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1

Design, construction and testing of a chimney that reduces dangerous temperatures in a radiative convective solar dryer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One of the problems encountered in agricultural solar dryers that operate by natural thermo-convection is the ''burn-up'' of the products due to excessive solar radiation and/or low internal air velocity (insufficient chimney draft). This paper describes the design, construction and testing, in a solar dryer prototype, of a chimney of maximum draft intended to eliminate the above mentioned phenomenon. The results indicate that a slight geometry modification (keeping height constant) will increase air velocity by a factor of 2-3 with respect to a chimney of cylindrical shape, thereby decreasing product temperature approximately 10/sup 0/C.

Zambrano, W.; Alvarado, S.

1984-01-01

2

A Review of solar Chimney Power Generation Technology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present paper presents an overview of the main characteristics of a novel kind of solar thermal application called solar chimney power plant. It is a technology of electric power generation using solar energy by employing basic physics that when air is heated it rises. The created updraft can be used to turn a turbine placed at an appropriate position within a tall chimney to generate electricity. The paper discusses the principles and characteristics of such a system, its requirements, its construction and its operation. It also focuses on actual research and development of solar chimney projects.

Amel Dhahri; Ahmed Omri

2013-01-01

3

Floating solar chimney power stations with thermal storage  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presented an innovative and cost effective method of producing electricity by solar energy. This method is based on floating solar chimneys cooperating with large circular solar collectors and ducted air turbines geared with electric generators. A floating solar chimney power station (FSCPS) has three major components: a circular solar collector; a floating solar chimney in the center of the solar collector; and, a set of air turbines geared to electric generators around the bottom of the solar chimney. An analysis of the collector thermal storage was presented based on reasonable heat transfer coefficient assumptions. It was shown that the uniform spread of thermal storage was preferable to concentrating it to the inner area of the solar collector. It was also shown that using thermal storage for FSCPSs can render them as electric power generating systems that can operate continuously, 24 hours per day, 365 days per year. In addition, they produce above the minimum of their annual average power. Therefore, FSCPSs have a similar operation to conventional power stations. Large FSCPSs above 20 MW can be very cost competitive to any conventional power station due to their low construction, maintenance and operating costs. It was suggested that this renewable electromechanical electric energy production system may be a viable future energy source with environmental benefits. 14 refs., 10 figs.

Papageorgiou, C.D. [National Technical Univ. of Athens, Athens (Greece). School of Electrical and Computer Engineering Electromechanical Systems of Thrust and Power

2006-07-01

4

Design and measured performance of a solar chimney for natural-circulation solar-energy dryers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The design and construction of a solar chimney which was undertaken as part of a study on natural-circulation solar-energy dryers is reported. The experimental solar chimney consists of a 5.3m high and 1.64m diameter cylindrical polyethylene-clad vertical chamber, supported structurally by steel framework and draped internally with a selectively-absorbing surface. The performance of the chimney which was monitored extensively with and without the selective surface in place (to study the effectiveness of this design option) is also reported. (author). 14 refs, 7 figs

1995-01-01

5

EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF A VELOCITY FIELD USING VARIABLE CHIMNEY DIAMETER FOR SOLAR UPDRAFT TOWER  

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Full Text Available A solar updraft tower consists of an air collector 1.4 m in diameter and 80 cm tall chimney was set upin NIT Hamirpur, Himachal-Pradesh, India. The objective of the study was to investigate the variation of velocity with essential geometricparameter of the system. The solar updraft tower system consists of three essential elements- collector, chimney height and wind turbine. The output power of a system is depended on the input velocity to the wind turbine. Turbine inlet velocity (V) is the function of five parameter of the solar updraft tower systems such as collector diameter (Dc), roof glass angle (?), entrance height (h), tower's height (Ht), tower's diameter (D), out of which variable roof angle and the chimney height is analysis. It was found that the solar chimney diameter of 8 cm is having the maximum velocity for the constructed setup, and the ratio of chimney diameter to chimney heightwas found to be 0.1.

Neeraj Mehla,; Rahul Makade,; N.S.Thakur

2011-01-01

6

Experimental study and simulation of airflow in solar chimneys  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With the depletion of traditional energies, new technologies are arising that use renewable energies. The aim of this paper is to present a study of airflow in solar chimneys. Mathematical simulation and experiments were carried out on solar chimneys with different geometries. It was found that the width of the channel and the angle of inclination of the chimney influence the field speed. A case study was then carried out on a solar chimney in Ouargla Province, Algeria, to assess the impact of a chimney's inclination on its performance. The simulation was conducted using a finite volume method in Fluent 6.3.26 computer software. A good match between experimental and simulation results was found. This paper presented a study on airflow in solar chimney and demonstrated that simulations using Fluent and the finite element method were able to provide good results.

Saifi, Nadia; Dokkar, Boubekeur; Negrou, Belkhir; Settou, Noureddine [Laboratory for Bioressources Saharan Preservation and Enhancement, University of Kasdi Merbah (Algeria)], e-mail: saifi.nadia2009@gmail.com

2011-07-01

7

Solar Chimney Model Parameters to Enhance Cooling PV Panel Performance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The concept of using the Solar Chimney plays an important role in a wide range of topics to improve cooling system efficiency such as drying process, and single and multi-story buildings ventilation against temperature rising. In this paper, study the effective solar cooling chimney paramet...

Mohammed Sh Elden; K. Sopian; Fatah O. Alghoul; Abdelnasser Abouhnik; Ae. Muftah M.

8

Floating solar chimney technology. A solar proposal for China  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Floating Solar Chimney (FSC) Technology Power Plants, are made of three major components: - A large solar collector with a transparent roof that warms the air below it, due to the solar irradiation. - A tall lighter-than-air hollow cylinder placed in the center of the solar collector that is up-drafting the warm air, through its open top to the upper atmosphere (the Floating Solar Chimney). - A series of air turbines, placed in the path of moving and up-drafting stream of warm air, geared to appropriate electric generators, that transform part of the thermodynamic energy of the moving stream of air to electricity. In the present paper the large scale application of FSC Technology in China is examined with the conclusion that this technology could cost-effectively meet, much of China's electricity demand, promoting China's sustainable development and eliminating greenhouse gas emissions. (orig.)

Papageorgiou, Christos [National Technical Univ. of Athens (Greece). School of Electrical and Computer Engineering

2008-07-01

9

Structural stability of concrete wind turbines and solar chimney towers exposed to dynamic wind action  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Apart from burning classical fossil resources or generating nuclear power, alternatives have been developed, like the classical ways to capture energy from wind, water and sun, or the innovative solar chimney concept. The paper presents some structural aspects of classical wind energy turbines, like their high-cycle dynamic loading and reaction as well as their fatigue behaviour. Actual research results concerning pre-stressed concrete tower constructions for wind turbines will be focused on. For the solar chimney concept the structural challenges concerning wind action, eigenfrequencies, stiffening and shape optimization with special focus on the inlet guide vanes will be discussed. Both classical wind turbines and the innovative solar chimney concept may successfully contribute to the future energy supply in Southern Africa. (author)

Harte, Reinhard [Civil Engineering Department, Bergische Universitaet Wuppertal, Pauluskirchstr. 7, 42285 Wuppertal (Germany); Van Zijl, Gideon P.A.G. [Division for Structural Engineering, University of Stellenbosch, Private Bag XI, Matieland 7602 (South Africa)

2007-10-15

10

Solar chimneys - present state of research and future perspectives. Aufwindkraftwerke - Stand der Untersuchungen und Zukunftsperspektiven  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Over a period of two years the experimental plant in Manzanares has now been operating and measurements have been carried out. A great deal of detailed knowledge about solar chimneys has been gathered and the theoretical descriptions were greatly supported and secured. Construction engineering showed some problems the solution of which will be demonstrated in the next phase of development. Few but transparent results are presented here in order to paint a realistic picture of the situation in 1984 and allow even non-involved people to draw their conclusions on the future of solar chimneys. (orig.).

1985-01-01

11

Power generation from wind turbines in a solar chimney  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recent studies have shown that shrouded wind turbines can generate greater power compared to bare turbines. A solar chimney generates an upward draft of wind inside a tower and a shroud around the wind turbine. There are numerous empty silos on farms in the U.S. that can be converted to solar chim...

Tudor Foote, Ramesh K. Agarwal

12

Solar Chimney Model Parameters to Enhance Cooling PV Panel Performance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The concept of using the Solar Chimney plays an important role in a wide range of topics to improve cooling system efficiency such as drying process, and single and multi-story buildings ventilation against temperature rising. In this paper, study the effective solar cooling chimney parameter model to enhance the performance of photovoltaic (PV) cooling system. First, a brief description of theoretical performance predictions of the solar cooling chimney also discusses the effect of the ambient wind velocity on the photovoltaic panel. Second, analysis air velocities at different points in solar cooling chimney are predicted and the temperature drop also estimated to predicted air velocities in the duct. Finally, from simulation result it was found for chimney height range 0.3 m - 3 m and at 60 oC, the air velocity increase from 0.6 to 1.78 m/s and Pressure difference between inlet and outlet increase from 0.5 to 5.3 KPa, which improve the PV panel voltage 8%.

Mohammed Sh Elden; K. Sopian; Fatah O. Alghoul; Abdelnasser Abouhnik; Ae. Muftah M.

2013-01-01

13

DESIGN OF A SMALL â?? SCALE SOLAR CHIMNEY FOR SUSTAINABLE POWER  

Science.gov (United States)

After several months of design and testing it has been determined that a small scale solar chimney can be built using nearly any local materials and simple hand tools without needing superior construction knowledge. The biggest obstacle to over come was the weather conditions....

14

Analytical Analysis of Roof Top Solar Chimney for Power Generation  

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Full Text Available The solar chimney is a technology, which has been already proved of being capable to generate electrical energy from the sun. On the other hand, the solar chimney has been used on the roof of housing for ventilation purpose. Since the sun is not available during night and cloudy days, there should be another source of input to guarantee continuous operation of the system. Present study is the development of experimental, computational and mathematical models of ?On Roof Solar Chimney? for small-scale power generation. The objective of the present study is to review the similar works and to present a mathematical model of a solar chimney operation and analyze the analytical result. The model involves the energy and mass transportation in the system under steady state conditions. Heat transfer equations were set up to determine the boundary temperatures at the surface of the glass cover, the rear solar heat absorbing wall and the air flow in the channel using a thermal resistance network. Results showed the transient behavior of the system during the day. With model area of 15 m2, the highest velocity of 0.17 m sec-1 is predicted at around the mid day time. The mass flow rate increases as the solar radiation increase. The area is a vital parameter in the successful application of the technique. Also enhancement technique to rise up the collector temperature would improve the performance considerably.

K.V. Sreejaya; Hussain H. Al-Kayiem; Syed Ihtsham Ul-Haq Gilani

2011-01-01

15

A performance analysis of solar chimney thermal power systems  

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Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the solar chimney performance theoretically (techno-economic). A mathematical model was developed to estimate the following parameter: Power output, Pressure drop across the turbine, the max chimney height, Airflow temperature, and the overall efficiency of solar chimney. The mathematical model was validated with experimental data from the prototype in Manzanares power. It can be concluded that the differential pressure of collector-chimney transition section in the system, is increase with the increase of solar radiation intensity. The specific system costs are between 2000 Eur/kW and 5000 Eur/kW depending on the system size, system concept and storage size. Hence, a 50 MWe solar thermal power plant will cost 100-250 Eur million. At very good sites, today’s solar thermal power plants can generate electricity in the range of 0.15 Eur/kWh, and series production could soon bring down these costs below 0.10 Eur /kWh.

Al-Dabbas Awwad Mohammed

2011-01-01

16

Performance of a Solar Chimney Under Egyptian Weather Conditions: Numerical Simulation and Experimental Validation  

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Full Text Available High solar radiation and ambient temperature, and large desert in Egypt are excellent conditions to install efficiently solar chimney power plants there. Therefore this research aimed to develop a validated mathematical model and governing equations of solar chimney. It is proposed to improve the performance of solar chimney under effects of various parameters, and study of possibility of installing solar chimney in Egypt. The mathematical simulation of the solar chimney has been developed including all its performance parameters, dimensions (of collector, chimney and turbine) and the metrological data; which were considered as inputs of the simulation program. A comparison between the mathematical and experimental performance has been investigated to validate the mathematical simulation. The mathematical model has been used to predict the performance of the solar chimney power plant over a year in Egypt. It is used to study of effects of geometrical parameters, and investigate possibility of the optimum geometrical dimensions. It is obtained that there is in fact no optimum physical size for such plants without considering the economical constraints. The chimney height has a significant effect in the chimney performance. Visualizing of annual performance of the solar chimney would seem to be essentially a power generator in Egypt if it installed in a large scale.Key words: Solar chimney; Numerical simulation; Annual performance; Experimental validation; Optimization

A. A. Mostafa; M. F. Sedrak; Adel M. Abdel Dayem

2011-01-01

17

Power generation from wind turbines in a solar chimney  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that shrouded wind turbines can generate greater power compared to bare turbines. A solar chimney generates an upward draft of wind inside a tower and a shroud around the wind turbine. There are numerous empty silos on farms in the U.S. that can be converted to solar chimneys with minor modifications at modest cost. The objective of this study is to determine the potential of these silos/chimneys for generating wind power. The study is conducted through analytical/computational approach by employing the commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software. Computations are performed for five different geometric configurations consisting of a turbine, a cylindrical silo, and/or a venturi and/or a diffuser using the dimensions of typical silos and assuming Class 3 wind velocity. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations with the Boussinesq approximation and a two equation realizable k – ? model are employed in the calculations, and the turbine is modeled as an actuator disk. The power coefficient (Cp) and generated power are calculated for the five cases. Consistent with recent literature, it was found that the silos with diffusers increase the Cp beyond Betz’s limit significantly and thus the generated power. It should be noted that Cp is calculated by normalizing it by the turbine area swept by the wind. This study shows the potential of using abandoned silos in the mid-west and other parts of the country for localized wind power generation.

Tudor Foote, Ramesh K. Agarwal

2013-01-01

18

Power generation from wind turbines in a solar chimney  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recent studies have shown that shrouded wind turbines can generate greater power compared to bare turbines. A solar chimney generates an upward draft of wind inside a tower and a shroud around the wind turbine. There are numerous empty silos on farms in the U.S. that can be converted to solar chimneys with minor modifications at modest cost. The objective of this study is to determine the potential of these silos/chimneys for generating wind power. The study is conducted through analytical/computational approach by employing the commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software. Computations are performed for five different geometric configurations consisting of a turbine, a cylindrical silo, and/or a venturi and/or a diffuser using the dimensions of typical silos and assuming Class 3 wind velocity. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations with the Boussinesq approximation and a two equation realizable {kappa}-{epsilon} model are employed in the calculations, and the turbine is modeled as an actuator disk. The power coefficient (Cp) and generated power are calculated for the five cases. Consistent with recent literature, it was found that the silos with diffusers increase the Cp beyond Betz’s limit significantly and thus the generated power. It should be noted that Cp is calculated by normalizing it by the turbine area swept by the wind. This study shows the potential of using abandoned silos in the mid-west and other parts of the country for localized wind power generation.

Foote, Tudor [Graduate Student, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Washington University in St. Louis, Jolley Hall, Campus Box 1185, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, Missouri, 63130 (United States); Agarwal, Ramesh K. [William Palm Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Washington University in St. Louis, Jolley Hall, Campus Box 1185, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, Missouri, 63130 (United States)

2013-07-01

19

Turbines and generators for floating solar chimney power stations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Floating solar air turbine power stations (FSCPS) are typically comprised of 3 components: (1) a large circular solar collector, (2) a tall chimney, and (3) a set of shrouded air turbines geared to appropriate electric generators around the bottom of the solar chimney. The FSCPS is a discrete system capable of converting solar power to electric power. This paper investigated FSCPSs connected to the electric grid using doubly fed induction generators (DFIGs) to control output under various levels of solar irradiance. The study considered rated operation of the FSCPSs as well as operation of the FSCPS with squirrel cage induction generators. The study included an evaluation of the rated power of the FSCPS electronic control unit; an analysis of the annual efficiency of FSCPSs operating with induction generators; and, FSCPSs used to supply constant voltage to hydrogen electrolysis units for autonomous operations. The study showed that efficiencies of the FSCPSs using the DFIG were 97 per cent of the maximum efficiency. It was concluded that the DFIGs were capable of controlling the reactive power output of the FSCPS supplied to the grid. FSCPS efficiencies were higher for hydrogen production by electrolysis. 10 refs., 10 figs.

Papageorgiou, C.D. [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Athens (Greece). Electrical Machines Laboratory

2005-07-01

20

The impact of the combined chimney outlet size and extended solar wall-roof chimney on airflow patterns using numerical simulation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper investigates airflow patterns and behavior of combined roof and extended solar wall-roof chimney incorporated into a typical room with an inlet and outlet. Numerical simulations using the Fluid Dynamics software Package, FIDAP, are exploited to describe and analyze the airflow patterns inside the room, and in the extended solar wall-roof chimneys. FIDAP simulation analyses and results of the airflow streamline, velocity vectors, and temperature distributions are presented. Maximum velocity vector, temperatures, and smooth streamlines were found for better performance at separation of 0.25m. At 0.25m separation, in both wall and roof solar chimneys, the maximum chimney outlet flow rate and smooth streamline were found when the wall chimney is 2.00m high, which corresponds to a wall chimney inlet of 1.60m. Results show that the maximum relative speed in the combined chimneys is higher than the solar roof chimney alone. These findings suggest that the exploitation of an extended solar roof-wall chimney could enhance nighttime natural ventilation and the cooling of buildings. The system is limited to cool low-rise buildings in hot-arid regions such as Al-Ain City, UAE, where energy use is enormous.

AboulNaga, M.M.; Alteraifi, A.M.

1999-07-01

 
 
 
 
21

Review on the Enhancement Techniques and Introduction of an Alternate Enhancement Technique of Solar Chimney Power Plant  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Due to the low plant efficiency associated with Solar Chimney Power Plant, there is a need for the plant performance enhancement. This study presents the enhancement techniques of solar chimney power plant. It reviews previous works that had been done in performance enhancement of solar chimney power plants. It also, introduces an alternative approach to enhance the solar chimney performance by hybridizing the solar operation mode and waste heat energy from flue gas. The new idea is to convert the waste thermal energy in the flue to useful thermal energy in a Solar Chimney Power Plant collector. It is another form of waste heat energy recovery and utilization method.

Aja Ogboo Chikere; Hussain H. Al-Kayiem; Zainal Ambri Abdul Karim

2011-01-01

22

Experimental study of temperature field in a solar chimney power setup  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A pilot experimental solar chimney power setup consisted of an air collector 10 m in diameter and an 8 m tall chimney has been built. The temperature distribution in the solar chimney power setup was measured. Temperature difference between the collector outlet and the ambient usually can reach 24.1 deg. C, which generates the driving force of airflow in the setup. This is the greenhouse effect produced in the solar collector. It is found that air temperature inversion appears in the latter chimney after sunrise both on a cool day and on a warm day. Air temperature inversion is formed by the increase of solar radiation from the minimum and clears up some time later when the absorber bed is heated to an enough high temperature to make airflow break through the temperature inversion layer and flow through the chimney outlet.

2007-01-01

23

Modeling of the optimum tilt of a solar chimney for maximum air flow  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of this work is to develop a mathematical model to determine the tilt that maximizes natural air flow inside a solar chimney using daily solar irradiance data on a horizontal plane at a site. The model starts by calculating the hourly solar irradiation components (direct, diffuse, ground-reflected) absorbed by the solar chimney of varying tilt and height for a given time (day of the year, hour) and place (latitude). In doing so it computes the transmittance and absorbance of the glazing for the various solar irradiation components and for various tilts. The model predicts the temperature and velocity of the air inside the chimney as well as the temperatures of the glazing and the black painted absorber. Comparisons of the model predictions with CFD calculations delineate the usefulness of the model. In addition, there is a good agreement between theoretical predictions and experiments performed with a 1 m long solar chimney at different tilt positions. (author)

Sakonidou, E.P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technological Educational Institution of Serres, End of Magnesia' s Str, GR-62100 Serres (Greece); Division of Chemical Technology, Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, University Box 116, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Karapantsios, T.D. [Division of Chemical Technology, Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, University Box 116, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Balouktsis, A.I.; Chassapis, D. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technological Educational Institution of Serres, End of Magnesia' s Str, GR-62100 Serres (Greece)

2008-01-15

24

Enhancement of natural ventilation in a solar house with a solar chimney and a solid adsorption cooling cavity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents a parametric analytical study on the enhancement of natural ventilation in a solar house induced by a solar chimney and a solid adsorption cooling cavity. Some details on sizing such a system are also provided. Theoretical analyses are carried out to investigate the ventilation in the solar house with solar chimney alone, cooling cavity alone or with combined solar chimney and solar adsorption cooling cavity, without considering the wind effects. It is found that on a typical day, the solar house comprising of a 2.5 m{sup 2} solar chimney, is able to create an airflow rate of more than 150 kg/h for the studied house. In addition, the ventilation rate at night is also increased by about 20% with the solar adsorption cooling cavity. It is expected that the proposed concept is useful to be incorporated with a stand-alone building or with a cluster of buildings for some favorable climates. (author)

Dai, Y.J.; Wang, R.Z. [Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ. (China). Inst. of Refrigeration and Cryogenics; Sumathy, K.; Li, Y.G. [University of Hong Kong (China). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

2003-01-01

25

A single dimensionless variable for solar chimney power plant modeling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The solar chimney power plant is a relatively new technology for generating electricity from solar energy. In this paper dimensional analysis is used together with engineering intuition to combine eight primitive variables into only one dimensionless variable that establishes a dynamic similarity between a prototype and its scaled models. Three physical configurations of the plant were numerically tested for similarity: fully geometrically similar, partially geometrically similar, and dissimilar types. The values of the proposed dimensionless variable for all these cases were found to be nominally equal to unity. The value for the physical plant actually built and tested previously was also evaluated and found to be about the same as that of the numerical simulations, suggesting the validity of the proposition. The physical meaning of this dimensionless (similarity) variable is also interpreted; and the connection between the Richardson number and this new variable was found. It was found also that, for a fixed solar heat flux, different-sized models that are fully or partially geometrically similar share an equal excess temperature across the roof outlet. (author)

Koonsrisuk, Atit; Chitsomboon, Tawit [School of Mechanical Engineering, Institute of Engineering, Suranaree University of Technology, Muang District, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000 (Thailand)

2009-12-15

26

Performance analysis of a solar chimney power plant in the southwestern region of Algeria  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper, we present the performance analysis of a solar chimney power plant expected to provide the remote villages located in Algerian southwestern region with electric power. Solar energy and the psychometric state of the air in the south of Algeria are important to encourage the full development of solar chimney power plant for the thermal and electrical production of energy for various uses. We are interested in Adrar where solar radiation is better than other areas of Algeria. The obtained results show that the solar chimney power plant can produce from 140 to 200 kW of electricity on a site like Adrar during the year, according to an estimate made on the monthly average of sunning. This production is sufficient for the needs of the isolated areas. (author)

Larbi, Salah [Laboratory of Mechanical Engineering and Development, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Polytechnic National School of Algiers, 10, Avenue Hassen Badi, El-Harrach (Algeria); Bouhdjar, Amor [Development Center of Renewable Energies, Bouzeriah, Algiers (Algeria); Chergui, Toufik [Applied Research Center in Renewable Energies, Adrar (Algeria)

2010-01-15

27

The potential of solar chimney for application in rural areas of developing countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Solar chimney electric power generation is one of the concepts in renewable energy technology (RET) application. The power station is based simply on the principle that warm air rises. Air underneath a glass ceiling is heated by solar radiation and rises through a chimney. The warm air which has just risen is replaced by air from the edge of the glass ceiling which flows inward, and will then itself begin to heat up. In this way the Sun's heat radiation is converted into kinetic energy of constantly rising air to drive turbine built into the chimney. The turbine then converts the wind power by means of a generator into electrical energy. We have considered the appropriateness of a solar chimney to rural villages and highlight some features of such a power generating plant. The calculations carried out show that the power that can be generated by a solar chimney of specific dimension exhibit a minimum threshold value of t = 2.9, the temperature ratio of the difference between the collector surface temperature and the temperature at the turbine (T{sub s}-T{sub H}) to the difference between the air mass temperature under the roof and the collector surface temperature (T{sub m}-T{sub s}). Our calculations show that for {tau} = 2.9, an appreciable electric power ({>=} 10{sup 3} W) can be generated by a sturdy and physically viable solar chimney whose dimension has been determined to be L = 150 m, H = R = 1.5 m. This the minimum dimension of a practical solar chimney electric power station would serve approximately fifty (50) households in a typical rural setting. 32 refs., 3 figs.

Frederick N. Onyango; Reccab M. Ochieng [Maseno University, Maseno (Kenya). Department of Physics

2006-12-15

28

Solar chimney for the natural ventilation of buildings: simulation and mediation; Chimenea solar para la ventilacion natural de edificios: simulacion y mediacion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this article, the first part of a research project about the modelling of a solar chimney is presented. In this first part, the average ventilation flows measured in an experimental installation have been compared to the results obtained by CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulations. In order to do so, a solar chimney with a cross-section of 0.78 m x 0.156 m, height 3,6 m, has been constructed. The chimney consists of a glass surface oriented towards the south. The internal (absorber) surface is made of a copper plate, which has been painted black in order to increase the solar absorption. The chimney is connected to a room measuring 5 m x 2.5 m x 2.5 m, from where it extracts air. The comparison of the results obtained by measurements with those obtained by CFD simulations show that computational tools are accurate enough to predict the behaviour of natural buoyancy in this kind of installations. (Author)

Lanceta, D.; Llorente, J.

2008-07-01

29

The effects of solar chimneys on thermal load mitigation of office buildings under the Japanese climate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The study investigated the performance of a solar chimney, which is integrated into a south facade of a one-story building, as well as the effect on the heating and cooling loads of the building by using a CFD simulation and an analytical model. A C programming code was developed for the calculation of the heating and cooling loads by the heat balance method. The analytical equations of a solar chimney were incorporated into the heat balance calculation. The results showed that the fan shaft power requirement was reduced by about 50% in annual total due to the natural ventilation. It was also found that the solar chimney was beneficial to reduce the heating load by about 20% during the heating season. The annual thermal load mitigation was estimated as 12% by taking the increase of the cooling load into account. (author)

Miyazaki, T.; Akisawa, A.; Kashiwagi, T. [Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Graduate School of Bio-Applications and Systems Engineering

2006-06-15

30

Economic analysis of power generation from floating solar chimney power plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Solar chimney thermal power technology that has a long life span is a promising large-scale solar power generating technology. This paper performs economic analysis of power generation from floating solar chimney power plant (FSCPP) by analyzing cash flows during the whole service period of a 100 MW plant. Cash flows are influenced by many factors including investment, operation and maintenance cost, life span, payback period, inflation rate, minimum attractive rate of return, non-returnable subsidy rate, interest rate of loans, sale price of electricity, income tax rate and whether additional revenue generated by carbon credits is included or not. Financial incentives and additional revenue generated by carbon credits can accelerate the development of the FSCPP. Sensitivity analysis to examine the effects of the factors on cash flows of a 100 MW FSCPP is performed in detail. The results show that the minimum price for obtaining minimum attractive rate of return (MARR) of 8% reaches 0.83 yuan (kWh){sup -1} under financial incentives including loans at a low interest rate of 2% and free income tax. Comparisons of economics of the FSCPP and reinforced concrete solar chimney power plant or solar photovoltaic plant are also performed by analyzing their cash flows. It is concluded that FSCPP is in reality more economical than reinforced concrete solar chimney power plant (RCSCPP) or solar photovoltaic plant (SPVP) with the same power capacity. (author)

Zhou, Xinping [School of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Luoyu Road, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Yang, Jiakuan; Xiao, Bo [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Luoyu Road, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Wang, Fen [Wuhan Gatway Science and Technology Co., Ltd., Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China)

2009-05-15

31

Economic analysis of power generation from floating solar chimney power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Solar chimney thermal power technology that has a long life span is a promising large-scale solar power generating technology. This paper performs economic analysis of power generation from floating solar chimney power plant (FSCPP) by analyzing cash flows during the whole service period of a 100 MW plant. Cash flows are influenced by many factors including investment, operation and maintenance cost, life span, payback period, inflation rate, minimum attractive rate of return, non-returnable subsidy rate, interest rate of loans, sale price of electricity, income tax rate and whether additional revenue generated by carbon credits is included or not. Financial incentives and additional revenue generated by carbon credits can accelerate the development of the FSCPP. Sensitivity analysis to examine the effects of the factors on cash flows of a 100 MW FSCPP is performed in detail. The results show that the minimum price for obtaining minimum attractive rate of return (MARR) of 8% reaches 0.83 yuan (kWh)-1 under financial incentives including loans at a low interest rate of 2% and free income tax. Comparisons of economics of the FSCPP and reinforced concrete solar chimney power plant or solar photovoltaic plant are also performed by analyzing their cash flows. It is concluded that FSCPP is in reality more economical than reinforced concrete solar chimney power plant (RCSCPP) or solar photovoltaic plant (SPVP) with the same power capacity. (author)

2009-01-01

32

Analysis and feasibility of implementing solar chimney power plants in the Mediterranean region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper analyzes the feasibility of solar chimney power plants as an environmentally acceptable energy source for small settlements and islands of countries in the Mediterranean region. For the purpose of these analyses, two characteristic geographic locations (Split and Dubrovnik) in Croatia were chosen and simplified model for calculation of produced electric power output is also developed. These locations possess typical characteristics of the Mediterranean climate. The solar characteristics of the chosen geographic locations are shown along with characteristic meteorological data. A solar chimney (SC) power plant with a chimney height of 550 m and a collector roof diameter of 1250 m would produce 2.8-6.2 MW of power. The average annual electric power production of this SC power plant would range between 4.9 and 8.9 GWh/year, but in reality from 5.0 to 6.0 GWh/year in average. An approximate costs analysis, which included a total investment estimate, was performed. The levelized electricity cost was also calculated. It is found that the price of produced electric energy by solar chimney power plant in Mediterranean region is considerably higher compared to the other power sources. (author)

2008-01-01

33

Passive cooling of buildings by using integrated earth to air heat exchanger and solar chimney  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Passive cooling is being employed as a low-energy consuming technique to remove undesirable interior heat from a building in the hot seasons. There are numerous ways to promote this cooling technique, and in the present study the use of solar chimney (SC) together with earth to air heat exchanger (EAHE) is introduced. Consequently, theoretical analyses have been conducted in order to investigate the cooling and ventilation in a solar house through combined solar chimney and underground air channel. The finding shows that the solar chimney can be perfectly used to power the underground cooling system during the daytime, without any need to electricity. Moreover, this system with a proper design may also provide a thermally comfortable indoor environment for a large number of hours in the scorching summer days. Based on the required indoor thermal comfort conditions, the numbers of required SCs and EAHEs are calculated and some features of such a system is presented. It is widely expected that the proposed concept is useful enough to be incorporated with a stand-alone or a cluster of buildings especially in some favorable climates. (author)

Maerefat, M.; Haghighi, A.P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, 14115-143 (Iran)

2010-10-15

34

Simulation of solar chimney power plant with an external heat source  

Science.gov (United States)

Solar chimney power plant is a sustainable source of power production. The key parameter to increase the system power output is to increase its size but the plant cannot operate during night hours. This study deals with simulation work to validate results of pilot plant at Manzanares and include the effects of waste heat from a gas turbine power plant in the system. The effects show continuous night operation, a 38.8 percent increase in power at 1000 W/m2 global solar irradiation at daytime and 1.14 percent increase in overall efficiency.

Islamuddin, Azeemuddin; Al-Kayiem, Hussain H.; Gilani, Syed I.

2013-06-01

35

Cooling small, internally heated buildings by natural convection and solar chimney-augmented ventilation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The well-known ASHRAE Stack Effect equation is generalized to predict the thermally induced flow through convectively cooled buildings and through passively cooled air collectors. The generalized equation is shown to be consistent with results reported by others. It is demonstrably feasible to provide significant supplemental cooling to small, internally heated buildings by natural convection. Moreover, the passive cooling technique of solar chimneys will generate additional cooling by using collector air flow passages that are much more generous than those of conventional, relatively shallow solar collectors.

Fineblum, S.S.

1982-01-01

36

Thermal effects of chimneys  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Presently, the design and construction of concrete chimneys can be governed by criteria established by two chimney code organizations. These organizations are the American Concrete Institute (ACI) and the International Committee on Industrial Chimneys (CICIND). ACI 307-95 {open_quotes}Standard Practice for the Design and Construction of Cast-in-Place Reinforced Concrete Chimneys{close_quotes} is the code recognized for use in the United States. Similarly, CICIND {open_quotes}Model Code for Concrete Chimneys{close_quotes} can be used in Europe. Both codes attempt to predict the stress experienced by reinforced concrete chimneys due to thermal and other contributing loads. The research contained herein, conducted at the University of Florida, calculated the temperature differentials, stresses, and crack widths as predicted by ACI and CICIND based on thermal data collected from the Florida Power and Light Turkey Point Fossil Unit 2 chimney during the period conducted from January 15, 1993 to March 3, 1993.

Cook, R.A.; Hatfield, J.T.; Brannen, W.F.; Joseph, T.D.

1995-12-31

37

Design and performance of a solar dryer with vertical collector chimney suitable for rural application  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The detail design and performance of a prototype, low cost and simple solar dryer coupled with a vertical flat plate collector chimney for drying 20 kg of field harvest high moisture paddy is described. This unit consisted of an inclined collector (20.6{sup o}), a batch dryer and a vertical collector chimney, all joined in series and positioned due south. The absorber and cover for both collectors were 1 m{sup 2} (2 x 0.5 m) matt black painted corrugated G.I. sheet and 3 mm polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), respectively. The experiments during the winter months showed an average rise of air temperatures of 21.8 and 27.1{sup o} for the inclined and the vertical collectors, respectively, with an average air flow rate of 0.6707 m{sup 3}/min (0.22 m/s) through the chimney. A 33% reduction in air flow rate was observed with 7 cm depth of grain (20 kg) in the dryer, when the average rise of air temperature in the inclined collector was increased to 68.5{sup o}C. (author).

Das, S.K.; Kumar, Y. (Indian Inst. of Tech., Kharagpur (India))

1989-01-01

38

Analysis of dynamic and thermal behavior of a solar dryer made up with a porous solar collector coupled to a solar chimney  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The main characteristics of the dryer are given. The analysis of the dynamic and thermal behavior of the solar dryer is based on measurements obtained during an in-situ experiment, followed by a systematic laboratory study: efficiency of the chimney, efficiency of the solar collector, evolution of various internal parameters and external conditions on a typical day, energy balance, mass flow rate of air traversing the dryer as a function of the collector input power, effect of the height of the chimney, internal air-speed and internal temperature functions of the collector input power, and effect of the wind-speed. It is shown that the efficiency of the dryer is increased through the superposed thermosiphons resulting from coupling dryer-chimney.

Puiggali, J.R. (ENSAM, 33 - Talence (France)); Penot, F. (Laboratoire d' Energetique Solaire, 86 - Poitiers (France))

1983-10-01

39

Numerical analysis of flow and heat transfer characteristics in solar chimney power plants with energy storage layer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Numerical simulations have been performed to analyze the characteristics of heat transfer and air flow in the solar chimney power plant system with an energy storage layer. Different mathematical models for the collector, the chimney and the energy storage layer have been established, and the effect of solar radiation on the heat storage characteristic of the energy storage layer has been analyzed. The numerical simulation results show that: (1) the heat storage ratio of the energy storage layer decreases firstly and then increases with the solar radiation increasing from 200 W/m2 to 800 W/m2; (2) the relative static pressure decreases while the velocity increases significantly inside the system with the increase of solar radiation; (3) the average temperature of the chimney outlet and the energy storage layer may increase significantly with the increase of solar radiation. In addition, the temperature gradient of the storage medium may increase, which results in an increase of energy loss from the bottom of the energy storage layer.

2008-01-01

40

Natural cooling of stand-alone houses using solar chimney and evaporative cooling cavity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this study a low-energy-consumption technique to enhance passive cooling and natural ventilation in a solar house, using a system consisting of a Solar Chimney (SC) and an Evaporative Cooling Cavity (ECC) has been proposed. The capability of the system to meet the required thermal needs of individuals and the effects of main geometric parameters on the system performance has been studied. The dependence of the system performance on outdoor air temperature has been studied to determine the operative conditions for appropriate effectiveness, regarding thermal comfort criteria. To determine the heat and mass transfer characteristics of the system, a mathematical model based on conservation equations of mass and energy has been developed and solved by an iterative method. The findings show that the system is capable of providing good indoor air condition at daytime in a living room, even with poor solar intensity of 200 W/m{sup 2}. The results show that when the relative humidity is lower than 50%, the system can make good indoor air condition even at 40 C, and a higher performance is achieved using ECC with cocurrent configuration. It is found that the proposed system may be applied successfully in hot arid climates to fulfill the indoor thermal comfort expectations. (author)

Maerefat, M.; Haghighi, A.P. [Mech. Eng. Department, Faculty of Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran 14115-143 (Iran)

2010-09-15

 
 
 
 
41

Using heated chimneys and reduced collector air gap height to improve the performance of indirect passive solar dryers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The performance of indirect passive solar dryers tends to be rather poor because of the low air flow rates which occur through such dryers. These low air flow rates can cause the efficiency of the solar collector to be low and also limit the rate of drying that can be achieved with such systems. Two ways of trying to improve the performance of such dryers are: to use waste fuel to increase the buoyancy forces by heating the air in a chimney attached to the dryer, and to reduce the air gap between the upper transparent cover and the absorber plate in the collector in order to increase heat transfer to the air. This paper, therefore, presents the results of an experimental study in Senegal in which the effects of heating the air in a chimney fitted to the dryer and the effects of varying the collector gap on the dryer performance have been measured. (author)

Bassey, M.W. (International Development Research Centre (Canada), Dakar, Senegal); Oosthuizen, P.H. (Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Sarr, J. (Centre d' Etudes et de Recherches sur les Energies Renouvelables, Dakar, (Senegal))

1994-01-01

42

Chimney renovation versus chimney replacement  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Chimneys are an integral part of a fossil fueled generating station and perhaps one of the most commonly neglected and misunderstood structures at the plant. Structural damage caused by wind, earthquake, corrosive operating conditions, inadequate design, ever changing operating conditions, or years of neglect can render the structure unsafe and result in the need to perform major renovations or replace the entire chimney. The decision to renovate or replace an existing chimney is complex and should consider the following factors: (1) Age and condition of shell; (2) Type and condition of lining; (3) New operating conditions; (4) Cost of renovation vs replacement; (5) Unit outage time required; and (6) Cost for replacement power during outage. Information needed to make an informed decision regarding renovation or replacement, which most often involves several million dollars, can be best obtained from experienced chimney contractors and engineering specialists. This paper addresses four projects that utilized unique renovation techniques in lieu of partial or complete replacement of the structure.

Porthouse, R.A. [Chimney Consultants Inc., West Lebanon, NH (United States)

1999-11-01

43

Solar powered construction light  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A self charging light assembly is described comprising in combination: (a) a lens assembly comprising; (b) a casing assembly comprising; (c) a first solar cell means connected to one of the two converging solar cell receiving walls; (d) second solar cell means connected to the other of the two converging solar cell receiving walls; (e) rechargeable storage battery means located in the casing means; (f) base means connectable to the casing means for receiving and holding the storage battery means; (g) means for electrically connecting the storage battery means to the light emitting means; (h) means for electrically connecting the first solar cell means to the storage battery means; and (i) means for electrically connecting the second solar cell means to the storage battery means.

Williams, L.E.

1988-06-14

44

Sandwich Construction Solar Structural Facets  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Silver/glass mirrors have excellent optical properties but need a method of support in order to be used in concentrating solar thermal systems. In collaboration with the Cummins dish/Stirling development program, they started investigating sandwich construction as a way to integrate silver/glass mirrors into solar optical elements. In sandwich construction, membranes such as sheet metal or plastic are bonded to the front and back of a core (like a sandwich). For solar optical elements, a glass mirror is bonded to one of the membranes. This type of construction has the advantages of a high strength-to-weight ratio, and reasonable material and manufacturing cost. The inherent stiffness of sandwich construction mirror panels also facilitates large panels. This can have cost advantages for both the amount of hardware required as well as reduced installation and alignment costs. In addition, by incorporating the panels into the support structure reductions in the amount of structural support required are potentially possible.

Diver, R. B.; Grossman, J.W.

1998-12-22

45

Solar powered construction light  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This patent describes a switching circuit for selectively supply electrical energy to a means for emitting light. It comprises: a rechargeable storage battery means for supplying electrical energy to the means for emitting light, the battery means having a positive pole and a negative pole, a first transistor; a second transistor; a first diode; a first resistor connected to the first transistor between the emitter and the base of the first transistor, a second resistor; a third transistor; a capacitor; a fourth transistor; a solar cell means; and a second diode.

Williams, L.E.

1989-11-28

46

Solar array construction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An interconnect tab on each cell of a first set of circular solar cells connects that cell in series with an adjacent cell in the set. This set of cells is arranged in alternate columns and rows of an array and a second set of similar cells is arranged in the remaining alternate columns and rows of the array. Three interconnect tabs on each solar cell of the said second set are employed to connect the cells of the second set to one another, in series and to connect the cells of the second set to those of the first set in parallel. Some tabs (making parallel connections) connect the same surface regions of adjacent cells to one another and others (making series connections) connect a surface region of one cell to the opposite surface region of an adjacent cell; however, the tabs are so positioned that the array may be easily assembled by depositing the cells in a certain sequence and in proper orientation.

Crouthamel, Marvin S. (Pennsauken, NJ); Coyle, Peter J. (Oaklyn, NJ)

1982-01-01

47

Fairy Chimneys of Cappadocia and Their Engineering Properties  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Cappadocia region of inner Anatolia has been focus of both historians and geologists due to its underground cities as well as fairy chimneys on the surface. The man-made structures were caved in soft tuffs more than 1500 years ago; thus, many researchers studied the mass properties of rackous materials in the region to evaluate as construction materials. In this study physical and chemical properties of spectacular structures, called fairy chimneys formed due to physicochemical reaction on the surface were investigated. Fairy chimneys are formed of a cap, a neck and a supporting body. Thus, samples were collected for both physical and chemical analyses of caps, necks and bodies of the fairy chimneys found in the Cappadocia region. Chemical analyses of fairy chimneys revealed that not only the chemical compositions of fairy chimneys are different from the background tuffous rocks but also the chemical composition of the fairy chimney parts, namely cap, neck and body. The chemical analysis of fairy chimney showed that cementation agents such as Fe2O3 and CaO play significant role on the development of fairy chimneys. Similar to the chemical composition variations, geotechnical properties of fairy chimneys also showed variations. For example, point load index of fairy chimneys in Bagli creek is higher than those of Pasabagi creek for both neck and body. Both chemical and mechanical analyses of fairy chimneys indicated that there is a positive correlation between the content of cementations elements and mechanical properties and size of the fairy chimneys.

Alper Baba; Abidin Kaya; Necdet Turk

2005-01-01

48

Dynamic response of the Paks NPP chimney  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to simulate the experimental analysis undertaken for the chimney in Paks NPP an analytical model was developed. It is a 3D finite element model. The model of the chimney consists of 962 shell elements and the soil is modeled with 1846 Solid elements. Total number of joints is 2937. The shell elements were used to model the chimneys interconnected by platforms and inlet structure. The solid elements were used to model the footing, of the chimney and different soil layers. The model at the borders is fixed. The excitation record was provided by ISMES and is underground explosion. Three simultaneous components were taken into consideration. Fast Fourier analysis was done in order to see the frequency content of the excitation components. Material properties of the finite element model are shown. The chimney and the interconnection platforms are constructed of reinforced concrete. The concrete mechanical characteristics and the soil mechanical properties are given. In order to calculate the natural frequencies and periods of the model of the chimney, a Ritz analysis was performed and the first thirty six frequencies and periods were calculated. Figures show selected modes of free vibration, to visualize the complex motion of the chimney. The acceleration at the top of the chimneys were measured by three accelerometers. The measure values are compared to the calculated ones

1999-01-01

49

Sandwich construction solar structural facets  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Silver/glass mirrors have excellent optical properties but need a method of support in order to be used in concentrating solar thermal systems. In collaboration with the Cummins dish/Stirling development program, the authors started investigating sandwich construction as a way to integrate silver/glass mirrors into solar optical elements. In sandwich construction, membranes such as sheet metal or plastic are bonded to the front and back of a core (like a sandwich). For solar optical elements, a glass mirror is bonded to one of the membranes. This type of construction has the advantages of a high strength-to-weight ratio, and reasonable material and manufacturing cost. The inherent stiffness of sandwich construction mirror panels also facilitates large panels. This can have cost advantages for both the amount of hardware required as well as reduced installation and alignment costs. In addition, by incorporating the panels into the support structure reductions in the amount of structural support required are potentially possible. The authors have investigated sandwich construction panels that employ cores of polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polyurethane foams as well as conventional aluminum and cardboard honeycombs. The authors investigations have involved fabricating 0.5 x 0.6-m (20 x 24-inch) spherical-contour panels and testing their optical properties and environmental durability. The authors have also performed preliminary cost and performance studies. Evaluations included optical testing with the SunLab 2f and VSHOT tools both before and after exposures to environmental chamber testing. The results showed that sandwich mirror panels are potentially very accurate. However, long-term degradation due to creep was evident in all of the foam core facets. The aluminum honeycomb core facets were accurate and durable. In this paper, the design principles that guided the investigations, estimates of cost, and the results of the experimental investigations are presented.

Diver, R.B.; Grossman, J.W.

