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Sample records for constructal solar chimney

  1. Solar chimney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solar Chimney is an interesting unconventional method for production of electricity from the sun. It consists of a large greenhouse which purpose is to heat the air and create air flow directing it to the base of the chimney and then through the pressure-staged turbine array. Solar Chimney can be used for pick load operation. Australia plans 200 MW solar plant for the and of 2004, which will be the tallest man made structure in the world with a height of almost 1 km and greenhouse diameter reaching 7.5 km. It is a result of Australia's commitment to find alternative energy solutions in order to reduce the environmental impact of fossil and nuclear technologies for electric power production. (Author)

  2. Integrating a solar chimney:

    OpenAIRE

    Akerboom, R.; Gkerou, V.

    2014-01-01

    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0533 Innovation & Sustainability. This designer’s manual presents an overview of integration methods of a solar chimney during refurbishment of office buildings and describes step by step the design methods. A lot of research has been made the past years on the efficiency of the solar chimney. However none of them focuses on the integration of the system in the buildings. In the most available case studies were the solar chimney...

  3. Inclined solar chimney for power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Solar energy harnessing using inclined face of high mountains as solar chimney. ? Solar chimneys with structural stability, ease of construction and lower cost. ? Mathematical model developed, using complete (mechanical and thermal) energy balance. ? Can harness wind power also, as wind velocities at mountain top add to power output. ? Air temperature and velocity increase, as air rises in inclined chimney. - Abstract: The present concept of solar chimney is a tall vertical chimney constructed at the center of a large area, which is the collector. This creates questions about stability and economic viability of the chimney and also demands elaborate engineering techniques for constructing a tall chimney. We suggest geometry of 'Inclined Solar Chimney' (ISC), which is constructed along the face of a high rising mountain, on which maximum solar insolation is incident throughout the year. The chimney and the collector get merged here. This makes the structure stable, cost effective and easy for construction. A mathematical model has been developed considering the total energy balance. It predicts the temperature and velocity and kinetic power of the emerging air draft for some chosen values of other parameters. The model also shows the proportion in which absorbed solar energy is divided into different forms, and hence predicts the dependence of kinetic of emerging air draft upon dimensions of the chimney and properties of materials used. Further, it is shown that external winds enhance the kinetic power of the emerging air. Thus ISC can also harness the wind energy, available at the top of the mountain.

  4. Analyzes of Solar Chimney Design

    OpenAIRE

    Paez Ortega, Elias

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work to study the solar chimney installed in the EPT-lab of the NTNU. The work starts with the development of a CFD model of the solar chimney and comparing with the experimental data, showing a good accuracy of the CFD results. The CFD model is used to compare three types of solar chimneys for different heights and width; obtained that the chimney installed in the EPT-lab gets higher flow rates in the most of the most of the cases. The CFD model shows a uniform temperature an...

  5. Parameterization Studies of Solar Chimneys in the Tropics

    OpenAIRE

    Alex Yong Kwang Tan; Nyuk Hien Wong

    2013-01-01

    The paper examines the effect of the solar chimney’s stack height, depth, width and inlet position on the interior performance (air temperature and speed at 1.20 m height above the ground) as well as proposes an optimal tropical solar chimney design. Simulations show that the output air temperature remains constant while the solar chimney’s width is the most significant factor influencing output air speed. The solar chimney’s inlet position has limited influence ...

  6. A simple theoretical model of a solar chimney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple theoretical model of a solar chimney to predict its performance under varying ambient and geometrical features was proposed. Steady state heat transfer equations were set up using a thermal resistance network and solved using matrix inversion. Surface temperatures of the heat absorbing wall and glass and induced air flow velocity in the chimney are predicted. An experiment model 2 m high x 0.45 m wide with air channel gaps of 0.1, to 0.3 m wide was constructed. Outdoor tests were performed by exposure to both direct and diffuse solar radiation. The effects of air channel gap and solar radiation intensity were investigated. Air velocities between 0.25 to 0.39 ms-1 at radiation intensities up to 650 W m-2 were obtained. No reserve air circulation was observed at the chimney exit. The model was found more suitable for solar chimney with large air gaps

  7. Experimental Investigations on Performance and Design Parameters of Solar Chimney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?brahim ÜÇGÜL

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a solar chimney system, which is suitable for climate conditions of Isparta and its surroundings, is designed theoretically. With the aim of studying experimentally as based on that design, a prototype solar chimney has been constructed in the university campus area of Süleyman Demirel University-RACRER (Research and Application Center for Renewable Energy Resources. Additionally, after the experimental studies, the system is modelled theoretically with depending on the design. Then, this model constituted the basis for developed computer programme and performance parameters of the system are obtained. The obtained findings showed that the solar chimney, which is suitable for climate conditions of Isparta and its surroundings, are sufficient for determining design and performance parameters. The results showed that electricity generation with solar chimney is suitable for areas which have high solar incident and long sunshine duration and similar climate conditions as such as Isparta and its surroundings. When the results are evaluated, it is seen that electricity generation power of solar chimney depends on the region solar data, the chimney height and the size of greenhouse area.

  8. Simulation and optimization of geometric parameters of a solar chimney in Tehran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A fundamental mathematical of solar chimney model was described. • The performance of solar chimney power plant was analytically simulated. • The results of predictions were compared with the experimental data. • The velocity magnitude can be raised 4–25% in different cases. - Abstract: An analytical and numerical study for geometrical optimizing of a solar chimney prototype at University of Tehran was performed. A fundamental mathematical model that describes the flow was presented, and the performance evaluation of solar chimney was simulated with operational and geometric configurations. The numerical predictions were validated through comparison with the experimental data of the solar chimney pilot which was constructed in height of 2 m and collector radius of 3 m. The results show that, the collector inlet of 6 cm, the chimney height of 3 m, and the chimney diameter of 10 cm were the best alternatives for the constructed solar chimney pilot. It is found that the velocity magnitude can be raised to 4–25% in different cases; also the analysis indicated that the height and diameter of the chimney are the most important physical variables for solar chimney design

  9. Parameterization Studies of Solar Chimneys in the Tropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Yong Kwang Tan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the effect of the solar chimney’s stack height, depth, width and inlet position on the interior performance (air temperature and speed at 1.20 m height above the ground as well as proposes an optimal tropical solar chimney design. Simulations show that the output air temperature remains constant while the solar chimney’s width is the most significant factor influencing output air speed. The solar chimney’s inlet position has limited influence on the output air speed although regions near the solar chimney’s inlet show an increase in air speed. Furthermore, a regression model is developed based on the solar chimney’s stack height, depth and width to predict the interior air speed. To optimize solar chimney in the tropics, the recommendation is to first maximize its width as the interior’s width, while allowing its stack height to be the building’s height. Lastly, the solar chimney’s depth is determined from the regression model by allocating the required interior air speed.

  10. DESIGN OF A SMALL – SCALE SOLAR CHIMNEY FOR SUSTAINABLE POWER

    Science.gov (United States)

    After several months of design and testing it has been determined that a small scale solar chimney can be built using nearly any local materials and simple hand tools without needing superior construction knowledge. The biggest obstacle to over come was the weather conditions....

  11. Design and measured performance of a solar chimney for natural-circulation solar-energy dryers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design and construction of a solar chimney which was undertaken as part of a study on natural-circulation solar-energy dryers is reported. The experimental solar chimney consists of a 5.3m high and 1.64m diameter cylindrical polyethylene-clad vertical chamber, supported structurally by steel framework and draped internally with a selectively-absorbing surface. The performance of the chimney which was monitored extensively with and without the selective surface in place (to study the effectiveness of this design option) is also reported. (author). 14 refs, 7 figs

  12. EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF A VELOCITY FIELD USING VARIABLE CHIMNEY DIAMETER FOR SOLAR UPDRAFT TOWER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Mehla,

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A solar updraft tower consists of an air collector 1.4 m in diameter and 80 cm tall chimney was set upin NIT Hamirpur, Himachal-Pradesh, India. The objective of the study was to investigate the variation of velocity with essential geometricparameter of the system. The solar updraft tower system consists of three essential elements- collector, chimney height and wind turbine. The output power of a system is depended on the input velocity to the wind turbine. Turbine inlet velocity (V is the function of five parameter of the solar updraft tower systems such as collector diameter (Dc, roof glass angle (?, entrance height (h, tower's height (Ht, tower's diameter (D, out of which variable roof angle and the chimney height is analysis. It was found that the solar chimney diameter of 8 cm is having the maximum velocity for the constructed setup, and the ratio of chimney diameter to chimney heightwas found to be 0.1.

  13. The solar chimney. Electricity from the sun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiel, W. [Schlaich, Bergermann und Partner, Stuttgart (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    Current energy production from coal and oil is damaging to the environment and non-renewable. Many developing countries cannot afford these energy sources, and nuclear power stations are an unacceptable risk in many locations. Inadequate energy supplies can lead to high energy costs as well as to proverty, which commonly results in population explosions. Sensible technology for the use of solar power must be simple and reliable, accessible to the technologically less developed countries that are sunny and often have limited raw materials resources, should not need cooling water or produce waste heat and should be based on environmentally sound production from renewable materials. The solar chimney meets these conditions and makes it possible to take the crucial step towards a global solar energy economy. Large scale solar chimneys can be built now without any technical problems and at defined costs. (orig.)

  14. A performance analysis of solar chimney thermal power systems

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Dabbas Awwad Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the solar chimney performance theoretically (techno-economic). A mathematical model was developed to estimate the following parameter: Power output, Pressure drop across the turbine, the max chimney height, Airflow temperature, and the overall efficiency of solar chimney. The mathematical model was validated with experimental data from the prototype in Manzanares power. It can be concluded that the differential pressure of collector-chimney tr...

  15. Analytical Analysis of Roof Top Solar Chimney for Power Generation

    OpenAIRE

    K.V. Sreejaya; Hussain H. AL-Kayiem; Syed Ihtsham Ul-Haq Gilani

    2011-01-01

    The solar chimney is a technology, which has been already proved of being capable to generate electrical energy from the sun. On the other hand, the solar chimney has been used on the roof of housing for ventilation purpose. Since the sun is not available during night and cloudy days, there should be another source of input to guarantee continuous operation of the system. Present study is the development of experimental, computational and mathematical models of ?On Roof Solar Chimney...

  16. Solar Chimney Model Parameters to Enhance Cooling PV Panel Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Sh Elden; Sopian, K.; Fatah O. Alghoul; Abdelnasser Abouhnik; Ae. Muftah M.

    2013-01-01

    The concept of using the Solar Chimney plays an important role in a wide range of topics to improve cooling system efficiency such as drying process, and single and multi-story buildings ventilation against temperature rising. In this paper, study the effective solar cooling chimney parameter model to enhance the performance of photovoltaic (PV) cooling system. First, a brief description of theoretical performance predictions of the solar cooling chimney also discusses the effect of the ambie...

  17. Simulation of a sloped solar chimney power plant in Lanzhou

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: ? A sloped solar chimney power plant in Lanzhou, China is investigated. ? The configuration sizes are designed separately. ? The system has high periodicity and stability but low efficiency. ? The sloped solar chimney power system is of high value for Northwest China. -- Abstract: Solar chimney power system is one large-scale utilization style of solar energy, which has drawn high attentions worldwide. Though scholars all over the world have made many researches on the solar chimney power system, reports of sloped solar chimney power system are still few. A sloped solar chimney power plant, which is expected to provide electric power for remote villages in Northwest China, has been designed for Lanzhou City in this paper. The designed plant, in which the height and radius of the chimney are 252.2 m and 14 m respectively, the radius and angle of the solar collector are 607.2 m and 31o respectively, is designed to produce 5 MW electric power on a monthly average all year. The performances, such as the airflow temperature increase, pressure, the airflow speed, system efficiency and solar collector efficiency, of the built sloped solar chimney power plant are simulated and presented. Simulation results show that parameters of the sloped solar chimney power plant are symmetrical and stable; the power plant has better performances in spring and autumn days; the overall efficiency of the power plant is low. Considering the abundant solar radiation, environmental friendliness, easy management and low population density, the sloped solar chimney power system is of high value to Northwest China.

  18. Numerical simulation and exergetic analysis of building ventilation solar chimneys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Exergetic analysis of a building ventilation solar chimney. • Numerical CFD model developed, validated and employed to study the flow. • Analysis of the solar chimney energy and exergy efficiencies. • Mechanical and thermal exergy distributions have been analysed. • Crucial points in the chimney identified to improve its performance. - Abstract: The solar chimneys used in buildings are passive solar devices which improve natural ventilation. A detailed exergetic analysis has been developed in this work, both for general balance and specific variables. To apply this analysis, a three-dimensional CFD model has been built and validated with bibliographic experimental data. The values of the variables have been examined both inside and at the exit of the solar chimney, resulting in a detailed description of the inner phenomena and parameters influencing the exergetic efficiency. The results of this study offer new tools: a numerical methodology and an exergetic analysis, to improve the design of building ventilation solar chimneys. It also affords a deeper understanding of the thermal and fluid-dynamic behaviour, and suggests some qualitative improvements. However, the numerical data obtained from the case studied, show that solar chimneys as natural ventilation systems offer quite a small efficiency and will remain within the sphere of architectural decisions

  19. Performance of a Solar Chimney Under Egyptian Weather Conditions: Numerical Simulation and Experimental Validation

    OpenAIRE

    A.A. Mostafa; M. F. Sedrak; Adel M. Abdel Dayem

    2011-01-01

    High solar radiation and ambient temperature, and large desert in Egypt are excellent conditions to install efficiently solar chimney power plants there. Therefore this research aimed to develop a validated mathematical model and governing equations of solar chimney. It is proposed to improve the performance of solar chimney under effects of various parameters, and study of possibility of installing solar chimney in Egypt. The mathematical simulation of the solar chimney has been developed in...

  20. Power generation from wind turbines in a solar chimney

    OpenAIRE

    Tudor Foote, Ramesh K. Agarwal

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that shrouded wind turbines can generate greater power compared to bare turbines. A solar chimney generates an upward draft of wind inside a tower and a shroud around the wind turbine. There are numerous empty silos on farms in the U.S. that can be converted to solar chimneys with minor modifications at modest cost. The objective of this study is to determine the potential of these silos/chimneys for generating wind power. The study is conducted through analytical/co...

  1. Analytical Analysis of Roof Top Solar Chimney for Power Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.V. Sreejaya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The solar chimney is a technology, which has been already proved of being capable to generate electrical energy from the sun. On the other hand, the solar chimney has been used on the roof of housing for ventilation purpose. Since the sun is not available during night and cloudy days, there should be another source of input to guarantee continuous operation of the system. Present study is the development of experimental, computational and mathematical models of ?On Roof Solar Chimney? for small-scale power generation. The objective of the present study is to review the similar works and to present a mathematical model of a solar chimney operation and analyze the analytical result. The model involves the energy and mass transportation in the system under steady state conditions. Heat transfer equations were set up to determine the boundary temperatures at the surface of the glass cover, the rear solar heat absorbing wall and the air flow in the channel using a thermal resistance network. Results showed the transient behavior of the system during the day. With model area of 15 m2, the highest velocity of 0.17 m sec-1 is predicted at around the mid day time. The mass flow rate increases as the solar radiation increase. The area is a vital parameter in the successful application of the technique. Also enhancement technique to rise up the collector temperature would improve the performance considerably.

  2. A performance analysis of solar chimney thermal power systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Dabbas Awwad Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the solar chimney performance theoretically (techno-economic. A mathematical model was developed to estimate the following parameter: Power output, Pressure drop across the turbine, the max chimney height, Airflow temperature, and the overall efficiency of solar chimney. The mathematical model was validated with experimental data from the prototype in Manzanares power. It can be concluded that the differential pressure of collector-chimney transition section in the system, is increase with the increase of solar radiation intensity. The specific system costs are between 2000 Eur/kW and 5000 Eur/kW depending on the system size, system concept and storage size. Hence, a 50 MWe solar thermal power plant will cost 100-250 Eur million. At very good sites, today’s solar thermal power plants can generate electricity in the range of 0.15 Eur/kWh, and series production could soon bring down these costs below 0.10 Eur /kWh.

  3. A NUMERICAL study of solar chimney power plants in Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahar F, Attig; S, Guellouz M.; M, Sahraoui; S, Kaddeche

    2015-04-01

    A 3D CFD (Computational fluid dynamics) model of a Solar Chimney Power Plant (SCPP) was developed and validated through comparison with the experimental data of the Manzanares plant. Then, it was employed to study the SCPP performance for locations throughout Tunisia.

  4. Passive cooling with solar updraft and evaporative downdraft chimneys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mignon, G.V.; Cunningham, W.A.; Thompson, T.L.

    1985-01-01

    Computer models have been developed to describe the operation of both solar updraft and evaporative downdraft chimneys. Design studies are being conducted at the present time to use the towers for cooling an experimental, well instrumented, structure to study passive cooling in residential buildings. (MHR)

  5. Solar ventilation: The use of solar chimneys for natural ventilation of buildings:

    OpenAIRE

    Macquoy, B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper is written for the TIDO-course AR0532 Smart & Bioclimatic Design Theory. A very old principle is the system of the solar chimney for ventilation, which in recent years has regained interests. This essay will explore the potentials of solar chimneys in a modern application.

  6. Numerical Study of a Solar Chimney Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dhahri

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to present a numerical analysis on the performance of a solar chimney power plant using steady state Navier-Stokes and energy equations in cylindrical coordinate system. The fluid flow inside the chimney is assumed to be turbulent and simulated with the k-? turbulent model, using the FLUENT software package. Numerical simulations were performed using the Spanish prototype as reference. The computed results are in good agreement with experimental measurements of Manzanares power plant. Besides, a theoretical model was proposed taking into account the kinetic energy difference within the solar collector. The effects of the main geometrical parameters of the collector and the solar radiation intensity on the air mass flow rate and the temperature rise in the collector have been investigated. The fluid and ground temperature distributions were also presented and analyzed.

  7. Annual performance analysis of the solar chimney power plant in Sinkiang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A theoretical model was developed concerning hourly variation of solar radiation. • A limitation on maximum collector radius of an SCPP with a given chimney exists. • Annual performance of a 100 MW SCPP was predicted in hourly interval. • The Hami region is considered suitable for the construction of SCPP. - Abstract: To obtain more accurate prediction of the annual performance of solar chimney power plants (SCPPs), a comprehensive theoretical model is developed by taking into account the hourly variation of solar radiation. The effects of the collector and chimney radii on the power output of the SCPP are analyzed, and the results reveal that a limitation on the maximum collector radius exists for the maximum attainable power output of the SCPP. Then four designs of 100 MW SCPPs with different combinations of collector and chimney radii are proposed and the most cost effective one is chosen from among the four SCPPs. The annual power output of the chosen SCPP in the Hami region is estimated at an interval of 1 h for a whole year. The results indicate that the power generation of SCPP presents obvious seasonal variation. Furthermore, the use of 14% of the unused land in the Hami region for the installation of SCPPs would satisfy the annual power requirement for the whole of the Sinkiang region

  8. Power generation from wind turbines in a solar chimney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foote, Tudor [Graduate Student, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Washington University in St. Louis, Jolley Hall, Campus Box 1185, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, Missouri, 63130 (United States); Agarwal, Ramesh K. [William Palm Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Washington University in St. Louis, Jolley Hall, Campus Box 1185, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, Missouri, 63130 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Recent studies have shown that shrouded wind turbines can generate greater power compared to bare turbines. A solar chimney generates an upward draft of wind inside a tower and a shroud around the wind turbine. There are numerous empty silos on farms in the U.S. that can be converted to solar chimneys with minor modifications at modest cost. The objective of this study is to determine the potential of these silos/chimneys for generating wind power. The study is conducted through analytical/computational approach by employing the commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software. Computations are performed for five different geometric configurations consisting of a turbine, a cylindrical silo, and/or a venturi and/or a diffuser using the dimensions of typical silos and assuming Class 3 wind velocity. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations with the Boussinesq approximation and a two equation realizable {kappa}-{epsilon} model are employed in the calculations, and the turbine is modeled as an actuator disk. The power coefficient (Cp) and generated power are calculated for the five cases. Consistent with recent literature, it was found that the silos with diffusers increase the Cp beyond Betz’s limit significantly and thus the generated power. It should be noted that Cp is calculated by normalizing it by the turbine area swept by the wind. This study shows the potential of using abandoned silos in the mid-west and other parts of the country for localized wind power generation.

  9. Power generation from wind turbines in a solar chimney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudor Foote, Ramesh K. Agarwal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that shrouded wind turbines can generate greater power compared to bare turbines. A solar chimney generates an upward draft of wind inside a tower and a shroud around the wind turbine. There are numerous empty silos on farms in the U.S. that can be converted to solar chimneys with minor modifications at modest cost. The objective of this study is to determine the potential of these silos/chimneys for generating wind power. The study is conducted through analytical/computational approach by employing the commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD software. Computations are performed for five different geometric configurations consisting of a turbine, a cylindrical silo, and/or a venturi and/or a diffuser using the dimensions of typical silos and assuming Class 3 wind velocity. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations with the Boussinesq approximation and a two equation realizable k – ? model are employed in the calculations, and the turbine is modeled as an actuator disk. The power coefficient (Cp and generated power are calculated for the five cases. Consistent with recent literature, it was found that the silos with diffusers increase the Cp beyond Betz’s limit significantly and thus the generated power. It should be noted that Cp is calculated by normalizing it by the turbine area swept by the wind. This study shows the potential of using abandoned silos in the mid-west and other parts of the country for localized wind power generation.

  10. Solar chimney design: Investigating natural ventilation and cooling in offices with the aid of computer simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelis, Nikolaos

    Solar chimney design is investigated as a means of improving natural ventilation and passive cooling in office buildings. Existing scientific research and built precedents are generally limited literature review findings on various features of solar chimneys were categorised and used to develop a building simulation strategy. Using UK climatic data, simulations were performed on several computer models in order to investigate solar chimney performance during a single day period and an entire cooling season. Passive cooling with a solar chimney is possible but actual reduction in temperatures in most cases examined could be negligible. Cooling potential is increased on still, warm days, while the prospects for night cooling are further improved. A solar chimney may help reduce considerably the occurrence of resultant temperatures at or above the 25 C and 28 C thresholds. Solar chimney width, height, apertures and integral use of thermal mass are the most significant parameters for cooling. Simulation results showed that a solar chimney can increase significantly natural ventilation rates. Total ventilation rates may be increased by at least 22%. During still days a solar chimney can enhance ventilation rates by 36% or more. Stack ventilation through a solar chimney is typically 20% of cross ventilation during night time this may increase to at least 40-45% and on still days it may reach 100% of typical cross ventilation rates. Solar chimney induced stack ventilation and cross ventilation are interrelated. Resultant air flow patterns may have an important effect on convective heat transfers and thermal comfort. Climate and microclimate conditions should be an integral part of solar chimney design. Key aspects and recommendations regarding solar chimneys, passive cooling and natural ventilation are provided for design guidance and feedback in further research.

  11. Solar chimney power generation project - The case for Botswana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Import of a huge proportion of electrical energy from the Southern African Power Pool, and the geographical location and population distribution of Botswana stimulated the need to consider renewable energy as an alternative to imported power. The paper describes a systematic experimental study on a mini-solar chimney system. Particular attention is given to measurements of air velocity, temperature and solar radiation. The results for the selected 5 and 6 clear days of October and November, respectively, are presented. These results enable the relationship between average insolation, temperature difference and velocity for selected clear days to be discussed. (author)

  12. Review on the Enhancement Techniques and Introduction of an Alternate Enhancement Technique of Solar Chimney Power Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain H. AL-Kayiem; Aja Ogboo Chikere; Zainal Ambri Abdul Karim

    2011-01-01

    Due to the low plant efficiency associated with Solar Chimney Power Plant, there is a need for the plant performance enhancement. This study presents the enhancement techniques of solar chimney power plant. It reviews previous works that had been done in performance enhancement of solar chimney power plants. It also, introduces an alternative approach to enhance the solar chimney performance by hybridizing the solar operation mode and waste heat energy from flue gas. The new idea is to conver...

  13. 33 CFR 165.T01-0176 - Regulated Navigation Area; Lake Champlain Bridge Construction, Crown Point, New York and Chimney...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Champlain Bridge Construction, Crown Point, New York and Chimney Point, Vermont. 165.T01-0176 Section 165...; Lake Champlain Bridge Construction, Crown Point, New York and Chimney Point, Vermont. (a) Description... and south of the Lake Champlain Bridge construction zone at Crown Point, New York and Chimney...

  14. Basement Kind Effects on Air Temperature of a Solar Chimney in Baghdad - Iraq Weather

    OpenAIRE

    Miqdam Tariq Chaichan

    2011-01-01

    A solar updraft tower power plant (solar tower) is a solar thermal power plant that utilizes a combination of solar air collector and central updraft tube to generate an induced convective flow which drives pressure staged turbines to generate electricity. This paper presents practical results of a prototype of a solar chimney with thermal mass, where the glass surface is replaced by transparence plastic cover. The study focused on chimney's basements kind effect on collected air temperatur...

  15. Review on the Enhancement Techniques and Introduction of an Alternate Enhancement Technique of Solar Chimney Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain H. Al-Kayiem

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the low plant efficiency associated with Solar Chimney Power Plant, there is a need for the plant performance enhancement. This study presents the enhancement techniques of solar chimney power plant. It reviews previous works that had been done in performance enhancement of solar chimney power plants. It also, introduces an alternative approach to enhance the solar chimney performance by hybridizing the solar operation mode and waste heat energy from flue gas. The new idea is to convert the waste thermal energy in the flue to useful thermal energy in a Solar Chimney Power Plant collector. It is another form of waste heat energy recovery and utilization method.

  16. Experimental study of temperature field in a solar chimney power setup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pilot experimental solar chimney power setup consisted of an air collector 10 m in diameter and an 8 m tall chimney has been built. The temperature distribution in the solar chimney power setup was measured. Temperature difference between the collector outlet and the ambient usually can reach 24.1 deg. C, which generates the driving force of airflow in the setup. This is the greenhouse effect produced in the solar collector. It is found that air temperature inversion appears in the latter chimney after sunrise both on a cool day and on a warm day. Air temperature inversion is formed by the increase of solar radiation from the minimum and clears up some time later when the absorber bed is heated to an enough high temperature to make airflow break through the temperature inversion layer and flow through the chimney outlet

  17. Experimental study of temperature field in a solar chimney power setup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pilot experimental solar chimney power setup consisted of an air collector 10 m in diameter and an 8 m tall chimney has been built. The temperature distribution in the solar chimney power setup was measured. Temperature difference between the collector outlet and the ambient usually can reach 24.1 C, which generates the driving force of airflow in the setup. This is the greenhouse effect produced in the solar collector. It is found that air temperature inversion appears in the latter chimney after sunrise both on a cool day and on a warm day. Air temperature inversion is formed by the increase of solar radiation from the minimum and clears up some time later when the absorber bed is heated to an enough high temperature to make airflow break through the temperature inversion layer and flow through the chimney outlet. (author)

  18. Numerical investigation on thermal and fluid dynamic behaviors of solar chimney building systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Buildings as big energy-consuming systems require large amount of energy to operate. Globally, buildings are responsible for approximately 40% of total world annual energy consumption. Sustainable buildings with renewable energy systems are trying to operate independently without consumption of conventional resources. Renewable energy is a significant approach to reduce resource consumption in sustainable building. A solar chimney is essentially divided into two parts, one - the solar air heater (collector) and second - the chimney. Two configurations of solar chimney are usually used: vertical solar chimney with vertical absorber geometry, and roof solar chimney. For vertical solar chimney, vertical glass is used to gain solar heat. Designing a solar chimney includes height, width and depth of cavity, type of glazing, type of absorber, and inclusion of insulation or thermal mass. Besides these system parameters, other factors such as the location, climate, and orientation can also affect its performance. In this paper a numerical investigation on a prototypal solar chimney system integrated in a south facade of a building is presented. The analysis is carried out on a three-dimensional model in air flow and the governing equations are given in terms of k-s turbulence model. Two geometrical configurations are investigated: 1) a channel with vertical parallel walls and 2) a channel with principal walls one vertical and the other inclined. The problem is solved by means of the commercial code Ansys-Fluent and the results are performed for a uniform wall heat flux on the vertical wall is equal to 300 and 600 W/m2. Results are given in terms of wall temperature distributions, air velocity and temperature fields and transversal profiles in order to evaluate the differences between the two base configurations and thermal and fluid dynamic behaviors. Further, the ground effect on thermal performances is examined. key words: mathematical modeling, solar chimney, renewable energy

  19. Feasibility study on optimization of a typical solar chimney power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najmi, Mohsen; Nazari, Ali; Mansouri, Hossein; Zahedi, Ghazzanfar

    2012-03-01

    The solar chimney which has been built in Kerman (Kerman city-Iran) is a small scale electrical power plant. The chimney of this unit has 60 m height and 3 m diameter. The collector of this unit is 40 m × 40 m square. To reach nominal power of this unit of power plant, parameters which are effective in optimization are studied. In this regard, we deliberate and propose suggestions to maximize usage of solar energy and kinetic energy. The calculation of maximum power is one of the objectives of this study, so the paper present economic analysis for Kerman solar chimney. A home code has been written for this modeling, in MATLAB.

  20. Cloud Formation in the Plumes of Solar Chimney Power Generation Facilities: A Modeling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanreken, T. M.; Nenes, A.

    2006-12-01

    The mounting negative impacts of our dependence on fossil fuels make obvious the need for continued development of alternative power generation technologies. One promising technology is the solar chimney power plant, the concept of which is straightforward and consists of three main components: a solar air collector, the chimney itself, and a power turbine. The solar collector is a large, circular, greenhouse-like structure that gently slopes toward its center; air enters at the outer edge, and as the air parcel warms buoyancy causes it to move upward and toward the center of the collector. When the air has reached the center of the collector, its temperature has increased by an amount ?T, at which point it enters the chimney. The chimney functions as the main thermal engine in the power plant; the available power for electrical conversion is a function of the maximum potential air velocity through the chimney, which depends primarily on its height and on ?T. The actual air velocity is determined by the efficiency of the turbine, which is placed between the solar collector and the chimney. A pilot-scale solar chimney power plant has operated in Manzanares, Spain for two decades, and larger facilities have been proposed in China and Australia. As with all new technologies, it is important to consider the potential adverse impacts of solar chimney power generation facilities. This study considers one such impact- the potential for water vapor in solar chimney plumes to affect both the performance of the facility and the local meteorology. Using a cloud parcel model, the progress of a plume up through and out of a solar chimney was simulated for a range of conditions consistent with the proposed Australian facility. As might be expected, in the absence of any water vapor enhancement the plume demonstrated minimal cloud forming potential. However, our results indicate that in cases of moderate water vapor enhancement, cloud formation can occur after the plume exits the chimney and possibly impact plant performance and local meteorology. In cases of more substantial water vapor enhancement, cloud formation can even occur within the chimney itself.

