to the collector. This study is a contribution towards understanding solar chimney power plant performance and control and may be useful in the design of solar chimney turbines. (author)

Bernardes, Marco Aurelio dos Santos [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Minas Gerais - CEFET-MG, Av. Amazonas, 7675, Nova Gameleira, 30510-000 Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); von Backstroem, Theodor W. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Stellenbosch, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602 (South Africa)

2010-02-15

32

EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF A VELOCITY FIELD USING VARIABLE CHIMNEY DIAMETER FOR SOLAR UPDRAFT TOWER  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A solar updraft tower consists of an air collector 1.4 m in diameter and 80 cm tall chimney was set upin NIT Hamirpur, Himachal-Pradesh, India. The objective of the study was to investigate the variation of velocity with essential geometricparameter of the system. The solar updraft tower system consists of three essential elements- collector, chimney height and wind turbine. The output power of a system is depended on the input velocity to the wind turbine. Turbine inlet velocity (V) is the f...

Neeraj Mehla,; Rahul Makade,; Thakur, N. S.

2011-01-01

33

Performance analysis of conventional and sloped solar chimney power plants in China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The solar chimney power plant (SCPP) has been accepted as one of the most promising approaches for future large-scale solar energy applications. This paper reports on a heat transfer model that is used to compare the performance of a conventional solar chimney power plant (CSCPP) and two sloped solar chimney power plants (SSCPPs) with the collector oriented at 30° and 60°, respectively. The power generation from SCPPs at different latitudes in China is also analyzed. Results indicate that the larger solar collector angle leads to improved performance in winter but results in lower performance in summer. It is found that the optimal collector angle to achieve the maximum power in Lanzhou, China, is around 60°. Main factors that influence the performance of SCPPs also include the system height and the air thermophysical characteristics. The ground energy loss, reflected solar radiation, and kinetic loss at the chimney outlet are the main energy losses in SCPPs. The studies also show SSCPPs are more suitable for high latitude regions in Northwest China, but CSCPPs are suggested to be built in southeastern and eastern parts of China with the combination to the local agriculture. - Highlights: ? The optimum collector angle for maximum power generation is 60° in Lanzhou. ? Main parameters influencing performances are the system height and air property. ? Ground loss, reflected loss and outlet kinetic loss are the main energy losses. ? The sloped styles are suita ? The sloped styles are suitable for Northwest China. ? The conventional styles are suitable for Southeast and East China.

34

Numerical analysis on the performance of solar chimney power plant system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Power generating technology based on renewable energy resources will definitely become a new trend of future energy utilization. Numerical simulations on air flow, heat transfer and power output characteristics of a solar chimney power plant model with energy storage layer and turbine similar to the Spanish prototype were carried out in this paper, and mathematical model of flow and heat transfer for the solar chimney power plant system was established. The influences of solar radiation and pressure drop across the turbine on the flow and heat transfer, output power and energy loss of the solar chimney power plant system were analyzed. The numerical simulation results reveal that: when the solar radiation and the turbine efficiency are 600 W/m{sup 2} and 80%, respectively, the output power of the system can reach 120 kW. In addition, large mass flow rate of air flowing through the chimney outlet become the main cause of energy loss in the system, and the collector canopy also results in large energy loss.

Xu Guoliang [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Ming Tingzhen, E-mail: mtzhen@163.co [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Pan Yuan; Meng Fanlong; Zhou Cheng [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

2011-02-15

35

Numerical analysis on the performance of solar chimney power plant system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Power generating technology based on renewable energy resources will definitely become a new trend of future energy utilization. Numerical simulations on air flow, heat transfer and power output characteristics of a solar chimney power plant model with energy storage layer and turbine similar to the Spanish prototype were carried out in this paper, and mathematical model of flow and heat transfer for the solar chimney power plant system was established. The influences of solar radiation and pressure drop across the turbine on the flow and heat transfer, output power and energy loss of the solar chimney power plant system were analyzed. The numerical simulation results reveal that: when the solar radiation and the turbine efficiency are 600 W/m{sup 2} and 80%, respectively, the output power of the system can reach 120 kW. In addition, large mass flow rate of air flowing through the chimney outlet become the main cause of energy loss in the system, and the collector canopy also results in large energy loss. (author)

Xu, Guoliang; Ming, Tingzhen; Pan, Yuan; Meng, Fanlong; Zhou, Cheng [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

2011-02-15

36

Numerical analysis on the performance of solar chimney power plant system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Power generating technology based on renewable energy resources will definitely become a new trend of future energy utilization. Numerical simulations on air flow, heat transfer and power output characteristics of a solar chimney power plant model with energy storage layer and turbine similar to the Spanish prototype were carried out in this paper, and mathematical model of flow and heat transfer for the solar chimney power plant system was established. The influences of solar radiation and pressure drop across the turbine on the flow and heat transfer, output power and energy loss of the solar chimney power plant system were analyzed. The numerical simulation results reveal that: when the solar radiation and the turbine efficiency are 600 W/m2 and 80%, respectively, the output power of the system can reach 120 kW. In addition, large mass flow rate of air flowing through the chimney outlet become the main cause of energy loss in the system, and the collector canopy also results in large energy loss.

37

Computational studies on the effect of geometric parameters on the performance of a solar chimney power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Graphical abstract: This work is aimed at optimizing the geometry of the major components of a solar chimney power plant using ANSYS-CFX. The collector inlet opening, collector height, collector outlet diameter, the chimney throat diameter and the chimney divergence angle were varied for the same chimney height and collector diameter and the performance of the plant was studied in terms of the available power and an optimum configuration was obtained. The temperature and velocity variations in the collector and along the chimney height were also studied. - Highlights: • Geometry of the major components of a solar chimney power plant optimized using CFX. • Collector inlet opening, height, outlet diameter, chimney throat diameter, and the chimney divergence angle were varied. • Temperature and velocity variations and available power were obtained for different configurations. • Optimum values of collector outlet height and diameter and the divergence angle were obtained. - Abstract: A solar chimney power plant (SCPP) is a renewable-energy power plant that transforms solar energy into electricity. The SCPP consists of three essential elements – solar air collector, chimney tower, and wind turbine(s). The present work is aimed at optimizing the geometry of the major components of the SCPP using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software ANSYS-CFX to study and improve the flow characteristics inside the SCPP. The overall chimney height and the collector diameter of the SCPP were kept constant at 10 m and 8 m respectively. The collector inlet opening was varied from 0.05 m to 0.2 m. The collector outlet diameter was also varied from 0.6 m to 1 m. These modified collectors were tested with chimneys of different divergence angles (0°–3°) and also different chimney inlet openings of 0.6 m to 1 m. The diameter of the chimney was also varied from 0.25 m to 0.3 m. Based on the CFX computational results, the best configuration was achieved using the chimney with a divergence angle of 2° and chimney diameter of 0.25 m together with the collector opening of 0.05 m and collector outlet diameter of 1 m. The temperature inside the collector is higher for the lower opening resulting in a higher flow rate and power

38

Analysis and feasibility of implementing solar chimney power plants in the Mediterranean region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper analyzes the feasibility of solar chimney power plants as an environmentally acceptable energy source for small settlements and islands of countries in the Mediterranean region. For the purpose of these analyses, two characteristic geographic locations (Split and Dubrovnik) in Croatia were chosen and simplified model for calculation of produced electric power output is also developed. These locations possess typical characteristics of the Mediterranean climate. The solar characteristics of the chosen geographic locations are shown along with characteristic meteorological data. A solar chimney (SC) power plant with a chimney height of 550 m and a collector roof diameter of 1250 m would produce 2.8-6.2 MW of power. The average annual electric power production of this SC power plant would range between 4.9 and 8.9 GWh/year, but in reality from 5.0 to 6.0 GWh/year in average. An approximate costs analysis, which included a total investment estimate, was performed. The levelized electricity cost was also calculated. It is found that the price of produced electric energy by solar chimney power plant in Mediterranean region is considerably higher compared to the other power sources. (author)

39

Thermo-hydrodynamic aspect analysis of flows in solar chimney power plants - A case study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of the work presented in this study is related to heat transfer and airflow modelling analysis in solar chimneys, according to some dominant parameters. A typical case of application is given in this study. It consists in analyzing a natural laminar convective heat transfer problem taking place in a chimney. Heat transfer and fluid dynamic aspects of the airflow, through an axis symmetric system in a dimensionless form, with well defined boundary conditions is thus examined. Results are related to the temperature distribution and the velocity field in the chimney and in the collector, determined by solving the energy equation, and the Navier-Stokes equations, using finite volume method. The numerical code based on this modelling is validated through the Vahl Davis benchmark solution for natural convection and to other authors for other cases. (author)

Chergui, Toufik [Applied Research Center in Renewable Energies, Adrar (Algeria); Larbi, Salah [Laboratory of Mechanical Engineering and Development, Polytechnic National School of Algiers, 10, Avenue Hassen Badi, El-Harrach, Alger (Algeria); Bouhdjar, Amor [Renewable Energies Development Center, Bouzeriah, Algiers (Algeria)

2010-06-15

40

An analytical and numerical study of solar chimney use for room natural ventilation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The solar chimney concept used for improving room natural ventilation was analytically and numerically studied. The study considered some geometrical parameters such as chimney inlet size and width, which are believed to have a significant effect on space ventilation. The numerical analysis was intended to predict the flow pattern in the room as well as in the chimney. This would help optimizing design parameters. The results were compared with available published experimental and theoretical data. There was an acceptable trend match between the present analytical results and the published data for the room air change per hour, ACH. Further, it was noticed that the chimney width has a more significant effect on ACH compared to the chimney inlet size. The results showed that the absorber average temperature could be correlated to the intensity as: (T{sub w} = 3.51I{sup 0.461}) with an accepted range of approximation error. In addition the average air exit velocity was found to vary with the intensity as ({nu}{sub ex} = 0.013I{sup 0.4}). (author)

Bassiouny, Ramadan; Koura, Nader S.A. [Department of Mechanical Power Engineering and Energy, Minia University, Minia 61111 (Egypt)

2008-07-01

 
 
 
 
41

Evaluation of the influence of soil thermal inertia on the performance of a solar chimney power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Solar chimney power plants are a technology capable to generate electric energy through a wind turbine using the solar radiation as energy source; nevertheless, one of the objectives pursued since its invention is to achieve energy generation during day and night. Soil under the power plant plays an important role on the energy balance and heat transfer, due to its natural behavior as a heat storage system. The characteristics of the soil influence the ability of the solar chimney power plant to generate power continuously. Present work analyzes the thermodynamic behavior and the power output of a solar chimney power plant over a daily operation cycle taking into account the soil as a heat storage system, through a numerical modeling under non-steady conditions. The influence of the soil thermal inertia and the effects of soil compaction degree on the output power generation are studied. A sizeable increase of 10% in the output power is obtained when the soil compaction increases. -- Highlights: ? Solar chimney power plants are a technology capable to generate renewable energy from solar radiation. ? The ground under the solar chimney can act as a heat storage system. ? The soil thermal inertia plays a relevant role in a scenario where the plant operates continuously. ? A higher compaction of soil causes a relevant increase on total energy generation.

42

Simulation of solar chimney power plant with an external heat source  

Science.gov (United States)

Solar chimney power plant is a sustainable source of power production. The key parameter to increase the system power output is to increase its size but the plant cannot operate during night hours. This study deals with simulation work to validate results of pilot plant at Manzanares and include the effects of waste heat from a gas turbine power plant in the system. The effects show continuous night operation, a 38.8 percent increase in power at 1000 W/m2 global solar irradiation at daytime and 1.14 percent increase in overall efficiency.

Islamuddin, Azeemuddin; Al-Kayiem, Hussain H.; Gilani, Syed I.

2013-06-01

43

Study of the natural convection phenomena inside a wall solar chimney with one wall adiabatic and one wall under a heat flux  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Four wall solar chimneys have been constructed and put at each wall and orientation of a small-scale test room so as to be used for the evaluation and measurement of their thermal behavior and the certification of their efficiency. At this stage, research focuses on the study of the buoyancy-driven flow field and heat transfer inside them. A numerical investigation of the thermo-fluid phenomena that take place inside the wall solar chimneys is performed and the governing elliptic equations are solved in a two-dimensional domain using a control volume method. The flow is turbulent and six different turbulence models have been tested to this study. As the realizable k-{epsilon} model is likely to provide superior performance for flows boundary layers under strong adverse pressure gradients, it has been selected to be used in the simulations. This is also confirmed by comparing with the experimental results. Predicted velocity and temperature profiles are presented for different locations, near the inlet, at different heights and near the outlet of the channel and they are as expected by theory. Important parameters such as average Nusselt number are also compared and calculated at several grid resolutions. The developed model is general and it can be easily customised to describe various solar chimney's conditions, aspect ratios, etc. The results from the application of the model will support the effective set-up of the next configurations of the system. (author)

Bacharoudis, Evangellos; Margaris, Dionysios [University of Patras, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Aeronautics, Division of Energy, Aeronautics and Environment, Patras (Greece); Vrachopoulos, Michalis Gr.; Koukou, Maria K.; Filios, Andronikos E.; Mavrommatis, Stamatis A. [Technological Educational Institution of Chalkida, Mechanical Engineering Department, Environmental Research Laboratory, 344 00 Psachna, Evia (Greece)

2007-09-15

44

A procedure for constructing the normative characteristics of chimney-type evaporative cooling towers from the results of field measurements  

Science.gov (United States)

A procedure for constructing the normative characteristics of chimney-type evaporative cooling towers equipped with different designs of heat-and-mass transfer (spraying) devices is developed using the results of balance tests carried out for many years on 34 cooling towers of different designs with areas ranging from 500 to 10000 m2.

Kalatuzov, V. A.

2007-11-01

45

Performance of solar chimney power plant in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A solar chimney power plant (SCPP) is proposed to be built in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau where there is abundant solar radiation, high direct solar radiation low atmospheric temperature, large diurnal temperature range, and lots of salt lakes working as heat storage system, which can help to improve the power output of SCPP. The plant is expected to power local railway traffic lines and act as a solar power base to supply power for national development. The performance of the SCPP that will be built in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is analyzed and power potential estimated by developing a simple mathematical model. It is found that SCPP if built in the plateau can produce twice more power than an SCPP built on the same latitude of other regions. The yearly power potential for SCPP in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is estimated to be 86.8 million TJ. When 10-20% of the plateau land is used for the SCPP, the yearly power output may reach 8.7 million TJ to 17.4 million TJ, accounting for 10.7-21.3% of China's energy consumption in 2008 which stood at 81.6 million TJ. It is found that the SCPP in the plateau can support local and national development together with other renewable energy resources such as hydroelectric power and wind power. (author)

Zhou, Xinping; Wang, Fang [Department of Mechanics, School of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Luoyu Road 1037, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Hubei Key Laboratory for Engineering Structural Analysis and Safety Assessment, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Luoyu Road 1037, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Fan, Jian [Hubei Key Laboratory for Engineering Structural Analysis and Safety Assessment, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Luoyu Road 1037, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Ochieng, Reccab M. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Maseno University, P.O. Box 333, Maseno (Kenya)

2010-10-15

46

Numerical analysis of flow and heat transfer characteristics in solar chimney power plants with energy storage layer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Numerical simulations have been performed to analyze the characteristics of heat transfer and air flow in the solar chimney power plant system with an energy storage layer. Different mathematical models for the collector, the chimney and the energy storage layer have been established, and the effect of solar radiation on the heat storage characteristic of the energy storage layer has been analyzed. The numerical simulation results show that: (1) the heat storage ratio of the energy storage layer decreases firstly and then increases with the solar radiation increasing from 200 W/m2 to 800 W/m2; (2) the relative static pressure decreases while the velocity increases significantly inside the system with the increase of solar radiation; (3) the average temperature of the chimney outlet and the energy storage layer may increase significantly with the increase of solar radiation. In addition, the temperature gradient of the storage medium may increase, which results in an increase of energy loss from the bottom of the energy storage layer

47

Passive solar construction handbook  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Many of the basic elements of passive solar design are reviewed. The unique design constraints presented in passive homes are introduced and many of the salient issues influencing design decisions are described briefly. Passive solar construction is described for each passive system type: direct gain, thermal storage wall, attached sunspace, thermal storage roof, and convective loop. For each system type, important design and construction issues are discussed and case studies illustrating designed and built examples of the system type are presented. Construction details are given and construction and thermal performance information is given for the materials used in collector components, storage components, and control components. Included are glazing materials, framing systems, caulking and sealants, concrete masonry, concrete, brick, shading, reflectors, and insulators. The Load Collector Ratio method for estimating passive system performance is appended, and other analysis methods are briefly summarized. (LEW)

Levy, E.; Evans, D.; Gardstein, C.

1981-08-01

48

Mathematical modelling and validation of the drying process in a Chimney-Dependent Solar Crop Dryer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? The simulation code predicts temperatures to within 1.5% of recorded data. ? The ventilation is predicted to within 5% accuracy. ? Effects of heat inertia cause the actual drying path to deviate from the simulated path. ? The two paths converge in the end with a final moisture content prediction to within 10%. ? The simulation code can be used to compare and refine the dryer designs for optimum drying performance. - Abstract: A simulation procedure describing the drying process within a Chimney-Dependent Solar Crop Dryer (CDSCD) has been developed. The simulation follows the authors’ experimental work on the effect of varying drying chamber roof inclination on the ventilation and drying processes, and their work on the development of simulation code to help optimise ventilation in such dryers. The current paper presents the modelling and subsequent validation of the drying process inside the dryer, to come out with a design tool for the CDSCD. The work considers the height of the crop shelf above the drying-chamber base, crop resistance to airflow and the shading on the drying-chamber base and their effects on the drying process. The under-load condition temperatures and velocities are predicted to within a relative difference of 1.5% and 10%, respectively of the observed values. Even though the heat inertia of the physical model causes deviation between the predicted drying path and the observed drying path, the two paths tend to converge at the end of each drying cycle, with a general prediction to within 10% relative difference of the observed crop moisture content. The validation results show that the simulation code can serve as an effective tool for comparing and refining the designs of the CDSCD for optimum drying performance

49

Examining potential benefits of combining a chimney with a salinity gradient solar pond for production of power in salt affected areas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The concept of combining a salinity gradient solar pond with a chimney to produce power in salt affected areas is examined. Firstly the causes of salinity in salt affected areas of northern Victoria, Australia are discussed. Existing salinity mitigation schemes are introduced and the integration of solar ponds with those schemes is discussed. Later it is shown how a solar pond can be combined with a chimney incorporating an air turbine for the production of power. Following the introduction of this concept the preliminary design is presented for a demonstration power plant incorporating a solar pond of area 6 hectares and depth 3 m with a 200 m tall chimney of 10 m diameter. The performance, including output power and efficiency of the proposed plant operating in northern Victoria is analysed and the results are discussed. The paper also discusses the overall advantages of using a solar pond with a chimney for production of power including the use of the large thermal mass of a solar pond as a practical and efficient method of storing collected solar energy. (author)

Akbarzadeh, Aliakbar; Johnson, Peter; Singh, Randeep [Energy Conservation and Renewable Energy Group, School of Aerospace Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, RMIT University, P.O. Box 71, Bundoora 3083, Vic. (Australia)

2009-08-15

50

Theoretical study on air flow in a solar chimney with real insulation conditions; Estudo teorico do escoamento de ar em uma chamine solar com condicoes reais de insolacao  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents a theoretical analysis of the turbulent air flow with real conditions of insulation inside a solar chimney. The flow is described by the mass, momentum and energy conservation equations, besides the transport equations of the quantities in the turbulence model (k and epsilon). Dimensionless parameters are presented at way out the device, as function of time and the insulation conditions, represented by the soil and the roof heating.

Ferreira, Andre Guimaraes; Cortez, Marcio Fonte-Boa; Molina Valle, Ramon; Brasil, Cristiana Santiago [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG, (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: ferreira@demec.ufmg.br

2000-07-01

51

Passive-solar construction handbook  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Many of the basic elements of passive solar design are reviewed. Passive solar construction is covered according to system type, each system type discussion including a general discussion of the important design and construction issues which apply to the particular system and case studies illustrating designed and built examples of the system type. The three basic types of passive solar systems discussed are direct gain, thermal storage wall, and attached sunspace. Thermal performance and construction information is presented for typical materials used in passive solar collector components, storage components, and control components. Appended are an overview of analysis methods and a technique for estimating performance. (LEW)

Levy, E.; Evans, D.; Gardstein, C.

1981-02-01

52

From large natural draft cooling tower shells to chimneys of solar upwind power plants  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Natural draft cooling towers (NDCTs) presently form the world-largest RC shell structures, solar updraft power plants (SUPPs) will do this in future. The paper starts with explanations of the working principles of NDCTs and SUPPs. In industrialized countries with strong legal emphasis on sustainable power production technologies, NDCTs are widely spread, while SUPPs represent future solar power generation concepts in the world¿s tropical areas, using solar irradiation as power plant fuel. Co...

Kraetzig, Wilfried B.; Harte, Reinhard; Montag, Ulrich; Woermann, Ralf

2009-01-01

53

Sandwich Construction Solar Structural Facets  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Silver/glass mirrors have excellent optical properties but need a method of support in order to be used in concentrating solar thermal systems. In collaboration with the Cummins dish/Stirling development program, they started investigating sandwich construction as a way to integrate silver/glass mirrors into solar optical elements. In sandwich construction, membranes such as sheet metal or plastic are bonded to the front and back of a core (like a sandwich). For solar optical elements, a glass mirror is bonded to one of the membranes. This type of construction has the advantages of a high strength-to-weight ratio, and reasonable material and manufacturing cost. The inherent stiffness of sandwich construction mirror panels also facilitates large panels. This can have cost advantages for both the amount of hardware required as well as reduced installation and alignment costs. In addition, by incorporating the panels into the support structure reductions in the amount of structural support required are potentially possible.

Diver, R. B.; Grossman, J.W.

1998-12-22

54

Dynamic response of the Paks NPP chimney  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to simulate the experimental analysis undertaken for the chimney in Paks NPP an analytical model was developed. It is a 3D finite element model. The model of the chimney consists of 962 shell elements and the soil is modeled with 1846 Solid elements. Total number of joints is 2937. The shell elements were used to model the chimneys interconnected by platforms and inlet structure. The solid elements were used to model the footing, of the chimney and different soil layers. The model at the borders is fixed. The excitation record was provided by ISMES and is underground explosion. Three simultaneous components were taken into consideration. Fast Fourier analysis was done in order to see the frequency content of the excitation components. Material properties of the finite element model are shown. The chimney and the interconnection platforms are constructed of reinforced concrete. The concrete mechanical characteristics and the soil mechanical properties are given. In order to calculate the natural frequencies and periods of the model of the chimney, a Ritz analysis was performed and the first thirty six frequencies and periods were calculated. Figures show selected modes of free vibration, to visualize the complex motion of the chimney. The acceleration at the top of the chimneys were measured by three accelerometers. The measure values are compared to the calculated ones

55

Procedimentos estimativos do potencial de uso de chaminés solares para promover a ventilação natural em edificações de baixa altura / Procedures for estimating the potential use of solar chimneys for natural ventilation enhancement in low-rise buildings  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A ventilação natural é uma das estratégias mais importantes para o condicionamento térmico passivo de ambientes internos de edificações, podendo ocorrer pela ação dos ventos, pelo efeito chaminé ou pela combinação de ambos. Em áreas urbanizadas, a velocidade do vento é sensivelmente reduzida pelos o [...] bstáculos locais, tornando o efeito chaminé uma alternativa de projeto mais viável, pois independe dos ventos. Este artigo tem por objetivo apresentar e discutir procedimentos estimativos do potencial de uso de chaminés solares para edificações de baixa altura, localizadas em regiões de baixa latitude. Desenvolveram-se previsões teóricas, através de um modelo matemático e de simulação computacional. Realizou-se um processo de calibração destes modelos, utilizando como referência os resultados do monitoramento experimental de uma célula de teste. O processo baseou-se na análise comparativa de algumas variáveis selecionadas, considerando-se dados de temperatura superficial, temperatura do ar e vazão volumétrica no interior da chaminé. Os resultados indicaram que os modelos teóricos têm potencial de aplicação na avaliação do desempenho de chaminés solares, especialmente o modelo de simulação, em que foram observadas diferenças inferiores a 20% entre resultados medidos e calculados. Abstract in english Natural ventilation is one of the most important strategies for passive cooling of indoor environments. It can occur by wind forces, by stack effect or by a combination of both strategies. The second choice tends to be more effective in urban areas, where there are obstacles that block or significan [...] tly reduce wind speed. This paper analyses prediction procedures for the potential use of solar chimneys in low-rise buildings at low latitude locations. Theoretical predictions were developed using a mathematical model and computer simulation. A calibration procedure was used, based on results obtained through an experimental set up. The procedure consisted in a comparative analysis of chosen variables, considering data of surface temperature, air temperature and volumetric flow rate inside the chimney channel. The results confirmed the great potential of applicability of the theoretical models in the performance analysis of solar chimneys, especially the simulation model, which presented differences lower than 20% between measured and estimated results.

Leticia de Oliveira, Neves; Maurício, Roriz.

2012-03-01

56

Construction of the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope  

Science.gov (United States)

The 4m Advance Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) will be the most powerful solar telescope and the world's leading ground-based resource for studying solar magnetism that controls the solar wind, flares, coronal mass ejections and variability in the Sun's output. The project has entered its construction phase. Major subsystems have been contracted. As its highest priority science driver ATST shall provide high resolution and high sensitivity observations of the dynamic solar magnetic fields throughout the solar atmosphere, including the corona at infrared wavelengths. With its 4m aperture, ATST will resolve features at 0.?03 at visible wavelengths and obtain 0.?1 resolution at the magnetically highly sensitive near infrared wavelengths. A high order adaptive optics system delivers a corrected beam to the initial set of state-of-the-art, facility class instrumentation located in the Coudé laboratory facility. The initial set of first generation instruments consists of five facility class instruments, including imagers and spectro-polarimeters. The high polarimetric sensitivity and accuracy required for measurements of the illusive solar magnetic fields place strong constraints on the polarization analysis and calibration. Development and construction of a four-meter solar telescope presents many technical challenges, including thermal control of the enclosure, telescope structure and optics and wavefront control. A brief overview of the science goals and observational requirements of the ATST will be given, followed by a summary of the design status of the telescope and its instrumentation, including design status of major subsystems, such as the telescope mount assembly, enclosure, mirror assemblies, and wavefront correction

Rimmele, T. R.; Keil, S.; McMullin, J.; Knölker, M.; Kuhn, J. R.; Goode, P. R.; Rosner, R.; Casini, R.; Lin, H.; Tritschler, A.; Wöger, F.; ATST Team

2012-12-01

57

Fairy chimneys in Peru  

CERN Document Server

Erosion creates beautiful landscapes. A large part of them is known just by the local population. Google Maps can help in locating the places, study them and start any project for preservation. An interesting example is given by a landscape of fairy chimneys in Peru, near San Pedro de Larcay. It is remarkable the fact that some of them have been adapted as dwelling places.

Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

2011-01-01

58

Advanced Technology Solar Telescope Construction: Progress Report  

Science.gov (United States)

The 4m Advance Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) on Haleakala will be the most powerful solar telescope and the world’s leading ground-based resource for studying solar magnetism that controls the solar wind, flares, coronal mass ejections and variability in the Sun’s output. The ATST will provide high resolution and high sensitivity observations of the dynamic solar magnetic fields throughout the solar atmosphere, including the corona at infrared wavelengths. With its 4 m aperture, ATST will resolve magnetic features at their intrinsic scales. A high order adaptive optics system delivers a corrected beam to the initial set of five state-of-the-art, facility class instrumentation located in the coude laboratory facility. Photopheric and chromospheric magnetometry is part of the key mission of four of these instruments. Coronal magnetometry and spectroscopy will be performed by two of these instruments at infrared wavelengths. The ATST project has transitioned from design and development to its construction phase. Site construction is expected to begin in April 2012. The project has awarded design and fabrication contracts for major telescope subsystems. A robust instrument program has been established and all instruments have passed preliminary design reviews or critical design reviews. A brief overview of the science goals and observational requirements of the ATST will be given, followed by a summary of the project status of the telescope and discussion of the approach to integrating instruments into the facility. The National Science Foundation (NSF) through the National Solar Observatory (NSO) funds the ATST Project. The NSO is operated under a cooperative agreement between the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. (AURA) and NSF.

Rimmele, Thomas R.; McMullin, J.; Keil, S.; Goode, P.; Knoelker, M.; Kuhn, J.; Rosner, R.; ATST Team

2012-05-01

59

Corrosion at system chimneys made of CrNi-steels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Names like 'chimney' und 'funnel' usually identify flue gas devices made of bricks. Much less known is the fact that chimney elements are still manufactured from alloys. The following article describes the particular demands ruled by legislation on building pro-ducts, just as the consequences resulting from corrosion loads by flue gas condensates. Difficulties caused by manufacturing and construction are primarily discussed. Furthermore a test procedure is introduced that allows to catch and correlate corrosion loads and technical designs systematically to corrosion behaviour and service life of flue gas devices. For the first time a tool for active quality assurance has been given by this test rig allowing to recognize construction errors systematically. This way, manufacturers of system chimneys and flue liners are enabled to optimize their products applications going ahead to the respective requests of the market. (authors)

Pajonk, Gunther [Institute of Materials Testing of Northrhine-Westfalia, D-44285 Dortmund (Germany)

2004-07-01

60

Novel concept for producing energy integrating a solar collector with a man made mountain hollow  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The concept of the solar chimney thermal power technology was proven with the successful operation of the Manzanares prototype built in the 1980s. However, all previous attempts at producing energy from a commercial solar chimney thermal power plant on a large scale have failed because of bad engineering and safety. A novel concept for producing energy by integrating a solar collector with a mountain hollow is presented and described. Solar energy is collected in the collector and heats the ground, which is used to store heat energy and heat the indoor air. Then, the hot air is forced by the pressure difference between it and the ambient air to move along the tilted segment and up the vertical segment of the 'chimney', driving the turbine generators to generate electricity. The mountain hollow, formed by excavation in a large-elevation mountain, can avoid the safety issues of erecting a gigantic concrete chimney, which is needed for commercial solar chimney thermal power plants. Furthermore, it can also save a great amount of construction materials for constructing a robust chimney structure and reduce the energy cost to a level less than that of a clean coal power plant, providing a good solution to the reclamation and utilization of undeveloped mountains, especially in mountainous countries.

Zhou Xinping [School of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Luoyu Road, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China)], E-mail: zhxpmark@hotmail.com; Yang Jiakuan; Wang Jinbo; Xiao Bo [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Luoyu Road Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China)

2009-03-15

 
 
 
 
61

Novel concept for producing energy integrating a solar collector with a man made mountain hollow  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The concept of the solar chimney thermal power technology was proven with the successful operation of the Manzanares prototype built in the 1980s. However, all previous attempts at producing energy from a commercial solar chimney thermal power plant on a large scale have failed because of bad engineering and safety. A novel concept for producing energy by integrating a solar collector with a mountain hollow is presented and described. Solar energy is collected in the collector and heats the ground, which is used to store heat energy and heat the indoor air. Then, the hot air is forced by the pressure difference between it and the ambient air to move along the tilted segment and up the vertical segment of the 'chimney', driving the turbine generators to generate electricity. The mountain hollow, formed by excavation in a large-elevation mountain, can avoid the safety issues of erecting a gigantic concrete chimney, which is needed for commercial solar chimney thermal power plants. Furthermore, it can also save a great amount of construction materials for constructing a robust chimney structure and reduce the energy cost to a level less than that of a clean coal power plant, providing a good solution to the reclamation and utilization of undeveloped mountains, especially in mountainous countries. (author)

Zhou, Xinping [School of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Luoyu Road, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Yang, Jiakuan; Wang, Jinbo; Xiao, Bo [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Luoyu Road Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China)

2009-03-15

62

Solar Glazing Tips for School Construction  

Science.gov (United States)

Glazing can be optimized to enhance passive solar heating and daylight harvesting by exceeding the prescriptive limits of the energy code. This savings can be garnered without the high cost of external overhangs or expensive glazing products. The majority of savings from solar glazing are attributable to the increase in solar heating and…

Smith, Jonathan

2012-01-01

63

Design and Construction of a Passive Solar Power Clothing Dryer  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This manuscript presents the design and construction of the energy efficient, time saving, cost effective of passive solar powered clothes dryer. This manuscript begins with a derivation of mathematical model represents of solar dryer followed with an analysis of the elements necessary for successfully designing the various components of a solar dryer. The solar drying performance achieved an average drying rate of 0.35 kg/h and drying time of 3 h in a typical day, even under local low ambien...

Ali Alahmer; Mohammed Al-Dabbas

2014-01-01

64

The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope: Science Drivers and Construction Status  

Science.gov (United States)

The 4-meter Advance Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) currently under construction on the 3000 meter peak of Haleakala on Maui, Hawaii will be the world's most powerful solar telescope and the leading ground-based resource for studying solar magnetism. The solar atmosphere is permeated by a 'magnetic carpet' that constantly reweaves itself to control solar irradiance and its effects on Earth's climate, the solar wind, and space weather phenomena such as flares and coronal mass ejections. Precise measurement of solar magnetic fields requires a large-aperture solar telescope capable of resolving a few tens of kilometers on the solar surface. With its 4 meter aperture, the ATST will for the first time resolve magnetic structure at the intrinsic scales of plasma convection and turbulence. The ATST's ability to perform accurate and precise spectroscopic and polarimetric measurements of magnetic fields in all layers of the solar atmosphere, including accurate mapping of the elusive coronal magnetic fields, will be transformative in advancing our understanding of the magnetic solar atmosphere. The ATST will utilize the Sun as an important astro- and plasma-physics "laboratory" demonstrating key aspects of omnipresent cosmic magnetic fields. The ATST construction effort is led by the US National Solar Observatory. State-of-the-art instrumentation will be constructed by US and international partner institutions. The technical challenges the ATST is facing are numerous and include the design of the off-axis main telescope, the development of a high order adaptive optics system that delivers a corrected beam to the instrument laboratory, effective handling of the solar heat load on optical and structural elements, and minimizing scattered light to enable observations of the faint corona. The ATST project has transitioned from design and development to its construction phase. The project has awarded design and fabrication contracts for major telescope subsystems. Site construction has commenced following the successful conclusion of the site permitting process. Science goals and construction status of telescope and instrument systems will be discussed.

Rimmele, Thomas; Berger, Thomas; McMullin, Joseph; Keil, Stephen; Goode, Phil; Knoelker, Michael; Kuhn, Jeff; Rosner, Robert; Casini, Roberto; Lin, Haosheng; Woeger, Friedrich; von der Luehe, Oskar; Tritschler, Alexandra; Atst Team

2013-04-01

65

You're a What? Chimney Sweep  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, the author talks about a chimney sweep--also called a "sweep"--which inspects chimneys as well as cleans them. Some inspections are for a specific purpose, such as home appraisal, but most precede cleaning. Chimney cleaning requires a certain level of dexterity, because the job includes a lot of climbing, squatting, kneeling, and…

Green, Kathleen

2010-01-01

66

Design and Construction of a Domestic Passive Solar Food Dryer  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The solar drying system utilizes solar energy to heat up air and to dry any food substance loaded, which is not only beneficial in that it reduces wastage of agricultural produce and helps in preservation of agricultural produce, but it also makes transportation of such dried produce easy and promotes the health and welfare of the people. This paper presents the design and construction of a domestic passive solar food dryer. The dryer is composed of solar collector (air heater) and a solar dr...

Alamu, Oguntola J.; Nwaokocha, Collins N.; Adunola, Olayinka

2010-01-01

67

Constructing and Characterising Solar Structure Models for Computational Helioseismology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In local helioseismology, numerical simulations of wave propagation are useful to model the interaction of solar waves with perturbations to a background solar model. However, the solution to the linearised equations of motion include convective modes that can swamp the helioseismic waves that we are interested in. In this article, we construct background solar models that are stable against convection, by modifying the vertical pressure gradient of Model S (Christensen-Dalsgaard et al., 199...

Schunker, H.; Cameron, R.; Gizon, L.; Moradi, H.

2011-01-01

68

The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope Construction Status Report  

Science.gov (United States)

The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) will provide observing capabilities in the visible through infrared wavelengths with unprecedented resolution and sensitivity. Designed to study solar magnetism that controls the solar wind, flares, CMEs and variability in the Sun's output, the ATST will be capable of detecting and spatially resolving the fundamental astrophysical processes at their intrinsic scales throughout the solar atmosphere. The 4-m class facility is currently under construction in Maui, HI on the Haleakala Observatories site with a scheduled completion of July 2019. Since the start of site construction in December of 2012, significant progress has been made toward the development of the observatory buildings (excavation, foundations, working towards the steel erection). In addition, off-site, the major subsystems of the telescope have been contracted, designs are complete and fabrication is underway. We review the science drivers, design details, technical challenges, and provide a construction status update on the subsystems and their integration.

McMullin, Joseph P.; Rimmele, T. R.; Warner, M.; Berger, T.; Keil, S. L.

2013-07-01

69

Toward a Heat Recovery Chimney  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The worldwide population increase and subsequent surge in energy demand leads electricity producers to increase supply in an attempt to generate larger profit margins. However, with Global Climate Change becoming a greater focus in engineering, it is critical for energy to be converted in as environmentally benign a way as possible. There are different sustainable methods to meet the energy demand. However, the focus of this research is in the area of Waste Heat Recovery. The waste heat stored in the exiting condenser cooling water is delivered to the air flow through a water-air cross flow heat exchanger. A converging thermal chimney structure is then applied to increase the velocity of the airflow. The accelerated air can be used to turn on the turbine-generator installed on the top the thermal chimney so that electricity can be generated. This system is effective in generating electricity from otherwise wasted heat.

Min Pan

2011-11-01

70

STUDY OF COST EFFICIENCY OF CONSTRUCTION ON SOLAR POWER PLANTS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this master's thesis are presented the constructions of solar power projects and all necessary steps, from an investor who invested in the project funds, to operate a solar power plants. Initial chapters describes the importance to obtain an electricity from renewable sources, and the advantages brought by them. We analyzed the situation in Slovenia and abroad, where we made the comparison in terms of population size and production. Next in order we described an overview of the energy...

Kers?ic?, Blaz?

2013-01-01

71

The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) project: a construction update  

Science.gov (United States)

The 4m Advance Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) will be the world's leading ground-based resource for studying solar magnetism that controls the solar wind, flares, coronal mass ejections and variability in the Sun's output. The project has entered its construction phase. Major subsystems have been contracted, designs are complete, and fabrication has started. As its highest priority science driver ATST shall provide high resolution and high sensitivity observations of the dynamic solar magnetic fields throughout the solar atmosphere, including the corona at infrared wavelengths. A high order adaptive optics system delivers a corrected beam to the initial set of state-of-the-art, facility class instrumentation located in the Coudé laboratory facility. The initial set of five first generation instruments consists of imagers and spectro-polarimeters. Development and construction of a four-meter solar telescope presents many technical challenges, including thermal control of the enclosure, telescope structure and optics and wavefront control. A brief overview of the science goals and observational requirements of the ATST will be given, followed by a summary of the status of the telescope, its instrumentation, and the construction of the facility.

Warner, Mark; McMullin, Joseph; Rimmele, Thomas; Berger, Tom

2013-09-01

72

Design, Construction and Testing of Simple Solar Maize Dryer  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This project reports the design, construction and testing of a simple solar maize dryer. It is design in such a way that solar radiation is not incident directly on the maize, but preheated air warmed during its flow through a low pressure thermosphonic solar energy air heater or collector made up of an insulating material (polystyrene) of size 100mmx50mmx25.4mm, absorber plate (aluminium) sheet painted black of size 100mmx50mm and a cover glass (5mm thickness) measuring 100mmx50mm all arrang...

Folaranmi, Joshua

2008-01-01

73

Construction of the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope - A Progress Report.  

Science.gov (United States)

The 4m Advance Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) will be the most powerful solar telescope and the world's leading ground-based resource for studying solar magnetism that controls the solar wind, flares, coronal mass ejections and variability in the Sun's output. The ATST will provide high resolution and high sensitivity observations of the dynamic solar magnetic fields throughout the solar atmosphere, including the corona at infrared wavelengths. With its 4 m aperture, ATST will resolve magnetic features at their intrinsic scales. A high order adaptive optics system delivers a corrected beam to the initial set of five state-of-the-art, facility class instrumentation located in the coude laboratory facility. Photopheric and chromospheric magnetometry is part of the key mission of four of these instruments. Coronal magnetometry and spectroscopy will be performed by two of these instruments at infrared wavelengths. The ATST project has transitioned from design and development to its construction phase. Site construction is expected to begin in the first half of 2012. The project has awarded design and fabrication contracts for major telescope subsystems. A robust instrument program has been established and all instruments have passed preliminary design reviews or critical design reviews. A brief summary of the science goals and observational requirements of the ATST will be given, followed by a summary of the project status of the telescope and discussion of the approach to integrating instruments into the facility.

Rimmele, T. R.; Keil, S.; McMullin, J.; Goode, P. R.; Knoelker, M.; Kuhn, J. R.; Rosner, R.; ATST Team

2012-12-01

74

Investigation and Construction of a Thermosyphoning Solar Hot Water System  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes how a thermosyphoning solar water heater capable of heating 110 kilogram of water to 80 degree Celsius and maintaining this temperature for 24 hours was constructed by four students in the fifth form of Sekolah Date Abdul Razak, Seremban, Malaysia in 1976. (HM)

Johnson, Harvey

1978-01-01

75

The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope: design and early construction  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Solar Observatory’s (NSO) Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) is the first large U.S. solar telescope accessible to the worldwide solar physics community to be constructed in more than 30 years. The 4-meter diameter facility will operate over a broad wavelength range (0.35 to 28 ?m ), employing adaptive optics systems to achieve diffraction limited imaging and resolve features approximately 20 km on the Sun; the key observational parameters (collecting area, spatial resolution, spectral coverage, polarization accuracy, low scattered light) enable resolution of the theoretically-predicted, fine-scale magnetic features and their dynamics which modulate the radiative output of the sun and drive the release of magnetic energy from the Sun’s atmosphere in the form of flares and coronal mass ejections. In 2010, the ATST received a significant fraction of its funding for construction. In the subsequent two years, the project has hired staff and opened an office on Maui. A number of large industrial contracts have been placed throughout the world to complete the detailed designs and begin constructing the major telescope subsystems. These contracts have included the site development, AandE designs, mirrors, polishing, optic support assemblies, telescope mount and coudé rotator structures, enclosure, thermal and mechanical systems, and high-level software and controls. In addition, design development work on the instrument suite has undergone significant progress; this has included the completion of preliminary design reviews (PDR) for all five facility instruments. Permitting required for physically starting construction on the mountaintop of Haleakal?, Maui has also progressed. This paper will review the ATST goals and specifications, describe each of the major subsystems under construction, and review the contracts and lessons learned during the contracting and early construction phases. Schedules for site construction, key factory testing of major subsystems, and integration, test and commissioning activities will also be discussed.

McMullin, Joseph P.; Rimmele, Thomas R.; Keil, Stephen L.; Warner, Mark; Barden, Samuel; Bulau, Scott; Craig, Simon; Goodrich, Bret; Hansen, Eric; Hegwer, Steve; Hubbard, Robert; McBride, William; Shimko, Steve; Wöger, Friedrich; Ditsler, Jennifer

2012-09-01

76

Construction status of the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope  

Science.gov (United States)

The Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST, renamed in December 2013 from the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope) will be the largest solar facility built when it begins operations in 2019. Designed and developed to meet the needs of critical high resolution and high sensitivity spectral and polarimetric observations of the Sun, the observatory will enable key research for the study of solar magnetism and its influence on the solar wind, flares, coronal mass ejections and solar irradiance variations. The 4-meter class facility will operate over a broad wavelength range (0.38 to 28 microns, initially 0.38 to 5 microns), using a state-of-the-art adaptive optics system to provide diffraction-limited imaging and the ability to resolve features approximately 25 km on the Sun. Five first-light instruments will be available at the start of operations: Visible Broadband Imager (VBI; National Solar Observatory), Visible SpectroPolarimeter (ViSP; NCAR High Altitude Observatory), Visible Tunable Filter (VTF; Kiepenheuer Institut für Sonnenphysik), Diffraction Limited Near InfraRed SpectroPolarimeter (DL-NIRSP; University of Hawai'i, Institute for Astronomy) and the Cryogenic Near InfraRed SpectroPolarimeter (Cryo-NIRSP; University of Hawai'i, Institute for Astronomy). As of mid-2014, the key subsystems have been designed and fabrication is well underway, including the site construction, which began in December 2012. We provide an update on the development of the facilities both on site at the Haleakal? Observatories on Maui and the development of components around the world. We present the overall construction and integration schedule leading to the handover to operations in mid 2019. In addition, we outline the evolving challenges being met by the project, spanning the full spectrum of issues covering technical, fiscal, and geographical, that are specific to this project, though with clear counterparts to other large astronomical construction projects.