1999-07-01

50

33 CFR 165.T01-0176 - Regulated Navigation Area; Lake Champlain Bridge Construction, Crown Point, New York and Chimney...  

Science.gov (United States)

... Regulated Navigation Area; Lake Champlain Bridge Construction, Crown Point... Regulated Navigation Area; Lake Champlain Bridge Construction, Crown Point... All navigable waters on Lake Champlain 300 yards to the north and...

2010-07-01

51

Procedimentos estimativos do potencial de uso de chaminés solares para promover a ventilação natural em edificações de baixa altura/ Procedures for estimating the potential use of solar chimneys for natural ventilation enhancement in low-rise buildings  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A ventilação natural é uma das estratégias mais importantes para o condicionamento térmico passivo de ambientes internos de edificações, podendo ocorrer pela ação dos ventos, pelo efeito chaminé ou pela combinação de ambos. Em áreas urbanizadas, a velocidade do vento é sensivelmente reduzida pelos obstáculos locais, tornando o efeito chaminé uma alternativa de projeto mais viável, pois independe dos ventos. Este artigo tem por objetivo apresentar e discut (more) ir procedimentos estimativos do potencial de uso de chaminés solares para edificações de baixa altura, localizadas em regiões de baixa latitude. Desenvolveram-se previsões teóricas, através de um modelo matemático e de simulação computacional. Realizou-se um processo de calibração destes modelos, utilizando como referência os resultados do monitoramento experimental de uma célula de teste. O processo baseou-se na análise comparativa de algumas variáveis selecionadas, considerando-se dados de temperatura superficial, temperatura do ar e vazão volumétrica no interior da chaminé. Os resultados indicaram que os modelos teóricos têm potencial de aplicação na avaliação do desempenho de chaminés solares, especialmente o modelo de simulação, em que foram observadas diferenças inferiores a 20% entre resultados medidos e calculados. Abstract in english Natural ventilation is one of the most important strategies for passive cooling of indoor environments. It can occur by wind forces, by stack effect or by a combination of both strategies. The second choice tends to be more effective in urban areas, where there are obstacles that block or significantly reduce wind speed. This paper analyses prediction procedures for the potential use of solar chimneys in low-rise buildings at low latitude locations. Theoretical prediction (more) s were developed using a mathematical model and computer simulation. A calibration procedure was used, based on results obtained through an experimental set up. The procedure consisted in a comparative analysis of chosen variables, considering data of surface temperature, air temperature and volumetric flow rate inside the chimney channel. The results confirmed the great potential of applicability of the theoretical models in the performance analysis of solar chimneys, especially the simulation model, which presented differences lower than 20% between measured and estimated results.

Neves, Leticia de Oliveira; Roriz, Maurício

2012-03-01

52

Chimney Open Issues  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the process of developing a design for the design report, many side questions or comments arose which were not completely answered or investigated because the work was outside the scope of developing a base design. I have pored over my meeting notes and tried to list all such chimney 'open issues' in this engineering note.

Rucinski, R.; /Fermilab

1993-10-04

53

Fairy chimneys in Peru  

CERN Multimedia

Erosion creates beautiful landscapes. A large part of them is known just by the local population. Google Maps can help in locating the places, study them and start any project for preservation. An interesting example is given by a landscape of fairy chimneys in Peru, near San Pedro de Larcay. It is remarkable the fact that some of them have been adapted as dwelling places.

Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

2011-01-01

54

Modern power station chimneys behind flue gas desulphurization plants. Moderne Kraftwerksschornsteine hinter Rauchgasreinigungsanlagen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The retrofitting of flue gas desulphurization plants at almost all existing large power stations has brought with it significant layout problems. The choice of type of chimney design, such as for example single-draught-, multi-draught- or collecting chimney, has not rarely been determined by these pressures. In connection with the water contained in the flue gas, highly corrosive constituents, which lead to appropriate requirements from the corrosion resistance of the materials used in both the plant and the chimney construction, are produced. Knowledge, which is important for the design of industrial chimneys, is specified in the paper. (orig.).

Dornick, K. van (Rheinisch-Westfaelisches Elektrizitaetswerk AG, Essen (Germany, F.R.). Bauabteilung)

1990-02-01

55

Corrosion at system chimneys made of CrNi-steels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Names like 'chimney' und 'funnel' usually identify flue gas devices made of bricks. Much less known is the fact that chimney elements are still manufactured from alloys. The following article describes the particular demands ruled by legislation on building pro-ducts, just as the consequences resulting from corrosion loads by flue gas condensates. Difficulties caused by manufacturing and construction are primarily discussed. Furthermore a test procedure is introduced that allows to catch and correlate corrosion loads and technical designs systematically to corrosion behaviour and service life of flue gas devices. For the first time a tool for active quality assurance has been given by this test rig allowing to recognize construction errors systematically. This way, manufacturers of system chimneys and flue liners are enabled to optimize their products applications going ahead to the respective requests of the market. (authors)

Pajonk, Gunther [Institute of Materials Testing of Northrhine-Westfalia, D-44285 Dortmund (Germany)

2004-07-01

56

Novel concept for producing energy integrating a solar collector with a man made mountain hollow  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The concept of the solar chimney thermal power technology was proven with the successful operation of the Manzanares prototype built in the 1980s. However, all previous attempts at producing energy from a commercial solar chimney thermal power plant on a large scale have failed because of bad engineering and safety. A novel concept for producing energy by integrating a solar collector with a mountain hollow is presented and described. Solar energy is collected in the collector and heats the ground, which is used to store heat energy and heat the indoor air. Then, the hot air is forced by the pressure difference between it and the ambient air to move along the tilted segment and up the vertical segment of the 'chimney', driving the turbine generators to generate electricity. The mountain hollow, formed by excavation in a large-elevation mountain, can avoid the safety issues of erecting a gigantic concrete chimney, which is needed for commercial solar chimney thermal power plants. Furthermore, it can also save a great amount of construction materials for constructing a robust chimney structure and reduce the energy cost to a level less than that of a clean coal power plant, providing a good solution to the reclamation and utilization of undeveloped mountains, especially in mountainous countries.

2009-01-01

57

Solar thermal systems successful planning and construction  

CERN Document Server

Solar Thermal Systems summarizes the theoretical and practical knowledge gained from over 20 years of research, implementation and operation of thermal solar installations. This work provides answers to a variety of key questions by examining current solar installations, drawing upon past experiences and making proposals for future planning.- how do system components and materials behave under continuous operation?- which components have proven themselves and how are they used properly?- what are the causes of defects and how can they be avoided?- how long is the service life of modern solar i

Peuser, Dr Felix A; Schnauss, Martin

2013-01-01

58

Toward a Heat Recovery Chimney  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The worldwide population increase and subsequent surge in energy demand leads electricity producers to increase supply in an attempt to generate larger profit margins. However, with Global Climate Change becoming a greater focus in engineering, it is critical for energy to be converted in as environmentally benign a way as possible. There are different sustainable methods to meet the energy demand. However, the focus of this research is in the area of Waste Heat Recovery. The waste heat stored in the exiting condenser cooling water is delivered to the air flow through a water-air cross flow heat exchanger. A converging thermal chimney structure is then applied to increase the velocity of the airflow. The accelerated air can be used to turn on the turbine-generator installed on the top the thermal chimney so that electricity can be generated. This system is effective in generating electricity from otherwise wasted heat.

Dan Zhang; Yuelei Yang; Min Pan; Zhen Gao

2011-01-01

59

Chimney-type checker blocks for glass tank regenerators  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The stated aim of this paper is to describe and to document experiences in the application of chimney block packing in glass tank regenerators in relation to their considered advantages over straight conventional brick packing. The advantages reported include savings in energy by enlargement of the heating surface with the same storage volume, lower investment costs for new construction because of smaller chamber dimensions, greater checkerwork stability and simple and rapid installation. (author).

Nocon, J.R.C. (San Miguel Packing Products, Manila (PH). Operations Dept.)

1991-03-01

60

Analysis of Self-Supporting Chimney  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Chimneys are tall structures and the major loads acting on these are self weight of the structure, wind load, live load due to lining, earthquake load & temperature loads. In this paper a RC chimneys will be designed considering dead load, wind load and earthquake load. The Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) design codes procedures will be used for the design of chimney. The present paper discusses the parametric study of RC chimney which is made by obtaining the results from software for different heights, diameter, earthquake zones, wind zones, type of soils and various load conditions because of changes in the dimensions of chimney, structural analysis such as response to earthquake and wind oscillations have become more critical to influence on the response and design of chimney. Parametric study on chimney from height 150 meters to 250 meters at an interval of 5 meters, for Zone II, Hard soil & Critical Zone of Zone V, Soft soil with wind speed varying from 33 meters/sec to 55 meters/sec with an internal temperature of 100 Degrees. The response of the chimney is studied & recorded in Tables & Graphs. The analysis is carried out using programming software Microsoft Visual Basic 6.0. The results obtained from the above cases are compared. Finally, the maximum values obtained in wind analysis and seismic analyses are then compared for deciding the design value.

Rajkumar; Vishwanath. B .Patil,

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

The influence of lightweight aggregate concrete element chimneys on the airtightness of wood-frame houses  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Energy efficient buildings must be constructed as airtight as possible. In Norway the airtightness requirements have become stricter. This leads to a growing interest for airtight constructions and methods. Element chimneys of lightweight aggregate concrete, LWAC, are widely used in Norway. Air leakages are frequently observed in connection with these chimneys. The leaks are found either through the element, as a result of insufficient surface treatment of the air permeable element, or through the joint with the roof. This article discusses the influence that LWAC element chimneys can have on the airtightness of wood-frame houses. This is done by measurements and calculations. The influence of the sealing method used in the joint with the roof and the influence of the surface treatment of the LWAC elements on the airtightness is investigated. The results show that even the simplest sealing in the joint with the roof is adequate because of the limited circumference of the LWAC chimney. The results also show that the airtightness provided by the surface treatment of the chimney is very sensitive to the workmanship. If the workmanship is thorough, the influence of a LWAC element chimney on the airtightness of a wood-frame house should be negligible. (author)

Relander, Thor-Oskar; Kvande, Tore; Thue, Jan Vincent [Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Civil and Transport Engineering. Trondheim (Norway)

2010-05-15

62

Draft plugging device for a chimney flue  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A device for plugging a chimney flue when not in use comprises an elongate semi-rigid wand which can be manoeuvered by manual moving of one end so that the opposed end can be inserted into the chimney flue. The opposed end carries an inflatable balloon which can be inflated to grasp the inner surface of the flue by valve arrangement at the lower end.

Penner, P.

1987-12-29

63

Design, Construction and Testing of Simple Solar Maize Dryer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This project reports the design, construction and testing of a simple solar maize dryer. It is design in such a way that solar radiation is not incident directly on the maize, but preheated air warmed during its flow through a low pressure thermosphonic solar energy air heater or collector made up of an insulating material (polystyrene) of size 100mmx50mmx25.4mm, absorber plate (aluminium) sheet painted black of size 100mmx50mm and a cover glass (5mm thickness) measuring 100mmx50mm all arranged in this order contributed to the heating. The test results gave temperature above 45OC in the drying chamber, and the moisture content of 50kg of maize reduced to about 12.5% in three days of 9hours each day of drying.

Joshua FOLARANMI

2008-01-01

64

Solar power plant in light-weight construction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A solar power plant built as a light-weight construction is introduced. The development had been started in 1972. This power plant is characterized by extremely light rotating parabolic mirrors and a highly transparent cupola under which the mirrors are protected from weather influences, controlled by sensors and directed to the sun. The central point of this new type of power plant are the big foil membrane mirrors. These mirrors concentrate the directly falling sun light on a specially developed linear-Stirling-generator which converts the solar energy directly into electric alternating current. Arranged as modules, the parabolic mirrors can be assembled to solar copula power plant forms. Data of a system with mirrors with 10 m-diameters are presented.

1982-09-01

65

Constructal design of solar energy-based systems for buildings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One of the major issues confronting users of solar energy-based systems is the relatively low efficiency of these systems when compared with fossil fuel-based systems. In this paper we take a fresh look at the generation of architecture of these systems based on the constructal theory. Three different systems are investigated: a shading system to control the incoming of solar radiation during the summer and the winter, a bundle of pipes to warm a room, and a distillation system integrated in a roof. The constructal principle invoked in this paper shows that geometrical form of systems can be deduced from a single principle and provides designers with tools for their conceptual design. (author)

Miguel, Antonio F. [Geophysics Centre of Evora and Department of Physics, University of Evora, Rua Romao Ramalho 59, 7000-671 Evora (Portugal)

2008-07-01

66

Suitability of locally constructed solar dryers for vegetable drying  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Indigenous vegetables and spices are usually common and abundant during the rainy season but unfortunately, almost disappear during the dry season due to inadequate processing because of their high moisture content, poor storage and marketing facilities. A study was therefore conducted to find the possibilities of drying vegetables using locally constructed solar dryers at the Mechanisation section of the University of Education, Mampong Campus. The study was done during the months of March to September, 2004 and six designs of solar panels were used. The panels were constructed using hard wood, binding materials (nails), chicken mesh, nylon net, and black and white polythene sheets. Variations in panels resulted from the type of polythene sheet used (white, black or both), drying platform and shape of the roof. The panels with their interior lined with the black polythene sheet recorded higher temperatures than those with their bases covered with only the chicken mesh and nylon nettings. All the designs recorded higher temperatures than the ambient temperature. The drying of vegetables was observed to be faster in the panels with their drying platforms lined with the black polythene sheet than those with their bases covered with only the chicken mesh and nylon net. Appearance of the vegetables after drying in the solar panels was almost the same as before drying as compared to the open sun drying that got mouldy after drying. Those vegetables that were dried directly on the black polythene sheet however were slightly darker in colour. Solar drying with these locally constructed panels would be a better means of drying vegetables by rural folks. (au)

2008-01-01

67

Review of intelligent building construction: A passive solar architecture approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Due to the increase in living standard and demand, energy conservation has become important in industrialized countries. In view of rational use of energy, the present paper reviews intelligent building construction with the aid of passive solar architecture approach, which makes use of specific building design principles and reduces the artificial energy requirements for achieving indoor thermal comfort. As a climate responsive architecture, building design criteria has been studied with the help of several parameters like geographic location and climatic conditions, building shape, orientation, selection of construction materials, building openings viz. windows, selection of suitable sunshades, etc. All the salient building design parameters are studied and important findings and recommendations are suggested as the outcome of the study. The study in turn is useful for various resource persons involved in the construction activities for designing energy efficient intelligent buildings. (author)

Ralegaonkar, Rahul V. [Civil Engineering Department, VNIT, Nagpur 440010, Maharashtra (India); Gupta, Rajiv [Civil Engineering Group, BITS, Pilani 333031, Rajasthan (India)

2010-10-15

68

Constructal method to optimize solar thermochemical reactor design  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this study is the geometrical optimization of a thermochemical reactor, which works simultaneously as solar collector and reactor. The heat (concentrated solar radiation) is supplied on a small peripheral surface and has to be dispersed in the entire reactive volume in order to activate the reaction all over the material. A similarity between this study and the point to volume problem analyzed by the constructal approach (Bejan, 2000) is evident. This approach was successfully applied to several domains, for example for the coupled mass and conductive heat transfer (Azoumah et al., 2004). Focusing on solar reactors, this work aims to apply constructal analysis to coupled conductive and radiative heat transfer. As a first step, the chemical reaction is represented by a uniform heat sink inside the material. The objective is to optimize the reactor geometry in order to maximize its efficiency. By using some hypothesis, a simplified solution is found. A parametric study provides the influence of different technical and operating parameters on the maximal efficiency and on the optimal shape. Different reactor designs (filled cylinder, cavity and honeycomb reactors) are compared, in order to determine the most efficient structure according to the operating conditions. Finally, these results are compared with a CFD model in order to validate the assumptions. (author)

Tescari, S.; Mazet, N. [PROMES-CNRS, Rambla de la Thermodynamique, Tecnosud, 66100 Perpignan (France); Neveu, P. [PROMES-CNRS, Rambla de la Thermodynamique, Tecnosud, 66100 Perpignan (France); Universite de Perpignan Via Domitia, 52 Avenue Paul Alduy, 66860 Perpignan (France)

2010-09-15

69

Solar building construction. Urban planning - construction planning. Solares Bauen. Stadtplanung - Bauplanung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The term solar architecture for some time already do not mean any longer buildings with south-oriented attached greenhouses. The main aim today are fossil fuel savings and the use of renewable energy sources. In the first part of the book various archictural and energy concepts in Germany, Switzerland and France are presented. In the second part computersimulations of annual energy balances and the summerly heat load are presented as an important requirement for the planning of buildings. The third part discussed the following questions: Plants, choice of the building materials, air quality and health aspects. (BWI) With 322 figs.

Schempp, D.; Krampen, M.; Moellring, F.

1992-01-01

70

Chimney`s economic temperature in steam generator; Temperatura economica de chamine em gerador de vapor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is analysed and optimized, from the economic point of view, the heat recovery from stack gases of boilers, throughout the installation of economizers and combustion air pre heaters. A simplified mathematical model is suggested for the heat exchange and applied together with the minimum cost method in order to determine the areas of the mentioned exchangers above which it is not economic to recover additional heat. This point settles chimney temperature that is called chimney`s economic temperature. The results from the application of this model are presented to a practical case. (author). 2 figs., 2 refs

Santos, R.L.P.M. [Centro de Pesquisas e Desenvolvimento, Camacari, BA (Brazil)

1984-12-31

71

Solar building construction - new technologies; Solares Bauen - Neue Technologien fuer Gebaeude  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There is an increasing demand for integrated building concepts in order to reduce energy consumption. Building design, construction and heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) technology are decisive in this respect. Thus, an essentially higher energy efficiency is achieved and solar energy becomes the main energy source. An `active building envelope` assumes the task of controlling the energy flows between inside and outside. This paper reports on new components, system concepts and planning tools for solar building. (orig.) [Deutsch] Fuer zukuenftige Bauten werden in hohem Masse Forderungen nach integrierten Konzepten zur Begrenzung des Energieverbrauchs gestellt. Gestalt, Konstruktion und Klimatechnik sind dabei massgebliche Einflussfaktoren. Hierdurch wird eine wesentlich hoehere Energieeffizienz erzielt und Solarenergie kann die uebrigen Energiequellen zurueckdraengen. Eine `aktive Gebaeudehuelle` uebernimmt die Aufgabe, den Energiefluss zwischen Innen und Aussen zu steuern. Der Beitrag berichtet ueber neue Komponenten, Systemkonzepte und Planungswerkzeuge fuer das Solare Bauen. (orig.)

Luther, J.; Voss, K.; Wittwer, V. [Fraunhofer-Inst. fuer Solare Energiesysteme, Freiburg (Germany). Abt. ``Thermische und Optische Systeme``

1998-02-01

72

Seismic modelling of a masonry chimney  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Different plastic/failure are applied to a masonry structure showing the difficulties to deal with masonry material and the results obtained for a masonry chimney under erathquake loading when two different criteria are used. , Generalitat Valenciana GV05/085.

Pallarés Rubio, Francisco Javier; Ivorra Chorro, Salvador

73

Solar UV exposure in construction workers in Valencia, Spain.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) has long been recognized as the most important environmental risk factor for melanoma and skin cancer. Outdoor workers are among the groups most at risk from exposure to solar UVR in their daily activities. Sensitive spore-film filter-type personal dosimeters (VioSpor) were used to measure the biologically effective UVR received by construction workers in the course of their daily work. The study took place in Valencia, Spain, in July 2010 and involved a group of eight workers for a period of 5 days. The median UV exposure was 6.11 standard erythema dose (SED) per day, with 1?SED defined as effective 100?J/m(2) when weighted with the Commission Internationale de L'Eeclairage erythemal response function. These workers were found to receive a median of 13.9% of total daily ambient ultraviolet erythemal radiation (UVER). Comparison with the occupational UVR exposure limit showed that the subjects had received UVER exposure in excess of occupational guidelines, indicating that protective measures against this risk are highly advisable.

Serrano MA; Cañada J; Moreno JC

2013-09-01

74

Design of a solar power satellite for construction from lunar materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Solar Power Satellites may be constructed from materials mined on the Moon and transported into free space by means of an electromagnetic catapult called a mass-driver. Both the mass-driver and the chemical processing techniques required to obtain construction materials from lunar soil have been demonstrated in the laboratory. A Solar Power Satellite has been designed for construction from lunar materials. This design requires only 1% of its mass from the Earth.

Maryniak, G.E.; Tillotson, B.

1988-01-01

75

Solar wall heating systems in lightweight construction; Solare Wandheizung in Leichtbauweise  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Solar wall systems are an attractive possibility for passive solar energy utilization in buildings. Conventional systems make use of the sensible heat capacity of a solid wall construction to store the absorbed solar energy. During the evening, most of the stored heat is discharged into the room behind the solar wall system. This improves thermal comfort and reduces heating loads. In lightweight construction buildings the solid wall can be replaced by a thin layer of a latent heat storage material, a so-called PCM (phase change material). During the phase transition of the PCM, a large amount of heat can be stored in or discharged from the material at almost constant temperature. A latent storage density of 0.63 kWh per m{sup 2} can be achieved with an 8 mm thick PCM-layer of CaCl{sub 2}.6H{sub 2}O. The melting point of this material is 27 C. Measurements in an outdoor test facility at the ZAE Bayern in Wuerzburg, Germany, showed a promising performance of such a solar wall system with PCM. After sunny days, the discharge process of the PCM lasted until the next morning. There were no overheating problems. Even when the PCM was completely melted, the maximum system temperatures on the inner surface never exceeded 35 C. A mean total solar energy transmittance of 0.15 was measured. The heat losses through the system correspond to a U-value of 0.05 W/(m{sup 2}K). A major problem occurred when the PCM reached temperatures of over 60 C. This resulted in the destruction of the nucleating agent, which had a maximum operating temperature of 45 C. Nucleating agents in salt hydrates help to start the crystallization process and limit supercooling to a few Kelvin. A new nucleating agent for a salt hydrate based on LiNO{sub 3}.3H{sub 2}O was developed by the company Merck. This nucleating agent has an operating temperature of up to 90 C. Another advantage of LiNO{sub 3}.3H{sub 2}O is its large latent heat of fusion. A 1 cm thick layer of LiNO{sub 3}.3H{sub 2}O has a latent storage density of 1.12 kWh per m{sup 2}. The melting temperature of LiNO{sub 3}.3H{sub 2}O is 30 C. Simulations with this new PCM resulted in energy gains of more than 50 kWh per year and per m{sup 2} solar wall area for highly insulated lightweight building constructions. Maximum system temperatures on the inner surface were 40 C. Sun protection is necessary during summer. Long term resistance of PCM and encapsulation has to be investigated. (orig.)

Weinlaeder, H.; Beck, A.; Fricke, J. [ZAE Bayern, Wuerzburg (Germany)

2003-07-01

76

Sound design of chimney pipes by optimization of their resonators.  

Science.gov (United States)

An optimization method, based on an acoustic waveguide model of chimney and resonator, was developed and tested by laboratory measurements of experimental chimney pipes. The dimensions of the chimney pipes are modified by the optimization algorithm until the specified fundamental frequency is achieved, and a predetermined harmonic partial overlaps with an eigenfrequency of the pipe. The experimental pipes were dimensioned by the optimization method for four different scenarios and were built by an organ builder. The measurements show excellent agreement between the measured sound spectra and calculated input admittances. The developed optimization method can be used for sound design of chimney pipes. PMID:23297924

Rucz, Péter; Trommer, Thomas; Angster, Judit; Miklós, András; Augusztinovicz, Fülöp

2013-01-01

77

Sound design of chimney pipes by optimization of their resonators.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An optimization method, based on an acoustic waveguide model of chimney and resonator, was developed and tested by laboratory measurements of experimental chimney pipes. The dimensions of the chimney pipes are modified by the optimization algorithm until the specified fundamental frequency is achieved, and a predetermined harmonic partial overlaps with an eigenfrequency of the pipe. The experimental pipes were dimensioned by the optimization method for four different scenarios and were built by an organ builder. The measurements show excellent agreement between the measured sound spectra and calculated input admittances. The developed optimization method can be used for sound design of chimney pipes.

Rucz P; Trommer T; Angster J; Miklós A; Augusztinovicz F

2013-01-01

78

Constructing and Characterising Solar Structure Models for Computational Helioseismology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In local helioseismology, numerical simulations of wave propagation are useful to model the interaction of solar waves with perturbations to a background solar model. However, the solution to the linearised equations of motion include convective modes that can swamp the helioseismic waves that we ar...

Schunker, H.; Cameron, R.; Gizon, L.; Moradi, H.

79

Chimneys: classification by thermal resistance, measuring and testing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Italian CTI (Italian Thermotechnical Committee) normative for the thermal resistance classification of chimneys is presented. The normative provides definitions of terminology, test modalities and relevant equipment set-up, calculation methods to determine thermal resistance from test results, and chimney identification criteria.

Comitato Termotecnico Italiano

1989-11-01

80

Constructal Optimization of Top Contact Metallization of a Photovoltaic Solar Cell  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A top contact metallization of a photovoltaic solar cell collects the current generated by incident solar radiation. Several power-loss mechanisms are associated with the current flow through the front contact grid. The design of the top metal contact grid is one of the most important areas of efficient photovoltaic solar cell design. In this paper, an approach based on the constructal theory is proposed to design the grid pattern in a photovoltaic solar cell, minimizing total resistive losses. Constructal theory explains the geometric form (shape and structure) of most volume-to-point systems in nature. In this paper, the applicability of the constructal theory to design top contact metallization for a photovoltaic solar cell has been extended.

Aditya Bhakta; Santanu Bandyopadhyay

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

D0 Solenoid Chimney Routing Clearances  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This engineering note contains information about the measured clearances along the chimney route from the solenoid to the control dewar. This type of information is best conveyed by sketches and a few photos. Twelve photos taken on 2/17/94 are included which gIVe perspective views along the path. The detector was parked in the collision hall on this date. The CF iron was split open to the east and the South EF iron was rolled back. Also the South EndCap Calorimeter was rolled to the south on this day. This allowed personnel access and the photographic opportunity. A full set of raw dimensional sketches are included. These sketches were generated by me using a 25 foot tape measure and a note pad. The sketches are in chronological order with the most recent on top. The first sketch, 5/18/94, describes the 'tightest' location for the upward incline portion of the chimney. The sketches on 2/14/94 thru 2/16/94 are refinements of the early 1992 and 1993 sketches. They pick out quite a bit more detail of specific detector components along the path. The dimensional sketches of 1992 and 1993 gave information in not as much detail and therefore gave a more constrained clearance description. Most of the information of the early sketches was jotted down on the plan view dated 10-29-92. This sketch also had some information lifted from prints which later was superseded by the 1994 sketches. I tried to label components and give views either titled 'Elevation' or 'Plan' which refers to a top view looking down. Also where I could I jotted down direction, ie. South, East etc. Hopefully with a little effort one can decifer it. The curvature of the CC was determined from a three dimensional topographical survey. This survey information is stored in an electronic drawing file 3823.111-ME-317165, 'Solenoid-CC south face 3D shape survey'. The 'z' dimensions for the radial chimney path were picked off this drawing. A curvature was then generated knowing many points by radial and z coordinates. This curve is stored in drawing file 3823.111-ME317164, 'Solenoid-CC south face-chimney contour layout'. All drawings mentioned above are kept in hard copy form in the D-Zero drawing files. The electronic 'master' copy is kept in the XDCS drawing control system, dOms vault. The information contained in this engineering note could be very useful for those who are interested in the clearances and shape of the solenoid chimney path. It could even be of use to future designers and engineers involved with the VLPC project which is planned.

Rucinski, R.; /Fermilab

1994-02-23

82

Design, construction and testing of parabolic solar energy cooker  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Parabolic solar energy cooker was designed using locally available materials such as pieces of iron and plane mirrors. The diameter of the dish was 12 x 10-3 mm and pieces of glass mirrors were adhered to its concave surface using abro silicon gum as solar energy reflectors. The solar cooker was used to cook different food materials such as rice, bean, yam and stew between 11am and 3pm. The time taken to cook the food materials were measured and compared to the time it takes to cook similar food samples of the same quantity using kerosene and electric stove. It took the kerosene and electric stoves two hours, forty minutes (2.40) and two hours, ten minutes (2.10) respectively to cook beans with all the ingredients while the fabricated solar cooker took only one hour fifteen minutes. Due to high solar energy absorption capacity of the solar cooker and insolation rate, the study has reveled that it is faster, safer and takes less time to cook using cooker than either kerosene or electric stove.

2011-01-01

83

Paraboloidal solar cooker: simple construction and low cost; Fogao solar paraboloide: construcao simples e de baixo custo  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper was developed four methods to constructions of solar cooker, relatively easy to make and low in cost. This parabolic concentrating cooker is basically a solar furnace. The thermal of the prototype have been studied and comparative study with the gas cooker is also included. The materials used for cooker and reflector surfaces have been discussed. (author). 20 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

Santos, J.M. dos; Venanzi, D. [Sao Paulo Univ., Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia; Almeida, S.J. de [Rio Grande do Norte Univ., Natal, RN (Brazil)

1984-12-31

84

The power of fire: Chimneys and chimney furnaces; Die Macht des Feuers: Kamine und Kaminoefen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Open chimneys are a symbol of thermal comfort and will therefore continue to be a popular technology. (orig.) [German] Knisternde Holzspaene, flackerndes Feuerlicht und angenehme Waerme: Auch heute ist der Kamin der Inbegriff der Gemuetlichkeit. Kaum, dass die ersten Herbststuerme den Winter ankuendigten und Schnee und Regen den letzten Rest von Sommerwaerme aus dem Haus vertrieben, knistert es Land auf, Land ab in behaglicher Atmosphaere. (orig.)

Anon.

2004-07-01

85

A novel hybrid heat pipe solar collector/CHP system - Pt. 1: system design and construction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The process of selecting and designing the major components for a hybrid solar collector/CHP system is described. Particular attention was given to the design of the solar collector and a number of options, including thin membrane heat pipe solar collectors (both 'normal' and 'artery' types) and hybrid heat pipe solar collectors (both wicked and wickless types), were considered. Performance comparisons were made using theoretical and experimental data and a hybrid solar collector was selected as the best option for the system. Micro impulse-reaction turbine using n-pentane as its working fluid was selected for the system although further work is being carried out on a compressed-gas driven turbo alternator. A prototype hybrid solar collector/CHP system has been constructed and the results of its theoretical and experimental testing are presented in Part II of this paper. (author)

Riffat, S.B.; Zhao, X. [University of Nottingham (United Kingdom). Institute of Building Technology

2004-12-01

86

Fire resistance tests of solid fuel fired fireplaces and chimneys  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Refractory materials and methods in relation to fireplaces fired with solid fuels and also chimneys are discussed in this paper. General claims relating to fire precautions are also presented. 6 drawings.

Nilsen, E.; Johansen, A. (eds.)

1984-01-01

87

Seismic response Analyses of Hanaro in-chimney bracket structures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The in-chimney bracket will be installed in the upper part of chimney, which holds the capsule extension pipes in upper one-third of length. For evaluating the effects on the capsules and related reactor structures, ANSYS finite element analysis model is developed and the dynamic characteristics are analyzed. The seismic response anlayses of in-chimney bracket and related reactor structures of HANARO under the design earthquake response spectrum loads of OBE (0.1 g) and SSE (0.2 g) are performed. The maximum horizontal displacements of the flow tubes are within the minimum half gaps between close flow tubes, it is expected that these displacement will not produce any contact between neighbor flow tubes. The stress values in main points of reactor structures and in-chimney bracket for the seismic loads are also within the ASME Code limits. It is also confirmed that the fatigue usage factor is muchless than 1.0. So, any damage on structural integrity is not expected when an in-chimney bracket is installed to upper part of the reactor chimney. (author). 12 refs., 24 tabs., 37 figs.

Lee, Jae Han; Ryu, J.S.; Cho, Y.G.; Lee, H.Y.; Kim, J.B

1999-05-01

88

Detailed design of construction of the solar pilot test facilities. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Solar Pilot Test Facilities (PTF's) are considered as a means of validating solar system models. The PTF's simulate both the building loads and the solar heating systems. Eight PTF's are to be constructed and tested in 8 countries of the European Community. In each there will be two systems - a reference system that is the same for all countries, and a nationally designed system. The principles, specifications, and design proposals are given for the reference system, its interface with the load simulator, cooling system, and central control system (microprocessor-based). (LEW)

1982-01-01

89

Design, construction and experimental study of electric cum solar oven - 2  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As in most of the developing countries, 35-40% of the population of Costa Rica still use firewood for domestic cooking. Considering the fact that Costa Rica is blessed with good sunshine, high hydroelectric potential and there exists a good electric network, a hybrid solar oven was thought to be useful. The construction and working of one electric cum solar oven (ECSO) has been described. This oven can be used for cooking and baking almost all types of meals at any time during the year employing solar and/or electric energy and consuming the minimum quantity of electric energy when it is required.

Nandwani, S.S.

1989-01-01

90

Isothermal storage of solar energy in building construction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The role of advanced isothermal heat storage systems in buildings is discussed. A storage system encapsulated with phase change materials in which energy is absorbed in the hot period and released in the cold period is analyzed. The thermal behaviour of isothermal heat storage composites is examined using numerical techniques. Two methods of heat transfer with latent heat storage are described in the first part. Based on the initial results, the 'effective heat capacity' method was selected and implemented into ESP-r. Numerical studies on the effect of isothermal storage of solar energy in specific building material components are discussed in the second part. Numerical simulations were conducted for two cases of multi-zone, highly glazed and naturally ventilated passive solar buildings. PCM-impregnated gypsum plasterboard was used as an internal room lining in the first case study and transparent insulation material combined with PCM was applied for the external south-oriented wall in the second case study. The behaviour of a TIM-PCM wall and its influence on the internal surface temperature are estimated. Air, surface and resultant temperatures are compared with a 'no-PCM' case for both case studies and the diurnal and the seasonal latent heat storage effect is analyzed. (author)

Heim, Dariusz [Department of Building Physics and Building Materials, Technical University of Lodz, Al. Politechniki 6, 90-924 Lodz (Poland)

2010-04-15

91

Solar hot water systems for the southeastern United States: principles and construction of breadbox water heaters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of solar energy to provide hot water is among the easier solar technologies for homeowners to utilize. In the Southeastern United States, because of the mild climate and abundant sunshine, solar energy can be harnessed to provide a household's hot water needs during the non-freezing weather period mid-April and mid-October. This workbook contains detailed plans for building breadbox solar water heaters that can provide up to 65% of your hot water needs during warm weather. If fuel costs continue to rise, the annual savings obtained from a solar water heater will grow dramatically. The designs in this workbook use readily available materials and the construction costs are low. Although these designs may not be as efficient as some commercially available systems, most of a household's hot water needs can be met with them. The description of the breadbox water heater and other types of solar systems will help you make an informed decision between constructing a solar water heater or purchasing one. This workbook is intended for use in the southeastern United States and the designs may not be suitable for use in colder climates.

None

1983-02-01

92

Psychology and photography: chimneys dreaming and chimneys warriors Psicologia e fotografia Comignoli sognanti e comignoli guerrieri  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article covers two aspects related to Psychology and Art. The first aspect concerns the similarities found between photography and various Schools of experimental psychology. For instance, the scientists of Psychology of ethological theory, and Non-verbal communication (NVC), observe with particular methodologies the non-verbal messages that animals and humans transmit to their peers through expressions, posture, gestures. The same is done by photographers (those who use the “camera” with a good knowledge of the medium and a “photographic  eye”) when they look around, careful to catch an expression, any unusual attitude, or a gesture of friendship. Another School of psychology, the Gestalpsychologie (Gestalt: form, figure, configuration), attributes a decisive value to the perception of space, the foreground and the background, the perspective and vanishing points, the contrast between black and white. All aspects that effectively interest psychologists just as much as photographers. Finally, the second aspect relates to the art of Antony Gaudì and makes some hypothesis about the personality and behavior of the great architect, with regard to the construction of two houses, "Casa Batllo" and "Casa Mila": particularly because of the configuration or Gestalt of the "chimneys" that dominate the two buildings. In this study, cooperate each other psychological analysis and the art of photography. The last enables us to study also the details of the work of Gaudì, as can be seen in the pictures of this essay.L'articolo affronta due aspetti correlati alla Psicologia e all'Arte. Il primo aspetto riguarda le affinità riscontrabili tra  fotografia e varie Scuole di psicologia sperimentale. Ad esempio, gli studiosi della Psicologia della Teoria etologica, e della Comunicazione non verbale (CNV), osservano con particolari metodologie i messaggi non verbali che animali e esseri umani trasmettono ai propri simili attraverso la mimica facciale, la postura, la gestualità. Lo stesso fanno i fotografi (quelli che usano la “camera” con buona sapienza del medium e con “occhio fotografico”) quando si guardano attorno, attenti a cogliere una espressione, un atteggiamento inconsueto, un gesto d’amicizia. Un’altra Scuola di psicologia, la Gestalpsychologie o Psicologia della Forma (Gestalt: forma, figura, configurazione),  attribuisce valore determinante alla percezione dello spazio, al primo piano e allo sfondo, alla prospettiva e ai punti di fuga, al contrasto fra bianco e nero. Tutti questi argomenti interessano tanto gli psicologi quanto i fotografi. Il secondo aspetto fa riferimento all'arte di Antony Gaudì e avanza qualche ipotesi circa la personalità e il comportamento del grande architetto, nella costruzione di due case,  "Casa Batllò" e "Casa Milà",  in particolare per le forme o Gestalt dei "comignoli" che dominano i due edifici. In tale studio collaborano fra loro l'analisi psicologica e l'arte fotografica. Quest’ultima consente di studiare anche i singoli dettagli dell’opera di Gaudì.

Tilde Giani Gallino

2013-01-01

93

Georgia Power Corporate Headquarters solar system. Final construction status report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The 24-story high-rise and the three story low-rise consumes about 50,000 Btu/ft/sup 2/-yr (including computer process loads). The solar system will provide about 18.6% of the heating and cooling loads. There are 23,712 square feet of parabolic trough collectors which collect a maximum of 3.4 million Btu/hr. Past experience and advice from previous DOE projects lead to the use of a treated water recirculation freeze protection system in lieu of an ethylene glycol system. The project uses a unique version of the Delavan tracker in order to perform properly in the southeastern climate. Conclusions reached during this project include: (1) even with performance type specifications, detailed specifications for intergration into building mechanical systems are required, (2) reaction time of the computer control system can inhibit the collector tracking system operation, (3) extreme care must be used in a large system design to insure balanced flow, (4) the Delavan tracker can be altered to operate more efficiently, (5) the GPC solar system is providing slightly less than the predicted amount of energy, due to apparently higher than expected parasitic losses, (6) total available direct radiation appears to be less than predicted for summer months, (7) the electrical hardware at the collector motors requires more maintenance than expected because of the harsh environment at their locations, (8) the control logic has to be altered to deal with hot hazy days, and (9) there are a number of improvements needed to make the system more maintenance free.

1983-12-15

94

NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF HEAT STORAGE OF SOLAR HEAT IN FLOOR CONSTRUCTION  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper, heat storage of solar heating in the floor construction of single-family houses is examined. A floor construction with two concrete decks is investigated. The lower is used as heat storage while the upper deck has a floor heating system. The potential for a reduction of the energy consumption for heating, by using heat storage in the floor construction is calculated using a dynamic simulation model of solar collector, solar tank and heat storage coupled to a building model, using the Danish Design Ref-erence Year as input. The model calculates the performance of the solar heating system room temperature and energy consumption. A single-family house with and without heat recovery unit on the ventilation system of 130 m² with heating demand of approximately 70 kWh/m² and 40 kWh/m² is investigated. A parametrical analysis was performed for the solar collector area, and floor layouts including pipe spacing, storage materials, and distribution of insulation around the thermal storage layer. The energy consump-tion, reduction due to the heat storage and total performance of the solar heating system was calculated. The largest reduction of 100 kWh/m² solar collector occurred in the house with the highest energy con-sumption. The reduction depends on the solar collector area, distribution of the insulation thickness, heat-ing demand and control strategy, but not on pipe spacing and layer thickness and material. Finally, it is shown that the system can also be used for comfort heating of tiled floors during the summer period.

Weitzmann, Peter; Holck, Ole

2003-01-01

95

Design, construction, and measurement of a large solar powered thermoacoustic cooler  

Science.gov (United States)

A device based on harnessing concentrated solar power in combination with using thermoacoustic principles has been built, instrumented, and tested. Its acoustic power is generated by solar radiation and is subsequently used to pump heat from external loads. The direct conversion between thermal and mechanical energy without going through any electronic stage makes the mechanism simple. Construction of the solar collector is also rather unsophisticated. It was converted from a 10-ft satellite dish with aluminized Mylar glued on the surface. The thermoacoustic device was mounted on the dish with its engine's hot side positioned near the focus of the parabolic dish, about 1 meter above the center of the dish. A 2-dimensional solar tracking system was built, using two servo motors to position the dish at pre-calculated coordinates. The solar powered thermoacoustic cooler is intended to be used where solar power is abundant and electricity may not be available or reliable. The cooler provides cooling during solar availability. Cooling can be maintained by the latent heat of ice when solar power is unattainable. The device has achieved cooling although compromised by gas leakage and thermal losses and was not able to provide temperatures low enough to freeze water. Improvements of the device are expected through modifications suggested herein.

Chen, Reh-Lin

2001-07-01

96

Solar multiple purpose power plant in modular superlight weight construction  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of aluminized membranes to form low-cost low-weight solar parabolic concentrators for thermal power production is described, including the practice of covering the concentrators with a transparent enclosure for protection from the weather. Stretching the plane mirror foils over a hollow, drum-shaped body permits production of a slight under- or overpressure inside the drum to deform the foil into a suitable approximation of a parabolic dish. Electric fields and magnetic field have yielded results equivalent to the pneumatic method, and fluorine-based synthetics for the foil are showing the best durability and forming characteristics. Applications involving 3 m and 10 m dishes and a Sterling engine have produced 3.75 and 40.7 kWt at the hot spot, respectively. The optical performance is summarized as an 800 W/sq m flux reduced to 720 W/sq m after traversing the enclosure, and 518 W/sq m reflected from the paraboloid.

Kleinwachter, J.

1981-12-01

97

Constructing WO3/TiO2 composite structure towards sufficient use of solar energy.  

Science.gov (United States)

A WO(3)/TiO(2) composite is constructed with the ability to degrade organic molecules under visible irradiation, which is newly explored by UV pre-irradiation. The long lasting visible-light photoactivity and the consecutive photocatalytic process will benefit the efficient use of solar energy. PMID:21359291

Su, Dan; Wang, Jingyu; Tang, Yupan; Liu, Cheng; Liu, Lifei; Han, Xijiang

2011-02-25

98

Constructing WO3/TiO2 composite structure towards sufficient use of solar energy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A WO(3)/TiO(2) composite is constructed with the ability to degrade organic molecules under visible irradiation, which is newly explored by UV pre-irradiation. The long lasting visible-light photoactivity and the consecutive photocatalytic process will benefit the efficient use of solar energy.

Su D; Wang J; Tang Y; Liu C; Liu L; Han X

2011-04-01

99

Solar project description; for Houston Construction Company, single family residence, Eden Prairie, Minnesota  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Houston Construction Company solar energy system is designed to provide 62 percent of the space heating and domestic hot water energy requirements for a single-family detached residence containing 1796 square feet. The residence is in Eden Prairie, MN. Energy collection is accomplished by 468 square feet of Solaron flat-plate collectors which face south at an angle of 60 degrees from the horizontal. Air is the medium for transfer of solar energy from the collectors to either the conditioned space or storage. Storage is a 314 ft/sup 3/ bin containing approximately 24,000 lbs of crushed rock located in a utility room. When solar energy is inadequate to satisfy the requirements of the space heating subsystem, auxiliary thermal energy is supplied from an 80,000 Btu/hr natural gas furnace. Domestic hot water is provided by a 30,000 Btu/hr natural gas water heater if the solar contribution is insufficient.

1982-01-01

100

The construction of a process line for high efficiency silicon solar cells under clean-room conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this research project was to plan, construct and test a clean-room technology laboratory for the manufacturing of silicon solar cells with 20% efficiency (1.5AM). In addition to the establishment of the laboratory, there existed the case of establishing the material and technological fundamentals of high-efficiency solar cells, testing and optimizing all stages of production as well as constructing test stands for accompanying characterisation work. The following final report describes the construction of the laboratory and characterisation systems, the material elements of high-efficiency solar cells as well as the most important results of solar cell production and optimisation. (orig./BWI)

1992-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Design, Engineering, and Construction of Photosynthetic Microbial Cell Factories for Renewable Solar Fuel Production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There is an urgent need to develop sustainable solutions to convert solar energy into energy carriers used in the society. In addition to solar cells generating electricity, there are several options to generate solar fuels. This paper outlines and discusses the design and engineering of photosynthetic microbial systems for the generation of renewable solar fuels, with a focus on cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria are prokaryotic microorganisms with the same type of photosynthesis as higher plants. Native and engineered cyanobacteria have been used by us and others as model systems to examine, demonstrate, and develop photobiological H{sub 2} production. More recently, the production of carbon-containing solar fuels like ethanol, butanol, and isoprene have been demonstrated. We are using a synthetic biology approach to develop efficient photosynthetic microbial cell factories for direct generation of biofuels from solar energy. Present progress and advances in the design, engineering, and construction of such cyanobacterial cells for the generation of a portfolio of solar fuels, e.g., hydrogen, alcohols, and isoprene, are presented and discussed. Possibilities and challenges when introducing and using synthetic biology are highlighted

Lindblad, Peter; Lindberg, Pia; Stensjoe, Karin (Photochemistry and Molecular Science, Dept. of Chemistry-Aangstroem Laboratory, Uppsala Univ., Uppsala (Sweden)), E-mail: Peter.Lindblad@kemi.uu.se; Oliveira, Paulo (Instituto de Biologia Molecular e Celular, Porto (Portugal)); Heidorn, Thorsten (Bioforsk-Norwegian Inst. for Agricultural and Environmental Research, Aas Oslo, (Norway))

2012-03-15

102

Inspection of chimneys for Carolina Power and Light Company  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Regular inspection and appropriate examination, with immediate follow-up repairs, are paramount to properly maintain chimneys. Chimneys are required to operate the units. Failure of a chimney could result in loss of life and could damage the unit(s). The previous program of performing visual inspections only, without the benefit of nondestructive testing and core examination, was unsatisfactory. The cost of examination with follow-up repairs is a sound investment compared to the cost associated with an extended outage for major repairs or replacement. The basic operating conditions for which the chimneys were designed have changed significantly. Originally, the chimneys were to operate with dry, hot gases; possess a high natural updraft and temperatures above acid dew point; and maintain negative pressure inside the liner--such that small liner cracks did not create a concern. The present conditions of operation are significantly different. These are wet, lower gas temperatures, acid saturated gases, less natural draft, and sometimes positive pressure inside the liner. There is now exfiltration of flue gas through any present liner cracks, breech seals, and open mortar joints into the annular space. The concrete sheath is not durable against exposure to flue gas.