  1. On the form of the power equation for modeling solar chimney power plant systems

    OpenAIRE

    Fathi, Nima; Aleyasin, Seyed Sobhan; Vorobieff, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Recently several mathematical models of a solar chimney power plant were derived, studied for a variety of boundary conditions, and compared against CFD calculations. The importance of these analyses is about the accuracy of the derived pressure drop and output power equation for solar chimney power plant systems (SCPPS). We examine the assumptions underlying the derivation and present reasons to believe that some of the derived equations, specifically the power equation in ...

  2. Modeling and characteristics analysis of hybrid cooling-tower-solar-chimney system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A 3-D model for hybrid cooling-tower-solar-chimney system is developed. • The inclusion of heat exchangers into solar chimney boosts the power output. • The huge jump in power output is at the expense of heat dissipation capacity. • The heat exchanger as second heat source has greater impact on system performance. - Abstract: The hybrid cooling-tower-solar-chimney system (HCTSC), combining solar chimney with natural draft dry cooling tower, generates electricity and dissipates waste heat for the coupled geothermal power plant simultaneously. Based on a developed 3-D model, performance comparisons between the HCTSC system, solar chimney and natural draft dry cooling tower were performed in terms of power output of turbine and heat dissipation capacity. Results show that compared to the traditional solar chimney with similar geometric dimensions, HCTSC system can achieve over 20 times increase in the power output of turbine. However, this huge jump in power output is at the expense of heat dissipation capacity, which may lead to the malfunction of the coupled thermal power plant. By increasing the heat transfer area of the heat exchanger, the HCTSC system can manage to recover its heat dissipation capacity

  3. Effect of solar chimney inclination angle on space flow pattern and ventilation rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassiouny, Ramadan; Korah, Nader S.A. [Department of Mechanical Power Engineering and Energy, Minia University, Minia 61111 (Egypt)

    2009-02-15

    The solar chimney is a simple and practical idea that is applied to enhance space natural ventilation. The chimney could be vertical or inclined. The chimney inclination angle is an important parameter that greatly affects space flow pattern and ventilation rate. In the present study, the effect of chimney inclination angle on air change per hour and indoor flow pattern was numerically and analytically investigated. A numerical simulation using Ansys, a FEM-based code, was used to predict flow pattern. Then the results were compared with published experimental measurements. A FORTRAN program was developed to iteratively solve the mathematical model that was obtained through an overall energy balance on the solar chimney. The analytical results showed that an optimum air flow rate value was achieved when the chimney inclination is between 45 and 70 for latitude of 28.4 . The numerically predicted flow pattern inside the space supports this finding. Moreover, in the present study a correlation to predict the air change per hour was developed. The correlation was tested within a solar intensity greater than or equal to 500 W/m{sup 2}, and chimney width from 0.1 m to 0.35 m for different inclination angles with acceptable values. (author)

  4. Numerical simulation and comparison of conventional and sloped solar chimney power plants: the case for Lanzhou.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Fei; Li, Huashan; Zhang, Yang; Zhao, Liang

    2013-01-01

    The solar chimney power plant (SCPP) generates updraft wind through the green house effect. In this paper, the performances of two SCPP styles, that is, the conventional solar chimney power plant (CSCPP) and the sloped solar chimney power plant (SSCPP), are compared through a numerical simulation. A simplified Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model is built to predict the performances of the SCPP. The model is validated through a comparison with the reported results from the Manzanares prototype. The annual performances of the CSCPP and the SSCPP are compared by taking Lanzhou as a case study. Numerical results indicate that the SSCPP holds a higher efficiency and generates smoother power than those of the CSCPP, and the effective pressure in the SSCPP is relevant to both the chimney and the collector heights. PMID:24489515

  5. Establish feasibility for providing passive cooling with solar updraft and evaporate downdraft chimneys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, W.A.; Mignon, G.V.; Thompson, T.L.

    1987-01-01

    Natural draft towers can be used for cooling and ventilating structures. From an operational perspective, the downdraft evaporatively cooled tower is preferred for a dry climate. Solar chimneys, when used alone, tend to require an excessively large solar collector area when appreciable quantities of air must be moved. When used in combination with a downdraft tower, the roof and attic of buildings may assist the solar chimney and their use becomes more attractive. Both a frame building and a greenhouse were successfully cooled during this program. The economics of the downdraft tower compare favorably with conventional evaporative cooling for some applications.

  6. Establish feasibility for providing passive cooling with solar updraft and evaporative downdraft chimneys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, W.A.; Mignon, G.V.; Thompson, T.L.

    1987-01-01

    Natural draft towers can be used for cooling and ventilating structures. From an operational perspective, the downdraft evaporatively cooled tower is preferred for a dry climate. Solar chimneys, when used alone, tend to require an excessively large solar collector area when appreciable quantities of air must be moved. When used in combination with a downdraft tower, the roof and attic of buildings may assist the solar chimney and their use becomes more attractive. Both a frame building and a greenhouse were successfully cooled during this program. The economics of the downdraft tower compare favorably with conventional evaporative cooling for some application.

  7. Solar chimney for the natural ventilation of buildings: simulation and mediation; Chimenea solar para la ventilacion natural de edificios: simulacion y mediacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanceta, D.; Llorente, J.

    2008-07-01

    In this article, the first part of a research project about the modelling of a solar chimney is presented. In this first part, the average ventilation flows measured in an experimental installation have been compared to the results obtained by CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulations. In order to do so, a solar chimney with a cross-section of 0.78 m x 0.156 m, height 3,6 m, has been constructed. The chimney consists of a glass surface oriented towards the south. The internal (absorber) surface is made of a copper plate, which has been painted black in order to increase the solar absorption. The chimney is connected to a room measuring 5 m x 2.5 m x 2.5 m, from where it extracts air. The comparison of the results obtained by measurements with those obtained by CFD simulations show that computational tools are accurate enough to predict the behaviour of natural buoyancy in this kind of installations. (Author)

  8. Economic analysis of power generation from floating solar chimney power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solar chimney thermal power technology that has a long life span is a promising large-scale solar power generating technology. This paper performs economic analysis of power generation from floating solar chimney power plant (FSCPP) by analyzing cash flows during the whole service period of a 100 MW plant. Cash flows are influenced by many factors including investment, operation and maintenance cost, life span, payback period, inflation rate, minimum attractive rate of return, non-returnable subsidy rate, interest rate of loans, sale price of electricity, income tax rate and whether additional revenue generated by carbon credits is included or not. Financial incentives and additional revenue generated by carbon credits can accelerate the development of the FSCPP. Sensitivity analysis to examine the effects of the factors on cash flows of a 100 MW FSCPP is performed in detail. The results show that the minimum price for obtaining minimum attractive rate of return (MARR) of 8% reaches 0.83 yuan (kWh)-1 under financial incentives including loans at a low interest rate of 2% and free income tax. Comparisons of economics of the FSCPP and reinforced concrete solar chimney power plant or solar photovoltaic plant are also performed by analyzing their cash flows. It is concluded that FSCPP is in reality more economical than reinforced concrete solar chimney power plant (RCSCPP) or solar photovoltaic plant (SPVP) with the same power capacity. (author)

  9. On the form of the power equation for modeling solar chimney power plant systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fathi, Nima; Vorobieff, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Recently several mathematical models of a solar chimney power plant were derived, studied for a variety of boundary conditions, and compared against CFD calculations. The importance of these analyses is about the accuracy of the derived pressure drop and output power equation for solar chimney power plant systems (SCPPS). We examine the assumptions underlying the derivation and present reasons to believe that some of the derived equations, specifically the power equation in this model, may require a correction to be applicable in more realistic conditions. The analytical resutls are compared against the available experimental data from the Manzanares power plant.

  10. EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF A VELOCITY FIELD USING VARIABLE CHIMNEY DIAMETER FOR SOLAR UPDRAFT TOWER

    OpenAIRE

    Neeraj Mehla,; Rahul Makade,; Thakur, N. S.

    2011-01-01

    A solar updraft tower consists of an air collector 1.4 m in diameter and 80 cm tall chimney was set upin NIT Hamirpur, Himachal-Pradesh, India. The objective of the study was to investigate the variation of velocity with essential geometricparameter of the system. The solar updraft tower system consists of three essential elements- collector, chimney height and wind turbine. The output power of a system is depended on the input velocity to the wind turbine. Turbine inlet velocity (V) is the f...

  11. Performance analysis of conventional and sloped solar chimney power plants in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The solar chimney power plant (SCPP) has been accepted as one of the most promising approaches for future large-scale solar energy applications. This paper reports on a heat transfer model that is used to compare the performance of a conventional solar chimney power plant (CSCPP) and two sloped solar chimney power plants (SSCPPs) with the collector oriented at 30° and 60°, respectively. The power generation from SCPPs at different latitudes in China is also analyzed. Results indicate that the larger solar collector angle leads to improved performance in winter but results in lower performance in summer. It is found that the optimal collector angle to achieve the maximum power in Lanzhou, China, is around 60°. Main factors that influence the performance of SCPPs also include the system height and the air thermophysical characteristics. The ground energy loss, reflected solar radiation, and kinetic loss at the chimney outlet are the main energy losses in SCPPs. The studies also show SSCPPs are more suitable for high latitude regions in Northwest China, but CSCPPs are suggested to be built in southeastern and eastern parts of China with the combination to the local agriculture. - Highlights: ? The optimum collector angle for maximum power generation is 60° in Lanzhou. ? Main parameters influencing performances are the system height and air property. ? Ground loss, reflected loss and outlet kinetic loss are the main energy losses. ? The sloped styles are suitable for Northwest China. ? The conventional styles are suitable for Southeast and East China.

  12. Numerical analysis on the performance of solar chimney power plant system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Power generating technology based on renewable energy resources will definitely become a new trend of future energy utilization. Numerical simulations on air flow, heat transfer and power output characteristics of a solar chimney power plant model with energy storage layer and turbine similar to the Spanish prototype were carried out in this paper, and mathematical model of flow and heat transfer for the solar chimney power plant system was established. The influences of solar radiation and pressure drop across the turbine on the flow and heat transfer, output power and energy loss of the solar chimney power plant system were analyzed. The numerical simulation results reveal that: when the solar radiation and the turbine efficiency are 600 W/m2 and 80%, respectively, the output power of the system can reach 120 kW. In addition, large mass flow rate of air flowing through the chimney outlet become the main cause of energy loss in the system, and the collector canopy also results in large energy loss.

  13. Theoretical and experimental evaluation of solar chimney with thermal inertia; Evaluacion energetica teorica y experimental de una chimenea solar con enercia termica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marti Herrero, J.; Heras Celemin, M. R.

    2004-07-01

    A simple study has been realized about the solar chimney built at the LECE, using FLUENNT, a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software. The more important restrictions imposed to the simulation has bee: stationary state and no interaction between the solar chimney and the atmosphere. The results shows a discrepancy between the theory and experimental data, because the conditions employed on the simulation. The solar chimney has a concrete wall with thermal inertia, that is not represented on the simulation because the stationary state. It is necessary to research on more detailed dynamic studies using CDF, in order to obtain the energetic performance of a solar chimney with thermal inertia. (Author)

  14. Computational studies on the effect of geometric parameters on the performance of a solar chimney power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: This work is aimed at optimizing the geometry of the major components of a solar chimney power plant using ANSYS-CFX. The collector inlet opening, collector height, collector outlet diameter, the chimney throat diameter and the chimney divergence angle were varied for the same chimney height and collector diameter and the performance of the plant was studied in terms of the available power and an optimum configuration was obtained. The temperature and velocity variations in the collector and along the chimney height were also studied. - Highlights: • Geometry of the major components of a solar chimney power plant optimized using CFX. • Collector inlet opening, height, outlet diameter, chimney throat diameter, and the chimney divergence angle were varied. • Temperature and velocity variations and available power were obtained for different configurations. • Optimum values of collector outlet height and diameter and the divergence angle were obtained. - Abstract: A solar chimney power plant (SCPP) is a renewable-energy power plant that transforms solar energy into electricity. The SCPP consists of three essential elements – solar air collector, chimney tower, and wind turbine(s). The present work is aimed at optimizing the geometry of the major components of the SCPP using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software ANSYS-CFX to study and improve the flow characteristics inside the SCPP. The overall chimney height and the collector diameter of the SCPP were kept constant at 10 m and 8 m respectively. The collector inlet opening was varied from 0.05 m to 0.2 m. The collector outlet diameter was also varied from 0.6 m to 1 m. These modified collectors were tested with chimneys of different divergence angles (0°–3°) and also different chimney inlet openings of 0.6 m to 1 m. The diameter of the chimney was also varied from 0.25 m to 0.3 m. Based on the CFX computational results, the best configuration was achieved using the chimney with a divergence angle of 2° and chimney diameter of 0.25 m together with the collector opening of 0.05 m and collector outlet diameter of 1 m. The temperature inside the collector is higher for the lower opening resulting in a higher flow rate and power

  15. Analysis and feasibility of implementing solar chimney power plants in the Mediterranean region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyzes the feasibility of solar chimney power plants as an environmentally acceptable energy source for small settlements and islands of countries in the Mediterranean region. For the purpose of these analyses, two characteristic geographic locations (Split and Dubrovnik) in Croatia were chosen and simplified model for calculation of produced electric power output is also developed. These locations possess typical characteristics of the Mediterranean climate. The solar characteristics of the chosen geographic locations are shown along with characteristic meteorological data. A solar chimney (SC) power plant with a chimney height of 550 m and a collector roof diameter of 1250 m would produce 2.8-6.2 MW of power. The average annual electric power production of this SC power plant would range between 4.9 and 8.9 GWh/year, but in reality from 5.0 to 6.0 GWh/year in average. An approximate costs analysis, which included a total investment estimate, was performed. The levelized electricity cost was also calculated. It is found that the price of produced electric energy by solar chimney power plant in Mediterranean region is considerably higher compared to the other power sources. (author)

  16. An analytical and numerical study of solar chimney use for room natural ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassiouny, Ramadan; Koura, Nader S.A. [Department of Mechanical Power Engineering and Energy, Minia University, Minia 61111 (Egypt)

    2008-07-01

    The solar chimney concept used for improving room natural ventilation was analytically and numerically studied. The study considered some geometrical parameters such as chimney inlet size and width, which are believed to have a significant effect on space ventilation. The numerical analysis was intended to predict the flow pattern in the room as well as in the chimney. This would help optimizing design parameters. The results were compared with available published experimental and theoretical data. There was an acceptable trend match between the present analytical results and the published data for the room air change per hour, ACH. Further, it was noticed that the chimney width has a more significant effect on ACH compared to the chimney inlet size. The results showed that the absorber average temperature could be correlated to the intensity as: (T{sub w} = 3.51I{sup 0.461}) with an accepted range of approximation error. In addition the average air exit velocity was found to vary with the intensity as ({nu}{sub ex} = 0.013I{sup 0.4}). (author)

  17. Basement Kind Effects on Air Temperature of a Solar Chimney in Baghdad - Iraq Weather

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miqdam Tariq Chaichan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A solar updraft tower power plant (solar tower is a solar thermal power plant that utilizes a combination of solar air collector and central updraft tube to generate an induced convective flow which drives pressure staged turbines to generate electricity. This paper presents practical results of a prototype of a solar chimney with thermal mass, where the glass surface is replaced by transparence plastic cover. The study focused on chimney's basements kind effect on collected air temperatures. Three basements were used: concrete, black concrete and black pebbles basements. The study was conducted in Baghdad from August to November 2009. The results show that the best chimney efficiency attained was 49.7% for pebbles base. The highest collected air temperature reached was 49ºC when using the black pebbles basement also.also, the maximum basement temperature measured was 59ºC for black pebbles. High increaments in collected air temperatures were achieved in comparison with the ambient air temperatures for the three basement kinds. The highest temperature difference reached was 22ºC with the pebble ground.

  18. Solar chimney: A sustainable approach for ventilation and building space conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lal, S.,

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The residential and commercial buildings demand increase with rapidly growing population. It leads to the vertical growth of the buildings and needs proper ventilation and day-lighting. The natural air ventilation system is not significantly works in conventional structure, so fans and air conditioners are mandatory to meet the proper ventilation and space conditioning. Globally building sector consumed largest energy and utmost consumed in heating, ventilation and space conditioning. This load can be reduced by application of solar chimney and integrated approaches in buildings for heating, ventilation and space conditioning. It is a sustainable approach for these applications in buildings. The authors are reviewed the concept, various method of evaluation, modelings and performance of solar chimney variables, applications and integrated approaches.

  19. Design and simulation of a geothermal–solar combined chimney power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A geothermal–solar chimney power plant (GSCPP) is designed and analyzed. • Three different models, viz. full solar model, full geothermal model and geothermal–solar mode are compared. • Power generation under GSM is larger than the sum of FSM and FGM. • GSCPP can effectively solve the continuous operation problem of the SCPP. - Abstract: The solar chimney power plant (SCPP) is dominated by the solar radiation, and therefore its discontinuous operation is an unavoidable problem. In this paper, low temperature geothermal water is introduced into the SCPP for overcoming this problem. Based on a developed transient model, theoretical analyses are carried out to investigate the performance of the geothermal–solar chimney power plant (GSCPP) with main dimensions the same as the Manzanares prototype in Spain. Three operation models, viz. the full solar model, the full geothermal model and the geothermal–solar combined model are compared in typical summer and winter days and throughout the year. It is found that the GSCPP can attractively run in the GSM to deliver power continuously. Due to the ambient-dependant geothermal water outlet temperature, introducing the geothermal water makes greater contribution in winter days than in summer days, in the night than in the daytime. Power generation under GSM is larger than the sum of FSM and FGM. GSM is not the simple superposition of FSM and FGM, but makes better utilization of solar and geothermal energy. In addition, introducing high temperature and mass flow rate geothermal water can doubled and redoubled improve the GSCPP’s power capacity

  20. Evaluation of the potential of solar chimneys to drive natural ventilation in non domestic buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Swainson, M. J.

    1997-01-01

    The solar chimney allows natural ventilation to be achieved during periods when the wind velocities are low and the difference between internal and external air temperatures is minimal. The correct design of such building components requires that designers have appropriate design tools available to them that are both effective and easy to use. The aim of this project was to evaluate design tools currently available and if appropriate to provide a tool that would allow the ef...

  1. A scaling investigation of the laminar convective flow in a solar chimney for natural ventilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Scaling investigation of a solar chimney for ventilation is carried out. • Three distinct flow regimes are identified depending on the Rayleigh number. • Scaling relations are proposed to describe the transient flow development and are verified by numerical data. -- Abstract: The flow behavior due to natural convection of air (with a Prandtl number less than 1) inside a solar chimney with an imposed heat flux on a vertical absorber wall is investigated by a scaling analysis and a corresponding numerical simulation. Three distinct flow regimes are identified, one with a distinct thermal boundary layer and the other two without a distinct thermal boundary layer, depending on the Rayleigh number. The two regimes without a distinct thermal boundary layer are further classified into low and medium Rayleigh number sub-regimes respectively. These sub-regimes are characterized by conduction dominance in which the thermal boundary layer grows to encompass the entire width of the channel before convection becomes important. Flow development in each of these flow regimes and sub-regimes is characterized through transient scaling, and scaling correlations are developed to describe the temperature, flow velocity and mass flow rate, which characterize the ventilation performance of the solar chimney. The scaling arguments are validated by the corresponding numerical data

  2. Numerical investigation of a plume from a power generating solar chimney in an atmospheric cross flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xinping; Yang, Jiakuan; Ochieng, Reccab M.; Li, Xiangmei; Xiao, Bo

    2009-01-01

    A plume in an atmospheric cross flow from a power generating solar chimney is investigated using a three-dimensional numerical simulation model. The simulation model is validated by comparing the data calculated using our model with the numerical simulated results for one-dimensional buoyancy-driven compressible flow in a proposed 1500 m high solar chimney. In this paper, the parametric performances including static pressure, static temperature, density, streamline, and relative humidity field of the flow at the symmetry plane, at the cross plane 2700 m high and at the cross plane 750 m high in the geometry are simulated. It is found that relative humidity of the plume is greatly increased due to the jet of a plume into the surroundings colder than the plume. In addition to a great amount of tiny granules in the plume originating from the ground as effective condensation nuclei of moisture, a condensation would occur, a cloud system and precipitation e.g. rainfall, snow and hail would be formed around the plume when vapor is supersaturated. It is also found that with an increase in chimney height or relative humidity of atmosphere, or a reduction in wind velocity, relative humidity is increased, and increases the probability of precipitation and the potential precipitation areas. Furthermore, the latent heat released from the condensation of supersaturated vapor can aid the plume to keep on rising.

  3. Application of Solar Chimney Concept to Solve Potential Safety Issues of Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper two main events and their causes have been investigated and a potential alternative supporting system will be provided. The first event to be addressed is the Station Blackout (SBO) caused by the inherent unreliability of the Emergency Diesel Generators (EDGs) and Alternative AC (AAC) power sources. Different parameters affect The EDG unreliability; for instance, mechanical, operational, maintenance and surveillance. Those parameters will be analyzed and linked to plant safety and Core Damage Frequency (CDF). Also the AACs, the SBO diesel generators, will be studied and their operational requirements similarity with the EDGs will be discussed. The second event to be addressed is the Loss of Ultimate Heat Sink (LUHS) caused by the degradation of heat exchange effectiveness, that is, the poor heat transfer to the Ultimate Heat Sink (UHS). Different causes to such case were observed; intake lines blockages due to ice and foreign biological matters formation and oil spill near the heat sink causing the oil leakage to the heat exchangers tubes. The later cause, oil spill, has been given a special attention here due its potential effects for different nuclear power plants (NPPs) around the world; for example, Finland and the United Arab Emirates (UAE). For the Finnish case, the Finnish nuclear regulator (STUK) took already countermeasures for such scenario by introducing alternative heat sink, cooling towers, for the primary used heat sink, sea water, for one of its nuclear power plants. The abundance of the solar irradiation in the UAE region provides a perfect condition for the implementation of solar power applications. Utilizing this unique characteristic of that region may provide promising alternative and diverse options for solving potential safety related issues of their NPPs. The Solar Chimney Power Plant (SCPP) could be employed to serve as a supporting system to provide emergency power, in the case of SBO, and emergency cooling, in the case of LUHS. In addition to its dual functionality; it provides a complete independent and diverse means of safety functions supporting, a free carbon oxide power production source and allow following the world's trend toward the usage of renewable energy sources. The Solar Chimney Power Plant was suggested to be employed as a supporting system for NPPs to provide emergency power, in case of SBO, and emergency cooling, in case of LUHS. It provides a complete independent and diverse means of safety function supporting. Following the SCPP operation requirements of the availability of high solar irradiation, the UAE region provides a perfect environment for its implementation; furthermore, it can be linked to the under-construction NPPs at Al-Barakah site to deliver alternative emergency power and emergency cooling. Due to the inherent unreliability of the currently utilized EDGs and the AAC power sources, a postulated SBO event could affect the safety of the NPP in general, and for the specific case of the UAE NPPs, a LUHS caused by oil spill accident in the UHS could be experienced, given the massive oil related activates being performed in the Arabian Gulf. Comparing the similarity between Al-Barakah site and the Loviisa NPP in Finland; looking for solution and alternatives for the enhancement of their reactors safety should be considered by the UAE nuclear regulator

  4. Application of Solar Chimney Concept to Solve Potential Safety Issues of Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khasawneh, Khalid; PARK, Youn Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    In this paper two main events and their causes have been investigated and a potential alternative supporting system will be provided. The first event to be addressed is the Station Blackout (SBO) caused by the inherent unreliability of the Emergency Diesel Generators (EDGs) and Alternative AC (AAC) power sources. Different parameters affect The EDG unreliability; for instance, mechanical, operational, maintenance and surveillance. Those parameters will be analyzed and linked to plant safety and Core Damage Frequency (CDF). Also the AACs, the SBO diesel generators, will be studied and their operational requirements similarity with the EDGs will be discussed. The second event to be addressed is the Loss of Ultimate Heat Sink (LUHS) caused by the degradation of heat exchange effectiveness, that is, the poor heat transfer to the Ultimate Heat Sink (UHS). Different causes to such case were observed; intake lines blockages due to ice and foreign biological matters formation and oil spill near the heat sink causing the oil leakage to the heat exchangers tubes. The later cause, oil spill, has been given a special attention here due its potential effects for different nuclear power plants (NPPs) around the world; for example, Finland and the United Arab Emirates (UAE). For the Finnish case, the Finnish nuclear regulator (STUK) took already countermeasures for such scenario by introducing alternative heat sink, cooling towers, for the primary used heat sink, sea water, for one of its nuclear power plants. The abundance of the solar irradiation in the UAE region provides a perfect condition for the implementation of solar power applications. Utilizing this unique characteristic of that region may provide promising alternative and diverse options for solving potential safety related issues of their NPPs. The Solar Chimney Power Plant (SCPP) could be employed to serve as a supporting system to provide emergency power, in the case of SBO, and emergency cooling, in the case of LUHS. In addition to its dual functionality; it provides a complete independent and diverse means of safety functions supporting, a free carbon oxide power production source and allow following the world's trend toward the usage of renewable energy sources. The Solar Chimney Power Plant was suggested to be employed as a supporting system for NPPs to provide emergency power, in case of SBO, and emergency cooling, in case of LUHS. It provides a complete independent and diverse means of safety function supporting. Following the SCPP operation requirements of the availability of high solar irradiation, the UAE region provides a perfect environment for its implementation; furthermore, it can be linked to the under-construction NPPs at Al-Barakah site to deliver alternative emergency power and emergency cooling. Due to the inherent unreliability of the currently utilized EDGs and the AAC power sources, a postulated SBO event could affect the safety of the NPP in general, and for the specific case of the UAE NPPs, a LUHS caused by oil spill accident in the UHS could be experienced, given the massive oil related activates being performed in the Arabian Gulf. Comparing the similarity between Al-Barakah site and the Loviisa NPP in Finland; looking for solution and alternatives for the enhancement of their reactors safety should be considered by the UAE nuclear regulator.

  5. DESIGN NOTE: Ultrasonic velocity meter to evaluate the behaviour of a solar chimney

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmos, P.

    2004-07-01

    The addition of solar chimneys represents a substantial improvement in the natural ventilation scheme of a building and is thus an important component of so-called passive cooling, mainly in warm climates. In order to evaluate and/or control its performance, an accurate measurement of the velocity and temperature of the air passing through the duct is needed. Normal commercial equipment, developed for other applications, does not suit this particular scenario very well. An ultrasonic velocity meter has been specially designed, manufactured and tested inside an actual chimney, proving that this approach is a reliable solution to the problem of measuring the ventilation parameters. Here a detailed description of the instrument is given, along with a presentation of its first operational tests.

  6. Evaluation of the influence of soil thermal inertia on the performance of a solar chimney power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solar chimney power plants are a technology capable to generate electric energy through a wind turbine using the solar radiation as energy source; nevertheless, one of the objectives pursued since its invention is to achieve energy generation during day and night. Soil under the power plant plays an important role on the energy balance and heat transfer, due to its natural behavior as a heat storage system. The characteristics of the soil influence the ability of the solar chimney power plant to generate power continuously. Present work analyzes the thermodynamic behavior and the power output of a solar chimney power plant over a daily operation cycle taking into account the soil as a heat storage system, through a numerical modeling under non-steady conditions. The influence of the soil thermal inertia and the effects of soil compaction degree on the output power generation are studied. A sizeable increase of 10% in the output power is obtained when the soil compaction increases. -- Highlights: ? Solar chimney power plants are a technology capable to generate renewable energy from solar radiation. ? The ground under the solar chimney can act as a heat storage system. ? The soil thermal inertia plays a relevant role in a scenario where the plant operates continuously. ? A higher compaction of soil causes a relevant increase on total energy generation.

  7. Simulation of solar chimney power plant with an external heat source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solar chimney power plant is a sustainable source of power production. The key parameter to increase the system power output is to increase its size but the plant cannot operate during night hours. This study deals with simulation work to validate results of pilot plant at Manzanares and include the effects of waste heat from a gas turbine power plant in the system. The effects show continuous night operation, a 38.8 percent increase in power at 1000 W/m2 global solar irradiation at daytime and 1.14 percent increase in overall efficiency.

  8. Simulation of solar chimney power plant with an external heat source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islamuddin, Azeemuddin; Al-Kayiem, Hussain H.; Gilani, Syed I.

    2013-06-01

    Solar chimney power plant is a sustainable source of power production. The key parameter to increase the system power output is to increase its size but the plant cannot operate during night hours. This study deals with simulation work to validate results of pilot plant at Manzanares and include the effects of waste heat from a gas turbine power plant in the system. The effects show continuous night operation, a 38.8 percent increase in power at 1000 W/m2 global solar irradiation at daytime and 1.14 percent increase in overall efficiency.

  9. A First Approach to Natural Thermoventilation of Residential Buildings through Ventilation Chimneys Supplied by Solar Ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinando Salata

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The exploitation of natural ventilation is a good solution to improve buildings from an energetic point of view and to fulfill the requirements demanded by the thermohygrometric comfort and the air quality in enclosed spaces. Some past researches demonstrated how some devices, useful to this purpose, follow the principles of solar chimneys and are able to move air masses while exploiting the Archimedes thrust. The natural ventilation must be supplied by a flow moving upward, generated by a heat source performing at temperatures slightly higher than the one present in the environment. To have a minimum energetic effect, the heat can be extracted from solar ponds; solar ponds are able to collect and store solar energy in the geographical regions characterized by sufficient values of solar radiation. Thus it is possible, in summer, to provoke a nocturnal natural ventilation useful for the air change in indoor spaces (in those climatic areas where, during the night, there is a temperature gradient.