McMullin, Joseph P.; Rimmele, Thomas R.; Martínez Pillet, Valentin; Berger, Thomas E.; Casini, Roberto; Craig, Simon C.; Elmore, David F.; Goodrich, Bret D.; Hegwer, Steve L.; Hubbard, Robert P.; Johansson, Erik M.; Kuhn, Jeffrey R.; Lin, Haosheng; McVeigh, William; Schmidt, Wolfgang; Shimko, Steve; Tritschler, Alexandra; Warner, Mark; Wöger, Friedrich

2014-07-01

77

Collapse of chimney with impact on reactor building  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The behavior of the chimney for the loads has to be investigated, as a possible collapse onto adjacent safety-relevant structures (reactor building, reactor auxiliary building, fuel-handling building). The loading cases which might cause a collapse are outlined. The mathematical models used to calculate the highly physically and geometrically non-linear behavior are described. The resulting response of the structures subjected to impact is determined and compared to that caused by other external extreme loading conditions. The safe-shutdown earthquake is represented by an artificially generated time history which fits a specified design-response spectrum. For preliminary calculations the response for simple sine wave excitation is determined. The ground acceleration at which collapse first occurs is calculated for different soil parameters and dimensions of the chimney. Overall consideration of the balance of energy and of impulse as well as detailed solutions of the resulting differential equations of motion are performed. These investigations are carried out on models of increasing complexity starting with the idealisation of the chimney as a rigid bar on a rigid, tensionless foundation and leading up to an elastoplastic representation of the structure and of the soil. When impacting onto adjacent buildings, the latter are always considered as being rigid. This allows a load-time relationship to be constructed, which, in a second independent step, is used in the dynecond independent step, is used in the dynamic analysis of the building subjected to impact. Several different failure modes of the chimney are examined. The scope of this paper is to determine the overall response of the structure and of its equipment

78

Suitability of locally constructed solar dryers for vegetable drying  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Indigenous vegetables and spices are usually common and abundant during the rainy season but unfortunately, almost disappear during the dry season due to inadequate processing because of their high moisture content, poor storage and marketing facilities. A study was therefore conducted to find the possibilities of drying vegetables using locally constructed solar dryers at the Mechanisation section of the University of Education, Mampong Campus. The study was done during the months of March to September, 2004 and six designs of solar panels were used. The panels were constructed using hard wood, binding materials (nails), chicken mesh, nylon net, and black and white polythene sheets. Variations in panels resulted from the type of polythene sheet used (white, black or both), drying platform and shape of the roof. The panels with their interior lined with the black polythene sheet recorded higher temperatures than those with their bases covered with only the chicken mesh and nylon nettings. All the designs recorded higher temperatures than the ambient temperature. The drying of vegetables was observed to be faster in the panels with their drying platforms lined with the black polythene sheet than those with their bases covered with only the chicken mesh and nylon net. Appearance of the vegetables after drying in the solar panels was almost the same as before drying as compared to the open sun drying that got mouldy after drying. Those vegetables that were dried directly Those vegetables that were dried directly on the black polythene sheet however were slightly darker in colour. Solar drying with these locally constructed panels would be a better means of drying vegetables by rural folks. (au)

79

Review of intelligent building construction: A passive solar architecture approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Due to the increase in living standard and demand, energy conservation has become important in industrialized countries. In view of rational use of energy, the present paper reviews intelligent building construction with the aid of passive solar architecture approach, which makes use of specific building design principles and reduces the artificial energy requirements for achieving indoor thermal comfort. As a climate responsive architecture, building design criteria has been studied with the help of several parameters like geographic location and climatic conditions, building shape, orientation, selection of construction materials, building openings viz. windows, selection of suitable sunshades, etc. All the salient building design parameters are studied and important findings and recommendations are suggested as the outcome of the study. The study in turn is useful for various resource persons involved in the construction activities for designing energy efficient intelligent buildings. (author)

Ralegaonkar, Rahul V. [Civil Engineering Department, VNIT, Nagpur 440010, Maharashtra (India); Gupta, Rajiv [Civil Engineering Group, BITS, Pilani 333031, Rajasthan (India)

2010-10-15

80

The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope: beginning construction of the world's largest solar telescope  

Science.gov (United States)

The 4m Advance Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) will be the most powerful solar telescope and the world's leading ground-based resource for studying solar magnetism that controls the solar wind, flares, coronal mass ejections and variability in the Sun's output. The project has successfully passed its final design review and the Environmental Impact Study for construction of ATST on Haleakala, Maui, HI has been concluded in December of 2009. The project is now entering its construction phase. As its highest priority science driver ATST shall provide high resolution and high sensitivity observations of the dynamic solar magnetic fields throughout the solar atmosphere, including the corona at infrared wavelengths. With its 4 m aperture, ATST will resolve features at 0."03 at visible wavelengths and obtain 0."1 resolution at the magnetically highly sensitive near infrared wavelengths. A high order adaptive optics system delivers a corrected beam to the initial set of state-of-the-art, facility class instrumentation located in the coudé laboratory facility. The initial set of first generation instruments consists of five facility class instruments, including imagers and spectropolarimeters. The high polarimetric sensitivity and accuracy required for measurements of the illusive solar magnetic fields place strong constraints on the polarization analysis and calibration. Development and construction of a fourmeter solar telescope presents many technical challenges, including thermal control of the enclosure, telescope structure and optics and wavefront control. A brief overview of the science goals and observational requirements of the ATST will be given, followed by a summary of the design status of the telescope and its instrumentation, including design status of major subsystems, such as the telescope mount assembly, enclosure, mirror assemblies, and wavefront correction

Rimmele, T. R.; Wagner, J.; Keil, S.; Elmore, D.; Hubbard, R.; Hansen, E.; Warner, M.; Jeffers, P.; Phelps, L.; Marshall, H.; Goodrich, B.; Richards, K.; Hegwer, S.; Kneale, R.; Ditsler, J.

2010-07-01

 
 
 
 
81

Energy efficient and solar construction. Themes 2008; Energieeffizientes und solares Bauen. Themen 2008  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Within the annual meeting of the Renewable Energy Research Association (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) at 29th to 30th September, 2008, the lectures were held to the following themes: (a) Energy efficient and solar construction - a change of paradigm; (b) Revolution in construction technology; (c) Energetic sanitation of old buildings; (d) Innovative technologies of energy supply; (e) Integrated facility management; (f) Demonstration and practice of new technologies; (g) Market, politics, and sustainability.

Stadermann, Gerd (ed.)

2009-04-15

82

The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope - Constructing The World's Largest Solar Telescope  

Science.gov (United States)

The 4m Advance Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) will be the most powerful solar telescope and the world's leading ground-based resource for studying solar magnetism that controls the solar wind, flares, coronal mass ejections and variability in the Sun's output. The ATST shall provide high resolution and high sensitivity observations of the dynamic solar magnetic fields throughout the solar atmosphere, including the corona at infrared wavelengths. With its 4 m aperture, ATST will resolve features at 0.03" at visible wavelengths and obtain 0.1" resolution at the magnetically highly sensitive near infrared wavelengths. A high order adaptive optics system delivers a corrected beam to the initial set of five state-of-the-art, facility class instrumentation located in the coude laboratory facility. Coronal magnetometry and spectroscopy will be performed by two of these instruments at infrared wavelengths. In January 2010 the ATST project transitioned from design and development to the construction phase. The project has awarded contracts for major subsystems, including the 4m primary mirror, architectural and engineering services related to the Support Facilities, Enclosure construction design, Telescope Mount Assembly, and Facilities Thermal System construction design. The State of Hawai'I Board of Land and Natural Resources approved the Conservation District Use Permit submitted by the University of Hawai'I at their December 6, 2010 meeting in Honolulu, HI. A brief overview of the science goals and observational requirements of the ATST will be given, followed by a summary of the project status of the telescope and discussion of the approach to integrating instruments into the facility.

Rimmele, Thomas R.; Keil, S.; Wagner, J.; ATST Team

2011-05-01

83

Solar building construction - new technologies; Solares Bauen - Neue Technologien fuer Gebaeude  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There is an increasing demand for integrated building concepts in order to reduce energy consumption. Building design, construction and heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) technology are decisive in this respect. Thus, an essentially higher energy efficiency is achieved and solar energy becomes the main energy source. An `active building envelope` assumes the task of controlling the energy flows between inside and outside. This paper reports on new components, system concepts and planning tools for solar building. (orig.) [Deutsch] Fuer zukuenftige Bauten werden in hohem Masse Forderungen nach integrierten Konzepten zur Begrenzung des Energieverbrauchs gestellt. Gestalt, Konstruktion und Klimatechnik sind dabei massgebliche Einflussfaktoren. Hierdurch wird eine wesentlich hoehere Energieeffizienz erzielt und Solarenergie kann die uebrigen Energiequellen zurueckdraengen. Eine `aktive Gebaeudehuelle` uebernimmt die Aufgabe, den Energiefluss zwischen Innen und Aussen zu steuern. Der Beitrag berichtet ueber neue Komponenten, Systemkonzepte und Planungswerkzeuge fuer das Solare Bauen. (orig.)

Luther, J.; Voss, K.; Wittwer, V. [Fraunhofer-Inst. fuer Solare Energiesysteme, Freiburg (Germany). Abt. ``Thermische und Optische Systeme``

1998-02-01

84

Toy models for the falling chimney  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we review the theory of the ``falling chimney'', which deals with the breaking in mid-air of tall structures, when they fall to the ground. We show that these ruptures can be caused by either shear forces, typically developing near the base, or by the bending of the structure, which is caused primarily by the internal bending moment. In the latter case the breaking is more likely to occur between one third and one half of the height of the chimney. Small scal...

Varieschi, Gabriele; Kamiya, Kaoru

2002-01-01

85

Measurement of chimney dimensions and development of special tools for installation of in-chimney bracket in HANARO  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The in-chimney bracket is a structure which supports the guide tubes of irradiation facilities at the irradiation sites of CT, IR1, IR2, OR4 and/or OR5 in HANARO core to reduce the flow-induced vibration and the dynamic response to seismic load. It horizontally supports the middle part of lthe irradiation facilities for CT/IR sites in addition to the robot arms which had already been installed at the reactor pool liner to support the top of the facilities, and supports the top of the guide tubes for OR sites. For these purposes, the in-chimney bracket was installed in the chimney using four siphoning holes located at 70 cm below the chimney top. It is necessary to measure the dimensions of chimney before the design of in-chimney bracket because there must be manufacturing tolerances and the deformation of the chimney due to the load of the system pipes. To implement this, various special tools had been developed to measure the as-built dimensions of the chimney at the elevation of the siphoning holes, and measured the chimney dimensions and the eccentricity of the chimney center from the reactor core center. Also, a special tool was developed for the installation of the in-chimney bracket by remote operating at the pool top 10 meters apart from the chimney. The installation procedures were established through the enough installation rehearsal using the installation tool and the dummhy chimney which was fabricated to the same dimensions of the real chimney, and the installation interference problems were resolved through the preliminaly installation to the reactor chimney. Finally, the in-chimey bracket was successfully installed at the reactor chimney and is well being used for the irradiation test since the installation on May 16, 2000

86

Measurement of chimney dimensions and development of special tools for installation of in-chimney bracket in HANARO  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The in-chimney bracket is a structure which supports the guide tubes of irradiation facilities at the irradiation sites of CT, IR1, IR2, OR4 and/or OR5 in HANARO core to reduce the flow-induced vibration and the dynamic response to seismic load. It horizontally supports the middle part of lthe irradiation facilities for CT/IR sites in addition to the robot arms which had already been installed at the reactor pool liner to support the top of the facilities, and supports the top of the guide tubes for OR sites. For these purposes, the in-chimney bracket was installed in the chimney using four siphoning holes located at 70 cm below the chimney top. It is necessary to measure the dimensions of chimney before the design of in-chimney bracket because there must be manufacturing tolerances and the deformation of the chimney due to the load of the system pipes. To implement this, various special tools had been developed to measure the as-built dimensions of the chimney at the elevation of the siphoning holes, and measured the chimney dimensions and the eccentricity of the chimney center from the reactor core center. Also, a special tool was developed for the installation of the in-chimney bracket by remote operating at the pool top 10 meters apart from the chimney. The installation procedures were established through the enough installation rehearsal using the installation tool and the dummhy chimney which was fabricated to the same dimensions of the real chimney, and the installation interference problems were resolved through the preliminaly installation to the reactor chimney. Finally, the in-chimey bracket was successfully installed at the reactor chimney and is well being used for the irradiation test since the installation on May 16, 2000.

Cho, Yeong Garp; Ryu, J. S.; Lee, J. H.; Lee, Y. S; Lee, B. H

2000-06-01

87

Construction of a Small Scale Laboratory for Solar Collectors and Solar Cells in a Developing Country  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the field of renewable energy, self-provided research in developing countries is barely present, but most welcomed. The creation of know-how and self-development of technologies should reduce the dependence on industrialized countries for both materials and knowledge. This work presents technological and social issues related to the construction of a low budget solar laboratory in Mozambique. The goal is to demonstrate that scientific level research can be carried out in developing countries by using affordable solutions without sacrificing quality of the results. For this investigation, a solar laboratory was built in 2011 at Universidade Eduardo Mondlane of Maputo. The laboratory enables measurements to evaluate solar thermal and photovoltaic-thermal hybrid collectors. Thanks to the flexibility of the system, students and teaching staff can add/remove equipment and develop customised local research programs. In addition, a course on the principles of solar energy and collector simulation for local students was taught. The needed data acquisition devices usually used in Europe were compared with cheaper and easy-maintenance ones. Calibration and estimation of the uncertainty were successfully performed. Approximately 9% of inaccuracy in the measurement was introduced by the cheaper equipment, but the investment cost was reduced by more than 90%. Other issues, results and future recommendations are shown.

Gentile Niko

2013-01-01

88

Self-construction of a solar water heater; Calentador solar de agua de auto-construccion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this work a flat receiver of self construction is shown with relatively low cost and easy manufacture, but with a thermal efficiency superior to 40% for applications at temperatures less than 60 degrees Celsius, that allows satisfying international standards in this respect. The heater has been matter of study in open courses distributed in the Universidad Autonoma de la Ciudad de Mexico (UACM) oriented to that the participants construct their own system, in addition to its installation and tests. The obtained results have been excellent. The massive use of efficient solar receivers of self-construction can truly help to the decreasing of the gas discharges of greenhouse effect. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presenta un captador plano de auto construccion con relativamente bajo costo y facil manufactura, pero con un rendimiento termico superior a 40% para aplicaciones a temperatura menos de 60 grados centigrados que le permite satisfacer estandares internacionales a este respecto. El calentador ha sido materia de estudio en cursos abiertos impartidos en la Universidad Autonoma de la Ciudad de Mexico (UACM) orientados a que los participantes construyan su propio sistema, ademas de su instalacion y pruebas. Los resultados obtenidos han sido excelentes. El uso masivo de captadores solares eficientes de autoconstruccion puede en verdad coadyuvar a la disminucion de las emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero.

Lentz Herrera, Alvaro E.; Rincon Mejia, Eduardo A. [Universidad Autonoma de la Ciudad de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

2009-07-01

89

Hybrid solar-electric oven construction prototype; Construccion de prototipo de horno hibrido solar-electrico  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The oven construction consists of a solar collector system of cylindrical parabolic type, a heating through electrical resistance and a curing chamber. The warm fluid is air, which is injected into the chamber through forced draft. The temperature required in the system is within a range of 150 to 300 degrees Celsius. [Spanish] La construccion del horno consta de un sistema de captacion solar del tipo cilindrico parabolico, un sistema de calentamiento a traves de resistencias electricas y una camara de curado. El fluido a calentar es aire, el cual es inyectado dentro de la camara a traves de tiro forzado. La temperatura solicitada en el sistema es dentro de un rango de 150 a 300 grados centigrados.

Hernandez Roman, M. A; Pineda Pinon, J; Arcos Pichardo, A [CICATA, Santiago de Queretaro, Queretaro (Mexico)

2013-03-15

90

Design of a solar power satellite for construction from lunar materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Solar Power Satellites may be constructed from materials mined on the Moon and transported into free space by means of an electromagnetic catapult called a mass-driver. Both the mass-driver and the chemical processing techniques required to obtain construction materials from lunar soil have been demonstrated in the laboratory. A Solar Power Satellite has been designed for construction from lunar materials. This design requires only 1% of its mass from the Earth.

Maryniak, G.E.; Tillotson, B.

1988-01-01

91

Pendulum Dampers for Tall RC Chimney Subjected To Wind  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Chimneys are a part of industrial growth in any country. Most current chimney design standards require analysis of dynamic analysis of chimney for earthquake and wind induced loads. Because of variation in dimensions of chimney along its height structural analysis such as wind oscillations have become more critical. If ductility is an important consideration in earthquake resistant design, control of deflection become critical in wind induced vibrations. Pendulum dampers are of the devices to control the deflection. In the present work pendulum dampers of different natural frequencies have been tried. The one which has the largest equivalent logarithmic decrement is found to reduce the response significantly. The response is compared with that of chimney with a tip mass. The paper discusses the dynamic analysis of 150m high RCC chimney subjected to wind. Analysis has been carried out for fixed base case.

Dr. B K Raghu Prasad,

2014-10-01

92

Design, construction and evaluation of solarized airlift tubular photobioreactor  

Science.gov (United States)

An innovative photobioreactor is developed for growing algae in simulated conditions. The proposed design comprises of a continuous tubular irradiance loop and air induced liquid circulation with gas separation through air lift device. The unique features of air lift system are to ensure the shear free circulation of sensitive algal culture and induce light/dark cycles to the photosynthetic micro-organisms. The design strategy employs to model and construct a 20-liter laboratory scale unit using Boro-silicate glass tubing. The material is selected to ensure maximum photon transmission. All components of the device are designed to have flexibility to be replaced with an alternative design, providing fair chance of modification for future investigators. The principles of fluid mechanics are applied to describe geometrical attributes of the air lift system. Combination of LEDs and Florescent tube lights (Warm white) were used to illuminate the photosynthesis reaction area providing a possibility to control both illumination duration and light intensity. 200 Watt Solar PV system is designed to power up the device which included air pump (100 Watt) and illumination system (100 Watt). Algal strain Chlorella sp was inoculated in photobioreactor which was sparged with air and carbon dioxide. The growth was sustained in the batch mode with daily monitoring of temperature, pH and biomass concentration. The novel photobioreactor recorded a maximum experimental average yield of 0.65 g/l.day (11.3 g/m2.day) as compared to theoretical modeled yield of 0.82 g/l.day (14.26 g/m2.day), suggesting the device can be efficiently and cost-effectively employed in the production of algal biomass for biofuels, concomitantly mitigating CO2.

Bahadur, A.; Zubair, M.; Khan, M. B.

2013-06-01

93

CONSTRUCTION OF SOLAR POWER STATION AT TEHNOPOLIS BUILDING  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the first part of the thesis we describe individual elements of a solar power plant, the principle of operation of individual elements, and the logical positioning of solar panels required to achieve optimal operation of the power plant. We continue with theoretical calculation of the plant’s power if installed on the roof of the project building Technopolis in Celje. We concluded with detailing all procedures necessary for solar plant operation and connection to the network.

Jerman, Ales?

2012-01-01

94

Design and construction of a solar heating and cooling plant  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present work deals with the design of a combined solar heating and cooling plant for an office building located in Northern Italy. An innovative system based on an absorption chiller driven by evacuated tube collectors and a dual-source reversible heat pump is presented. In summer, solar energy is used to drive the absorption chiller. In winter, solar collector field can provide hot water to the radiant ceiling circuit or, alternatively, drive the heat pump evaporator. A control strategy...

Franchini, Giuseppe; Manazzale, Davide; Perdichizzi, Antonio Giovanni

2012-01-01

95

Constructal Optimization of Top Contact Metallization of a Photovoltaic Solar Cell  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A top contact metallization of a photovoltaic solar cell collects the current generated by incident solar radiation. Several power-loss mechanisms are associated with the current flow through the front contact grid. The design of the top metal contact grid is one of the most important areas of efficient photovoltaic solar cell design. In this paper, an approach based on the constructal theory is proposed to design the grid pattern in a photovoltaic solar cell, minimizing total resistive losses. Constructal theory explains the geometric form (shape and structure of most volume-to-point systems in nature. In this paper, the applicability of the constructal theory to design top contact metallization for a photovoltaic solar cell has been extended.

Santanu Bandyopadhyay

2005-12-01

96

Code manual for passive solar design single family residential construction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

General information is presented on types of passive solar techniques and a method for estimating passive solar performance. Important codes and standards are described, each description listing the items in the code which could have a potential impact on a passive solar design and analyzing the effect of the code on the use of such techniques. State and local codes and code agencies are summarized. The local summary contains the name of a contact in the enforcement agency to whom specific questions may be addressed. The requirements to file for a building permit are given briefly. (LEW)

None

1979-08-01

97

Design, construction and testing of parabolic solar energy cooker  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Parabolic solar energy cooker was designed using locally available materials such as pieces of iron and plane mirrors. The diameter of the dish was 12 x 10-3 mm and pieces of glass mirrors were adhered to its concave surface using abro silicon gum as solar energy reflectors. The solar cooker was used to cook different food materials such as rice, bean, yam and stew between 11am and 3pm. The time taken to cook the food materials were measured and compared to the time it takes to cook similar food samples of the same quantity using kerosene and electric stove. It took the kerosene and electric stoves two hours, forty minutes (2.40) and two hours, ten minutes (2.10) respectively to cook beans with all the ingredients while the fabricated solar cooker took only one hour fifteen minutes. Due to high solar energy absorption capacity of the solar cooker and insolation rate, the study has reveled that it is faster, safer and takes less time to cook using cooker than either kerosene or electric stove.

98

Design manual for HANARO in-chimney bracket  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a supplementary structure supporting the irradiation facilities, the in-chimney bracket holds guide tubes whose holding position in CT or IR is the middle part of the instrumented facility between the hole spider and the robot arm already provided in the reactor pool liner. Also, the bracket grips the upper part of the guide tubes when it is applied to hold the instrumented facility loaded in OR sites. The irradiation test will be successfully conducted since this bracket reduces the flow-induced vibration (FIV) and the dynamic response to seismic load. The installation position of the bracket is 60 cm below the top of the chimney, i.e., thermo siphoning hole position. To evaluate the structural integrity on the in-chimney bracket and the related reactor structures, ANSYS finite element analysis model is developed and the dynamic characteristics are analyzed. The seismic response analyses were performed for the in-chimney bracket and the related reactor structures of HANARO under the design earthquake response spectrum loads of OBE and SSE. The analysis results show that the stress values in main points of reactor structures and in-chimney bracket for the seismic loads are also within the ASME code limits. It is also confirmed that the fatigue usage factor is much less than 1.0. Therefore any damage on structural integrity is not expected when the in-chimney bracket is installed at the upper part of the reactor chimney. This bracket had been designed and manufactured based on the dimensions of the as-built chimney. In the process of design and preliminary installation, chimney measurement tools, dummy chimney, and installation tools were developed and the installation procedure was prepared and verified through the installation rehearsal

99

Types of construction of solar sewage sludge drying plants; Bauarten solarer Klaerschlammtrocknungsanlagen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Within the contribution on the types of solar sewage sludge drying plants the author reports on the process of solar sewage sludge drying and distribution of those drying plants in Germany as well as on the heat load, fields of application of solar drying plants, functional components and used building materials.

Bux, Markus [Thermo-System Industrie und Trocknungstechnik GmbH, Filderstadt (Bernhausen) (Germany)

2013-03-01

100

Solar thermal power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The solar thermal power plant technology, the opportunities it presents and the developments in the market are outlined. The focus is on the technology of parabolic trough power plants, a proven technology for solar power generation on a large scale. In a parabolic trough power plant, trough-shaped mirrors concentrate the solar irradiation onto a pipe in the focal line of the collector. The thermal energy thus generated is used for electricity generation in a steam turbine. Parabolic trough plants can be combined with thermal storage and fossil or biomass fired heat exchangers to generate electricity even when the sun is not shining. Solar Millennium AG in Erlangen has developed the first power plant of this kind in Europe. After two years of construction the plant started operation in Southern Spain in 2008. This one and its sister projects are important steps leading the way for the whole market. The paper also covers the technological challenges, the key components used and the research and development activities concerning this technology. Solar thermal power plants are ideal for covering peak and medium loads in power grids. In hybrid operation they can also cover base-load. The Solar Chimney power plant, another striking technology for the conversion of solar into electric energy, is described briefly. The paper concludes with a look at the future - the import of solar energy from the deserts of North Africa to central Europe. (author)urope. (author)

 
 
 
 
101

Solar thermal power plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The solar thermal power plant technology, the opportunities it presents and the developments in the market are outlined. The focus is on the technology of parabolic trough power plants, a proven technology for solar power generation on a large scale. In a parabolic trough power plant, trough-shaped mirrors concentrate the solar irradiation onto a pipe in the focal line of the collector. The thermal energy thus generated is used for electricity generation in a steam turbine. Parabolic trough plants can be combined with thermal storage and fossil or biomass fired heat exchangers to generate electricity even when the sun is not shining. Solar Millennium AG in Erlangen has developed the first power plant of this kind in Europe. After two years of construction the plant started operation in Southern Spain in 2008. This one and its sister projects are important steps leading the way for the whole market. The paper also covers the technological challenges, the key components used and the research and development activities concerning this technology. Solar thermal power plants are ideal for covering peak and medium loads in power grids. In hybrid operation they can also cover base-load. The Solar Chimney power plant, another striking technology for the conversion of solar into electric energy, is described briefly. The paper concludes with a look at the future - the import of solar energy from the deserts of North Africa to central Europe. (author)

Schnatbaum, L. [Solar Millennium AG, Erlanger (Germany)

2009-09-15

102

Options for the removal of contaminated concrete from the bore of the Windscale pile chimney - 16083  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A legacy of the 1957 Windscale Pile reactor fire is the penetration of radioactive contamination into the internal surface concrete of the chimney bore. Gamma imaging of Cs- 137 has shown that the contamination is widespread throughout the chimney, and core samples have shown that the contamination has penetrated to depths of around 5-25 mm. The Pile chimney is 100 m tall and has an internal bore diameter of 15 m. It is constructed of a hard concrete comprised of Whinstone aggregate. The baseline decommissioning scheme is to remove approximately 5-25 mm of the surface concrete from the entire bore of the chimney. The technology baseline in 2006 was to remove layers of contaminated concrete by mechanical means using shavers or scabblers. However, risks associated with mechanical technologies that may preclude their use include: the ability of mechanical devices to remove the hard concrete; clogging of the devices due to wet concrete; and deployment of the delivery systems. This paper discusses the options under consideration to reduce the risks associated with the removal of the contaminated concrete through application of alternative techniques. The present baseline technology is high pressure water jetting technique. Demonstrations have shown that this technology can successfully remove concrete without significant reaction forces. However, an inherent problem with this technology is the production of secondary liquid effluent waste, which would need to be treated byt waste, which would need to be treated by an appropriate conditioning process. To address the secondary effluent waste issue, technologies that produce little or no secondary waste have been considered. The technologies that have been considered are laser scabbling, microwave scabbling and nitrogen jet blasting. The paper discusses each technique in turn, highlighting their advantages and disadvantages. The results of an in-active laser scabbling and high pressure liquid nitrogen jetting trial are presented. The paper concludes with a discussion of the merits of each technology in support of the future strategy for concrete removal. (authors)

103

Design and Construction of Solar Power-Based Lighting System.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Over the years, security posed a major concern at night due to the total darkness. The need to supply light without manually switching it on and off arises as years roll by. Automatic Street Light Control System is a simple yet powerful concept, which uses transistor as a switch. This paper presents how solar energy is being harnessed to power street light and virtually removes manual works to 100%. The system automatically switches ON lights when the sunlight goes below the visible region of the eyes. This is done by a sensor called Light Dependant Resistor (LDR which senses the light actually like the human eyes. It automatically switches OFF lights whenever the sunlight comes, visible to the eyes. By using this system energy consumption is also reduced because presently the manually operated street lights are not switched off at sunlight nor switched on earlier before sunset

Oke A. O.

2013-09-01

104

Seismic response Analyses of Hanaro in-chimney bracket structures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The in-chimney bracket will be installed in the upper part of chimney, which holds the capsule extension pipes in upper one-third of length. For evaluating the effects on the capsules and related reactor structures, ANSYS finite element analysis model is developed and the dynamic characteristics are analyzed. The seismic response anlayses of in-chimney bracket and related reactor structures of HANARO under the design earthquake response spectrum loads of OBE (0.1 g) and SSE (0.2 g) are performed. The maximum horizontal displacements of the flow tubes are within the minimum half gaps between close flow tubes, it is expected that these displacement will not produce any contact between neighbor flow tubes. The stress values in main points of reactor structures and in-chimney bracket for the seismic loads are also within the ASME Code limits. It is also confirmed that the fatigue usage factor is much less than 1.0. So, any damage on structural integrity is not expected when an in-chimney bracket is installed to upper part of the reactor chimney. (author). 12 refs., 24 tabs., 37 figs

105

Seismic response Analyses of Hanaro in-chimney bracket structures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The in-chimney bracket will be installed in the upper part of chimney, which holds the capsule extension pipes in upper one-third of length. For evaluating the effects on the capsules and related reactor structures, ANSYS finite element analysis model is developed and the dynamic characteristics are analyzed. The seismic response anlayses of in-chimney bracket and related reactor structures of HANARO under the design earthquake response spectrum loads of OBE (0.1 g) and SSE (0.2 g) are performed. The maximum horizontal displacements of the flow tubes are within the minimum half gaps between close flow tubes, it is expected that these displacement will not produce any contact between neighbor flow tubes. The stress values in main points of reactor structures and in-chimney bracket for the seismic loads are also within the ASME Code limits. It is also confirmed that the fatigue usage factor is muchless than 1.0. So, any damage on structural integrity is not expected when an in-chimney bracket is installed to upper part of the reactor chimney. (author). 12 refs., 24 tabs., 37 figs.

Lee, Jae Han; Ryu, J.S.; Cho, Y.G.; Lee, H.Y.; Kim, J.B

1999-05-01

106

NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF HEAT STORAGE OF SOLAR HEAT IN FLOOR CONSTRUCTION  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper, heat storage of solar heating in the floor construction of single-family houses is examined. A floor construction with two concrete decks is investigated. The lower is used as heat storage while the upper deck has a floor heating system. The potential for a reduction of the energy consumption for heating, by using heat storage in the floor construction is calculated using a dynamic simulation model of solar collector, solar tank and heat storage coupled to a building model, using the Danish Design Ref-erence Year as input. The model calculates the performance of the solar heating system room temperature and energy consumption. A single-family house with and without heat recovery unit on the ventilation system of 130 m² with heating demand of approximately 70 kWh/m² and 40 kWh/m² is investigated. A parametrical analysis was performed for the solar collector area, and floor layouts including pipe spacing, storage materials, and distribution of insulation around the thermal storage layer. The energy consump-tion, reduction due to the heat storage and total performance of the solar heating system was calculated. The largest reduction of 100 kWh/m² solar collector occurred in the house with the highest energy con-sumption. The reduction depends on the solar collector area, distribution of the insulation thickness, heat-ing demand and control strategy, but not on pipe spacing and layer thickness and material. Finally, it is shown that the system can also be used for comfort heating of tiled floors during the summer period.

Weitzmann, Peter; Holck, Ole

2003-01-01

107

Design and construction of a solar tracking system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An ideal tracker which follows the sun both north-south and east-west is designed and constructed. It is suitable for mounting a linear concentrator, focusing parabolic concentrator or photovoltaic array of aperture area 2 m{sup 2}. The apparatus is built with two axes equatorial mount and controlled by a microprocessor system. The tracking is carried out by utilizing the astronomical coordinates of the sun. As such the present system gives improved tracking capability over the conventional sensor controlled tracker systems. The performance of the tracking system was studied with photovoltaic array mounted on it and tracking error of less than one degree was achieved. This tracking error can be reduced further by proper software. (author).

Al-Naima, F.M. (Saddam Univ. for Engineering and Science, Jadiriyah, Baghdad (IQ). Coll. of Engineering); Yaghobian, N.A. (University of Technology, Baghdad (IQ). Dept. of Electrical Engineering)

1990-01-01

108

Dynamic wind interference effects between high chimneys  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In an extensive wind tunnel study vortex-induced cross-wind vibrations of chimneys in a row and in grouped arrangements have been investigated. Most of the model tests have been executed in the subcritical Reynolds number range. In order to indicate the influence of the Reynolds number, some tests have been executed at simulated transcritical Reynolds number range in the large wind tunnel NKl in Dresden. It could be shown, that the exciting forces at stacks in a row and in grouped arrangements are multiple larger in the subcritical range than in the transcritical range and cannot be transferred to full-scale concrete stacks. On the contrary the variation of the Strouhal number versus distance ratio is less influenced by the Reynolds number. It could be verified, that the diameter ratio d2/d1 of the luff-side stack to the lee-side stack is of major importance. A recommendation for the estimation of vortex-induced vibrations of concrete stacks in a row and in grouped arrangements could be developed from the results with simulated transcritical Reynolds number. Strouhal number factors, ?s, and exciting force factors, ?lat, could be evaluated in dependency of the distance ratio a/d1 of the stacks. A proposal for practical application is given in Fig. 10 and 11. It is compared with the proposal for stacks in a row which is given in the German Standard DIN 4133 for steel stacks. (orig.) (orig.)

109

Solar project description. Houston Construction Company single family residence, Eden Prairie, Minnesota March 19, 1982  

Science.gov (United States)

The Houston Construction Company solar energy system is designed to provide 62 percent of the space heating and domestic hot water energy requirements for a single-family detached residence containing 1796 square feet. The residence is in Eden Prairie, MN. Energy collection is accomplished by 468 square feet of Solaron flat-plate collectors which face south at an angle of 60 degrees from the horizontal. air is the medium for transfer of solar energy from the collectors to either the conditioned space or storage. Storage is a 314 cubic foot bin containing approximately 24,000 lbs of crushed rock located in a utility room. when solar energy is inadequate to satisfy the requirements of the space heating subsystem, auxiliary thermal energy is supplied from an 80,000 Btu per hour natural gas furnace. Domestic hot water is provided by a 30,000 Btu per hour natural gas water heater if the solar contribution is insufficient.

110

The construction of a process line for high efficiency silicon solar cells under clean-room conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this research project was to plan, construct and test a clean-room technology laboratory for the manufacturing of silicon solar cells with 20% efficiency (1.5AM). In addition to the establishment of the laboratory, there existed the case of establishing the material and technological fundamentals of high-efficiency solar cells, testing and optimizing all stages of production as well as constructing test stands for accompanying characterisation work. The following final report describes the construction of the laboratory and characterisation systems, the material elements of high-efficiency solar cells as well as the most important results of solar cell production and optimisation. (orig./BWI)

111

Design, Engineering, and Construction of Photosynthetic Microbial Cell Factories for Renewable Solar Fuel Production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There is an urgent need to develop sustainable solutions to convert solar energy into energy carriers used in the society. In addition to solar cells generating electricity, there are several options to generate solar fuels. This paper outlines and discusses the design and engineering of photosynthetic microbial systems for the generation of renewable solar fuels, with a focus on cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria are prokaryotic microorganisms with the same type of photosynthesis as higher plants. Native and engineered cyanobacteria have been used by us and others as model systems to examine, demonstrate, and develop photobiological H{sub 2} production. More recently, the production of carbon-containing solar fuels like ethanol, butanol, and isoprene have been demonstrated. We are using a synthetic biology approach to develop efficient photosynthetic microbial cell factories for direct generation of biofuels from solar energy. Present progress and advances in the design, engineering, and construction of such cyanobacterial cells for the generation of a portfolio of solar fuels, e.g., hydrogen, alcohols, and isoprene, are presented and discussed. Possibilities and challenges when introducing and using synthetic biology are highlighted

Lindblad, Peter; Lindberg, Pia; Stensjoe, Karin (Photochemistry and Molecular Science, Dept. of Chemistry-Aangstroem Laboratory, Uppsala Univ., Uppsala (Sweden)), E-mail: Peter.Lindblad@kemi.uu.se; Oliveira, Paulo (Instituto de Biologia Molecular e Celular, Porto (Portugal)); Heidorn, Thorsten (Bioforsk-Norwegian Inst. for Agricultural and Environmental Research, Aas Oslo, (Norway))

2012-03-15

112

Experimental investigations of the sodium/air heat exchanger with natural draught chimney for the EFR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a first series of experiments in the new large sodium experimental plant ILONA, the post-shutdown heat removal system for the European Fast Breeder Reactor EFR developed by Interatom and working by natural convection was tested. The air-side flow in the heat exchanger and chimney was optimized in extensive model experiments and the results were taken into account in the construction of the Na/air heat exchanger in the ILONA. A considerable increase in output was achieved, compared to the design, based on the flow model experiments for the ILONA heat exchanger. (orig.)

113

The gas chimney formation during the steam explosion premixing phase  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The crucial part in isothermal premixing experiment simulation is the correct prediction of the gas chimney, which forms when the spheres penetrate into water. The first simulation results with the developed original combined multiphase model showed that the gas chimney starts to close at the wrong place at the top of the chimney and not in the middle, like it was observed in the experiments. To find the physical explanation for this identified weakness of our numerical model a comprehensive parametric analysis (mesh size, initial water-air surface thickness, water density, momentum coupling starting position) has been performed. It was established that the reason for the unphysical gas chimney closing at the top could be the gradual air-water density transition in the experiment model, since there is due to the finite differences description always a transition layer with intermediate phases density over the pure water phase. It was shown that this difference between our numerical model and the experiment can be somewhat compensated if the spheres interfacial drag coefficient at the upmost mesh plane of the unphysical air-water transition layer is artificially risen. On this way a more correct gas chimney formation can be obtained.(author)

114

Characteristics of captured ash, chimney solids and trace elements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Samples of pulverized coal, bulk ash and chimney stack solids were taken from a 500 MW-capacity boiler burning a mixture of East Midlands coal. The surface morphology of size-graded samples was examined in a scanning electron microscope. The analysis of the major components of the respirable particles before and after water and acid etching was carried out by the EDAX technique. Neutron activation and atomic absorption spectrometry were used to determine the concentrations of trace elements. The bulk ash (ie from the electrostatic precipitators) contained 10% by weight of respirable-sized (ie below 5 ?m diameter) particles, but 50% of the chimney stack solids were in this size range. The respirable particles both in bulk and chimney stack samples consisted chiefly of spherical particles of alumino-silicates and iron oxides with a large number of below 0.5 ?m diameter particles attached to them. These attached sub-micron size particles consisted chiefly of sodium and potassium sulphates. The non-attached, sub-micron size particles in the chimney stack solids mostly consisted of calcium sulphate. Different possible modes of distribution of the trace elements in the precipitated ash and chimney stack solids are discussed. (author)

115

Wisdom Way Solar Village: Design, Construction, and Analysis of a Low Energy Community  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes work conducted at the Wisdom Way Solar Village (WWSV), a community of 10 high performance duplexes (20 homes) in Greenfield, MA, constructed by Rural Development, Inc. (RDI). Building America's CARB team monitored temperatures and comfort in several homes during the winter of 2009-2010, and tracked utility bill information from 13 occupied homes. Because of efficient lights, appliances, and conscientious home occupants, the energy generated by the solar electric systems exceeded the electric energy used in most homes.

Aldrich, R.

2012-08-01

116

29 CFR 1926.854 - Removal of walls, masonry sections, and chimneys.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Removal of walls, masonry sections, and chimneys. 1926.854... Demolition § 1926.854 Removal of walls, masonry sections, and chimneys. (a) Masonry walls, or other sections of masonry,...

2010-07-01

117

Design, Construction And Characterization Of A Pyranometer For Measuring Global Solar Radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Due to cost and stringent importation requirement, we have designed and constructed a Pyranometer from locally available materials. The constructed Pyranometer was calibrated against a standard calibrated Eppley pyranometer model PSP17190F3. the two pyranometers were used simultaneously in measuring global solar radiation at Nsukka, Nigeria on latitude 6.8 degree North and longitude 7.35 degree East, located 488m above sea level. The average insolation for each of the two typical clear sky days were 3.221KW per square metre and 3.266KW per square metre. The maximum insolation obtained with the constructed pyranometer was 965.5 W per square metre on 16/1/03. The corresponding insolation obtained with the reference Eppley pyranometre on the same day was 1087.5W per square metre. We are happy to remark that there was not significant difference between the performances of the constructed pyranometer and the standard Eppley pyranometer

118

Hydrothermal carbonate chimneys from a continental rift (Afar Rift): Mineralogy, geochemistry, and mode of formation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Carbonate chimney-like deposits up to 60 m high are scattered or arranged in rows at the shores of a desiccating hypersaline and alkaline lake from a continental rift setting (Lake Abhé, Afar Rift, Djibouti). The chimneys formed sub-aqueously in the lake water body at a higher water level than observed today. Alternating calcite and low-Mg calcite + silica concentric layers compose the chimney structures. Mineralogical and geochemical investigations of the chimneys, lake water, and hot sprin...

Dekov, V. M.; Egueh, N. M.; Kamenov, G. D.; Bayon, G.; Lalonde, S. V.; Schmidt, Mark; Liebetrau, Volker; Munnik, F.; Fouquet, Y.; Tanimizu, M.; Awaleh, M. O.; Guirreh, I.; Le Gall, B.

2014-01-01

119

Design, construction and experimental study of Electric Cum Solar Oven-II  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As in many developing countries, 35-40% of the population of Costa Rica still use firewood for domestic cooking. Considering the fact that Costa Rica is blessed with good sunshine, good hydroelectric potential, and a good electric network, a hybrid solar oven was thought to be useful. In the present paper the construction and working of a new type of Electric Cum Solar Oven (ECSO) has been described. This oven can be used for cooking and baking any type of meal at any time during the year employing solar and/or electric energy but consuming the minimum quantity of electric energy in case it is required. (author). 9 refs, 6 figs, 1 tab

120

Ages of barite-sulfide chimneys from the Mariana Trough  

Science.gov (United States)

Active and inactive hydrothermal chimneys from the Mariana Trough have young ages ranging from 0.5 to 2.5 years. These estimates are based on disequilibrium between 228Th and 228Ra in barite-rich samples. Mineralogical investigations revealed that the chimneys contain a mixture of barite, galena, sphalerite and chalcopyrite which appear to have formed contemporaneously. Based on radium isotope ratios andRa/Ba ratios, leaching of freshly exposed basaltic rock must have been the source of the barium found in these deposits.

Moore, Willard S.; Stakes, Debra

1990-10-01

 
 
 
 
121

Ages of barite-sulfide chimneys from the Mariana Trough  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Active and inactive hydrothermal chimneys from the Mariana Trough have young ages ranging from 0.5 to 2.5 years. These estimates are based on disequilibrium between 228Th and 228Ra in barite-rich samples. Mineralogical investigations revealed that the chimneys contain a mixture of barite, galena, sphalerite and chalcopyrite which appear to have formed contemporaneously. Based on radium isotope ratios and Ra/Ba ratios, leaching of freshly exposed basaltic rock must have been the source of the barium found in these deposits. (orig.)

