WorldWideScience
1

Inclined solar chimney for power production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Solar energy harnessing using inclined face of high mountains as solar chimney. ? Solar chimneys with structural stability, ease of construction and lower cost. ? Mathematical model developed, using complete (mechanical and thermal) energy balance. ? Can harness wind power also, as wind velocities at mountain top add to power output. ? Air temperature and velocity increase, as air rises in inclined chimney. - Abstract: The present concept of solar chimney is a tall vertical chimney constructed at the center of a large area, which is the collector. This creates questions about stability and economic viability of the chimney and also demands elaborate engineering techniques for constructing a tall chimney. We suggest geometry of 'Inclined Solar Chimney' (ISC), which is constructed along the face of a high rising mountain, on which maximum solar insolation is incident throughout the year. The chimney and the collector get merged here. This makes the structure stable, cost effective and easy for construction. A mathematical model has been developed considering the total energy balance. It predicts the temperature and velocity and kinetic power of the emerging air draft for some chosen values of other parameters. The model also shows the proportion in which absorbed solar energy is divided into different forms, and hence predicts the dependence of kinetic of emerging air draft upon dimensions of the chimney and properties of materials used. Further,ties of materials used. Further, it is shown that external winds enhance the kinetic power of the emerging air. Thus ISC can also harness the wind energy, available at the top of the mountain.

2

Simulation of a pilot solar chimney thermal power generating equipment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A pilot experimental solar chimney thermal power generating equipment was set up in China. A simulation study was carried out to investigate the performance of the power generating system based on a developed mathematical model. The simulated power outputs in steady state were obtained for different global solar radiation intensity, collector area and chimney height. By intercomparison, it is found that the simulated power outputs are basically in agreement with the results calculated with the measurements, which validates the mathematical model of the solar chimney thermal power generating system. Furthermore, based on the simulation and the specific construction costs at a specific site, the optimum combination of chimney and collector dimensions can be selected for a required electric power output. (author)

Zhou, Xinping; Yang, Jiakuan; Xiao, Bo [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Hou, Guoxiang [School of Traffic Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China)

2007-08-15

3

A mathematical model of a solar chimney  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A simple mathematical model of a solar chimney is proposed. The physical model is similar to the Trombe wall. One side of the chimney is provided with a glass cover which with the other three solid walls of the chimney form a channel through which the heated air could rise and flow by natural convection. Openings provided at the bottom and top of the chimney allow room air to enter and leave the channel. Steady state heat transfer equations were set up to determine the boundary temperatures at the surface of the glass cover, the rear solar heat absorbing wall and the air flow in the channel using a thermal resistance network. The equations were solved using a matrix-inversion solution procedure. The thermal performance of the solar chimney as determined from the glass, wall and air temperatures, air mass flow rate and instantaneous heat collection efficiency of the chimney are presented. Satisfactory correlation was obtained with experimental data from other investigators. Further experimental investigation is currently under way. (author)

Ong, K.S. [Monash University, Petaling Jaya (Malaysia)

2003-06-01

4

Simulation and optimization of geometric parameters of a solar chimney in Tehran  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • A fundamental mathematical of solar chimney model was described. • The performance of solar chimney power plant was analytically simulated. • The results of predictions were compared with the experimental data. • The velocity magnitude can be raised 4–25% in different cases. - Abstract: An analytical and numerical study for geometrical optimizing of a solar chimney prototype at University of Tehran was performed. A fundamental mathematical model that describes the flow was presented, and the performance evaluation of solar chimney was simulated with operational and geometric configurations. The numerical predictions were validated through comparison with the experimental data of the solar chimney pilot which was constructed in height of 2 m and collector radius of 3 m. The results show that, the collector inlet of 6 cm, the chimney height of 3 m, and the chimney diameter of 10 cm were the best alternatives for the constructed solar chimney pilot. It is found that the velocity magnitude can be raised to 4–25% in different cases; also the analysis indicated that the height and diameter of the chimney are the most important physical variables for solar chimney design

5

DESIGN OF A SMALL ? SCALE SOLAR CHIMNEY FOR SUSTAINABLE POWER  

Science.gov (United States)

After several months of design and testing it has been determined that a small scale solar chimney can be built using nearly any local materials and simple hand tools without needing superior construction knowledge. The biggest obstacle to over come was the weather conditions....

6

Design and measured performance of a solar chimney for natural-circulation solar-energy dryers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The design and construction of a solar chimney which was undertaken as part of a study on natural-circulation solar-energy dryers is reported. The experimental solar chimney consists of a 5.3m high and 1.64m diameter cylindrical polyethylene-clad vertical chamber, supported structurally by steel framework and draped internally with a selectively-absorbing surface. The performance of the chimney which was monitored extensively with and without the selective surface in place (to study the effectiveness of this design option) is also reported. (author). 14 refs, 7 figs

7

A performance analysis of solar chimney thermal power systems  

OpenAIRE

The objective of this study was to evaluate the solar chimney performance theoretically (techno-economic). A mathematical model was developed to estimate the following parameter: Power output, Pressure drop across the turbine, the max chimney height, Airflow temperature, and the overall efficiency of solar chimney. The mathematical model was validated with experimental data from the prototype in Manzanares power. It can be concluded that the differential pressure of collector-chimney tr...

Al-Dabbas Awwad Mohammed

2011-01-01

8

A review of solar chimney power technology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Utilization of solar chimney (SC) for power generation has proved to be a promising approach for future applications. This paper provides a comprehensive picture of research and development of SC power technology in the past few decades. The description, physical process, experimental and theoretical study status, and economics for the conventional SC power technology are included as well as descriptions of other types of SC power technology. (author)

Zhou, Xinping; Wang, Fang [Department of Mechanics, School of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Luoyu Road 1037, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Hubei Key Laboratory for Engineering Structural Analysis and Safety Assessment, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Luoyu Road 1037, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Ochieng, Reccab M. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Maseno University, P.O. Box 333, Maseno (Kenya)

2010-10-15

9

Analytical Analysis of Roof Top Solar Chimney for Power Generation  

OpenAIRE

The solar chimney is a technology, which has been already proved of being capable to generate electrical energy from the sun. On the other hand, the solar chimney has been used on the roof of housing for ventilation purpose. Since the sun is not available during night and cloudy days, there should be another source of input to guarantee continuous operation of the system. Present study is the development of experimental, computational and mathematical models of ?On Roof Solar Chimney...

Sreejaya, K. V.; Al-kayiem, Hussain H.; Syed Ihtsham Ul-Haq Gilani

2011-01-01

10

Simulation of a sloped solar chimney power plant in Lanzhou  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Research highlights: ? A sloped solar chimney power plant in Lanzhou, China is investigated. ? The configuration sizes are designed separately. ? The system has high periodicity and stability but low efficiency. ? The sloped solar chimney power system is of high value for Northwest China. -- Abstract: Solar chimney power system is one large-scale utilization style of solar energy, which has drawn high attentions worldwide. Though scholars all over the world have made many researches on the solar chimney power system, reports of sloped solar chimney power system are still few. A sloped solar chimney power plant, which is expected to provide electric power for remote villages in Northwest China, has been designed for Lanzhou City in this paper. The designed plant, in which the height and radius of the chimney are 252.2 m and 14 m respectively, the radius and angle of the solar collector are 607.2 m and 31o respectively, is designed to produce 5 MW electric power on a monthly average all year. The performances, such as the airflow temperature increase, pressure, the airflow speed, system efficiency and solar collector efficiency, of the built sloped solar chimney power plant are simulated and presented. Simulation results show that parameters of the sloped solar chimney power plant are symmetrical and stable; the power plant has better performances in spring and autumn days; the overall efficiency of the power plant is low. Considering the abundant sol low. Considering the abundant solar radiation, environmental friendliness, easy management and low population density, the sloped solar chimney power system is of high value to Northwest China.

11

Performance of a Solar Chimney Under Egyptian Weather Conditions: Numerical Simulation and Experimental Validation  

OpenAIRE

High solar radiation and ambient temperature, and large desert in Egypt are excellent conditions to install efficiently solar chimney power plants there. Therefore this research aimed to develop a validated mathematical model and governing equations of solar chimney. It is proposed to improve the performance of solar chimney under effects of various parameters, and study of possibility of installing solar chimney in Egypt. The mathematical simulation of the solar chimney has been developed in...

Mostafa, A. A.; Sedrak, M. F.; Abdel Dayem, Adel M.

2011-01-01

12

Power generation from wind turbines in a solar chimney  

OpenAIRE

Recent studies have shown that shrouded wind turbines can generate greater power compared to bare turbines. A solar chimney generates an upward draft of wind inside a tower and a shroud around the wind turbine. There are numerous empty silos on farms in the U.S. that can be converted to solar chimneys with minor modifications at modest cost. The objective of this study is to determine the potential of these silos/chimneys for generating wind power. The study is conducted through analytical/co...

Tudor Foote, Ramesh K. Agarwal

2013-01-01

13

Experimental investigations of a chimney-dependent solar crop dryer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An experimental investigation into the performance of a solar crop dryer with solar chimney and no air preheating is described. Tests were first performed on the cabinet dryer, using a normal chimney. The trials were repeated with a solar chimney. Still with the solar chimney, further trials were carried out with the roof of the drying chamber inclined further to form a tent dryer. The described tests include no-load tests for airflow rate measurements and drying tests, with cassava as the crop. Air velocities, temperatures, ambient relative humidity and the drop in crop moisture contents at different stages of the drying process are also presented. The effects of the various configurations described above on the drying process are deduced and discussed while comparing the experimental results with one another. In addition, the performance of the dryer in relation to other natural convection dryers is discussed. The results show that the solar chimney can increase the airflow rate of a direct-mode dryer especially when it is well designed with the appropriate angle of drying-chamber roof. However, the increase in flow rate only increases the drying rate when the relative humidity (RH) of the ambient air is below a certain mark (60% for cassava). (author)

Afriyie, J.K.; Nazha, M.A.A.; Rajakaruna, H. [School of Engineering and Technology, De Montfort University, Queens Building, The Gateway, Leicester LE1 9BH (United Kingdom); Forson, F.K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi (Ghana)

2009-01-15

14

Analytical Analysis of Roof Top Solar Chimney for Power Generation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The solar chimney is a technology, which has been already proved of being capable to generate electrical energy from the sun. On the other hand, the solar chimney has been used on the roof of housing for ventilation purpose. Since the sun is not available during night and cloudy days, there should be another source of input to guarantee continuous operation of the system. Present study is the development of experimental, computational and mathematical models of ?On Roof Solar Chimney? for small-scale power generation. The objective of the present study is to review the similar works and to present a mathematical model of a solar chimney operation and analyze the analytical result. The model involves the energy and mass transportation in the system under steady state conditions. Heat transfer equations were set up to determine the boundary temperatures at the surface of the glass cover, the rear solar heat absorbing wall and the air flow in the channel using a thermal resistance network. Results showed the transient behavior of the system during the day. With model area of 15 m2, the highest velocity of 0.17 m sec-1 is predicted at around the mid day time. The mass flow rate increases as the solar radiation increase. The area is a vital parameter in the successful application of the technique. Also enhancement technique to rise up the collector temperature would improve the performance considerably.

K.V. Sreejaya

2011-01-01

15

A performance analysis of solar chimney thermal power systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the solar chimney performance theoretically (techno-economic. A mathematical model was developed to estimate the following parameter: Power output, Pressure drop across the turbine, the max chimney height, Airflow temperature, and the overall efficiency of solar chimney. The mathematical model was validated with experimental data from the prototype in Manzanares power. It can be concluded that the differential pressure of collector-chimney transition section in the system, is increase with the increase of solar radiation intensity. The specific system costs are between 2000 Eur/kW and 5000 Eur/kW depending on the system size, system concept and storage size. Hence, a 50 MWe solar thermal power plant will cost 100-250 Eur million. At very good sites, today’s solar thermal power plants can generate electricity in the range of 0.15 Eur/kWh, and series production could soon bring down these costs below 0.10 Eur /kWh.

Al-Dabbas Awwad Mohammed

2011-01-01

16

Performance of a Solar Chimney Under Egyptian Weather Conditions: Numerical Simulation and Experimental Validation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available High solar radiation and ambient temperature, and large desert in Egypt are excellent conditions to install efficiently solar chimney power plants there. Therefore this research aimed to develop a validated mathematical model and governing equations of solar chimney. It is proposed to improve the performance of solar chimney under effects of various parameters, and study of possibility of installing solar chimney in Egypt. The mathematical simulation of the solar chimney has been developed including all its performance parameters, dimensions (of collector, chimney and turbine and the metrological data; which were considered as inputs of the simulation program. A comparison between the mathematical and experimental performance has been investigated to validate the mathematical simulation. The mathematical model has been used to predict the performance of the solar chimney power plant over a year in Egypt. It is used to study of effects of geometrical parameters, and investigate possibility of the optimum geometrical dimensions. It is obtained that there is in fact no optimum physical size for such plants without considering the economical constraints. The chimney height has a significant effect in the chimney performance. Visualizing of annual performance of the solar chimney would seem to be essentially a power generator in Egypt if it installed in a large scale.Key words: Solar chimney; Numerical simulation; Annual performance; Experimental validation; Optimization

A. A. Mostafa

2011-02-01

17

Power generation from wind turbines in a solar chimney  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recent studies have shown that shrouded wind turbines can generate greater power compared to bare turbines. A solar chimney generates an upward draft of wind inside a tower and a shroud around the wind turbine. There are numerous empty silos on farms in the U.S. that can be converted to solar chimneys with minor modifications at modest cost. The objective of this study is to determine the potential of these silos/chimneys for generating wind power. The study is conducted through analytical/computational approach by employing the commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software. Computations are performed for five different geometric configurations consisting of a turbine, a cylindrical silo, and/or a venturi and/or a diffuser using the dimensions of typical silos and assuming Class 3 wind velocity. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations with the Boussinesq approximation and a two equation realizable {kappa}-{epsilon} model are employed in the calculations, and the turbine is modeled as an actuator disk. The power coefficient (Cp) and generated power are calculated for the five cases. Consistent with recent literature, it was found that the silos with diffusers increase the Cp beyond Betz’s limit significantly and thus the generated power. It should be noted that Cp is calculated by normalizing it by the turbine area swept by the wind. This study shows the potential of using abandoned silos in the mid-west and other parts of the country for localized wind power generation.

Foote, Tudor [Graduate Student, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Washington University in St. Louis, Jolley Hall, Campus Box 1185, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, Missouri, 63130 (United States); Agarwal, Ramesh K. [William Palm Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Washington University in St. Louis, Jolley Hall, Campus Box 1185, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, Missouri, 63130 (United States)

2013-07-01

18

An experimental investigation of a solar chimney model with uniform wall heat flux  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Experiments were carried out using an experimental solar chimney model with uniform heat flux on one chimney wall with a variable chimney gap-to-height ratio between 1:15 and 2:5 and different heat flux and inclination angles. Results showed that a maximum airflow rate was achieved at an inclination angle around 45{sup o} for a 200 mm gap and 1.5 m high chimney, and the airflow rate is about 45% higher than that for a vertical chimney at otherwise identical conditions. It was found that the prediction method available in the literature can substantially overpredict the airflow rate for the chimney geometry investigated in this work, especially for vertical chimneys with large gaps. The main reason for the overprediction of airflow rate was shown due to the underestimation of the pressure losses at the chimney outlet by using loss coefficients obtained for normal forced flows. (author)

Chen, Z.D.; Bandopadhayay, P. [CSIRO Manufacturing and Infrastructure Technology, Highett, Vic. (Australia). Energy and Thermofluids Engineering; Halldorsson, J.; Byrjalsen, C.; Heiselberg, P. [Aalborg Univ. (Denmark). Indoor Environmental Engineering; Li, Y. [Hong Kong Univ. (China). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

2003-07-01

19

Enhanced heat transfer in inclined solar chimneys by electrohydrodynamic technique  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Heat transfer enhancement of natural convection inside the inclined solar chimneys is investigated using electrohydrodynamic technique. The interactions between electric field, flow field, and temperature field are analyzed. The ranges of parameters considered are 10{sup 4}{<=}Ra{<=}10{sup 7}, 7.5 kV{<=}V{sub 0}{<=}17.5 kV, 30 {<=}{theta}{<=}120 , and 2{<=}aspect ratio{<=}14. Flow and heat transfer enhancements are significantly influenced at low Rayleigh number. The optimum inclined angle which obtains maximum volume flow rate and heat transfer is found to be at {theta}=60 . A maximum volume flow rate enhancement is expressed in relation with the number of electrodes. The relation between aspect ratio of chimney and number of electrodes that performs the optimum condition between efficiency and economy is analyzed incorporating with all concerning parameters. (author)

Kasayapanand, Nat [School of Energy, Environment, and Materials, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

2008-03-15

20

Review on the Enhancement Techniques and Introduction of an Alternate Enhancement Technique of Solar Chimney Power Plant  

OpenAIRE

Due to the low plant efficiency associated with Solar Chimney Power Plant, there is a need for the plant performance enhancement. This study presents the enhancement techniques of solar chimney power plant. It reviews previous works that had been done in performance enhancement of solar chimney power plants. It also, introduces an alternative approach to enhance the solar chimney performance by hybridizing the solar operation mode and waste heat energy from flue gas. The new idea is to conver...

Al-kayiem, Hussain H.; Aja Ogboo Chikere; Zainal Ambri Abdul Karim

2011-01-01

21

Experimental study of temperature field in a solar chimney power setup  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A pilot experimental solar chimney power setup consisted of an air collector 10 m in diameter and an 8 m tall chimney has been built. The temperature distribution in the solar chimney power setup was measured. Temperature difference between the collector outlet and the ambient usually can reach 24.1 deg. C, which generates the driving force of airflow in the setup. This is the greenhouse effect produced in the solar collector. It is found that air temperature inversion appears in the latter chimney after sunrise both on a cool day and on a warm day. Air temperature inversion is formed by the increase of solar radiation from the minimum and clears up some time later when the absorber bed is heated to an enough high temperature to make airflow break through the temperature inversion layer and flow through the chimney outlet.

Zhou Xinping [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), 1037 Luoyu Road, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Yang Jiakuan [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), 1037 Luoyu Road, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China)]. E-mail: zhxpmark@hotmail.com; Xiao Bo [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), 1037 Luoyu Road, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Hou Guoxiang [School of Traffic Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China)

2007-08-15

22

Experimental study of temperature field in a solar chimney power setup  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A pilot experimental solar chimney power setup consisted of an air collector 10 m in diameter and an 8 m tall chimney has been built. The temperature distribution in the solar chimney power setup was measured. Temperature difference between the collector outlet and the ambient usually can reach 24.1 C, which generates the driving force of airflow in the setup. This is the greenhouse effect produced in the solar collector. It is found that air temperature inversion appears in the latter chimney after sunrise both on a cool day and on a warm day. Air temperature inversion is formed by the increase of solar radiation from the minimum and clears up some time later when the absorber bed is heated to an enough high temperature to make airflow break through the temperature inversion layer and flow through the chimney outlet. (author)

Zhou, Xinping; Yang, Jiakuan; Xiao, Bo [Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), Hubei (China). School of Environmental Science and Engineering; Hou, Guoxiang [Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), Hubei (China). School of Traffic Science and Engineering

2007-08-15

23

Numerical investigation on thermal and fluid dynamic behaviors of solar chimney building systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Buildings as big energy-consuming systems require large amount of energy to operate. Globally, buildings are responsible for approximately 40% of total world annual energy consumption. Sustainable buildings with renewable energy systems are trying to operate independently without consumption of conventional resources. Renewable energy is a significant approach to reduce resource consumption in sustainable building. A solar chimney is essentially divided into two parts, one - the solar air heater (collector) and second - the chimney. Two configurations of solar chimney are usually used: vertical solar chimney with vertical absorber geometry, and roof solar chimney. For vertical solar chimney, vertical glass is used to gain solar heat. Designing a solar chimney includes height, width and depth of cavity, type of glazing, type of absorber, and inclusion of insulation or thermal mass. Besides these system parameters, other factors such as the location, climate, and orientation can also affect its performance. In this paper a numerical investigation on a prototypal solar chimney system integrated in a south facade of a building is presented. The analysis is carried out on a three-dimensional model in air flow and the governing equations are given in terms of k-s turbulence model. Two geometrical configurations are investigated: 1) a channel with vertical parallel walls and 2) a channel with principal walls one vertical and the other inclined. The problem is solved by means of the commercial code Ansys-Fluent and the results are performed for a uniform wall heat flux on the vertical wall is equal to 300 and 600 W/m2. Results are given in terms of wall temperature distributions, air velocity and temperature fields and transversal profiles in order to evaluate the differences between the two base configurations and thermal and fluid dynamic behaviors. Further, the ground effect on thermal performances is examined. key words: mathematical modeling, solar chimney, renewable energy

24

Heat and fluid flows analysis in solar chimney power plants for different flow regimes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Solar chimneys are natural generators of power which use solar radiation to increase the internal energy of the air flowing within them. This study investigated the effect of fluid flow regimes on the performance of a solar chimney power plant (SCPP). The originality of the work was related to the mathematical and numerical modelling of fluid flow in a complex geometry with dimensionless variables. The thermal hydrodynamic aspect of flow was analyzed by solving the fluid dynamics equations using a finite volumes method with adequate boundary conditions. The study focused primarily on the performance analysis and cost of SCPPs. The efficiency of the solar chimney was studied from a thermo-fluid point of view under steady state conditions. The results were presented in terms of air flow velocity distributions versus Rayleigh number and some geometrical and physical parameters, such as the height of the chimney and solar radiation. The simulation results were in good agreement with experimental results from the Mansanares solar chimney power plant in Algeria, in terms of electric power generated by the chimney power plant and the fluid flow velocity in the chimney tower. 13 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs.

Gahgah, M.; Chergui, T. [Applied Research Center in Renewable Energies, Adrar (Algeria); Larbi, S. [National Polytechnic School of Algiers, Algiers (Algeria). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Laboratory of Mechanical Engineering and Development; Bouhdjar, A. [Development Center of Renewable Energies, Algiers (Algeria)

2010-07-01

25

Feasibility study on optimization of a typical solar chimney power plant  

Science.gov (United States)

The solar chimney which has been built in Kerman (Kerman city-Iran) is a small scale electrical power plant. The chimney of this unit has 60 m height and 3 m diameter. The collector of this unit is 40 m × 40 m square. To reach nominal power of this unit of power plant, parameters which are effective in optimization are studied. In this regard, we deliberate and propose suggestions to maximize usage of solar energy and kinetic energy. The calculation of maximum power is one of the objectives of this study, so the paper present economic analysis for Kerman solar chimney. A home code has been written for this modeling, in MATLAB.

Najmi, Mohsen; Nazari, Ali; Mansouri, Hossein; Zahedi, Ghazzanfar

2012-03-01

26

Performance analysis of a solar chimney power plant in the southwestern region of Algeria  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper, we present the performance analysis of a solar chimney power plant expected to provide the remote villages located in Algerian southwestern region with electric power. Solar energy and the psychometric state of the air in the south of Algeria are important to encourage the full development of solar chimney power plant for the thermal and electrical production of energy for various uses. We are interested in Adrar where solar radiation is better than other areas of Algeria. The obtained results show that the solar chimney power plant can produce from 140 to 200 kW of electricity on a site like Adrar during the year, according to an estimate made on the monthly average of sunning. This production is sufficient for the needs of the isolated areas. (author)

Larbi, Salah [Laboratory of Mechanical Engineering and Development, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Polytechnic National School of Algiers, 10, Avenue Hassen Badi, El-Harrach (Algeria); Bouhdjar, Amor [Development Center of Renewable Energies, Bouzeriah, Algiers (Algeria); Chergui, Toufik [Applied Research Center in Renewable Energies, Adrar (Algeria)

2010-01-15

27

Performance analysis of a solar chimney power plant for different fluid flows  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study provided a method of predicting power output from a solar chimney power plant (SCPP). The SCPP was comprised of a solar collector, a chimney tower, and an aero-generator to produce electric power. The analysis calculated energy output in relation to specific Rayleigh numbers, geometrical and physical parameters including the SCPP's height and solar radiation capacity. The performance analysis of the SCPP was based on momentum and energy balance equations in both the collector and the chimney. Results of the study were compared with an SCPP located in Spain. The study demonstrated that performance is influenced by the Rayleigh number towards the height of the tower, as well as on the surface of the collector. System performance can be improved by increasing the efficiency of the collector and turbine. It was concluded that the model accurately characterizes the physical phenomena that occur in an SCPP. 12 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

Gahgah, M.; Chergui, T. [Applied Research Center in Renewable Energies, Adrar (Algeria); Larbi, S. [National Polytechnic School of Algiers, Algiers (Algeria). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Laboratory of Mechanical Engineering and Development; Bouhdjar, A. [Development Center of Renewable Energies, Algiers (Algeria)

2009-07-01

28

Economic analysis of power generation from floating solar chimney power plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Solar chimney thermal power technology that has a long life span is a promising large-scale solar power generating technology. This paper performs economic analysis of power generation from floating solar chimney power plant (FSCPP) by analyzing cash flows during the whole service period of a 100 MW plant. Cash flows are influenced by many factors including investment, operation and maintenance cost, life span, payback period, inflation rate, minimum attractive rate of return, non-returnable subsidy rate, interest rate of loans, sale price of electricity, income tax rate and whether additional revenue generated by carbon credits is included or not. Financial incentives and additional revenue generated by carbon credits can accelerate the development of the FSCPP. Sensitivity analysis to examine the effects of the factors on cash flows of a 100 MW FSCPP is performed in detail. The results show that the minimum price for obtaining minimum attractive rate of return (MARR) of 8% reaches 0.83 yuan (kWh){sup -1} under financial incentives including loans at a low interest rate of 2% and free income tax. Comparisons of economics of the FSCPP and reinforced concrete solar chimney power plant or solar photovoltaic plant are also performed by analyzing their cash flows. It is concluded that FSCPP is in reality more economical than reinforced concrete solar chimney power plant (RCSCPP) or solar photovoltaic plant (SPVP) with the same power capacity. (author)

Zhou, Xinping [School of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Luoyu Road, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Yang, Jiakuan; Xiao, Bo [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Luoyu Road, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Wang, Fen [Wuhan Gatway Science and Technology Co., Ltd., Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China)

2009-05-15

29

Economic analysis of power generation from floating solar chimney power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Solar chimney thermal power technology that has a long life span is a promising large-scale solar power generating technology. This paper performs economic analysis of power generation from floating solar chimney power plant (FSCPP) by analyzing cash flows during the whole service period of a 100 MW plant. Cash flows are influenced by many factors including investment, operation and maintenance cost, life span, payback period, inflation rate, minimum attractive rate of return, non-returnable subsidy rate, interest rate of loans, sale price of electricity, income tax rate and whether additional revenue generated by carbon credits is included or not. Financial incentives and additional revenue generated by carbon credits can accelerate the development of the FSCPP. Sensitivity analysis to examine the effects of the factors on cash flows of a 100 MW FSCPP is performed in detail. The results show that the minimum price for obtaining minimum attractive rate of return (MARR) of 8% reaches 0.83 yuan (kWh)-1 under financial incentives including loans at a low interest rate of 2% and free income tax. Comparisons of economics of the FSCPP and reinforced concrete solar chimney power plant or solar photovoltaic plant are also performed by analyzing their cash flows. It is concluded that FSCPP is in reality more economical than reinforced concrete solar chimney power plant (RCSCPP) or solar photovoltaic plant (SPVP) with the same power capacity. (author)e power capacity. (author)

30

Performance analysis of conventional and sloped solar chimney power plants in China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The solar chimney power plant (SCPP) has been accepted as one of the most promising approaches for future large-scale solar energy applications. This paper reports on a heat transfer model that is used to compare the performance of a conventional solar chimney power plant (CSCPP) and two sloped solar chimney power plants (SSCPPs) with the collector oriented at 30° and 60°, respectively. The power generation from SCPPs at different latitudes in China is also analyzed. Results indicate that the larger solar collector angle leads to improved performance in winter but results in lower performance in summer. It is found that the optimal collector angle to achieve the maximum power in Lanzhou, China, is around 60°. Main factors that influence the performance of SCPPs also include the system height and the air thermophysical characteristics. The ground energy loss, reflected solar radiation, and kinetic loss at the chimney outlet are the main energy losses in SCPPs. The studies also show SSCPPs are more suitable for high latitude regions in Northwest China, but CSCPPs are suggested to be built in southeastern and eastern parts of China with the combination to the local agriculture. - Highlights: ? The optimum collector angle for maximum power generation is 60° in Lanzhou. ? Main parameters influencing performances are the system height and air property. ? Ground loss, reflected loss and outlet kinetic loss are the main energy losses. ? The sloped styles are suita ? The sloped styles are suitable for Northwest China. ? The conventional styles are suitable for Southeast and East China.

31

Numerical analysis on the performance of solar chimney power plant system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Power generating technology based on renewable energy resources will definitely become a new trend of future energy utilization. Numerical simulations on air flow, heat transfer and power output characteristics of a solar chimney power plant model with energy storage layer and turbine similar to the Spanish prototype were carried out in this paper, and mathematical model of flow and heat transfer for the solar chimney power plant system was established. The influences of solar radiation and pressure drop across the turbine on the flow and heat transfer, output power and energy loss of the solar chimney power plant system were analyzed. The numerical simulation results reveal that: when the solar radiation and the turbine efficiency are 600 W/m2 and 80%, respectively, the output power of the system can reach 120 kW. In addition, large mass flow rate of air flowing through the chimney outlet become the main cause of energy loss in the system, and the collector canopy also results in large energy loss.

32

Thermo-hydrodynamic aspect analysis of flows in solar chimney power plants - A case study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of the work presented in this study is related to heat transfer and airflow modelling analysis in solar chimneys, according to some dominant parameters. A typical case of application is given in this study. It consists in analyzing a natural laminar convective heat transfer problem taking place in a chimney. Heat transfer and fluid dynamic aspects of the airflow, through an axis symmetric system in a dimensionless form, with well defined boundary conditions is thus examined. Results are related to the temperature distribution and the velocity field in the chimney and in the collector, determined by solving the energy equation, and the Navier-Stokes equations, using finite volume method. The numerical code based on this modelling is validated through the Vahl Davis benchmark solution for natural convection and to other authors for other cases. (author)

Chergui, Toufik [Applied Research Center in Renewable Energies, Adrar (Algeria); Larbi, Salah [Laboratory of Mechanical Engineering and Development, Polytechnic National School of Algiers, 10, Avenue Hassen Badi, El-Harrach, Alger (Algeria); Bouhdjar, Amor [Renewable Energies Development Center, Bouzeriah, Algiers (Algeria)

2010-06-15

33

Solar chimney: A sustainable approach for ventilation and building space conditioning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The residential and commercial buildings demand increase with rapidly growing population. It leads to the vertical growth of the buildings and needs proper ventilation and day-lighting. The natural air ventilation system is not significantly works in conventional structure, so fans and air conditioners are mandatory to meet the proper ventilation and space conditioning. Globally building sector consumed largest energy and utmost consumed in heating, ventilation and space conditioning. This load can be reduced by application of solar chimney and integrated approaches in buildings for heating, ventilation and space conditioning. It is a sustainable approach for these applications in buildings. The authors are reviewed the concept, various method of evaluation, modelings and performance of solar chimney variables, applications and integrated approaches.

Lal, S.,

2013-03-01

34

Design and simulation of a geothermal–solar combined chimney power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • A geothermal–solar chimney power plant (GSCPP) is designed and analyzed. • Three different models, viz. full solar model, full geothermal model and geothermal–solar mode are compared. • Power generation under GSM is larger than the sum of FSM and FGM. • GSCPP can effectively solve the continuous operation problem of the SCPP. - Abstract: The solar chimney power plant (SCPP) is dominated by the solar radiation, and therefore its discontinuous operation is an unavoidable problem. In this paper, low temperature geothermal water is introduced into the SCPP for overcoming this problem. Based on a developed transient model, theoretical analyses are carried out to investigate the performance of the geothermal–solar chimney power plant (GSCPP) with main dimensions the same as the Manzanares prototype in Spain. Three operation models, viz. the full solar model, the full geothermal model and the geothermal–solar combined model are compared in typical summer and winter days and throughout the year. It is found that the GSCPP can attractively run in the GSM to deliver power continuously. Due to the ambient-dependant geothermal water outlet temperature, introducing the geothermal water makes greater contribution in winter days than in summer days, in the night than in the daytime. Power generation under GSM is larger than the sum of FSM and FGM. GSM is not the simple superposition of FSM and FGM, but makes better utilization of solar and geothermal energy. In addition, introducing high temperature and mass flow rate geothermal water can doubled and redoubled improve the GSCPP’s power capacity

35

Evaluation of the influence of soil thermal inertia on the performance of a solar chimney power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Solar chimney power plants are a technology capable to generate electric energy through a wind turbine using the solar radiation as energy source; nevertheless, one of the objectives pursued since its invention is to achieve energy generation during day and night. Soil under the power plant plays an important role on the energy balance and heat transfer, due to its natural behavior as a heat storage system. The characteristics of the soil influence the ability of the solar chimney power plant to generate power continuously. Present work analyzes the thermodynamic behavior and the power output of a solar chimney power plant over a daily operation cycle taking into account the soil as a heat storage system, through a numerical modeling under non-steady conditions. The influence of the soil thermal inertia and the effects of soil compaction degree on the output power generation are studied. A sizeable increase of 10% in the output power is obtained when the soil compaction increases. -- Highlights: ? Solar chimney power plants are a technology capable to generate renewable energy from solar radiation. ? The ground under the solar chimney can act as a heat storage system. ? The soil thermal inertia plays a relevant role in a scenario where the plant operates continuously. ? A higher compaction of soil causes a relevant increase on total energy generation.

36

Simulation of solar chimney power plant with an external heat source  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Solar chimney power plant is a sustainable source of power production. The key parameter to increase the system power output is to increase its size but the plant cannot operate during night hours. This study deals with simulation work to validate results of pilot plant at Manzanares and include the effects of waste heat from a gas turbine power plant in the system. The effects show continuous night operation, a 38.8 percent increase in power at 1000 W/m2 global solar irradiation at daytime and 1.14 percent increase in overall efficiency.

37

A parametric study on the feasibility of solar chimney power plants in North Cyprus conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • A parametric for solar chimney power plants (SCPPs) feasibility approach is proposed. • We found the annual electricity production of a 30 MW SCPP to be 94.5 GW h. • We compare this production with the same capacity fossil fuel thermal power plant. • We assess the effect of varying some parameters on economic viability of the SCPP. • Capital expenditure plays a critical role in assessing SCPP economic feasibility. - Abstract: The present work investigates the feasibility of installing a solar chimney power plant (SCPP) under North Cyprus (NC) conditions. The method utilized for the simulations of electricity production was compared and verified by the experimental recordings of the prototype in Manzanares, Spain, before carrying out performance predictions for different plant sizes, collector diameters and chimney heights. The annual electricity production of a 30 MW hypothetical SCPP system is estimated to be 94.5 GW h, which can cater for annual electricity needs of over 22,128 residences without any CO2, NOx and SOx emissions. For an installation cost of €145 million, it was estimated that the savings-to-investment ratio (SIR) would be 1.14, indicating a marginal economic feasibility. It is important to find ways of reducing the installation cost in order to strengthen the economic viability of the system. Considering that, at present, fuel oil no. 6 is being used in NC to produce electricity; the SCPP would cause avoidance of 24,840 tonnes of CO2 delivered into the atmosphere annually, if it replaced an equivalently-sized conventional power unit. To identify the most feasible cost option for the installation of the SCPP, a parametric cost analysis is carried out by varying the parameters such as; capital investment costs, carbon dioxide emission trading system price, chimney height, collector diameter and SCPP plant capacity. In all cases, the effect of these parameters on the economic feasibility indicators, such as SIR, net present value (NPV) and internal rate of return (IRR) were calculated. The results showed that SCPP investment cost, capacity of the plant and chimney height are critical in assessing the project viability

38

Field study of performance of solar chimney with air-conditioned building  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The study examines the performance of a solar chimney (SC) within an air-conditioned building. To this end, a single-room house of 25 m{sup 3} volume was used. Two configurations of SC were used: the roof solar collector (RSC) composed of CPAC monier concrete tile, 14 cm air gap and gypsum board, and the modified trombe wall (MTW) composed of a masonry wall, 14 cm air gap and gypsum board. To control the induced air flow rate, as excess incoming hot ambient air will increase air-conditioner (AC) load, the size of the SC inlet opening was used as a means of ventilation control and three opening sizes were considered per each SC configuration. Experiments were performed throughout a period of six months (March-September). A split type AC of 1 t nominal capacity was installed. Comparisons between a common house and a solar chimney house (SCH) conducted using days with relatively similar ambient conditions demonstrated that a SCH could reduce the average daily electrical consumption of an AC by 10-20%, the ventilation fan saving must also be added. The appropriate size of inlet openings of a SC is 5x5 cm{sup 2}, which induces about 3-8 m{sup 3}/h/SC unit. The SC is very efficient for decreasing the AC load, namely when the AC is turned on at the beginning of afternoon (1 p.m.) as no heat is stored inside the room. In this operating mode the saving is much higher, about 30%. Consequently, the SCH is highly suitable for a hot climate as it could be used for both an AC and a non-AC building. The design recommendations formulated here could be used to conduct a realistic design depending on the requirements of the house's owner. (author)

Khedari, J.; Rachapradit, N.; Hirunlabh, J. [King Mongkut' s University of Technology, Bangkok (Thailand). Building Scientific Research Center

2003-09-01

39

Performance of solar chimney power plant in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A solar chimney power plant (SCPP) is proposed to be built in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau where there is abundant solar radiation, high direct solar radiation low atmospheric temperature, large diurnal temperature range, and lots of salt lakes working as heat storage system, which can help to improve the power output of SCPP. The plant is expected to power local railway traffic lines and act as a solar power base to supply power for national development. The performance of the SCPP that will be built in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is analyzed and power potential estimated by developing a simple mathematical model. It is found that SCPP if built in the plateau can produce twice more power than an SCPP built on the same latitude of other regions. The yearly power potential for SCPP in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is estimated to be 86.8 million TJ. When 10-20% of the plateau land is used for the SCPP, the yearly power output may reach 8.7 million TJ to 17.4 million TJ, accounting for 10.7-21.3% of China's energy consumption in 2008 which stood at 81.6 million TJ. It is found that the SCPP in the plateau can support local and national development together with other renewable energy resources such as hydroelectric power and wind power. (author)

Zhou, Xinping; Wang, Fang [Department of Mechanics, School of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Luoyu Road 1037, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Hubei Key Laboratory for Engineering Structural Analysis and Safety Assessment, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Luoyu Road 1037, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Fan, Jian [Hubei Key Laboratory for Engineering Structural Analysis and Safety Assessment, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Luoyu Road 1037, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Ochieng, Reccab M. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Maseno University, P.O. Box 333, Maseno (Kenya)

2010-10-15

40

Experimental investigation into heating and airflow in trombe walls and solar chimneys  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Trombe Walls and solar chimneys are examples of passive solar air heating systems. However, the airflow and thermal efficiency characteristics of this type of system are not well understood, and partly for this reason, they are not commonly utilised. This paper reports on an experimental investigation into buoyancy-driven convection in a test rig designed to simulate the operation of a passive solar collector. The test rig comprised a vertical open-ended channel, approximately 1a square, heated from one side. The channel depth could be varied from 20mm to 110mm, and heating inputs varied from 200W to 1000W. Temperatures and airflow rates were measured and recorded, to characterise both steady-state and transient performance. The principal findings are: 1. Time constants (for heating)ranged typically between 30 and 70 minutes. 2. Flow regimes were mainly laminar (Reynolds number varing from ?500 to ?4000, depending on heat input and channel depth. 3. The thermal efficiency (as a solar collector and the heat transfer coefficient were functions of heat input, and were not depended on the channel depth. 4. The mass flow rate through the channel increased bath as the heat input increased and as the channel depth increased. The paper presents these findings and discusses their implications in more detail.(Author)

41

Thermodynamic analysis of a low-temperature waste heat recovery system based on the concept of solar chimney  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • A low grade waste heat recovery system based on the concept of solar chimney is proposed. • The effects of three key factors on the system performance are examined. • Thermodynamics analysis is to find a better way to utilize low grade heat source efficiently. - Abstract: The utilization of low-temperature waste heat draws more and more attention due to serious energy crisis nowadays. This paper proposes a low-temperature waste heat recovery system based on the concept of solar chimney. In the system, low-temperature waste heat is used to heat air to produce an air updraft in the chimney tower. The air updraft propels a turbine fixed at the base of the chimney tower to convert waste heat into electricity. The mathematical model of the system is established based on first law and second law of thermodynamics. Hot water is selected as the representative of low-temperature waste heat sources for researching. The heat source temperature, ambient air temperature and area of heat transfer are examined to evaluate their effects on the system performance such as velocity of updraft, mass flow rate of air, power output, conversion efficiency, and exergy efficiency. The velocity of air demonstrates a better stability than the mass flow rate of air and the pressure difference when temperature of heat source, ambient air temperature or area of heat transfer changes

42

Numerical analysis of flow and heat transfer characteristics in solar chimney power plants with energy storage layer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Numerical simulations have been performed to analyze the characteristics of heat transfer and air flow in the solar chimney power plant system with an energy storage layer. Different mathematical models for the collector, the chimney and the energy storage layer have been established, and the effect of solar radiation on the heat storage characteristic of the energy storage layer has been analyzed. The numerical simulation results show that: (1) the heat storage ratio of the energy storage layer decreases firstly and then increases with the solar radiation increasing from 200 W/m2 to 800 W/m2; (2) the relative static pressure decreases while the velocity increases significantly inside the system with the increase of solar radiation; (3) the average temperature of the chimney outlet and the energy storage layer may increase significantly with the increase of solar radiation. In addition, the temperature gradient of the storage medium may increase, which results in an increase of energy loss from the bottom of the energy storage layer

43

A cost-benefit analysis of power generation from commercial reinforced concrete solar chimney power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • We develop an economic model different from related models. • We evaluate the initial investment cost of a plant built in northwest China. • We analyze the cost and benefit of a plant built in northwest China. • By the sensitivity analysis, we examine the sensitivity of TNPV to many parameters. - Abstract: This paper develops a model different from existing models to analyze the cost and benefit of a reinforced concrete solar chimney power plant (RCSCPP) built in northwest China. Based on the model and some assumptions for values of parameters, this work calculates total net present value (TNPV) and the minimum electricity price in each phase by dividing the whole service period into four phases. The results show that the minimum electricity price in the first phase is higher than the current market price of electricity, but the minimum prices in the other phases are far less than the current market price. The analysis indicates that huge advantages of the RCSCPP over coal-fired power plants can be embodied in phases 2–4. In addition, the sensitivity analysis performed in this paper discovers TNPV is very sensitive to changes in the solar electricity price and inflation rate, but responds only slightly to changes in carbon credits price, income tax rate and interest rate of loans. Our analysis predicts that RCSCPPs have very good application prospect. To encourage the development of RCSCPPs, the government should provide subsidy by setting higher electricity price in the first phase, then lower electricity price in the other phases

44

Mathematical modelling and validation of the drying process in a Chimney-Dependent Solar Crop Dryer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? The simulation code predicts temperatures to within 1.5% of recorded data. ? The ventilation is predicted to within 5% accuracy. ? Effects of heat inertia cause the actual drying path to deviate from the simulated path. ? The two paths converge in the end with a final moisture content prediction to within 10%. ? The simulation code can be used to compare and refine the dryer designs for optimum drying performance. - Abstract: A simulation procedure describing the drying process within a Chimney-Dependent Solar Crop Dryer (CDSCD) has been developed. The simulation follows the authors’ experimental work on the effect of varying drying chamber roof inclination on the ventilation and drying processes, and their work on the development of simulation code to help optimise ventilation in such dryers. The current paper presents the modelling and subsequent validation of the drying process inside the dryer, to come out with a design tool for the CDSCD. The work considers the height of the crop shelf above the drying-chamber base, crop resistance to airflow and the shading on the drying-chamber base and their effects on the drying process. The under-load condition temperatures and velocities are predicted to within a relative difference of 1.5% and 10%, respectively of the observed values. Even though the heat inertia of the physical model causes deviation between the predicted drying path and the observed drying path, the two paths tend to converge at the end of each drying cycle, with a general prediction to within 10% relative difference of the observed crop moisture content. The validation results show that the simulation code can serve as an effective tool for comparing and refining the designs of the CDSCD for optimum drying performance

45

Passive solar construction handbook  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Many of the basic elements of passive solar design are reviewed. The unique design constraints presented in passive homes are introduced and many of the salient issues influencing design decisions are described briefly. Passive solar construction is described for each passive system type: direct gain, thermal storage wall, attached sunspace, thermal storage roof, and convective loop. For each system type, important design and construction issues are discussed and case studies illustrating designed and built examples of the system type are presented. Construction details are given and construction and thermal performance information is given for the materials used in collector components, storage components, and control components. Included are glazing materials, framing systems, caulking and sealants, concrete masonry, concrete, brick, shading, reflectors, and insulators. The Load Collector Ratio method for estimating passive system performance is appended, and other analysis methods are briefly summarized. (LEW)

Levy, E.; Evans, D.; Gardstein, C.

1981-08-01

46

Solutions for chimney and chimney liner problems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper discusses significant changes that have taken place in chimneys and their liner systems. Common usages of chimneys and liners are listed. The authors present chimney and liner problems, their causes, and solutions.

Fang, S.J.; Malten, K.C.; Oropeza, M. (Sargent and Lundy, Chicago, IL (USA))

1989-01-01

47

3. international chimney design symposium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On the 25th and 26th of october 1978, the 3rd International Chimney Design Symposium took place in the Technical University of Munich. About 200 german and 150 foreign experts in chimney design came to participate in the lectures and debates. The deliberations focussed on the scientific aspect and the technical completion of industrial chimneys, considering all the problems which are implied in the planifaction and construction of the foundation, the shaft, and the lining of the chimney. Being one of the main topics, the possibilities of using chimneys in their waste gas eliminating function within the framework of environmental control were discussed thoroughly. Standardization on national and international level was another topic at this conference. Considerable progress has been achieved in the field of security and economy. (orig./RW)

48

Passive-solar construction handbook  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Many of the basic elements of passive solar design are reviewed. Passive solar construction is covered according to system type, each system type discussion including a general discussion of the important design and construction issues which apply to the particular system and case studies illustrating designed and built examples of the system type. The three basic types of passive solar systems discussed are direct gain, thermal storage wall, and attached sunspace. Thermal performance and construction information is presented for typical materials used in passive solar collector components, storage components, and control components. Appended are an overview of analysis methods and a technique for estimating performance. (LEW)

Levy, E.; Evans, D.; Gardstein, C.

1981-02-01

49

From large natural draft cooling tower shells to chimneys of solar upwind power plants  

OpenAIRE

Natural draft cooling towers (NDCTs) presently form the world-largest RC shell structures, solar updraft power plants (SUPPs) will do this in future. The paper starts with explanations of the working principles of NDCTs and SUPPs. In industrialized countries with strong legal emphasis on sustainable power production technologies, NDCTs are widely spread, while SUPPs represent future solar power generation concepts in the world¿s tropical areas, using solar irradiation as power plant fuel. Co...

Kraetzig, Wilfried B.; Harte, Reinhard; Montag, Ulrich; Woermann, Ralf

2009-01-01

50

33 CFR 165.T01-0176 - Regulated Navigation Area; Lake Champlain Bridge Construction, Crown Point, New York and Chimney...  

Science.gov (United States)

... Regulated Navigation Area; Lake Champlain Bridge Construction, Crown Point... Regulated Navigation Area; Lake Champlain Bridge Construction, Crown Point... All navigable waters on Lake Champlain 300 yards to the north and...

2010-07-01

51

Solar architecture and solar construction; Solararchitektur und Solares Bauen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Solar architecture already takes into account solar energy during the design phase: The generation and use of energy as well as the materials for thermal energy storage characterize the planning process from the beginning. Solar houses are already technically feasible since a long time and become more and more interesting in economic respect due to continuously increasing energy prices. However this knowledge is not reflected in the construction practice. Energy-efficient construction is very often understood as a compact, thermally-insulated construction body, which has a small enveloping surface with small windows (principle Thermos bottle). The credo of the architects ''the form follows the task'' is converted into the opposite. The energy concept of a house must take into account its specific location and situation (climate). A uniform building envelope for all building types, locations and uses does not exist. A comprehensive planning and a cross-field dialogue between all participants is necessary in order to develop an comprehensive energy concept for a certain building; Supporting framework, heating, ventilation, construction physics and facade must be considered in dependance of each other. This is the only way to predict future heating and cooling performance and to optimize heating and ventilation plants. (orig.)

Karweger, A. [Economic Forum Ltd., London (United Kingdom)]|[Economic Forum Ltd., Muenchen (Germany)]|[Economic Forum Ltd., Bozen (Italy)

2008-07-01

52

Análisis de la ventilación inducida en un espacio habitable, mediante un sistema de Chimenea Hidro-Solar / Analisys of Ventilation induced in a Livable Space through a hydro-solar Chimney System  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El Cuerpo Académico Arquitectura y Tecnología Ambiental de la Universidad Juárez Autónoma de Tabasco, desarrolla la Línea de Investigación Arquitectura y Medio Ambiente, realiza análisis sobre el diseño y la arquitectura bioclimática, teniendo como premisa la sustentabilidad entre usuario, entorno y [...] espacio construido. Este último, en sitios con clima cálido húmedo, presenta incomodidad térmica debido a los altos índices de temperatura y humedad relativa, condición mitigada mediante equipos de aire acondicionado que repercuten en el gasto energético y la economía del usuario. De acuerdo con la arquitectura bioclimática una técnica pasiva para este hecho es la ventilación. La presente investigación es la tercera etapa de una propuesta de ventilación inducida. Consistió en la simulación del sistema denominado Chimenea Hidro-Solar, empleando tubería de cobre y agua como elementos captores de calor. Se planteó el diseño, construcción y evaluación del prototipo. Se construyeron modelos, del espacio proyectado y de referencia, a escala 1:6, observando las dimensiones establecidas por el Reglamento de Construcción para una recámara. El análisis se centró en obtener, valorar y categorizar los datos de magnitud del viento que conllevaron a evaluar el comportamiento del espacio. Los datos validaron el sistema propuesto, proporcionando alternativas de acondicionamiento pasivo al espacio habitable. Abstract in english The academic group called Architecture and Environmental Technology of the Universidad Juárez Autónoma de Tabasco, develops Line Architecture and Environmental Research, producing analyzes on the design and bioclimatic architecture, with the premise of sustainability between user space and built env [...] ironment. The latter, presents thermal discomfort due to the high levels of temperature and relative humidity, condition is mitigated by air conditioners that affect energy expenditure and the economy user. According to the bioclimatic architecture a passive technique for this, is ventilation. This research is the third stage of a proposal on ventilator-induced. It consisted of the simulation system called Hydro-Solar Chimney, using copper tubing and water and heat sensors elements. The steps contemplated the design, construction and evaluation of the prototype. Models were constructed, the projected space and reference, 1:6 scale, noting the dimensions set by the Building Code of the State of Tabasco. The analysis focused on obtaining, evaluating and categorizing the magnitude of the wind data that led to evaluate the behavior within the space. Schematized data validated the proposed system, providing passive conditioning alternative to living space.