  10. Heat transfer by convection, conduction and radiation in solar chimney systems for ventilation of dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerical study by conjugate heat transfer is carried out of solar chimney systems for heating and ventilation of dwellings. Conservation equations are solved by finite difference-control volume numerical method. The governing parameters were: the Rayleigh numbers from 5 x 108 to 1011, the Prandtl number, Pr = 0.7, constant for air, the chimney aspect ratio, A = H/L from 6 to 15, the air channel width l'/L = 0.2 to 0.5, the air entrance port size, h/L = 0.167-0.667, the wall thickness l/L = 0.25-0.4, the conductivity ratio kr from 5 to 50 and the surface emissivity, ? from 0 to 1. The Nusselt number, the dimensionless volume flow rate V. and radiation heat flux ratio qr/qtot are calculated as a function of the governing parameters, and streamlines and isotherms are produced. The results show that the surface radiation modifies the flow and temperature fields, affects the Nusselt number and the volume flow rate, both in a positive way, and improves the ventilation performance of the chimneys

  11. The experimental design of solar heating thermoelectric generator with wind cooling chimney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We model an experimental design of thermal electrical generator. • Electrical parameters were collected under the solar radiation. • All the calculated values were obtained from collected data. • Generated power and electrical efficiency were changed by thermal gradient. - Abstract: In this paper we present an experimental design of new solar based thermoelectric generator with wind chimney. Presented generator mainly consists of four parts: a heat pipe with solar collector tube for solar heating, a wind chimney for cooling, a thermoelectric (TE) module for electricity generation and measurement devices-sensors. Presented generator based on experimental design. Aim of this experimental design is to show an alternative way for cheap and efficiently renewable energy producing. The most important features of presented generator are uncomplicated structure, efficiently and cheapness. This experimental design can be improved and used for domestic and commercial application. For this reason, main parts of system can be enhanced and system can be improved. To evaluate of presented generator we collected some experimental data on designed system. Then maximum output power, electrical efficiency and Seebeck coefficient are calculated from obtained data. Results of the measurement are displayed in the form of graphs and tables. Our experiment was carried out on 16th and 21th August, in Samsun, on the north coast of Turkey with the exact location 41°14?N 36°26?E with sea level. Collection of the data was performed from 8:30 a.m. to 4 p.m

  12. A parametric study on the feasibility of solar chimney power plants in North Cyprus conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A parametric for solar chimney power plants (SCPPs) feasibility approach is proposed. • We found the annual electricity production of a 30 MW SCPP to be 94.5 GW h. • We compare this production with the same capacity fossil fuel thermal power plant. • We assess the effect of varying some parameters on economic viability of the SCPP. • Capital expenditure plays a critical role in assessing SCPP economic feasibility. - Abstract: The present work investigates the feasibility of installing a solar chimney power plant (SCPP) under North Cyprus (NC) conditions. The method utilized for the simulations of electricity production was compared and verified by the experimental recordings of the prototype in Manzanares, Spain, before carrying out performance predictions for different plant sizes, collector diameters and chimney heights. The annual electricity production of a 30 MW hypothetical SCPP system is estimated to be 94.5 GW h, which can cater for annual electricity needs of over 22,128 residences without any CO2, NOx and SOx emissions. For an installation cost of €145 million, it was estimated that the savings-to-investment ratio (SIR) would be 1.14, indicating a marginal economic feasibility. It is important to find ways of reducing the installation cost in order to strengthen the economic viability of the system. Considering that, at present, fuel oil no. 6 is being used in NC to produce electricity; the SCPP would cause avoidance of 24,840 tonnes of CO2 delivered into the atmosphere annually, if it replaced an equivalently-sized conventional power unit. To identify the most feasible cost option for the installation of the SCPP, a parametric cost analysis is carried out by varying the parameters such as; capital investment costs, carbon dioxide emission trading system price, chimney height, collector diameter and SCPP plant capacity. In all cases, the effect of these parameters on the economic feasibility indicators, such as SIR, net present value (NPV) and internal rate of return (IRR) were calculated. The results showed that SCPP investment cost, capacity of the plant and chimney height are critical in assessing the project viability

  13. Passive cooling with solar updraft and evaporative downdraft chimneys. Interim report, June 15, 1984--March 1, 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mignon, G.V.; Cunningham, W.A.; Thompson, T.L.

    1985-12-31

    Computer models have been developed to describe the operation of both solar updraft and evaporative downdraft chimneys. Design studies are being conducted at the present time to use the towers for cooling an experimental, well instrumented, structure to study passive cooling in residential buildings. (MHR)

  14. Experimental investigation into heating and airflow in trombe walls and solar chimneys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trombe Walls and solar chimneys are examples of passive solar air heating systems. However, the airflow and thermal efficiency characteristics of this type of system are not well understood, and partly for this reason, they are not commonly utilised. This paper reports on an experimental investigation into buoyancy-driven convection in a test rig designed to simulate the operation of a passive solar collector. The test rig comprised a vertical open-ended channel, approximately 1a square, heated from one side. The channel depth could be varied from 20mm to 110mm, and heating inputs varied from 200W to 1000W. Temperatures and airflow rates were measured and recorded, to characterise both steady-state and transient performance. The principal findings are: 1. Time constants (for heating)ranged typically between 30 and 70 minutes. 2. Flow regimes were mainly laminar (Reynolds number varing from ?500 to ?4000, depending on heat input and channel depth. 3. The thermal efficiency (as a solar collector and the heat transfer coefficient were functions of heat input, and were not depended on the channel depth. 4. The mass flow rate through the channel increased bath as the heat input increased and as the channel depth increased. The paper presents these findings and discusses their implications in more detail.(Author)

  15. Thermodynamic analysis of a low-temperature waste heat recovery system based on the concept of solar chimney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A low grade waste heat recovery system based on the concept of solar chimney is proposed. • The effects of three key factors on the system performance are examined. • Thermodynamics analysis is to find a better way to utilize low grade heat source efficiently. - Abstract: The utilization of low-temperature waste heat draws more and more attention due to serious energy crisis nowadays. This paper proposes a low-temperature waste heat recovery system based on the concept of solar chimney. In the system, low-temperature waste heat is used to heat air to produce an air updraft in the chimney tower. The air updraft propels a turbine fixed at the base of the chimney tower to convert waste heat into electricity. The mathematical model of the system is established based on first law and second law of thermodynamics. Hot water is selected as the representative of low-temperature waste heat sources for researching. The heat source temperature, ambient air temperature and area of heat transfer are examined to evaluate their effects on the system performance such as velocity of updraft, mass flow rate of air, power output, conversion efficiency, and exergy efficiency. The velocity of air demonstrates a better stability than the mass flow rate of air and the pressure difference when temperature of heat source, ambient air temperature or area of heat transfer changes

  16. Numerical analysis of flow and heat transfer characteristics in solar chimney power plants with energy storage layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerical simulations have been performed to analyze the characteristics of heat transfer and air flow in the solar chimney power plant system with an energy storage layer. Different mathematical models for the collector, the chimney and the energy storage layer have been established, and the effect of solar radiation on the heat storage characteristic of the energy storage layer has been analyzed. The numerical simulation results show that: (1) the heat storage ratio of the energy storage layer decreases firstly and then increases with the solar radiation increasing from 200 W/m2 to 800 W/m2; (2) the relative static pressure decreases while the velocity increases significantly inside the system with the increase of solar radiation; (3) the average temperature of the chimney outlet and the energy storage layer may increase significantly with the increase of solar radiation. In addition, the temperature gradient of the storage medium may increase, which results in an increase of energy loss from the bottom of the energy storage layer

  17. A cost-benefit analysis of power generation from commercial reinforced concrete solar chimney power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We develop an economic model different from related models. • We evaluate the initial investment cost of a plant built in northwest China. • We analyze the cost and benefit of a plant built in northwest China. • By the sensitivity analysis, we examine the sensitivity of TNPV to many parameters. - Abstract: This paper develops a model different from existing models to analyze the cost and benefit of a reinforced concrete solar chimney power plant (RCSCPP) built in northwest China. Based on the model and some assumptions for values of parameters, this work calculates total net present value (TNPV) and the minimum electricity price in each phase by dividing the whole service period into four phases. The results show that the minimum electricity price in the first phase is higher than the current market price of electricity, but the minimum prices in the other phases are far less than the current market price. The analysis indicates that huge advantages of the RCSCPP over coal-fired power plants can be embodied in phases 2–4. In addition, the sensitivity analysis performed in this paper discovers TNPV is very sensitive to changes in the solar electricity price and inflation rate, but responds only slightly to changes in carbon credits price, income tax rate and interest rate of loans. Our analysis predicts that RCSCPPs have very good application prospect. To encourage the development of RCSCPPs, the government should provide subsidy by setting higher electricity price in the first phase, then lower electricity price in the other phases

  18. Performance Investigation of a Chimney-Dependent Solar Crop Dryer for Different Inlet Areas with a Fixed Outlet Area

    OpenAIRE

    Afriyie, J. K.; Bart-Plange, A.

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes the performance of a direct-mode solar crop dryer with a solar chimney. Tests were performed for three differently inclined drying-chamber roofs, each with three inlet areas for a given exit area. Cassava was used as the test crop. The results show that the increase in the inlet area for a given exit area can improve the ventilation in the dryer. However, this does not necessarily improve the drying performance of the direct-mode dryer. A wide inlet area for a given exit a...

  19. The solar chimney. Power from solar radiation on an industrial scale; Das Aufwindkraftwerk. Strom aus der Sonne im grosstechnischen Massstab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlaich, J. [Schlaich und Partner, Beratende Ingenieure im Bauwesen, Stuttgart (Germany)

    1998-04-01

    The author looks at the relationships between population growth, standard of living, gross social product and energy. Development needs energy. Energy consumption grows in proportion to gross social product or prosperity, while population growth goes down exponentially. If distribution-related armed conflicts and fundamentalism are to be avoided, developing countries must be provided with energy enabling their peoples to live in dignity. Even though the required amount of energy is much smaller than the energy demand of industrialized countries, it means that world energy consumption will soar to several times what it is now. Where should this energy come from without causing the environment to collapse (because developing countries lack funds for environmental protection) and without threats to safety from nuclear power stations (because of inadequate knowledge of safety standards)? Poor countries have abundant solar radiation and large desert areas; so it is obvious to use technologically mature, large solar power plants, especially solar chimneys. They are described by means of some detailed drawings and graphs. A solar chimney corresponds in principle to a hydro-electric power station but uses hot air instead of water. Heat stored during the daytime is released during the nighttime to a 200 MW vertical-axis turbine, permitting non-stop 24-hour operation. (AKV) [Deutsch] Im Beitrag beleuchtet der Verfasser die Zusammenhaenge zwischen Bevoelkerungszuwachs, Lebensstandard, Bruttosozialprodukt und Energie. Entwicklung braucht Energie. Proportional zum Bruttosozialprodukt oder Wohlstand waechst der Energieverbrauch, waehrend der Bevoelkerungszuwachs exponentiell sinkt. Um Verteilungskriege und Fundamentalismus zu verhindern, muss den Entwicklungslaendern Energie bereitgestellt werden, so dass ein menschenwuerdiges Leben ermoeglicht wird. Obwohl diese Menge wesentlich niedriger als die den Industrielaendern bereitgestellte Energie anzusetzen ist, wuerde damit der Weltenergieverbrauch um ein Mehrfaches nach oben schnellen. Wo soll diese Energiemenge herkommen, ohne Umweltkollaps (fehlende Gelder bei den Entwicklungslaendern fuer Umweltschutz) und ohne Gefahr fuer die Sicherheit (mangels Kenntnissen der Sicherheitsstrukturen beim Einsatz von Kernkraftwerken)? Da die armen Laender mit hoher Sonneneinstrahlung und grossen Wuestengebieten bedacht sind, bietet sich die Verwendung von ausgereiften solartechnischen Grosskraftwerken in erster Linie von Auftriebskraftwerken an. Diese werden an Hand von einigen Detailzeichnungen und Grafiken beschrieben. Ein Auftriebskraftwerk entspricht prinzipiell einem Wasserkraftwerk, arbeitet aber mit warmer Luft statt Wasser. Durch Waermespeicherung tagsueber und Abgabe in der Nacht an eine 200 MW Vertikalachsenturbine, wird ein kontinuierlicher 24-Stunden-Betrieb garantiert. (AKF)

  20. Mathematical modelling and validation of the drying process in a Chimney-Dependent Solar Crop Dryer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? The simulation code predicts temperatures to within 1.5% of recorded data. ? The ventilation is predicted to within 5% accuracy. ? Effects of heat inertia cause the actual drying path to deviate from the simulated path. ? The two paths converge in the end with a final moisture content prediction to within 10%. ? The simulation code can be used to compare and refine the dryer designs for optimum drying performance. - Abstract: A simulation procedure describing the drying process within a Chimney-Dependent Solar Crop Dryer (CDSCD) has been developed. The simulation follows the authors’ experimental work on the effect of varying drying chamber roof inclination on the ventilation and drying processes, and their work on the development of simulation code to help optimise ventilation in such dryers. The current paper presents the modelling and subsequent validation of the drying process inside the dryer, to come out with a design tool for the CDSCD. The work considers the height of the crop shelf above the drying-chamber base, crop resistance to airflow and the shading on the drying-chamber base and their effects on the drying process. The under-load condition temperatures and velocities are predicted to within a relative difference of 1.5% and 10%, respectively of the observed values. Even though the heat inertia of the physical model causes deviation between the predicted drying path and the observed drying path, the two paths tend to converge at the end of each drying cycle, with a general prediction to within 10% relative difference of the observed crop moisture content. The validation results show that the simulation code can serve as an effective tool for comparing and refining the designs of the CDSCD for optimum drying performance

  1. Passive solar construction handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, E.; Evans, D.; Gardstein, C.

    1981-08-01

    Many of the basic elements of passive solar design are reviewed. The unique design constraints presented in passive homes are introduced and many of the salient issues influencing design decisions are described briefly. Passive solar construction is described for each passive system type: direct gain, thermal storage wall, attached sunspace, thermal storage roof, and convective loop. For each system type, important design and construction issues are discussed and case studies illustrating designed and built examples of the system type are presented. Construction details are given and construction and thermal performance information is given for the materials used in collector components, storage components, and control components. Included are glazing materials, framing systems, caulking and sealants, concrete masonry, concrete, brick, shading, reflectors, and insulators. The Load Collector Ratio method for estimating passive system performance is appended, and other analysis methods are briefly summarized. (LEW)

  2. Establish feasibility for providing passive cooling with solar updraft and evaporate downdraft chimneys. Final report, June 15, 1984--December 31, 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, W.A.; Mignon, G.V.; Thompson, T.L.

    1987-12-31

    Natural draft towers can be used for cooling and ventilating structures. From an operational perspective, the downdraft evaporatively cooled tower is preferred for a dry climate. Solar chimneys, when used alone, tend to require an excessively large solar collector area when appreciable quantities of air must be moved. When used in combination with a downdraft tower, the roof and attic of buildings may assist the solar chimney and their use becomes more attractive. Both a frame building and a greenhouse were successfully cooled during this program. The economics of the downdraft tower compare favorably with conventional evaporative cooling for some applications.

  3. Establish feasibility for providing passive cooling with solar updraft and evaporative downdraft chimneys. Final report, June 15, 1984--December 31, 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, W.A.; Mignon, G.V.; Thompson, T.L.

    1987-12-31

    Natural draft towers can be used for cooling and ventilating structures. From an operational perspective, the downdraft evaporatively cooled tower is preferred for a dry climate. Solar chimneys, when used alone, tend to require an excessively large solar collector area when appreciable quantities of air must be moved. When used in combination with a downdraft tower, the roof and attic of buildings may assist the solar chimney and their use becomes more attractive. Both a frame building and a greenhouse were successfully cooled during this program. The economics of the downdraft tower compare favorably with conventional evaporative cooling for some application.

  4. Numerical simulation of an innovated building cooling system with combination of solar chimney and water spraying system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabani, Ramin; Faghih, Ahmadreza K.; Rabani, Mehrdad; Rabani, Mehran

    2014-05-01

    In this study, passive cooling of a room using a solar chimney and water spraying system in the room inlet vents is simulated numerically in Yazd, Iran (a hot and arid city with very high solar radiation). The performance of this system has been investigated for the warmest day of the year (5 August) which depends on the variation of some parameters such as water flow rate, solar heat flux, and inlet air temperature. In order to get the best performance of the system for maximum air change and also absorb the highest solar heat flux by the absorber in the warmest time of the day, different directions (West, East, North and South) have been studied and the West direction has been selected as the best direction. The minimum amount of water used in spraying system to set the inside air averaged relative humidity <65 % is obtained using trial and error method. The simulation results show that this proposed system decreases the averaged air temperature in the middle of the room by 9-14 °C and increases the room relative humidity about 28-45 %.

  5. Furnaces and chimneys. Correct planning and construction of room heating systems. 7. rev. ed.; Oefen und Kamine. Raumheizungen fachgerecht planen und bauen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, Michael; Weber, Juergen (eds.); Bochmann, Werner; Huppmann, Ralf; Pfestorf, Karl Heinz; Traeger, Katja; Willnat, Reinhold

    2011-07-01

    The book is a completely revised new edition of the standard reference manual 'Kacheloefen und Kamine handwerksgerecht gebaut' by Karl Heinz Pfestorf. It provides practical information on calculation, design and construction of furnaces and chimneys. It comprises step-by-step instructions, solutions to common problems, and pertinent regulations and standards. The new TR OL was taken into account. Subjects: Legal fundamentals; Fundamentals of heat transfer and fluid dynamics; Fundamentals of safety requirements; Energy sources (fuels); Combustion and combustion air; Open chimneys and heating chimneys, hot-air furnaces, combined furnaces, basic furnaces; Chimneys, dimensioning, damage in furnace systems. [German] Dieses Buch ist eine vollstaendige Ueberarbeitung des Standardwerks ''Kacheloefen und Kamine handwerksgerecht gebaut'' von Karl Heinz Pfestorf. Es vermittelt praxisnah die Fachkenntnisse zum fachgerechten Berechnen, Konstruieren und dem darauf basierenden ordnungsgemaessen Bauen von Oefen und Kaminen. Das Buch enthaelt Handlungsanleitungen, Loesungsvorschlaege fuer haeufig auftretende Probleme und Verweise auf geltende Vorschriften und Normen. Bei der Ueberarbeitung wurde die neue TR OL beruecksichtigt. Folgende Themen werden behandelt: Gesetzliche Grundlagen, Grundlagen der Waerme- und Stroemungslehre; Grundlegende Sicherheitsanforderungen; verschiedene Energietraeger (Brennstoffe); Verbrennung und Verbrennungsluft; Offene Kamine und Heizkamine, Warmluftoefen, Kombioefen, Grundoefen; Schornsteine, feuertechnische Bemessung, Schaeden an Feuerungsanlagen.

  6. Passive-solar construction handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, E.; Evans, D.; Gardstein, C.

    1981-02-01

    Many of the basic elements of passive solar design are reviewed. Passive solar construction is covered according to system type, each system type discussion including a general discussion of the important design and construction issues which apply to the particular system and case studies illustrating designed and built examples of the system type. The three basic types of passive solar systems discussed are direct gain, thermal storage wall, and attached sunspace. Thermal performance and construction information is presented for typical materials used in passive solar collector components, storage components, and control components. Appended are an overview of analysis methods and a technique for estimating performance. (LEW)

  7. From large natural draft cooling tower shells to chimneys of solar upwind power plants

    OpenAIRE

    KRAETZIG, Wilfried B.; HARTE, Reinhard; MONTAG, Ulrich; WOERMANN, Ralf

    2009-01-01

    Natural draft cooling towers (NDCTs) presently form the world-largest RC shell structures, solar updraft power plants (SUPPs) will do this in future. The paper starts with explanations of the working principles of NDCTs and SUPPs. In industrialized countries with strong legal emphasis on sustainable power production technologies, NDCTs are widely spread, while SUPPs represent future solar power generation concepts in the world¿s tropical areas, using solar irradiation as power plant fuel. Con...

  8. Electricity production with low grade heat in thermal power plants by design improvement of a hybrid dry cooling tower and a solar chimney concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A system of a dry cooling tower and a solar chimney are recombined. • The hot flue gas is injected in the hybrid tower to maximize the power output. • Effects of the angle of the tower walls (convergent or divergent) are studied. • Effects of the collector roof slope and base ground slope are studied. • The thermal efficiency of a 250 MW power plant is increased more than 0.5%. - Abstract: In this study, an improved concept design is presented to increase the thermal efficiency of the Rankine cycle of a typical steam power plant by combining a solar chimney and a dry cooling tower. The sources of the wind energy generation, include: the rejected heat from condenser to the air entering dry cooling tower, solar radiation and the airlift pumping effect on the air flow created by the stack hot flue gas which is injected into the hybrid tower as a novel change. This research primarily focuses on the Shahid Rajaee 250 MW steam power plant to determine the velocity of generated flow at the turbine inlet; a numerical finite volume code was employed for a dry cooling tower having a base diameter and a chimney height of 250 and 200 m, respectively. Calculations have been iterated for different angles of chimney walls, slopes of collectors and the base ground to find their effects on the output power. A range of 360 kW to more than 4.4 MW power is captured by the wind turbine by changing the hybrid tower geometrical parameters. Obtained results reveal a maximum of 0.538% increase for the thermal efficiency of the fossil fuel power plant

  9. Floating Solar Chimney Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Papageorgiou, Christos D

    2010-01-01

    Although electricity generation is a major carbon dioxide producer we should notice that electricity can replace all the energy activities related to fossil fuelled technologies. Thus a solution to the global warming is possible if we succeed to generate zero emission clean electricity.

  10. Análisis de la ventilación inducida en un espacio habitable, mediante un sistema de Chimenea Hidro-Solar / Analisys of Ventilation induced in a Livable Space through a hydro-solar Chimney System

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    H, Pérez Castro; J, Flores; A, López.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available El Cuerpo Académico Arquitectura y Tecnología Ambiental de la Universidad Juárez Autónoma de Tabasco, desarrolla la Línea de Investigación Arquitectura y Medio Ambiente, realiza análisis sobre el diseño y la arquitectura bioclimática, teniendo como premisa la sustentabilidad entre usuario, entorno y [...] espacio construido. Este último, en sitios con clima cálido húmedo, presenta incomodidad térmica debido a los altos índices de temperatura y humedad relativa, condición mitigada mediante equipos de aire acondicionado que repercuten en el gasto energético y la economía del usuario. De acuerdo con la arquitectura bioclimática una técnica pasiva para este hecho es la ventilación. La presente investigación es la tercera etapa de una propuesta de ventilación inducida. Consistió en la simulación del sistema denominado Chimenea Hidro-Solar, empleando tubería de cobre y agua como elementos captores de calor. Se planteó el diseño, construcción y evaluación del prototipo. Se construyeron modelos, del espacio proyectado y de referencia, a escala 1:6, observando las dimensiones establecidas por el Reglamento de Construcción para una recámara. El análisis se centró en obtener, valorar y categorizar los datos de magnitud del viento que conllevaron a evaluar el comportamiento del espacio. Los datos validaron el sistema propuesto, proporcionando alternativas de acondicionamiento pasivo al espacio habitable. Abstract in english The academic group called Architecture and Environmental Technology of the Universidad Juárez Autónoma de Tabasco, develops Line Architecture and Environmental Research, producing analyzes on the design and bioclimatic architecture, with the premise of sustainability between user space and built env [...] ironment. The latter, presents thermal discomfort due to the high levels of temperature and relative humidity, condition is mitigated by air conditioners that affect energy expenditure and the economy user. According to the bioclimatic architecture a passive technique for this, is ventilation. This research is the third stage of a proposal on ventilator-induced. It consisted of the simulation system called Hydro-Solar Chimney, using copper tubing and water and heat sensors elements. The steps contemplated the design, construction and evaluation of the prototype. Models were constructed, the projected space and reference, 1:6 scale, noting the dimensions set by the Building Code of the State of Tabasco. The analysis focused on obtaining, evaluating and categorizing the magnitude of the wind data that led to evaluate the behavior within the space. Schematized data validated the proposed system, providing passive conditioning alternative to living space.

  11. Procedimentos estimativos do potencial de uso de chaminés solares para promover a ventilação natural em edificações de baixa altura / Procedures for estimating the potential use of solar chimneys for natural ventilation enhancement in low-rise buildings

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leticia de Oliveira, Neves; Maurício, Roriz.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A ventilação natural é uma das estratégias mais importantes para o condicionamento térmico passivo de ambientes internos de edificações, podendo ocorrer pela ação dos ventos, pelo efeito chaminé ou pela combinação de ambos. Em áreas urbanizadas, a velocidade do vento é sensivelmente reduzida pelos o [...] bstáculos locais, tornando o efeito chaminé uma alternativa de projeto mais viável, pois independe dos ventos. Este artigo tem por objetivo apresentar e discutir procedimentos estimativos do potencial de uso de chaminés solares para edificações de baixa altura, localizadas em regiões de baixa latitude. Desenvolveram-se previsões teóricas, através de um modelo matemático e de simulação computacional. Realizou-se um processo de calibração destes modelos, utilizando como referência os resultados do monitoramento experimental de uma célula de teste. O processo baseou-se na análise comparativa de algumas variáveis selecionadas, considerando-se dados de temperatura superficial, temperatura do ar e vazão volumétrica no interior da chaminé. Os resultados indicaram que os modelos teóricos têm potencial de aplicação na avaliação do desempenho de chaminés solares, especialmente o modelo de simulação, em que foram observadas diferenças inferiores a 20% entre resultados medidos e calculados. Abstract in english Natural ventilation is one of the most important strategies for passive cooling of indoor environments. It can occur by wind forces, by stack effect or by a combination of both strategies. The second choice tends to be more effective in urban areas, where there are obstacles that block or significan [...] tly reduce wind speed. This paper analyses prediction procedures for the potential use of solar chimneys in low-rise buildings at low latitude locations. Theoretical predictions were developed using a mathematical model and computer simulation. A calibration procedure was used, based on results obtained through an experimental set up. The procedure consisted in a comparative analysis of chosen variables, considering data of surface temperature, air temperature and volumetric flow rate inside the chimney channel. The results confirmed the great potential of applicability of the theoretical models in the performance analysis of solar chimneys, especially the simulation model, which presented differences lower than 20% between measured and estimated results.

  12. Chimney Open Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rucinski, R.; /Fermilab

    1993-10-04

    In the process of developing a design for the design report, many side questions or comments arose which were not completely answered or investigated because the work was outside the scope of developing a base design. I have pored over my meeting notes and tried to list all such chimney 'open issues' in this engineering note.

  13. Chimney technique; Schornsteintechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wollenberg, G.

    1997-11-01

    Modern low temperature plants or calorific value equipments are now standard in building new dwellings. However, an important part of the whole system of the combustion plant, chimney technique, is often ignored. But modern heating systems are dependent on suitable exhaust gas technique. (orig.) [Deutsch] Moderne Niedertemperaturanlagen oder Brennwertgeraete sind beim Wohnungsneubau mittlerweile Standard. Allerdings wird oft ein wesentlicher Teil des Gesamtsystems Feuerungsanlage ausser Acht gelassen: die Schornsteintechnik. Aber gerade die modernen Heizsysteme sind unabdingbar auf die passende Abgasanlagentechnologie angewiesen. (orig.)

  14. Fairy chimneys in Peru

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2011-01-01

    Erosion creates beautiful landscapes. A large part of them is known just by the local population. Google Maps can help in locating the places, study them and start any project for preservation. An interesting example is given by a landscape of fairy chimneys in Peru, near San Pedro de Larcay. It is remarkable the fact that some of them have been adapted as dwelling places.

  15. Advanced Technology Solar Telescope Construction: Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimmele, Thomas R.; McMullin, J.; Keil, S.; Goode, P.; Knoelker, M.; Kuhn, J.; Rosner, R.; ATST Team

    2012-05-01

    The 4m Advance Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) on Haleakala will be the most powerful solar telescope and the world’s leading ground-based resource for studying solar magnetism that controls the solar wind, flares, coronal mass ejections and variability in the Sun’s output. The ATST will provide high resolution and high sensitivity observations of the dynamic solar magnetic fields throughout the solar atmosphere, including the corona at infrared wavelengths. With its 4 m aperture, ATST will resolve magnetic features at their intrinsic scales. A high order adaptive optics system delivers a corrected beam to the initial set of five state-of-the-art, facility class instrumentation located in the coude laboratory facility. Photopheric and chromospheric magnetometry is part of the key mission of four of these instruments. Coronal magnetometry and spectroscopy will be performed by two of these instruments at infrared wavelengths. The ATST project has transitioned from design and development to its construction phase. Site construction is expected to begin in April 2012. The project has awarded design and fabrication contracts for major telescope subsystems. A robust instrument program has been established and all instruments have passed preliminary design reviews or critical design reviews. A brief overview of the science goals and observational requirements of the ATST will be given, followed by a summary of the project status of the telescope and discussion of the approach to integrating instruments into the facility. The National Science Foundation (NSF) through the National Solar Observatory (NSO) funds the ATST Project. The NSO is operated under a cooperative agreement between the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. (AURA) and NSF.

  16. Effects of acid smut production on Design of industrial chimneys

    OpenAIRE

    Shahin, M. M

    1990-01-01

    Atmospheric, mechanical and chemical kinds of attacks on industrial chimneys constructed of brickwork, concrete and steel are discussed. Acid smut production in chimneys is described. Two of the factors, widely regarded as critical, to avoid acid condensation are identified as thermal insulation and flue gas velocity. The measurements taken by several researchers studying these factors are reviewed. The conslusions of this paper suggests that the 6 mm annular air gap around the steel shell, a...

  17. Solar building construction. Town planning - construction planning. 2. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book discusses the problems of solar energy use under the following aspects: Town planing; Typology of green solar architecture; Typologie of solar architecture; Vegetation in green solar architecture; Planning and simulation; Building materials; Ventilation, illumination; Research projects. (HW)

  18. Dimensioning, construction and commissioning of a coffee beans drying system with use of solar collectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A system of low-cost solar drying of coffee beans is dimensioned, built and commissioned by using solar collectors based on recycled aluminum cans. The information is collected from literature about the drying of coffee, types of drying and the various types of solar dryers.The coffee beans drying system is conceptualized and sized based on a solar collector constructed of aluminum cans as solar radiation absorbing material. The grain drying system is then built in coffee benefit CoopeTarrazu to all provided by the company and help materials and labor facilities. A guide to implementation of solar drying technology with general information is tailored to implement, select, build and maintain a solar grain dryer in Central America. The launch of the drying system was made by checking the proper functioning of the system and measurement instruments variables selected to calculate the efficiency of the system. The drying system is tested with a load of 45 kg of coffee bean, using a flow of air through natural convection to operate the system with the exclusive use of renewable energy. The grain is drying from a humidity of 50% (b.n), up to a humidity between 11% and 13% (b.n), which is the range generally used for the safe storage of grain. Facts of solar radiation, temperature, air velocity, relative humidity and grain humidity were taken to determine the behavior of the sized system. The maximum thermal efficiency achieved by the solar collector is determined constructed of 18%, with an air flow of 0.013 kg/s and a solar radiation 1138 W/m2. The average drying efficiency during experimentation was 17.8%, which is among the range of efficiencies for the type of drying equipment. Best thermal efficiencies were obtained from the solar collector built that the commercial solar collector compared. Controlling the flow of air into the equipment is recommended in order to improve the thermal efficiency and drying equipment, using blowers, fans or induced draft chimney. (author)

  19. Virtual Solar Observatory Distributed Query Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurman, J. B.; Dimitoglou, G.; Bigart, R. S.; Davey, A. R.; Hill, F.; Martens, P. C.; Tian, K. Q.; Wampler, S.