Rabon, T.R. [Carolina Power and Light Co., Raleigh, NC (United States)

1995-10-01

103

Solar heat. Guide for design and construction of systems. Solvarme. Vejledning i projektering og udfoerelse af anlaeg  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this Guide (second revised edition) is: 1) to give a review of use and design of solar heating systems, 2) to evaluate the consequences of solar heating for building, constructional, siting and architectual relationships, 3) to evaluate the prospects of solar heating in a particular project. The Guide is mainly based on heating systems with flat solar collectors and liquid heat medium designed to heat space or water in smaller houses. Static calculations, architectural standards and economic aspects are reviewed.

1980-01-01

104

Chimney for enhancing flow of coolant water in natural circulation boiling water reactor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A chimney which can be reconfigured or removed during refueling to allow vertical removal of the fuel assemblies. The chimney is designed to be collapsed or dismantled. Collapse or dismantlement of the chimney reduces the volume required for chimney storage during the refueling operation. Alternatively, the chimney has movable parts which allow reconfiguration of its structure. In a first configuration suitable for normal reactor operation, the chimney is radially constricted such that the chimney obstructs vertical removal of the fuel assemblies. In a second configuration suitable for refueling or maintenance of the fuel core, the parts of the chimney which obstruct access to the fuel assemblies are moved radially outward to positions whereat access to the fuel assemblies is not obstructed.

Oosterkamp, Willem Jan (Oosterbeek, NL); Marquino, Wayne (San Jose, CA)

1999-01-05

105

29 CFR 1926.854 - Removal of walls, masonry sections, and chimneys.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2009-07-01 false Removal of walls, masonry sections, and chimneys. 1926.854 Section...Demolition § 1926.854 Removal of walls, masonry sections, and chimneys. (a) Masonry walls, or other sections of masonry,...

2009-07-01

106

Influence of a tube-building polychaete on hydrothermal chimney mineralization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

High-temperature chimneys on the Juan de Fuca Ridge are the preferred habitat of the 'sulfide worm' (Paralvinella n. sp.). An investigation of interactions between the biology of the sulfide worm and chimney mineralization has led to a hypothesis linking formation of marcasite-pyrite crusts on chimney surfaces to colonization and tube-building by the worms. Marcasite precipitation beneath worm tubes and worm migration to newly formed areas of chimney together create a moving front of biomineralization that keeps pace with chimney growth. Sulfide oxidation by this organism can potentially produce enough S to form the FeS[sub 2] crusts. The marcasite-pyrite crusts act as a sealing layer within the outer chimney wall, reducing inflow of cold seawater or outflow of hydrothermal fluid. This may enhance temperature increases within the chimney conduit and hasten replacement of the early anhydrite matrix in the chimney wall by higher temperature sulfides.

Juniper, S.K. (Centre Oceangraphique de Rimouski, Quebec (Canada)); Jonasson, I.R. (Geological Survey, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)); Tunnicliffe, V. (Univ. of Victoria, BC (Canada)); Southward, A.J. (Marine Biological Association, Plymouth (United Kingdom))

1992-10-01

107

Wisdom Way Solar Village: Design, Construction, and Analysis of a Low Energy Community  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes work conducted at the Wisdom Way Solar Village (WWSV), a community of 10 high performance duplexes (20 homes) in Greenfield, MA, constructed by Rural Development, Inc. (RDI). Building America's CARB team monitored temperatures and comfort in several homes during the winter of 2009-2010, and tracked utility bill information from 13 occupied homes. Because of efficient lights, appliances, and conscientious home occupants, the energy generated by the solar electric systems exceeded the electric energy used in most homes.

Aldrich, R.

2012-08-01

108

Baker Construction, Cincinnati, Ohio. Solar energy system performance evaluation, October 1980-May 1981  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Baker Construction site is a single family residence in Ohio with a passive solar heating system, which consists of 302 square feet of 62 degree sloped greenhouse glazing, a 35,500-pound concrete mass wall, 10,400-pound concrete slab floor, 20 phase change storage rods, six 1-kW electric baseboard heaters, and a wood stove. A solar fraction of 55% is reported. Also the solar savings ratio and conventional fuel savings are given. The performance of the greenhouse collector subsystem, the heat storage subsystem, and the space heating subsystem are summarized as well as total system performance. Energy savings and weather data are also included. The design of the system, performance evaluation techniques, and sensor technology are also presented. (LEW)

Spears, J.W.

1981-01-01

109

Design, construction and experimental study of Electric Cum Solar Oven-II  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] As in many developing countries, 35-40% of the population of Costa Rica still use firewood for domestic cooking. Considering the fact that Costa Rica is blessed with good sunshine, good hydroelectric potential, and a good electric network, a hybrid solar oven was thought to be useful. In the present paper the construction and working of a new type of Electric Cum Solar Oven (ECSO) has been described. This oven can be used for cooking and baking any type of meal at any time during the year employing solar and/or electric energy but consuming the minimum quantity of electric energy in case it is required. (author). 9 refs, 6 figs, 1 tab

1987-01-01

110

Design, construction and testing of a liquid-heating flat-plate solar collector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this study was to design, construct, and test a liquid-heating flat-plate solar collector. From the literature search, information was gathered concerning the basic components of the collector, the different processes and materials that can be used in the construction of these components, and their advantages and disadvantages. The literature search also revealed a method used to measure the performance of the collector in terms of efficiency and heat output. Design considerations were then listed for each of the major components as well as the collector as a single unit. Then, each component was designed, taking into consideration the final assembly of the completed unit. Detailed designs were required for the absorber plate and the box and frame assembly because of their complexity in construction and assembly. Once the components were designed, the construction details were arranged in a logical sequence, again considering the final assembly of the unit. The collector was then carefully constructed and assembled following the design details. After the solar collector was assembled completely, tests were made, data were obtained and recorded, and a collector performance curve was developed.

Tuttle, R E

1980-02-01

111

Natural convection solar crop-dryers of commercial scale in Ghana: design, construction and performance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Traditional open sun-drying, the predominant method of food preservation in Ghana, has serious drawbacks leading to significant post-harvest losses (between 20 and 30%). Mechanical dryers can provide high quality products with minimum losses but they require sources of electrical or chemical energy which, in the case of Ghana, are costly or scarce. This makes the development of an effective natural convection solar dryer an attractive alternative. A mixed-mode natural convection solar crop-dryer (a dryer in which the crop is dried by a combination of the direct absorption of solar radiation and by natural convection where air, heated by solar energy, is passed over the crop) has been designed. Two commercial dryers, based on this design and capable of handling between 1,000 and 1,500 kg of various agricultural products (such as cassava, pepper, maize, okra, etc.) have been constructed and partially tested at Agona-Asafo in the central region of Ghana. The results of these preliminary tests indicate that it takes 3-5 days to dry 1,000 kg of pepper from moisture content level of 78% to a safe storage level of 8%. The design, construction details, and the results of the preliminary tests are presented in this paper. (author)

Forson, F.K.; Nazha, M.A.A. [De Montfort University, Leicester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mechanical and Manufacture Engineering; Akuffo, F.O. [UST Kumasi (Ghana). Dept. of Mechanical and Manufacture Engineering

1996-07-01

112

Research on gas transport in chimneys: a progress report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of the AGRINI and TIERRA experiments have led us to study three general topics: collapse phenomenology, CO2 content measurement, and gas transport in chimneys. Our results so far are fragmentary, but we have been able to come to some tentative conclusions: (1) a layer of strong material between depths of 24 and 32 m, and perhaps some relatively strong material deeper, may have caused the AGRINI crater shape. This layer was absent at the nearby LABAN and CROWDIE events. We were unable to locate the layer with a surface penetrometer or surface seismic methods, but it may be possible to measure strength vs depth in situ by examining the penetration depth of a projectile. (2) We can probably improve our knowledge of the in situ CO2 content by calibrating a commercial carbon/oxygen logging system for NTS conditions. (3) It is possible to measure the response of the gas in a chimney to changes in atmospheric pressure. There can be significantly different gas transport in chimneys with the same pressure response, depending on the porosity and the distribution of the porosity. It is possible to perform an inexpensive experiment to study the gas transport in an existing chimney

1986-01-01

113

Research on gas transport in chimneys: a progress report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The results of the AGRINI and TIERRA experiments have led us to study three general topics: collapse phenomenology, CO/sub 2/ content measurement, and gas transport in chimneys. Our results so far are fragmentary, but we have been able to come to some tentative conclusions: (1) a layer of strong material between depths of 24 and 32 m, and perhaps some relatively strong material deeper, may have caused the AGRINI crater shape. This layer was absent at the nearby LABAN and CROWDIE events. We were unable to locate the layer with a surface penetrometer or surface seismic methods, but it may be possible to measure strength vs depth in situ by examining the penetration depth of a projectile. (2) We can probably improve our knowledge of the in situ CO/sub 2/ content by calibrating a commercial carbon/oxygen logging system for NTS conditions. (3) It is possible to measure the response of the gas in a chimney to changes in atmospheric pressure. There can be significantly different gas transport in chimneys with the same pressure response, depending on the porosity and the distribution of the porosity. It is possible to perform an inexpensive experiment to study the gas transport in an existing chimney.

Hearst, J.R.

1986-03-18

114

Fairy Chimneys of Cappadocia and Their Engineering Properties  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Cappadocia region of inner Anatolia has been focus of both historians and geologists due to its underground cities as well as fairy chimneys on the surface. The man-made structures were caved in soft tuffs more than 1500 years ago; thus, many researchers studied the mass properties of rackous ma...

Alper Baba; Abidin Kaya; Necdet Turk

115

Solar energy utilization in composting toilets. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The goal of the study was to utilize solar energy in lieu of electricity to help alleviate the basic problems with compost toilets. Solar devices were first used to improve the performance of existing facilities and additional systems were designed from inception with solar heating and venting systems. Four independent studies were initiated and executed over the two years of the grant period: the design and construction of a solar pasteurization unit for treatment of 55-gal drum waste collection units; retrofit of an existing Clivus Multrum toilet for direct passive solar heat gain; design and construction of an owner-built flow-through compost toilet with a solar hot air heating system for hill side installation; and design and construction of an integrated bathroom facility that included a solar heated flow-through compost toilet with a solar chimney venting system. In general, the use of high temperature solar devices to enhance the biological process of composting within a privy vault was not successful. The compost toilets in the study demonstrated their vulnerability to shock over loading characteristic of public facilities and therefore demonstrated their unsuitability for such applications. However, their performance under more controlled use rates (at or below design maximum) merits further study.

Kroschel, M.L.

1981-02-01

116

Telerobotic construction and maintenance of a 21. century space-based solar power facility  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of telerobotics to minimize costly manned space missions and to reduce the cost of monitoring space solar power platforms was discussed. The basic requirements for robotic assembly and servicing systems were described. The use of telerobotics will influence the construction and maintenance concepts for any space solar power platform (SSP) design. An International Space Station (ISS) will provide an opportunity to understand and refine the methods of designing, building and maintaining on-orbit platforms. It can be said with a high degree of certainty, that the robotic systems that someday may be used to construct and maintain large space solar power platforms will evolve from the systems developed for the ISS. Future generations of robotic systems may be longer and stronger than the Canada-arm, or Shuttle Remote Manipulator System (SRMS) and several of them may work together cooperatively. Further work volume capability may also demand the addition of coordinated tug vehicles. Maintenance procedures will likely make the use of orbital replaceable units inevitable. All robotic operations for the ISS will be ground controlled, requiring a new approach to the architecture of ground-controlled teleoperations, perhaps along the lines described in this paper. 3 refs., 4 figs.

Ballantyne, J.; Cox, B. [SPAR Aerospace Ltd., Brampton, ON (Canada)

1997-11-01

117

Guide for a building energy label. Promoting bio-climatic and solar construction and renovation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Technically speaking, building experts have the knowledge to deal with thermal inertia of buildings, solar gains, insulation, efficient ventilation, and daylighting... to get low energy buildings that provide comfort for the users. Buildings should always be designed according to the specificities of the local climate, according to a ''solar and bio-climatic construction'' approach. It is not always possible to fully apply these principles, particularly in urban areas with high density. However, this is unacceptable to keep building with such errors as insufficient insulation and direct electrical heating, single glazing, thermal bridges, low efficiency heating systems. This guide aims at encouraging the building experts to take into account the energy efficiency. Implementing a building energy label will allow general public to be aware of this issue and then, and will then lead to develop better practices. (author)

NONE

2004-07-01

118

Solar collector cell and roof flashing assembly and method of constructing a roof with such an assembly  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A solar collector cell formed as an integral portion of a roof flashing is disclosed as comprising a flashing base having a dihedral surface including a larger base portion and a smaller ramp portion, and a solar collector cell container built integrally with the base portion of the flashing. The combination is designed to be installed in the roof of a dwelling or other building structure. The container portion of the flashing is substantially shorter in height above the roof line than conventional solar collector cell structures added to a roof subsequent to its construction. As a result, the invention gives the building constructor or owner, the option of either including the solar cell components at the time of construction of the roof to provide a solar heating device, or to fill the solar collector cell container with a temporary support structure, such as roof shakes or tiles. The shape of the solar collector cell and flashing assembly permits the solar collector cell structure to be camouflaged by overlying shakes or tiles of which the roof is constructed.

Mayerovitch, M.D.

1980-03-25

119

Construction of a multilayered X-ray telescope for solar coronal studies from space  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The construction and testing of soft x-ray Ritchey-Chretien aplanatic telescope which is to be flown on a NASA sounding rocket in 1986 for very high resolution studies of the solar corona are discussed. Goals include figuring, polishing and measuring the mirror surfaces to tolerances exceding the 5000 A wavelength diffraction limit while achieving a superpolished surface finish, and the development of a structural design to withstand the rigors of the launch. Multilayer coatings are used to achieve usable reflectivity in the soft X-ray regime, and the design goal is for spatial resolution of 1/4 sec. Future applications are discussed. 12 references

1985-01-01

120

Description of the design, construction, and operation of four residential solar space-heating systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents information on the design, construction, and operational experience of four residential solar space-heating systems located in the Washington, D.C., metropolitan area. These systems have been in operation for periods ranging from three to five heating seasons. Each installation is in a detached single-family residence. All of the systems were installed commercially with private funds and, except for applicable federal, state, and local tax benefits, have not received any government financing. Each of the systems is a unique design. The intent of this paper is to present the systems comparatively.

Cohen, R.M.

1985-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Arterial chimney graft cannulation for interventional lung assist.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An interventional lung assist membrane ventilator (iLA) for arteriovenous extracorporeal CO2 removal was connected to a small-diameter femoral artery by use of a chimney graft in an underweight patient with acute respiratory failure and a previous history of heart-lung transplantation. This concept offers additional therapeutic options in underweight patients requiring extracorporeal CO2 removal with arterial vessels that are too small for percutaneous arterial cannulation with standard-sized percutaneous insertable iLA cannulae.

Bürkle MA; Sodian R; Kaczmarek I; Weig T; Frey L; Irlbeck M; Dolch ME

2012-10-01

122

Simplifying the construction of dye-sensitized solar cells to increase their accessibility for community education  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Simple dye-sensitized solar cells were developed using blackboard chalk as a substrate for mixed ZnO and SnO{sub 2} films that were sensitized with Mercurochrome (Merbromine) dye. Graphite pencil 'leads' were used as counter electrodes for the cells and the electrolyte consisted of an aqueous solution of iodine and potassium iodide that was gelled with a disinfectant containing quaternary ammonium compounds and cyanoacrylate adhesive (Superglue {sup registered}). The open circuit potential of constructed cells was typically 0.50-0.64 V and the short circuit current varied between 0.5 and 2.0 mA cm{sup -2}. The cells were developed as an educational resource that could be simply and safely constructed in a home or school environment with readily accessible materials. (author)

Appleyard, Steve [Department of Environment and Conservation, PO Box K822, Perth, WA 6842 (Australia)

2010-01-15

123

Evaluation of a stack: A concrete chimney with brick liner  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A 200 ft. tall stack, consisting of a concrete chimney with an independent acid proof brick liner built in the 1950's, serving the Separations facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS), was evaluated for the performance category 3 (PC3) level of Natural Phenomena Hazards (NPH) effects. The inelastic energy absorption capacity of the concrete chimney was considered in the evaluation of the earthquake resistance, in particular, to compute the F? factor. The calculated value of F? exceeded 3.0, while the seismic demand for the PC3 level, using an F? value of 1.5, was found to be less than the capacity of the concrete chimney. The capacity formulation of ACI 307 was modified to incorporate the effect of an after design opening on the tension side. There are considerable uncertainties in determining the earthquake resistance of the independent brick liner. The critical liner section, located at the bottom of the breeching opening, does not meet the current recommendations. A discussion is provided for the possible acceptable values for the ''Moment Reduction Factor'', Rw or F? for the liner. Comments are provided on the comparison of stack demands using response spectra (RS) versus time history (TH) analysis, with and without soil structure interaction (SSI) effects.

1995-01-01

124

Solar collector system for do-it-yourself construction. Final report; Sonnenkollektor-Selbstbau-Station. Abschlussbericht  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In December/January 1991/1992, the Verein fuer oekologisches Bauen Leipzig e.V. carried out its first training course in do-it-yourself construction of thermal solar systems. The workshop demonstrated the low-cost construction of a solar system for shower water heating in the Leipzig-Schoenefeld communal indoor swimming pool; it was attended by many interested citizens of Leipzig. The great interest stimulated further training courses and the construction of a workshop with all tools required for construction. [German] Im Jahresuebergang 1991/92 wurde in Leipzig durch den Verein fuer oekologisches Bauen Leipzig e.V. der erste Selbstbaukurs zur Errichtung einer thermischen Solaranlage durchgefuehrt. Die Zielstellung war die kostenguenstige Errichtung einer Solaranlage fuer die Duschwassererwaermung im kommunalen Schwimmbad Leipzig-Schoenefeld unter aktiver Einbeziehung von Leipziger Buergern. Dieser Workshop fand grosse Beteiligung, so dass eine Nachfrage nach weiteren derartigen Workshops auch fuer private Solaranlagen aufkam. Hintergrund war die Kosteneinsparung durch den Selbstbau der Kollektoren. Solaranlagen galten damals in den neuen Bundeslaendern als nahezu unerschwinglich. Aus diesem Grund bestand das Ziel des Projekts darin, mittels Sonnenkollektor-Selbstbaukursen deutlich guenstigere und damit annehmbare Solaranlagen auf den Markt zu bringen. Im Rahmen dieser Kurse musste eine breite Weiterbildung ueber die Nutzungsmoeglichkeiten der Solarenergie einhergehen, um vorhandene Defizite zu beseitigen und einen nennenswerten und bezahlbaren Beitrag fuer die Verbesserung der Luftqualitaet und der Ressourcenschonung in einem belasteten Industriegebiet wie Halle-Leipzig zu leisten. Die Durchfuehrung von Sonnenkollektor-Selbstbau-Kursen setzte die Schaffung einer dafuer notwendigen technischen Basis, die Errichtung einer 'Sonnenkollektor-Selbstbau-Station' (SSS), voraus. Dazu wurde eine Werkstatt mit allen notwendigen Werkzeugen und Hilfsmitteln eingerichtet. (orig.)

Seifert, A.; Unbekannt, L.

1999-08-01

125

Solar collectors in building and construction industry - mode of operation, construction, application. 2. enlarged ed. Solarkollektoren im Bauwesen - Funktion, Konstruktion, Anwendung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The bibliography consists of 162 literary references with short reports on: mode of operation, design, material, construction and the latest developments in the field of solar collectors as well as application in connection with other energy supply systems such as heat pumps. (HP).

Schoeller, A. (comp.)

1989-06-01

126

Renewable energy and wild life conservation: design and construction of a solar incubator  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents the design, construction and results of a solar powered incubator and pools for rearing yacare, a specie of the crocodile family, found in northern Argentina. The design was developed by the Research Centre Habitat and Energy, Faculty of Architecture, Design and Urbanism, Buenos Aires University in the framework of a Cooperation Agreement with the Argentine Wild Life Foundation. The installation, located in a Wild Life Refuge in a remote sub-tropical area of the Chaco Province in the north-east region of Argentina, consists of an incubation chamber for hatching the yacare with strict temperature conditions, pools for rearing the young during a year, heated by solar energy, an auxiliary wood-fired water heater and PV system to power the pumps control system and other minimal requirements such as lighting. The concepts, system development and integration, construction process and measured performance are presented together with the first results of this project which integrates low impact renewable energy systems to support the conservation of an endangered specie. (Author)

Evans, John Martin; Schiller, Silvia de; Garreta, Fabian [Universidad de Buenos Aires, Centro de Investigacion Habitat y Energia, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

1998-09-01

127

Calculation of chimneys by computer. Microcomputer program for simple calculation of chimney cross-sections and combustion air proof  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The calculation of chimney cross-sections on the basis of DIN 4705 requires, without suitable aids, a large sacrifice of time. Although the calculatory preliminary examination could save cost and trouble in many cases, the application of the DIN in practice remained a problem for this reason. There does now exist a program for the application of IBM-compatible micro-processors by which the effort can be reduced to a minimum.

Kesa, J.; Stegemann, W.

1986-03-01

128

Antecedent and progress of the project on the treatment of chimney gases with electrons in Mexico  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After the realization of the chimney gases treatment seminar with electrons, organized jointly among the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), in August of 1990 and following one of the received recommendations, it was elaborated an economic technical feasibility study of this process in Mexico, using technical data of a thermoelectric power station of Federal Commission of Electricity, where is being consumed fuel oil. This study is good to know some technical parameters of a plant of this process, proposed to settle in Mexico, so as some economic estimates of installation and operation costs of this plant; also, it is traced about the construction of a demonstration plant of the process, with capacity of 20,000 m3N/h, using the same data of the thermoelectric power station considered previously, as the first step in the scaling of this process toward industrial level. (Author)

1991-01-01

129

Application of Bejan’s Constructal Theory to a Solar Collector System. Part I: The Fundamentals to Define the First Construction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES-MX X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 In the present work, we develop a theoretical scheme that establishes the fundamentals of the first construction for a solar collector system. In particular, the first construction is divided in two elements: a solar cavity and the fluid that is heated. For the cavity, we assume a natural convective regime that for small values of Rayleigh number conducts to that the heat transfer is dominated only by a conductive heat transfer regime. Meanwhile the other region, where the fluid is circulating in a circular tube, the forced convective mode, is prevailed. The dimensionless temperature profiles, in both regions, are calculated theoretically and the minimization conditions for the dimensionless heating time of the fluid is found by this first construction.

Federico Mendez; Jorge Ojeda

2010-01-01

130

Central solar heating plant with seasonal storage in Hamburg-Bramfeld. Status and experience from the construction phase  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 1995 the construction of the central solar heating plant with seasonal storage (CSHPSS) in Hamburg-Bramfeld -one of the first two pilot plants for CSHPSS in Germany- has started. Up to now the construction of 3000 m{sup 2} collector area and of a 4500 m{sup 3} hot water store is almost completed. About half of the total heat demand of a residential area with 123 terraced single-family houses will be supplied by the solar plant. (orig.)

Schulz, M.E.; Fisch, M.N. [Univ. Stuttgart, Inst. fuer Thermodynamik und Waermetechnik (Germany); Hahne, E.; Ebel, M. [Hamburg Gas Consult, Hamburg (Germany)

1996-12-31

131

Design, construction and performance testing of a solar dryer for agroindustrial by-products  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Spain generates a big amount of agroindustrial by-products of high moisture that produce a high environmental impact. This fact motivates the aim of this paper, in which a solar dryer prototype is designed, constructed, and performance tested for the analysis of the drying kinetics of these by-products and their possible power valuation. The characteristics of the prototype are presented, together with the variations of the properties of temperature, relative humidity, air mass flow, and efficiency for indirect, mixed, passive, active, and hybrid operation modes. The most efficient operation mode will be the forced-hybrid one, followed by the passive and active modes. The analysis of the drying kinetics of the olive pomace shows the better performance of the hybrid and mixed modes, obtaining reductions of the drying time of a 50% in both cases. (author)

Montero, I.; Miranda, T.; Rojas, S.; Celma, A.R. [University of Extremadura, Department of Chemical and Energetics Engineering, Industrial Engineering School, Av. Elvas s/n, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Blanco, J. [PSA (CIEMAT), Department of Solar Chemistry, Ctra. Sens, P.O. Box 22, 04200 Tabernas (Almera) (Spain)

2010-07-15

132

The construction and testing of a solar food drier in Zambia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A small scale, forced convection, indirect solar food drier was designed, built and tested in Zambia. The drier consisted of five modules: a solar collector, a drying cabinet, a fan housing, a heat storage and a control unit. The construction methods and materials used were selected so as to match the level of technological development in the denser populated areas of Zambia. Practically all the materials were acquired locally. The drier could be run in three main operating modes (straight-through, heat storage, heat recovery) and a number of air recycling submodes by means of manipulating simple slide valves. The food was dried indirectly. A set of eight experiments was first carried out to determine the energy collection and heat transfer characteristics of the equipment in its various operating modes and submodes. Okra, cabbage and beef were then dried. Although the experiments were done during the Zambian 'winter', these foods could be dried to below 15% moisture in two or three operating days.

Kok, R.; Kwendakwema, N.

1983-12-01

133

Protection of electric plants chimneys with electrostatic precipitators  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use the coal and liquid fuel containing a great amount of sulphur results in great corrosive problems, because of the SO{sub x} presence in the gas flow. The protection of the environment and partially of the burning installations in the boilers and chimneys, is possible by employing electrostatic precipitators. They retain fly ash, but with special devices the SO{sub x} in the gas flow can also be reduced. This paper, presents the authors` studies and experiments, which have turned out good results, that can be efficiently used in this kind of installation. 2 refs., 2 figs.

Podrumar, D.; Cinca, M. [Technical University Timisoara, Timisoara (Romania)

1995-12-31

134

Planning and management of stage 1 dismantling of B16 pile chimney, Sellafield  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper describes the planning and execution of the decommissioning and dismantling of the top sections of the two Pile Chimneys at Sellafield. It describes the complex structure of the Chimneys, their history and original function, and summarises the investigations into the condition of the chimneys, which led to the decision to decommission and the resultant study into the alternative methods to achieve this. Specific mention is made of the approach to safety, both radiological and industrial. This includes preparation of safety cases, environmental protection methods, detailed method statements for the work and safety equipment used. It also explains the management structure and contractual arrangements used to control both safety and cost. The paper then describes the six specific phases of the work, and how each was carried out. The phases of the work are: 1) preparatory work of removing redundant equipment and provision of access to the Chimney top; 2) removal of glass fibre insulation from the cavity above the filters at the Chimney top; 3) protection measures to surrounding plant and buildings; 4) erection of scaffolding around the head of the Chimney and installation of working platforms within the Chimney flue; 5) Removal of the aluminium lining from above the filters and the Chimney cap plates; 6) removal of brickwork and structural steel frame of the Upper and Concentrator Sections. (Author)

1990-01-01

135

Design of chimney of the Sandreuth district heating power station at EWAG-Energie und Wasserversorgung AG, Nuernberg, from the point of view of enhancing theoretical and architectonic knowledge  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The chimney of the 109 MW disrict heating power station is located in the centre of Nuremberg in the vicinity of well-maintained industrial installations built at the turn of the century. The paper deals comprehensively with the interactive influence of architecture and maintenance of clean air in design and construction.

Kolar, J.; Kahn, R.

1981-09-01

136

External walls made of solar Lego bricks. Sulfurcell head office building: External wall construction according to the dimensions of Sulfurcell solar modules; Solare Legosteinfassade. Die Masse der hauseigenen Module bildeten den Ausgangspunkt fuer die Planung des Sulfurcell-Hauptquartiers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Sulfurcell Solartechnik GmbH constructed a new office building at Berlin-Adlershof. The building's external walls were designed on the basis of the frameless Sulfurcell standard module. The building intends to prove that solar modules are not a luxury item but an efficient and easy-to-handle constructional material. (orig.)

Wagner, Neelke

2009-11-15

137

Epidemic Legionnaires' disease. Airborne transmission down a chimney.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Between June 18 and July 9, 1979, Legionnaires' disease (LD) developed in 13 persons who had visited a hotel complex in Wisconsin. All had visited the part of the hotel that contains the restaurants and meeting rooms (building A). Legionnaires' disease occurred in 1% who had been exclusively in the meeting rooms and in 0.1% who had eaten only at the hotel restaurants. Furthermore, 1.5% exposed to meeting room 1 and none of those exposed only to the other meeting rooms had LD. Legionella pneumophila was isolated from water in the cooling tower on top of building A. Located within 5 m downwind of the cooling-tower exhaust, a chimney with an open damper allowed cooling-tower exhaust (as demonstrated by air tracer studies) to enter meeting room 1 via the fireplace. Although cases did not occur after the cooling-tower water was treated by continuous hyperchlorination and the chimney was sealed, a seven-day lag occurred between treatment and elimination of the organism from the tower water.

Band JD; LaVenture M; Davis JP; Mallison GF; Skaliy P; Hayes PS; Schell WL; Weiss H; Greenberg DJ; Fraser DW

1981-06-01

138

Formation of a series of chimney-ladder compounds in the Ru-Re-Si system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Rhenium-alloyed ruthenium sesquisilicide alloys have been prepared over the wide composition range Ru{sub 1-{delta}}Re {sub {delta}}Si{sub 1.5}, 0 {<=} {delta} {<=} 0.85. The phase relationships of these alloys have been investigated using X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Alloys with {delta} {>=} 0.03 are multi-phase, composed of a series of (Ru,Re)Si {sub y} chimney-ladder phases with compositions of Ru{sub 1-x}Re {sub x}Si{sub 1.5386+0.1783x} (0.14 {<=} x {<=} 0.76) and B20-type monosilicide (Ru,Re)Si as a secondary phase. These chimney-ladder structures are considered to form to stabilize the high-temperature Ru{sub 2}Si{sub 3} chimney-ladder phase through the substitution of Ru with Re. The solubility limit of Re in a series of chimney-ladder phases is as large as 76% Re (x = 0.76) and the Si/(Ru + Re) ratio of the chimney-ladder phases increases with increasing Re content. The observed deviation of the chimney-ladder structure from the idealized composition and the possibility of adjusting the semiconducting properties of these chimney-ladder structures are discussed in terms of the valence electron concentration per metal atom.

Simkin, B.A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Ishida, A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Okamoto, N.L. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Kishida, K. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)]. E-mail: k.kishida@materials.mbox.media.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Tanaka, K. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Inui, H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

2006-06-15

139

Formation of a series of chimney-ladder compounds in the Ru-Re-Si system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rhenium-alloyed ruthenium sesquisilicide alloys have been prepared over the wide composition range Ru1-?Re ?Si1.5, 0 ? ? ? 0.85. The phase relationships of these alloys have been investigated using X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Alloys with ? ? 0.03 are multi-phase, composed of a series of (Ru,Re)Si y chimney-ladder phases with compositions of Ru1-xRe xSi1.5386+0.1783x (0.14 ? x ? 0.76) and B20-type monosilicide (Ru,Re)Si as a secondary phase. These chimney-ladder structures are considered to form to stabilize the high-temperature Ru2Si3 chimney-ladder phase through the substitution of Ru with Re. The solubility limit of Re in a series of chimney-ladder phases is as large as 76% Re (x = 0.76) and the Si/(Ru + Re) ratio of the chimney-ladder phases increases with increasing Re content. The observed deviation of the chimney-ladder structure from the idealized composition and the possibility of adjusting the semiconducting properties of these chimney-ladder structures are discussed in terms of the valence electron concentration per metal atom.

2006-01-01

140

The RWE conception for chimneys in bypass operation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The retrofitting of equipment for desulphurization of brown coal power plants of Rheinisch-Westfaelisches Elektrizitaetswerk AG (RWE) embraces 9300 MW of electric capacity distributed over four sites. On a total of 6000 MW of this power plant capacity RWE decided to discharge the desulphurized flue gas in combination with the cooling tower vapour. If the flue gas desulphurization plant breaks down and the flue gas is discharged via the bypass chimney a shock-type of thermal stress occurs to the feed pipes. The paper describes the stresses on the brick-built acid-resistant retaining wall lining. The problems resulting from this are described and the prestressing of the feed pipes by bands in order to reduce the tensile stresses is illustrated. The paper discusses in detail the design solution and the erection on site. 10 figs.

Dornick, K. van (Rheinisch-Westfaelisches Elektrizitaetswerk AG, Essen (Germany, F.R.). Civil Engineering Dept.)

1989-07-01

 
 
 
 
141

A polymer Schottky diode carrying a chimney for selective doping  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A device structure of polymer Schottky diodes enabling selective doping of polymer has been proposed. The device has a Ni grid anode with a chimney as a reservoir of dopant solution at the back of the cathode. The forward-bias current of the device was enhanced two orders of magnitude upon doping by nitromethane solution of FeCl3 for 10 min, while the reverse-bias current remained unchanged, indicating considerable reduction of series resistance of the device upon selective doping. It has also been found that the penetration depth of dopant depends significantly on the solvent, i.e. nitromethane eventually gives complete doping of a 50 ?m thick PAT6 film, to induce cathode corrosion, while acetonitrile gives only shallow penetration. The device structure and doping procedure proposed may also be useful in reducing the series resistance of polymer photovoltaic devices. (rapid communication)

2003-09-07

142

Passive solar ventilation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The pitched roof is increasingly used in both summer resorts and new residential developments and settlements on the north west coast of Egypt in the Mediterranean. These locations are characterized by a temperate climate with excessive heat and humidity rates during summer. In general, higher air velocities and numerous air changes per hour can improve comfort conditions in a humid climate. A pitched roof has an advantage of accommodating a passive solar chimney collector that induces the natural ventilation depending on the thermal difference between indoor and outdoor air temperatures. This paper intends to examine the optimum tilt angle for a solar chimney system applied to the study area (32 deg. north latitude) that compromises between solar heat gain factor and stack height to insure the best ventilation performance. (author)

Hamdy, I.F.; Fikry, M.A. [Alexandria University (Egypt). Faculty of Engineering

1998-05-01

143

Solar irradiance meter using practical I-V curve construction method; Jitsuyoteki I-V curve sakuseiho wo tsukatta taiyo denchi nisshakei  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The increasing household installation of photovoltaic generation system is creating a strong demand for equipment that enables accurate measurement and evaluation of the electric output of solar module (array). In order to fabricate such equipment, it is necessary to develop an inexpensive and highly accurate solar irradiance meter as well as excellent evaluation and diagnostic software. I constructed a solar irradiance meter on the basis of the above requirements by applying the widely accepted principle of the Practical I-V Curve Construction Method which I developed. The results of my study indicate that a simple, general purpose and highly accurate solar irradiance meter can be developed. 7 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

Iga, A. [Shikoku Research Inst. Inc., Kagawa (Japan)

1997-09-20

144

Use of chemical explosives for emergency solar flare shelter construction and other excavations on the Martian surface  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The necessity to shelter people on the Martian surface from solar flare particles at short notice and the need for long-term habitats with thick cosmic ray shielding suggests that explosives could be used effectively for excavation of such structures. Modern insensitive high explosives are safe, efficient, and reliable for rock breakage and excavation. Extensive Earth-bound experience leads us to propose several strategies for explosively-constructed shelters based on tunneling, cratering, and rock casting techniques

1985-01-01

145

Leakage-flow induced vibrations of a chimney structure suspended in a liquid flow  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents the results of flow-induced vibration tests conducted to assess the vibration characteristics of a chimney structure suspended in a liquid flow. The test article is a full-scale model of a flow chimney used in a nuclear reactor as a part of reactor upper internals. Tests were performed by simulating all pertinent prototype conditions achievable in a laboratory environment. The test results show that there exists a fluid-elastic instability of the chimney motion which has a distinct lock-in phenomenon with respect to the flow rate. This unstable vibration is associated with the leakage-flow-modulated excitation through the small clearances between the chimney and its supports.

1983-01-01

146

SolarBau: MONITOR, a forum for information exchange on energy efficiency and solar energy use in non-domestic building construction; SolarBau: MONITOR - Ein Forum fuer Erfahrungen und Ergebnisse ueber Energieeffizienz und Solarenergienutzung im Nichtwohnungsbau  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Within it's program 'Optimized Solar Construction', the German Ministry of Economics and Technology supports large non-housing construction demonstration projects. Meaningfully combining energy saving measures with utilization of renewable energies within an integral planning process, the objective is to achieve primary energy needs below 100 kWh/m{sup 2}a for heating, ventilation, in-door climate control and lighting combined. Data/results of the demonstration projects are assembled, analyzed and published (via print media and Internet) in an accompanying project named SolarBau:MONITOR, serving also as a forum for the exchange of ideas for the different planning teams. The Solar Bau:MONITOR concept and the demonstration project under construction are presented. (orig.) [German] Mit dem Foerderprogramm 'Solaroptimiertes Bauen' foerdert das Bundesministerium fuer Wirtschaft und Technologie (BMWi) Demonstrationsprojekte aus dem Bereich grosser Nichtwohnungs-Neubauten. Durch eine sinnvolle Kombination aus Massnahmen zur Energieeinsparung und der Nutzung erneuerbarer Energien im Rahmen eines integralen Planungsprozesses ist als wesentliches Ziel gefordert, dass die Primaerenergiekennzahl fuer Heizung, Lueftung, Klima und Licht in Summe unter 100 kWh/m{sup 2}a liegt. SolarBau:MONITOR ist das dazugehoerige Begleitprojekt. Es stellt Fakten und Analysen zu den Einzelprojekten auf einer gemeinsamen Informationsplattform via Internet und Printmedien zusammen und bietet ein Forum fuer die Planungsteams der Projekte. Der Beitrag stellt das Konzept von SolarBau:MONITOR und die bereits begonnenen Demonstrationsprojekte vor. (orig.)

Voss, K. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme (ISE), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany). Gruppe Solares Bauen; Loehnert, G. [Architekturbuero solidar, Berlin (Germany); Wagner, A. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Architektur

1999-03-01

147

[Negligent homicide caused by exhaust gas escaping from a manipulated chimney].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A chimney built and operated according to the instructions is supposed to ensure that the combustion gases coming from the fireplace can escape safely. If the operational reliability is impaired, this presents a risk of acute poisoning. The report deals with a negligently caused carbon monoxide poisoning of a married couple as a consequence of improper installation of a cover of the chimney opening. Various causes of fatal poisoning due to defective exhaust systems are discussed in connection with the presented case report.

Wirth I; Varchmin-schultheiss K; Schmeling A

2011-05-01

148

Plastic Solar Cells: A Multidisciplinary Field to Construct Chemical Concepts from Current Research  

Science.gov (United States)

Examples of plastic solar-cell technology to illustrate core concepts in chemistry are presented. The principles of operations of a plastic solar cell could be used to introduce key concepts, which are fundamentally important to understand photosynthesis and the basic process that govern most novel optoelectronic devices.

Gomez, Rafael; Segura, Jose L.

2007-01-01

149

Dye-sensitized solar cell constructed with titanium mesh and 3-D array of TiO2 nanotubes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We have designed and constructed dye sensitized solar cells based on new, 3-D configurations of TiO(2) nanotubes. The overall efficiency of our best cells is 5.0% under standard air mass 1.5 global (AM 1.5 G) solar conditions, and the incident photon-to-current efficiency exceeds 60% over a broad part of the visible spectrum. Unlike prior nanotube-based cells where tubes are grown vertically in a 2-D array, the anodes of the present cells consist of tubes that extend radially in a 3-D array from a grid of fine titanium wires. The nanotubes are tens of micrometers in length, and the radial nature of the anode allows the photon absorption path length to exceed the electron transport distance (nanotube length). The cells are front-illuminated and do not require a transparent conductive oxide substrate at either the anode or cathode. The use of 3-D configured nanotubes and low-resistance titanium metal substrates are expected to enhance the performance and simplify the construction of large area dye-sensitized solar cells.

Rustomji CS; Frandsen CJ; Jin S; Tauber MJ

2010-11-01

150

Development of the lined masonry chimney oil appliance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes the development of the lined masonry chimney venting tables form the output of the Oil Heat Analysis Program 9OHVAP. These new tables are different from the prior format, offered in the Proceedings of the 1995 Oil Heat Technology Conference and Workshop, paper No. 95-4. Issues expressed by representatives of the oil heat industry at last years conference during the Venting Technology Workshop resulted in subsequent discussions. A full day meeting was held, co-sponsored by BNL and the Oilheat Manufacturers Association (OMA), to address revision of the format of the venting tables prior to submission to the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Standard 31 Technical Committee. The resulting tables and text were submitted to NFPA during the first week of October, 1995. Since then minor changes were made reflecting the addition of data obtained by including intermediate firing rates (0.4, 0.65, and 0.85 gph) not included in the original tables which were developed in increments of 0.25 gph. The new tables address the specific question; {open_quotes}If remediation is required, what is the recommendation for the sizing of a metal liner and the appropriate firing rate range to be used with that liner?{close_quotes}

Krajewski, R.; Strasser, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1996-07-01

151

Seismic-geochemical exploration mix reveals Ordovician dolomite chimneys  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Cincinnati, Findlay and Algonquin arch system extends from central Tennessee to southern Ontario, and along this trend are found shallow but prolific dolomite breccias, or chimneys, or Ordovician age. The reservoirs are difficult to explore for and, until the discovery of Stoney Point Field in 1983, were essentially found by accident. The Stoney Point Field in southern Michigan was found by an integrated approach utilizing surface geochemical and seismic methods. In southern Ontario, central Kentucky and Tennessee, the use of 2-D, 2-D swathe and, most recently, 3-D seismic surveys in conjunction with surface geochemistry has caused, sustained and increased success rates for exploration for these types of reserves. The Stoney Point Field was discovered using seismic and four surface geochemical methods. A dry hole was drilled first, and its location was based on seismic. Subsequently, a new location was drilled 100 feet to the west and encountered thick pay and is productive. These two wells and their close proximity indicate the difficulty in exploring for these reservoirs and the need for an integrated approach.

Tedesco, S.A. [Atoka Geochemical Services Corp., Englewood, CO (United States)

1995-07-01

152

Beautiful heat: a master chimney sweep talks about burning issues  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fire has played a major role in mankind's life from the beginning. Used for heating and cooking, its various uses have evolved to include controlled explosions shortly after the development of gunpowder, and the generation of electricity made other uses possible. The author, a certified solid fuel technician and chimney sweep, as well as a licensed technician for natural gas and propane, has written this book to enable the reader to enjoy safe and dependable wood fires year round by taking the necessary steps. The first recommendation made is against the homeowner installing himself/herself any solid fuel system. It is a job better left to the professionals, considering the substantial product and regulation knowledge and experience required. Specific information related to solid fuel burning technology is included in this book, to be used as a guide. Part 1 of the book deals with the fuel, touching on issues such as energy and the environment, wood combustion and air pollution, buying firewood, wood ashes, cleaning your heating system and others. Part 2 is devoted to the heating system. It introduces topics ranging from the systems advisor to the location and installation of the system, the principles of space heating, high efficiency wood burning, inspections, to name just a few. 22 refs., tabs., figs.

Hederich, M.P.

2001-07-01

153

Development of 400 deg. F Sealants for Flat Plate Solar Collector Construction and Installation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Twenty candidate sealants representing ten different polymer types were evaluated as potential solar collector sealants. Polymer types tested included epichlorohydrin rubber, EPDM rubber, silicone, polysulfide, acrylate rubber, and a fluoroelastomer. Init...