H, Pérez Castro; J, Flores; A, López.

2013-11-01

53

Procedimentos estimativos do potencial de uso de chaminés solares para promover a ventilação natural em edificações de baixa altura / Procedures for estimating the potential use of solar chimneys for natural ventilation enhancement in low-rise buildings  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available A ventilação natural é uma das estratégias mais importantes para o condicionamento térmico passivo de ambientes internos de edificações, podendo ocorrer pela ação dos ventos, pelo efeito chaminé ou pela combinação de ambos. Em áreas urbanizadas, a velocidade do vento é sensivelmente reduzida pelos o [...] bstáculos locais, tornando o efeito chaminé uma alternativa de projeto mais viável, pois independe dos ventos. Este artigo tem por objetivo apresentar e discutir procedimentos estimativos do potencial de uso de chaminés solares para edificações de baixa altura, localizadas em regiões de baixa latitude. Desenvolveram-se previsões teóricas, através de um modelo matemático e de simulação computacional. Realizou-se um processo de calibração destes modelos, utilizando como referência os resultados do monitoramento experimental de uma célula de teste. O processo baseou-se na análise comparativa de algumas variáveis selecionadas, considerando-se dados de temperatura superficial, temperatura do ar e vazão volumétrica no interior da chaminé. Os resultados indicaram que os modelos teóricos têm potencial de aplicação na avaliação do desempenho de chaminés solares, especialmente o modelo de simulação, em que foram observadas diferenças inferiores a 20% entre resultados medidos e calculados. Abstract in english Natural ventilation is one of the most important strategies for passive cooling of indoor environments. It can occur by wind forces, by stack effect or by a combination of both strategies. The second choice tends to be more effective in urban areas, where there are obstacles that block or significan [...] tly reduce wind speed. This paper analyses prediction procedures for the potential use of solar chimneys in low-rise buildings at low latitude locations. Theoretical predictions were developed using a mathematical model and computer simulation. A calibration procedure was used, based on results obtained through an experimental set up. The procedure consisted in a comparative analysis of chosen variables, considering data of surface temperature, air temperature and volumetric flow rate inside the chimney channel. The results confirmed the great potential of applicability of the theoretical models in the performance analysis of solar chimneys, especially the simulation model, which presented differences lower than 20% between measured and estimated results.

Leticia de Oliveira, Neves; Maurício, Roriz.

2012-03-01

54

Solar building construction. Town planning - construction planning. 2. rev. ed.  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The book discusses the problems of solar energy use under the following aspects: Town planing; Typology of green solar architecture; Typologie of solar architecture; Vegetation in green solar architecture; Planning and simulation; Building materials; Ventilation, illumination; Research projects. (HW)

55

Dimensioning, construction and commissioning of a coffee beans drying system with use of solar collectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A system of low-cost solar drying of coffee beans is dimensioned, built and commissioned by using solar collectors based on recycled aluminum cans. The information is collected from literature about the drying of coffee, types of drying and the various types of solar dryers.The coffee beans drying system is conceptualized and sized based on a solar collector constructed of aluminum cans as solar radiation absorbing material. The grain drying system is then built in coffee benefit CoopeTarrazu to all provided by the company and help materials and labor facilities. A guide to implementation of solar drying technology with general information is tailored to implement, select, build and maintain a solar grain dryer in Central America. The launch of the drying system was made by checking the proper functioning of the system and measurement instruments variables selected to calculate the efficiency of the system. The drying system is tested with a load of 45 kg of coffee bean, using a flow of air through natural convection to operate the system with the exclusive use of renewable energy. The grain is drying from a humidity of 50% (b.n), up to a humidity between 11% and 13% (b.n), which is the range generally used for the safe storage of grain. Facts of solar radiation, temperature, air velocity, relative humidity and grain humidity were taken to determine the behavior of the sized system. The maximum thermal efficiency achieved by the solar collector is determined constructed of 18%, with an air flow of 0.013 kg/s and a solar radiation 1138 W/m2. The average drying efficiency during experimentation was 17.8%, which is among the range of efficiencies for the type of drying equipment. Best thermal efficiencies were obtained from the solar collector built that the commercial solar collector compared. Controlling the flow of air into the equipment is recommended in order to improve the thermal efficiency and drying equipment, using blowers, fans or induced draft chimney. (author)

56

Psychology and photography: chimneys dreaming and chimneys warriors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article covers two aspects related to Psychology and Art. The first aspect concerns the similarities found between photography and various Schools of experimental psychology. For instance, the scientists of Psychology of ethological theory, and Non-verbal communication (NVC, observe with particular methodologies the non-verbal messages that animals and humans transmit to their peers through expressions, posture, gestures. The same is done by photographers (those who use the “camera” with a good knowledge of the medium and a “photographic  eye” when they look around, careful to catch an expression, any unusual attitude, or a gesture of friendship. Another School of psychology, the Gestalpsychologie (Gestalt: form, figure, configuration, attributes a decisive value to the perception of space, the foreground and the background, the perspective and vanishing points, the contrast between black and white. All aspects that effectively interest psychologists just as much as photographers. Finally, the second aspect relates to the art of Antony Gaudì and makes some hypothesis about the personality and behavior of the great architect, with regard to the construction of two houses, "Casa Batllo" and "Casa Mila": particularly because of the configuration or Gestalt of the "chimneys" that dominate the two buildings. In this study, cooperate each other psychological analysis and the art of photography. The last enables us to study also the details of the work of Gaudì, as can be seen in the pictures of this essay.

Tilde Giani Gallino

2013-02-01

57

Researching, constructing, and testing (student made) Solar Ovens  

Science.gov (United States)

This activity requires students to research, design, construct, and test a solar oven. Students will collect data from their own individual oven to combine with research of "real-life" solar ovens in an activity ending scientific paper.

58

Novel concept for producing energy integrating a solar collector with a man made mountain hollow  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The concept of the solar chimney thermal power technology was proven with the successful operation of the Manzanares prototype built in the 1980s. However, all previous attempts at producing energy from a commercial solar chimney thermal power plant on a large scale have failed because of bad engineering and safety. A novel concept for producing energy by integrating a solar collector with a mountain hollow is presented and described. Solar energy is collected in the collector and heats the ground, which is used to store heat energy and heat the indoor air. Then, the hot air is forced by the pressure difference between it and the ambient air to move along the tilted segment and up the vertical segment of the 'chimney', driving the turbine generators to generate electricity. The mountain hollow, formed by excavation in a large-elevation mountain, can avoid the safety issues of erecting a gigantic concrete chimney, which is needed for commercial solar chimney thermal power plants. Furthermore, it can also save a great amount of construction materials for constructing a robust chimney structure and reduce the energy cost to a level less than that of a clean coal power plant, providing a good solution to the reclamation and utilization of undeveloped mountains, especially in mountainous countries

59

Novel concept for producing energy integrating a solar collector with a man made mountain hollow  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The concept of the solar chimney thermal power technology was proven with the successful operation of the Manzanares prototype built in the 1980s. However, all previous attempts at producing energy from a commercial solar chimney thermal power plant on a large scale have failed because of bad engineering and safety. A novel concept for producing energy by integrating a solar collector with a mountain hollow is presented and described. Solar energy is collected in the collector and heats the ground, which is used to store heat energy and heat the indoor air. Then, the hot air is forced by the pressure difference between it and the ambient air to move along the tilted segment and up the vertical segment of the 'chimney', driving the turbine generators to generate electricity. The mountain hollow, formed by excavation in a large-elevation mountain, can avoid the safety issues of erecting a gigantic concrete chimney, which is needed for commercial solar chimney thermal power plants. Furthermore, it can also save a great amount of construction materials for constructing a robust chimney structure and reduce the energy cost to a level less than that of a clean coal power plant, providing a good solution to the reclamation and utilization of undeveloped mountains, especially in mountainous countries. (author)

Zhou, Xinping [School of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Luoyu Road, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Yang, Jiakuan; Wang, Jinbo; Xiao, Bo [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Luoyu Road Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China)

2009-03-15

60

Novel concept for producing energy integrating a solar collector with a man made mountain hollow  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The concept of the solar chimney thermal power technology was proven with the successful operation of the Manzanares prototype built in the 1980s. However, all previous attempts at producing energy from a commercial solar chimney thermal power plant on a large scale have failed because of bad engineering and safety. A novel concept for producing energy by integrating a solar collector with a mountain hollow is presented and described. Solar energy is collected in the collector and heats the ground, which is used to store heat energy and heat the indoor air. Then, the hot air is forced by the pressure difference between it and the ambient air to move along the tilted segment and up the vertical segment of the 'chimney', driving the turbine generators to generate electricity. The mountain hollow, formed by excavation in a large-elevation mountain, can avoid the safety issues of erecting a gigantic concrete chimney, which is needed for commercial solar chimney thermal power plants. Furthermore, it can also save a great amount of construction materials for constructing a robust chimney structure and reduce the energy cost to a level less than that of a clean coal power plant, providing a good solution to the reclamation and utilization of undeveloped mountains, especially in mountainous countries.

Zhou Xinping [School of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Luoyu Road, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China)], E-mail: zhxpmark@hotmail.com; Yang Jiakuan; Wang Jinbo; Xiao Bo [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Luoyu Road Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China)

2009-03-15

61

You're a What? Chimney Sweep  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, the author talks about a chimney sweep--also called a "sweep"--which inspects chimneys as well as cleans them. Some inspections are for a specific purpose, such as home appraisal, but most precede cleaning. Chimney cleaning requires a certain level of dexterity, because the job includes a lot of climbing, squatting, kneeling, and…

Green, Kathleen

2010-01-01

62

Gas Chimneys -A Key to Risking Prospects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gas chimneys can indicate fluid migration pathways between a source rock and the seabed, as well as indicate hydrocarbon charged reservoirs, leaky faults and dry reservoirs. To be able to map gas chimneys in a consistent manner, a method was developed for detecting chimneys in 3D seismic data. The method makes use of multi-attributes, which are fed into a neural network. The networks trained on these attributes to recognize chimneys. The output is a seismic cube which exhibits the shape and spatial distribution of the chimneys. Application of this recently developed method shows consistency in the way chimneys appear above hydrocarbon charged reservoirs, and above dry reservoirs. Alternatively, or in combination with chimneys, mud volcanoes can give similar indications. Examples from the Nigerian Continental Slope, as well as the Norwegian Shelf, the Gulf of Mexico and the Caspian Sea show how the mapping of gas chimneys (and mud volcanoes) can be used to high-grade or down- it. grade prospects. The presence of chimneys in seismic data are in numerous cases observed to coincide with faults, suggesting these faults are acting, or have data between source rocks and reservoirs and between reservoirs and the seabed. Chimneys may also take the shape of widely extended clouds, in which case they do not seem to be related to faults. Different scenarios of chimney appearance can be related to dry or hydrocarbon charged reservoirs

63

Design and Construction of a Passive Solar Power Clothing Dryer  

OpenAIRE

This manuscript presents the design and construction of the energy efficient, time saving, cost effective of passive solar powered clothes dryer. This manuscript begins with a derivation of mathematical model represents of solar dryer followed with an analysis of the elements necessary for successfully designing the various components of a solar dryer. The solar drying performance achieved an average drying rate of 0.35 kg/h and drying time of 3 h in a typical day, even under local low ambien...

Ali Alahmer; Mohammed Al-Dabbas

2014-01-01

64

Design and Construction of a Domestic Passive Solar Food Dryer  

OpenAIRE

The solar drying system utilizes solar energy to heat up air and to dry any food substance loaded, which is not only beneficial in that it reduces wastage of agricultural produce and helps in preservation of agricultural produce, but it also makes transportation of such dried produce easy and promotes the health and welfare of the people. This paper presents the design and construction of a domestic passive solar food dryer. The dryer is composed of solar collector (air heater) and a solar dr...

Alamu, Oguntola J.; Nwaokocha, Collins N.; Adunola, Olayinka

2010-01-01

65

Design and Construction of a Domestic Passive Solar Food Dryer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The solar drying system utilizes solar energy to heat up air and to dry any food substance loaded, which is not only beneficial in that it reduces wastage of agricultural produce and helps in preservation of agricultural produce, but it also makes transportation of such dried produce easy and promotes the health and welfare of the people. This paper presents the design and construction of a domestic passive solar food dryer. The dryer is composed of solar collector (air heater and a solar drying chamber containing rack of four cheese cloth (net trays both being integrated together. The air allowed in through air inlet is heated up in the solar collector and channeled through the drying chamber where it is utilized in drying (removing the moisture content from the food substance or agricultural produce loaded. The design was based on the geographical location which is Abeokuta and meteorological data were obtained for proper design specification. Locally available materials were used for the construction, chiefly comprising of wood (gmelina, polyurethane glass, mild steel metal sheet and net cloth for the trays.

Oguntola J. ALAMU

2010-12-01

66

Piping systems, containment pre-stressing and steel ventilation chimney  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Units 5 and 6 of NPP Kozloduy have been designed initially for seismic levels which are considered too low today. In the frame of an IAEA Coordinated Research Programme, a Swiss team has been commissioned by Natsionalna Elektricheska Kompania, Sofia, to analyse the relevant piping system, the containment prestressing and the steel ventilation chimney and to recommend upgrade measures for adequate seismic capacity where applicable. Seismic input had been specified by and agreed upon earlier by IAEA experts. The necessary investigations have been performed in 1995 and discussed with internationally recognized experts. The main results may be summarized as follows: Upgrades are necessary at different piping sy ports (additional snubbers or viscous dampers). These fixes can be done easily at low cost. The containment prestressing tendons are adequately designed for the specified load combinations. However, unfavourable construction features endanger the reliability. It is therefore strongly recommended to replace the tendons stepwise and to upgrade the existing monitoring system. Finally, the steel ventilation chimney may not withstand a seismic event, however the containment and diesel generator building will not be destroyed at possible impact by the chimney. On the other hand the roof of the main building has to be reinforced partially. It is recommended to continue the project for 1996 and 1997 to implement the upgrade measures mentioned above, to analyse the remaining piping systems and to consolidate all results obtained by different research groups of the IAEA programme with respect to piping systems including components and tanks

67

Construction status of the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope  

Science.gov (United States)

The Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST, renamed in December 2013 from the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope) will be the largest solar facility built when it begins operations in 2019. Designed and developed to meet the needs of critical high resolution and high sensitivity spectral and polarimetric observations of the Sun, the observatory will enable key research for the study of solar magnetism and its influence on the solar wind, flares, coronal mass ejections and solar irradiance variations. The 4-meter class facility will operate over a broad wavelength range (0.38 to 28 microns, initially 0.38 to 5 microns), using a state-of-the-art adaptive optics system to provide diffraction-limited imaging and the ability to resolve features approximately 25 km on the Sun. Five first-light instruments will be available at the start of operations: Visible Broadband Imager (VBI; National Solar Observatory), Visible SpectroPolarimeter (ViSP; NCAR High Altitude Observatory), Visible Tunable Filter (VTF; Kiepenheuer Institut für Sonnenphysik), Diffraction Limited Near InfraRed SpectroPolarimeter (DL-NIRSP; University of Hawai'i, Institute for Astronomy) and the Cryogenic Near InfraRed SpectroPolarimeter (Cryo-NIRSP; University of Hawai'i, Institute for Astronomy). As of mid-2014, the key subsystems have been designed and fabrication is well underway, including the site construction, which began in December 2012. We provide an update on the development of the facilities both on site at the Haleakal? Observatories on Maui and the development of components around the world. We present the overall construction and integration schedule leading to the handover to operations in mid 2019. In addition, we outline the evolving challenges being met by the project, spanning the full spectrum of issues covering technical, fiscal, and geographical, that are specific to this project, though with clear counterparts to other large astronomical construction projects.

McMullin, Joseph P.; Rimmele, Thomas R.; Martínez Pillet, Valentin; Berger, Thomas E.; Casini, Roberto; Craig, Simon C.; Elmore, David F.; Goodrich, Bret D.; Hegwer, Steve L.; Hubbard, Robert P.; Johansson, Erik M.; Kuhn, Jeffrey R.; Lin, Haosheng; McVeigh, William; Schmidt, Wolfgang; Shimko, Steve; Tritschler, Alexandra; Warner, Mark; Wöger, Friedrich

2014-07-01

68

Seismic modelling of a masonry chimney  

OpenAIRE

Different plastic/failure are applied to a masonry structure showing the difficulties to deal with masonry material and the results obtained for a masonry chimney under erathquake loading when two different criteria are used.

Pallare?s Rubio, Francisco Javier; Ivorra Chorro, Salvador

2007-01-01

69

Design and Construction of a Passive Solar Power Clothing Dryer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This manuscript presents the design and construction of the energy efficient, time saving, cost effective of passive solar powered clothes dryer. This manuscript begins with a derivation of mathematical model represents of solar dryer followed with an analysis of the elements necessary for successfully designing the various components of a solar dryer. The solar drying performance achieved an average drying rate of 0.35 kg/h and drying time of 3 h in a typical day, even under local low ambient humidity of around 35% and at moderate outdoor wind speed. Also, the computational fluid dynamic CFD of transient thermal behavior based on Navier-Stokes equations was used to demonstrate the prevailing temperature rises in the solar natural-ventilation system associated with the internal heat flux due to solar radiation and moisture removal. The efficiency of solar dryer was improved using Nano coating technology. The result showed good agreement between the computational solid simulation and the experimental measurements obtained from this system.

Ali Alahmer

2014-04-01

70

Construction Method and Structure of Solar Power Satellites  

Science.gov (United States)

Construction methods, vibration reduction techniques and attitude control of space solar power satellites (SSPS) proposed so far are introduced. The SSPS that generate more than 1GW electric power, which corresponds to one nuclear power plant, require some squire kilometers. First, construction methods and various types of SSPS such as SPS2000, JAXA reference models of 2004/2005, USEF/JAXA (former ISAS) model, Tokyo Institute of Technology model, AIST model of Japan, Russian model and MIT model of U.S.A. are discussed. Second, vibration analysis and reduction technique using tethers conducted in Hokkaido University is presented. Finally, attitude control using tethers researched in Tokyo Metropolitan University is introduced.

Iwata, Toshiaki

71

Construction and evaluation of a timber-drying solar kiln  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A solar timber kiln with the capacity to season 3.24 m{sup 3} of lumber was designed, constructed and used for seasoning commercial sawnwood. The kiln was constructed of a timber frame covered with transparent polythene sheet on the top and black leatherette on the sides. Corrugated, galvanized-iron sheet painted black and tilted at 30{sup o} to the horizontal served as a heat collector. Two fans were fitted for air circulation. The kiln attained a maximum temperature of 24{sup o} above the ambient temperature. The average efficiency of the heat collector was 38.5%. The solar kiln reduced timber drying time by 33.3-57.1% when compared with an air-drying technique. Sawnwoods (25 mm by 300 mm by 360 mm) of Mansonia altissima and Terminalia superba were dried from 46.16 to 15.02% and from 52 to 15.4% moisture content respectively in 12 days. (Author)

Fuwape, I.A.; Fuwape, J.A.

1995-09-01

72

Design, Construction and Testing of Simple Solar Maize Dryer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This project reports the design, construction and testing of a simple solar maize dryer. It is design in such a way that solar radiation is not incident directly on the maize, but preheated air warmed during its flow through a low pressure thermosphonic solar energy air heater or collector made up of an insulating material (polystyrene of size 100mmx50mmx25.4mm, absorber plate (aluminium sheet painted black of size 100mmx50mm and a cover glass (5mm thickness measuring 100mmx50mm all arranged in this order contributed to the heating. The test results gave temperature above 45OC in the drying chamber, and the moisture content of 50kg of maize reduced to about 12.5% in three days of 9hours each day of drying.

Joshua FOLARANMI

2008-12-01

73

Construction of Solar-Wind-Like Magnetic Fields  

Science.gov (United States)

Fluctuations in the solar wind fields tend to not only have velocities and magnetic fields correlated in the sense consistent with Alfven waves traveling from the Sun, but they also have the magnitude of the magnetic field remarkably constant despite their being broadband. This paper provides, for the first time, a method for constructing fields with nearly constant magnetic field, zero divergence, and with any specified power spectrum for the fluctuations of the components of the field. Every wave vector, k, is associated with two polarizations the relative phases of these can be chosen to minimize the variance of the field magnitude while retaining the\\random character of the fields. The method is applied to a case with one spatial coordinate that demonstrates good agreement with observed time series and power spectra of the magnetic field in the solar wind, as well as with the distribution of the angles of rapid changes (discontinuities), thus showing a deep connection between two seemingly unrelated issues. It is suggested that using this construction will lead to more realistic simulations of solar wind turbulence and of the propagation of energetic particles.

Roberts, Dana Aaron

2012-01-01

74

Constructal method to optimize solar thermochemical reactor design  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this study is the geometrical optimization of a thermochemical reactor, which works simultaneously as solar collector and reactor. The heat (concentrated solar radiation) is supplied on a small peripheral surface and has to be dispersed in the entire reactive volume in order to activate the reaction all over the material. A similarity between this study and the point to volume problem analyzed by the constructal approach (Bejan, 2000) is evident. This approach was successfully applied to several domains, for example for the coupled mass and conductive heat transfer (Azoumah et al., 2004). Focusing on solar reactors, this work aims to apply constructal analysis to coupled conductive and radiative heat transfer. As a first step, the chemical reaction is represented by a uniform heat sink inside the material. The objective is to optimize the reactor geometry in order to maximize its efficiency. By using some hypothesis, a simplified solution is found. A parametric study provides the influence of different technical and operating parameters on the maximal efficiency and on the optimal shape. Different reactor designs (filled cylinder, cavity and honeycomb reactors) are compared, in order to determine the most efficient structure according to the operating conditions. Finally, these results are compared with a CFD model in order to validate the assumptions. (author)

Tescari, S.; Mazet, N. [PROMES-CNRS, Rambla de la Thermodynamique, Tecnosud, 66100 Perpignan (France); Neveu, P. [PROMES-CNRS, Rambla de la Thermodynamique, Tecnosud, 66100 Perpignan (France); Universite de Perpignan Via Domitia, 52 Avenue Paul Alduy, 66860 Perpignan (France)

2010-09-15

75

Design, Construction and Effectiveness Analysis of Hybrid Automatic Solar Tracking System for Amorphous and Crystalline Solar Cells  

OpenAIRE

- This paper concerns the design and construction of a Hybrid solar tracking system. The constructed device was implemented by integrating it with Amorphous & Crystalline Solar Panel, three dimensional freedom mechanism and microcontroller. The amount of power available from a photovoltaic panel is determined by three parameters, the type of solar tracker, materials of solar panel and the intensity of the sunlight. The objective of this paper is to present analysis on the use of two differ...

Bhupendra Gupta

2013-01-01

76

Measurement of chimney dimensions and development of special tools for installation of in-chimney bracket in HANARO  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The in-chimney bracket is a structure which supports the guide tubes of irradiation facilities at the irradiation sites of CT, IR1, IR2, OR4 and/or OR5 in HANARO core to reduce the flow-induced vibration and the dynamic response to seismic load. It horizontally supports the middle part of lthe irradiation facilities for CT/IR sites in addition to the robot arms which had already been installed at the reactor pool liner to support the top of the facilities, and supports the top of the guide tubes for OR sites. For these purposes, the in-chimney bracket was installed in the chimney using four siphoning holes located at 70 cm below the chimney top. It is necessary to measure the dimensions of chimney before the design of in-chimney bracket because there must be manufacturing tolerances and the deformation of the chimney due to the load of the system pipes. To implement this, various special tools had been developed to measure the as-built dimensions of the chimney at the elevation of the siphoning holes, and measured the chimney dimensions and the eccentricity of the chimney center from the reactor core center. Also, a special tool was developed for the installation of the in-chimney bracket by remote operating at the pool top 10 meters apart from the chimney. The installation procedures were established through the enough installation rehearsal using the installation tool and the dummhy chimney which was fabricated to the same dimensions of the real chimney, and the installation interference problems were resolved through the preliminaly installation to the reactor chimney. Finally, the in-chimey bracket was successfully installed at the reactor chimney and is well being used for the irradiation test since the installation on May 16, 2000

77

The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope - Constructing The World's Largest Solar Telescope  

Science.gov (United States)

The 4m Advance Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) will be the most powerful solar telescope and the world's leading ground-based resource for studying solar magnetism that controls the solar wind, flares, coronal mass ejections and variability in the Sun's output. The ATST shall provide high resolution and high sensitivity observations of the dynamic solar magnetic fields throughout the solar atmosphere, including the corona at infrared wavelengths. With its 4 m aperture, ATST will resolve features at 0.03" at visible wavelengths and obtain 0.1" resolution at the magnetically highly sensitive near infrared wavelengths. A high order adaptive optics system delivers a corrected beam to the initial set of five state-of-the-art, facility class instrumentation located in the coude laboratory facility. Coronal magnetometry and spectroscopy will be performed by two of these instruments at infrared wavelengths. In January 2010 the ATST project transitioned from design and development to the construction phase. The project has awarded contracts for major subsystems, including the 4m primary mirror, architectural and engineering services related to the Support Facilities, Enclosure construction design, Telescope Mount Assembly, and Facilities Thermal System construction design. The State of Hawai'I Board of Land and Natural Resources approved the Conservation District Use Permit submitted by the University of Hawai'I at their December 6, 2010 meeting in Honolulu, HI. A brief overview of the science goals and observational requirements of the ATST will be given, followed by a summary of the project status of the telescope and discussion of the approach to integrating instruments into the facility.

Rimmele, Thomas R.; Keil, S.; Wagner, J.; ATST Team

2011-05-01

78

Solar building construction - new technologies; Solares Bauen - Neue Technologien fuer Gebaeude  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There is an increasing demand for integrated building concepts in order to reduce energy consumption. Building design, construction and heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) technology are decisive in this respect. Thus, an essentially higher energy efficiency is achieved and solar energy becomes the main energy source. An `active building envelope` assumes the task of controlling the energy flows between inside and outside. This paper reports on new components, system concepts and planning tools for solar building. (orig.) [Deutsch] Fuer zukuenftige Bauten werden in hohem Masse Forderungen nach integrierten Konzepten zur Begrenzung des Energieverbrauchs gestellt. Gestalt, Konstruktion und Klimatechnik sind dabei massgebliche Einflussfaktoren. Hierdurch wird eine wesentlich hoehere Energieeffizienz erzielt und Solarenergie kann die uebrigen Energiequellen zurueckdraengen. Eine `aktive Gebaeudehuelle` uebernimmt die Aufgabe, den Energiefluss zwischen Innen und Aussen zu steuern. Der Beitrag berichtet ueber neue Komponenten, Systemkonzepte und Planungswerkzeuge fuer das Solare Bauen. (orig.)

Luther, J.; Voss, K.; Wittwer, V. [Fraunhofer-Inst. fuer Solare Energiesysteme, Freiburg (Germany). Abt. ``Thermische und Optische Systeme``

1998-02-01

79

Preliminary work for stage 2 decommissioning of B16 pile chimney  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Planning of the second stage of decommissioning of the two pile chimneys at Sellafield started while work was underway on the first stage, which involved removal of the sections above the filters. The second stage requires the removal of all radio-active parts and the dismantling of the filter and diffuser sections, and has to be completed by 1997. The planning involved studying the many possible options and their effects on both radiological and industrial safety. This decommissioning project employs a high proportion of civil engineering and construction techniques, which are then developed to eliminate the hazards from radioactive dusts, and to minimise the effect of radiation on operatives working on the project. Much of this equipment is modified forms of standard construction equipment and includes cutting equipment and remotely operated vehicles. The initial phases of the work involve: provision of a waste packaging and access building; provision of temporary ventilation systems to control the dust generated by the work, cutting of 3 m square access doorway through the 1.5 m thick reinforced concrete wall of the chimney; provision of Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) to act as a tool carrier for lining stripping work; removal of the thermal lining from the floor and lower walls of the chimney, and installation of precast concrete walls which separate the pile reactor core from the chimney flue. (author)

80

Construction of a Small Scale Laboratory for Solar Collectors and Solar Cells in a Developing Country  

OpenAIRE

In the field of renewable energy, self-provided research in developing countries is barely present, but most welcomed. The creation of know-how and self-development of technologies should reduce the dependence on industrialized countries for both materials and knowledge. This work presents technological and social issues related to the construction of a low budget solar laboratory in Mozambique. The goal is to demonstrate that scientific level research can be carried out in developing countri...

Gentile Niko; Davidsson Henrik; Bernardo Ricardo; Gomes Joao; Gruffman Christian; Chea Luis; Mumba Chabu; Karlsson Björn

2013-01-01

81

Design, Construction and Effectiveness Analysis of Hybrid Automatic Solar Tracking System for Amorphous and Crystalline Solar Cells  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available - This paper concerns the design and construction of a Hybrid solar tracking system. The constructed device was implemented by integrating it with Amorphous & Crystalline Solar Panel, three dimensional freedom mechanism and microcontroller. The amount of power available from a photovoltaic panel is determined by three parameters, the type of solar tracker, materials of solar panel and the intensity of the sunlight. The objective of this paper is to present analysis on the use of two different material of Solar panel like Amorphous & Crystalline in a Solar tracking system at Stationary, Single Axis, Dual Axis & Hybrid Axis solar tracker to have better performance with minimum losses to the surroundings, as this device ensures maximum intensity of sun rays hitting the surface of the panel from sunrise to sunset

Bhupendra Gupta

2013-10-01

82

Solar building construction. Special edition of the journal 'Sonnenenergie'; Solares Bauen. Sonderheft der Sonnenenergie  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This special issue of October 2003 reviews solar architecture, planning, applications, technology, market and knowledge. Subjects: Falkenweg housing development; Q-Cells solar factory; Modehaus Zara building; Haus Westermayr McCready building; Federal Environmental Office building, Dessau; 'Haus im Himmel' building; NRW state representatives building in Berlin; Zero-emission building 'Sunny Woods', Zurich; Hellerau workshop buildings, Dresden; HOCHTIEF PRISMA Haus building, Frankfurt; Solar government buildings, Berlin; SOLARBAU programme; Energy supply concepts based on photovoltaic power supply; Solar cooling; Photovoltaic lamellas; Solar building construction; Solar contracting; Solar building modernisation; Integrated PV systems in Europe; Living in passive buildings; Funding programmes for renewable energy sources and building construction. (orig./AKF)

Rust, A. (comp.)

2003-10-01

83

Construction of a Small Scale Laboratory for Solar Collectors and Solar Cells in a Developing Country  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the field of renewable energy, self-provided research in developing countries is barely present, but most welcomed. The creation of know-how and self-development of technologies should reduce the dependence on industrialized countries for both materials and knowledge. This work presents technological and social issues related to the construction of a low budget solar laboratory in Mozambique. The goal is to demonstrate that scientific level research can be carried out in developing countries by using affordable solutions without sacrificing quality of the results. For this investigation, a solar laboratory was built in 2011 at Universidade Eduardo Mondlane of Maputo. The laboratory enables measurements to evaluate solar thermal and photovoltaic-thermal hybrid collectors. Thanks to the flexibility of the system, students and teaching staff can add/remove equipment and develop customised local research programs. In addition, a course on the principles of solar energy and collector simulation for local students was taught. The needed data acquisition devices usually used in Europe were compared with cheaper and easy-maintenance ones. Calibration and estimation of the uncertainty were successfully performed. Approximately 9% of inaccuracy in the measurement was introduced by the cheaper equipment, but the investment cost was reduced by more than 90%. Other issues, results and future recommendations are shown.

Gentile Niko

2013-01-01

84

Self-construction of a solar water heater; Calentador solar de agua de auto-construccion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this work a flat receiver of self construction is shown with relatively low cost and easy manufacture, but with a thermal efficiency superior to 40% for applications at temperatures less than 60 degrees Celsius, that allows satisfying international standards in this respect. The heater has been matter of study in open courses distributed in the Universidad Autonoma de la Ciudad de Mexico (UACM) oriented to that the participants construct their own system, in addition to its installation and tests. The obtained results have been excellent. The massive use of efficient solar receivers of self-construction can truly help to the decreasing of the gas discharges of greenhouse effect. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presenta un captador plano de auto construccion con relativamente bajo costo y facil manufactura, pero con un rendimiento termico superior a 40% para aplicaciones a temperatura menos de 60 grados centigrados que le permite satisfacer estandares internacionales a este respecto. El calentador ha sido materia de estudio en cursos abiertos impartidos en la Universidad Autonoma de la Ciudad de Mexico (UACM) orientados a que los participantes construyan su propio sistema, ademas de su instalacion y pruebas. Los resultados obtenidos han sido excelentes. El uso masivo de captadores solares eficientes de autoconstruccion puede en verdad coadyuvar a la disminucion de las emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero.

Lentz Herrera, Alvaro E.; Rincon Mejia, Eduardo A. [Universidad Autonoma de la Ciudad de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

2009-07-01

85

Hybrid solar-electric oven construction prototype; Construccion de prototipo de horno hibrido solar-electrico  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The oven construction consists of a solar collector system of cylindrical parabolic type, a heating through electrical resistance and a curing chamber. The warm fluid is air, which is injected into the chamber through forced draft. The temperature required in the system is within a range of 150 to 300 degrees Celsius. [Spanish] La construccion del horno consta de un sistema de captacion solar del tipo cilindrico parabolico, un sistema de calentamiento a traves de resistencias electricas y una camara de curado. El fluido a calentar es aire, el cual es inyectado dentro de la camara a traves de tiro forzado. La temperatura solicitada en el sistema es dentro de un rango de 150 a 300 grados centigrados.

Hernandez Roman, M. A; Pineda Pinon, J; Arcos Pichardo, A [CICATA, Santiago de Queretaro, Queretaro (Mexico)

2013-03-15

86

SHM of a masonry chimney after a lightning accident  

OpenAIRE

The paper focuses on the SHM works carried out on a historical masonry chimney located in a former industrial complex in Guimar??es city centre, Portugal. The chimney was hit by a lightning in the morning of July 26th, 2012. The electrical discharge blew the chimney wall creating two significant openings. After the accident, an intervention was planned and executed to reestablish its sound structural condition. Before and during the structural works, a SHM plan was put into pra...

Ramos, Lu S. F.; Masciotta, M. G.; Louren O, Paulo B.; Vasta, M.

2013-01-01

87

Distribution of Archaea in a Black Smoker Chimney Structure  

OpenAIRE

Archaeal community structures in microhabitats in a deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimney structure were evaluated through the combined use of culture-independent molecular analyses and enrichment culture methods. A black smoker chimney was obtained from the PACMANUS site in the Manus Basin near Papua New Guinea, and subsamples were obtained from vertical and horizontal sections. The elemental composition of the chimney was analyzed in different subsamples by scanning electron microscopy and ene...

Takai, Ken; Komatsu, Tetsushi; Inagaki, Fumio; Horikoshi, Koki

2001-01-01

88

Design of a solar power satellite for construction from lunar materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Solar Power Satellites may be constructed from materials mined on the Moon and transported into free space by means of an electromagnetic catapult called a mass-driver. Both the mass-driver and the chemical processing techniques required to obtain construction materials from lunar soil have been demonstrated in the laboratory. A Solar Power Satellite has been designed for construction from lunar materials. This design requires only 1% of its mass from the Earth.

Maryniak, G.E.; Tillotson, B.

1988-01-01

89

Design, construction and evaluation of solarized airlift tubular photobioreactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An innovative photobioreactor is developed for growing algae in simulated conditions. The proposed design comprises of a continuous tubular irradiance loop and air induced liquid circulation with gas separation through air lift device. The unique features of air lift system are to ensure the shear free circulation of sensitive algal culture and induce light/dark cycles to the photosynthetic micro-organisms. The design strategy employs to model and construct a 20-liter laboratory scale unit using Boro-silicate glass tubing. The material is selected to ensure maximum photon transmission. All components of the device are designed to have flexibility to be replaced with an alternative design, providing fair chance of modification for future investigators. The principles of fluid mechanics are applied to describe geometrical attributes of the air lift system. Combination of LEDs and Florescent tube lights (Warm white) were used to illuminate the photosynthesis reaction area providing a possibility to control both illumination duration and light intensity. 200 Watt Solar PV system is designed to power up the device which included air pump (100 Watt) and illumination system (100 Watt). Algal strain Chlorella sp was inoculated in photobioreactor which was sparged with air and carbon dioxide. The growth was sustained in the batch mode with daily monitoring of temperature, pH and biomass concentration. The novel photobioreactor recorded a maximum experimental average yield of 0 a maximum experimental average yield of 0.65 g/l.day (11.3 g/m2.day) as compared to theoretical modeled yield of 0.82 g/l.day (14.26 g/m2.day), suggesting the device can be efficiently and cost-effectively employed in the production of algal biomass for biofuels, concomitantly mitigating CO2.

90

Design, construction and evaluation of solarized airlift tubular photobioreactor  

Science.gov (United States)

An innovative photobioreactor is developed for growing algae in simulated conditions. The proposed design comprises of a continuous tubular irradiance loop and air induced liquid circulation with gas separation through air lift device. The unique features of air lift system are to ensure the shear free circulation of sensitive algal culture and induce light/dark cycles to the photosynthetic micro-organisms. The design strategy employs to model and construct a 20-liter laboratory scale unit using Boro-silicate glass tubing. The material is selected to ensure maximum photon transmission. All components of the device are designed to have flexibility to be replaced with an alternative design, providing fair chance of modification for future investigators. The principles of fluid mechanics are applied to describe geometrical attributes of the air lift system. Combination of LEDs and Florescent tube lights (Warm white) were used to illuminate the photosynthesis reaction area providing a possibility to control both illumination duration and light intensity. 200 Watt Solar PV system is designed to power up the device which included air pump (100 Watt) and illumination system (100 Watt). Algal strain Chlorella sp was inoculated in photobioreactor which was sparged with air and carbon dioxide. The growth was sustained in the batch mode with daily monitoring of temperature, pH and biomass concentration. The novel photobioreactor recorded a maximum experimental average yield of 0.65 g/l.day (11.3 g/m2.day) as compared to theoretical modeled yield of 0.82 g/l.day (14.26 g/m2.day), suggesting the device can be efficiently and cost-effectively employed in the production of algal biomass for biofuels, concomitantly mitigating CO2.

Bahadur, A.; Zubair, M.; Khan, M. B.

2013-06-01

91

Design and construction of a solar heating and cooling plant  

OpenAIRE

The present work deals with the design of a combined solar heating and cooling plant for an office building located in Northern Italy. An innovative system based on an absorption chiller driven by evacuated tube collectors and a dual-source reversible heat pump is presented. In summer, solar energy is used to drive the absorption chiller. In winter, solar collector field can provide hot water to the radiant ceiling circuit or, alternatively, drive the heat pump evaporator. A control strategy...

Franchini, Giuseppe; Manazzale, Davide; Perdichizzi, Antonio Giovanni

2012-01-01

92

Light modular construction: analysis of the relationship between modular construction system and space layout in solar houses from 2005 and 2007 solar decathlon competition  

OpenAIRE

Present and future research will be oriented towards both industrial construction techniques and sustainability, and in this sense combination of mass production and sustainable houses is of a special relevance. Modular construction is a very successful building method in some countries such as Japan and U.S.A., and could be easily applied in solar houses production. In this way it is worth to refer to Solar Decathlon competition, promoted by the U.S.A. Department of Energy, as one major labo...

Ovando Vacarezza, Graciela; Lauret Aguirregabiria, Benito

2009-01-01

93

Construction and characterization of spherical Si solar cells combined with SiC electric power inverter  

Science.gov (United States)

Spherical silicon (Si) photovoltaic solar cell systems combined with an electric power inverter using silicon carbide (SiC) field-effect transistor (FET) were constructed and characterized, which were compared with an ordinary Si-based converter. The SiC-FET devices were introduced in the direct current-alternating current (DC-AC) converter, which was connected with the solar panels. The spherical Si solar cells were used as the power sources, and the spherical Si panels are lighter and more flexible compared with the ordinary flat Si solar panels. Conversion efficiencies of the spherical Si solar cells were improved by using the SiC-FET.

Oku, Takeo; Matsumoto, Taisuke; Hiramatsu, Kouichi; Yasuda, Masashi; Shimono, Akio; Takeda, Yoshikazu; Murozono, Mikio

2015-02-01

94

Design, construction and testing of parabolic solar energy cooker  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Parabolic solar energy cooker was designed using locally available materials such as pieces of iron and plane mirrors. The diameter of the dish was 12 x 10-3 mm and pieces of glass mirrors were adhered to its concave surface using abro silicon gum as solar energy reflectors. The solar cooker was used to cook different food materials such as rice, bean, yam and stew between 11am and 3pm. The time taken to cook the food materials were measured and compared to the time it takes to cook similar food samples of the same quantity using kerosene and electric stove. It took the kerosene and electric stoves two hours, forty minutes (2.40) and two hours, ten minutes (2.10) respectively to cook beans with all the ingredients while the fabricated solar cooker took only one hour fifteen minutes. Due to high solar energy absorption capacity of the solar cooker and insolation rate, the study has reveled that it is faster, safer and takes less time to cook using cooker than either kerosene or electric stove.

95

Options for the removal of contaminated concrete from the bore of the Windscale pile chimney - 16083  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A legacy of the 1957 Windscale Pile reactor fire is the penetration of radioactive contamination into the internal surface concrete of the chimney bore. Gamma imaging of Cs- 137 has shown that the contamination is widespread throughout the chimney, and core samples have shown that the contamination has penetrated to depths of around 5-25 mm. The Pile chimney is 100 m tall and has an internal bore diameter of 15 m. It is constructed of a hard concrete comprised of Whinstone aggregate. The baseline decommissioning scheme is to remove approximately 5-25 mm of the surface concrete from the entire bore of the chimney. The technology baseline in 2006 was to remove layers of contaminated concrete by mechanical means using shavers or scabblers. However, risks associated with mechanical technologies that may preclude their use include: the ability of mechanical devices to remove the hard concrete; clogging of the devices due to wet concrete; and deployment of the delivery systems. This paper discusses the options under consideration to reduce the risks associated with the removal of the contaminated concrete through application of alternative techniques. The present baseline technology is high pressure water jetting technique. Demonstrations have shown that this technology can successfully remove concrete without significant reaction forces. However, an inherent problem with this technology is the production of secondary liquid effluent waste, which would need to be treated byt waste, which would need to be treated by an appropriate conditioning process. To address the secondary effluent waste issue, technologies that produce little or no secondary waste have been considered. The technologies that have been considered are laser scabbling, microwave scabbling and nitrogen jet blasting. The paper discusses each technique in turn, highlighting their advantages and disadvantages. The results of an in-active laser scabbling and high pressure liquid nitrogen jetting trial are presented. The paper concludes with a discussion of the merits of each technology in support of the future strategy for concrete removal. (authors)

96

Convective chimneys and plumes in the Northern Greenland Sea  

OpenAIRE

In the Boreas Basin in the northern Greenland Sea, convection has been observed to be localized as narrow structures - chimneys - in which the water masses may be homogeneous from the surface through great depths. An experiment was carried out in the ares by R/V Håkon Mosby of the University of Bergen with an aim to detect and investigate chimneys, their structure, and the inherent convective plumes.

Johannessen, Ola M.; Lygre, Kjetil; Eldevik, Tor

2005-01-01

97

Design and Construction of Solar Power-Based Lighting System.  

OpenAIRE

Over the years, security posed a major concern at night due to the total darkness. The need to supply light without manually switching it on and off arises as years roll by. Automatic Street Light Control System is a simple yet powerful concept, which uses transistor as a switch. This paper presents how solar energy is being harnessed to power street light and virtually removes manual works to 100%. The system automatically switches ON lights when the sunlight goes below the visible region of...

Oke A. O.; Adigun A.A; Fenwa O. D.

2013-01-01

98

Solar thermal power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The solar thermal power plant technology, the opportunities it presents and the developments in the market are outlined. The focus is on the technology of parabolic trough power plants, a proven technology for solar power generation on a large scale. In a parabolic trough power plant, trough-shaped mirrors concentrate the solar irradiation onto a pipe in the focal line of the collector. The thermal energy thus generated is used for electricity generation in a steam turbine. Parabolic trough plants can be combined with thermal storage and fossil or biomass fired heat exchangers to generate electricity even when the sun is not shining. Solar Millennium AG in Erlangen has developed the first power plant of this kind in Europe. After two years of construction the plant started operation in Southern Spain in 2008. This one and its sister projects are important steps leading the way for the whole market. The paper also covers the technological challenges, the key components used and the research and development activities concerning this technology. Solar thermal power plants are ideal for covering peak and medium loads in power grids. In hybrid operation they can also cover base-load. The Solar Chimney power plant, another striking technology for the conversion of solar into electric energy, is described briefly. The paper concludes with a look at the future - the import of solar energy from the deserts of North Africa to central Europe. (author)urope. (author)

99

Constructing ballistic capture orbits in the real Solar System model  

Science.gov (United States)

A method to design ballistic capture orbits in the real Solar System model is presented, so extending previous works using the planar restricted three-body problem. In this generalization a number of issues arise, which are treated in the present work. These involve reformulating the notion of stability in three-dimensions, managing a multi-dimensional space of initial conditions, and implementing a restricted -body model with accurate planetary ephemerides. Initial conditions are categorized into four subsets according to the orbits they generate in forward and backward time. These are labelled weakly stable, unstable, crash, and acrobatic, and their manipulation allows us to derive orbits with prescribed behavior. A post-capture stability index is formulated to extract the ideal orbits, which are those of practical interest. Study cases analyze ballistic capture about Mercury, Europa, and the Earth. These simulations show the effectiveness of the developed method in finding solutions matching mission requirements.

Luo, Z.-F.; Topputo, F.; Bernelli-Zazzera, F.; Tang, G.-J.

2014-12-01

100

Design and Construction of Solar Power-Based Lighting System.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Over the years, security posed a major concern at night due to the total darkness. The need to supply light without manually switching it on and off arises as years roll by. Automatic Street Light Control System is a simple yet powerful concept, which uses transistor as a switch. This paper presents how solar energy is being harnessed to power street light and virtually removes manual works to 100%. The system automatically switches ON lights when the sunlight goes below the visible region of the eyes. This is done by a sensor called Light Dependant Resistor (LDR which senses the light actually like the human eyes. It automatically switches OFF lights whenever the sunlight comes, visible to the eyes. By using this system energy consumption is also reduced because presently the manually operated street lights are not switched off at sunlight nor switched on earlier before sunset

Oke A. O.

2013-09-01

101

Characteristics of captured ash, chimney solids and trace elements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Samples of pulverized coal, bulk ash and chimney stack solids were taken from a 500 MW-capacity boiler burning a mixture of East Midlands coal. The surface morphology of size-graded samples was examined in a scanning electron microscope. The analysis of the major components of the respirable particles before and after water and acid etching was carried out by the EDAX technique. Neutron activation and atomic absorption spectrometry were used to determine the concentrations of trace elements. The bulk ash (ie from the electrostatic precipitators) contained 10% by weight of respirable-sized (ie below 5 ?m diameter) particles, but 50% of the chimney stack solids were in this size range. The respirable particles both in bulk and chimney stack samples consisted chiefly of spherical particles of alumino-silicates and iron oxides with a large number of below 0.5 ?m diameter particles attached to them. These attached sub-micron size particles consisted chiefly of sodium and potassium sulphates. The non-attached, sub-micron size particles in the chimney stack solids mostly consisted of calcium sulphate. Different possible modes of distribution of the trace elements in the precipitated ash and chimney stack solids are discussed. (author)

102

The gas chimney formation during the steam explosion premixing phase  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The crucial part in isothermal premixing experiment simulation is the correct prediction of the gas chimney, which forms when the spheres penetrate into water. The first simulation results with the developed original combined multiphase model showed that the gas chimney starts to close at the wrong place at the top of the chimney and not in the middle, like it was observed in the experiments. To find the physical explanation for this identified weakness of our numerical model a comprehensive parametric analysis (mesh size, initial water-air surface thickness, water density, momentum coupling starting position) has been performed. It was established that the reason for the unphysical gas chimney closing at the top could be the gradual air-water density transition in the experiment model, since there is due to the finite differences description always a transition layer with intermediate phases density over the pure water phase. It was shown that this difference between our numerical model and the experiment can be somewhat compensated if the spheres interfacial drag coefficient at the upmost mesh plane of the unphysical air-water transition layer is artificially risen. On this way a more correct gas chimney formation can be obtained.(author)

103

NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF HEAT STORAGE OF SOLAR HEAT IN FLOOR CONSTRUCTION  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper, heat storage of solar heating in the floor construction of single-family houses is examined. A floor construction with two concrete decks is investigated. The lower is used as heat storage while the upper deck has a floor heating system. The potential for a reduction of the energy consumption for heating, by using heat storage in the floor construction is calculated using a dynamic simulation model of solar collector, solar tank and heat storage coupled to a building model, using the Danish Design Ref-erence Year as input. The model calculates the performance of the solar heating system room temperature and energy consumption. A single-family house with and without heat recovery unit on the ventilation system of 130 m² with heating demand of approximately 70 kWh/m² and 40 kWh/m² is investigated. A parametrical analysis was performed for the solar collector area, and floor layouts including pipe spacing, storage materials, and distribution of insulation around the thermal storage layer. The energy consump-tion, reduction due to the heat storage and total performance of the solar heating system was calculated. The largest reduction of 100 kWh/m² solar collector occurred in the house with the highest energy con-sumption. The reduction depends on the solar collector area, distribution of the insulation thickness, heat-ing demand and control strategy, but not on pipe spacing and layer thickness and material. Finally, it is shown that the system can also be used for comfort heating of tiled floors during the summer period.