    2003-12-01

    Through a prototype implementation (Tian et al., this meeting) the VSO has already demonstrated the capability of unifying geographically distributed data sources following the Web Services paradigm and utilizing mechanisms such as the Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP). So far, four participating sites (Stanford, Montana State University, National Solar Observatory and the Solar Data Analysis Center) permit Web-accessible, time-based searches that allow browse access to a number of diverse data sets. Our latest work includes the extension of the simple, time-based queries to include numerous other searchable observation parameters. For VSO users, this extended functionality enables more refined searches. For the VSO, it is a proof of concept that more complex, distributed queries can be effectively constructed and that results from heterogeneous, remote sources can be synthesized and presented to users as a single, virtual data product.

  20. Psychology and photography: chimneys dreaming and chimneys warriors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilde Giani Gallino

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article covers two aspects related to Psychology and Art. The first aspect concerns the similarities found between photography and various Schools of experimental psychology. For instance, the scientists of Psychology of ethological theory, and Non-verbal communication (NVC, observe with particular methodologies the non-verbal messages that animals and humans transmit to their peers through expressions, posture, gestures. The same is done by photographers (those who use the “camera” with a good knowledge of the medium and a “photographic  eye” when they look around, careful to catch an expression, any unusual attitude, or a gesture of friendship. Another School of psychology, the Gestalpsychologie (Gestalt: form, figure, configuration, attributes a decisive value to the perception of space, the foreground and the background, the perspective and vanishing points, the contrast between black and white. All aspects that effectively interest psychologists just as much as photographers. Finally, the second aspect relates to the art of Antony Gaudì and makes some hypothesis about the personality and behavior of the great architect, with regard to the construction of two houses, "Casa Batllo" and "Casa Mila": particularly because of the configuration or Gestalt of the "chimneys" that dominate the two buildings. In this study, cooperate each other psychological analysis and the art of photography. The last enables us to study also the details of the work of Gaudì, as can be seen in the pictures of this essay.

  1. Corrosion at system chimneys made of CrNi-steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pajonk, Gunther [Institute of Materials Testing of Northrhine-Westfalia, D-44285 Dortmund (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Names like 'chimney' und 'funnel' usually identify flue gas devices made of bricks. Much less known is the fact that chimney elements are still manufactured from alloys. The following article describes the particular demands ruled by legislation on building pro-ducts, just as the consequences resulting from corrosion loads by flue gas condensates. Difficulties caused by manufacturing and construction are primarily discussed. Furthermore a test procedure is introduced that allows to catch and correlate corrosion loads and technical designs systematically to corrosion behaviour and service life of flue gas devices. For the first time a tool for active quality assurance has been given by this test rig allowing to recognize construction errors systematically. This way, manufacturers of system chimneys and flue liners are enabled to optimize their products applications going ahead to the respective requests of the market. (authors)

  2. Novel concept for producing energy integrating a solar collector with a man made mountain hollow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of the solar chimney thermal power technology was proven with the successful operation of the Manzanares prototype built in the 1980s. However, all previous attempts at producing energy from a commercial solar chimney thermal power plant on a large scale have failed because of bad engineering and safety. A novel concept for producing energy by integrating a solar collector with a mountain hollow is presented and described. Solar energy is collected in the collector and heats the ground, which is used to store heat energy and heat the indoor air. Then, the hot air is forced by the pressure difference between it and the ambient air to move along the tilted segment and up the vertical segment of the 'chimney', driving the turbine generators to generate electricity. The mountain hollow, formed by excavation in a large-elevation mountain, can avoid the safety issues of erecting a gigantic concrete chimney, which is needed for commercial solar chimney thermal power plants. Furthermore, it can also save a great amount of construction materials for constructing a robust chimney structure and reduce the energy cost to a level less than that of a clean coal power plant, providing a good solution to the reclamation and utilization of undeveloped mountains, especially in mountainous countries

  3. Solar Glazing Tips for School Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Glazing can be optimized to enhance passive solar heating and daylight harvesting by exceeding the prescriptive limits of the energy code. This savings can be garnered without the high cost of external overhangs or expensive glazing products. The majority of savings from solar glazing are attributable to the increase in solar heating and…

  4. Design and Construction of a Passive Solar Power Clothing Dryer

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Alahmer; Mohammed Al-Dabbas

    2014-01-01

    This manuscript presents the design and construction of the energy efficient, time saving, cost effective of passive solar powered clothes dryer. This manuscript begins with a derivation of mathematical model represents of solar dryer followed with an analysis of the elements necessary for successfully designing the various components of a solar dryer. The solar drying performance achieved an average drying rate of 0.35 kg/h and drying time of 3 h in a typical day, even under local low ambien...

  5. Analysis of Self-Supporting Chimney

    OpenAIRE

    Rajkumar,; Vishwanath. B .Patil,

    2013-01-01

    Chimneys are tall structures and the major loads acting on these are self weight of the structure, wind load, live load due to lining, earthquake load & temperature loads. In this paper a RC chimneys will be designed considering dead load, wind load and earthquake load. The Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) design codes procedures will be used for the design of chimney. The present paper discusses the parametric study of RC chimney which is made by obtaining the results from software for diffe...

  6. Microbial mediated formation of low-temperature hydrothermal barite chimneys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorseth, I. H.; Steen, I. H.; Eickmann, B.; Dahle, H.; Baumberger, T.; Peters, M.; Strauss, H.; Pedersen, R. B.

    2012-12-01

    A low-temperature (20 degrees C) venting area with numerous active and extinct barite chimneys (up to 1 m tall) are located on the eastern flank of the hydrothermal mound of Loki's Castle black smoker field at the Mohns-Knipovich bend of the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge. The active barite chimneys are covered by white mats containing abundant microbial cells and extracellular material with attached barite crystals. Within the chimneys microbial cells are partly embedded in barite and crystals are covered by extracellular material. These observations indicate that the microbial material serve as a substrate for nucleation and precipitation of barite with the potential of having an important control on the construction of the chimneys. In addition, the presence of framboidal pyrite in black interior flow channels and in the underlying hydrothermal sediment further suggests that the chimney formation is linked to microbial sulphate reduction (MSR). To further investigate the relationship between chimney growth and microbial activity we used a combination of biomolecular and isotope analyses. Pyrosequencing of PCR amplicons of 16S rRNA followed by taxonomic classification revealed that sulphide oxidizers (Sulfurimonas) within the Epsilonproteobacteria dominate the microbial mats and the white barite of the chimney wall. In the black interior flow channel a more diverse microbial community was observed indicating methane, sulphur and ammonia oxidation as well as heterotrophic processes. Multiple isotope analyses (?18O, ?34S, ?33S) reveal that the barite chimneys precipitated from a fluid that was modified by subseafloor MSR in the sulphide mound. This is supported by the sulphur isotope signature of the framboidal pyrite, pore water, and mono- and disulphides extracted from the hydrothermal sediment as well as the biomolecular data. We suggest that the MSR was triggered by mixing of the H2 and CH4 rich high-temperature (320 degrees C) fluids and percolating seawater, which resulted in remobilization of hydrothermal barite deposited as debris and plume fall out in the mound. The combined results strongly suggest that the formation of the barite chimneys is a result of complex seafloor and subseafloor geobio-interactions.

  7. Solar thermal systems successful planning and construction

    CERN Document Server

    Peuser, Dr Felix A; Schnauss, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Solar Thermal Systems summarizes the theoretical and practical knowledge gained from over 20 years of research, implementation and operation of thermal solar installations. This work provides answers to a variety of key questions by examining current solar installations, drawing upon past experiences and making proposals for future planning.- how do system components and materials behave under continuous operation?- which components have proven themselves and how are they used properly?- what are the causes of defects and how can they be avoided?- how long is the service life of modern solar i

  8. Solar power plants and construction law; Ordnung muss sein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dany, Christian

    2012-11-07

    Slowly, the opinion that solar plants are subject to construction law is gaining ground. This will mean enormous efforts and cost especially for manufacturers of mounting systems as the German Institute of Constructional Engineering requires general construction permits for certain components.

  9. Design and Construction of a Domestic Passive Solar Food Dryer

    OpenAIRE

    Oguntola J. ALAMU; Collins N. NWAOKOCHA; Olayinka ADUNOLA

    2010-01-01

    The solar drying system utilizes solar energy to heat up air and to dry any food substance loaded, which is not only beneficial in that it reduces wastage of agricultural produce and helps in preservation of agricultural produce, but it also makes transportation of such dried produce easy and promotes the health and welfare of the people. This paper presents the design and construction of a domestic passive solar food dryer. The dryer is composed of solar collector (air heater) and a solar dr...

  10. Constructing and Characterising Solar Structure Models for Computational Helioseismology

    OpenAIRE

    Schunker, H.; Cameron, R.; Gizon, L.; Moradi, H.

    2011-01-01

    In local helioseismology, numerical simulations of wave propagation are useful to model the interaction of solar waves with perturbations to a background solar model. However, the solution to the linearised equations of motion include convective modes that can swamp the helioseismic waves that we are interested in. In this article, we construct background solar models that are stable against convection, by modifying the vertical pressure gradient of Model S (Christensen-Dalsgaard et al., 1996...

  11. Toward a Heat Recovery Chimney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Pan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The worldwide population increase and subsequent surge in energy demand leads electricity producers to increase supply in an attempt to generate larger profit margins. However, with Global Climate Change becoming a greater focus in engineering, it is critical for energy to be converted in as environmentally benign a way as possible. There are different sustainable methods to meet the energy demand. However, the focus of this research is in the area of Waste Heat Recovery. The waste heat stored in the exiting condenser cooling water is delivered to the air flow through a water-air cross flow heat exchanger. A converging thermal chimney structure is then applied to increase the velocity of the airflow. The accelerated air can be used to turn on the turbine-generator installed on the top the thermal chimney so that electricity can be generated. This system is effective in generating electricity from otherwise wasted heat.

  12. Design, Construction and Testing of Simple Solar Maize Dryer

    OpenAIRE

    Joshua FOLARANMI

    2008-01-01

    This project reports the design, construction and testing of a simple solar maize dryer. It is design in such a way that solar radiation is not incident directly on the maize, but preheated air warmed during its flow through a low pressure thermosphonic solar energy air heater or collector made up of an insulating material (polystyrene) of size 100mmx50mmx25.4mm, absorber plate (aluminium) sheet painted black of size 100mmx50mm and a cover glass (5mm thickness) measuring 100mmx50mm all arrang...

  13. Analysis of Self-Supporting Chimney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajkumar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Chimneys are tall structures and the major loads acting on these are self weight of the structure, wind load, live load due to lining, earthquake load & temperature loads. In this paper a RC chimneys will be designed considering dead load, wind load and earthquake load. The Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS design codes procedures will be used for the design of chimney. The present paper discusses the parametric study of RC chimney which is made by obtaining the results from software for different heights, diameter, earthquake zones, wind zones, type of soils and various load conditions because of changes in the dimensions of chimney, structural analysis such as response to earthquake and wind oscillations have become more critical to influence on the response and design of chimney. Parametric study on chimney from height 150 meters to 250 meters at an interval of 5 meters, for Zone II, Hard soil & Critical Zone of Zone V, Soft soil with wind speed varying from 33 meters/sec to 55 meters/sec with an internal temperature of 100 Degrees. The response of the chimney is studied & recorded in Tables & Graphs. The analysis is carried out using programming software Microsoft Visual Basic 6.0. The results obtained from the above cases are compared. Finally, the maximum values obtained in wind analysis and seismic analyses are then compared for deciding the design value.

  14. Investigation and Construction of a Thermosyphoning Solar Hot Water System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Harvey

    1978-01-01

    Describes how a thermosyphoning solar water heater capable of heating 110 kilogram of water to 80 degree Celsius and maintaining this temperature for 24 hours was constructed by four students in the fifth form of Sekolah Date Abdul Razak, Seremban, Malaysia in 1976. (HM)

  15. Design and Construction of a Passive Solar Power Clothing Dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Alahmer

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript presents the design and construction of the energy efficient, time saving, cost effective of passive solar powered clothes dryer. This manuscript begins with a derivation of mathematical model represents of solar dryer followed with an analysis of the elements necessary for successfully designing the various components of a solar dryer. The solar drying performance achieved an average drying rate of 0.35 kg/h and drying time of 3 h in a typical day, even under local low ambient humidity of around 35% and at moderate outdoor wind speed. Also, the computational fluid dynamic CFD of transient thermal behavior based on Navier-Stokes equations was used to demonstrate the prevailing temperature rises in the solar natural-ventilation system associated with the internal heat flux due to solar radiation and moisture removal. The efficiency of solar dryer was improved using Nano coating technology. The result showed good agreement between the computational solid simulation and the experimental measurements obtained from this system.

  16. Design, Construction and Testing of a Parabolic Solar Steam Generator

    OpenAIRE

    Joshua FOLARANMI

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the design, construction and testing of a parabolic dish solar steam generator. Using concentrating collector, heat from the sun is concentrated on a black absorber located at the focus point of the reflector in which water is heated to a very high temperature to form steam. It also describes the sun tracking system unit by manual tilting of the lever at the base of the parabolic dish to capture solar energy. The whole arrangement is mounted on a hinged frame supported with...

  17. Design, Construction and Testing of Simple Solar Maize Dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua FOLARANMI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This project reports the design, construction and testing of a simple solar maize dryer. It is design in such a way that solar radiation is not incident directly on the maize, but preheated air warmed during its flow through a low pressure thermosphonic solar energy air heater or collector made up of an insulating material (polystyrene of size 100mmx50mmx25.4mm, absorber plate (aluminium sheet painted black of size 100mmx50mm and a cover glass (5mm thickness measuring 100mmx50mm all arranged in this order contributed to the heating. The test results gave temperature above 45OC in the drying chamber, and the moisture content of 50kg of maize reduced to about 12.5% in three days of 9hours each day of drying.

  18. Piping systems, containment pre-stressing and steel ventilation chimney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Units 5 and 6 of NPP Kozloduy have been designed initially for seismic levels which are considered too low today. In the frame of an IAEA Coordinated Research Programme, a Swiss team has been commissioned by Natsionalna Elektricheska Kompania, Sofia, to analyse the relevant piping system, the containment prestressing and the steel ventilation chimney and to recommend upgrade measures for adequate seismic capacity where applicable. Seismic input had been specified by and agreed upon earlier by IAEA experts. The necessary investigations have been performed in 1995 and discussed with internationally recognized experts. The main results may be summarized as follows: Upgrades are necessary at different piping sy ports (additional snubbers or viscous dampers). These fixes can be done easily at low cost. The containment prestressing tendons are adequately designed for the specified load combinations. However, unfavourable construction features endanger the reliability. It is therefore strongly recommended to replace the tendons stepwise and to upgrade the existing monitoring system. Finally, the steel ventilation chimney may not withstand a seismic event, however the containment and diesel generator building will not be destroyed at possible impact by the chimney. On the other hand the roof of the main building has to be reinforced partially. It is recommended to continue the project for 1996 and 1997 to implement the upgrade measures mentioned above, to analyse the remaining piping systems and to consolidate all results obtained by different research groups of the IAEA programme with respect to piping systems including components and tanks

  19. Collapse of chimney with impact on reactor building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The behavior of the chimney for the loads has to be investigated, as a possible collapse onto adjacent safety-relevant structures (reactor building, reactor auxiliary building, fuel-handling building). The loading cases which might cause a collapse are outlined. The mathematical models used to calculate the highly physically and geometrically non-linear behavior are described. The resulting response of the structures subjected to impact is determined and compared to that caused by other external extreme loading conditions. The safe-shutdown earthquake is represented by an artificially generated time history which fits a specified design-response spectrum. For preliminary calculations the response for simple sine wave excitation is determined. The ground acceleration at which collapse first occurs is calculated for different soil parameters and dimensions of the chimney. Overall consideration of the balance of energy and of impulse as well as detailed solutions of the resulting differential equations of motion are performed. These investigations are carried out on models of increasing complexity starting with the idealisation of the chimney as a rigid bar on a rigid, tensionless foundation and leading up to an elastoplastic representation of the structure and of the soil. When impacting onto adjacent buildings, the latter are always considered as being rigid. This allows a load-time relationship to be constructed, which, in a second independent step, is used in the dynamic analysis of the building subjected to impact. Several different failure modes of the chimney are examined. The scope of this paper is to determine the overall response of the structure and of its equipment

  20. Suitability of locally constructed solar dryers for vegetable drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indigenous vegetables and spices are usually common and abundant during the rainy season but unfortunately, almost disappear during the dry season due to inadequate processing because of their high moisture content, poor storage and marketing facilities. A study was therefore conducted to find the possibilities of drying vegetables using locally constructed solar dryers at the Mechanisation section of the University of Education, Mampong Campus. The study was done during the months of March to September, 2004 and six designs of solar panels were used. The panels were constructed using hard wood, binding materials (nails), chicken mesh, nylon net, and black and white polythene sheets. Variations in panels resulted from the type of polythene sheet used (white, black or both), drying platform and shape of the roof. The panels with their interior lined with the black polythene sheet recorded higher temperatures than those with their bases covered with only the chicken mesh and nylon nettings. All the designs recorded higher temperatures than the ambient temperature. The drying of vegetables was observed to be faster in the panels with their drying platforms lined with the black polythene sheet than those with their bases covered with only the chicken mesh and nylon net. Appearance of the vegetables after drying in the solar panels was almost the same as before drying as compared to the open sun drying that got mouldy after drying. Those vegetables that were dried directly on the black polythene sheet however were slightly darker in colour. Solar drying with these locally constructed panels would be a better means of drying vegetables by rural folks. (au)

  1. Energy efficient and solar construction. Themes 2008; Energieeffizientes und solares Bauen. Themen 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadermann, Gerd (ed.)

    2009-04-15

    Within the annual meeting of the Renewable Energy Research Association (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) at 29th to 30th September, 2008, the lectures were held to the following themes: (a) Energy efficient and solar construction - a change of paradigm; (b) Revolution in construction technology; (c) Energetic sanitation of old buildings; (d) Innovative technologies of energy supply; (e) Integrated facility management; (f) Demonstration and practice of new technologies; (g) Market, politics, and sustainability.

  2. Construction of Solar-Wind-Like Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Dana Aaron

    2012-01-01

    Fluctuations in the solar wind fields tend to not only have velocities and magnetic fields correlated in the sense consistent with Alfven waves traveling from the Sun, but they also have the magnitude of the magnetic field remarkably constant despite their being broadband. This paper provides, for the first time, a method for constructing fields with nearly constant magnetic field, zero divergence, and with any specified power spectrum for the fluctuations of the components of the field. Every wave vector, k, is associated with two polarizations the relative phases of these can be chosen to minimize the variance of the field magnitude while retaining the\\random character of the fields. The method is applied to a case with one spatial coordinate that demonstrates good agreement with observed time series and power spectra of the magnetic field in the solar wind, as well as with the distribution of the angles of rapid changes (discontinuities), thus showing a deep connection between two seemingly unrelated issues. It is suggested that using this construction will lead to more realistic simulations of solar wind turbulence and of the propagation of energetic particles.

  3. Constructal method to optimize solar thermochemical reactor design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tescari, S.; Mazet, N. [PROMES-CNRS, Rambla de la Thermodynamique, Tecnosud, 66100 Perpignan (France); Neveu, P. [PROMES-CNRS, Rambla de la Thermodynamique, Tecnosud, 66100 Perpignan (France); Universite de Perpignan Via Domitia, 52 Avenue Paul Alduy, 66860 Perpignan (France)

    2010-09-15

    The objective of this study is the geometrical optimization of a thermochemical reactor, which works simultaneously as solar collector and reactor. The heat (concentrated solar radiation) is supplied on a small peripheral surface and has to be dispersed in the entire reactive volume in order to activate the reaction all over the material. A similarity between this study and the point to volume problem analyzed by the constructal approach (Bejan, 2000) is evident. This approach was successfully applied to several domains, for example for the coupled mass and conductive heat transfer (Azoumah et al., 2004). Focusing on solar reactors, this work aims to apply constructal analysis to coupled conductive and radiative heat transfer. As a first step, the chemical reaction is represented by a uniform heat sink inside the material. The objective is to optimize the reactor geometry in order to maximize its efficiency. By using some hypothesis, a simplified solution is found. A parametric study provides the influence of different technical and operating parameters on the maximal efficiency and on the optimal shape. Different reactor designs (filled cylinder, cavity and honeycomb reactors) are compared, in order to determine the most efficient structure according to the operating conditions. Finally, these results are compared with a CFD model in order to validate the assumptions. (author)

  4. Design, Construction and Effectiveness Analysis of Hybrid Automatic Solar Tracking System for Amorphous and Crystalline Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Bhupendra Gupta

    2013-01-01

    - This paper concerns the design and construction of a Hybrid solar tracking system. The constructed device was implemented by integrating it with Amorphous & Crystalline Solar Panel, three dimensional freedom mechanism and microcontroller. The amount of power available from a photovoltaic panel is determined by three parameters, the type of solar tracker, materials of solar panel and the intensity of the sunlight. The objective of this paper is to present analysis on the use of two differ...

  5. Design, Construction and Testing of a Parabolic Solar Steam Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua FOLARANMI

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the design, construction and testing of a parabolic dish solar steam generator. Using concentrating collector, heat from the sun is concentrated on a black absorber located at the focus point of the reflector in which water is heated to a very high temperature to form steam. It also describes the sun tracking system unit by manual tilting of the lever at the base of the parabolic dish to capture solar energy. The whole arrangement is mounted on a hinged frame supported with a slotted lever for tilting the parabolic dish reflector to different angles so that the sun is always directed to the collector at different period of the day. On the average sunny and cloud free days, the test results gave high temperature above 200°C.

  6. Design and construction of a low cost solar simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A solar simulator has been designed and constructed for indoor testing for solar collectors. The simulator consists of 45 halogen lamps. Each lamp has a rated power of a 300 watts. The lamps in ten rows where each row consists of 4 to 5 lamps. The lamps occupied area 6 m2. Dimmers are used to control the amount of lamp intensities. The spacing between the lamps and the collector is about 150 cm. The intensities of the lamps are measured using a pyranometer. The intensity contours or mappings for minimum and maximum average pyranometer readings about 280 to 640 W/m2 are produced, with errors are about of 3.16 % to 4.5 %. (Author)

  7. Toy models for the falling chimney

    CERN Document Server

    Varieschi, G U; Varieschi, Gabriele; Kamiya, Kaoru

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we review the theory of the ``falling chimney'', which deals with the breaking in mid-air of tall structures, when they fall to the ground. We show that these ruptures can be caused by either shear forces, typically developing near the base, or by the bending of the structure, which is caused primarily by the internal bending moment. In the latter case the breaking is more likely to occur between one third and one half of the height of the chimney. Small scale toy models are used to reproduce the dynamics of the falling chimney. By examining photos taken during the fall of these models we test the adequacy of the outlined theory. This type of experiment, easy to perform and conceptually challenging, can become part of a rotational mechanics lab for undergraduate students.

  8. Toy models for the falling chimney

    OpenAIRE

    Varieschi, Gabriele; Kamiya, Kaoru

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we review the theory of the ``falling chimney'', which deals with the breaking in mid-air of tall structures, when they fall to the ground. We show that these ruptures can be caused by either shear forces, typically developing near the base, or by the bending of the structure, which is caused primarily by the internal bending moment. In the latter case the breaking is more likely to occur between one third and one half of the height of the chimney. Small scal...

  9. Solar building construction - new technologies; Solares Bauen - Neue Technologien fuer Gebaeude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luther, J.; Voss, K.; Wittwer, V. [Fraunhofer-Inst. fuer Solare Energiesysteme, Freiburg (Germany). Abt. ``Thermische und Optische Systeme``

    1998-02-01

    There is an increasing demand for integrated building concepts in order to reduce energy consumption. Building design, construction and heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) technology are decisive in this respect. Thus, an essentially higher energy efficiency is achieved and solar energy becomes the main energy source. An `active building envelope` assumes the task of controlling the energy flows between inside and outside. This paper reports on new components, system concepts and planning tools for solar building. (orig.) [Deutsch] Fuer zukuenftige Bauten werden in hohem Masse Forderungen nach integrierten Konzepten zur Begrenzung des Energieverbrauchs gestellt. Gestalt, Konstruktion und Klimatechnik sind dabei massgebliche Einflussfaktoren. Hierdurch wird eine wesentlich hoehere Energieeffizienz erzielt und Solarenergie kann die uebrigen Energiequellen zurueckdraengen. Eine `aktive Gebaeudehuelle` uebernimmt die Aufgabe, den Energiefluss zwischen Innen und Aussen zu steuern. Der Beitrag berichtet ueber neue Komponenten, Systemkonzepte und Planungswerkzeuge fuer das Solare Bauen. (orig.)

  10. On the condensation of steam from combustion products in chimneys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskakov, A. P.; Munts, V. A.; Filippovskii, N. F.; Cherepanova, E. V.

    2006-09-01

    Compliance of designs of chimneys with the present-day requirements for energy savings is discussed. The possibility of installing coolants of combustion products without the hazardous consequences of steam condensation in the chimney is analyzed. As an example, calculations for particular chimneys are given.

  11. Measurement of chimney dimensions and development of special tools for installation of in-chimney bracket in HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The in-chimney bracket is a structure which supports the guide tubes of irradiation facilities at the irradiation sites of CT, IR1, IR2, OR4 and/or OR5 in HANARO core to reduce the flow-induced vibration and the dynamic response to seismic load. It horizontally supports the middle part of lthe irradiation facilities for CT/IR sites in addition to the robot arms which had already been installed at the reactor pool liner to support the top of the facilities, and supports the top of the guide tubes for OR sites. For these purposes, the in-chimney bracket was installed in the chimney using four siphoning holes located at 70 cm below the chimney top. It is necessary to measure the dimensions of chimney before the design of in-chimney bracket because there must be manufacturing tolerances and the deformation of the chimney due to the load of the system pipes. To implement this, various special tools had been developed to measure the as-built dimensions of the chimney at the elevation of the siphoning holes, and measured the chimney dimensions and the eccentricity of the chimney center from the reactor core center. Also, a special tool was developed for the installation of the in-chimney bracket by remote operating at the pool top 10 meters apart from the chimney. The installation procedures were established through the enough installation rehearsal using the installation tool and the dummhy chimney which was fabricated to the same dimensions of the real chimney, and the installation interference problems were resolved through the preliminaly installation to the reactor chimney. Finally, the in-chimey bracket was successfully installed at the reactor chimney and is well being used for the irradiation test since the installation on May 16, 2000

  12. Measurement of chimney dimensions and development of special tools for installation of in-chimney bracket in HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Yeong Garp; Ryu, J. S.; Lee, J. H.; Lee, Y. S; Lee, B. H

    2000-06-01

    The in-chimney bracket is a structure which supports the guide tubes of irradiation facilities at the irradiation sites of CT, IR1, IR2, OR4 and/or OR5 in HANARO core to reduce the flow-induced vibration and the dynamic response to seismic load. It horizontally supports the middle part of lthe irradiation facilities for CT/IR sites in addition to the robot arms which had already been installed at the reactor pool liner to support the top of the facilities, and supports the top of the guide tubes for OR sites. For these purposes, the in-chimney bracket was installed in the chimney using four siphoning holes located at 70 cm below the chimney top. It is necessary to measure the dimensions of chimney before the design of in-chimney bracket because there must be manufacturing tolerances and the deformation of the chimney due to the load of the system pipes. To implement this, various special tools had been developed to measure the as-built dimensions of the chimney at the elevation of the siphoning holes, and measured the chimney dimensions and the eccentricity of the chimney center from the reactor core center. Also, a special tool was developed for the installation of the in-chimney bracket by remote operating at the pool top 10 meters apart from the chimney. The installation procedures were established through the enough installation rehearsal using the installation tool and the dummhy chimney which was fabricated to the same dimensions of the real chimney, and the installation interference problems were resolved through the preliminaly installation to the reactor chimney. Finally, the in-chimey bracket was successfully installed at the reactor chimney and is well being used for the irradiation test since the installation on May 16, 2000.

  13. Wicking limits for porous deposits with chimneys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary coolant system in light water reactors is subjected to corrosion on surfaces and to the deposition of corrosion products on surfaces. These conditions occur both in-core and out-of-core and inhibit the thermal transfer across the layers. The deposition of such crud layers on reactor fuel element surfaces is a recognized problem that can affect performance and potentially limit the maximum power rating of the fuel. When boiling is present with such crud layers, wick boiling has been postulated to be the dominant mode of heat transfer, at least when it can be assumed that the structure of the deposit includes chimneys, i.e., large pore holes that penetrate deeply into the deposit and almost perpendicularly to the surface on which the deposit has formed. The wick boiling mechanism is explained. In this study, the wicking limit for porous deposits with chimneys is investigated. The major highlights gained from this study include: (1) the dryout heat flux for a heating surface may be caused by the Helmholtz instability due to high-velocity gas jets or by the wicking limit. (2) The dryout heat flux based on the wicking limit decreases very rapidly with decreasing porosity, with decreasing size of particles in the porous layer, and with increasing crud thickness. (3) Physically, it is expected that the chimney population would increase with increasing heat flux. Using a power law relation between heat flux and chimney population density, much lower wicking limits or thinner deposits are predicted

  14. Design, Construction and Effectiveness Analysis of Hybrid Automatic Solar Tracking System for Amorphous and Crystalline Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhupendra Gupta

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available - This paper concerns the design and construction of a Hybrid solar tracking system. The constructed device was implemented by integrating it with Amorphous & Crystalline Solar Panel, three dimensional freedom mechanism and microcontroller. The amount of power available from a photovoltaic panel is determined by three parameters, the type of solar tracker, materials of solar panel and the intensity of the sunlight. The objective of this paper is to present analysis on the use of two different material of Solar panel like Amorphous & Crystalline in a Solar tracking system at Stationary, Single Axis, Dual Axis & Hybrid Axis solar tracker to have better performance with minimum losses to the surroundings, as this device ensures maximum intensity of sun rays hitting the surface of the panel from sunrise to sunset

  15. Self-construction of a solar water heater; Calentador solar de agua de auto-construccion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lentz Herrera, Alvaro E.; Rincon Mejia, Eduardo A. [Universidad Autonoma de la Ciudad de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    In this work a flat receiver of self construction is shown with relatively low cost and easy manufacture, but with a thermal efficiency superior to 40% for applications at temperatures less than 60 degrees Celsius, that allows satisfying international standards in this respect. The heater has been matter of study in open courses distributed in the Universidad Autonoma de la Ciudad de Mexico (UACM) oriented to that the participants construct their own system, in addition to its installation and tests. The obtained results have been excellent. The massive use of efficient solar receivers of self-construction can truly help to the decreasing of the gas discharges of greenhouse effect. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presenta un captador plano de auto construccion con relativamente bajo costo y facil manufactura, pero con un rendimiento termico superior a 40% para aplicaciones a temperatura menos de 60 grados centigrados que le permite satisfacer estandares internacionales a este respecto. El calentador ha sido materia de estudio en cursos abiertos impartidos en la Universidad Autonoma de la Ciudad de Mexico (UACM) orientados a que los participantes construyan su propio sistema, ademas de su instalacion y pruebas. Los resultados obtenidos han sido excelentes. El uso masivo de captadores solares eficientes de autoconstruccion puede en verdad coadyuvar a la disminucion de las emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero.