122

Study of the chimney produced by an underground nuclear explosion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Underground nuclear explosions lead to the formation of a cavity which is roughly of spherical shape. The roof of this cavity is unstable and collapses in most cases, leading to the formation of a chimney. The height and the diameter depend on the energy of the charge and on the nature of the surroundings. The chronology of the various stages can be determined by seismic observations. The interior of the chimney is filled, either partially or completely, with rubble earth. This phenomenon is of great importance as far as the use of nuclear explosions for industrial applications is concerned. (author)

123

Natural convection solar crop-dryers of commercial scale in Ghana: design, construction and performance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Traditional open sun-drying, the predominant method of food preservation in Ghana, has serious drawbacks leading to significant post-harvest losses (between 20 and 30%). Mechanical dryers can provide high quality products with minimum losses but they require sources of electrical or chemical energy which, in the case of Ghana, are costly or scarce. This makes the development of an effective natural convection solar dryer an attractive alternative. A mixed-mode natural convection solar crop-dryer (a dryer in which the crop is dried by a combination of the direct absorption of solar radiation and by natural convection where air, heated by solar energy, is passed over the crop) has been designed. Two commercial dryers, based on this design and capable of handling between 1,000 and 1,500 kg of various agricultural products (such as cassava, pepper, maize, okra, etc.) have been constructed and partially tested at Agona-Asafo in the central region of Ghana. The results of these preliminary tests indicate that it takes 3-5 days to dry 1,000 kg of pepper from moisture content level of 78% to a safe storage level of 8%. The design, construction details, and the results of the preliminary tests are presented in this paper. (author)

Forson, F.K.; Nazha, M.A.A. [De Montfort University, Leicester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mechanical and Manufacture Engineering; Akuffo, F.O. [UST Kumasi (Ghana). Dept. of Mechanical and Manufacture Engineering

1996-07-01

124

10-MWe solar-thermal central-receiver pilot plant: collector subsystem foundation construction. Revision No. 1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bid documents are provided for the construction of the collector subsystem foundation of the Barstow Solar Pilot Plant, including invitation to bid, bid form, representations and certifications, construction contract, and labor standards provisions of the Davis-Bacon Act. Instructions to bidders, general provisions and general conditions are included. Technical specifications are provided for the construction. (LEW)

1979-12-18

125

Solar dryer with thermal storage and biomass-backup heater  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An indirect type natural convection solar dryer with integrated collector-storage solar and biomass-backup heaters has been designed, constructed and evaluated. The major components of the dryer are biomass burner (with a rectangular duct and flue gas chimney), collector-storage thermal mass and drying chamber (with a conventional solar chimney). The thermal mass was placed in the top part of the biomass burner enclosure. The dryer was fabricated using simple materials, tools and skills, and it was tested in three modes of operation (solar, biomass and solar-biomass) by drying twelve batches of fresh pineapple (Ananas comosus), with each batch weighing about 20 kg. Meteorological conditions were monitored during the dehydration process. Moisture and vitamin C contents were determined in both fresh and dried samples. Results show that the thermal mass was capable of storing part of the absorbed solar energy and heat from the burner. It was possible to dry a batch of pineapples using solar energy only on clear days. Drying proceeded successfully even under unfavorable weather conditions in the solar-biomass mode of operation. In this operational mode, the dryer reduced the moisture content of pineapple slices from about 669 to 11% (db) and yielded a nutritious dried product. The average values of the final-day moisture-pickup efficiency were 15%, 11% and 13% in the solar, biomass and solar-biomass modes of operation respectively. It appears that the solar dryer is suitable for preservation of pineapples and other fresh foods. Further improvements to the system design are suggested. (author)

Madhlopa, A. [Department of Physics and Biochemical Sciences, Malawi Polytechnic, P/Bag 303, Blantyre 3 (Malawi); Ngwalo, G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Malawi Polytechnic, P/Bag 303, Blantyre 3 (Malawi)

2007-04-15

126

Solar chimney for promoting cooling ventilation in southern Algeria  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In hot climates ventilation can be a useful means of cooling dwellings, if the outside air is cooler than that inside the dwelling. The performance of a typical cavity in inducing ventilation into a house is studied experimentally and theoretically. The measurements are made on a full-scale model under steady-state conditions. Cavity width and air inlet area are important parameters in this study. Measurements are made on the temperature and velocity of the air. Observations on air flow patterns in the room and the cavity are made. A dynamic model is developed based on a finite-difference technique, and used to examine the performance of the cavity in various circumstances. The results show that air movement can be produced by a sun-warmed cavity if the dimensions of inlet and cavity width are kept to certain values, and that thermal comfort can be improved. (author)

Bouchair, A. (E.N.S. de Jijel (Algeria). Dept. de Technologie)

1994-01-01

127

Experimental and numerical analysis of pollutant dispersion from a chimney  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Particle image velocimetry (PIV) is used to extract and characterize the underlying organized motions, i.e. coherent structures, within the near-wake region of a turbulent round jet discharged perpendicularly from a chimney into a crossflow. This flow has been found to be quite complex owing to its three-dimensional nature and the interactions between several flow regions. Analyses of the underlying coherent structures, which play an important role in the physics of the flow, are still rare and mostly based on flow-visualization techniques. Using a PIV technique, we examined the wake regions of the chimney and plume at levels near the top of the chimney. The complex geometry of these structures in the wake of the plume as well as their interaction with the plume as it bends over after emission is discussed. In this paper we describe the Kelvin-Helmholtz vortex structures, the downwash phenomena and the effect of the height of the chimney. Extensive wind tunnel experimental results are presented and compared with numerical simulation. A good level of agreement was found between the results of flow visualization and numerical simulation. (author)

Said, N.M.; Mhiri, H. [Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Monastir, Tunisie (Tunisia). Laboratorie de Mecanique des Fluides et Thermique; Le Palec, G.; Bournot, P. [UNIMECA, Marseille (France). Institut de Mecanique de Marseille, Equipe IMFT

2005-03-01

128

Evaluation of height chimney effect in a research reactor core  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The STHIRP-1 computer code uses the principles of subchannels approach and has the ability to simulate the thermal and hydraulic phenomena which occur in the core of a water-refrigerated research reactor under a natural convection regime. As the reactor cooling occurs predominantly by natural convection of pool water the driving forces are supplied by the buoyancy of the heated water in the core. A chimney is an unheated extension of the core. The height of the chimney above the upper grid plate depends on the reactor power. At the top of the chimney the water temperature and density are again equal to the bulk water and it can be assumed that the liquid is again motionless. Thermal hydraulic calculations were carried out for the IPR-R1 Triga reactor (CDTN/CNEN) operating at the steady-state power levels of 50, 70 and 100 kW. The height of chimney effect in the reactor core was evaluated from the temperature values calculated at the inlet and outlet of subchannels (author)

129

Guide for a building energy label. Promoting bio-climatic and solar construction and renovation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Technically speaking, building experts have the knowledge to deal with thermal inertia of buildings, solar gains, insulation, efficient ventilation, and daylighting... to get low energy buildings that provide comfort for the users. Buildings should always be designed according to the specificities of the local climate, according to a ''solar and bio-climatic construction'' approach. It is not always possible to fully apply these principles, particularly in urban areas with high density. However, this is unacceptable to keep building with such errors as insufficient insulation and direct electrical heating, single glazing, thermal bridges, low efficiency heating systems. This guide aims at encouraging the building experts to take into account the energy efficiency. Implementing a building energy label will allow general public to be aware of this issue and then, and will then lead to develop better practices. (author)

NONE

2004-07-01

130

The use of a rubble chimney for denitrification of irrigation return waters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Biological denitrification has been proposed as a means of removing nitrates from waste waters to control eutrophication in receiving waters. A potential use for this method is the treatment of irrigation return waters containing high concentrations of nitrate-nitrogen, since direct discharge of such wastes may cause objectionable algal growth in the receiving waters. For example, the process may be used to treat agricultural waste waters in the San Joaquin Valley in California, where an estimated 580,000 acre-feet/year of return waters, containing 20 mg/l of nitrate-nitrogen, will require disposal by A.D. 2020. Two methods of biological denitrification are presently under study for possible use in the San Joaquin Valley. In one method nitrates are reduced to nitrogen gas by bacterial action in deep ponds; in the other method bacterial denitrification takes place in biological filters. In biological filters, bacteria are grown on columns of submerged stones. A possible alternative to the conventional construction of these filters is the creation of a rubble chimney by a contained nuclear explosion. This paper presents the results of a preliminary investigation of the feasibility of using a rubble chimney as a biological filter for denitrification. (author)

131

The computational optimization of heat exchange efficiency in stack chimneys  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For many industrial processes, the chimney is the final step before hot fumes, with high thermal energy content, are discharged into the atmosphere. Tapping into this energy and utilizing it for heating or cooling applications, could improve sustainability, efficiency and/or reduce operational costs. Alternatively, an unused chimney, like the monumental chimney at the Eindhoven University of Technology, could serve as an 'energy channeler' once more; it can enhance free cooling by exploiting the stack effect. This study aims to identify design parameters that influence annual heat exchange in such stack chimney applications and optimize these parameters for specific scenarios to maximize the performance. Performance is defined by annual heat exchange, system efficiency and costs. The energy required for the water pump as compared to the energy exchanged, defines the system efficiency, which is expressed in an efficiency coefficient (EC). This study is an example of applying building performance simulation (BPS) tools for decision support in the early phase of the design process. In this study, BPS tools are used to provide design guidance, performance evaluation and optimization. A general method for optimization of simulation models will be studied, and applied in two case studies with different applications (heating/cooling), namely; (1) CERES case: 'Eindhoven University of Technology monumental stack chimney equipped with a heat exchanger, rejects heat to load the cold source of the aquifer system on the campus of the university and/or provides free cooling to the CERES building'; and (2) Industrial case: 'Heat exchanger in an industrial stack chimney, which recoups heat for use in e.g. absorption cooling'. The main research question, addressing the concerns of both cases, is expressed as follows: 'what is the optimal set of design parameters so heat exchange in stack chimneys is optimized annually for the cases in which a stack chimney heat exchanger is used for heating or cooling applications, what is the expected performance and how do the design parameters relate to this performance'. Simulation models were developed in the BPS tool ESP-r. The most important design parameters and their relative influence on the performance indicators were analysed based on sensitivity analysis (SA). From this analysis general design guidelines were derived ('optimal set of design parameters'). A multi objective optimization of the design parameters was performed on the simulation models, using the responsive surface methods and artificial neural network capabilities of optimization environment ModEContier to speed up the iteration process. In this optimization, 'heat exchange in stack chimneys is optimized annually'. The uncertainty in the optimized results has been analysed using uncertainty analysis (UA). Finally, the appropriateness of deploying a complex, high resolution simulation has been evaluated by studying current modelling resolution selection methodology found in literature.

Van Goch, T.A.J.

2012-02-15

132

Simplifying the construction of dye-sensitized solar cells to increase their accessibility for community education  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Simple dye-sensitized solar cells were developed using blackboard chalk as a substrate for mixed ZnO and SnO{sub 2} films that were sensitized with Mercurochrome (Merbromine) dye. Graphite pencil 'leads' were used as counter electrodes for the cells and the electrolyte consisted of an aqueous solution of iodine and potassium iodide that was gelled with a disinfectant containing quaternary ammonium compounds and cyanoacrylate adhesive (Superglue {sup registered}). The open circuit potential of constructed cells was typically 0.50-0.64 V and the short circuit current varied between 0.5 and 2.0 mA cm{sup -2}. The cells were developed as an educational resource that could be simply and safely constructed in a home or school environment with readily accessible materials. (author)

Appleyard, Steve [Department of Environment and Conservation, PO Box K822, Perth, WA 6842 (Australia)

2010-01-15

133

A note on chimney formation in ice edge regions  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper investigates a coupled mesoscale ice-ocean system forced by winds and cooling, leading to the phenomenon of 'chimney' formation (i.e., the formation of a rapid deepening of the mixed layer due to a strong surface heat loss) in ice-edge regions. A numerical model, based on Hakkinen's (1987) coupled dynamic-thermodynamic model of an ice-ocean system, was used that included, in addition to wind stirring, the entrainment parameterization. The results are for the most part similar to the results of Hakkinen, indicating the overwhelming relevance of wind mixing, with penetrative convection having additional effects. The model calculations show that the area affected by ice edge upwelling is most prone to entrainment; the convectively induced entrainment is necessary for the production of a chimney.

Hakkinen, Sirpa

1988-01-01

134

GPS FOM Chimney Analysis using Generalized Extreme Value Distribution  

Science.gov (United States)

Many a time an objective of a statistical analysis is to estimate a limit value like 3-sigma 95% confidence upper limit from a data sample. The generalized Extreme Value Distribution method can be profitably employed in many situations for such an estimate. . .. It is well known that according to the Central Limit theorem the mean value of a large data set is normally distributed irrespective of the distribution of the data from which the mean value is derived. In a somewhat similar fashion it is observed that many times the extreme value of a data set has a distribution that can be formulated with a Generalized Distribution. In space shuttle entry with 3-string GPS navigation the Figure Of Merit (FOM) value gives a measure of GPS navigated state accuracy. A GPS navigated state with FOM of 6 or higher is deemed unacceptable and is said to form a FOM 6 or higher chimney. A FOM chimney is a period of time during which the FOM value stays higher than 5. A longer period of FOM of value 6 or higher causes navigated state to accumulate more error for a lack of state update. For an acceptable landing it is imperative that the state error remains low and hence at low altitude during entry GPS data of FOM greater than 5 must not last more than 138 seconds. I To test the GPS performAnce many entry test cases were simulated at the Avionics Development Laboratory. Only high value FoM chimneys are consequential. The extreme value statistical technique is applied to analyze high value FOM chimneys. The Maximum likelihood method is used to determine parameters that characterize the GEV distribution, and then the limit value statistics are estimated.

Ott, Rick; Frisbee, Joe; Saha, Kanan

2004-01-01

135

Formation of Chimneys in Mushy Layers: Experiment and Simulation  

CERN Document Server

In this fluid dyanmics video, we show experimental images and simulations of chimney formation in mushy layers. A directional solidification apparatus was used to freeze 25 wt % aqueous ammonium chloride solutions at controlled rates in a narrow Hele-Shaw cell (1mm gap). The convective motion is imaged with schlieren. We demonstrate the ability to numerically simulate mushy layer growth for direct comparison with experiments.

Anderson, Anthony M; Worster, Grae

2011-01-01

136

Evaluation of a stack: A concrete chimney with brick liner  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A 200 ft. tall stack, consisting of a concrete chimney with an independent acid proof brick liner built in the 1950's, serving the Separations facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS), was evaluated for the performance category 3 (PC3) level of Natural Phenomena Hazards (NPH) effects. The inelastic energy absorption capacity of the concrete chimney was considered in the evaluation of the earthquake resistance, in particular, to compute the F? factor. The calculated value of F? exceeded 3.0, while the seismic demand for the PC3 level, using an F? value of 1.5, was found to be less than the capacity of the concrete chimney. The capacity formulation of ACI 307 was modified to incorporate the effect of an after design opening on the tension side. There are considerable uncertainties in determining the earthquake resistance of the independent brick liner. The critical liner section, located at the bottom of the breeching opening, does not meet the current recommendations. A discussion is provided for the possible acceptable values for the ''Moment Reduction Factor'', Rw or F? for the liner. Comments are provided on the comparison of stack demands using response spectra (RS) versus time history (TH) analysis, with and without soil structure interaction (SSI) effects

137

D0 - Chimney Lead Quench Detection, Beta Solenoid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The voltage drop across the superconducting chimney lead is sensed to detect a quench. The return sense lead is mounted outside the chimney. The return sense lead and the superconducting chimney wire form a loop with area A ? 1.7 m2 (information from R. Ru. cinski). Changing flux through area A will induce a voltage in the sense loop and could cause false quench detection. Assume that the field through A changes 1 kGauss (0.1 Wb/m2) in 10-3 sec. The induced voltage is then: e = d0/dt = dBA/dt and e = 0.1 x 1.7/10-3 = 170 V. This is probably a very pessimistic estimate, but it shows that we have to watch out. Changes of 100 Gauss in 100 msec (CDF experience?) are probably more likely and cause: e = 0.01 x 1.7/10-2 ? 1.7 V noise. This noise is still too high because trip levels are planned to sit at ?50 mV? It is practically impossible to predict what the real noise values would be, but I expect them to be in the order of 1 to 10 V. This is more than we can handle and I would expect nuisance trips.

138

Optimal and hysteretic fluxes in alloy solidification: Variational principles and chimney spacing  

CERN Document Server

We take a numerical approach to analyze the mechanisms controlling the spacing of chimneys -- channels devoid of solid -- in two-dimensional mushy layers formed by solidifying a binary alloy. Chimneys are the principal conduits through which buoyancy effects transport material out of the mushy layer and into the liquid from which it formed. Experiments show a coarsening of chimney spacing and we pursue the hypothesis that this observation is a consequence of a variational principle: the chimney spacing adjusts to optimize material transport and hence maximize the rate of removal of potential energy stored in the mushy layer. The optimal solute flux increases approximately linearly with the mushy layer Rayleigh number. However, for spacings below a critical value the chimneys collapse and solute fluxes cease, revealing a hysteresis between chimney convection and no flow.

Wells, Andrew J; Orszag, Steven A

2010-01-01

139

Antecedent and progress of the project on the treatment of chimney gases with electrons in Mexico  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After the realization of the chimney gases treatment seminar with electrons, organized jointly among the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), in August of 1990 and following one of the received recommendations, it was elaborated an economic technical feasibility study of this process in Mexico, using technical data of a thermoelectric power station of Federal Commission of Electricity, where is being consumed fuel oil. This study is good to know some technical parameters of a plant of this process, proposed to settle in Mexico, so as some economic estimates of installation and operation costs of this plant; also, it is traced about the construction of a demonstration plant of the process, with capacity of 20,000 m3N/h, using the same data of the thermoelectric power station considered previously, as the first step in the scaling of this process toward industrial level. (Author)

140

Modelling and Simulation of Acid Gas Condensation in an Industrial Chimney  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Coal power stations as well as waste incinerators produce humid acid gases which may condense in industrial chimneys. These condensates can cause corrosion of chimney internal cladding which is made of stainless steel, nickel base alloys or non metallic materials. In the aim of polluting emission reduction and material optimal choice, it is necessary to determine and characterize all the phenomena which occur throughout the chimney and more especially condensation and dissolution of acid gase...

Serris, Eric; Cournil, Michel; Je?ro?me, Peultier

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Construction of a 100 kW solar thermal-electric experimental plant  

Science.gov (United States)

A focusing collector thermal-electric power plant has been erected in Corsica (France). This plant consists of a field of 1176 sq m fixed mirror concentrators, producing heat at 250 C, a stratification thermal energy storage of about 1250 kWh, two power conversion units of 45 kWe each, with a supersonic turbine expanding a heavy organic working fluid, and two cooling towers of 200 kW each. This full-scale prototype has been built mainly to demonstrate the capability of the distributed collector solar plant concept, in the power range from 50 kWe to 1000 kWe, and the temperature range from 150 to 300 C. This paper describes the conceptual design and the performance of the plant and discusses problems that were met during construction.

Boy-Marcotte, J. L.; Dancette, M.; Bliaux, J.; Bacconnet, E.; Malherbe, J.

1985-08-01

142

Design, construction and performance testing of a solar dryer for agroindustrial by-products  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Spain generates a big amount of agroindustrial by-products of high moisture that produce a high environmental impact. This fact motivates the aim of this paper, in which a solar dryer prototype is designed, constructed, and performance tested for the analysis of the drying kinetics of these by-products and their possible power valuation. The characteristics of the prototype are presented, together with the variations of the properties of temperature, relative humidity, air mass flow, and efficiency for indirect, mixed, passive, active, and hybrid operation modes. The most efficient operation mode will be the forced-hybrid one, followed by the passive and active modes. The analysis of the drying kinetics of the olive pomace shows the better performance of the hybrid and mixed modes, obtaining reductions of the drying time of a 50% in both cases. (author)

Montero, I.; Miranda, T.; Rojas, S.; Celma, A.R. [University of Extremadura, Department of Chemical and Energetics Engineering, Industrial Engineering School, Av. Elvas s/n, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Blanco, J. [PSA (CIEMAT), Department of Solar Chemistry, Ctra. Sens, P.O. Box 22, 04200 Tabernas (Almera) (Spain)

2010-07-15

143

Design, construction and performance testing of a solar dryer for agroindustrial by-products  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Spain generates a big amount of agroindustrial by-products of high moisture that produce a high environmental impact. This fact motivates the aim of this paper, in which a solar dryer prototype is designed, constructed, and performance tested for the analysis of the drying kinetics of these by-products and their possible power valuation. The characteristics of the prototype are presented, together with the variations of the properties of temperature, relative humidity, air mass flow, and efficiency for indirect, mixed, passive, active, and hybrid operation modes. The most efficient operation mode will be the forced-hybrid one, followed by the passive and active modes. The analysis of the drying kinetics of the olive pomace shows the better performance of the hybrid and mixed modes, obtaining reductions of the drying time of a 50% in both cases.

144

The construction of tandem dye-sensitized solar cells from chemically-derived nanoporous photoelectrodes  

Science.gov (United States)

A tandem dye-sensitized solar cell (tandem-DSSC) was synthesized on the basis of thin-film semiconductor electrodes. The nanoporous p-type NiO films were successfully obtained by simultaneous deposition of Al and Ni, followed by selective etching of Al and oxidation. Likewise, the n-type photoanode was made where Ag was etched in nitric acid after the initial formation of Ag/TiO2 nanocomposites. Such dye-sensitized photoelectrodes were combined to construct a tandem solar cell which exhibited an enhanced open-circuit voltage. Also, the tandem devices were subjected to various light fluxes to correlate the experimental cell parameters (open-circuit voltage, short-circuit current, fill factor, recombination shunt resistance, etc.) with the ideal one-diode model. Interestingly, impedance spectra of the tandem cell was well matched with the parameters from each of the n-type or p-type DSSC, indicative of successfully-designed tandem structure.

Choi, Hongsik; Hwang, Taehyun; Lee, Sangheon; Nam, Seunghoon; Kang, Joonhyeon; Lee, Byungho; Park, Byungwoo

2015-01-01

145

External walls made of solar Lego bricks. Sulfurcell head office building: External wall construction according to the dimensions of Sulfurcell solar modules; Solare Legosteinfassade. Die Masse der hauseigenen Module bildeten den Ausgangspunkt fuer die Planung des Sulfurcell-Hauptquartiers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Sulfurcell Solartechnik GmbH constructed a new office building at Berlin-Adlershof. The building's external walls were designed on the basis of the frameless Sulfurcell standard module. The building intends to prove that solar modules are not a luxury item but an efficient and easy-to-handle constructional material. (orig.)

Wagner, Neelke

2009-11-15

146

Economic geology of Big Chimney quadrangle, Kanawha County, West Virginia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recent geologic mapping of Pennsylvanian strata in the Big Chimney quadrangle, 2.5 mi northeast of Charleston, West Virginia, suggests a possible association between syntectonic depositional influences and the occurrences of economically important mineral deposits. Coal and flint clay were deposited in the Charleston Sandstone (Middle Pennsylvanian) during periods of stillstand. The Mahoning Sandstone Member is disconformable with underlying strata and locally contains Precambrian and early Paleozoic pebbles. The member is thick in synclinal troughs and thin or absent on the crests of anticlines where there also is a thinner underlying stratigraphic sequence. Flint clay deposits reach their maximum quality on the crests of anticlines and in areas adjacent to suspected paleotopographic highs. These deposits are laterally gradational with underclay, ganister, and paleosol. The Elk fireclay (No. 6 Block underclay) may in part have originated as a volcanic ash fall. The No. 5 Block coal bed reached 60 in. in thickness on the Milliken anticline and has minor fault displacement at Big Chimney. The Pittsburgh coal bed is as much as 90 in. thick, cropping out in high ridges. It is absent on the northern edge and eastern part of the quadrangle. More than 260 oil and gas wells have been drilled in the overlapping Elk-Poca, Big Chimney, and Blue Creek gas or oil fields. Natural gas, paraffin-base oil, and/or minor amounts of condensate are produced from structural and stratigraphic traps in four units: the Weir Formation (sand) and the Oriskany, Keefer, and Tuscarora Sandstones. The Oriskany Sandstone, however, is used almost exclusively as a gas-storage reservoir. Oil is produced largely from repressurized stripper wells.

Windolph, J.F. Jr.

1988-08-01

147

Influence of the Chimney Dimensions on the Heat Transfer of a Vertical Cylinder in a Duct  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A thermally insulated chimney attached to a vertical heated section induces an increase in the natural convection flow in the heated vertical cylinder and leads to a higher heat transfer rate. The flows in the chimney are originally driven by the natural convection. However its behavior is similar to the forced convective flows as the heated vertical cylinder is located in a duct or chimney and then the mass flow rate at every elevation should be the same. Heat transfer in the chimney depends on the dimensionless geometrical parameters (Fig. 1), such as the extension ratio (the total length of chimney system, Lt, over the heated section length, Lh), the expansion ratio (the diameter of chimney, Dt, over the diameter of heated vertical cylinder, Dh), the aspect ratio of cylinder (the length of cylinder, Lh, over the diameter of cylinder, Dh), and the location of cylinder in a duct (the top or bottom of chimney). Although some works have been done on the heat transfer in the chimney, arrangements detailed experimental investigations on the determination of the optimal location of the heated cylinder in the chimney are rare. And previous studies have been performed for extension ratio 1.0-5.0. This work investigated the influence on the chimney dimensions (entrance and exit length, and diameter) on the heat transfer of a vertical cylinder in a duct. The measured mass transfer rates for the natural convectiss transfer rates for the natural convection of vertical cylinder in a duct were presented for Prandlt number 2,094, Rayleigh number 4.55x109, 5.79x1010, and 1.69x1011. Experiments were performed using a copper sulfate electroplating system to simulate heat transfer based upon the analogy concept

148

Design, Engineering, and Construction of Photosynthetic Microbial Cell Factories for Renewable Solar Fuel Production  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There is an urgent need to develop sustainable solutions to convert solar energy into energy carriers used in the society. In addition to solar cells generating electricity, there are several options to generate solar fuels. This paper outlines and discusses the design and engineering of photosynthetic microbial systems for the generation of renewable solar fuels, with a focus on cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria are prokaryotic microorganisms with the same type of photosynthesis as higher plants....

Lindblad, Peter; Lindberg, Pia; Oliveira, Paulo; Stensjo?, Karin; Heidorn, Thorsten

2012-01-01

149

Analysis Study of Solar Tower Power Plant & Its Configuration Effects on Its Performance in Iraq (Baghdad City  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A solar chimney power plant model, consisting of a solar collector to produce a hot air when the incident solar radiation hit it, a solar chimney and a wind turbine with generator was investigated in this study. The mathematical model as a tool was used to study and analyze the performance of the power plant for electrical production in Baghdad city of Iraq as a result a mathematical equation was obtained for the hot air outlet temperature from the collector as a function of collector’s area and solar radiation. The Manzanares model was used in this study and the results obtained from the proposed model of solar tower, having the height 195 m, diameter of 10 m, and the solar collector diameter of 244 m were compared with the results obtained when the solar tower configuration is changed. The results indicate that the significant impact to improve the output power is by increasing the collector’s diameter from 244 m to 300 m. It is also found that output power is effectively dependent on the chimney’s height, it yields moderate increasing in power output when the height is increased from 195 m to 300 m, and the chimney’s diameter has a lower impact on solar tower output power in comparison with the other configuration of solar tower when it increases from 10 m to 20 m.

Mohammed H. Ali

2013-03-01

150

Solar ventilation and tempering  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper presents basic information about solar panels, designed, realized and used for solar ventilation of rooms. Used method of numerical flow simulation gives good overview about warming and flowing of the air in several kinds of realized panels (window, facade, chimney). Yearlong measurements give a good base for calculations of economic return of invested capital. The operation of the system in transient period (spring, autumn) prolongs the period without classical heating of the room or building, in winter the classical heating is supported. In the summer period the system, furnished with chimney, can exhaust inner warm air together with necessary cooling of the system by gravity circulation, only. System needs not any invoiced energy source; it is supplied entirely by solar energy. Large building systems are supported by classical electric fan respectively.

Adámek, Karel; Pavlů, Miloš; Bandouch, Milan

2014-08-01

151

Chimney stent graft for endovascular sealing of a pararenal aortic aneurysm.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chimney endovascular aneurysm repair is still a controversial treatment of complex aortic aneurysms. Stent-graft patency and type-I endoleaks are the main challenges that temper this bailout technique. Endovascular aneurysm sealing (EVAS) consists of anchoring and sealing the device within the aneurysm sac. The first results are promising, even for adverse anatomy. We describe a case of EVAS for a pararenal aortic aneurysm associated with a chimney stent graft for the right renal artery. Wrapping the chimney stent graft inside endobags filled with polymer is expected to prevent gutters and stent compressions. PMID:25108097

Rouer, Martin; El Batti, Salma; Julia, Pierre; de Blic, Romain; Fabiani, Jean-Noël; Alsac, Jean-Marc

2014-11-01

152

The chimney procedure is an emergently available endovascular solution for visceral aortic aneurysm rupture.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 79-year-old woman presented with a ruptured saccular thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm involving the celiac and mesenteric artery. The patient was unfit for open surgical repair. A "chimney" procedure was performed, which involved placement of stents in the aortic side branches alongside the endograft. The patient underwent another chimney procedure 2 weeks later for a type I endoleak. Computed tomography angiography (CTA) at 1 and 6 months showed a good result with no endoleaks or graft migration. The chimney procedure provides an alternative for emergency patients unfit for open repair and has the advantage that stents can be used that are already available in most institutions. PMID:21276684

Schlösser, Felix J V; Aruny, John E; Freiburg, Carter B; Mojibian, Hamid R; Sumpio, Bauer E; Muhs, Bart E

2011-05-01

153

Plastic Solar Cells: A Multidisciplinary Field to Construct Chemical Concepts from Current Research  

Science.gov (United States)

Examples of plastic solar-cell technology to illustrate core concepts in chemistry are presented. The principles of operations of a plastic solar cell could be used to introduce key concepts, which are fundamentally important to understand photosynthesis and the basic process that govern most novel optoelectronic devices.

Gomez, Rafael; Segura, Jose L.

2007-01-01

154

Leakage-flow induced vibrations of a chimney structure suspended in a liquid flow  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents the results of flow-induced vibration tests conducted to assess the vibration characteristics of a chimney structure suspended in a liquid flow. The test article is a full-scale model of a flow chimney used in a nuclear reactor as a part of reactor upper internals. Tests were performed by simulating all pertinent prototype conditions achievable in a laboratory environment. The test results show that there exists a fluid-elastic instability of the chimney motion which has a distinct lock-in phenomenon with respect to the flow rate. This unstable vibration is associated with the leakage-flow-modulated excitation through the small clearances between the chimney and its supports

155

Modelling and simulation of condensation phenomena of acid gases in an industrial chimney  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Coal power stations as well as waste incinerators produce humid acid gases which condensate in industrial chimneys. These condensates may cause corrosion of the internal cladding made of stainless steels, nickel base alloys or non metallic materials. In the aim of polluting emission reduction and material optimal choice, it is necessary to determine all the phenomena which occur throughout the chimney such as condensation and dissolution of acid gases (in this particular case, sulphur dioxide...

Serris, Eric; Cournil, Michel; Peultier, Je?ro?me

2007-01-01

156

Nonlinear mushy-layer convection with chimneys: stability and optimal solute fluxes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We model buoyancy-driven convection with chimneys -- channels of zero solid fraction -- in a mushy layer formed during directional solidification of a binary alloy in two-dimensions. A large suite of numerical simulations is combined with scaling analysis in order to study the parametric dependence of the flow. Stability boundaries are calculated for states of finite-amplitude convection with chimneys, which for a narrow domain can be interpreted in terms of a modified Rayle...

Wells, Aj; Wettlaufer, Js; Orszag, Sa

2012-01-01

157

Exploring Passive Solar Design in Minnesota’s Residential Construction Sector  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This directed project analyzes the cost and benefit relationship of incorporating passive solar heating and cooling designs into a national home builder’s standard house plan. The orientation, glazing area, glazing type, and solar shading features of the home are all analyzed. The goal of this directed project is to determine if passive solar can make an impact on energy costs for a national home builder’s standard house plan. The focus of the study is on one standard home plan and ana...

Albers, Luke

2012-01-01

158

Effect of cold inflow on chimney height of natural draft cooling towers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Natural convection data were obtained from an air-cooled heat exchanger model. ? The extent of cold inflow was quantified to relate to the decrease in effective chimney height. ? Installation of wire mesh screen on chimney outlet blocked off cold inflow to improve the chimney efficiency. ? Evidence of existence of effective plume-chimney for when cold inflow was blocked off warrants further work. - Abstract: Temperature and pressure drop data obtained from an air-cooled heat exchanger model with cross-sectional flow areas of 0.56 m2, 1.00 m2 and 2.25 m2 operating under natural convection are presented that indicate significant cold inflow, resulting in the reduction of effective chimney height. Cold inflows encountered in actual applications where the Froude number is typically 0.2, may not be as severe as described in this paper, which was of the order of 10?6–10?4. Additional tests on smaller scale models appeared to favor the explanation that the occurrence of cold inflow in the air-cooled heat exchanger model was primarily due to the relative ease in either drawing cold air from inlet or from outlet, and to a lesser extent the Froude number of the chimney or the critical velocity estimated by formula. A CFD study will bring much understanding of the phenomenon for the different situations.

159

Dynamic character of the hydrothermal vent habitat and the nature of sulphide chimney fauna  

Science.gov (United States)

A major substratum for vent organisms on Juan de Fuca and Explorer Ridges of the northeast Pacific is the polymetallic sulphide chimney. The deposition processes and subsequent growth of such chimneys provide a dynamic and extreme habitat that changes rapidly. During initial venting stages, colonization must await stabilization of the chimney structure. As the porous anhydrite shell accumulates sulphide minerals, protection from direct hot water contact increases for organisms colonizing the outer walls while sufficient vent water still diffuses for the support of chemosynthesis. Vestimentiferan worms are found on small sulphide mounds but the active growth and collapse of anhydrite spires is a major source of disruption and mortality. High temperature venting and spire growth appear to attract alvinellid polychaetes which may be implicated in the process of strengthening and sealing the anhydrite spires. Fauna on the growing chimney is subject to changes in fluid flow patterns that can make the structure uninhabitable. Large chimneys are inhabited by more species indicating that a diversification of habitat results from variations in mineralization and fluid availability. Chimney fauna has become specialized in exploiting an unpredictable and unstable habitat in an extreme example of the control of biotic development by the physical environment.

Tunnicliffe, Verena; Kim Juniper, S.

160

Scenarios for solar thermal energy applications in Brazil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Solar and Wind Energy Resource Assessment (SWERA) database is used to prepare and discuss scenarios for solar thermal applications in Brazil. The paper discusses low temperature applications (small and large scale water heating) and solar power plants for electricity production (concentrated solar power plants and solar chimney plants) in Brazil. The results demonstrate the feasibility of large-scale application of solar energy for water heating and electricity generation in Brazil. Payback periods for water heating systems are typically below 4 years if they were used to replace residential electric showerheads in low-income families. Large-scale water heating systems also present high feasibility and many commercial companies are adopting this technology to reduce operational costs. The best sites to set up CSP plants are in the Brazilian semi-arid region where the annual energy achieves 2.2 MW h/m2 and averages of daily solar irradiation are larger than 5.0 kW h/m2/day. The western area of Brazilian Northeastern region meets all technical requirements to exploit solar thermal energy for electricity generation based on solar chimney technology. Highlights: ? Scenarios for solar thermal applications are presented. ? Payback is typically below 4 years for small scale water heating systems. ? Large-scale water heating systems also present high feasibility. ? The Brazilian semi-arid region is the best sites for CSP and chimney tower plaites for CSP and chimney tower plants.

 
 
 
 
161

The Design, Construction, and Performance of a Net Zero Home in the Solar Decathlon 2011  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Solar Decathlon is a biennial Department of Energy (DOE) collegiate contest to “promote and speed to market” solar powered, residential homes (Grose, 2009). It is a student competition wherein twenty universities are selected to design, build, and showcase residential structures that would ultimately be relocated to a competition campus in West Potomac Park in Washington D.C. to be viewed by the general public and judged by representatives of the DOE. The challenge is “design, build...

Holt, Eric A.; Miller, Sarah

2012-01-01

162

Design, construction and test run of a two-tonne capacity solar rice dryer with rice-husk-fired auxiliary heater  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The design and construction details of a two-tonne per batch capacity natural-circulation solar rice dryer and the highlights of the design of its rice-husk-fired auxiliary heating system which is still under construction are presented. The dryer measures approximately 17.7m long by 9.8m wide by 6m high. Preliminary results of a test run on the solar dryer section only is reported. (author). 5 refs, 3 figs

163

Ant mound as an optimal shape in constructal design: solar irradiation and circadian brood/fungi-warming sorties.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sizes, shapes, ambient and in-dome temperature, incoming solar radiation and illumination are measured on a Formica rufa anthill in a mixed forest of the Volga-Kama National Reserve in Russia. These data are used in a conceptual model of insolation of a right conical surface by direct-beam, descending atmospheric and ascending ground-reflected radiation. Unlike a standard calculation of the energy flux intercepted by a solar panel, the anthill is a 3-D structure and double-integration of the cosine of the angle between the solar beams and normal to the surface is carried out for a "cozy trapezium", where the insects expose themselves and the brood to "morning" sunbathing pulses (Jones and Oldroyd, 2007). Several constructal design problems are formulated with the criteria involving either a pure solar energy gained by the dome or this energy, as a mathematical criterion, penalized by additive terms of mechanical energy (potential and friction) lost by the ants in their diurnal forays from a "heartland" of the nest to the sun-basking zone on the surface. The unique and global optima are analytically found, with the optimal tilt angle of the cone explicitly expressed through the zenith angle of the Sun and meteorological constants for the isotropic sky model. PMID:24681404

Kasimova, R G; Tishin, D; Obnosov, Yu V; Dlussky, G M; Baksht, F B; Kacimov, A R

2014-08-21

164

Construction and testing of a transportable solar adsorption refrigerator; Construction et test d'un refrigerateur solaire a adsorption transportable  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report describes the development of an autonomous solar adsorption refrigerator characterized by its compactness and transportability. The refrigerator utilizes water as the working fluid and silicagel as the adsorbent and operates discontinuously over the day/night cycle. For a cooling volume of about 100 liters a collector-adsorber surface of 1 m{sup 2} is required and the total mass of the system amounts to about 150 kg. In order to keep its mass as low as possible the apparatus has been built with light weight materials. The cold-storage room has been insulated with a high-performance insulation material, thus minimizing thermal losses without excessively reducing the cooled volume. A new automatic valve system has been developed making superfluous any manual manipulation during normal operation. The dimensioning of the cooling system allows to cool the equivalent of 2.5 to 3.7 kg of water by 30 K daily in a climate of the Sahelien type. The cooling energy is stored in the form of ice in the evaporator and allows to bridge a period of three overcast-sky days. The construction of the solar refrigerator was made in cooperation with small regional enterprises and workshops. The cooperation with a non governmental organization allowed to test the system from May to September 2002 in a Subsaharian region of Africa where an equivalent model had been built using locally available materials. Likewise, a market study has been made in Burkina Faso in order to analyze the potential of solar adsorption refrigerators in this region. The result of the study suggests that the opening of a production workshop for such refrigerators in Burkina Faso is promising.

Mayor, J.; Dind, P.

2002-07-01

165

Lower Eocene carbonate cemented chimneys (Varna, NE Bulgaria): Formation mechanisms and the (a)biological mediation of chimney growth?  

Science.gov (United States)

In the area of Pobiti Kamani (Varna, northeast Bulgaria), massive carbonate cemented columns ("chimneys", up to 1.5 m diameter and 8 m high) and horizontal interbeds (? 1.5 m thickness) occur in dispersed outcrops over an area of 70 km 2 within loose Lower Eocene sands. Field observations and petrographical and stable isotope geochemical characterisation of four studied locations reveal a relationship between these structures and processes of ancient hydrocarbon seepage. Column and interbed structures both consist of similar well-sorted silt- to sand-sized nummulitic host sediments, predominantly cemented by early diagenetic, low-magnesium calcite. Filamentous textures, about 10 ?m in diameter and 80-650 ?m long, are only locally detected within interparticle calcite cement of columns. Column samples from two sites reveal a similar, linear and inverse covariant trend of ?13C- ?18O values, which was interpreted as a mixing trend between two end member fluid/precipitation conditions, i.e. (1) a methane- and/or higher hydrocarbon-derived carbon member characterised by ?13C values as low as - 43‰ and marine controlled precipitation conditions with ?18O of - 1 ± 0.5‰ V-PDB and (2) a member with less contribution of methane which was mixed most likely with less depleted carbon sources explaining ?13C values ranging up to - 8‰ V-PDB. The corresponding, depleted ?18O values, with many samples clustering around - 8‰ V-PDB, are interpreted in terms of precipitation at elevated temperatures. This suggests the venting system was not a true "cold" seep, sensu stricto. Furthermore, column cross-transects often document an internal pattern consisting of (concentric) zones with distinct isotopic signatures, which vary between the two end members. The mixing and internal pattern of column isotopic data, together with petrographical observations, are qualitatively interpreted as evidence of alternating precipitation conditions, controlled by varying seepage rates of a single fluid source at depth, during build-up of individual chimney pipes near the sediment surface. Based on several field observations, migration of the hydrocarbon-charged fluids in Lower Eocene times was possibly channelled along NE oriented faults. Isotopic signatures of calcite cemented horizontal interbeds, with depleted ?18O ratios as low as - 8.88‰ V-PDB and variable ?13C (- 1‰ to - 16‰, mainly around - 5‰ to - 7‰) suggest that ascending fluids contributed to their cementation or resetted the calcite cement isotopic signature, predominantly during periods of active seepage of warmer fluids. Only few petrographical (and preliminary lipid-biomarker) evidence has been found, pointing to the presence or possibly former activity of microbiota, involved in carbon cycling and calcite precipitation, typical of cold seep settings. This may result from diagenetic alteration of organic components. However, considering the processes of chimney formation, a cementation process, governed by the inorganic oxidation of hydrocarbons in which interstitial oxygen is rapidly consumed without bacterial mediation, is considered.

De Boever, E.; Swennen, R.; Dimitrov, L.

2006-03-01

166

Development of the lined masonry chimney oil appliance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes the development of the lined masonry chimney venting tables form the output of the Oil Heat Analysis Program 9OHVAP. These new tables are different from the prior format, offered in the Proceedings of the 1995 Oil Heat Technology Conference and Workshop, paper No. 95-4. Issues expressed by representatives of the oil heat industry at last years conference during the Venting Technology Workshop resulted in subsequent discussions. A full day meeting was held, co-sponsored by BNL and the Oilheat Manufacturers Association (OMA), to address revision of the format of the venting tables prior to submission to the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Standard 31 Technical Committee. The resulting tables and text were submitted to NFPA during the first week of October, 1995. Since then minor changes were made reflecting the addition of data obtained by including intermediate firing rates (0.4, 0.65, and 0.85 gph) not included in the original tables which were developed in increments of 0.25 gph. The new tables address the specific question; {open_quotes}If remediation is required, what is the recommendation for the sizing of a metal liner and the appropriate firing rate range to be used with that liner?{close_quotes}

Krajewski, R.; Strasser, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1996-07-01

167

Constructing a One-solar-mass Evolutionary Sequence Using Asteroseismic Data from Kepler  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Asteroseismology of solar-type stars has entered a new era of large surveys with the success of the NASA Kepler mission, which is providing exquisite data on oscillations of stars across the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. From the time-series photometry, the two seismic parameters that can be most readily extracted are the large frequency separation (??) and the frequency of maximum oscillation power (?max). After the survey phase, these quantities are available for hundreds of solar-type stars. By scaling from solar values, we use these two asteroseismic observables to identify for the first time an evolutionary sequence of 1 M sun field stars, without the need for further information from stellar models. Comparison of our determinations with the few available spectroscopic results shows an excellent level of agreement. We discuss the potential of the method for differential analysis throughout the main-sequence evolution and the possibility of detecting twins of very well-known stars.

Silva Aguirre, V.; Chaplin, W.J.

2011-01-01

168

CONSTRUCTING A ONE-SOLAR-MASS EVOLUTIONARY SEQUENCE USING ASTEROSEISMIC DATA FROM KEPLER  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Asteroseismology of solar-type stars has entered a new era of large surveys with the success of the NASA Kepler mission, which is providing exquisite data on oscillations of stars across the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. From the time-series photometry, the two seismic parameters that can be most readily extracted are the large frequency separation (??) and the frequency of maximum oscillation power (?max). After the survey phase, these quantities are available for hundreds of solar-type stars. By scaling from solar values, we use these two asteroseismic observables to identify for the first time an evolutionary sequence of 1 Msun field stars, without the need for further information from stellar models. Comparison of our determinations with the few available spectroscopic results shows an excellent level of agreement. We discuss the potential of the method for differential analysis throughout the main-sequence evolution and the possibility of detecting twins of very well-known stars.

169

Metagenome reveals potential microbial degradation of hydrocarbon coupled with sulfate reduction in an oil-immersed chimney from Guaymas Basin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimneys contain a high diversity of microorganisms, yet the metabolic activity and the ecological functions of the microbial communities remain largely unexplored. In this study, a metagenomic approach was applied to characterize the metabolic potential in a Guaymas hydrothermal vent chimney and to conduct comparative genomic analysis among a variety of environments with sequenced metagenomes. Complete clustering of functional gene categories with a comparative metagenomic approach showed that this Guaymas chimney metagenome was clustered most closely with a chimney metagenome from Juan de Fuca. All chimney samples were enriched with genes involved in recombination and repair, chemotaxis and flagellar assembly, highlighting their roles in coping with the fluctuating extreme deep-sea environments. A high proportion of transposases was observed in all the metagenomes from deep-sea chimneys, supporting the previous hypothesis that horizontal gene transfer may be common in the deep-sea vent chimney biosphere. In the Guaymas chimney metagenome, thermophilic sulfate reducing microorganisms including bacteria and archaea were found predominant, and genes coding for the degradation of refractory organic compounds such as cellulose, lipid, pullullan, as well as a few hydrocarbons including toluene, ethylbenzene and o-xylene were identified. Therefore, this oil-immersed chimney supported a thermophilic microbial community capable of oxidizing a range of hydrocarbons that served as electron donors for sulphate reduction under anaerobic conditions.

YingHe

2013-06-01

170

Design and Construction of a Solar Observatory in a Liberal Arts Environment: Austin College’s Gnomon and Meridian Line  

Science.gov (United States)

Austin College’s indoor solar observatory is one of the most distinctive features in its new IDEA Center science building. Patterned after 16th and 17th century solar observatories in European cathedrals, the IDEA Center solar facility will be used extensively for public events, introductory astronomy courses, and reproductions of important historical scientific measurements. A circular aperture, or gnomon hole, on the roof with diameter 32 mm allows a beam of sunlight to trace a path across the atrium floor 15.37 meters below. At local solar noon, the Sun’s image falls directly on a brass meridian line. Special markers for solstices and equinoxes highlight western, eastern, and indigenous cultural contributions to astronomy: Macedonian symbol of the Sun marks summer solstice, Chinese Sun symbol showcases the equinoxes, and the Mayan symbol of the Sun celebrates winter solstice. The location directly beneath the gnomon hole is marked by the universal scientific symbol of the Sun. Direct solar measurements and mathematical models were used in design and implementation of the meridian line. During IDEA Center building construction in Fall 2012, undergraduate students measured the Sun’s position at various times. The finished floor was set in February 2013, well before a full year’s worth of measurements could be recorded. A mathematical model including the effects of aperture size and atmospheric refraction was needed to predict the size and location of the Sun on the meridian line throughout the year. Confirmation of the meridian line occurred on Summer Solstice 2013 when the Sun’s image precisely hit the Macedonian marker at the correct time.

Baker, David; Salisbury, D.