Weitzmann, Peter; Holck, Ole

2003-01-01

104

29 CFR 1926.854 - Removal of walls, masonry sections, and chimneys.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false Removal of walls, masonry sections, and chimneys. 1926.854 Section...Demolition § 1926.854 Removal of walls, masonry sections, and chimneys. (a) Masonry walls, or other sections of masonry,...

2010-07-01

105

Ages of barite-sulfide chimneys from the Mariana Trough  

Science.gov (United States)

Active and inactive hydrothermal chimneys from the Mariana Trough have young ages ranging from 0.5 to 2.5 years. These estimates are based on disequilibrium between 228Th and 228Ra in barite-rich samples. Mineralogical investigations revealed that the chimneys contain a mixture of barite, galena, sphalerite and chalcopyrite which appear to have formed contemporaneously. Based on radium isotope ratios andRa/Ba ratios, leaching of freshly exposed basaltic rock must have been the source of the barium found in these deposits.

Moore, Willard S.; Stakes, Debra

1990-10-01

106

A manual of solar greenhouse construction - in Ladakh, Himalayan range  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Food security has always been the main preoccupation of mountain communities. Agriculture is focused on cereal growing, in order to reach complete auto-subsistence. If mountain communities have been able for a long time to survive in a harsh environment, the situation has slightly changed over the last ten years: the demographic explosion is leading to the reduction marginal farms and agricultural area is threatening the environment by increasing the pressure on the limited natural resources. This leads conduct to the pauperization of the rural population and the depopulation by migration to the main cities. Aware of this stakes, GERES has been supporting for 20 years of the mountain communities to enable them to stay in their original area by the strengthening and developing their livelihood. Thus many innovative tools have been improved during a long process, and nowadays they can be considered as adapted: building or retrofitting housing technologies to reduce the fuel wood consumption (dung, bush), used as combustible, which could be valorized in agriculture, tools for agricultural production and transformation (greenhouse, poultry farm, dryer, spinning wheel) adapted the technical and management skill of a household or a women group in order to generate additional income. Even if during an harsh winter, longer than 6 months, the communities enjoy parties and introspection, it is often considerate as inactive and sad period. The challenge undertaken by GERES, its partners in development (European commission, French Ministry of Foreign Affair) and Indian, Chinese, Nepal and Afghan NGO is to enable these communities to turn this inactive winter period to account, in order to generate additional income and to contribute to the food security (egg and vegetable production during all the year). This challenge has been taken up concerning the running of agricultural greenhouses. Several hundreds of them are used Ladakh (India), Quinghai (China), Nepal and nowadays in Afghanistan. This manual of construction will help technical organisations (government services, NGO, development projects...) to enable a large number of communities to grow vegetable during winter in the cold area of Asia, thanks to a greenhouse. (author)

Stauffer, V. [Groupe Energies Renouvelables, Environnement et Solidarite, Developpement Durable et Solidarite Internationale (ABAC-GERES), 13 - Aubagne (France)

2003-03-01

107

The construction of a process line for high efficiency silicon solar cells under clean-room conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this research project was to plan, construct and test a clean-room technology laboratory for the manufacturing of silicon solar cells with 20% efficiency (1.5AM). In addition to the establishment of the laboratory, there existed the case of establishing the material and technological fundamentals of high-efficiency solar cells, testing and optimizing all stages of production as well as constructing test stands for accompanying characterisation work. The following final report describes the construction of the laboratory and characterisation systems, the material elements of high-efficiency solar cells as well as the most important results of solar cell production and optimisation. (orig./BWI)

108

PS10, Construction of a 11MW Solar Thermal Tower Plant in Seville, Spain  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is the objective of PS10 project the construction and operation of a concentrating solar thermal plant for electricity production of 11,00 MWe gross power. Based on the technology of tower and heliostats field, this plant will generate 23,00GWh of electricity every year running on a commercial basis. PS10 project will validate investment costs below 3.500/kW in a solar multiple 1.3 scheme. PS10 solar plant has been constructed on the lands of the Casaquemada property, (37.2 Latitude), in Sanlucar la Mayor, 15 km west from the city of Seville in Andalusia, Spain. The project makes use of well proven technologies like glass-metal heliostats, a saturated steam receiver, pressurized water storage system, and saturated steam turbine. The solar field of PS10, consisting on 75.000m2 of reflective surface is spread over 50Has, a relatively large area as low losses for shadows and blocks interactions have been considered in its design. The tower of PS10 reaches an overall height of 120m. Solar multiple for this plant is 1.3, and the storage system capacity allows half hour full load operation for cloudy transients production coverage. Keeping in a side the cosine effect, that is, considering the energy that reachesheliostats, design point efficiency for PS10 raises till 21.2%, achieving annual efficiency of 14,4% in conversion from intercepted solar energy to electricity. The project is promoted by Solucar, a company of Abengoa working on solar energy and has been co-funded by 5th Framework Program of European Commission and by Renewable Energies Program of Andalusia Government. PS10 will come into operation by the end of summer 2006. (Author)

Osuna, R.; Olavarria, R.; Morillo, R.; Sanchez, M.; Cantero, F.; Fernandez-Quero, V.; Robles, P.; Lopez del Cerro, T.; Esteban, A.; Ceron, F.; Talegon, J.; Romero, M.; Tellez, F.; Marcos, M. J.; Martinez, D.; Valverde, A.; Monterreal, R.; Pitz-Paal, R.; Brakmann, G.; Ruiz, V.; Silva, M; Menna, P.

2006-07-01

109

Evaluation of height chimney effect in a research reactor core  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The STHIRP-1 computer code uses the principles of subchannels approach and has the ability to simulate the thermal and hydraulic phenomena which occur in the core of a water-refrigerated research reactor under a natural convection regime. As the reactor cooling occurs predominantly by natural convection of pool water the driving forces are supplied by the buoyancy of the heated water in the core. A chimney is an unheated extension of the core. The height of the chimney above the upper grid plate depends on the reactor power. At the top of the chimney the water temperature and density are again equal to the bulk water and it can be assumed that the liquid is again motionless. Thermal hydraulic calculations were carried out for the IPR-R1 Triga reactor (CDTN/CNEN) operating at the steady-state power levels of 50, 70 and 100 kW. The height of chimney effect in the reactor core was evaluated from the temperature values calculated at the inlet and outlet of subchannels (author)

110

Design, Construction And Characterization Of A Pyranometer For Measuring Global Solar Radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Due to cost and stringent importation requirement, we have designed and constructed a Pyranometer from locally available materials. The constructed Pyranometer was calibrated against a standard calibrated Eppley pyranometer model PSP17190F3. the two pyranometers were used simultaneously in measuring global solar radiation at Nsukka, Nigeria on latitude 6.8 degree North and longitude 7.35 degree East, located 488m above sea level. The average insolation for each of the two typical clear sky days were 3.221KW per square metre and 3.266KW per square metre. The maximum insolation obtained with the constructed pyranometer was 965.5 W per square metre on 16/1/03. The corresponding insolation obtained with the reference Eppley pyranometre on the same day was 1087.5W per square metre. We are happy to remark that there was not significant difference between the performances of the constructed pyranometer and the standard Eppley pyranometer

111

Collapse of chimney with impact on reactor building  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As the chimney does not belong to the higher-safety-class structures of a nuclear power plant, it is normally not designed for such extreme loading conditions as the safe-shutdown earthquake and the aircraft impact. Nevertheless, the behaviour of the chimney for these loads has to be investigated, as a possible collapse onto adjacent safety-relevant structures (reactor building, reactor auxiliary building, fuel-handling building) may significantly influence the design of these structures and of the equipment in them. The loading cases which might cause a collapse are outlined. The mathematical models used to calculate the highly physically and geometrically non-linear behaviour are described. The resulting response of the structures subjected to impact is determined and compared to that caused by other external extreme loading conditions. The safe-shutdown earthquake is represented by an artificially generated time history which fits a specified design-response spectrum. For preliminary calculations the response for simple sine wave excitation is determined. The ground acceleration at which collapse first occurs is calculated for different soil parameters and dimensions of the chimney. As an additional loading case, the direct impact of an aircraft or its freely flying debris on the chimney is investigated approximately. For different locations of impact, the impulse causing collapse is established. Under normal circumstances, debris such as engines can hardly lead to debris such as engines can hardly lead to a collapse of the entire chimney. Overall consideration of the balance of energy and of impulse as well as detailed solutions of the resulting differential equations of motion are performed. (Auth.)

112

Design, construction and testing of a liquid-heating flat-plate solar collector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this study was to design, construct, and test a liquid-heating flat-plate solar collector. From the literature search, information was gathered concerning the basic components of the collector, the different processes and materials that can be used in the construction of these components, and their advantages and disadvantages. The literature search also revealed a method used to measure the performance of the collector in terms of efficiency and heat output. Design considerations were then listed for each of the major components as well as the collector as a single unit. Then, each component was designed, taking into consideration the final assembly of the completed unit. Detailed designs were required for the absorber plate and the box and frame assembly because of their complexity in construction and assembly. Once the components were designed, the construction details were arranged in a logical sequence, again considering the final assembly of the unit. The collector was then carefully constructed and assembled following the design details. After the solar collector was assembled completely, tests were made, data were obtained and recorded, and a collector performance curve was developed.

Tuttle, R E

1980-02-01

113

Design, construction and experimental study of Electric Cum Solar Oven-II  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As in many developing countries, 35-40% of the population of Costa Rica still use firewood for domestic cooking. Considering the fact that Costa Rica is blessed with good sunshine, good hydroelectric potential, and a good electric network, a hybrid solar oven was thought to be useful. In the present paper the construction and working of a new type of Electric Cum Solar Oven (ECSO) has been described. This oven can be used for cooking and baking any type of meal at any time during the year employing solar and/or electric energy but consuming the minimum quantity of electric energy in case it is required. (author). 9 refs, 6 figs, 1 tab

114

10-MWe solar-thermal central-receiver pilot plant: collector subsystem foundation construction. Revision No. 1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bid documents are provided for the construction of the collector subsystem foundation of the Barstow Solar Pilot Plant, including invitation to bid, bid form, representations and certifications, construction contract, and labor standards provisions of the Davis-Bacon Act. Instructions to bidders, general provisions and general conditions are included. Technical specifications are provided for the construction. (LEW)

1979-12-18

115

The use of a rubble chimney for denitrification of irrigation return waters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Biological denitrification has been proposed as a means of removing nitrates from waste waters to control eutrophication in receiving waters. A potential use for this method is the treatment of irrigation return waters containing high concentrations of nitrate-nitrogen, since direct discharge of such wastes may cause objectionable algal growth in the receiving waters. For example, the process may be used to treat agricultural waste waters in the San Joaquin Valley in California, where an estimated 580,000 acre-feet/year of return waters, containing 20 mg/l of nitrate-nitrogen, will require disposal by A.D. 2020. Two methods of biological denitrification are presently under study for possible use in the San Joaquin Valley. In one method nitrates are reduced to nitrogen gas by bacterial action in deep ponds; in the other method bacterial denitrification takes place in biological filters. In biological filters, bacteria are grown on columns of submerged stones. A possible alternative to the conventional construction of these filters is the creation of a rubble chimney by a contained nuclear explosion. This paper presents the results of a preliminary investigation of the feasibility of using a rubble chimney as a biological filter for denitrification. (author)

116

The computational optimization of heat exchange efficiency in stack chimneys  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For many industrial processes, the chimney is the final step before hot fumes, with high thermal energy content, are discharged into the atmosphere. Tapping into this energy and utilizing it for heating or cooling applications, could improve sustainability, efficiency and/or reduce operational costs. Alternatively, an unused chimney, like the monumental chimney at the Eindhoven University of Technology, could serve as an 'energy channeler' once more; it can enhance free cooling by exploiting the stack effect. This study aims to identify design parameters that influence annual heat exchange in such stack chimney applications and optimize these parameters for specific scenarios to maximize the performance. Performance is defined by annual heat exchange, system efficiency and costs. The energy required for the water pump as compared to the energy exchanged, defines the system efficiency, which is expressed in an efficiency coefficient (EC). This study is an example of applying building performance simulation (BPS) tools for decision support in the early phase of the design process. In this study, BPS tools are used to provide design guidance, performance evaluation and optimization. A general method for optimization of simulation models will be studied, and applied in two case studies with different applications (heating/cooling), namely; (1) CERES case: 'Eindhoven University of Technology monumental stack chimney equipped with a heat exchanger, rejects heat to load the cold source of the aquifer system on the campus of the university and/or provides free cooling to the CERES building'; and (2) Industrial case: 'Heat exchanger in an industrial stack chimney, which recoups heat for use in e.g. absorption cooling'. The main research question, addressing the concerns of both cases, is expressed as follows: 'what is the optimal set of design parameters so heat exchange in stack chimneys is optimized annually for the cases in which a stack chimney heat exchanger is used for heating or cooling applications, what is the expected performance and how do the design parameters relate to this performance'. Simulation models were developed in the BPS tool ESP-r. The most important design parameters and their relative influence on the performance indicators were analysed based on sensitivity analysis (SA). From this analysis general design guidelines were derived ('optimal set of design parameters'). A multi objective optimization of the design parameters was performed on the simulation models, using the responsive surface methods and artificial neural network capabilities of optimization environment ModEContier to speed up the iteration process. In this optimization, 'heat exchange in stack chimneys is optimized annually'. The uncertainty in the optimized results has been analysed using uncertainty analysis (UA). Finally, the appropriateness of deploying a complex, high resolution simulation has been evaluated by studying current modelling resolution selection methodology found in literature.

Van Goch, T.A.J.

2012-02-15

117

Solar One - 10-MWe solar central receiver power plant Lessons learned in design, construction, and start-up  

Science.gov (United States)

Practical aspects of solar-power-plant design, construction, and operation are examined in a survey of the Solar One central-receiver project in Barstow, California, from its authorization in 1975 through the initial months of normal operation in late 1982. The organization and management of the project is sketched, and the plant systems are characterized: 1818-heliostat microprocessor-controlled collector, 800-tube 302-sq m receiver capable of delivering 51,000 kg/h of steam at 516 C and 10.1 MPa, thermocline-tank thermal-storage system, master control, beam-characterization system, conventional Rankine steam-turbine generator, and support systems. The technical, control, and management lessons learned in the progress of the project are discussed individually. Preliminary operational data indicate that Solar One will not meet the design goal of 26 GW h net average annual generation, primarily due to unexpectedly high auxiliary power consumption by the plant itself. The need to optimize plants for minimum auxiliary power requirements, especially during shutdown periods, is indicated.

Bigger, J. E.; Criner, D. E.; Gould, G. L.; Skvarna, P. A.

1983-09-01

118

Aggregation and chimney formation during the solidification of ammonium chloride  

Science.gov (United States)

Experiments study large-scale pattern formation during the growth of ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) from solution in a thin (Hele-Shaw) geometry. In particular a solid-liquid mixture (``mushy layer'') forms in which growing solid NH4Cl crystals form a solid network interspersed with liquid. There are different ways that the mushy layer can be formed, however. If the cell is heated from below and cooled from above, thermal convection generates large-scale recirculating flows that carry seed crystals from the upper (cold) boundary to the (warmer) side and bottom boundaries. Ballistic deposition of these seed crystals leads to aggregation patterns with significant voids (filled with liquid) with a wide range of length scales. If the cell is cooled from below with a warm environment, the solid NH4Cl grows dendritically without deposition, resulting in a compact mushy layer. Plume convection within this mushy layer produces one or two well-defined ``chimneys.'' If the environment is cool (comparable to the liquidus temperature of the solution), the mushy layer forms by a combination of dendritic growth and ballistic deposition, resulting in a more permeable mushy layer and enhanced chimney formation. The effects of ballistic deposition are enhanced if the cell is tipped, in which case the voids reappear. Plume convection and chimney formation are dramatically enhanced in this case. Additional experiments are done in which fluid flows in the system are enhanced artificially to verify that enhancements in chimney formation are due primarily to the aggregation process, and not to the increases in fluid flows due to thermal and compositional convection.

Solomon, T. H.; Hartley, R. R.; Lee, A. T.

1999-09-01

119

Evaluation of a stack: A concrete chimney with brick liner  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A 200 ft. tall stack, consisting of a concrete chimney with an independent acid proof brick liner built in the 1950's, serving the Separations facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS), was evaluated for the performance category 3 (PC3) level of Natural Phenomena Hazards (NPH) effects. The inelastic energy absorption capacity of the concrete chimney was considered in the evaluation of the earthquake resistance, in particular, to compute the F? factor. The calculated value of F? exceeded 3.0, while the seismic demand for the PC3 level, using an F? value of 1.5, was found to be less than the capacity of the concrete chimney. The capacity formulation of ACI 307 was modified to incorporate the effect of an after design opening on the tension side. There are considerable uncertainties in determining the earthquake resistance of the independent brick liner. The critical liner section, located at the bottom of the breeching opening, does not meet the current recommendations. A discussion is provided for the possible acceptable values for the ''Moment Reduction Factor'', Rw or F? for the liner. Comments are provided on the comparison of stack demands using response spectra (RS) versus time history (TH) analysis, with and without soil structure interaction (SSI) effects

120

D0 - Chimney Lead Quench Detection, Beta Solenoid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The voltage drop across the superconducting chimney lead is sensed to detect a quench. The return sense lead is mounted outside the chimney. The return sense lead and the superconducting chimney wire form a loop with area A ? 1.7 m2 (information from R. Ru. cinski). Changing flux through area A will induce a voltage in the sense loop and could cause false quench detection. Assume that the field through A changes 1 kGauss (0.1 Wb/m2) in 10-3 sec. The induced voltage is then: e = d0/dt = dBA/dt and e = 0.1 x 1.7/10-3 = 170 V. This is probably a very pessimistic estimate, but it shows that we have to watch out. Changes of 100 Gauss in 100 msec (CDF experience?) are probably more likely and cause: e = 0.01 x 1.7/10-2 ? 1.7 V noise. This noise is still too high because trip levels are planned to sit at ?50 mV? It is practically impossible to predict what the real noise values would be, but I expect them to be in the order of 1 to 10 V. This is more than we can handle and I would expect nuisance trips.

121

Guide for a building energy label. Promoting bio-climatic and solar construction and renovation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Technically speaking, building experts have the knowledge to deal with thermal inertia of buildings, solar gains, insulation, efficient ventilation, and daylighting... to get low energy buildings that provide comfort for the users. Buildings should always be designed according to the specificities of the local climate, according to a ''solar and bio-climatic construction'' approach. It is not always possible to fully apply these principles, particularly in urban areas with high density. However, this is unacceptable to keep building with such errors as insufficient insulation and direct electrical heating, single glazing, thermal bridges, low efficiency heating systems. This guide aims at encouraging the building experts to take into account the energy efficiency. Implementing a building energy label will allow general public to be aware of this issue and then, and will then lead to develop better practices. (author)

NONE

2004-07-01

122

Seismic decoupling of an explosion centered in a granite chimney rubble -- scaled experiment results. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes the small scale evaluation of the feasibility of significant decoupling by siting an explosion in granite rubble. The chimney characteristics scaled to laboratory dimensions were those of the PILE DRIVER event. The scaled charges were of 1 KT and 8KT in the PILE DRIVER chimney. The measure of the effect was the velocity field history in the granite outside the chimney volume with the chimney rubble and with no rubble. A number of chimney sizes and shapes were studied. The explosion process was modeled via two-din=mensional, finite-difference methods used for prediction of velocity histories at the Nevada Test Site. The result was that both the spectral shape and the magnitude of the transmitted shock wave were drastically altered. The chimney geometry was as important as the rubble characteristics.

Keller, C. [Science & Engineering Associates, Inc., Santa Fe, NM (United States); Miller, S.; Florence, A.; Fogle, M.; Kilb, D.

1991-12-01

123

Optimal and hysteretic fluxes in alloy solidification: Variational principles and chimney spacing  

CERN Document Server

We take a numerical approach to analyze the mechanisms controlling the spacing of chimneys -- channels devoid of solid -- in two-dimensional mushy layers formed by solidifying a binary alloy. Chimneys are the principal conduits through which buoyancy effects transport material out of the mushy layer and into the liquid from which it formed. Experiments show a coarsening of chimney spacing and we pursue the hypothesis that this observation is a consequence of a variational principle: the chimney spacing adjusts to optimize material transport and hence maximize the rate of removal of potential energy stored in the mushy layer. The optimal solute flux increases approximately linearly with the mushy layer Rayleigh number. However, for spacings below a critical value the chimneys collapse and solute fluxes cease, revealing a hysteresis between chimney convection and no flow.

Wells, Andrew J; Orszag, Steven A

2010-01-01

124

Antecedent and progress of the project on the treatment of chimney gases with electrons in Mexico  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After the realization of the chimney gases treatment seminar with electrons, organized jointly among the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), in August of 1990 and following one of the received recommendations, it was elaborated an economic technical feasibility study of this process in Mexico, using technical data of a thermoelectric power station of Federal Commission of Electricity, where is being consumed fuel oil. This study is good to know some technical parameters of a plant of this process, proposed to settle in Mexico, so as some economic estimates of installation and operation costs of this plant; also, it is traced about the construction of a demonstration plant of the process, with capacity of 20,000 m3N/h, using the same data of the thermoelectric power station considered previously, as the first step in the scaling of this process toward industrial level. (Author)

125

Simplifying the construction of dye-sensitized solar cells to increase their accessibility for community education  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Simple dye-sensitized solar cells were developed using blackboard chalk as a substrate for mixed ZnO and SnO{sub 2} films that were sensitized with Mercurochrome (Merbromine) dye. Graphite pencil 'leads' were used as counter electrodes for the cells and the electrolyte consisted of an aqueous solution of iodine and potassium iodide that was gelled with a disinfectant containing quaternary ammonium compounds and cyanoacrylate adhesive (Superglue {sup registered}). The open circuit potential of constructed cells was typically 0.50-0.64 V and the short circuit current varied between 0.5 and 2.0 mA cm{sup -2}. The cells were developed as an educational resource that could be simply and safely constructed in a home or school environment with readily accessible materials. (author)

Appleyard, Steve [Department of Environment and Conservation, PO Box K822, Perth, WA 6842 (Australia)

2010-01-15

126

Design, construction and characterization of a rural solar furnace; Diseno, construccion y caracterizacion de un horno solar rural  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This thesis presents the design, construction and characterization of a solar furnace, box type, for its use in rural communities in the inter-tropical zone. The work presented in this thesis departs from the opto-geometric design of a solar furnace, box type, proposed by an enthusiastic group of young students from the Centro de Investigacion de Energia (CIE) of the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM). The contents of this thesis includes the systematization of the work previously made by these authors: the design and the optimization of geometry, the experimental evaluation of the same, as well as a theoretical model of the thermal behavior of the solar furnace based on a global balance of energy that assumes thermal states in cuasi-equilibrium of the internal components of the furnace. In this thesis a theoretical model of the solar concentration of energy by the reflectors of the furnace based on the model of Peres and Karsson (1993) is developed. The predictions of this model are satisfactorily compared with the experimental results of Jaramillo et al. (1999). Counting on the opto-geometric design of the furnace, the design is completed selecting the materials to be used in the different parts of the same, as well as defining constructive details. The material selected for the inner and outer boxes and the reflectors is stainless steel mirror finishing. Mineral wool is used As insulating mineral. The upper part of the furnace is protected by a glass that allows the entrance of the solar energy and diminishes the energy convective and radiation losses. For the thermal evaluation of the furnace an experimental methodology, based on the international procedures standardized for tests of furnaces and solar stoves is followed. Three tests for each one of the following operation conditions were performed: without load, with oil and with water. The maximum temperature registered in the inside air of the furnace, for the first condition was of 150 centigrade, followed of the condition using 6 liters of oil, in which a maximum temperature of 115 centigrade was obtained and in the tests with 6 liters of water as load a maximum temperature of 95 centigrade was registered. In these tests the temperature of the oil surpasses 60 centigrade during an approximate period of 7 hours and is higher than 80 centigrade by a lapse of 5 hours. The water temperature is higher than 60 centigrade for a period of more than 5 hours and during 3 hours is higher than 80 centigrade. These results are satisfactory, because they assure the accomplishment of the process of baking inside the furnace. A calculation program was elaborated to implement the theoretical model of the concentration. This program reads the data of radiation intensity in the horizontal plane supplied by the weather station of the CIE and determines the incident radiation in the furnace collector. The theoretical model of the thermal behavior was implemented in another computer program; this program reads the data of the incident radiation in the collector of the furnace and the data of room temperature and calculates the temperature of the furnace as a time function. The model overestimates the temperature reached in the furnace, nevertheless reproduces qualitatively the thermal behavior of the same. In spite of the limitations of the theoretical model, this can be of utility in achieving the reproduction of the temperature of the load experimentally registered, through an effective coefficient of heat losses and an effective coefficient of heat capacity, characteristic of each one of the conditions of the test. [Spanish] Esta tesis presenta el diseno, construccion y caracterizacion de un horno solar tipo caja para su uso en comunidades rurales en la zona intertropical. El trabajo presentado en esta tesis parte del diseno opto-geometrico de un horno solar tipo caja propuesto por un entusiasta grupo de jovenes estudiantes (Acosta et al., 1996, Vazquez et al., 1998, Jaramillo et al., 1999) del Centro de Investigacion en Energia (CIE) de la Universidad Nacional Autonom

Hernandez Luna, Gabriela

2001-06-15

127

Atmospheric concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during chimney sweeping.  

OpenAIRE

Air sampled from the breathing zone of chimney sweeps during "dirty work" and soot samples were analysed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). A total of 20 PAH were quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in 115 air samples and 18 soot samples. These included benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), chrysene, dibenz(a,h)anthracene, and indeno (1,2,3-cd)pyrene, all of which are animal carcinogens. The summed atmospheric concentration of these compounds depended on the type...

Knecht, U.; Bolm-audorff, U.; Woitowitz, H. J.

1989-01-01

128

Large-size deployable construction heated by solar irradiation in free space  

Science.gov (United States)

Large-size deployable construction in free space with subsequent direct curing was invented more than fifteen years ago (Briskman et al., 1997 and Kondyurin, 1998). It caused a lot of scientific problems, one of which is a possibility to use the solar energy for initiation of the curing reaction. This paper is devoted to investigate the curing process under sun irradiation during a space flight in Earth orbits. A rotation of the construction is considered. This motion can provide an optimal temperature distribution in the construction that is required for the polymerization reaction. The cylindrical construction of 80 m length with two hemispherical ends of 10 m radius is considered. The wall of the construction of 10 mm carbon fibers/epoxy matrix composite is irradiated by heat flux from the sun and radiates heat from the external surface by the Stefan- Boltzmann law. A stage of polymerization reaction is calculated as a function of temperature/time based on the laboratory experiments with certified composite materials for space exploitation. The curing kinetics of the composite is calculated for different inclination Low Earth Orbits (300 km altitude) and Geostationary Earth Orbit (40000 km altitude). The results show that • the curing process depends strongly on the Earth orbit and the rotation of the construction; • the optimal flight orbit and rotation can be found to provide the thermal regime that is sufficient for the complete curing of the considered construction. The study is supported by RFBR grant ? 12-08-00970-a. 1. Briskman V., A.Kondyurin, K.Kostarev, V.Leontyev, M.Levkovich, A.Mashinsky, G.Nechitailo, T.Yudina, Polymerization in microgravity as a new process in space technology, Paper No IAA-97-IAA.12.1.07, 48th International Astronautical Congress, October 6-10, 1997, Turin Italy. 2. Kondyurin A.V., Building the shells of large space stations by the polymerisation of epoxy composites in open space, Int. Polymer Sci. and Technol., v.25, N4, 1998, p. 78-80.

Pestrenina, Irena; Kondyurin, Alexey; Pestrenin, Valery; Kashin, Nickolay; Naymushin, Alexey

129

Construction of a 100 kW solar thermal-electric experimental plant  

Science.gov (United States)

A focusing collector thermal-electric power plant has been erected in Corsica (France). This plant consists of a field of 1176 sq m fixed mirror concentrators, producing heat at 250 C, a stratification thermal energy storage of about 1250 kWh, two power conversion units of 45 kWe each, with a supersonic turbine expanding a heavy organic working fluid, and two cooling towers of 200 kW each. This full-scale prototype has been built mainly to demonstrate the capability of the distributed collector solar plant concept, in the power range from 50 kWe to 1000 kWe, and the temperature range from 150 to 300 C. This paper describes the conceptual design and the performance of the plant and discusses problems that were met during construction.

Boy-Marcotte, J. L.; Dancette, M.; Bliaux, J.; Bacconnet, E.; Malherbe, J.

1985-08-01

130

Design, construction and performance testing of a solar dryer for agroindustrial by-products  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Spain generates a big amount of agroindustrial by-products of high moisture that produce a high environmental impact. This fact motivates the aim of this paper, in which a solar dryer prototype is designed, constructed, and performance tested for the analysis of the drying kinetics of these by-products and their possible power valuation. The characteristics of the prototype are presented, together with the variations of the properties of temperature, relative humidity, air mass flow, and efficiency for indirect, mixed, passive, active, and hybrid operation modes. The most efficient operation mode will be the forced-hybrid one, followed by the passive and active modes. The analysis of the drying kinetics of the olive pomace shows the better performance of the hybrid and mixed modes, obtaining reductions of the drying time of a 50% in both cases. (author)

Montero, I.; Miranda, T.; Rojas, S.; Celma, A.R. [University of Extremadura, Department of Chemical and Energetics Engineering, Industrial Engineering School, Av. Elvas s/n, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Blanco, J. [PSA (CIEMAT), Department of Solar Chemistry, Ctra. Sens, P.O. Box 22, 04200 Tabernas (Almera) (Spain)

2010-07-15

131

The construction of tandem dye-sensitized solar cells from chemically-derived nanoporous photoelectrodes  

Science.gov (United States)

A tandem dye-sensitized solar cell (tandem-DSSC) was synthesized on the basis of thin-film semiconductor electrodes. The nanoporous p-type NiO films were successfully obtained by simultaneous deposition of Al and Ni, followed by selective etching of Al and oxidation. Likewise, the n-type photoanode was made where Ag was etched in nitric acid after the initial formation of Ag/TiO2 nanocomposites. Such dye-sensitized photoelectrodes were combined to construct a tandem solar cell which exhibited an enhanced open-circuit voltage. Also, the tandem devices were subjected to various light fluxes to correlate the experimental cell parameters (open-circuit voltage, short-circuit current, fill factor, recombination shunt resistance, etc.) with the ideal one-diode model. Interestingly, impedance spectra of the tandem cell was well matched with the parameters from each of the n-type or p-type DSSC, indicative of successfully-designed tandem structure.

Choi, Hongsik; Hwang, Taehyun; Lee, Sangheon; Nam, Seunghoon; Kang, Joonhyeon; Lee, Byungho; Park, Byungwoo

2015-01-01

132

Construction of research wind-solar monitoring station 'North-East Bulgaria'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The rising energy prices, the lack of conventional energy sources, as well as the growing ecological problems, imposing the development of a new energy strategy of Bulgaria, are the prerequisites for the thorough researches in the field of wind-solar resources and the construction of experimental bases with modern equipment for the detailed investigations on the specificities of these resources with the view of their optimal utilization. The lack of homogenous covering of the territory of the country with meteorological stations, as well as the rather specific microclimatic conditions in the diverse physical-geographic localities in the country make the necessity of building experimental stations for meteo-monitoring under specific local conditions still more indispensable. This work presents the monitoring parameters of wind-solar resources in a real physical-geographic environment, for carrying out scientific-research, applied-practical and educational-training activity. A broad spectrum of scientific methods and approaches - instrumental, topographic, terrain, mathematical-statistical, numerical modeling, cartographic, educational and team-working, are envisaged for attaining the set objective. (author)

133

Tree cavity use by Chimney Swifts: implications for forestry and population recovery  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Chimney Swift (Chaetura pelagica is an aerial insectivore and a cavity-nesting/roosting specialist designated as threatened in several jurisdictions. As the occurrence of suitable chimneys declines, Chimney Swifts may increasingly nest and roost in tree cavities. It is therefore important to identify characteristics of suitable nest or roost trees and assess their frequency of occurrence. We reviewed 59 historic and modern records of trees used by Chimney Swifts to understand characteristics of suitable nest or roost trees. Chimney Swifts used at least 13 different deciduous and coniferous tree species. All of the trees were greater than 0.5 m diameter at breast height (DBH and were described as hollow or having cavities. Nest or roost tree height was 12.7 ± 7.0 m (mean ± SD; range: 3.6-28.0 m; n = 25 and DBH was 1.0 m ± 0.5 m (range 0.5-2.1 m; n = 21. According to our description of used trees, the number of suitably hollow Chimney Swift nest or roost trees may be two to three times higher, although still rare, in most unlogged compared to logged hardwood forests. Whether the current total supply of suitable nest or roost trees is sufficient to carry the anticipated increase in use by Chimney Swifts as chimney habitat is modified or deteriorates is unknown. Monitoring the frequency of use of tree cavities by nesting and roosting Chimney Swifts over time, and more robustly quantifying the availability of suitable tree cavities in different forest types for nesting and roosting Chimney Swifts, particularly in unlogged versus logged forests, are fruitful areas for future research.

Carolyn Zanchetta

2014-12-01

134

External walls made of solar Lego bricks. Sulfurcell head office building: External wall construction according to the dimensions of Sulfurcell solar modules; Solare Legosteinfassade. Die Masse der hauseigenen Module bildeten den Ausgangspunkt fuer die Planung des Sulfurcell-Hauptquartiers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Sulfurcell Solartechnik GmbH constructed a new office building at Berlin-Adlershof. The building's external walls were designed on the basis of the frameless Sulfurcell standard module. The building intends to prove that solar modules are not a luxury item but an efficient and easy-to-handle constructional material. (orig.)

Wagner, Neelke

2009-11-15

135

Concentration levels of solutes in porous deposits with chimneys under wick boiling conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Concentration levels of infinitely soluble solutes in porous deposits with chimneys, for which wick boiling appears to be the major mode of heat transfer, has been investigated by a two-dimensional model. Wick boiling promotes the development of high concentration levels of solutes within porous deposits, especially in the region near the intersection of the heating surface and the chimney wall. The maximum concentration factor increases with decreasing porosity; with increasing chimney population; with increasing system pressure in the range of system pressures of interest to LWRs, and approximately exponentially with both increasing heat flux and crud thickness

136

Design, Engineering, and Construction of Photosynthetic Microbial Cell Factories for Renewable Solar Fuel Production  

OpenAIRE

There is an urgent need to develop sustainable solutions to convert solar energy into energy carriers used in the society. In addition to solar cells generating electricity, there are several options to generate solar fuels. This paper outlines and discusses the design and engineering of photosynthetic microbial systems for the generation of renewable solar fuels, with a focus on cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria are prokaryotic microorganisms with the same type of photosynthesis as higher plants....

Lindblad, Peter; Lindberg, Pia; Oliveira, Paulo; Stensjo?, Karin; Heidorn, Thorsten

2012-01-01

137

Solar power satellite system definition study. Part 2, volume 5: Space operations (construction and transportation)  

Science.gov (United States)

Construction and transportation systems and operations are described for the following combinations: (1) silicon photovoltaic CR=1 satellite constructed primarily in low earth orbit (LEO); (2) silicon photovoltaic CR=1 satellite constructed in geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO); (3) Rankine thermal engine satellite constructed primarily in LEO; and (4) Rankine thermal engine satellite constructed in GEO.

Miller, K.; Davis, E. E.

1977-01-01

138

Convective chimney formation in a mushy layer: experiments, simulations and theory  

Science.gov (United States)

Laboratory experiments on directional solidification of aqueous ammonium chloride in a Hele-Shaw cell produce a convectively unstable, partially crystalline mushy layer. Within this layer, reactive flow of buoyant fluid creates chimneys of zero solid fraction. We have investigated the development of chimneys with new, time-dependent, computational simulations of directional solidification. These simulations employ the Enthalpy method coupled with Darcy's law to describe the thermodynamics and fluid mechanics of the system. A comparison between simulations and experimental results raises questions about the mode of instability that leads to chimney formation: do chimneys originate from disturbances at the mush-liquid interface and grow downwards or are they the product of an instability within the mushy layer? Is there a clear distinction between these two modes? To address this question we consider a hydrodynamic stability analysis of the system, substituting the Darcy-Brinkman equation for Darcy's law. This allows for a flexible choice of permeability functions.

Katz, Richard; Worster, Grae

2007-11-01

139

Analytical study of the closure flow inside the ETRR-2 core chimney  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present work is carried out in order to study the closure flow inside the core chimney of the Egypt second research reactor (ETRR-2). Based on the finite difference technique, a two dimensional model is developed to simulate the coolant flow inside the chimney. The model is verified by FEHT finite element program. Then a study of different closure flow values inside the chimney was made using the developed model where a flow maps is plotted showing the stagnation depth for each closure flow. The flow maps shows that for a closure flow greater than 0.16 m3/h, no radioactive water ascends from the core to the pool through the chimney. The model results are analyzed and discussed

140

Leakage-flow induced vibrations of a chimney structure suspended in a liquid flow  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents the results of flow-induced vibration tests conducted to assess the vibration characteristics of a chimney structure suspended in a liquid flow. The test article is a full-scale model of a flow chimney used in a nuclear reactor as a part of reactor upper internals. Tests were performed by simulating all pertinent prototype conditions achievable in a laboratory environment. The test results show that there exists a fluid-elastic instability of the chimney motion which has a distinct lock-in phenomenon with respect to the flow rate. This unstable vibration is associated with the leakage-flow-modulated excitation through the small clearances between the chimney and its supports

141

The Chimney Effect on Natural Circulation in The Coolant Channel of TRIGA 2000 Reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To accomplish the safety evaluation of the TRIGA 2000 reactor, a theoretical and an experimental analysis have been carried out. In the present study, the effect of chimney on the thermal hydraulics parameter will be presented. In the theoretical analysis, the STAT computer code has been used to determine the temperature and velocity of coolant in the reactor core. Meanwhile, in the experiments, a special probe to measure the bulk temperature of the coolant at different position in the coolant channel has been inserted to central thimble (CT). The theoretical results obtained indicated that the coolant temperatures which considering the chimney effect are approximately (15 - 30) % lower than ones of the core without chimney. Meanwhile, the experimental study showed that, for various of reactor powers, the coolant temperatures which considering the chimney effect are approximately (35 - 40) % higher than the theoretical calculation for the highest position of the coolant channel (x/L = 0.87). (author)

142

Analytical study of the closure flow inside the ETRR-2 core chimney  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present work is carried out in order to study the closure flow inside the core chimney of the Egypt second research reactor (ETRR-2). Based on the finite difference technique, a two dimensional model is developed to simulate the coolant flow inside the chimney. The model is verified by FEHT finite element program. Then a study of different closure flow values inside the chimney was made using the developed model where a flow maps is plotted showing the stagnation depth for each closure flow. The flow maps shows that for a closure flow greater than 0.16 m{sup 3}/h, no radioactive water ascends from the core to the pool through the chimney. The model results are analyzed and discussed.

El-Morshdy, Salah El-Din [Reactors Department, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)]. E-mail: selmorshedy@etrr2-aea.org.eg

2007-03-15

143

Analytical study of the closure flow inside the ETRR-2 core chimney  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present work is carried out in order to study the closure flow inside the core chimney of the Egypt second research reactor (ETRR-2). Based on the finite difference technique, a two dimensional model is developed to simulate the coolant flow inside the chimney. The model is verified by FEHT finite element program. Then a study of different closure flow values inside the chimney was made using the developed model where a flow map is plotted showing the stagnation depth for each closure flow. The flow map shows that for a closure flow greater than 0.16 m{sup 3}/h, no active water ascends from the core to the pool through the chimney. The model results are analyzed and discussed. (orig.)

El-Din El-Morshdy, S. [Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt). Reactors Dept.

2006-12-15

144

Wide-Field H-alpha Observations of a Possible Galactic Chimney Associated With W4  

Science.gov (United States)

From HI observations, Normandeau, Taylor and Dewdney have identified a possible galactic chimney emanating from W4. We observed a 10deg --diameter field centered on the chimney in the Balmer-alpha line using a CCD camera sensitive to faint emission. Our observations reveal a pair of wisps diverging from the W4 region, and approximately coincident with the boundaries of the chimney as indicated by the HI void. These wisps can be traced to great distance. They appear to close six degrees (~200 pc) from W4 and seven degrees above the galactic plane. These observations lend support to the chimney hypothesis and suggest that we may be seeing the ionized inner surface of a large shell formed by stellar outflows from the W4 region. This research was supported by NSF grant AST-9319670 and a grant from the Horton Foundation to Virginia Tech.

Topasna, G. A.; Dennison, B.; Simonetti, J. H.

1995-12-01

145

Structural monitoring and damage identification on a masonry chimney by a spectral-based identification technique  

OpenAIRE

The present work deals with the damage identification of a historical masonry chimney located in Guimar??es (Portugal), including a detailed survey, inspection and diagnosis. The chimney was object of a continuous monitoring campaign carried out to catch the evolution of the modal parameters and evaluate the success of the rehabilitation works planned after a lightning accident. Based on the dynamic features extracted from the OMA data, a damage identification analysis was performed making us...

Masciotta, M. G.; Ramos, Lu S. F.; Louren O, Paulo B.; Vasta, M.

2014-01-01

146

Effect of cold inflow on chimney height of natural draft cooling towers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Natural convection data were obtained from an air-cooled heat exchanger model. ? The extent of cold inflow was quantified to relate to the decrease in effective chimney height. ? Installation of wire mesh screen on chimney outlet blocked off cold inflow to improve the chimney efficiency. ? Evidence of existence of effective plume-chimney for when cold inflow was blocked off warrants further work. - Abstract: Temperature and pressure drop data obtained from an air-cooled heat exchanger model with cross-sectional flow areas of 0.56 m2, 1.00 m2 and 2.25 m2 operating under natural convection are presented that indicate significant cold inflow, resulting in the reduction of effective chimney height. Cold inflows encountered in actual applications where the Froude number is typically 0.2, may not be as severe as described in this paper, which was of the order of 10?6–10?4. Additional tests on smaller scale models appeared to favor the explanation that the occurrence of cold inflow in the air-cooled heat exchanger model was primarily due to the relative ease in either drawing cold air from inlet or from outlet, and to a lesser extent the Froude number of the chimney or the critical velocity estimated by formula. A CFD study will bring much understanding of the phenomenon for the different situations.

147

Turbulent mixing inside the chimney model of a pool type research reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Open pool type research reactors often use a chimney structure to prevent mixing of core outlet water directly into the pool in order to keep the radioactivity level at the pool top to a lower limit. This chimney structure facilitates guiding of the radioactive water from the reactor core towards the side outlet nozzles and simultaneously sucking water from the reactor pool through the chimney top. The present work aims at studying the turbulent mixing behaviour of water coolant inside a 1/6th scaled down model of chimney structure. The range of dimensionless numbers considered in the simulation are 1.44 x 106 6 and 0.002 < Ri < 0.008. The effects of flow ratio between upward flow and downward flow and their temperature difference on the mixing behaviour are analysed by means of commercial software. Turbulence is modelled by using the Reynolds averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) equation. The results indicate that the increase in downward (core bypass) flow, increases stagnation depth and try to keep the radio-activity well within the chimney region. On the contrary, the temperature difference between the hot upward fluid and cold downward fluid tries to reduce the stagnation depth. It is observed that if sufficient bypass flow is provided, no water from the core will reach the reactor pool through the chimney top opening. (author)

148

Use of chemical explosives for emergency solar flare shelter construction and other excavations on the Martian surface  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The necessity to shelter people on the Martian surface from solar flare particles at short notice and the need for long-term habitats with thick cosmic ray shielding suggests that explosives could be used effectively for excavation of such structures. Modern insensitive high explosives are safe, efficient, and reliable for rock breakage and excavation. Extensive Earth-bound experience leads us to propose several strategies for explosively-constructed shelters based on tunneling, cratering, and rock casting techniques.

Dick, R.D.; Blacic, J.D.; Pettitt, D.R.

1985-01-01

149

Development of the lined masonry chimney oil appliance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes the development of the lined masonry chimney venting tables form the output of the Oil Heat Analysis Program 9OHVAP. These new tables are different from the prior format, offered in the Proceedings of the 1995 Oil Heat Technology Conference and Workshop, paper No. 95-4. Issues expressed by representatives of the oil heat industry at last years conference during the Venting Technology Workshop resulted in subsequent discussions. A full day meeting was held, co-sponsored by BNL and the Oilheat Manufacturers Association (OMA), to address revision of the format of the venting tables prior to submission to the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Standard 31 Technical Committee. The resulting tables and text were submitted to NFPA during the first week of October, 1995. Since then minor changes were made reflecting the addition of data obtained by including intermediate firing rates (0.4, 0.65, and 0.85 gph) not included in the original tables which were developed in increments of 0.25 gph. The new tables address the specific question; {open_quotes}If remediation is required, what is the recommendation for the sizing of a metal liner and the appropriate firing rate range to be used with that liner?{close_quotes}

Krajewski, R.; Strasser, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1996-07-01

150

Plastic Solar Cells: A Multidisciplinary Field to Construct Chemical Concepts from Current Research  

Science.gov (United States)

Examples of plastic solar-cell technology to illustrate core concepts in chemistry are presented. The principles of operations of a plastic solar cell could be used to introduce key concepts, which are fundamentally important to understand photosynthesis and the basic process that govern most novel optoelectronic devices.

Gomez, Rafael; Segura, Jose L.

2007-01-01

151

Metagenome reveals potential microbial degradation of hydrocarbon coupled with sulfate reduction in an oil-immersed chimney from Guaymas Basin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimneys contain a high diversity of microorganisms, yet the metabolic activity and the ecological functions of the microbial communities remain largely unexplored. In this study, a metagenomic approach was applied to characterize the metabolic potential in a Guaymas hydrothermal vent chimney and to conduct comparative genomic analysis among a variety of environments with sequenced metagenomes. Complete clustering of functional gene categories with a comparative metagenomic approach showed that this Guaymas chimney metagenome was clustered most closely with a chimney metagenome from Juan de Fuca. All chimney samples were enriched with genes involved in recombination and repair, chemotaxis and flagellar assembly, highlighting their roles in coping with the fluctuating extreme deep-sea environments. A high proportion of transposases was observed in all the metagenomes from deep-sea chimneys, supporting the previous hypothesis that horizontal gene transfer may be common in the deep-sea vent chimney biosphere. In the Guaymas chimney metagenome, thermophilic sulfate reducing microorganisms including bacteria and archaea were found predominant, and genes coding for the degradation of refractory organic compounds such as cellulose, lipid, pullullan, as well as a few hydrocarbons including toluene, ethylbenzene and o-xylene were identified. Therefore, this oil-immersed chimney supported a thermophilic microbial community capable of oxidizing a range of hydrocarbons that served as electron donors for sulphate reduction under anaerobic conditions.

YingHe

2013-06-01

152

Toward the Understanding and Optimization of Chimneys for Buoyantly Driven Biomass Stoves  

Science.gov (United States)

The vast majority of indoor combustion devices in the developed world make use of stacks (flues, vents, chimneys, smokestacks) to channel flue gases out of the operator space. In the developing world, where indoor air pollution kills several million people every year, the use of chimneys with biomass cooking and heating stoves has been met with limited success and a high level of controversy. Due to a lack of theoretical understanding, design criteria, poorly executed installation practices, and/or insufficient maintenance routines, many chimney stoves have exhibited inadequate indoor emissions reductions in addition to low thermal efficiencies. This work aims (a) shed light on the physical phenomenon of the "stack effect" as it pertains to dynamic, non-adiabatic, buoyancy-driven stoves (b) apply new understanding toward the optimization of two types of biomass chimney stoves: plancha or griddle type stoves popular in Central America and two-pot stoves common in South America. A numerical heat and fluid flow model was developed that takes into account the highly-coupled variables and dynamic nature of such systems. With a comprehensive physical model, parameter studies were conducted to determine how several field-relevant variables influence the performance of stack-outfitted systems. These parameters include, but are not limited to: power/wood consumption rate, chimney geometry, stove geometry, material properties, heat transfer, and ambient conditions. An instrumented experimental chimney was built to monitor relationships between air flow, differential pressure, gas temperatures, emissions, and thermal efficiency. The draft provided by chimneys was found to have a strong influence over the bulk air-to-fuel ratio of buoyantly-driven cookstoves, greatly affecting the stove's overall performance by affecting gas temperatures, emissions, and efficiency. Armed with new information from the modeling and experimental work, two new stoves were designed and optimized to have significant reductions in fuel use and emissions.

Prapas, Jason

153

Solar power satellite. System definition study. Part 1, volume 3: Construction, transportation and cost analyses  

Science.gov (United States)

Concepts developed for both LEO and GEO construction of photovoltaic and thermal engine satellites are analyzed. Topics discussed include: satellite construction; crew scheduling; crew jobs and organizations; operator productivity rating; constructability rating; transportation systems for cargo launch, refueling operations, personnel transport, and orbit transfer; collision analysis, cost analysis, and radiation evironment and effects.

1977-01-01

154

Scenarios for solar thermal energy applications in Brazil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Solar and Wind Energy Resource Assessment (SWERA) database is used to prepare and discuss scenarios for solar thermal applications in Brazil. The paper discusses low temperature applications (small and large scale water heating) and solar power plants for electricity production (concentrated solar power plants and solar chimney plants) in Brazil. The results demonstrate the feasibility of large-scale application of solar energy for water heating and electricity generation in Brazil. Payback periods for water heating systems are typically below 4 years if they were used to replace residential electric showerheads in low-income families. Large-scale water heating systems also present high feasibility and many commercial companies are adopting this technology to reduce operational costs. The best sites to set up CSP plants are in the Brazilian semi-arid region where the annual energy achieves 2.2 MW h/m2 and averages of daily solar irradiation are larger than 5.0 kW h/m2/day. The western area of Brazilian Northeastern region meets all technical requirements to exploit solar thermal energy for electricity generation based on solar chimney technology. Highlights: ? Scenarios for solar thermal applications are presented. ? Payback is typically below 4 years for small scale water heating systems. ? Large-scale water heating systems also present high feasibility. ? The Brazilian semi-arid region is the best sites for CSP and chimney tower plaites for CSP and chimney tower plants.