  16. Hybrid solar-electric oven construction prototype; Construccion de prototipo de horno hibrido solar-electrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez Roman, M. A; Pineda Pinon, J; Arcos Pichardo, A [CICATA, Santiago de Queretaro, Queretaro (Mexico)

    2013-03-15

    The oven construction consists of a solar collector system of cylindrical parabolic type, a heating through electrical resistance and a curing chamber. The warm fluid is air, which is injected into the chamber through forced draft. The temperature required in the system is within a range of 150 to 300 degrees Celsius. [Spanish] La construccion del horno consta de un sistema de captacion solar del tipo cilindrico parabolico, un sistema de calentamiento a traves de resistencias electricas y una camara de curado. El fluido a calentar es aire, el cual es inyectado dentro de la camara a traves de tiro forzado. La temperatura solicitada en el sistema es dentro de un rango de 150 a 300 grados centigrados.

  17. Preliminary work for stage 2 decommissioning of B16 pile chimney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planning of the second stage of decommissioning of the two pile chimneys at Sellafield started while work was underway on the first stage, which involved removal of the sections above the filters. The second stage requires the removal of all radio-active parts and the dismantling of the filter and diffuser sections, and has to be completed by 1997. The planning involved studying the many possible options and their effects on both radiological and industrial safety. This decommissioning project employs a high proportion of civil engineering and construction techniques, which are then developed to eliminate the hazards from radioactive dusts, and to minimise the effect of radiation on operatives working on the project. Much of this equipment is modified forms of standard construction equipment and includes cutting equipment and remotely operated vehicles. The initial phases of the work involve: provision of a waste packaging and access building; provision of temporary ventilation systems to control the dust generated by the work, cutting of 3 m square access doorway through the 1.5 m thick reinforced concrete wall of the chimney; provision of Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) to act as a tool carrier for lining stripping work; removal of the thermal lining from the floor and lower walls of the chimney, and installation of precast concrete walls which separate the pile reactor core from the chimney flue. (author)

  18. Excess of cancer in Swedish chimney sweeps.

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavsson, P; Gustavsson, A.; Hogstedt, C

    1988-01-01

    The incidence of cancer was investigated among 5266 Swedish chimney sweeps employed for any period between 1918 and 1980. An analysis of the mortality has been reported earlier and showed an increased number of deaths from coronary heart disease, respiratory diseases, and lung, oesophageal, and liver cancer. Excess risks for cancer of the lung and oesophagus were confirmed in this analysis. Among the lung cancers, both squamous cell carcinoma and oatcell/undifferentiated carcinoma were in exc...

  19. Constructal Optimization of Top Contact Metallization of a Photovoltaic Solar Cell

    OpenAIRE

    Santanu Bandyopadhyay; Aditya Bhakta

    2005-01-01

    A top contact metallization of a photovoltaic solar cell collects the current generated by incident solar radiation. Several power-loss mechanisms are associated with the current flow through the front contact grid. The design of the top metal contact grid is one of the most important areas of efficient photovoltaic solar cell design. In this paper, an approach based on the constructal theory is proposed to design the grid pattern in a photovoltaic solar cell, minimizing total resistive losse...

  20. Pendulum Dampers for Tall RC Chimney Subjected To Wind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. B K Raghu Prasad,

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Chimneys are a part of industrial growth in any country. Most current chimney design standards require analysis of dynamic analysis of chimney for earthquake and wind induced loads. Because of variation in dimensions of chimney along its height structural analysis such as wind oscillations have become more critical. If ductility is an important consideration in earthquake resistant design, control of deflection become critical in wind induced vibrations. Pendulum dampers are of the devices to control the deflection. In the present work pendulum dampers of different natural frequencies have been tried. The one which has the largest equivalent logarithmic decrement is found to reduce the response significantly. The response is compared with that of chimney with a tip mass. The paper discusses the dynamic analysis of 150m high RCC chimney subjected to wind. Analysis has been carried out for fixed base case.

  1. Design, construction and evaluation of solarized airlift tubular photobioreactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An innovative photobioreactor is developed for growing algae in simulated conditions. The proposed design comprises of a continuous tubular irradiance loop and air induced liquid circulation with gas separation through air lift device. The unique features of air lift system are to ensure the shear free circulation of sensitive algal culture and induce light/dark cycles to the photosynthetic micro-organisms. The design strategy employs to model and construct a 20-liter laboratory scale unit using Boro-silicate glass tubing. The material is selected to ensure maximum photon transmission. All components of the device are designed to have flexibility to be replaced with an alternative design, providing fair chance of modification for future investigators. The principles of fluid mechanics are applied to describe geometrical attributes of the air lift system. Combination of LEDs and Florescent tube lights (Warm white) were used to illuminate the photosynthesis reaction area providing a possibility to control both illumination duration and light intensity. 200 Watt Solar PV system is designed to power up the device which included air pump (100 Watt) and illumination system (100 Watt). Algal strain Chlorella sp was inoculated in photobioreactor which was sparged with air and carbon dioxide. The growth was sustained in the batch mode with daily monitoring of temperature, pH and biomass concentration. The novel photobioreactor recorded a maximum experimental average yield of 0.65 g/l.day (11.3 g/m2.day) as compared to theoretical modeled yield of 0.82 g/l.day (14.26 g/m2.day), suggesting the device can be efficiently and cost-effectively employed in the production of algal biomass for biofuels, concomitantly mitigating CO2.

  2. Design, construction and evaluation of solarized airlift tubular photobioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadur, A.; Zubair, M.; Khan, M. B.

    2013-06-01

    An innovative photobioreactor is developed for growing algae in simulated conditions. The proposed design comprises of a continuous tubular irradiance loop and air induced liquid circulation with gas separation through air lift device. The unique features of air lift system are to ensure the shear free circulation of sensitive algal culture and induce light/dark cycles to the photosynthetic micro-organisms. The design strategy employs to model and construct a 20-liter laboratory scale unit using Boro-silicate glass tubing. The material is selected to ensure maximum photon transmission. All components of the device are designed to have flexibility to be replaced with an alternative design, providing fair chance of modification for future investigators. The principles of fluid mechanics are applied to describe geometrical attributes of the air lift system. Combination of LEDs and Florescent tube lights (Warm white) were used to illuminate the photosynthesis reaction area providing a possibility to control both illumination duration and light intensity. 200 Watt Solar PV system is designed to power up the device which included air pump (100 Watt) and illumination system (100 Watt). Algal strain Chlorella sp was inoculated in photobioreactor which was sparged with air and carbon dioxide. The growth was sustained in the batch mode with daily monitoring of temperature, pH and biomass concentration. The novel photobioreactor recorded a maximum experimental average yield of 0.65 g/l.day (11.3 g/m2.day) as compared to theoretical modeled yield of 0.82 g/l.day (14.26 g/m2.day), suggesting the device can be efficiently and cost-effectively employed in the production of algal biomass for biofuels, concomitantly mitigating CO2.

  3. Design and construction of a solar heating and cooling plant

    OpenAIRE

    FRANCHINI, GIUSEPPE; MANAZZALE, DAVIDE; PERDICHIZZI, ANTONIO GIOVANNI

    2012-01-01

    The present work deals with the design of a combined solar heating and cooling plant for an office building located in Northern Italy. An innovative system based on an absorption chiller driven by evacuated tube collectors and a dual-source reversible heat pump is presented. In summer, solar energy is used to drive the absorption chiller. In winter, solar collector field can provide hot water to the radiant ceiling circuit or, alternatively, drive the heat pump evaporator. A control strategy...

  4. Construction and characterization of spherical Si solar cells combined with SiC electric power inverter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oku, Takeo; Matsumoto, Taisuke; Hiramatsu, Kouichi; Yasuda, Masashi; Shimono, Akio; Takeda, Yoshikazu; Murozono, Mikio

    2015-02-01

    Spherical silicon (Si) photovoltaic solar cell systems combined with an electric power inverter using silicon carbide (SiC) field-effect transistor (FET) were constructed and characterized, which were compared with an ordinary Si-based converter. The SiC-FET devices were introduced in the direct current-alternating current (DC-AC) converter, which was connected with the solar panels. The spherical Si solar cells were used as the power sources, and the spherical Si panels are lighter and more flexible compared with the ordinary flat Si solar panels. Conversion efficiencies of the spherical Si solar cells were improved by using the SiC-FET.

  5. Prospects for the construction of solar furnaces for industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Blanchetais, Ch. H.

    The various techniques and prototype installations employed to absorb and concentrate solar energy for use in applications requiring 100-4000 C temperatures are explored. Mention is made of the Pericles heliostat field and the THEK distributed parabolic concentrator installations, and attention is focused on viable concepts useful for industrial purposes. The Odeillo solar furnace provided design guidelines and requirements for industrial usage. It was found that the reliability of the furnace depends on the annual insolation, that the solar furnaces must be designed to meet specific thermal goals, that simplification and optimization are needed for the orientation and focusing mechanisms, and that solar furnaces are ideally suited for developing nations which experience high levels of insolation. A stepped paraboloid is described for improving the efficiency of a heliostat system, while still employing plane parallel mirrors.

  6. Design, construction and testing of parabolic solar energy cooker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parabolic solar energy cooker was designed using locally available materials such as pieces of iron and plane mirrors. The diameter of the dish was 12 x 10-3 mm and pieces of glass mirrors were adhered to its concave surface using abro silicon gum as solar energy reflectors. The solar cooker was used to cook different food materials such as rice, bean, yam and stew between 11am and 3pm. The time taken to cook the food materials were measured and compared to the time it takes to cook similar food samples of the same quantity using kerosene and electric stove. It took the kerosene and electric stoves two hours, forty minutes (2.40) and two hours, ten minutes (2.10) respectively to cook beans with all the ingredients while the fabricated solar cooker took only one hour fifteen minutes. Due to high solar energy absorption capacity of the solar cooker and insolation rate, the study has reveled that it is faster, safer and takes less time to cook using cooker than either kerosene or electric stove.

  7. Design manual for HANARO in-chimney bracket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Jeong Soo; Cho, Y. G.; Whang, S. Y.; Wu, J. S.; Jun, B. J

    2000-06-01

    As a supplementary structure supporting the irradiation facilities, the in-chimney bracket holds guide tubes whose holding position in CT or IR is the middle part of the instrumented facility between the hole spider and the robot arm already provided in the reactor pool liner. Also, the bracket grips the upper part of the guide tubes when it is applied to hold the instrumented facility loaded in OR sites. The irradiation test will be successfully conducted since this bracket reduces the flow-induced vibration (FIV) and the dynamic response to seismic load. The installation position of the bracket is 60 cm below the top of the chimney, i.e., thermo siphoning hole position. To evaluate the structural integrity on the in-chimney bracket and the related reactor structures, ANSYS finite element analysis model is developed and the dynamic characteristics are analyzed. The seismic response analyses were performed for the in-chimney bracket and the related reactor structures of HANARO under the design earthquake response spectrum loads of OBE and SSE. The analysis results show that the stress values in main points of reactor structures and in-chimney bracket for the seismic loads are also within the ASME code limits. It is also confirmed that the fatigue usage factor is much less than 1.0. Therefore any damage on structural integrity is not expected when the in-chimney bracket is installed at the upper part of the reactor chimney. This bracket had been designed and manufactured based on the dimensions of the as-built chimney. In the process of design and preliminary installation, chimney measurement tools, dummy chimney, and installation tools were developed and the installation procedure was prepared and verified through the installation rehearsal.

  8. D0 Solenoid Chimney Routing Clearances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rucinski, R.; /Fermilab

    1994-02-23

    This engineering note contains information about the measured clearances along the chimney route from the solenoid to the control dewar. This type of information is best conveyed by sketches and a few photos. Twelve photos taken on 2/17/94 are included which gIVe perspective views along the path. The detector was parked in the collision hall on this date. The CF iron was split open to the east and the South EF iron was rolled back. Also the South EndCap Calorimeter was rolled to the south on this day. This allowed personnel access and the photographic opportunity. A full set of raw dimensional sketches are included. These sketches were generated by me using a 25 foot tape measure and a note pad. The sketches are in chronological order with the most recent on top. The first sketch, 5/18/94, describes the 'tightest' location for the upward incline portion of the chimney. The sketches on 2/14/94 thru 2/16/94 are refinements of the early 1992 and 1993 sketches. They pick out quite a bit more detail of specific detector components along the path. The dimensional sketches of 1992 and 1993 gave information in not as much detail and therefore gave a more constrained clearance description. Most of the information of the early sketches was jotted down on the plan view dated 10-29-92. This sketch also had some information lifted from prints which later was superseded by the 1994 sketches. I tried to label components and give views either titled 'Elevation' or 'Plan' which refers to a top view looking down. Also where I could I jotted down direction, ie. South, East etc. Hopefully with a little effort one can decifer it. The curvature of the CC was determined from a three dimensional topographical survey. This survey information is stored in an electronic drawing file 3823.111-ME-317165, 'Solenoid-CC south face 3D shape survey'. The 'z' dimensions for the radial chimney path were picked off this drawing. A curvature was then generated knowing many points by radial and z coordinates. This curve is stored in drawing file 3823.111-ME317164, 'Solenoid-CC south face-chimney contour layout'. All drawings mentioned above are kept in hard copy form in the D-Zero drawing files. The electronic 'master' copy is kept in the XDCS drawing control system, dOms vault. The information contained in this engineering note could be very useful for those who are interested in the clearances and shape of the solenoid chimney path. It could even be of use to future designers and engineers involved with the VLPC project which is planned.

  9. A novel hybrid heat pipe solar collector/CHP system - Pt. 1: system design and construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riffat, S.B.; Zhao, X. [University of Nottingham (United Kingdom). Institute of Building Technology

    2004-12-01

    The process of selecting and designing the major components for a hybrid solar collector/CHP system is described. Particular attention was given to the design of the solar collector and a number of options, including thin membrane heat pipe solar collectors (both 'normal' and 'artery' types) and hybrid heat pipe solar collectors (both wicked and wickless types), were considered. Performance comparisons were made using theoretical and experimental data and a hybrid solar collector was selected as the best option for the system. Micro impulse-reaction turbine using n-pentane as its working fluid was selected for the system although further work is being carried out on a compressed-gas driven turbo alternator. A prototype hybrid solar collector/CHP system has been constructed and the results of its theoretical and experimental testing are presented in Part II of this paper. (author)

  10. NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF HEAT STORAGE OF SOLAR HEAT IN FLOOR CONSTRUCTION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weitzmann, Peter; Holck, Ole; Svendsen, Svend

    2003-01-01

    including pipe spacing, storage materials, and distribution of insulation around the thermal storage layer. The energy consump-tion, reduction due to the heat storage and total performance of the solar heating system was calculated. The largest reduction of 100 kWh/m² solar collector occurred in the house...... with the highest energy con-sumption. The reduction depends on the solar collector area, distribution of the insulation thickness, heat-ing demand and control strategy, but not on pipe spacing and layer thickness and material. Finally, it is shown that the system can also be used for comfort heating of......In this paper, heat storage of solar heating in the floor construction of single-family houses is examined. A floor construction with two concrete decks is investigated. The lower is used as heat storage while the upper deck has a floor heating system. The potential for a reduction of the energy...

  11. Construction and initial operation of the combined solar thermal and electric desiccant cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enteria, Napoleon; Yoshino, Hiroshi; Mochida, Akashi; Takaki, Rie [Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Satake, Akira [Technical Research Institute, Maeda Corporation, Tokyo 179-8914 (Japan); Yoshie, Ryuichiro [Faculty of Engineering, Tokyo Polytechnic University, Atsugi 243-0297 (Japan); Mitamura, Teruaki [Faculty of Engineering, Ashikaga Institute of Technology, Ashikaga 326-8558 (Japan); Baba, Seizo [Earth Clean Tohoku Co., Ltd., Sendai 984-0038 (Japan)

    2009-08-15

    This paper reports the constructed combined solar thermal and electric desiccant cooling system - its initial operation and operational procedures. The system, as designed, can be operated during nighttime and daytime. The nighttime operation is for thermal energy storage using the auxiliary electric heater, while the daytime operation is for solar energy collection and desiccant cooling. Ongoing experimental evaluation is being undertaken to observe and determine the long-term performance of the system. (author)

  12. Solar thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The solar thermal power plant technology, the opportunities it presents and the developments in the market are outlined. The focus is on the technology of parabolic trough power plants, a proven technology for solar power generation on a large scale. In a parabolic trough power plant, trough-shaped mirrors concentrate the solar irradiation onto a pipe in the focal line of the collector. The thermal energy thus generated is used for electricity generation in a steam turbine. Parabolic trough plants can be combined with thermal storage and fossil or biomass fired heat exchangers to generate electricity even when the sun is not shining. Solar Millennium AG in Erlangen has developed the first power plant of this kind in Europe. After two years of construction the plant started operation in Southern Spain in 2008. This one and its sister projects are important steps leading the way for the whole market. The paper also covers the technological challenges, the key components used and the research and development activities concerning this technology. Solar thermal power plants are ideal for covering peak and medium loads in power grids. In hybrid operation they can also cover base-load. The Solar Chimney power plant, another striking technology for the conversion of solar into electric energy, is described briefly. The paper concludes with a look at the future - the import of solar energy from the deserts of North Africa to central Europe. (author)

  13. Options for the removal of contaminated concrete from the bore of the Windscale pile chimney - 16083

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A legacy of the 1957 Windscale Pile reactor fire is the penetration of radioactive contamination into the internal surface concrete of the chimney bore. Gamma imaging of Cs- 137 has shown that the contamination is widespread throughout the chimney, and core samples have shown that the contamination has penetrated to depths of around 5-25 mm. The Pile chimney is 100 m tall and has an internal bore diameter of 15 m. It is constructed of a hard concrete comprised of Whinstone aggregate. The baseline decommissioning scheme is to remove approximately 5-25 mm of the surface concrete from the entire bore of the chimney. The technology baseline in 2006 was to remove layers of contaminated concrete by mechanical means using shavers or scabblers. However, risks associated with mechanical technologies that may preclude their use include: the ability of mechanical devices to remove the hard concrete; clogging of the devices due to wet concrete; and deployment of the delivery systems. This paper discusses the options under consideration to reduce the risks associated with the removal of the contaminated concrete through application of alternative techniques. The present baseline technology is high pressure water jetting technique. Demonstrations have shown that this technology can successfully remove concrete without significant reaction forces. However, an inherent problem with this technology is the production of secondary liquid effluent waste, which would need to be treated by an appropriate conditioning process. To address the secondary effluent waste issue, technologies that produce little or no secondary waste have been considered. The technologies that have been considered are laser scabbling, microwave scabbling and nitrogen jet blasting. The paper discusses each technique in turn, highlighting their advantages and disadvantages. The results of an in-active laser scabbling and high pressure liquid nitrogen jetting trial are presented. The paper concludes with a discussion of the merits of each technology in support of the future strategy for concrete removal. (authors)

  14. Seismic response Analyses of Hanaro in-chimney bracket structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Han; Ryu, J.S.; Cho, Y.G.; Lee, H.Y.; Kim, J.B

    1999-05-01

    The in-chimney bracket will be installed in the upper part of chimney, which holds the capsule extension pipes in upper one-third of length. For evaluating the effects on the capsules and related reactor structures, ANSYS finite element analysis model is developed and the dynamic characteristics are analyzed. The seismic response anlayses of in-chimney bracket and related reactor structures of HANARO under the design earthquake response spectrum loads of OBE (0.1 g) and SSE (0.2 g) are performed. The maximum horizontal displacements of the flow tubes are within the minimum half gaps between close flow tubes, it is expected that these displacement will not produce any contact between neighbor flow tubes. The stress values in main points of reactor structures and in-chimney bracket for the seismic loads are also within the ASME Code limits. It is also confirmed that the fatigue usage factor is muchless than 1.0. So, any damage on structural integrity is not expected when an in-chimney bracket is installed to upper part of the reactor chimney. (author). 12 refs., 24 tabs., 37 figs.

  15. Seismic response Analyses of Hanaro in-chimney bracket structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The in-chimney bracket will be installed in the upper part of chimney, which holds the capsule extension pipes in upper one-third of length. For evaluating the effects on the capsules and related reactor structures, ANSYS finite element analysis model is developed and the dynamic characteristics are analyzed. The seismic response anlayses of in-chimney bracket and related reactor structures of HANARO under the design earthquake response spectrum loads of OBE (0.1 g) and SSE (0.2 g) are performed. The maximum horizontal displacements of the flow tubes are within the minimum half gaps between close flow tubes, it is expected that these displacement will not produce any contact between neighbor flow tubes. The stress values in main points of reactor structures and in-chimney bracket for the seismic loads are also within the ASME Code limits. It is also confirmed that the fatigue usage factor is much less than 1.0. So, any damage on structural integrity is not expected when an in-chimney bracket is installed to upper part of the reactor chimney. (author). 12 refs., 24 tabs., 37 figs

  16. Development and construction of the novel solar thermal desiccant cooling system incorporating hot water production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enteria, Napoleon; Yoshino, Hiroshi; Mochida, Akashi; Takaki, Rie [Faculty of Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Satake, Akira [Technical Research Institute, Maeda Corporation, Tokyo 179-8914 (Japan); Yoshie, Ryuichiro [Faculty of Engineering, Tokyo Polytechnic University, Atsugi 243-0297 (Japan); Baba, Seizo [Earth Clean Tohoku Co. Ltd., Sendai 984-0038 (Japan)

    2010-02-15

    This paper reports the development and construction of the novel solar cooling and heating system. The system consists of the thermal energy subsystem and the desiccant cooling subsystem. The system utilizes both the cheaper nighttime electric energy and the free daytime solar energy. The system is conceptualized to produce both cooling during summer daytime and hot water production during winter. Testing and evaluation of the system had been done to determine its operational procedure and performance. Based on the results, the thermal energy subsystem functioned to its expected performance in solar energy collection and thermal storage. The desiccant cooling subsystem reduced both the temperature and the humidity content of the air using solar energy with a minimal amount of back-up electric energy. The system however, needs further investigation under real conditions. (author)

  17. Structural integrity assessment of HANARO in-chimney bracket structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Jeong Soo; Lee, J. H.; Cho, Y. G.; Lee, J. H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-09-01

    In HANARO are there provided three hexagonal irradiation holes (CT, IR1 and IR2) in the central region of the core while four circular irradiation holes (OR3 {approx} OR6) in the outer core. There exist two types of irradiation facilities: uninstrumented or instrumented. The uninstrumented irradiation facility is little influenced by the coolant flow. But the dynamic behavior by the flow-induced vibration (FIV) and seismic loads is expected to largely occur in case of the instrumented test facility due to the long guide tube to protect the instrumentation cables. To suppress this dynamic behavior, the in-chimney bracket was designed. It is believed that the irradiation test can be successfully conducted since this bracket can reduce the FIV and dynamic response to seismic load as well. The installation position of the bracket is 60 cm below from the top of the chimney, i.e., thermosiphoning opening position. For evaluating the structural integrity on the in-chimney bracket and related reactor structures, ANSYS finite element analysis model is developed and the dynamic characteristics are analyzed. The seismic response analyses of in-chimney bracket and related reactor structures of HANARO under the design earthquake response spectrum loads of OBE(0.1g) and SSE(0.2g) are performed. The analysis result shows that the stress values in main points of reactor structures and in-chimney bracket for the seismic loads are also within the SAME Code limits. Therefore any damage on structural integrity is not expected when an in-chimney bracket is installed in the upper part of the reactor chimney. 12 refs., 32 figs., 21 tabs. (Author)

  18. 75 FR 2133 - Construction and Operation of the Quartzsite Solar Energy Project, La Paz County, AZ (DOE/EIS-0440)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-14

    ... Area Power Administration Construction and Operation of the Quartzsite Solar Energy Project, La Paz..., intends to prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) for the proposed Quartzsite Solar Energy Project (Project) in La Paz County, near Quartzsite, Arizona. Quartzsite Solar Energy, LLC (QSE)...

  19. Design, Engineering, and Construction of Photosynthetic Microbial Cell Factories for Renewable Solar Fuel Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindblad, Peter; Lindberg, Pia; Stensjoe, Karin (Photochemistry and Molecular Science, Dept. of Chemistry-Aangstroem Laboratory, Uppsala Univ., Uppsala (Sweden)), E-mail: Peter.Lindblad@kemi.uu.se; Oliveira, Paulo (Instituto de Biologia Molecular e Celular, Porto (Portugal)); Heidorn, Thorsten (Bioforsk-Norwegian Inst. for Agricultural and Environmental Research, Aas Oslo, (Norway))

    2012-03-15

    There is an urgent need to develop sustainable solutions to convert solar energy into energy carriers used in the society. In addition to solar cells generating electricity, there are several options to generate solar fuels. This paper outlines and discusses the design and engineering of photosynthetic microbial systems for the generation of renewable solar fuels, with a focus on cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria are prokaryotic microorganisms with the same type of photosynthesis as higher plants. Native and engineered cyanobacteria have been used by us and others as model systems to examine, demonstrate, and develop photobiological H{sub 2} production. More recently, the production of carbon-containing solar fuels like ethanol, butanol, and isoprene have been demonstrated. We are using a synthetic biology approach to develop efficient photosynthetic microbial cell factories for direct generation of biofuels from solar energy. Present progress and advances in the design, engineering, and construction of such cyanobacterial cells for the generation of a portfolio of solar fuels, e.g., hydrogen, alcohols, and isoprene, are presented and discussed. Possibilities and challenges when introducing and using synthetic biology are highlighted

  20. The construction of a process line for high efficiency silicon solar cells under clean-room conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this research project was to plan, construct and test a clean-room technology laboratory for the manufacturing of silicon solar cells with 20% efficiency (1.5AM). In addition to the establishment of the laboratory, there existed the case of establishing the material and technological fundamentals of high-efficiency solar cells, testing and optimizing all stages of production as well as constructing test stands for accompanying characterisation work. The following final report describes the construction of the laboratory and characterisation systems, the material elements of high-efficiency solar cells as well as the most important results of solar cell production and optimisation. (orig./BWI)

  1. The gas chimney formation during the steam explosion premixing phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crucial part in isothermal premixing experiment simulation is the correct prediction of the gas chimney, which forms when the spheres penetrate into water. The first simulation results with the developed original combined multiphase model showed that the gas chimney starts to close at the wrong place at the top of the chimney and not in the middle, like it was observed in the experiments. To find the physical explanation for this identified weakness of our numerical model a comprehensive parametric analysis (mesh size, initial water-air surface thickness, water density, momentum coupling starting position) has been performed. It was established that the reason for the unphysical gas chimney closing at the top could be the gradual air-water density transition in the experiment model, since there is due to the finite differences description always a transition layer with intermediate phases density over the pure water phase. It was shown that this difference between our numerical model and the experiment can be somewhat compensated if the spheres interfacial drag coefficient at the upmost mesh plane of the unphysical air-water transition layer is artificially risen. On this way a more correct gas chimney formation can be obtained.(author)

  2. Characteristics of captured ash, chimney solids and trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of pulverized coal, bulk ash and chimney stack solids were taken from a 500 MW-capacity boiler burning a mixture of East Midlands coal. The surface morphology of size-graded samples was examined in a scanning electron microscope. The analysis of the major components of the respirable particles before and after water and acid etching was carried out by the EDAX technique. Neutron activation and atomic absorption spectrometry were used to determine the concentrations of trace elements. The bulk ash (ie from the electrostatic precipitators) contained 10% by weight of respirable-sized (ie below 5 ?m diameter) particles, but 50% of the chimney stack solids were in this size range. The respirable particles both in bulk and chimney stack samples consisted chiefly of spherical particles of alumino-silicates and iron oxides with a large number of below 0.5 ?m diameter particles attached to them. These attached sub-micron size particles consisted chiefly of sodium and potassium sulphates. The non-attached, sub-micron size particles in the chimney stack solids mostly consisted of calcium sulphate. Different possible modes of distribution of the trace elements in the precipitated ash and chimney stack solids are discussed. (author)

  3. Wisdom Way Solar Village: Design, Construction, and Analysis of a Low Energy Community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, R.

    2012-08-01

    This report describes work conducted at the Wisdom Way Solar Village (WWSV), a community of 10 high performance duplexes (20 homes) in Greenfield, MA, constructed by Rural Development, Inc. (RDI). Building America's CARB team monitored temperatures and comfort in several homes during the winter of 2009-2010, and tracked utility bill information from 13 occupied homes. Because of efficient lights, appliances, and conscientious home occupants, the energy generated by the solar electric systems exceeded the electric energy used in most homes.

  4. Bismarck, North Dakota, office commercial solar demonstration design and construction report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-05

    The demonstration consisted of adding 5,000 square feet of flat, plate collector to an existing four story, 75,000 square feet office building. The existing mechanical system is an electric water to water heat pump system with 60,000 gallons of thermal storage. The retrofit design converted one 20,000 gallon tank for use as solar storage and added the 5,000 square feet of double glazed, selective surface, flat plate collector. The solar collector is mounted as a ground mounted array which is stepped down a hillside. The array is expected to provide 1,944 x 10/sup 6/ BTU of useable energy annually. That energy is equivalent to 34% of the building heating energy. Construction progressed smoothly, however, time delays occurred as a result of slow shipment of the solar collectors and an extremely severe winter at the construction site. Construction was not completed until late spring of 1978; therefore will not be made fully operational until winter 1978. No operational data has yet been collected. The panels have been stagnating since installation and no deterioration of the cupric oxide selective coating is apparent. One post construction problem has become apparent and is not yet repaired. That is a problem of bowing of some of the collector side panels. The bowing is apparently caused from a thermal expansion of the aluminum extrusion. A bracing member will be instaled to eliminate the problem.