L. Morris R. J. Schubert

1980-01-01

154

Experimental investigation and construction of PV solar tracker control system using image processing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The sun tracking system of a solar panel based on computer image processing of a shadow is investigated. This is done by using a camera to obtain the picture of a shadow on a screen by solar panel displacements. This system is independent respect to geographical location of the solar panel and periodical alignments such as daily or monthly regulations. The collected energy was measured and compared with that on a fixed surface tilted at towards the South. The results indicate that the measured collected solar energy on the moving surface was significantly larger (up to 46.77%) compared with the fixed surface. The tracking system developed in this study provides easy installation, simple mechanism and less maintenance. Furthermore, the operation of the system is independent respect to the initial configuration and the start time situation.

morteza taki; yahya ajabshirchi; hossein behfar; mohsen taki

2011-01-01

155

10 MWe Solar Thermal Central Receiver Pilot Plant: solar facilities design integration. PSS final design calculations. Book 2 of 26. Warehouse, construction package 3 (RADL Item 7-8)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document is provided in support of the warehouse construction at the Barstow Solar Pilot Plant. The calculations include the interrupting rating (short circuit study), lighting, and foundation design for the prefabricated metal building. (BCS)

1980-09-01

156

Metagenome reveals potential microbial degradation of hydrocarbon coupled with sulfate reduction in an oil-immersed chimney from Guaymas Basin.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimneys contain a high diversity of microorganisms, yet the metabolic activity and the ecological functions of the microbial communities remain largely unexplored. In this study, a metagenomic approach was applied to characterize the metabolic potential in a Guaymas hydrothermal vent chimney and to conduct comparative genomic analysis among a variety of environments with sequenced metagenomes. Complete clustering of functional gene categories with a comparative metagenomic approach showed that this Guaymas chimney metagenome was clustered most closely with a chimney metagenome from Juan de Fuca. All chimney samples were enriched with genes involved in recombination and repair, chemotaxis and flagellar assembly, highlighting their roles in coping with the fluctuating extreme deep-sea environments. A high proportion of transposases was observed in all the metagenomes from deep-sea chimneys, supporting the previous hypothesis that horizontal gene transfer may be common in the deep-sea vent chimney biosphere. In the Guaymas chimney metagenome, thermophilic sulfate reducing microorganisms including bacteria and archaea were found predominant, and genes coding for the degradation of refractory organic compounds such as cellulose, lipid, pullullan, as well as a few hydrocarbons including toluene, ethylbenzene and o-xylene were identified. Therefore, this oil-immersed chimney supported a thermophilic microbial community capable of oxidizing a range of hydrocarbons that served as electron donors for sulphate reduction under anaerobic conditions.

He Y; Xiao X; Wang F

2013-01-01

157

Metagenome reveals potential microbial degradation of hydrocarbon coupled with sulfate reduction in an oil-immersed chimney from Guaymas Basin.  

Science.gov (United States)

Deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimneys contain a high diversity of microorganisms, yet the metabolic activity and the ecological functions of the microbial communities remain largely unexplored. In this study, a metagenomic approach was applied to characterize the metabolic potential in a Guaymas hydrothermal vent chimney and to conduct comparative genomic analysis among a variety of environments with sequenced metagenomes. Complete clustering of functional gene categories with a comparative metagenomic approach showed that this Guaymas chimney metagenome was clustered most closely with a chimney metagenome from Juan de Fuca. All chimney samples were enriched with genes involved in recombination and repair, chemotaxis and flagellar assembly, highlighting their roles in coping with the fluctuating extreme deep-sea environments. A high proportion of transposases was observed in all the metagenomes from deep-sea chimneys, supporting the previous hypothesis that horizontal gene transfer may be common in the deep-sea vent chimney biosphere. In the Guaymas chimney metagenome, thermophilic sulfate reducing microorganisms including bacteria and archaea were found predominant, and genes coding for the degradation of refractory organic compounds such as cellulose, lipid, pullullan, as well as a few hydrocarbons including toluene, ethylbenzene and o-xylene were identified. Therefore, this oil-immersed chimney supported a thermophilic microbial community capable of oxidizing a range of hydrocarbons that served as electron donors for sulphate reduction under anaerobic conditions. PMID:23785357

He, Ying; Xiao, Xiang; Wang, Fengping

2013-06-14

158

Construction and testing of a transportable solar adsorption refrigerator; Construction et test d'un refrigerateur solaire a adsorption transportable  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report describes the development of an autonomous solar adsorption refrigerator characterized by its compactness and transportability. The refrigerator utilizes water as the working fluid and silicagel as the adsorbent and operates discontinuously over the day/night cycle. For a cooling volume of about 100 liters a collector-adsorber surface of 1 m{sup 2} is required and the total mass of the system amounts to about 150 kg. In order to keep its mass as low as possible the apparatus has been built with light weight materials. The cold-storage room has been insulated with a high-performance insulation material, thus minimizing thermal losses without excessively reducing the cooled volume. A new automatic valve system has been developed making superfluous any manual manipulation during normal operation. The dimensioning of the cooling system allows to cool the equivalent of 2.5 to 3.7 kg of water by 30 K daily in a climate of the Sahelien type. The cooling energy is stored in the form of ice in the evaporator and allows to bridge a period of three overcast-sky days. The construction of the solar refrigerator was made in cooperation with small regional enterprises and workshops. The cooperation with a non governmental organization allowed to test the system from May to September 2002 in a Subsaharian region of Africa where an equivalent model had been built using locally available materials. Likewise, a market study has been made in Burkina Faso in order to analyze the potential of solar adsorption refrigerators in this region. The result of the study suggests that the opening of a production workshop for such refrigerators in Burkina Faso is promising.

Mayor, J.; Dind, P.

2002-07-01

159

A study to determine the perceptions of Michigan contractors to passive solar technologies in residential and commercial construction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study was intended to investigate the perceptions and needs of Michigan contractors in incorporating passive solar technologies in residential and commercial construction. The literature identifies four major categories of barriers which contribute to the slow adoption of solar systems by contractors. They are: economic (initial high price, interest rates, etc.), technological (perceived lack of reliable equipment, lack of elimatelogical data, etc.), psycho-sociological (dependence on the weather, threat to established business networks, etc.) and political-legal (product standardization, building and zoning codes, etc.). A questionnaire aimed at detecting the importance of the four barrier categories was administered to a random sample of 500 Michigan contractors. This paper outlines the procedure utilized in conducting the study. A review of the questionnaire's development and administration is given, followed by a presentation of preliminary data on the completed questionnaires received to date (n = 75).

Witte, P.

1983-06-01

160

Valuation of building materials by means of established measurement regulations. An investigation into industrial chimneys. Bewertung der Bausubstanz anhand der zugrunde gelegten Bemessungsvorschriften. Eine Untersuchung fuer Industrieschornsteine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Power stations in the east and in the west of Germany have been designed and constructed during the course of the last 40 years in accordance with different regulations and experience. In view of the conversion and the retrofitting of existing combustion plants, there is a need to demonstrate what differences there are in performance and in the condition of individual pwower plant components to be taken into account. In this age of increased protection of the environment, this question applies particularly to industrial chimneys, the functioning of which depends on the actual draught ratios and on the density of the lining. (orig.).

Noakowski, P. (Failure Analysis Associates, Duesseldorf (Germany)); Dornick, K. van (RWE Energie AG, Essen (Germany))

1992-03-01

 
 
 
 
161

SOLERAS - Solar Energy Water Desalination Project: Boeing Engineering and Construction. System design final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The system design for a future commercial solar energy brackish water desalination plant is described. Key features of the plant are discussed along with its configuration selection rationale, design objectives, operation, and performance. The water treatment technology used in the plant is ion exchange pretreatment and single stage reverse osmosis desalination utilizing high-flux membranes. Electrical power needed for plant operation is produced by a solar energy system, which is based on the Brayton cycle having air as the working fluid. Primary solar system components are: heliostat field, central cavity-tube receiver, receiver support tower, thermal energy storage, and a commercial gas turbine generator set. The thermal energy storage subsystem is of the sensible heat brick type and provides a capability for continuous day/night power generation during most weather conditions. This system design was selected in a study of various system alternatives and their life cycle product water costs for a representative site in western Texas.

1986-01-01

162

Coaxial tubular solar collector constructed from polymeric materials: an experimental and transient simulation study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An experimental study and a simulation model describing a coaxial tubular solar collector fabricated from polymeric materials, consisting of an inner black tube as a solar energy absorber in intimate contact with an outer transparent tube as an insulator, having the potential to provide low grade thermal energy at reasonable costs is reported. The simulation model describes the transient performance of the coaxial tubular polymeric solar collector utilizing non-linear equations solved by a difference splitting technique. The simulation model was first validated utilizing the experimental data and was then used to determine the optimal design parameters, viz. the inner, black absorber, and outer, transparent insulator, tube thicknesses. In addition, the effect of an annular air filled gap between the coaxial tubes on system performance was also studied. The results of the experimental and simulations studies are reported together with the optimal design specifications.

2003-01-01

163

Constructing a One-solar-mass Evolutionary Sequence Using Asteroseismic Data from Kepler  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Asteroseismology of solar-type stars has entered a new era of large surveys with the success of the NASA Kepler mission, which is providing exquisite data on oscillations of stars across the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. From the time-series photometry, the two seismic parameters that can be most readily extracted are the large frequency separation (??) and the frequency of maximum oscillation power (?max). After the survey phase, these quantities are available for hundreds of solar-type stars. By scaling from solar values, we use these two asteroseismic observables to identify for the first time an evolutionary sequence of 1 M sun field stars, without the need for further information from stellar models. Comparison of our determinations with the few available spectroscopic results shows an excellent level of agreement. We discuss the potential of the method for differential analysis throughout the main-sequence evolution and the possibility of detecting twins of very well-known stars.

Silva Aguirre, V.; Chaplin, W.J.

2011-01-01

164

Vibration test for HANARO in-chimney bracket and instrumented fuel assembly  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The vibration characteristics and structural integrity of the instrumented fuel assembly and in-chimney bracket structures, which is recently installed in HANARO reactor chimney, are investigated. For this purpose, four acceleration data on the guide tube of the instrumented fuel assembly and in-chimney bracket structures subjected to fluid induced vibration are measured and analyzed. In time domain analysis, maximum amplitudes and RMS values of accelerations and displacements are obtained from the measured vibration signal. The frequency components of the vibration data are analyzed by using the frequency domain analysis. These analysis results show that the levels of the measured vibrations are within the allowable limit, and the low frequency component near 10 Hz is dominant in the vibration signal. For the evaluation of the structural integrity on the in-chimney bracket and related structures, the static analysis for ANSYS finite element model is carried out. The maximum displacements of the measured vibration signals are used as the load inputs. These analysis results show that the maximum stresses and within the allowable stresses of the ASME code, and the maximum displacement at the top of the flow tube is within the displacement limit. Therefore any damage on the structural integrity is not expected when the irradiation test is performed using the in-chimney bracket

2000-01-01

165

The chimney-graft technique for preserving supra-aortic branches: a review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Evolution in the endovascular era has influenced the management of aortic arch pathologies. "Chimney" or "snorkel" graft technique has been used as an alternative in high risk patients unfit for open repair. We reviewed the published literature on the chimney graft technique for preservation of the supra-aortic branches in order to provide an extensive insight of its feasibility and efficacy and investigate its outcomes. 18 reports were identified, with a total of 124 patients and 136 chimney. Primary technical success was achieved in 123/124 patients (99.2%). The perioperative mortality rate was 4.8% and the stroke rate was 4%, while events of spinal cord ischemia were rare. The overall endoleak rate was 18.5%; 13 patients (10.5%) developed a type I endoleak and 10 (8%) patients a type II endoleak. During a median follow-up period of 11.4 months (range, 0.87-20.1 months) all implanted chimney grafts remained patent. From this, we conclude that endovascular aortic arch repair with chimney grafts is associated with a lower mortality rate compared to totally open or hybrid reconstruction. However, the stroke rate remains noteworthy, and requires longterm data to elucidate. PMID:23977603

Moulakakis, Konstantinos G; Mylonas, Spyridon N; Dalainas, Ilias; Sfyroeras, George S; Markatis, Fotis; Kotsis, Thomas; Kakisis, John; Liapis, Christos D

2013-05-01

166

The chimney-graft technique for preserving supra-aortic branches: a review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Evolution in the endovascular era has influenced the management of aortic arch pathologies. "Chimney" or "snorkel" graft technique has been used as an alternative in high risk patients unfit for open repair. We reviewed the published literature on the chimney graft technique for preservation of the supra-aortic branches in order to provide an extensive insight of its feasibility and efficacy and investigate its outcomes. 18 reports were identified, with a total of 124 patients and 136 chimney. Primary technical success was achieved in 123/124 patients (99.2%). The perioperative mortality rate was 4.8% and the stroke rate was 4%, while events of spinal cord ischemia were rare. The overall endoleak rate was 18.5%; 13 patients (10.5%) developed a type I endoleak and 10 (8%) patients a type II endoleak. During a median follow-up period of 11.4 months (range, 0.87-20.1 months) all implanted chimney grafts remained patent. From this, we conclude that endovascular aortic arch repair with chimney grafts is associated with a lower mortality rate compared to totally open or hybrid reconstruction. However, the stroke rate remains noteworthy, and requires longterm data to elucidate.

Moulakakis KG; Mylonas SN; Dalainas I; Sfyroeras GS; Markatis F; Kotsis T; Kakisis J; Liapis CD

2013-05-01

167

Thermal chimney: a new device cools an old house on 100-degree California afternoons  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In an area where afternoon temperatures exceed 100/sup 0/F and evenings are cool (around 50/sup 0/F), the thermal chimney can take the place of air-conditioning - and no energy is required. The thermal chimney is 2 feet by 2 feet and 8 feet high. A turbine vent is placed at the top. The west and south sides are glazed and painted black. The chimney is attached to the roof and serves to push hot air out of the house. Cool air is drawn from the basement and crawl space. At night, the thermal chimney and basement vent and windows are open to draw in cool air and replace the heat accumulated during the day. All vents and windows are closed during the morning but around midday the thermal chimney vent is opened (windows and doors closed). One or two hours after sunset, windows are opened again and the cycle repeats itself. The system works very effectively in the Sacramento area. (MJJ)

Burton, J.; Reiss, J.

1980-07-01

168

Loops, Drips, and Walls in the Galactic Chimney GSH 277+00+36  

Science.gov (United States)

We present new high-resolution H I images of the Galactic chimney GSH 277+00+36. The chimney is at a distance of ~6.5 kpc, is more than 600 pc in diameter, and extends at least 1 kpc above and below the Galactic midplane. Using the Australia Telescope Compact Array and the Parkes Radiotelescope as part of the Southern Galactic Plane Survey, we have imaged the H I associated with this chimney, with a spatial resolution of ~6 pc. These are among the highest spatial resolution images of an H I chimney. We find very narrow well-defined shell walls, a remarkably empty interior, and complex small-scale structures. The shell walls show a very steep reduction in emission at the interior edge and a more gradual decline toward the exterior. We suggest that this structure is characteristic of compression and may be used to distinguish stellar by-product shells from shell-like structures resulting from random turbulent motions. The shell and chimney walls also exhibit a great deal of small-scale structure, which we discuss in the context of hydrodynamic instabilities. We find that these structures are primarily cold gas with narrow line widths in the range 1.5-2.5 km s-1.

McClure-Griffiths, N. M.; Dickey, John M.; Gaensler, B. M.; Green, A. J.

2003-09-01

169

Solar collectors in building and construction industry - cost aspects. 2. enlarged ed. Solarkollektoren im Bauwesen - Kostenaspekte  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The bibliography consists of 196 literary references with short reports on heat generation for heating systems, service water and swimming pools by means of solar collectors. The following items are discussed: investment, operating costs, energy costs, cost-benefit ratio and economy. (HP).

Schoeller, A. (comp.)

1989-06-01

170

Constructing a one-solar-mass evolutionary sequence using asteroseismic data from \\textit{Kepler}  

CERN Document Server

Asteroseismology of solar-type stars has entered a new era of large surveys with the success of the NASA \\textit{Kepler} mission, which is providing exquisite data on oscillations of stars across the Hertzprung-Russell (HR) diagram. From the time-series photometry, the two seismic parameters that can be most readily extracted are the large frequency separation ($\\Delta\

Aguirre, V Silva; Ballot, J; Basu, S; Bedding, T R; Serenelli, A M; Verner, G A; Miglio, A; Monteiro, M J P F G; Weiss, A; Appourchaux, T; Bonanno, A; Broomhall, A M; Bruntt, H; Campante, T L; Casagrande, L; Corsaro, E; Elsworth, Y; Garcia, R A; Gaulme, P; Handberg, R; Hekker, S; Huber, D; Karoff, C; Mathur, S; Mosser, B; Salabert, D; Schonrich, R; Sousa, S G; Stello, D; White, T R; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J; Gilliland, R L; Kawaler, S D; Kjeldsen, H; Houdek, G; Metcalfe, T S; Molenda-Zakowicz, J; Thompson, M J; Caldwell, D A; Christiansen, J L; Wohler, B

2011-01-01

171

Designing, Construction and Analysis of Speed Control System of the Fan with PV Feeding Source in an Air Solar Collector  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Solar energy is one of the renewable energy sources which can be received more by designing more accurate systems. In this article a flat solar collector with the area of 2×1m2 and thickness of 0.5mm, made of steel iron in the form of venetian blinds (in order to increase exposure to air) has been used. The surface of absorber plate was black and for insulation of the body of the collector glass wool has been used with 5 cm thickness. One of the essential problems of air solar collectors is that the temperature of the exiting air temperature from the collector is variable during the day and their efficiency is low in the last hours of the day and also when the weather suddenly gets cloudy .In this study, to keep constant the exiting air from the collector consistent in the desired limits, a control system is designed and constructed by applying photovoltaic cells, a microcontroller (AVR) and temperature sensors (LM35). Three temperature sensors were installed in the exit of the collector .The experiment results showed that by automatic change of the fan's speed in the designed system, the exiting temperature of the collector was obtained in the desired limits which is an outstanding advantage for various applications.

Amir Hematian; Yahya Ajabshehichi; Hossein Behfar; Hessamoddin Ghahramani

2011-01-01

172

Solar power-operated, construction work warning lamp with focusing device for intensifying the intensity of light  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A solar power-operated construction work warning lamp is described comprising a base secured inside a lamp guard and covered by a top cover and a bottom cover to hold a solar cell assembly and a light emitting assembly, said solar cell assembly being able to collect the radiant energy of sunlight and convert it into electric power for turning on a plurality of light emitting elements on said light emitting assembly, wherein said base has a framed seat surrounded by an enclosing wall on a top edge thereof to hold said light emitting assembly, and a light intensifier fastened in a gap between said framed seat and said enclosing wall, said light intensifier comprising two symmetrical condenser lens assemblies connected into a cylindrical shape covered around said light emitting assembly, said condenser lens assemblies having each a plurality of condenser lenses at locations corresponding to the light emitting elements on said light emitting assembly for intensifying the intensity of light given by said light emitting elements.

Shinglai Ferng.

1993-08-17

173

Design and construction of a solar collector of parabolic channel; Diseno y construccion de un colector solar de canal parabolico  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Design and construction of 1.06 m width and 2.44 m large parabolic trough collector with 0.26 m focal length and 90 degree centigrade rim angle are presented. The design of collector components was made using CAD/CAM commercial software and they were machined with computerized numerical control (CNC). The ray tracing analysis showed that the optimal absorber diameter is 5 mm, neglecting errors or imperfections however, for mechanical and standardization reasons, it was decided to use and absorbent tube diameter of 19,05. Structural stress by finite element analysis it showed that the minimum safety factor was 4,21 and 34,22 MPa the maximum value of stress. Considering that the aluminum allowable stress is 145 MPa, then the proposed prototype resist the design loads without deformed permanently. (Author)

Aguilar, J. O.; Calam, J. S.; Acosta, R.; Cuevas, J. D.; Hernandez, J.; Jaramillo, O. A.; Perez-Rabago, C.; Flores, J. J.

2008-07-01

174

Solar thermal utilization--an overview  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Solar energy is an ideal renewable energy source and its thermal utilization is one of its most important applications. We review the status of solar thermal utilization, including: (1) developed technologies which are already widely used all over the world, such as solar assisted water heaters, solar cookers, solar heated buildings and so on; (2) advanced technologies which are still in the development or laboratory stage and could have more innovative applications, including thermal power generation, refrigeration, hydrogen production, desalination, and chimneys; (3) major problems which need to be resolved for advanced utilizaiton of solar thermal energy. (authors)

2007-01-01

175

Technical considerations and results of chimney grafts for the treatment of juxtarenal aneursyms.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To present our initial experience and technical considerations for the use of chimney grafts in the treatment of patients that require endovascular aneurysm repair with aortic branch preservation. METHODS: All patients treated with a chimney procedure between October 2009 and June 2011 were included in our analyses. Chimney procedures were only performed in patients that were unsuitable for open repair and without opportunity to use fenestrated grafts (because of unsuitable anatomy or emergency operation). Open brachial or axillary access was used to deploy covered chimney grafts in the target vessels, and subsequently, a stent graft was deployed via femoral cut-down access. RESULTS: Thirteen patients (12 males; mean age, 77.2 ± 6.2 years; mean maximal diameter, 71.4 ± 10.2 mm) underwent a chimney procedure with the preservation of 22 aortic side branches. Primary technical success was 92.3% due to occlusion of one renal artery within 24 hours. Thirty-day mortality was 0%. Infrarenal mean neck length was 2.6 mm ± 3.2 mm (range, 0-8 mm) and could be extended to 27.3 mm ± 9.9 mm (range, 18-53 mm) by the use of chimney grafts. During follow-up (median, 10.8 months; interquartile range, 7.4-19.4), one patient died from complications from mesenteric ischemia based on a stenosis of the celiac trunk attributable to the bare stent of the stent graft, and one patient died from aneurysm rupture. Other complications included late occlusion of one renal artery and a type II endoleak, which was unsuccessfully treated with coil embolization and required laparotomy. If we disregard the ruptured patient who had an enormous increase of aneurysm diameter, mean aortic aneurysm diameter reduced from 70.7 ± 10.3 mm (range, 54-89 mm) to 66.7 ± 13.9 mm (range, 48-96 mm) during follow-up (P = .13). In three patients, the aneurysm diameter decreased by more than 5 mm and in two patients, the diameter increased by more than 5 mm. The aneurysm diameter remained stable in the other eight patients. CONCLUSIONS: Until off-the-shelf fenestrated or branched stent grafts become available, the chimney procedure offers a minimally invasive treatment option in patients requiring aneurysm exclusion with side branch revascularization. Although long-term follow-up has to be awaited, the initial results show that chimney grafts can help to decrease or stabilize the aneurysm diameter in most patients, but aneurysm rupture was not prevented in all patients.

Tolenaar JL; Zandvoort HJ; Moll FL; van Herwaarden JA

2013-09-01

176

Structural Integrity Evaluation of an New In-Chimney Bracket Structures for HANARO  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In HANARO are there provided three hexagonal irradiation holes (CT, IR1 and IR2) in the central region of the core while four circular irradiation holes (OR3 {approx} OR6) in the outer core. There exist two types of irradiation facilities: uninstrumented or instrumented. The uninstrumented irradiation facility is little influenced by the coolant flow. But the dynamic behavior by the flow-induced vibration (FIV) and seismic loads is expected to largely occur in case of the instrumented test facility due to the long guide tube to protect the instrumentation cables. To suppress this dynamic behavior of the facility, the in-chimney bracket was designed. As a supplementary supporting structure for irradiation facility, this bracket will hold guide tubes whose holding position of the instrumented facility in CT or IR is the middle part of the instrumented facility between the hole spider and the robot arm already provided in the reactor pool liner. On the while, the bracket will grip the upper part of the guide tube when it is applied to hold the instrumented facility loaded in OR sites. Therefore it is believed that the irradiation test can be successfully conducted since this bracket can reduce the FIV and dynamic response to seismic load as well. In new in-chimney bracket, IR1 is reserved for IPS(In-Pile Section) so only CT/IR2 guide tubes are supported by CT/IR clamp units and the shape of In-chimney bracket is redesigned. For evaluating the structural integrity on the new in-chimney bracket and related reactor structures, ANSYS finite element analysis model is developed and the dynamic characteristics are analyzed. The seismic response analyses of new in-chimney bracket and related reactor structures of HANARO under the design earthquake response spectrum loads of OBE(0.1g) and SSE(0.2g) are performed. The response shows that the stress values for main points on the reactor structures and the new in-chimney bracket for seismic loads are within the ASME Code limits. It is also confirmed that the fatigue usage factor is much less than 1.0. Therefore any damage on structural integrity is not expected when a new in-chimney bracket is installed in the upper part of the reactor chimney.

Ryu, Jeong Soo; Cho, Yeong Garp; Lee, Jung Hee; Jung, Hoan Sung; Seo, Choon Gyo; Shin, Jin Won

2007-12-15

177

Combining interventions: improved chimney stoves, kitchen sinks and solar disinfection of drinking water and kitchen clothes to improve home hygiene in rural Peru L’association d’interventions - améliorer les cuisinières à bois, mettre en place des éviers, désinfecter l’eau domestique et le linge de cuisine par le solaire – permet d’améliorer l’hygiène dans les foyers ruraux du Pérou Intervenciones combinadas: mejorar las cocinas a leña, instalar fregaderos y desinfectar el agua para beber y los paños de cocina con energía solar para mejorar la higiene en hogares rurales en Perú  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Home based interventions are advocated in rural areas against a variety of diseases. The combination of different interventions might have synergistic effects in terms of health improvement and cost effectiveness. However, it is crucial to ensure cultural acceptance. The aim of the study was to develop an effective and culturally accepted home-based intervention package to reduce diarrhoea and lower respiratory illnesses in children. In two rural Peruvian communities we evaluated the performance and acceptance of cooking devices, household water treatments (HWT) and home- hygiene interventions, with qualitative and quantitative methods. New ventilated stove designs reduced wood consumption by 16%. The majority of participants selected solar water disinfection as HWT in a blind tasting. In-depth interviews on hygiene improvement further revealed a high demand for kitchen sinks. After one year of installation the improved chimney stoves and kitchen sinks were all in use.  The intervention package was successfully adapted to local customs, kitchen-, home- and hygiene management. High user satisfaction was primarily driven by convenience gains due to the technical improvements and only secondarily by perceived health benefits.Les interventions à domicile sont recommandées dans les zones rurales pour éviter diverses maladies. L’association de différentes interventions entraîne une synergie en termes d’amélioration de la santé et de rapport coût-efficacité. Il est cependant crucial d’obtenir l’adhésion de la population. Le but de l’étude était d'élaborer un programme d’interventions à domicile, efficaces et acceptées par la population, visant à réduire la diarrhée et les affections des voies respiratoires basses chez l’enfant. Nous avons évalué, dans deux communautés rurales du Pérou, l’efficacité et l’acceptation d’appareils de cuisson, des traitements de l’eau domestique (HWT) et d’interventions d’hygiène à domicile à l’aide de méthodes qualitatives et quantitatives. De nouvelles cuisinières avec ventilation ont permis de réduire la consommation de bois de 16 %. La majorité des participants ont choisi la désinfection solaire de l’eau comme moyen de HWT lors d’un essai à l’aveugle. Des entretiens approfondis sur l’amélioration de l’hygiène ont en outre révélé une forte demande d’éviers. Un an après leur installation, les nouvelles cuisinières et les éviers sont tous utilisés. Le programme d’interventions a été adapté avec succès aux coutumes locales, à la gestion de la cuisine, du foyer et de l’hygiène. Le haut degré de satisfaction des utilisateurs résulte en premier lieu des bénéfices obtenus en termes de commodité dus aux améliorations techniques, et, en second lieu, des bénéfices obtenus en termes de santé.Las intervenciones en los hogares en áreas rurales se recomiendan para luchar contra una variedad de enfermedades. Combinar distintas intervenciones puede tener efectos de sinergia en cuanto a mejorar la salud y la rentabilidad. Sin embargo, es indispensable lograr la aceptación cultural. El objeto de este estudio fue desarrollar un paquete de intervención en el hogar eficaz y culturalmente aceptado para reducir la diarrea y las enfermedades de las vías respiratorias inferiores en niños. En dos comunidades rurales en Perú, se evaluó el rendimiento y la aceptación de dispositivos de cocina, tratamientos de agua doméstica (HWT) e intervenciones de higiene del hogar, con métodos cualitativos y cuantitativos. El nuevo diseño de las cocinas reduce el consumo de madera en un 16 %. La mayoría de los participantes eligió la desinfección solar del agua como método de HWT en una cata ciega. Las entrevistas detalladas acerca de las mejoras de la higiene también revelaron una alta demanda de fregaderos. Un año después de ser instaladas, las cocinas mejoradas y los fregaderos estaban todos en uso. El paquete de intervención fue adaptado con éxito a las costumbres locales y de gestión de la co

Stella M. Hartinger; Claudio F. Lanata; Ana I. Gil; Jan Hattendorf; Hector Verastegui; Daniel Mäusezahl

2012-01-01

178

The design, construction, and monitoring of photovoltaic power system and solar thermal system on the Georgia Institute of Technology Aquatic Center. Volume 1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This is a report on the feasibility study, design, and construction of a PV and solar thermal system for the Georgia Tech Aquatic Center. The topics of the report include a discussion of site selection and system selection, funding, design alternatives, PV module selection, final design, and project costs. Included are appendices describing the solar thermal system, the SAC entrance canopy PV mockup, and the PV feasibility study.

Long, R.C.

1996-12-31

179

Solar energy in residential construction. A design course at the TU Munich. Sonnenenergie im Wohnungsbau. Ein Entwurfskurs an der TU Muenchen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At the chair of design and building science of professor H. Schroeder a design course has been offered in the winter semester 1989/90 for architecture students of advanced level with the main emphasis put on solar energy utilization in residential construction. With three different design situations measures for the passive use of solar energy in the field of housing were to be tested. A balance in the interrelation climate - man - architecture was to be aimed at. (orig.).

Gonzalo, R.

1990-06-01

180

SOLAR POWER PLANTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The electrical energy import-export balance of Hungary is negative. The renewable energy sources will not solve the power supply of the country but there are cases when these systems offer an optimal solution for energy supply of special establishments. This paper presents the possibilities of power production using solar energy. The efficiency of power production using different systems is analysed taking into consideration the Hungarian climate and design parameters. Different solutions of power plant conception are presented comparing the efficiency of power production process. Beside the well known photovoltaic systems, the solar trough, the solar dish/engine system, the solar power tower, the solar chimney, the solar lake is presented.

KALMÁR Ferenc

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Multiple periscope and chimney grafts to treat ruptured thoracoabdominal and pararenal aortic aneurysms  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The periscope and chimney graft technique provides a simpler, less invasive way to maintain blood flow to the renovisceral arteries during urgent endovascular aortic repairs. The very low 30-day mortality rate and the stability of the repairs in the midterm are encouraging. This technique has the po...

Pecoraro, F; Pfammatter, T; Mayer, D; Frauenfelder, T; Papadimitriou, D; Hechelhammer, L; Veith, F J; Lachat, M; Rancic, Z

182

Scientific and Cost Effective Monitoring: The Case of an Aerial Insectivore, the Chimney Swift  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The increased pace of species listing worldwide, coupled with the scarcity of conservation funding, promote the use of targeted monitoring. We applied the recommendations of Nichols and Williams (Trends in Ecology and Evolution 2006 24:668-673) to optimize the Québec Chimney Swift Monitoring Program...

Sébastien Rioux; Jean-Pierre L. Savard; François Shaffer

183

Nonlinear mushy-layer convection with chimneys: stability and optimal solute fluxes  

CERN Multimedia

We model buoyancy-driven convection with chimneys -- channels of zero solid fraction -- in a mushy layer formed during directional solidification of a binary alloy in two-dimensions. A large suite of numerical simulations is combined with scaling analysis in order to study the parametric dependence of the flow. Stability boundaries are calculated for states of finite-amplitude convection with chimneys, which for a narrow domain can be interpreted in terms of a modified Rayleigh number criterion based on the domain width and mushy-layer permeability. For solidification in a wide domain with multiple chimneys, it has previously been hypothesised that the chimney spacing will adjust to optimise the rate of removal of potential energy from the system. For a wide variety of initial liquid concentration conditions, we consider the detailed flow structure in this optimal state and derive scaling laws for how the flow evolves as the strength of convection increases. For moderate mushy-layer Rayleigh numbers these flo...

Wells, Andrew J; Orszag, Steven A

2012-01-01

184

Concept and construction of a self-sufficient solar house. Konzeption und Bau eines Energieautarken Solarhauses  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The self-sufficient solar house Freiburg was completed in October 1992. After an extensive phase of planning measurements and the realisation of improvements are presently the main focus of the works. The present report summarises the results of the first year of operation and compares them to the expected values. The autarkic operation of the building in terms of energy was realised between April and October 1993. Hydrogen was successfully generated by electrolysis and to a large extent converted into thermal energy. However, an autarky of energy for a whole year could not be achieved, due to the breakdown of the fuel cell for the reconversion of hydrogen into current. The works for the integration of a new fuel cell of a different type have already begun and will probably be completed in autumn 1994. (orig.)

Voss, K. (Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme (FhG-ISE), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)); Dohlen, K. v. (Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme (FhG-ISE), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)); Lehmberg, H. (Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme (FhG-ISE), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)); Stahl, W. (Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme (FhG-ISE), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)); Wittwer, C. (Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme (FhG-ISE), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)); Goetzberger, A. (Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme (FhG-ISE), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany))

1994-01-01

185

Effect of chimneys on indoor air concentrations of PM10 and benzo(a)pyrene in Xuan Wei, China  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reports the effect of chimneys in reducing indoor air pollution in a lung cancer epidemic area of rural China. Household indoor air pollution concentrations were measured during unvented burning (chimneys blocked) and vented burning (chimneys open) of bituminous coal in Xuan Wei, China. Concentrations of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 {mu} m or less (PM10) and of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) were measured in 43 homes during normal activities. The use of chimneys led to significant decreases in indoor air concentrations of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 mu m or less (PM10) by 66% and of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) by 84%. The average BaP content of PM10 also decreased by 55% with the installation of a chimney. The reduction of indoor pollution levels by the installation of a chimney supports the epidemiology findings on the health benefits of stove improvement. However, even in the presence of a chimney, the indoor air concentrations for both PM10 and BaP still exceeded the indoor air quality standards of China. Movement up the energy ladder to cleaner liquid or gaseous fuels is probably the only sustainable indoor air pollution control measure.

Tian, L.W.; Lan, Q.; Yang, D.; He, X.Z.; Yu, I.T.S.; Hammond, S.K. [Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China). School for Public Health

2009-07-15

186

A study of the various baffles used in the Marcoule chimneys and the search for a new model (1961)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The baffle placed at the top of a chimney determines the shape of the smoke pall for low exit-velocities. The G. 1 type baffle was studied taking into account the characteristics of its collar: totally hollow - partially hollow - solid; on a ribbed chimney or on a plain chimney. The Pu type baffle was also tested. The search for a new type of baffle was limited to variants of the blade - type baffle: - a porous envelope device; - a cone - shaped device and - a deflector of the cupel type. Only the blade-type baffle was rejected, efficient solutions are proposed using the other types or their combinations. (authors)

1961-01-01

187

Scenarios for solar thermal energy applications in Brazil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Solar and Wind Energy Resource Assessment (SWERA) database is used to prepare and discuss scenarios for solar thermal applications in Brazil. The paper discusses low temperature applications (small and large scale water heating) and solar power plants for electricity production (concentrated solar power plants and solar chimney plants) in Brazil. The results demonstrate the feasibility of large-scale application of solar energy for water heating and electricity generation in Brazil. Payback periods for water heating systems are typically below 4 years if they were used to replace residential electric showerheads in low-income families. Large-scale water heating systems also present high feasibility and many commercial companies are adopting this technology to reduce operational costs. The best sites to set up CSP plants are in the Brazilian semi-arid region where the annual energy achieves 2.2 MW h/m2 and averages of daily solar irradiation are larger than 5.0 kW h/m2/day. The western area of Brazilian Northeastern region meets all technical requirements to exploit solar thermal energy for electricity generation based on solar chimney technology. Highlights: ? Scenarios for solar thermal applications are presented. ? Payback is typically below 4 years for small scale water heating systems. ? Large-scale water heating systems also present high feasibility. ? The Brazilian semi-arid region is the best sites for CSP and chimney tower plants.

2012-01-01

188

10 MWe Solar Thermal Central Receiver Pilot Plant: solar facilities design integration. PSS final design calculations. Book 9 of 26. Piping and mechanical equipment construction package 9 (RADL Item 7-8)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document is provided in support of the Mechanical Equipment Installation Construction Package No. 9. It includes the design calculations for the condensate systems, water treatment, instrument and service air, and the fire protection system of the Barstow Solar Pilot Plant.

1980-09-01

189

Diffusion of solar energy technologies in the new-construction market: a survey of new solar-home and onventional-home buyers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Comsumer motivations for choosing a solar energy equipped new home when the non-solar or conventional model was also available were investigated. The approach was to test the relative importance of demographic, dwelling unit, and heating system characteristics in household decisions to purchase a home equipped with solar energy devices. Two statistical models were developed: one to examine the relationship between the types of home buyers (as an identifiable market segment) and the decision to purchase a solar home, and the other to compare the energy use of solar vs. conventional homes selected in the sample. (MHR)

Rains, D.; Dunipace, D.; Woo, C.K.

1981-02-01

190

Renovation of industrial chimneys instead of demolition or blowing-up. Sanierung von Industriekaminen statt Abbruch oder Sprengung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The proficient renovation of chimneys in many cases constitutes a variant which is environmentally more beneficial and above all cheaper compared to their blowing-up or demolition. With the example of an 45m high industrial chimney the course of renovation is described. First the completely weathered concrete parts had to be removed. Then a reinforcement spiral and reinforcement mats have been fixed as numerous reinforcement supports were rusted through. Finally the chimney received a new surface of shotcrete and a paint coat permeable to vapour. The internal part of the chimney has been surfaced with elements which are resistant to aggressive substances as due to the new thermal insulation regulation the exhaust gas temperature is low and condensate forms. The costs for the renovation are about one third below that for dismanteling and the subsequent reconstruction. (BWI).

Laederach, J.

1990-05-01

191

Assessing the influence of physical, geochemical and biological factors on anaerobic microbial primary productivity within hydrothermal vent chimneys.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Chemosynthetic primary production supports hydrothermal vent ecosystems, but the extent of that productivity and its governing factors have not been well constrained. To better understand anaerobic primary production within massive vent deposits, we conducted a series of incubations at 4, 25, 50 and 90 °C using aggregates recovered from hydrothermal vent structures. We documented in situ geochemistry, measured autochthonous organic carbon stable isotope ratios and assessed microbial community composition and functional gene abundances in three hydrothermal vent chimney structures from Middle Valley on the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Carbon fixation rates were greatest at lower temperatures and were comparable among chimneys. Stable isotope ratios of autochthonous organic carbon were consistent with the Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle being the predominant mode of carbon fixation for all three chimneys. Chimneys exhibited marked differences in vent fluid geochemistry and microbial community composition, with structures being differentially dominated by gamma (?) or epsilon (?) proteobacteria. Similarly, qPCR analyses of functional genes representing different carbon fixation pathways showed striking differences in gene abundance among chimney structures. Carbon fixation rates showed no obvious correlation with observed in situ vent fluid geochemistry, community composition or functional gene abundance. Together, these data reveal that (i) net anaerobic carbon fixation rates among these chimneys are elevated at lower temperatures, (ii) clear differences in community composition and gene abundance exist among chimney structures, and (iii) tremendous spatial heterogeneity within these environments likely confounds efforts to relate the observed rates to in situ microbial and geochemical factors. We also posit that microbes typically thought to be mesophiles are likely active and growing at cooler temperatures, and that their activity at these temperatures comprises the majority of endolithic anaerobic primary production in hydrothermal vent chimneys.

Olins HC; Rogers DR; Frank KL; Vidoudez C; Girguis PR

2013-05-01

192

Archaea and bacteria with surprising microdiversity show shifts in dominance over 1,000-year time scales in hydrothermal chimneys.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Lost City Hydrothermal Field, an ultramafic-hosted system located 15 km west of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, has experienced at least 30,000 years of hydrothermal activity. Previous studies have shown that its carbonate chimneys form by mixing of approximately 90 degrees C, pH 9-11 hydrothermal fluids and cold seawater. Flow of methane and hydrogen-rich hydrothermal fluids in the porous interior chimney walls supports archaeal biofilm communities dominated by a single phylotype of Methanosarcinales. In this study, we have extensively sampled the carbonate-hosted archaeal and bacterial communities by obtaining sequences of >200,000 amplicons of the 16S rRNA V6 region and correlated the results with isotopic ((230)Th) ages of the chimneys over a 1,200-year period. Rare sequences in young chimneys were commonly more abundant in older chimneys, indicating that members of the rare biosphere can become dominant members of the ecosystem when environmental conditions change. These results suggest that a long history of selection over many cycles of chimney growth has resulted in numerous closely related species at Lost City, each of which is preadapted to a particular set of reoccurring environmental conditions. Because of the unique characteristics of the Lost City Hydrothermal Field, these data offer an unprecedented opportunity to study the dynamics of a microbial ecosystem's rare biosphere over a thousand-year time scale.

Brazelton WJ; Ludwig KA; Sogin ML; Andreishcheva EN; Kelley DS; Shen CC; Edwards RL; Baross JA

2010-01-01

193

Archaea and bacteria with surprising microdiversity show shifts in dominance over 1,000-year time scales in hydrothermal chimneys.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Lost City Hydrothermal Field, an ultramafic-hosted system located 15 km west of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, has experienced at least 30,000 years of hydrothermal activity. Previous studies have shown that its carbonate chimneys form by mixing of approximately 90 degrees C, pH 9-11 hydrothermal fluids and cold seawater. Flow of methane and hydrogen-rich hydrothermal fluids in the porous interior chimney walls supports archaeal biofilm communities dominated by a single phylotype of Methanosarcinales. In this study, we have extensively sampled the carbonate-hosted archaeal and bacterial communities by obtaining sequences of >200,000 amplicons of the 16S rRNA V6 region and correlated the results with isotopic ((230)Th) ages of the chimneys over a 1,200-year period. Rare sequences in young chimneys were commonly more abundant in older chimneys, indicating that members of the rare biosphere can become dominant members of the ecosystem when environmental conditions change. These results suggest that a long history of selection over many cycles of chimney growth has resulted in numerous closely related species at Lost City, each of which is preadapted to a particular set of reoccurring environmental conditions. Because of the unique characteristics of the Lost City Hydrothermal Field, these data offer an unprecedented opportunity to study the dynamics of a microbial ecosystem's rare biosphere over a thousand-year time scale. PMID:20080654

Brazelton, William J; Ludwig, Kristin A; Sogin, Mitchell L; Andreishcheva, Ekaterina N; Kelley, Deborah S; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Edwards, R Lawrence; Baross, John A

2010-01-11

194

75 FR 2133 - Construction and Operation of the Quartzsite Solar Energy Project, La Paz County, AZ (DOE/EIS-0440)  

Science.gov (United States)

...U.S. Department of Energy, 1000 Independence Avenue...e-mail Quartzsite_Solar@blm.gov. SUPPLEMENTARY...QSE is a Santa Monica, California-based energy company formed by U...a 100-MW (net), solar-powered...

2010-01-14

195

Radioactive orphans in barite-rich chimneys, Axial Caldera, Juan de Fuca Ridge  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gamma ray measurements on samples from two unusually radioactive barite-rich chimneys on Axial Seamount, Juan de Fuca Ridge, gave equivalent concentrations of ?0.1% Th and 0.2% U. The gamma ray emitting nuclides in both the Th and U decay series were found to be unsupported by their parents 232Th and 238U and are therefore orphans. Measurements on three chimney fragments showed that 238Th was not in radioactive equilibrium with 238Ra, which allowed their apparent ages and initial 226Ra/228Ra ratios to be determined. Based on the 228Th/228Ra ages of 3 and 6 years for two adjacent samples, a maximum growth rate of 6 cm per year was established. Calculated initial 226Ra/228Ra ratios indicate that the fluids which precipitated the barite took 20 years to acquire their radiochemical signatures from mid-ocean ridge basalts. (27 refs., tab., 6 figs.).

1988-01-01

196

Barometric pressure transient testing applications at the Nevada Test Site. Nuclear chimney analysis. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Investigations of barometric pressure testing of NTS nuclear chimneys were reviewed. This review includes the models used in the interpretation, methods of analysis, and results. Analytic and semi-analytic models were presented and applied to both historical data and new data taken for this current project. An interpretation technique based on non-linear least squares methods was used to analyze this data in terms of historic and more recent chimney models. Finally, a detailed discussion of radioactive gas transport due to surface barometric pressure fluctuations was presented. This mechanism of transport, referred to as ''barometric pumping,'' is presented in terms of conditions likely to be encountered at the NTS. The report concludes with a discussion of the current understanding of gas flow properties in the alluvial and volcanic areas of the NTS, and suggestions for future efforts directed toward increasing this understanding are presented.

Hanson, J.M.

1985-12-01

197

Endovascular repair of an aortic arch pseudoaneurysm with double chimney stent grafts: a case report.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Aortic arch pseudoaneurysm is a rare condition but carries a high risk of rupture. We report a case of a 45-year-old man with aortic arch pseudoaneurysm between left common carotid artery (LCCA) and left subclavian artery (LSA), in which a endovascular stent graft combined with double chimneys covered stents were successfully placed. There were no any complaints and complications after 12 months follow-up. The CTA demonstrated thrombus formation in the pseudoaneurysm lumen, no endoleak and the aortic arch, LCCA and LSA were all patent. We feel that the combined endovascular and double chimneys may be a valuable therapeutic alternative when treating aortic arch lesion. However, long-term clinical efficacy and safety have yet to be confirmed.

Zhou W; Zhou W; Qiu J

2013-01-01

198

Endovascular repair with chimney technique of abdominal aortic aneurysm with hostile aortic neck.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) with hostile aortic neck is not a good candidate for conventional endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR), and a recent paper showed that EVAR with chimney technique (Ch-EVAR) yielded reasonable outcome. We report here a case of successful Ch-EVAR treatment of AAA with hostile neck. An 81-year-old man presented with a 71-mm AAA during evaluation of a gastric ulcer. Aortic neck was 30 mm in diameter, 10-15 mm in length and angulated by 100°. EVAR was performed with chimney stenting to both renal arteries, and the patient recovered after transient hematuria. At one-year follow-up, AAA had increased by 7 mm with delayed type I endoleak control without renal insufficiency. The patient needed close follow-up.