155

Experimental investigation and construction of PV solar tracker control system using image processing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The sun tracking system of a solar panel based on computer image processing of a shadow is investigated. This is done by using a camera to obtain the picture of a shadow on a screen by solar panel displacements. This system is independent respect to geographical location of the solar panel and periodical alignments such as daily or monthly regulations. The collected energy was measured and compared with that on a fixed surface tilted at towards the South. The results indicate that the measured collected solar energy on the moving surface was significantly larger (up to 46.77% compared with the fixed surface. The tracking system developed in this study provides easy installation, simple mechanism and less maintenance. Furthermore, the operation of the system is independent respect to the initial configuration and the start time situation.

morteza taki

2011-11-01

156

Design, construction and test run of a two-tonne capacity solar rice dryer with rice-husk-fired auxiliary heater  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The design and construction details of a two-tonne per batch capacity natural-circulation solar rice dryer and the highlights of the design of its rice-husk-fired auxiliary heating system which is still under construction are presented. The dryer measures approximately 17.7m long by 9.8m wide by 6m high. Preliminary results of a test run on the solar dryer section only is reported. (author). 5 refs, 3 figs

157

Solar project description for Design Construction Association single family dwelling, Big Fork, Montana  

Science.gov (United States)

A solar energy system was installed in a 2100 sq ft house located in Big Fork, Montana. The system is designed to provide solar energy for heating and domestic hot water. Solar energy is collected by flat plate collectors with a gross area of 792 square feet. The collector banks are mounted on the roof of the house and face due south at an angle of 45 deg to the horizontal optimizing solar energy collection. Solar energy is transferred from the collector array to a 1500 gallon storage tank. Water is used as the heat collection, transfer and storage medium. Freeze protection is provided by use of a drain down system. Space heating demands are met by circulating hot water from storage through baseboard units in the distribution system of the house. Auxiliary space heating is provided by an electrical heating element in the boiler. Similarly, an electrical heating element in the DHW tank provides energy for water heating. The dwelling was fully instrumented for performance evaluation since October 1977 and the data is integrated into the National Solar Data Network.

1980-04-01

158

Ant mound as an optimal shape in constructal design: solar irradiation and circadian brood/fungi-warming sorties.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sizes, shapes, ambient and in-dome temperature, incoming solar radiation and illumination are measured on a Formica rufa anthill in a mixed forest of the Volga-Kama National Reserve in Russia. These data are used in a conceptual model of insolation of a right conical surface by direct-beam, descending atmospheric and ascending ground-reflected radiation. Unlike a standard calculation of the energy flux intercepted by a solar panel, the anthill is a 3-D structure and double-integration of the cosine of the angle between the solar beams and normal to the surface is carried out for a "cozy trapezium", where the insects expose themselves and the brood to "morning" sunbathing pulses (Jones and Oldroyd, 2007). Several constructal design problems are formulated with the criteria involving either a pure solar energy gained by the dome or this energy, as a mathematical criterion, penalized by additive terms of mechanical energy (potential and friction) lost by the ants in their diurnal forays from a "heartland" of the nest to the sun-basking zone on the surface. The unique and global optima are analytically found, with the optimal tilt angle of the cone explicitly expressed through the zenith angle of the Sun and meteorological constants for the isotropic sky model. PMID:24681404

Kasimova, R G; Tishin, D; Obnosov, Yu V; Dlussky, G M; Baksht, F B; Kacimov, A R

2014-08-21

159

Construction and testing of a transportable solar adsorption refrigerator; Construction et test d'un refrigerateur solaire a adsorption transportable  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report describes the development of an autonomous solar adsorption refrigerator characterized by its compactness and transportability. The refrigerator utilizes water as the working fluid and silicagel as the adsorbent and operates discontinuously over the day/night cycle. For a cooling volume of about 100 liters a collector-adsorber surface of 1 m{sup 2} is required and the total mass of the system amounts to about 150 kg. In order to keep its mass as low as possible the apparatus has been built with light weight materials. The cold-storage room has been insulated with a high-performance insulation material, thus minimizing thermal losses without excessively reducing the cooled volume. A new automatic valve system has been developed making superfluous any manual manipulation during normal operation. The dimensioning of the cooling system allows to cool the equivalent of 2.5 to 3.7 kg of water by 30 K daily in a climate of the Sahelien type. The cooling energy is stored in the form of ice in the evaporator and allows to bridge a period of three overcast-sky days. The construction of the solar refrigerator was made in cooperation with small regional enterprises and workshops. The cooperation with a non governmental organization allowed to test the system from May to September 2002 in a Subsaharian region of Africa where an equivalent model had been built using locally available materials. Likewise, a market study has been made in Burkina Faso in order to analyze the potential of solar adsorption refrigerators in this region. The result of the study suggests that the opening of a production workshop for such refrigerators in Burkina Faso is promising.

Mayor, J.; Dind, P.

2002-07-01

160

Re-construction of global solar radiation time series from 1933 to 2013 at the Izaña Atmospheric Observatory  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents the re-construction of the 80 year time series of daily global shortwave downward radiation (SDR at the subtropical high-mountain Izaña Atmospheric Observatory (IZO, Spain. For this purpose, we combine SDR estimates from sunshine duration (SD data using the Ångström–Prescott method over the 1933/1991 period, and SDR observations directly performed by pyranometers between 1992 and 2013. Since SDR measurements have been used as a reference, a strict quality control has been applied, when it was not possible data have been re-calibrated by using the LibRadtran model. By comparing to high quality SDR measurements, the precision and consistency over time of SDR estimations from SD data have successfully been documented. We obtain a overall root mean square error (RMSE of 9.2% and an agreement between the variances of SDR estimations and SDR measurements within 92% (correlation coefficient of 0.96. Nonetheless, this agreement significantly increases when the SDR estimation is done considering different daily fractions of clear sky (FCS. In that case, RMSE is reduced by half, up to about 4.5%, when considering percentages of FCS > 40% (90% of days in the testing period. Furthermore, we prove that the SDR estimations can monitor the SDR anomalies in consistency with SDR measurements and, then, can be suitable for re-constructing solar radiation time series. The re-constructed IZO global SDR time series between 1933 and 2013 confirms discontinuities and periods of increases/decreases of solar radiation at Earth's surface observed at a global scale, such as the early brightening, dimming and brightening. This fact supports the consistency of the IZO SDR time series presented in this work, which may be a reference for solar radiation studies in the subtropical North Atlantic region.

R. D. García

2014-04-01

161

A Semi-Empirical Model for Tilted-Gun Planar Magnetron Sputtering Accounting for Chimney Shadowing  

Science.gov (United States)

Integrated computational materials engineering (ICME) approaches to composition and thickness profiles of sputtered thin-film samples are the key to expediting materials exploration for these materials. Here, an ICME-based semi-empirical approach to modeling the thickness of thin-film samples deposited via magnetron sputtering is developed. Using Yamamura's dimensionless differential angular sputtering yield and a measured deposition rate at a point in space for a single experimental condition, the model predicts the deposition profile from planar DC sputtering sources. The model includes corrections for off-center, tilted gun geometries as well as shadowing effects from gun chimneys used in most state-of-the-art sputtering systems. The modeling algorithm was validated by comparing its results with experimental deposition rates obtained from a sputtering system utilizing sources with a multi-piece chimney assembly that consists of a lower ground shield and a removable gas chimney. Simulations were performed for gun-tilts ranging from 0° to 31.3° from the vertical with and without the gas chimney installed. The results for the predicted and experimental angular dependence of the sputtering deposition rate were found to have an average magnitude of relative error of for a 0°-31.3° gun-tilt range without the gas chimney, and for a 17.7°-31.3° gun-tilt range with the gas chimney. The continuum nature of the model renders this approach reverse-optimizable, providing a rapid tool for assisting in the understanding of the synthesis-composition-property space of novel materials.

Bunn, J. K.; Metting, C. J.; Hattrick-Simpers, J.

2015-01-01

162

Modeling microbial reaction rates in a submarine hydrothermal vent chimney wall  

Science.gov (United States)

The fluids emanating from active submarine hydrothermal vent chimneys provide a window into subseafloor processes and, through mixing with seawater, are responsible for steep thermal and compositional gradients that provide the energetic basis for diverse biological communities. Although several models have been developed to better understand the dynamic interplay of seawater, hydrothermal fluid, minerals and microorganisms inside chimney walls, none provide a fully integrated approach to quantifying the biogeochemistry of these hydrothermal systems. In an effort to remedy this, a fully coupled biogeochemical reaction-transport model of a hydrothermal vent chimney has been developed that explicitly quantifies the rates of microbial catalysis while taking into account geochemical processes such as fluid flow, solute transport and oxidation-reduction reactions associated with fluid mixing as a function of temperature. The metabolisms included in the reaction network are methanogenesis, aerobic oxidation of hydrogen, sulfide and methane and sulfate reduction by hydrogen and methane. Model results indicate that microbial catalysis is generally fastest in the hottest habitable portion of the vent chimney (77-102 °C), and methane and sulfide oxidation peak near the seawater-side of the chimney. The fastest metabolisms are aerobic oxidation of H2 and sulfide and reduction of sulfate by H2 with maximum rates of 140, 900 and 800 pmol cm-3 d-1, respectively. The maximum rate of hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis is just under 0.03 pmol cm-3 d-1, the slowest of the metabolisms considered. Due to thermodynamic inhibition, there is no anaerobic oxidation of methane by sulfate (AOM). These simulations are consistent with vent chimney metabolic activity inferred from phylogenetic data reported in the literature. The model developed here provides a quantitative approach to describing the rates of biogeochemical transformations in hydrothermal systems and can be used to constrain the role of microbial activity in the deep subsurface.

LaRowe, Douglas E.; Dale, Andrew W.; Aguilera, David R.; L'Heureux, Ivan; Amend, Jan P.; Regnier, Pierre

2014-01-01

163

Quantifying metabolic rates in submarine hydrothermal vent chimneys: A reaction transport model  

Science.gov (United States)

The fluids emanating from active submarine hydrothermal vent chimneys provide a window into subseafloor processes and, through mixing with seawater, are responsible for steep thermal and compositional gradients that provide the energetic basis for diverse biological communities. Although several models have been developed to better understand the dynamic interplay of seawater, hydrothermal fluid, minerals and microorganisms inside chimney walls, none provide a fully integrated approach to quantifying the biogeochemistry of these hydrothermal systems. In an effort to remedy this, a fully coupled biogeochemical reaction transport model of a hydrothermal vent chimney has been developed that explicitly quantifies the rate of microbial catalysis while taking into account geochemical processes such as fluid flow, solute transport and oxidation-reduction reactions associated with fluid mixing as a function of temperature. Methanogenesis, hydrogen oxidation by oxygen and sulfate, sulfide oxidation by oxygen and methane oxidation by oxygen and sulfate are the metabolisms included in the reaction network. Model results indicate that microbial catalysis is fastest in the hottest habitable portion of the vent chimney except for methane oxidation by oxygen, which peaks near the seawater-side of the chimney at 20 nmol /cm^3 yr. The dominant metabolisms in the chimney are hydrogen oxidation by sulfate and oxygen and sulfide oxidation at peak rates 3200 , 300 and 900 nmol /cm^3 yr, respectively. The maximum rate of hydrogenotrophic methanogensis is just under 0.07 nmol /cm^3 yr, the slowest of the metabolisms considered. Due to thermodynamic inhibition, there is no anaerobic oxidation of methane by sulfate (AOM). The model developed here provides a quantitative approach to understanding the rates of biogeochemical transformations in hydrothermal systems and can be used to better understand the role of microbial activity in the deep subsurface.

LaRowe, D.; Dale, A.; Aguilera, D.; Amend, J. P.; Regnier, P.

2012-12-01

164

Simulation, construction and testing of a two-cylinder solar Stirling engine powered by a flat-plate solar collector without regenerator  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this research, a gamma-type, low-temperature differential (LTD) solar Stirling engine with two cylinders was modeled, constructed and primarily tested. A flat-plate solar collector was employed as an in-built heat source, thus the system design was based on a temperature difference of 80{sup o}C. The principles of thermodynamics as well as Schmidt theory were adapted to use for modeling the engine. To simulate the system some computer programs were written to analyze the models and the optimized parameters of the engine design were determined. The optimized compression ratio was computed to be 12.5 for solar application according to the mean collector temperature of 100{sup o}C and sink temperature of 20{sup o}C. The corresponding theoretical efficiency of the engine for the mentioned designed parameters was calculated to be 0.012 for zero regenerator efficiency. Proposed engine dimensions are as follows: power piston stroke 0.044 m, power piston diameter 0.13 m, displacer stroke 0.055 m and the displacer diameter 0.41 m. Finally, the engine was tested. The results indicated that at mean collector temperature of 110{sup o}C and sink temperature of 25{sup o}C, the engine produced a maximum brake power of 0.27 W at 14 rpm. The mean engine speed was about 30 rpm at solar radiation intensity of 900 W/m{sup 2} and without load. The indicated power was computed to be 1.2 W at 30 rpm. (author)

Tavakolpour, Ali Reza; Zomorodian, Ali [Department of Mechanics of Farm Machinery Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran); Akbar Golneshan, Ali [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran)

2008-01-15

165

Natural convection in a laminar flow in two vertical chimneys in series  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The development of a laminar natural convection flow is studied in a bidimensional system composed of two vertical chimneys in series considered at equal temperatures and separated by a distance e. A finite difference method is used to solve out, under an unidimensional form, the equations of convection for Pr=0.7 and Gr=1000. The results of the simulation show that the flow rate drawn up by the canal formed by both chimneys in series strongly depends on e, and that there is an optimal distance for which the flow rate is maximum. The evolution of the average Nusselt number according to e is also given. (Author). 5 figs., refs.

Nafiri, N.; Mir, A.; Kettani, H.A. [Faculte des Sciences, Marrakech (Morocco)

1993-12-31

166

Chimney and periscope technique for emergent treatment of spontaneous aortic rupture.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aortic rupture comprises a potentially fatal condition necessitating emergent treatment. Endovascular sealing of the rupture site is often combined with the use of chimney- and periscope stent placement to preserve perfusion of aortic branches. We present a case of successful endovascular management of contained aortic rupture in a 78-year-old patient. The left brachial access facilitated stenting of the celiac and superior mesenteric arteries, whereas the left femoral route served stenting of the renal artery. One-month follow-up confirmed complete sealing, stent patency, and absence of endograft migration. The combined periscope and chimney technique is feasible and effective in the emergency setting. PMID:24517987

Trellopoulos, George; Georgakarakos, Efstratios; Pelekas, Dimitrios; Papachristodoulou, Athanasia; Argyriou, Christos; Georgiadis, George S

2014-07-01

167

Constructing a one-solar-mass evolutionary sequence using asteroseismic data from \\textit{Kepler}  

CERN Document Server

Asteroseismology of solar-type stars has entered a new era of large surveys with the success of the NASA \\textit{Kepler} mission, which is providing exquisite data on oscillations of stars across the Hertzprung-Russell (HR) diagram. From the time-series photometry, the two seismic parameters that can be most readily extracted are the large frequency separation ($\\Delta\

Aguirre, V Silva; Ballot, J; Basu, S; Bedding, T R; Serenelli, A M; Verner, G A; Miglio, A; Monteiro, M J P F G; Weiss, A; Appourchaux, T; Bonanno, A; Broomhall, A M; Bruntt, H; Campante, T L; Casagrande, L; Corsaro, E; Elsworth, Y; Garcia, R A; Gaulme, P; Handberg, R; Hekker, S; Huber, D; Karoff, C; Mathur, S; Mosser, B; Salabert, D; Schonrich, R; Sousa, S G; Stello, D; White, T R; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J; Gilliland, R L; Kawaler, S D; Kjeldsen, H; Houdek, G; Metcalfe, T S; Molenda-Zakowicz, J; Thompson, M J; Caldwell, D A; Christiansen, J L; Wohler, B

2011-01-01

168

Designing, Construction and Analysis of Speed Control System of the Fan with PV Feeding Source in an Air Solar Collector  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Solar energy is one of the renewable energy sources which can be received more by designing more accurate systems. In this article a flat solar collector with the area of 2×1m2 and thickness of 0.5mm, made of steel iron in the form of venetian blinds (in order to increase exposure to air has been used. The surface of absorber plate was black and for insulation of the body of the collector glass wool has been used with 5 cm thickness. One of the essential problems of air solar collectors is that the temperature of the exiting air temperature from the collector is variable during the day and their efficiency is low in the last hours of the day and also when the weather suddenly gets cloudy .In this study, to keep constant the exiting air from the collector consistent in the desired limits, a control system is designed and constructed by applying photovoltaic cells, a microcontroller (AVR and temperature sensors (LM35. Three temperature sensors were installed in the exit of the collector .The experiment results showed that by automatic change of the fan's speed in the designed system, the exiting temperature of the collector was obtained in the desired limits which is an outstanding advantage for various applications.

Amir Hematian

2011-12-01

169

Translucent load-bearing GFRP envelopes for daylighting and solar cell integration in building construction  

OpenAIRE

This project investigates the light transmittance of load-bearing glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) laminates with a view to two architectural applications: the daylighting of buildings through load-bearing translucent GFRP envelopes and encapsulation of solar cells into the GFRP building skins of sandwich structures. The total and diffuse visible light transmittances of the laminates were experimentally investigated using a spectrophotometer coupled to an integrating sphere. The refracti...

Pascual Agullo, Carlos

2014-01-01

170

Nonlinear mushy-layer convection with chimneys: stability and optimal solute fluxes  

CERN Document Server

We model buoyancy-driven convection with chimneys -- channels of zero solid fraction -- in a mushy layer formed during directional solidification of a binary alloy in two-dimensions. A large suite of numerical simulations is combined with scaling analysis in order to study the parametric dependence of the flow. Stability boundaries are calculated for states of finite-amplitude convection with chimneys, which for a narrow domain can be interpreted in terms of a modified Rayleigh number criterion based on the domain width and mushy-layer permeability. For solidification in a wide domain with multiple chimneys, it has previously been hypothesised that the chimney spacing will adjust to optimise the rate of removal of potential energy from the system. For a wide variety of initial liquid concentration conditions, we consider the detailed flow structure in this optimal state and derive scaling laws for how the flow evolves as the strength of convection increases. For moderate mushy-layer Rayleigh numbers these flo...

Wells, Andrew J; Orszag, Steven A

2012-01-01

171

Effect of chimneys on indoor air concentrations of PM 10 and benzo[a]pyrene in Xuan Wei, China  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reports the effect of chimneys in reducing indoor air pollution in a lung cancer epidemic area of rural China. Household indoor air pollution concentrations were measured during unvented burning (chimneys blocked) and vented burning (chimneys open) of bituminous coal in Xuan Wei, China. Concentrations of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 ?m or less (PM 10) and of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) were measured in 43 homes during normal activities. The use of chimneys led to significant decreases in indoor air concentrations of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 ?m or less (PM 10) by 66% and of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) by 84%. The average BaP content of PM 10 also decreased by 55% with the installation of a chimney. The reduction of indoor pollution levels by the installation of a chimney supports the epidemiology findings on the health benefits of stove improvement. However, even in the presence of a chimney, the indoor air concentrations for both PM 10 and BaP still exceeded the indoor air quality standards of China. Movement up the energy ladder to cleaner liquid or gaseous fuels is probably the only sustainable indoor air pollution control measure.

Tian, Linwei; Lan, Qing; Yang, Dong; He, Xingzhou; Yu, Ignatius T. S.; Hammond, S. Katharine

172

Optical and structural characterization od titanium dioxide films used for construction of dye-sensitized solar cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The dye-sensitized solar cells are the most serious concept that could replace the silicon solar cells. These are low-cost photovoltaic, and represent a technology which could seriously decrease the cost of the electrical energy they produce. The dye-sensitized solar cells are composed of several layers of materials that belong to the group of inorganic semiconductors. For the efficiency improvement of these cells, there are two basic concepts of research regarding the construction materials. On one side, investigation of new materials that will, as a result of their physical and electrochemical characteristics, increase the cell efficiency, and on the other side, use of materials that will contribute to the long term stability of the cell in atmospheric conditions. As a part of this Master thesis, compact and meso porous Ti(>2 films for dye- sensitized solar cells have been prepared. The compact Ti02 films were deposited with the technique of spray pyrolysis, and the preparation of the meso porous films was made with a blade casting technique. The optical and structural analysis and characterization of the films was done with optical spectroscopy in the visible and ultraviolet spectral region (UV- Vis), Raman spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The crystal structure of the films, surface uniformity, thickness and grain size dependence on the deposition parameters was investigated, this led to calculation of the optical constants for the compact films, as well as the determination of the electron transitions and the determination of the bang gap energy. Also regarding the structure and porosity of the meso porous films, characterization of the quality of the film depending on the chemical composition of the paste used for deposition was made. As a result of the preformed investigations, through defining the structural and optical parameters of quality compact and meso porous TiC>2 films for dye-sensitized solar cells, the optimal parameters for film deposition have been identified, establishing a straightforward and simple process for deposition of quality TiC>2 films with spray pyrolysis and blade casting. (Author)

173

Analysis Study of Solar Tower Power Plant & Its Configuration Effects on Its Performance in Iraq (Baghdad City)  

OpenAIRE

A solar chimney power plant model, consisting of a solar collector to produce a hot air when the incident solar radiation hit it, a solar chimney and a wind turbine with generator was investigated in this study. The mathematical model as a tool was used to study and analyze the performance of the power plant for electrical production in Baghdad city of Iraq as a result a mathematical equation was obtained for the hot air outlet temperature from the collector as a function of collector’s are...

Ali, Mohammed H.

2013-01-01

174

Construction and Analysis of PbSe Quantum Dot Heterojunction Solar Cells  

Science.gov (United States)

PbX (X = S, Se, Te) quantum dot (QD) thin films have the potential to push photovoltaic efficiencies over the Shockley-Queisser limit. The focus of this thesis is the development of a robust and reproducible process for making thin film PbX QD heterojunction solar cells (HSC). Literature already has several examples of methods used to optimize the synthesis and film deposition techniques for PbX QD devices. So experiments here are designed to optimize the sputtering conditions and material selection for the metal oxide window layers. PbSe QDs treated with 1,2-ethanedithiol (EDT) are well suited to be the conductive absorber layer of HSCs. The sputtering conditions and post deposition processing of metal oxide window layers, ZnO and SnO2 thin films, are correlated with HSC performance. Junctions made of 1.4 eV PbSe QDs and ZnO produce HSCs with an average efficiency of 2.9% (+/- 0.1%), while SnO2 is a better match with 1.1 eV PbSe QDs with an average efficiency of 0.9% (+/- 0.1%). Photovoltaic performance is very sensitive to the relative band positions of the metal oxide window layer and PbSe QDs. However, this sensitivity is confined to the interface of the heterojunction. Changing the bulk material of the window layer had no detectable impact on the performance of the PbSe QD HSCs. This demonstrates the need for precise control of material surface properties and interfacial engineering. impact on the performance of the PbSe QD HSCs. This demonstrates the need for precise control of material surface properties and interfacial engineering.

Gibbs, Markelle Lewis

175

Iron oxyhydroxide and sulphide mineralization in hydrocarbon seep-related carbonate submarine chimneys, Gulf of Cadiz (SW Iberian Peninsula)  

OpenAIRE

This paper aims to investigate the iron mineralization hosted in the submarine hydrocarbon seep-related carbonate chimneys, from the Gulf of Cadiz continental slope (SW Iberia). Chimneys are made of a general fine groundmass of major Fe-rich dolomite, ankerite and calcite, small grains of quartz and phyllosilicates, and some foraminifer tests and ostracod shells. Primary porosity is frequently generated inside foraminifer chambers and ostracod shells, and is filled with closely packed microcr...

Merinero, R.; Lunar, Rosario; Marti?nez-fri?as, J.; Somoza, L.; Di?az Del Ri?o, Vi?ctor

2008-01-01

176

A unique Fe-rich carbonate chimney associated with cold seeps in the Northern Okinawa Trough, East China Sea  

Science.gov (United States)

The East China Sea is an important marginal sea of the Western Pacific Ocean, from which natural gas hydrate sample has not been acquired so far. Recently, copious carbonate chimneys have been discovered in turbidite deposits in the olistostrome zone located on the west slope of the northern section of Okinawa Trough. Here, the petrology, geochemistry and chronology of an iron-rich carbonate chimney were characterized, confirming a close relationship between its formation and the dissociation of natural gas hydrate beneath the chimney in OT. A distinctive relationship has been observed between goethite and total carbonate contents along with a negative correlation between Fe and Ca contents. Conversely, abundant Fe accumulated on carbonate substrate by mineralized microorganisms. The ?13C values of the chimney wall were from -27.56 to -43.66‰ (average: -37.18‰, V-PDB), implying anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) as a predominant controlling factor on carbonate precipitation. As no pyrite and organic residues were identified in the iron-rich chimney, it was assumed that AOM was coupled to the iron reduction reaction at least to some extent during the chimney growth owing to the local deficiency of sulfate supply. The ?56Fe values of bulk chimney wall (ranging from -0.316‰ to -0.023‰, average -0.134‰) suggest mass and isotope exchanges between the chimney and ambient environment during its growth history, whereas the enrichment of ?18O of the carbonate implies these carbonate sourcing from hydrate dissociation underlying our sampling site. This assumption has been supported by a distinct bottom simulation reflector (BSR) and a well-developed fault system beneath the sampling site. This is the first report of cold seepage inside the OT and the identified iron-dependent AOM has shed a new light to the Carbon cycle related to the marine methane oxidation, particularly before the Great Oxidation Event ~2.45 Ga ago.

Sun, Zhilei; Wei, Helong; Zhang, Xunhua; Shang, Luning; Yin, Xijie; Sun, Yunbao; Xu, Lei; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Xianrong

2015-01-01

177

Scientific and Cost Effective Monitoring: The Case of an Aerial Insectivore, the Chimney Swift  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The increased pace of species listing worldwide, coupled with the scarcity of conservation funding, promote the use of targeted monitoring. We applied the recommendations of Nichols and Williams (Trends in Ecology and Evolution 2006 24:668-673 to optimize the Québec Chimney Swift Monitoring Program, an ongoing volunteer-based monitoring initiative launched in 1998. Past objectives of the program were to fill knowledge gaps about occupancy patterns at roosts sites, determine spatial and temporal distribution of Chimney Swifts (Chaetura pelagica across the province, locate active nest sites, and monitor temporal fluctuations of the population. By applying an adaptive management framework, we modified the current monitoring scheme into a more focused initiative testing newly developed hypotheses about the state of the system. This new approach yielded significant scientific gains as well as annual savings of 19.6%. It may prove pertinent to current and future swift monitoring initiatives and to other aerial insectivore species.

Sébastien Rioux

2010-12-01

178

Active reduction of the dominant clear tone component of the noise pollution from power plant chimneys  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An investigation of a system for active reduction of an irritating dominant clear tone emitted as a part of the noise pollution from a power plant chimney is described. Experiments were carried out on a scale model with diameters 3-4 times less than the actual chimney. Reduction of 25-30 decibels was achieved in relation to the clear tone in the frequency range in connection with which it could be expected that the noise-muffling system would work. The system was also seen to be able to follow the expected variation in the noise signals and to be stable during a longer period of time. The theories on which the experiment was based, the experimental setup and measurement methods and results are presented. (AB)

179

Barometric pressure transient testing applications at the Nevada Test Site. Nuclear chimney analysis. Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Investigations of barometric pressure testing of NTS nuclear chimneys were reviewed. This review includes the models used in the interpretation, methods of analysis, and results. Analytic and semi-analytic models were presented and applied to both historical data and new data taken for this current project. An interpretation technique based on non-linear least squares methods was used to analyze this data in terms of historic and more recent chimney models. Finally, a detailed discussion of radioactive gas transport due to surface barometric pressure fluctuations was presented. This mechanism of transport, referred to as ''barometric pumping,'' is presented in terms of conditions likely to be encountered at the NTS. The report concludes with a discussion of the current understanding of gas flow properties in the alluvial and volcanic areas of the NTS, and suggestions for future efforts directed toward increasing this understanding are presented

180

Microbial Sulfur Cycle in Two Hydrothermal Chimneys on the Southwest Indian Ridge  

OpenAIRE

Sulfur is an important element in sustaining microbial communities present in hydrothermal vents. Sulfur oxidation has been extensively studied due to its importance in chemosynthetic pathways in hydrothermal fields; however, less is known about sulfate reduction. Here, the metagenomes of hydrothermal chimneys located on the ultraslow-spreading Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR) were pyrosequenced to elucidate the associated microbial sulfur cycle. A taxonomic summary of known genes revealed a few...

Cao, Huiluo; Wang, Yong; Lee, On On; Zeng, Xiang; Shao, Zongze; Qian, Pei-yuan

2014-01-01

181

Uranium prospecting in alkaline mountain chimneys of Serra Negra and Salitre - Minas Gerais, Brasil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The occurence of radioactive minerals such as apatite and pyrochlore, in the alkaline chimneys of Serra Negra and Salitre (Minas Gerais, Brazil), is discussed. Also mentioned are other minerals of interest associated with the alkaline magma such as columbite, fluorite, monazite, zircon, baddeleyite, etc, which in favourable conditions may occur in deposits of great economical value, and which may present high contents of rare earths, thorium and uranium

182

Methane related authigenic carbonates, chimneys and crusts from the Gulf of Cadiz  

Science.gov (United States)

During the TTR 11 and TTR 12 cruises (2001 and 2002), the area south and southwest of the Guadalquivir Diapiric Ridge was intensely surveyed with seismics, side scan sonar (MAK), underwater TV and sampling. This area is characterized by a very strong backscatter on the available side scan sonar images and a very irregular seafloor, with morphological and sedimentological features evidencing fluid escape structures (mud diapirs and mud volcanoes); and sedimentary structures associated with the outflow of the Mediterranean water (MOW). Based on the data and samples collected during the TTR11 and TTR12 cruises, complemented with data from the ANASTYA 2000 and 2001 cruises, it seems that this area corresponds to a large field of carbonate chimneys and crusts. Dredge profiles on the Iberico dome and west of this structure, on the main channel of the MOW, yielded a large amount of carbonate slabs and chimneys. These consist essentially of intrapelbiomicrite. Petrographic and XRD shows that their mineralogical composition consists mainly of dolomite, high magnesium calcite, quartz, feldspar and clays. Bioclasts of plantonic foraminifera (globigerinoids), ostracods and peletts are observed. Iron and manganese oxides are present and the cement is essentially biomicrite. In different samples from the same chimney a variation on the dolomite/calcite ratio is observed from the interior to the external part of the chimney. Values of dolomite show a variation from 47% in the interior to 17 % in the exterior. As regards Si02 (19-16%), Al2O3 (4-3%) and Fe2O3 (5-7%), the variations observed are not significant. Stable isotopic analysis of Carbon shown low d13C values (down to -46.88 per mil vs. PDB) and d18O up to + 4.90 per mil vs.

Magalhães, V.; Vasconcelos, C.; Gaspar, L.; Monteiro, H.; Pinheiro, L.; Ivanov, M.; Díaz-del-Río, V.; Somoza, L.

2003-04-01

183

Seafloor geological studies above active gas chimneys off Egypt (Central nile deep sea fan)  

OpenAIRE

Four mud volcanoes of several kilometres diameter named Amon, Osiris, Isis, and North Alex and located above gas chimneys on the Central Nile Deep Sea Fan, were investigated for the first time with the submersible Nautile. One of the objectives was to characterize the seafloor morphology and the seepage activity across the mud volcanoes. The seepage activity was dominated by emissions of methane and heavier hydrocarbons associated with a major thermal contribution. The most active parts of th...

Dupre, Stephanie; Woodside, J.; Foucher, Jean-paul; Lange, G.; Mascle, J.; Boetius, A.; Mastalerz, V.; Stadnitskaia, A.; Ondreas, Helene; Huguen, C.; Harmegnies, Francois; Gontharet, Swanne; Loncke, L.; Deville, E.; Niemann, H.

2007-01-01

184

An Assessment of Water Demand and Availability to meet Construction and Operational Needs for Large Utility-Scale Solar Projects in the Southwestern United States  

Science.gov (United States)

In the Southwestern United States, there are many large utility-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) facilities currently in operation, with even more under construction and planned for future development. These are locations with high solar insolation and access to large metropolitan areas and existing grid infrastructure. The Bureau of Land Management, under a reasonably foreseeable development scenario, projects a total of almost 32 GW of installed utility-scale solar project capacity in the Southwest by 2030. To determine the potential impacts to water resources and the potential limitations water resources may have on development, we utilized methods outlined by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to determine potential water use in designated solar energy zones (SEZs) for construction and operations & maintenance (O&M), which is then evaluated according to water availability in six Southwestern states. Our results indicate that PV facilities overall use less water, however water for construction is high compared to lifetime operational water needs. There is a transition underway from wet cooled to dry cooled CSP facilities and larger PV facilities due to water use concerns, though some water is still necessary for construction, operations, and maintenance. Overall, ten watersheds, 9 in California, and one in New Mexico were identified as being of particular concern because of limited water availability. Understanding the location of potentially available water sources can help the solar industry determine locations that minimize impacts to existing water resources, and help understand potential costs when utilizing non-potable water sources or purchasing existing appropriated water. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

Klise, G. T.; Tidwell, V. C.; Macknick, J.; Reno, M. D.; Moreland, B. D.; Zemlick, K. M.

2013-12-01

185

Distribution of trace elements including tellurium, gallium, indium, and select REE in sulfide chimneys from Brothers submarine volcano, Kermadec arc  

Science.gov (United States)

Brothers volcano is a dacitic volcano located along the Kermadec arc, New Zealand, and hosts the NW Caldera hydrothermal vent field perched on part of the steep caldera walls. The field strikes for ~600 m between depths of 1550 and 1700 m and includes numerous, active, high-temperature (max 302°C) chimneys and even more dead, sulfide-rich spires. Chimney samples collected from Brothers show distinct mineralogical zonation reflecting gradients in oxidation state, temperature, and pH from the inner walls in contact with hydrothermal fluids through to the outer walls in contact with seawater. Minerals deposited from hotter fluids (e.g., chalcopyrite) are located in the interior of the chimneys and are surrounded by an external zone of minerals deposited by cooler fluids (e.g., sulfates, sphalerite). Four chimneys types are identified at Brothers volcano based on the relative proportions of chalcopyrite and sulfate layers, and the presence or absence of anhydrite. Two are Cu-rich, i.e., chalcopyrite-rich and chalcopyrite-bornite-rich chimneys, and two are Zn-rich, i.e., sphalerite-rich and sphalerite-chalcopyrite-rich. Barite and anhydrite are common to both Cu-rich chimney types whereas Zn-rich chimneys contain barite only. The main mineral phases in all the chimneys are anhydrite, barite, chalcopyrite, pyrite/marcasite, and sphalerite. Trace minerals include galena, covellite, tennantite, realgar, chalcocite, bornite, hematite, goethite, Pb-As sulfosalts, and Bi- or Au-tellurides. The vast majority of tellurides are <5 ?m in size, although columnar crystals up to 80 ?m long have been observed. The tellurides commonly form in bands, cluster in patches, or occur along internal grain boundaries within chalcopyrite. They also are found at the contact between chalcopyrite and pyrite grains. In sulfate layers adjacent to the chalcopyrite zones tellurides can occur as inclusions in anhydrite, barite or pyrite and/or occupy void space within the chimney. One Cu-rich chimney also contained native Te in a similar distribution as the tellurides. Whole rock geochemical analysis has determined the maximum concentration of trace elements and REE such as In (53.1 ppm), Ga (1870), Y (26), La (21.2), Ce (21), Sm (2.8), Gd (4), and Yb (3) in Brothers chimneys. To better understand the mineral associations and zonation of these and other trace elements within the chimney walls, we have undertaken element mapping on the four different chimneys types with both X-Ray fluorescence microscopy using synchrotron radiation and with Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICPMS). For example, in a chalcopyrite-rich chimney visibly laminated chalcopyrite in the interior contains bands of Co, Mo, Ag, Te, Au, and Bi, whereas In, La, Ce, Ga, and Y are concentrated in other mineral phases towards the exterior. Element mapping allows us to better understand the physico-chemical gradients within chimney walls, as well as metal sources and transportation, and depositional processes.

Berkenbosch, H. A.; de Ronde, C. E.; McNeill, A.; Goemann, K.; Gemmell, J. B.

2011-12-01

186

Seismic chimneys in the Southern Viking Graben - Implications for palaeo fluid migration and overpressure evolution  

Science.gov (United States)

Detailed understanding of natural fluid migration systems is essential to minimize risks during hydrocarbon exploration and to evaluate the long-term efficiency of the subsurface storage of waste water and gas from hydrocarbon production as well as CO2. The Southern Viking Graben (SVG) hosts numerous focused fluid flow structures in the shallow (clusters. Seismic chimneys have so far been described as solitary structures. Here, we show that the study area in the SVG hosts more than 46 large-scale vertical chimney structures, which can be divided in three categories implying different formation processes. Our analysis reveals that seal-weakening, formation-wide overpressure and the presence of free gas are required to initiate the formation of vertical fluid conduits in the SVG. The presence of numerous vertical fluid conduits implies inter-stratigraphic hydraulic connectivity, which significantly affects the migration of fluids in the subsurface. Chimney structures are important for understanding the transfer of pore pressure anomalies to the shallow parts of the basin.

Karstens, Jens; Berndt, Christian

2015-02-01

187

The application of masonry chimney venting tables for oil-fired appliances  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents an overview of the results of work in developing a set of rational guidelines for the venting of modern oil-fired appliances. The activities included the continued development and completion of the Oil-Heat Vent Analysis Program (OHVAP), Version 1.0 and the interpretation of nearly 2,000 runs in preparing recommendations for presentation in table form. These results are presented in the form of venting tables for the installation of chimney vent systems for mid- and high-efficiency oil-fired heating appliances using masonry chimneys. A brief description of OHVAP is given as well as a discussion of what the program does. Recommendations based on the results of OHVAP are presented in the form of five tables spanning oil-fired appliance Steady state Efficiencies (Eff{sub ss}) of 80% to 88%. The assumptions used in the calculations and examples of the computed results are presented as well as a discussion of the rationale for masonry chimney system treatment. Working examples are given with suggested diagnostic approaches for application of the table recommendations.

Krajewski, R.F.; Strasser, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1995-04-01

188

Diffusion of solar energy technologies in the new-construction market: a survey of new solar-home and onventional-home buyers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Comsumer motivations for choosing a solar energy equipped new home when the non-solar or conventional model was also available were investigated. The approach was to test the relative importance of demographic, dwelling unit, and heating system characteristics in household decisions to purchase a home equipped with solar energy devices. Two statistical models were developed: one to examine the relationship between the types of home buyers (as an identifiable market segment) and the decision to purchase a solar home, and the other to compare the energy use of solar vs. conventional homes selected in the sample. (MHR)

Rains, D.; Dunipace, D.; Woo, C.K.

1981-02-01

189

Geodetical aspects of nuclear power plant construction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The requirements of nuclear power plant construction and the problems of site selection are discussed. The need for construction capacity of the Hungarian nuclear power plant project is estimated. The geometrical base point network of the Paks Power Plant was designed and equalized by computer methods. The measurements have been made by electrooptical range finders. After equalization the network was further divided. The results of equalization and error analysis are presented. The requirements for geodetical surveying for the indoor construction are described. The leaning of the auxiliary boiler chimneys of the plant were studied by photogrammetry. (R.J.)

190

Performance of digester decant system with biological filter followed by constructed wetland and solar reactor in the treatment of domestic sewage  

OpenAIRE

This study aimed to analyze the performance of digester decant system with biological filter followed by constructed wetland and solar reactor in the treatment of domestic sewage from Milagres rural community in Apodi-RN. The treatment system was monitored for the period of October and November 2010, 48 days after planting Pennisetum purpureum Schumach. Samples of domestic sewage were collected at different stages of treatment, in four replications on time, to determine physicochemical and mi...

Delfran Batista dos Santos; Miguel Ferreira Neto; Luis César de Aquino Lemos Filho; Rafael Oliveira Batista; Paulo César Moura da Silva; Glícia Pinto Barra Reinaldo

2012-01-01

191

Microbial Primary Productivity in Hydrothermal Vent Chimneys at Middle Valley, Juan de Fuca Ridge  

Science.gov (United States)

Chemosynthetic primary productivity supports hydrothermal vent ecosystems, but the extent of that productivity has not been well measured. To examine the role that environmental temperature plays in controlling carbon fixation rates, and to assess the degree to which microbial community composition, in situ geochemistry, and mineralogy influence carbon fixation, we conducted a series of shipboard incubations across a range of temperatures (4, 25, 50 and 90°C) and at environmentally relevant geochemical conditions using material recovered from three hydrothermal vent chimneys in the Middle Valley hydrothermal vent field (Juan de Fuca Ridge). Net rates of carbon fixation (CFX) were greatest at lower temperatures, and were similar among structures. Rates did not correlate with the mineralogy or the geochemical composition of the high temperature fluids at each chimney. No obvious patterns of association were observed between carbon fixation rates and microbial community composition. Abundance of selected functional genes related to different carbon fixation pathway exhibited striking differences among the three study sites, but did not correlate with rates. Natural carbon isotope ratios implicate the Calvin Benson Bassham Cycle as the dominant mechanism of primary production in these systems, despite the abundance of genes related to other pathways (and presumably some degree of activity). Together these data reveal that primary productivity by endolithic communities does not exhibit much variation among these chimneys, and further reveal that microbial activity cannot easily be related to mineralogical and geochemical assessments that are made at a coarser scale. Indeed, the relationships between carbon fixation rates and community composition/functional gene abundance were also likely obfuscated by differences in scale at which these measurements were made. Regardless, these data reveal the degree to which endolithic, anaerobic carbon fixation contributes to regional primary production, and via modeling reveal the role that this process plays in deep-sea and global carbon cycling.

Olins, H. C.; Rogers, D.; Frank, K. L.; Girguis, P. R.; Vidoudez, C.

2012-12-01

192

Improvement of the Vertical Dispersion of Pollutants Resulting From Chimneys by Thermosiphon Effect  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The dispersion of pollutants, resulting from industrial chimneys, in the surrounding atmosphere made the interest in realizing emitting conditions appears. It also encourages the vertical dispersion of these pollutants. At a given wind velocity, the height of this dispersion is essentially a function of the thermal power and the flow rate at the chimney exit. To improve these qualities, we propose a system that could be integrated to the industrial chimney exit. An open-ended vertical cylinder of larger diameter essentially constitutes this system. In order to determine the characteristics of the resulting flow, we simulated the problem in the laboratory while studying the evolution of a free thermal plume generated by a disk heated uniformly by the Joule effect at a constant temperature. The thermal plume expands in a quiet environment of isotherm temperature. To study the thermosiphon effect, we surrounded the plume source by a vertical cylinder opened at the extremities. Thermal radiation emitted by the hot disk heats the cylinder wall. The pressure drop due to the acceleration of the flow at the cylinder inlet causes the appearance of thermosiphon effect around the thermal plume. The analysis of the average fields of velocity and temperature shows that the thermosiphon effect entails a good homogenization of the flow at the system exit. Furthermore, the comparison of the results obtained at the exit of the two studied systems shows a relative increase of the flow rate and the thermal power absorbed by the air of the order of 50% under the thermosiphon effect. This result is expressed by a gain in the plume rise of the order of 40%.

A. O.M. Mahmoud

2006-01-01

193

Retrieval columns of SO2 in industrial chimneys using DOAS passive in traverse  

Science.gov (United States)

The optical Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) is a technique to measure pollutant emissions like SO2, from point sources and total fluxes in the atmosphere. Passive DOAS systems use sunlight like source. Measurements with such systems can be made in situ and in real time. The goal of this work is to report the implementation of hardware and software of a portable system to evaluate the pollutants emitted in the atmosphere by industrial chimneys. We show SO2 measurements obtained around PEMEX refinerys in Tula Hidalgo that enables the identification of their pollution degree with the knowledge of speed wind.

Galicia Mejía, Rubén; de la Rosa Vázquez, José Manuel; Sosa Iglesias, Gustavo

2011-10-01

194

Endovascular Aortic Aneurysm Repair with Chimney and Snorkel Grafts: Indications, Techniques and Results  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The chimney technique in endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (Ch-EVAR) involves placement of a stent or stent-graft parallel to the main aortic stent-graft to extend the proximal or distal sealing zone while maintaining side branch patency. Ch-EVAR can facilitate endovascular repair of juxtarenal and aortic arch pathology using available standard aortic stent-grafts, therefore, eliminating the manufacturing delays required for customised fenestrated and branched stent-grafts. Several case series have demonstrated the feasibility of Ch-EVAR both in acute and elective cases with good early results. This review discusses indications, technique, and the current available clinical data on Ch-EVAR

195

Endovascular Aortic Aneurysm Repair with Chimney and Snorkel Grafts: Indications, Techniques and Results  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The chimney technique in endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (Ch-EVAR) involves placement of a stent or stent-graft parallel to the main aortic stent-graft to extend the proximal or distal sealing zone while maintaining side branch patency. Ch-EVAR can facilitate endovascular repair of juxtarenal and aortic arch pathology using available standard aortic stent-grafts, therefore, eliminating the manufacturing delays required for customised fenestrated and branched stent-grafts. Several case series have demonstrated the feasibility of Ch-EVAR both in acute and elective cases with good early results. This review discusses indications, technique, and the current available clinical data on Ch-EVAR.

Patel, Rakesh P., E-mail: rpatel9@nhs.net [Northwick Park Hospital, Department of Vascular Radiology (United Kingdom); Katsargyris, Athanasios, E-mail: kthanassos@yahoo.com; Verhoeven, Eric L. G., E-mail: Eric.Verhoeven@klinikum-nuernberg.de [Klinikum Nuernberg, Department of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery (Germany); Adam, Donald J., E-mail: donald.adam@tiscali.co.uk [Heartlands Hospital, Department of Vascular Surgery (United Kingdom); Hardman, John A., E-mail: johnhardman@doctors.org.uk [Royal United Hospital Bath, Department of Vascular Radiology (United Kingdom)

2013-12-15

196

An experimental and theoretical approach to determining linkages between geochemical variability and microbial biodiversity in seafloor hydrothermal chimneys.  

Science.gov (United States)

New experimental results of fluid-mineral reactions at hydrothermal conditions relevant to life demonstrate that key redox reactions involving iron, sulfur, and hydrogen remain at disequilibrium at 100 °C, even in a heterogeneous system and thus are energetically favorable for microbial metabolism. Predictions from geochemical models utilizing the experimental results and specific to two contrasting case studies from the East Pacific Rise were statistically characterized and correlated to the energetics of redox reactions available for intra-chimney microbial populations. In general, predictions of available energy for autotrophic metabolism are largely similar between the mature and the nascent chimneys, although important differences still exist. Metabolic processes predicted by energetics exhibit the same trends observed in the field data for the mature chimney, but overestimate the diversity observed in the nascent chimney. Several combinations of redox reaction pairs are predicted to support mixed consortia, while some combinations appear to favor more versatile microbes capable of utilizing several reactions under rapidly changing environmental conditions within chimney walls. In addition, conditions favorable to elemental sulfur reduction and methanogenesis exhibit a negative control on the diversity of microbial populations within these chimney walls, whereas H?S oxidation, elemental sulfur oxidation and the knallgas reaction are positively correlated with both abundance and diversity of micro-organisms. Coupling field observations of both microbial diversity and geochemical heterogeneity with lab-based experimental and theoretical modeling can facilitate translation of the observed genetic diversity into physiological diversity, thus enhancing understanding of linked phenomena of microbially induced biogeochemical transformations in complex heterogeneous systems. PMID:20726900

Houghton, J L; Seyfried, W E

2010-12-01

197

[Thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair combined with debranching and chimney methods in a high risk patient; report of a case].  

Science.gov (United States)

We report a case of a 77-year-old man with a thoracic aortic aneurysm, combined with chronic myelomonocytic leukemia, polymyalgia rheumatica, and atial fibrillation. Open surgery was considered as high risk because he was severely ill. Instead, partial debranching and stent graft( TEVAR) were performed by chimney method. He had no major complication after surgery, and was discharged on foot on the 15th postoperative day. In high risk cases of thoracic aortic aneurysm, TEVAR with debranching and chimney methods is effective. PMID:25135412

Imai, Akito; Yunoki, Keiji; Inoue, Tomoya; Suzuki, Toshihiko; Fujita, Yasufumi; Hisamochi, Kunikazu; Yoshida, Hideo

2014-08-01

198

Alternativas de construcción utilizando materiales de bajo costo para la evaluación térmica de cocinas solares tipo caja / Construction alternatives using low-cost materials for the thermal test of box-type solar cookers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se presenta la evaluación y resultados térmicos de cocinas tipo cajas, realizadas con el objeto de comparar diversos factores constructivos de las mismas utilizando un protocolo de prueba conocido como RICSA (Red Interamericana de Cocción Solar de Alimentos). Para ellos se dispuso de cuatro cocinas [...] en donde se combinaron dos materiales de placa y dos materiales que sirven como aislante. Se sometieron a radiación solar directa calentando la placa colectora y luego al calentamiento utilizando agua como líquido de prueba. Se procedió a medir las perdidas térmicas y la eficiencia térmica. Parámetros adicionales como el tiempo en que alcanza la temperatura de cocción efectiva y el tiempo en que la mantiene sin intervención del operador también fueron medidos. De aquí, el análisis de la información proporcionó un buen rendimiento comparable entre cocinas con placa de hierro y los dos aislantes probados por sobre las cocinas de placa de aluminio; además, por la relación precio-rendimiento, se recomienda su construcción utilizando materiales que tienen alto rendimiento y bajo precio. Abstract in english This document presents the evaluation of a different set of solar ovens in terms of their thermal performance by the RICSA protocol. For this purpose, four solar ovens were constructed differentiated mainly by the type of isolation and plates. All were exposed to direct solar radiation. First, only [...] the collector plate was heated to measure thermal losses and efficiency and second, a determined amount of water was introduced to measure the thermal power of the solar oven. Additional parameters like the time in which it reaches the temperature of effective boiling point and the time in which it maintains functioning without intervention of the operator also were measured. The analysis provide empirical evidence regarding adequate levels of thermal performance of solar ovens constructed using iron on one hand, and aluminum on the other. It is recommended to extend the use of this type of equipments given the priceeffi ciency obtained in the experiments.