  5. 29 CFR 1926.854 - Removal of walls, masonry sections, and chimneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Removal of walls, masonry sections, and chimneys. 1926.854... Demolition § 1926.854 Removal of walls, masonry sections, and chimneys. (a) Masonry walls, or other sections of masonry,...

  6. Chimney for enhancing flow of coolant water in natural circulation boiling water reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterkamp, Willem Jan (Oosterbeek, NL); Marquino, Wayne (San Jose, CA)

    1999-01-05

    A chimney which can be reconfigured or removed during refueling to allow vertical removal of the fuel assemblies. The chimney is designed to be collapsed or dismantled. Collapse or dismantlement of the chimney reduces the volume required for chimney storage during the refueling operation. Alternatively, the chimney has movable parts which allow reconfiguration of its structure. In a first configuration suitable for normal reactor operation, the chimney is radially constricted such that the chimney obstructs vertical removal of the fuel assemblies. In a second configuration suitable for refueling or maintenance of the fuel core, the parts of the chimney which obstruct access to the fuel assemblies are moved radially outward to positions whereat access to the fuel assemblies is not obstructed.

  7. Design, Construction And Characterization Of A Pyranometer For Measuring Global Solar Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to cost and stringent importation requirement, we have designed and constructed a Pyranometer from locally available materials. The constructed Pyranometer was calibrated against a standard calibrated Eppley pyranometer model PSP17190F3. the two pyranometers were used simultaneously in measuring global solar radiation at Nsukka, Nigeria on latitude 6.8 degree North and longitude 7.35 degree East, located 488m above sea level. The average insolation for each of the two typical clear sky days were 3.221KW per square metre and 3.266KW per square metre. The maximum insolation obtained with the constructed pyranometer was 965.5 W per square metre on 16/1/03. The corresponding insolation obtained with the reference Eppley pyranometre on the same day was 1087.5W per square metre. We are happy to remark that there was not significant difference between the performances of the constructed pyranometer and the standard Eppley pyranometer

  8. Design, construction and experimental study of Electric Cum Solar Oven-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As in many developing countries, 35-40% of the population of Costa Rica still use firewood for domestic cooking. Considering the fact that Costa Rica is blessed with good sunshine, good hydroelectric potential, and a good electric network, a hybrid solar oven was thought to be useful. In the present paper the construction and working of a new type of Electric Cum Solar Oven (ECSO) has been described. This oven can be used for cooking and baking any type of meal at any time during the year employing solar and/or electric energy but consuming the minimum quantity of electric energy in case it is required. (author). 9 refs, 6 figs, 1 tab

  9. Study of the chimney produced by an underground nuclear explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underground nuclear explosions lead to the formation of a cavity which is roughly of spherical shape. The roof of this cavity is unstable and collapses in most cases, leading to the formation of a chimney. The height and the diameter depend on the energy of the charge and on the nature of the surroundings. The chronology of the various stages can be determined by seismic observations. The interior of the chimney is filled, either partially or completely, with rubble earth. This phenomenon is of great importance as far as the use of nuclear explosions for industrial applications is concerned. (author)

  10. 78 FR 72060 - Chimney Rock National Monument Management Plan; San Juan National Forest; Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Chimney Rock National Monument Management Plan; San Juan National...) to establish management direction for the land and resources within Chimney Rock National Monument... establishing Chimney Rock National Monument (the Monument) requires preparation of a management plan....

  11. 10-MWe solar-thermal central-receiver pilot plant: collector subsystem foundation construction. Revision No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-18

    Bid documents are provided for the construction of the collector subsystem foundation of the Barstow Solar Pilot Plant, including invitation to bid, bid form, representations and certifications, construction contract, and labor standards provisions of the Davis-Bacon Act. Instructions to bidders, general provisions and general conditions are included. Technical specifications are provided for the construction. (LEW)

  12. Influence of Chimney Width in Natural Convection Heat Transfer on a Vertical Finned Plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Jeyoung; Heo, Jeonghwan; Chung, Bumjin [Kyung Hee Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The RCCS adopts the chimney system to increase the flow rate. Also the fins installed in the inner walls of the chimney will provide an additional cooling performance by increasing the heat transfer area. On the other hand, the fins also increase the friction loss i. e. the pressure drop. Thus, in order to improve the heat transfer performance of the RCCS, an optimization among the fin parameters is necessary. Many experimental and numerical studies regarding the fin and the chimney are available. In this study, the natural convection heat transfer of the fin system located inside the chimney was measured. Based on the analogy concept, heat transfer experiments were replaced by mass transfer experiments using a sulfuric acid-copper sulfate (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-CuSO{sub 4}) electroplating system. The experiments were conducted by varying fin spacing, fin height, chimney width, and chimney height. This study experimentally investigated the natural convection heat transfer of the vertical finned plate in the chimney. Using an analogy, the heat transfer systems were replaced by mass transfer systems. The measured mass transfer coefficients was the difference with the existing heat transfer correlations due to the large value of the Pr, but exhibited similar trends with the existing heat transfer correlations. The heat transfer rate is increased by the decrease of the fin spacing and the increased fin height due to increased heat transfer area and chimney flow pattern. The chimney effect enhances heat transfer rate of vertical finned plate and the chimney effect on the Nu{sub s} In this study, the heat transfer rate on vertical finned plate in the chimney was confirmed by experiment for high values of Ra was stronger for the narrow chimney width, and became stronger by the higher chimney. The chimney effect was not observed when the chimney width becomes larger than a certain value depending on the Ra{sub s}.

  13. Influence of Chimney Width in Natural Convection Heat Transfer on a Vertical Finned Plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The RCCS adopts the chimney system to increase the flow rate. Also the fins installed in the inner walls of the chimney will provide an additional cooling performance by increasing the heat transfer area. On the other hand, the fins also increase the friction loss i. e. the pressure drop. Thus, in order to improve the heat transfer performance of the RCCS, an optimization among the fin parameters is necessary. Many experimental and numerical studies regarding the fin and the chimney are available. In this study, the natural convection heat transfer of the fin system located inside the chimney was measured. Based on the analogy concept, heat transfer experiments were replaced by mass transfer experiments using a sulfuric acid-copper sulfate (H2SO4-CuSO4) electroplating system. The experiments were conducted by varying fin spacing, fin height, chimney width, and chimney height. This study experimentally investigated the natural convection heat transfer of the vertical finned plate in the chimney. Using an analogy, the heat transfer systems were replaced by mass transfer systems. The measured mass transfer coefficients was the difference with the existing heat transfer correlations due to the large value of the Pr, but exhibited similar trends with the existing heat transfer correlations. The heat transfer rate is increased by the decrease of the fin spacing and the increased fin height due to increased heat transfer area and chimney flow pattern. The chimney effect enhances heat transfer rate of vertical finned plate and the chimney effect on the Nus In this study, the heat transfer rate on vertical finned plate in the chimney was confirmed by experiment for high values of Ra was stronger for the narrow chimney width, and became stronger by the higher chimney. The chimney effect was not observed when the chimney width becomes larger than a certain value depending on the Ras

  14. Solar radiation simulation. Design, construction and tests of a low cost equipment; O simulador de radiacao solar. Projeto, construcao e testes de um equipamento de baixo custo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grilo, Marcelo Bezerra; Castro, Moema Soares de [Paraiba Univ., Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica. Nucleo de Energia]. E-mail: grilo@nerg.ufpb.br

    1999-07-01

    This paper is about the development of a radiation solar simulator. The radiation solar simulator is a device that substitutes the solar radiation for an equivalent radiation in the laboratory through an artificial source. A well designed solar simulator allows the research in laboratory of equipment that uses the solar radiation as energy source, facilitating its operation for a variable spectrum of place with different latitude and longitude, as well as meteorological conditions and including solar power. This paper presents the projects and the characteristics of a radiation solar simulator that uses simple and low cost material, what turns possible its construction in another laboratories of poor lacking areas of resources, as it is the case of the semi-arid area in the Brazilian Northeast. (author)

  15. Solar dryer with thermal storage and biomass-backup heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madhlopa, A. [Department of Physics and Biochemical Sciences, Malawi Polytechnic, P/Bag 303, Blantyre 3 (Malawi); Ngwalo, G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Malawi Polytechnic, P/Bag 303, Blantyre 3 (Malawi)

    2007-04-15

    An indirect type natural convection solar dryer with integrated collector-storage solar and biomass-backup heaters has been designed, constructed and evaluated. The major components of the dryer are biomass burner (with a rectangular duct and flue gas chimney), collector-storage thermal mass and drying chamber (with a conventional solar chimney). The thermal mass was placed in the top part of the biomass burner enclosure. The dryer was fabricated using simple materials, tools and skills, and it was tested in three modes of operation (solar, biomass and solar-biomass) by drying twelve batches of fresh pineapple (Ananas comosus), with each batch weighing about 20 kg. Meteorological conditions were monitored during the dehydration process. Moisture and vitamin C contents were determined in both fresh and dried samples. Results show that the thermal mass was capable of storing part of the absorbed solar energy and heat from the burner. It was possible to dry a batch of pineapples using solar energy only on clear days. Drying proceeded successfully even under unfavorable weather conditions in the solar-biomass mode of operation. In this operational mode, the dryer reduced the moisture content of pineapple slices from about 669 to 11% (db) and yielded a nutritious dried product. The average values of the final-day moisture-pickup efficiency were 15%, 11% and 13% in the solar, biomass and solar-biomass modes of operation respectively. It appears that the solar dryer is suitable for preservation of pineapples and other fresh foods. Further improvements to the system design are suggested. (author)

  16. Collapse of chimney with impact on reactor building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the chimney does not belong to the higher-safety-class structures of a nuclear power plant, it is normally not designed for such extreme loading conditions as the safe-shutdown earthquake and the aircraft impact. Nevertheless, the behaviour of the chimney for these loads has to be investigated, as a possible collapse onto adjacent safety-relevant structures (reactor building, reactor auxiliary building, fuel-handling building) may significantly influence the design of these structures and of the equipment in them. The loading cases which might cause a collapse are outlined. The mathematical models used to calculate the highly physically and geometrically non-linear behaviour are described. The resulting response of the structures subjected to impact is determined and compared to that caused by other external extreme loading conditions. The safe-shutdown earthquake is represented by an artificially generated time history which fits a specified design-response spectrum. For preliminary calculations the response for simple sine wave excitation is determined. The ground acceleration at which collapse first occurs is calculated for different soil parameters and dimensions of the chimney. As an additional loading case, the direct impact of an aircraft or its freely flying debris on the chimney is investigated approximately. For different locations of impact, the impulse causing collapse is established. Under normal circumstances, debris such as engines can hardly lead to a collapse of the entire chimney. Overall consideration of the balance of energy and of impulse as well as detailed solutions of the resulting differential equations of motion are performed. (Auth.)

  17. Guide for a building energy label. Promoting bio-climatic and solar construction and renovation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Technically speaking, building experts have the knowledge to deal with thermal inertia of buildings, solar gains, insulation, efficient ventilation, and daylighting... to get low energy buildings that provide comfort for the users. Buildings should always be designed according to the specificities of the local climate, according to a ''solar and bio-climatic construction'' approach. It is not always possible to fully apply these principles, particularly in urban areas with high density. However, this is unacceptable to keep building with such errors as insufficient insulation and direct electrical heating, single glazing, thermal bridges, low efficiency heating systems. This guide aims at encouraging the building experts to take into account the energy efficiency. Implementing a building energy label will allow general public to be aware of this issue and then, and will then lead to develop better practices. (author)

  18. The use of a rubble chimney for denitrification of irrigation return waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological denitrification has been proposed as a means of removing nitrates from waste waters to control eutrophication in receiving waters. A potential use for this method is the treatment of irrigation return waters containing high concentrations of nitrate-nitrogen, since direct discharge of such wastes may cause objectionable algal growth in the receiving waters. For example, the process may be used to treat agricultural waste waters in the San Joaquin Valley in California, where an estimated 580,000 acre-feet/year of return waters, containing 20 mg/l of nitrate-nitrogen, will require disposal by A.D. 2020. Two methods of biological denitrification are presently under study for possible use in the San Joaquin Valley. In one method nitrates are reduced to nitrogen gas by bacterial action in deep ponds; in the other method bacterial denitrification takes place in biological filters. In biological filters, bacteria are grown on columns of submerged stones. A possible alternative to the conventional construction of these filters is the creation of a rubble chimney by a contained nuclear explosion. This paper presents the results of a preliminary investigation of the feasibility of using a rubble chimney as a biological filter for denitrification. (author)

  19. The computational optimization of heat exchange efficiency in stack chimneys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Goch, T.A.J.

    2012-02-15

    For many industrial processes, the chimney is the final step before hot fumes, with high thermal energy content, are discharged into the atmosphere. Tapping into this energy and utilizing it for heating or cooling applications, could improve sustainability, efficiency and/or reduce operational costs. Alternatively, an unused chimney, like the monumental chimney at the Eindhoven University of Technology, could serve as an 'energy channeler' once more; it can enhance free cooling by exploiting the stack effect. This study aims to identify design parameters that influence annual heat exchange in such stack chimney applications and optimize these parameters for specific scenarios to maximize the performance. Performance is defined by annual heat exchange, system efficiency and costs. The energy required for the water pump as compared to the energy exchanged, defines the system efficiency, which is expressed in an efficiency coefficient (EC). This study is an example of applying building performance simulation (BPS) tools for decision support in the early phase of the design process. In this study, BPS tools are used to provide design guidance, performance evaluation and optimization. A general method for optimization of simulation models will be studied, and applied in two case studies with different applications (heating/cooling), namely; (1) CERES case: 'Eindhoven University of Technology monumental stack chimney equipped with a heat exchanger, rejects heat to load the cold source of the aquifer system on the campus of the university and/or provides free cooling to the CERES building'; and (2) Industrial case: 'Heat exchanger in an industrial stack chimney, which recoups heat for use in e.g. absorption cooling'. The main research question, addressing the concerns of both cases, is expressed as follows: 'what is the optimal set of design parameters so heat exchange in stack chimneys is optimized annually for the cases in which a stack chimney heat exchanger is used for heating or cooling applications, what is the expected performance and how do the design parameters relate to this performance'. Simulation models were developed in the BPS tool ESP-r. The most important design parameters and their relative influence on the performance indicators were analysed based on sensitivity analysis (SA). From this analysis general design guidelines were derived ('optimal set of design parameters'). A multi objective optimization of the design parameters was performed on the simulation models, using the responsive surface methods and artificial neural network capabilities of optimization environment ModEContier to speed up the iteration process. In this optimization, 'heat exchange in stack chimneys is optimized annually'. The uncertainty in the optimized results has been analysed using uncertainty analysis (UA). Finally, the appropriateness of deploying a complex, high resolution simulation has been evaluated by studying current modelling resolution selection methodology found in literature.

  20. Construction of a multilayered X-ray telescope for solar coronal studies from space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The construction and testing of soft x-ray Ritchey-Chretien aplanatic telescope which is to be flown on a NASA sounding rocket in 1986 for very high resolution studies of the solar corona are discussed. Goals include figuring, polishing and measuring the mirror surfaces to tolerances exceding the 5000 A wavelength diffraction limit while achieving a superpolished surface finish, and the development of a structural design to withstand the rigors of the launch. Multilayer coatings are used to achieve usable reflectivity in the soft X-ray regime, and the design goal is for spatial resolution of 1/4 sec. Future applications are discussed. 12 references

  1. Total solar irradiance variations: The construction of a composite and its comparison with models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehlich, Claus; Lean, Judith

    1997-01-01

    Measurements of the total solar irradiance (TSI) during the last 18 years from spacecraft are reviewed. Corrections are determined for the early measurements made by the HF radiometer within the ERB experiment on NIMBUS 7 and the factor to refer active cavity radiometer irradiation monitoring (ACRIM) 2 to the ACRIM 1 irradiance scale. With these corrections, a composite TSI is constructed with a model that combines a magnetic brightness proxy with observed sunspot darkening and explains nearly 90 percent of the observed short and long term variance. Possible, but still unverified degradation of the radiometers hampers conclusions about irradiance changes on decadal time scales and longer.

  2. The Inventory Of High Objects Applying Laser Scanning, Focus On The Cataloguing A Reinforced Concrete Industrial Chimney

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawa?kiewicz, Rafa?

    2015-12-01

    There are many surveying methods to measure the inclination of a chimney with the use of classical protractor instruments (Theo 010A/B, T2 Wild), electronic theodolites (TC2002 Wild-Leica), electronic total stations, including mirrorless ones, allowing to define indirectly the course of the construction's axis on the selected observation levels. The methods are the following: indentations, direct projection, double-edged method, polar method with the option of mirrorless measurement. At the moment a very practical and quick measurement technology, significantly eliminating the influence of human errors on the observation results, is laser scanning. The article presents the results of the scanning of 120-metres high reinforced concrete industrial chimney of the Cement Plant "O?arów", with the application of modern scanning total station VX Spatial Station by Trimble, as an alternative to the methods applied so far. The advantage of scanning is the possibility to obtain a point cloud, which, apart from the information on the course of the chimney axis in the space, provides detail information on the real shape and deformations of the coating of the object's core.

  3. Simplifying the construction of dye-sensitized solar cells to increase their accessibility for community education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appleyard, Steve [Department of Environment and Conservation, PO Box K822, Perth, WA 6842 (Australia)

    2010-01-15

    Simple dye-sensitized solar cells were developed using blackboard chalk as a substrate for mixed ZnO and SnO{sub 2} films that were sensitized with Mercurochrome (Merbromine) dye. Graphite pencil 'leads' were used as counter electrodes for the cells and the electrolyte consisted of an aqueous solution of iodine and potassium iodide that was gelled with a disinfectant containing quaternary ammonium compounds and cyanoacrylate adhesive (Superglue {sup registered}). The open circuit potential of constructed cells was typically 0.50-0.64 V and the short circuit current varied between 0.5 and 2.0 mA cm{sup -2}. The cells were developed as an educational resource that could be simply and safely constructed in a home or school environment with readily accessible materials. (author)

  4. Condensation of flue gas vapours in ducts and chimneys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarman, R. T.; de Turville, C. M.

    The growth of a single dust particle by vapour condensation is derived from Fick's diffusion equation after considering the conditions under which it may be used. The treatment is then extended to a polydisperse dust cloud, allowing for (1) a constant cooling rate (2) the depletion of the vapour by condensation (3) the dependence of droplet vapour pressure on curvature and (4) the variation of the diffusion coefficient with droplet size. The general expression obtained for the radial growth of aerosol particles is suitable for numerical integration by computer, and has been applied to the flue gas of an oil-fired power station in the case when the sulphuric acid dewpoint is reached within the chimney. It is shown that, under typical power station operating conditions, the rate of condensation by heterogeneous nucleation is sufficiently fast to maintain the flue gas in the chimney at a low degree of supersaturation, for which condensation by self-nucleation is unlikely.

  5. Coccidioidomycosis among Workers Constructing Solar Power Farms, California, USA, 2011–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sondermeyer, Gail; Shusterman, Dennis; McNary, Jennifer; Vugia, Duc J.; McDowell, Ann; Borenstein, Penny; Gilliss, Debra; Ancock, Benedict; Prudhomme, Janice; Gold, Deborah; Windham, Gayle C.; Lee, Lauren; Materna, Barbara L.

    2015-01-01

    Coccidioidomycosis is associated with soil-disruptive work in Coccidioides-endemic areas of the southwestern United States. Among 3,572 workers constructing 2 solar power–generating facilities in San Luis Obispo County, California, USA, we identified 44 patients with symptom onset during October 2011–April 2014 (attack rate 1.2 cases/100 workers). Of these 44 patients, 20 resided in California outside San Luis Obispo County and 10 resided in another state; 9 were hospitalized (median 3 days), 34 missed work (median 22 days), and 2 had disseminated disease. Of the 25 patients who frequently performed soil-disruptive work, 6 reported frequent use of respiratory protection. As solar farm construction in Coccidioides-endemic areas increases, additional workers will probably be exposed and infected unless awareness is emphasized and effective exposure reduction measures implemented, including limiting dust generation and providing respiratory protection. Medical providers, including those in non–Coccidioides-endemic areas, should suspect coccidioidomycosis in workers with compatible illness and report cases to their local health department. PMID:26484688

  6. Coccidioidomycosis among Workers Constructing Solar Power Farms, California, USA, 2011-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilken, Jason A; Sondermeyer, Gail; Shusterman, Dennis; McNary, Jennifer; Vugia, Duc J; McDowell, Ann; Borenstein, Penny; Gilliss, Debra; Ancock, Benedict; Prudhomme, Janice; Gold, Deborah; Windham, Gayle C; Lee, Lauren; Materna, Barbara L

    2015-11-01

    Coccidioidomycosis is associated with soil-disruptive work in Coccidioides-endemic areas of the southwestern United States. Among 3,572 workers constructing 2 solar power-generating facilities in San Luis Obispo County, California, USA, we identified 44 patients with symptom onset during October 2011-April 2014 (attack rate 1.2 cases/100 workers). Of these 44 patients, 20 resided in California outside San Luis Obispo County and 10 resided in another state; 9 were hospitalized (median 3 days), 34 missed work (median 22 days), and 2 had disseminated disease. Of the 25 patients who frequently performed soil-disruptive work, 6 reported frequent use of respiratory protection. As solar farm construction in Coccidioides-endemic areas increases, additional workers will probably be exposed and infected unless awareness is emphasized and effective exposure reduction measures implemented, including limiting dust generation and providing respiratory protection. Medical providers, including those in non-Coccidioides-endemic areas, should suspect coccidioidomycosis in workers with compatible illness and report cases to their local health department. PMID:26484688

  7. GPS FOM Chimney Analysis using Generalized Extreme Value Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Rick; Frisbee, Joe; Saha, Kanan

    2004-01-01

    Many a time an objective of a statistical analysis is to estimate a limit value like 3-sigma 95% confidence upper limit from a data sample. The generalized Extreme Value Distribution method can be profitably employed in many situations for such an estimate. . .. It is well known that according to the Central Limit theorem the mean value of a large data set is normally distributed irrespective of the distribution of the data from which the mean value is derived. In a somewhat similar fashion it is observed that many times the extreme value of a data set has a distribution that can be formulated with a Generalized Distribution. In space shuttle entry with 3-string GPS navigation the Figure Of Merit (FOM) value gives a measure of GPS navigated state accuracy. A GPS navigated state with FOM of 6 or higher is deemed unacceptable and is said to form a FOM 6 or higher chimney. A FOM chimney is a period of time during which the FOM value stays higher than 5. A longer period of FOM of value 6 or higher causes navigated state to accumulate more error for a lack of state update. For an acceptable landing it is imperative that the state error remains low and hence at low altitude during entry GPS data of FOM greater than 5 must not last more than 138 seconds. I To test the GPS performAnce many entry test cases were simulated at the Avionics Development Laboratory. Only high value FoM chimneys are consequential. The extreme value statistical technique is applied to analyze high value FOM chimneys. The Maximum likelihood method is used to determine parameters that characterize the GEV distribution, and then the limit value statistics are estimated.

  8. Aggregation and chimney formation during the solidification of ammonium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, T H; Hartley, R R; Lee, A T

    1999-09-01

    Experiments study large-scale pattern formation during the growth of ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) from solution in a thin (Hele-Shaw) geometry. In particular a solid-liquid mixture ("mushy layer") forms in which growing solid NH4Cl crystals form a solid network interspersed with liquid. There are different ways that the mushy layer can be formed, however. If the cell is heated from below and cooled from above, thermal convection generates large-scale recirculating flows that carry seed crystals from the upper (cold) boundary to the (warmer) side and bottom boundaries. Ballistic deposition of these seed crystals leads to aggregation patterns with significant voids (filled with liquid) with a wide range of length scales. If the cell is cooled from below with a warm environment, the solid NH4Cl grows dendritically without deposition, resulting in a compact mushy layer. Plume convection within this mushy layer produces one or two well-defined "chimneys." If the environment is cool (comparable to the liquidus temperature of the solution), the mushy layer forms by a combination of dendritic growth and ballistic deposition, resulting in a more permeable mushy layer and enhanced chimney formation. The effects of ballistic deposition are enhanced if the cell is tipped, in which case the voids reappear. Plume convection and chimney formation are dramatically enhanced in this case. Additional experiments are done in which fluid flows in the system are enhanced artificially to verify that enhancements in chimney formation are due primarily to the aggregation process, and not to the increases in fluid flows due to thermal and compositional convection. PMID:11970113

  9. Design, construction and characterization of a rural solar furnace; Diseno, construccion y caracterizacion de un horno solar rural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez Luna, Gabriela

    2001-06-15

    This thesis presents the design, construction and characterization of a solar furnace, box type, for its use in rural communities in the inter-tropical zone. The work presented in this thesis departs from the opto-geometric design of a solar furnace, box type, proposed by an enthusiastic group of young students from the Centro de Investigacion de Energia (CIE) of the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM). The contents of this thesis includes the systematization of the work previously made by these authors: the design and the optimization of geometry, the experimental evaluation of the same, as well as a theoretical model of the thermal behavior of the solar furnace based on a global balance of energy that assumes thermal states in cuasi-equilibrium of the internal components of the furnace. In this thesis a theoretical model of the solar concentration of energy by the reflectors of the furnace based on the model of Peres and Karsson (1993) is developed. The predictions of this model are satisfactorily compared with the experimental results of Jaramillo et al. (1999). Counting on the opto-geometric design of the furnace, the design is completed selecting the materials to be used in the different parts of the same, as well as defining constructive details. The material selected for the inner and outer boxes and the reflectors is stainless steel mirror finishing. Mineral wool is used As insulating mineral. The upper part of the furnace is protected by a glass that allows the entrance of the solar energy and diminishes the energy convective and radiation losses. For the thermal evaluation of the furnace an experimental methodology, based on the international procedures standardized for tests of furnaces and solar stoves is followed. Three tests for each one of the following operation conditions were performed: without load, with oil and with water. The maximum temperature registered in the inside air of the furnace, for the first condition was of 150 centigrade, followed of the condition using 6 liters of oil, in which a maximum temperature of 115 centigrade was obtained and in the tests with 6 liters of water as load a maximum temperature of 95 centigrade was registered. In these tests the temperature of the oil surpasses 60 centigrade during an approximate period of 7 hours and is higher than 80 centigrade by a lapse of 5 hours. The water temperature is higher than 60 centigrade for a period of more than 5 hours and during 3 hours is higher than 80 centigrade. These results are satisfactory, because they assure the accomplishment of the process of baking inside the furnace. A calculation program was elaborated to implement the theoretical model of the concentration. This program reads the data of radiation intensity in the horizontal plane supplied by the weather station of the CIE and determines the incident radiation in the furnace collector. The theoretical model of the thermal behavior was implemented in another computer program; this program reads the data of the incident radiation in the collector of the furnace and the data of room temperature and calculates the temperature of the furnace as a time function. The model overestimates the temperature reached in the furnace, nevertheless reproduces qualitatively the thermal behavior of the same. In spite of the limitations of the theoretical model, this can be of utility in achieving the reproduction of the temperature of the load experimentally registered, through an effective coefficient of heat losses and an effective coefficient of heat capacity, characteristic of each one of the conditions of the test. [Spanish] Esta tesis presenta el diseno, construccion y caracterizacion de un horno solar tipo caja para su uso en comunidades rurales en la zona intertropical. El trabajo presentado en esta tesis parte del diseno opto-geometrico de un horno solar tipo caja propuesto por un entusiasta grupo de jovenes estudiantes (Acosta et al., 1996, Vazquez et al., 1998, Jaramillo et al., 1999) del Centro de Investigacion en Energia (CIE) de la Universidad Nacional Autonom

  10. Evaluation of a stack: A concrete chimney with brick liner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 200 ft. tall stack, consisting of a concrete chimney with an independent acid proof brick liner built in the 1950's, serving the Separations facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS), was evaluated for the performance category 3 (PC3) level of Natural Phenomena Hazards (NPH) effects. The inelastic energy absorption capacity of the concrete chimney was considered in the evaluation of the earthquake resistance, in particular, to compute the F? factor. The calculated value of F? exceeded 3.0, while the seismic demand for the PC3 level, using an F? value of 1.5, was found to be less than the capacity of the concrete chimney. The capacity formulation of ACI 307 was modified to incorporate the effect of an after design opening on the tension side. There are considerable uncertainties in determining the earthquake resistance of the independent brick liner. The critical liner section, located at the bottom of the breeching opening, does not meet the current recommendations. A discussion is provided for the possible acceptable values for the ''Moment Reduction Factor'', Rw or F? for the liner. Comments are provided on the comparison of stack demands using response spectra (RS) versus time history (TH) analysis, with and without soil structure interaction (SSI) effects

  11. D0 - Chimney Lead Quench Detection, Beta Solenoid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The voltage drop across the superconducting chimney lead is sensed to detect a quench. The return sense lead is mounted outside the chimney. The return sense lead and the superconducting chimney wire form a loop with area A ∼ 1.7 m2 (information from R. Ru. cinski). Changing flux through area A will induce a voltage in the sense loop and could cause false quench detection. Assume that the field through A changes 1 kGauss (0.1 Wb/m2) in 10-3 sec. The induced voltage is then: e = d0/dt = dBA/dt and e = 0.1 x 1.7/10-3 = 170 V. This is probably a very pessimistic estimate, but it shows that we have to watch out. Changes of 100 Gauss in 100 msec (CDF experience?) are probably more likely and cause: e = 0.01 x 1.7/10-2 ∼ 1.7 V noise. This noise is still too high because trip levels are planned to sit at ∼50 mV? It is practically impossible to predict what the real noise values would be, but I expect them to be in the order of 1 to 10 V. This is more than we can handle and I would expect nuisance trips.

  12. Collapse of chimney caused by earthquake or by aircraft impingement with subsequent impact on reactor building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The behaviour of a typical chimney stack of a nuclear-power plant subjected to earthquake impact loads is examined. The explicit integration procedure using convected coordinates is adopted to perform the transient analyses with large displacement and material nonlinearities of the concrete stack, of the impinging aircraft and of the soil. Thanks to the favourable effects of the parallel separation of the base mat from the soil (lifting-off), the chimney does not collapse for realistic accelerations of the earthquake. Force-time relationships of the aircraft impinging on the chimney are developed. The impact of aircraft debris causes only local damage of the chimney. The direct impingement of an aircraft, however, may lead to partial collapse or total overturning of the chimney. The resulting motion, including the impact of the chimney on the reactor building, is studied. The response of the structure being hit and the equipment located within will in many cases govern their design. (Auth.)