Kim JY; Park JY; Cho SG; Jin CI; Lee WA; Jeon YS; Hong KC

2013-03-01

199

Scientific and Cost Effective Monitoring: The Case of an Aerial Insectivore, the Chimney Swift  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The increased pace of species listing worldwide, coupled with the scarcity of conservation funding, promote the use of targeted monitoring. We applied the recommendations of Nichols and Williams (Trends in Ecology and Evolution 2006 24:668-673) to optimize the Québec Chimney Swift Monitoring Program, an ongoing volunteer-based monitoring initiative launched in 1998. Past objectives of the program were to fill knowledge gaps about occupancy patterns at roosts sites, determine spatial and temporal distribution of Chimney Swifts (Chaetura pelagica) across the province, locate active nest sites, and monitor temporal fluctuations of the population. By applying an adaptive management framework, we modified the current monitoring scheme into a more focused initiative testing newly developed hypotheses about the state of the system. This new approach yielded significant scientific gains as well as annual savings of 19.6%. It may prove pertinent to current and future swift monitoring initiatives and to other aerial insectivore species.

Sébastien Rioux; Jean-Pierre L. Savard; François Shaffer

2010-01-01

200

Cancer and non-cancer mortality of chimney sweeps in Copenhagen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This is a cohort study of the mortality among chimney sweeps in Copenhagen, Denmark, during 1958-77. Nearly all the chimney sweeps started in the trade around the age of 15, and so this age gives the time of first exposure to the environmental conditions of the trade. The analysis applies a continuous time model with stratification by cause of death (cancer, non-cancer), time and age, where cumulative mortality rates are derived from current mortality tables. For each stratum of interest the observed/expected mortality ratio (O/E ratio) is calculated and a test performed, based on the normal distribution. The main result is a significantly higher cancer mortality for the 40-69 year age class compared with the population at large (O/E ratio . 3.9).

Hansen, E.S.; Olsen, J.H.; Tilt, B.

1982-12-01

 
 
 
 
201

Structured layer applied on top of rick-type rotting structure with chimney  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Structured layer (13) of particles sized 25-80 mm is applied on top of aerobic rick-type rotting arrangement, and covered with cover layer (12) to create biological filter layer. Residual waste (9) is first homogenized, reduced in size and soaked and placed in rick with chimney (3) to produce draught. The structured layer consists of screening residues produced in compost plants. The residual waste is deposited on air-permeable material such as wood pallets, through which slotted tubes extend. Air is drawn in through the slotted tubes, through the waste and into the chimney. The structured layer and the cover layer are each 15 cm thick. The passage for the slotted tube is formed by placing one pallet over a gap between two other pallets. The slotted tubes are PVC pipes. Three to six, preferably four, pallets are juxtaposed across the direction of the slotted tubes.

FABER KARL-WILHELM; COLLINS HANS JUERGEN PROF DR I; MAAK DIRK

202

Venting flue gases from wet scrubbing-type desulfurization plants (chimneys and cooling towers)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pure gases resulting from the venting of flue gases through cooling towers need to be reheated. Access is given to the technologies and problems of cleaned flue gas reheating processes. Emphasis is on the two variants of the regenerative preheating of gases. Further sections are dedicated to the venting of cleaned flue gases through natural draught cooling towers. A comparative evaluation assesses the environmental loads caused by chimneys on one hand and natural draught cooling towers on the other hand. (orig./PW)

Leidinger, B.J.G.

1987-05-01

203

Construction of planar and bulk integrated heterojunction polymer solar cells using cross-linkable D-A copolymer.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An integrated device architecture was constructed via vertical combination of planar and bulk heterojunctions by solution processing, where a cross-linked D-A copolymer (PBDTTT-Br25) was inserted between a PEDOT:PSS layer and the blended photoactive layer. PBDTTT-Br25 can readily undergo photo crosslinking to form an insoluble robust film via ultraviolet irradiation after solution-deposition, which enables the subsequent solution processing of a photoactive layer on the robust surface. The insertion of a pure PBDTTT-Br25 layer to build an integrated heterojunction could provide an additional donor/acceptor interface, which enables hole transport to the anode without interruption, thereby reducing the charge carrier recombination probability. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the polymer solar cell (PSC) with the integrated architecture reaches 5.24% under an AM1.5G illumination of 100 mW/cm(2), which is increased by 65%, in comparison with that of the reference single heterojunction device (3.17%), under the same experimental conditions.

Xu Q; Wang F; Qian D; Tan Z; Li L; Li S; Tu X; Sun G; Hou X; Hou J; Li Y

2013-07-01

204

The single-centre experience of the supra-arch chimney technique in endovascular repair of type B aortic dissections.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: We summarised the data performed at our centre to evaluate the feasibility of the chimney technique in type B aortic dissections (ADs) with supra-aortic vessel involvement. METHODS: From September 2006 to December 2011, 34 thoracic endovascular aortic repairs (TEVARs) for ADs were performed combined with reconstruction of the arch branches with chimney stents (innominate artery, IA, n = 3; left common carotid artery, LCCA, n = 8; left subclavian artery, LSA, n = 23). Indications for these chimney stents included an inadequate proximal landing zone (<1.5 cm); high surgical-risk patients who are not suitable for open repair or hybrid procedures; and emergent endovascular repair of ADs. The series consisted of 13 acute, 12 sub-acute and 9 chronic cases. The right common carotid-left common carotid-left subclavian artery bypasses were performed in the IA chimney cases to reserve an adequate cerebral perfusion from the LCCA and left vertebral artery, while the left common carotid-left subclavian artery bypasses were performed in the cases having dominant left vertebral arteries. All the TEVARs, chimney stents and bypasses were performed as a single stage. Follow-ups were performed at 3, 6 and 12 months, and yearly thereafter. RESULTS: Endografts were deployed in Zone 0 (n = 3, 9%), Zone 1 (n = 8, 24%) and Zone 2 (n = 23, 67%). Twenty-five (74%) balloon-expandable and 9 (26%) self-expanding stents were used, of which seven (21%) were covered and 27 (79%) were bare stents. The technical success rate was 82% (28/34). Immediate type I endoleaks were observed in five patients (5/34, 15%), all of which underwent bare chimney-stent repairs. Three self-expanding chimney stents were compressed by endografts and another balloon expandable stent was deployed inside the first one. Five patients underwent surgical bypasses (RCCA-LCCA-LSA, n = 3; LCCA-LSA, n = 2). Perioperative morbidity included one ST-elevation myocardial infarction. No perioperative death or stroke was observed. The mean follow-up was 16.3 months (range, 3-60 months). Primary patency was maintained in all the chimney stents as well as the surgical bypasses. No stent fracture or recurrent chimney-related endoleak was observed during the follow-up period. CONCLUSIONS: In repairs for type B ADs, the chimney technique provides a minimally invasive way of preserving flow to the arch branches combined with a favourable mid-term outcome. The bare stents seemed to be related to a higher probability of the immediate type I endoleaks. A balloon-expandable stent should be regarded as the first choice due to its greater radial strength.

Zhu Y; Guo W; Liu X; Jia X; Xiong J; Wang L

2013-06-01

205

Alternativas de construcción utilizando materiales de bajo costo para la evaluación térmica de cocinas solares tipo caja/ Construction alternatives using low-cost materials for the thermal test of box-type solar cookers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Se presenta la evaluación y resultados térmicos de cocinas tipo cajas, realizadas con el objeto de comparar diversos factores constructivos de las mismas utilizando un protocolo de prueba conocido como RICSA (Red Interamericana de Cocción Solar de Alimentos). Para ellos se dispuso de cuatro cocinas en donde se combinaron dos materiales de placa y dos materiales que sirven como aislante. Se sometieron a radiación solar directa calentando la placa colectora y luego al c (more) alentamiento utilizando agua como líquido de prueba. Se procedió a medir las perdidas térmicas y la eficiencia térmica. Parámetros adicionales como el tiempo en que alcanza la temperatura de cocción efectiva y el tiempo en que la mantiene sin intervención del operador también fueron medidos. De aquí, el análisis de la información proporcionó un buen rendimiento comparable entre cocinas con placa de hierro y los dos aislantes probados por sobre las cocinas de placa de aluminio; además, por la relación precio-rendimiento, se recomienda su construcción utilizando materiales que tienen alto rendimiento y bajo precio. Abstract in english This document presents the evaluation of a different set of solar ovens in terms of their thermal performance by the RICSA protocol. For this purpose, four solar ovens were constructed differentiated mainly by the type of isolation and plates. All were exposed to direct solar radiation. First, only the collector plate was heated to measure thermal losses and efficiency and second, a determined amount of water was introduced to measure the thermal power of the solar oven. (more) Additional parameters like the time in which it reaches the temperature of effective boiling point and the time in which it maintains functioning without intervention of the operator also were measured. The analysis provide empirical evidence regarding adequate levels of thermal performance of solar ovens constructed using iron on one hand, and aluminum on the other. It is recommended to extend the use of this type of equipments given the priceeffi ciency obtained in the experiments.

Mealla Sánchez, Luis Enrique; Bonaveri Arangoa, Pablo Daniel

2012-06-01

206

Arrangement for reducing discharge of heat from a chimney. Foerfarande och anordning foer att minska utstroemningen av vaerme fraan en skorsten  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to reduce the discharge of heat from a chimney, insulating material is pressed into the chimney outlet. Inside the muff there is an U-shaped socket inserted which is open to the interior of the chimney. The outer end of the socket ends on a lower level than the highest point of the inner radius of the U-shaped socket. The socket is sealed with water and heat resistant glue at the muff joint. (L.F.).

Oestbo, N.

1986-10-13

207

Example of construction technology applicable a to new energy (solar car). Shin energy (soraka) eno doboku gijutsu no oyo rei  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the Hokuriku Electric Power Co. as a part of important technologies of electric cars, studies on solar car are being carried forward. Basing on a demand on design and manufacture of a solar car for practical use, a solar car with spotty form was produced. When the car was shown on the International Solar Car Race of the Grand Solar Challenge (GSC) held in Ishikawa Prefecture of Japan in 1992, functions and designs of the car were highly evaluated by the holders of World Solar Challenge (WSC) and participation as the representative of the GSC in a race held by the WSC was requested. According to this request, the car participated in the Solar Car Race WSC, the highest level solar car race in the world, held in Australia on November, 1993 and ran 3,000km only by using the solar energy. In this paper, the details of design and production of the solar car, the problems and the personal experiences participated in the race are described. 1 ref., 14 figs., 4 tabs.

Takezawa, R. (Hokuriku Electric Power Co., Inc., Toyama (Japan))

1994-07-05

208

Modeling Collapse Chimney and Spall Zone Settlement as a Source of Post-Shot Subsidence Detected by Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ground surface subsidence resulting from the March 1992 JUNCTION underground nuclear test at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) imaged by satellite synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR) wholly occurred during a period of several months after the shot (Vincent et al., 1999) and after the main cavity collapse event. A significant portion of the subsidence associated with the small (less than 20 kt) GALENA and DIVIDER tests probably also occurred after the shots, although the deformation detected in these cases contains additional contributions from coseismic processes, since the radar scenes used to construct the deformation interferogram bracketed these two later events, The dimensions of the seas of subsidence resulting from all three events are too large to be solely accounted for by processes confined to the damage zone in the vicinity of the shot point or the collapse chimney. Rather, the subsidence closely corresponds to the span dimensions predicted by Patton's (1990) empirical relationship between spall radius and yield. This suggests that gravitational settlement of damaged rock within the spall zone is an important source of post-shot subsidence, in addition to settlement of the rubble within the collapse chimney. These observations illustrate the potential power of InSAR as a tool for Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) monitoring and on-site inspection in that the relatively broad ({approx} 100 m to 1 km) subsidence signatures resulting from small shots detonated at normal depths of burial (or even significantly overburied) are readily detectable within large geographical areas (100 km x 100 km) under favorable observing conditions. Furthermore, the present results demonstrate the flexibility of the technique in that the two routinely gathered satellite radar images used to construct the interferogram need not necessarily capture the event itself, but can cover a time period up to several months following the shot.

Foxwall, W.

2000-07-24

209

Porous ZnO nanosheet arrays constructed on weaved metal wire for flexible dye-sensitized solar cells  

Science.gov (United States)

Porous zinc oxide (ZnO) nanosheet (NS) arrays constructed by connected nanocrystallites were built on weaved metal wire (WMW) via hydrothermal treatment followed by calcination, and used as photoanodes for flexible dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). An overall light-to-electricity conversion efficiency (?) of 2.70% was achieved for the DSSC under 100 mW cm-2 illumination, and this ? was found to be much higher than that of the DSSC with ZnO nanowire (NW) as the photoanode (0.71%). The far superior performance of the DSSC with ZnO-NS is essentially attributed to: (i) the film consisting of nanosheets with interconnected nanocrystallites can allow relatively direct pathways for the transportation of electrons as the nanosheets have a regular structure with the sheets being oriented to the electrode; (ii) the nanocrystallites assembly and porous character of the nanosheets can provide a large surface area for dye adsorption, which is in favor of enhancing the light absorption and the light propagation; (iii) the nanopores embedded in the nanosheet can act as ``branch lines'' for more efficient electrolyte diffusion into the interstice of the densely packed nanosheets in the array. A further improvement in the efficiency of the DSSC with ZnO-NS was achieved through the atomic layer deposition (ALD) of an ultrathin titanium oxide (TiO2) layer onto the ZnO-NS layer. The larger charge transfer resistance along with the introduction of a TiO2 shell is thought to reduce the surface recombination and thus contribute to the increase in the open circuit voltage (Voc) of the DSCs and higher conversion efficiency (3.09%).Porous zinc oxide (ZnO) nanosheet (NS) arrays constructed by connected nanocrystallites were built on weaved metal wire (WMW) via hydrothermal treatment followed by calcination, and used as photoanodes for flexible dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). An overall light-to-electricity conversion efficiency (?) of 2.70% was achieved for the DSSC under 100 mW cm-2 illumination, and this ? was found to be much higher than that of the DSSC with ZnO nanowire (NW) as the photoanode (0.71%). The far superior performance of the DSSC with ZnO-NS is essentially attributed to: (i) the film consisting of nanosheets with interconnected nanocrystallites can allow relatively direct pathways for the transportation of electrons as the nanosheets have a regular structure with the sheets being oriented to the electrode; (ii) the nanocrystallites assembly and porous character of the nanosheets can provide a large surface area for dye adsorption, which is in favor of enhancing the light absorption and the light propagation; (iii) the nanopores embedded in the nanosheet can act as ``branch lines'' for more efficient electrolyte diffusion into the interstice of the densely packed nanosheets in the array. A further improvement in the efficiency of the DSSC with ZnO-NS was achieved through the atomic layer deposition (ALD) of an ultrathin titanium oxide (TiO2) layer onto the ZnO-NS layer. The larger charge transfer resistance along with the introduction of a TiO2 shell is thought to reduce the surface recombination and thus contribute to the increase in the open circuit voltage (Voc) of the DSCs and higher conversion efficiency (3.09%). Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Details of experimental procedures, characterizations, and supporting images. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr34265d

Dai, Hui; Zhou, Yong; Chen, Liang; Guo, Binglei; Li, Aidong; Liu, Jianguo; Yu, Tao; Zou, Zhigang

2013-05-01

210

Porous ZnO nanosheet arrays constructed on weaved metal wire for flexible dye-sensitized solar cells.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Porous zinc oxide (ZnO) nanosheet (NS) arrays constructed by connected nanocrystallites were built on weaved metal wire (WMW) via hydrothermal treatment followed by calcination, and used as photoanodes for flexible dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). An overall light-to-electricity conversion efficiency (?) of 2.70% was achieved for the DSSC under 100 mW cm(-2) illumination, and this ? was found to be much higher than that of the DSSC with ZnO nanowire (NW) as the photoanode (0.71%). The far superior performance of the DSSC with ZnO-NS is essentially attributed to: (i) the film consisting of nanosheets with interconnected nanocrystallites can allow relatively direct pathways for the transportation of electrons as the nanosheets have a regular structure with the sheets being oriented to the electrode; (ii) the nanocrystallites assembly and porous character of the nanosheets can provide a large surface area for dye adsorption, which is in favor of enhancing the light absorption and the light propagation; (iii) the nanopores embedded in the nanosheet can act as "branch lines" for more efficient electrolyte diffusion into the interstice of the densely packed nanosheets in the array. A further improvement in the efficiency of the DSSC with ZnO-NS was achieved through the atomic layer deposition (ALD) of an ultrathin titanium oxide (TiO2) layer onto the ZnO-NS layer. The larger charge transfer resistance along with the introduction of a TiO2 shell is thought to reduce the surface recombination and thus contribute to the increase in the open circuit voltage (Voc) of the DSCs and higher conversion efficiency (3.09%).

Dai H; Zhou Y; Chen L; Guo B; Li A; Liu J; Yu T; Zou Z

2013-06-01

211

Conception, construction, and test of a second-generation solar reactor; Konzeption, Bau und Test eines Solar-Photoreaktors der zweiten Generation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The chief idea underlying the second-generation of solar photoreactors is to enhance the space-time yield of the photoreaction so as to produce chemicals at a larger scale (E-Caprolactam production). The requisite photon quality is achieved through a greater concentration of the sunlight (>10-2 - 10-4). In this project a solar reactor was built and tested for use in the high flux density solar furnace of DLR. (orig./MM) [Deutsch] In der zweiten Generation solarer Photoreaktoren steht das Ziel im Vordergrund, die Raum-Zeit-Ausbeute der Photoreaktion zu steigern, um Chemikalien in groesserem Massstab zu produzieren (E-Caprolactam-Produktion). Die erforderliche Photonenqualitaet wird durch eine hoehere Konzentrierung des Sonnenlichts (>10{sup 2}-10{sup 4}) erreicht. In diesem Projekt wurde ein Solarreaktor fuer den Einsatz im Hochflussdichte-Sonnenofen der DLR gebaut und getestet. (orig./MM)

Riffelmann, K.J.; Funken, K.H. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Koeln (Germany). Hauptabteilung Energietechnik

1997-12-31

212

Construction of fourteen (14) low-cost passive-solar-energy system in low-income neighborhoods. Final technical report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A total of ten passive solar energy systems including five (5) breadbox water heaters and five solar greenhouses were produced and installed by Goodwill's solar project on pre-selected homes in Atlanta neighborhoods. It should be noted that due to budget cuts in Goodwill's solar project, the Georiga Solar Coalition and the DeKalb Economic Opportunity Authority assisted the project late during its contract period. Both organizations compensated for these budget reductions by providing necessary volunteer labor and technical expertise in the design, production and installation of two breadbox water heaters and two solar greenhouses. Goodwill produced and installed three breadbox water heaters and three solar greenhouses. The project was unable to identify the remaining four recipient dwellings before the end of the projects contract period however the Georgia Coalition currently has sufficient inventory to retrofit several homes with breadbox water heaters and the DeKalb Economic Opportunity Authority has sufficient inventory to convert at least ten porches to solar greenhouses.

1982-02-22

213

The chimney graft technique for preserving visceral vessels during endovascular treatment of aortic pathologies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Patients with juxtarenal, pararenal, or thoracoabdominal aneurysms require complex surgical open repair, which is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. The "chimney graft" or "snorkel" technique has evolved as a potential alternative to fenestrated and side-branched endografts. The purpose of this study is to review all published reports on chimney graft (CG) technique involving visceral vessels and investigate the safety and efficacy of the technique. METHODS: Studies were included in the present review if visceral revascularization during endovascular treatment of aortic pathologies was achieved via a CG implantation. Reports on the chimney technique for aortic arch branches revascularization were excluded. A multiple electronic health database search was performed on all articles published until April 2011. RESULTS: The electronic literature search yielded 15 reports that fulfilled the inclusion criteria. A total of 93 patients (81.3% male; mean age, 71.9 ± 0.9 years) were analyzed. In 77.4% of the patients, the CG procedure was applied for the treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms. Out of the 93 patients, 24.7% were operated on in an urgent setting (symptomatic or ruptured aneurysm). A total of 134 CGs were implanted: 108 to the renal arteries, 20 to the superior mesenteric artery, five to the celiac trunk, and one to the inferior mesenteric artery. In 57 patients, a single CG was deployed; in 32 patients, two CGs; in three patients, three CGs; and in one patient, four CGs were deployed. Ninety-four percent of CGs were directed proximally, whereas 6.0% were directed caudally. Primary technical success was achieved in all patients. A total of 13 patients (14.0%) developed a type I endoleak. Three were detected and treated intraoperatively. Postoperatively, 10 type I endoleaks were revealed, four of which required secondary intervention. During a mean follow-up period of 9.0 ± 1.0 months, 131 of 134 (97.8%) CGs remained patent. Two CGs to the renal arteries and one to the superior mesenteric artery occluded. Postoperatively, 11.8% of patients suffered renal function impairment and 2.1% a myocardial infarction. Ischemic stroke presented in 3.2% of patients. The 30-day in-hospital mortality was 4.3%. CONCLUSIONS: The role of the chimney technique in the management of complex abdominal aortic aneurysms is still unclear. This technique has relatively good results, considering the anatomic limitations of the aortic neck. However, long-term endograft durability and proximal fixation remains a significant concern. Thus, there is a reasonable hesitation to embrace the method for widespread use in the absence of long-term data.

Moulakakis KG; Mylonas SN; Avgerinos E; Papapetrou A; Kakisis JD; Brountzos EN; Liapis CD

2012-05-01

214

'Fairy Chimney'-shaped tandem metamaterials as double resonance SERS substrates.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A highly tunable design for obtaining double resonance substrates to be used in surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy is proposed. Tandem truncated nanocones composed of Au-SiO(2)-Au layers are designed, simulated and fabricated to obtain resonances at laser excitation and Stokes frequencies. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering experiments are conducted to compare the enhancements obtained from double resonance substrates to those obtained from single resonance gold truncated nanocones. The best enhancement factor obtained using the new design is 3.86 × 10(7). The resultant tandem structures are named after "Fairy Chimneys" rock formation in Cappadocia, Turkey.

Cinel NA; Bütün S; Erta? G; Ozbay E

2013-02-01

215

[Successful endovascular repair with chimney graft technique and carotid artery bypass for ruptured aortic arch aneurysm].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An 83-year-old man with a decreasing level of consciousness was carried to the emergency room. Computed tomography (CT) revealed a ruptured aortic arch aneurysm. He was deemed a high risk candidate for conventional surgical repair. The case was treated by a hybrid approach. Endo-exclusion of thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) was obtained by implanting stentgrafts from the ascending to descending aorta. The brain circulation was maintained by right to left carotid and to left subcravian artery bypasses combined with" chimney endo-debranching graft" of the innominate artery. This could be a method of choice for the acute patients under similar circumstances.

Norimatsu T; Mitsuoka H; Shintani T; Saito T; Higashi S

2012-08-01

216

Endovascular repair of distal arch aneurysm with double-chimney technique.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We report 2 cases of distal arch aneurysm treated by thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair (TEVAR) with the "double-chimney technique." This technique permitted the implantation of a thoracic stent graft in the ascending aorta over the arch branches while preserving perfusion of innominate and left common carotid arteries without debranching bypasses. The procedure is a feasible and less invasive treatment for distal arch aneurysm with a short proximal neck (<2 cm to the origin of the innominate artery) in patients at high risk when undergoing sternotomy and in emergent cases.

Samura M; Zempo N; Ikeda Y; Hidaka M; Kaneda Y; Suzuki K; Tsuboi H; Hamano K

2013-05-01

217

Endovascular repair of distal arch aneurysm with double-chimney technique.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report 2 cases of distal arch aneurysm treated by thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair (TEVAR) with the "double-chimney technique." This technique permitted the implantation of a thoracic stent graft in the ascending aorta over the arch branches while preserving perfusion of innominate and left common carotid arteries without debranching bypasses. The procedure is a feasible and less invasive treatment for distal arch aneurysm with a short proximal neck (<2 cm to the origin of the innominate artery) in patients at high risk when undergoing sternotomy and in emergent cases. PMID:23608258

Samura, Makoto; Zempo, Nobuya; Ikeda, Yoshitaka; Hidaka, Masaaki; Kaneda, Yoshikazu; Suzuki, Kazuhiro; Tsuboi, Hidetoshi; Hamano, Kimikazu

2013-05-01

218

Performance of digester decant system with biological filter followed by constructed wetland and solar reactor in the treatment of domestic sewage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the performance of digester decant system with biological filter followed by constructed wetland and solar reactor in the treatment of domestic sewage from Milagres rural community in Apodi-RN. The treatment system was monitored for the period of October and November 2010, 48 days after planting Pennisetum purpureum Schumach. Samples of domestic sewage were collected at different stages of treatment, in four replications on time, to determine physicochemical and microbiological characteristics about the system performance. The results indicated significant removal of turbidity, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total solids, suspended solids, phosphorus and oil and grease using the set digester decant with biological filter, followed by constructed wetland and solar reactor; the association of average solar radiation of 28.73 MJ m-2 d-1, effluent depth of 0.10 m on reactor and time of sun exposure of 12 hours provided removal of fecal coliform up to 99.99% of domestic sewage in Apodi, RN, the treated effluent met microbiological standard of the Brazilian guidelines for agricultural use with restrictions.

Glícia Pinto Barra Reinaldo; Rafael Oliveira Batista; Paulo César Moura da Silva; Luis César de Aquino Lemos Filho; Miguel Ferreira Neto; Delfran Batista dos Santos

2012-01-01

219

Solar greenhouse and warm room with a spiral piping system for hot water and a low-cost building-construction method. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This project involved the construction of two small buildings, each mounted on skids, so that, if desired, they could be moved to various sites to demonstrate the following energy proposals: the use of a combination greenhouse and warm room as an addition to an older house for an economical heating solution; the use of PB (polybutylene) black flexible pipe as a solar water heating collector housed in the above solar area; and the use of COST FREE BUILDING BLOCKS made from readily available recycled waste material, namely empty steel and tin cans, repacked in used corrugated cartons. These blocks, laid up into a wall, using glue instead of mortar, make an excellent core wall that can later be covered with protective surfacing, perhaps a rigid foam plastic surface.

Peckworth, R.H.

1983-01-01

220

Solar collector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This invention deals with a solar collector made of a few basic joint components, which make a self-carrying construction without a stiff frame. Excluding the already known heat absorbers the solar collector is constructed with a base part and two sides made of a foamed plastic material, and a transparent cover, which is partly bent round the base and the sides.

Pehrsson, H.; Sundberg, P.

1985-07-15

 
 
 
 
221

Metal sources of black smoker chimneys, Endeavour Segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge: Pb isotope constraints  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hydrothermal chimney sulfides, vent cap chimney samples, Fe-oxide and basalts from sediment-starving Juan de Fuca Ridge, in the Endeavour segment, exhibit a range of Pb isotope ratios (206Pb/204Pb = 18.658-18.769; 207Pb/204Pb = 15.457-15.566; 208Pb/204Pb = 37.810-38.276). The data array is not parallel to the northern hemisphere mantle reservoirs indicating a possible sediment component within the sulfides. By assuming that the potential end-member sediment component has a 207Pb/204Pb (15.70) similar to Middle Valley sediment, it is suggested the potential end-member sediment component may have 206Pb/204Pb = 18.90; 208Pb/204Pb = 38.82. Basalt-derived Pb for the Endeavour segment hydrothermal system involves about 50/50 leaching of E-MORB and T2-MORB. Detailed observations show the Mothra field derives more Pb from T2-MORB than the Main Endeavour field does. According to the binary mixing model, the results show little Pb (4+, CH4 and Br/Cl ratios in hydrothermal fluids are consistent with a sediment component within the segment. Reconciling the Pb isotope data with the chemistry data of hydrothermal fluids, it is suggested that the sediment component may be located in a lower temperature recharge zone where Pb could not be mobilized from the sediment.

2000-01-00

222

The versatile in situ gene expression of an Epsilonproteobacteria-dominated biofilm from a hydrothermal chimney.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Epsilonproteobacteria, including members of the genus Sulfurovum, are regarded as important primary producers in hydrothermal systems. However, their in situ gene expression in this habitat has so far not been investigated. We report a metatranscriptomic analysis of a Sulfurovum-dominated biofilm from one of the chimneys at the Loki's Castle hydrothermal system, located at the Arctic Mid Ocean Ridge. Transcripts involved in hydrogen oxidation, oxidation of sulfur species, aerobic respiration and denitrification were abundant and mostly assigned to Sulfurovum, indicating that members of this genus utilize multiple chemical energy sources simultaneously for primary production. Sulfurovum also seemed to have a diverse expression of transposases, potentially involved in horizontal gene transfer. Other transcripts were involved in CO? fixation by the reverse TCA cycle, the CRISPR-Cas system, heavy metal resistance, and sensing and responding to changing environmental conditions. Through pyrosequencing of PCR amplified 16S rRNA genes, the Sulfurovum-dominated biofilm was compared with another biofilm from the same chimney, revealing a large shift in the community structure of Epsilonproteobacteria-dominated biofilms over a few metres. PMID:23584970

Dahle, Håkon; Roalkvam, Irene; Thorseth, Ingunn H; Pedersen, Rolf B; Steen, Ida H

2012-12-20

223

The versatile in situ gene expression of an Epsilonproteobacteria-dominated biofilm from a hydrothermal chimney.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Epsilonproteobacteria, including members of the genus Sulfurovum, are regarded as important primary producers in hydrothermal systems. However, their in situ gene expression in this habitat has so far not been investigated. We report a metatranscriptomic analysis of a Sulfurovum-dominated biofilm from one of the chimneys at the Loki's Castle hydrothermal system, located at the Arctic Mid Ocean Ridge. Transcripts involved in hydrogen oxidation, oxidation of sulfur species, aerobic respiration and denitrification were abundant and mostly assigned to Sulfurovum, indicating that members of this genus utilize multiple chemical energy sources simultaneously for primary production. Sulfurovum also seemed to have a diverse expression of transposases, potentially involved in horizontal gene transfer. Other transcripts were involved in CO? fixation by the reverse TCA cycle, the CRISPR-Cas system, heavy metal resistance, and sensing and responding to changing environmental conditions. Through pyrosequencing of PCR amplified 16S rRNA genes, the Sulfurovum-dominated biofilm was compared with another biofilm from the same chimney, revealing a large shift in the community structure of Epsilonproteobacteria-dominated biofilms over a few metres.

Dahle H; Roalkvam I; Thorseth IH; Pedersen RB; Steen IH

2013-04-01

224

Energy saving interventions at a public school in Italy (solar architecture applications)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reports on a modular solar wall unit integrated into the architectural design of a school in Naples, Italy. It basically consists of a glazed external surface, 10 cm (approx.) behind which lies an insulated glazed sandwich panel which absorbs incident solar radiation ducts at the top and bottom of this double wall construction allow the circulation of air by a chimney effect. The overall building design stresses the effective integration of solar systems and traditional HVAC systems. In addition, control of heat dispersion is assured by the optimum choice of transparent and absorbent double glazing, heat recovery equipment and space heating system (set of heat pumps with motor run by methane). The design should allow a coefficient of dispersion of 0.37W/cubic meter K, whereas the national building code requires 0.71W/cubic meter K. the overall energy savings are estimated at about 60%. Results of tests on prototypes of these wall systems supplement this paper.

Cesarano, A.; De Rossi, F.; Sibilio, S.; Vanoli, R. (Naples Univ. (Italy))

1989-02-01

225

Urgent endovascular treatment of thoraco-abdominal aneurysms using a sandwich technique and chimney grafts--a technical description.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: So far the only endovascular option to treat patients with thoraco abdominal aortic aneurysms is the deployment of branched grafts. We describe a technique consisting of the deployment of standard off-the- shelf grafts to treat urgent cases. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The sandwich technique consists of the deployment of ViaBahn chimney grafts in combination with standard thoracic and abdominal aortic stent grafts. The chimney grafts are deployed using a transbrachial and transaxillary access. These coaxial grafts are placed inside the thoracic tube graft. After deployment of the infrarenal bifurcated abdominal graft a bridging stent-a short tube graft is positioned inside the thoracic graft further stabilizing the chimney grafts. RESULTS: 5 patients with symptomatic thoraco abdominal aneurysms were treated. There was one Type I endoleak that resolved after 2 months. In all patients 3 stentgrafts had to be used When possible all visceral and renal branches were revascularized. A total number of 17 arteries were reconnected with covered branches. During follow up we lost one target vessel the right renal artery. CONCLUSION: The sandwich technique in combination with chimney grafts permits a total endovascular exclusion of thoraco abdominal aortic aneurysms. In all cases off-the shelf products and grafts could be used. The number of patients treated so far is still too small to draw further more robust conclusions with regard to long term performance and durability.

Kolvenbach RR; Yoshida R; Pinter L; Zhu Y; Lin F

2011-01-01

226

Effectiveness of overflow openings in air-exhaust gas chimneys. Zur Wirksamkeit von Ueberstroemoeffnungn in Luft-Abgas-Schornsteinen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

All air/exhaust gas chimneys approved by building inspection have an overflow opening. This was originally required for safety reasons but today its effect has become insignificant. There are several advantages but just as many disadvantages. From the point of view of energy consumption the overflow opening is rather disadvantageous. (orig.)

Kalisch, A. (Inst. fuer Thermodynamik und Technische Gebaeudeausruestung, Lehrgebiet Heizungs- und Raumlufttechnik, TU Dresden (Germany)); Richter, W. (Inst. fuer Thermodynamik und Technische Gebaeudeausruestung, Lehrgebiet Heizungs- und Raumlufttechnik, TU Dresden (Germany))

1993-12-01

227

Survey of new forms of organization and financing constructions in the Dutch solar electricity market. Update 2011  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the title project the focus is on organizations and projects in the Dutch market for solar electricity, characterized by: minimal dependence on subsidies (state aid), the removal of high initial investments by users (financing), and structures that can easily be extended or replicated (scale)

2011-01-01

228

Automating the Solar Dryer-Airflow Control Utilizing Pressure Diffrence Concept  

Science.gov (United States)

The presence of a chimney in natural convective solar dryer has proven its benefit in accelerated transport of moist air from the drying compartment and thus shortening the drying time for intended crops. The experiment and simulation studies done by various parties have guaranteed increases in the airflow in relation to the physical height of chimney. A simple automated control system is proposed to assist the controls of airflow rate so that a near optimum mass flow rate could be achieved for the best possible dried product quality in the shortest possible drying period.

Luk, T. B.; Vakhguelt, A.

2009-08-01

229

Contaminant transport during atmospheric pumping of a nuclear chimney: Progress report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cyclical variations in barometric pressure cause an oscillatory up-and-down motion of gases within the chimney produced by an underground nuclear test. Analytical and experimental modeling of this atmospheric pumping mechanism has been undertaken to better understand and to quantify the associated rates of cavity gas migration toward the earth's surface and the probable rate of release to the atmosphere. Three different types of models are being investigated: (1) homogeneous porous medium; (2) fractured medium with impermeable matrix blocks; and (3) double-porosity media consisting of fracture networks among porous matrix blocks. A primary purpose is to understand how the oscillatory character of the atmospheric pumping process might significantly enhance the contaminant transport in any or all of the three classes of media. This preliminary report describes some of the analytical, numerical, and experimental work which have been completed

1986-01-01

230

Abundant transposases encoded by the metagenome of a hydrothermal chimney biofilm.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The carbonate chimneys of the Lost City Hydrothermal Field on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge are coated in thick microbial biofilms consisting of just a few dominant species. We report a preliminary analysis of a biofilm metagenome that revealed a remarkable abundance and diversity of genes potentially involved in lateral gene transfer (LGT). More than 8% of all metagenomic reads showed significant sequence similarity to transposases; all available metagenomic data sets from other environments contained at least an order of magnitude fewer transposases. Furthermore, the sequence diversity of transposase genes in the biofilm was much greater than that of 16S rRNA genes. The small size and high sequencing coverage of contigs containing transposases indicate that they are located on small but abundant extragenomic molecules. These results suggest that rampant LGT among members of the Lost City biofilm may serve as a generator of phenotypic diversity in a community with very low organismal diversity.

Brazelton WJ; Baross JA

2009-12-01

231

D0 Solenoid Upgrade Project: Thermal Contraction Analysis for the D0 Solenoid Chimney  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This engineering note documents the thermal contraction analysis that was done for the D-Zero solenoid chimney. The analysis was done as support of the 'Design Report of the 2 Tesla Superconducting Solenoid for the Fermilab DO Detector upgrade.' The cryogenic LHE and LN2 lines were analyzed for combined pressure, thermal movement, and dead weight. The tubing was stress analyzed per ASME code for Pressure Piping, standard ANSI AS:ME B31.3, for eight combinations ofthermal loading. A commercial pipe stress analysis and design system by Algor{reg_sign} was used for the analysis. Stresses calculated were well below allowables. Based on the analysis, the cryogenic lines will be installed at an offset from the vacuum jacket centerline so that during steady state cold operation, the cryogenic lines will be in a proper location.

Rucinski, R.; /Fermilab

1993-09-30

232

Conserving gallons and kilowatts. Challenges of today's solar power plants. An EPC (Engineering, Procurement and Construction) perspective  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With the increasing restrictions on CO2 emissions, the utilization of solar power is emerging as an effective way to increase the renewable portfolio for utility power. For example in California, the utilities' current renewable portfolios must increase from 20% to 33% by 2020. This drive has made renewable power considerably more desirable. However, fresh water availability and optimal solar irradiation are generally two mutually exclusive local characteristics that make locating and designing these plants challenging. Not only is fresh water scarce at the desert locations where these solar plants are generally located, but options for disposal of wastewater can be very limited as well. These factors have pushed the design of these plants to develop a fine balance between conserving and reusing water to the greatest extent practical and reducing parasitic electrical loads. This paper addresses the challenges associated with developing solar power plant designs that optimize house electrical load while minimizing water footprint. Through the implementation of operational water management techniques and optimized water treatment processes, water usage can be reduced to manageable levels. Utilizing systems that recover and recycle wastewater, the system can be further optimized to reduce the overall water footprint. Case studies are presented for multiple sites detailing the individual optimization required based on the water quality provided. Lessons learned during plant siting and permitting are provided to shed light on the current issues associated with wastewater disposal in these areas and utilization of evaporation ponds. In addition, various design philosophies are discussed to guide the reader through the difficulties of determining the right mix of initial capital cost, optimized water usage, minimized operating cost and minimized parasitic electrical load. (orig.)

Shoemaker, Jeanette [Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating Facility, CA (United States); Bechtel Power Corp., Frederick, MD (United States); Huth, Christopher; Sinha, Kumar [Bechtel Power Corp., Frederick, MD (United States)

2013-03-15

233

Metal sources of black smoker chimneys, Endeavour Segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge: Pb isotope constraints  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydrothermal chimney sulfides, vent cap chimney samples, Fe-oxide and basalts from sediment-starving Juan de Fuca Ridge, in the Endeavour segment, exhibit a range of Pb isotope ratios ({sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb = 18.658-18.769; {sup 207}Pb/{sup 204}Pb = 15.457-15.566; {sup 208}Pb/{sup 204}Pb = 37.810-38.276). The data array is not parallel to the northern hemisphere mantle reservoirs indicating a possible sediment component within the sulfides. By assuming that the potential end-member sediment component has a {sup 207}Pb/{sup 204}Pb (15.70) similar to Middle Valley sediment, it is suggested the potential end-member sediment component may have {sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb = 18.90; {sup 208}Pb/{sup 204}Pb = 38.82. Basalt-derived Pb for the Endeavour segment hydrothermal system involves about 50/50 leaching of E-MORB and T2-MORB. Detailed observations show the Mothra field derives more Pb from T2-MORB than the Main Endeavour field does. According to the binary mixing model, the results show little Pb (<1.5%) or no Pb derivation from sedimentary sources. However, the high NH{sub 4}{sup +}, CH{sub 4} and Br/Cl ratios in hydrothermal fluids are consistent with a sediment component within the segment. Reconciling the Pb isotope data with the chemistry data of hydrothermal fluids, it is suggested that the sediment component may be located in a lower temperature recharge zone where Pb could not be mobilized from the sediment.

Yao Huiqiang, E-mail: hqyao11@yahoo.com [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou 510640 (China); National Key Lab of Marine Geology, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhou Huaiyang, E-mail: zhouhy@tongji.edu.cn [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou 510640 (China); National Key Lab of Marine Geology, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Peng Xiaotong [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou 510640 (China); National Key Lab of Marine Geology, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Bao Shenxu [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou 510640 (China); National Key Lab of Marine Geology, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wu Zijun; Li Jiangtao [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou 510640 (China); National Key Lab of Marine Geology, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Sun Zhilei; Chen Zhiqiang; Li Jiwei [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou 510640 (China); National Key Lab of Marine Geology, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Chen Guangqian [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

2009-10-15

234

Experimental characterization of the thermal and solar behavior of constructed houses; Caracterizacion experimental del comportamiento termico y solar de viviendas construidas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nowadays, detailed simulation models are widely used to assess thermal performance of buildings, specially during the design stage. However it is usual to report significant differences in predicted thermal performance when confronted with measured data. Therefore the model should be calibrated. In this paper, the PSTAR framework (Subbarao, 1988) is used to calibrate a Energy Plus model of a single-family dwelling. PSTAR method yields a set of renormalization coefficients that offer quantitative interpretation of the predicted vs measured differences. Other experimental tests are used to gain additional insight on how the model should be twicked judiciously. Once calibrated, the model matches three important thermal parameters of the real buildings: heat loss coefficient, thermal mass and solar gains. (Author)

Carrillo, A.; Jurado, L.; Molina, J. C.; Druet, L.

2008-07-01

235

Endovascular Aneurysm Repair Using a Reverse Chimney Technique in a Patient With Marfan Syndrome and Contained Ruptured Chronic Type B Dissection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report endovascular thoracic and abdominal aneurysm repair (EVAR) with reverse chimney technique in a patient with contained ruptured type B dissection. EVAR seems feasible as a bailout option in Marfan patients with acute life-threatening disease.

2011-01-01

236

Boat, driven by solar energy, muscle power and by using the windows in a tent construction as sail; Boot, voortbewogen door zonne-energie, spierkracht en door het gebruik als zeil van ramen van een tentopbouw  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The title invention concerns a boat or a vehicle on wheels with options to drive the vehicle by means of solar energy, wind energy and muscle power of arms and legs. The framed sail can be brought into a position out of the wind and can also be applied as a construction part of a tent in the form of a wall or a window (transparent). The functions of the solar energy and the wind energy receivers and the construction part of the tent are integrated in a supporting framework with rotation and fold up possibilities. 9 figs.

Husslage, J.

1995-11-01

237

Room-temperature fast construction of outperformed ZnO nanoarchitectures on nanowire-array templates for dye-sensitized solar cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

A ZnO nanoarchitecture composed of nanocactus (NCs) and nanosheets (NSs) is constructed on the ZnO-nanowire (NW)-array template within 4 min by a facile room-temperature (RT) chemical bath deposition (CBD) for use in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Compared to the ZnO NW array, the spines and shells of NCs provide larger and more fitting surface for dye adsorption. The NSs developed on the top and side walls of the NWs afford the additional surface for dye adsorption as well as for light scattering. Moreover, the RT-grown ZnO nanostructures possess an upward-shifted conduction band edge and a fast electron transport rate compared to the primary ZnO NW array. With an anode thickness of 9 ?m, an efficiency of 5.14% is therefore simply attained in the D149-sensitized ZnO NC-NS DSSC. PMID:23298289

Jiang, Wei-Ting; Wu, Chun-Te; Sung, Yu-Hsiang; Wu, Jih-Jen

2013-01-16

238

Room-temperature fast construction of outperformed ZnO nanoarchitectures on nanowire-array templates for dye-sensitized solar cells.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A ZnO nanoarchitecture composed of nanocactus (NCs) and nanosheets (NSs) is constructed on the ZnO-nanowire (NW)-array template within 4 min by a facile room-temperature (RT) chemical bath deposition (CBD) for use in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Compared to the ZnO NW array, the spines and shells of NCs provide larger and more fitting surface for dye adsorption. The NSs developed on the top and side walls of the NWs afford the additional surface for dye adsorption as well as for light scattering. Moreover, the RT-grown ZnO nanostructures possess an upward-shifted conduction band edge and a fast electron transport rate compared to the primary ZnO NW array. With an anode thickness of 9 ?m, an efficiency of 5.14% is therefore simply attained in the D149-sensitized ZnO NC-NS DSSC.

Jiang WT; Wu CT; Sung YH; Wu JJ

2013-02-01

239

Solar neutrinos and the solar interior  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The discussion proceeds from a description of the present standard solar model and the construction of solar models to the rotational history of the Sun and a consideration of the Sun's kinetics and properties. 13 references.

1978-01-07

240

A Case of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm with Short Angulated Proximal Neck Treated with the Chimney Graft Technique  

Science.gov (United States)

Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) using stent grafts has shown to be an effective alternative to surgical repair in treating an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). EVAR is associated with shorter hospital stays, less blood loss, shorter operating times, and lower early morbidity and mortality compared to open surgical repair, although EVAR required a higher reintervention rate during a longer follow-up period. However, short or severely an angulated infrarenal proximal aortic neck is considered unsuitable for EVAR. The chimney graft technique is a modified procedure based on the deployment of a covered or bare-metal stent parallel to the main aortic endograft within the aneurysm, thereby creating a conduit that runs outside the aortic main endograft to preserve flow to the aortic branches. In this case report, we present a 78-year-old patient with an AAA with a short and severely angulated proximal neck who was successfully treated by EVAR using the chimney graft technique.

Lee, Sangeun; Choi, Donghoon; Lee, Do-yun

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Solar Racing  

Science.gov (United States)

In this 'Energy Education for the 21st Century' design challenge, students construct and evaluate a solar-powered model car. Students utilize the design process and undergo review by their peers to select an optimal gear ratio and components for their car. As a culminating activity, students compete in a Solar Sprint race modeled after the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Junior Solar Sprint competition.