Luis Enrique, Mealla Sánchez; Pablo Daniel, Bonaveri Arangoa.

2012-06-01

199

Construction of 3-dimensional ZnO-nanoflower structures for high quantum and photocurrent efficiency in dye sensitized solar cell  

Science.gov (United States)

3-dimensional ZnO nanoflower were obtained on FTO (F:SnO2) substrate by hydrothermal method in order to produce high efficiency dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). We showed that nanoflowers structures have nanoscale branches that stretch to fill gaps on the substrate and these branches of nano-leaves provide both a larger surface area and a direct pathway for electron transport along the channels. It was found that the solar conversion efficiency and quantum efficiency (QE) or incident photon to current conversion efficiencies (IPCE) is highly dependent on nanoflower surface due to high electron injection process. The highest solar conversion efficiency of 5.119 and QE of 60% was obtained using ZnO nanoflowers/N719 dye/I-/I-3 electrolyte. In this study, three dimensional (3D)-nanoflower and one dimensional (1D)-nanowires ZnO nanostructures were also compared against each other in respect to solar conversion efficiency and QE measurements. In the case of the 1D-ZnO nanowire conversion efficiency (?) of 2.222% and IPCE 47% were obtained under an illumination of 100 mW/cm2. It was confirmed that the performance of the 3D-nanoflowers was better than about 50% that of the 1D-nanowire dye-sensitized solar cells.

Kilic, Bayram; Günes, Taylan; Besirli, Ilknur; Sezginer, Merve; Tuzemen, Sebahattin

2014-11-01

200

Thermal Safety of the Current Buses in the Chimney of the D0 Solenoid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The thermal and electrical behaviour of the current buses in the chimney of the D0 solenoid during upset conditions is modeled to guide the selection of trip levels for magnet protection circuits which discharge the magnet if abnormal conditions are detected. The current buses in the chimney are designed to operate safely without likelihood of loss of superconductivity as long as normal cooling conditions are maintained. Helium liquid level probes, helium flow instrumentation, and thermometry all are provided to certify that proper cooling conditions exist in the subcooler and chimney at all times. Rising temperatures in any portion of the system, excessive voltage drops on the vapor cooled leads, or decreasing liquid level in the subcooler or flow rate in the system, will each cause the fast discharge system to be triggered. Postulated failures of the helium flow system, somehow undetected by any and all of the aforementioned instrumentation, can in principal eventually lead to loss of superconductivity in the buses. Quenching in one bus will rapidly lead to quenching in the other. Potential taps on the buses and magnet coil halves connected to voltage-detection bridges external to the system provide at least dually redundant signals which will unambiguously trigger the magnet rapid discharge system. The conservative design of the bus system ensures that it will not be damaged during such incidents, however improbable they may be. The transition leads in the subcooley be. The transition leads in the subcooler are equally conservatively designed, and would not be damaged if they were operated in a fully non-superconducting state for several minutes. The loss of liquid helium in the sub cooler required to cause this condition would imply that helium flow from the magnet had stopped, which in turn would imply that flow to the magnet had also stopped. The lack of flow into the sub cooler would result in insufficient flow to the vapor cooled leads. Any or all of these conditions would be detected, as would easily detected spurious voltages on the potential tap system, before damage to the transition leads occurred.

201

The energy construction of the Sun and planets of the solar system from the viewpoint of mechanics of the inertless mass  

OpenAIRE

This monograph (1977) is a continuation of the monograph "The construction of the Sun and planets of the solar system from the viewpoint of mechanics of the inertless mass" (refer to: http://arxiv.org/abs/physics/0701258, part 1, http://arxiv.org/abs/physics/0701259, part 2). This manuscript concerning the studies of the energy structure of the Sun and planets was discovered in the archive of the author in 2009. Being a draft version, it contains some remarks of the author o...

Shkurchenko, I. Z.

2010-01-01

202

Simulation of directional solidification, thermochemical convection, and chimney formation in a Hele-Shaw cell  

Science.gov (United States)

We have developed fully resolved, two-dimensional, finite volume simulations of directional solidification of a binary alloy in a Hele-Shaw cell. Use of Darcy's law and the Enthalpy Method throughout the computational domain allows us to avoid prescribing internal boundary conditions on the interfaces between solid, mushy, and liquid regions. We present a description of the theoretical model, computational approach, two reduced benchmark calculations, and simulations of the full governing equations. In simulations with parameter values that approximate experiments, boundary-layer-mode convection produces corrugations in the mush-liquid interface. Some of these corrugations become chimneys that grow and interact within the mushy layer. We consider two porosity-permeability relations and examine their consequences for chimney spacing and mushy layer height. Our results are broadly similar to experiments on directional solidification of NHCl [S.S.L. Peppin, H.E. Huppert, M.G. Worster, Steady-state solidification of aqueous ammonium chloride, J. Fluid Mech. 599 (2008) 465-476; S.H. Whiteoak, H. Huppert, M.G. Worster, Conditions for defect-free solidification of aqueous ammonium chloride in a quasi 2d directional solidification facility, J. Cryst. Growth (2008)]. We describe other simulations that are tuned to suppress boundary layer mode convection and that, instead, go unstable by the mushy layer mode [M.G. Worster, Instabilities of the liquid and mushy regions during solidification of alloys, J. Fluid Mech. 237 (1992) 649-669]. We investigate the morphological evolution of the mush well beyond the linear instability regime.

Katz, Richard F.; Worster, M. Grae

2008-12-01

203

Survey of new forms of organization and financing constructions in the Dutch solar electricity market. Update 2011  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the title project the focus is on organizations and projects in the Dutch market for solar electricity, characterized by: minimal dependence on subsidies (state aid), the removal of high initial investments by users (financing), and structures that can easily be extended or replicated (scale)

204

Improving the Power Generation Performance of a Solar Tower Using Thermal Updraft Wind  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to improve the efficiency of the power generation system of a solar tower using fluid dynamics. The power generation system of a solar tower can be designed and constructed at relatively low cost. However, the energy output tends to be low for its physical size compared with other renewable energy production systems. The technical and scientific improvement of these types of generation systems has lost its momentum since the shutdown of the wellknown Spanish pilot plant “Manzanares Solar Chimney” in 1989, although it still has the potential to play a role in renewable energy in the future. We have focused on the tower component of the system to seek possible enhancements of the power output of the internal turbine. As a result of our fluid dynamic shape optimization, a diffuser-shaped tower was employed to increase the internal flow speed of a scaled model. The results show a remarkable improvement in the power output of the internal wind turbine.

Masataka Motoyama

2014-10-01

205

Pretty sporty - the swimming hall Biberach. Transparent construction uses solar yields; Ganz schoen sportlich - das Hallensportbad Biberach. Transparente Bauweise nutzt solare Gewinne  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The expressive, dynamic design of the swimming hall Biberach (Federal Republic of Germany) symbolizes sporting character already outside. Inside, fresh colors create a friendly atmosphere. The focus of the planning realized by 4a Architekten (Stuttgart, Federal Republic of Germany) was a high design quality and an economic construction. The swimming hall was optimized according to ecological, economic and social aspects which ensures the sustainable operation and also enabled the compliance of a tight budget.

Paulsen, Dagmar

2011-07-01

206

For building and construction. Technical notes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sixteen technical notes are compiled coveering: Apertures other than Northlights; Design of pile caps; thermal insulation of roofs of industrial buildings; room heating by solar energy; charging device for small capacity lime kilns; waste water disposal system for rural areas; low cost sound absorbing materials; solar space heating system; pedestal piles for low cost houses; solar timber seasoning kiln; design of cold storage for fruits and vegetables; techniques for improved thatch roofs; resilient floors for structural noise reduction; plastic composite panels for partition claddings and flush doors; chimney design for domestic kitchens; and a cheap and effective fire retardant treatment for paddy thatch/coconut leaves/palmyrah thatch. The notes give brief descriptions of the design and use of the materials and techniques covered.

Bansal, G.D.; Sharma, D.; Prakash, C.; Rao, K.R.; Jain, S.P.

1981-01-01

207

Distribution of Microorganisms in Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent Chimneys Investigated by Whole-Cell Hybridization and Enrichment Culture of Thermophilic Subpopulations  

OpenAIRE

The microbial community structure of hydrothermal vent chimneys was evaluated by the combined use of enrichment cultures and whole-cell hybridizations with fluorescently labeled 16S rRNA-based oligonucleotide probes. Chimneys were collected during the Microsmoke cruise on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and were subsampled on board and stored under reduced conditions or fixed. For estimation of culturable thermophiles, selective media were inoculated by dilution series of the samples and incubated at ...

Harmsen, H.; Prieur, D.; Jeanthon, C.

1997-01-01

208

ZnO nanosheet arrays constructed on weaved titanium wire for CdS-sensitized solar cells  

OpenAIRE

Ordered ZnO nanosheet arrays were grown on weaved titanium wires by a low-temperature hydrothermal method. CdS nanoparticles were deposited onto the ZnO nanosheet arrays using the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method to make a photoanode. Nanoparticle-sensitized solar cells were assembled using these CdS/ZnO nanostructured photoanodes, and their photovoltaic performance was studied systematically. The best light-to-electricity conversion efficiency was obtained to be 2.17% un...

Wu, Cuncun; Wei, Lin; Li, Yitan; Liu, Chang; Jiao, Jun; Chen, Yanxue; Mei, Liangmo

2014-01-01

209

Toward resolving an earthquake ground motion mystery in west Seattle, Washington State: Shallow seismic focusing may cause anomalous chimney damage  

Science.gov (United States)

A shallow bedrock fold imaged by a 1.3-km long high-resolution shear-wave seismic reflection profile in west Seattle focuses seismic waves arriving from the south. This focusing may cause a pocket of amplified ground shaking and the anomalous chimney damage observed in earthquakes of 1949, 1965 and 2001. The 200-m bedrock fold at ???300-m depth is caused by deformation across an inferred fault within the Seattle fault zone. Ground motion simulations, using the imaged geologic structure and northward-propagating north-dipping plane wave sources, predict a peak horizontal acceleration pattern that matches that observed in strong motion records of the 2001 Nisqually event. Additionally, a pocket of chimney damage reported for both the 1965 and the 2001 earthquakes generally coincides with a zone of simulated amplification caused by focusing. This study further demonstrates the significant impact shallow (<1km) crustal structures can have on earthquake ground-motion variability.

Stephenson, W.J.; Frankel, A.D.; Odum, J.K.; Williams, R.A.; Pratt, T.L.

2006-01-01

210

ZnO nanosheet arrays constructed on weaved titanium wire for CdS-sensitized solar cells  

Science.gov (United States)

Ordered ZnO nanosheet arrays were grown on weaved titanium wires by a low-temperature hydrothermal method. CdS nanoparticles were deposited onto the ZnO nanosheet arrays using the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method to make a photoanode. Nanoparticle-sensitized solar cells were assembled using these CdS/ZnO nanostructured photoanodes, and their photovoltaic performance was studied systematically. The best light-to-electricity conversion efficiency was obtained to be 2.17% under 100 mW/cm2 illumination, and a remarkable short-circuit photocurrent density of approximately 20.1 mA/cm2 was recorded, which could attribute to the relatively direct pathways for transportation of electrons provided by ZnO nanosheet arrays as well as the direct contact between ZnO and weaved titanium wires. These results indicate that CdS/ZnO nanostructures on weaved titanium wires would open a novel possibility for applications of low-cost solar cells.

Wu, Cuncun; Wei, Lin; Li, Yitan; Liu, Chang; Jiao, Jun; Chen, Yanxue; Mei, Liangmo

2014-03-01

211

Neovejiga ileal con doble chimenea. Anastomosis ureterointestinal / Ileal neobladder with double chimney: Ureterointestinal anastomosis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La cistoprostatectomía radical es el tratamiento de elección para el cáncer vesical infiltrante. En los últimos años las indicaciones de sustitución vesical se han ampliado debido a las ventajas que aportan sobre otros tipos de derivaciones siendo la neovejiga ileal descrita por Hautmann una de las [...] más utilizadas. Posteriormente se han descrito diversas modificaciones de la técnica original como la utilización de un segmento de asa sin detubulizar a modo de chimenea a la cual se anastomosan los uréteres. Presentamos una variante técnica de la neovejiga de Hautmann utilizando dos "chimeneas" anastomosando cada uréter a la luz previamente abierta de cada asa espatulando el uréter a modo de "palo de golf" para adaptar los calibres. Entre las ventajas de este tipo de anastomosis destacan la utilización de segmentos ureterales más cortos adaptando la longitud del asa lo que posibilita una anastomosis sin tensión y minimiza la isquemia disminuyendo por tanto la aparición de fístulas y estenosis. No precisa la realización de enterotomías adicionales y se facilita el acceso a cada anastomosis por separado en caso de necesidad de reintervención. Abstract in english Radical cystoprostatectomy is accepted as the standard treatment for muscle-invasive bladder cancer. During last years the indications for orthotopic neobladders have increased due to their advantages over other kind of diversions. Hautmann neobladder is one of the most commonly used. Several modifi [...] cations have been later described. For example, after perform the W-shape pouch ureters can be anastomosed to a not-detubularized bowel segment (chimney modification). Here is described a modification of the Hautmann neobladder with two chimneys. Each ureter is spatulated in a golf club manner and anastomosed to the open end of each bowel loop. This kind of anastomosis provides several advantages. It is possible to use shorter ureteral segments by increasing the length of bowel used. It allows an anastomosis without tension, and less ischemia, so the risk of stenosis and fistula is decreased. It is not necessary to perform additional enterothomies and in case of reintervention it is easier to access each anastomosis without damaging the other one.

F., Aguirre Benites; J.M., Duarte Ojeda; M., Pamplona Casamayor; R., Díaz González; O., Leiva Galvis.

2005-04-01

212

SPS microwave subsystem potential impacts and benefits. [environmental and societal effects of Solar Power System construction and operation  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper examines the possible environmental and societal effects of the construction, installation, and operation of the space end and earth end of the microwave power transmission subsystem that delivers satellite power system (SPS) energy (at about 5 GW per beam) to the power grid on earth. The intervening propagation medium near the earth is also considered. Separate consideration is given to the spacecraft transmitting array, propagation in the ionosphere, and the ground-based rectenna. Radio frequency interference aspects are also discussed.

Dickinson, R. M.

1978-01-01

213

Trace element distribution, with a focus on gold, in copper-rich and zinc-rich sulfide chimneys from Brothers submarine volcano, Kermadec arc  

Science.gov (United States)

Brothers volcano is a dacitic volcano located along the Kermadec arc, New Zealand, and hosts the NW Caldera hydrothermal vent field perched on part of the steep caldera walls. The field strikes for ~600 m between depths of 1550 and 1700 m and includes numerous, active, high-temperature (max 302°C) chimneys and even more dead, sulfide-rich spires. Chimney samples collected from Brothers show distinct mineralogical zonation reflecting gradients in oxidation state, temperature, and pH from the inner walls in contact with hydrothermal fluids through to the outer walls in contact with seawater. Minerals deposited from hotter fluids (e.g., chalcopyrite) are located in the interior of the chimneys and are surrounded by an external zone of minerals deposited by cooler fluids (e.g., sulfates, sphalerite). Four chimneys types are identified at Brothers volcano based on the relative proportions of chalcopyrite and sulfate layers, and the presence or absence of anhydrite. Two are Cu-rich, i.e., chalcopyrite-rich and chalcopyrite-bornite-rich chimneys, and two are Zn-rich, i.e., sphalerite-rich and sphalerite-chalcopyrite-rich. Barite and anhydrite are common to both Cu-rich chimney types whereas Zn-rich chimneys contain barite only. The main mineral phases in all the chimneys are anhydrite, barite, chalcopyrite, pyrite/marcasite, and sphalerite. Trace minerals include galena, covellite, tennantite, realgar, chalcocite, bornite, hematite, goethite, Pb-As sulfosalts, and Bi- or Au-tellurides. The vast majority of tellurides are <5 ?m in size and they commonly form in bands, cluster in patches, or occur along internal grain boundaries within chalcopyrite. In sulfate layers adjacent to the chalcopyrite zones tellurides can occur as inclusions in anhydrite, barite or pyrite and/or occupy void space within the chimney. The occurrence of specular hematite and Bi- or Au-tellurides associated with chalcopyrite are consistent with magmatic contributions to the NW Caldera vent site. These tellurides are the first gold-bearing phase to be identified in these chimneys, and the Bi-Au association suggests that gold-enrichment up to 91 ppm is due to scavenging by liquid bismuth. To better understand the mineral associations and zonation of these and other trace elements within the chimney walls, we have undertaken element mapping on the four different chimneys types with both X-Ray fluorescence microscopy using synchrotron radiation and with Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICPMS). For example, in a chalcopyrite-rich chimney, visibly laminated chalcopyrite in the interior contains bands with a magmatic suite of elements including Co, Mo, Ag, Te, Au, and Bi. In comparison in a sphalerite-chalcopyrite-rich chimney, Au is again associated with minor Cu, although not with Bi and Te indicating alternative methods of gold transport and deposition are dominant. Element mapping allows us to better understand the physico-chemical gradients within chimney walls, as well as metal sources and transportation, and depositional processes.

Berkenbosch, H. A.; de Ronde, C. E.; McNeill, A.; Goemann, K.; Gemmell, J. B.

2012-12-01

214

A Case of Ruptured Aortic Arch Aneurysm Successfully Treated by Thoracic Endovascular Aneurysm Repair with Chimney Graft  

Science.gov (United States)

We report the case of aortic arch aneurysm rupture treated successfully with thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair (TEVAR) accompanied by aortic arch debranching using the chimney graft technique. A 94-year-old man was transported to the hospital after complaining of chest pain for one day. Contrast-enhanced computed tomographic (CT) images revealed an aortic arch aneurysm rupture. Considering the patient's age and postoperative activities of daily living, TEVAR was used. In order to place an indwelling stent graft from the ascending aorta to the periphery, the chimney graft technique was used to debranch the brachiocephalic artery. Hemodynamics was stabilized postsurgically. Plain CT performed 20 days postoperatively confirmed that the intrathoracic hematoma had decreased in size. Although respiratory failure was persistent, there were improvements and the patient was extubated 34 days postoperatively and discharged from the intensive care unit 37 days postoperatively. On postoperative day 75, he was discharged from the hospital to an elder care facility. Few reports have focused on stent grafting for treating aortic arch aneurysm rupture. TEVAR using the chimney graft technique could be an effective treatment option for patients with a decreased ability to tolerate surgery.

Kawatani, Yohei; Hayashi, Yujiro; Ito, Yujiro; Kurobe, Hirotsugu; Nakamura, Yoshitsugu; Suda, Yuji; Hori, Takaki

2015-01-01

215

Dioxin emissions from coal combustion in domestic stove: Formation in the chimney and coal chlorine content influence  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Combustion experiments conducted in domestic stove burning hard coal demonstrated a predominant influence of the coal chlorine content on the PCDD/F emissions, together with a pronounced effect of the flue gas temperature. PCDD/F concentrations of over 100 ng TEQ/m3, three orders of magnitude higher than in a modern waste incinerator, were measured in the flue gases of a domestic stove when combusting high chlorine coal (0.31 %. The PCDD/F concentrations in the flue gases dropped below 0,5 ng TEQ/m3, when low chlorine coal (0.07 % was used. When low chlorine coal was impregnated with NaCl to obtain 0.38 % chlorine content, the emission of the PCDD/Fs increased by two orders of magnitude. Pronounced nonlinearity of the PCDD/F concentrations related to chlorine content in the coal was observed. The combustion of the high chlorine coal yielded PCDD/F concentrations in flue gases one order of magnitude lower in a fan cooled chimney when compared to an insulated one, thus indicating formation in the chimney. The influence of flue gas temperature on the PCDD/F emissions was less pronounced when burning low chlorine coal. The predominant pathway of the PCDD/F emissions is via flue gases, 99 % of the TEQ in the case of the high chlorine coal for insulated chimney.

Paradiz Bostjan

2015-01-01

216

Room-temperature fast construction of outperformed ZnO nanoarchitectures on nanowire-array templates for dye-sensitized solar cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

A ZnO nanoarchitecture composed of nanocactus (NCs) and nanosheets (NSs) is constructed on the ZnO-nanowire (NW)-array template within 4 min by a facile room-temperature (RT) chemical bath deposition (CBD) for use in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Compared to the ZnO NW array, the spines and shells of NCs provide larger and more fitting surface for dye adsorption. The NSs developed on the top and side walls of the NWs afford the additional surface for dye adsorption as well as for light scattering. Moreover, the RT-grown ZnO nanostructures possess an upward-shifted conduction band edge and a fast electron transport rate compared to the primary ZnO NW array. With an anode thickness of 9 ?m, an efficiency of 5.14% is therefore simply attained in the D149-sensitized ZnO NC-NS DSSC. PMID:23298289

Jiang, Wei-Ting; Wu, Chun-Te; Sung, Yu-Hsiang; Wu, Jih-Jen

2013-02-01

217

The energy construction of the Sun and planets of the solar system from the viewpoint of mechanics of the inertless mass  

CERN Document Server

This monograph (1977) is a continuation of the monograph "The construction of the Sun and planets of the solar system from the viewpoint of mechanics of the inertless mass" (refer to: http://arxiv.org/abs/physics/0701258, part 1, http://arxiv.org/abs/physics/0701259, part 2). This manuscript concerning the studies of the energy structure of the Sun and planets was discovered in the archive of the author in 2009. Being a draft version, it contains some remarks of the author on other subjects and has a free style. The editor has omitted all the retreats of the author. Thus, the work is a final study and is intended for the reader who is familiar with previous studies of the author that are placed in this Archive.

Shkurchenko, I Z

2010-01-01

218

Solar energy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In five brief articles product information is given on solar energy applications with special attention to the Netherlands. After an introduction on solar energy availability in the Netherlands the developments in solar boiler techniques are dealt with. Solar water heaters have advantages for the environment, and government subsidies stimulate different uses of such water heaters. Also the developments of solar cells show good prospects, not only for developing countries, but also for the industrialized countries. In brief the developments in solar energy storage and the connection of solar equipment to the grid are discussed. Finally attention is paid to the applications of passive solar energy in the housing construction, the use of transparent thermal insulation and the developments of translucent materials. 18 figs., 18 ills

219

Novel insights into methane cycling, lateral gene transfer, and the rare biosphere within carbonate chimneys of the Lost City Hydrothermal Field (Invited)  

Science.gov (United States)

The Lost City Hydrothermal Field, an ultramafic-hosted system located 15 km west of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, has experienced at least 30,000 years of hydrothermal activity. Previous studies have shown that its carbonate chimneys form by mixing of ~90°C, pH 9-11 hydrothermal fluids and cold seawater. Flow of methane and hydrogen-rich hydrothermal fluids through the carbonate chimneys supports dense microbial biofilm communities. This presentation will describe recent studies using new techniques that have provided greater insight into the microbial ecology and biogeochemistry of Lost City chimneys. We have investigated the archaeal and bacterial communities of Lost City carbonate chimneys that vary in age between ~30 and ~1200 years, as determined by U-Th isotope systematics. Using next-generation pyrosequencing technology, we collected >200,000 sequences of the V6 region of 16S rRNA genes. This extremely deep sequencing effort enabled detection of very rare organisms as well as abundant organisms detected by previous studies. The taxonomic composition of the archaeal and bacterial communities clearly differed in chimneys of different ages, and many of the rare sequences in young chimneys were more abundant in older chimneys, indicating that members of the rare biosphere can become dominant members of the ecosystem when environmental conditions change. These results suggest that a long history of selection over many cycles of chimney growth has resulted in numerous closely related species at Lost City, each of which is pre-adapted to a particular set of re-occurring environmental conditions. In this model, the rare biosphere can be considered a repository for genes that are not currently advantageous but have been in the past and may be again in the future. Interestingly, metagenomic sequencing at Lost City has indicated the potential for frequent lateral gene transfer among organisms inhabiting the chimney biofilms. Specifically, the Lost City metagenomic dataset contains the highest proportion of genes encoding transposases (the enzymes required for lateral gene transfer) of any metagenome yet reported. Therefore, we intend to test the hypothesis that the rare biosphere can serve as a source of genes that can be laterally transferred to and benefit organisms of ecological importance. The metagenomic dataset also provides clues regarding the physiology of the dominant organisms. For example, bacterial genes associated with sulfide and sulfur oxidation are present. We have also detected archaeal genes associated with nitrogen fixation and conversion of acetate to methane. Laboratory incubation experiments have shown that anaerobic methane oxidation also occurs in Lost City chimney biofilms. We will present a conceptual model of biogeochemical reactions expected to occur in Lost City biofilms.

Brazelton, W. J.; Ludwig, K. A.; Schrenk, M. O.; Kelley, D. S.; Sogin, M. L.; Baross, J. A.

2010-12-01

220

Electronic structure of the Nowotny chimney-ladder silicide Ru2 Si3s  

Science.gov (United States)

We report ab initio calculations for the electronic structure of the Nowotny chimney-ladder silicide Ru2 Si3 in the orthorhombic low-temperature phase. We find Ru2 Si3 to be a semiconductor with a direct band gap of about 0.45 eV. Since this gap is a p-d gap, the oscillator strength for a direct transition is expected to be of sizable magnitude. Also, the calculated effective masses of hole and electron states suggest that Ru2 Si3 is a very promising material for various applications in semiconductor technology. The electronic structure is controlled by the hybridization of Si p states with Ru d states and shows similarities to the group-IV transition-metal disilicides (CrSi2 , MoSi2 , WSi2 ) and to transition-metal-rich silicides. The calculations are based on the density-functional theory in local-density approximation and are performed by means of the full-potential linearized-augmented-plane-wave method.

Wolf, W.; Bihlmayer, G.; Blüautgel, S.

1997-03-01

221

A comparative integrated geophysical study of Horseshoe Chimney Cave, Colorado Bend State Park, Texas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An integrated geophysical study was performed over a known cave in Colorado Bend State Park (CBSP, Texas, where shallow karst features are common within the Ellenberger Limestone. Geophysical survey such as microgravity, ground penetrating radar (GPR, direct current (DC resistivity, capacitively coupled (CC resistivity, induced polarization (IP and ground conductivity (GC measurements were performed in an effort to distinguish which geophysical method worked most effectively and efficiently in detecting the presence of subsurface voids, caves and collapsed features. Horseshoe Chimney Cave (HCC, which is part of a larger network of cave systems, provides a good control environment for this research. A 50 x 50 meter grid, with 5 m spaced traverses was positioned around the entrance to HCC. Geophysical techniques listed above were used to collect geophysical data which were processed with the aid of commercial software packages. A traditional cave survey was conducted after geophysical data collection, to avoid any bias in initial data collection. The survey of the cave also provided ground truthing. Results indicate the microgravity followed by CC resistivity techniques worked most efficiently and were most cost effective, while the other methods showed varying levels of effectiveness.

Brown Wesley A.

2011-01-01

222

Basic study for the construction of solar cell using CdS photocatalysts and Na2S4 electrolyte  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Photoexcited electrons pathway from thin film consisting of semiconductor particles to electrode was tried to develop by using conducting polymers. PEDOT/PSS and polyaniline was selected as transparent conducting polymer material. In the case of the cell consisted by using polyaniline, it was confirmed that conductive emeraldine salt stated polyaniline converted to non-conductive emeraldine base state because of contact with strong basic Na2S4 electrolyte solution. On the other hand, as regards the cell with PEDOT/PSS, it was expected that positive and negative electrode short-circuited and/or Schottky junction was formed between CdS and PEDOT/PSS. The formation of Schottky junction between CdS and PEDOT/PSS was reduced the kinetic energy of the photoexcited electrons to 5.1eV which was the Fermi level of PEDOT. These electrons could not reduce Na2S4 electrolyte solution since oxidation-reduction potential was 4.1eV. As a result, it considered that photoexcited electrons transfer was restricted, which read the decreasement of mobility of photoexcited electron, while the cell “without” PEDOT/PSS could operate as a solar cell

223

Solar Racing  

Science.gov (United States)

In this 'Energy Education for the 21st Century' design challenge, students construct and evaluate a solar-powered model car. Students utilize the design process and undergo review by their peers to select an optimal gear ratio and components for their car. As a culminating activity, students compete in a Solar Sprint race modeled after the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Junior Solar Sprint competition.

PBS Teachers

224

Vallitalea pronyensis sp. nov., isolated from a marine alkaline hydrothermal chimney.  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel thermotolerant, anaerobic, Gram-stain-positive, spore-forming bacterium was isolated from a hydrothermal chimney in Prony Bay, New Caledonia. This strain, designated FatNI3(T), grew at 15-55 °C (optimum 30 °C) and at pH 5.8-8.9 (optimum 7.7). It was slightly halophilic, requiring at least 0.5?% NaCl for growth (optimum 2.5-3.0?%), and was able to grow at up to 6?% NaCl. Sulfate, thiosulfate, elemental sulfur, sulfite, nitrate and nitrite were not used as terminal electron acceptors. Growth of strain FatNI3(T) was inhibited in the presence of sulfite (2 mM) or nitrite (2 mM). Strain FatNI3(T) fermented cellobiose, glucose, mannose, maltose, sucrose, galactose, lactose, ribose, fructose, rhamnose, raffinose, xylose, yeast extract, peptone and biotrypticase. The main fermentation products from glucose metabolism were acetate, ethanol, H2 and CO2. The predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C15?:?0 and anteiso-C15?:?0. The main polar lipids consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, and unknown glycolipids and phospholipids. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 36.6 mol%. On the basis of phylogenetic and physiological properties, strain FatNI3(T) (?=?DSM 25904?=?JCM 18391) belonging to the phylum Firmicutes, class Clostridia, order Clostridiales, is proposed as the type strain of a novel species of the genus Vallitalea, for which the name Vallitalea pronyensis sp. nov. is proposed. PMID:24408522

Ben Aissa, Fatma; Postec, Anne; Erauso, Gaël; Payri, Claude; Pelletier, Bernard; Hamdi, Moktar; Ollivier, Bernard; Fardeau, Marie-Laure

2014-04-01

225

The thermal performances of a solar wall  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, the computational fluid dynamics technique (CFD) was used for air flow simulation in the solar chimney. The flow is assumed laminar, unsteady and incompressible. The air flow model consisted of a system of governing equations continuity, momentum, energy are solved for 2D Cartesian system uses the SIMPLE algorithm and the Power–Law differencing scheme. The influence of the variation depth of the solar chimney on the thermal efficiency of the system was studies. The principle of functioning of the system is visualized. The temperatures obtained on the level of the zone of occupation are adaptable to the interval of thermal comfort. The results of simulation are congruent with those of the literature. -- Highlights: ? The present work consists of the modilisation of the natural convection flow in a room heated by the technique of a ventilated Trombe wall. ? The use of solar energy consists in profiting from the direct contribution of the solar radiation. ? With vented thermal storage walls, the vents can provide an important control mechanism both in heating and cooling the building. ? The results obtained for the area of Bechar seem interesting, which makes it possible to do much energy saving.

226

Characteristics of Cu isotopes from chalcopyrite-rich black smoker chimneys at Brothers volcano, Kermadec arc, and Niuatahi volcano, Lau basin  

Science.gov (United States)

We analysed primary chalcopyrite from modern seafloor `black smoker' chimneys to investigate high-temperature hydrothermal Cu isotope fractionation unaffected by metamorphism. Samples came from nine chimneys collected from Brothers volcano, Kermadec arc, and Niuatahi volcano, Lau backarc basin. This is the first known study of Cu isotopes from submarine intraoceanic arc/backarc volcanoes, with both volcanoes discharging significant amounts of magmatic volatiles. Our results (n = 22) range from ?65Cu = -0.03 to 1.44 ± 0.18 ‰ (2 sd), with the majority of samples between ˜0.00 and 0.50 ‰. We interpret this cluster (n = 17) of lower ?65Cu values as representing a mantle source for the chimney Cu, in agreement with ?65Cu values for mantle rocks. The few higher ?65Cu values (>0.90 ‰) occur (1) within the same chimneys as lower values, (2) randomly distributed within the chimneys (i.e. near the top and bottom, interior and exterior), and (3) within chalcopyrite of approximately the same age (porphyry copper deposits that also form from magmatic-hydrothermal processes in convergent tectonic settings.

Berkenbosch, H. A.; de Ronde, C. E. J.; Paul, B. T.; Gemmell, J. B.

2015-02-01

227

Occurrence of seismic chimney structures associated with mass transport deposit in the Ulleung Basin, East Sea of Korea  

Science.gov (United States)

Seismic interpretation and attribute analysis of 3D seismic data reveal that numerous seismic chimneys are developed through the gas hydrate stability zone at the central part of the Ulleung Basin. The seismic chimneys predominantly start from the underlying the thick mass transport deposit or the shear zone related to the mass transport process. Based on spatial distributions and geometries, seismic chimneys are grouped into two different types: (1) mound-like type and (2) pipe-like type. The mound-like type shows 600m-wide elliptical shape in a plane view. It is buried within Pliocene sedimentary succession and connected to underlying the mass transport flow zone. This type is elongated to the strike direction of pressured ridge of mass transport flow. The pipe-like type shows 300m-wide circular shape in a plane view and is vertically extended to near surface. Occurrence of this type is spatially related to the fault systems in the lateral shear zone of the mass transport deposit or the deep-seated faults. Logging and coring data from two gas hydrate drilling expeditions in the Ulleung Basin indicate that mound-like type is generated by intrusive sediment remobilization, whereas pipe-like type is composed of fracture swarms without intrusive sediment structure. Therefore, this study suggests that the mound-like type is generated by the sedimentary remobilization along the pressured ridge of the underlying mass flow deposit during Pliocene, whereas the pipe-like type results from the fracture swarms caused by the excess of pore pressure (i.e. natural hydraulic fracture) during Pleistocene to Holocene.

Keon Kang, Nyeon; Yoo, Dong Geun; Yi, Bo Yeon

2014-05-01

228

Constructing high-efficiency D-A-?-A-featured solar cell sensitizers: a promising building block of 2,3-diphenylquinoxaline for antiaggregation and photostability.  

Science.gov (United States)

Controlling the sensitizer morphology on a nanocrystalline TiO2 surface is beneficial to facilitating electron injection and suppressing charge recombination. Given that the grafted alkyl chain on a ?-bridge thiophene segment for preventing ? aggregation can deteriorate its intrinsic photostability, we incorporate a promising building block of 2,3-diphenylquinoxaline as the additional acceptor to construct a novel D-A-?-A-featured dye IQ4, which exhibits several characteristics: (i) efficiently decreasing the molecular HOMO-LUMO energy gap by extending its absorption bands; (ii) showing a moderate electron-withdrawing capability for an ideal balance in both promising photocurrent and photovoltage; (iii) endowing an ideal morphology control with strong capability of restraining the intermolecular aggregation and facilitating the formation of a compact sensitizer layer via two twisted phenyl groups grafted onto the quinoxaline unit. The coadsorbent-free dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) based on dye IQ4 exhibits very promising conversion efficiency as high as 9.24 ± 0.05%, with a short-circuit current density (Jsc) of 17.55 mA cm(-2), an open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.74 V, and a fill factor (FF) of 0.71 under AM 1.5 illumination (100 mW cm(-2)). IQ4-based DSSC devices with an ionic liquid electrolyte can keep constant performance during a 1000 h aging test under 1 sun at 60 °C. Because of spatial restriction, the two phenyl groups grafted onto the additional electron-withdrawing quinoxaline are demonstrated as efficient building blocks, not only improving its photostability and thermal stability but also allowing it to be a successful antiaggregation functional unit. As a consequence, the incorporated 2,3-diphenylquinoxaline unit can realize a facile structural modification for constructing organic coadsorbent-free D-A-?-A-featured sensitizers, thus paving a way to replace the common, stability-deleterious grafted alkyl chain on the thienyl bridge. PMID:23688179

Pei, Kai; Wu, Yongzhen; Islam, Ashraful; Zhang, Qiong; Han, Liyuan; Tian, He; Zhu, Weihong

2013-06-12

229

Endovascular Treatment of a Symptomatic Thoracoabdominal Aortic Aneurysm by Chimney and Periscope Techniques for Total Visceral and Renal Artery Revascularization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Conventional endovascular therapy of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm with involving visceral and renal arteries is limited by the absence of a landing zone for the aortic endograft. Solutions have been proposed to overcome the problem of no landing zone; however, most of them are not feasible in urgent and high-risk patients. We describe a case that was successfully treated by total endovascular technique with a two-by-two chimney-and-periscope approach in a patient with acute symptomatic type IV thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm with supra-anastomotic aneurysm formation involving the renal and visceral arteries and a pseduaneurismatic sac localized in the left ileopsoas muscle

230

Endovascular Treatment of a Symptomatic Thoracoabdominal Aortic Aneurysm by Chimney and Periscope Techniques for Total Visceral and Renal Artery Revascularization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Conventional endovascular therapy of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm with involving visceral and renal arteries is limited by the absence of a landing zone for the aortic endograft. Solutions have been proposed to overcome the problem of no landing zone; however, most of them are not feasible in urgent and high-risk patients. We describe a case that was successfully treated by total endovascular technique with a two-by-two chimney-and-periscope approach in a patient with acute symptomatic type IV thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm with supra-anastomotic aneurysm formation involving the renal and visceral arteries and a pseduaneurismatic sac localized in the left ileopsoas muscle.

Cariati, Maurizio, E-mail: cariati.maurizio@sancarlo.mi.it [San Carlo Borromeo Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Sciences (Italy); Mingazzini, Pietro; Dallatana, Raffaello [San Carlo Borromeo Hospital, Department of Vascular Surgery (Italy); Rossi, Umberto G. [San Carlo Borromeo Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Sciences (Italy); Settembrini, Alberto [San Carlo Borromeo Hospital, Università degli Studi di Milano (Italy); Santuari, Davide [San Carlo Borromeo Hospital, Department of Vascular Surgery (Italy)

2013-05-02

231

Construction of a photometer to detect stellar occultations by outer solar system bodies for the Whipple mission concept  

Science.gov (United States)

The Whipple mission was a proposal submitted to the NASA Discovery AO in 2010 to study the solid bodies of the Kuiper Belt and Oort Cloud via a blind occultation survey. Though not accepted for flight, the proposal was awarded funding for technology development. Detecting a significant number of Trans Neptunian Objects (TNOs) via a blind occultation survey requires a low noise, wide field of view, multi object differential photometer. The light curve decrement is typically a few percent over timescales of tenths of seconds or seconds for Kuiper Belt and Oort cloud objects, respectively. To obtain a statistically interesting number of detections, this photometer needs to observe many thousands of stars over several years since the rate of occultation for a single star given the space density of the TNOs is low. The light curves from these stars must be monitored with a sensor with a temporal resolution of rv 25-50 ms and with a read noise ofHybrid CMOS detectors operating in "window" read mode. The full Whipple focal plane consists of a 3x3 array of these sensors, with each sensor comprised of 1024x 1024 36/?m pixels. Combined with the telescope optic, the Whipple focal plane provides a FOV of rv36 deg2 . In operation, each HyViSI detector, coupled to a Teledyne SIDECAR ASIC, monitors the flux from 650 stars at 40 Hz. The ASIC digitizes the data at the required cadence and an FPGA provides preliminary occultation event selection. The proposed 2010 Whipple mission utilized a spacecraft in a a "drift-away" orbit which signifi­ cantly limited the available telemetry data rate. Most of the light curve processing is required to be on-board the satellite so only candidate occultation events are telemetered to the ground. Occul­ tation light curves must be processed in real time on the satellite by an Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). A simple, real time band pass filter, called the Equivalent Width (EW) algorithm, has been instantiated in the FPGA. This EW filter selects for telemetry only those occultation event light curves that differed significantly from noise. As part of our technology development program, a key facet of the proposed Whipple focal plane was constructed and operated in our laboratory consisting of a single HyViSI H2RG sensor, a Teledyne SIDECAR ASIC, and a flight-like Virtex-5 FPGA. In order to fully demonstrate the capabilities of this photometer, we also made a occultation light-curve simulator. The entire system can generate simulated occultation light curves, project them onto an H2RG sensor, read out the sensor in windowing mode at 40 Hz, pass the data to an FPGA that continuously monitors the light curves and dumps candidate occultation events to our simulated Ground Support Equipment (GSE). In this paper, we summarize the technical capabilities of our system, present sample data, and discuss how this system will be used to support our proposal effort for the next Discovery round.

Kraft, Ralph P.; Kenter, Almus T.; Alcock, Charles; Murray, Stephen S.; Loose, Markus; Gauron, Thomas; Germain, Gregg; Peregrim, Lawrence

2014-08-01

232

Design, construction and test run of a solid adsorption solar refrigerator using activated carbon/methanol, as adsorbent/adsorbate pair  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The design, construction and test run of a solid adsorption solar refrigerator are presented. It used activated carbon/methanol as the adsorbent/adsorbate pair. The refrigerator has three major components: collector/generator/adsorber, condenser and evaporator. Its flat plate type collector/generator/adsorber used clear plane glass sheet of effective exposed area of 1.2 m{sup 2}. The steel condenser tube with a square plan view was immersed in pool of stagnant water contained in a reinforced sandcrete tank. The evaporator is a spirally coiled copper tube immersed in stagnant water. Adsorbent cooling during the adsorption process is both by natural convection of air over the collector plate and tubes and night sky radiation facilitated by removing the collector box end cover plates. Ambient temperatures during the adsorbate generation and adsorption process varied over 18.5-34 deg C. The refrigerator yielded evaporator temperatures ranging over 1.0-8.5 deg C from water initially in the temperature range 24-28 deg C. Accordingly, the maximum daily useful cooling produced was 266.8 kJ/m{sup 2} of collector area. (Author)

Anyanwu, E.E. [Federal Univ. of Technology, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Owerri (Nigeria); Ezekwe, C.I. [Nigeria Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Nsukka (Nigeria)

2003-11-01

233

The construction of a process line for high efficiency silicon solar cells under clean-room conditions. Final report; Erstellung einer Prozesslinie fuer `High-Efficiency`-Silicium-Solarzellen unter Reinraumbedingungen; Abschlussbericht  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of this research project was to plan, construct and test a clean-room technology laboratory for the manufacturing of silicon solar cells with 20% efficiency (1.5AM). In addition to the establishment of the laboratory, there existed the case of establishing the material and technological fundamentals of high-efficiency solar cells, testing and optimizing all stages of production as well as constructing test stands for accompanying characterisation work. The following final report describes the construction of the laboratory and characterisation systems, the material elements of high-efficiency solar cells as well as the most important results of solar cell production and optimisation. (orig./BWI) [Deutsch] Erstellung und Erprobung eines Reinraum-Technologielabors fuer die Herstellung von Si-Solarzellen mit Wirkungsgraden von 20% (AM1.5). Neben der Einrichtung des Labors bestand die Aufgabe darin, die physikalischen und technologischen Grundlagen der ``High-efficiency``-Solarzelle zu erarbeiten, alle Prozessschritte zu erproben und zu optimieren, sowie Messplaetze fuer begleitende Charakterisierungsarbeiten zu erstellen. Der vorliegende Abschlussbericht beschreibt den Aufbau der Labor- und Charakterisierungseinrichtungen, die physikalischen Grundlagen der ``High-efficiency``-Solarzelle, sowie die wichtigsten Ergebnisse der Solarzellenherstellung und -optimierung. (orig./BWI)

Aberle, A.; Faller, C.; Grille, T.; Glunz, S.; Kamerewerd, F.J.; Kopp, J.; Knobloch, J.; Klussmann, S.; Lauby, E.; Noel, A.; Paul, O.; Schaeffer, E.; Schubert, U.; Seitz, S.; Sterk, S.; Voss, B.; Warta, W.; Wettling, W.

1992-08-01

234

Experimental Study and Optimization of Thermoelectricity-Driven Autonomous Sensors for the Chimney of a Biomass Power Plant  

Science.gov (United States)

In the work discussed in this paper a thermoelectric generator was developed to harness waste heat from the exhaust gas of a boiler in a biomass power plant and thus generate electric power to operate a flowmeter installed in the chimney, to make it autonomous. The main objective was to conduct an experimental study to optimize a previous design obtained after computational work based on a simulation model for thermoelectric generators. First, several places inside and outside the chimney were considered as sites for the thermoelectricity-driven autonomous sensor. Second, the thermoelectric generator was built and tested to assess the effect of the cold-side heat exchanger on the electric power, power consumption by the flowmeter, and transmission frequency. These tests provided the best configuration for the heat exchanger, which met the transmission requirements for different working conditions. The final design is able to transmit every second and requires neither batteries nor electric wires. It is a promising application in the field of thermoelectric generation.

Rodríguez, A.; Astrain, D.; Martínez, A.; Aranguren, P.

2014-06-01

235

Solar Energy Systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Calibrated in kilowatt hours per square meter, the solar counter produced by Dodge Products, Inc. provides a numerical count of the solar energy that has accumulated on a surface. Solar energy sensing, measuring and recording devices in corporate solar cell technology developed by Lewis Research Center. Customers for their various devices include architects, engineers and others engaged in construction and operation of solar energy facilities; manufacturers of solar systems or solar related products, such as glare reducing windows; and solar energy planners in federal and state government agencies.

1984-01-01

236

Construction of a pilot plant of 500 KW it solar gasification of coke of oil. Synpet project; Construccion de una planta piloto de 500 kW para la gasificacion solar de coke de petroleo. Proyecto Synpet  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Solar thermochemistry is a novel and very promising route for the production of valuable fuels and chemicals, in which solar energy is collected and concentrated in order to supply the high temperature process heat necessary to drive highly endothermic chemical reactions. Some high temperature endothermic reactions for converting solar energy to chemical fuels have been investigated; the steam-gasification of petroleum derivatives and residues using concentrated solar radiation has been proposed more recently as a viable alternative to solar hydrogen production. This paper reviews this study which is being carried out within collaboration between Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA), the Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule (ETH) in Zurich/Switzerland, and the CIEMAT in Spain to study the feasibility of thermochemical falsification form petroleum coke. (Author)

Vidal; Denk, T.; Valverde, A.; Steinfeld, A.; Zacarias, L.; Jesus, J. C. de; Romero, M.

2008-07-01

237

Solar optimized construction, Part project 3: Measuring engineering and evaluation of the office building Pollmeier at Creuzberg; Solaroptimiertes Bauen, Teilkonzept 3: Messtechnische Begleitung und Evaluierung des Verwaltungsgebaeudes der Firma Pollmeier in Creuzburg  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the research project called SolarBau, partial concept 3, the Federal Ministry for Economy and Work supports the construction of solar and energy-optimized administrative and commercial buildings. It was within this framework that the Zentrum fuer umweltbewusstes Bauen (Center for environment-sensitive construction), Kassel, examined the construction of the administrative building of the Massivholz GmbH Pollmeier in Creuzburg (near Eisenach)in cooperation with Solares Bauen GmbH and the Frauenhofer ISE (both in Freiburg). In addition to a detailed description of the concept relating to the building, the technical matters and the energy concept, the report also contains the results of the 2-years monitoring phase (2002-2004). In terms of the energy balance, the objectives of the planning and research programme were not completely reached. The space heating and power consumption are above the data planned. The data of primary energy consumption and CO2-emissions, however, could be adhered to which is due to the heat supply via the company's own wood burning system. Using a thermal building simulation, the causes for the high consumption of heat could be clarified. While the local climate, the real use, operational times and the measurable volume streams more or less equal the planned data, the inner space air temperatures are by 2-3K above the assumed values. (orig.) [German] Das BMWA foerdert in seinem Forschungsvorhaben SolarBau, Teilkonzept 3 solar- und energieoptimierte Verwaltungs- und Gewerbeneubauten. In diesem Rahmen untersuchte das Zentrum fuer Umweltbewusstes Bauen in Kassel in Zusammenarbeit mit der solares bauen GmbH und dem Fraunhofer ISE (beide Freiburg) den Neubau des Verwaltungsgebaeudes der Massivholz GmbH Pollmeier in Creuzburg (bei Eisenach). Dieser Bericht umfasst, neben einer detaillierten Gebaeude-, Technik- und Energiekonzept Beschreibung die Ergebnisse der 2-jaehrigen Monitoring Phase (2002-2004). Die Zielwerte der Planung und des Forschungsprogramms wurden hinsichtlich der Energiebilanz nicht vollstaendig erreicht. Heizwaerme- und Stromverbrauch liegen ueber den angestrebten Werten. Wohingegen die Werte fuer Primaerenergieverbrauch und CO{sub 2}-Emissionen aufgrund der diesbezueglichen Waermeversorgung ueber die werkseigene Holzfeuerungsanlage eingehalten werden. Mit Hilfe der thermischen Gebaeudesimulation konnten die Ursachen fuer den Mehrverbrauch der Heizwaerme ausgemacht werden. Waehrend das lokale Klima, die tatsaechliche Belegung, die Betriebszeiten und die messbaren Volumenstroeme in etwa den Planungswerten entsprechen, liegen die Raumlufttemperaturen 2-3K ueber den angenommenen Werten. (orig.)

Hauser, G.; Schlegel, K.; Heide, M.; Leineweber, R.