  13. Antecedent and progress of the project on the treatment of chimney gases with electrons in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the realization of the chimney gases treatment seminar with electrons, organized jointly among the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), in August of 1990 and following one of the received recommendations, it was elaborated an economic technical feasibility study of this process in Mexico, using technical data of a thermoelectric power station of Federal Commission of Electricity, where is being consumed fuel oil. This study is good to know some technical parameters of a plant of this process, proposed to settle in Mexico, so as some economic estimates of installation and operation costs of this plant; also, it is traced about the construction of a demonstration plant of the process, with capacity of 20,000 m3N/h, using the same data of the thermoelectric power station considered previously, as the first step in the scaling of this process toward industrial level. (Author)

  14. Wind load analysis of tall chimneys with piled raft foundation considering the flexibility of soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayalekshmi, B. R.; Jisha, S. V.; Shivashankar, R.

    2015-06-01

    Soil-structure interaction (SSI) analysis was carried out for tall reinforced concrete chimneys with piled raft foundation subjected to wind loads. To understand the significance of SSI, four types of soil were considered based on different material properties. Chimneys of different elevations and different ratios of height to base diameter of chimney were selected for the parametric study. The thickness of raft of piled raft foundation was also varied based on different ratios of outer diameter to thickness of raft. The chimneys were assumed to be located in open terrain and subjected to a maximum wind speed of 50 m/s. The along-wind and across-wind loads were computed according to IS: 4998 (Part 1)-1992 and applied along the height of the chimney. The analysis was carried out using three-dimensional finite element technique based on the direct method of SSI. The linear elastic material behaviour was assumed for the integrated chimney-foundation-soil system. The radial and tangential moments, lateral deflection and base moment of chimney were evaluated through SSI analysis and compared with the response obtained from chimney with fixed base. The base moment of chimney considerably reduces due to the effect of SSI. It is found that the variation of different responses in chimney due to the effect of SSI depends significantly on the geometrical properties of chimney and foundations. The response variation at base for a distance of 1/40th of the height of chimney should be considered for a safe design.

  15. Chimney damage in the greater Seattle area from the Nisqually earthquake of 28 February 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, D.B.; Wells, R.E.; Givler, R.W.

    2004-01-01

    Unreinforced brick chimneys in the greater Seattle area were damaged repeatedly in the Benioff zone earthquakes of 1949, 1965, and 2001. A survey of visible chimney damage after the 28 February 2001 Nisqually earthquake evaluated approximately 60,000 chimneys through block-by-block coverage of about 50 km2, identifying a total of 1556 damaged chimneys. Chimney damage was strongly clustered in certain areas, in particular in the neighborhood of West Seattle where prior damage was also noted and evaluated after the 1965 earthquake. Our results showed that damage produced by the 2001 earthquake did not obviously correspond to distance from the earthquake epicenter, soft soils, topography, or slope orientation. Chimney damage correlates well to instrumented strong-motion measurements and compiled resident-reported ground-shaking intensities, but it offers much finer spatial resolution than these other data sources. In general, most areas of greatest chimney damage coincide with best estimated locations of strands of the Seattle fault zone. The edge of that zone also coincides with areas where chimney damage dropped abruptly over only one or two blocks' distance. The association between shaking intensity and fault-zone structure suggests that abrupt changes in the depth to bedrock, edge effects at the margin of the Seattle basin, or localized trapping of seismic waves in the Seattle fault zone may be significant contributory factors in the distribution of chimney damage.

  16. Natural convection enhancement in an asymmetrically heated channel-chimney system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a numerical study is performed in order to analyze the effect of adding a chimney to a vertical open channel. The channel is heated asymmetrically at uniform heat flux while the chimney is symmetric and wider than the channel. The thermal and dynamic aspects of the channel-chimney system (T chimney) are studied by varying the width and the height of the chimney while the aspect ratio of the channel is kept fixed. The main objective of this work is to determine the optimal geometric parameters of the chimney: the expansion ratio B (chimney width normalized by the channel width) and the extension ratio Er (chimney height normalized by the channel height), that maximize the mass flow rate (G) and the average Nusselt number (Nua). More than four hundred numerical simulations have been carried out at modified Rayleigh numbers ranging from 102 to 5x104 (laminar regime). The computations allowed the identification of three types of system responses. The flow structure and the pressure field were also analyzed to elucidate why the increase of the chimney width can improve or deteriorate the mass flow rate and the heat transfer. Finally, appropriate correlations have been proposed for determining the optimal configurations and the corresponding enhancement of the mass flow rate and the heat transfer coefficient. (authors)

  17. Borehole techniques identifying subsurface chimney heights in loose ground-some experiences above underground nuclear explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, R.D.; Lacomb, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    The location of the subsurface top of the chimney formed by the collapse of the cavity resulting from an underground nuclear explosion is examined at five sites at the Nevada Test Site. The chimneys were investigated by drilling, coring, geophysical logging (density, gamma-ray, caliper), and seismic velocity surveys. The identification of the top of the chimney can be complicated by chimney termination in friable volcanic rock of relatively high porosity. The presence of an apical void in three of the five cases is confirmed as the chimney horizon by coincidence with anomalies observed in coring, caliper and gamma-ray logging (two cases), seismic velocity, and drilling. In the two cases where an apical void is not present, several of these techniques yield anomalies at identical horizons, however, the exact depth of chimney penetration is subject to some degree of uncertainty. This is due chiefly to the extent to which core recovery and seismic velocity may be affected by perturbations in the tuff above the chimney due to the explosion and collapse. The data suggest, however, that the depth uncertainty may be only of the order of 10 m if several indicators are available. Of all indicators, core recovery and seismic velocity indicate anomalous horizons in every case. Because radiation products associated with the explosion are contained within the immediate vicinity of the cavity, gamma-ray logs are generally not diagnostic of chimney penetration. In no case is the denisty log indicative of the presence of the chimney. ?? 1993.

  18. Large-size deployable construction heated by solar irradiation in free space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestrenina, Irena; Kondyurin, Alexey; Pestrenin, Valery; Kashin, Nickolay; Naymushin, Alexey

    Large-size deployable construction in free space with subsequent direct curing was invented more than fifteen years ago (Briskman et al., 1997 and Kondyurin, 1998). It caused a lot of scientific problems, one of which is a possibility to use the solar energy for initiation of the curing reaction. This paper is devoted to investigate the curing process under sun irradiation during a space flight in Earth orbits. A rotation of the construction is considered. This motion can provide an optimal temperature distribution in the construction that is required for the polymerization reaction. The cylindrical construction of 80 m length with two hemispherical ends of 10 m radius is considered. The wall of the construction of 10 mm carbon fibers/epoxy matrix composite is irradiated by heat flux from the sun and radiates heat from the external surface by the Stefan- Boltzmann law. A stage of polymerization reaction is calculated as a function of temperature/time based on the laboratory experiments with certified composite materials for space exploitation. The curing kinetics of the composite is calculated for different inclination Low Earth Orbits (300 km altitude) and Geostationary Earth Orbit (40000 km altitude). The results show that • the curing process depends strongly on the Earth orbit and the rotation of the construction; • the optimal flight orbit and rotation can be found to provide the thermal regime that is sufficient for the complete curing of the considered construction. The study is supported by RFBR grant ? 12-08-00970-a. 1. Briskman V., A.Kondyurin, K.Kostarev, V.Leontyev, M.Levkovich, A.Mashinsky, G.Nechitailo, T.Yudina, Polymerization in microgravity as a new process in space technology, Paper No IAA-97-IAA.12.1.07, 48th International Astronautical Congress, October 6-10, 1997, Turin Italy. 2. Kondyurin A.V., Building the shells of large space stations by the polymerisation of epoxy composites in open space, Int. Polymer Sci. and Technol., v.25, N4, 1998, p. 78-80.

  19. Comparative feature on design, construction and installation of three different model of low cost solar tunnel dryers

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, M. T.; M Kamal; Nazrul Islam, M.; Neazuddin, M.; Mehbub, M.F.

    2006-01-01

    The study was conducted in collaboration with the ECFC project of the FAO (BGD/97/017) in Cox's Bazar to develop a low cost solar tunnel dryer for the production of high quality marine dried fish. The study areas were Kutubdiapara, Maheshkhali and Shahparirdip under Cox's Bazar district. Three different models of low cost solar dryer were constructed with locally available materials such as bamboo, wood, bamboo mat, hemp, canvas, wire, nails, rope, tin, polythene and net. Size of the dryers w...

  20. Design, construction and performance testing of a solar dryer for agroindustrial by-products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spain generates a big amount of agroindustrial by-products of high moisture that produce a high environmental impact. This fact motivates the aim of this paper, in which a solar dryer prototype is designed, constructed, and performance tested for the analysis of the drying kinetics of these by-products and their possible power valuation. The characteristics of the prototype are presented, together with the variations of the properties of temperature, relative humidity, air mass flow, and efficiency for indirect, mixed, passive, active, and hybrid operation modes. The most efficient operation mode will be the forced-hybrid one, followed by the passive and active modes. The analysis of the drying kinetics of the olive pomace shows the better performance of the hybrid and mixed modes, obtaining reductions of the drying time of a 50% in both cases.

  1. Design, construction and performance testing of a solar dryer for agroindustrial by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montero, I.; Miranda, T.; Rojas, S.; Celma, A.R. [University of Extremadura, Department of Chemical and Energetics Engineering, Industrial Engineering School, Av. Elvas s/n, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Blanco, J. [PSA (CIEMAT), Department of Solar Chemistry, Ctra. Sens, P.O. Box 22, 04200 Tabernas (Almera) (Spain)

    2010-07-15

    Spain generates a big amount of agroindustrial by-products of high moisture that produce a high environmental impact. This fact motivates the aim of this paper, in which a solar dryer prototype is designed, constructed, and performance tested for the analysis of the drying kinetics of these by-products and their possible power valuation. The characteristics of the prototype are presented, together with the variations of the properties of temperature, relative humidity, air mass flow, and efficiency for indirect, mixed, passive, active, and hybrid operation modes. The most efficient operation mode will be the forced-hybrid one, followed by the passive and active modes. The analysis of the drying kinetics of the olive pomace shows the better performance of the hybrid and mixed modes, obtaining reductions of the drying time of a 50% in both cases. (author)

  2. Construction of research wind-solar monitoring station 'North-East Bulgaria'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rising energy prices, the lack of conventional energy sources, as well as the growing ecological problems, imposing the development of a new energy strategy of Bulgaria, are the prerequisites for the thorough researches in the field of wind-solar resources and the construction of experimental bases with modern equipment for the detailed investigations on the specificities of these resources with the view of their optimal utilization. The lack of homogenous covering of the territory of the country with meteorological stations, as well as the rather specific microclimatic conditions in the diverse physical-geographic localities in the country make the necessity of building experimental stations for meteo-monitoring under specific local conditions still more indispensable. This work presents the monitoring parameters of wind-solar resources in a real physical-geographic environment, for carrying out scientific-research, applied-practical and educational-training activity. A broad spectrum of scientific methods and approaches - instrumental, topographic, terrain, mathematical-statistical, numerical modeling, cartographic, educational and team-working, are envisaged for attaining the set objective. (author)

  3. Maintenance of utility chimneys and stacks via a database management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Askenazi, M.; Deem, H. [TU Electric, Dallas, TX (United States); Fang, S.J. [Sargent and Lundy, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1995-10-01

    TU Electric has initiated several programs to address plant aging conditions, and to share solutions that resolve similar problems throughout the system. The ultimate goal of these programs, which form TU Electric`s overall Asset Preservation Program, is to preserve the equipment and structures` condition with minimum cost. Examples of these programs are Turbine Valve Inspection, Critical Impoundment Inspection for large above-ground storage tank dikes, High Energy Piping inspection, etc. The Chimney and Stack Maintenance Program is one of the Asset Preservation programs, established to address specific maintenance issues. Presently the TU Electric System has approximately 100 concrete chimneys and steel stacks. The average age of the chimneys and stacks in the TU Electric system is over 35 years; the oldest chimneys are 75 years old. The newest chimneys--already in service for some 15 years--serve plants with the most corrosive environments; i.e., following a flue gas desulfurization system. The severe environment and aging cause the chimney and stack structures to deteriorate with time. Industry experience has shown these structures require periodic inspection and maintenance to ensure their safe operation. Maintaining these chimneys and stack structures to guard against any malfunction that may result in plant shutdown and/or present a safety hazard to plant personnel is a high priority. This paper presents the methodology and the experiences of TU Electric`s Chimney and Stack Maintenance Program utilizing a database management system.

  4. 29 CFR 1926.854 - Removal of walls, masonry sections, and chimneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Removal of walls, masonry sections, and chimneys. 1926.854....854 Removal of walls, masonry sections, and chimneys. (a) Masonry walls, or other sections of masonry... carrying capacities of the floors. (b) No wall section, which is more than one story in height, shall...

  5. Full scale monitoring of the twin chimneys of the rovinari power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayati I.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The presented paper deals with the structural identification and monitoring of two twin chimneys in very close arrangement. Due to twin arrangement, important interference effects are expected to modify the chimney response to wind action, causing vortex shedding and state-dependent excitation associated to the oscillatory motion of the leeward chimney, in and out of the windward chimney wake. The complexity of the physics of this problem is increased by the dependency of the aerodynamics of circular cylinders on Reynolds number; however, there is a weakness of literature about cylinders behaviour at critical and super-critical range of Reynolds number, due to experimental limitations. Also the International Committee on Industrial Chimneys (CICIND does not provide, at present, any specific technical guideline about twin chimneys whose interaxis distance is less or equal two times the diameter, as in this case. For this reason a Tuned Mass Damper (TMD has been installed in order to increase the damping of the chimney, as merely suggested. This work aims at assessing the effectiveness of the installed TMD and characterizing the tower dynamic behaviour itself due to the wind excitation, as well as providing full scale measurements for twin cylinders configuration at high Reynolds numbers.

  6. ChEVAS: Combining Suprarenal EVAS with Chimney Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torella, Francesco; Chan, Tze Y; Shaikh, Usman; England, Andrew; Fisher, Robert K; McWilliams, Richard G

    2015-10-01

    Endovascular sealing with the Nellix(®) endoprosthesis (EVAS) is a new technique to treat infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms. We describe the use of endovascular sealing in conjunction with chimney stents for the renal arteries (chEVAS) in two patients, one with a refractory type Ia endoleak and an expanding aneurysm, and one with a large juxtarenal aneurysm unsuitable for fenestrated endovascular repair (EVAR). Both aneurysms were successfully excluded. Our report confirms the utility of chEVAS in challenging cases, where suprarenal seal is necessary. We suggest that, due to lack of knowledge on its durability, chEVAS should only been considered when more conventional treatment modalities (open repair and fenestrated EVAR) are deemed difficult or unfeasible. PMID:26202393

  7. Chimney stent graft for endovascular sealing of a pararenal aortic aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouer, Martin; El Batti, Salma; Julia, Pierre; de Blic, Romain; Fabiani, Jean-Noël; Alsac, Jean-Marc

    2014-11-01

    Chimney endovascular aneurysm repair is still a controversial treatment of complex aortic aneurysms. Stent-graft patency and type-I endoleaks are the main challenges that temper this bailout technique. Endovascular aneurysm sealing (EVAS) consists of anchoring and sealing the device within the aneurysm sac. The first results are promising, even for adverse anatomy. We describe a case of EVAS for a pararenal aortic aneurysm associated with a chimney stent graft for the right renal artery. Wrapping the chimney stent graft inside endobags filled with polymer is expected to prevent gutters and stent compressions. PMID:25108097

  8. Diffused vs. Focused Flow - Metaproteogenomic Insights into Effects of Hydrothermal Fluid Flow on Metal-Sulfide Chimney Colonizing Biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pjevac, P.; Markert, S.; Richter, M.; Gruber-Vodicka, H.; Schweder, T.; Amann, R.; Meyerdierks, A.

    2014-12-01

    At many sites of hydrothermal discharge in the deep-sea, the deposition of metal sulfides from hydrothermal fluids leads to the formation of geological structures known as hydrothermal chimneys. The mixing of reduced hydrothermal fluids with oxygenated seawater leads to the formation of steep redox gradients within the chimney walls. These gradients facilitate the co-existence of metabolically diverse microorganisms in the narrow habitable zone of hydrothermal chimney walls. However, the overall composition of chimney-associated microbial community is usually of low complexity and represents an environment suitable for metaomic-based studies. We used metagenomic and metaproteomic tools to compare microbial communities colonizing two metal-sulfide chimneys from the Manus Basin back-arc spreading center in the Bismarck Sea off Papua New Guinea. These chimneys were supplied by the same source hydrothermal fluids, but exhibited different fluid flow regimes. One chimney (RMR5) had a focused venting edifice, while the other (RMR-D) displayed diffuse fluid efflux on its entire outer surface. Although the microbial diversity of both chimneys is similar and dominated by mesophilic Epsilonproteobacteria, our results indicate a strong structuring effect of hydrothermal fluid flow regime on chimney-associated biofilms. The microbial community composition indicates a homogeneous colonization of the diffuse chimney walls. In contrast, the walls of the focused venting chimney appear to be colonized in layers reflecting different temperature tolerances of the dominant microorganisms. Sulfide-oxidation is likely the key metabolism in both chimneys, which is in line with the high sulfide content of the source hydrothermal fluid. However, preliminary metaproteome analysis indicates high activity of low-abundant methanotrophic Bacteria in the diffuser chimney walls. This finding is particularly interesting in light of the very low methane content of the source hydrothermal fluid. Overall, this study is among the first metaprotoemic investigations of hydrothermal vent associated communities and provides deep insights into the metabolic versatility of hydrothermal chimney colonizing microbes.

  9. Innovative Second-Generation Wavelets Construction With Recurrent Neural Networks for Solar Radiation Forecasting

    OpenAIRE

    Capizzi, Giacomo; Napoli, Christian; Bonanno, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Solar radiation prediction is an important challenge for the electrical engineer because it is used to estimate the power developed by commercial photovoltaic modules. This paper deals with the problem of solar radiation prediction based on observed meteorological data. A 2-day forecast is obtained by using novel wavelet recurrent neural networks (WRNNs). In fact, these WRNNS are used to exploit the correlation between solar radiation and timescale-related variations of wind speed, humidity, ...

  10. Solar ventilation and tempering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adámek, Karel; Pavlů, Miloš; Bandouch, Milan

    2014-08-01

    The paper presents basic information about solar panels, designed, realized and used for solar ventilation of rooms. Used method of numerical flow simulation gives good overview about warming and flowing of the air in several kinds of realized panels (window, facade, chimney). Yearlong measurements give a good base for calculations of economic return of invested capital. The operation of the system in transient period (spring, autumn) prolongs the period without classical heating of the room or building, in winter the classical heating is supported. In the summer period the system, furnished with chimney, can exhaust inner warm air together with necessary cooling of the system by gravity circulation, only. System needs not any invoiced energy source; it is supplied entirely by solar energy. Large building systems are supported by classical electric fan respectively.

  11. Use of chemical explosives for emergency solar flare shelter construction and other excavations on the Martian surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The necessity to shelter people on the Martian surface from solar flare particles at short notice and the need for long-term habitats with thick cosmic ray shielding suggests that explosives could be used effectively for excavation of such structures. Modern insensitive high explosives are safe, efficient, and reliable for rock breakage and excavation. Extensive Earth-bound experience leads us to propose several strategies for explosively-constructed shelters based on tunneling, cratering, and rock casting techniques

  12. MPPT algorithm test on a photovoltaic emulating system constructed by a DC power supply and an indoor solar panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A novel PV emulator is constructed by using conventional solar panels with a DC power supply. • The proposed PV emulator is cost-effectiveness, relatively easy implementation. • The proposed PV emulator avoids the bandwidth problem associated with electronics PV emulators. • Indoor testing of MPPT algorithms and power converters avoids the dependency on solar irradiation. • The PV emulating system has been used for testing a P and O MPPT algorithm and a boost dc converter. - Abstract: In this paper a novel photovoltaic (PV) emulating scheme for testing maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithms and PV inverters has been proposed. It is constructed by the parallel connection of conventional solar panels with a DC power supply operating in current source mode. The advantages of the proposed scheme are cost-effectiveness, relatively easy implementation and indoor testing of MPPT algorithms and power converters avoiding weather and time of day dependency on solar irradiation levels. Furthermore, the proposed PV emulator avoids the bandwidth problem associated with the dc converter based PV emulating systems. Detailed circuit connection, parameters, electrical characteristics and mathematical model of the PV emulator are presented and discussed. Proposed PV emulating system has been used to test a boost DC/DC converter controlled by Perturb and Observe (P and O) MPPT algorithm. Test results confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed PV emulation system and all achieved results correspond well to the original designed values

  13. Plastic Solar Cells: A Multidisciplinary Field to Construct Chemical Concepts from Current Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Rafael; Segura, Jose L.

    2007-01-01

    Examples of plastic solar-cell technology to illustrate core concepts in chemistry are presented. The principles of operations of a plastic solar cell could be used to introduce key concepts, which are fundamentally important to understand photosynthesis and the basic process that govern most novel optoelectronic devices.

  14. Construction of 3-dimensional ZnO-nanoflower structures for high quantum and photocurrent efficiency in dye sensitized solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilic, Bayram, E-mail: bkilic@yalova.edu.tr [Yalova University, Department of Energy Systems Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, 77100 Yalova (Turkey); Günes, Taylan; Besirli, Ilknur; Sezginer, Merve [Yalova University, Department of Energy Systems Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, 77100 Yalova (Turkey); Tuzemen, Sebahattin [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Atatürk University, Erzurum 25240 (Turkey)

    2014-11-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The structural and optical characterizations of ZnO nanoflowers were carried out on ITO by hydrothermal method. • Dye sensitized solar cell based ZnO nanoflowers were constructed on substrate. • The surface morphology effect on quantum efficiency and solar conversion efficiency were investigated. - Abstract: 3-dimensional ZnO nanoflower were obtained on FTO (F:SnO{sub 2}) substrate by hydrothermal method in order to produce high efficiency dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). We showed that nanoflowers structures have nanoscale branches that stretch to fill gaps on the substrate and these branches of nano-leaves provide both a larger surface area and a direct pathway for electron transport along the channels. It was found that the solar conversion efficiency and quantum efficiency (QE) or incident photon to current conversion efficiencies (IPCE) is highly dependent on nanoflower surface due to high electron injection process. The highest solar conversion efficiency of 5.119 and QE of 60% was obtained using ZnO nanoflowers/N719 dye/I{sup −}/I{sup −}{sub 3} electrolyte. In this study, three dimensional (3D)-nanoflower and one dimensional (1D)-nanowires ZnO nanostructures were also compared against each other in respect to solar conversion efficiency and QE measurements. In the case of the 1D-ZnO nanowire conversion efficiency (η) of 2.222% and IPCE 47% were obtained under an illumination of 100 mW/cm{sup 2}. It was confirmed that the performance of the 3D-nanoflowers was better than about 50% that of the 1D-nanowire dye-sensitized solar cells.

  15. Construction of 3-dimensional ZnO-nanoflower structures for high quantum and photocurrent efficiency in dye sensitized solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The structural and optical characterizations of ZnO nanoflowers were carried out on ITO by hydrothermal method. • Dye sensitized solar cell based ZnO nanoflowers were constructed on substrate. • The surface morphology effect on quantum efficiency and solar conversion efficiency were investigated. - Abstract: 3-dimensional ZnO nanoflower were obtained on FTO (F:SnO2) substrate by hydrothermal method in order to produce high efficiency dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). We showed that nanoflowers structures have nanoscale branches that stretch to fill gaps on the substrate and these branches of nano-leaves provide both a larger surface area and a direct pathway for electron transport along the channels. It was found that the solar conversion efficiency and quantum efficiency (QE) or incident photon to current conversion efficiencies (IPCE) is highly dependent on nanoflower surface due to high electron injection process. The highest solar conversion efficiency of 5.119 and QE of 60% was obtained using ZnO nanoflowers/N719 dye/I−/I−3 electrolyte. In this study, three dimensional (3D)-nanoflower and one dimensional (1D)-nanowires ZnO nanostructures were also compared against each other in respect to solar conversion efficiency and QE measurements. In the case of the 1D-ZnO nanowire conversion efficiency (η) of 2.222% and IPCE 47% were obtained under an illumination of 100 mW/cm2. It was confirmed that the performance of the 3D-nanoflowers was better than about 50% that of the 1D-nanowire dye-sensitized solar cells

  16. Reasons for the self-envelopment of chimneys of thermal power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, L.A.; Gorlin, S.M.; Gavrilov, E.I.; Prochorov, V.B. (Moskovskij Ehnergeticheskij Inst. (USSR); Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR). Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Mekhaniki)

    1978-03-01

    It is shown that self-envelopment of chimneys is due to the formation of 'dilution zones' on the outer surface of the chimneys as a result of wind flow, into which the flue gases emitted from the chimneys are drawn. The main influencing parameter for the process of self-envelopment is the hydrodynamic or flow parameter I - i.e., the ratio between the dynamic flue gas pressure and the dynamic wind pressure. Self-envelopment happens when this ratio becomes smaller than 2.4. With the aid of the investigations carried out, the duration of self-envelopment may be calculated for any concrete chimney if the operating conditions of the power plant and the changes of wind velocity with time are known.

  17. Leakage-flow induced vibrations of a chimney structure suspended in a liquid flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results of flow-induced vibration tests conducted to assess the vibration characteristics of a chimney structure suspended in a liquid flow. The test article is a full-scale model of a flow chimney used in a nuclear reactor as a part of reactor upper internals. Tests were performed by simulating all pertinent prototype conditions achievable in a laboratory environment. The test results show that there exists a fluid-elastic instability of the chimney motion which has a distinct lock-in phenomenon with respect to the flow rate. This unstable vibration is associated with the leakage-flow-modulated excitation through the small clearances between the chimney and its supports

  18. Technical report for quality requirements establishment of in-chimney bracket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kwan Hyun

    2000-06-01

    This technical report provides the methods on how to sustain the items of experimental materials, nuclear fuel on examination, ect. This report applies to the quality assurance(QA) programmes of the design, fabrication in-chimney bracket.The organization having overall responsibility for the nuclear power item design, preservation, fabrication shall be described in this report in each stage of chimney bracket fabrication project.

  19. Experimental investigation and construction of PV solar tracker control system using image processing

    OpenAIRE

    morteza taki; yahya ajabshirchi; hossein behfar; mohsen taki

    2011-01-01

    The sun tracking system of a solar panel based on computer image processing of a shadow is investigated. This is done by using a camera to obtain the picture of a shadow on a screen by solar panel displacements. This system is independent respect to geographical location of the solar panel and periodical alignments such as daily or monthly regulations. The collected energy was measured and compared with that on a fixed surface tilted at towards the South. The results indicate that the measure...

  20. Turbulent mixing inside the chimney model of a pool type research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Open pool type research reactors often use a chimney structure to prevent mixing of core outlet water directly into the pool in order to keep the radioactivity level at the pool top to a lower limit. This chimney structure facilitates guiding of the radioactive water from the reactor core towards the side outlet nozzles and simultaneously sucking water from the reactor pool through the chimney top. The present work aims at studying the turbulent mixing behaviour of water coolant inside a 1/6th scaled down model of chimney structure. The range of dimensionless numbers considered in the simulation are 1.44 x 106 6 and 0.002 < Ri < 0.008. The effects of flow ratio between upward flow and downward flow and their temperature difference on the mixing behaviour are analysed by means of commercial software. Turbulence is modelled by using the Reynolds averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) equation. The results indicate that the increase in downward (core bypass) flow, increases stagnation depth and try to keep the radio-activity well within the chimney region. On the contrary, the temperature difference between the hot upward fluid and cold downward fluid tries to reduce the stagnation depth. It is observed that if sufficient bypass flow is provided, no water from the core will reach the reactor pool through the chimney top opening. (author)

  1. Effect of cold inflow on chimney height of natural draft cooling towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Natural convection data were obtained from an air-cooled heat exchanger model. ? The extent of cold inflow was quantified to relate to the decrease in effective chimney height. ? Installation of wire mesh screen on chimney outlet blocked off cold inflow to improve the chimney efficiency. ? Evidence of existence of effective plume-chimney for when cold inflow was blocked off warrants further work. - Abstract: Temperature and pressure drop data obtained from an air-cooled heat exchanger model with cross-sectional flow areas of 0.56 m2, 1.00 m2 and 2.25 m2 operating under natural convection are presented that indicate significant cold inflow, resulting in the reduction of effective chimney height. Cold inflows encountered in actual applications where the Froude number is typically 0.2, may not be as severe as described in this paper, which was of the order of 10?6–10?4. Additional tests on smaller scale models appeared to favor the explanation that the occurrence of cold inflow in the air-cooled heat exchanger model was primarily due to the relative ease in either drawing cold air from inlet or from outlet, and to a lesser extent the Froude number of the chimney or the critical velocity estimated by formula. A CFD study will bring much understanding of the phenomenon for the different situations.

  2. Design, construction and test run of a two-tonne capacity solar rice dryer with rice-husk-fired auxiliary heater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design and construction details of a two-tonne per batch capacity natural-circulation solar rice dryer and the highlights of the design of its rice-husk-fired auxiliary heating system which is still under construction are presented. The dryer measures approximately 17.7m long by 9.8m wide by 6m high. Preliminary results of a test run on the solar dryer section only is reported. (author). 5 refs, 3 figs

  3. Construction and testing of a transportable solar adsorption refrigerator; Construction et test d'un refrigerateur solaire a adsorption transportable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayor, J.; Dind, P.

    2002-07-01

    The report describes the development of an autonomous solar adsorption refrigerator characterized by its compactness and transportability. The refrigerator utilizes water as the working fluid and silicagel as the adsorbent and operates discontinuously over the day/night cycle. For a cooling volume of about 100 liters a collector-adsorber surface of 1 m{sup 2} is required and the total mass of the system amounts to about 150 kg. In order to keep its mass as low as possible the apparatus has been built with light weight materials. The cold-storage room has been insulated with a high-performance insulation material, thus minimizing thermal losses without excessively reducing the cooled volume. A new automatic valve system has been developed making superfluous any manual manipulation during normal operation. The dimensioning of the cooling system allows to cool the equivalent of 2.5 to 3.7 kg of water by 30 K daily in a climate of the Sahelien type. The cooling energy is stored in the form of ice in the evaporator and allows to bridge a period of three overcast-sky days. The construction of the solar refrigerator was made in cooperation with small regional enterprises and workshops. The cooperation with a non governmental organization allowed to test the system from May to September 2002 in a Subsaharian region of Africa where an equivalent model had been built using locally available materials. Likewise, a market study has been made in Burkina Faso in order to analyze the potential of solar adsorption refrigerators in this region. The result of the study suggests that the opening of a production workshop for such refrigerators in Burkina Faso is promising.