Teachers, Pbs

242

Neovejiga ileal con doble chimenea. Anastomosis ureterointestinal/ Ileal neobladder with double chimney: Ureterointestinal anastomosis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish La cistoprostatectomía radical es el tratamiento de elección para el cáncer vesical infiltrante. En los últimos años las indicaciones de sustitución vesical se han ampliado debido a las ventajas que aportan sobre otros tipos de derivaciones siendo la neovejiga ileal descrita por Hautmann una de las más utilizadas. Posteriormente se han descrito diversas modificaciones de la técnica original como la utilización de un segmento de asa sin detubulizar a modo de chime (more) nea a la cual se anastomosan los uréteres. Presentamos una variante técnica de la neovejiga de Hautmann utilizando dos "chimeneas" anastomosando cada uréter a la luz previamente abierta de cada asa espatulando el uréter a modo de "palo de golf" para adaptar los calibres. Entre las ventajas de este tipo de anastomosis destacan la utilización de segmentos ureterales más cortos adaptando la longitud del asa lo que posibilita una anastomosis sin tensión y minimiza la isquemia disminuyendo por tanto la aparición de fístulas y estenosis. No precisa la realización de enterotomías adicionales y se facilita el acceso a cada anastomosis por separado en caso de necesidad de reintervención. Abstract in english Radical cystoprostatectomy is accepted as the standard treatment for muscle-invasive bladder cancer. During last years the indications for orthotopic neobladders have increased due to their advantages over other kind of diversions. Hautmann neobladder is one of the most commonly used. Several modifications have been later described. For example, after perform the W-shape pouch ureters can be anastomosed to a not-detubularized bowel segment (chimney modification). Here is (more) described a modification of the Hautmann neobladder with two chimneys. Each ureter is spatulated in a golf club manner and anastomosed to the open end of each bowel loop. This kind of anastomosis provides several advantages. It is possible to use shorter ureteral segments by increasing the length of bowel used. It allows an anastomosis without tension, and less ischemia, so the risk of stenosis and fistula is decreased. It is not necessary to perform additional enterothomies and in case of reintervention it is easier to access each anastomosis without damaging the other one.

Aguirre Benites, F.; Duarte Ojeda, J.M.; Pamplona Casamayor, M.; Díaz González, R.; Leiva Galvis, O.

2005-04-01

243

Design and realization of an apparatus for the continuous control of 41Ar release at the LENA chimney  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] We describe the realization of an apparatus for the continuous measurement of 41Ar released from LENA chimney. The apparatus is sensitive enough to determine activity concentrations as low as 102 Bq m-3. The detector is a 3' x 3' crystal NaI(Tl) scintillator with a 6 % energy resolution placed on the lateral surface of the superior part of the chimney. The pulses produced in the detector by the gamma-rays are amplified and conted by a 1024 channel analyzer. The total efficiency has been determined using a Monte Carlo program. The intrinsic efficiency of the detector has been calculated for a gamma-rays source uniformly distributed on its base surface; the geometric efficiency has been then calculated using a source uniformly distributed in the final cylindrical section of the chimney. The Monte Carlo program has been tested by comparing the intrinsic efficiency calculated for a point source versus energy with data reported in the literature. (orig.)

1984-01-01

244

Construction and characteristics of tandem organic solar cells featuring small molecule-based films on polymer-based subcells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In this study, we stacked a small molecule-based cell onto another polymer-based device to fabricate a tandem organic solar cell that extended the absorption range of the entire cell over a wider spectral range. Between the two subcells, we positioned a connecting structure comprising layers of Cs2CO3, Ag and MoO3. Current matching phenomena played an important role in determining the device efficiency. The judicious selection of subcells exhibiting superior current matching improved the performance of the tandem cell. Indeed, in the optimally performing tandem cells we obtained both a high open-circuit voltage (1.21 V) and an improved power conversion efficiency (1.81%). From analyses of the surface morphology and transmission spectra of the middle Ag layers, we deduced that the main function of this film was to provide more sites for efficient recombination of holes and electrons. The thickness of this layer was limited by its transmittance. A thinner Ag layer allowed more light to be harvested by the top cell, increasing the overall performance of the tandem cell.

2010-01-20

245

The plastic solar wall, a chance for energy-efficient building construction; Die plastische Solarfassade - Chance fuer energieeffizientes Bauen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The patented hilbra wall system is a modular system with a frame on which absorbing or reflecting elements can be mounted, e.g. PV modules, solar collectors, lamellar shutters, reflectors, light deflectors or insulating panesls. The available variants are investigated. [German] Das Fassadensystem wird als plastisch bezeichnet, da aus der Planebene der Wandscheibe Fassadenelemente hervortreten. Es handelt sich dabei um das patentierte hilbra-Faltladensystem. Es ist modular aufgebaut und kann, immer auf einem Grundrahmen aufbauend, mit Elementen bestueckt werden, die nun absorbierend bzw. reflektierend gestaltet sind und somit dem Sonnenschutz oder der Sonnennutzung dienen. Als Material sind Photovoltaikmodule, Sonnenkolektoren aber auch Lamellen, Reflektoren, Lichtlenkelemente oder Daemmpaneele sinnvoll. An Hand der, im Beitrag aufgefhrten Darstellung, sollen die verschiedenen Varianten auf Ihre moeglichen Funktionen untersucht werden. Neben den energetischen Moeglichkeiten bietet die 'Plastische Solarfassade' zahlreiche weitere Anwendungsmoeglichkeiten. Um hier einen moeglichst umfassenden Ueberblick zu geben, werden diese ebenfalls aufgefuehrt. Auch den Klapp- (Dreh-) und Schiebeladen-Systeme koennen eine sinnvolle Ergaenzung des Faltladens sein. (orig./AKF)

Hildenbrand, K. [hilbra GmbH, Freudenberg (Germany)

2000-03-01

246

Novel insights into methane cycling, lateral gene transfer, and the rare biosphere within carbonate chimneys of the Lost City Hydrothermal Field (Invited)  

Science.gov (United States)

The Lost City Hydrothermal Field, an ultramafic-hosted system located 15 km west of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, has experienced at least 30,000 years of hydrothermal activity. Previous studies have shown that its carbonate chimneys form by mixing of ~90°C, pH 9-11 hydrothermal fluids and cold seawater. Flow of methane and hydrogen-rich hydrothermal fluids through the carbonate chimneys supports dense microbial biofilm communities. This presentation will describe recent studies using new techniques that have provided greater insight into the microbial ecology and biogeochemistry of Lost City chimneys. We have investigated the archaeal and bacterial communities of Lost City carbonate chimneys that vary in age between ~30 and ~1200 years, as determined by U-Th isotope systematics. Using next-generation pyrosequencing technology, we collected >200,000 sequences of the V6 region of 16S rRNA genes. This extremely deep sequencing effort enabled detection of very rare organisms as well as abundant organisms detected by previous studies. The taxonomic composition of the archaeal and bacterial communities clearly differed in chimneys of different ages, and many of the rare sequences in young chimneys were more abundant in older chimneys, indicating that members of the rare biosphere can become dominant members of the ecosystem when environmental conditions change. These results suggest that a long history of selection over many cycles of chimney growth has resulted in numerous closely related species at Lost City, each of which is pre-adapted to a particular set of re-occurring environmental conditions. In this model, the rare biosphere can be considered a repository for genes that are not currently advantageous but have been in the past and may be again in the future. Interestingly, metagenomic sequencing at Lost City has indicated the potential for frequent lateral gene transfer among organisms inhabiting the chimney biofilms. Specifically, the Lost City metagenomic dataset contains the highest proportion of genes encoding transposases (the enzymes required for lateral gene transfer) of any metagenome yet reported. Therefore, we intend to test the hypothesis that the rare biosphere can serve as a source of genes that can be laterally transferred to and benefit organisms of ecological importance. The metagenomic dataset also provides clues regarding the physiology of the dominant organisms. For example, bacterial genes associated with sulfide and sulfur oxidation are present. We have also detected archaeal genes associated with nitrogen fixation and conversion of acetate to methane. Laboratory incubation experiments have shown that anaerobic methane oxidation also occurs in Lost City chimney biofilms. We will present a conceptual model of biogeochemical reactions expected to occur in Lost City biofilms.

Brazelton, W. J.; Ludwig, K. A.; Schrenk, M. O.; Kelley, D. S.; Sogin, M. L.; Baross, J. A.

2010-12-01

247

Solar housing construction. Thousands of solar cells form the facade of a living project for homeless people in Paris; Solarer Wohnungsbau. Tausende von Solarzellen bilden die Fassade eines Wohnprojekts fuer Obdachlose in Paris  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A house on the banks of the historic channel Saint Martin in Paris in the elegant tenth arrondissement attracts attention: An emerald-colored solar facade extends from the roof to the ground floor between town palaces. But the spectacular front of the building does not cover luxury condominiums for the Parisian upper class, but a social housing project for families in need.

Korn, Stefan

2013-02-15

248

Antecedent and progress of the project on the treatment of chimney gases with electrons in Mexico; Antecedentes y avance del proyecto de tratamiento de gases de chimenea con electrones en mexico  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

After the realization of the chimney gases treatment seminar with electrons, organized jointly among the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), in August of 1990 and following one of the received recommendations, it was elaborated an economic technical feasibility study of this process in Mexico, using technical data of a thermoelectric power station of Federal Commission of Electricity, where is being consumed fuel oil. This study is good to know some technical parameters of a plant of this process, proposed to settle in Mexico, so as some economic estimates of installation and operation costs of this plant; also, it is traced about the construction of a demonstration plant of the process, with capacity of 20,000 m{sup 3}N/h, using the same data of the thermoelectric power station considered previously, as the first step in the scaling of this process toward industrial level. (Author)

Pina V, G

1991-10-15

249

Electronic structure of the Nowotny chimney-ladder silicide Ru2 Si3s  

Science.gov (United States)

We report ab initio calculations for the electronic structure of the Nowotny chimney-ladder silicide Ru2 Si3 in the orthorhombic low-temperature phase. We find Ru2 Si3 to be a semiconductor with a direct band gap of about 0.45 eV. Since this gap is a p-d gap, the oscillator strength for a direct transition is expected to be of sizable magnitude. Also, the calculated effective masses of hole and electron states suggest that Ru2 Si3 is a very promising material for various applications in semiconductor technology. The electronic structure is controlled by the hybridization of Si p states with Ru d states and shows similarities to the group-IV transition-metal disilicides (CrSi2 , MoSi2 , WSi2 ) and to transition-metal-rich silicides. The calculations are based on the density-functional theory in local-density approximation and are performed by means of the full-potential linearized-augmented-plane-wave method.

Wolf, W.; Bihlmayer, G.; Blüautgel, S.

1997-03-01

250

A comparative integrated geophysical study of Horseshoe Chimney Cave, Colorado Bend State Park, Texas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An integrated geophysical study was performed over a known cave in Colorado Bend State Park (CBSP), Texas, where shallow karst features are common within the Ellenberger Limestone. Geophysical survey such as microgravity, ground penetrating radar (GPR), direct current (DC) resistivity, capacitively coupled (CC) resistivity, induced polarization (IP) and ground conductivity (GC) measurements were performed in an effort to distinguish which geophysical method worked most effectively and efficiently in detecting the presence of subsurface voids, caves and collapsed features. Horseshoe Chimney Cave (HCC), which is part of a larger network of cave systems, provides a good control environment for this research. A 50 x 50 meter grid, with 5 m spaced traverses was positioned around the entrance to HCC. Geophysical techniques listed above were used to collect geophysical data which were processed with the aid of commercial software packages. A traditional cave survey was conducted after geophysical data collection, to avoid any bias in initial data collection. The survey of the cave also provided ground truthing. Results indicate the microgravity followed by CC resistivity techniques worked most efficiently and were most cost effective, while the other methods showed varying levels of effectiveness.

Brown Wesley A.; Stafford Kevin W.; Shaw-Faulkner Mindy; Grubbs Andy

2011-01-01

251

Chimney effect in a 'T' form cavity with heated isothermal blocks: The blocks height effect  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, a numerical study of natural convection from a two dimensional 'T' form cavity with rectangular heated blocks is conducted. The blocks are identical, and the domain presents a symmetry with respect to a vertical axis passing through the middle of the opening. The governing equations are solved using a control volume method, and the SIMPLER algorithm for the velocity-pressure coupling is employed. Special emphasis is given to detail the effect of Rayleigh number and block height on the heat transfer and the flow rate generated by the chimney effect. The results are given for the parameters of control as, 104?Ra?3x106, Pr=0.71, opening diameter (C=l'/H'=0.15), blocks gap (D=d'/H'=0.5) and blocks height (1/8?B=h'/H'?1/2). These results show that the heat transfer variation with Ra is in the same manner as those met in the case of the vertical smooth or ribbed channels.

2004-01-01

252

Constructing high-efficiency D-A-?-A-featured solar cell sensitizers: a promising building block of 2,3-diphenylquinoxaline for antiaggregation and photostability.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Controlling the sensitizer morphology on a nanocrystalline TiO2 surface is beneficial to facilitating electron injection and suppressing charge recombination. Given that the grafted alkyl chain on a ?-bridge thiophene segment for preventing ? aggregation can deteriorate its intrinsic photostability, we incorporate a promising building block of 2,3-diphenylquinoxaline as the additional acceptor to construct a novel D-A-?-A-featured dye IQ4, which exhibits several characteristics: (i) efficiently decreasing the molecular HOMO-LUMO energy gap by extending its absorption bands; (ii) showing a moderate electron-withdrawing capability for an ideal balance in both promising photocurrent and photovoltage; (iii) endowing an ideal morphology control with strong capability of restraining the intermolecular aggregation and facilitating the formation of a compact sensitizer layer via two twisted phenyl groups grafted onto the quinoxaline unit. The coadsorbent-free dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) based on dye IQ4 exhibits very promising conversion efficiency as high as 9.24 ± 0.05%, with a short-circuit current density (Jsc) of 17.55 mA cm(-2), an open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.74 V, and a fill factor (FF) of 0.71 under AM 1.5 illumination (100 mW cm(-2)). IQ4-based DSSC devices with an ionic liquid electrolyte can keep constant performance during a 1000 h aging test under 1 sun at 60 °C. Because of spatial restriction, the two phenyl groups grafted onto the additional electron-withdrawing quinoxaline are demonstrated as efficient building blocks, not only improving its photostability and thermal stability but also allowing it to be a successful antiaggregation functional unit. As a consequence, the incorporated 2,3-diphenylquinoxaline unit can realize a facile structural modification for constructing organic coadsorbent-free D-A-?-A-featured sensitizers, thus paving a way to replace the common, stability-deleterious grafted alkyl chain on the thienyl bridge.

Pei K; Wu Y; Islam A; Zhang Q; Han L; Tian H; Zhu W

2013-06-01

253

Constructing high-efficiency D-A-?-A-featured solar cell sensitizers: a promising building block of 2,3-diphenylquinoxaline for antiaggregation and photostability.  

Science.gov (United States)

Controlling the sensitizer morphology on a nanocrystalline TiO2 surface is beneficial to facilitating electron injection and suppressing charge recombination. Given that the grafted alkyl chain on a ?-bridge thiophene segment for preventing ? aggregation can deteriorate its intrinsic photostability, we incorporate a promising building block of 2,3-diphenylquinoxaline as the additional acceptor to construct a novel D-A-?-A-featured dye IQ4, which exhibits several characteristics: (i) efficiently decreasing the molecular HOMO-LUMO energy gap by extending its absorption bands; (ii) showing a moderate electron-withdrawing capability for an ideal balance in both promising photocurrent and photovoltage; (iii) endowing an ideal morphology control with strong capability of restraining the intermolecular aggregation and facilitating the formation of a compact sensitizer layer via two twisted phenyl groups grafted onto the quinoxaline unit. The coadsorbent-free dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) based on dye IQ4 exhibits very promising conversion efficiency as high as 9.24 ± 0.05%, with a short-circuit current density (Jsc) of 17.55 mA cm(-2), an open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.74 V, and a fill factor (FF) of 0.71 under AM 1.5 illumination (100 mW cm(-2)). IQ4-based DSSC devices with an ionic liquid electrolyte can keep constant performance during a 1000 h aging test under 1 sun at 60 °C. Because of spatial restriction, the two phenyl groups grafted onto the additional electron-withdrawing quinoxaline are demonstrated as efficient building blocks, not only improving its photostability and thermal stability but also allowing it to be a successful antiaggregation functional unit. As a consequence, the incorporated 2,3-diphenylquinoxaline unit can realize a facile structural modification for constructing organic coadsorbent-free D-A-?-A-featured sensitizers, thus paving a way to replace the common, stability-deleterious grafted alkyl chain on the thienyl bridge. PMID:23688179

Pei, Kai; Wu, Yongzhen; Islam, Ashraful; Zhang, Qiong; Han, Liyuan; Tian, He; Zhu, Weihong

2013-05-30

254

When the chimney is blocked: malignant renovascular hypertension after endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The Chimney graft (CG) procedure is one of the novel modification techniques of the endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) surgery to treat suprarenal and juxtarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms. Other indications for the use of CG placement include thoracic and thoracoabdominal aneurysms with supraortic branches orifice involvement and cases of common iliac artery aneurysms with or without internal iliac artery involvement. The technique is used in patients who due to aortic-neck morphology and lack of adequate fixation and/or sealing zones are not eligible for standard EVAR. In this procedure, a parallel stent-graft is placed adjacent to the main body of the aortic endograft to maintain blood supply to renovisceral or supraortic branches, once the body of the aortic stent-graft is deployed. Symptomatic occlusions of the CG with novel renovascular hypertension were not described until now. CASE PRESENTATION: A-64-year-old male patient, presented with new-onset malignant hypertension, 13 months after an EVAR operation with CG placement to the left renal artery. The patient was on preventive clopidrogel therapy, which was withheld temporarily for several days, one month before presentation. Imaging studies revealed a novel form of iatrogenic renovascular hypertension, caused by occlusion of the CG. Any attempt to recanalize the covered stent or revascularize the left kidney was rejected and conservative treatment was chosen. Seven months after presentation, blood pressure was within normal ranges with little need for antihypertensive therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Physicians should be aware that the novel emerging techniques of EVAR to overcome the limitations of the aortic-neck anatomy may still adversely influence the renal outcome with potential development of new-onset hypertension.

Gal-Oz A; Wolf YG; Rosen G; Sharon H; Schwartz IF; Chernin G

2013-03-01

255

From chimney sweeps to astronauts: cancer risks in the work place: the 1998 Lauriston Taylor lecture.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Percival Pott, in 1775, was the first to note an association between overt cancer and a carcinogen in the work place when he astutely observed an elevated incidence of scrotal cancer in small boys who assisted chimney sweeps. In their "workplace" astronauts and crew of high altitude jet-liners are exposed, not only to low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation but also to HZE (high energy + high atomic number) particles and to neutrons-for which no human epidemiological data exist. The current system of radiation protection is based on risk estimates from low LET radiations, delivered in large doses and at high dose-rate, coupled with the assumption of a linear no-threshold model. In extrapolating to low doses and dose-rates, and to high LET radiations, it would be helpful if the mechanisms of radiation carcinogenesis were known. Unfortunately that is not the case, though progress has been made toward that end. Many human leukemias and lymphomas appear to be due to specific chromosomal translocations, while solid tumors usually involve multiple mutations in oncogenes, deletions in suppressor genes, and/or chromosomal rearrangements. Genomic instability and immortality are hallmarks of cancer and it is attractive to hypothesize that this is due to a mutation in a gene or genes responsible for the stability of the genome. Examples abound of a small DNA change inactivating a gene and leading to major biological consequences. This could result from a single particle, especially a HZE particle, or a recoil proton from the absorption of a neutron. In this context the assumption of a threshold is hazardous, and the linear no-threshold hypothesis still appears to be prudent and conservative.

Hall EJ

1998-10-01

256

Design, construction and test run of a solid adsorption solar refrigerator using activated carbon/methanol, as adsorbent/adsorbate pair  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The design, construction and test run of a solid adsorption solar refrigerator are presented. It used activated carbon/methanol as the adsorbent/adsorbate pair. The refrigerator has three major components: collector/generator/adsorber, condenser and evaporator. Its flat plate type collector/generator/adsorber used clear plane glass sheet of effective exposed area of 1.2 m2. The steel condenser tube with a square plan view was immersed in pool of stagnant water contained in a reinforced sandcrete tank. The evaporator is a spirally coiled copper tube immersed in stagnant water. Adsorbent cooling during the adsorption process is both by natural convection of air over the collector plate and tubes and night sky radiation facilitated by removing the collector box end cover plates. Ambient temperatures during the adsorbate generation and adsorption process varied over 18.5-34 deg. C. The refrigerator yielded evaporator temperatures ranging over 1.0-8.5 deg. C from water initially in the temperature range 24-28 deg. C. Accordingly, the maximum daily useful cooling produced was 266.8 kJ/m2 of collector area.

2003-01-01

257

Solar boom on the web. Solar energy and solar building portals; Solar boomt auch im Web. Was Portale fuer Solarenergie und solares Bauen bieten  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Whether solar energy, wind power, cogeneration or geothermal power - there is nothing that cannot be found on the web. TGA presents an outline of the best and most interesting portals on solar energy and solar building construction. (orig.)

Anon.

2006-07-15

258

Effect of variation of environmental conditions on the microbial communities of deep-sea vent chimneys, cultured in a bioreactor.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Both cultivation and molecular techniques were used to investigate the microbial diversity and dynamic of a deep-sea vent chimney. The enrichment cultures performed in a gas-lift bioreactor were inoculated with a black smoker chimney sample collected on TAG site on the mid-Atlantic ridge. To mimic as close as possible environmental conditions, the cultures were performed in oligotrophic medium with nitrogen, hydrogen and carbon dioxide (N(2)/H(2)/CO(2)) gas sweeping. Also, the temperature was first settled at a temperature of 85 degrees C and colloidal sulphur was added. Then, the temperature was lowered to 60 degrees C and sulphur was omitted. Archaeal and bacterial diversity was studied in both culture and natural samples. Through 16S rRNA gene sequences analysis of the enrichment cultures microorganisms affiliated to Archeoglobales, Thermococcales were detected in both conditions while, Deferribacterales and Thermales were detected only at 65 degrees C in the absence of sulphur. Single-stranded conformational polymorphism and quantitative PCR permit to study the microbial community dynamic during the two enrichment cultures. The effect of environmental changes (modification of culture conditions), i.e. temperature, medium composition, electron donors and acceptors availability were shown to affect the microbial community in culture, as this would happen in their environment. The effect of environmental changes, i.e. temperature and medium composition was shown to affect the microbial community in culture, as this could happen in their environment. The modification of culture conditions, such as temperature, organic matter concentration, electron donors and acceptors availability allowed to enrich different population of prokaryotes inhabiting hydrothermal chimneys.

Byrne N; Lesongeur F; Bienvenu N; Geslin C; Alain K; Prieur D; Godfroy A

2009-07-01

259

Development of a practical training program based on BNL`s input to new NFPA Lined Masonary Chimney Venting Tables  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes how we developed a practical training program for technicians and sales personnel from the BNL studies that evolved into the Lined Chimney Venting Tables. One of the topics discussed is our search for solutions to the reoccurring problems associated with flue gas condensation on newly installed oil fired appliances. The paper will also discuss our own experiences in applying the new venting tables and working through the questions that arise when we encounter installations beyond the scope of the present tables.

Potter, G. [Agway Energy Products, Tully, NJ (United States)

1997-09-01

260

Design and construction of models of solar thermal facilities in the ''Centro integrado de FP superior de energias renovables de Imarcoain''(Navarra); Maquetas de instalaciones solares termicas para la formacion profesional de grado superior en el centro integrado de formacion profesional superior de energias renovables  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article shows how we have approached the solar energy installations in the ''Centro integrado de FP superior de energias renovables de Imarcoain''(Navarra) with the design and construction of models which allow us to teach in this type of installations at different levels. (Author)

Hernandez, M. A.; Orus, L. M.; Yerro, C.; Aguado, H.; Cambra, T.; Oroz, J.

2004-07-01

 
 
 
 
261

Solar cell  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The conventional Schotky-barrier type solar cell has a demerit of high cost due to the use of platinum as a metal film. Solar cell of this invention consists of a laminated construction of 1st. transparent electroconductive film, polyaniline film and the 2nd. transparent electroconductive film. Schotky barrier is formed among polyaniline film, 1st. transparent electroconductive film and p-type silicon substrate by the reflection of energy potential of p-type silicon substrate on the 1st. transparent electroconductive film, thus functioning as a solar cell. By forming n-type a-Si film and i-type a-Si film on a metal or ally substrate instead of p-type Si-substrate, and sequentially laminating the 1st. transparent conductive film, polyaniline film and the 2nd. transparent conductive film thereon, similar Schotky barrier type solar cell can be constructed. (4 figs)

Osaka, Tetsuya; Sawai, Hideo

1988-03-29

262

High-resolution 3D seismic investigations of hydrate-bearing fluid-escape chimneys in the Nyegga region of the Voring Plateau, Norway  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Seismic surveys in the southeast part of the Voring plateau on the Norwegian continental shelf have revealed hundreds of pockmarks and mounds which appear to be the seabed terminations of chimney-like structures. The seismic characteristics are very similar to chimneys in the accretionary complex off Vancouver Island, Canada. The pockmarks are sites of methane seeps colonized by chemosynthetic biota. There is extensive development of authigenic carbonate within the pockmarks. There are many indicators that free gas exists beneath the base of the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ). The observed thinning of the time intervals between reflectors in the flanks of chimneys could be caused by the presence of higher velocity material such as hydrate or authigenic carbonate. Evidence for the presence of hydrate was obtained from cores at 5 locations during a seismic survey conducted in 2006. Two of these pockmarks, each about 300-m wide with active seeps within them, were the sites of high-resolution seismic experiments using Ocean-Bottom Seismic recorders with 100-m separation to investigate the 3-D variation in their structure and properties. Travel-time tomography was used to detail the variation in Vp and Vs within and around the chimneys. It was concluded that the material within the CNE03 chimney that gave a higher seismic velocity could be carbonate or hydrate. Coring of hydrate from this feature favours the presence of hydrate. It was suggested that on average, hydrate may occupy up to 35 per cent of the pore space. The bending of strata in the flanks is partly deformational in origin, implying that the chimney was created by some forceful process, and now acts as a pathway for methane-rich fluid flow. The strata in the flanks of the G11 pockmark do not bend upwards. The pockmarks are underlain by a zone of locally higher content of free gas, approximately 5 km across. The chimneys beneath the pockmarks penetrate this zone. Many other smaller chimney-like structures also exist and should be considered in assessing the budget of fluid outflow and methane transport in the area. 27 refs., 14 figs.

Westbrook, G.; Exley, R. [Birmingham Univ., Birmingham (United Kingdom). School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences; Minshull, T.; Jose, T. [National Oceanography Centre, Southampton (United Kingdom); Nouze, H.; Ker, S. [French Research Inst. for Exploitation of the Sea (France). Dept. of Geosciences; Gailler, A. [Birmingham Univ., Birmingham (United Kingdom). School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences]|[French Research Inst. for Exploitation of the Sea (France). Dept. of Geosciences; Plaza, A. [Tromso Univ., Tromso (Norway). Inst. for Geology]|[French Research Inst. for Exploitation of the Sea (France). Dept. of Geosciences

2008-07-01

263

Toward clean environment: evaluation of solar electric power technologies using fuzzy logic  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The rapid expansion of the use of solar energy power plants worldwide is a subject that is being followed with interest. Fuzzy logic methodology is used for evaluating the solar thermal power technology, it compresses huge amount of data into smaller sets, and it has the ability to decide between different solar technologies on the basis of their benefits and costs. The most often considered solar technologies were parabolic trough, central receiver, dish sterling engine, compact linear Fresnel reflector (CLFR), solar chimney, photovoltaic (PV), and solar pond. The aim of our research is to provide the needed information to make a judgment or a decision of adopting the most preferred solar technology in terms of installation and development using fuzzy set methodology. The criteria of the evaluation were based on different parameters, i.e., power capacity, efficiency, availability, capacity factor, storage capability, cost, maturity, water usage, land usage, and safety. The key barriers and features for each technology on the basis of benefit-to-cost ratios are addressed. The results showed that CLFR was found to be the best choice in terms of research, development, and implementation, followed by parabolic trough technology, then the central receiver technology, dish sterling engine, solar chimney, PV, and solar pond, according to the order of preference. (orig.)

Badran, Omar; Abdulhadi, Emad [Al-Balqa Applied University, Mechatronics Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering Technology, Amman (Jordan); Mamlook, Rustom [College of Computer Engineering and Sciences, Al-kharj University, Department of Computer Engineering, Al-kharj (Saudi Arabia)

2012-04-15

264

Over-ventilation and solar protections for the cooling of a tertiary building; Surventilation et protections solaires pour rafraichir un batiment tertiaire  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the framework of a building renovation operation in Valenciennes (59, France), a system of over-ventilation has been chosen as an alternative to air conditioning for the cooling of an office building. The summer comfort is ensured thanks to the addition of solar protections. At the same site, a warehouse is also cooled by nocturnal ventilation thanks to a solar draught chimney, but in this case an auxiliary air-conditioning supply has been necessary. (J.S.)

Anon.

2005-01-01

265

Solar energy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors develop a teaching unit on the subject of 'solar energy'. It is intended for interdisciplinary lessons for the 10th year and was planned for the subjects of mathematics and physics. In an introduction the topics of energy technology and environmental influences are dealt with. It is the aim of the booklet to present solar energy as an environmentally safe form of energy. The main chapter contains the mathematical and physical principles for the construction of a solar reflector.

Muenzinger, W.

1980-01-01

266

Solar Dryer. Final Report.  

Science.gov (United States)

A small solar lumber dryer was designed and constructed with the involvement of junior high students. The dryer is a natural convection solar collector similar in shape to an attached solar greenhouse. The design of the kiln is described, modifications ar...

D. Scanlin

1985-01-01

267

(Solar dryer. Final report)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A small solar lumber dryer was designed and constructed with the involvement of junior high students. The dryer is a natural convection solar collector similar in shape to an attached solar greenhouse. The design of the kiln is described, modifications are proposed, and the performance is briefly discussed. (LEW)

Scanlin, D.

1985-01-01

268

Fabricator of roasted, e.g., peppers includes gas burners and chimneys in an oven with conveyor belt feeding the peppers  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The fabricator of roasted e.g. peppers has a materials conveyor belt with pepper carriers (PP) entering the roasting oven via an arch housing a set of gas burners (Q). Two gas and smoke evacuation chambers (CL) meet in a central chimney (CSC) supplementing electric valves connected to this. - A final washing jets zones is also provided.

LOZANO ARAEZ AMANDO; LOZANO RODRIGUEZ JOSE

269

Solar heat collector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A solar collector consisting of thermal insulating plate with a transparent plane on at least one surface is designed to have one or several sunken parts wrapped in a transparent coating in such way that there are formed air pockets. The solar collector plates can either be placed among the construction elements or become construction roof elements themselves.

Proeven, J.

1981-09-29

270

Construction of a pilot plant of 500 KW it solar gasification of coke of oil. Synpet project; Construccion de una planta piloto de 500 kW para la gasificacion solar de coke de petroleo. Proyecto Synpet  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Solar thermochemistry is a novel and very promising route for the production of valuable fuels and chemicals, in which solar energy is collected and concentrated in order to supply the high temperature process heat necessary to drive highly endothermic chemical reactions. Some high temperature endothermic reactions for converting solar energy to chemical fuels have been investigated; the steam-gasification of petroleum derivatives and residues using concentrated solar radiation has been proposed more recently as a viable alternative to solar hydrogen production. This paper reviews this study which is being carried out within collaboration between Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA), the Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule (ETH) in Zurich/Switzerland, and the CIEMAT in Spain to study the feasibility of thermochemical falsification form petroleum coke. (Author)

Vidal; Denk, T.; Valverde, A.; Steinfeld, A.; Zacarias, L.; Jesus, J. C. de; Romero, M.

2008-07-01

271

Saurians vs. cuts on reimbursement rates. In the vicinity of Berlin, plans for construction of a solar power plant almost failed because of conservation concerns; Echsen versus Verguetungskuerzung. In der Naehe von Berlin waere der Bau eines Solarkraftwerks beinahe am Naturschutz gescheitert  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Abandoned industrial or military sites and similar terrains are preferred sites for solar power plant construction. This is a good thing, in principle, as any land pollution will be removed at the same time. However, if construction projects go too fast they may interfere with conservation concerns. The contribution presents the case of the 24 MW 'Finowtower' solar power station. The project almost had to be abandoned because of a small lizard. (orig.)

Krause, Matthias B.

2010-09-15

272

(Solar pods (greenhouses))  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Detailed instructions for the construction of solar pads are presented. The materials necessary for constructing the solar pad are made available in kit form. A list of the materials includes: dome shaped double glazing; end plates and supports; 2 x 4's; a snow support rib; and pressure strips. Assembly of the structure is made easy with an electric drill and simple hand tools. The solar pads resemble miniature greenhouses and are used for year round horticulture. (BCS)

Kerr, R.T.

1985-01-01

273

Solar oven  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A portable, foldable solar oven is provided wherein the basic construction material is ordinary cardboard, some surfaces of which are coated with a reflective material. The portable oven doubles as an insulated container for keeping refrigerated foodstuffs cold while being transported to a distant site for cooking.

Golder, J.C.

1981-10-06

274

Solar cell  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This invention relates with a solar cell of high power output even without the use of a tandem construction. In other words, a solar cell is constructed by PIN connecting a mono- or poly-crystalline semiconductor, a non-doped (I-type) amorphous semiconductor, and an amorphous or fine crystalline semiconductor. The crystalline semiconductor layer is a wafer on which a second crystalline semiconductor, formed by thermal decomposition or hot CVD process, is laminated. In this solar cell, the current is generated from a crystalline semiconductor of a narrow band gap, and the voltage is generated from an internal electric field of I-type amorphous silicon, attaining a high efficiency with quite a high power output (electromotive force, i.e., product of current and voltage). (4 figs)

Nitta, Yoshiteru

1987-06-10

275

Isolation and physiological characterization of two novel, piezophilic, thermophilic chemolithoautotrophs from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimney.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two novel, thermophilic piezophiles, capable of chemolithoautotrophic growth, are successfully cultivated and isolated from a black smoker chimney at the TAG field (Mid Atlantic Ridge: MAR) by using a piezophilic cultivation technique. Both strains (strains 106 and 108) represent dominant cultivated populations of the microbial communities in the chimney surface habitat. Strain 106 represents typically thin, long spiral cells under the piezophilic growth condition but short bent cells under the non-piezophilic condition. It is a strictly chemolithoautotrophic gammaproteobacterium using reduced sulfur compounds as the electron donors, and nitrate and O(2) as the electron acceptors. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence, strain 106 would represent a novel genus of the previously uncultivated group (Symbiont Group I; a potentially novel family) within the Gammaproteobacteria, and 'Thioprofundum lithotrophica' gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. Strain 108 is a short, oval rod at any of the growth pressures. It is a facultative chemoautotroph, capable of both chemolithoautotrophic growth with H(2) and S oxidations and organotrophic growth with complex organics or organic acids using nitrate and O(2) as the electron acceptors. The chemolithoautotrophic growth is strictly piezophilic and under the organotrophic growth condition, it grows at conventional pressures (0.1 MPa). Strain 108 is phylogenetically distinctive from any of the previously described genera of the family Rhodobacteraceae within the Alphaproteobacteria, and 'Piezobacter thermophilus' gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The piezophilic cultivation technique can be a powerful tool to isolate and characterize the previously uncultivated phylotypes in the deep-sea hydrothermal vent environments.

Takai K; Miyazaki M; Hirayama H; Nakagawa S; Querellou J; Godfroy A

2009-08-01

276

76 FR 54454 - Issuance of Loan Guarantee to Genesis Solar, LLC, for the Genesis Solar Energy Project  

Science.gov (United States)

...Genesis Solar, LLC, for the Genesis Solar Energy Project AGENCY: U.S. Department...construction and startup of the Genesis Solar Energy Project (GSEP), a 250-megawatt...Impact Statement for the Genesis Solar Energy Project, Riverside County,...

2011-09-01

277

Future: Solar energy. Zukunft: Sonnenenergie  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The first chapter, 'Solar energy - more than just Utopia' deals with the following: Alternatives to nuclear energy problems of energy supply, solar energy use, commencement of the solar age in space, solar technology in the Federal Republic of Germany, solar collectors, wind power, energy from hydrogen. The second chapter 'Solar energy - its contribution to future energy supply' discusses prospects for the future (interviews with scientists and engineers). The third and last chapter gives practical hints (solar energy use: self-construction of solar plants). (HWJ).

Lange, V.

1987-01-01

278

Thermohydraulic instability of boiling natural circulation loop with a chimney. 1. Linear stability analysis using homogeneous two-phase flow model and experiment on thermohydraulic instability induced by flashing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Instability of a boiling natural circulation loop with a chimney at low pressure and low heater power was investigated by linear stability analysis and experiment. A homogeneous and thermodynamic equilibrium model for two-phase flow was used. The effect of flashing induced by pressure drop in the heated channels and the chimney was considered. The effects of coupling between two boiling channels were investigated. It was found that in-phase-mode instability was apt to occur when channel inlet subcooling was large and boiling began in the chimney. In-phase-mode instability easily occurred when channel length became short and the chimney became long. Out-of-phase-mode instability was apt to occur when chimney length became small and boiling began in the channel. It was suggested that in-phase-mode instability was density wave oscillation induced by flashing in the chimney and out-of-phase-mode instability was density wave oscillation induced by boiling in the channels. The analytical results agreed qualitatively with experimental results. (author)

1995-01-01

279

Solar heater  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A novel method of making a solar collector is disclosed and described. The solar collector includes a base and a plurality of upstanding walls extending about the perimeter of the base. An input and an output extend through the walls to communicate with a plurality of liquid conduits integral with the base. A transparent cover is secured to the upstanding walls for covering the base and the plurality of conduits. The conduits and the base are constructed of a one-piece molding of a curable material. The invention resides in the method of forming the solar collector through a molding process. A first and a second mold element are positioned relative to one another to form a mold cavity defining the outer configuration of the solar collector. The mold cavity is completely filled with a curable material. The curable material is allowed to cure only adjacent the mold cavity wall whereafter the mold cavity is drained of the non-cured material thereby creating the internal configuration of the solar collector. The solar collector is removed from the mold cavity upon complete curing of the collector. The foregoing abstract is merely a resume of one general application, is not a complete discussion of all principles of operation of applications and is not to be construed as a limitation on the scope of the claimed subject matter.

Sadler, C.

1983-05-17

280

Determination of Selenium, Mercury, Chromium, Nickel, Iron, Zinc, Cobalt, Antimony, Manganese, Arsenic, Lead and Cadmium in the hairs of chimney sweeps and control persons  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The content of Selenium, Mercury, Chromium, Nickel, Iron, Zinc, Cobalt, Antimony, Manganese, Arsenic, Lead and Cadmium in 18 chimney sweeps hair were determined by neutron activations analysis and atomic absorptions spectrometry and compared with 18 control persons. The results show: The concentration of Se, Hg, Cr, Ni, Fe, Zn, Co, Sb, Mn, As, Pb and Cd of all investigated volunteers are within the normal range. (author)

1991-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Exploring Solar Power  

Science.gov (United States)

This unit provides students the opportunity to explore methods engineers have devised for harnessing sunlight to generate power. Students will initially explore heat transfer and heat storage through the construction, testing, and eventual use of a solar oven. With a lesson focused on photovoltaic cells, students will learn the concepts of energy conversion, conservation of energy, current, and voltage. Through construction of model solar powered cars, students can see these conceptual ideas manifested in modern technology. Furthermore, the solar car project provides opportunities to explore a number of other topics, such as gear ratios and simple mechanics. Both of these design and construction projects are examples of engineering design.

Techtronics Program

282

Solar Adaptive Optics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Adaptive optics (AO) has become an indispensable tool at ground-based solar telescopes. AO enables the ground-based observer to overcome the adverse effects of atmospheric seeing and obtain diffraction limited observations. Over the last decade adaptive optics systems have been deployed at major ground-based solar telescopes and revitalized ground-based solar astronomy. The relatively small aperture of solar telescopes and the bright source make solar AO possible for visible wavelengths where the majority of solar observations are still performed. Solar AO systems enable diffraction limited observations of the Sun for a significant fraction of the available observing time at ground-based solar telescopes, which often have a larger aperture than equivalent space based observatories, such as HINODE. New ground breaking scientific results have been achieved with solar adaptive optics and this trend continues. New large aperture telescopes are currently being deployed or are under construction. With the aid of solar AO these telescopes will obtain observations of the highly structured and dynamic solar atmosphere with unprecedented resolution. This paper reviews solar adaptive optics techniques and summarizes the recent progress in the field of solar adaptive optics. An outlook to future solar AO developments, including a discussion of Multi-Conjugate AO (MCAO) and Ground-Layer AO (GLAO) will be given.

Thomas R. Rimmele; Jose Marino

2011-01-01

283

Solar cooking in China  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the past 20 years, solar cooking has developed rapidly in China. Its popularity is easy to understand since China is a nation with a rural population of 800 million, 30% to 40% of which lack firewood. In recent years a number of scientists and engineers have researched solar cooking and tested solar cookers. The Solar Energy Laboratory has worked on the application of solar energy, especially solar cookers, and has made a number of significant achievements in the following areas: solar cooker theory; methods of designing solar cookers, testing characteristics of thermal efficiency; materials for cooker construction, and technological processes for producing cookers. This paper discusses their achievements and plans for future research.

Wang Xiping

1992-12-31

284

Solar cooling of a school building; Sonnenkaelte macht Schule  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A vocational school (Technikerschule Butzbach) teaches solar cooling as a teaching subject; further, an exemplary solar cooling system was constructed there and was commissioned in December 2008. (orig.)

Augsten, Eva

2009-02-10

285

Solar energy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The application possibilities of solar energy are generally discussed: conversion of solar energy into thermal power by means of solar collectors; conversion of solar energy into electric power by means of solar cells; photosynthetic conversion of solar energy.

1982-01-01

286

Modular structurally integrated solar panel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An improved solar panel system is provided which is constructed for mounting of solar collector panel modules between conventionally spaced and sloped roof rafters. The solar panel modules include integral gutter portions and integral flashing portions. The solar panel system also includes a system of top and side flashings which complement the integral flashings of the solar panel modules so as to provide a solar panel system integrable with a conventional roof shingle system to provide leak-proof mounting of the solar panel system within the conventional shingle roof structure.

Stout, J.

1981-01-13

287

Chimney effect due to different vertical position of an isothermal horizontal cylinder confined between two adiabatic walls  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The variation of natural convection heat transfer from an isothermal horizontal cylinder confined between two adiabatic walls of constant height is investigated by Mach-Zehnder interferometry technique. This paper focuses on the chimney effect due to the vertical position changes of cylinder (Y) located between two walls with a constant distance of W measuring 1.5 cylinder diameter. The cylinder's local and average Nusselt numbers are determined for ratio of vertical position to its diameter ranging from Y/D = (0 to 10), and the Rayleigh number ranging from 3.5 x 10{sup 3} to 1.4 x 10{sup 4}. There is an optimum distance between the walls in which the Nusselt number is maximum. Results are indicated with a single correlation which gives the average Nusselt number as a function of the ratio of vertical position to cylinder diameter and the Rayleigh number. The experimental data shows that there is an optimum vertical position for the cylinder at which the Nusselt number has a maximum value at each Rayleigh number. This optimal vertical position is derived from the correlation and is presented by an equation. The value of the optimum vertical position increases as the Rayleigh number increases. (author)

Harsini, Iraj; Ashjaee, Mehdi [Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran)

2009-04-15

288

Chimney effect in a ''T'' form cavity with heated isothermal blocks: the blocks height effect  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper, a numerical study of natural convection from a two-dimensional ''T'' form cavity with rectangular heated blocks is conducted. The blocks are identical, and the domain presents a symmetry with respect to a vertical axis passing through the middle of the opening. The governing equations are solved using a control volume method, and the SIMPLER algorithm for the velocity-pressure coupling is employed. Special emphasis is given to detail the effect of Rayleigh number and block height on the heat transfer and the flow rate generated by the chimney effect. The results are given for the parameters of control as, 10{sup 4} {<=} Ra {<=} 3 x 1-{sup 6}, Pr 0.71, opening diameter (C = l'/H' = 0.15), blocks gap (D = d'/H' = 0.5) and blocks height (1/8 {<=} B =h'/H{<=}1/2). These results show that the heat transfer variation with Ra is in the same manner as those met in the case of the vertical smooth or ribbed channels. (author)

El Alami, M.; Najam, M.; Oubarra, A. [Universite Hassan II Ain Chock, Casablanca (Morocco). Groupe Energetique; Semma, E. [Universite Hassan, Settat (Morocco). FST; Penot, F. [UMR CNRS, Cedex (France). LET-ENSMA

2004-12-01

289

Chimney effect in a 'T' form cavity with heated isothermal blocks: The blocks height effect  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper, a numerical study of natural convection from a two dimensional 'T' form cavity with rectangular heated blocks is conducted. The blocks are identical, and the domain presents a symmetry with respect to a vertical axis passing through the middle of the opening. The governing equations are solved using a control volume method, and the SIMPLER algorithm for the velocity-pressure coupling is employed. Special emphasis is given to detail the effect of Rayleigh number and block height on the heat transfer and the flow rate generated by the chimney effect. The results are given for the parameters of control as, 10{sup 4}{<=}Ra{<=}3x10{sup 6}, Pr=0.71, opening diameter (C=l{sup '}/H{sup '}=0.15), blocks gap (D=d{sup '}/H{sup '}=0.5) and blocks height (1/8{<=}B=h{sup '}/H{sup '}{<=}1/2). These results show that the heat transfer variation with Ra is in the same manner as those met in the case of the vertical smooth or ribbed channels.