2014-01-01

171

Simulation, construction and testing of a two-cylinder solar Stirling engine powered by a flat-plate solar collector without regenerator  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this research, a gamma-type, low-temperature differential (LTD) solar Stirling engine with two cylinders was modeled, constructed and primarily tested. A flat-plate solar collector was employed as an in-built heat source, thus the system design was based on a temperature difference of 80{sup o}C. The principles of thermodynamics as well as Schmidt theory were adapted to use for modeling the engine. To simulate the system some computer programs were written to analyze the models and the optimized parameters of the engine design were determined. The optimized compression ratio was computed to be 12.5 for solar application according to the mean collector temperature of 100{sup o}C and sink temperature of 20{sup o}C. The corresponding theoretical efficiency of the engine for the mentioned designed parameters was calculated to be 0.012 for zero regenerator efficiency. Proposed engine dimensions are as follows: power piston stroke 0.044 m, power piston diameter 0.13 m, displacer stroke 0.055 m and the displacer diameter 0.41 m. Finally, the engine was tested. The results indicated that at mean collector temperature of 110{sup o}C and sink temperature of 25{sup o}C, the engine produced a maximum brake power of 0.27 W at 14 rpm. The mean engine speed was about 30 rpm at solar radiation intensity of 900 W/m{sup 2} and without load. The indicated power was computed to be 1.2 W at 30 rpm. (author)

Tavakolpour, Ali Reza; Zomorodian, Ali [Department of Mechanics of Farm Machinery Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran); Akbar Golneshan, Ali [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran)

2008-01-15

172

Toward the Understanding and Optimization of Chimneys for Buoyantly Driven Biomass Stoves  

Science.gov (United States)

The vast majority of indoor combustion devices in the developed world make use of stacks (flues, vents, chimneys, smokestacks) to channel flue gases out of the operator space. In the developing world, where indoor air pollution kills several million people every year, the use of chimneys with biomass cooking and heating stoves has been met with limited success and a high level of controversy. Due to a lack of theoretical understanding, design criteria, poorly executed installation practices, and/or insufficient maintenance routines, many chimney stoves have exhibited inadequate indoor emissions reductions in addition to low thermal efficiencies. This work aims (a) shed light on the physical phenomenon of the "stack effect" as it pertains to dynamic, non-adiabatic, buoyancy-driven stoves (b) apply new understanding toward the optimization of two types of biomass chimney stoves: plancha or griddle type stoves popular in Central America and two-pot stoves common in South America. A numerical heat and fluid flow model was developed that takes into account the highly-coupled variables and dynamic nature of such systems. With a comprehensive physical model, parameter studies were conducted to determine how several field-relevant variables influence the performance of stack-outfitted systems. These parameters include, but are not limited to: power/wood consumption rate, chimney geometry, stove geometry, material properties, heat transfer, and ambient conditions. An instrumented experimental chimney was built to monitor relationships between air flow, differential pressure, gas temperatures, emissions, and thermal efficiency. The draft provided by chimneys was found to have a strong influence over the bulk air-to-fuel ratio of buoyantly-driven cookstoves, greatly affecting the stove's overall performance by affecting gas temperatures, emissions, and efficiency. Armed with new information from the modeling and experimental work, two new stoves were designed and optimized to have significant reductions in fuel use and emissions.

Prapas, Jason

173

Novel construction of CdTe solar cell based on polyketanil structure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A novel concept of CdS/CdTe solar cell structure utilisation for BIPV concept is reported. ICSVT as the base manufacturing technology is presented, in the background of its new properties investigation. Technological concepts of the cadmium telluride structure employment in its new application field are described.

174

Survey of new forms of organization and financing constructions in the Dutch solar electricity market  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the title project the focus is on organizations and projects in the Dutch market for solar electricity, characterized by: minimal dependence on subsidies (state aid), the removal of high initial investments by users (financing), and structures that can easily be extended or replicated (scale)

175

Designing, Construction and Analysis of Speed Control System of the Fan with PV Feeding Source in an Air Solar Collector  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Solar energy is one of the renewable energy sources which can be received more by designing more accurate systems. In this article a flat solar collector with the area of 2×1m2 and thickness of 0.5mm, made of steel iron in the form of venetian blinds (in order to increase exposure to air has been used. The surface of absorber plate was black and for insulation of the body of the collector glass wool has been used with 5 cm thickness. One of the essential problems of air solar collectors is that the temperature of the exiting air temperature from the collector is variable during the day and their efficiency is low in the last hours of the day and also when the weather suddenly gets cloudy .In this study, to keep constant the exiting air from the collector consistent in the desired limits, a control system is designed and constructed by applying photovoltaic cells, a microcontroller (AVR and temperature sensors (LM35. Three temperature sensors were installed in the exit of the collector .The experiment results showed that by automatic change of the fan's speed in the designed system, the exiting temperature of the collector was obtained in the desired limits which is an outstanding advantage for various applications.

Amir Hematian

2011-12-01

176

Application of iodine and soil gas surface geochemical methods as specifically applied to dolomite chimneys  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of surface geochemical methods in the last 10 yr for petroleum exploration has become more accepted and widely used. Iodine and soil gas methods especially have been successful in delineating and finding petroleum-filled dolomite chimneys found in the Michigan and Appalachian basins and along the Cincinnati arch in central-northern Tennessee and south-central Kentucky. Specifically, the use of surface geochemistry integrated with seismic data led to the discovery of the Stoney Point field (8.4 million bbl to date) that lay undiscovered for 26 yr three to six miles east of the Albion-Scipio field in southern Michigan. More recently, surface geochemical methods have been successful in the mini-oil boom occurring along the Cincinnati arch in Tennessee and Kentucky. Numerous chimneys have been found in Middle Ordovician rocks and typically have initial potential of 200 to 6000 bbl a day. These chimneys have been pursued by a variety of surface geochemical methods but the most consistent and successful are iodine and soil gas. The pursuit of dolomite chimneys by surface geochemical methods requires an understanding of adequate sampling density, soil conditions, integration with other methods, and limitation of the methods themselves. Surface geochemical case histories are presented from southern Michigan, southwestern Ontario, central Tennessee, and Kentucky that specifically targeted and found dolomite chimneys.

Tedesco, S.A. (Atoka Exploration Labs., Denver, CO (United States))

1994-08-01

177

Vibration test report for in-chimney bracket and instrumented fuel assembly  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The vibration levels of in-chimney bracket structure which is installed in reactor chimney and instrumented fuel assembly(Type-B Bundle) are investigated under the steady state normal operating condition of the reactor. For this purpose, 4 acceleration data on the guide tube of the instrumented fuel assembly and in-chimney bracket structures subjected to fluid induced vibration are measured. For the analysis of the vibration data, vibration analysis program which can perform basic time and frequency domain analysis, is prepared, and its reliability is verified by comparing the analysis results with those of commercial analysis program(I-DEAS). In time domain analysis, maximum amplitudes, and RMS values of accelerations and displacements from the measured vibration signal, are obtained. The frequency components of the vibration data are analyzed by using the frequency domain analysis. These analysis results show that the levels of the measured vibrations are within the allowable level, and the low frequency component near 10 Hz is dominant in the vibration signal. For the evaluation of the structural integrity on the in-chimney bracket and related structures including the instrumented fuel assembly, the static analysis for ANSYS finite element model is carried out. These analysis results show that the maximum stresses are within the allowable stresses of the ASME code, and the maximum displacement of the top of the flow tube is within the displacement limit. Therefore any damage on the structural integrity is not expected when the irradiation test is performed using the in-chimney bracket

178

Vibration test report for in-chimney bracket and instrumented fuel assembly  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The vibration levels of in-chimney bracket structure which is installed in reactor chimney and instrumented fuel assembly(Type-B Bundle) are investigated under the steady state normal operating condition of the reactor. For this purpose, 4 acceleration data on the guide tube of the instrumented fuel assembly and in-chimney bracket structures subjected to fluid induced vibration are measured. For the analysis of the vibration data, vibration analysis program which can perform basic time and frequency domain analysis, is prepared, and its reliability is verified by comparing the analysis results with those of commercial analysis program(I-DEAS). In time domain analysis, maximum amplitudes, and RMS values of accelerations and displacements from the measured vibration signal, are obtained. The frequency components of the vibration data are analyzed by using the frequency domain analysis. These analysis results show that the levels of the measured vibrations are within the allowable level, and the low frequency component near 10 Hz is dominant in the vibration signal. For the evaluation of the structural integrity on the in-chimney bracket and related structures including the instrumented fuel assembly, the static analysis for ANSYS finite element model is carried out. These analysis results show that the maximum stresses are within the allowable stresses of the ASME code, and the maximum displacement of the top of the flow tube is within the displacement limit. Therefore any damage on the structural integrity is not expected when the irradiation test is performed using the in-chimney bracket.

Ryu, Jeong Soo; Yoon, D. B.; Cho, Y. G.; Ahn, G. H.; Lee, J. H.; Park, J.H

2000-10-01

179

Dolo?itev nevertikalnosti visokih dimnikov ; Determination of the nonverticality of high chimneys  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available V ?lanku je obravnavan prakti?en primer uporabe aplikacij sodobnega tahimetra pri dolo?evanju nevertikalnosti visokih industrijskih dimnikov kot alternativa klasi?nemu na?inu dolo?itve. Opisana je možnost merjenja to?k brez uporabe reflektorja, s ?imer na obodu dimnika dolo?imo množico to?k. Na njihovi podlagi lahko modeliramo dimnik kot pravilno matemati?no telo v prostoru z uporabo izravnave po metodi najmanjših kvadratov. Nevertikalnost dimnika nato dolo?imo kot odmik glavne osi modeliranega telesa od navpi?nice ; This article deals with practical examples of the applications of modern tachymeters in the determination of the nonverticality of high industrial chimneys, as an alternative to the classic methods. The possibility of a reflectorless measuring mode to determine the point cloud at the chimney’s circumference is described. Using these points, we are able to model the chimney as a mathematically correct body using the least squares adjustment method. Subsequently, the unknown nonverticality of the chimney is determined as the deviation of the primary axis of the modelled body from the vertical.

Dušan Kogoj

2011-01-01

180

Translucent load-bearing GFRP envelopes for daylighting and solar cell integration in building construction  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This project investigates the light transmittance of load-bearing glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) laminates with a view to two architectural applications: the daylighting of buildings through load-bearing translucent GFRP envelopes and encapsulation of solar cells into the GFRP building skins of sandwich structures. The total and diffuse visible light transmittances of the laminates were experimentally investigated using a spectrophotometer coupled to an integrating sphere. The refracti...

Pascual Agullo, Carlos

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

New energy from an old chimney; Nieuwe energie uit een oude schoorsteen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new purpose has been found for the unused monumental stack chimney at the Eindhoven University of Technology. The idea is to use the chimney to provide free cooling. Using advanced simulation and analysis methods, the feasibility of the concept was studied. The results show that it is indeed possible to use the chimney effectively to provide free cooling to the neighbouring Ceres (Central Energy and Control Station) building [Dutch] De ongebruikte monumentale schoorsteen van de Universiteit Eindhoven is nieuw leven ingeblazen door hem in te zetten voor vrije koeling. Een studie naar de haalbaarheid hiervan is uitgevoerd met behulp vangeavanceerde simulatie en analysetechnieken. Het is gebleken dat de schoorsteen inderdaad effectief kan worden ingezet voor het leveren van koeling aan het naastgelegen Ceres (Centraal Energie en Regelstation) gebouw.

Van Goch, T.A.J. [BAM Techniek, Benningbroek (Netherlands)

2013-07-15

182

Influence of the Exit Length and Geometry of the Chimney on the Heat Transfer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A chimney is frequently used to enhance the natural convection heat transfer in many practical applications such as the natural draft device, heat exchangers and passive safety system. It provides effective and stable means of the heat removal as thermally insulated chimney induces an increase in the natural convective flow in the heated vertical cylinder and leads to a higher heat transfer rate. The natural convection heat transfer inside a duct becomes very complex due to the interactions between the flows along the heated wall and unheated surface of the chimney. This work investigated the influence on the exit length and the geometry of a duct on the heat transfer of a vertical cylinder in the duct. Two different types of duct geometries (circular and square) were used. Heights of the duct and the heights of the cylinder inside the duct were varied. Experiments were performed using a copper sulfate electroplating system to simulate heat transfer based upon the analogy concept

183

Formation and evolution of carbonate chimneys at the Lost City Hydrothermal Field  

Science.gov (United States)

The Lost City Hydrothermal Field at 30°N, near the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, is an off-axis, moderate temperature, high-pH (9-10.8), serpentinite-hosted vent system. The field is hosted on ˜1.5 Ma crust, near the summit of the Atlantis Massif. Within the field, actively venting carbonate chimneys tower up to 60 m above the seafloor, making them the tallest vent structures known. The chemistry of the chimneys and vent fluids is controlled by serpentinization reactions between seawater and underlying peridotite. Mixing of carbonate chimneys in a serpentinite-hosted environment. Our results show that nascent chimneys are characterized by a porous, interlacing network of aragonite, and brucite minerals that form extremely fragile structures. The chemistry of these young deposits is characterized by ˜10 wt% Ca and up to 27 wt% Mg, extremely low trace metal concentrations, and 87Sr/ 86Sr isotope ratios near 0.70760. During aging of the chimneys, progressive reactions with seawater result in the dissolution of brucite, the conversion of aragonite to calcite, and infilling of pore spaces with calcite. The oldest chimneys are dominated by calcite, with bulk rock values of up to 36 wt% Ca and <1 wt% Mg. These older structures contain higher concentrations of trace metals (e.g., Mn and Ti), and have Sr isotope ratios near seawater values (0.70908). Exposed ultramafic rocks are prevalent along the Mid-Atlantic, Arctic, and Indian Ocean ridge networks and it is likely that other Lost City-type systems exist.

Ludwig, Kristin A.; Kelley, Deborah S.; Butterfield, David A.; Nelson, Bruce K.; Früh-Green, Gretchen

2006-07-01

184

A Semi-Empirical Model for Tilted-Gun Planar Magnetron Sputtering Accounting for Chimney Shadowing  

Science.gov (United States)

Integrated computational materials engineering (ICME) approaches to composition and thickness profiles of sputtered thin-film samples are the key to expediting materials exploration for these materials. Here, an ICME-based semi-empirical approach to modeling the thickness of thin-film samples deposited via magnetron sputtering is developed. Using Yamamura's dimensionless differential angular sputtering yield and a measured deposition rate at a point in space for a single experimental condition, the model predicts the deposition profile from planar DC sputtering sources. The model includes corrections for off-center, tilted gun geometries as well as shadowing effects from gun chimneys used in most state-of-the-art sputtering systems. The modeling algorithm was validated by comparing its results with experimental deposition rates obtained from a sputtering system utilizing sources with a multi-piece chimney assembly that consists of a lower ground shield and a removable gas chimney. Simulations were performed for gun-tilts ranging from 0° to 31.3° from the vertical with and without the gas chimney installed. The results for the predicted and experimental angular dependence of the sputtering deposition rate were found to have an average magnitude of relative error of 4.14% ± 3.02% for a 0°-31.3° gun-tilt range without the gas chimney, and 2.12% ± 1.71% for a 17.7°-31.3° gun-tilt range with the gas chimney. The continuum nature of the model renders this approach reverse-optimizable, providing a rapid tool for assisting in the understanding of the synthesis-composition-property space of novel materials.

Bunn, J. K.; Metting, C. J.; Hattrick-Simpers, J.

2014-12-01

185

A Semi-Empirical Model for Tilted-Gun Planar Magnetron Sputtering Accounting for Chimney Shadowing  

Science.gov (United States)

Integrated computational materials engineering (ICME) approaches to composition and thickness profiles of sputtered thin-film samples are the key to expediting materials exploration for these materials. Here, an ICME-based semi-empirical approach to modeling the thickness of thin-film samples deposited via magnetron sputtering is developed. Using Yamamura's dimensionless differential angular sputtering yield and a measured deposition rate at a point in space for a single experimental condition, the model predicts the deposition profile from planar DC sputtering sources. The model includes corrections for off-center, tilted gun geometries as well as shadowing effects from gun chimneys used in most state-of-the-art sputtering systems. The modeling algorithm was validated by comparing its results with experimental deposition rates obtained from a sputtering system utilizing sources with a multi-piece chimney assembly that consists of a lower ground shield and a removable gas chimney. Simulations were performed for gun-tilts ranging from 0° to 31.3° from the vertical with and without the gas chimney installed. The results for the predicted and experimental angular dependence of the sputtering deposition rate were found to have an average magnitude of relative error of for a 0°-31.3° gun-tilt range without the gas chimney, and for a 17.7°-31.3° gun-tilt range with the gas chimney. The continuum nature of the model renders this approach reverse-optimizable, providing a rapid tool for assisting in the understanding of the synthesis-composition-property space of novel materials.

Bunn, J. K.; Metting, C. J.; Hattrick-Simpers, J.

2015-01-01

186

I.S. code provisions for seismic design of tall chimneys  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The provisions of IS : 1893-1984 for earthquake analysis and design of tall chimneys have been reviewed. It is seen that the design seismic force specified by the Indian code is very much on the lower side. Ten chimneys with height ranging from 107.5 m to 336.2 m have been analysed by the finite element method and the results compared with those from expressions recommended in the code. It is seen that for the given design spectrum the code overestimates base shear by 45-70%, and therefore the corresponding expression in the code needs to be revised. (author). 6 refs., 2 tabs

187

Structural Integrity Evaluation of an New In-Chimney Bracket Structures for HANARO  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In HANARO are there provided three hexagonal irradiation holes (CT, IR1 and IR2) in the central region of the core while four circular irradiation holes (OR3 {approx} OR6) in the outer core. There exist two types of irradiation facilities: uninstrumented or instrumented. The uninstrumented irradiation facility is little influenced by the coolant flow. But the dynamic behavior by the flow-induced vibration (FIV) and seismic loads is expected to largely occur in case of the instrumented test facility due to the long guide tube to protect the instrumentation cables. To suppress this dynamic behavior of the facility, the in-chimney bracket was designed. As a supplementary supporting structure for irradiation facility, this bracket will hold guide tubes whose holding position of the instrumented facility in CT or IR is the middle part of the instrumented facility between the hole spider and the robot arm already provided in the reactor pool liner. On the while, the bracket will grip the upper part of the guide tube when it is applied to hold the instrumented facility loaded in OR sites. Therefore it is believed that the irradiation test can be successfully conducted since this bracket can reduce the FIV and dynamic response to seismic load as well. In new in-chimney bracket, IR1 is reserved for IPS(In-Pile Section) so only CT/IR2 guide tubes are supported by CT/IR clamp units and the shape of In-chimney bracket is redesigned. For evaluating the structural integrity on the new in-chimney bracket and related reactor structures, ANSYS finite element analysis model is developed and the dynamic characteristics are analyzed. The seismic response analyses of new in-chimney bracket and related reactor structures of HANARO under the design earthquake response spectrum loads of OBE(0.1g) and SSE(0.2g) are performed. The response shows that the stress values for main points on the reactor structures and the new in-chimney bracket for seismic loads are within the ASME Code limits. It is also confirmed that the fatigue usage factor is much less than 1.0. Therefore any damage on structural integrity is not expected when a new in-chimney bracket is installed in the upper part of the reactor chimney.

Ryu, Jeong Soo; Cho, Yeong Garp; Lee, Jung Hee; Jung, Hoan Sung; Seo, Choon Gyo; Shin, Jin Won

2007-12-15

188

Chimney and periscope technique for emergent treatment of spontaneous aortic rupture.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aortic rupture comprises a potentially fatal condition necessitating emergent treatment. Endovascular sealing of the rupture site is often combined with the use of chimney- and periscope stent placement to preserve perfusion of aortic branches. We present a case of successful endovascular management of contained aortic rupture in a 78-year-old patient. The left brachial access facilitated stenting of the celiac and superior mesenteric arteries, whereas the left femoral route served stenting of the renal artery. One-month follow-up confirmed complete sealing, stent patency, and absence of endograft migration. The combined periscope and chimney technique is feasible and effective in the emergency setting. PMID:24517987

Trellopoulos, George; Georgakarakos, Efstratios; Pelekas, Dimitrios; Papachristodoulou, Athanasia; Argyriou, Christos; Georgiadis, George S

2014-07-01

189

The design, construction, and monitoring of photovoltaic power system and solar thermal system on the Georgia Institute of Technology Aquatic Center. Volume 1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This is a report on the feasibility study, design, and construction of a PV and solar thermal system for the Georgia Tech Aquatic Center. The topics of the report include a discussion of site selection and system selection, funding, design alternatives, PV module selection, final design, and project costs. Included are appendices describing the solar thermal system, the SAC entrance canopy PV mockup, and the PV feasibility study.

Long, R.C.

1996-12-31

190

A Contemporary Analysis of the O'Neill-Glaser Model for Space-Based Solar Power and Habitat Construction  

Science.gov (United States)

In 1975 Gerard O Neill published in the journal Science a model for the construction of solar power satellites. He found that the solar power satellites suggested by Peter Glaser would be too massive to launch economically from Earth, but could be financially viable if the workforce was permanently located in free space habitats and if lunar and asteroid materials were used for construction. All new worldwide electrical generating capacity could be then achieved by solar power satellites. The project would financially break even in about 20 years after which it would generate substantial income selling power below fossil fuel prices. Two NASA / Stanford University led studies at Ames Research center during the summers of 1974 and 1976 found the concept technically sound and developed a detailed financial parametric model. Although the project was not undertaken when suggested in the 1970s, several contemporary issues make pursuing the O Neill -- Glaser concept more compelling today. First, our analysis suggests that if in the first ten years of construction that small habitats (compared to the large vista habitats envisioned by O Neill) supporting approximately 300 people were utilized, development costs of the program and the time for financial break even could be substantially improved. Second, the contemporary consensus is developing that carbon free energy is required to mitigate global climate change. It is estimated that 300 GW of new carbon free energy would be necessary per year to stabilize global atmospheric carbon. This is about 4 times greater energy demand than was considered by the O Neill Glaser model. Our analysis suggests that after the initial investments in lunar mining and space manufacturing and transportation, that the profit margin for producing space solar power is very high (even when selling power below fossil fuel prices). We have investigated the financial scaling of ground launched versus space derived space solar power satellites. We find that for the carbon mitigation case even modernized ground launched space solar power satellites are not financially viable. For space derived solar power satellites, however, the increased demand makes them break even substantially sooner and yield much higher profit. Third, current awareness is increasing about the dangers of humanity remaining a single planet species. Our technological power has been increasing relative to the size of the planet Earth. Since the middle of the 20th century our technological power has grown large relative to our planet's size. This presents a very real potential for human self-extinction. We argue that the potential for human self-extinction is increasing with time in proportion to the exponential growth of our technological power making self-extinction likely within this century if humanity remains a single planet species. The O Neill model of multiple independent free space habitats, it is argued, can protect humanity from extinction in the same way that portfolio diversification protects ones assets from total loss. We show that about 1 million people for the electricity only case, and about 1 billion people for the carbon mitigation case, can be provided with permanent space habitats and transportation from Earth in 30 years and can be funded by the space derived solar power satellite program. 1.2 Scope of this Chapter The goal of this chapter is to illustrate the power and importance of the O'Neill-Glaser concept in the context of human survival and maintaining a healthy planet Earth. We argue that at this point in human history our technological power is too dangerous to our selves and our home planet for us not to expand into space. We show by the models presented in the chapter that the imminent dangers of global warming and human self-extinction mandate that humanity move aggressively into the solar system in this generation. We show that the production of solar power satellites using space resources and with a work foe living in space provides a viable financial model to mitigate CO2 preventing the worst global w

Curreri, Peter A.; Detweiler, Michael K.

2011-01-01

191

Assessment of the method used to construct clearness index maps for the new European Solar Radiation Atlas (ESRA)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We present an assessment of the methods used to construct maps for a new solar radiation atlas for Europe. For this atlas, station data and satellite-derived data are used in an interpolation/merging process to derive maps of the long-term monthly global radiation that cover an area ranging from 30{sup o}W to 70{sup o}E and from 25{sup o} to 75{sup o}N. Our focus is on the discussion of the accuracy of the method applied: a co-kriging technique. Special emphasis is put on a discussion as to whether the use of satellite-derived radiation maps with a low spatial resolution brings benefits. (author)

Beyer, H.G.; Wald, L. [Centre d' Energetique Ecole des Mines de Paris (France). Groupe Teledetection et Modelisation; Czeplak, G.; Terzenbach, U. [Deutscher Wetterdienst, Klima und Umweltberatung, Hamburg (Germany)

1997-12-01

192

Multiple periscope and chimney grafts to treat ruptured thoracoabdominal and pararenal aortic aneurysms  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The periscope and chimney graft technique provides a simpler, less invasive way to maintain blood flow to the renovisceral arteries during urgent endovascular aortic repairs. The very low 30-day mortality rate and the stability of the repairs in the midterm are encouraging. This technique has the potential to profoundly influence the treatment of acute aortic pathologies.

Pecoraro, F.; Pfammatter, T.; Mayer, D.; Frauenfelder, T.; Papadimitriou, D.; Hechelhammer, L.; Veith, F. J.; Lachat, M.; Rancic, Z.

2011-01-01

193

Nonlinear mushy-layer convection with chimneys: stability and optimal solute fluxes  

CERN Document Server

We model buoyancy-driven convection with chimneys -- channels of zero solid fraction -- in a mushy layer formed during directional solidification of a binary alloy in two-dimensions. A large suite of numerical simulations is combined with scaling analysis in order to study the parametric dependence of the flow. Stability boundaries are calculated for states of finite-amplitude convection with chimneys, which for a narrow domain can be interpreted in terms of a modified Rayleigh number criterion based on the domain width and mushy-layer permeability. For solidification in a wide domain with multiple chimneys, it has previously been hypothesised that the chimney spacing will adjust to optimise the rate of removal of potential energy from the system. For a wide variety of initial liquid concentration conditions, we consider the detailed flow structure in this optimal state and derive scaling laws for how the flow evolves as the strength of convection increases. For moderate mushy-layer Rayleigh numbers these flo...

Wells, Andrew J; Orszag, Steven A

2012-01-01

194

Effect of chimneys on indoor air concentrations of PM10 and benzo(a)pyrene in Xuan Wei, China  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reports the effect of chimneys in reducing indoor air pollution in a lung cancer epidemic area of rural China. Household indoor air pollution concentrations were measured during unvented burning (chimneys blocked) and vented burning (chimneys open) of bituminous coal in Xuan Wei, China. Concentrations of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 {mu} m or less (PM10) and of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) were measured in 43 homes during normal activities. The use of chimneys led to significant decreases in indoor air concentrations of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 mu m or less (PM10) by 66% and of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) by 84%. The average BaP content of PM10 also decreased by 55% with the installation of a chimney. The reduction of indoor pollution levels by the installation of a chimney supports the epidemiology findings on the health benefits of stove improvement. However, even in the presence of a chimney, the indoor air concentrations for both PM10 and BaP still exceeded the indoor air quality standards of China. Movement up the energy ladder to cleaner liquid or gaseous fuels is probably the only sustainable indoor air pollution control measure.

Tian, L.W.; Lan, Q.; Yang, D.; He, X.Z.; Yu, I.T.S.; Hammond, S.K. [Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China). School for Public Health

2009-07-15

195

Analysis Study of Solar Tower Power Plant & Its Configuration Effects on Its Performance in Iraq (Baghdad City)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A solar chimney power plant model, consisting of a solar collector to produce a hot air when the incident solar radiation hit it, a solar chimney and a wind turbine with generator was investigated in this study. The mathematical model as a tool was used to study and analyze the performance of the power plant for electrical production in Baghdad city of Iraq as a result a mathematical equation was obtained for the hot air outlet temperature from the collector as a function of collector’s ...

Ali, Mohammed H.

2013-01-01

196

Iron-sulfide-bearing chimneys as potential catalytic energy traps at life's emergence.  

Science.gov (United States)

The concept that life emerged where alkaline hydrogen-bearing submarine hot springs exhaled into the most ancient acidulous ocean was used as a working hypothesis to investigate the nature of precipitate membranes. Alkaline solutions at 25-70°C and pH between 8 and 12, bearing HS(-)±silicate, were injected slowly into visi-jars containing ferrous chloride to partially simulate the early ocean on this or any other wet and icy, geologically active rocky world. Dependent on pH and sulfide content, fine tubular chimneys and geodal bubbles were generated with semipermeable walls 4-100??m thick that comprised radial platelets of nanometric mackinawite [FeS]±ferrous hydroxide [?Fe(OH)(2)], accompanied by silica and, at the higher temperature, greigite [Fe(3)S(4)]. Within the chimney walls, these platelets define a myriad of micropores. The interior walls of the chimneys host iron sulfide framboids, while, in cases where the alkaline solution has a pH>11 or relatively low sulfide content, their exteriors exhibit radial flanges with a spacing of ?4??m that comprise microdendrites of ferrous hydroxide. We speculate that this pattern results from outward and inward radial flow through the chimney walls. The outer Fe(OH)(2) flanges perhaps precipitate where the highly alkaline flow meets the ambient ferrous iron-bearing fluid, while the intervening troughs signal where the acidulous iron-bearing solutions could gain access to the sulfidic and alkaline interior of the chimneys, thereby leading to the precipitation of the framboids. Addition of soluble pentameric peptides enhances membrane durability and accentuates the crenulations on the chimney exteriors. These dynamic patterns may have implications for acid-base catalysis and the natural proton motive force acting through the matrix of the porous inorganic membrane. Thus, within such membranes, steep redox and pH gradients would bear across the nanometric platelets and separate the two counter-flowing solutions, a condition that may have led to the onset of an autotrophic metabolism through the reduction of carbon dioxide. PMID:22111762

Mielke, Randall E; Robinson, Kirtland J; White, Lauren M; McGlynn, Shawn E; McEachern, Kavan; Bhartia, Rohit; Kanik, Isik; Russell, Michael J

2011-12-01

197

Microbial lipid remnants within sulfide chimneys reveal organic matter transport in seafloor hydrothermal systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Several investigations have detected enigmatic evidence for microbial life in high-temperature (>150°C) interiors of hydrothermal vent ';chimney' structures - habitats much hotter than the known temperature limit of life. It is unclear whether these findings reflect fluid ingress after collection, cross-contamination with exterior microbial biomass, or genuine natural phenomena. While the abundant microbial biomass on the exteriors of vent edifices has been more commonly characterized, the origin of biomolecules inside these structures is poorly understood. In this study, we used a novel ';clean' sampling approach to investigate these interior regions in both a moderate temperature ';diffuser' and an inactive ';smoker' chimney structure from the Manus Basin, and use microbial DNA- and detailed lipid-based characterization to elucidate provenances. Mineralogical analysis using scanning-electron- and reflected-light-microscopy suggests vent fluid temperatures of up to ~200°C for the diffuser and >200°C during previous venting of the inactive chimney. No DNA could be amplified from any interior samples and cell membrane intact polar lipids were only recovered from the outer surfaces of the structures, precluding the possibility of active microbial communities in interior regions of either. Free fatty acids from bacteria, however, were abundant in the inactive chimney, including the previously high temperature interior, suggesting possible microbial colonization of the interior or inward transport of biomass during waning of fluid flow. Free fatty acids were not detected in the interior of the active diffuser chimney, consistent with uninhabitable temperatures for microbes and outward fluid flow. In contrast to fatty acids, archaeal core diether and tetraether lipid remnants with distinctive provenances were present in interior and exterior samples from both structures. Principal component analysis (PCA) of these mixtures reveals gradients in their distribution, with presumed hyperthermophilic archaeal lipid remnants more prevalent in interior and more mesophilic lipids in outer regions of the inactive chimney. Diffuser interior samples, however, are highly unusual, in that they contain presumed mesophilic archaeal core lipids, despite uninhabitable temperatures. Thermal degradation of an in situ microbial community (e.g. due to transient fluid flow variability) is a possible explanation, but the nature of these lipids suggests they may instead reflect transport and pyrolysis of microbial material from lower temperature mixing zones within the crustal aquifer. Not only does this study broaden our understanding of lipid biomolecule distribution in the interiors of sulfide edifices, it provides an initial evaluation of possible sources and implications for carbon cycling in seafloor hydrothermal systems.

Reeves, E.; Goldenstein, N. I.; Yoshinaga, M. Y.; Pjevac, P.; Bach, W.; Hinrichs, K.

2013-12-01

198

CT angiography at 24 months demonstrates durability of EVAR with the use of chimney grafts for pararenal aortic pathologies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

PURPOSE: To present the 24-month radiological follow-up data for patients with pararenal aortic pathologies treated with chimney and periscope grafts during endovascular repair. METHODS: Between January 2008 and December 2011, 124 high-risk patients with complex pararenal aortic pathologies were treated using the chimney technique at 2 European vascular and cardiovascular centers with advanced experience of the described technique. In particular, 50 patients were treated at Site 1 and 74 a...

Donas, Konstantinos P.; Pecoraro, Felice; Bisdas, Theodosios; Lachat, Mario; Torsello, Giovanni; Rancic, Zoran; Austermann, Martin; Mayer, Dieter; Pfammatter, Thomas; Puchner, Stefan

2013-01-01

199

A unique Fe-rich carbonate chimney associated with cold seeps in the Northern Okinawa Trough, East China Sea  

Science.gov (United States)

The East China Sea is an important marginal sea of the Western Pacific Ocean, from which natural gas hydrate sample has not been acquired so far. Recently, copious carbonate chimneys have been discovered in turbidite deposits in the olistostrome zone located on the west slope of the northern section of Okinawa Trough. Here, the petrology, geochemistry and chronology of an iron-rich carbonate chimney were characterized, confirming a close relationship between its formation and the dissociation of natural gas hydrate beneath the chimney in OT. A distinctive relationship has been observed between goethite and total carbonate contents along with a negative correlation between Fe and Ca contents. Conversely, abundant Fe accumulated on carbonate substrate by mineralized microorganisms. The ?13C values of the chimney wall were from -27.56 to -43.66‰ (average: -37.18‰, V-PDB), implying anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) as a predominant controlling factor on carbonate precipitation. As no pyrite and organic residues were identified in the iron-rich chimney, it was assumed that AOM was coupled to the iron reduction reaction at least to some extent during the chimney growth owing to the local deficiency of sulfate supply. The ?56Fe values of bulk chimney wall (ranging from -0.316‰ to -0.023‰, average -0.134‰) suggest mass and isotope exchanges between the chimney and ambient environment during its growth history, whereas the enrichment of ?18O of the carbonate implies these carbonate sourcing from hydrate dissociation underlying our sampling site. This assumption has been supported by a distinct bottom simulation reflector (BSR) and a well-developed fault system beneath the sampling site. This is the first report of cold seepage inside the OT and the identified iron-dependent AOM has shed a new light to the Carbon cycle related to the marine methane oxidation, particularly before the Great Oxidation Event ~2.45 Ga ago.

Sun, Zhilei; Wei, Helong; Zhang, Xunhua; Shang, Luning; Yin, Xijie; Sun, Yunbao; Xu, Lei; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Xianrong

2015-01-01

200

Radioactive orphans in barite-rich chimneys, Axial Caldera, Juan de Fuca Ridge  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gamma ray measurements on samples from two unusually radioactive barite-rich chimneys on Axial Seamount, Juan de Fuca Ridge, gave equivalent concentrations of ?0.1% Th and 0.2% U. The gamma ray emitting nuclides in both the Th and U decay series were found to be unsupported by their parents 232Th and 238U and are therefore orphans. Measurements on three chimney fragments showed that 238Th was not in radioactive equilibrium with 238Ra, which allowed their apparent ages and initial 226Ra/228Ra ratios to be determined. Based on the 228Th/228Ra ages of 3 and 6 years for two adjacent samples, a maximum growth rate of 6 cm per year was established. Calculated initial 226Ra/228Ra ratios indicate that the fluids which precipitated the barite took 20 years to acquire their radiochemical signatures from mid-ocean ridge basalts. (27 refs., tab., 6 figs.)

 
 
 
 
201

Active reduction of the dominant clear tone component of the noise pollution from power plant chimneys  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An investigation of a system for active reduction of an irritating dominant clear tone emitted as a part of the noise pollution from a power plant chimney is described. Experiments were carried out on a scale model with diameters 3-4 times less than the actual chimney. Reduction of 25-30 decibels was achieved in relation to the clear tone in the frequency range in connection with which it could be expected that the noise-muffling system would work. The system was also seen to be able to follow the expected variation in the noise signals and to be stable during a longer period of time. The theories on which the experiment was based, the experimental setup and measurement methods and results are presented. (AB)

202

Barometric pressure transient testing applications at the Nevada Test Site. Nuclear chimney analysis. Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Investigations of barometric pressure testing of NTS nuclear chimneys were reviewed. This review includes the models used in the interpretation, methods of analysis, and results. Analytic and semi-analytic models were presented and applied to both historical data and new data taken for this current project. An interpretation technique based on non-linear least squares methods was used to analyze this data in terms of historic and more recent chimney models. Finally, a detailed discussion of radioactive gas transport due to surface barometric pressure fluctuations was presented. This mechanism of transport, referred to as ''barometric pumping,'' is presented in terms of conditions likely to be encountered at the NTS. The report concludes with a discussion of the current understanding of gas flow properties in the alluvial and volcanic areas of the NTS, and suggestions for future efforts directed toward increasing this understanding are presented

203

Chimney endografting for pararenal aortic pathologies using transfemoral access and the lift technique  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

PURPOSE: To present a technique for transfemoral implantation of parallel grafts into the renal arteries in patients with anatomy or morphology that blocks standard antegrade chimney graft delivery. TECHNIQUE: In a totally percutaneous approach, a 5-F pigtail angiographic catheter is passed into the aorta above the renal arteries via a 0.035-inch hydrophilic guidewire, followed by an 8-F sheath. The target vessel is cannulated with the hydrophilic wire followed by a 5-F reverse curve cathe...

Lachat, Mario; Bisdas, Theodosios; Rancic, Zoran; Torsello, Giovanni; Mayer, Dieter; Gil-sales, Josep; Pecoraro, Felice; Donas, Konstantinos P.

2013-01-01

204

The role of leak air in a double-wall chimney  

Science.gov (United States)

In modern buildings with tight shells, often room-independent air supply is required for proper operation of biomass stoves. One possibility to arrange this supply is to use a double-wall chimney with flue gas leaving through the pipe and fresh air entering through the annular gap. A one-dimensional quasi-static model based on balance equations has been developed and compared with experimental data. Inclusion of leak air is crucial for reproduction of the experimental results.

Lichtenegger, Klaus; Hebenstreit, Babette; Pointner, Christian; Schmidl, Christoph; Höftberger, Ernst

2014-10-01

205

Uranium prospecting in alkaline mountain chimneys of Serra Negra and Salitre - Minas Gerais, Brasil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The occurence of radioactive minerals such as apatite and pyrochlore, in the alkaline chimneys of Serra Negra and Salitre (Minas Gerais, Brazil), is discussed. Also mentioned are other minerals of interest associated with the alkaline magma such as columbite, fluorite, monazite, zircon, baddeleyite, etc, which in favourable conditions may occur in deposits of great economical value, and which may present high contents of rare earths, thorium and uranium

206

Numerical Investigation of the Heat Transfer of a Vertical Cylinder in a Chimney  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The chimney is frequently used to enhance the natural convection heat transfer in many practical applications such as the natural draft device, heat exchangers and passive safety system. It provides effective and stable means of heat removal. The natural convection heat transfer inside a duct becomes very complex due to the interactions between the flows along the heated wall and unheated surface of the chimney and also due to the pressure loss along the chimney and the down-flow from the exit. Thus the heat transfer will be affected by the exit length. The present work investigated the heat transfer and the flow behavior of a hot cylinder located at the inlet of a duct, varying the exit length using FLUENT 6.2. The height of the vertical cylinder was 0.069m and the diameter was 0.054m, which corresponded to RaH 5.55x1010. The diameter of the duct was 0.06m and the height was varied from 0.069m to 2m

207

Solar updraft power plants. A structural engineering contribution for sustainable and economic power generation; Solare Aufwindkraftwerke.: Ein Beitrag der Bautechnik zur nachhaltigen und wirtschaftlichen Energieerzeugung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Solar updraft power technology serves to generate electricity in the world-wide deserts, overcoming several deficits of present renewable energy technologies. In several suited countries such power plant projects are in preparation. The present contribution starts with an explanation of the working principle of solar updraft power plants, followed by their climatic and wind-technologic design assumptions, terminated by the wind-load determination in boundary layer wind-tunnels. Then the central solar chimney - the power tower - will be treated, a thin ring-stiffened RC shell of extreme height forming the utmost structural challenge of such power plants. This part is followed by an explanation of technical requirements for the collector construction, which represents by far the largest glass-covered area ever built, and of the wind loading at the glazing and the supporting structure. Further important aspects are formed by the durability requirements of the applied construction materials for at least 100 years of service-duration of the tower in extreme desert climates. The paper closes with cost estimates for the generated electric power and with a technology outlook. (orig.)

Harte, Reinhard [Bergische Univ. Wuppertal (Germany). Fachbereich D - Abt. Bauingenieurwesen; Hoeffer, Ruediger; Mark, Peter [Bochum Univ. (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Bau- und Umweltingenieurwissenschaften; Kraetzig, Wilfried B. [Kraetzig und Partner Ingenieurgesellschaft mbH, Bochum (Germany); Niemann, Hans-Juergen [Ingenieurgemeinschaft Niemann und Partner GbR, Bochum (Germany). Technologiezentrum Ruhr

2012-03-15

208

Performance of digester decant system with biological filter followed by constructed wetland and solar reactor in the treatment of domestic sewage  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study aimed to analyze the performance of digester decant system with biological filter followed by constructed wetland and solar reactor in the treatment of domestic sewage from Milagres rural community in Apodi-RN. The treatment system was monitored for the period of October and November 2010, 48 days after planting Pennisetum purpureum Schumach. Samples of domestic sewage were collected at different stages of treatment, in four replications on time, to determine physicochemical and mi...

Delfran Batista dos Santos; Miguel Ferreira Neto; Luis César de Aquino Lemos Filho; Rafael Oliveira Batista; Paulo César Moura da Silva; Glícia Pinto Barra Reinaldo

2012-01-01

209

Biogeochemistry of Hydrothermal Chimney Environments: Continuous-Flow Experiments at in situ Temperature and Pressure  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent interest in the existence of a subsurface microbial biosphere at hydrothermal vents has resulted in a plethora of new questions that might best be answered using interdisciplinary techniques that combine geochemistry, microbial ecology, and molecular biology. Ideally, such studies will quantitatively address issues concerning what organisms exist in the subsurface, what metabolisms are sustained in the hydrothermal environment, and what effects these active organisms might have on the nearby fluid and rock. We present a new experimental approach to studying these questions that enables monitoring of an active hydrothermal community of microbes in the presence of chimney material at in situ temperature and pressure. This apparatus is designed as a continuous-flow reactor from which fluid samples can be extracted during the course of the experiment to measure chemistry and biomass, and at the termination of an experiment solids can be extracted for analysis of mineralogical changes and microbial identification. Results of a series of experiments conducted using hydrothermal chimney material (solids and microbial community) collected from 21° N and 9° N East Pacific Rise are presented. At 70° C, a seawater-based fluid with additional NO3-, CO2(aq), and H2(aq) was reacted with chimney material from L vent, 9° N EPR. The fluid lost significant NO3-, PO43-, and gained SO42- even after accounting for the contribution from anhydrite dissolution. No significant sulfide or iron was observed in the fluid. Analysis of the DNA extracted from the solids at the termination of the experiment using partial 16S-rRNA sequence data revealed that the dominant bacteria were S-oxidizing tube worm endosymbionts, a S/NO3- reducing member of the Deferribacter genus, and a H2-oxidizing/NO3- reducing strain of Aquifex. Mineral analysis from before and after the experiment indicates the loss of pyrrhotite (FeS) and anhydrite (CaSO4), and the gain of an Fe-oxide phase tentatively identified using magnetic remnance and Mossbauer as goethite (FeOOH), responsible for the minimal Fe in solution. An abiotic control experiment was conducted under the same conditions, where the chimney material was first freeze-dried under vacuum, then autoclaved to sterilize without producing any artificial mineral changes. This experiment shows no loss of NO3-, PO43-, no additional SO42- gain after anhydrite dissolution, and a steadily increasing dissolved iron concentration, implying the net dissolution of pyrrhotite. Results from additional experiments testing different fluid chemistry, temperature, and source chimney similarly show linkages between the measured fluid chemistry, the identity of the dominant organisms in the experiment, and bulk changes in the mineralogy.

Houghton, J.; Seyfried, W.; Reysenbach, A.; Banta, A.; von Damm, K.

2002-12-01

210

Solar chimney: A sustainable approach for ventilation and building space conditioning  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The residential and commercial buildings demand increase with rapidly growing population. It leads to the vertical growth of the buildings and needs proper ventilation and day-lighting. The natural air ventilation system is not significantly works in conventional structure, so fans and air conditioners are mandatory to meet the proper ventilation and space conditioning. Globally building sector consumed largest energy and utmost consumed in heating, ventilation and space conditioning. This lo...

Lal, S.; Kaushik, S. C.; Bhargav, P. K.