2004-04-01

238

Solar Thermal Electricity Generating System  

Science.gov (United States)

A Solar Thermal Electricity generating system also known as Solar Thermal Power plant is an emerging renewable energy technology, where we generate the thermal energy by concentrating and converting the direct solar radiationat medium/high temperature (300?C ñ 800?C). The resulting thermal energy is then used in a thermodynamic cycleto produce electricity, by running a heat engine, which turns a generator to make electricity. Solar thermal power is currently paving the way for the most cost-effective solar technology on a large scale and is heading to establish a cleaner, pollution free and secured future. Photovoltaic (PV) and solar thermal technologies are two main ways of generating energy from the sun, which is considered the inexhaustible source of energy. PV converts sunlight directly into electricity whereas in Solar thermal technology, heat from the sun's rays is concentrated to heat a fluid, whose steam powers a generator that produces electricity. It is similar to the way fossil fuel-burning power plants work except that the steam is produced by the collected heat rather than from the combustion of fossil fuels. In order to generate electricity, five major varieties of solar thermal technologies used are:* Parabolic Trough Solar Electric Generating System (SEGS).* Central Receiver Power Plant.* Solar Chimney Power Plant.* Dish Sterling System.* Solar Pond Power Plant.Most parts of India,Asia experiences a clear sunny weather for about 250 to 300 days a year, because of its location in the equatorial sun belt of the earth, receiving fairly large amount of radiation as compared to many parts of the world especially Japan, Europe and the US where development and deployment of solar technologies is maximum.Whether accompanied with this benefit or not, usually we have to concentrate the solar radiation in order to compensate for the attenuation of solar radiation in its way to earthís surface, which results in from 63,2 GW/m2 at the Sun to 1 kW/m2 at Earth¥s surface. The higher the concentration, the higher the temperatures we can achieve when converting solar radiation into thermal energy

Mishra, Sambeet; Tripathy, Pratyasha

2012-08-01

239

Shallow submarine hydrothermal activity with significant contribution of magmatic water producing talc chimneys in the Wakamiko Crater of Kagoshima Bay, southern Kyushu, Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

Active hydrothermal venting from shallow seafloor (200-m depth) with talc chimneys has been discovered at the Wakamiko Crater floor in the Aira Caldera, southern Kyushu, Japan. The major chemical composition of the fluids suggests that the fluids are supplied from a single reservoir. The fluid is characterized by a low chloride concentration, low ?D value, and a high ?18O value, suggesting that the endmember hydrothermal fluid is a mixture of seawater and andesitic water and possibly contribution of meteoric water and/or phase separation. Such noticeable magmatic input may be supported by high helium isotopic ratio (6.77 RA) of fumarolic gas discharging from the crater. Silica and alkaline geothermometers indicate that the fluid-rock interaction in the reservoir occurs in the temperature range of 230 to 250 °C. The high alkalinity and high ammonium and dissolved organic matter concentrations in the fluid indicate interaction of the fluid with organic matter in sedimentary layers. At least three hydrothermal vents have been observed in the crater. Two of these have similar cone-shaped chimneys. The chimneys have a unique mineralogy and consist dominantly of talc (kerolite and hydrated talc) with lesser amounts of carbonate (dolomite and magnesite), anhydrite, amorphous silica, and stibnite. The precipitation temperature estimated from ?18O values of talc was almost consistent with the observed fluid temperature. Geochemical modeling calculations also support the formation of talc and carbonate upon mixing of the endmember hydrothermal fluid with seawater and suggest that the talc chimneys are currently growing from venting fluid.

Yamanaka, Toshiro; Maeto, Kotaro; Akashi, Hironori; Ishibashi, Jun-Ichiro; Miyoshi, Youko; Okamura, Kei; Noguchi, Takuroh; Kuwahara, Yoshihiro; Toki, Tomohiro; Tsunogai, Urumu; Ura, Tamaki; Nakatani, Takeshi; Maki, Toshihiro; Kubokawa, Kaoru; Chiba, Hitoshi

2013-05-01

240

Solar/seasonal heat storage, state report. Large storage facilities 4. clay-impregnated pond-heat storage with floating cover construction, development state; Sol/saesonvarmelagre, statusrapport. Store lagre 4. Lertaetnet damvarmelager med flydende laagkonstruktion, status for udvikling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Experience collected during designing and construction of a 1500 m{sup 2} pilot heat storage pond with a floating cover is summarized. The heat storage facility is connected to a 560 m{sup 2} solar heating system, supplying heat to 21 apartments at Ottrupgaard. The new cover construction consists of sandwich elements with steel plates/polyurethane foam/steel plates with silicone-impregnated edges. Clay membrane is moved to the stone paving instead of the previous concrete elements. Economic analysis proves this pilot storage to be much cheaper than other types of seasonal heat storage and easier to handle - for instance it can be under ground level and thus fit better into environment. (EG)

Wesenberg, C.; Bliksted, T. [NNR (Denmark); Froesig Jensen, F. [DTU, Inst. for Bygninger og Energi (Denmark); Porsvig, M. [Geoteknisk Institut (Denmark); Soerensen, P.A. [PlanEnergi (Denmark)

1996-04-01

241

Temperature stratification from thermal diodes in solar hot water storage tank  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this brief note, we have experimentally measured the temperature stratification in a solar hot water storage tank resulting from a simulated solar heating load. Various modifications using a double chimney device that acts as a thermal diode were examined with the intent of maximizing temperature stratification. The greatest stratification was seen with a unique thermal diode arrangement named the express-elevator design, so-called for the direct hot water path from the bottom third of the tank to the top third. (author)

Rhee, Jinny; Campbell, Andrew; Mariadass, Adele; Morhous, Branden [San Jose State University, One Washington Square, San Jose, CA 95192-0087 (United States); 581 North 2nd Street, San Jose, CA 95112 (United States); 460 North Winchester Blvd., Apt. 15, Santa Clara, CA 95050 (United States); 2442 East Nathan Way, Chandler, AZ 85225 (United States)

2010-03-15

242

Personal PM2.5 and indoor CO in nomadic tents using open and chimney biomass stoves on the Tibetan Plateau  

Science.gov (United States)

Yak dung is the primary source of energy for cooking and heating of nomadic Tibetan herders. Personal PM2.5 and indoor CO concentrations and time-activity patterns were investigated in nomadic tents with open stoves and locally available chimney stoves. Personal PM2.5 monitoring using a light-scattering datalogger was performed with women in five tents with open fires and four with chimney stoves over 3 days. Meanwhile, indoor CO variation was also measured. Results showed that 24 h average concentrations of PM2.5 and CO in the tents with open stoves were 1.42 mg m-3 (n = 5, SD = 3.26) and 6.69 mg m-3 (n = 4; SD = 9.11), respectively, which were significantly higher than the tents with chimney stoves having 0.14 mg m-3 (n = 4; SD = 0.65) and 0.12 mg m-3 (n = 4; SD = 1.01) of PM2.5 and CO, respectively. Although chimney stoves significantly reduced indoor air pollution, the concentration of PM2.5 was still higher than annual WHO Air Quality Guideline (0.035 mg m-3). Diurnal variability of PM2.5 and CO was similar and had multiple peaks. This phenomenon was closely connected with behaviors of the participants within the tents. Average 1-h peak concentrations of PM2.5 and CO exceed 24-h mean values by a factor of 5.0 and 4.3, respectively. Significant correlation between hourly PM2.5 and CO concentrations was revealed. Generally, women and children spent 7 h longer than other family members within the tent each day and were thus exposed to higher levels of pollutants. Secondhand tobacco smoke and burning of yak oil lamps are also present in many households, but are much smaller contributors to the exposures. Therefore, yak dung combustion contributes substantially to the personal exposure of householders in this setting even during the warmest time of year in this setting and that although exposures are greatly reduced with chimney stoves; they are still high by comparison to national standards or WHO guidelines.

Li, Chaoliu; Kang, Shichang; Chen, Pengfei; Zhang, Qianggong; Guo, Junming; Mi, Jue; Basang, Puchi; Luosang, Quzhen; Smith, Kirk R.

2012-11-01

243

Solar Radiation Estimation on Building Roofs and Web-Based Solar Cadastre  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study is the estimation of solar irradiance on building roofs in complex Alpine landscapes. Very high resolution geometric models of the building roofs are generated by means of advanced automated image matching methods. Models are combined with raster and vector data sources to estimate the incoming solar radiation hitting the roofs. The methodology takes into account for atmospheric effects, site latitude and elevation, slope and aspect of the terrain as well as the effects of shadows cast by surrounding buildings, chimneys, dormers, vegetation and terrain topography. An open source software solution has been developed and applied to a study area located in a mountainous site and containing some 1250 residential, commercial and industrial buildings. The method has been validated by data collected with a pyranometer and results made available through a prototype WebGIS platform.

Agugiaro, G.; Nex, F.; Remondino, F.; De Filippi, R.; Droghetti, S.; Furlanello, C.

2012-07-01

244

Desempenho de sistema decanto-digestor com filtro biológico seguido por alagado construído e reator solar no tratamento de esgoto doméstico / Performance of digester decant system with biological filter followed by constructed wetland and solar reactor in the treatment of domestic sewage  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho objetivou analisar o desempenho de sistema decanto-digestor com filtro biológico seguido por alagado construído e reator solar no tratamento de esgoto doméstico do assentamento rural Milagres em Apodi-RN. Nos meses de outubro e novembro de 2010 realizou-se o monitoramento do sist [...] ema 48 dias após o plantio do capim elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach). Foram coletadas amostras do esgoto doméstico nas distintas etapas de tratamento, em quatro repetições no tempo, para determinação de características físico-químicas e microbiológicas referentes ao desempenho do sistema. Os resultados indicaram que houve remoção significativa de turbidez, Demanda Bioquímica de Oxigênio, Demanda Química de Oxigênio, sólidos totais, sólidos suspensos, fósforo e óleos e graxas com o uso sistema decanto-digestor com filtros biológicos seguidos de alagado construído e reator solar; a associação de radiação solar média de 28,73 MJ m-2 d-1, lâmina de 0,10 m de efluente no reator e tempo de exposição solar de 12 horas permitiu remoção de até 99,99% dos coliformes termotolerantes no esgoto doméstico em Apodi-RN; e o efluente tratado apresenta padrão microbiológico satisfatório às diretrizes brasileiras para uso agrícola com restrição. Abstract in english This study aimed to analyze the performance of digester decant system with biological filter followed by constructed wetland and solar reactor in the treatment of domestic sewage from Milagres rural community in Apodi-RN. The treatment system was monitored for the period of October and November 2010 [...] , 48 days after planting Pennisetum purpureum Schumach. Samples of domestic sewage were collected at different stages of treatment, in four replications on time, to determine physicochemical and microbiological characteristics about the system performance. The results indicated significant removal of turbidity, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total solids, suspended solids, phosphorus and oil and grease using the set digester decant with biological filter, followed by constructed wetland and solar reactor; the association of average solar radiation of 28.73 MJ m-2 d-1, effluent depth of 0.10 m on reactor and time of sun exposure of 12 hours provided removal of fecal coliform up to 99.99% of domestic sewage in Apodi, RN, the treated effluent met microbiological standard of the Brazilian guidelines for agricultural use with restrictions.

Glícia Pinto Barra, Reinaldo; Rafael Oliveira, Batista; Paulo Cesar Moura da, Silva; Luis Cesar de Aquino, Lemos Filho; Miguel, Ferreira Neto; Delfran Batista dos, Santos.

2012-06-01

245

Solar Cooker  

Science.gov (United States)

Learners build a simple solar oven from a shoebox, black construction paper, and aluminum foil. Over the course of a few hours, the oven heats up water enough to brew tea. When learners set up a free account at Kinetic City, they can answer bonus questions at the end of the activity as a quick assessment. As a larger assessment, learners can complete the Smart Attack game after they've completed several activities.

American Association for the Advancement of Science

2009-01-01

246

Solar Neutrinos  

OpenAIRE

Experimental work with solar neutrinos has illuminated the properties of neutrinos and tested models of how the sun produces its energy. Three experiments continue to take data, and at least seven are in various stages of planning or construction. In this review, the current experimental status is summarized, and future directions explored with a focus on the effects of a non-zero theta-13 and the interesting possibility of directly testing the luminosity constraint. Such a ...

Robertson, R. G. H.

2006-01-01

247

Survey of new forms of organization and financing constructions in the Dutch solar electricity market; Inventarisatie van nieuwe organisatievormen en financieringsconstructies in de Nederlandse zonnestroommarkt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the title project the focus is on organizations and projects in the Dutch market for solar electricity, characterized by: minimal dependence on subsidies (state aid), the removal of high initial investments by users (financing), and structures that can easily be extended or replicated (scale) [Dutch] In het titel project ligt de nadruk op organisaties en projecten in de Nederlandse markt die getypeerd zijn door: Minimale afhankelijkheid van subsidies (overheidssteun); het wegnemen van hoge initiele investeringen bij gebruikers (financiering); en constructies die eenvoudig kunnen worden uitgebreid of nagevolgd (schaalgrootte)

Meijer, M.; Laurensse, S.; Simon, T. [Adviesgroep Energie en Duurzaamheid, ARCADIS Nederland, Den Bosch (Netherlands)

2011-01-15

248

Solar collection  

Science.gov (United States)

Solar dishes, photovoltaics, passive solar building and solar hot water systems, Trombe walls, hot air panels, hybrid solar heating systems, solar grain dryers, solar greenhouses, solar hot water worhshops, and solar workshops are discussed. These solar technologies are applied to residential situations.

Cole, S. I.

1984-08-01

249

Space Solar Power Program  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Information pertaining to the Space Solar Power Program is presented on energy analysis; markets; overall development plan; organizational plan; environmental and safety issues; power systems; space transportation; space manufacturing, construction, operations; design examples; and finance.

Arif, H.; Barbosa, H.; Bardet, C.; Baroud, M.; Behar, A.; Berrier, K.; Berthe, P.; Bertrand, R.; Bibyk, I.; Bisson, J.; Bloch, L.; Bobadilla, G.; Bourque, D.; Bush, L.; Carandang, R.; Chiku, T.; Crosby, N.; De Seixas, M.; De Vries, J.; Doll, S.; Dufour, F.; Eckart, P.; Fahey, M.; Fenot, F.; Foeckersperger, S.; Fontaine, J.E.; Fowler, R.; Frey, H.; Fujio, H.; Gasa, J.M.; Gleave, J.; Godoe, J.; Green, I.; Haeberli, R.; Hanada, T.; Ha

1992-08-01

250

Solar Water Heater  

Science.gov (United States)

Student teams design and build solar water heating devices that mimic those used in residences to capture energy in the form of solar radiation and convert it to thermal energy. In this activity, students gain a better understanding of the three different types of heat transfer, each of which plays a role in the solar water heater design. Once the model devices are constructed, students perform efficiency calculations and compare designs.

Landon B. Gennetten

251

Solar energy emplacement developer  

Science.gov (United States)

A preliminary design was developed for a Lunar Power System (LPS) composed of photovoltaic arrays and microwave reflectors fabricated from lunar materials. The LPS will collect solar energy on the surface of the Moon, transform it into microwave energy, and beam it back to Earth where it will be converted into usable energy. The Solar Energy Emplacement Developer (SEED) proposed will use a similar sort of solar energy collection and dispersement to power the systems that will construct the LPS.

Mortensen, Michael; Sauls, Bob

1991-01-01

252

Power plant construction. Plan, build, repair  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Modern thermal power plants can now convert up to 90 % of the energy input into electricity. This increase in efficiency has been made possible through technological progress, but also through improvements in power plant construction. Despite a distinct rise in the proportion of renewable energies in electricity supplies, traditional power stations are still responsible for guaranteeing a large share of our energy supplies. Air pollution control, noise control, protection of natural waters and soils plus careful use of resources are the key themes in the design, construction and maintenance of power plants. Publishing house Ernst and Sohn provides competent, up-to-date information for civil and structural engineers entrusted with such challenging engineering tasks. The special issue ''Power Plant Construction'' brings together the appropriate articles from the journals ''Bautechnik'', ''Stahlbau'', ''Beton- und Stahlbetonbau'' and ''Geomechanics and Tunnelling''. The themes in this compendium cover a wide range of topics, including analysis and design of power plant installations, power station refurbishment and maintenance, special structures such as cooling towers, chimneys and boiler house frames plus the engineering aspects of coal-fired, nuclear and hydroelectric power stations. Reports on current products and projects complement the technical papers. (orig.)

253

Reflective Solar Cooker  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity, learners use the Sun's energy to cook marshmallows. Learners construct the solar oven out of simple everyday materials. They experiment to see how the color of the marshmallow (vanilla or chocolate) and height of the straws affect cooking time. Use this activity to introduce learners to solar energy and reflection. Note: this activity requires adult supervision.

McDonald Observatory

2011-01-01

254

Acive shallow-water submarine hydrothermal venting and occurence of chimney-like mineral deposits from Northern Kagoshima Bay, South Kyushu, Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

At least three active volcanoes are located in and around Kagoshima Bay, South Kyushu, Japan. The bay has been considered a tectonic graben formed under extensional stress associated with subduction of the Philippine-sea plate sinking below the Eurasia plate and the axis of graben is extended along the volcanic front. In addition, the bay head area is a part of the Aira caldera, it is considered to form ca. 25,000 yeas ago. The Wakamiko crate (31°40'N, 130°46'E) is an active crater of the caldera and the depression of crater is buried by a thick (up to 80m) unconsolidate deposits. Therefore, the crater floor shows quite flat feature and the depth of floor is ca. 200m. In the crater hydrothermal activity has been recognized, however, active vent of hydrothermal fluid is not found except two gentle shimmering from fissure and small collapse developed on muddy floor. During the dive study of ROV/Hyper-Dolphin of JAMSTEC (R/V Natsushima, NT07-09 Cruise) in June 2007, active hydrothermal venting (T > 186°C) was found on the crater floor, and the venting as ca. 10- cm-wide jet of hot water without gas was observed atop of mineralized chimney-like structure up to 1.5 m in height. The chimney was composed mainly native sulfur, sulfate minerals, silica, and small amount of sulfides such as pyrite, stibnite, realgar and cinnabar. Chemistry of the venting fluid was almost comparable with one of the shimmering fluids obtained as pore water, which was characterized by low salinity (Cl = 300mM) and higher K concentration than seawater. Analyses of detailed chemistry and mineralogy of the fluid and chimney is under way.

Yamanaka, T.; Ishibashi, J.; Maeto, K.; Nakaseama, M.; Okamura, K.; Sugiyama, T.; Fujino, K.; Kimura, H.; Chiba, H.

2007-12-01

255

Solar activity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Research on solar activity over the three year period from September 1975 through September 1978 is summarized. Topics included are theory of the solar cycle, empirical aspects of the solar cycle, solar active regions and photospheric formulae, sunspots, prominences, solar flares and energetic particles, radio physics, corona, solar wind - solar terrestrial, and ground based optical solar instrumentation. (C.F.)

256

Basic study for the construction of solar cell using CdS photocatalysts and Na{sub 2}S{sub 4} electrolyte  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Photoexcited electrons pathway from thin film consisting of semiconductor particles to electrode was tried to develop by using conducting polymers. PEDOT/PSS and polyaniline was selected as transparent conducting polymer material. In the case of the cell consisted by using polyaniline, it was confirmed that conductive emeraldine salt stated polyaniline converted to non-conductive emeraldine base state because of contact with strong basic Na{sub 2}S{sub 4} electrolyte solution. On the other hand, as regards the cell with PEDOT/PSS, it was expected that positive and negative electrode short-circuited and/or Schottky junction was formed between CdS and PEDOT/PSS. The formation of Schottky junction between CdS and PEDOT/PSS was reduced the kinetic energy of the photoexcited electrons to 5.1eV which was the Fermi level of PEDOT. These electrons could not reduce Na{sub 2}S{sub 4} electrolyte solution since oxidation-reduction potential was 4.1eV. As a result, it considered that photoexcited electrons transfer was restricted, which read the decreasement of mobility of photoexcited electron, while the cell “without” PEDOT/PSS could operate as a solar cell.

Mabuchi, Takashi, E-mail: hideyuki@mail.kankyo.tohoku.ac.jp; Hayashi, Tsugumi, E-mail: hideyuki@mail.kankyo.tohoku.ac.jp; Takahashi, Hideyuki, E-mail: hideyuki@mail.kankyo.tohoku.ac.jp; Tohji, Kazuyuki, E-mail: hideyuki@mail.kankyo.tohoku.ac.jp [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan)

2013-12-10

257

Improved performance of hybrid ZnO/polymer solar cell via construction of hierarchical nanostructures and surface modification of ZnO  

Science.gov (United States)

Photovoltaic performance of hybrid ZnO/polymer solar cell is enhanced through the addition of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) onto ZnO nanorod arrays (NRs), and surface modification with squaraine (Sq). The cluster of NPs at the end of NRs is formed during spin coating process but poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), as electron donor, is able to infiltrate into the rod-to-rod space, as confirmed by zero-loss energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (zero-loss EFTEM) observation. Due to the increase in ZnO/P3HT interface area, the NP-coated NR device shows power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 0.49%, which is higher than that of the pristine ZnO NRs/P3HT one (0.26%). Further improvement is achieved by the adsorption of Sq onto the NP-coated ZnO NR surfaces. After the dye-modification, the P3HT infiltration is poorer than the unmodified one. This leads to the ZnO NRs/Sq/air interface, where exciton separation does not occur. However, due to the large surface area of NPs and the light absorption in near IR region of Sq, the PCE increased to 1.37% with relatively higher short circuit current density as compared with the case without the NPs and Sq.

Ruankham, Pipat; Yoshikawa, Susumu; Sagawa, Takashi

2014-01-01

258

Economic aspects of Solar Thermal Technologies for electricity generation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Economic results of German studies are presented, which compare the four solar thermal technologies for electricity generation (parabolic trough collector system, central receiver system, parabolic dish/Stirling system, solar chimney plant). These studies were carried out by Interatom (today Siemens/KWU) in Bergisch Gladbach, Flachglas Solartechnik in Koln and Schlaich Bergermann and Partner in Stuggart under contract of DLR in Koln. Funds were made available by the German Ministry of Research and Development (BMFT). The results indicate that all of the investigated technologies have the potential to reduce the generating costs and that in the future costs of below 0.30 DM/kWh could be expected under excellent insolation conditions (e.G. 2850 kWh/m''2 a direct insolation as in California/USA). (Author) 25 refs

259

Compass Constructions  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this short manuscript is to show that all point constructions that can be done via ruler and compass, can also be done with compass exclusively. If we are using compass and ruler the way we construct new points is by first constructing circles or lines and then considering their intersection. This hints us a way to approach the problem, which is possibly the most straightforward approach. However, the execution of it is rather interesting and worth the effort....

Margaryan, Arman; Aramian, Nerses

2014-01-01

260

FFTF constructibility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The influence of the design criteria on the constructibility of the Fast Flux Test Facility is described. Specifically, the effects of requirements due to maintenance accessibility, inerting of cells, seismicity, codes, and standards are addressed. The design and construction techniques developed to minimize the impact of the design criteria on cost and schedule are presented with particular emphasis on the cleanliness and humidity controls imposed during construction of the sodium systems. (U.S.)

261

Solar Decathlon 2005  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Solar Decathlon 2005 is a U.S. Department of Energy and National Renewable Energy Laboratory competition involving 19 colleges and universities from the United States, Canada, and Spain. These teams will compete to design, build, and demonstrate solar homes. In fall 2005, teams will transport their competition solar houses to Washington, D.C., where they will construct a solar village on the National Mall. When the houses are assembled, the teams will compete against each other in 10 contests (hence, a decathlon) for about a week. The contests range from design to comfort to energy performance. Each team must provide an aesthetically pleasing entry that produces sufficient solar energy for space conditioning, hot water, lighting, appliances, and an electric car. The Solar Decathlon is co-sponsored by BP, The Home Depot, the American Institute of Architects, the National Association of Home Builders, and the DIY Network. For more information, visit the Web site at www.solardecathlon.org.

Warner, C.; Nahan, R.; King, R.

2005-01-01

262

In situ ore formation experiment: Amino acids and amino sugars trapped in artificial chimneys on deep-sea hydrothermal systems at Suiyo Seamount, Izu-Bonin Arc, Pacific Ocean  

CERN Document Server

The present study reports on the bio-organic composition of a deep-sea venting hydrothermal system originating from arc volcanism; the origin of the particulates in hydrothermal fluids from the Suiyo Seamount in the southern Izu-Bonin (Ogasawara) Arc is discussed with regard to amino compounds. Chimney samples on deep-sea hydrothermal systems and core samples at Suiyo Seamount were determined for amino acids, and occasionally amino sugars. Two types of chimney samples were obtained from active hydrothermal systems by submersible vehicles: one was natural chimney (NC) on a hydrothermal natural vent; the other was artificial chimneys (AC), mainly formed by the growth and deposition of sulfide-rich particulate components in a Kuwabara-type in situ incubator (KI incubator). Total hydrolyzed amino acids (THAA) and hydrolyzed hexosamines (HA) in AC ranged from 10.7 nmol/g to 64.0 nmol/g and from 0 nmol/g to 8.1 nmol/g, respectively, while THAA in hydrothermally altered core samples ranged from 26.0 nmol/g to 107.4 ...

Takano,; Marumo,; K.,; Ebashi,; T.,; Gupta,; P., L; Kawahata,; H.,; Kobayashi,; K.,; Yamagishi,; A.,; Kuwabara,; T,

2013-01-01

263

Seafloor mounds, craters and depressions linked to seismic chimneys breaching fossilized diagenetic bottom simulating reflectors in the central and southern Scotia Sea, Antarctica  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on an extensive dataset including swath bathymetry, chirp sub-bottom profiler (TOPAS) and multichannel seismic reflection profiles obtained during four cruises in the Scotia Sea aboard the R/V Hespérides, we report a variety of seismic and morphological structures related to focused fluid flow in the Scan Basin (southern Scotia Sea) and the central Scotia Sea (Antarctica). We show that both positive-relief (mounds) and negative-relief (craters and elongated depressions) seafloor morphologies are associated with deep seismic chimneys that link the deep source zone to the subsurface structures through a network of fractures that progressively breach sub-horizontal bands of anomalously high-amplitude reflections. Based on the recognition that these bands of reflections generally mimic the seafloor topography and locally cross-cut the stratigraphic seismic reflections, we recognize three different bottom simulating reflectors (BSRs). According to the theoretical model for hydrate and silica diagenesis stability conditions in the central and southern Scotia Sea and the calculations of temperature and seismic polarity for the three BSRs, we infer that BSR-2 and BSR-3 are reflections caused by the transformation between Opal-A/Opal-CT and Opal-CT/Quartz, respectively. We thus postulate that the successive diagenetic fronts were caused by significantly high geothermal gradients during the early-middle Miocene. In contrast, the low temperatures calculated for the depth of the BSR-1 event rule out its diagenetic origin but delineate the base of the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ). An evolutionary model is proposed to explain the plumbing system and chimney structures that help the focused flow of gas-rich fluids to migrate into the subsurface. Firstly, the formation of silica transformation zones may have acted as reservoir traps during Neogene times. Secondly, the progressive decrease of heat flow during the late Pliocene and Quaternary favored the development of the networks of polygonal faults forming collapses and downward tapering chimneys. Finally, seafloor mounds are formed as a result of the continuous injection of gas-enriched fluids through these networks of fractures; they are transformed into gas hydrates above the present base of the GHSZ and move upwards by buoyancy drive as they lose density and increase their volume. We present these structures as type cases that might represent highly concentrated hydrates around local seafloor fluid venting structures. Furthermore, they may be one of the most important conduits into the ocean-atmosphere system for deep methane in the Antarctic seafloor. The breach of BSRs influenced by global warming may induce the catastrophic release of greenhouse gases to the ocean-atmosphere system and, in turn, impact on the Earth's evolution.

Somoza, Luis; León, Ricardo; Medialdea, Teresa; Pérez, Lara F.; González, Francisco J.; Maldonado, Andrés

2014-12-01

264

Field Analogues of Shallow-water Hydrocarbon Seepages in the Pleistocene Argille Azzurre Formation: the Chimneys Field of Enza River, Northern Apennines, Italy  

Science.gov (United States)

The geologically young Northern Apennines contain various natural seeps documenting a variability of reservoirs and fluids in terms of origin, age and evolution. Hydrocarbon and saline water seepages are controlled by the structures of the chain and the foredeep. In the geological record, the witness of these natural seepages are represented by authigenic carbonates. Their isotopic content allows to understand the carbon source and the processes of carbonate precipitation. The better known regional examples of Methane Derived Authigenic Carbonates (MDAC) and chemoherm build-ups, clustered in the Upper Miocene and Lower-Upper Pliocene successions, are formed in deep water (> 300 m) sediments. Occurrences in shallow water (shelf) settings have never been reported. Our case study describes the palisade chimneys field, recently exposed along the Enza riverbanks in the Northern Apennines in the Argille Azzurre Formation (blue mudstones) of Pleistocene age. The paleontological content (mainly bivalves) documents that this unit was deposited in an open marine muddy shelfal setting, in a bathymetric range of about 50-70 m, with local anoxic condition, documented by benthic foraminifer assemblages. The succession is biostratigraphically dated at the Early Pleistocene (Calabrian, nannoplancton zone MNN19e). A number of subvertical, metric-high columnar chimneys, ranging in diameter from 10 to 35 cm, in association with discontinuous planar carbonate concretions, intervening along the bedding planes, outcrop within the mudstones. Such concretions are clearly formed by the moderate cementation of the hosting pelitic sediments. The tubular concretions show central conduits running along the whole length, locally filled by sediments. The grain size within the concretions is homogeneous, both in the chimneys and planar concretions and irrespective of the bedding planes, suggesting a process of transport and homogenization prior to the cementation. Within the Enza river succession, some gas leakage still occurs, showing ?13C isotopic values of about -70‰, indicating a biogenic origin of the methane, generated within the Plio-Pleistocene mudstones. On the contrary, numerous hydrocarbon seepages along the same Northern Apennines foothills are characterized by thermogenic methane, generated at greater depth and presently trapped within Tertiary reservoirs. This documents the role of the different geologic context as the main control on gas generation and migration. The on-going research is focused on the petrographic, geochemical and biogeochemical characteristics of these concretions to unravel the different fluids involved in their formation, their concretioning modality and the fluid flow history.

Oppo, D.; Capozzi, R.; Dinelli, E.; Negri, A.; Montagna, P.; Picotti, V.; Scarponi, D.; Taviani, M.

2012-12-01

265

Construction management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

PEFP, Proton Engineering Frontier Project, puts its aim to building 100MeV 20mA linear proton accelerator which is national facility for NT, BT, IT, and future technologies, expected to boost up the national industry competitiveness. This R and D, Construction Management is in charge of the supportive works as site selection, architecture and engineering of conventional facilities, and overall construction management. The major goals of this work are as follows: At first, architecture and engineering of conventional facilities. Second, construction management, audit and inspection on construction of conventional facilities. Lastly, cooperation with the project host organization for adjusting technical issues of overall construction. In this research, We made a conceptual design, basic design and detail design of conventional facilities. Also, we made the engineering support for host site construction as follows : selection of project host organization and host site selection, construction technical work for project host organization and procedure management and impact analysis on the delay of project site selection

266

Construction management  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

PEFP, Proton Engineering Frontier Project, puts its aim to building 100MeV 20mA linear proton accelerator which is national facility for NT, BT, IT, and future technologies, expected to boost up the national industry competitiveness. This R and D, Construction Management is in charge of the supportive works as site selection, architecture and engineering of conventional facilities, and overall construction management. The major goals of this work are as follows: At first, architecture and engineering of conventional facilities. Second, construction management, audit and inspection on construction of conventional facilities. Lastly, cooperation with the project host organization for adjusting technical issues of overall construction. In this research, We made a conceptual design, basic design and detail design of conventional facilities. Also, we made the engineering support for host site construction as follows : selection of project host organization and host site selection, construction technical work for project host organization and procedure management and impact analysis on the delay of project site selection.

Kim, Jun Yeon; Joo, Po Guk; Lee, Jae Hyung and others

2005-08-15

267

A novel design for construction of dwellings in radon prone areas of Ramsar  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radon can accumulate in residential places at sufficiently high levels. Indoor radon levels in some regions of Ramsar are up to 3700 Bq m-3, a concentration that is much higher than US EPA recommended action level of 148 Bq m-3 (4 pCi/L). Radon is the 2nd leading cause of lung cancer, after cigarette smoking. It is widely believed that there is no threshold for lung cancer from radon exposure. In this study after reviewing the meteorological changes of Ramsar over the past 50 years (1955-2005), a novel design for constructing dwellings in radon prone areas is introduced. Natural ventilation is a type of ventilation that is created by the differences in the distribution of air pressures around a building. The basic element of our design is enhancement of natural ventilation by making wind and chimney effect to move fresh air through dwellings. The buoyancy effect caused by temperature differences makes air flow. The size and location of openings in each dwelling determine the extent of natural ventilation. In our two-storey house model, wind speed and direction, relative humidity, average temperature, and especially the traditional architecture of the northern coastal part of Iran, are taken into account. Furthermore, in this model, windows and skylights, evergreen or deciduous trees and fireplace chimneys as well as construction materials and wall coverings are the key components of the natural ventilation system. (author) ventilation system. (author)

268

Solar energy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This chapter discusses the role solar energy may have in the energy future of the US. The topics discussed in the chapter include the solar resource, solar architecture including passive solar design and solar collectors, solar-thermal concentrating systems including parabolic troughs and dishes and central receivers, photovoltaic cells including photovoltaic systems for home use, and environmental, health and safety issues

269

Material Science and Construction  

Science.gov (United States)

We will review the new materials and technologies that are being applied in the construction of high performance (green) buildings to improve energy efficiency, Indoor Air and Environmental Quality, water conservation and reclamation, and resource conservation. We present an introduction to state-of-the-art building concepts, including ``Net-Zero'' buildings, which generate as much energy as they use, reclaim water, and minimize waste; and ``Waste as Resource,'' including waste to energy plants, biofuels, materials reclamation and recycling. The role of advanced materials and technologies, such as spectrally selective glazing, photocatalytic concrete, solar heating and cooling, and organic solar collectors will be discussed. We also give an overview of advanced analytic tools used in building design, including Computational Fluid Dynamics, energy, and lighting/daylighting computer-based simulation programs.

Traugott, Alan

2009-03-01

270

Construction crane  

Science.gov (United States)

People who operate construction cranes carrying heavy loads must be coordinated. The load on the crane must not injure any workers or anyone else near the site. They must be careful to maneuver heavy loads around buildings without hitting them.

N/A N/A (None; )

2007-07-25

271

Construction aggregates  

Science.gov (United States)

Construction aggregates, primarily stone, sand and gravel, are recovered from widespread naturally occurring mineral deposits and processed for use primarily in the construction industry. They are mined, crushed, sorted by size and sold loose or combined with portland cement or asphaltic cement to make concrete products to build roads, houses, buildings, and other structures. Much smaller quantities are used in agriculture, cement manufacture, chemical and metallurgical processes, glass production and many other products.

Nelson, T.I.; Bolen, W.P.

2007-01-01

272

Solar Water Heater  

Science.gov (United States)

Student teams design and build solar water heating devices that mimic those used in residences to capture energy in the form of solar radiation and convert it to thermal energy. This thermal energy is next transferred to water (to be used as domestic hot water) in the form of heat. In doing this, students gain a better understanding of the three different types of heat transfer, each of which plays a role in the solar water heater design. Once the model devices are constructed, students perform efficiency calculations and compare designs.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

273

Construction safety  

CERN Document Server

A close-to-ideal blend of suburb and city, speedy construction of towers of Babylon, the sparkling proportion of glass and steel buildings’ facade at night showcase the wisdom of humans. They also witness the footsteps, sweats and tears of architects and engineers. Unfortunately, these signatures of human civilizations are swathed in towering figures of construction accidents. Fretting about these on sites, different countries adopt different measures on sites. This book firstly sketches the construction accidents on sites, followed by a review on safety measures in some of the developing countries such as Bermuda, Egypt, Kuwait and China; as well as developed countries, for example, the United States, France and Singapore. It also highlights the enormous compensation costs with the courts’ experiences in the United Kingdom and Hong Kong.

Li, Rita Yi Man

2013-01-01

274

Solar/seasonal heat storage. Reconstruction of the Tubberupvaenge tank. Part 2. Repair of the leaking storage tank by means of stainless thin-plate liner. Part 2: Construction and implementation; Sol/saesonvarmelagre. Rekonstruktion af Tubberupvaengetanken Del 2. Udbedring af utaet lagertank med rustfri tyndpladeliner. Del. 2: Bygning og idriftssaettelse  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Construction of the 3000 m{sup 3} Tubberupvaenge storage tank and of the 1000 m{sup 2} solar heating system was the Danish contribution to the IEA cooperation in the area of large solar heating systems with seasonal heat storage. The price of the tank was DKK 3.1 million. In 1991 leakages from the tank were observed and the tank was left empty. The method chosen for repair has been mounting of stainless steel liners: the ceiling of AISI 316/SS 2343 and walls-floor of 254 SMO connected by means of seam welding. Repair and reconstruction have been extremely expensive due to several changes during the repairs and problems with welding. Nevertheless a watertight, flexible and materials saving steel liner for seasonal heat storage can be constructed, its service life can exceed 20 years and water temperature can be about 100 deg.C. (EG)

Munch, K. [KAB Bygge- og Boligadministration, (Denmark); Wesenberg, C. [Nellemann, Nielsen og Rauschenberger A/S (Denmark)

1998-04-01

275

System analysis of a PV/T hybrid solar window  

OpenAIRE

A building-integrated multifunctional PV/T solar window was suggested and developed by Andreas Fieber. The solar window is constructed of PV cells laminated on solar absorbers placed in a window behind the glazing. To reduce the costs of solar electricity, tiltable reflectors have been introduced in the construction to focus radiation onto the solar cells. The reflectors make it possible to control the amount of radiation transmitted into the building. The insulated reflectors also reduce the...

Davidsson, Henrik

2010-01-01

276

Worldwide construction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper tabulates major construction projects by category and country. The table lists company name and location, project type, added capacity, status of the project, expected completion date, contractor, and additional comments. Projects are classified as refineries, petrochemical plants, sulfur plants, gas processing plants, and pipelines

277

Solar oscillation frequency and solar neutrino predictions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The global quantities of mass, radius, surface effective temperature, luminosity, and the internal composition structure are used to calculate a mass zone model employed in pulsation analyses. The construction of this model is done by integrating the equations of pressure balance and luminosity conservation from the surface to the center in one pass. Pulsation mechanisms are discussed, frequencies are compared with observations, and the frequencies of weakly interacting massive particles are analyzed. It is concluded that solar-oscillation frequencies are predicted to be very close to those observed, but solar neutrino-flux predictions continue to be much larger than observed. 33 refs

278

Capital construction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Capital Construction Programme 1997 included 57 construction actions. There were total investments of 1,929,520,000 Slovak crowns. Activities of the V-1 NPP Gradual Reconstruction Programme were focused on the following technologic systems - pressurizer safety valves, steam generator super emergency feed water supply, the third emergency power supply from the Madunice Hydro Plant, and motor generator - were conducted at the V-1 NPP Unit 1 in 1997. Enhancement activities at the V-1 NPP Unit 2 included pressurizer safety valves, steam generator super emergency feed water supply, seismic reinforcement, fire protection improvement, and air-conditioning structures. Following activities were completed: the Unit 2 Release-to-Atmosphere Plant, 3rd emergency power supply from the Madunice Hydro Plant , closed cable rooms gas extinguishing system, motor generators replacement, seismic reinforcement of the super emergency feed water pump building, pressurizer safety valve joint reconstruction. The V-2 NPP nuclear safety enhancement and seismic reinforcement consist of a set of safety measures to improve the V-2 NPP nuclear safety and performance reliability. Replacement of the V-1 NPP and V-2 NPP cooling systems using freons belonged to the most important ecological constructions completed in 1997. The Heat Line uses heat withdrawn from the V-2 NPP for the towns of Leopoldov and Hlohovec centralized heat supply. There was the work conducted at the primary heating joints and Hlohovec and Leopoldov Heat Withdrawal Plants, at Heat Withdrawal Plants of other facilities in these towns and the redundant heating system in 1997. Having undergone testing and reviews all the line was set under trial operation on October 24, 1997. Bohunice NPPs AKOBOJE Security System assured the automatic system of security protection of the site. This construction was divided into several stages. First two stages were completed in 1996, the third one a year later. AKOBOJE Security System has been under its full operation since November 25, 1997

279

Construct It!  

Science.gov (United States)

Students use simple household materials, such as PVC piping and compact mirrors, to construct models of laser-based security systems. The protected object (a "mummified troll" or another treasure of your choosing) is placed "on display" in the center of the modeled room and protected by a laser system that utilizes a laser beam reflected off mirrors to trigger a light trip sensor with alarm.

2014-09-18

280

Solar Energy Education. Home economics: student activities. Field test edition  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A view of solar energy from the standpoint of home economics is taken in this book of activities. Students are provided information on solar energy resources while performing these classroom activities. Instructions for the construction of a solar food dryer and a solar cooker are provided. Topics for study include window treatments, clothing, the history of solar energy, vitamins from the sun, and how to choose the correct solar home. (BCS)

1981-03-01

281

Boom Construction  

Science.gov (United States)

Student teams design their own booms (bridges) and engage in a friendly competition with other teams to test their designs. Each team strives to design a boom that is light, can hold a certain amount of weight, and is affordable to build. Teams are also assessed on how close their design estimations are to the final weight and cost of their boom "construction." This activity teaches students how to simplify the math behind the risk and estimation process that takes place at every engineering firm prior to the bidding phase—when an engineering firm calculates how much money it will take to build the project and then "bids" against other competitors.

AMPS GK-12 Program,

282

Solar models and neutrino problem  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The discrepancy between observed and predicted neutrino capture rate has led us to consider another possibility about the solar interior. The evolutionary sequence of standard models and contaminated solar models are constructed. Both evolutionary studies begin with the threshold of stability. For the contaminated models, the surface is assumed to accrete material from the interstellar medium during the evolution at a rate to increase the heavy element abundance to its present observed value. The predicted total solar neutrino fluxes are 3.48 SNU and 4.68 SNU for accreted and standard solar models, respectively, which are still larger than the observed in the Cl-37 experiment. (Auth.)

283

Thoracic type Ia endoleak: direct percutaneous coil embolization of the aortic arch at the blood entry site after TEVAR and double-chimney stent-grafts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To introduce a novel percutaneous technique to stop blood entry at the lesser aortic arch curvature by coil embolisation in type Ia endoleak after TEVAR. A 61-year-old Marfan patient presented with type Ia endoleak of the aortic arch and a growing aortic arch pseudoaneurysm after TEVAR. Multiple preceding operations and interventions made an endovascular approach unsuccessful. Direct percutaneous puncture of the aneurysmal sac would have cured the sign, but not the cause of blood entry at the lesser curvature of the aortic arch. Direct CT-guided percutaneous puncture of the blood entry site in the aortic arch with fluoroscopically guided coil embolisation using detachable extra-long coils was successfully performed. Three weeks after the intervention, the patient developed fever because of superinfection of the pseudoaneurysm. The blood cultures and CT-guided mediastinal aspirate were sterile. After intravenous administration of antibiotics, the fever disappeared and the patient recovered. Six-month follow-up showed permanent closure of the endoleak and a shrinking aneurysmal sac. Direct percutaneous puncture of the aortic arch at the blood entry site of a thoracic type Ia endoleak after TEVAR and double-chimney stent-grafts with coil embolisation of the wedge-shaped space between the lesser aortic curvature and the stent-graft is possible. (orig.)

284

Orbital origins of helices and magic electron counts in the Nowotny chimney ladders: the 18 - n rule and a path to incommensurability.  

Science.gov (United States)

Valence electron count is one of the key factors influencing the stability and structure of metals and alloys. However, unlike in molecular compounds, the origins of the preferred electron counts of many metallic phases remain largely mysterious. Perhaps the clearest-cut of such electron counting rules is exhibited by the Nowotny chimney ladder (NCL) phases, compounds remarkable for their helical structural motifs in which transition metal (T) helices serve as channels for a second set of helices formed from main group (E) elements. These phases exhibit density of states pseudogaps or band gaps, and thus special stability and useful physical properties, when their valence electron count corresponds to 14 electrons per T atom. In this Article, we illustrate, using DFT-calibrated Hückel calculations and the reversed approximation Molecular Orbital analysis, that the 14-electron rule of the NCLs is, in fact, a specific instance of an 18 - n rule emerging for T-E intermetallics, where n is the number of E-supported T-T bonds per T atom. The structural flexibility of the NCL series arises from the role of the E atoms as supports for these T-T bonds, which simply requires the E atoms to be as uniformly distributed within the T sublattice as possible. This picture offers a strategy for identifying other intermetallic structures that may be amenable to incommensurability between T and E sublattices. PMID:25215958

Yannello, Vincent J; Fredrickson, Daniel C

2014-10-01

285

Characterization of Alkaliphilus hydrothermalis sp. nov., a novel alkaliphilic anaerobic bacterium, isolated from a carbonaceous chimney of the Prony hydrothermal field, New Caledonia.  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel anaerobic, alkaliphilic, Gram-positive staining bacterium was isolated from a hydrothermal chimney in the Prony Bay, New Caledonia. This strain designated FatMR1(T) grew at temperatures from 20 to 55 °C (optimum 37 °C) and at pH between 7.5 and 10.5 (optimum 8.8-9). NaCl is not required for growth (optimum 0.2-0.5%), but is tolerated up to 3%. Sulfate, thiosulfate, elemental sulfur, sulfite, nitrate and nitrite are not used as terminal electron acceptors. Strain FatMR1(T) fermented pyruvate, yeast extract, peptone and biotrypcase and used fructose as the only sugar. The main fermentation products from fructose and proteinaceous compounds (e.g. peptone and biotrypcase) were acetate, H2 and CO2. Crotonate was disproportionated to acetate and butyrate. The predominant cellular fatty acids were C14:0 and C16:0. The G + C content of the genomic DNA was 37.1 mol%. On the basis of phylogenetic, genetic, and physiological properties, strain FatMR1(T) (=DSM 25890(T), =JCM 18390(T)) belonging to the phylum Firmicutes, class Clostridia, order Clostridiales, is proposed as a novel species of the genus Alkaliphilus, A. hydrothermalis sp. nov. PMID:25319677

Ben Aissa, Fatma; Postec, Anne; Erauso, Gaël; Payri, Claude; Pelletier, Bernard; Hamdi, Moktar; Fardeau, Marie-Laure; Ollivier, Bernard

2015-01-01

286

Thoracic type Ia endoleak: direct percutaneous coil embolization of the aortic arch at the blood entry site after TEVAR and double-chimney stent-grafts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To introduce a novel percutaneous technique to stop blood entry at the lesser aortic arch curvature by coil embolisation in type Ia endoleak after TEVAR. A 61-year-old Marfan patient presented with type Ia endoleak of the aortic arch and a growing aortic arch pseudoaneurysm after TEVAR. Multiple preceding operations and interventions made an endovascular approach unsuccessful. Direct percutaneous puncture of the aneurysmal sac would have cured the sign, but not the cause of blood entry at the lesser curvature of the aortic arch. Direct CT-guided percutaneous puncture of the blood entry site in the aortic arch with fluoroscopically guided coil embolisation using detachable extra-long coils was successfully performed. Three weeks after the intervention, the patient developed fever because of superinfection of the pseudoaneurysm. The blood cultures and CT-guided mediastinal aspirate were sterile. After intravenous administration of antibiotics, the fever disappeared and the patient recovered. Six-month follow-up showed permanent closure of the endoleak and a shrinking aneurysmal sac. Direct percutaneous puncture of the aortic arch at the blood entry site of a thoracic type Ia endoleak after TEVAR and double-chimney stent-grafts with coil embolisation of the wedge-shaped space between the lesser aortic curvature and the stent-graft is possible. (orig.)

Bangard, Christopher; Franke, Mareike; Maintz, David; Chang, De-Hua [University Hospital, University of Cologne, Department of Radiology, Cologne (Germany); Pfister, Roman [University Hospital, University of Cologne, Department of Internal Medicine III, Cologne (Germany); Deppe, Antje-Christin [University Hospital, University of Cologne, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Cologne (Germany); Matoussevitch, Vladimir [University Hospital, University of Cologne, Department of Vascular Surgery, Cologne (Germany)

2014-06-15

287

78 FR 63276 - Interim Policy, FAA Review of Solar Energy System Projects on Federally Obligated Airports  

Science.gov (United States)

...Interim Policy, FAA Review of Solar Energy System Projects on Federally Obligated...obligated airports to construct solar energy systems on airport property. FAA...measuring ocular impact of proposed solar energy systems which are effective...

2013-10-23

288

77 FR 25131 - Turning Point Solar LLC: Notice of Finding of No Significant Impact  

Science.gov (United States)

...Turning Point Solar proposes to construct a 49.9 MW solar generating facility...monocrystalline photovoltaic panels mounted on fixed solar racking equipment...assessed its potential environmental impacts. RUS conducted...have no adverse effects on historic...

2012-04-27

289

Solar thanksgiving; Solarer Erntedank  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

While the 'felt' weather in 2011 was quite rainy, it was in fact one of the five hottest years since 1881, with many sunshine hours. This is reflected in photovoltaic power generation in 2011. Many owners of PV systems were surprised to find record solar power generation figures. In many cases, even the best case scenarios were topped.

Zehner, Mike; Doll, Andreas [Hochschule Muenchen (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe PV-Systeme; Hammer, Annette [Oldenburg Univ. (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe Energiemeteorologie; Heesen, Henrik te [Meteocontrol GmbH, Augsburg (Germany). Forschungsprojekt zur Analyse von Fernueberwachungsmessdaten; Herbort, Volker [Meteocontrol GmbH, Augsburg (Germany). Bereich Data-Mining-Vorhaben; Mariani, Marco [Meteocontrol GmbH, Augsburg (Germany). Abt. PV Ertragsgutachten und Prognosen

2012-03-09

290

MINIPILOT SOLAR SYSTEM: DESIGN/OPERATION OF SYSTEM AND RESULTS OF NON-SOLAR TESTING AT MRI  

Science.gov (United States)

A Minipilot Solar Reactor System (MSRS) with liquid organic feed was designed, constructed and tested without solar input (the Solar Tests were to be done later at DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory). he non-solar tests were done to determine whether use of EPA's sampling...

291

Achievement report for fiscal 1997. Technological development for practical application of a solar energy power generation system/development of technology to manufacture thin film solar cells (development of technology to manufacture applied type thin film solar cells with new construction) (development of technology to manufacture micro light collection type solar cells); 1997 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, oyogata shinkozo usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (micro shukogata taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

These technological developments are intended to demonstrate module efficiency of a micro light collection type solar cell of 15% by fiscal 2000, and obtain prospect on the module manufacturing cost of 140 yen per watt. Discussions given during fiscal 1997 are as follows: development has been performed on a design method to decide construction of a non-tracking micro light collection type module; in the state of cells being integrated on the module, the cells are arranged minutely and discretely, whereas, with discussions on a method to form them and assessment of the optical system as the main objective, single crystal silicon solar cells with a size smaller than 5 mm were fabricated on a trial basis; problems of forming micro cells by using the wafer cutting process were clarified; micro cells operating on light collection were fabricated trially to extract technological problems in light collecting operation and discuss technical problems in mass production; and development was performed on an evaluation method to analyze the cells' light collecting operation, and discussions were given on a method to estimate power generation amount from the light collection type modules. (NEDO)

NONE

1998-03-01

292

Solar System  

Science.gov (United States)

At the end of this project, you will be able to explain the components of the Solar System and know the order of the planets starting from the Sun. Objective Question: What is the Solar System? First, listen and read about the Solar System 1. How many planets make up our Solar System? 2. What is at the center of the Solar System? Next,listen and read about the Planets. 1. Can you name all of the planets? Finally, listen and watch The Solar System Movie. 1. Can you list the ...