El Alami, M.; Najam, M. E-mail: mnejam@yahoo.fr; Semma, E.; Oubarra, A.; Penot, F

2004-12-01

290

Solar Ready: An Overview of Implementation Practices  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report explores three mechanisms for encouraging solar ready building design and construction: solar ready legislation, certification programs for solar ready design and construction, and stakeholder education. These methods are not mutually exclusive, and all, if implemented well, could contribute to more solar ready construction. Solar ready itself does not reduce energy use or create clean energy. Nevertheless, solar ready building practices are needed to reach the full potential of solar deployment. Without forethought on incorporating solar into design, buildings may be incompatible with solar due to roof structure or excessive shading. In these cases, retrofitting the roof or removing shading elements is cost prohibitive. Furthermore, higher up-front costs due to structural adaptations and production losses caused by less than optimal roof orientation, roof equipment, or shading will lengthen payback periods, making solar more expensive. With millions of new buildings constructed each year in the United States, solar ready can remove installation barriers and increase the potential for widespread solar adoption. There are many approaches to promoting solar ready, including solar ready legislation, certification programs, and education of stakeholders. Federal, state, and local governments have the potential to implement programs that encourage solar ready and in turn reduce barriers to solar deployment. With the guidance in this document and the examples of jurisdictions and organizations already working to promote solar ready building practices, federal, state, and local governments can guide the market toward solar ready implementation.

Watson, A.; Guidice, L.; Lisell, L.; Doris, L.; Busche, S.

2012-01-01

291

Solarthermie 2000. Sub-programme 2: Construction of a solar system for hot water supply at Solingen Urban Hospital. Final report; Solarthermie-2000. Teilprogramm 2: Erstellung einer Solaranlage zur Warmwasserversorgung des Bettenhauses im Staedtischen Krankenhaus Solingen. Schlussbericht  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 1994, the hospital decided to construct a solar system for freshwater heating in the context of the Solarthermie 2000 research programme. The solar systems were constructed on the roof of the main hospital building. Funds were granted, and in Summer 1995 three volumeters were installed for electronic measurement of hot water consumption. The following data were obtained: 20 m{sup 3}/d at pressure stage 1, 6.6 m{sup 3}/d at pressure stage 2, and 3.8 m{sup 3}/d at pressure stage 3. Consumption at pressure stage 1 was sufficient to warrant the installation of a solar system on the roof of the main building, so the solar system was connected only to this pressure stage. [German] Im Jahre 1994 stellte das Klinikum den Antrag auf die Errichtung einer Solaranlage zur Trinkwassererwaermung im Rahmen des Forschungsprojektes Solarthermie-2000, Teilprogramm 2. Als Aufstellflaeche fuer die Kollektoren stand das Dach des Hauptgebaeudes zur Verfuegung. Nach einer Ortsbesichtigung durch Vertreter der ZfS und des Projekttraeger BEO wurde der Antrag als foerderungswuerdig angesehen. Im Sommer 1995 wurden daraufhin drei Volumenzaehler mit Impulsausgang zur elektronischen Messung des Warmwasserverbrauchs installiert. Die Verbrauchsmessungen in den drei Druckstufen des Haupthauses ergaben folgende Warmwasserverbraeuche (nach /1/): Druckstufe 1: 20 m{sup 3}/d; Druckstufe 2: 6,6 m{sup 3}/d; Druckstufe 3: 3,8 m{sup 3}/d. Da allein der Verbrauch in Druckstufe 1 mit 20 m{sup 3}/d ausreichend gross war um eine Kollektorflaeche auf dem Dach des Hauptgebaeudes zu rechtfertigen, wurde beschlossen die Solaranlage ausschliesslich an die Druckstufe 1 anzuschliessen. In einer Klinik hat die Versorgungssicherheit mit Waerme hoechste Prioritaet. Die Solaranlage muss daher so installiert und eingebunden sein, dass das bestehende Heizsystem nicht gestoert oder behindert wird. Nach fast zwei Betriebsjahren koennen wir feststellen, dass diese Versorgungssicherheit gegeben ist. Die aufgetretenen Stoerungen und Regelungs-Maengel am Solarsystem waren zwar unerfreulich in Bezug auf das Betriebsverhalten der Solaranlage, die Einbindung in die Heiztechnik aber ist problemlos und ohne stoerende Auswirkungen auf die Heiztechnik. Umgekehrt ergaben sich jedoch Auswirkungen von der Heiztechnik auf die Solaranlage. Durch Fehlstroemungen im Nachheizsystem fiel der Wasserverbrauch ueber die Solaranlage zweitweise erheblich ab und hat somit die Solaranlageneffizienz beeintraechtigt. Inzwischen sind die Fehlstroemungen unterbunden und der Verbrauch konnte sogar auf einen Wert gesteigert werden, der hoeher ist als zum Zeitpunkt der Inbetriebnahme der Solaranlage. Die Klinik waere auch bereit gewesen die Druckstufe 2 an die Solaranlage anzuschliessen. Nach Auskunft der ZfS ist der Verbrauch jedoch mittlerweile so hoch, dass dies nicht mehr erforderlich ist. (orig.)

Raasch, M.

2001-07-01

292

Ceramic solar collector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In abstract a preferred embodiment of this invention is a flat plate type solar collector constructed of specially prepared ceramic material and designed to give maximum heat exchange with either liquid or gaseous fluids.

Davis, M.A.

1980-09-16

293

Space Solar Power Program  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Information pertaining to the Space Solar Power Program is presented on energy analysis; markets; overall development plan; organizational plan; environmental and safety issues; power systems; space transportation; space manufacturing, construction, operations; design examples; and finance.

Arif, H.; Barbosa, H.; Bardet, C.; Baroud, M.; Behar, A.; Berrier, K.; Berthe, P.; Bertrand, R.; Bibyk, I.; Bisson, J.; Bloch, L.; Bobadilla, G.; Bourque, D.; Bush, L.; Carandang, R.; Chiku, T.; Crosby, N.; De Seixas, M.; De Vries, J.; Doll, S.; Dufour, F.; Eckart, P.; Fahey, M.; Fenot, F.; Foeckersperger, S.; Fontaine, J.E.; Fowler, R.; Frey, H.; Fujio, H.; Gasa, J.M.; Gleave, J.; Godoe, J.; Green, I.; Haeberli, R.; Hanada, T.; Ha

1992-08-01

294

Flat plate solar oven  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The construction of an Indian Rs. 186 (US $20.33) flat-plate solar oven is described. Detailed drawings are provided and relevant information on cooking times and temperature for different foods is given.

Parikh, M.

1981-01-01

295

Inventory of existing heat pump projects and the use of solar energy for heat pumps in the Dutch house construction sector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The aim of the title inventory is to learn from the experiences with heat pump projects in the Netherlands. Descriptions are given of practical experiences with heat pump applications in the last 15 years in the housing sector. Possible and feasible heat pump system concepts are analyzed and energy balances and energy consumption are calculated. Special attention is paid to the use of solar energy in combination with electric (compression) heat pumps. One of the most important bottlenecks is the method and availability of heat extraction: the choice for the different options is determined by investment costs, permission, regulations, and local conditions. 14 refs., 4 appendices

1997-01-01

296

Solar cell encapsulation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A polymer syrup for encapsulating solar cell assemblies. The syrup includes uncrosslinked poly(n-butyl)acrylate dissolved in n-butyl acrylate monomer. Preparation of the poly(n-butyl)acrylate and preparation of the polymer syrup is disclosed. Methods for applying the polymer syrup to solar cell assemblies as an encapsulating pottant are described. Also included is a method for solar cell construction utilizing the polymer syrup as a dual purpose adhesive and encapsulating material.

Gupta, A.; Ingham, J.D.; Yavrouian, A.H.

1983-05-10

297

Geomicrobiological exploration and characterization of novel deep-sea hydrothermal activities accompanying with extremely acidic white smokers and elemental sulfur chimneys at the TOTO caldera in the Mariana Volcanic Arc  

Science.gov (United States)

Novel hydrothermal activities accompanying effluent white smokers and elemental sulfur chimney structures at the northeast lava dome of the TOTO caldera depression in the Mariana Volcanic Arc were explored by the manned submersible Shinkai 6500 and characterized by geochemical and microbiological surveys. The white smoker hydrothermal fluids were observed in the potential hydrothermal activity center of the field and represented a maximal temperature of 172 degree C and a lowest pH of 1.59, that was the lowest pH of the hydrothermal fluid ever recorded. The chimney structures consisting all of elemental sulfur (sulfur chimney) were also peculiar to the TOTO caldera hydrothermal field in the world. The geochemical characterization strongly suggested that the TOTO caldera hydrothermal field was a novel system driven by subseafloor mixing between the oxygenated seawater and the superheated volcanic gasses. Microbial community structures in a sulfur chimney structure and its formation hydrothermal fluid with a high concentration of hydrogen sulfide (15 mM) were investigated by culture-dependent and _|independent analyses. Ribosomal rRNA gene clone analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis revealed that epsilon-Proteobacteria, specifically classified into Group G and Group B, dominated the microbial communities in the sulfur chimney structure and formed a dense microbial mat covering the sulfur chimney surface. Archaeal phylotypes were consistently minor components in the communities and related to the genera Thermococcus, Pyrodictium, Aeropyrum, and the uncultivated archaeal group of Deep-sea Hydrothermal Vent Euryarchaeotal Group. Cultivation analysis suggested that the microbial components inhabiting in the sulfur chimney structure might be entrained by hydrothermal fluids from the potential subsurface habitats

Takai, K.; Nakagawa, T.; Suzuki, Y.; Hirayama, H.; Kosaka, A.; Tsunogai, U.; Gamo, T.; Nealson, K. H.; Horikoshi, K.

2004-12-01

298

Design, manufacture and construction of low-cost housing units equipped with solar energy technology in Iraq's marshes and remote areas  

Science.gov (United States)

Samples of Iraq's marshes reed panels were prepared by a new method. Reed samples were coated by polyester and pressed isolating to produce reed panel. Thermal isolation of(0. 13%) was found less than concert (0.9 %). Water absorption resistance effect was achieved and mechanical bending under static load was conducted. Reed panels were used as construction materials.

Abdulhadi, Usama Abdulmajeed; Alwan, Angham Raad; Sarhan, Hani Hassan; Ali, Majid Hassan; Anjas, Jamal Jameel; Khaleel, Saba Mahdi; Abood, Ban Ali

2012-09-01

299

Solar School House.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Solar Schoolhouse at the Lathrop E. Smith Environmental Education Center (Rockville, Maryland) is described. Background and construction information is given. Drawings of the Schoolhouse's four sides are provided, as well as drawings illustrating the greenhouse effect, a solar collector, the Schoolhouse's summer cooling and winter heating…

Harrison, David

300

3,4-Ethylenedioxythiophene as an electron donor to construct arylamine sensitizers for highly efficient iodine-free dye-sensitized solar cells.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The development of arylamine photosensitizers with high extinction coefficients, and suitable electronic structures and steric properties is necessary for improving the efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) employing iodine-free redox shuttles. A new truxene-based organic sensitizer, , incorporating a 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) moiety as an electron donor was synthesized and compared to its reference sensitizer, . sensitized DSCs employing the Co(ii/iii) tris(1,10-phenanthroline)-based redox electrolyte exhibit a short circuit photocurrent of 11.8 mA cm(-2), an open circuit voltage of 903 mV, and a fill factor of 0.69, corresponding to an overall conversion efficiency of 7.35% under standard AM 1.5 sunlight, which is higher than that of 6.86% for equivalent sensitized DSCs. The effects of 4-tert-butylpyridine (TBP) as an additive on the photovoltaic performance of truxene-dye-sensitized nanocrystallineTiO2 solar cells were also investigated.

Hao Y; Liang M; Wang Z; Wang L; Sun Y; Sun Z; Xue S

2013-08-01

 
 
 
 
301

Selective-surface solar radiometer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A solar radiometer of novel design was used to measure the horizontal global solar irradiance. The instrument employs the principle of spectral selectivity of surfaces and gives directly an absolute determination of the solar irradiance. Construction is simple and the device is suitable for use in colleges.

Fendley, J.; Hutchins, M.

1984-06-01

302

Sustainable solar construction in the university buildings. The University of Santiago of Compostela: experiences, successes and errors; Edificacion solar sostenible en los edificios universitarios. La Universidad de Santiago de compostela: experiencias, aciertos y errores  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes some of the most remarkable facts about the building history in the University of Santiago de Compostela, particularly in their campus, attending to the design in relation with the Solar energy. sometimes, Urban Planning has helped, but another times professionals didn't know od didn't want to take advantage of the opportunities given. As a conclusion, it can be said that a good Urban Planning can help a lot to obtain a good Bio-climatic Architecture, but only the decision of the promoter and the knowledge of the architect will make them effective, with or without the help of the Urban Planning. (Author)

Tabernero, F. M.

2008-07-01

303

Roof construction for buildings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A roof construction for buildings comprising a framework of bars and junctions, the bars being arranged in sets which are located in several mutually intersecting planes that are group-wise substantially parallel. One group of a set of bars extends in substantially parallel planes of the framework and is aligned independently of building orientation in the direction of the highest elevation of the sun. Solar collectors are mounted on these sets of bars.

Mengeringhausen, M.

1983-04-26

304

In situ growth of CuInS2 nanocrystals on nanoporous TiO2 film for constructing inorganic/organic heterojunction solar cells.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Inorganic/organic heterojunction solar cells (HSCs) have attracted increasing attention as a cost-effective alternative to conventional solar cells. This work presents an HSC by in situ growth of CuInS2(CIS) layer as the photoabsorption material on nanoporous TiO2 film with the use of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) as hole-transport material. The in situ growth of CIS nanocrystals has been realized by solvothermally treating nanoporous TiO2 film in ethanol solution containing InCl3?·?4H2O, CuSO4?·?5H2O, and thioacetamide with a constant concentration ratio of 1:1:2. InCl3 concentration plays a significant role in controlling the surface morphology of CIS layer. When InCl3 concentration is 0.1 M, there is a layer of CIS flower-shaped superstructures on TiO2 film, and CIS superstructures are in fact composed of ultrathin nanoplates as 'petals' with plenty of nanopores. In addition, the nanopores of TiO2 film are filled by CIS nanocrystals, as confirmed using scanning electron microscopy image and by energy dispersive spectroscopy line scan analysis. Subsequently, HSC with a structure of FTO/TiO2/CIS/P3HT/PEDOT:PSS/Au has been fabricated, and it yields a power conversion efficiency of 1.4%. Further improvement of the efficiency can be expected by the optimization of the morphology and thickness of CIS layer and the device structure.

Chen Z; Tang M; Song L; Tang G; Zhang B; Zhang L; Yang J; Hu J

2013-01-01

305

In situ growth of CuInS2 nanocrystals on nanoporous TiO2 film for constructing inorganic/organic heterojunction solar cells  

Science.gov (United States)

Inorganic/organic heterojunction solar cells (HSCs) have attracted increasing attention as a cost-effective alternative to conventional solar cells. This work presents an HSC by in situ growth of CuInS2(CIS) layer as the photoabsorption material on nanoporous TiO2 film with the use of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) as hole-transport material. The in situ growth of CIS nanocrystals has been realized by solvothermally treating nanoporous TiO2 film in ethanol solution containing InCl3?·?4H2O, CuSO4?·?5H2O, and thioacetamide with a constant concentration ratio of 1:1:2. InCl3 concentration plays a significant role in controlling the surface morphology of CIS layer. When InCl3 concentration is 0.1 M, there is a layer of CIS flower-shaped superstructures on TiO2 film, and CIS superstructures are in fact composed of ultrathin nanoplates as ‘petals’ with plenty of nanopores. In addition, the nanopores of TiO2 film are filled by CIS nanocrystals, as confirmed using scanning electron microscopy image and by energy dispersive spectroscopy line scan analysis. Subsequently, HSC with a structure of FTO/TiO2/CIS/P3HT/PEDOT:PSS/Au has been fabricated, and it yields a power conversion efficiency of 1.4%. Further improvement of the efficiency can be expected by the optimization of the morphology and thickness of CIS layer and the device structure.

2013-01-01

306

In situ growth of CuInS2 nanocrystals on nanoporous TiO2 film for constructing inorganic/organic heterojunction solar cells  

Science.gov (United States)

Inorganic/organic heterojunction solar cells (HSCs) have attracted increasing attention as a cost-effective alternative to conventional solar cells. This work presents an HSC by in situ growth of CuInS2 (CIS) layer as the photoabsorption material on nanoporous TiO2 film with the use of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) as hole-transport material. The in situ growth of CIS nanocrystals has been realized by solvothermally treating nanoporous TiO2 film in ethanol solution containing InCl3 · 4H2O, CuSO4 · 5H2O, and thioacetamide with a constant concentration ratio of 1:1:2. InCl3 concentration plays a significant role in controlling the surface morphology of CIS layer. When InCl3 concentration is 0.1 M, there is a layer of CIS flower-shaped superstructures on TiO2 film, and CIS superstructures are in fact composed of ultrathin nanoplates as `petals' with plenty of nanopores. In addition, the nanopores of TiO2 film are filled by CIS nanocrystals, as confirmed using scanning electron microscopy image and by energy dispersive spectroscopy line scan analysis. Subsequently, HSC with a structure of FTO/TiO2/CIS/P3HT/PEDOT:PSS/Au has been fabricated, and it yields a power conversion efficiency of 1.4%. Further improvement of the efficiency can be expected by the optimization of the morphology and thickness of CIS layer and the device structure. PACS: 81.15.-z; 84.60.Jt; 73.40.Lq

Chen, Zhigang; Tang, Minghua; Song, Linlin; Tang, Guoqiang; Zhang, Bingjie; Zhang, Lisha; Yang, Jianmao; Hu, Junqing

2013-08-01

307

Construction of close spaced sublimation equipment for the manufacturing of low-cost thin-film solar cells; Construcao de um equipamento de sublimacao em espaco reduzido para fabricacao de celulas solares de filme de baixo custo  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A Close Spaces Sublimation (CCS) equipment was built at the Thin Film Laboratory of the Military Institute of Engineering with the objective of manufacturing cadmium telluride (CdTe) thin-film photovoltaic solar cells. The main characteristic of this technique is the small source-substrate distance (in the order of millimeters) and deposition pressures in the medium to low-vacuum range, which propitiates the production of thin films with high rates of deposition and allows substrate temperatures as high as 650 deg C to be utilized. CdTe deposition was made over substrates of glass/indium-tin oxide (ITO), with the source-substrate distance of 2.7 mm and system pressure of 10 Torr of argon. The source and substrate temperatures varied from 650 to 750 deg C and 500 to 650 deg C, respectively. The high deposition rates and large-grain films (in the order of 2{mu}m) obtained by this technique make it appropriate for producing low cost solar cells. (author)

Pinheiro, Wagner Anacleto; Cruz, Leila Rosa de Oliveira; Ferreira, Carlos Luiz [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Secao de Engenharia Mecanica e de Materiais], e-mail: anacleto@ime.eb.br, e-mail: leilacruz@ime.eb.br, e-mail: cferreira@ime.eb.br

2008-04-15

308

Thermal Performance of Natural Draugtht Solar Dryer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The thermal performence of a natural draugt solar dryer has been theoretically analyzed to predict the outlet temperature and the mass flow rate of the circulating air. Simplified one dimensional forms of the energy equation and the momentum equation have been solved and results are presented in terms of a dimensionless parameter. The dimensionless parameter contains such parameters as a chimney and dryer configurations, ambient temperature, insolation, mass transfer rate (drying rate), and dryer thermal efficiencey. The validity of the solution has been checked against experimental measurement for a full size model for a wide range of operating conditions. Reasonable agreement between theoretical prediction and experimental measurement has been observed. The theoretical result of this sydy can be applied to the control of dryer temperature for various crops. (author). 10 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs.

Chung, M.; Bai, C.H. (Yeungnam University, Kyungsan (Korea, Republic of))

1994-05-30

309

Climate-minded building construction in warm regions with dry summers - the 'CASA SOLAR PASSIVA', Porto Santo, Portugal. Klimagerechtes Bauen in warmen, sommertrockenen Gebieten am Beispiel der 'CASA SOLAR PASSIVA' auf Porto Santo, Portugal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Using the example of an existing passive solar building the possibilities for an increase in comfort in apartment and building construction for a warm-moderate climatic zone are demonstrated and tested. At the same time several alternative system components are mentioned. The project goals with regard to indoor climate, planning methods, water regime, and energy supply as well as location peculiarities (Madeira) and characteristics of buildings (long and short-term use of the Casa Solar, water supply: sea water, industrial water, water treatment, water recycling) are covered individually. Furthermore more detailed information on architectural measures for the minimization of cooling and heating demands and the constructive measures required (material for walls, thermal bridges) and for operation in the hot and cold season are made. Houses for comparison are presented, hints given for building research (summer/winter), profitability considerations made and the condition of the building after two years of use is described and information on acceptability to the user is given. (HWJ).

Ludewig, G.

1988-10-14

310

Development and construction of cooking alternative cooking systems; Desarrollo y construccion de sistemas alternativos de coccion. 1a. etapa: cocinas solares  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The parabolic model named maximum/minimum was designed for outdoor use in houses, clubs, camping sites, boarding schools. The applied methodology consists of a survey of necessary data for the operation of the system. The design of the experimental model is in accordance to social testing performed to housewives argentina, including also the optic/thermal behaviour analysis; the construction of the prototype, the experimental testing and efficiency analysis. The result of the quick cooking system for December, in the most brilliant point of its focus is of 460 deg C, producing 95 deg C for 1 litre of water in 10 minute. (author)

Buigues Nollens, Arturo F.; Rojas, Esteban O. [Universidad Nacional de San Juan (Argentina). Facultad de Ingenieria. Inst. de Mecanica Aplicada

1995-07-01

311

Towards the industrial solar production of lime  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new industrial concept that aims at the development of the chemical engineering technology for the solar production of lime is being examined. To establish the technical feasibility, a 10 kW solar reactor has been designed, constructed, and experimentally tested at a high-flux solar furnace. The quality of the produced solar lime meets industrial standards. (author)

Meier, A.; Bonaldi, E. [QualiCal SA, Bergamo (Italy); Cella, G.M. [QualiCal SA, Bergamo (Italy); Lipinski, W.; Palumbo, R.; Steinfeld, A. [ETH Zuerich (Switzerland) and PSI; Wieckert, C.; Wuillemin, D.

2002-03-01

312

Solar energy in Amersfoort, Netherlands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For the first time in the world a newly to be built housing area (Nieuwland in Amersfoort, Netherlands) will be constructed, exclusively on the basis of sustainability. First, the use of three forms of solar energy conversion techniques (thermal solar energy, passive solar energy and photovoltaic energy) is going to be integrated in 50 rental houses. At the end of this century 10,000 m2 of solar cells will be installed with a capacity of 1 MWp. 2 figs.

1997-01-01

313

76 FR 60475 - Issuance of a Loan Guarantee to Tonopah Solar Energy, LLC, for the Crescent Dunes Solar Energy...  

Science.gov (United States)

...ENERGY Issuance of a Loan Guarantee to Tonopah Solar Energy, LLC, for the Crescent Dunes Solar Energy Project AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy...Act of 2009 (Recovery Act), to Tonopah Solar Energy, LLC (TSE), for construction and...

2011-09-29

314

Electrochemical construction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An electrochemical cell construction features a novel co-extruded plastic electrode in an interleaved construction with a novel integral separator-spacer. Also featured is a leak and impact resistant construction for preventing the spill of corrosive materials in the event of rupture.

Einstein, Harry (Springfield, NJ); Grimes, Patrick G. (Westfield, NJ)

1983-08-23

315

Complete genome sequence of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus sp. strain ST04, isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal sulfide chimney on the Juan de Fuca Ridge.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pyrococcus sp. strain ST04 is a hyperthermophilic, anaerobic, and heterotrophic archaeon isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal sulfide chimney on the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. To further understand the distinct characteristics of this archaeon at the genome level (polysaccharide utilization at high temperature and ATP generation by a Na(+) gradient), the genome of strain ST04 was completely sequenced and analyzed. Here, we present the complete genome sequence analysis results of Pyrococcus sp. ST04 and report the major findings from the genome annotation, with a focus on its saccharolytic and metabolite production potential.

Jung JH; Lee JH; Holden JF; Seo DH; Shin H; Kim HY; Kim W; Ryu S; Park CS

2012-08-01

316

Solar Neutrinos  

CERN Document Server

Experimental work with solar neutrinos has illuminated the properties of neutrinos and tested models of how the sun produces its energy. Three experiments continue to take data, and at least seven are in various stages of planning or construction. In this review, the current experimental status is summarized, and future directions explored with a focus on the effects of a non-zero theta-13 and the interesting possibility of directly testing the luminosity constraint. Such a confrontation at the few-percent level would provide a prediction of the solar irradiance tens of thousands of years in the future for comparison with the present-day irradiance. A model-independent analysis of existing low-energy data shows good agreement between the neutrino and electromagnetic luminosities at the +/- 20 % level.

Robertson, R G H

2006-01-01

317

Solar neutrinos  

Science.gov (United States)

Experimental work with solar neutrinos has illuminated the properties of neutrinos and tested models of how the sun produces its energy. Three experiments continue to take data, and at least seven are in various stages of planning or construction. In this review, the current experimental status is summarized, and future directions explored with a focus on the effects of a non-zero ?13 and the interesting possibility of directly testing the luminosity constraint. Such a confrontation at the few-percent level would provide a prediction of the solar irradiance tens of thousands of years in the future for comparison with the present-day irradiance. A model-independent analysis of existing low-energy data shows good agreement between the neutrino and electromagnetic luminosities at the ±20% level.

Robertson, R. G. H.

2006-07-01

318

Priority to solar energy; Sonne hat Vorfahrt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Solar heating is not only for small buildings. New ideas and innovative technical solutions have made it possible to use solar heating technology also in multiple dwellings and administrative buildings, both newly constructed or modernized. (orig.)

Schwarzburger, Heiko

2010-10-15

319

Material Science and Construction  

Science.gov (United States)

We will review the new materials and technologies that are being applied in the construction of high performance (green) buildings to improve energy efficiency, Indoor Air and Environmental Quality, water conservation and reclamation, and resource conservation. We present an introduction to state-of-the-art building concepts, including ``Net-Zero'' buildings, which generate as much energy as they use, reclaim water, and minimize waste; and ``Waste as Resource,'' including waste to energy plants, biofuels, materials reclamation and recycling. The role of advanced materials and technologies, such as spectrally selective glazing, photocatalytic concrete, solar heating and cooling, and organic solar collectors will be discussed. We also give an overview of advanced analytic tools used in building design, including Computational Fluid Dynamics, energy, and lighting/daylighting computer-based simulation programs.

Traugott, Alan

2009-03-01

320

Solar Power  

Science.gov (United States)

Students learn about solar energy and how to calculate the amount of solar energy available at a given location and time of day on Earth. The importance of determining incoming solar energy for solar devices is discussed.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

 
 
 
 
321

Solar Lentigo  

Science.gov (United States)

newsletter | contact Share | Solar Lentigo Information for adults A A A This image displays many solar lentigos due to the patient having many sunburns as a child and teenager. Overview A solar lentigo (plural, solar lentigines), also known as a ...

322

Solar collector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The field of this invention is solar collectors, and more particularly, the invention pertains to a flat plate collector that employs high performance thin films. The solar collector of this invention overcomes several problems in this field, such as excessive hardware, cost and reliability, and other prior art drawbacks outlined in the specification. In the preferred form, the apparatus features a substantially rigid planar frame (14). A thin film window (42) is bonded to one planar side of the frame. An absorber (24) of laminate construction is comprised of two thin film layers (24a, 24b) that are sealed perimetrically. The layers (24a, 24b) define a fluid-tight planar envelope (24c) of large surface area to volume through which a heat transfer fluid flows. Absorber (24) is bonded to the other planar side of the frame. The thin film construction of the absorber assures substantially full envelope wetting and thus good efficiency. The window and absorber films stress the frame adding to the overall strength of the collector.

Wilhelm, William G. (Cutchogue, NY)

1982-01-01

323

Construction management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

PEFP, Proton Engineering Frontier Project, puts its aim to building 100MeV 20mA linear proton accelerator which is national facility for NT, BT, IT, and future technologies, expected to boost up the national industry competitiveness. This R and D, Construction Management is in charge of the supportive works as site selection, architecture and engineering of conventional facilities, and overall construction management. The major goals of this work are as follows: At first, architecture and engineering of conventional facilities. Second, construction management, audit and inspection on construction of conventional facilities. Lastly, cooperation with the project host organization for adjusting technical issues of overall construction. In this research, We made a conceptual design, basic design and detail design of conventional facilities. Also, we made the engineering support for host site construction as follows : selection of project host organization and host site selection, construction technical work for project host organization and procedure management and impact analysis on the delay of project site selection.

2005-01-01

324

Construction management  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

PEFP, Proton Engineering Frontier Project, puts its aim to building 100MeV 20mA linear proton accelerator which is national facility for NT, BT, IT, and future technologies, expected to boost up the national industry competitiveness. This R and D, Construction Management is in charge of the supportive works as site selection, architecture and engineering of conventional facilities, and overall construction management. The major goals of this work are as follows: At first, architecture and engineering of conventional facilities. Second, construction management, audit and inspection on construction of conventional facilities. Lastly, cooperation with the project host organization for adjusting technical issues of overall construction. In this research, We made a conceptual design, basic design and detail design of conventional facilities. Also, we made the engineering support for host site construction as follows : selection of project host organization and host site selection, construction technical work for project host organization and procedure management and impact analysis on the delay of project site selection.

Kim, Jun Yeon; Joo, Po Guk; Lee, Jae Hyung and others

2005-08-15

325

International construction  

CERN Multimedia

A recent construction project in Singapore involved a Russian plant, a Japanese management team, Australian and Italian engineers, Thai steel workers and a labour force from throughout Asia ... The recent growth explosion of multi-nationals and the lowering of trade barriers is pushing the globalization of construction at a startling pace. Mark Mawhinney has brought together for the first time, advice, information and evidence on this developing arena from a wide range of sources. This book offers a clear understanding of the international construction market and an explanation of wh

Mawhinney, Mark

2008-01-01

326

Amorphous film solar cell  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An amorphous film solar cell of p-i-n heterojunction type, which is produced through the combination of group iii-v compound amorphous semiconductor films with a layer of fluorinated or hydrogenated amorphous silicon semiconductor material. Selection of the p-i-n layer construction is easier compared to film solar cells of conventional fluorinated or hydrogenated amorphous silicon semiconductor material, efficiency is improved, and there is an increased degree of freedom in choice of the apparatus.

Yamauchi, Y.

1982-12-21

327

Solar ponds; Piscinas solares  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this chapter the characteristics of natural solar ponds are presented. It is then discussed the main motivations to reproduce this natural phenomenon in order to generate energy, and thus it is presented how to build a solar pond and how to generate the salt gradient, it is also discussed the wind effects, the solar ponds efficiency, some common problems limitations and applications. 15 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

Fraidenraich, Naum [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Centro de Energia Nuclear; Lyra, Francisco [Companhia Hidroeletrica do Sao Francisco (CHESF), Recife, PE (Brazil)

1995-12-31

328

Chimney and periscope grafts observed over 2 years after their use to revascularize 169 renovisceral branches in 77 patients with complex aortic aneurysms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose : To evaluate the performance of periscope and/or chimney grafts (CPGs) in the endovascular treatment of pararenal or thoracoabdominal aneurysms using off-the-shelf devices. Methods : Between February 2002 and August 2012, 77 consecutive patients (62 men; mean age 73±9 years) suffering from pararenal aortic (n=55), thoracoabdominal (n=16), or arch to visceral artery aneurysms (n=6) were treated with aortic stent-graft implantation requiring chimney and/or periscope grafts to maintain side branch perfusion. CPGs were planned in advance and were not used as bailout. A standardized follow-up protocol including computed tomographic angiography, laboratory testing, and clinical examination was performed at 6 weeks; 3, 6, and 12 months; and annually thereafter. Results : Technical success was achieved in 76 (99%) patients; 1 branch stent-graft became dislocated from a renal artery, which could not be re-accessed. Overall, 169 target vessels (121 renal arteries, 30 superior mesenteric arteries, 17 celiac trunks, and 1 inferior mesenteric artery) were addressed with the chimney graft configuration in 111 and the periscope graft configuration in 58. In total, 228 devices were used for the CPGs: 213 Viabahn stent-grafts and 15 bare metal stents. Over a mean 25±16 months (range 1-121), 9 patients died of unrelated causes. Nearly all (95%) of the patients demonstrated a decreased or stable aneurysm size on imaging; there was a mean 13% shrinkage in aneurysm diameter. Twenty patients had primary type I/III endoleaks at discharge; in follow-up, only 3 of these were still present (no secondary or recurrent endoleaks were noted). Additional endovascular maneuvers were required for CPG-related complications in 13 patients from intervention throughout follow-up. Overall, 4 CPGs occluded (98% target vessel patency); no stent-graft migration was observed. Renal function remained stable in all patients. Conclusion : In this series, the use of CPGs has proven to be a feasible, safe, and effective way to treat thoracoabdominal and pararenal aneurysms with maintenance of blood flow to the renovisceral arteries. Nearly all of the aneurysms showed no increase in diameter over a >2-year mean follow-up, which supports the midterm adequacy of the CPG technique as a method to effectively revascularize branch vessels with few endoleaks or branch occlusions. PMID:24093310

Lachat, Mario; Veith, Frank J; Pfammatter, Thomas; Glenck, Michael; Bettex, Dominique; Mayer, Dieter; Rancic, Zoran; Gloekler, Steffen; Pecoraro, Felice

2013-10-01

329

A novel design for construction of dwellings in radon prone areas of Ramsar  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radon can accumulate in residential places at sufficiently high levels. Indoor radon levels in some regions of Ramsar are up to 3700 Bq m-3, a concentration that is much higher than US EPA recommended action level of 148 Bq m-3 (4 pCi/L). Radon is the 2nd leading cause of lung cancer, after cigarette smoking. It is widely believed that there is no threshold for lung cancer from radon exposure. In this study after reviewing the meteorological changes of Ramsar over the past 50 years (1955-2005), a novel design for constructing dwellings in radon prone areas is introduced. Natural ventilation is a type of ventilation that is created by the differences in the distribution of air pressures around a building. The basic element of our design is enhancement of natural ventilation by making wind and chimney effect to move fresh air through dwellings. The buoyancy effect caused by temperature differences makes air flow. The size and location of openings in each dwelling determine the extent of natural ventilation. In our two-storey house model, wind speed and direction, relative humidity, average temperature, and especially the traditional architecture of the northern coastal part of Iran, are taken into account. Furthermore, in this model, windows and skylights, evergreen or deciduous trees and fireplace chimneys as well as construction materials and wall coverings are the key components of the natural ventilation system. (author)

2010-01-01

330

Construction aggregates  

Science.gov (United States)

Construction aggregates, primarily stone, sand and gravel, are recovered from widespread naturally occurring mineral deposits and processed for use primarily in the construction industry. They are mined, crushed, sorted by size and sold loose or combined with portland cement or asphaltic cement to make concrete products to build roads, houses, buildings, and other structures. Much smaller quantities are used in agriculture, cement manufacture, chemical and metallurgical processes, glass production and many other products.

Nelson, T. I.; Bolen, W. P.

2007-01-01

331

Worldwide construction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper lists major construction projects in worldwide processing and pipelining, showing capacities, contractors, estimated costs, and time of construction. The lists are divided into refineries, petrochemical plants, sulfur recovery units, gas processing plants, pipelines, and related fuel facilities. This last classification includes cogeneration plants, coal liquefaction and gasification plants, biomass power plants, geothermal power plants, integrated coal gasification combined-cycle power plants, and a coal briquetting plant.

Williamson, M.

1994-10-17

332

Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for earth science  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A teaching manual is provided to aid teachers in introducing renewable energy topics to earth science students. The main emphasis is placed on solar energy. Activities for the student include a study of the greenhouse effect, solar gain for home heating, measuring solar radiation, and the construction of a model solar still to obtain fresh water. Instructions for the construction of apparatus to demonstrate a solar still, the greenhouse effect and measurement of the altitude and azimuth of the sun are included. (BCS)

1980-01-01

333

Culture dependent and independent analyses of 16S rRNA and ATP citrate lyase genes: a comparison of microbial communities from different black smoker chimneys on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The bacterial and archaeal communities of three deep-sea hydrothermal vent systems located on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR; Rainbow, Logatchev and Broken Spur) were investigated using an integrated culture-dependent and independent approach. Comparative molecular phylogenetic analyses, using the 16S rRNA gene and the deduced amino acid sequences of the alpha and beta subunits of the ATP citrate lyase encoding genes were carried out on natural microbial communities, on an enrichment culture obtained from the Broken Spur chimney, and on novel chemolithoautotrophic bacteria and reference strains originally isolated from several different deep-sea vents. Our data showed that the three MAR hydrothermal vent chimneys investigated in this study host very different microbial assemblages. The microbial community of the Rainbow chimney was dominated by thermophilic, autotrophic, hydrogen-oxidizing, sulfur- and nitrate-reducing Epsilonproteobacteria related to the genus Caminibacter. The detection of sequences related to sulfur-reducing bacteria and archaea (Archaeoglobus) indicated that thermophilic sulfate reduction might also be occurring at this site. The Logatchev bacterial community included several sequences related to mesophilic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria, while the archaeal component of this chimney was dominated by sequences related to the ANME-2 lineage, suggesting that anaerobic oxidation of methane may be occurring at this site. Comparative analyses of the ATP citrate lyase encoding genes from natural microbial communities suggested that Epsilonproteobacteria were the dominant primary producers using the reverse TCA cycle (rTCA) at Rainbow, while Aquificales of the genera Desulfurobacterium and Persephonella were prevalent in the Broken Spur chimney.

Voordeckers JW; Do MH; Hügler M; Ko V; Sievert SM; Vetriani C

2008-09-01

334

Culture dependent and independent analyses of 16S rRNA and ATP citrate lyase genes: a comparison of microbial communities from different black smoker chimneys on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.  

Science.gov (United States)

The bacterial and archaeal communities of three deep-sea hydrothermal vent systems located on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR; Rainbow, Logatchev and Broken Spur) were investigated using an integrated culture-dependent and independent approach. Comparative molecular phylogenetic analyses, using the 16S rRNA gene and the deduced amino acid sequences of the alpha and beta subunits of the ATP citrate lyase encoding genes were carried out on natural microbial communities, on an enrichment culture obtained from the Broken Spur chimney, and on novel chemolithoautotrophic bacteria and reference strains originally isolated from several different deep-sea vents. Our data showed that the three MAR hydrothermal vent chimneys investigated in this study host very different microbial assemblages. The microbial community of the Rainbow chimney was dominated by thermophilic, autotrophic, hydrogen-oxidizing, sulfur- and nitrate-reducing Epsilonproteobacteria related to the genus Caminibacter. The detection of sequences related to sulfur-reducing bacteria and archaea (Archaeoglobus) indicated that thermophilic sulfate reduction might also be occurring at this site. The Logatchev bacterial community included several sequences related to mesophilic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria, while the archaeal component of this chimney was dominated by sequences related to the ANME-2 lineage, suggesting that anaerobic oxidation of methane may be occurring at this site. Comparative analyses of the ATP citrate lyase encoding genes from natural microbial communities suggested that Epsilonproteobacteria were the dominant primary producers using the reverse TCA cycle (rTCA) at Rainbow, while Aquificales of the genera Desulfurobacterium and Persephonella were prevalent in the Broken Spur chimney. PMID:18523725

Voordeckers, James W; Do, My H; Hügler, Michael; Ko, Vivian; Sievert, Stefan M; Vetriani, Costantino

2008-06-05

335

Solar Water Heater  

Science.gov (United States)

Student teams design and build solar water heating devices that mimic those used in residences to capture energy in the form of solar radiation and convert it to thermal energy. This thermal energy is next transferred to water (to be used as domestic hot water) in the form of heat. In doing this, students gain a better understanding of the three different types of heat transfer, each of which plays a role in the solar water heater design. Once the model devices are constructed, students perform efficiency calculations and compare designs.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

336

Black Liquid Solar Collector Demonstrator.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes the details of constructing, and use of, a solar collector. Uses a black liquid to absorb the energy, the thermosyphon effect to drive the liquid through the collector, and a floodlamp as a surrogate sun. (GA)

Weichman, F. L.; Austen, D. J.

1979-01-01

337

Convective model of solar granulation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A convective model of solar granulation is constructed from the numerical integrations of the non-linear equations which describe finite amplitude convection in a compressive medium with polytropic structure.

Van der Borght, R.; Fox, P.

1983-01-01

338

Diffraction streaks from the chimney ladder structure in an (Sr1-5Ca1-5)Cu5+?Oy crystal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A crystal of (Sr1.5Ca1.5)Cu5+?Oy has been studied by means of electron diffraction analysis and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. A chimney ladder structure has been identified in the crystal, which is composed of two sets of incommensurate orthorhombic sublattices L1 and L2 with a = a1 = a2 = 1.28, b = b1 = b2 = 1.13, c1 = 0.390 and c2 = 0.275 nm. Diffraction streaks have been observed in electron diffraction patterns, i.e. there is a set of reflection planes parallel to a*b* related to L2. A structure model with initial phase disorder has been proposed to explain such diffraction streaks. A mathematical inference as well as an optical diffraction method have confirmed this model. Observed high-resolution images together with calculated ones gave a direct verification for the initial phase disorder. (orig.)

1991-11-01

339

Solar climatisation. Solare Klimatisierung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The climatisation of the hotel Belroy in Benidorm/Spain is done by solar energy. An absorption cold generator with a solar vacuum tubular system are in the hotel installed. The whole demand of energy of the hotel was reduced about 30%. (orig.)

Hansen, C. (Dornier-Prinz Solartechnik GmbH, Stromberg (Germany))

1993-09-01

340

Solar/seasonal heat storage. Reconstruction of the Tubberupvaenge tank. Part 2. Repair of the leaking storage tank by means of stainless thin-plate liner. Part 2: Construction and implementation; Sol/saesonvarmelagre. Rekonstruktion af Tubberupvaengetanken Del 2. Udbedring af utaet lagertank med rustfri tyndpladeliner. Del. 2: Bygning og idriftssaettelse  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Construction of the 3000 m{sup 3} Tubberupvaenge storage tank and of the 1000 m{sup 2} solar heating system was the Danish contribution to the IEA cooperation in the area of large solar heating systems with seasonal heat storage. The price of the tank was DKK 3.1 million. In 1991 leakages from the tank were observed and the tank was left empty. The method chosen for repair has been mounting of stainless steel liners: the ceiling of AISI 316/SS 2343 and walls-floor of 254 SMO connected by means of seam welding. Repair and reconstruction have been extremely expensive due to several changes during the repairs and problems with welding. Nevertheless a watertight, flexible and materials saving steel liner for seasonal heat storage can be constructed, its service life can exceed 20 years and water temperature can be about 100 deg.C. (EG)

Munch, K. [KAB Bygge- og Boligadministration, (Denmark); Wesenberg, C. [Nellemann, Nielsen og Rauschenberger A/S (Denmark)

1998-04-01

 
 
 
 
341

Test benches for solar collectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Minimum requirements on solar collectors are listed in the DIN specifications. To meet these requirements, suitable measuring techniques must be developed, and collectors must be optimized, accurately dimensioned and adapted to the overall system. Messrs. Dornier have developed and constructed test benches for solar collectors. The test benches are available to producers of solar collectors and are also sold abroad; they can be modified to meet the specifications of the users' countries.

Flesch, T.

1981-01-01

342

Salt-gradient solar ponds  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A description of salt-gradient solar ponds is presented. Guidelines concerning the construction and maintenance of the pond are discussed. A computer model was used to study layer migration in laboratory tanks and in an outdoor pond. The status of solar ponds is briefly discussed. An equation relating heat flux and salt flux at a boundary is included. (BCS)

Neeper, D.A.

1984-01-01

343

Solar drying of marine products  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A small scale solar dryer (capacity 15 kilogram) was tested at the Universiti Pertanian Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor Malaysia. The drying rate was found to be better than that of samples dried outside the dryer. A bigger solar dryer with a 100 to 200 kilogram capacity was constructed to facilitate a 24 hour drying operation. The performance of the dryer is being studied. 7 references.

Ismaii, M.S. (Universiti Pertanian Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor); Lah, T.A.T.; Buyong, A.A.

1982-01-01

344

Compiler Construction  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

IntroductionFor the year 2000 the Compiler Construction course will be given partly by ArthurNorman and partly by Martin Richards1. The main notes from the course as givenby Alan Mycroft are being issued in their normal form: these notes form a supplementand explain#Which lectures will be given by which lecturer;#How the order in which material will be presented this years differs fromthe order in the main lecture notes;#Details of Java versions of some compiler-construction tools where the mainnotes discuss C-based ones;#Minor other areas where there will be changes of content or emphasis thisyear.The overall syllabus, and hence the scope of the examination remains just asbefore: those concerned may consult the laboratory's selection of syllabus statementson its web site. The lectures will concentrate on a particular set of Javacompiler construction tools, but the main

A C Norman

345

Solar food dryer. Solartrockner zum Selbstbau  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The book is a detailed construction guide for a solar food dryer for private households. Background information on dried food is presented including methods of preparation. Research findings on solar dryers are brought to the fore, and the cost and labour involved in deep freezing, preservation by sterilisation, and solar drying are compared.

Wolf, R.