2013-01-01

211

Improvement of the Vertical Dispersion of Pollutants Resulting From Chimneys by Thermosiphon Effect  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The dispersion of pollutants, resulting from industrial chimneys, in the surrounding atmosphere made the interest in realizing emitting conditions appears. It also encourages the vertical dispersion of these pollutants. At a given wind velocity, the height of this dispersion is essentially a function of the thermal power and the flow rate at the chimney exit. To improve these qualities, we propose a system that could be integrated to the industrial chimney exit. An open-ended vertical cylinder of larger diameter essentially constitutes this system. In order to determine the characteristics of the resulting flow, we simulated the problem in the laboratory while studying the evolution of a free thermal plume generated by a disk heated uniformly by the Joule effect at a constant temperature. The thermal plume expands in a quiet environment of isotherm temperature. To study the thermosiphon effect, we surrounded the plume source by a vertical cylinder opened at the extremities. Thermal radiation emitted by the hot disk heats the cylinder wall. The pressure drop due to the acceleration of the flow at the cylinder inlet causes the appearance of thermosiphon effect around the thermal plume. The analysis of the average fields of velocity and temperature shows that the thermosiphon effect entails a good homogenization of the flow at the system exit. Furthermore, the comparison of the results obtained at the exit of the two studied systems shows a relative increase of the flow rate and the thermal power absorbed by the air of the order of 50% under the thermosiphon effect. This result is expressed by a gain in the plume rise of the order of 40%.

A. O.M. Mahmoud

2006-01-01

212

Endovascular Aortic Aneurysm Repair with Chimney and Snorkel Grafts: Indications, Techniques and Results  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The chimney technique in endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (Ch-EVAR) involves placement of a stent or stent-graft parallel to the main aortic stent-graft to extend the proximal or distal sealing zone while maintaining side branch patency. Ch-EVAR can facilitate endovascular repair of juxtarenal and aortic arch pathology using available standard aortic stent-grafts, therefore, eliminating the manufacturing delays required for customised fenestrated and branched stent-grafts. Several case series have demonstrated the feasibility of Ch-EVAR both in acute and elective cases with good early results. This review discusses indications, technique, and the current available clinical data on Ch-EVAR.

Patel, Rakesh P., E-mail: rpatel9@nhs.net [Northwick Park Hospital, Department of Vascular Radiology (United Kingdom); Katsargyris, Athanasios, E-mail: kthanassos@yahoo.com; Verhoeven, Eric L. G., E-mail: Eric.Verhoeven@klinikum-nuernberg.de [Klinikum Nuernberg, Department of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery (Germany); Adam, Donald J., E-mail: donald.adam@tiscali.co.uk [Heartlands Hospital, Department of Vascular Surgery (United Kingdom); Hardman, John A., E-mail: johnhardman@doctors.org.uk [Royal United Hospital Bath, Department of Vascular Radiology (United Kingdom)

2013-12-15

213

Alternativas de construcción utilizando materiales de bajo costo para la evaluación térmica de cocinas solares tipo caja / Construction alternatives using low-cost materials for the thermal test of box-type solar cookers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se presenta la evaluación y resultados térmicos de cocinas tipo cajas, realizadas con el objeto de comparar diversos factores constructivos de las mismas utilizando un protocolo de prueba conocido como RICSA (Red Interamericana de Cocción Solar de Alimentos). Para ellos se dispuso de cuatro cocinas [...] en donde se combinaron dos materiales de placa y dos materiales que sirven como aislante. Se sometieron a radiación solar directa calentando la placa colectora y luego al calentamiento utilizando agua como líquido de prueba. Se procedió a medir las perdidas térmicas y la eficiencia térmica. Parámetros adicionales como el tiempo en que alcanza la temperatura de cocción efectiva y el tiempo en que la mantiene sin intervención del operador también fueron medidos. De aquí, el análisis de la información proporcionó un buen rendimiento comparable entre cocinas con placa de hierro y los dos aislantes probados por sobre las cocinas de placa de aluminio; además, por la relación precio-rendimiento, se recomienda su construcción utilizando materiales que tienen alto rendimiento y bajo precio. Abstract in english This document presents the evaluation of a different set of solar ovens in terms of their thermal performance by the RICSA protocol. For this purpose, four solar ovens were constructed differentiated mainly by the type of isolation and plates. All were exposed to direct solar radiation. First, only [...] the collector plate was heated to measure thermal losses and efficiency and second, a determined amount of water was introduced to measure the thermal power of the solar oven. Additional parameters like the time in which it reaches the temperature of effective boiling point and the time in which it maintains functioning without intervention of the operator also were measured. The analysis provide empirical evidence regarding adequate levels of thermal performance of solar ovens constructed using iron on one hand, and aluminum on the other. It is recommended to extend the use of this type of equipments given the priceeffi ciency obtained in the experiments.

Luis Enrique, Mealla Sánchez; Pablo Daniel, Bonaveri Arangoa.

2012-06-01

214

Positional Arrangements of Waste Exhaust Gas Ducts of C-Type Balanced Chimney Heating Devices on Building Façades  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In Turkey today, with the increase in availability of natural gas,detached heating devices are being preferred over existingheating devices. Due to the lack of chimneys in existing buildingsin Turkey or the presence of chimneys that fail to conformto standards, the use of C-type balanced chimney devices has increased.C-type balanced chimney devices take the combustionair directly from the outside by a specific air duct as detachedheating equipment, with enclosed combustion chambers anda specific waste gas exhaust duct, and they are ventilated independentlyof the field of equipment. Because of their essentiality,the use of a chimney is not required in these devices;the waste gas is exhausted through walls, windows, doors, orbalconies. The natural gas is a clean fossil fuel that requires nostorage in buildings and is easy to use. However, water vapor,carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides are produced by the combustionof natural gas. It is widely known that high concentrationsof these products can have some adverse effects onhumans such as dizziness, headaches and nausea. As a result,the waste products could recoil through wall openings on thefaçade to create unhealthy indoor environments that could bedangerous to human health. Therefore, the importance of standardsand regulations about the positional arrangements of thewaste gas exhaust ducts of C-type balanced chimney devices onbuilding façades is increasing. In this research, we analyze thestudies of the Institution of Turkish Standards, Chamber of MechanicalEngineers, gas distribution companies, municipalitiesand authorized firms and compare the criteria to determine thenecessary application method. According to our comparison ofthe references accessed, the criteria are not uniform.

Erkan AVLAR

2009-01-01

215

Construction of 3-dimensional ZnO-nanoflower structures for high quantum and photocurrent efficiency in dye sensitized solar cell  

Science.gov (United States)

3-dimensional ZnO nanoflower were obtained on FTO (F:SnO2) substrate by hydrothermal method in order to produce high efficiency dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). We showed that nanoflowers structures have nanoscale branches that stretch to fill gaps on the substrate and these branches of nano-leaves provide both a larger surface area and a direct pathway for electron transport along the channels. It was found that the solar conversion efficiency and quantum efficiency (QE) or incident photon to current conversion efficiencies (IPCE) is highly dependent on nanoflower surface due to high electron injection process. The highest solar conversion efficiency of 5.119 and QE of 60% was obtained using ZnO nanoflowers/N719 dye/I-/I-3 electrolyte. In this study, three dimensional (3D)-nanoflower and one dimensional (1D)-nanowires ZnO nanostructures were also compared against each other in respect to solar conversion efficiency and QE measurements. In the case of the 1D-ZnO nanowire conversion efficiency (?) of 2.222% and IPCE 47% were obtained under an illumination of 100 mW/cm2. It was confirmed that the performance of the 3D-nanoflowers was better than about 50% that of the 1D-nanowire dye-sensitized solar cells.

Kilic, Bayram; Günes, Taylan; Besirli, Ilknur; Sezginer, Merve; Tuzemen, Sebahattin

2014-11-01

216

High emissions of PCDD/Fs from coal-fired stoves : indications of the formation in the chimney  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Solid fuel heating appliances are known to emit dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs). In 2000, the dioxin emission inventory for the European Union attributed 29 per cent of total PCDD/F emissions to the residential combustion of wood and coal. High emissions of PCDD/Fs for coal combustion in stoves have been reported in various countries. The conditions and mechanisms that lead to high PCDD/F emissions are not well understood. This paper provided details of an experiment conducted to investigate the effects of temperature profiles in chimneys on PCDD/F emissions. An optimized commercial stove was used for the experiments. Two PCDD/F sampling points were used at the bottom and top a chimney. Different temperature profiles in the chimney were obtained by insulating the entire length of the chimney with a 25 mm -thick mineral glass insulation. A commercial Polish hard coal with a calorific value of 30.0 MJ/kg was used. Each combustion cycle consisted of 2 phases. Hot ash was used for the ignition of the main batch of 5 kg coal. During the operational phase, the complete main batch of the coal was combusted for a period of 3 hours and 45 minutes. PCDD/F sampling was performed using a cooled probe method at a constant speed. The average velocity of the flue gases in the chimney was determined from the calculated flue gas volume based on the carbon content and consumption of the fuel as well as the composition of the flue gases. A Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer was used to measure carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), nitric oxide (NO), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), and halogenated cyclic hydrocarbons (HCI) concentrations. Very high emissions of PCDD/Fs were observed in all combustion experiments. Concentrations of PCDD/Fs in the flue gases were between 6 and 115 ng-I-TEQ/Nm{sup 3}. Values were comparable to those of waste incinerators with minimal air pollution control. Emissions of PCDD/Fs were higher when the chimney was insulated. Emissions of other pollutants and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were not affected by the different temperature profiles in the chimney. It was concluded that higher temperatures in chimneys can contribute to higher emissions of PCDD/Fs. 5 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

Paradiz, B.; Horak, J.; Dilara, P.; Umlauf, G. [Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, Brussels (Belgium). Inst. of Environment and Sustainability

2005-07-01

217

Evidence for chimney breakout in the Galactic supershell GSH 242-03+37  

CERN Document Server

We present new high resolution neutral hydrogen (H I) images of the Galactic supershell GSH 242-03+37. These data were obtained with the Parkes Radiotelescope as part of the Galactic All-Sky Survey (GASS). GSH 242-03+37 is one of the largest and most energetic H I supershells in the Galaxy with a radius of $565 \\pm 65$ pc and an expansion energy of 3x10^{53} ergs. Our images reveal a complicated shell with multiple chimney structures on both sides of the Galactic plane. These chimneys appear capped by narrow filaments about 1.6 kpc above and below the Galactic mid-plane, confirming structures predicted in simulations of expanding supershells. The structure of GSH 242-03+37 is extremely similar to the only other Galactic supershell known to have blown out of both sides of the plane, GSH 277+00+36. We compare the GASS H I data with X-ray and H-alpha, finding no strong correlations.

McClure-Griffiths, N M; Pisano, D J; Gibson, B K; Staveley-Smith, L; Calabretta, M R; Dedes, L; Kalberla, P M W

2006-01-01

218

Prediction of Air Flow and Temperature Profiles Inside Convective Solar Dryer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Solar tray drying is an effective alternative for post-harvest processing of fruits and vegetables. Product quality and uniformity of the desired final moisture content are affected by the uneven air flow and temperature distribution inside the drying chamber. The purpose of this study is to numerically evaluate the operation parameters of a new indirect solar dryer having an appropriate design based on thermal uniformity inside the drying chamber, low construction costs and easy accessibility to resources needed for manufacture. The research was focused on both the investigation of different operation conditions and analysis of the influence of the damper position, which is incorporated into the chimney, on the internal cabinet temperature and air flow distribution. Numerical simulation was carried out with Comsol Multiphysics CFD commercial code using a reduced 2D domain model by neglecting any end effects from the side walls. The analysis of the coupled thermal-fluid model provided the velocity field, pressure distribution and temperature distribution in the solar collector and in the drying chamber when the damper was totally closed, half open and fully open and for different operation conditions. The predicted results were compared with measurements taken in-situ. With progressing computing power, it is conceivable that CFD will continue to provide explanations for more fluid flow, heat and mass transfer phenomena, leading to better equipment design and process control for the food industry.

Marian Vintil?

2014-11-01

219

Improving the Power Generation Performance of a Solar Tower Using Thermal Updraft Wind  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to improve the efficiency of the power generation system of a solar tower using fluid dynamics. The power generation system of a solar tower can be designed and constructed at relatively low cost. However, the energy output tends to be low for its physical size compared with other renewable energy production systems. The technical and scientific improvement of these types of generation systems has lost its momentum since the shutdown of the wellknown Spanish pilot plant “Manzanares Solar Chimney” in 1989, although it still has the potential to play a role in renewable energy in the future. We have focused on the tower component of the system to seek possible enhancements of the power output of the internal turbine. As a result of our fluid dynamic shape optimization, a diffuser-shaped tower was employed to increase the internal flow speed of a scaled model. The results show a remarkable improvement in the power output of the internal wind turbine.

Masataka Motoyama

2014-10-01

220

Conserving gallons and kilowatts. Challenges of today's solar power plants. An EPC (Engineering, Procurement and Construction) perspective  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With the increasing restrictions on CO2 emissions, the utilization of solar power is emerging as an effective way to increase the renewable portfolio for utility power. For example in California, the utilities' current renewable portfolios must increase from 20% to 33% by 2020. This drive has made renewable power considerably more desirable. However, fresh water availability and optimal solar irradiation are generally two mutually exclusive local characteristics that make locating and designing these plants challenging. Not only is fresh water scarce at the desert locations where these solar plants are generally located, but options for disposal of wastewater can be very limited as well. These factors have pushed the design of these plants to develop a fine balance between conserving and reusing water to the greatest extent practical and reducing parasitic electrical loads. This paper addresses the challenges associated with developing solar power plant designs that optimize house electrical load while minimizing water footprint. Through the implementation of operational water management techniques and optimized water treatment processes, water usage can be reduced to manageable levels. Utilizing systems that recover and recycle wastewater, the system can be further optimized to reduce the overall water footprint. Case studies are presented for multiple sites detailing the individual optimization required based on the water quality provided. Lessons learned during plant siting and permitting are provided to shed light on the current issues associated with wastewater disposal in these areas and utilization of evaporation ponds. In addition, various design philosophies are discussed to guide the reader through the difficulties of determining the right mix of initial capital cost, optimized water usage, minimized operating cost and minimized parasitic electrical load. (orig.)

Shoemaker, Jeanette [Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating Facility, CA (United States); Bechtel Power Corp., Frederick, MD (United States); Huth, Christopher; Sinha, Kumar [Bechtel Power Corp., Frederick, MD (United States)

2013-03-15

 
 
 
 
221

Thermal Safety of the Current Buses in the Chimney of the D0 Solenoid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The thermal and electrical behaviour of the current buses in the chimney of the D0 solenoid during upset conditions is modeled to guide the selection of trip levels for magnet protection circuits which discharge the magnet if abnormal conditions are detected. The current buses in the chimney are designed to operate safely without likelihood of loss of superconductivity as long as normal cooling conditions are maintained. Helium liquid level probes, helium flow instrumentation, and thermometry all are provided to certify that proper cooling conditions exist in the subcooler and chimney at all times. Rising temperatures in any portion of the system, excessive voltage drops on the vapor cooled leads, or decreasing liquid level in the subcooler or flow rate in the system, will each cause the fast discharge system to be triggered. Postulated failures of the helium flow system, somehow undetected by any and all of the aforementioned instrumentation, can in principal eventually lead to loss of superconductivity in the buses. Quenching in one bus will rapidly lead to quenching in the other. Potential taps on the buses and magnet coil halves connected to voltage-detection bridges external to the system provide at least dually redundant signals which will unambiguously trigger the magnet rapid discharge system. The conservative design of the bus system ensures that it will not be damaged during such incidents, however improbable they may be. The transition leads in the subcooley be. The transition leads in the subcooler are equally conservatively designed, and would not be damaged if they were operated in a fully non-superconducting state for several minutes. The loss of liquid helium in the sub cooler required to cause this condition would imply that helium flow from the magnet had stopped, which in turn would imply that flow to the magnet had also stopped. The lack of flow into the sub cooler would result in insufficient flow to the vapor cooled leads. Any or all of these conditions would be detected, as would easily detected spurious voltages on the potential tap system, before damage to the transition leads occurred.

222

Contaminant transport during atmospheric pumping of a nuclear chimney: Progress report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cyclical variations in barometric pressure cause an oscillatory up-and-down motion of gases within the chimney produced by an underground nuclear test. Analytical and experimental modeling of this atmospheric pumping mechanism has been undertaken to better understand and to quantify the associated rates of cavity gas migration toward the earth's surface and the probable rate of release to the atmosphere. Three different types of models are being investigated: (1) homogeneous porous medium; (2) fractured medium with impermeable matrix blocks; and (3) double-porosity media consisting of fracture networks among porous matrix blocks. A primary purpose is to understand how the oscillatory character of the atmospheric pumping process might significantly enhance the contaminant transport in any or all of the three classes of media. This preliminary report describes some of the analytical, numerical, and experimental work which have been completed

223

Characteristics of bubbly flow in chimney model of lead-bismuth-cooled fast reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The characteristics of Pb-Bi-Ar two-phase flow were investigated in a rectangular vessel (400mm in width, 1500mm in height, 50mm in depth) simulating the chimney in the fast reactor. Ar was injected through the nozzles of 4mm into Pb-Bi, and the superficial Ar velocity was 0.01-0.03m/s at atmospheric pressure. The horizontal distributions of the flow structure, such as bubble velocity and chord length and void fraction were measured by seven double sensor electro conductivity probes. The PDF histograms of the bubble velocity and chord length were obtained. It was estimated that the existing drag coefficient to bubble in water is larger than in Pb-Bi by comparing the experimental results with the analytical results. (author)

224

Solar-optimized building construction. TC3: Solar-optimized new building ECOTEC 1 and 2: Construction of a new office and laboratory building in two stages, optimised according to solar, energetic and ecological aspects. Phase 1: Projecting, construction and system optimisation. Final report; Solaroptimiertes Bauen. TK 3: Solaroptimierter Neubau ECOTEC 1 und 2: Neubau eines Buero und Laborgebaeudes in zwei Bauabschnitten, optimiert nach solaren, energetischen und oekologischen Gesichtspunkten. Phase 1: Planung, Bauausfuehrung und Systemoptimierung. Schlussbericht  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The two ECOTEC buildings are constructed on the premises of Bremen university. They are identical mirror buildings with optimised solar technology and heat pumps to reduce the dependence on external energy supply. The results achieved so far are promising. [German] Im Mittelpunkt des Vorhabens stand die Errichtung der solaroptimierten Niedrigenergie-Gebaeude ECOTEC in zwei Bauabschnitten gleichem, aber spiegelverkehrtem Grundrissen auf dem Gelaende des Technologieparks der Universitaet Bremen. Das Planungskonzept sah zur Reduktion des Fremdenergiebedarfs den optimierten Einsatz und die Kopplung von Solarenergie, Waermepumpe ueber die Gebaeudeleittechnik vor. Basis fuer alle Berechnungen und Planungen war der Niedrigenergiestandard, der durch erhoehte Waermedaemmung der Gebaeudehuelle, kontrollierte Lueftung, solartechnische Module und solararchitektonische Merkmale erreicht und sogar ueberschritten wurde. Durch den gezielten Einsatz der Gebaeudeleit- und -systemtechnik wird ein energiesparender Betrieb insbesondere der Gebaeudebeheizung, der Lueftungsanlage sowie der Beleuchtung schon in der Planungsphase vorbereitet. Zusammenfassend laesst sich feststellen, dass das entwickelte Technikkonzept nach erfolgter Abstimmung mit den Nutzerbeduerfnissen geringste Energieverbraeuche bei sehr gutem Komfort bietet. (orig.)

NONE

1999-07-01

225

Origin of pockmarks and chimney structures on the flanks of the Storegga Slide, offshore Norway  

Science.gov (United States)

Seafloor pockmarks and subsurface chimney structures are common on the Norwegian continental margin north of the Storegga Slide scar. Such features are generally inferred to be associated with fluid expulsion, and imply overpressures in the subsurface. Six long gravity and piston cores taken from the interior of three pockmarks were compared with four other cores taken from the same area but outside the pockmarks, in order to elucidate the origins and stratigraphy of these features and their possible association with the Storegga Slide event. Sulfate gradients in cores from within pockmarks are less steep than those in cores from outside the pockmarks, which indicates that the flux of methane to the seafloor is presently smaller within the pockmarks than in the adjacent undisturbed sediments. This suggests that these subsurface chimneys are not fluid flow conduits lined with gas hydrate. Methane-derived authigenic carbonates and Bathymodiolus shells obtained from a pockmark at >6.3 m below the seafloor indicate that methane was previously available to support a chemosynthetic community within the pockmark. AMS 14C measurements of planktonic Foraminifera overlying and interlayered with the shell-bearing sediment indicate that methane was present on the seafloor within the pockmark prior to 14 ka 14C years B.P., i.e., well before the last major Storegga Slide event (7.2 ka 14C years B.P., or 8.2 ka calendar years B.P.). These observations provide evidence that overpressured fluids existed within the continental margin sediments off Norway during the last major advance of Pleistocene glaciation. ?? Springer-Verlag 2007.

Paull, C.K.; Ussler, W., III; Holbrook, W.S.; Hill, T.M.; Keaten, R.; Mienert, J.; Haflidason, H.; Johnson, J.E.; Winters, W.J.; Lorenson, T.D.

2008-01-01

226

ZnO nanosheet arrays constructed on weaved titanium wire for CdS-sensitized solar cells  

Science.gov (United States)

Ordered ZnO nanosheet arrays were grown on weaved titanium wires by a low-temperature hydrothermal method. CdS nanoparticles were deposited onto the ZnO nanosheet arrays using the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method to make a photoanode. Nanoparticle-sensitized solar cells were assembled using these CdS/ZnO nanostructured photoanodes, and their photovoltaic performance was studied systematically. The best light-to-electricity conversion efficiency was obtained to be 2.17% under 100 mW/cm2 illumination, and a remarkable short-circuit photocurrent density of approximately 20.1 mA/cm2 was recorded, which could attribute to the relatively direct pathways for transportation of electrons provided by ZnO nanosheet arrays as well as the direct contact between ZnO and weaved titanium wires. These results indicate that CdS/ZnO nanostructures on weaved titanium wires would open a novel possibility for applications of low-cost solar cells. PMID:24618047

2014-01-01

227

Re-construction of global solar radiation time series from 1933 to 2013 at the Izaña Atmospheric Observatory  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents the re-construction of the 80 year time series of daily global shortwave downward radiation (SDR) at the subtropical high-mountain Izaña Atmospheric Observatory (IZO, Spain). For this purpose, we combine SDR estimates from sunshine duration (SD) data using the Ångström–Prescott method over the 1933/1991 period, and SDR observations directly performed by pyranometers between 1992 and 2013. Since SDR measurements have been used as a re...

Garci?a, R. D.; Cuevas, E.; Garci?a, O. E.; Cachorro, V. E.; Palle?, P.; Bustos, J. J.; Romero-campos, P. M.; Frutos, A. M.

2014-01-01

228

"The Ruins": Large cold seep sandstone chimneys in the upper Miocene Santa Margarita Sandstone, Scotts Valley, CA  

Science.gov (United States)

In 1856 a peculiar letter in a San Francisco newspaper reported the discovery of an ancient ruin on a sandy hillside in Scotts Valley, CA (Santa Cruz County). The purported "great and magnificent structure" consisted of 50 sandstone columns, some of which were said to be capped by a dome. Exploration of the site by speculators and treasure hunters in the 1850's produced no artifacts or evidence of human activity and regrettably resulted in removal or destruction of most of the original columns. Despite its depletion, and subsequent assessment as a wholly geological phenomenon, the locality is still known locally as "The Ruins". In order to evaluate the origin of the distinctive cementation at the Ruins we mapped its remaining features and collected samples for petrographic, XRD and stable isotope analysis. The site, presently located on private property, consists of at least 12 columns and numerous flattened, discontinuous slabs of well indurated sandstone exposed over ~160 square meters. Stratigraphically it is in the uppermost part of the upper Miocene Santa Margarita Sandstone, 7-15 m below its contact with the overlying Santa Cruz Mudstone. The columns range from 0.5-2 m in diameter and the tallest rises 1.5 m above the surface. All of the columns are distinctly chimney-like, with circular cross sections and hollow central cavities that in some cases are partially filled with separately cemented rings. They describe a SW-NE linear trend on the south side of a hill. A horizon of sandstone slabs, 0.2-1.7 m in length, stratigraphically overlies the chimneys at the top of the hill. Both chimneys and slabs consist of coarse-grained, moderately-sorted sandstone cemented by sparry low-Mg calcite. Most samples also contain abundant remains of the echinoid Astrodapsis spatiosus. ?18O values range from -5.15‰ (chimney) to -2.32‰ (slab); ?13C values range from -19.89‰ (chimney) to -1.95‰ (slab). Stable isotope values seem tied to location rather than contrasting mode of formation of chimneys/slabs or evolution over time of the fluids that produced successive generations of chimney cements. For instance, the heaviest ?13C values (-7.73‰ to -1.95‰) are associated with slabs, but some slabs have ?13C values as light as -17.82‰. We conclude, on the basis of their geometry and geochemistry, that the once-famous columns at the Ruins represent a field of exhumed cold seep chimneys (and related authigenic features) that originally formed around rising columns of methane-rich fluids in the shallow marine subsurface. Their linear distribution suggests that a fault or fracture focused seepage locally. Somewhat younger cold seep chimneys of similar scale occur in the Santa Cruz Mudstone ~15 km west of the Ruins and it is likely that both seep sites are related to Miocene hydrocarbon generation and fluid mobility, as evidenced by widespread coastal exposures of bitumen-saturated sandstones and sandstone injectites. The Ruins site provides the oldest evidence for seepage within this transform continental margin fluid system and shows that the region of fluid expulsion was broader than previously recognized.

Schwartz, H.; Bazan, C.; Perry, F.; Garrison, R. E.

2012-12-01

229

Biological construction of single-walled carbon nanotube electron transfer pathways in dye-sensitized solar cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

We designed and mass-produced a versatile protein supramolecule that can be used to manufacture a highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). Twelve single-walled carbon-nanotube (SWNT)-binding and titanium-mineralizing peptides were genetically integrated on a cage-shaped dodecamer protein (CDT1). A process involving simple mixing of highly conductive SWNTs with CDT1 followed by TiO2 biomineralization produces a high surface-area/weight TiO2 -(anatase)-coated intact SWNT nanocomposite under environmentally friendly conditions. A DSSC with a TiO2 photoelectrode containing 0.2?wt?% of the SWNT-TiO2 nanocomposite shows a current density improvement by 80% and a doubling of the photoelectric conversion efficiency. The SWNT-TiO2 nanocomposite transfers photon-generated electrons from dye molecules adsorbed on the TiO2 to the anode electrode swiftly. PMID:25111295

Inoue, Ippei; Watanabe, Kiyoshi; Yamauchi, Hirofumi; Ishikawa, Yasuaki; Yasueda, Hisashi; Uraoka, Yukiharu; Yamashita, Ichiro

2014-10-01

230

Boat, driven by solar energy, muscle power and by using the windows in a tent construction as sail; Boot, voortbewogen door zonne-energie, spierkracht en door het gebruik als zeil van ramen van een tentopbouw  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The title invention concerns a boat or a vehicle on wheels with options to drive the vehicle by means of solar energy, wind energy and muscle power of arms and legs. The framed sail can be brought into a position out of the wind and can also be applied as a construction part of a tent in the form of a wall or a window (transparent). The functions of the solar energy and the wind energy receivers and the construction part of the tent are integrated in a supporting framework with rotation and fold up possibilities. 9 figs.

Husslage, J.

1995-11-01

231

Chimney and periscope grafts observed over 2 years after their use to revascularize 169 renovisceral branches in 77 patients with complex aortic aneurysms  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

PURPOSE: To evaluate the performance of periscope and/or chimney grafts (CPGs) in the endovascular treatment of pararenal or thoracoabdominal aneurysms using off-the-shelf devices. METHODS: Between February 2002 and August 2012, 77 consecutive patients (62 men; mean age 73±9 years) suffering from pararenal aortic (n=55), thoracoabdominal (n=16), or arch to visceral artery aneurysms (n=6) were treated with aortic stent-graft implantation requiring chimney and/or periscope grafts to maintai...

Lachat, Mario; Veith, Frank J.; Pfammatter, Thomas; Glenck, Michael; Bettex, Dominique; Mayer, Dieter; Rancic, Zoran; Gloekler, Steffen; Pecoraro, Felice

2013-01-01

232

Basic study for the construction of solar cell using CdS photocatalysts and Na2S4 electrolyte  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Photoexcited electrons pathway from thin film consisting of semiconductor particles to electrode was tried to develop by using conducting polymers. PEDOT/PSS and polyaniline was selected as transparent conducting polymer material. In the case of the cell consisted by using polyaniline, it was confirmed that conductive emeraldine salt stated polyaniline converted to non-conductive emeraldine base state because of contact with strong basic Na2S4 electrolyte solution. On the other hand, as regards the cell with PEDOT/PSS, it was expected that positive and negative electrode short-circuited and/or Schottky junction was formed between CdS and PEDOT/PSS. The formation of Schottky junction between CdS and PEDOT/PSS was reduced the kinetic energy of the photoexcited electrons to 5.1eV which was the Fermi level of PEDOT. These electrons could not reduce Na2S4 electrolyte solution since oxidation-reduction potential was 4.1eV. As a result, it considered that photoexcited electrons transfer was restricted, which read the decreasement of mobility of photoexcited electron, while the cell “without” PEDOT/PSS could operate as a solar cell

233

Construction and characteristics of tandem organic solar cells featuring small molecule-based films on polymer-based subcells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, we stacked a small molecule-based cell onto another polymer-based device to fabricate a tandem organic solar cell that extended the absorption range of the entire cell over a wider spectral range. Between the two subcells, we positioned a connecting structure comprising layers of Cs2CO3, Ag and MoO3. Current matching phenomena played an important role in determining the device efficiency. The judicious selection of subcells exhibiting superior current matching improved the performance of the tandem cell. Indeed, in the optimally performing tandem cells we obtained both a high open-circuit voltage (1.21 V) and an improved power conversion efficiency (1.81%). From analyses of the surface morphology and transmission spectra of the middle Ag layers, we deduced that the main function of this film was to provide more sites for efficient recombination of holes and electrons. The thickness of this layer was limited by its transmittance. A thinner Ag layer allowed more light to be harvested by the top cell, increasing the overall performance of the tandem cell.

234

Microbial life associated with low-temperature hydrothermal venting and formation of barite chimneys at Loki's Castle vent field  

Science.gov (United States)

A low-temperature diffuse venting area with numbers of small barite chimneys is located on the flank of the large sulphide mound of the Loki’s Castle black smoker vent field at the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge (AMOR). White cotton-like microbial mats on top of the barite chimneys and associated siboglinid tubeworms were observed. The temperature was determined to 20°C for the surface sediment and 0°C for the white microbial mats, just above the ambient bottom seawater temperature of -0.8°C. The microbial mats were sampled using a remote operating vehicle (ROV) equipped with a hydraulic sampling cylinder (biosyringe) and the chimneys using an aluminum scuffle box. Black colored interior flow channels surrounded by white outer sections of nearly pure barite, were observed. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of mats showed numerous microbial cells and large amounts of extracellular thread-like material with attached barite crystals. Inside the chimneys microbial cells are partially embedded in barite, and individual crystals are also frequently covered by extracellular material. The microbial activity could thus have an important influence on the nucleation and growth of the barite crystals and thus on the formation of the chimneys. To reveal the microbial community structure, 16S rRNA gene sequence tag-encoded pyrosequencing (1.1 x 104 - 3.5 x 104 amplicons per library) followed by taxonomic classification of the reads using the MEGAN software, were performed. Organisms assigned to a genus of sulfide oxidizers (Sulfurimonas) within the e-Proteobacteria were abundant in each chimney structure; the white microbial mats (86-96% of the reads), the white barite (36% of total reads); the black flow channel (9.9%). The second most dominating taxon in the white chimney barite, including 26% of the reads, was anaerobic methanotrophs (ANME) of the ANME-1 clade, indicating anaerobic methane oxidation (AOM) as a major microbial process. Furthermore, the novel AOM associated clade, GOM-arc1 was apparently highly abundant (14.3% of total reads). These latter taxa were identified but clearly less abundant in the mats (ANME-1, 0.7%; GOM-arc1, 2.7%) as well as in black flow channel (ANME-1, 8%; GOM-arc1, 0.49%). Other dominating taxa in the flow channel were; Planctomycetales, 13.5%; Thiotrichales, Leucotrix, 8.8%; Thaumarchaeota, Marine Group 1, 9.35%; Pseudomonadales, Psychrobacter, 7.2%; Rhodobacterales, Rhodobacteraceae, 6.1%; Candidate division TM7, 5.9%; Flavobacteriales, 4.8% and Methylococcales, 3.5% altogether indicating a more diverse microbial community, performing methane, sulfur and ammonia oxidation as well as heterotrophic processes. To further clarify the relationship between crystallization, chimney growth and microbial activity, and the potential for preservation of biosignatures in barite formations, these data will be supplemented by geochemical characteristics, more detailed SEM observations and knowledge of In situ activities determine by analysis of community transcriptome and proteome.

Thorseth, I. H.; Steen, I.; Roalkvam, I.; Dahle, H.; Stokke, R.; Rapp, H.; Pedersen, R.

2010-12-01

235

Behaviors of feed water direct contact boiling two-phase flow in chimney of lead-bismuth cooled fast reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lead-bismuth-feed water direct contact boiling two-phase flow in chimneys above the core of lead-bismuth-cooled fast reactor was numerically analyzed by means of two fluids and two-dimensional model. Overall volumetric heat transfer coefficient was calculated from quantity of heat exchange of the whole system and it was confirmed that it agreed with existing direct contact boiling heat transfer experimental result. (author)

236

Exit chimney joint and method of forming the joint for closed circuit steam cooled gas turbine nozzles  

Science.gov (United States)

A nozzle segment for a gas turbine includes inner and outer band portions and a vane extending between the band portions. The inner and outer band portions are each divided into first and second plenums separated by an impingement plate. Cooling steam is supplied to the first cavity for flow through the apertures to cool the outer nozzle wall. The steam flows through a leading edge cavity in the vane into the first cavity of the inner band portion for flow through apertures of the impingement plate to cool the inner nozzle wall. Spent cooling steam flows through a plurality of cavities in the vane, exiting through an exit chimney in the outer band. The exit chimney is secured at its inner end directly to the nozzle vane wall surrounding the exit cavities, to the margin of the impingement plate at a location intermediate the ends of the exit chimney and to margins of an opening through the cover whereby each joint is externally accessible for joint formation and for subsequent inspection.

Burdgick, Steven Sebastian (Schenectady, NY); Burns, James Lee (Schenectady, NY)

2002-01-01

237

Construction of a photometer to detect stellar occultations by outer solar system bodies for the Whipple mission concept  

Science.gov (United States)

The Whipple mission was a proposal submitted to the NASA Discovery AO in 2010 to study the solid bodies of the Kuiper Belt and Oort Cloud via a blind occultation survey. Though not accepted for flight, the proposal was awarded funding for technology development. Detecting a significant number of Trans Neptunian Objects (TNOs) via a blind occultation survey requires a low noise, wide field of view, multi object differential photometer. The light curve decrement is typically a few percent over timescales of tenths of seconds or seconds for Kuiper Belt and Oort cloud objects, respectively. To obtain a statistically interesting number of detections, this photometer needs to observe many thousands of stars over several years since the rate of occultation for a single star given the space density of the TNOs is low. The light curves from these stars must be monitored with a sensor with a temporal resolution of rv 25-50 ms and with a read noise offacet of the proposed Whipple focal plane was constructed and operated in our laboratory consisting of a single HyViSI H2RG sensor, a Teledyne SIDECAR ASIC, and a flight-like Virtex-5 FPGA. In order to fully demonstrate the capabilities of this photometer, we also made a occultation light-curve simulator. The entire system can generate simulated occultation light curves, project them onto an H2RG sensor, read out the sensor in windowing mode at 40 Hz, pass the data to an FPGA that continuously monitors the light curves and dumps candidate occultation events to our simulated Ground Support Equipment (GSE). In this paper, we summarize the technical capabilities of our system, present sample data, and discuss how this system will be used to support our proposal effort for the next Discovery round.

Kraft, Ralph P.; Kenter, Almus T.; Alcock, Charles; Murray, Stephen S.; Loose, Markus; Gauron, Thomas; Germain, Gregg; Peregrim, Lawrence

2014-08-01

238

A comparative integrated geophysical study of Horseshoe Chimney Cave, Colorado Bend State Park, Texas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An integrated geophysical study was performed over a known cave in Colorado Bend State Park (CBSP, Texas, where shallow karst features are common within the Ellenberger Limestone. Geophysical survey such as microgravity, ground penetrating radar (GPR, direct current (DC resistivity, capacitively coupled (CC resistivity, induced polarization (IP and ground conductivity (GC measurements were performed in an effort to distinguish which geophysical method worked most effectively and efficiently in detecting the presence of subsurface voids, caves and collapsed features. Horseshoe Chimney Cave (HCC, which is part of a larger network of cave systems, provides a good control environment for this research. A 50 x 50 meter grid, with 5 m spaced traverses was positioned around the entrance to HCC. Geophysical techniques listed above were used to collect geophysical data which were processed with the aid of commercial software packages. A traditional cave survey was conducted after geophysical data collection, to avoid any bias in initial data collection. The survey of the cave also provided ground truthing. Results indicate the microgravity followed by CC resistivity techniques worked most efficiently and were most cost effective, while the other methods showed varying levels of effectiveness.

Brown Wesley A.

2011-01-01

239

Modulated crystal structure of chimney-ladder higher manganese silicides MnSi? (?˜1.74)  

Science.gov (United States)

The crystal structure of a polycrystalline sample of higher manganese silicide (HMS) has been determined by means of the (3+1) -dimensional superspace group approach. The structural parameters were refined with a superspace group of I41/amd(00?)00ss using powder neutron-diffraction data collected at 295 K. The compound belongs to a composite crystal family consisting of [Mn] and [Si] subsystems, with an irrational c -axis ratio (misfit parameter) of ?=cMn/cSi˜1.74 . Significant in-plane rotational modulation was revealed in the “chimney”-[Si] subsystem, while positional modulation in the “ladder”-[Mn] subsystem was only realized along cMn . The electronic structure of the sample was calculated on the basis of a commensurate approximation of the modulated structure using the full potential linearized augmented plane-wave method. The obtained band gap of Eg˜0.6eV agreed well with the experimentally observed one. It appears that the band gap and density of states of the HMS samples depend on the positional modulation of the Si atoms. The various controversial formulas (for example, Mn4Si7 , Mn11Si19 , and so on) of the HMS phases reported thus far can be regarded as commensurate cases of a series of incommensurate MnSi? phases in which the ? value ranges from ˜1.70 to 1.75.

Miyazaki, Yuzuru; Igarashi, Dai; Hayashi, Kei; Kajitani, Tsuyoshi; Yubuta, Kunio

2008-12-01

240

Electronic structure of the Nowotny chimney-ladder silicide Ru2Si3  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report ab initio calculations for the electronic structure of the Nowotny chimney-ladder silicide Ru2Si3 in the orthorhombic low-temperature phase. We find Ru2Si3 to be a semiconductor with a direct band gap of about 0.45 eV. Since this gap is a p-d gap, the oscillator strength for a direct transition is expected to be of sizable magnitude. Also, the calculated effective masses of hole and electron states suggest that Ru2Si3 is a very promising material for various applications in semiconductor technology. The electronic structure is controlled by the hybridization of Si p states with Ru d states and shows similarities to the group-IV transition-metal disilicides (CrSi2, MoSi2, WSi2) and to transition-metal-rich silicides. The calculations are based on the density-functional theory in local-density approximation and are performed by means of the full-potential linearized-augmented-plane-wave method. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

 
 
 
 
241

Yunushan? Köyünün (Alt?nözü-Hatay) Kuzey Ve Kuzeybat?s?ndaki Peribacas? Görünümlü Sivri Doruklu Lapya Kompleksleri
Pinnacle Lapiaz Complexes That Resemble Fairy Chimneys In The North And Northwest Of Yunushan? Village (Alt?nözü-Hatay)
 

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Current study explains the characteristics of interesting pinnaclelapiaz complexes developed in the north and northwest of Yunushan?village located in the borders of Alt?nözü district, Hatay province. Theseformations resemble fairy chimneys with their columnar shapes.Providing information about the scientific content of theseformations called fairy chimneys although they are not fairy chimneys isimportant to provide insight as to how and where they can be evaluatedsince no previous study ...

O?zs?ahi?n, Emre

2013-01-01

242

Design, construction and test run of a solid adsorption solar refrigerator using activated carbon/methanol, as adsorbent/adsorbate pair  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The design, construction and test run of a solid adsorption solar refrigerator are presented. It used activated carbon/methanol as the adsorbent/adsorbate pair. The refrigerator has three major components: collector/generator/adsorber, condenser and evaporator. Its flat plate type collector/generator/adsorber used clear plane glass sheet of effective exposed area of 1.2 m2. The steel condenser tube with a square plan view was immersed in pool of stagnant water contained in a reinforced sandcrete tank. The evaporator is a spirally coiled copper tube immersed in stagnant water. Adsorbent cooling during the adsorption process is both by natural convection of air over the collector plate and tubes and night sky radiation facilitated by removing the collector box end cover plates. Ambient temperatures during the adsorbate generation and adsorption process varied over 18.5-34 deg. C. The refrigerator yielded evaporator temperatures ranging over 1.0-8.5 deg. C from water initially in the temperature range 24-28 deg. C. Accordingly, the maximum daily useful cooling produced was 266.8 kJ/m2 of collector area

243

Solar Energy Systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Calibrated in kilowatt hours per square meter, the solar counter produced by Dodge Products, Inc. provides a numerical count of the solar energy that has accumulated on a surface. Solar energy sensing, measuring and recording devices in corporate solar cell technology developed by Lewis Research Center. Customers for their various devices include architects, engineers and others engaged in construction and operation of solar energy facilities; manufacturers of solar systems or solar related products, such as glare reducing windows; and solar energy planners in federal and state government agencies.

1984-01-01

244

Microbial carbon cycling in Lost City hydrothermal chimneys and other serpentinite-hosted ecosystems (Invited)  

Science.gov (United States)

Ultramafic rocks formed in the Earth's mantle and uplifted into the crust represent an immense but poorly described reservoir of carbon. The biological availability of this rock-hosted carbon reservoir is unknown, but the set of geochemical reactions known as serpentinization can mobilize carbon from the subsurface and trigger the growth of dense microbial communities. Serpentinite-hosted ecosystems such as the chimney biofilms of the Lost City hydrothermal field can support dense populations of bacteria and archaea fueled by the copious quantities of H2 and methane (CH4) released by serpentinization (1-5). The metabolic pathways involved, however, remain unknown, and conventional interpretations of genomic and experimental data are complicated by the unusual carbon speciation in these environments. Carbon dioxide is scarce due to the highly reducing, high pH conditions. Instead, the predominant forms of carbon are CH4 and formate (5). Despite its natural abundance, however, direct evidence for CH4-derived biomass is lacking (1,4,5), and the role of formate is potentially significant but largely unexplored (1,5). To gain a more generalized perspective of carbon cycling in serpentinite-hosted ecosystems, we have recently investigated fluids and rocks collected from serpentinizing ophiolites in California, Canada, and Italy. Our results point to potentially H2-utilizing, autotrophic Betaproteobacteria thriving in shallow, oxic-anoxic transition zones and anaerobic Clostridia inhabiting anoxic, subsurface zones (1,6). The carbon sources utilized by the Clostridia are unknown, but preliminary metagenomic evidence is consistent with a fermentation-style metabolic strategy that may be conducive to an oxidant-limited, subsurface environment. Curiously, despite the abundance of H2 and CH4 in these continental springs, none of the geochemical, genomic, or experimental results obtained thus far contain any evidence for biological methanogenesis (1,6). This is in stark contrast to the dense populations of methanogen-like archaea in Lost City chimneys. Clearly, the role of methanogens must be constrained in order to gain a firm understanding of the carbon flux from serpentinite ecosystems, and future potential investigations of these systems will be discussed. References 1. Schrenk MO, Brazelton WJ, Lang SQ. 2013. Rev. Mineral. Geochem. 75:575-606. 2. Schrenk MO, Kelley DS, Bolton SA, Baross JA. 2004. Environ. Microbiol. 6:1086-1095. 3. Brazelton WJ, Schrenk MO, Kelley DS, Baross JA. 2006. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 72:6257-6270. 4. Brazelton WJ, Mehta MP, Kelley DS, Baross JA. 2011. mBio2:4. doi:10.1128/mBio.00127-11. 5. Lang SQ, Früh-Green GL, Bernasconi SM, Lilley MD, Proskurowski G, Méhay S, Butterfield D a. 2012. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta. 92:82-99. 6. Brazelton WJ, Morrill PL, Szponar N, Schrenk MO. 2013. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 79:3906.

Brazelton, W. J.; Lang, S. Q.; Morrill, P. L.; Twing, K. I.; Crespo-Medina, M.; Morgan-Smith, D.; Früh-Green, G. L.; Schrenk, M. O.