Ms.West

2009-07-07

293

Solar energy use in a construction project: The new old people's home at Muenchenbernsdorf. Final report; Solarenergienutzung im Rahmen eines Bauvorhabens Neubau bzw. Umbau eines Senioren- und Pflegeheimes in Muenchenbernsdorf. Abschlussbericht  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Old people's homes have a high and largely constant water consumption in all seasons. They are therefore ideal objects for solar sytems. The new old people's home at Muenchenbernsdorf is presented which has a large thermal solar power system, which is also to induce private builder-owners to opt for solar power. [German] Aufgrund ihres hohen (und jahreszeitlich weitestgehend konstanten) Warmwasserverbrauches bieten Senioren- und Pflegeheime sehr gute Voraussetzungen fuer die Nutzung der thermischen Solarenergie zur Warmwasserbereitung. Der Ersatzneubau des Senioren- und Pflegeheims der Stadt Muenchenbernsdorf bietet sehr gute Ansatzpunkte fuer die Senkung des Energieverbrauches und der vom Objekt ausgehen Umweltbelastungen durch Nutzung regenerativer Energietraeger. Durch die Realisierung einer grossen thermischen Solaranlage auf einem oeffentlichen Gebaeude sollen private Bauherren der Region zu eigenen Energiesparinvestitionen angeregt werden. (orig.)

Maschke, R.; Mueller; Grossmann

2000-07-01

294

Study on Construction Cost of Construction Projects  

OpenAIRE

China is a country which has the largest investment amount in engineering construction in the world and which has the most construction projects. It is a significant subject for the extensive engineering managers to have effective engineering cost management in construction project management and to reasonably determine and control construction cost on the condition of ensuring construction quality and time limit.On the basis of the status quo of losing control in Chinese construction investm...

Hui Li

2009-01-01

295

Solar oscillations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Observed frequencies of solar oscillations comprise an extensive and accurate set of data related to the structure and dynamics of the solar interior. The physics determining the oscillation frequencies is sufficiently simple that a very detailed comparison between observations and theory is possible. This has provided tight constraints on the structure of the solar interior, as well as measurements of the variation of the solar rotation with depth. (orig.)

296

Solar Flares  

Science.gov (United States)

This page details and resources that help support an understanding of solar flares on our sun. When we are drawing a sun on a piece of paper, they usually look like this: Cartoon Picture of a Sun The spiky lines have a name - Solar Flares. This is when the sun releases gas and heat into the atmosphere. Click on this picture to see what a solar flare looks like. Picture of a Solar Flare 2 In this video, you ...

Mrs. Verlengia

2011-12-10

297

Buying Solar.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presented are guidelines for buying solar systems for the individual consumer. This is intended to help the consumer reduce many of the risks associated with the purchase of solar systems, particularly the risks of fraud and deception. Engineering terms associated with solar technology are presented and described to enable the consumer to discuss…

Dawson, Joe

298

Solar urticaria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A 35-year-old female and a 41-year-old male presented with clinical features suggestive of solar urticaria. The diagnosis of solar urticaria and the effectiveness of a combination of H1 and H2 blocking antihistamines were confirmed by phototesting with a solar simulator

Srinivas C

1995-01-01

299

Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for junior high/middle school science  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Some basic topics on the subject of solar energy are outlined in the form of a teaching manual. The manual is geared toward junior high or middle school science students. Topics include solar collectors, solar water heating, solar radiation, insulation, heat storage, and desalination. Instructions for the construction of apparatus to demonstrate the solar energy topics are provided. (BCS)

1985-01-01

300

Solar Water Heater  

Science.gov (United States)

Learners work in teams to design and build solar water heating devices that mimic those used in residences to capture energy in the form of solar radiation and convert it to thermal energy. This thermal energy is next transferred to water (to be used as domestic hot water) in the form of heat. In doing this, learners gain a better understanding of the three different types of heat transfer, each of which plays a role in the solar water heater design. Once the model devices are constructed, learners perform efficiency calculations and compare designs. Note: part of this activity must be conducted outdoors on a sunny day (it is okay if it's cold, but it must be sunny).

University of Colorado at Boulder

2007-01-01

301

Solar thermal and concentrated solar power barometer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The European concentrated solar power plant market is steeling itself for tough time ahead. The number of projects under construction is a pittance compared with 2012 that was an excellent year for installations (an additional 802.5 MW of capacity recorded). This drop is the result of the moratorium on renewable energy power plants introduced by the Spanish government. The European solar thermal market is hardly any more encouraging . EurObserv'ER holds that it slipped for the fourth year in a row (it dropped 5.5% between 2011 and 2012). The newly-installed solar thermal collector surface area in the EU now stands at 3.4 million m2, far short of its 2008 installation record of 4.6 million m2. The EU's solar thermal base to date at the end of 2012 is 29.6 GWth with 2.4 GWth installed during the year 2012. This article gives tables gathering the figures of the production for every European country for 2012 and describes the market and the general trend for every EU member

302

Aboriginal consultation report, Amherstburg solar farm  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

First Solar is constructing many solar farms in North America, Europe and Asia, including a planned solar farm in California expected to generate 550 MW of electricity and a completed 80 MW, 1150 acre solar farm in Sarnia, Ontario representing the largest photovoltaic (PV) solar facility in the world. First Solar is now working on the project of constructing a solar farm that will use thin film photovoltaic modules and convert the solar energy into electrical energy for distribution to the local electricity distribution system. This solar farm, identified as a Class 3 solar facility according to the Regulation, is expected to generate 10 MW of electricity. Class 3 solar facilities are renewable energy facilities presenting a name plate power capacity exceeding 10kW and they take place at any location other than a roof or the wall of a building. During the project development process, First Solar will keep on liaising and communicating with the two identified First Nations, the Windsor Essex Metis Council, MNO and the Crown authorities. The purpose of the process will keep on giving a particular attention to identifying any concerns raising from the project, and if some are identified, it will also focus on methods of reducing or preventing related impacts.

NONE

2010-05-15

303

Solar interior  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Glossary is designed to be a technical dictionary that will provide solar workers of various specialities, students, other astronomers and theoreticians with concise information on the nature and properties of phenomena of solar and solar-terrestrial physics. Each term, or group of related terms, is given a concise phenomenological and quantitative description including the relationship to other phenomena and an interpretation in terms of physical processes. The references are intended to lead the non-specialist reader into the literature. This section deals with: solar standard model; internal rotation; energy generation; solar neutrinos; convection zone; convective theory; and Boussinesq assumption. (B.R.H.)

304

Solar Optics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Solar opacities are presented from the center of the Sun to the photosphere. The temperatures, densities and hydrogen mass fractions are taken from the standard solar model. For the heavy element abundances the Grevesse mixture is used. In the solar interior photoabsorption is dominated by free-free absorption and they compare two sets of opacities based on two different models for the inverse bremsstrahlung. The radiative luminosities calculated from the two sets of opacities are compared with those predicted by previous models of the standard solar model and also with the known luminosity of the Sun. pressures, specific heats and the speed of sound in the solar plasma are also presented.

Rozsnyai, B.F.

2000-10-04

305

Integrated photoelectrochemical energy storage: solar hydrogen generation and supercapacitor  

OpenAIRE

Current solar energy harvest and storage are so far realized by independent technologies (such as solar cell and batteries), by which only a fraction of solar energy is utilized. It is highly desirable to improve the utilization efficiency of solar energy. Here, we construct an integrated photoelectrochemical device with simultaneous supercapacitor and hydrogen evolution functions based on TiO2/transition metal hydroxides/oxides core/shell nanorod arrays. The feasibility of solar-driven pseud...

Xinhui Xia; Jingshan Luo; Zhiyuan Zeng; Cao Guan; Yongqi Zhang; Jiangping Tu; Hua Zhang; Hong Jin Fan

2012-01-01

306

Research and development of system to utilize photovoltaic energy. Survey on the high-durability and low-cost materials for constructing the solar-cell module and its structure; Taiyoko hatsuden riyo system no kenkyu. Taiyo denchi module yo kotaikyusei tei cost zairyo, kozo ni kansuru chosa  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reports the results obtained during fiscal 1994 on a survey on the high-durability and low-cost materials for constructing the solar-cell module and on its structure. With respect to forms and materials used in the present solar-cell modules, identification was made on the current status of products commercially available and developed inside and outside Japan. Main types of solar cells used for electric power are of crystal-based silicon. Amorphous silicon and CdS-CdTe are used for consumer applications of indoor and outdoor use. As regards transparent resin materials, fluorine resin, PET, acryl, and polyimide are used as surface materials, and EVA, silicon and PVB are often used as fillers. Developments inside and outside Japan are limited to systems of polycarbonate, methacryl, fluorine, polyurethane, acryl and polyester. Butyl rubber and polyurethane are used as sealing materials. Developments are being performed on silicon rubber, polychloroprene rubber and EPT rubber for shaped materials, and silicon systems, urethane systems and polysulfide systems for non-shaped materials. 3 figs., 8 tabs.

Tatsuta, M. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

1994-12-01

307

Build Your Own Solar Oven  

Science.gov (United States)

Learners follow directions to construct a solar oven that really cooks! The solar oven uses aluminum foil to reflect sunlight into a cooking chamber, which is painted black. The black surface absorbs the sunlight and produces heat which can be used to bake brownies, cookies, vegetables, or even warm soups and pizza. Use this activity to introduce learners to renewable energy and the Sun as a source of energy. Main webpage includes links to other related resources. Note: Solar ovens can get very hot. Oven mitts or gloves and adult supervision required.

GreenLearning Canada

2011-01-01

308

Shenandoah parabolic dish solar collector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objectives of the Shenandoah, Georgia, Solar Total Energy System are to design, construct, test, and operate a solar energy system to obtain experience with large-scale hardware systems for future applications. This report describes the initial design and testing activities conducted to select and develop a collector that would serve the need of such a solar total energy system. The parabolic dish was selected as the collector most likely to maximize energy collection as required by this specific site. The fabrication, testing, and installation of the parabolic dish collector incorporating improvements identified during the development testing phase are described.

Kinoshita, G.S.

1985-01-01

309

Shenandoah parabolic dish solar collector  

Science.gov (United States)

The objectives of the Shenandoah, Georgia, Solar Total Energy System are to design, construct, test, and operate a solar energy system to obtain experience with large scale hardware systems for future applications. The initial design and testing activities conducted to select and develop a collector that would serve the need of such a solar total energy system are described. The parabolic dish was selected as the collector most likely to maximize energy collection as required by this specific site. The fabrication, testing, and installation of the parabolic dish collector incorporating improvements identified during the development testing phase are described.

Kinoshita, G. S.

1985-01-01

310

Design, construction, operation, and evaluation of solar systems for industrial process-heat applications in the intermediate-temperature range (212/sup 0/F to 550/sup 0/F). Environmental assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The environmental impacts are assessed for a proposed 50,000 square foot field of single axis tracking, concentrating solar collectors along the Ohio River in southern Ohio. The facility is planned to produce process steam for use in the production of polystyrene. Absorbed solar energy would heat an aliphatic hydrocarbon synthetic heat transfer fluid to a maximum temperature of 500/sup 0/F. The existing environment is briefly described, particularly regarding air quality. The potential environmental impacts of the solar process heat system on the air, water, soil, endangered species and archaeological and historical resources are examined, including risks due to flood and glare and a comparison of alternatives. Also included are a Consent Judgment relating to two coal-fired boilers in violation of EPA regulations, property data of Gulf Synfluid 4CS (a candidate heat transfer fluid), piping and instrumentation diagrams and schematics, site grade and drainage plan, geological survey map, subsurface soil investigation, Ohio endangered species list, Ohio Archaeological Counsel certification list, and a study of heat transfer fluids and their properties. (LEW)

none,

1982-01-01

311

Study on Construction Cost of Construction Projects  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available China is a country which has the largest investment amount in engineering construction in the world and which has the most construction projects. It is a significant subject for the extensive engineering managers to have effective engineering cost management in construction project management and to reasonably determine and control construction cost on the condition of ensuring construction quality and time limit.On the basis of the status quo of losing control in Chinese construction investment and of separation of technique and economy in engineering, and guided by basic theories of construction cost control, the author discusses control methods and application of construction cost, sets forth existing issues in construction cost control and influences of these issues on determination and control of construction cost, puts forward that construction cost control should reflect cost control of the entire construction process at the earlier stage of construction, and then introduces some procedures and methods of applying value project cost control at all stages of construction projects.

Hui Li

2009-07-01

312

A convective model of solar granulation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A convective model of solar granulation is constructed from the numerical integrations of the non-linear equations which describe finite amplitude convection in a compressive medium with polytropic structure

313

Performance of a solar-thermal collector  

Science.gov (United States)

Possible means of achieving the technology required for field application of solar thermal power systems are discussed. Simplifications in construction techniques as well as in measurement techniques for parabolic trough collectors are described. Actual measurement data is also given.

Higa, W. H.

1975-01-01

314

Building and using the solar greenhouse  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Thorough directions are given for planning, constructing and using a solar greenhouse attached to a house. Included is a method of calculating the savings accruing from the use of the greenhouse. (LEW)

none,

1983-01-01

315

Thermococcus eurythermalis sp. nov., a conditional piezophilic, hyperthermophilic archaeon with a wide temperature range for growth, isolated from an oil-immersed chimney in the Guaymas Basin.  

Science.gov (United States)

A conditional piezophilic, hyperthermophilic archaeon showing growth over a wide range of temperature, pH and pressure was isolated from an oil-immersed hydrothermal chimney at a depth of 2006.9 m in the Guaymas Basin. Enrichment and isolation of strain A501(T) were performed at 80 °C at 0.1 MPa. Cells of isolate A501(T) were irregular motile cocci with a polar tuft of flagella and generally 0.6-2.6 µm in diameter. Growth was detected over the range 50-100 °C (optimal growth at 85 °C) at atmospheric pressure and was observed at 102 °C at a pressure of 10 MPa. At 85 °C, growth was observed at a pressure of 0.1-70 MPa (optimum pressure 0.1 MPa-30 MPa), while at 95 °C, the pressure allowing growth ranged from 0.1 MPa to 50 MPa (optimum pressure 10 MPa). Cells of strain A501(T) grew at pH 4-9 (optimum pH 7.0) and a NaCl concentration of 1.0-5.0?% (w/v) (optimum concentration 2.5?% NaCl). This isolate was an anaerobic chemo-organoheterotroph and was able to utilize yeast extract, peptone, tryptone and starch as the single carbon source for growth. Elemental sulfur and cysteine stimulated growth; however, these molecules were not necessary. The DNA G+C content of the complete genome was 53.47 mol%. The results of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strain A501(T) belongs to the genus Thermococcus. There was no significant similarity between strain A501(T) and the phylogenetically related species of the genus Thermococcus based on complete genome sequence alignments and calculation of the average nucleotide identity and the tetranucleotide signature frequency correlation coefficient. These results indicate that strain A501(T) represents a novel species, Thermococcus eurythermalis sp. nov. The type strain is A501(T) (?=?CGMCC 7834(T)?=?JCM 30233(T)). PMID:25288278

Zhao, Weishu; Zeng, Xianping; Xiao, Xiang

2015-01-01

316

Constructal multi-scale structures for maximal heat transfer density  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reviews recent constructal-theory advances: the optimal distribution of discrete heat sources cooled by laminar natural convection. Three scenarios are investigated: (i) many small heat sources mounted on a vertical wall, (i) a few small finite-size heat sources mounted on the side wall of a two-dimensional enclosure, and (iii) one heated area on the wall of a vertical diverging or converging channel with chimney flow. In (i) and (ii), the optimally distributed heat sources are not equidistant. In (iii), the geometry changes by varying the space between the walls, the distribution of heating along the walls, and the angle between the two walls. Numerical simulations in the Rayleigh number range 10{sup 5}=Ra{sub H}=10{sup 7} show that for maximal heat transfer rate density it is better to install heated sections at the channel entrance. The optimal angle between the two walls is approximately zero when Ra{sub H} is large. The robustness of flow architectures with optimized distribution of heat sources is discussed. (author)

da Silva, A.K.; Bejan, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708-0300 (United States); Lorente, S. [Laboratory of Materials and Durability of Constructions, National Institute of Applied Sciences, 135 Avenue de Rangueil, Toulouse 31077 (France)

2006-04-15

317

Solar heat utilization for adsorption cooling device  

Science.gov (United States)

This article deals with possibility of solar system connection with adsorption cooling system. Waste heat from solar collectors in summer is possible to utilize in adsorption cooling systems, which desorption temperatures have to be lower than temperature of heat transport medium operation temperature. For verification of work of this system was constructed on the Department of power engineering on University of Zilina solar adsorption cooling device.

Pilát, Peter; Patsch, Marek; Malcho, Milan

2012-04-01

318

Shuttle Engine Designs Revolutionize Solar Power  

Science.gov (United States)

The Space Shuttle Main Engine was built under contract to Marshall Space Flight Center by Rocketdyne, now part of Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR). PWR applied its NASA experience to solar power technology and licensed the technology to Santa Monica, California-based SolarReserve. The company now develops concentrating solar power projects, including a plant in Nevada that has created 4,300 jobs during construction.

2014-01-01

319

Solar heat utilization for adsorption cooling device  

OpenAIRE

This article deals with possibility of solar system connection with adsorption cooling system. Waste heat from solar collectors in summer is possible to utilize in adsorption cooling systems, which desorption temperatures have to be lower than temperature of heat transport medium operation temperature. For verification of work of this system was constructed on the Department of power engineering on University of Zilina solar adsorption cooling device.

Malcho Milan; Patsch Marek; Pilát Peter

2012-01-01

320

Solar heat utilization for adsorption cooling device  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article deals with possibility of solar system connection with adsorption cooling system. Waste heat from solar collectors in summer is possible to utilize in adsorption cooling systems, which desorption temperatures have to be lower than temperature of heat transport medium operation temperature. For verification of work of this system was constructed on the Department of power engineering on University of Zilina solar adsorption cooling device.

Malcho Milan

2012-04-01

321

OUT Success Stories: Solar Trough Power Plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Solar Electric Generating System (SEGS) plants use parabolic-trough solar collectors to capture the sun's energy and convert it to heat. The SEGS plants range in capacity from 13.8 to 80 MW, and they were constructed to meet Southern California Edison Company's periods of peak power demand

322

Solar Buildings Research Network: a brief overview  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes Solar Buildings Research Network (SBRN). Partners and linkages of this program are universities, government, manufacturers, construction industry, engineers, architects and utilities. The vision of SBRN is the development of the solar-optimized building as an integrated advanced technological system that will average zero-energy target and be cost effective

323

Survey of new forms of organization and financing constructions in the Dutch solar electricity market. Update 2011; Inventarisatie van nieuwe organisatievormen en financieringsconstructies in de Nederlandse zonnestroommarkt. Update 2011  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the title project the focus is on organizations and projects in the Dutch market for solar electricity, characterized by: minimal dependence on subsidies (state aid), the removal of high initial investments by users (financing), and structures that can easily be extended or replicated (scale) [Dutch] In het titel project ligt de nadruk op organisaties en projecten in de Nederlandse markt die getypeerd zijn door: Minimale afhankelijkheid van subsidies (overheidssteun); het wegnemen van hoge initiele investeringen bij gebruikers (financiering); en constructies die eenvoudig kunnen worden uitgebreid of nagevolgd (schaalgrootte)

Meijer, M. [Energy Indeed, Utrecht (Netherlands); Van Heemstra, W. [Agentschap NL, Utrecht (Netherlands)

2011-11-15

324

Compass & Straight Edge Constructions  

Science.gov (United States)

Use compass & straight edge to do basic constructions. Follow the directions to construct a segment bisector. construct midpoint or segment bisector Now, follow the directions to construct a perpendicular line through a point on a line. Construct a perpendicular line through a point on a line Another perpendicular line to construct is one through a point not on a line. Construct a perpendicular line through a point not on the line Now we\\'ve constructed perpendicular lines, let\\'s construct a parallel line. ...

Mrs. Silotti

2007-06-12

325

Solar Energy Education. Industrial arts: student activities. Field test edition  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this teaching manual several activities are presented to introduce students to information on solar energy through classroom instruction. Wind power is also included. Instructions for constructing demonstration models for passive solar systems, photovoltaic cells, solar collectors and water heaters, and a bicycle wheel wind turbine are provided. (BCS)

1981-02-01

326

Passivation layer for steel substrate of solar cell  

Science.gov (United States)

Solar cell is fabricated on commerical sheet-steel substrate passivated with tungsten layer. Layer prevents constituents of steel from interacting with semiconductor materials in MOS thin-film solar cell. Thin plating of nickel on steel improves bonding of tungsten. Use of steel as substrate reduces materials cost of solar cell construction.

Stirn, R. J.; Yeh, Y. M.

1981-01-01

327

Solar window  

OpenAIRE

In recent years various companies are developing technology to turn ordinary windows into solar panels. And now the U.S. firm New Energy Technologies has also decided to compete in the creation of new sources of energy generation, providing SolarWindow. When you are citing the document, use the following link http://essuir.sumdu.edu.ua/handle/123456789/22075

??????, ??????? ???????????; ??????, ??????? ??????????; Usenko, Nataliia Mykolaivna; Oliinyk, I. V.

2011-01-01

328

Solar Structures  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity, learners explore how the power of the sun can be harnessed to heat and cool a building. Learners work in teams of "engineers" to design and build their own solar houses out of everyday items. They test their solar house, evaluate their results, and present to the group.

IEEE

2014-05-22

329

Solar Technologies  

Science.gov (United States)

As fossil fuels decrease in availability and environmental concerns increase, soalr energy is becoming a potential major energy source. Already solar energy is used for space heating in homes. Proposals for solar-electric generating systems include land-based or ocean-based collectors and harnessing wind and wave power. Photosynthesis can also…

von Hippel, Frank; Williams, Robert H.

1975-01-01

330

Concrete construction engineering handbook  

CERN Document Server

Provides coverage of concrete construction engineering and technology. This work features discussions focusing on: the advances in engineered concrete materials; reinforced concrete construction; specialized construction techniques; and, design recommendations for high performance.

Nawy, Edward G

2008-01-01

331

How to transform an asphalt concrete pavement into a solar turbine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • We create a system for harvesting energy from asphalt concrete. • We create an artificial porosity in the asphalt concrete. • We connect a chimney to this porosity. • Differences in temperature produce an air flow. • This air flow serves also for cooling down the pavement. - Abstract: Asphalt concrete can absorb a considerable amount of the incident solar radiation. For this reason asphalt roads could be used as solar collectors. There have been different attempts to achieve this goal. All of them have been done by integrating pipes conducting liquid, through the structure of the asphalt concrete. The problem of this system is that all pipes need to be interconnected: if one is broken, the liquid will come out and damage the asphalt concrete. To overcome these limitations, in this article, an alternative concept is proposed:parallel air conduits, where air can circulate will be integrated in the pavement structure. The idea is to connect these artificial pore volumes in the pavement to an updraft or to a downdraft chimney. Differences of temperature between the pavement and the environment can be used to create an air flow, which would allow wind turbines to produce an amount of energy and that would cool the pavement down in summer or even warm it up in winter. To demonstrate that this is possible, an asphalt concrete prototype has been created and basics calculations on the parameters affecting the system have been done. It has been found that different temperatures, volumes of air inside the asphalt and the difference of temperature between the asphalt concrete and the environment are critical to maximize the air flow through the pavement. Moreover, it has been found that this system can be also used to reduce the heat island effect

332

Build a Solar Oven  

Science.gov (United States)

This page features a classroom project for secondary science education that integrates engineering design with optics and thermodynamics. Students work on teams to construct a solar oven with flat reflector panels. The project was designed to help learners understand that, to harness the sun as a source of energy, solar energy must be converted from visible light into heat or electricity. The construction kit calls for simple materials such as cardboard and duct tape, and includes a downloadable pattern for building the oven. Background information gives student and teacher support on the subject of solar heat and its applications. Registered teacher-users also have access to supporting lesson plans. This resource is part of a larger collection of hands-on projects and teaching materials on the topic of renewable energy. Editor's Note: Although this resource is designated for use in middle school, the reading level for the student guide is Grade 10, and for background information is Grade 11. Overall, the concepts are appropriate for the cognitive level of Grades 7-8, but teacher scaffolding may be needed for unfamiliar vocabulary. High school students should be expected to complete the activity with minimal scaffolding.

2007-10-25

333

Oakmead solar buildings  

Science.gov (United States)

Twin 50,000 square feet industrial buildings, incorporating both active and passive solar design features, in the Oakmead Industrial Park, Santa Clara, California, employ slab floor construction and tilt-up concrete walls. A structural facia on the north extreme of each building provides a 45 deg support for approximately 2900 square feet of high-performance flat plate collectors. These liquid-based collectors form the basis for an active solar subsystem which includes a unique control logic to manage energy in a Second Law sense. The south-facing, vertical tilt-up concrete wall has been modified to accommodate some 1200 square feet of air-based collector fashioned after a Trombe design. The tilt-up wall fabrication technique is commonly used in commercial and industrial building construction, and shows promise for ready adaptation to passive solar heating applications. The combined active and passive subsystems were designed to provide approximately 90% of the annual energy requirements for heating and hot water.

1981-03-01

334

Low cost thermal solar collector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Solar energy is a good alternative in the economy of the electric energy mainly for the water heating. However, the solar heaters used demand a high initial investment, becoming the warm water from solar energy inaccessible to a large part of the society. Thus, a low cost solar heater was developed, constructed and tested in the chemical engineering department of West Parana State University-Unioeste. This equipment consists of 300 cans, divided in 30 columns of 10 cans each, all painted in black to enhance the obsorption of the solar radiation. The columns are connected to a pipe of pvc of 8 liters with 0.085m of external diameter. The equipment is capable to heat 120 liters of water in temperatures around 60 degree centigrade. The heater is insolated in its inferior part with cardboard and aluminum, covered with a transparent plastic in its superior. The system still counts with a insulated thermal reservoir, which can conserve the water in temperatures adjusted for the night non-solar days domestic use. The advantage of the constructed is it low cost material. The results are given an graphical tabular from showing acceptable efficiencies.(Autho

335

Solar thermal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

While wind power is widely acknowledged as the most developed of the 'new' renewables, the number two technology, in terms of installed capacity functioning worldwide, is solar heating, or solar thermal. The author has investigated recent industry reports on how these markets are developing. The authors of an International Energy Agency (IEA) survey studied 41 countries in depth at the end of 2004, revealing that 141 million m3 - corresponding to an installed capacity of 98.4 GWth - were installed in the sample countries (these nations represent 3.74 billion people, about 57% of the world's population). The installed capacity within the areas studied represents approximately 85%-90% of the solar thermal market worldwide. The use of solar heating varies greatly between countries - even close neighbours - and between economic regions. Its uptake often has more to do with policy than solar resource. There is also different uptake of technology. In China, Europe and Japan, plants with flat-plate and evacuated tube collectors are used, mainly to heat water and for space heating. Unglazed plastic collectors, used mainly for swimming pool heating, meanwhile, dominate the North American markets. Though the majority of solar heating installations today are installed on domestic rooftops, the larger-scale installations should not be overlooked. One important part of the market is the hotel sector - in particular hotels in locations that serve the seasonal summer holiations that serve the seasonal summer holiday market, where solar is extremely effective. Likewise hospitals and residential homes, multi-family apartment blocks and sports centres are all good examples of places where solar thermal can deliver results. There are also a growing number of industrial applications, where solar thermal can meet the hot water needs (and possibly more) of a range of industries, such as food processing and agriculture. The ability of solar to provide a heat source for cooling is expected to become increasingly important as fuel and electricity prices - and global temperatures - continue their upward curve

336

Prototype solar domestic hot water systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Construction of a double wall heat exchanger using soft copper tube coiled around a hot water storage tank was completed and preliminary tests were conducted. Solar transport water to tank potable water heat exchange tests were performed with a specially constructed test stand. Work was done to improve the component hardware and system design for the solar water heater. The installation of both a direct feed system and a double wall heat exchanger system provided experience and site data to enable informative decisions to be made as the solar market expands into areas where freeze protection is required.

1978-01-01

337

H-alpha synoptic charts of solar activity during the first year of Solar Cycle 20, October 1964--August 1965  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Solar activity during the period October 28, 1964 through August 27, 1965 is presented in the form of charts for each solar rotation constructed from observations made with the chromospheric H-alpha spectra line. These H-alpha synoptic charts are identical in format and method of construction to those published for the period of Skylab observations. The sunspot minimum marking the start of Solar Cycle 20 occurred in October, 1964; therefore, charts represent solar activity during the first year of this solar cycle

338

Construction of optimum controls and trajectories of motion of the center of masses of a spacecraft equipped with the solar sail and low-thrust engine, using quaternions and Kustaanheimo-Stiefel variables  

Science.gov (United States)

The problem of optimum rendezvous of a controllable spacecraft (SC) with an uncontrollable spacecraft, moving over a Keplerian elliptic orbit in the gravitational field of the Sun, is considered. Control of the SC is performed using a solar sail and low-thrust engine. For solving the problem, the regular quaternion equations of the two-body problem with the Kustaanheimo-Stiefel variables and the Pontryagin maximum principle are used. The combined integral quality functional, which characterizes energy consumption for controllable SC transition from an initial to final state and the time spent for this transition, is used as a minimized functional. The differential boundary-value optimization problems are formulated, and their first integrals are found. Examples of numerical solution of problems are presented. The paper develops the application [1-6] of quaternion regular equations with the Kustaanheimo-Stiefel variables in the space flight mechanics.

Sapunkov, Ya. G.; Chelnokov, Yu. N.

2014-11-01

339

Solar thermal repowering  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Solar central receiver technology is developing steadily with a promise of becoming a real commercial alternative for energy generation in the late 1980s. Significant potential markets have been identified, research and development of important components is proceeding well, and the first full-system verification experiment at Barstow, California, is under construction. However, much work still lies ahead. A big step toward the realization of large-scale commercial use of solar energy was taken when the Department of Energy (DOE) issued a solicitation in March 1979 for utility repowering/industrial retrofit system conceptual design studies employing solar central receivers. Twenty-two responses were evaluated, and twelve were selected for funding. The results of the twelve studies, plus one study completed earlier and one privately funded, are sufficiently encouraging to warrant proceeding to the next stage of the program: cost-shared projects chosen through open competition. Eight of he fourteen studies are for electric utility repowering of existing oil or natural gas generating plants. The other six are the first site-specific studies of the use of solar central receiver systems for industrial process heat. The industrial processes include gypsum board drying, oil refining, enhanced oil recovery, uranium ore processing, natural gas processing, and ammonia production. Site descriptions, project summaries, conceptual designs, and functional descriptions are given for each of these 14 studies.

NONE

1980-08-01

340

Solar photonitrosation of cyclohexane  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The photonitrosation of cyclohexane with nitrosyl chloride (PNC-process) is the central reaction step of photochemical production of {epsilon}-caprolactam. As compared to other, i.e. thermal routes for manufacture of {epsilon}-caprolactam the photochemical synthesis path is the shortest one, economizing the effective use of raw materials by having the highest yield and selectivity. In 1991 the world-wide capacity of {epsilon}-caprolactam was 3.1 mio metric tons/a. Although the photochemical route is most effective as to the materials costs, only 160 000 metric tons (i.e. 5%) were produced via the photochemical path. To provide the light doped high pressure mercury lamps were used. Disadvantages of the conventional PNC-process are strongly corrosive properties of nitrosyl chloride, high power costs and limited lifetime of the lamps. The last two disadvantages may be avoided using sunlight as clean source of photons. A simplified cost study showed that the solar process has a chance to be realized industrially as an alternative to the conventional technique. In this paper results of a project are dealt with aiming at the experimental investigation of the solar PNC-process to demonstrate that cyclohexanone oxime can be produced in a quality as required by the chemical industry. A solar reactor made of titanium was constructed and tested in the high flux solar furnace at the DLR research center, Koeln. Chemical efficiency and selectivity of the reaction, as well as quality of cyclohexanone oxime produced are presented. (orig.)

Riffelmann, K.J.; Funken, K.H. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Koeln (Germany). Hauptabteilung Energietechnik

1997-12-31

341

Solar ponds  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report first describes the different types of solar ponds including the nonconvecting salt gradient pond and various saltless pond designs. It then discusses the availability and cost of salts for salt gradient ponds, and compares the economics of salty and saltless ponds as a function of salt cost. A simple computational model is developed to approximate solar pond performance. This model is later used to size solar ponds for district heating and industrial process heat applications. For district heating, ponds are sized to provide space conditioning for a group of homes, in different regions of the United States. Size requirements is on the order of one acre for a group of 25 to 50 homes. An economic analysis is performed of solar ponds used in two industrial process heat applications. The analysis finds that solar ponds are competitive when conventional heat sources are priced at $5 per million Btu and expected to rise in price at a rate of 10% per year. The application of solar ponds to the generation of electricity is also discussed. Total solar pond potential for displacing conventional energy sources is estimated in the range of from one to six quadrillion Btu per year in the near and intermediate future.

Jayadev, T.S.; Edesess, M.

1980-04-01

342

Construction management versus construction project management  

OpenAIRE

Within the South African construction industry today, the terms Construction Management and Construction Project Management are used by professionals when in fact they themselves are unsure of the exact definition and description of what each profession entails in adequate detail. This treatise aims to address that issue. It describes in detail exactly what each profession entails as well as highlighting software, systems and programs that both professions would need and be able to adeq...

Howes, Christopher John

2010-01-01

343

Solar neutrinos  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The solar energy is produced by a series of nuclear reactions taking place in the deep interior of the sun. Some of these reactions produce neutrinos which may be detected, the proper detection system being available. The results of the Davis experiment (with 37Cl) are given, showing a deficiency in the solar neutrino flux. The relevant explanation is either a property of the neutrino or an important change in the physics of the solar models. The prospect of a new experiment (with 71Ga) is important as it will decide which of the two explanations is correct

344

Nanowire-based All Oxide Solar Cells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We present an all-oxide solar cell fabricated from vertically oriented zinc oxide nanowires and cuprous oxide nanoparticles. Our solar cell consists of vertically oriented n-type zinc oxide nanowires, surrounded by a film constructed from p-type cuprous oxide nanoparticles. Our solution-based synthesis of inexpensive and environmentally benign oxide materials in a solar cell would allow for the facile production of large-scale photovoltaic devices. We found that the solar cell performance is enhanced with the addition of an intermediate oxide insulating layer between the nanowires and the nanoparticles. This observation of the important dependence of the shunt resistance on the photovoltaic performance is widely applicable to any nanowire solar cell constructed with the nanowire array in direct contact with one electrode.

Yang*, Benjamin D. Yuhas and Peidong; Yang, Peidong

2008-12-07

345

A New Formulation to Estimate Temperature of Solar Pond  

OpenAIRE

In this paper, a new formulation based on Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was presented for estimating solar pond temperature. Temperature of solar pond which is constructed experimentally was estimated depending on time, pond depth, solar radiation and air temperature. In order to train the network, experimental measurements were used as training and test data. The temperatures in different depths of solar pond have been calculated theoretically with equations derived from ANN model and comp...

Arzu ?encan; Nalan Çiçek Bezir

2004-01-01

346

Solar Energy Education. Reader, Part IV. Sun schooling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A collection of magazine articles which focus on solar energy is presented. This is the final book of the four part series of the Solar Energy Reader. The articles include brief discussions on energy topics such as the sun, ocean energy, methane gas from cow manure, and solar homes. Instructions for constructing a sundial and a solar stove are also included. A glossary of energy related terms is provided. (BCS)

1981-05-01

347

Solar prominences  

CERN Document Server

This volume presents the latest research results on solar prominences, including new developments on e.g. chirality, fine structure, magnetism, diagnostic tools and relevant solar plasma physics. In 1875 solar prominences, as seen out of the solar limb, were described by P.A. Secchi in his book Le Soleil as "gigantic pink or peach-flower coloured flames". The development of spectroscopy, coronagraphy and polarimetry brought tremendous observational advances in the twentieth century. The authors present and discuss exciting new challenges (resulting from observations made by space and ground-based telescopes in the 1990s and the first decade of the 21st century) concerning the diagnostics of prominences, their formation, their life time and their eruption along with their impact in the heliosphere (including the Earth). The book starts with a general introduction of the prominence “object” with some historical background on observations and instrumentation. In the next chapter, the various forms of promine...

Engvold, Oddbjørn

2015-01-01

348

Constructions and context: when a construction constructs context  

OpenAIRE

The aim of the paper is to address a case of a syntactic pattern involving context, which can be summed up by this assumption : a construction provides pieces of context that the speaker considers to be necessary for the addressee to get a relevant interpretation of the current utterance. There exist constructions which bring in background contextual information to maximize the "relevance" of the utterance they are added to. This piece of an utterance are not in fact part of the ongoing text,...

Deulofeu, Jose; Debaisieux, Jeanne-marie

2009-01-01

349

Racing with the Sun - Creating a Solar Car  

Science.gov (United States)

Students use engineering design principles to construct and test a fully solar powered model car. Several options exist, though we recommend the "Junior Solar Sprint" (JSS) Car Kits that can be purchased with direction from the federal government. Using the JSS kit from Solar World, students are provided with a photovoltaic panel that produces ~3V at ~3W. An optional accessory kit also from Solar World includes wheels, axles and drive gears. A chassis must be built additionally. Balsa wood provides an excellent option though many others are available. The testing of the solar car culminates in a solar race between classmates.

Techtronics Program,

350

Research on development of solar energy and ecology building  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Our country's solar energy resources are extremely rich. This paper mainly introduces the research on development of solar energy and ecological building. Based on the literature analysis at home and abroad, this paper has studied the development and the application process of the solar energy in construction domain. Through studying the reference from the predecessor researches in foundation and the architecture example, this paper proposes a new plan for the union of solar energy and ecological building. The union of solar energy and ecological building will provide a wide market for the use of solar energy. (orig.)

Sheng, Qingqing; Zhang Xuelai; Lv, Leilei; Yang, Peiying [Shanghai Maritime Univ. (China)

2008-07-01

351

Space construction data base  

Science.gov (United States)

Construction of large systems in space is a technology requiring the development of construction methods to deploy, assemble, and fabricate the elements comprising such systems. A construction method is comprised of all essential functions and operations and related support equipment necessary to accomplish a specific construction task in a particular way. The data base objective is to provide to the designers of large space systems a compendium of the various space construction methods which could have application to their projects.

1979-01-01

352

Construction and technology similarity  

OpenAIRE

Purpose: The main aim of study is to present the theory of construction similarity and technology. The theory of similarity is based on the theory of physical similarity. Model in the theory of similarity of construction and technology is construction and technology standard.Design/methodology/approach: The essence of this theory is to choose such constructional features of the new designed construction to obtain the identical states: physical, stereo mechanical or simple like in the standard...

Rza?sin?ski, R.; Gendarz, P.

2011-01-01

353

Yunushan? Köyünün (Alt?nözü-Hatay Kuzey Ve Kuzeybat?s?ndaki Peribacas? Görünümlü Sivri Doruklu Lapya Kompleksleri Pinnacle Lapiaz Complexes That Resemble Fairy Chimneys In The North And Northwest Of Yunushan? Village (Alt?nözü-Hatay  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Current study explains the characteristics of interesting pinnaclelapiaz complexes developed in the north and northwest of Yunushan?village located in the borders of Alt?nözü district, Hatay province. Theseformations resemble fairy chimneys with their columnar shapes.Providing information about the scientific content of theseformations called fairy chimneys although they are not fairy chimneys isimportant to provide insight as to how and where they can be evaluatedsince no previous study exists about these formations in the study field.Also, pinnacle lapiaz complexes are noteworthy formations that can givevaluable information about the geomorphologic development of thestudy field.The study is mostly based on field work. 1/25.000 scaledANTAKYA P36-d3 topography map and geology maps of various scalesobtained through related literature were used in the study as materials.Thematic maps were generated with the help on GeographicalInformation Sysems (GIS method and techniques. Interviews with thelocal public were held as well.It was identified that pinnacle lapiaz complexes were formed as aresult of common impact of the lithological, climactic andgeomorphologic characteristics of the field. These formations whichwere developed under the impact of both fluvial and karstic elementsand processes are not fairy chimneys. The fact that it is not possible toobserve these formations everywhere makes them even more valuable.This rare formation and similarly unique formations are highlysignificant in terms of eco tourism and geomorphotourism. Therefore,providing the area where these formations are situated with the statusof protected areas such as geoparks or geomorphosites will be beneficialboth in the conservation of these formations and in the provision ofsustainable tourism activities. Bu çal??mada Hatay ilinin, Alt?nözü ilçe s?n?rlar? içerisinde yer alan Yunushan? köyünün kuzey ve kuzeybat?s?nda geli?mi? ilginç sivri doruklu lapya komplekslerinin özellikleri aç?klanm??t?r. Sütunsu görünüme sahip bu ?ekiller peribacas?na benzemektedirler.Bu çal??mada, peribacas? olmamas?na ra?men bu ?ekilde isimlendirilen bu olu?umlar?n, bilimsel anlamda ne oldu?unun ortaya konulmas?, inceleme alan? dahilinde bu ?ekiller hakk?nda daha önceden herhangi bir çal??ma yap?lmamas?, bu ?ekillerin nas?l ve ne ?ekilde de?erlendirilebilece?inin ortaya ç?kar?lmas? bak?m?ndan önemlidir. Ayr?ca sivri doruklu lapya kompleksleri sahan?n jeomorfolojik geli?imi hakk?nda önemli ipuçlar? vermesi yönüyle de dikkate de?er olu?umlard?r.Çal??ma yöntem olarak daha çok arazi çal??malar?na dayanmaktad?r. Materyal olarak ise 1/25.000 ölçekli ANTAKYA P36-d3 topografya haritas? ve ilgili literatürden elde edilen çe?itli ölçeklerdeki jeoloji haritalar? kullan?lm??t?r. Bütün bu materyallerden istifade ederek konuyu daha anla??l?r bir ?ekilde sunmak amac?yla da CBS (Co?rafi Bilgi Sistemleri yard?m?yla yeni haritalar olu?turulmu?tur. Ayr?ca yerel halkla görü?meler yap?lm??t?r.Sivri doruklu lapya komplekslerinin sahan?n litolojik, klimatik ve jeomorfolojik özelliklerinin ortak etkisinin sonucunda meydana geldi?i tespit edilmi?tir. Bu ?ekiller peribacas? de?ildir. Bütünüyle hem flüvyal, hem de karstik etmen ve süreçlerin denetiminde olu?mu? ?ekillerdir. Bu ?ekillere her yerde rastlan?lmamas? onlar? daha da de?erli yapmaktad?r. Ender rastlanan bu ve benzeri ?ekillerin eko turizm veya jeomorfoturizm bak?m?ndan önemi büyüktür. Bu nedenle ?ekillerin bulundu?u alan?n jeopark veya jeomorfosit gibi koruma statülerinden birine dahil edilmesi hem ?ekillerin korunmas?, hem de sürdürülebilir turizm faaliyetleri bak?m?ndan yararl? olacakt?r.

Emre ÖZ?AH?N

2013-07-01

354

Employment impacts of solar energy in Turkey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Solar energy is considered a key source for the future, not only for Turkey, also for all of the world. Therefore the development and usage of solar energy technologies are increasingly becoming vital for sustainable economic development. The main objective of this study is investigating the employment effects of solar energy industry in Turkey. Some independent reports and studies, which analyze the economic and employment impacts of solar energy industry in the world have been reviewed. A wide range of methods have been used in those studies in order to calculate and to predict the employment effects. Using the capacity targets of the photovoltaic (PV) and concentrated solar power (CSP) plants in the solar Roadmap of Turkey, the prediction of the direct and indirect employment impacts to Turkey's economy is possible. As a result, solar energy in Turkey would be the primary source of energy demand and would have a big employment effects on the economics. That can only be achieved with the support of governmental feed-in tariff policies of solar energy and by increasing research-development funds. - Highlights: ? The objective of the study, is investigating employment effects of solar energy. ? Using the capacity targets of the PV and CSP plants in solar roadmap of Turkey. ? Direct employment has been calculated by constructing of the solar power plant. ? If multiplier effect is accepted as 2, total employment will be doubled. ? Validity of the figures depen ? Validity of the figures depends on the government's policies.

355

Solar boilers 1995. Five years solar boiler campaign  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An overview is given of the activities and the results of Marketing Communication Strategy for Solar Water Heaters in the Netherlands, carried out within the framework of the 1990-1994 National Research Program Thermal Solar Energy (NOZ-th) of the Netherlands Agency for Energy and the Environment (NOVEM). Subsequently attention is paid to the sales, the manufacturers and their products, public information activities and reactions from the consumers, the marketing activities of energy distribution companies, the role of installers, local governments and the building construction industry, and market developments. 24 figs., 21 ills., 5 tabs., 18 refs., 2 appendices

356

Double mirror polyheliostat solar furnace of 1000 kW thermal power  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The optical-energetic scheme, construction and performance of a double mirror polyheliostat solar furnace of 1000 kW thermal power are outlined and first results of material synthesis in this solar furnace are reported. (orig.).

Riskiev, T.T.; Suleimanov, S.K.H. (Uzbek Academy of Sciences, Scientific Association ' Physics Sun' , Tashkent (USSR))

1991-12-01

357

Direct solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to evaluate the feasibility of the solar pumped dye laser, the parametric study of a dye laser amplifier pumped by a solar simulator and flashlamp was carried out, and the amplifier gains were measured at various pump beam irradiances on the dye cell. Rhodamine 6G was considered as a candidate for the solar pumped laser because of its good utilization of the solar spectrum and high quantum efficiency. The measurement shows that a solar concentration of 20,000 is required to reach the threshold of the dye. The work to construct a kinetic model algorithm which predicts the output parameter of laser was progressed. The kinetic model was improved such that there is good agreement between the theoretical model and experimental data for the systems defined previously as flashlamp pumped laser oscillator, and the long path length solar pumped laser.

Han, Kwang S.; Kim, K. H.; Stock, L. V.

1986-01-01

358

Review of solar-energy drying systems 2: an overview of solar drying technology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A comprehensive review of the various designs, details of construction and operational principles of the wide variety of practically-realised designs of solar-energy drying systems reported previously is presented. A systematic approach for the classification of solar-energy dryers has been evolved. Two generic groups of solar-energy dryers can be identified, viz passive or natural-circulation solar-energy dryers and active or forced-convection solar-energy dryers (often referred to as hybrid solar dryers). Three sub-groups of these can also be identified, viz integral-type (direct mode), distributed-type (indirect mode) and the mixed-mode type. The appropriateness of each design type for application by rural farmers in developing countries is discussed. Some very recent developments in solar drying technology are highlighted. (author)

Ekechukwu, O.V. [University of Nigeria, Nsukka (Nigeria). Energy Research Centre; Norton, B. [University of Ulster, Newtownabbey (United Kingdom). PROBE

1999-04-01

359

Constructal theory of global circulation and climate  

OpenAIRE

The constructal law states that every flow system evolves in time so that it develops the flow architecture that maximizes flow access under the constraints posed to the flow. Earlier applications of the constructal law recommended it as a self-standing law that is distinct from the second law of thermodynamics. In this paper, we develop a model of heat transport on the earth surface that accounts for the solar and terrestrial radiation as the heat source and heat sink and with natur...

Reis, A. Heitor; Bejan, A.

2006-01-01

360

Skin Problems in Construction  

Science.gov (United States)

Skin Problems in Construction Hazard Alert Some construction materials can cause serious problems if they get on your ... a whole work shift. If you have a skin problem that won’t go away, see a doctor. ...

361

Geometry Construction Reference  

Science.gov (United States)

The basics of compass and straightedge construction, with notes about The Instruments and What is a construction? Construct the perpendicular bisector or the midpoint of a line segment; given a point on a line, construct a perpendicular line through the given point; given a point not on a line, construct a perpendicular line through the given point; construct the bisector of an angle; an angle congruent to a given angle; a line through a given point, parallel to a given line; an equilateral triangle or a 60-degree angle; divide a line segment into n congruent line segments; construct a line through a given point tangent to a given circle; construct the center point of a given circle; a circle through three given points; circumscribe a circle about a given triangle; inscribe a circle in a given triangle.

Math Forum

2001-01-01

362

Solar oscillations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Amongst all stars observed to pulsate, the Sun has by far the largest number and variety of modes of oscillation. This presents a unique opportunity to apply and test stellar oscillation theory. To match the observational accuracy, very precise calculations of oscillation frequencies are needed. Asymptotic methods have proved useful in the analysis and interpretation of the frequencies. The results provide tight constraints on solar models; they may also enable a direct determination of properties of the solar interior. There are difficulties in reconciling the amplitudes obtained in Doppler velocity with those observed in the apparent position of the solar limb. The excitation of the oscillations is so far not well understood, although it is probable that the interaction between pulsation and convection plays an important role. (orig.)

363

Solar Irradiance: Observations, Proxies, and Models (Invited)  

Science.gov (United States)

Solar irradiance has been measured from space for more than thirty years. Variations in total (spectrally integrated) solar irradiance associated with the Sun's 11-year activity cycle and 27-day rotation are now well characterized. But the magnitude, and even the sign, of spectral irradiance changes at near ultraviolet, visible and near infrared wavelengths, remain uncertain on time scales longer than a few months. Drifts in the calibration of the instruments that measure solar irradiance and incomplete understanding of the causes of irradiance variations preclude specification of multi-decadal solar irradiance variations with any confidence, including whether, or not, irradiance levels were lower during the 2008-2009 anomalously low solar activity minimum than in prior minima. The ultimate cause of solar irradiance variations is the Sun's changing activity, driven by a sub-surface dynamo that generates magnetic features called sunspots and faculae, which respectively deplete and enhance the net radiative output. Solar activity also alters parameters that have been measured from the ground for longer periods and with greater stability than the solar irradiance datasets. The longest and most stable such record is the Sun's irradiance at 10.7 cm in the radio spectrum, which is used frequently as a proxy indicator of solar irradiance variability. Models have been developed that relate the solar irradiance changes - both total and spectral - evident in extant databases to proxies chosen to best represent the sunspot darkening and facular brightening influences. The proxy models are then used to reconstruct solar irradiance variations at all wavelengths on multi-decadal time scales, for input to climate and atmospheric model simulations that seek to quantity the Sun's contribution to Earth's changing environment. This talk provides an overview of solar total and spectral irradiance observations and their relevant proxies, describes the formulation and construction of proxy models of solar irradiance variability, compares the observed and modeled irradiance variations on multiple time scales, and illustrates terrestrial applications of solar irradiance variability models.