1985-01-01

346

Solar Energy Education. Home economics: student activities. Field test edition  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A view of solar energy from the standpoint of home economics is taken in this book of activities. Students are provided information on solar energy resources while performing these classroom activities. Instructions for the construction of a solar food dryer and a solar cooker are provided. Topics for study include window treatments, clothing, the history of solar energy, vitamins from the sun, and how to choose the correct solar home. (BCS)

1981-03-01

347

Worldwide construction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Data are presented on major construction projects listed under the following categories: refineries; petrochemical plants; sulfur removal plants, natural gas processing plants; and pipelines. Listed by country and company under each category is the type of project, added capacity, status of the project, expected completion date, contractor, contract type, and additional project notes.

Radler, M.

1998-10-05

348

Worldwide construction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper tabulates major construction projects by category and country. The table lists company name and location, project type, added capacity, status of the project, expected completion date, contractor, and additional comments. Projects are classified as refineries, petrochemical plants, sulfur plants, gas processing plants, and pipelines.

NONE

1997-10-13

349

Worldwide construction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Listed are major construction projects by processing and pipeline categories. Contractors, status of project, estimated completion date, and added capacity are provided when available. The table is divided into refineries, petrochemical plants, sulfur recovery plants, gas processing plants, and pipelines (crude, gas, products, and condensates).

Williamson, M.

1995-10-16

350

Solar energy; Energia solar  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Among the several solar energy forms, the more promising ones in terms of technological and commercial development and which are capable to contribute to the improvement of the social and economical situation of a significant parcel of the Brazilian population reducing the regional discrepancies are the direct solar energy, obtained by thermo solar capitation and mainly applied in water heating, and electric energy obtained by photovoltaic conversion. Together with wind energy, there are the renewable and non pollutant energetic forms which should be stimulated

Santos Moura, Carlos R. dos

1996-12-31

351

Solar energy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This text on the thermal conversion of solar energy begins with fundamental principles, which are then developed and applied to a variety of solar conversion systems. In addition to system components-such as flat plate, salt gradient, and concentrating collectors, and thermal storage units-the author discusses active and passive space heating, hot water, air conditioning, dehumidification, air drying, distillation, and swimming pool heating systems. The f-chart system performance estimation techniques active systems, and load-collector-ratio technique for passive systems are presented. Contents: Introduction. Solar kinematics. Availability of Solar Energy. Solar Concentrators. Elements of Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer in Solar Systems. Flat Plate Collectors. Thermal Storage of Solar Energy. Solar Space and Hot water Heating Systems. Economics of Solar Energy Systems. Solar Air Conditioning, Refrigeration and Dehumidification. Additional Solar Energy Applications and Collectors. Passive Solar Heating. Appendices.

Anderson, E.E.

1983-01-01

352

Solar cell  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The conventional solar cell consists of a transparent substrate, a transparent electrode, an amorphous silicon semiconductor layer and a back electrode, and the surface of the transparent electrode which is contacting the semiconductor layer is made uneven (concave and convex). In this case, a light vertically incidented on a substrate is sattered by the eneveness on the electrode surface, obliquely passing through the semiconductor layer, making the light path of the incident light longer and finally increasing the current output. In this invention, in a layer-built construction of a transparent electrode, a non-monocrystalline semiconductor layer and a back electrode on a transparent substrate, silicon oxide is dispersed as an island of the surface of the transparent electrode which is in contact with a semiconductor layer. By this, a light scattering structure could be set up at the boundary of the transparent layer and the semi-conductor layer by means of a simple operation. 2 figs.

Minami, Koji; Watanabe, Kaneo; Iwamoto, Masayuki.

1989-04-24

353

Solar cell  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In a solar cell which jointly uses a power storage unit mainly of carbon and is capable of semi-permanently charging and discharging, it is necessary that the power balance among the generator, storage battery and the work should be maintained simultaneously with sufficient storage ability. In this invention, plural number of flat power storage unit mainly of carbon, wherein the generator and the storage body are electrically connected, and a connecting terminal having convex/concave engageability is installed; suitable number of power storage units construct a power storage body in laminates and strippable manner by engaging/detaching this connecting terminal. By this, a compact cell having large capacity and a back-up cell at the same time can be easily obtained at inexpensive cost. 6 figs.

Yamamoto, Shigeo; Noda, Toshio.

1989-03-10

354

Solar cell  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the solar cell consisting of a transparent insulating substrate, and amorphous semiconductor layer and a metal electrode layer, between the transparent electrode and the amorphous semiconductor layer, a metal oxide layer made from metal alkoxide is inserted; this allows to obtain the higher temperature of forming an amorphous semiconductor layer and thus restricts the degradation which might be caused by the irradiation of light. The use of metal alkoxide for formation of metal oxide enables to obtain a large, uniform surface at low cost. When applied to a practical cell, by 100 hour irradiation, degradation of the characteristics was 2 - 4 % instead of 5 - 7 % of the original, and, in the tandem construction cell, 1000 hour irradiation reduced the degradation from 7 - 15% down to 2 - 3%. (6 figs)

Maruyama, Kazumi

1988-02-02

355

Solar boat; Sora boto  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This invention relates to a solar boat which is driven by solar cells. The previously proposed solar boat is constructed by plastics and installed with many solar cells on the boat and has a problem of a large total weight with a deep draft line. This invention presents a solar boat composed of a twin-body hull and a deck, in which the both bodies is constructed with lightweight materials such as fiber-reinforced resin coating with a circular cross section and has a projections on the lower ends of the bodies, pressurized gas is filled in the twin-body, the deck is formed by laminating fiber-reinforced resin coating on the two side of foamed body and the propulsion equipment is provided on the body. The boat is constructed of lightweight materials such as foamed material and fiber-reinforced resin coating and the buoyancy is added by pressurized gas filled in the body so to sail in a state of a small viscosity resistance of water. 6 figs.

Itashiki, M.; Imui, Y.; Taniguchi, M.; Mizumoto, K.; Morikawa, T.; Kamihata, Y.; Watanabe, T.; Fujiwara, K.; Miyahara, S. [Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc., Osaka (Japan); Sugino, K. [Nihon Arm Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan); Nishino, Y. [NBL Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

1995-09-05

356

'Plataforma solar' - Solar energy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the province of Almeria two solar power plants (tower focus principle and a solar farm) are being constructed. Concerning the conception of the network control system for the solar farm each subsystem, i.e. collector field, oil container, steam generator, turbo generator, and auxiliary aggregates are controlled autonomously. These systems in turn are supervised by a redundant central control system which is computer-controlled. A Spanish power utilities is responsible for the test- and operating phase of the two IEA solar power plants.

Kemper, J.P.

1982-03-01

357

78 FR 63276 - Interim Policy, FAA Review of Solar Energy System Projects on Federally Obligated Airports  

Science.gov (United States)

...Interim Policy, FAA Review of Solar Energy System Projects on Federally Obligated...obligated airports to construct solar energy systems on airport property. FAA...measuring ocular impact of proposed solar energy systems which are effective...

2013-10-23

358

Future solar neutrino experiments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The status of several neutrino experiments now being constructed and others under development is reviewed. These experiments have the potential to provide higher statistics, sensitivity to all neutrino types and different energy thresholds than presently available. The results from this next generation of experiments could provide an explanation for the low solar neutrino fluxes observed to date. (orig.).

McDonald, A.B. [Queen`s Univ., Kingston (Canada). SNO Inst.

1996-05-01

359

Solar collector module  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An extended width parabolic trough solar collector is supported from pylons. Collector is formed from a center module and two wing modules joined together along abutting edges by connecting means. A stressed skin monocoque construction is used for each of the modules.

Hutchison, J.A.

1983-02-08

360

Solar collector module  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An extended width parabolic trough solar collector is supported from pylons. Collector is formed from a center module and two wing modules joined together along abutting edges by connecting means. A stressed skin monocoque construction is used for each of the modules.

Hutchison, J.A.

1981-10-27

 
 
 
 
361

Solar energy collector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This invention relates to the construction of a solar collector reflector surface which permits the use of semi-rigid or flexible materials for the reflector surface. The basic principle involves the use of curved support members and methods for forming same whereby the members support and restrain said reflector material in a predetermined plane or predetermined curved planar surface.

Niedermeyer, W. P.

1980-02-26

362

Amorphous solar cell  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A solar cell of high transducing efficiency is provided in the form of a multi-cell laminated construction having n-type light receiving layers. A non-doped layer of the cell on the incident light side has an energy-gap higher than that of the lower cells.

Sato, K.; Nakamura, G.; Yukimoto, Y.

1984-10-23

363

Solar energy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Various projects from the research field of 'solar energy' and associated experience with application and operation are reported. These cover: heat-tube solar absorber (Essen solar house); solar sea-water desalination in Jordan; solar desalination in Egypt according to the 'greenhouse' principle; utilization of solar energy for fresh-water production using the principle of multi-state flash distillation; solar cold-storage house in Cairo; solar energy utilization for heating and cooling a building; small-sized 10 kW solar power plant; performance and operating behaviour of the 16 kW screw-type expander; solar heat pump; development of simple solar collector; selective solar absorber; development of high-temperature-resistant solar-panel surfaces; sun-tracker systems for focussing solar collectors; gas-cooled 20 MW solar tower-type power plant; solar village Indonesia; photovoltaic power plant in Italy; photo-electrochemical cells; solar-collector test-stand; application of photovoltaic systems in space technology projects. (HWJ).

1986-06-01

364

MINIPILOT SOLAR SYSTEM: DESIGN/OPERATION OF SYSTEM AND RESULTS OF NON-SOLAR TESTING AT MRI  

Science.gov (United States)

A Minipilot Solar Reactor System (MSRS) with liquid organic feed was designed, constructed and tested without solar input (the Solar Tests were to be done later at DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory). he non-solar tests were done to determine whether use of EPA's sampling...

365

Solar Activity  

Science.gov (United States)

This educational brief provides an overview of solar activity, including a description of Earth's magnetosphere and of various solar phenomena such as the solar wind, Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs), sunspots, solar flares, and others. A list of links to additional material is also provided.

366

Solar Energy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presented is the utilization of solar radiation as an energy resource principally for the production of electricity. Included are discussions of solar thermal conversion, photovoltic conversion, wind energy, and energy from ocean temperature differences. Future solar energy plans, the role of solar energy in plant and fossil fuel production, and…

Eaton, William W.

367

ON THE DYNAMICAL EVOLUTION OF H II REGIONS: AN INVESTIGATION OF THE IONIZED COMPONENT OF W4, A GALACTIC CHIMNEY CANDIDATE. II. KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS IN THE LATITUDE RANGE 3 deg. < b ? 7 deg  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In the second of this two-paper series, we present results associated with an H? investigation, obtained using the Fabry-Perot interferometer FaNTOmM, of the tenuous ionized material found embedded in the northern portion of W4. W4 is a promising candidate for a galactic chimney, likely connected with the galactic corona, and presents evidence of shell fragmentation. We present the quantitative method for identifying shell breakout that allows us to characterize the giant H I supershell/H II region W4 as enclosing a galactic chimney in formation. On a range of approximately 125 pc, two 'south-to-north' radial velocity gradients are detected, ? v = (-)0.17 km s-1 pc-1 (3.05 ? b 03) and ? v = (-)3.13 km s-1 pc-1 (6.03 ? b ? 6.05). This leads to radial velocities, slightly above the vicinity of the shell's polar cap, of -70 km s-1, blueshifted by nearly 25 km s-1 with respect to the H I supershell. The kinematic behavior is in agreement with a rarefaction scenario if the W4 superbubble presents a tilt toward the observer. This angle of inclination is estimated between 9 deg. and 27 deg. with respect to the plane of the sky. A line-narrowing gradient is correlated with the radial velocity gradient. The large-scale trends in radial velocities and line widths correspond to highly accelerated, well-parallelized outflows of vented ionized material. This kinematic signature is expected from the chimney model. The dynamical age of the W4 chimney is estimated at 4.1 Myr and constraints shell instabilities to have developed at latitudes lower than the blowout threshold height. Our work contributes to the evidence that the star cluster IC 1805 partially sustains the low-galactic corona above the Perseus arm.

2009-03-01

368

SOLERAS - Solar Buildings. Proceedings of the Fifth SOLERAS Workshop.  

Science.gov (United States)

The proceedings of the 1984 SOLERAS Solar Buildings Workshop are presented. The objective of the workshop was to exchange ideas regarding the applications of active and passive solar systems in the design and construction of commercial, industrial, and re...

J. S. Williamson B. H. Khoshaim R. Mallory A. Meiners

1984-01-01

369

On solar ponds: Critique, physical fundamentals and engineering aspects  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The following article reviews previous ideas and works on solar ponds, evaluates the effect of several design parameters on the pond performance and lists construction and operational suggestions for the successful performance of solar ponds.

Finkelstein, E.

1983-01-01

370

Homemade system for solar heating of hot water. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A basic homemade system for solar heating of hot water was constructed, including a homemade solar collector, self-priming pump, and electrical components. Collector efficiency is reported to be poor. (LEW)

Johnson, G.E.

1982-08-01

371

Solar energy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The book opens with a review of the patterns of energy use and resources in the United States, and an exploration of the potential of solar energy to supply some of this energy in the future. This is followed by background material on solar geometry, solar intensities, flat plate collectors, and economics. Detailed attention is then given to a variety of solar units and systems, including domestic hot water systems, space heating systems, solar-assisted heat pumps, intermediate temperature collectors, space heating/cooling systems, concentrating collectors for high temperatures, storage systems, and solar total energy systems. Finally, rights to solar access are discussed.

Rapp, D.

1981-01-01

372

Constructing Emotion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Constructionist approaches to emotion have existed since the time of William James, and are united in the assumption that the psychological events called "anger", "sadness", and "fear" are not the elemental building blocks of emotion, but instead are mental events that result from the interplay of more basic psychological systems. This paper summarizes the three fundamental hypotheses that ground the Conceptual Act Model, a recently introduced constructionist approach to emotion. First, the mental events that people refer to as "emotion" are constructed, in the blink of an eye; from more basic psychological primitives that are always in play. Second, psychological primitives are not themselves specific to emotion, and are hypothesized to participate to some degree in constructing every psychological moment. Third, factors that have traditionally been treated as non-emotional such as concepts and language play a central role in making an instance of emotion what it is. Implications of the Conceptual Act Model for the science of emotion are then discussed.

Lisa Feldman Barrett

2011-01-01

373

Tax deduction stimulated solar power project in California. 80 MW solar farm now projected  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Without much ado, the world's biggest solar thermal power plants are being constructed in the Californian Mojave desert. A private company started in 1985 to construct solar farms at a rate of one or two plants per year. The first of these plants had capacities of 30 MW; the new systems will even have 80 MW. Owing to a downward trend in construction costs, peak power supply from the solar farms is economically competitive. Although conditions may not everywhere be a favourable as in California, solar farms may offer the long-sought-for, non-polluting solution for developing countries with high insolation (and maybe for others as well).

Weber, R.

1989-01-20

374

Solar energy technologies and project delivery for buildings  

CERN Multimedia

An authoritative reference, complete with applications, operating principles, and simple tools for construction, engineering, and design professionals Solar Energy: Technologies and Project Delivery for Buildings enables mainstream MEP engineering, construction, and architectural design firms to meet the growing demand for solar energy in building projects. It provides technical and design information usually only known to solar energy specialists, and simplifies solar design and engineering processes. The sample documentation in this guide enables a staff engineer at a

Walker, Andy

2013-01-01

375

Compiler Construction  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Compiler Construction, a modern text written by two leaders in the in the field, demonstrates how a compiler is built. Describing the necessary tools and how to create and use them, the authors compose the task into modules, placing equal emphasis on the action and data aspects of compilation. Attribute grammars are used extensively to provide a uniform treatment of semantic analysis, competent code generation and assembly. The authors also explain how intermediate representations can be chosen automatically on the basis of attribute dependence. Thus, all aspects of the subject are presented in terms of a uniform model subject to automation. This approach imparts a vivid understanding of the compilation and the decisions that must be made when designing a compiler.

William M. Waite; Gerhard Goos

376

Constructing Catalonia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Catalonia, in common with other nations, has long been concerned with thequestion of identity and difference. Its problematic relationship with Spain has led to anemphasis on differentiating itself from its larger neighbour (if we are to accept, as mostSpaniards do not, that Catalonia is not Spain), a situation complicated by the loss of theSpanish colonies of Cuba and The Philippines in 1898, and the Spanish Civil War andsubsequent dictatorship from 1936 to 1976. Beginning in the late nineteenth century, theconstruction of a Catalan identity followed a similar route to that taken by otherEuropean nations such as England, Ireland and, indeed, Spain, including an emphasis onrural values, activities and the countryside, and the conversion of specifically localtraditions into national past times. It is only in the last ten years or so that this model ofCatalan identity has been recognised for what it is – a model constructed andencouraged for and by specific nationalist political interests. Ironically, Catalonia’sidentity abroad has also been constructed and manipulated for political purposes, butfrom quite a different perspective. Orwell’s /Homage to Catalonia/ (1938) narrates anextremely blinkered version of the Spanish Civil War which has achieved iconic statusas a result of cold war politics. Subsequent portrayals of the Spanish Civil War –Valentine Cunningham’s /The Penguin Book of Spanish Civil War Verse/ (ed.),Penguin, 1980, or Ken Loach’s 1995 film /Land and Freedom/ base their argumentsunquestioningly on /Homage to Catalonia/, perpetuating a view of the nation’s recenthistory that is both reductive and inaccurate.

Bill Phillips

2009-01-01

377

Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for junior high/middle school science  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Some basic topics on the subject of solar energy are outlined in the form of a teaching manual. The manual is geared toward junior high or middle school science students. Topics include solar collectors, solar water heating, solar radiation, insulation, heat storage, and desalination. Instructions for the construction of apparatus to demonstrate the solar energy topics are provided. (BCS)

1985-01-01

378

Solar thanksgiving; Solarer Erntedank  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

While the 'felt' weather in 2011 was quite rainy, it was in fact one of the five hottest years since 1881, with many sunshine hours. This is reflected in photovoltaic power generation in 2011. Many owners of PV systems were surprised to find record solar power generation figures. In many cases, even the best case scenarios were topped.

Zehner, Mike; Doll, Andreas [Hochschule Muenchen (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe PV-Systeme; Hammer, Annette [Oldenburg Univ. (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe Energiemeteorologie; Heesen, Henrik te [Meteocontrol GmbH, Augsburg (Germany). Forschungsprojekt zur Analyse von Fernueberwachungsmessdaten; Herbort, Volker [Meteocontrol GmbH, Augsburg (Germany). Bereich Data-Mining-Vorhaben; Mariani, Marco [Meteocontrol GmbH, Augsburg (Germany). Abt. PV Ertragsgutachten und Prognosen

2012-03-09

379

Solar jobs; Solare Arbeit  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The German solar industry intends to support more than 130,000 jobs on a long-term basis. For this, most German manufacturers and suppliers must expand their production. But how can this be achieved in times of reduced working hours and insolvencies?.

Heup, Juergen; Rentzing, Sascha

2012-02-15

380

Is the chimney graft technique a safe and feasible approach to treat urgent aneurysm and pseudoaneurysm of the abdominal aorta? An analysis of our experience and technical considerations.  

Science.gov (United States)

The chimney graft (CG) technique, based on the deployment of a covered stent parallel to the aortic endograft, has been proposed to achieve a safe proximal fixation extending the sealing zone. We report our experience with the CG technique in an emergency setting. Between December 2010 and April 2012, 4 patients underwent the CG technique. The mean age was 79 (range 76-82 years) and 3 patients were men. The median aneurysm diameter was 64.7 mm (range 63-68 mm). Indications for CG were painful proximal para-anastomotic aneurysm in 2 cases and symptomatic juxtarenal aneurysm in the other 2. Target vessels were both the renal arteries. Technical success was achieved in 100% and no intraoperative complications occurred. No stent-related complications, or Type I endoleak, were detected. No death occurred during the postoperative course. Creatinine elevation was observed in 2 cases. At follow-up, no endoleaks or rupture occurred. One patient died of myocardial infarction 3 months after the procedure. The primary patency rate of covered stents was 100%. The CG technique seems to be safe and feasible with an excellent patency rate of covered stents and a low incidence of endoleaks. More evidence in the literature is needed to carry out a validation of this technique in an emergency. PMID:23335653

Siani, Andrea; Accrocca, Federico; Gabrielli, Roberto; Marcucci, Giustino

2013-01-18

 
 
 
 
381

Is the chimney graft technique a safe and feasible approach to treat urgent aneurysm and pseudoaneurysm of the abdominal aorta? An analysis of our experience and technical considerations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The chimney graft (CG) technique, based on the deployment of a covered stent parallel to the aortic endograft, has been proposed to achieve a safe proximal fixation extending the sealing zone. We report our experience with the CG technique in an emergency setting. Between December 2010 and April 2012, 4 patients underwent the CG technique. The mean age was 79 (range 76-82 years) and 3 patients were men. The median aneurysm diameter was 64.7 mm (range 63-68 mm). Indications for CG were painful proximal para-anastomotic aneurysm in 2 cases and symptomatic juxtarenal aneurysm in the other 2. Target vessels were both the renal arteries. Technical success was achieved in 100% and no intraoperative complications occurred. No stent-related complications, or Type I endoleak, were detected. No death occurred during the postoperative course. Creatinine elevation was observed in 2 cases. At follow-up, no endoleaks or rupture occurred. One patient died of myocardial infarction 3 months after the procedure. The primary patency rate of covered stents was 100%. The CG technique seems to be safe and feasible with an excellent patency rate of covered stents and a low incidence of endoleaks. More evidence in the literature is needed to carry out a validation of this technique in an emergency.

Siani A; Accrocca F; Gabrielli R; Marcucci G

2013-05-01

382

Numerical modelling of the process of heat transference, of the convective flow induced and the power generated in a wind power station; Modelizacion numerica del proceso de transferencia de calor, del flujo convectivo inducido y de la potencia generada en una central eolico solar  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A thermodynamic analysis for solar chimney power plant has been carried out by numerical simulation. A numerical model has been developed using the general purpose code Fluent to study heat transfer and convective flow within the chimney power plant. The {kappa}-{epsilon} turbulence model has been employed. A heat transfer, mass flow and power production numerical analysis has been carried out on different hours during the day, assuming steady state conditions. The numeric values obtained are 10% different from experimental measures. Once model has been validated, a numeric study about flow within power plant, heat transfer and mass flow has been carry out, and the non-dimensional parameters obtained have been compared with studies about free convection. (Author)

Hurtado, F. J.; Kaiser, A. S.; Zamora, B.; Lucas, M.; Viedma, A.

2008-07-01

383

Photothermal solar radiation collectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The optical and energy characteristics of several types of photothermal combined solar radiation collectors are compared. Both steady-state and transient regimes are considered. The models evaluated are a flat collector and two types of evacuated tube collectors. Values are also derived for the heat-loss coefficient of each model. Computational and experimental results are compared. The most effective construction is found to be a combined system consisting of a thermal collector, photoelectric generator and thermal accumulator. This model also yields stable thermal characteristics under variable solar illumination conditions.

Koltun, M.M.; Matveev, V.P.; Gavrilova, I.P.

1980-01-01

384

Electric dreams  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Outlines ideas for solar chimneys. South Africa and India have considered such projects, and a prototype was constructed in Spain. One suggestion is for a plant that would generate 100 megawatts of electricity and cost about 220 million UK pounds. It would require a chimney about 1 kilometre high and a collector about 3.5 kilometres across. It is estimated electricity from the plant would cost 7.6 pence per kilowatt hour

Hattersley, Lia

1999-03-06

385

Passive solar houses in the marketplace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Findings by Real Estate Research Corporation of the 1978 HUD Passive Residential Design Competition and Demonstration, a competition and award program to encourage the design, construction and marketing of passive solar homes, are highlighted. The major topic areas covered are: the passive living environment; design and construction; marketing; passive home purchasers; financial institutions; and additional passive design and construction activity since the award program.

Roth, E.I.

1980-01-01

386

Constructing ecologies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We synthesize the generic properties of ecologically realistic multi-trophic level models and define criteria for ecological realism. We define an "ecospace" in which all ecologically realistic dynamics are confined, and construct "resource rays" that define the resources available to each species at every point in the ecospace. Resource rays for a species are lines from a vertex of maximum resource to the opposite boundary where no resources are available. The growth functions of all biota normally decrease along their resource rays, and change sign from positive to negative. This property prescribes that each species must have a zero isosurface within the ecospace. We illustrate our conditions on a highly cited three trophic level model from population dynamics, showing how to extend this system biologically consistently to a closed ecological system. Our synthesis extends the concept of carrying capacity of population models to explicitly include exhaustion of limiting resources, and so allows for population biology models to be considered as ecologically closed systems with respect to a key limiting nutrient. This approach unifies many theoretical and applied models in a common biogeochemical framework, facilitates better understanding of the key structures of complex ecologies, and suggests strategies for efficient design of experiments.

Cropp R; Norbury J

2012-02-01

387

Solar energy use in a construction project: The new old people's home at Muenchenbernsdorf. Final report; Solarenergienutzung im Rahmen eines Bauvorhabens Neubau bzw. Umbau eines Senioren- und Pflegeheimes in Muenchenbernsdorf. Abschlussbericht  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Old people's homes have a high and largely constant water consumption in all seasons. They are therefore ideal objects for solar sytems. The new old people's home at Muenchenbernsdorf is presented which has a large thermal solar power system, which is also to induce private builder-owners to opt for solar power. [German] Aufgrund ihres hohen (und jahreszeitlich weitestgehend konstanten) Warmwasserverbrauches bieten Senioren- und Pflegeheime sehr gute Voraussetzungen fuer die Nutzung der thermischen Solarenergie zur Warmwasserbereitung. Der Ersatzneubau des Senioren- und Pflegeheims der Stadt Muenchenbernsdorf bietet sehr gute Ansatzpunkte fuer die Senkung des Energieverbrauches und der vom Objekt ausgehen Umweltbelastungen durch Nutzung regenerativer Energietraeger. Durch die Realisierung einer grossen thermischen Solaranlage auf einem oeffentlichen Gebaeude sollen private Bauherren der Region zu eigenen Energiesparinvestitionen angeregt werden. (orig.)

Maschke, R.; Mueller; Grossmann

2000-07-01

388

Overheating caused by passive solar elements in Tunis. Effectiveness of some ways to prevent it  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Although Tunisian winters are mild compared with northern regions, there are heating requirements; their limited level suggests that passive solar energy would probably be able to meet them. However, the summer is hot enough, and one may wonder whether a solar design oriented toward the cold season would not induce severe overheating. Numerous studies have dealt with the heating performance of passive solar elements, but very little has been done to analyze their behavior in hot climatic conditions. The National School for Engineers of Tunis has built a passive solar pavilion which has been carefully instrumented. Special care has been devoted to the summer behavior of the pavilion. In this paper we describe some of the actions taken to prevent overheating, and we investigate their efficacy both by analysis of recorded measurements and by simulation. It is found that night ventilation is the most responsible action in decreasing room temperature, and that Trombe wall screening is more efficient than operating the walls as a solar chimney; overhangs are a valuable aid, and shuttering of the direct gain element also helps against overheating. The high thermal capacity results in a very stable room temperature, and plays an essential role for cooling when coupled with night ventilation. Finally, it is found that if appropriate action is taken in the hot season, a house equipped with passive solar heating elements can reach a very acceptable level of comfort in summer time. (Author)

Ghrab-Morcos, N.; Bouden, C. (Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Tunis (Tunisia)); Franchisseur, R. (Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Equipe R.A.M.S.E.S.)

1993-01-01

389

Aboriginal consultation report, Amherstburg solar farm  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

First Solar is constructing many solar farms in North America, Europe and Asia, including a planned solar farm in California expected to generate 550 MW of electricity and a completed 80 MW, 1150 acre solar farm in Sarnia, Ontario representing the largest photovoltaic (PV) solar facility in the world. First Solar is now working on the project of constructing a solar farm that will use thin film photovoltaic modules and convert the solar energy into electrical energy for distribution to the local electricity distribution system. This solar farm, identified as a Class 3 solar facility according to the Regulation, is expected to generate 10 MW of electricity. Class 3 solar facilities are renewable energy facilities presenting a name plate power capacity exceeding 10kW and they take place at any location other than a roof or the wall of a building. During the project development process, First Solar will keep on liaising and communicating with the two identified First Nations, the Windsor Essex Metis Council, MNO and the Crown authorities. The purpose of the process will keep on giving a particular attention to identifying any concerns raising from the project, and if some are identified, it will also focus on methods of reducing or preventing related impacts.

NONE

2010-05-15

390

Optimization of master holograms for the production of holographic lenses and the construction of a dispersing solar collector. Optimierung von Masterhologrammen zur Herstellung von Kopien holographischer Linsen und Aufbau eines dispergierenden Solarkollektors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this work, the ability to use large area holographic focussers in solar energy technique was to be examined. The precondition for a possible use of holographic elements in solar energy is their manufacture at a reasonable price. A copying process is particularly suitable for this purpose in mass-production of identical holograms. The copying process itself is free of problems. The master hologram is of main importance, whose manufacture is the centre of the considerations of part A of this work. As the copies are produced from the master hologram, its quality is responsible for the quality of the copies. (orig./HW)

Froehlich, K.

1992-07-15

391

Suitability of the chimney for firing systems - ways to check. Eignung des Schornsteins fuer Feuerungsanlagen - Wege zur Ueberpruefung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For safe and environment-compatible firing systems it is important that the firing plant and the exhaust system are wellsuited to each other. Due to tighter and tighter firing and emission standards a large number of materials and structures of exhaust systems are used. The understandable demand of users of firing systems to construct exhaust systems in a way that within the life of the building they are suited for all kinds of firing systems and fuels which might be necessary according to the kind and use of the building can only be realized within narrow bounds. The thermal, chemical and mechanical loads of the various kinds of firing systems are too different. (orig.)

Heinemann, K.J.

1994-04-01

392

Solar oscillations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Observed frequencies of solar oscillations comprise an extensive and accurate set of data related to the structure and dynamics of the solar interior. The physics determining the oscillation frequencies is sufficiently simple that a very detailed comparison between observations and theory is possible. This has provided tight constraints on the structure of the solar interior, as well as measurements of the variation of the solar rotation with depth. (orig.)

1984-01-01

393

Solar sign. Solar sign  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Many attempts have been made of supplying the power for inner illumination in the night from the solar cell. For example, adopting the LED to the light source for flashing in the night and using fluorescent lamp or mercury lamp for illuminating the name plate. The low lighting efficiency of the panel illuminant, however, hinders the sufficient develop-ment of these devices. And the electromotive force of the solar cell is not high enough to operate the EL panel which is the most promising panel illuminant. This invention makes it possible to use the solar cell as the illuminant source of EL panel by the following way: 1) One end of the EL panel and the LCR which includes an inductor as a series bonding component or the LC is connected to the bonding output terminal of an inverter. 2) A photostat switch mechanism which automatically close the channel when the amperage becomes to zero is attached to the on-off switch channel of the inverter. 3) An EL illuminating circuit which has a bypass channel consisting of bypass diode for passing through the reverse current is attached to the switch mechanism. 9 figs.

Ikeda, T. (Saitama (Japan))

1991-12-03

394

Solar Energy  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity, which comes at the beginning of a 40-day sequence of activities in an energy module, students observe the transfer of solar energy to different appliances with a solar cell and investigate the effect of using different solar sources to supply energy to appliances.

Group, Environmental L.; University, Lehigh

395

Solar urticaria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A 35-year-old female and a 41-year-old male presented with clinical features suggestive of solar urticaria. The diagnosis of solar urticaria and the effectiveness of a combination of H1 and H2 blocking antihistamines were confirmed by phototesting with a solar simulator

Srinivas C; Fergusson James; Shenoi Shrutakirthi; Pai Satish

1995-01-01

396

Solar System  

Science.gov (United States)

An introduction to to the solar system. How to distinguish between the different planets. Activities to play while getting to know the solar system. Cosmic Cookies Solar System Scavenger Hunt Edible Earth Strawkets and Control Strawkets and Thrust Strawkets and Weight ...

Wright, Ms.

2009-10-09

397

Solar Special  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Solar power is growing much faster than most policymakers and analysts realise. As costs come down and feed-in tariffs go up across Europe, a number of countries have started in pursuit of market leader Germany. But in Germany criticism is growing of the multi-billion-euro support schemes that keep the solar industry booming. In this section of the magazine several articles are dedicated to developments in solar energy in Europe. The first article is an overview story on the strong growing global market for solar cells, mainly thanks to subsidy schemes. The second article is on the position of foreign companies in the solar market in Italy. Article number three is dedicated to the conditions for solar technology companies to establish themselves in the German state of Saxony. Also the fifth article deals with the development of solar cells in Saxony: scientists, plant manufacturers and module producers in Saxony are working on new technologies that can be used to produce solar electricity cost-effectively. The goal is to bring the price down to match that of conventionally generated electricity within the next few years. The sixth article deals with the the solar power market in Belgium, which may be overheated or 'oversubsidized'. Article seven is on France, which used to be a pioneer in solar technology, but now produces only a fraction of the solar output of market leader Germany. However, new attractive feed-in-tariffs are changing the solar landscape drastically.

2009-01-01

398

Solar collector for farms  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the paper are presented results of data processing of multi-annual observations of a solar radiation in different regions of Armenia and is given the description of the designed power thermal installation, where for satisfaction of needs and solving the problems which are facing many farmers in Armenia after the land privatization. In the paper also is considered the construction and the principle of operation of the air heater with distribution of a flow, where inside a thermal box is located the glass tubular design with various filling agents. The designed solar air heater has been used in drying installation for agricultural fruits and vegetables. The drying of agricultural products basically is carried out at the expense of use of solar energy. (au)

Amiryan, A.K.; Artemyan, R.N.; Amiryan, O.A. [Armenian Agricultural Academy, Engineering Dept., Yerevan (Armenia); Stephanyan, A.V. [Armenian Agricultural Academy, Agronomy Dept., Yerevan (Armenia)

2000-07-01

399

Solar cell module  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Individual panels of solar cells are stacked one on top of the other and arranged so that incident light passes through each of the arrays of cells in each panel striking the one below it. The solar cells in each panel are selected to have a predetermined and different spectral response and thus are responsive to different frequencies of light. Electrical connection is individually made to each of the panels to collect the electrical energy generated from conversion of the light incident on the particular array of cells. Each of the panels may independently be constructed from microcrystalline thin films, amorphous silicon, single crystal silicon, compound semi-conductors, and the like. Individual panels may be constructed of the same semi-conductor material but compositionally modified to provide sensitivity to different portions of the light spectrum.

Gay, Ch.F.; Kapur, V.K.; Wilson, J.H.

1984-07-24

400

Research and development of system to utilize photovoltaic energy. Survey on the high-durability and low-cost materials for constructing the solar-cell module and its structure; Taiyoko hatsuden riyo system no kenkyu. Taiyo denchi module yo kotaikyusei tei cost zairyo, kozo ni kansuru chosa  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reports the results obtained during fiscal 1994 on a survey on the high-durability and low-cost materials for constructing the solar-cell module and on its structure. With respect to forms and materials used in the present solar-cell modules, identification was made on the current status of products commercially available and developed inside and outside Japan. Main types of solar cells used for electric power are of crystal-based silicon. Amorphous silicon and CdS-CdTe are used for consumer applications of indoor and outdoor use. As regards transparent resin materials, fluorine resin, PET, acryl, and polyimide are used as surface materials, and EVA, silicon and PVB are often used as fillers. Developments inside and outside Japan are limited to systems of polycarbonate, methacryl, fluorine, polyurethane, acryl and polyester. Butyl rubber and polyurethane are used as sealing materials. Developments are being performed on silicon rubber, polychloroprene rubber and EPT rubber for shaped materials, and silicon systems, urethane systems and polysulfide systems for non-shaped materials. 3 figs., 8 tabs.

Tatsuta, M. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

1994-12-01

 
 
 
 
401

Determination of the solar pond temperatures using fuzzy logic  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, the temperatures at different depths of the solar pond in Isparta Yalvac High School Campus area were predicted using Fuzzy logic. Solar pond with dimensions of 3.5x3.5x2 m was built in order to provide hot water to leather workshop. Temperature of solar pond which is constructed experimentally was estimated depending on pond depth, solar radiation and air temperature using fuzzy logic method. Variation of solar pond temperature with depth, solar radiation and air temperature was investigated. As a result, the temperatures of the solar pond were successfully predicted by fuzzy logic method

2005-01-01

402

Solar-heated greenhouse  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The article reports on a solar system which provides the heat supply of a large green house. The system consists of 300 flat plate collectors with a collector surface of 900 m/sup 2/. Robustness and simplicity were the main concerns during the construction. The costs of investment were about DM 250.000. The system is constructed to meet the green house's heat demand in the summer completely and to meet a big part of the energy demand in the winter.

Mueller, K.

1982-02-01

403

Energy research in building construction; Energieforschung im Hochbau  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Besides the main papers presented the following subjects were also dealt with in this symposium: planning aids, energy and environment, measurement and demonstration buildings, building shells and construction physics, solar technology, building technology and cooling. figs., tabs., refs.

NONE

1996-09-01

404

Nice module. Apollon Solar present their new line of solar modules; Nettes Modul. Apollon Solar stellt Linie fuer neuartige Modultechnologie vor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Solar modules, TGV engines and perfume Zerstaeuber seem to have nothing in common. The new solar module developed by French producer Apollon Solar makes use of both technologies in the construction process. The contribution presents the 'Nice' module which has many new features. (orig.)

Podewils, C.

2008-06-15

405

Solar collector with profiled cover  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of the invention is to create a type of solar collector, in which the total losses in the course of a whole day are lower than those of conventional designs. This problem is solved, according to the invention, by a solar collector with a profiled cover, where the profiled cover has smaller reflection losses and therefore guarantees a better yield of solar radiation during the course of a day. The solar collector consists of a cover, an absorber, insulation and a frame. The profiled cover can replace the usual cover frame and can cover several collectors simultaneously. The solar collector can be used as a roof or facade component, and can consist of one or several covers. Its construction can be in the form of several pyramids or cones, whose tips are directed towards the outside. The collector cover can consist of a flat or a profiled cover, and a variable sequence is possible.

Kuenzel, M.; Exarchou, N.

1980-02-07

406

Solar success in Chicago  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Woods home is not only an example of sound basic passive solar design, but also of airtight construction combined with exceptional air quality. If you`ve every flown through Chicago in the winter and been delayed by snow or fog, you`ve seen first-hand the challenge to solar energy design this climate presents. It`s the kind of challenge that Naperville architect Ken Woods relishes, has risen to, and loves to talk about. Ken `s ranch-style 3-bedroom home in Naperville, a suburb of Chicago, is a living, {open_quotes}breathing{close_quotes} testament to the effectiveness of passive solar design, even in a cold, cloudy winter climate. The energy-saving, money-saving design of Woods` house is both figuratively and literally {open_quotes}a breath of fresh air{close_quotes}. The Woods home is not only an example of sound basic passive solar design, but also of airtight construction combined with exceptional air quality.

Miller, B. [American Solar Energy Society, Boulder, CO (United States)

1996-09-01

407

Schottky barrier solar cell  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A solar cell is constructed by coating an n-type conductivity semiconductor with a thin layer of bromine doped, polymeric sulfur-nitride, (SnBr/sub 0/ /sub 4/)/sub x/. Metal deposits are provided on both materials for making electrical contact to the cell. In a preferred embodiment, the semiconductor is silicon. In a second preferred embodiment, the semiconductor is GaAs on an n+-type conductivity GaAs substrate.

Cohen, M.J.; Harris, J.S.

1980-10-14

408

Solar flair.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Design innovations and government-sponsored financial incentives are making solar energy increasingly attractive to homeowners and institutional customers such as school districts. In particular, the passive solar design concept of daylighting is gaining favor among educators due to evidence of improved performance by students working in daylit classrooms. Electricity-generating photovoltaic systems are also becoming more popular, especially in states such as California that have high electric rates and frequent power shortages. To help spread the word about solar power, the U.S. Department of Energy staged its first-ever Solar Decathlon in October 2002. This event featured solar-savvy homes designed by 14 college teams.

Manuel JS

2003-02-01

409

Solar cell  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The conventional solar cell requires a certain type of external circuit because it has only limited type of power generating function only be light and lacks the effective control and utilization of the generated electromotive force. In this invention, the spontaneously generated electromotive force is controlled in the solar cell element, and regions of a solar cell and an integrated circuit are mixed over the same semi-conductor crystal substrate. By this arrangement, the power generated in the solar cell can be controlled/consumed on the same substrate, and the external circuit is simplified, thus giving a solar cell with high value added. 3 figs.

Deguchi, Mikio.

1989-07-17

410

Parameters affecting solar still productivity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this work, investigation of the main parameters affecting solar still performance under the weather conditions of the Suez Gulf area is considered. Four solar still units are designed and constructed to operate under the same weather conditions with different design parameters. A general equation is developed to predict the daily productivity of a single sloped solar still. The developed equation relates the dependent and independent variables which control the daily productivity. This equation could be used to predict the daily productivity with a reasonable confidence level (maximum error {+-} 5%). (author)

Nafey, A.S.; Mabrouk, A.A. [Suez Canal University (Egypt). Engineering Science Dept.; Abdelkader, M.; Abdelmotalip, A. [Suez Canal University (Egypt). Mechanical Power Engineering Dept.

2000-11-01

411

Build Your Own Solar Oven  

Science.gov (United States)

Learners follow directions to construct a solar oven that really cooks! The solar oven uses aluminum foil to reflect sunlight into a cooking chamber, which is painted black. The black surface absorbs the sunlight and produces heat which can be used to bake brownies, cookies, vegetables, or even warm soups and pizza. Use this activity to introduce learners to renewable energy and the Sun as a source of energy. Main webpage includes links to other related resources. Note: Solar ovens can get very hot. Oven mitts or gloves and adult supervision required.

Canada, Greenlearning

2011-01-01

412

Solar holiday resorts; Solares Urlaubsland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In Austria, solar power is booming in the tourism branch. The state provides 30 percent of funds for solar heating systems, and solar collector systems in hotels and hostels are promoted by the 'Klimaaktiv' initiative, with the ultimate goal of reducing global air pollution. (orig.)

Berner, J.

2006-12-15

413

Solar Energy; Energia solar  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Global energy demand is increasing every year and oil is a source of energy that will run low, so it may run out like the rest of fossil fuels. In addition, emissions of CO{sub 2} are increasing every year due to increased energy demand. Renewable energy sources try to be the new power as an alternative to recent energies and show that a change is possible in energy production. All energy on Earth comes from the Sun and therefore, solar energy is achieving great successes among the renewable energies, but there is still a long way to innovate and improve on these renewable energies. (Author) 2 refs.

Banat Salbidegoitia, I.

2008-07-01

414

A convective model of solar granulation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A convective model of solar granulation is constructed from the numerical integrations of the non-linear equations which describe finite amplitude convection in a compressive medium with polytropic structure

1983-01-01

415

Semiconductor photoelectrochemical solar cells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The total band bending or potential drop at the electrode-electrolyte interface is across the space charge layer in the semiconductor plus that across the Helmoltz layer in the electrolyte. The latter is negligible. The band bending at the electrode-electrolyte interface changes on illumination, as for p-n junctions, and can be used for constructing solar cells. Such solar cells are termed 'photoelectrochemical solar cells'. The charge transfer from semiconductor to electrolyte can take place such that under different conditions it can either reduce or oxidise the species in the electrolyte depending upon the redox reaction (Esub(F, redox)) energy value with respect to Esub(c) and Esub(v) at the edge. Generally, the enhanced charge transfer under illumination results in a voltage. However, if the redox species is H/sub 2/O/O/sub 2/, the electrolysis of water takes place. Such cells are known as photoelectrolysis cells. These cells have low efficiency of approx. equal to 1% and hence not economically viable at present. However, an efficiency approx. equal to 10 to 14% has been attained in electrochemical photovoltaic solar cells within four years since the first report by Gerischer. This seems encouraging and competitive to conventional photovoltaic solar cells.

Chandra, S.; Pandey, R.K.

1982-08-16

416

Portable shallow solar pond water heater  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The constructional and fabricational details of a portable shallow solar pond are presented. Three different glazing configurations are tried and experimental performance for two systems is given. The costs of the SSPs indicate that they can form a major part of a potentially low cost solar DHW system suitable for middle income groups.

Kishore, V.V.N.; Rao, V.V.R.; Raman, P.

1987-01-01

417

OUT Success Stories: Solar Trough Power Plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Solar Electric Generating System (SEGS) plants use parabolic-trough solar collectors to capture the sun's energy and convert it to heat. The SEGS plants range in capacity from 13.8 to 80 MW, and they were constructed to meet Southern California Edison Company's periods of peak power demand.

2000-01-01

418

Starting scenario for global solar methanol delivery system, where solar energy is hybridized with coal by solar chemical process of coal gasification  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Coal gasification with solar energy can provide solar methanol containing 26% of solar energy for the transportation sector. A starting-up scenario is proposed for global solar methanol delivery system, where solar energy is hybridized with coal by solar chemical process of coal gasification. The proposed process is composed of coal liquefaction with solar hydrogen (CLSH{sub 2}-step) and solar methanol production by coke gasification with water using solar chemical process (CGSC-step). In the CGSC-step, coke is gasified to CO + H{sub 2} and 1/3 of CO is transformed into H{sub 2} by the water-shift reaction. The resultant 2/3H{sub 2} and the H{sub 2} in the coke gasification are reacted with 2/3CO and transformed into solar methanol.Most of the syn-gas formed in the CGSC-step is transformed into solar methanol but some is transformed into solar hydrogen, which is required for coal liquefaction in the CLSH{sub 2}-step. In this step, liquefied oil is produced along with the coke, which is used for the CGSC-step. Coal is transformed into solar methanol and liquefied oil. For initiation of the GSMD-system, several coal gasification and liquefaction plants are co