2013-12-01

245

Vallitalea pronyensis sp. nov., isolated from a marine alkaline hydrothermal chimney.  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel thermotolerant, anaerobic, Gram-stain-positive, spore-forming bacterium was isolated from a hydrothermal chimney in Prony Bay, New Caledonia. This strain, designated FatNI3(T), grew at 15-55 °C (optimum 30 °C) and at pH 5.8-8.9 (optimum 7.7). It was slightly halophilic, requiring at least 0.5?% NaCl for growth (optimum 2.5-3.0?%), and was able to grow at up to 6?% NaCl. Sulfate, thiosulfate, elemental sulfur, sulfite, nitrate and nitrite were not used as terminal electron acceptors. Growth of strain FatNI3(T) was inhibited in the presence of sulfite (2 mM) or nitrite (2 mM). Strain FatNI3(T) fermented cellobiose, glucose, mannose, maltose, sucrose, galactose, lactose, ribose, fructose, rhamnose, raffinose, xylose, yeast extract, peptone and biotrypticase. The main fermentation products from glucose metabolism were acetate, ethanol, H2 and CO2. The predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C15?:?0 and anteiso-C15?:?0. The main polar lipids consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, and unknown glycolipids and phospholipids. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 36.6 mol%. On the basis of phylogenetic and physiological properties, strain FatNI3(T) (?=?DSM 25904?=?JCM 18391) belonging to the phylum Firmicutes, class Clostridia, order Clostridiales, is proposed as the type strain of a novel species of the genus Vallitalea, for which the name Vallitalea pronyensis sp. nov. is proposed. PMID:24408522

Ben Aissa, Fatma; Postec, Anne; Erauso, Gaël; Payri, Claude; Pelletier, Bernard; Hamdi, Moktar; Ollivier, Bernard; Fardeau, Marie-Laure

2014-04-01

246

Occurrence of seismic chimney structures associated with mass transport deposit in the Ulleung Basin, East Sea of Korea  

Science.gov (United States)

Seismic interpretation and attribute analysis of 3D seismic data reveal that numerous seismic chimneys are developed through the gas hydrate stability zone at the central part of the Ulleung Basin. The seismic chimneys predominantly start from the underlying the thick mass transport deposit or the shear zone related to the mass transport process. Based on spatial distributions and geometries, seismic chimneys are grouped into two different types: (1) mound-like type and (2) pipe-like type. The mound-like type shows 600m-wide elliptical shape in a plane view. It is buried within Pliocene sedimentary succession and connected to underlying the mass transport flow zone. This type is elongated to the strike direction of pressured ridge of mass transport flow. The pipe-like type shows 300m-wide circular shape in a plane view and is vertically extended to near surface. Occurrence of this type is spatially related to the fault systems in the lateral shear zone of the mass transport deposit or the deep-seated faults. Logging and coring data from two gas hydrate drilling expeditions in the Ulleung Basin indicate that mound-like type is generated by intrusive sediment remobilization, whereas pipe-like type is composed of fracture swarms without intrusive sediment structure. Therefore, this study suggests that the mound-like type is generated by the sedimentary remobilization along the pressured ridge of the underlying mass flow deposit during Pliocene, whereas the pipe-like type results from the fracture swarms caused by the excess of pore pressure (i.e. natural hydraulic fracture) during Pleistocene to Holocene.

Keon Kang, Nyeon; Yoo, Dong Geun; Yi, Bo Yeon

2014-05-01

247

Development of a practical training program based on BNL`s input to new NFPA Lined Masonary Chimney Venting Tables  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes how we developed a practical training program for technicians and sales personnel from the BNL studies that evolved into the Lined Chimney Venting Tables. One of the topics discussed is our search for solutions to the reoccurring problems associated with flue gas condensation on newly installed oil fired appliances. The paper will also discuss our own experiences in applying the new venting tables and working through the questions that arise when we encounter installations beyond the scope of the present tables.

Potter, G. [Agway Energy Products, Tully, NJ (United States)

1997-09-01

248

U/Th Geochronology of Carbonate Chimneys at the Lost City Hydrothermal Field  

Science.gov (United States)

U/Th radiochronology is commonly used to date marine carbonates such as corals and sediments that are tens to 600,000 years old. This technique is newly applied to precise dating of hydrothermal carbonate deposits from the Lost City Hydrothermal Field (LCHF). The LCHF, located at 30°N near the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR), is an off-axis, ultramafic-hosted hydrothermal system characterized by up to 60 m tall carbonate chimneys that vent warm (field is hosted by 1.5 my old crust on the southern face of the Atlantis Massif, which is composed of variably altered serpentinite with lesser gabbro. Mixing of warm, calcium-rich fluids with surrounding seawater results in the precipitation of variable mixtures of aragonite, calcite, and brucite. Previous work using 14C dating techniques showed that Lost City has been active for at least 30,000 years. In this study, over thirty carbonate samples from the LCHF have been analyzed using ICP-MS techniques for 238U - 234U - 230Th - 232Th dating. Initial results indicate that venting at Lost City may have been on-going for at least 100,000 years. The U/Th systematics of the Lost City carbonates are similar to those of deep sea corals. Concentrations of uranium in Lost City carbonates range from 1-10 ppm, which is similar to corals (2-4 ppm). Endmember vent fluids contain low concentrations of U (less than 0.15 ng/g), suggesting that the U incorporated into the carbonate deposits is seawater-derived (seawater U = 3 ng/g). In addition, the initial 234U/238U values of the carbonates are indistinguishable from the value for modern seawater. Ages are corrected to initial 230Th, which is constrained by analyzing 230Th/232Th values in ambient seawater and young Lost City carbonates. This work confirms that the youngest (modern-~1,000 years) known formations are located along an east-west fault that likely focuses fluid flow within the massif. Initial results also suggest that carbonate vent deposits on the east side of the field are within the same age range (~1,000-~5,000 years), which may have implications for fault activity and fluid flow in this region. The modern to ~100,000 year age range of the structures at Lost City implies sustained faulting, cracking, and fluid flow within the massif that has allowed these structures to remain active for so long.

Ludwig, K. A.; Kelley, D. S.; Shen, C.; Cheng, H.; Edwards, R. L.

2005-12-01

249

Experimental Study and Optimization of Thermoelectricity-Driven Autonomous Sensors for the Chimney of a Biomass Power Plant  

Science.gov (United States)

In the work discussed in this paper a thermoelectric generator was developed to harness waste heat from the exhaust gas of a boiler in a biomass power plant and thus generate electric power to operate a flowmeter installed in the chimney, to make it autonomous. The main objective was to conduct an experimental study to optimize a previous design obtained after computational work based on a simulation model for thermoelectric generators. First, several places inside and outside the chimney were considered as sites for the thermoelectricity-driven autonomous sensor. Second, the thermoelectric generator was built and tested to assess the effect of the cold-side heat exchanger on the electric power, power consumption by the flowmeter, and transmission frequency. These tests provided the best configuration for the heat exchanger, which met the transmission requirements for different working conditions. The final design is able to transmit every second and requires neither batteries nor electric wires. It is a promising application in the field of thermoelectric generation.

Rodríguez, A.; Astrain, D.; Martínez, A.; Aranguren, P.

2014-06-01

250

Directional solidification of a binary alloy in a Hele-Shaw cell: instability, convection, and chimney formation (Invited)  

Science.gov (United States)

Partially crystalline mushy layers form where multi-component melts solidify against a cold wall. Such systems are relevant to many industrial and geophysical applications, including sea ice, magma chambers, and the outer core. We present observations and models of an analogue for these systems: directional solidification of ammonium chloride solution in a Hele-Shaw cell. These capture reactive, buoyancy-driven flow and chimney formation within and above a mushy layer composed of salt dendrites. The narrow-gapped experimental cell enforces a 2D flow regime, and we use Schlieren methods to observe the flow dynamics in the open fluid and the mushy layer. Through manipulation of experimental parameters we explore different modes of convective instability and the resulting chimney patterns. Experimental results are compared with direct numerical simulations and stability analysis; discrepancies suggest ways in which current theory could be refined to better capture system behaviour. Schlieren image of an experimental mushy layer composed of NH4Cl dendrites in a Hele-Shaw cell.

Katz, R. F.; Anderson, A.; Worster, M. G.; Goldstein, R. E.

2010-12-01

251

Solar optimized construction, Part project 3: Measuring engineering and evaluation of the office building Pollmeier at Creuzberg; Solaroptimiertes Bauen, Teilkonzept 3: Messtechnische Begleitung und Evaluierung des Verwaltungsgebaeudes der Firma Pollmeier in Creuzburg  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the research project called SolarBau, partial concept 3, the Federal Ministry for Economy and Work supports the construction of solar and energy-optimized administrative and commercial buildings. It was within this framework that the Zentrum fuer umweltbewusstes Bauen (Center for environment-sensitive construction), Kassel, examined the construction of the administrative building of the Massivholz GmbH Pollmeier in Creuzburg (near Eisenach)in cooperation with Solares Bauen GmbH and the Frauenhofer ISE (both in Freiburg). In addition to a detailed description of the concept relating to the building, the technical matters and the energy concept, the report also contains the results of the 2-years monitoring phase (2002-2004). In terms of the energy balance, the objectives of the planning and research programme were not completely reached. The space heating and power consumption are above the data planned. The data of primary energy consumption and CO2-emissions, however, could be adhered to which is due to the heat supply via the company's own wood burning system. Using a thermal building simulation, the causes for the high consumption of heat could be clarified. While the local climate, the real use, operational times and the measurable volume streams more or less equal the planned data, the inner space air temperatures are by 2-3K above the assumed values. (orig.) [German] Das BMWA foerdert in seinem Forschungsvorhaben SolarBau, Teilkonzept 3 solar- und energieoptimierte Verwaltungs- und Gewerbeneubauten. In diesem Rahmen untersuchte das Zentrum fuer Umweltbewusstes Bauen in Kassel in Zusammenarbeit mit der solares bauen GmbH und dem Fraunhofer ISE (beide Freiburg) den Neubau des Verwaltungsgebaeudes der Massivholz GmbH Pollmeier in Creuzburg (bei Eisenach). Dieser Bericht umfasst, neben einer detaillierten Gebaeude-, Technik- und Energiekonzept Beschreibung die Ergebnisse der 2-jaehrigen Monitoring Phase (2002-2004). Die Zielwerte der Planung und des Forschungsprogramms wurden hinsichtlich der Energiebilanz nicht vollstaendig erreicht. Heizwaerme- und Stromverbrauch liegen ueber den angestrebten Werten. Wohingegen die Werte fuer Primaerenergieverbrauch und CO{sub 2}-Emissionen aufgrund der diesbezueglichen Waermeversorgung ueber die werkseigene Holzfeuerungsanlage eingehalten werden. Mit Hilfe der thermischen Gebaeudesimulation konnten die Ursachen fuer den Mehrverbrauch der Heizwaerme ausgemacht werden. Waehrend das lokale Klima, die tatsaechliche Belegung, die Betriebszeiten und die messbaren Volumenstroeme in etwa den Planungswerten entsprechen, liegen die Raumlufttemperaturen 2-3K ueber den angenommenen Werten. (orig.)

Hauser, G.; Schlegel, K.; Heide, M.; Leineweber, R.

2004-04-01

252

Impact of the light intensity variation on the performance of solar cell constructed from (Muscovite/TiO2/Dye/Al  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this work, the influence of the light intensity as one of the parameters that control the solar cell is studied. The effect of the other main variables, such as temperature, rotation per Minuit of the spin coating instrument, and the samples concentration, was found to be in conformity with other results, but unfortunately the intensity of light does not increase the solar cell efficiency, and fill factor, by other words it was found to play only a secondary role.

R. Abd Elgani

2013-09-01

253

Studies on electrochemically constructed zinc oxide and zinc oxide-based composite electrodes with controlled nanoscale structures for use in solar energy conversion  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The need to produce energy more efficiently is a more pressing with depleting supply and increasing costs of crude oil sources. Solar energy is an abundant resource that can provide enough energy to meet current and future needs; however, more research is needed to develop efficient and economically viable devices capable of harnessing solar energy. This dissertation addresses the electrochemical synthesis of zinc oxide and zinc oxide composite materials. Zinc oxide is of interest because it ...

Steinmiller, Ellen Margaret Pennington

2009-01-01

254

Saurians vs. cuts on reimbursement rates. In the vicinity of Berlin, plans for construction of a solar power plant almost failed because of conservation concerns; Echsen versus Verguetungskuerzung. In der Naehe von Berlin waere der Bau eines Solarkraftwerks beinahe am Naturschutz gescheitert  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Abandoned industrial or military sites and similar terrains are preferred sites for solar power plant construction. This is a good thing, in principle, as any land pollution will be removed at the same time. However, if construction projects go too fast they may interfere with conservation concerns. The contribution presents the case of the 24 MW 'Finowtower' solar power station. The project almost had to be abandoned because of a small lizard. (orig.)

Krause, Matthias B.

2010-09-15

255

Solar Thermal Electricity Generating System  

Science.gov (United States)

A Solar Thermal Electricity generating system also known as Solar Thermal Power plant is an emerging renewable energy technology, where we generate the thermal energy by concentrating and converting the direct solar radiationat medium/high temperature (300?C ñ 800?C). The resulting thermal energy is then used in a thermodynamic cycleto produce electricity, by running a heat engine, which turns a generator to make electricity. Solar thermal power is currently paving the way for the most cost-effective solar technology on a large scale and is heading to establish a cleaner, pollution free and secured future. Photovoltaic (PV) and solar thermal technologies are two main ways of generating energy from the sun, which is considered the inexhaustible source of energy. PV converts sunlight directly into electricity whereas in Solar thermal technology, heat from the sun's rays is concentrated to heat a fluid, whose steam powers a generator that produces electricity. It is similar to the way fossil fuel-burning power plants work except that the steam is produced by the collected heat rather than from the combustion of fossil fuels. In order to generate electricity, five major varieties of solar thermal technologies used are:* Parabolic Trough Solar Electric Generating System (SEGS).* Central Receiver Power Plant.* Solar Chimney Power Plant.* Dish Sterling System.* Solar Pond Power Plant.Most parts of India,Asia experiences a clear sunny weather for about 250 to 300 days a year, because of its location in the equatorial sun belt of the earth, receiving fairly large amount of radiation as compared to many parts of the world especially Japan, Europe and the US where development and deployment of solar technologies is maximum.Whether accompanied with this benefit or not, usually we have to concentrate the solar radiation in order to compensate for the attenuation of solar radiation in its way to earthís surface, which results in from 63,2 GW/m2 at the Sun to 1 kW/m2 at Earth¥s surface. The higher the concentration, the higher the temperatures we can achieve when converting solar radiation into thermal energy

Mishra, Sambeet; Tripathy, Pratyasha

2012-08-01

256

Exploring Solar Power  

Science.gov (United States)

Students explore the methods engineers have devised for harnessing sunlight to generate power. First, they investigate heat transfer and heat storage through the construction, testing and use of a solar oven. With a lesson focused on photovoltaic cells, students learn the concepts of energy conversion, conservation of energy, current and voltage. By constructing model solar powered cars, students see these conceptual ideas manifested in modern technology. Furthermore, the solar car project provides opportunities to explore a number of other topics, such as gear ratios and simple mechanics. Both of these design and construction projects are examples of engineering design.

Techtronics Program,

257

Desempenho de sistema decanto-digestor com filtro biológico seguido por alagado construído e reator solar no tratamento de esgoto doméstico / Performance of digester decant system with biological filter followed by constructed wetland and solar reactor in the treatment of domestic sewage  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho objetivou analisar o desempenho de sistema decanto-digestor com filtro biológico seguido por alagado construído e reator solar no tratamento de esgoto doméstico do assentamento rural Milagres em Apodi-RN. Nos meses de outubro e novembro de 2010 realizou-se o monitoramento do sist [...] ema 48 dias após o plantio do capim elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach). Foram coletadas amostras do esgoto doméstico nas distintas etapas de tratamento, em quatro repetições no tempo, para determinação de características físico-químicas e microbiológicas referentes ao desempenho do sistema. Os resultados indicaram que houve remoção significativa de turbidez, Demanda Bioquímica de Oxigênio, Demanda Química de Oxigênio, sólidos totais, sólidos suspensos, fósforo e óleos e graxas com o uso sistema decanto-digestor com filtros biológicos seguidos de alagado construído e reator solar; a associação de radiação solar média de 28,73 MJ m-2 d-1, lâmina de 0,10 m de efluente no reator e tempo de exposição solar de 12 horas permitiu remoção de até 99,99% dos coliformes termotolerantes no esgoto doméstico em Apodi-RN; e o efluente tratado apresenta padrão microbiológico satisfatório às diretrizes brasileiras para uso agrícola com restrição. Abstract in english This study aimed to analyze the performance of digester decant system with biological filter followed by constructed wetland and solar reactor in the treatment of domestic sewage from Milagres rural community in Apodi-RN. The treatment system was monitored for the period of October and November 2010 [...] , 48 days after planting Pennisetum purpureum Schumach. Samples of domestic sewage were collected at different stages of treatment, in four replications on time, to determine physicochemical and microbiological characteristics about the system performance. The results indicated significant removal of turbidity, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total solids, suspended solids, phosphorus and oil and grease using the set digester decant with biological filter, followed by constructed wetland and solar reactor; the association of average solar radiation of 28.73 MJ m-2 d-1, effluent depth of 0.10 m on reactor and time of sun exposure of 12 hours provided removal of fecal coliform up to 99.99% of domestic sewage in Apodi, RN, the treated effluent met microbiological standard of the Brazilian guidelines for agricultural use with restrictions.

Glícia Pinto Barra, Reinaldo; Rafael Oliveira, Batista; Paulo Cesar Moura da, Silva; Luis Cesar de Aquino, Lemos Filho; Miguel, Ferreira Neto; Delfran Batista dos, Santos.

2012-06-01

258

Composition of hydrothermal fluids and mineralogy of associated chimney material on the East Scotia Ridge back-arc spreading centre  

Science.gov (United States)

The East Scotia Ridge is an active back-arc spreading centre located to the west of the South Sandwich island arc in the Southern Ocean. Initial exploration of the ridge by deep-tow surveys provided the first evidence for hydrothermal activity in a back-arc setting outside of the western Pacific, and we returned in 2010 with a remotely operated vehicle to precisely locate and sample hydrothermal sites along ridge segments E2 and E9. Here we report the chemical and isotopic composition of high- and low-temperature vent fluids, and the mineralogy of associated high-temperature chimney material, for two sites at E2 (Dog’s Head and Sepia), and four sites at E9 (Black & White, Ivory Tower, Pagoda and Launch Pad). The chemistry of the fluids is highly variable between the ridge segments. Fluid temperatures were ?350 °C at all vent sites except Black & White, which was significantly hotter (383 °C). End-member chloride concentrations in E2 fluids (532-536 mM) were close to background seawater (540 mM), whereas Cl in E9 fluids was much lower (98-220 mM) indicating that these fluids are affected by phase separation. Concentrations of the alkali elements (Na, Li, K and Cs) and the alkaline earth elements (Ca, Sr and Ba) co-vary with Cl, due to charge balance constraints. Similarly, concentrations of Mn and Zn are highest in the high Cl fluids but, by contrast, Fe/Cl ratios are higher in E9 fluids (3.8-8.1 × 10-3) than they are in E2 fluids (1.5-2.4 × 10-3) and fluids with lowest Cl have highest Cu. Although both ridge segments are magmatically inflated, there is no compelling evidence for input of magmatic gases to the vent fluids. Fluid ?D values range from 0.2‰ to 1.5‰, pH values (3.02-3.42) are not especially low, and F concentrations (34.6-54.4 ?M) are lower than bottom seawater (62.8 ?M). The uppermost sections of conjugate chimney material from E2, and from Ivory Tower and Pagoda at E9, typically exhibit inner zones of massive chalcopyrite enclosed within an outer zone of disseminated sulphide, principally sphalerite and pyrite, in an anhydrite matrix. By contrast, the innermost part of the chimneys that currently vent fluids with lowest Cl (Black & White and Launch Pad), is dominated by anhydrite. By defining and assessing the controls on the chemical composition of these vent fluids, and associated mineralisation, this study provides new information for evaluating the significance of hydrothermal processes at back-arc basins for ocean chemistry and the formation of seafloor mineral deposits.

James, Rachael H.; Green, Darryl R. H.; Stock, Michael J.; Alker, Belinda J.; Banerjee, Neil R.; Cole, Catherine; German, Christopher R.; Huvenne, Veerle A. I.; Powell, Alexandra M.; Connelly, Douglas P.

2014-08-01

259

Determination of Selenium, Mercury, Chromium, Nickel, Iron, Zinc, Cobalt, Antimony, Manganese, Arsenic, Lead and Cadmium in the hairs of chimney sweeps and control persons  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The content of Selenium, Mercury, Chromium, Nickel, Iron, Zinc, Cobalt, Antimony, Manganese, Arsenic, Lead and Cadmium in 18 chimney sweeps hair were determined by neutron activations analysis and atomic absorptions spectrometry and compared with 18 control persons. The results show: The concentration of Se, Hg, Cr, Ni, Fe, Zn, Co, Sb, Mn, As, Pb and Cd of all investigated volunteers are within the normal range. (author)

260

Fundamental study on two-phase flow characteristics in chimney of Pb-Bi cooled direct contact boiling water fast reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The lead-bismuth-steam two-phase flow in the chimney of the lead-bismuth cooled direct contact boiling water fast reactor (PBWFR) was simulated experimentally using water-air two-phase flow system and analytically using the multi-dimensional two-fluid model computer program ACE-3D for the design of the ring header nozzles and chimney of the PBWFR. It has been found that the downward flow appeared in the chimney according to the analytical results. The downward flow of the bubbles in the inside of the inner cylinder causes the decrease of the performance of the lift pump. The analytical simulation will be verified by the experiment data, and the air injection flow rate, and the number, caliber and arrangement of injection nozzles in the ring header will be chosen adequately to improve the performance of the lift pump. Also, the analytical program will be extended for the simulation of a steam-Pb-Bi flow system. (authors)

 
 
 
 
261

STANDARDS OF SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURE: SOLAR HOUSE  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Solar houses are representing environmentally friendly method of construction, as they use renewable energy sources. Solar energy provides gain, which with the help of solar systems is exploited to convert in heat or energy. A solar house provides us with positive feeling, having regard to the standarts for sustainable construction. In the study is given the historical development of the solar house, presented are the natural, architecture and technical aspects. At the end on the basis of ...

Ternovs?ek, Erna

2010-01-01

262

Electronic structure of the Nowotny chimney-ladder silicide Ru{sub 2}Si{sub 3}  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We report {ital ab initio} calculations for the electronic structure of the Nowotny chimney-ladder silicide Ru{sub 2}Si{sub 3} in the orthorhombic low-temperature phase. We find Ru{sub 2}Si{sub 3} to be a semiconductor with a direct band gap of about 0.45 eV. Since this gap is a p-d gap, the oscillator strength for a direct transition is expected to be of sizable magnitude. Also, the calculated effective masses of hole and electron states suggest that Ru{sub 2}Si{sub 3} is a very promising material for various applications in semiconductor technology. The electronic structure is controlled by the hybridization of Si p states with Ru d states and shows similarities to the group-IV transition-metal disilicides (CrSi{sub 2}, MoSi{sub 2}, WSi{sub 2}) and to transition-metal-rich silicides. The calculations are based on the density-functional theory in local-density approximation and are performed by means of the full-potential linearized-augmented-plane-wave method. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

Wolf, W. [Institut fuer Physikalische Chemie der Universitaet Wien, Liechtensteinstrae 22a, A-1090 Wien (Austria); Bihlmayer, G.; Bluegel, S. [Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)

1997-03-01

263

Solar energy emplacement developer  

Science.gov (United States)

A preliminary design was developed for a Lunar Power System (LPS) composed of photovoltaic arrays and microwave reflectors fabricated from lunar materials. The LPS will collect solar energy on the surface of the Moon, transform it into microwave energy, and beam it back to Earth where it will be converted into usable energy. The Solar Energy Emplacement Developer (SEED) proposed will use a similar sort of solar energy collection and dispersement to power the systems that will construct the LPS.

Mortensen, Michael; Sauls, Bob

1991-01-01

264

Solar Ready: An Overview of Implementation Practices  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report explores three mechanisms for encouraging solar ready building design and construction: solar ready legislation, certification programs for solar ready design and construction, and stakeholder education. These methods are not mutually exclusive, and all, if implemented well, could contribute to more solar ready construction. Solar ready itself does not reduce energy use or create clean energy. Nevertheless, solar ready building practices are needed to reach the full potential of solar deployment. Without forethought on incorporating solar into design, buildings may be incompatible with solar due to roof structure or excessive shading. In these cases, retrofitting the roof or removing shading elements is cost prohibitive. Furthermore, higher up-front costs due to structural adaptations and production losses caused by less than optimal roof orientation, roof equipment, or shading will lengthen payback periods, making solar more expensive. With millions of new buildings constructed each year in the United States, solar ready can remove installation barriers and increase the potential for widespread solar adoption. There are many approaches to promoting solar ready, including solar ready legislation, certification programs, and education of stakeholders. Federal, state, and local governments have the potential to implement programs that encourage solar ready and in turn reduce barriers to solar deployment. With the guidance in this document and the examples of jurisdictions and organizations already working to promote solar ready building practices, federal, state, and local governments can guide the market toward solar ready implementation.

Watson, A.; Guidice, L.; Lisell, L.; Doris, L.; Busche, S.

2012-01-01

265

Solar '77  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This manual was designed to give everyone a basic understanding of necessary conservation and system features for an efficient, cost effective, and comfortable solar tempered dwelling. Primary emphasis was given to energy efficient design features and construction in new and existing dwellings. A solar glossary is included. (MHR)

Wenzel, G

1978-06-01

266

Solar School House.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Solar Schoolhouse at the Lathrop E. Smith Environmental Education Center (Rockville, Maryland) is described. Background and construction information is given. Drawings of the Schoolhouse's four sides are provided, as well as drawings illustrating the greenhouse effect, a solar collector, the Schoolhouse's summer cooling and winter heating…

Harrison, David

267

Construction management  

CERN Document Server

The management of construction projects is a wide ranging and challenging discipline in an increasingly international industry, facing continual challenges and demands for improvements in safety, in quality and cost control, and in the avoidance of contractual disputes. Construction Management grew out of a Leonardo da Vinci project to develop a series of Common Learning Outcomes for European Managers in Construction. Financed by the European Union, the project aimed to develop a library of basic materials for developing construction management skills for use in a pan-European context. Focused exclusively on the management of the construction phase of a building project from the contractor's point of view, Construction Management covers the complete range of topics of which mastery is required by the construction management professional for the effective delivery of new construction projects. With the continued internationalisation of the construction industry, Construction Management will be required rea...

Pellicer, Eugenio; Teixeira, José C; Moura, Helder P; Catalá, Joaquín

2014-01-01

268

Web based Measurement System for Solar Radiation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We present in this paper, the principles of the measurement system for solar radiation, and our implementation using Web based data logging concept. The photocurrent produced by Silicon PN junction is used as a solar radiation transducer, to make it more viable we have used commercially available solar panels as our transducers. Using a silicon solar cell as sensor, a low cost solar radiometer can be constructed. The photocurrent produced by solar cell is electronically tailored to be measure...

Shachi Awasthi,; Mor, Dr P.

2012-01-01

269

Basic study for the construction of solar cell using CdS photocatalysts and Na{sub 2}S{sub 4} electrolyte  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Photoexcited electrons pathway from thin film consisting of semiconductor particles to electrode was tried to develop by using conducting polymers. PEDOT/PSS and polyaniline was selected as transparent conducting polymer material. In the case of the cell consisted by using polyaniline, it was confirmed that conductive emeraldine salt stated polyaniline converted to non-conductive emeraldine base state because of contact with strong basic Na{sub 2}S{sub 4} electrolyte solution. On the other hand, as regards the cell with PEDOT/PSS, it was expected that positive and negative electrode short-circuited and/or Schottky junction was formed between CdS and PEDOT/PSS. The formation of Schottky junction between CdS and PEDOT/PSS was reduced the kinetic energy of the photoexcited electrons to 5.1eV which was the Fermi level of PEDOT. These electrons could not reduce Na{sub 2}S{sub 4} electrolyte solution since oxidation-reduction potential was 4.1eV. As a result, it considered that photoexcited electrons transfer was restricted, which read the decreasement of mobility of photoexcited electron, while the cell “without” PEDOT/PSS could operate as a solar cell.

Mabuchi, Takashi, E-mail: hideyuki@mail.kankyo.tohoku.ac.jp; Hayashi, Tsugumi, E-mail: hideyuki@mail.kankyo.tohoku.ac.jp; Takahashi, Hideyuki, E-mail: hideyuki@mail.kankyo.tohoku.ac.jp; Tohji, Kazuyuki, E-mail: hideyuki@mail.kankyo.tohoku.ac.jp [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan)

2013-12-10

270

Solar energy in Amersfoort, Netherlands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For the first time in the world a newly to be built housing area (Nieuwland in Amersfoort, Netherlands) will be constructed, exclusively on the basis of sustainability. First, the use of three forms of solar energy conversion techniques (thermal solar energy, passive solar energy and photovoltaic energy) is going to be integrated in 50 rental houses. At the end of this century 10,000 m2 of solar cells will be installed with a capacity of 1 MWp. 2 figs

271

Geodesy work in the construction of cooling towers of the Temelin nuclear power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The specifications are described of the cooling tower foundations, the bottom part of the flue chimney and of the cooling tower casing. In view of the cooling tower configuration, the ground control points inside the tower were selected in the pit bottom and the layout and check were performed of the inner tower wall. The methodology of measuring the basic layout network, and of laying out up to the fiftieth (ca. 80 m) and from the 70th (106 m) strip is described. The measurement results are computer-processed. The accuracy is assessed of the cooling tower construction in the Temelin nuclear power plant. (E.J.). 1 fig., 5 refs

272

Geologic, geophysical, and in-situ stress investigations in the vicinity of the Dining Car chimney, Dining Car/Hybla Gold Drifts, Nevada Test Site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Hybla Gold event, detonated on Nov. 1, 1977, was conducted in the U12e.20 drifts of the E-tunnel complex beneath the surface of Rainier Mesa at the Nevada Test Site. Though the proximity of the Hybla Gold working point to the chimney of the Dining Car event was important to the experiment, the observable geologic effects from Dining Car on the Hybla Gold site were minor. Overburden above the working point is approximately 385 m (1263 ft). The pre-Tertiary surface, probably quartzite, lies approximately 254 m (833 ft) below the working point. This report comprises three chapters detailing the geologic, geophysical, and in situ stress data gathered in the period January through June 1977, in the course of mining and drilling in the Hybla Gold/Dining Car region. These investigations confirm several observations reported previously for the Rainier event, i.e., a zone of microfailure observable in thin-section and in physical properties exists adjacent to the chimney. In addition, however, a number of investigations add new information to our understanding of effects near the detonation point. Shear waves were found to be highly diagnostic in the microcracked zone near the chimney as well as zones of failure at greater range not discernible as well as zones of failure at greater range not discernible by other techniques. Extensive in situ stress measurements made by the hydrofracture and overcore techniques indicate changes in the orientation and magnitude of the pre-Dthe orientation and magnitude of the pre-Dining Car stress field. The hydrofracture technique further suggests pronounced gradients in minimum stress magnitudes over short distances at some locations in the postshot stress regime

273

Acive shallow-water submarine hydrothermal venting and occurence of chimney-like mineral deposits from Northern Kagoshima Bay, South Kyushu, Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

At least three active volcanoes are located in and around Kagoshima Bay, South Kyushu, Japan. The bay has been considered a tectonic graben formed under extensional stress associated with subduction of the Philippine-sea plate sinking below the Eurasia plate and the axis of graben is extended along the volcanic front. In addition, the bay head area is a part of the Aira caldera, it is considered to form ca. 25,000 yeas ago. The Wakamiko crate (31°40'N, 130°46'E) is an active crater of the caldera and the depression of crater is buried by a thick (up to 80m) unconsolidate deposits. Therefore, the crater floor shows quite flat feature and the depth of floor is ca. 200m. In the crater hydrothermal activity has been recognized, however, active vent of hydrothermal fluid is not found except two gentle shimmering from fissure and small collapse developed on muddy floor. During the dive study of ROV/Hyper-Dolphin of JAMSTEC (R/V Natsushima, NT07-09 Cruise) in June 2007, active hydrothermal venting (T > 186°C) was found on the crater floor, and the venting as ca. 10- cm-wide jet of hot water without gas was observed atop of mineralized chimney-like structure up to 1.5 m in height. The chimney was composed mainly native sulfur, sulfate minerals, silica, and small amount of sulfides such as pyrite, stibnite, realgar and cinnabar. Chemistry of the venting fluid was almost comparable with one of the shimmering fluids obtained as pore water, which was characterized by low salinity (Cl = 300mM) and higher K concentration than seawater. Analyses of detailed chemistry and mineralogy of the fluid and chimney is under way.

Yamanaka, T.; Ishibashi, J.; Maeto, K.; Nakaseama, M.; Okamura, K.; Sugiyama, T.; Fujino, K.; Kimura, H.; Chiba, H.

2007-12-01

274

76 FR 60475 - Issuance of a Loan Guarantee to Tonopah Solar Energy, LLC, for the Crescent Dunes Solar Energy...  

Science.gov (United States)

...ENERGY Issuance of a Loan Guarantee to Tonopah Solar Energy, LLC, for the Crescent Dunes Solar Energy Project AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy...Act of 2009 (Recovery Act), to Tonopah Solar Energy, LLC (TSE), for construction and...

2011-09-29

275

Construction supervision in construction project  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Every construction project is a unique, complex process. Every completed structure is permanent act into space, and has therefore substantial influence upon social and natural environment. As a consequence, it is essential to provide professional supervision of the construction process that will ensure conformity of the construction with the project documentation and the building permit. The purpose of the thesis is to present the role of the construction supervision and the work of the s...

Struna, Ervin

2012-01-01

276

A power plant with a two Eiffel towers height. The thermal chimney; Une centrale haute comme deux tours Eiffel. La cheminee thermique  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This short digest paper presents a prototype of thermal chimney of 600 m height which will be built in the Thar desert (India). A air intake system which collects the air heated by the sun in a huge greenhouse will run a turbine for a production of a billion of kWh per year. A network of black pipe installed inside the greenhouse will store the heat during the day and release it at night for a better efficiency of the system. (J.S.)

Sender-Dumoulin, E.

1998-01-01

277

Properties of Pulsed-Laser-Deposited CuI and Characteristics of Constructed Dye-Sensitized TiO2|Dye|CuI Solid-State Photovoltaic Solar Cells  

Science.gov (United States)

Transparent semiconducting copper iodide (CuI) films were deposited by pulsed laser deposition and their characteristics were investigated. In this paper, the structural and optoelectrical properties of CuI thin films and the construction of dye-sensitized TiO2|Dye|CuI solid-state photovoltaic solar cells are reported. The optical absorption of these films shows a remarkable blue shift compared to that of polycrystalline CuI, which can be explained by the formation of ultrafine CuI grains. The CuI films exhibited an optical transmittance of over 80% in wavelengths ranging from 400 to 900 nm and a minimum resistivity of approximately 2 K?\\cdotcm. The properties of pulsed-laser-deposited CuI in the power output of n-TiO2|Dye|p-CuI cells is studied. An efficient charge generation is observed through the illumination of the TiO2 layer of the fabricated n-TiO2|Dye|p-CuI cells. The cell performance has been characterized base on the current-voltage (I-V) working curve determined under AM 1.5 illumination conditions (100 mW/cm2, 25°C). The maximum short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc) of approximately 12.2 mA/cm2 and open-circuit photovoltage (Voc) of approximately 480 mV were obtained for the TiO2|Dye|CuI solid-state photovoltaic solar cells with good reproducibility. The fill factor (FF) and power conversion efficiency (?) were about 47.8% and 2.8%, respectively.

Rusop, Mohamad; Shirata, Tetsuya; Sirimanne, Prasad M.; Soga, Tetsuo; Jimbo, Takashi

2003-08-01

278

Solar energy - Industrial applications  

Science.gov (United States)

Improved system efficiencies and reduced capital costs are identified as goals in the operation of solar energy industrial projects. An analysis by the Solar Energy Research Institute and DOE of the field performance of six industrial systems using the computer code SOLIPH showed that for well-designed and constructed steam systems a range of thermal efficiencies of 30 to 35 percent can be expected. The Modular Industrial Solar Retrofit program of Sandia National Laboratories is examined. The economics of industrial solar systems is considered with emphasis on technology costs and major economic parameters. It was found that the solar industrial process heat system was potentially competitive, both in the present and through 1998, only under the most favorable conditions. Local energy rates, solar conditions, land availability and tax incentives are shown to impact strongly on the feasibility of individual projects.

Kearney, D.; Lewandowski, A.

1983-12-01

279

Economic aspects of Solar Thermal Technologies for electricity generation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Economic results of German studies are presented, which compare the four solar thermal technologies for electricity generation (parabolic trough collector system, central receiver system, parabolic dish/Stirling system, solar chimney plant). These studies were carried out by Interatom (today Siemens/KWU) in Bergisch Gladbach, Flachglas Solartechnik in Koln and Schlaich Bergermann and Partner in Stuggart under contract of DLR in Koln. Funds were made available by the German Ministry of Research and Development (BMFT). The results indicate that all of the investigated technologies have the potential to reduce the generating costs and that in the future costs of below 0.30 DM/kWh could be expected under excellent insolation conditions (e.G. 2850 kWh/m''2 a direct insolation as in California/USA). (Author) 25 refs

280

Old bulgarian architecture - an university of solar energy application  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The impressing involvement of the ancient Bulgarian houses in the surroundings and their composition reveal nearly all aspects of Solar Energy (SE) and energy efficiency(EE) tools' application. In this paper are concerned (and richly illustrated), namely: direct/indirect gains, thermal mass, convectional loops, sun spaces (atrium case), solar chimney, synthesis exterior/interior; etc. The joint effect is highly convincing in the SE and EE knowledge of ancient anonymous master-builder. The SE conception is obviously always well considered, readable, well planned and its combined effect is not accidental at all. Such investigation could be of great importance for a new meaning (not only in Bulgaria) to History of Architecture. Investigations like this could motivate a future unwritten yet Bioclimatic history of world architecture. (orig.)

Dobrinova, Annie [Bulgarian Solar Energy Society, Sofia (Bulgaria)

2008-07-01

 
 
 
 
281

FFTF constructibility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The influence of the design criteria on the constructibility of the Fast Flux Test Facility is described. Specifically, the effects of requirements due to maintenance accessibility, inerting of cells, seismicity, codes, and standards are addressed. The design and construction techniques developed to minimize the impact of the design criteria on cost and schedule are presented with particular emphasis on the cleanliness and humidity controls imposed during construction of the sodium systems. (U.S.)

282

Solar Lentigo  

Science.gov (United States)

newsletter | contact Share | Solar Lentigo Information for adults A A A This image displays many solar lentigos due to the patient having many sunburns as a child and teenager. Overview A solar lentigo (plural, solar lentigines), also known as a ...

283

Solar Power  

Science.gov (United States)

Students learn about solar energy and how to calculate the amount of solar energy available at a given location and time of day on Earth. The importance of determining incoming solar energy for solar devices is discussed.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

284

Enhanced bilateral somatostatin receptor expression in mediastinal lymph nodes (''chimney sign'') in occult metastatic medullary thyroid cancer: a typical site of tumour manifestation?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In medullary thyroid cancer (MTC), post-surgically elevated plasma calcitonin and/or carcinoembryonic antigen levels frequently indicate persisting metastatic disease, although conventional diagnostic procedures fail to localize the responsible lesions (occult disease). Somatostatin analogues have been used successfully in disease localization, but recently concerns have been raised that increased thoracic uptake of indium-111 pentetreotide in patients with previous external beam irradiation may represent a false-positive finding, caused by post-irradiation pulmonary fibrosis. We recently examined seven patients with metastatic MTC by somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (six with occult and one with established disease). In four patients, all of whom had stable or slowly rising tumour marker levels over several years, a chimney-like bilateral mediastinal uptake of indium-111 pentetreotide was found. In two patients with persisting hypercalcitonaemia immediately after primary surgery, supraclavicular lymph node metastases were identified as the responsible lesions. None of these seven patients had prior external beam radiation therapy. In two cases, histological confirmation was obtained. In one patient, disease progression could be shown during follow-up. These data suggest that bilateral mediastinal lymph node involvement is a typical site of disease in slowly progressing occult metastatic MTC; the ''chimney sign'' may represent a typical finding with somatostatin anant a typical finding with somatostatin analogues in such cases. Therefore, we believe that even in the case of prior external beam irradiation, mediastinal uptake of octreotide might represent metastatic MTC rather than radiation fibrosis. (orig.). With 2 figs., 1 tab

285

Solar energy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This chapter discusses the role solar energy may have in the energy future of the US. The topics discussed in the chapter include the solar resource, solar architecture including passive solar design and solar collectors, solar-thermal concentrating systems including parabolic troughs and dishes and central receivers, photovoltaic cells including photovoltaic systems for home use, and environmental, health and safety issues

286

Construction management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

PEFP, Proton Engineering Frontier Project, puts its aim to building 100MeV 20mA linear proton accelerator which is national facility for NT, BT, IT, and future technologies, expected to boost up the national industry competitiveness. This R and D, Construction Management is in charge of the supportive works as site selection, architecture and engineering of conventional facilities, and overall construction management. The major goals of this work are as follows: At first, architecture and engineering of conventional facilities. Second, construction management, audit and inspection on construction of conventional facilities. Lastly, cooperation with the project host organization for adjusting technical issues of overall construction. In this research, We made a conceptual design, basic design and detail design of conventional facilities. Also, we made the engineering support for host site construction as follows : selection of project host organization and host site selection, construction technical work for project host organization and procedure management and impact analysis on the delay of project site selection

287

Construction crane  

Science.gov (United States)

People who operate construction cranes carrying heavy loads must be coordinated. The load on the crane must not injure any workers or anyone else near the site. They must be careful to maneuver heavy loads around buildings without hitting them.

N/A N/A (None; )

2007-07-25

288

Solar climatisation. Solare Klimatisierung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The climatisation of the hotel Belroy in Benidorm/Spain is done by solar energy. An absorption cold generator with a solar vacuum tubular system are in the hotel installed. The whole demand of energy of the hotel was reduced about 30%. (orig.)

Hansen, C. (Dornier-Prinz Solartechnik GmbH, Stromberg (Germany))

1993-09-01

289

In situ ore formation experiment: Amino acids and amino sugars trapped in artificial chimneys on deep-sea hydrothermal systems at Suiyo Seamount, Izu-Bonin Arc, Pacific Ocean  

CERN Document Server

The present study reports on the bio-organic composition of a deep-sea venting hydrothermal system originating from arc volcanism; the origin of the particulates in hydrothermal fluids from the Suiyo Seamount in the southern Izu-Bonin (Ogasawara) Arc is discussed with regard to amino compounds. Chimney samples on deep-sea hydrothermal systems and core samples at Suiyo Seamount were determined for amino acids, and occasionally amino sugars. Two types of chimney samples were obtained from active hydrothermal systems by submersible vehicles: one was natural chimney (NC) on a hydrothermal natural vent; the other was artificial chimneys (AC), mainly formed by the growth and deposition of sulfide-rich particulate components in a Kuwabara-type in situ incubator (KI incubator). Total hydrolyzed amino acids (THAA) and hydrolyzed hexosamines (HA) in AC ranged from 10.7 nmol/g to 64.0 nmol/g and from 0 nmol/g to 8.1 nmol/g, respectively, while THAA in hydrothermally altered core samples ranged from 26.0 nmol/g to 107.4 ...

Takano,; Marumo,; K.,; Ebashi,; T.,; Gupta,; P., L; Kawahata,; H.,; Kobayashi,; K.,; Yamagishi,; A.,; Kuwabara,; T,

2013-01-01

290

Seafloor mounds, craters and depressions linked to seismic chimneys breaching fossilized diagenetic bottom simulating reflectors in the central and southern Scotia Sea, Antarctica  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on an extensive dataset including swath bathymetry, chirp sub-bottom profiler (TOPAS) and multichannel seismic reflection profiles obtained during four cruises in the Scotia Sea aboard the R/V Hespérides, we report a variety of seismic and morphological structures related to focused fluid flow in the Scan Basin (southern Scotia Sea) and the central Scotia Sea (Antarctica). We show that both positive-relief (mounds) and negative-relief (craters and elongated depressions) seafloor morphologies are associated with deep seismic chimneys that link the deep source zone to the subsurface structures through a network of fractures that progressively breach sub-horizontal bands of anomalously high-amplitude reflections. Based on the recognition that these bands of reflections generally mimic the seafloor topography and locally cross-cut the stratigraphic seismic reflections, we recognize three different bottom simulating reflectors (BSRs). According to the theoretical model for hydrate and silica diagenesis stability conditions in the central and southern Scotia Sea and the calculations of temperature and seismic polarity for the three BSRs, we infer that BSR-2 and BSR-3 are reflections caused by the transformation between Opal-A/Opal-CT and Opal-CT/Quartz, respectively. We thus postulate that the successive diagenetic fronts were caused by significantly high geothermal gradients during the early-middle Miocene. In contrast, the low temperatures calculated for the depth of the BSR-1 event rule out its diagenetic origin but delineate the base of the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ). An evolutionary model is proposed to explain the plumbing system and chimney structures that help the focused flow of gas-rich fluids to migrate into the subsurface. Firstly, the formation of silica transformation zones may have acted as reservoir traps during Neogene times. Secondly, the progressive decrease of heat flow during the late Pliocene and Quaternary favored the development of the networks of polygonal faults forming collapses and downward tapering chimneys. Finally, seafloor mounds are formed as a result of the continuous injection of gas-enriched fluids through these networks of fractures; they are transformed into gas hydrates above the present base of the GHSZ and move upwards by buoyancy drive as they lose density and increase their volume. We present these structures as type cases that might represent highly concentrated hydrates around local seafloor fluid venting structures. Furthermore, they may be one of the most important conduits into the ocean-atmosphere system for deep methane in the Antarctic seafloor. The breach of BSRs influenced by global warming may induce the catastrophic release of greenhouse gases to the ocean-atmosphere system and, in turn, impact on the Earth's evolution.