Lean, J.

2013-12-01

364

Impersonal constructions in Mazandarani  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this article is to investigate impersonal constructions in the Sari and Ziyarat dialects ofMazandarani, a language spoken in the north of Iran. The language data used in this study are oral narratives,stories, and ethnographic texts.Kitagawa (1990), Blevins (2003), and Siewierska (2008) are among those general linguists who havepaid attention to this type of construction in recent years. Siewierska (2008: 3) defines impersonal constructionsas “subjectless constructions, construct...

Shokri, Guiti

2010-01-01

365

DUALPURPOSE SOLAR OVEN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dual purpose solar oven (DPSO was designed and constructed. It observed that by using the new design of solar oven, both function of cooking and drying were possible for meeting the requirement of a family. The maximum stagnation temperature of 119°C and water temperature of 93.25°C were obtained in winter in DPSO while using as cooker. The calculated values of figure of merit F in DPSO was 0.119 and the time duration 1 for raising water temperature from 60 C to 90°C in hot box was 120 min. Cooking trials have also been conducted 0.5 kg of rice in 1 kg of water and 0.250 Kg of green gram split washed in one and half hrs in winter while it took about one hour in summer. The maximum temperature of 58 °C was recorded at 14:00 hrs of the day at level of tray no.2 when used as dryer. The time required to dry maize on different trays upto average moisture content 7.13 %( w.w. for winter and 5.43 %( w.w. for summer (w.w.was 420 minute and 360 minute respectively. The total cost of solar oven was worked out to be Rs(.2,715. Its pay back period varied between 1.3 to 1.86 years depending upon fuel it replaced.

S. H. Sengar

2010-10-01

366

Solar lighting  

CERN Document Server

Limited availability of grid-based electricity is a major challenge faced by many developing countries, particularly the rural population. Fuel-based lighting, such as the kerosene lantern, is widespread in these areas, but it is a poor alternative, contributing to global warming and causing serious health problems. Several developing countries are therefore now encouraging the use of sustainable lighting. ""Solar Lighting"" gives an in-depth analysis of energy-efficient light production through the use of solar-powered LED systems. The authors pay particular attention to the interplay between

Pode, Ramchandra

2011-01-01

367

Solar Neutrinos  

OpenAIRE

The Sun is a powerful neutrino source that can be used to study the physical properties of neutrinos and, at the same time, neutrinos are a unique tool to probe the interior of the Sun. For these reasons, solar neutrino physics is both fundamental neutrino and solar physics. In this paper we summarize shortly the main results of the last three decades and then focus on the new results produced by running experiments. We also give a short look at already funded or proposed ne...

Pallavicini, Marco

2009-01-01

368

Solar club  

CERN Multimedia

SOLAR CLUB Le  CERN-Solar-Club souhaite une  très bonne année 2013 à tous les Cernois et Cernoises, et remercie encore une fois  tous ceux et celles qui, fin octobre, par leur vote, nous ont permis de finir dans les 5 premiers du concours "Conforama Solidaire" et ainsi financer nôtre projet "énergie solaire et eau potable pour Kilela Balanda" en République Démocratique du Congo (voir : http://www.confo.ch/solidarite/?lang=fr). Nous vous annoncons également notre Assemblée Générale Annuelle jeudi 21 février à 18 h 00 Salle C, 1er étage, Bât. 61 Vous êtes les bienvenus si vous souhaitez en savoir un peu plus sur les énergies renouvelables.

Solar club

2013-01-01

369

CONSTRUCTION PROJECT MANAGEMENT  

OpenAIRE

This work tries to define and present the characteristics and of project management and construction projects. One can find arguments for the need to use project management in the construction industry and the main management procedures making the essence of construction project management.

LOREDANA HEDRE

2009-01-01

370

Analysis of Shiraz Solar Thermal Power Plant Response Time  

OpenAIRE

Shiraz pilot solar thermal power plant is the first Iranian solar power plant constructed near the city of Shiraz, Iran. The main purpose of constructing this pilot plant was to acquire the technology of developing parabolic trough solar thermal power plants for future energy production from solar energy. This plant consists of 48 parabolic trough collectors; each one has 25m long and 3.4 m wide. The plant consists of two cycles, oil heat absorbing cycle and steam production cycle. The plant ...

Azizian, K.; Yaghoubi, M.; Niknia, I.; Kanan, P.

2013-01-01

371

Solar preheated ventilation -- innovative solar technology. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Many installations such as shops, garages, hangers, offices, and residential buildings face the problem of heating ventilation air during the cold season. Solar Walls are efficient, reliable, zero maintenance, solar air preheaters that offer many opportunities for Navy facilities to save money on their annual energy bill. This innovative technology applies to both new construction or rehabilitation projects. This TDS introduces this low maintenance solar technology for consideration in all future industrial ventilation or HVAC projects. Preheating saves energy. Currently, two preheating alternatives exist: heat recovery wheels and solar wall preheaters. The solar wall consists of dark metal siding with small holes set off a few inches from the south wall of the building. The siding is sealed at its edges so that a fan can withdraw heated air from the space between the siding and the wall. The heated layer of outside air touching the solar wall is drawn through the small holes into the space behind the siding. Once inside this space, the air is further heated because of continued contact with the hot siding. A 40 deg F air temperature rise is typical. A fan, usually near the top of the solar wall, draws the warmed air from this space and distributes it through the space to be ventilated. Frequently it is distributed through inflated fabric ducts with holes in the side that emit the warmed air into the hot stratified air trapped near the ceiling of the building, causing circulation of the warmed air, a beneficial destratification effect. In a combined effort, the solar wall concept was recently developed by Conserval Systems, Inc., and personnel at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado. Extensive research into optimizing the performance of the concept and the development of design criteria and procedures were conducted at both NREL and Conserval.

Gaberson, H.; Do, T.

1999-02-01

372

The Solar System  

Science.gov (United States)

What are the parts of our solar system? Let's learn about the parts of our Solar System! First, use the Solar System Chart Now read the Introduction to the Solar System and begin filling out the Solar System Chart by listing one fact for each planet. Now watch the Video 1 on the Solar System and fill out one characteristic about each planet in our Solar System. Now read the Facts about the Solar System and find ...

kathrynbyers

2012-04-05

373

Use of the solar and eolic energy in the drying of bean seed at rural level  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The drying is a camera through which is made pass air heated in a solar collector, by means of a rotational fan impelled by the wind. The dryer is wooden and the zinc consists of five levels where the trays are deposited that contain the product. In the end of the chimney placed above the drying camera this the fan that is a rotor of corrugate fins; when rotating under the action of the wind it extracts air of the ventilation chimney; in the periods that the wind doesn't blow the drying it happens for natural convention. In the collector the badge absorbent is zinc colored corrugate of black; the mark is wooden, isolated in its inferior part with icopor and the cover a sheet of plastic. To evaluate the dryer they were carried out four drying rehearsals with seed of bean variety Calima. One observes that the bean drying with this dryer type is feasible even with cloudy or partially cloudy sky. The drying was satisfactory with the two loads of 200 and 400 kg. With the flow of air through the trays and for the load of 210 kg with flow around them; being the drying uniform for this it finishes. The quality of the seeds was not affected in the drying coke superior temperatures they were presented to 43-centigrade degrees. The dryer can adapt to individual necessities and conditions you specify of operation. It is recommended to carry out rehearsals for other agricultural products that allow knowing the capacity and functionality from the dryer to property levelom the dryer to property level

374

A passive solar system for thermal comfort conditioning of buildings in composite climates  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Passive solar heating is a well established concept in cold climates, but passive systems which provide heating, cooling and ventilation depending on the season are less common. Some of the known systems in this category are: Sky-Therm, earth-air tunnel, the Silvestrini Bell, and the Barra-Constantini System, which are applicable in composite climates. Large areas of the Central and Northern India have a composite climate, which includes hot-dry, hot-humid and cold climatic conditions. The present paper describes the development of a solar passive system, which can provide thermal comfort throughout the year in composite climates. In the first phase, passive model 1 comprising two sets of solar chimneys was developed and monitored for its performance for 1 complete calendar year. Based on the feedback and experience, an improved version of model 2 was developed. In model 2 both the trombe wall and sack cloth cooling concepts were incorporated, in order to make it more effective and also to give it a more compact and aesthetic appearance. Detailed system descriptions along with year-round performance data are given in this paper. (Author)

Raman, P.; Mande, Sanjay; Kishore, V.V.N. [Tata Energy Research Inst., New Delhi (India)

2001-07-01

375

Ring constructions and applications  

CERN Document Server

This book contains the definitions of several ring constructions used in various applications. The concept of a groupoid-graded ring includes many of these constructions as special cases and makes it possible to unify the exposition. Recent research results on groupoid-graded rings and more specialized constructions are presented. In addition, there is a chapter containing open problems currently considered in the literature. Ring Constructions and Applications can serve as an excellent introduction for graduate students to many ring constructions as well as to essential basic concepts of grou

Kelarev, Andrei V

2001-01-01

376

Solar Neutrinos  

CERN Document Server

Solar neutrino investigation has represented one of the most active field of particle physics over the past decade, accumulating important and sometimes unexpected achievements. After reviewing some of the most recent impressive successes, the future perspectives of this exciting area of neutrino research will be discussed.

Bellini, G.; Ranucci, G.

2010-01-01

377

Photovoltaic assisted solar drying system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A photovoltaic assisted solar drying system has been constructed at the Solar Energy Research Park, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. This drying system uses a custom designed parallel flow V-groove type collector. A fan powered by photovoltaic source assists the air flow through the drying system. A funnel with increasing diameter towards the top with ventilator turbine is incorporated into the system to facilitate the air flow during the absence of photovoltaic energy source. This drying system is designed with high efficiency and portability in mind so that it can readily be used at plantation sites where the crops are harvested or produced. A daily mean efficiency about 44% with mean air flow rate 0.16 kgs-1 has been achieved at mean daily radiation intensity of 800 Wm-2. daily mean temperature of air drying chamber under the above conditions is 46 oC. Study has shown that the air flow and air temperature increase with the increase of solar radiation intensity. On a bright sunny day with instantaneous solar intensity about 600 Wm-2, the temperature of air entering the drying chamber of 45 oC has been measured. In the absence of photovoltaic or in natural convection flow, the instantaneous efficiency decreased when solar radiation increased. The instantaneous efficiency recorded are 35% and 27% respectively at 570 Wm-2 and 745 Wm-2 of solar radiation. The temperature of drying chamber for th. The temperature of drying chamber for the same amount of solar radiation are 42 oC and 48 oC respectively. Thus, the solar dryer shows a great potential for application in drying process of agricultural produce

378

Solar Technology Center  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Department of Energy, Golden Field Office, awarded a grant to the UNLV Research Foundation (UNLVRF) on August 1, 2005 to develop a solar and renewable energy information center. The Solar Technology Center (STC) is to be developed in two phases, with Phase I consisting of all activities necessary to determine feasibility of the project, including design and engineering, identification of land access issues and permitting necessary to determine project viability without permanently disturbing the project site, and completion of a National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Environmental Assessment. Phase II is the installation of infrastructure and related structures, which leads to commencement of operations of the STC. The STC is located in the Boulder City designated 3,000-acre Eldorado Valley Energy Zone, approximately 15 miles southwest of downtown Boulder City and fronting on Eldorado Valley Drive. The 33-acre vacant parcel has been leased to the Nevada Test Site Development Corporation (NTSDC) by Boulder City to accommodate a planned facility that will be synergistic with present and planned energy projects in the Zone. The parcel will be developed by the UNLVRF. The NTSDC is the economic development arm of the UNLVRF. UNLVRF will be the entity responsible for overseeing the lease and the development project to assure compliance with the lease stipulations established by Boulder City. The STC will be operated and maintained by University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV) and its Center for Energy Research (UNLV-CER). Land parcels in the Eldorado Valley Energy Zone near the 33-acre lease are committed to the construction and operation of an electrical grid connected solar energy production facility. Other projects supporting renewable and solar technologies have been developed within the energy zone, with several more developments in the horizon.

Boehm, Bob

2011-04-27

379

Concentrating solar thermal power.  

Science.gov (United States)

In addition to wind and photovoltaic power, concentrating solar thermal power (CSP) will make a major contribution to electricity provision from renewable energies. Drawing on almost 30 years of operational experience in the multi-megawatt range, CSP is now a proven technology with a reliable cost and performance record. In conjunction with thermal energy storage, electricity can be provided according to demand. To date, solar thermal power plants with a total capacity of 1.3 GW are in operation worldwide, with an additional 2.3 GW under construction and 31.7 GW in advanced planning stage. Depending on the concentration factors, temperatures up to 1000°C can be reached to produce saturated or superheated steam for steam turbine cycles or compressed hot gas for gas turbine cycles. The heat rejected from these thermodynamic cycles can be used for sea water desalination, process heat and centralized provision of chilled water. While electricity generation from CSP plants is still more expensive than from wind turbines or photovoltaic panels, its independence from fluctuations and daily variation of wind speed and solar radiation provides it with a higher value. To become competitive with mid-load electricity from conventional power plants within the next 10-15 years, mass production of components, increased plant size and planning/operating experience will be accompanied by technological innovations. On 30 October 2009, a number of major industrial companies joined forces to establish the so-called DESERTEC Industry Initiative, which aims at providing by 2050 15 per cent of European electricity from renewable energy sources in North Africa, while at the same time securing energy, water, income and employment for this region. Solar thermal power plants are in the heart of this concept. PMID:23816910

Müller-Steinhagen, Hans

2013-08-13

380

Universal solar energy desalination system  

Science.gov (United States)

Design considerations to allow site-dependent flexibility in the choice of solar/wind powered desalinization plant configurations are discussed. A prototype design was developed for construction of 6300 cu m per day brackish water treatment in Brownsville, TX. The water is treated to reduce the amount of suspended solids and prevent scaling. A reverse osmosis unit processes the treated liquid to recover water at a ratio of 90%. The power system comprises a parabolic trough solar thermal system with an organic Rankine cycle generator, rock-oil thermal storage, and 200 kW wind turbines. Analysis of the complementarity of the solar and wind subsystems indicates that at any site one system will supplement the other. Energy storage, e.g., battery banks, would increase system costs to unacceptable levels. Climatic conditions will significantly influence the sizing of each segment of the total power system.

Fusco, V. S.

381

3-D Structure of the Slave and Rae Cratons Provides Clues to Their Construction  

Science.gov (United States)

Deep geologic structures within cratons that make up continental cores were long neglected. Recently acquired geophysical data from large observational arrays and geochemical data resulting from exploration for diamond has now made possible co-registration of large-scale (400-km depth), truly 3-dimensional data sets. P-waves, surface waves and magnetotelluric observations provide 3-D wavespeed and conductivity models. Multi-azimuthal receiver functions map seismic discontinuity surfaces in 3-D. Xenolith suites erupted in kimberlites provide rock samples at key lithospheric depths, albeit at sparsely distributed locations. These multi-disciplinary models are becoming available for several key cratons worldwide; here the deep structure of the Slave and Rae cratons of the Canadian Shield is described. Lithospheric layers with tapered, wedge-shaped margins are common. Slave craton layers are sub-horizontal and indicate construction of the craton core at 2.7 Ga by underthrusting and flat stacking of lithosphere. The central Rae craton has predominantly dipping discontinuities that indicate construction at 1.9 Ga by thrusting similar to that observed in crustal ';thick-skinned' fold-and-thrust belts. 3-D mapping of conductivity and metasomatism, the latter via mineral recrystallization and resetting of isotopic ages, overprints primary structures in both cratons. Distribution of more conductivitve mantle suggests that assumed causative pervasive metasomatism occurs at 100-200 km depths with ';chimneys' reaching to shallower depths, typically in locations where kimberlites or mineralization has occurred.

Snyder, D. B.

2013-12-01

382

Build and Test a Model Solar House  

Science.gov (United States)

Construct and measure the energy efficiency and solar heat gain of a cardboard model house. Use a light bulb heater to imitate a real furnace and a temperature sensor to monitor and regulate the internal temperature of the house. Use a bright bulb in a gooseneck lamp to model sunlight at different times of the year, and test the effectiveness of windows for passive solar heating.

The Concord Consortium

2012-05-16

383

Existing and potential market for residential solar energy use in California  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Research findings are reported on a four-part solar market survey program which identified barriers for residential solar energy use in California. The approach and the framework for analysis are described for the survey program. Summaries and discussions are presented on survey data from solar retrofitters; new construction solar home market and buyers; focus groups of non-solar homeowners; and a statewide survey. (MCW)

Rains, D.

1980-01-01

384

Construction time of PWRs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The construction time of PWRs is studied considering published data about nuclear power plants in the world. For the 268 PWRs in operation in 2010, the mode of the construction time distribution is around 5–6 years, and 80% of the plants were built in less than 120 months. To circumvent the problem of comparing plants with different size we normalized the construction time to plants with 1 GW. We restricted the analysis to 201 PWRs which suffered less from external factors that were beyond the control of the management from 1965 to 2010. The results showed that the normalized construction time did not increase over the years and nor with the plants’ gross power level. The learning rate of the industry regarding normalized construction times showed a reduction with 95% confidence level of about 0.56±0.07 months for each 10 GW of installed capacity. Over the years the normalized construction time decreased and became more predictable. The data showed that countries with more centralized regulatory, construction and operation environments were able to build PWRs in shorter times. Countries less experienced with the nuclear technology built PWRs in longer times. - Highlights: ? The construction time of PWRs is analyzed based on historical data. ? Different factors affecting construction time are considered in the analyses. ? The normalized construction time of PWRs decreased with time and gross power level. ? Countries with more centralized institutions built PWRs more quickly

385

A Dark Sun Rising - Its a Solar Wrap  

Science.gov (United States)

The structure of a solar mass star artificially induced into an isothermal state is examined. The process is imagined to form part of a possible large-scale, solar engineering project that our distant descendents might attempt to perform in order to stave- off the Sun's future red giant phase. It is found that stable, solar-mass, isothermal configurations having radii between 2 and 10 solar radii with no internal energy generation through nuclear fusion reactions can be constructed. It is suggested that future humanity might choose to inhabit the outer surface of a solar wrap and tap the thermal energy of the isothermal Sun as a long- lived power supply.

Beech, M.

386

Collecting Solar Energy. Solar Energy Education Project.  

Science.gov (United States)

This solar energy learning module for use with junior high school students offers a list of activities, a pre-post test, job titles, basic solar energy vocabulary, and diagrams of solar energy collectors and installations. The purpose is to familiarize students with applications of solar energy and titles of jobs where this knowledge could be…

O'Brien, Alexander

387

MHD solar fluctuations and solar neutrinos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available We analyze how solar neutrino experiments could detect time fluctuations of the solar neutrino flux due to magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) perturbations of the solar plasma. We state that if such time fluctuations are detected, this would provide a unique signature of the Resonant Spin-Flavor Precession ( [...] RSFP) mechanism as a solution to the Solar Neutrino Problem.

N., Reggiani; M.M., Guzzo; P.C. de, Holanda.

2003-12-01

388

Constructing Student Problems in Phylogenetic Tree Construction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Evolution is often equated with natural selection and is taught from a primarily functional perspective while comparative and historical approaches, which are critical for developing an appreciation of the power of evolutionary theory, are often neglected. This report describes a study of expert problem-solving in phylogenetic tree construction.…

Brewer, Steven D.

389

ACCELERATING CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT  

OpenAIRE

The needs for construction industry development are initially viewed from the broader perspectives of imperatives for infrastructure development and national development. All these are clearly more critical in developing countries. A non-exhaustive set of potential drivers and common barriers to construction industry development is identified from previous research. These suggest the usefulness of consolidating a cluster of recent proposals and exercises aiming at (a) construction organizatio...

Kumaraswamy, Mohan M.

2006-01-01

390

Construction and Demolition Waste  

OpenAIRE

Construction and demolition waste (C&D waste) is the waste generated during the building, repair, remodeling or removal of constructions. The constructions can be roads, residential housing and nonresidential buildings. C&D waste has traditionally been considered without any environmental problems and has just been landfilled. However, in recent years more focus has been put on C&D waste and data are starting to appear. One reason is that it has been recognized that C&D waste may ...

Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Andersen, L.

2010-01-01

391

Solar neutrino with Borexino: results and perspectives  

CERN Document Server

Borexino is a unique detector able to perform measurement of solar neutrinos fluxes in the energy region around 1 MeV or below due to its low level of radioactive background. It was constructed at the LNGS underground laboratory with a goal of solar $^{7}$Be neutrino flux measurement with 5\\% precision. The goal has been successfully achieved marking the end of the first stage of the experiment. A number of other important measurements of solar neutrino fluxes have been performed during the first stage. Recently the collaboration conducted successful liquid scintillator repurification campaign aiming to reduce main contaminants in the sub-MeV energy range. With the new levels of radiopurity Borexino can improve existing and challenge a number of new measurements including: improvement of the results on the Solar and terrestrial neutrino fluxes measurements; measurement of pp and CNO solar neutrino fluxes; search for non-standard interactions of neutrino; study of the neutrino oscillations on the short baselin...

Smirnov, O; Benziger, J; Bick, D; Bonfini, G; Bravo, D; Caccianiga, B; Calaprice, F; Caminata, A; Cavalcante, P; Chavarria, A; Chepurnov, A; D'Angelo, D; Davini, S; Derbin, A; Empl, A; Etenko, A; Fomenko, K; Franco, D; Fiorentini, G; Galbiati, C; Gazzana, S; Ghiano, C; Giammarchi, M; Goeger-Neff, M; Goretti, A; Hagner, C; Hungerford, E; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Kobychev, V; Korablev, D; Korga, G; Kryn, D; Laubenstein, M; Lehnert, B; Lewke, T; Litvinovich, E; Lombardi, F; Lombardi, P; Ludhova, L; Lukyanchenko, G; Machulin, I; Manecki, S; Maneschg, W; Mantovani, F; Marcocci, S; Meindl, Q; Meroni, E; Meyer, M; Miramonti, L; Misiaszek, M; Mosteiro, P; Muratova, V; Oberauer, L; Obolensky, M; Ortica, F; Otis, K; Pallavicini, M; Papp, L; Perasso, L; Pocar, A; Ranucci, G; Razeto, A; Re, A; Ricci, B; Romani, A; Rossi, N; Saldanha, R; Salvo, C; Schoenert, S; Simgen, H; Skorokhvatov, M; Sotnikov, A; Sukhotin, S; Suvorov, Y; Tartaglia, R; Testera, G; Vignaud, D; Vogelaar, R B; von Feilitzsch, F; Wang, H; Winter, J; Wojcik, M; Wright, A; Wurm, M; Zaimidoroga, O; Zavatarelli, S; Zuber, K; Zuzel, G

2014-01-01

392

Mini-Optics Solar Energy Concentrator  

CERN Document Server

This invention deals with the broad general concept for focussing light. A mini-optics tracking and focussing system is presented for solar power conversion that ranges from an individual's portable system to solar conversion of electrical power that can be used in large scale power plants for environmentally clean energy. It can be rolled up, transported, and attached to existing man-made, or natural structures. It allows the solar energy conversion system to be low in capital cost and inexpensive to install as it can be attached to existing structures since it does not require the construction of a superstructure of its own. This novel system is uniquely distinct and different from other solar tracking and focussing processes allowing it to be more economical and practical. Furthermore, in its capacity as a power producer, it can be utilized with far greater safety, simplicity, economy, and efficiency in the conversion of solar energy.

Davidson, M; Davidson, Mark; Rabinowitz, Mario

2003-01-01

393

The engineering analysis of solar radiation  

Science.gov (United States)

A necessary precursor to construction of well-designed, efficient, and economically viable solar energy systems is the engineering analysis not only of the systems themselves but also of the solar radiation that will drive them. This paper presents the first steps in such an analysis to support the design of solar thermal power systems. A rationale for development of an integrated approach to this analysis is outlined, and elements of the approach are described. A dynamic computer simulation of a conceptual system was employed in an initial sensitivity analysis to explore how performance estimates might be affected by the precision and amount of detail in solar radiation data used as model input. A measurement program, including instrumentation, used to characterize precisely and in detail the solar resource at one location is described as is a probabilistic model derived from it, for predicting insolation as a function of time.

Reid, M. S.; Hamilton, C. L.; Hester, O. V.

1978-01-01

394

Outlook for solar water heaters in Taiwan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The share of indigenous energy supply continuously decreases over the last two decades in Taiwan. The development and use of renewable energy sources and technologies are becoming vital for the management of energy supply and demand. For promotion of solar water heaters, the incentive programs were firstly initiated in the period of 1986-1991 and re-initiated from 2000 to the present. These programs create an economic incentive for the end users and have a drastic effect on the popularization of solar water heaters. To further promote solar water heaters during the current incentive program period, several key factors are addressed. In addition to the cost of solar water heaters and energy price index, the potential market of solar water heaters in Taiwan is associated with the climatic conditions, population structure, urbanization, building type of housing and status of new construction. (author)

395

Outlook for solar water heaters in Taiwan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The share of indigenous energy supply continuously decreases over the last two decades in Taiwan. The development and use of renewable energy sources and technologies are becoming vital for the management of energy supply and demand. For promotion of solar water heaters, the incentive programs were firstly initiated in the period of 1986-1991 and re-initiated from 2000 to the present. These programs create an economic incentive for the end users and have a drastic effect on the popularization of solar water heaters. To further promote solar water heaters during the current incentive program period, several key factors are addressed. In addition to the cost of solar water heaters and energy price index, the potential market of solar water heaters in Taiwan is associated with the climatic conditions, population structure, urbanization, building type of housing and status of new construction

396

Direct solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier  

Science.gov (United States)

The improvement on the collection system of the Tarmarack Solar Simulator beam was attemped. The basic study of evaluating the solid state laser materials for the solar pumping and also the work to construct a kinetic model algorithm for the flashlamp pumped iodine lasers were carried out. It was observed that the collector cone worked better than the lens assembly in order to collect the solar simulator beam and to focus it down to a strong power density. The study on the various laser materials and their lasing characteristics shows that the neodymium and chromium co-doped gadolinium scandium gallium garnet (Nr:Cr:GSGG) may be a strong candidate for the high power solar pumped solid state laser crystal. On the other hand the improved kinetic modeling for the flashlamp pumped iodine laser provides a good agreement between the theoretical model and the experimental data on the laser power output, and predicts the output parameters of a solar pumped iodine laser.

Han, Kwang S.; Kim, K. H.; Stock, L. V.

1987-01-01

397

Solar Club  

CERN Multimedia

Le CERN Solar-Club vous invite à la présentation de sa participation dans : The Cyprus Institute Solar Car Challenge du 18 au 20 juin à Chypre . en réponse à l’invitation dudit institut, dans le cadre de la demande de Chypre pour joindre le CERN . Le Club y participera avec son vénérable Photon rénové , et la Dyane E-Solaire d’un de ses membres, rénové aussi . Après la présentation, le forum est ouvert pour toutes vos questions et propositions diverses, également dans d’autres domaines des énergies renouvelables . C’est aussi l’occasion pour joindre le Club ! Où, et Quand ? Le Mercredi 7 Avril à 19 h 00, au 6ème étage du Bât. Principal, (60-6-015) à la suite de l’AG des membres du Club , à 18h00 dans...

Solar Club

2010-01-01

398

Solar quilt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A flexible quilt collects and absorbs solar energy, and transfers heat to the underlying ground, water or other medium. It includes insulating gas-tight compartments which are located between an upper film and a lower film. The upper film has a high transmissability of ultraviolet and infrared energy directed downwardly therethrough, and it is reflective of infrared energy impinging on its lower surfaces. The lower film is absorbtive of solar energy and is modified to enhance the thermal conductivity through its thickness. To promote heat transfer to the underlying medium, the lower film is deformed to increase its surface area, a plurality of downward projections extending from each area of the lower film associated with each gas-tight compartment.

Wilson, G.E.

1984-01-24

399

Fisica solare  

CERN Document Server

Il volume è un'introduzione alla Fisica Solare che si propone lo scopo di illustrare alla persona che intende avvicinarsi a questa disciplina (studenti, dottori di ricerca, ricercatori) i meccanismi fisici che stanno alla base della complessa fenomenologia osservata sulla stella a noi più vicina. Il volume non ha la pretesa di essere esauriente (basta pensare che la fisica solare spazia su un gran numero di discipline, quali la Fisica Nucleare, la Termodinamica, L'Elettrodinamica, la Fisica Atomica e Molecolare, la Spettoscopia in tutte le bande dello spettro elettromagnetico, la Magnetoidrodinamica, la Fisica del Plasma, lo sviluppo di nuova strumentazione, l'Ottica, ecc.). Piuttosto, sono stati scelti un numero di argomenti di rilevanza fondamentale nello studio presente del Sole (soprattutto nei riguardi delle osservazioni da terra con grandi telescopi) e su tali argomenti si è cercato di dare una panoramica generale, inclusiva dell'evoluzione storica, senza scendere in soverchi dettagli. Siccome la Fis...

Degl’Innocenti, Egidio Landi

2008-01-01

400

Solar energy thermalization and storage device  

Science.gov (United States)

A passive solar thermalization and thermal energy storage assembly which is visually transparent. The assembly consists of two substantial parallel, transparent wall members mounted in a rectangular support frame to form a liquid-tight chamber. A semitransparent thermalization plate is located in the chamber, substantially paralled to and about equidistant from the transparent wall members to thermalize solar radiation which is stored in a transparent thermal energy storage liquid which fills the chamber. A number of the devices, as modules, can be stacked together to construct a visually transparent, thermal storage wall for passive solar-heated buildings.

McClelland, John F. (Ames, IA)

1981-09-01

401

Tehachapi solar thermal system first annual report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The staff of the Southwest Technology Development Institute (SWTDI), in conjunction with the staff of Industrial Solar Technology (IST), have analyzed the performance, operation, and maintenance of a large solar process heat system in use at the 5,000 inmate California Correctional Institution (CCI) in Tehachapi, CA. This report summarizes the key design features of the solar plant, its construction and maintenance histories through the end of 1991, and the performance data collected at the plant by a dedicated on-site data acquisition system (DAS).

Rosenthal, A. [Southwest Technology Development Inst., Las Cruces, NM (US)

1993-05-01

402

A mobile apparatus for solar collector testing  

Science.gov (United States)

The design, construction, and operation of a mobile apparatus for solar collector testing (MASCOT) is described. The MASCOT is a self-contained test unit costing about $10,000 whose only external requirement for operation is electrical power and which is capable of testing two water-cooled flat-plate solar collectors simultaneously. The MASCOT is small enough and light enough to be transported to any geographical site for outdoor tests at the location of collector usage. It has been used in both indoor solar simulator tests and outdoor tests.

Hotchkiss, G. B.; Simon, F. F.; Burmeister, L. C.

1979-01-01

403

Equipment for utilization of solar energy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The equipment is used in the construction of the so-called 'solar houses'. It is compact, has short tubular connections and ensures hot water for residential needs in a short time. The equipment includes two solar collectors and accumulation volume of heated water interconnected by pipe connections and fitted in a space under the roof having the form of a parallelepiped and its four side walls are covered by black selective coatings, which directly absorb the directly falling and reflected solar rays from horizontally and vertically fitted reflector coatings

404

Construction of LDGM lattices  

CERN Document Server

Low density generator matrix (LDGM) codes have an acceptable performance under iterative decoding algorithms. This idea is used to construct a class of lattices with relatively good performance and low encoding and decoding complexity. To construct such lattices, Construction D is applied to a set of generator vectors of a class of LDGM codes. Bounds on the minimum distance and the coding gain of the corresponding lattices and a corollary for the cross sections and projections of these lattices are provided. The progressive edge growth (PEG) algorithm is used to construct a class of binary codes to generate the corresponding lattice. Simulation results confirm the acceptable performance of these class of lattices.

Mehri, Hassan

2012-01-01

405

Understanding Construction Project Relationships  

Science.gov (United States)

Throughout history major construction projects have been designed and built using many different project delivery approaches. Thus, it is important that students studying to be in construction related professions understand various project delivery options and how they may impact the design and construction of their projects. I will attempt to provide an introduction to each of the three most commonly used project delivery approaches. This information could also serve as a simple guide to help construction professionals assist owners as they decide on the approach best suited for their particular project. One objective is to make the point that there is no perfect delivery approach; each has advantages and disadvantages.

Davis, Daniel

406

Construct-a-Boat  

Science.gov (United States)

Construct-a-Boat deepens students' knowledge of principles of mass, buoyancy, friction, and acceleration. Working with a simple model powered by a battery-driven fan, students get a feel for the forces involved in moving a boat through water. To improve performance, students use their understanding of physics to analyze parameters and design a faster boat.This immersion in learning-by-doing translates abstract concepts into tangible objectives and teaches students lessons in modeling and design. The other books in the series are Construct-a-Glove, Construct-a-Catapult, and Construct-a-Greenhouse.

NSTA Press

2000-01-01

407

Solar observations  

Science.gov (United States)

High energy processes that take place in the Sun's atmosphere and the relationship of these phenomena to the basic problems of solar activity are discussed. Gamma ray emission exhibits characteristics of the conditions in regions where accelerated high energy particles interact. A number of gamma ray production mechanisms are considered. These include: the Compton effect, magnetobremsstrahlung, pi meson production by proton-proton interaction or by proton-antiproton annihilation, fission and neutral of charged particle radiative capture on inelastic scatter.

1981-01-01

408

Ca2Mg(NO3)6×12H2O-structural investigations on a new compound retrieved from chimney deposits of a combined heat and power plant  

Science.gov (United States)

Phase analysis of incrustations retrieved from chimney deposits of a combined heat and power plant in Malchow/Germany by X-ray powder diffraction gave evidence for the existence of a previously unknown hydrous calcium magnesium nitrate. Optical investigations of the sample showed the presence of colorless platy crystals with a maximum diameter of about 250 ?m embedded in a partly polycrystalline and partly glassy matrix. Aided by EDX-analysis and Raman spectroscopy, a single-crystal diffraction study performed at ambient conditions demonstrated that the material represents a phase with composition Ca2Mg(NO3)6×12H2O. Basic crystallographic data are as follows: trigonal symmetry, space group type R , a = 10.5583(5) Å, c = 19.5351(10) Å, V = 1885.97(16) Å3, Z = 3, ( R(| F|) = 0.0248). The magnesium ions are coordinated by water molecules to form distorted Mg(H2O)6-octahedra. The calcium atoms are surrounded by nine ligands. The resulting CaO9 tricapped trigonal prisms involve oxygen atoms from additional water moieties as well as from three different bidentate nitrate groups, respectively. Hydrogen bonds link one octahedron with two adjacent prisms into trimers. The trimers in turn are stacked in columns running parallel to [001]. Further hydrogen bonding between neighboring columns results in the formation of a three-dimensional network. To our best knowledge, Ca2Mg(NO3)6×12H2O represents a new structure type. However, column-like topologies with rods consisting of different types of polyhedra have been also observed in other trigonal hydrous nitrates. The structural relationships between these compounds are discussed. It is interesting to note that in previous phase equilibrium studies on the ternary system Ca(NO3)2-Mg(NO3)2-H2O no other hydrous double salt has been described. Finally, the results of the structure analysis allowed a qualitative and quantitative phase analysis of the crystalline part of the chimney deposit by the Rietveld method.

Kahlenberg, Volker; Tessadri, Richard; Tribus, Martina; Schmidmair, Daniela; Perfler, Lukas; Haefeker, Udo

2014-10-01

409

Solar chameleons  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We analyze the creation of chameleons deep inside the Sun (R?0.7Rsun) and their subsequent conversion to photons near the magnetized surface of the Sun. We find that the spectrum of the regenerated photons lies in the soft x-ray region, hence addressing the solar corona problem. Moreover, these back-converted photons originating from chameleons have an intrinsic difference with regenerated photons from axions: their relative polarizations are mutually orthogonal before Compton interacting with the surrounding plasma. Depending on the photon-chameleon coupling and working in the strong coupling regime of the chameleons to matter, we find that the induced photon flux, when regenerated resonantly with the surrounding plasma, coincides with the solar flux within the soft x-ray energy range. Moreover, using the soft x-ray solar flux as a prior, we find that with a strong enough photon-chameleon coupling, the chameleons emitted by the Sun could lead to a regenerated photon flux in the CAST magnetic pipes, which could be within the reach of CAST with upgraded detector performance. Then, axion helioscopes have thus the potential to detect and identify particle candidates for the ubiquitous dark energy in the Universe.

410

Solar flares  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this thesis an electrodynamic model for solar flares is developed. The main theoretical achievements underlying the present study are treated briefly and the observable flare parameters are described within the framework of the flare model of this thesis. The flare model predicts large induced electric fields. Therefore, acceleration processes of charged particles by direct electric fields are treated. The spectrum of the accelerated particles in strong electric fields is calculated, 3 with the electric field and the magnetic field perpendicular and in the vicinity of an X-type magnetic neutral line. An electromagnetic field configuration arises in the case of a solar flare. A rising current filament in a quiescent background bipolar magnetic field causes naturally an X-type magnetic field configuration below the filament with a strong induced electric field perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field. This field configuration drives particles and magnetic energy towards the neutral line, where a current sheet is generated. The global evolution of the fields in the flare is determined by force balance of the Lorentz forces on the filament and the force balance on the current sheet. The X-ray, optical and radio observations of a large solar flare on May 16, 1981 are analyzed. It is found that these data fit the model very well. (Auth.)

411

Solar energy reflector for steel tempering  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Solar energy is a vital source of energy. It attracted the attention of many nations. In fact two aspects promote the use of solar energy specially for the low temperature heat treatment of metal: 1- Environmental protection. 2- Economical issue. The search for the implementation of solar energy as a source remains a key issue in widening the scope of solar energy application and use in industry. This paper is an attempt to explore the feasibility and efficiency of using solar reflector in the tempering treatment of steel. A solar reflector in constructed, basically by a rolled steel plate with glass mirror strips glued to the rolled steel plate. A heating chamber is constructed at the focal site of the parabola in which small steel specimens were placed and then under the effect of solar sun shine the temperature of the specimens raise and for a period of time they were subjected to tempering. The temperature in the chamber was monitored and it was found that it reaches 110 degree centigrade in the months July and August just past middy 12:35.(Author)

412

Solar technology - A whether report  

Science.gov (United States)

Progress in the use of solar energy for producing large quantities of electrical power is assessed. The practicality of different applications of solar energy has been demonstrated, and present activity focuses on reducing production costs, enhancing efficiency, and improving reliability. Solar cell production reached 6 MW in 1982, but cuts in government research funding will delay the arrival of cost-competitive photovoltaics for commercial applications in developed countries. Research is expanding on amorphous Si cells, which are cheaper to produce while having lower efficiencies than single crystal cells. An estimated 60,000-80,000 passive solar houses have been constructed since 1978, and work is proceeding on better thermal control in the houses and more elegant storage techniques, such as long-lasting phase change materials. Industrially, a 114-unit array of parabolic concentrators producing 3 MW is providing steam for electricity and processing in a clothing factory. Tests of the 10 MWe Solar One heliostat array power plant in Barstow, CA have encouraged plans for a 100 MWe plant.

Finneran, K.

1983-03-01

413

TryEngineering: Solar Structures  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a 3-day unit for Grades 5-8 that explores principles of passive solar design as students work on teams to build a solar structure with four walls, four windows, two doors, and a roof. Learners must consider ventilation, materials choices, and orientation of the structure for optimal heat absorption. Principles of conduction, convection, and radiation are addressed in the lesson. After construction, students test their solar houses to determine how well they regulate temperature. Editor's Note: Truly passive solar designs use convection, radiation, and conduction to distribute heat. This lesson, which meets a wide array of content standards, can serve as foundation for further study of active solar design, green technologies, and photovoltaics. See Related Materials for links to the free NOVA video "Saved By the Sun", a tour of a virtual photovoltaic cell, and a short video about how a child's science fair project inspired a geophysicist to design a green CO2 capture device. This collection is part of a website maintained by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE).

2012-07-27

414

Solar Sails  

Science.gov (United States)

The Solar Sail Propulsion investment area has been one of the three highest priorities within the In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) Project. In the fall of 2003, the NASA Headquarters' Science Mission Directorate provided funding and direction to mature the technology as far as possible through ground research and development from TRL 3 to 6 in three years. A group of experts from government, industry, and academia convened in Huntsville, Alabama to define technology gaps between what was needed for science missions to the inner solar system and the current state of the art in ultra1ightweight materials and gossamer structure design. This activity set the roadmap for development. The centerpiece of the development would be the ground demonstration of scalable solar sail systems including masts, sails, deployment mechanisms, and attitude control hardware and software. In addition, new materials would be subjected to anticipated space environments to quantify effects and assure mission life. Also, because solar sails are huge structures, and it is not feasible to validate the technology by ground test at full scale, a multi-discipline effort was established to develop highly reliable analytical models to serve as mission assurance evidence in future flight program decision-making. Two separate contractor teams were chosen to develop the SSP System Ground Demonstrator (SGD). After a three month conceptual mission/system design phase, the teams developed a ten meter diameter pathfinder set of hardware and subjected it to thermal vacuum tests to compare analytically predicted structural behavior with measured characteristics. This process developed manufacturing and handling techniques and refined the basic design. In 2005, both contractor teams delivered 20 meter, four quadrant sail systems to the largest thermal vacuum chamber in the world in Plum Brook, Ohio, and repeated the tests. Also demonstrated was the deployment and articulation of attitude control mechanisms. In conjunction with these tests, the stowed sails were subjected to launch vibration and ascent vent tests. Other investments studied radiation effects on the solar sail materials, investigated spacecraft charging issues, developed shape measuring techniques and instruments, produced advanced trajectory modeling capabilities, and identified and resolved gossamer structure dynamics issues. Technology validation flight and application to a He1iophysics science mission is on the horizon.

Young, Roy

2006-01-01

415

Solar solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

China is facing enormous energy challenges. Everyone seems to know that we need to increase our energy supply by the equivalent of one power plant per week to support China's economic growth, which is allowing millions of people to enjoy better standards of living. Much less is known of the extent to which China has taken steps to mitigate the impact of that growing energy demand through incentives for greater efficiency and renewable energy. Policies include: Cutting energy intensity - 20 per cent between 2005 and 2010, saving five times as much CO2 as the EU's goals. Cutting major pollutants by 10 per cent by 2010. Setting one of the world's most aggressive renewable energy standards: 15 per cent of national energy from renewables by 2020. Setting targets of 300 megawatts of installed solar by 2010, and 1.8 gigawatts by 2020, in the 2007 National Development and Reform Commission Renewable Energy Development Plan. Dedicating $180 billion for renewable energy by 2020. Imposing energy efficiency targets for the top 1,000 companies, a measure with greater carbon savings potential than most Western initiatives. Establishing building energy codes in all regions and extensive efficiency standards for appliances, which will be particularly important as China continues to grow. Targeting new buildings in major cities like Beijing, Shanghai and Chongqing, to achieve 65 per cent greater energy efficiency than local codes require. Closing thousands of older, smallerquire. Closing thousands of older, smaller, dirtier power plants by 2010. China understands the economic development potential in clean energy technologies. Even the noted journalist Thomas Friedman has remarked that 'China is going green in a big way,' using domestic demand for cleaner energy to build low-cost, scalable green technologies. Suntech Power Holdings - now the world's largest solar photovoltaic (PV) module manufacturer, with operations around the globe - was just one of dozens of solar companies that realised the opportunity provided by China's energy challenges and the government's strong commitment to provide alternatives. Through favourable tax policies, aggressive government procurement and national targets, China is building a world-class export industry in all parts of the solar value chain, as well as encouraging increased use of the sun's energy at home. It is now the third-largest national producer of solar PV for the global market and may soon become the leader. In short, it realises that green energy is the key to both sustainable economic growth and a more pleasant environment.Yet China can still do more, and I'm working closely with the Government to set even more aggressive standards to help drive the development of the country's renewable energy resources. The Government is developing a solar building code with Suntech's participation, and is considering a review of the solar targets in the national renewable energy law - the 1.8 gigawatt goal by 2020 is just a fraction of the country's true potential within that time frame

416

Solar Sail Spaceflight Simulation  

Science.gov (United States)

The Solar Sail Spaceflight Simulation Software (S5) toolkit provides solar-sail designers with an integrated environment for designing optimal solar-sail trajectories, and then studying the attitude dynamics/control, navigation, and trajectory control/correction of sails during realistic mission simulations. Unique features include a high-fidelity solar radiation pressure model suitable for arbitrarily-shaped solar sails, a solar-sail trajectory optimizer, capability to develop solar-sail navigation filter simulations, solar-sail attitude control models, and solar-sail high-fidelity force models.

Lisano, Michael; Evans, James; Ellis, Jordan; Schimmels, John; Roberts, Timothy; Rios-Reyes, Leonel; Scheeres, Daniel; Bladt, Jeff; Lawrence, Dale; Piggott, Scott

2007-01-01

417

Early solar physics  

CERN Document Server

Early Solar Physics reviews developments in solar physics, particularly the advent of solar spectroscopy and the discovery of relationships between the various layers of the solar atmosphere and between the different forms of solar activity. Topics covered include solar observations during 1843; chemical analysis of the solar atmosphere; the spectrum of a solar prominence; and the solar eclipse of December 12, 1871. Spectroscopic observations of the sun are also presented. This book is comprised of 30 chapters and begins with an overview of ideas about the sun in the mid-nineteenth century, fo

Meadows, A J

1970-01-01

418

Basic Construction Course Syllabus  

Science.gov (United States)

This course syllabus provides an outline of a basic construction course. Students in this course learned "basic residential construction techniques with an emphasis on framing." The syllabus includes a basic course description and information on some class projects. This document may be downloaded in PDF file format.

Dickover, Jon

419

Modern Trends in Construction  

OpenAIRE

Recent trends in construction become indispensiblein the coming years to emphasize on sustainable development.The paper discusses the significance and scope of modern trendsin construction techniques as foundations, foundation inproblematic soil, walls, doors, windows, lintel and shelves, dampproofing, water proofing, floors, roofs. The paper emphasizes onusing different types of materials in modern trends and foreffectiveness in infrastructure building for rapid economicgrowth and developmen...

Er. Naveen Hooda; Er. Parveen Singh; Er. Bhupinder Singh; Er. Vivek Verma

2013-01-01

420

VENTILATION NEEDS DURING CONSTRUCTION  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this analysis is to determine ventilation needs during construction and development of the subsurface repository and develop systems to satisfy those needs. For this analysis, construction is defined as pre-emplacement excavation and development is excavation that takes place simultaneously with emplacement. The three options presented in the ''Overall Development and Emplacement Ventilation Systems'' analysis (Reference 5.5) for development ventilation will be applied to construction ventilation in this analysis as well as adding new and updated ventilation factors to each option for both construction and development. The objective of this analysis is to develop a preferred ventilation system to support License Application Design. The scope of this analysis includes: (1) Description of ventilation conditions; (2) Ventilation factors (fire hazards, dust control, construction logistics, and monitoring and control systems); (3) Local ventilation alternatives; (4) Global ventilation options; and (5) Evaluation of options

421

Construction and building research  

CERN Document Server

Many areas of knowledge converge in the building industry and therefore research in this field necessarily involves an interdisciplinary approach. Effective research requires strong relations between a broad variety of scientific and technological domains and more conventional construction or craft processes, while also considering advanced management processes, where all the main actors permanently interact. This publication takes an interdisciplinary approach grouping various studies on the building industry chosen from among the works presented for the 2nd International Conference on Construction and Building Research. The papers examine aspects of materials and building systems; construction technology; energy and sustainability; construction management; heritage, refurbishment and conservation. The information contained within these pages may be of interest to researchers and practitioners in construction and building activities from the academic sphere, as well as public and private sectors.

Fernández-Plazaola, Igor; Hidalgo-Delgado, Francisco; Martínez-Valenzuela, María; Medina-Ramón, Francisco; Oliver-Faubel, Inmaculada; Rodríguez-Abad, Isabel; Salandin, Andrea; Sánchez-Grandia, Rafael; Tort-Ausina, Isabel

2014-01-01

422

Operations management for construction  

CERN Document Server

Students studying construction management and related subjects need to have a broad understanding of the major aspects of controlling the building processes. Operations Management for Construction is one of three textbooks (Business Organisation, Operations Management and Finance Control) written to systematically cover the field. Focusing on construction sites and operations which are challenging to run, Chris March explores issues such as the setting up of the site, the deciding of the methodology of construction, and the sequence of work and resourcing. As changing and increasing regulations affect the way sites are managed, he also considers the issues and methods of successful administering, safety, quality and environment. Finally, the contractor's responsibility to the environment, including relationships with third parties, selection of materials, waste management and sustainability is discussed. Chris March has a wealth of practical experience in the construction industry, as well as considerable exp...

March, Chris

2009-01-01

423

VENTILATION NEEDS DURING CONSTRUCTION  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this analysis is to determine ventilation needs during construction and development of the subsurface repository and develop systems to satisfy those needs. For this analysis, construction is defined as pre-emplacement excavation and development is excavation that takes place simultaneously with emplacement. The three options presented in the ''Overall Development and Emplacement Ventilation Systems'' analysis (Reference 5.5) for development ventilation will be applied to construction ventilation in this analysis as well as adding new and updated ventilation factors to each option for both construction and development. The objective of this analysis is to develop a preferred ventilation system to support License Application Design. The scope of this analysis includes: (1) Description of ventilation conditions; (2) Ventilation factors (fire hazards, dust control, construction logistics, and monitoring and control systems); (3) Local ventilation alternatives; (4) Global ventilation options; and (5) Evaluation of options.

C.R. Gorrell

1998-07-23

424

Solar energy systems in architecture - Integration criteria and guidelines  

OpenAIRE

This document is conceived for architects and intended to be as clear and practical as possible. It summarizes the knowledge needed to integrate active solar technologies (solar thermal and photovoltaics) into buildings, handling at th