Somoza, Luis; León, Ricardo; Medialdea, Teresa; Pérez, Lara F.; González, Francisco J.; Maldonado, Andrés

2014-12-01

291

Passive Solar Construction--Design and Performance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presented is a list of books and reports intended to serve as technical sources of information for the building professional interested in energy conservation. These publications are grouped under these headings: (1) energy-conserving building design; (2) passive systems/design; (3) passive systems/performance; and (4) proceedings (of the American…

Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

292

System analysis of a PV/T hybrid solar window  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A building-integrated multifunctional PV/T solar window was suggested and developed by Andreas Fieber. The solar window is constructed of PV cells laminated on solar absorbers placed in a window behind the glazing. To reduce the costs of solar electricity, tiltable reflectors have been introduced in the construction to focus radiation onto the solar cells. The reflectors make it possible to control the amount of radiation transmitted into the building. The insulated reflectors also reduce the...

Davidsson, Henrik

2010-01-01

293

Salt-gradient solar ponds  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A description of salt-gradient solar ponds is presented. Guidelines concerning the construction and maintenance of the pond are discussed. A computer model was used to study layer migration in laboratory tanks and in an outdoor pond. The status of solar ponds is briefly discussed. An equation relating heat flux and salt flux at a boundary is included. (BCS)

Neeper, D.A.

1984-01-01

294

Construction safety  

CERN Document Server

A close-to-ideal blend of suburb and city, speedy construction of towers of Babylon, the sparkling proportion of glass and steel buildings’ facade at night showcase the wisdom of humans. They also witness the footsteps, sweats and tears of architects and engineers. Unfortunately, these signatures of human civilizations are swathed in towering figures of construction accidents. Fretting about these on sites, different countries adopt different measures on sites. This book firstly sketches the construction accidents on sites, followed by a review on safety measures in some of the developing countries such as Bermuda, Egypt, Kuwait and China; as well as developed countries, for example, the United States, France and Singapore. It also highlights the enormous compensation costs with the courts’ experiences in the United Kingdom and Hong Kong.

Li, Rita Yi Man

2013-01-01

295

Trail Construction  

Science.gov (United States)

In this highly physical outdoor activity, learners construct and compare experimental trail sections to select the best trail-construction technique for their site. As they measure, evaluate and build, they must consider factors including erosion, slope, materials, labor, cost, human effort, and various environmental impacts. The slope measuring component not only involves mathematical problem-solving, but can incorporate measurement of human health performance, since one way of measuring slope in this activity can be having learners check their pulse as they climb a hill. This activity can be well combined with the "Hold a Hill" and "Cardiac Hill" activities from the same resource.

Lawrence Hall of Science

1982-01-01

296

SOLAR PLANT SYSTEM-MECHANICAL CONSTRUCTION OF SOLAR CONVERTER  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Components of photovoltaic systems are presented in the thesis. It describes the design of the distribution of elements within the housing, based on 3D computer model and requirements of laboratory prototype. Also included is a description of the boost converter and its switching elements. For the latter switching and conduction losses are calculated. Other losses of the converter, converted into heat, were found with the use of the thermal camera. Based on these results, we designed a model ...

Copot, Damjan

2013-01-01

297

Revisiting the Issue of Solar Abundances  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We revisit the issue of solar abundances and examine whether the updated abundances result in solar models that have structures that agree with the structure of the Sun as determined by helioseismology. We quantify the changes in opacity required to bring the models constructed with the newer solar abundances in agreement with the Sun.

298

Job creation potential of solar  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document defines the size of the job market within Canada's solar industry and presents a preliminary forecast of the employment opportunities through to 2025. The issue of job potential within Canada's solar technologies is complicated by the wide range of different fields and technologies within the solar industry. The largest energy generator of the solar technologies is passive solar, but the jobs in this sector are generally in the construction trades and window manufacturers. The Canadian Solar Industries Association estimates that there are about 360 to 500 firms in Canada with the primary business of solar technologies, employing between 900 to 1,200 employees. However, most solar manufacturing jobs in Canada are for products exports as demonstrated by the 5 main solar manufacturers in Canada who estimate that 50 to 95 per cent of their products are exported. The main reason for their high export ratio is the lack of a Canadian market for their products. The 3 categories of job classifications within the solar industry include manufacturing, installation, and operations and maintenance. The indirect jobs include photovoltaic system hardware, solar hot water heating, solar air ventilation, and glass/metal framing. 17 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

299

Solar Energy Education. Home economics: student activities. Field test edition  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A view of solar energy from the standpoint of home economics is taken in this book of activities. Students are provided information on solar energy resources while performing these classroom activities. Instructions for the construction of a solar food dryer and a solar cooker are provided. Topics for study include window treatments, clothing, the history of solar energy, vitamins from the sun, and how to choose the correct solar home. (BCS)

1981-03-01

300

Modelling Constructs  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

There are many different notations and formalisms for modelling business processes and workflows. These notations and formalisms have been introduced with different purposes and objectives. Later, influenced by other notations, comparisons with other tools, or by standardization efforts, these notations have been extended in order to increase expressiveness and to be more competitive. This resulted in an increasing number of notations and formalisms for modelling business processes and in an increase of the different modelling constructs provided by modelling notations, which makes it difficult to compare modelling notations and to make transformations between them. One of the reasons is that, in each notation, the new concepts are introduced in a different way by extending the already existing constructs. In this chapter, we go the opposite direction: We show that it is possible to add most of the typical extensions on top of any existing notation or formalism—without changing the formalism itself. Basically, we introduce blocks with some additional attributes defining their initiation and termination behaviour. This serves two purposes: First, it gives a clearer understanding of the basic constructs and how they can be combined with more advanced constructs. Second, it will help combining different modelling notations with each other. Note that, though we introduce a notation for blocks in this chapter, we are not so much interested in promoting this notation here. The notation should just prove that it is possible to separate different issues of a modelling notation, and this way making its concepts clearer and the interchange of models easier. A fully-fledged block notation with a clear and simple interface to existing formalisms is yet to be developed.

Kindler, Ekkart

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Capital construction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Capital Construction Programme 1997 included 57 construction actions. There were total investments of 1,929,520,000 Slovak crowns. Activities of the V-1 NPP Gradual Reconstruction Programme were focused on the following technologic systems - pressurizer safety valves, steam generator super emergency feed water supply, the third emergency power supply from the Madunice Hydro Plant, and motor generator - were conducted at the V-1 NPP Unit 1 in 1997. Enhancement activities at the V-1 NPP Unit 2 included pressurizer safety valves, steam generator super emergency feed water supply, seismic reinforcement, fire protection improvement, and air-conditioning structures. Following activities were completed: the Unit 2 Release-to-Atmosphere Plant, 3rd emergency power supply from the Madunice Hydro Plant , closed cable rooms gas extinguishing system, motor generators replacement, seismic reinforcement of the super emergency feed water pump building, pressurizer safety valve joint reconstruction. The V-2 NPP nuclear safety enhancement and seismic reinforcement consist of a set of safety measures to improve the V-2 NPP nuclear safety and performance reliability. Replacement of the V-1 NPP and V-2 NPP cooling systems using freons belonged to the most important ecological constructions completed in 1997. The Heat Line uses heat withdrawn from the V-2 NPP for the towns of Leopoldov and Hlohovec centralized heat supply. There was the work conducted at the primary heating joints and Hlohovec and Leopoldov Heat Withdrawal Plants, at Heat Withdrawal Plants of other facilities in these towns and the redundant heating system in 1997. Having undergone testing and reviews all the line was set under trial operation on October 24, 1997. Bohunice NPPs AKOBOJE Security System assured the automatic system of security protection of the site. This construction was divided into several stages. First two stages were completed in 1996, the third one a year later. AKOBOJE Security System has been under its full operation since November 25, 1997

302

Wound construction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Wound construction is critical in microincision vitrectomy surgery. The three main steps in constructing a proper wound include displacing the conjunctiva away from the sclera, flattening the sclera on insertion, and angling the incision. Each one of these steps helps create wounds that will not leak. Misaligning the conjunctiva from the scleral hole prevents a vitreous wick from extending external to the conjunctiva. Flattening the sclera on trocar insertion provides a longer wound cord length, which is less likely to leak, and angling the incision has been proven to seal better in both anterior and posterior segment incisions. When you make an angled incision, you initially insert the blade at a 30° angle (at least). This will make the wound more stable because it is less likely to cause internal disruption of the wound edges. These three basic steps are simple, but very important to follow when constructing a microincision wound in order to limit postoperative complications including wound leakage, gas leak, hypotony, and endophthalmitis. PMID:25196754

Trichonas, George; Kaiser, Peter K

2014-01-01

303

Standard solar model  

Science.gov (United States)

A set of solar models have been constructed, each based on a single modification to the physics of a reference solar model. In addition, a model combining several of the improvements has been calculated to provide a best solar model. Improvements were made to the nuclear reaction rates, the equation of state, the opacities, and the treatment of the atmosphere. The impact on both the structure and the frequencies of the low-l p-modes of the model to these improvements are discussed. It is found that the combined solar model, which is based on the best physics available (and does not contain any ad hoc assumptions), reproduces the observed oscillation spectrum (for low-l) within the errors associated with the uncertainties in the model physics (primarily opacities).

Guenther, D. B.; Demarque, P.; Kim, Y.-C.; Pinsonneault, M. H.

1992-01-01

304

Solar Energy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presented is the utilization of solar radiation as an energy resource principally for the production of electricity. Included are discussions of solar thermal conversion, photovoltic conversion, wind energy, and energy from ocean temperature differences. Future solar energy plans, the role of solar energy in plant and fossil fuel production, and…

Eaton, William W.

305

Boom Construction  

Science.gov (United States)

Student teams design their own booms (bridges) and engage in a friendly competition with other teams to test their designs. Each team strives to design a boom that is light, can hold a certain amount of weight, and is affordable to build. Teams are also assessed on how close their design estimations are to the final weight and cost of their boom "construction." This activity teaches students how to simplify the math behind the risk and estimation process that takes place at every engineering firm prior to the bidding phase—when an engineering firm calculates how much money it will take to build the project and then "bids" against other competitors.

AMPS GK-12 Program,

306

Solar jobs; Solare Arbeit  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The German solar industry intends to support more than 130,000 jobs on a long-term basis. For this, most German manufacturers and suppliers must expand their production. But how can this be achieved in times of reduced working hours and insolvencies?.

Heup, Juergen; Rentzing, Sascha

2012-02-15

307

Solar Water Heating with Low-Cost Plastic Systems (Brochure)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Newly developed solar water heating technology can help Federal agencies cost effectively meet the EISA requirements for solar water heating in new construction and major renovations. This document provides design considerations, application, economics, and maintenance information and resources.

2012-01-01

308

Achievement report for fiscal 1997. Technological development for practical application of a solar energy power generation system/development of technology to manufacture thin film solar cells (development of technology to manufacture applied type thin film solar cells with new construction) (development of technology to manufacture micro light collection type solar cells); 1997 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, oyogata shinkozo usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (micro shukogata taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

These technological developments are intended to demonstrate module efficiency of a micro light collection type solar cell of 15% by fiscal 2000, and obtain prospect on the module manufacturing cost of 140 yen per watt. Discussions given during fiscal 1997 are as follows: development has been performed on a design method to decide construction of a non-tracking micro light collection type module; in the state of cells being integrated on the module, the cells are arranged minutely and discretely, whereas, with discussions on a method to form them and assessment of the optical system as the main objective, single crystal silicon solar cells with a size smaller than 5 mm were fabricated on a trial basis; problems of forming micro cells by using the wafer cutting process were clarified; micro cells operating on light collection were fabricated trially to extract technological problems in light collecting operation and discuss technical problems in mass production; and development was performed on an evaluation method to analyze the cells' light collecting operation, and discussions were given on a method to estimate power generation amount from the light collection type modules. (NEDO)

NONE

1998-03-01

309

Authigenic Carbonate Constructions From Deep Sea Cold Seeps  

Science.gov (United States)

Various examples of authigenic carbonates from modern marine cold seeps have been described worldwide on active or passive continental margins. They may be associated or not with gas hydrates. After a decade of microbiological and geochemical studies, we know that in cold seep marine environments, methane and other hydrocarbon compounds contained in the ascending fluids are oxidized as CO2 by a microbial consortium of sulfate reducing bacteria and methanotrophic archea. The Anaerobic Oxidation of Methane (AOM) represents the main microbial process driving the precipitation of authigenic carbonate crusts and concretions within the subsurface anoxic sediments. This explains why sea floor is often hardened by carbonate constructions at the sites of active methane seepage. The lateral and vertical extensions of these carbonate constructions are controlled by the balance between the intensity of the venting fluid flux and the ability of microbial communities to oxidize methane and to reduce sulfate. At steady state, the microbial filter transforms the totality of the emitted methane and generates carbonate; however, the efficiency of this filter can be counteracted by high methane flux, so that methane can escape in the water column and eventually reach the atmosphere ; numerical modelling of carbonate crust formation has shown that bioturbation and sedimentation rates are also important factors that control fluid and methane flow rates and thus carbonate precipitation at cold seep sites. The carbonate constructions observed at the sea floor exhibit various morphologies : massive to porous crusts, cm to meters thick, forming large pavements or fragmented slabs, circular chimneys, irregular concretions corresponding to cemented bioturbations. These hard substrates are often colonized by fixed organisms as polychaetes, tube-worms, molluscs, as well as by an abundant vagile fauna. The authigenic carbonates represent very useful archives to reconstruct the story of the seep activity. Their mineralogy, geochemical and isotopic compositions depend on the composition of the fluids and thus provide information of the origin of these fluids. It is noteworthy to mention that carbonate minerals are generally dominated by aragonite and Mg-calcite although dolomite and ankerite may become the unique species as in the carbonate chimneys of the Gulf of Cadiz. All cold seep carbonates are characterized by very low ?13C values down to - 60 permil clearly indicating that they were methane-derived products. The lipid biomarkers that are entrapped in the carbonate network provide the complementary information of the composition of the microbial communities that were involved during the diagenetic processes, AOM, sulfate reduction and methanogenesis.

Pierre, C.; Bouloubassi, I.

2008-12-01

310

Solar Collectors  

Science.gov (United States)

Solar Energy's solar panels are collectors for a solar energy system which provides heating for a drive-in bank in Akron, OH. Collectors were designed and manufactured by Solar Energy Products, a firm established by three former NASA employees. Company President, Frank Rom, an example of a personnel-type technology transfer, was a Research Director at Lewis Research Center, which conducts extensive solar heating and cooling research, including development and testing of high-efficiency flat-plate collectors. Rom acquired solar energy expertise which helped the company develop two types of collectors, one for use in domestic/commercial heating systems and the other for drying grain.

1980-01-01

311

Solar energy technologies and project delivery for buildings  

CERN Document Server

An authoritative reference, complete with applications, operating principles, and simple tools for construction, engineering, and design professionals Solar Energy: Technologies and Project Delivery for Buildings enables mainstream MEP engineering, construction, and architectural design firms to meet the growing demand for solar energy in building projects. It provides technical and design information usually only known to solar energy specialists, and simplifies solar design and engineering processes. The sample documentation in this guide enables a staff engineer at a

Walker, Andy

2013-01-01

312

Solar energy use in a construction project: The new old people's home at Muenchenbernsdorf. Final report; Solarenergienutzung im Rahmen eines Bauvorhabens Neubau bzw. Umbau eines Senioren- und Pflegeheimes in Muenchenbernsdorf. Abschlussbericht  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Old people's homes have a high and largely constant water consumption in all seasons. They are therefore ideal objects for solar sytems. The new old people's home at Muenchenbernsdorf is presented which has a large thermal solar power system, which is also to induce private builder-owners to opt for solar power. [German] Aufgrund ihres hohen (und jahreszeitlich weitestgehend konstanten) Warmwasserverbrauches bieten Senioren- und Pflegeheime sehr gute Voraussetzungen fuer die Nutzung der thermischen Solarenergie zur Warmwasserbereitung. Der Ersatzneubau des Senioren- und Pflegeheims der Stadt Muenchenbernsdorf bietet sehr gute Ansatzpunkte fuer die Senkung des Energieverbrauches und der vom Objekt ausgehen Umweltbelastungen durch Nutzung regenerativer Energietraeger. Durch die Realisierung einer grossen thermischen Solaranlage auf einem oeffentlichen Gebaeude sollen private Bauherren der Region zu eigenen Energiesparinvestitionen angeregt werden. (orig.)

Maschke, R.; Mueller; Grossmann

2000-07-01

313

Thoracic type Ia endoleak: direct percutaneous coil embolization of the aortic arch at the blood entry site after TEVAR and double-chimney stent-grafts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To introduce a novel percutaneous technique to stop blood entry at the lesser aortic arch curvature by coil embolisation in type Ia endoleak after TEVAR. A 61-year-old Marfan patient presented with type Ia endoleak of the aortic arch and a growing aortic arch pseudoaneurysm after TEVAR. Multiple preceding operations and interventions made an endovascular approach unsuccessful. Direct percutaneous puncture of the aneurysmal sac would have cured the sign, but not the cause of blood entry at the lesser curvature of the aortic arch. Direct CT-guided percutaneous puncture of the blood entry site in the aortic arch with fluoroscopically guided coil embolisation using detachable extra-long coils was successfully performed. Three weeks after the intervention, the patient developed fever because of superinfection of the pseudoaneurysm. The blood cultures and CT-guided mediastinal aspirate were sterile. After intravenous administration of antibiotics, the fever disappeared and the patient recovered. Six-month follow-up showed permanent closure of the endoleak and a shrinking aneurysmal sac. Direct percutaneous puncture of the aortic arch at the blood entry site of a thoracic type Ia endoleak after TEVAR and double-chimney stent-grafts with coil embolisation of the wedge-shaped space between the lesser aortic curvature and the stent-graft is possible. (orig.)

314

One hundred percent of ruptured aortic abdominal aneurysms can be treated endovascularly if adjunct techniques are used such as chimneys, periscopes and embolization.  

Science.gov (United States)

Observational studies comparing endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) with open repair (OR) in ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) have suggested a benefit for EVAR but have been questioned recently by randomized controlled trials (RCT). A low eligibility for endovascular repair is a main limitation of these RCTs. In contrast, data from 473 patients from 1998 to 2011 in the Örebro/Zurich series show that nearly all AAA patients presenting with rupture can in fact be treated with EVAR with a low 30-day mortality rate (24%) and a minimal exclusion rate (4%). By using different adjunct techniques, such as chimneys and periscopes, also juxtarenal aneurysms can be treated even if simultaneous aortic balloon occlusion is necessary. OnyxTM embolization of the internal iliac artery in patients with aortoiliac aneurysms prevents back flow, thus avoiding an endoleak type. From May 2009 until December 2013, 70 patients arrived at Örebro University Hospital with a ruptured AAA diagnose. Nine percent were considered unfit for any intervention (including OR) and were treated medically. All of the 64 patients that underwent surgery were treated with EVAR and 30-day mortality in this group was 17 of 64 patients (27%). The mortality for patients treated with adjunct techniques was not significantly increased compared with patients treated with standard EVAR. In conclusion, our data support that open repair of ruptured AAA can be replaced by EVAR with appropriate management of existing adjunct techniques. PMID:24670825

Larzon, T; Skoog, P

2014-04-01

315

Orbital origins of helices and magic electron counts in the Nowotny chimney ladders: the 18 - n rule and a path to incommensurability.  

Science.gov (United States)

Valence electron count is one of the key factors influencing the stability and structure of metals and alloys. However, unlike in molecular compounds, the origins of the preferred electron counts of many metallic phases remain largely mysterious. Perhaps the clearest-cut of such electron counting rules is exhibited by the Nowotny chimney ladder (NCL) phases, compounds remarkable for their helical structural motifs in which transition metal (T) helices serve as channels for a second set of helices formed from main group (E) elements. These phases exhibit density of states pseudogaps or band gaps, and thus special stability and useful physical properties, when their valence electron count corresponds to 14 electrons per T atom. In this Article, we illustrate, using DFT-calibrated Hückel calculations and the reversed approximation Molecular Orbital analysis, that the 14-electron rule of the NCLs is, in fact, a specific instance of an 18 - n rule emerging for T-E intermetallics, where n is the number of E-supported T-T bonds per T atom. The structural flexibility of the NCL series arises from the role of the E atoms as supports for these T-T bonds, which simply requires the E atoms to be as uniformly distributed within the T sublattice as possible. This picture offers a strategy for identifying other intermetallic structures that may be amenable to incommensurability between T and E sublattices. PMID:25215958

Yannello, Vincent J; Fredrickson, Daniel C

2014-10-01

316

Thoracic type Ia endoleak: direct percutaneous coil embolization of the aortic arch at the blood entry site after TEVAR and double-chimney stent-grafts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To introduce a novel percutaneous technique to stop blood entry at the lesser aortic arch curvature by coil embolisation in type Ia endoleak after TEVAR. A 61-year-old Marfan patient presented with type Ia endoleak of the aortic arch and a growing aortic arch pseudoaneurysm after TEVAR. Multiple preceding operations and interventions made an endovascular approach unsuccessful. Direct percutaneous puncture of the aneurysmal sac would have cured the sign, but not the cause of blood entry at the lesser curvature of the aortic arch. Direct CT-guided percutaneous puncture of the blood entry site in the aortic arch with fluoroscopically guided coil embolisation using detachable extra-long coils was successfully performed. Three weeks after the intervention, the patient developed fever because of superinfection of the pseudoaneurysm. The blood cultures and CT-guided mediastinal aspirate were sterile. After intravenous administration of antibiotics, the fever disappeared and the patient recovered. Six-month follow-up showed permanent closure of the endoleak and a shrinking aneurysmal sac. Direct percutaneous puncture of the aortic arch at the blood entry site of a thoracic type Ia endoleak after TEVAR and double-chimney stent-grafts with coil embolisation of the wedge-shaped space between the lesser aortic curvature and the stent-graft is possible. (orig.)

Bangard, Christopher; Franke, Mareike; Maintz, David; Chang, De-Hua [University Hospital, University of Cologne, Department of Radiology, Cologne (Germany); Pfister, Roman [University Hospital, University of Cologne, Department of Internal Medicine III, Cologne (Germany); Deppe, Antje-Christin [University Hospital, University of Cologne, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Cologne (Germany); Matoussevitch, Vladimir [University Hospital, University of Cologne, Department of Vascular Surgery, Cologne (Germany)

2014-06-15

317

Characterization of Alkaliphilus hydrothermalis sp. nov., a novel alkaliphilic anaerobic bacterium, isolated from a carbonaceous chimney of the Prony hydrothermal field, New Caledonia.  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel anaerobic, alkaliphilic, Gram-positive staining bacterium was isolated from a hydrothermal chimney in the Prony Bay, New Caledonia. This strain designated FatMR1(T) grew at temperatures from 20 to 55 °C (optimum 37 °C) and at pH between 7.5 and 10.5 (optimum 8.8-9). NaCl is not required for growth (optimum 0.2-0.5 %), but is tolerated up to 3 %. Sulfate, thiosulfate, elemental sulfur, sulfite, nitrate and nitrite are not used as terminal electron acceptors. Strain FatMR1(T) fermented pyruvate, yeast extract, peptone and biotrypcase and used fructose as the only sugar. The main fermentation products from fructose and proteinaceous compounds (e.g. peptone and biotrypcase) were acetate, H2 and CO2. Crotonate was disproportionated to acetate and butyrate. The predominant cellular fatty acids were C14:0 and C16:0. The G + C content of the genomic DNA was 37.1 mol %. On the basis of phylogenetic, genetic, and physiological properties, strain FatMR1(T) (=DSM 25890(T), =JCM 18390(T)) belonging to the phylum Firmicutes, class Clostridia, order Clostridiales, is proposed as a novel species of the genus Alkaliphilus, A. hydrothermalis sp. nov. PMID:25319677

Ben Aissa, Fatma; Postec, Anne; Erauso, Gaël; Payri, Claude; Pelletier, Bernard; Hamdi, Moktar; Fardeau, Marie-Laure; Ollivier, Bernard

2015-01-01

318

Numerical modelling of the process of heat transference, of the convective flow induced and the power generated in a wind power station; Modelizacion numerica del proceso de transferencia de calor, del flujo convectivo inducido y de la potencia generada en una central eolico solar  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A thermodynamic analysis for solar chimney power plant has been carried out by numerical simulation. A numerical model has been developed using the general purpose code Fluent to study heat transfer and convective flow within the chimney power plant. The {kappa}-{epsilon} turbulence model has been employed. A heat transfer, mass flow and power production numerical analysis has been carried out on different hours during the day, assuming steady state conditions. The numeric values obtained are 10% different from experimental measures. Once model has been validated, a numeric study about flow within power plant, heat transfer and mass flow has been carry out, and the non-dimensional parameters obtained have been compared with studies about free convection. (Author)

Hurtado, F. J.; Kaiser, A. S.; Zamora, B.; Lucas, M.; Viedma, A.

2008-07-01

319

Solar Neutrinos  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Present results and future measurements of solar neutrinos are discussed. The results to date indicate that solar electron neutrinos are changing to other active types and that transitions solely to sterile neutrinos are disfavored. The flux of $^{8}B$ solar neutrinos produced in the Sun, inferred assuming only active neutrino types, is found to be in very good agreement with solar model calculations. Future measurements will focus on greater accuracy for charged current...

Mcdonald, A. B.

2002-01-01

320

Solar oscillations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Observed frequencies of solar oscillations comprise an extensive and accurate set of data related to the structure and dynamics of the solar interior. The physics determining the oscillation frequencies is sufficiently simple that a very detailed comparison between observations and theory is possible. This has provided tight constraints on the structure of the solar interior, as well as measurements of the variation of the solar rotation with depth. (orig.)

 
 
 
 
321

Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for junior high/middle school science  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Some basic topics on the subject of solar energy are outlined in the form of a teaching manual. The manual is geared toward junior high or middle school science students. Topics include solar collectors, solar water heating, solar radiation, insulation, heat storage, and desalination. Instructions for the construction of apparatus to demonstrate the solar energy topics are provided. (BCS)

1985-01-01

322

Solar oscillation frequency and solar neutrino predictions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The light and velocity variations of the Sun and solar-like stars are unique among intrinsic variable stars. Unlike all other standard classes, such as Cepheids, B stars, and white dwarfs, the pulsation driving is caused by coupling with the acoustic noise in the upper convection zone. Each global pulsation mode is just another degree of freedom for the turbulent convection, and energy is shared equally between these g{sup {minus}}-modes and the solar oscillation modes. This driving and damping, together with the normal stellar pulsation mechanisms produce extremely low amplitude solar oscillations. Actually, the surface layer radiative damping is strong, and the varying oscillation mode amplitudes manifest the stochastic convection driving and the steady damping. Thus stability calculations for solar-like pulsations are difficult and mostly inconclusive, but calculations of pulsation periods are as straightforward as for all the other classes of intrinsic variable stars. The issue that is important for the Sun is its internal structure, because the mass, radius, and luminosity are extremely well known. Conventionally, we need the pulsation constants for each of millions of modes. Unknown parameters for constructing solar models are the composition and its material pressure, energy, and opacity, as well as the convection mixing length. We treat the nuclear energy and neutrino production formulas as sufficiently well known. The presence of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) orbiting the solar center affects the predicted oscillation frequencies so that they do not agree with observations as well as those for models without WIMPs. 34 refs., 4 figs.

Cox, A.N.

1990-07-05

323

Solar System  

Science.gov (United States)

An introduction to to the solar system. How to distinguish between the different planets. Activities to play while getting to know the solar system. Cosmic Cookies Solar System Scavenger Hunt Edible Earth Strawkets and Control Strawkets and Thrust Strawkets and Weight ...

Ms. Wright

2009-10-09

324

Aboriginal consultation report, Amherstburg solar farm  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

First Solar is constructing many solar farms in North America, Europe and Asia, including a planned solar farm in California expected to generate 550 MW of electricity and a completed 80 MW, 1150 acre solar farm in Sarnia, Ontario representing the largest photovoltaic (PV) solar facility in the world. First Solar is now working on the project of constructing a solar farm that will use thin film photovoltaic modules and convert the solar energy into electrical energy for distribution to the local electricity distribution system. This solar farm, identified as a Class 3 solar facility according to the Regulation, is expected to generate 10 MW of electricity. Class 3 solar facilities are renewable energy facilities presenting a name plate power capacity exceeding 10kW and they take place at any location other than a roof or the wall of a building. During the project development process, First Solar will keep on liaising and communicating with the two identified First Nations, the Windsor Essex Metis Council, MNO and the Crown authorities. The purpose of the process will keep on giving a particular attention to identifying any concerns raising from the project, and if some are identified, it will also focus on methods of reducing or preventing related impacts.

NONE

2010-05-15

325

Integrated photoelectrochemical energy storage: solar hydrogen generation and supercapacitor  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Current solar energy harvest and storage are so far realized by independent technologies (such as solar cell and batteries), by which only a fraction of solar energy is utilized. It is highly desirable to improve the utilization efficiency of solar energy. Here, we construct an integrated photoelectrochemical device with simultaneous supercapacitor and hydrogen evolution functions based on TiO2/transition metal hydroxides/oxides core/shell nanorod arrays. The feasibility of solar-driven pseud...

Xinhui Xia; Jingshan Luo; Zhiyuan Zeng; Cao Guan; Yongqi Zhang; Jiangping Tu; Hua Zhang; Hong Jin Fan

2012-01-01

326

System for solar heating  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The system shall be used in the construction of the so-called solar houses. The solar water collector and the water accumulator of the system are united in a compact element being interconnected by considerably shorter connections. The system includes a solar water collector and water accumulator. The collector circuit is formed by a lower and upper horizontal pipe interconnected by connection pipes bent at a right angle and vertical pipe connections fitted in the water accumulator. The water accumulator also houses second connection pipes bent at 900 belonging to the heating circuit. They conned a second lower horizontal pipe and a second upper horizontal pipe which are interconnected, and to second vertical pipes forming a radiator body. ( Patent for inventions, page 63, Patent abstracts of Bulgaria, No. 12 /1998).(author)

327

Solar Energy; Energia solar  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Global energy demand is increasing every year and oil is a source of energy that will run low, so it may run out like the rest of fossil fuels. In addition, emissions of CO{sub 2} are increasing every year due to increased energy demand. Renewable energy sources try to be the new power as an alternative to recent energies and show that a change is possible in energy production. All energy on Earth comes from the Sun and therefore, solar energy is achieving great successes among the renewable energies, but there is still a long way to innovate and improve on these renewable energies. (Author) 2 refs.

Banat Salbidegoitia, I.

2008-07-01

328

Research and development of system to utilize photovoltaic energy. Survey on the high-durability and low-cost materials for constructing the solar-cell module and its structure; Taiyoko hatsuden riyo system no kenkyu. Taiyo denchi module yo kotaikyusei tei cost zairyo, kozo ni kansuru chosa  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reports the results obtained during fiscal 1994 on a survey on the high-durability and low-cost materials for constructing the solar-cell module and on its structure. With respect to forms and materials used in the present solar-cell modules, identification was made on the current status of products commercially available and developed inside and outside Japan. Main types of solar cells used for electric power are of crystal-based silicon. Amorphous silicon and CdS-CdTe are used for consumer applications of indoor and outdoor use. As regards transparent resin materials, fluorine resin, PET, acryl, and polyimide are used as surface materials, and EVA, silicon and PVB are often used as fillers. Developments inside and outside Japan are limited to systems of polycarbonate, methacryl, fluorine, polyurethane, acryl and polyester. Butyl rubber and polyurethane are used as sealing materials. Developments are being performed on silicon rubber, polychloroprene rubber and EPT rubber for shaped materials, and silicon systems, urethane systems and polysulfide systems for non-shaped materials. 3 figs., 8 tabs.

Tatsuta, M. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

1994-12-01

329

Shenandoah parabolic dish solar collector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objectives of the Shenandoah, Georgia, Solar Total Energy System are to design, construct, test, and operate a solar energy system to obtain experience with large-scale hardware systems for future applications. This report describes the initial design and testing activities conducted to select and develop a collector that would serve the need of such a solar total energy system. The parabolic dish was selected as the collector most likely to maximize energy collection as required by this specific site. The fabrication, testing, and installation of the parabolic dish collector incorporating improvements identified during the development testing phase are described.

Kinoshita, G.S.

1985-01-01

330

Nice module. Apollon Solar present their new line of solar modules; Nettes Modul. Apollon Solar stellt Linie fuer neuartige Modultechnologie vor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Solar modules, TGV engines and perfume Zerstaeuber seem to have nothing in common. The new solar module developed by French producer Apollon Solar makes use of both technologies in the construction process. The contribution presents the 'Nice' module which has many new features. (orig.)

Podewils, C.

2008-06-15

331

Design, construction, operation, and evaluation of solar systems for industrial process-heat applications in the intermediate-temperature range (212/sup 0/F to 550/sup 0/F). Environmental assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The environmental impacts are assessed for a proposed 50,000 square foot field of single axis tracking, concentrating solar collectors along the Ohio River in southern Ohio. The facility is planned to produce process steam for use in the production of polystyrene. Absorbed solar energy would heat an aliphatic hydrocarbon synthetic heat transfer fluid to a maximum temperature of 500/sup 0/F. The existing environment is briefly described, particularly regarding air quality. The potential environmental impacts of the solar process heat system on the air, water, soil, endangered species and archaeological and historical resources are examined, including risks due to flood and glare and a comparison of alternatives. Also included are a Consent Judgment relating to two coal-fired boilers in violation of EPA regulations, property data of Gulf Synfluid 4CS (a candidate heat transfer fluid), piping and instrumentation diagrams and schematics, site grade and drainage plan, geological survey map, subsurface soil investigation, Ohio endangered species list, Ohio Archaeological Counsel certification list, and a study of heat transfer fluids and their properties. (LEW)

332

Performance of a solar-thermal collector  

Science.gov (United States)

Possible means of achieving the technology required for field application of solar thermal power systems are discussed. Simplifications in construction techniques as well as in measurement techniques for parabolic trough collectors are described. Actual measurement data is also given.

Higa, W. H.

1975-01-01

333

Building and using the solar greenhouse  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Thorough directions are given for planning, constructing and using a solar greenhouse attached to a house. Included is a method of calculating the savings accruing from the use of the greenhouse. (LEW)

334

Solar-powered car. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The work reported was to modify a commercially available electric vehicle to use power generated by solar cells. Besides the technical and financial aspects of constructing the car, media publicity and public showings of the car are discussed. (LEW)

Plank, D.

1982-03-30

335

Solar House  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity students work in teams to design and build a model of a solar house after researching several websites. Students will discover that a solar house takes advantage of solar energy to minimize the use of traditional energy sources and can include design elements that take advantage of the sun's rays to light and heat the house, to heat water, and to set up a favorable flow of air. They also learn that many solar houses contain a solar mass that will absorb the heat during the day and release it slowly at night and a passive solar house will also take into account the angle of the sun's rays, to maximize heating during the winter and shade during the summer. This site contains all of the specifications for planning, building, and testing the model and a rubric for grading the project.

Van Norden, Wendy

336

Shuttle Engine Designs Revolutionize Solar Power  

Science.gov (United States)

The Space Shuttle Main Engine was built under contract to Marshall Space Flight Center by Rocketdyne, now part of Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR). PWR applied its NASA experience to solar power technology and licensed the technology to Santa Monica, California-based SolarReserve. The company now develops concentrating solar power projects, including a plant in Nevada that has created 4,300 jobs during construction.

2014-01-01

337

FORECAST SCENARIO OF CONSTRUCTION OF GRAIN PRODUCTION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work is a logical continuation of our investigations of constructing grain production forecast scenarios. It is devoted to the influence of climatic factors on the economic impact of the grain industry of agriculture. The technique of scenario forecasting the main indicators of grain, based on the use of solar activity in agro biological processes

Baydakov A. N.

2013-12-01

338

FORECAST SCENARIO OF CONSTRUCTION OF GRAIN PRODUCTION  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This work is a logical continuation of our investigations of constructing grain production forecast scenarios. It is devoted to the influence of climatic factors on the economic impact of the grain industry of agriculture. The technique of scenario forecasting the main indicators of grain, based on the use of solar activity in agro biological processes

Baydakov A. N.; Nazarenko A. V.; Sergienko E. G.

2013-01-01

339

Solar Power  

Science.gov (United States)

In this lesson,students will evaluate a location in the Northern Hemisphere and Southern Hemisphere to determine the areas best for collecting solar power. Changes in surface radiation will be evaluated using Monthly Surface Radiation data from 2007 from MyNASAData website. Students will draw conclusions about how surface radiation levels will affect choice of solar power plant location selection and infer the best location for a solar power plant.

340

New Solar Composition: The Problem With Solar Models Revisited  

CERN Document Server

We construct updated solar models with different sets of solar abundances, including the most recent determinations by Asplund et al. (2009). The latter work predicts a slightly larger solar metallicity compared to previous measurements by the same authors but significantly lower than the recommended value from a decade ago. The new solar models incorporate an updated equation of state and new determinations of nuclear cross-sections important for calculations of solar neutrino fluxes. We compare the results of our models with determinations of the solar structure inferred through helioseismology measurements. The model that uses the most recent solar abundance determinations predicts the base of the solar convective envelope to be located at $R_{\\rm CZ}= 0.724{\\rm R_\\odot}$ and a surface helium mass fraction of $Y_{\\rm surf}=0.231$. These results are still in conflict with helioseismology data ($R_{\\rm CZ}= 0.713\\pm0.001{\\rm R_\\odot}$ and $Y_{\\rm surf}=0.2485\\pm0.0035$) but the disagreement is less severe th...

Serenelli, Aldo; Ferguson, Jason W; Asplund, Martin

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

OUT Success Stories: Solar Trough Power Plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Solar Electric Generating System (SEGS) plants use parabolic-trough solar collectors to capture the sun's energy and convert it to heat. The SEGS plants range in capacity from 13.8 to 80 MW, and they were constructed to meet Southern California Edison Company's periods of peak power demand

342

Solar hybrid school project in East Malaysia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes the development of constructing hybrid solar systems in East Malaysia to power up selected rural schools. This includes experience regarding the designing phase, the progress works, obstacles and challenges in developing the system in rural areas. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of building solar power systems in harsh tropical climate. (orig.)

Fuerst, Wolfgang [Kombinasi Solar Sdn. Bhd., Selangor Barul Ehsan (Malaysia)

2010-07-01

343

Solar Simulator  

Science.gov (United States)

Oriel Corporation's simulators have a high pressure xenon lamp whose reflected light is processed by an optical system to produce a uniform solar beam. Because of many different types of applications, the simulators must be adjustable to replicate many different areas of the solar radiation spectrum. Simulators are laboratory tools for such purposes as testing and calibrating solar cells, or other solar energy systems, testing dyes, paints and pigments, pharmaceuticals and cosmetic preparations, plant and animal studies, food and agriculture studies and oceanographic research.

1981-01-01

344

Solar neutrinos  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A review of solar neutrino experiments is provided, including experimental measurements to date and proposed future measurements. Experiments to date have provided a clear indication that solar neutrinos are undergoing flavour transformation and that the dominant mechanism for this transformation is oscillation. The mixing parameters are well defined and limits are placed on sub-dominant modes. The measurements also provide strong confirmation of solar model calculations. New experiments under development will study neutrino oscillation parameters and sub-dominant modes with greater precision and will investigate solar fluxes further, concentrating primarily on the low energy pp, 7Be, pep and CNO reactions

345

Complete genome sequence of Thermococcus eurythermalis A501, a conditional piezophilic hyperthermophilic archaeon with a wide temperature range, isolated from an oil-immersed deep-sea hydrothermal chimney on Guaymas Basin.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thermococcus eurythermalis A501 is a conditional piezophilic hyperthermophilic archaeon, isolated from an oil-immersed hydrothermal chimney located on Guaymas Basin. This isolate is an anaerobic chemoorgano-heterotroph and can grow over wide temperature, pressure and pH ranges. The genome consists of one circular chromosome (2,122,535bp) and one plasmid (3629bp) as the extra-chromosome DNA. The genomic information will contribute to studying extreme adaptation in hydrothermal vent and also the development of industrial enzymes with high stability under extreme condition. PMID:25444877

Zhao, Weishu; Xiao, Xiang

2015-01-10

346

Modern constructional physics. Moderne Bauphysik  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Constructional physics deals with the interdependence between a building on the one hand and heat, moisture, sound, light, precipitation and wind on the other hand. This book is both a textbook and a practical reference manual. Illustrated by many drawings, diagrams and tables, the following 14 subjects are dealt with in detail: Temperature gradients on the outer walls (steady heat transfer); room climate and thermal comfort; climate and weather elements; two- and three-dimensional steady heat flow; pressure gradients (lift, wind, and the building); the building in the solar and atmospheric radiation field; daylight and illumination; water and the building; moisture transport in building materials and construction; heat storage and transient heat flow; energy and the building; physical fundamentals of acoustic insulation; the building in the acoustic field; fire protection measures.

Hauri, H.H.; Zuercher, C.

1984-01-01

347

Solar Energy Education. Industrial arts: student activities. Field test edition  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this teaching manual several activities are presented to introduce students to information on solar energy through classroom instruction. Wind power is also included. Instructions for constructing demonstration models for passive solar systems, photovoltaic cells, solar collectors and water heaters, and a bicycle wheel wind turbine are provided. (BCS)

1981-02-01

348

Passivation layer for steel substrate of solar cell  

Science.gov (United States)

Solar cell is fabricated on commerical sheet-steel substrate passivated with tungsten layer. Layer prevents constituents of steel from interacting with semiconductor materials in MOS thin-film solar cell. Thin plating of nickel on steel improves bonding of tungsten. Use of steel as substrate reduces materials cost of solar cell construction.

Stirn, R. J.; Yeh, Y. M.

1981-01-01

349

Solar Sprint  

Science.gov (United States)

In the "Solar Sprint" activity, students design, test, and race a solar-powered car built with Legos. The use of ratios is incorporated to simulate the actual work of scientists and engineers. This method encourages fourth-grade students to think about multiple variables and stimulates their curiosity when an activity doesn't come out as…

Tabor, Richard; Anderson, Stephen

2007-01-01

350

Solar Structures  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity, learners explore how the power of the sun can be harnessed to heat and cool a building. Learners work in teams of "engineers" to design and build their own solar houses out of everyday items. They test their solar house, evaluate their results, and present to the group.

IEEE

2014-05-22

351

Solar window  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In recent years various companies are developing technology to turn ordinary windows into solar panels. And now the U.S. firm New Energy Technologies has also decided to compete in the creation of new sources of energy generation, providing SolarWindow. When you are citing the document, use the following link http://essuir.sumdu.edu.ua/handle/123456789/22075

??????, ??????? ???????????; ??????, ??????? ??????????; Usenko, Nataliia Mykolaivna; Oliinyk, I. V.

2011-01-01

352

Compass & Straight Edge Constructions  

Science.gov (United States)

Use compass & straight edge to do basic constructions. Follow the directions to construct a segment bisector. construct midpoint or segment bisector Now, follow the directions to construct a perpendicular line through a point on a line. Construct a perpendicular line through a point on a line Another perpendicular line to construct is one through a point not on a line. Construct a perpendicular line through a point not on the line Now we\\'ve constructed perpendicular lines, let\\'s construct a parallel line. ...

Silotti, Mrs.

2007-06-12

353

Low cost thermal solar collector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Solar energy is a good alternative in the economy of the electric energy mainly for the water heating. However, the solar heaters used demand a high initial investment, becoming the warm water from solar energy inaccessible to a large part of the society. Thus, a low cost solar heater was developed, constructed and tested in the chemical engineering department of West Parana State University-Unioeste. This equipment consists of 300 cans, divided in 30 columns of 10 cans each, all painted in black to enhance the obsorption of the solar radiation. The columns are connected to a pipe of pvc of 8 liters with 0.085m of external diameter. The equipment is capable to heat 120 liters of water in temperatures around 60 degree centigrade. The heater is insolated in its inferior part with cardboard and aluminum, covered with a transparent plastic in its superior. The system still counts with a insulated thermal reservoir, which can conserve the water in temperatures adjusted for the night non-solar days domestic use. The advantage of the constructed is it low cost material. The results are given an graphical tabular from showing acceptable efficiencies.(Autho

354

Solar Observations  

Science.gov (United States)

This is an activity involving observations of the Sun. Learners use pinhole cameras, solar telescopes, and/or solar viewing glasses to make solar observations, draw what they see, and identify sunspots, if they are present. Then, learners go online and compare their drawings to images obtained by the SOHO spacecraft. This activity requires the use a sunny outdoor location. This activity also require use of safe methods for observing the Sun, such as pinhole cameras, telescopes with proper solar filters attached, and/or viewing glasses that are designated for safe solar viewing. No one should look at the Sun unless one or more of these methods is used in a proper fashion.

355

Papers presented at ISES solar world congress 1993 in Budapest, Hungary  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Papers presented at the ISES Solar World Congress 1993 by researchers employed at the Thermal Insulation Laboratory at the Technical University of Denmark. The subjects dealt with are: the design of small domestic hot water low-flow solar heating systems, heat storage for large low-flow solar heating systems, the monitoring of Danish marketed solar heating systems, conversion of indoor measurements to outdoor long term performances for low flow solar collectors, optimum ventilation rate of solar collectors, the construction of seasonal heat storage based on a pit with clay membrane, a solar house with a new solar collector, and a framing system for solar wall glazings. (AB)

356

Advanced solar panel designs  

Science.gov (United States)

Solar panel designs that utilize new high-efficiency solar cells and lightweight rigid panel technologies are described. The resulting designs increase the specific power (W/kg) achievable in the near-term and are well suited to meet the demands of higher performance small satellites (smallsats). Advanced solar panel designs have been developed and demonstrated on two NASA SBIR contracts at Applied Solar. The first used 19% efficient, large area (5.5 cm x 6.5 cm) GaAs/Ge solar cells with a lightweight rigid graphite epoxy isogrid substrate configuration. A 1,445 cm(exp 2) coupon was fabricated and tested to demonstrate 60 W/kg with a high potential of achieving 80 W/kg. The second panel design used new 22% efficiency, dual junction GaInP2/GaAs/Ge solar cells combined with a lightweight aluminum core/graphite fiber mesh facesheet substrate. A 1,445 cm(exp 2) coupon was fabricated and tested to demonstrate 105 W/kg with the potential of achieving 115 W/kg. This paper will address the construction details for the GaAs/isogrid and dual-junction GaAs/carbon mesh panel configurations. These are ultimately sized to provide 75 Watts and 119 Watts respectively for smallsats or may be used as modular building blocks for larger systems. GaAs/isogrid and dual-junction GaAs/carbon mesh coupons have been fabricated and tested to successfully demonstrate critical performance parameters and results are also provided here.

Ralph, E. L.; Linder, E. B.

1996-01-01

357

Solar thermal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

While wind power is widely acknowledged as the most developed of the 'new' renewables, the number two technology, in terms of installed capacity functioning worldwide, is solar heating, or solar thermal. The author has investigated recent industry reports on how these markets are developing. The authors of an International Energy Agency (IEA) survey studied 41 countries in depth at the end of 2004, revealing that 141 million m3 - corresponding to an installed capacity of 98.4 GWth - were installed in the sample countries (these nations represent 3.74 billion people, about 57% of the world's population). The installed capacity within the areas studied represents approximately 85%-90% of the solar thermal market worldwide. The use of solar heating varies greatly between countries - even close neighbours - and between economic regions. Its uptake often has more to do with policy than solar resource. There is also different uptake of technology. In China, Europe and Japan, plants with flat-plate and evacuated tube collectors are used, mainly to heat water and for space heating. Unglazed plastic collectors, used mainly for swimming pool heating, meanwhile, dominate the North American markets. Though the majority of solar heating installations today are installed on domestic rooftops, the larger-scale installations should not be overlooked. One important part of the market is the hotel sector - in particular hotels in locations that serve the seasonal summer holiations that serve the seasonal summer holiday market, where solar is extremely effective. Likewise hospitals and residential homes, multi-family apartment blocks and sports centres are all good examples of places where solar thermal can deliver results. There are also a growing number of industrial applications, where solar thermal can meet the hot water needs (and possibly more) of a range of industries, such as food processing and agriculture. The ability of solar to provide a heat source for cooling is expected to become increasingly important as fuel and electricity prices - and global temperatures - continue their upward curve

358

Prototype solar domestic hot water systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Construction of a double wall heat exchanger using soft copper tube coiled around a hot water storage tank was completed and preliminary tests were conducted. Solar transport water to tank potable water heat exchange tests were performed with a specially constructed test stand. Work was done to improve the component hardware and system design for the solar water heater. The installation of both a direct feed system and a double wall heat exchanger system provided experience and site data to enable informative decisions to be made as the solar market expands into areas where freeze protection is required.

1978-01-01

359

Theoretical analysis of solar-driven natural convection energy conversion systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents a theoretical study of solar-powered natural convection tower (chimney) performance. Both heated and cooled towers are analyzed; the latter uses evaporating water as the cooling mechanism. The results, which are applicable to any open-cycle configuration, show that the ideal conversion efficiencies of both heated and cooled natural convection towers are linear functions of height. The performance of a heated tower in an adiabatic atmosphere ideally approaches the Carnot efficiency limit of approx. = 3.4%/km (1.0%/1000 ft). Including water pumping requirements, the ideal limit to cooled tower performance is approx. = 2.75%/km (0.85%/1000 ft). Ambient atmospheric conditions such as vertical temperature gradient (lapse rate) and relative humidity can have significantly adverse effects on natural convection tower performance. The combined effects of lapse rate and ambient relative humidity are especially important to cooled natural convection towers.

Jacobs, E.W.; Lasier, D.D.

1984-01-01

360

Concrete construction engineering handbook  

CERN Document Server

Provides coverage of concrete construction engineering and technology. This work features discussions focusing on: the advances in engineered concrete materials; reinforced concrete construction; specialized construction techniques; and, design recommendations for high performance.

Nawy, Edward G

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Construction of optimum controls and trajectories of motion of the center of masses of a spacecraft equipped with the solar sail and low-thrust engine, using quaternions and Kustaanheimo-Stiefel variables  

Science.gov (United States)

The problem of optimum rendezvous of a controllable spacecraft (SC) with an uncontrollable spacecraft, moving over a Keplerian elliptic orbit in the gravitational field of the Sun, is considered. Control of the SC is performed using a solar sail and low-thrust engine. For solving the problem, the regular quaternion equations of the two-body problem with the Kustaanheimo-Stiefel variables and the Pontryagin maximum principle are used. The combined integral quality functional, which characterizes energy consumption for controllable SC transition from an initial to final state and the time spent for this transition, is used as a minimized functional. The differential boundary-value optimization problems are formulated, and their first integrals are found. Examples of numerical solution of problems are presented. The paper develops the application [1-6] of quaternion regular equations with the Kustaanheimo-Stiefel variables in the space flight mechanics.

Sapunkov, Ya. G.; Chelnokov, Yu. N.

2014-11-01

362

Thermococcus eurythermalis sp. nov., a conditional piezophilic, hyperthermophilic archaeon with a wide temperature range for growth, isolated from an oil-immersed chimney in the Guaymas Basin.  

Science.gov (United States)

A conditional piezophilic, hyperthermophilic archaeon showing growth over a wide range of temperature, pH and pressure was isolated from an oil-immersed hydrothermal chimney at a depth of 2006.9 m in the Guaymas Basin. Enrichment and isolation of strain A501(T) were performed at 80 °C at 0.1 MPa. Cells of isolate A501(T) were irregular motile cocci with a polar tuft of flagella and generally 0.6-2.6 µm in diameter. Growth was detected over the range 50-100 °C (optimal growth at 85 °C) at atmospheric pressure and was observed at 102 °C at a pressure of 10 MPa. At 85 °C, growth was observed at a pressure of 0.1-70 MPa (optimum pressure 0.1 MPa-30 MPa), while at 95 °C, the pressure allowing growth ranged from 0.1 MPa to 50 MPa (optimum pressure 10 MPa). Cells of strain A501(T) grew at pH 4-9 (optimum pH 7.0) and a NaCl concentration of 1.0-5.0?% (w/v) (optimum concentration 2.5?% NaCl). This isolate was an anaerobic chemo-organoheterotroph and was able to utilize yeast extract, peptone, tryptone and starch as the single carbon source for growth. Elemental sulfur and cysteine stimulated growth; however, these molecules were not necessary. The DNA G+C content of the complete genome was 53.47 mol%. The results of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strain A501(T) belongs to the genus Thermococcus. There was no significant similarity between strain A501(T) and the phylogenetically related species of the genus Thermococcus based on complete genome sequence alignments and calculation of the average nucleotide identity and the tetranucleotide signature frequency correlation coefficient. These results indicate that strain A501(T) represents a novel species, Thermococcus eurythermalis sp. nov. The type strain is A501(T) (?=?CGMCC 7834(T)?=?JCM 30233(T)). PMID:25288278

Zhao, Weishu; Zeng, Xianping; Xiao, Xiang

2015-01-01

363

Solar ponds  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report first describes the different types of solar ponds including the nonconvecting salt gradient pond and various saltless pond designs. It then discusses the availability and cost of salts for salt gradient ponds, and compares the economics of salty and saltless ponds as a function of salt cost. A simple computational model is developed to approximate solar pond performance. This model is later used to size solar ponds for district heating and industrial process heat applications. For district heating, ponds are sized to provide space conditioning for a group of homes, in different regions of the United States. Size requirements is on the order of one acre for a group of 25 to 50 homes. An economic analysis is performed of solar ponds used in two industrial process heat applications. The analysis finds that solar ponds are competitive when conventional heat sources are priced at $5 per million Btu and expected to rise in price at a rate of 10% per year. The application of solar ponds to the generation of electricity is also discussed. Total solar pond potential for displacing conventional energy sources is estimated in the range of from one to six quadrillion Btu per year in the near and intermediate future.

Jayadev, T.S.; Edesess, M.

1980-04-01

364

Advanced Technology Solar Telescope project management  

Science.gov (United States)

The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) has recently received National Science Foundation (NSF) approval to begin the construction process. ATST will be the most powerful solar telescope and the world's leading resource for studying solar magnetism that controls the solar wind, flares, coronal mass ejections and variability in the Sun's output. This paper gives an overview of the project, and describes the project management principles and practices that have been developed to optimize both the project's success as well as meeting requirements of the project's funding agency.

Wagner, J.; Hansen, E.; Hubbard, R.; Rimmele, T. R.; Keil, S.

2010-07-01

365

Nanowire-based All Oxide Solar Cells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We present an all-oxide solar cell fabricated from vertically oriented zinc oxide nanowires and cuprous oxide nanoparticles. Our solar cell consists of vertically oriented n-type zinc oxide nanowires, surrounded by a film constructed from p-type cuprous oxide nanoparticles. Our solution-based synthesis of inexpensive and environmentally benign oxide materials in a solar cell would allow for the facile production of large-scale photovoltaic devices. We found that the solar cell performance is enhanced with the addition of an intermediate oxide insulating layer between the nanowires and the nanoparticles. This observation of the important dependence of the shunt resistance on the photovoltaic performance is widely applicable to any nanowire solar cell constructed with the nanowire array in direct contact with one electrode.

Yang*, Benjamin D. Yuhas and Peidong; Yang, Peidong

2008-12-07

366

Sustainable solar housing - IEA Solar Task 28; Nachhaltige Solar-Wohnbauten - IEA Solar Task 28  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This annual report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy discusses the importance of making sure that the experience gained in the construction of housing built to 'passive-house' standards and related findings of research are used in the next generation of housing. Also, the importance of recent developments in industry is stressed. These include innovations made in the area of highly-insulated windows and doors as well as in heat generation and distribution. Improvements considered necessary in the areas of heating and ventilation and the optimal use of solar gains are discussed, as are the activities of the Swiss group that has taken over the chairmanship of Task 28 in the International Energy Agency's (IEA) Solar Heating and Cooling Programme.

Hastings, R.

2003-07-01

367

Solar Energy Education. Reader, Part IV. Sun schooling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A collection of magazine articles which focus on solar energy is presented. This is the final book of the four part series of the Solar Energy Reader. The articles include brief discussions on energy topics such as the sun, ocean energy, methane gas from cow manure, and solar homes. Instructions for constructing a sundial and a solar stove are also included. A glossary of energy related terms is provided. (BCS)

1981-05-01

368

Solar air heaters for industrial drying; Aquecedor solar de ar para secagem industrial  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this study is to encourage the use of solar energy in industrial drying of fruits, with the producers poles, at the same time, promote the rational use of energy for heat, or replacing the hydroelectric and oil derivatives for this purpose. This study is presented in the following chapters: availability of solar energy; details of constructive solar heated air; drying fruit; market. (author)

Braga, Everaldo Mendes [Governo do Estado da Paraiba, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Secretaria de Planejamento e Gestao

2008-07-01

369

History and progress of solar research in China  

Science.gov (United States)

After a brief introduction of ancient Chinese records on the Sun, we describe the beginnings of modern solar research in China in the 20th century. The main contents are focused on the progress of solar research in China after the 1950s, including the development of solar research in Purple Mountain Observatory, National Astronomical Observatories, Yunnan Astronomical Observatory, and some astronomy departments in the universities. In particular, the constructions of solar observational facilities, the increase of the numbers of solar researchers and students, as well as the main topics of solar research since 1980s are described in details. Some issues and prospects are being discussed.

Fang, C.

370

Solar prominences  

CERN Document Server

This volume presents the latest research results on solar prominences, including new developments on e.g. chirality, fine structure, magnetism, diagnostic tools and relevant solar plasma physics. In 1875 solar prominences, as seen out of the solar limb, were described by P.A. Secchi in his book Le Soleil as "gigantic pink or peach-flower coloured flames". The development of spectroscopy, coronagraphy and polarimetry brought tremendous observational advances in the twentieth century. The authors present and discuss exciting new challenges (resulting from observations made by space and ground-based telescopes in the 1990s and the first decade of the 21st century) concerning the diagnostics of prominences, their formation, their life time and their eruption along with their impact in the heliosphere (including the Earth). The book starts with a general introduction of the prominence “object” with some historical background on observations and instrumentation. In the next chapter, the various forms of promine...

Engvold, Oddbjørn

2015-01-01

371

Solar neutrinos  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

General considerations on solar neutrinos are presented here. Detection experiment foreseen and completed are examined under a critical point of view. Our attention is focused on Indium detector using superconducting grains or tunnel junctions. Working plan is described

372

Solar paraphotons  

CERN Document Server

I revisit the question of production of paraphotons, or hidden photons, in the Sun and suggest that a simultaneous observations of solar flares by conventional instruments and by axion helioscopes may provide a discovery channel for paraphotons.

Troitsky, Sergey V

2011-01-01

373

2013 Problem 14: Flying Chimney  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper studies the motion of a top-burning, cylindrical tea bag and explains the origin of the lift force. After the top of cylindrical tea bag is lit, it will suddenly accelerate and lift off, gradually reaching a uniform motion until the flame extinguishes. We analyze the temperature distribution around a point heat source considering heat convection, and demonstrate how this temperature field contributes to the lift force on the tea bag and affects its motion.

Zhang, Youtian; Zhu, Zheyuan; Chen, Lan

2015-10-01

374

75 FR 63503 - Notice of Availability of Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Solar Millennium, Amargosa...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Solar Millennium applied to the BLM for a right-of-way on public lands to construct a concentrated solar thermal parabolic trough power plant facility approximately 80 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, in Nye County. The project site...

2010-10-15

375

Dispatchable hybrid wind / solar power plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper will describe a novel system for generating dispatchable electric power using wind and solar thermal energy combined through compressed air for transmission and storage and large area solar air heating collector integrated with high heat capacity thermal storage media. The essential subsystems include wind turbines directly coupled to air compressors, high pressure (100 bar) large diameter pipeline, solar collectors with integral thermal storage for air heating, and a turbo-expander driven generator. This hybrid power generation system will be particularly useful in electric systems, such as the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT), with very large wind energy potential, severe transmission limitations in very windy locations, areas of high solar radiation, and a significantly higher market value for dispatchable power than for intermittent energy. This hybrid wind/solar system would be a more economical means for achieving zero-emission, firm, dispatchable capacity than independent construction of wind and solar plants. (orig.)

Kapner, Mark [Austin Energy, Austin, TX (United States)

2008-07-01

376

Solar profit machine; Solare Gewinnmaschine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Prices for modules have significantly risen in the past two years. This is due not only to scarce silicon, but to generous profits of solar industry. Now consequences are impending: the political pressure rises and the demand drops.

Rentzing, S.; Langrock, P.

2006-09-15

377

Constructal theory of global circulation and climate  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The constructal law states that every flow system evolves in time so that it develops the flow architecture that maximizes flow access under the constraints posed to the flow. Earlier applications of the constructal law recommended it as a self-standing law that is distinct from the second law of thermodynamics. In this paper, we develop a model of heat transport on the earth surface that accounts for the solar and terrestrial radiation as the heat source and heat sink and with natur...

Reis, A. Heitor; Bejan, A.

2006-01-01

378

Solar Irradiance: Observations, Proxies, and Models (Invited)  

Science.gov (United States)

Solar irradiance has been measured from space for more than thirty years. Variations in total (spectrally integrated) solar irradiance associated with the Sun's 11-year activity cycle and 27-day rotation are now well characterized. But the magnitude, and even the sign, of spectral irradiance changes at near ultraviolet, visible and near infrared wavelengths, remain uncertain on time scales longer than a few months. Drifts in the calibration of the instruments that measure solar irradiance and incomplete understanding of the causes of irradiance variations preclude specification of multi-decadal solar irradiance variations with any confidence, including whether, or not, irradiance levels were lower during the 2008-2009 anomalously low solar activity minimum than in prior minima. The ultimate cause of solar irradiance variations is the Sun's changing activity, driven by a sub-surface dynamo that generates magnetic features called sunspots and faculae, which respectively deplete and enhance the net radiative output. Solar activity also alters parameters that have been measured from the ground for longer periods and with greater stability than the solar irradiance datasets. The longest and most stable such record is the Sun's irradiance at 10.7 cm in the radio spectrum, which is used frequently as a proxy indicator of solar irradiance variability. Models have been developed that relate the solar irradiance changes - both total and spectral - evident in extant databases to proxies chosen to best represent the sunspot darkening and facular brightening influences. The proxy models are then used to reconstruct solar irradiance variations at all wavelengths on multi-decadal time scales, for input to climate and atmospheric model simulations that seek to quantity the Sun's contribution to Earth's changing environment. This talk provides an overview of solar total and spectral irradiance observations and their relevant proxies, describes the formulation and construction of proxy models of solar irradiance variability, compares the observed and modeled irradiance variations on multiple time scales, and illustrates terrestrial applications of solar irradiance variability models.

Lean, J.

2013-12-01

379

Web based Measurement System for Solar Radiation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We present in this paper, the principles of the measurement system for solar radiation, and our implementation using Web based data logging concept. The photocurrent produced by Silicon PN junction is used as a solar radiation transducer, to make it more viable we have used commercially available solar panels as our transducers. Using a silicon solar cell as sensor, a low cost solar radiometer can be constructed. The photocurrent produced by solar cell is electronically tailored to be measured and stored by our web based data acquisition and monitoring system. Measurement using real solar cell array gives a good measure of actual producible energy by solar arrays. Our portable instrument can be used in remote sites and substitutes the solar monitor and integrator, Current data of solar radiation can be monitored using Ethernet interface available in all PC, Laptops. We store the data into a secure digital card which can be retrieved to plot and analyse the data. We have developed system hardware and software based on ATmega32 AVR Microcontrollers and ENC28J60 Ethernet PHY and MAC network interface chip by Microchip. So the global irradiance data are obtained after correction using the instantaneous measurement of ambient temperature which allows us to calculate the junction temperature and consequently improve the precision of measurement of our data acquisition system.

Shachi Awasthi

2012-06-01

380

Solarization soil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Solar energy could be used in pest control, in soil sterilization technology. The technique consists of covering humid soils by plastic films steadily fixed to the soil. Timing must be in summer during 4-8 weeks, where soil temperature increases to degrees high enough to control pests or to produce biological and chemical changes. The technique could be applied on many pests soil, mainly fungi, bacteria, nematods, weeds and pest insects. The technique could be used in greenhouses as well as in plastic film covers or in orchards where plastic films present double benefits: soil sterilization and production of black mulch. Mechanism of soil solarization is explained. Results show that soil solarization can be used in pest control after fruit crops cultivation and could be a method for an integrated pest control. 9 refs

 
 
 
 
381

Solar oscillations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Amongst all stars observed to pulsate, the Sun has by far the largest number and variety of modes of oscillation. This presents a unique opportunity to apply and test stellar oscillation theory. To match the observational accuracy, very precise calculations of oscillation frequencies are needed. Asymptotic methods have proved useful in the analysis and interpretation of the frequencies. The results provide tight constraints on solar models; they may also enable a direct determination of properties of the solar interior. There are difficulties in reconciling the amplitudes obtained in Doppler velocity with those observed in the apparent position of the solar limb. The excitation of the oscillations is so far not well understood, although it is probable that the interaction between pulsation and convection plays an important role. (orig.)

382

Constructing organic D-A-?-A-featured sensitizers with a quinoxaline unit for high-efficiency solar cells: the effect of an auxiliary acceptor on the absorption and the energy level alignment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Four organic D-A-?-A-featured sensitizers (TQ1, TQ2, IQ1, and IQ2) have been studied for high-efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). We employed an indoline or a triphenylamine unit as the donor, cyanoacetic acid as the acceptor/anchor, and a thiophene moiety as the conjugation bridge. Additionally, an electron-withdrawing quinoxaline unit was incorporated between the donor and the ?-conjugation unit. These sensitizers show an additional absorption band covering the broad visible range in solution. The contribution from the incorporated quinoxaline was investigated theoretically by using DFT and time-dependent DFT. The incorporated low-band-gap quinoxaline unit as an auxiliary acceptor has several merits, such as decreasing the band gap, optimizing the energy levels, and realizing a facile structural modification on several positions in the quinoxaline unit. As demonstrated, the observed additional absorption band is favorable to the photon-to-electron conversion because it corresponds to the efficient electron transitions to the LUMO orbital. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) Bode plots reveal that the replacement of a methoxy group with an octyloxy group can increase the injection electron lifetime by a factor of 2.4. IQ2 and TQ2 can perform well without any co-adsorbent, successfully suppress the charge recombination from TiO(2) conduction band to I(3)(-) in the electrolyte, and enhance the electron lifetime, resulting in a decreased dark current and enhanced open circuit voltage (V(oc)) values. By using a liquid electrolyte, DSSCs based on dye IQ2 exhibited a broad incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) action spectrum and high efficiency (?=8.50?%) with a short circuit current density (J(sc)) of 15.65?mA?cm(-2), a V(oc) value of 776?mV, a fill factor (FF) of 0.70 under AM 1.5 illumination (100?mW?cm(-2)). Moreover, the overall efficiency remained at 97% of the initial value after 1000?h of visible-light soaking. PMID:22615266

Pei, Kai; Wu, Yongzhen; Wu, Wenjun; Zhang, Qiong; Chen, Baoqin; Tian, He; Zhu, Weihong

2012-06-25

383

Solar neutrinos and the solar composition problem  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Standard solar models (SSM) are facing nowadays a new puzzle: the solar composition problem. New determinations of solar metal abundances lead SSM calculations to conflict with helioseismological measurements, showing discrepancies that extend from the convection zone to the solar core and can not be easily assigned to deficiencies in the modelling of the solar convection zone. We present updated solar neutrino fluxes and uncertainties for two SSM with high (old) and low (ne...

Pena-garay, Carlos; Serenelli, Aldo

2008-01-01

384

Analysis of Shiraz Solar Thermal Power Plant Response Time  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Shiraz pilot solar thermal power plant is the first Iranian solar power plant constructed near the city of Shiraz, Iran. The main purpose of constructing this pilot plant was to acquire the technology of developing parabolic trough solar thermal power plants for future energy production from solar energy. This plant consists of 48 parabolic trough collectors; each one has 25m long and 3.4 m wide. The plant consists of two cycles, oil heat absorbing cycle and steam production cycle. The plant ...

Azizian, K.; Yaghoubi, M.; Niknia, I.; Kanan, P.

2013-01-01

385

Solar System  

Science.gov (United States)

This site is part of the space page of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), and provides information about the Sun, the planets and their moons, and other bodies in the solar system. It contains a travel guide to the Solar System including such topics as what to see, reason to visit, how to get there, and local history. A similar travel guide is then available for the Sun, each of the planets, asteroids, and comets. In addition, multiple links for more detailed information as well as space games and puzzles are provided.

2007-12-12

386

Solar neutrinos  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The problem with solar neutrinos is that there seem to be too few of them, at least near the top end of the spectrum, since the 37Cl detector finds only about 35% of the standard predicted flux. Various kinds of explanation have been offered: (a) the standard solar model is wrong, (b) neutrinos decay, (c) neutrinos have magnetic moments, (d) neutrinos oscillate. The paper surveys developments in each of these areas, especially the possible enhancement of neutrino oscillations by matter effects and adiabatic level crossing. The prospects for further independent experiments are also discussed. (author)

387

Solar lighting  

CERN Document Server

Limited availability of grid-based electricity is a major challenge faced by many developing countries, particularly the rural population. Fuel-based lighting, such as the kerosene lantern, is widespread in these areas, but it is a poor alternative, contributing to global warming and causing serious health problems. Several developing countries are therefore now encouraging the use of sustainable lighting. ""Solar Lighting"" gives an in-depth analysis of energy-efficient light production through the use of solar-powered LED systems. The authors pay particular attention to the interplay between

Pode, Ramchandra

2011-01-01

388

Solar cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method of producing solar cells is described which consists of producing a substantially monocrystalline tubular body of silicon or other suitable semiconductor material, treating this body to form an annular rectifying junction and then cutting it longitudinally to form a number of nearly flat ribbons from which the solar cells are fabricated. The P=N rectifying junction produced by the formation of silicon dioxide on the layers at the inner and outer surfaces of the body can be formed by ion-implantation or diffusion. (U.K.)

389

Solar club  

CERN Multimedia

SOLAR CLUB Le  CERN-Solar-Club souhaite une  très bonne année 2013 à tous les Cernois et Cernoises, et remercie encore une fois  tous ceux et celles qui, fin octobre, par leur vote, nous ont permis de finir dans les 5 premiers du concours "Conforama Solidaire" et ainsi financer nôtre projet "énergie solaire et eau potable pour Kilela Balanda" en République Démocratique du Congo (voir : http://www.confo.ch/solidarite/?lang=fr). Nous vous annoncons également notre Assemblée Générale Annuelle jeudi 21 février à 18 h 00 Salle C, 1er étage, Bât. 61 Vous êtes les bienvenus si vous souhaitez en savoir un peu plus sur les énergies renouvelables.

Solar club

2013-01-01

390

Sustainable construction: construction and demolition waste reconsidered  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Although the construction sector has suffered a great increase and development in later decades acting as the main economic leading force in many European countries, it has produced, nevertheless, a great problem regarding the increase in the generation of construction and demolition waste (C&DW). This, together with the fact that in many European countries the amount of recycled and reused C&DW is still quite low has engendered a serious environmental problem and an urge to develop str...

Rio Merino, Mercedes Del; Salto-weis Azevedo, Isabel; Izquierdo Gracia, Pilar

2010-01-01

391

New and precise construction of the local interstellar electron spectrum from the radio background and an application to the solar modulation of cosmic rays showing an incompatability of the electron and nuclei modulation using the spherically symmetric Fokker-Planck equation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cosmic-ray electrons generate the observed radio-frequency background. Previous attempts in the literature to reconcile quantitatively the measured radio-frequency intensity with the intensity deduced from the electron spectrum measured at earth have culminated in the problem that to get the respective emissivities to agree, an unacceptably high interstellar B field must be chosen. In the light of new experimental data on the emissivity as deduced from H II region studies and on the functional dependence of the diffusion coefficient with solar radius and particle rigidity, the assumptions under which the electron emissivity comparison has been made have been reexamined closely. The paradox between predicted and measured emissivity was resolved by ascribing to the magnetic fields of the galaxy a distribution of magnetic field strengths. From modified synchrotron formulas, the interstellar electron spectrum has been constructed from the radio frequency emission data with greatly improved precision. The interstellar electron spectrum has been determined independently of the solar modulation and provides, therefore, an estimate of the absolute depth of the electron modulation. Then the measured electron, proton, and helium-nuclei fluxes were systematically compared to the predictions of the spherically symmetric Fokker-Planck equation using the electron modulation as a base. A previously unnoticed non-tracking of the modulation parameters was observed during the recent rerameters was observed during the recent recovery that did not occur during the 1965 to 1969 period. Although the argument could be presented just as well by attributing the anomaly to the nuclei, the discussion here arbitrarily tailored it to the electrons, and this new phenomenon was named, the modulation reluctance of the cosmic-ray electrons

392

Environmental construction compliance programs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Environmental construction compliance programs were discussed in this poster presentation. A construction environmental compliance program is conducted to identify construction-related environmental requirements from various permits, agencies and stakeholders. The program assigns responsibility for compliance to discrete players, and identifies tool to assist with compliance during the construction phase of a development. Construction staff are trained in relation to environmental requirements. Compliance audits and reports are also prepared. The programs are required when construction takes place on public lands, in sensitive environments, and in certain jurisdictions. Construction environmental compliance plans can help to preserve the construction schedule and budget and help to avoid fines and penalties. Steps to developing the program included researching permits and plans; determining how a project will implement each requirement; and compiling a comprehensive plan that includes roles and responsibilities. An on-site environmental compliance inspector is required to implement the compliance program. tabs., figs.

Alberti, A. [Tetra Tech Inc., Oakville, ON (Canada)

2010-07-01

393

Internal absorber solar collector  

Science.gov (United States)

Thin solar collecting panels are described made from arrays of small rod collectors consisting of a refracting dielectric rod lens with an absorber imbedded within it and a reflecting mirror coated on the back side of the dielectric rod. Non-tracking collector panels on vertical walls or roof tops receive approximately 90% of solar radiation within an acceptance zone 60.degree. in elevation angle by 120.degree. or more in the azimuth sectors with a collector concentration ratio of approximately 3.0. Miniaturized construction of the circular dielectric rods with internal absorbers reduces the weight per area of glass, plastic and metal used in the collector panels. No external parts or insulation are needed as heat losses are low due to partial vacuum or low conductivity gas surrounding heated portions of the collector. The miniature internal absorbers are generally made of solid copper with black selective surface and the collected solar heat is extracted at the collector ends by thermal conductivity along the absorber rods. Heat is removed from end fittings by use of liquid circulants. Several alternate constructions are provided for simplifying collector panel fabrication and for preventing the thermal expansion and contraction of the heated absorber or circulant tubes from damaging vacuum seals. In a modified version of the internal absorber collector, oil with temperature dependent viscosity is pumped through a segmented absorber which is now composed of closely spaced insulated metal tubes. In this way the circulant is automatically diverted through heated portions of the absorber giving higher collector concentration ratios than theoretically possible for an unsegmented absorber.

Sletten, Carlyle J. (106 Nagog Hill Rd., Acton, MA 01720); Herskovitz, Sheldon B. (88 Hammond St., Acton, MA 01720); Holt, F. S. (46 Emerson Rd., Winchester, MA 01890); Sletten, E. J. (Chestnut Hill Rd. R.F.D. Rte. #4, Amherst, NH 03031)

1981-01-01

394

Solar Energy and You.  

Science.gov (United States)

This booklet provides an introduction to solar energy by discussing: (1) how a home is heated; (2) how solar energy can help in the heating process; (3) the characteristics of passive solar houses; (4) the characteristics of active solar houses; (5) how solar heat is stored; and (6) other uses of solar energy. Also provided are 10 questions to…

Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

395

Arizona Solar Center Homepage  

Science.gov (United States)

Presented by the Arizona Solar Center, a non-profit organization that promotes the use of solar energy. Provides information about solar technologies, including photovoltaics, solar cooking, solar water heating, solar architecture, wind power. Provides hands-on activities for the classroom, legislative information, and links to products and services.

2007-04-25

396

Heterotic string construction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper an elementary introduction to the principles of four-dimensional string construction will be given. Although the emphasis is on lattice constructions, almost all results have further, and often quite straightforward generalizations to other constructions. Since heterotic strings look phenomenologically more promising than type-II theories the authors only consider the former, although everything can easily be generalized to type-II theories. Some additional aspects of lattice constructions are discussed, and an extensive review can be found

397

Construction industry forecasting model  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In economic literature are shown different methods and instruments of forecasting of separated factors. The most exactly from them take into account economic relations in investigation object. The paper presents the results of research conducted on forecasting in the construction industry. Development of a model for the construction industry is a complicated task. The paper offers a model for forecasting production volumes of the construction industry in Latvian conditions. The construction b...

Skribans, Valerijs

2002-01-01

398

Yunushan? Köyünün (Alt?nözü-Hatay Kuzey Ve Kuzeybat?s?ndaki Peribacas? Görünümlü Sivri Doruklu Lapya Kompleksleri Pinnacle Lapiaz Complexes That Resemble Fairy Chimneys In The North And Northwest Of Yunushan? Village (Alt?nözü-Hatay  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Current study explains the characteristics of interesting pinnaclelapiaz complexes developed in the north and northwest of Yunushan?village located in the borders of Alt?nözü district, Hatay province. Theseformations resemble fairy chimneys with their columnar shapes.Providing information about the scientific content of theseformations called fairy chimneys although they are not fairy chimneys isimportant to provide insight as to how and where they can be evaluatedsince no previous study exists about these formations in the study field.Also, pinnacle lapiaz complexes are noteworthy formations that can givevaluable information about the geomorphologic development of thestudy field.The study is mostly based on field work. 1/25.000 scaledANTAKYA P36-d3 topography map and geology maps of various scalesobtained through related literature were used in the study as materials.Thematic maps were generated with the help on GeographicalInformation Sysems (GIS method and techniques. Interviews with thelocal public were held as well.It was identified that pinnacle lapiaz complexes were formed as aresult of common impact of the lithological, climactic andgeomorphologic characteristics of the field. These formations whichwere developed under the impact of both fluvial and karstic elementsand processes are not fairy chimneys. The fact that it is not possible toobserve these formations everywhere makes them even more valuable.This rare formation and similarly unique formations are highlysignificant in terms of eco tourism and geomorphotourism. Therefore,providing the area where these formations are situated with the statusof protected areas such as geoparks or geomorphosites will be beneficialboth in the conservation of these formations and in the provision ofsustainable tourism activities. Bu çal??mada Hatay ilinin, Alt?nözü ilçe s?n?rlar? içerisinde yer alan Yunushan? köyünün kuzey ve kuzeybat?s?nda geli?mi? ilginç sivri doruklu lapya komplekslerinin özellikleri aç?klanm??t?r. Sütunsu görünüme sahip bu ?ekiller peribacas?na benzemektedirler.Bu çal??mada, peribacas? olmamas?na ra?men bu ?ekilde isimlendirilen bu olu?umlar?n, bilimsel anlamda ne oldu?unun ortaya konulmas?, inceleme alan? dahilinde bu ?ekiller hakk?nda daha önceden herhangi bir çal??ma yap?lmamas?, bu ?ekillerin nas?l ve ne ?ekilde de?erlendirilebilece?inin ortaya ç?kar?lmas? bak?m?ndan önemlidir. Ayr?ca sivri doruklu lapya kompleksleri sahan?n jeomorfolojik geli?imi hakk?nda önemli ipuçlar? vermesi yönüyle de dikkate de?er olu?umlard?r.Çal??ma yöntem olarak daha çok arazi çal??malar?na dayanmaktad?r. Materyal olarak ise 1/25.000 ölçekli ANTAKYA P36-d3 topografya haritas? ve ilgili literatürden elde edilen çe?itli ölçeklerdeki jeoloji haritalar? kullan?lm??t?r. Bütün bu materyallerden istifade ederek konuyu daha anla??l?r bir ?ekilde sunmak amac?yla da CBS (Co?rafi Bilgi Sistemleri yard?m?yla yeni haritalar olu?turulmu?tur. Ayr?ca yerel halkla görü?meler yap?lm??t?r.Sivri doruklu lapya komplekslerinin sahan?n litolojik, klimatik ve jeomorfolojik özelliklerinin ortak etkisinin sonucunda meydana geldi?i tespit edilmi?tir. Bu ?ekiller peribacas? de?ildir. Bütünüyle hem flüvyal, hem de karstik etmen ve süreçlerin denetiminde olu?mu? ?ekillerdir. Bu ?ekillere her yerde rastlan?lmamas? onlar? daha da de?erli yapmaktad?r. Ender rastlanan bu ve benzeri ?ekillerin eko turizm veya jeomorfoturizm bak?m?ndan önemi büyüktür. Bu nedenle ?ekillerin bulundu?u alan?n jeopark veya jeomorfosit gibi koruma statülerinden birine dahil edilmesi hem ?ekillerin korunmas?, hem de sürdürülebilir turizm faaliyetleri bak?m?ndan yararl? olacakt?r.

Emre ÖZ?AH?N

2013-07-01

399

CONSTRUCTION PROJECT MANAGEMENT  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This work tries to define and present the characteristics and of project management and construction projects. One can find arguments for the need to use project management in the construction industry and the main management procedures making the essence of construction project management.

LOREDANA HEDRE

2009-01-01

400

Proof Constructions and Evaluations  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, we focus on a group of 39 prospective elementary (grades K-6) teachers who had rich experiences with proof, and we examine their ability to construct proofs and evaluate their own constructions. We claim that the combined "construction-evaluation" activity helps illuminate certain aspects of prospective teachers' and presumably…

Stylianides, Andreas J.; Stylianides, Gabriel J.

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
401

Solar Neutrinos  

CERN Document Server

Solar neutrino investigation has represented one of the most active field of particle physics over the past decade, accumulating important and sometimes unexpected achievements. After reviewing some of the most recent impressive successes, the future perspectives of this exciting area of neutrino research will be discussed.

Bellini, G.; Ranucci, G.

2010-01-01

402

Solar Directory.  

Science.gov (United States)

This directory is designed to help the researcher and developer, the manufacturer and distributor, and the general public communicate together on a mutually beneficial basis. Its content covers the wide scope of solar energy activity in the United States primarily, but also in other countries, at the academic, governmental, and industrial levels.…

Pesko, Carolyn, Ed.

403

Solar Dynamo  

Science.gov (United States)

A dynamo is a mechanism for a star or planet to create magnetic field. One type of solar dynamo is turbulent convection, which researchers have simulated on a supercomputer. Like soup boiling on a stove, gas at the Suns surface is heated from the bottom and cooled at the top. Since the gas conducts electricity, these motions produce magnetic fields.

Fausto Cattaneo

1999-01-21

404

Solar Power  

Science.gov (United States)

Proposes a method of collecting solar energy by using available plastics for Fresnel lenses to focus heat onto a converter where thermal dissociation of water would produce hydrogen. The hydrogen would be used as an efficient non-polluting fuel. Cost estimates are included. (AL)

Ford, Norman C.; Kane, Joseph W.

1971-01-01

405

Advanced solar panel designs  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes solar cell panel designs that utilize new hgih efficiency solar cells along with lightweight rigid panel technology. The resulting designs push the W/kg and W/sq m parameters to new high levels. These new designs are well suited to meet the demand for higher performance small satellites. This paper reports on progress made on two SBIR Phase 1 contracts. One panel design involved the use of large area (5.5 cm x 6.5 cm) GaAs/Ge solar cells of 19% efficiency combined with a lightweight rigid graphite fiber epoxy isogrid substrate configuration. A coupon (38 cm x 38 cm) was fabricated and tested which demonstrated an array specific power level of 60 W/kg with a potential of reaching 80 W/kg. The second panel design involved the use of newly developed high efficiency (22%) dual junction GaInP2/GaAs/Ge solar cells combined with an advanced lightweight rigid substrate using aluminum honeycomb core with high strength graphite fiber mesh facesheets. A coupon (38 cm x 38 cm) was fabricated and tested which demonstrated an array specific power of 105 W/kg and 230 W/sq m. This paper will address the construction details of the panels and an a analysis of the component weights. A strawman array design suitable for a typical small-sat mission is described for each of the two panel design technologies being studied. Benefits in respect to weight reduction, area reduction, and system cost reduction are analyzed and compared to conventional arrays.

Ralph, E. L.; Linder, E.

1995-10-01

406

Advanced solar panel designs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes solar cell panel designs that utilize new high efficiency solar cells along with lightweight rigid panel technology. The resulting designs push the W/kg and W/sq m parameters to new high levels. These new designs are well suited to meet the demand for higher performance small satellites. This paper reports on progress made on two SBIR Phase 1 contracts. One panel design involved the use of large area (5.5 cm x 6.5 cm) GaAs/Ge solar cells of 19% efficiency combined with a lightweight rigid graphite fiber epoxy isogrid substrate configuration. A coupon (38 cm x 38 cm) was fabricated and tested which demonstrated an array specific power level of 60 W/kg with a potential of reaching 80 W/kg. The second panel design involved the use of newly developed high efficiency (22%) dual junction GaInP2/GaAs/Ge solar cells combined with an advanced lightweight rigid substrate using aluminum honeycomb core with high strength graphite fiber mesh facesheets. A coupon (38 cm x 38 cm) was fabricated and tested which demonstrated an array specific power of 105 W/kg and 230 W/sq m. This paper will address the construction details of the panels and an analysis of the component weights. A strawman array design suitable for a typical small-sat mission is described for each of the two panel design technologies being studied. Benefits in respect to weight reduction, area reduction, and system cost reduction are analyzed and compared to conventional arrays.

Ralph, E.L.; Linder, E.

1995-10-01

407

Solar neutrino experiments: An update  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The situation in solar neutrino physics has changed drastically in the past few years, so that now there are four neutrino experiments in operation, using different methods to look at different regions of the solar neutrino energy spectrum. These experiments are the radiochemical 37Cl Homestake detector, the realtime Kamiokande detector, and the different forms of radiochemical 71Ga detectors used in the GALLEX and SAGE projects. It is noteworthy that all of these experiments report a deficit of observed neutrinos relative to the predictions of standard solar models (although in the case of the gallium detectors, the statistical errors are still relatively large). This paper reviews the basic principles of operation of these neutrino detectors, reports their latest results and discusses some theoretical interpretations. The progress of three realtime neutrino detectors that are currently under construction, SuperKamiok, SNO and Borexino, is also discussed

408

Modern trends in construction  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Construction is a term which allows people to improve their lives and sense of security. In the present, we hear a lot about the efficient construction and energy saving. There are many new terms that indicate new construction technologies. In my thesis I describe the construction mainly in Slovenia, some examples are also from Europe. In the beginning of civilization the shelter was of the primal importance, that is why in the first part I am focused on construction in the past, from the c...

S?lihthuber, Iztok

2013-01-01

409

Build and Test a Model Solar House  

Science.gov (United States)

Construct and measure the energy efficiency and solar heat gain of a cardboard model house. Use a light bulb heater to imitate a real furnace and a temperature sensor to monitor and regulate the internal temperature of the house. Use a bright bulb in a gooseneck lamp to model sunlight at different times of the year, and test the effectiveness of windows for passive solar heating.

Consortium, The C.

2012-05-16

410

Sustainable construction: construction and demolition waste reconsidered.  

Science.gov (United States)

Construction activity in Europe has increased substantially in the past decade. Likewise, there has also been a commensurate rise in the generation of construction and demolition waste (C&DW). This, together with the fact that in many European countries the rate of recycling and reuse of C&DW is still quite low has engendered a serious environmental problem and a motivation to develop strategies and management plans to solve it. Due to its composition, there is a significant potential to reuse and/or recycle C&DW, and thereby, contribute to improving the sustainability of construction and development, but practical procedures are not yet widely known or practiced in the construction industry. This article (a) summarizes the different applications that are presently practiced to optimize the recovery and/or application of C&DW for reuse, and (b) proposes various measures and strategies to improve the processing of this waste. The authors suggest that to enhance environmental effectiveness, a conscious and comprehensive C&DW management plan should be implemented in each jurisdiction. More precisely, this study presents a holistic approach towards C&DW management, through which environmental benefits can be achieved through the application of new construction methods that can contribute to sustainable growth. PMID:19723824

del Río Merino, Mercedes; Izquierdo Gracia, Pilar; Weis Azevedo, Isabel Salto

2010-02-01

411

Solar variability observed through changes in solar figure and mean diameter  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of the project is to detect and monitor climatically significant solar variability by accurate monitoring of the associated variability in solar shape and diameter. The observing program for this project was initiated in 1981. Solar diameter measurements have been taken and data reduction programs for these measurements have been developed. Theoretical analysis of the expected change in the intensity from the solar atmosphere to a given mechanial driving has progressed to the extent that changes in the solar diameter can be related to the associated change in the solar luminosity. An absolute calibration system for the telescope has been constructed and is currently being tested. A proposal is made for the continuation of the work in each of these areas

412

Helioseismology, solar models and solar neutrinos  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We review recent advances concerning helioseismology, solar models and solar neutrinos. Particularly we shall address the following points: i) helioseismic tests of recent SSMs; ii)the accuracy of the helioseismic determination of the sound speed near the solar center; iii)predictions of neutrino fluxes based on helioseismology, (almost) independent of SSMs; iv)helioseismic tests of exotic solar models.

Fiorentini, G.; Ricci, B.

1999-01-01

413

Collecting Solar Energy. Solar Energy Education Project.  

Science.gov (United States)

This solar energy learning module for use with junior high school students offers a list of activities, a pre-post test, job titles, basic solar energy vocabulary, and diagrams of solar energy collectors and installations. The purpose is to familiarize students with applications of solar energy and titles of jobs where this knowledge could be…

O'Brien, Alexander

414

Midplane temperatures in the solar nebula  

Science.gov (United States)

Cosmochemical analyses of meteorites imply that maximum temperatures in the inner solar nebula were on the order of 1300 K, yet standard viscous accretion disk models predict much lower midplane temperatures (approx. 300 K at 2 AU to 3 AU) in a minimum mass nebula. A second-order accurate radiative hydrodynamics code has been used to construct models of the late-phase solar nebula appropriate for low-mass star formation (M is approximately 10(exp -6) to 10(exp -5) solar-M yr(exp -1). For a minimum mass (0.02 solar-M) nebula and a solar-mass protostar, the new models show that compressional heating due to mass accretion onto the nebula and subsequent vertical contraction of the nebula are sufficient to lead to midplane temperatures T(sub m) greater than 1400 K at