  4. Development of the lined masonry chimney oil appliance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krajewski, R.; Strasser, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1996-07-01

    This paper describes the development of the lined masonry chimney venting tables form the output of the Oil Heat Analysis Program 9OHVAP. These new tables are different from the prior format, offered in the Proceedings of the 1995 Oil Heat Technology Conference and Workshop, paper No. 95-4. Issues expressed by representatives of the oil heat industry at last years conference during the Venting Technology Workshop resulted in subsequent discussions. A full day meeting was held, co-sponsored by BNL and the Oilheat Manufacturers Association (OMA), to address revision of the format of the venting tables prior to submission to the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Standard 31 Technical Committee. The resulting tables and text were submitted to NFPA during the first week of October, 1995. Since then minor changes were made reflecting the addition of data obtained by including intermediate firing rates (0.4, 0.65, and 0.85 gph) not included in the original tables which were developed in increments of 0.25 gph. The new tables address the specific question; {open_quotes}If remediation is required, what is the recommendation for the sizing of a metal liner and the appropriate firing rate range to be used with that liner?{close_quotes}

  5. Feasibility of utilising solar-induced ventilation in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility of applying solar-induced ventilation in a typical Malaysian house measuring 3 m high x wide x 5 m deep was considered based on experimental results obtained from a laboratory-scale model. A wall-type solar chimney was considered. The design of the solar chimney incorporated providing a glass panel alongside a vertical wall of a building. Openings at the top and bottom of the wall allowed fresh air to be introduced into the building. Simulations obtained from a simple theoretical model showed that the solar chimney was able to induce air flow rates of between 640 to 1040 m3 h-1 with a 0.3 m air gap. These ventilation rates are found to be in compliance with codes specified by ASHRAE and the Uniform Building By-laws. Full scale studies would need to be conducted in order to evaluate its effectiveness especially the flow pattern in the room

  6. Re-construction of global solar radiation time series from 1933 to 2013 at the Izaña Atmospheric Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, R. D.; Cuevas, E.; García, O. E.; Cachorro, V. E.; Pallé, P.; Bustos, J. J.; Romero-Campos, P. M.; de Frutos, A. M.

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents the re-construction of the 80 year time series of daily global shortwave downward radiation (SDR) at the subtropical high-mountain Izaña Atmospheric Observatory (IZO, Spain). For this purpose, we combine SDR estimates from sunshine duration (SD) data using the Ångström-Prescott method over the 1933/1991 period, and SDR observations directly performed by pyranometers between 1992 and 2013. Since SDR measurements have been used as a reference, a strict quality control has been applied, when it was not possible data have been re-calibrated by using the LibRadtran model. By comparing to high quality SDR measurements, the precision and consistency over time of SDR estimations from SD data have successfully been documented. We obtain a overall root mean square error (RMSE) of 9.2% and an agreement between the variances of SDR estimations and SDR measurements within 92% (correlation coefficient of 0.96). Nonetheless, this agreement significantly increases when the SDR estimation is done considering different daily fractions of clear sky (FCS). In that case, RMSE is reduced by half, up to about 4.5%, when considering percentages of FCS > 40% (90% of days in the testing period). Furthermore, we prove that the SDR estimations can monitor the SDR anomalies in consistency with SDR measurements and, then, can be suitable for re-constructing solar radiation time series. The re-constructed IZO global SDR time series between 1933 and 2013 confirms discontinuities and periods of increases/decreases of solar radiation at Earth's surface observed at a global scale, such as the early brightening, dimming and brightening. This fact supports the consistency of the IZO SDR time series presented in this work, which may be a reference for solar radiation studies in the subtropical North Atlantic region.

  7. Coaxial tubular solar collector constructed from polymeric materials: an experimental and transient simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental study and a simulation model describing a coaxial tubular solar collector fabricated from polymeric materials, consisting of an inner black tube as a solar energy absorber in intimate contact with an outer transparent tube as an insulator, having the potential to provide low grade thermal energy at reasonable costs is reported. The simulation model describes the transient performance of the coaxial tubular polymeric solar collector utilizing non-linear equations solved by a difference splitting technique. The simulation model was first validated utilizing the experimental data and was then used to determine the optimal design parameters, viz. the inner, black absorber, and outer, transparent insulator, tube thicknesses. In addition, the effect of an annular air filled gap between the coaxial tubes on system performance was also studied. The results of the experimental and simulations studies are reported together with the optimal design specifications

  8. Coaxial tubular solar collector constructed from polymeric materials: an experimental and transient simulation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudish, Avraham I.; Evseev, Efim G. [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Solar Energy Lab., Beer Sheva (Israel); Walter, Gerd; Priebe, Thomas [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiburg, Inst. fuer Waermetechnik und Thermodynamik, Freiberg (Germany)

    2003-09-01

    An experimental study and a simulation model describing a coaxial tubular solar collector fabricated from polymeric materials, consisting of an inner black tube as a solar energy absorber in intimate contact with an outer transparent tube as an insulator, having the potential to provide low grade thermal energy at reasonable costs is reported. The simulation model describes the transient performance of the coaxial tubular polymeric solar collector utilizing non-linear equations solved by a difference splitting technique. The simulation model was first validated utilizing the experimental data and was then used to determine the optimal design parameters, viz. the inner, black absorber, and outer, transparent insulator, tube thicknesses. In addition, the effect of an annular air filled gap between the coaxial tubes on system performance was also studied. The results of the experimental and simulations studies are reported together with the optimal design specifications. (Author)

  9. Constructing a One-solar-mass Evolutionary Sequence Using Asteroseismic Data from Kepler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva Aguirre, V.; Chaplin, W.J.

    2011-01-01

    Asteroseismology of solar-type stars has entered a new era of large surveys with the success of the NASA Kepler mission, which is providing exquisite data on oscillations of stars across the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. From the time-series photometry, the two seismic parameters that can be most readily extracted are the large frequency separation (??) and the frequency of maximum oscillation power (?max). After the survey phase, these quantities are available for hundreds of solar-type stars. By scaling from solar values, we use these two asteroseismic observables to identify for the first time an evolutionary sequence of 1 M sun field stars, without the need for further information from stellar models. Comparison of our determinations with the few available spectroscopic results shows an excellent level of agreement. We discuss the potential of the method for differential analysis throughout the main-sequence evolution and the possibility of detecting twins of very well-known stars.

  10. Design, construction and operation of spherical solar cooker with automatic sun tracking system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, the effect of two axes tracking on a solar cooking system was studied. A dish was built to concentrate solar radiation on a pan that is fixed at the focus of the dish. The dish tracks the sun using a two axes sun tracking system. This system was built and tested. Experimental results obtained show that the temperature inside the pan reached more than 93 oC in a day where the maximum ambient temperature was 32 oC. This temperature is suitable for cooking purposes and this was achieved by using the two axes sun tracking system.

  11. Metagenome reveals potential microbial degradation of hydrocarbon coupled with sulfate reduction in an oil-immersed chimney from Guaymas Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YingHe

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimneys contain a high diversity of microorganisms, yet the metabolic activity and the ecological functions of the microbial communities remain largely unexplored. In this study, a metagenomic approach was applied to characterize the metabolic potential in a Guaymas hydrothermal vent chimney and to conduct comparative genomic analysis among a variety of environments with sequenced metagenomes. Complete clustering of functional gene categories with a comparative metagenomic approach showed that this Guaymas chimney metagenome was clustered most closely with a chimney metagenome from Juan de Fuca. All chimney samples were enriched with genes involved in recombination and repair, chemotaxis and flagellar assembly, highlighting their roles in coping with the fluctuating extreme deep-sea environments. A high proportion of transposases was observed in all the metagenomes from deep-sea chimneys, supporting the previous hypothesis that horizontal gene transfer may be common in the deep-sea vent chimney biosphere. In the Guaymas chimney metagenome, thermophilic sulfate reducing microorganisms including bacteria and archaea were found predominant, and genes coding for the degradation of refractory organic compounds such as cellulose, lipid, pullullan, as well as a few hydrocarbons including toluene, ethylbenzene and o-xylene were identified. Therefore, this oil-immersed chimney supported a thermophilic microbial community capable of oxidizing a range of hydrocarbons that served as electron donors for sulphate reduction under anaerobic conditions.

  12. Application of Bejan’s Constructal Theory to a Solar Collector System. Part I: The Fundamentals to Define the First Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Ojeda

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, we develop a theoretical scheme that establishes the fundamentals of the first construction for a solar collector system. In particular, the first construction is divided in two elements: a solar cavity and the fluid that is heated. For the cavity, we assume a natural convective regime that for small values of Rayleigh number conducts to that the heat transfer is dominated only by a conductive heat transfer regime. Meanwhile the other region, where the fluid is circulating in a circular tube, the forced convective mode, is prevailed. The dimensionless temperature profiles, in both regions, are calculated theoretically and the minimization conditions for the dimensionless heating time of the fluid is found by this first construction.

  13. Novel construction of CdTe solar cell based on polyketanil structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel concept of CdS/CdTe solar cell structure utilisation for BIPV concept is reported. ICSVT as the base manufacturing technology is presented, in the background of its new properties investigation. Technological concepts of the cadmium telluride structure employment in its new application field are described.

  14. Constructing bulk heterojunction with componential gradient for enhancing the efficiency of polymer solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shudi; Liu, Kong; Chi, Dan; Yue, Shizhong; Li, Yanpei; Kou, Yanlei; Lin, Xuechun; Wang, Zhijie; Qu, Shengchun; Wang, Zhanguo

    2015-12-01

    Herein, high-efficient PTB7:PC71BM solar cells with bulk heterojunction being optimized by componential distribution have been realized by solvent treating the active layer with a series of alcohols. Subsequent characterizations including X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) reveal that such treatment adjusts the distribution of PC71BM in the bulk heterojunction by making the concentration of PC71BM higher at the solvent treated surface in comparison with that close to the bottom electrode. Such morphological transformation enables the conventional structured devices with great advantages in exciton separation and charge transfer. Therefore, the power conversion efficiency could be remarkably improved from 6.57% to 7.74%. However, for the inverted structured polymer solar cells, the morphology evolution deteriorates the relevant performance, particularly in exciton separation and charge transfer. We attribute these contrary observations to the matching degree of charge transfer direction in the active layer with the charge collection direction in the entire device. Not only providing a designing principle for optimizing the structure of polymer solar cells according to the morphology of active layer, this paper also offers a comprehensive understanding about the influence of solvent treatment on the performance of polymer solar cells.

  15. Constructing a one-solar-mass evolutionary sequence using asteroseismic data from \\textit{Kepler}

    CERN Document Server

    Aguirre, V Silva; Ballot, J; Basu, S; Bedding, T R; Serenelli, A M; Verner, G A; Miglio, A; Monteiro, M J P F G; Weiss, A; Appourchaux, T; Bonanno, A; Broomhall, A M; Bruntt, H; Campante, T L; Casagrande, L; Corsaro, E; Elsworth, Y; Garcia, R A; Gaulme, P; Handberg, R; Hekker, S; Huber, D; Karoff, C; Mathur, S; Mosser, B; Salabert, D; Schonrich, R; Sousa, S G; Stello, D; White, T R; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J; Gilliland, R L; Kawaler, S D; Kjeldsen, H; Houdek, G; Metcalfe, T S; Molenda-Zakowicz, J; Thompson, M J; Caldwell, D A; Christiansen, J L; Wohler, B

    2011-01-01

    Asteroseismology of solar-type stars has entered a new era of large surveys with the success of the NASA \\textit{Kepler} mission, which is providing exquisite data on oscillations of stars across the Hertzprung-Russell (HR) diagram. From the time-series photometry, the two seismic parameters that can be most readily extracted are the large frequency separation ($\\Delta\

  16. Vibration test report for in-chimney bracket and instrumented fuel assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Jeong Soo; Yoon, D. B.; Cho, Y. G.; Ahn, G. H.; Lee, J. H.; Park, J.H

    2000-10-01

    The vibration levels of in-chimney bracket structure which is installed in reactor chimney and instrumented fuel assembly(Type-B Bundle) are investigated under the steady state normal operating condition of the reactor. For this purpose, 4 acceleration data on the guide tube of the instrumented fuel assembly and in-chimney bracket structures subjected to fluid induced vibration are measured. For the analysis of the vibration data, vibration analysis program which can perform basic time and frequency domain analysis, is prepared, and its reliability is verified by comparing the analysis results with those of commercial analysis program(I-DEAS). In time domain analysis, maximum amplitudes, and RMS values of accelerations and displacements from the measured vibration signal, are obtained. The frequency components of the vibration data are analyzed by using the frequency domain analysis. These analysis results show that the levels of the measured vibrations are within the allowable level, and the low frequency component near 10 Hz is dominant in the vibration signal. For the evaluation of the structural integrity on the in-chimney bracket and related structures including the instrumented fuel assembly, the static analysis for ANSYS finite element model is carried out. These analysis results show that the maximum stresses are within the allowable stresses of the ASME code, and the maximum displacement of the top of the flow tube is within the displacement limit. Therefore any damage on the structural integrity is not expected when the irradiation test is performed using the in-chimney bracket.

  17. Experimental Investigation of Two Modified Energy-Saving Constructions of Solar Greenhouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ermuratskii, V; Oleschuk, V.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    The paper presents outcomes of experimental evaluation of operation of two structures of sustainable greenhouse systems. Thermal performance of greenhouse with on-ground heat accumulator and movable internal heat reflectors, and of greenhouse with under-ground accumulator and movable heat (roof......-based) reflectors, has been analyzed. Metering of solar irradiation, and temperature and humidity inside greenhouses, has been executed for different seasons and regimes. Conclusions regarding basic peculiarities of operation of two topologies of greenhouses have been formulated....

  18. Translucent load-bearing GFRP envelopes for daylighting and solar cell integration in building construction

    OpenAIRE

    Pascual Agullo, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    This project investigates the light transmittance of load-bearing glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) laminates with a view to two architectural applications: the daylighting of buildings through load-bearing translucent GFRP envelopes and encapsulation of solar cells into the GFRP building skins of sandwich structures. The total and diffuse visible light transmittances of the laminates were experimentally investigated using a spectrophotometer coupled to an integrating sphere. The refracti...

  19. Microtexture and distribution of minerals in hydrothermal Barite-Silica chimney from the Franklin seamount, SW Pacific: Constraints on mode of formation.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ray, D.; Kota, D.; Das, P.; SuryaPrakash, L.; Khedekar, V.D.; Paropkari, A.L.; Mudholkar, A.V.

    chimney show significant disparity in color, mineral assemblage and major element composition. Electron microscope (SEM) images reveal that the peripheral wall of the chimney is composed of colloform silica, suggesting that incipient precipitation...

  20. Validation experiments of the chimney model for the operational simulation of hydrogen recombiners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The calculation program REKO-DIREKT allows the simulation of the operational behavior of a hydrogen recombiner during accidents with hydrogen release. The interest is focused on the interaction between the catalyst insertion and the chimney that influences the natural ventilation and thus the throughput through the recombiner significantly. For validation experiments were performed with a small-scale recombiner model in the test facility REKO-4. The results show the correlation between the hydrogen concentration at the recombiner entrance, the temperature on catalyst sheets and the entrance velocity using different chimney heights. The entrance velocity increases with the heights of the installed chimney that influences the natural ventilation significantly. The results allow the generation of a wide data base for validation of the computer code REKO-DIREKT.

  1. New energy from an old chimney; Nieuwe energie uit een oude schoorsteen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Goch, T.A.J. [BAM Techniek, Benningbroek (Netherlands)

    2013-07-15

    A new purpose has been found for the unused monumental stack chimney at the Eindhoven University of Technology. The idea is to use the chimney to provide free cooling. Using advanced simulation and analysis methods, the feasibility of the concept was studied. The results show that it is indeed possible to use the chimney effectively to provide free cooling to the neighbouring Ceres (Central Energy and Control Station) building [Dutch] De ongebruikte monumentale schoorsteen van de Universiteit Eindhoven is nieuw leven ingeblazen door hem in te zetten voor vrije koeling. Een studie naar de haalbaarheid hiervan is uitgevoerd met behulp vangeavanceerde simulatie en analysetechnieken. Het is gebleken dat de schoorsteen inderdaad effectief kan worden ingezet voor het leveren van koeling aan het naastgelegen Ceres (Centraal Energie en Regelstation) gebouw.

  2. Hydrologic processes and radionuclide distribution in a cavity and chimney produced by the Cannikin nuclear explosion, Amchitka Island, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis of hydraulic, chemical, and radiochemical data obtained in the vicinity of the site of a nuclear explosion (code-named Cannikin, 1971), on Amchitka Island, Alaska, was undertaken to describe the hydrologic processes associated with the saturation of subsurface void space produced by the explosion. Immediately after detonation of the explosive, a subsurface cavity was created surrounding the explosion point. This cavity soon was partly filled by collapse of overburden, producing void volume in a rubble chimney extending to land surface and forming a surface-collapse sink. Surface and groundwater immediately began filling the chimney but was excluded for a time from the cavity by the presence of steam. When the steam condensed, the accumulated water in the chimney flowed into the cavity region, picking up and depositing radioactive materials along its path. Refilling of the chimney voids then resumed and was nearly complete about 260 days after the explosion. The hydraulic properties of identified aquifers intersecting the chimney were used with estimates of surface-water inflow, chimney dimensions, and the measured water-level rise in the chimney to estimate the distribution of explosion-created porosity in the chimney, which ranged from about 10 percent near the bottom to 4 percent near the top. Chemical and radiochemical analyses of water from the cavity resulted in identification of three aqueous phases: groundwater, surface water, and condensed steam. Although most water samples represented mixtures of these phases, they contained radioactivity representative of all radioactivity produced by the explosion

  3. A Semi-Empirical Model for Tilted-Gun Planar Magnetron Sputtering Accounting for Chimney Shadowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunn, J. K.; Metting, C. J.; Hattrick-Simpers, J.

    2015-01-01

    Integrated computational materials engineering (ICME) approaches to composition and thickness profiles of sputtered thin-film samples are the key to expediting materials exploration for these materials. Here, an ICME-based semi-empirical approach to modeling the thickness of thin-film samples deposited via magnetron sputtering is developed. Using Yamamura's dimensionless differential angular sputtering yield and a measured deposition rate at a point in space for a single experimental condition, the model predicts the deposition profile from planar DC sputtering sources. The model includes corrections for off-center, tilted gun geometries as well as shadowing effects from gun chimneys used in most state-of-the-art sputtering systems. The modeling algorithm was validated by comparing its results with experimental deposition rates obtained from a sputtering system utilizing sources with a multi-piece chimney assembly that consists of a lower ground shield and a removable gas chimney. Simulations were performed for gun-tilts ranging from 0° to 31.3° from the vertical with and without the gas chimney installed. The results for the predicted and experimental angular dependence of the sputtering deposition rate were found to have an average magnitude of relative error of for a 0°-31.3° gun-tilt range without the gas chimney, and for a 17.7°-31.3° gun-tilt range with the gas chimney. The continuum nature of the model renders this approach reverse-optimizable, providing a rapid tool for assisting in the understanding of the synthesis-composition-property space of novel materials.

  4. Combining interventions: improved chimney stoves, kitchen sinks and solar disinfection of drinking water and kitchen clothes to improve home hygiene in rural Peru L’association d’interventions - améliorer les cuisinières à bois, mettre en place des éviers, désinfecter l’eau domestique et le linge de cuisine par le solaire – permet d’améliorer l’hygiène dans les foyers ruraux du Pérou Intervenciones combinadas: mejorar las cocinas a leña, instalar fregaderos y desinfectar el agua para beber y los paños de cocina con energía solar para mejorar la higiene en hogares rurales en Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana I. Gil

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Home based interventions are advocated in rural areas against a variety of diseases. The combination of different interventions might have synergistic effects in terms of health improvement and cost effectiveness. However, it is crucial to ensure cultural acceptance. The aim of the study was to develop an effective and culturally accepted home-based intervention package to reduce diarrhoea and lower respiratory illnesses in children. In two rural Peruvian communities we evaluated the performance and acceptance of cooking devices, household water treatments (HWT and home- hygiene interventions, with qualitative and quantitative methods. New ventilated stove designs reduced wood consumption by 16%. The majority of participants selected solar water disinfection as HWT in a blind tasting. In-depth interviews on hygiene improvement further revealed a high demand for kitchen sinks. After one year of installation the improved chimney stoves and kitchen sinks were all in use.  The intervention package was successfully adapted to local customs, kitchen-, home- and hygiene management. High user satisfaction was primarily driven by convenience gains due to the technical improvements and only secondarily by perceived health benefits.Les interventions à domicile sont recommandées dans les zones rurales pour éviter diverses maladies. L’association de différentes interventions entraîne une synergie en termes d’amélioration de la santé et de rapport coût-efficacité. Il est cependant crucial d’obtenir l’adhésion de la population. Le but de l’étude était d'élaborer un programme d’interventions à domicile, efficaces et acceptées par la population, visant à réduire la diarrhée et les affections des voies respiratoires basses chez l’enfant. Nous avons évalué, dans deux communautés rurales du Pérou, l’efficacité et l’acceptation d’appareils de cuisson, des traitements de l’eau domestique (HWT et d’interventions d’hygiène à domicile à l’aide de méthodes qualitatives et quantitatives. De nouvelles cuisinières avec ventilation ont permis de réduire la consommation de bois de 16 %. La majorité des participants ont choisi la désinfection solaire de l’eau comme moyen de HWT lors d’un essai à l’aveugle. Des entretiens approfondis sur l’amélioration de l’hygiène ont en outre révélé une forte demande d’éviers. Un an après leur installation, les nouvelles cuisinières et les éviers sont tous utilisés. Le programme d’interventions a été adapté avec succès aux coutumes locales, à la gestion de la cuisine, du foyer et de l’hygiène. Le haut degré de satisfaction des utilisateurs résulte en premier lieu des bénéfices obtenus en termes de commodité dus aux améliorations techniques, et, en second lieu, des bénéfices obtenus en termes de santé.Las intervenciones en los hogares en áreas rurales se recomiendan para luchar contra una variedad de enfermedades. Combinar distintas intervenciones puede tener efectos de sinergia en cuanto a mejorar la salud y la rentabilidad. Sin embargo, es indispensable lograr la aceptación cultural. El objeto de este estudio fue desarrollar un paquete de intervención en el hogar eficaz y culturalmente aceptado para reducir la diarrea y las enfermedades de las vías respiratorias inferiores en niños. En dos comunidades rurales en Perú, se evaluó el rendimiento y la aceptación de dispositivos de cocina, tratamientos de agua doméstica (HWT e intervenciones de higiene del hogar, con métodos cualitativos y cuantitativos. El nuevo diseño de las cocinas reduce el consumo de madera en un 16 %. La mayoría de los participantes eligió la desinfección solar del agua como método de HWT en una cata ciega. Las entrevistas detalladas acerca de las mejoras de la higiene también revelaron una alta demanda de fregaderos. Un año después de ser instaladas, las cocinas mejoradas y los fregaderos estaban todos en uso. El paquete de intervención fue adaptado con éxito a las costumbres locales y de gestión de la cocin

  5. Hydrothermal Chimney Distribution from AUV Sentry bathymetry and Alvin at the Galapagos Spreading Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, S. M.; Lee, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    Drivers of hydrothermal venting at mid-ocean ridges are crustal permeability and heat derived from magma, but their relative contributions remain enigmatic, thus raising the question why vents occur where they do. Currently, observational data are ambiguous and biased toward actively venting sites. However, new AUV Sentry bathymetric data from the 92W segment of the Galapagos Spreading Center from the 2010 GRUVEE expedition provide 0.5 m gridded maps that resolve individual chimneys, at least 2m tall and 0.75 m wide, directly. Comparing chimney features from the 23 vents found in the Alvin video with the AUV Sentry bathymetry establishes criteria that allow many other vents to be identified in our study area using only bathymetric data and without need for direct visual observation. Thus, we have a nearly complete record of both active and inactive hydrothermal chimneys over the entire length of a mid-ocean ridge segment to correlate with other seafloor features for further analysis. We use lava morphology, extent of mapped lava flow units, and volcanic features such as tumuli and pillow mounds as proxies for volcanic heat. Magmatic heat input, on a longer timescale, may be estimated by using seismic data on the thickness of layer 2A, depth to the magma lens, or crustal thickness as proxies. For permeability proxies, over 350 fault segments and 150+ fissures have been cataloged on this segment. By analyzing the locations of all these features relative to hydrothermal chimneys, it is possible to correlate crustal permeability and lava morphology with the distribution of vents and to provide empirical constraints on whether certain types of seafloor terrain are more conducive to hosting hydrothermal chimneys. Preliminary analysis suggests a strong correlation between chimneys and nearby mounds and major faults. All 23 chimneys seen with Alvin, inactive and active, are within 30 m of mounds. Considering both chimneys seen from Alvin and a partial catalog of those only detected by Sentry bathymetry, they appear aligned with major faults that comprise the axial summit graben boundaries.

  6. Structural Integrity Evaluation of an New In-Chimney Bracket Structures for HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Jeong Soo; Cho, Yeong Garp; Lee, Jung Hee; Jung, Hoan Sung; Seo, Choon Gyo; Shin, Jin Won

    2007-12-15

    In HANARO are there provided three hexagonal irradiation holes (CT, IR1 and IR2) in the central region of the core while four circular irradiation holes (OR3 {approx} OR6) in the outer core. There exist two types of irradiation facilities: uninstrumented or instrumented. The uninstrumented irradiation facility is little influenced by the coolant flow. But the dynamic behavior by the flow-induced vibration (FIV) and seismic loads is expected to largely occur in case of the instrumented test facility due to the long guide tube to protect the instrumentation cables. To suppress this dynamic behavior of the facility, the in-chimney bracket was designed. As a supplementary supporting structure for irradiation facility, this bracket will hold guide tubes whose holding position of the instrumented facility in CT or IR is the middle part of the instrumented facility between the hole spider and the robot arm already provided in the reactor pool liner. On the while, the bracket will grip the upper part of the guide tube when it is applied to hold the instrumented facility loaded in OR sites. Therefore it is believed that the irradiation test can be successfully conducted since this bracket can reduce the FIV and dynamic response to seismic load as well. In new in-chimney bracket, IR1 is reserved for IPS(In-Pile Section) so only CT/IR2 guide tubes are supported by CT/IR clamp units and the shape of In-chimney bracket is redesigned. For evaluating the structural integrity on the new in-chimney bracket and related reactor structures, ANSYS finite element analysis model is developed and the dynamic characteristics are analyzed. The seismic response analyses of new in-chimney bracket and related reactor structures of HANARO under the design earthquake response spectrum loads of OBE(0.1g) and SSE(0.2g) are performed. The response shows that the stress values for main points on the reactor structures and the new in-chimney bracket for seismic loads are within the ASME Code limits. It is also confirmed that the fatigue usage factor is much less than 1.0. Therefore any damage on structural integrity is not expected when a new in-chimney bracket is installed in the upper part of the reactor chimney.

  7. Numerical analysis of the hemodynamics of an abdominal aortic aneurysm repaired using the endovascular chimney technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Gur, Hila; Kosa, Gabor; Brand, Moshe

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a numerical analysis of the hemodynamics in an abdominal aorta (AA) with an aneurysm repaired by a stent graft (SG) system using the chimney technique. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were conducted in a model of an AA repaired with a chimney stent graft (CSG) inserted into a renal artery parallel to an aortic SG and a model of a healthy AA. Comparing the simulation results of these two cases suggests that the presence of the CSG in the AA causes changes in average wall shear stress (WSS), potentially damaging recirculation zones, and additional changes in flow patterns. PMID:26736427

  8. Structural Integrity Evaluation of an New In-Chimney Bracket Structures for HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In HANARO are there provided three hexagonal irradiation holes (CT, IR1 and IR2) in the central region of the core while four circular irradiation holes (OR3 ? OR6) in the outer core. There exist two types of irradiation facilities: uninstrumented or instrumented. The uninstrumented irradiation facility is little influenced by the coolant flow. But the dynamic behavior by the flow-induced vibration (FIV) and seismic loads is expected to largely occur in case of the instrumented test facility due to the long guide tube to protect the instrumentation cables. To suppress this dynamic behavior of the facility, the in-chimney bracket was designed. As a supplementary supporting structure for irradiation facility, this bracket will hold guide tubes whose holding position of the instrumented facility in CT or IR is the middle part of the instrumented facility between the hole spider and the robot arm already provided in the reactor pool liner. On the while, the bracket will grip the upper part of the guide tube when it is applied to hold the instrumented facility loaded in OR sites. Therefore it is believed that the irradiation test can be successfully conducted since this bracket can reduce the FIV and dynamic response to seismic load as well. In new in-chimney bracket, IR1 is reserved for IPS(In-Pile Section) so only CT/IR2 guide tubes are supported by CT/IR clamp units and the shape of In-chimney bracket is redesigned. For evaluating the structural integrity on the new in-chimney bracket and related reactor structures, ANSYS finite element analysis model is developed and the dynamic characteristics are analyzed. The seismic response analyses of new in-chimney bracket and related reactor structures of HANARO under the design earthquake response spectrum loads of OBE(0.1g) and SSE(0.2g) are performed. The response shows that the stress values for main points on the reactor structures and the new in-chimney bracket for seismic loads are within the ASME Code limits. It is also confirmed that the fatigue usage factor is much less than 1.0. Therefore any damage on structural integrity is not expected when a new in-chimney bracket is installed in the upper part of the reactor chimney

  9. High Efficiency Quantum Well Waveguide Solar Cells and Methods for Constructing the Same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welser, Roger E. (Inventor); Sood, Ashok K. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Photon absorption, and thus current generation, is hindered in conventional thin-film solar cell designs, including quantum well structures, by the limited path length of incident light passing vertically through the device. Optical scattering into lateral waveguide structures provides a physical mechanism to increase photocurrent generation through in-plane light trapping. However, the insertion of wells of high refractive index material with lower energy gap into the device structure often results in lower voltage operation, and hence lower photovoltaic power conversion efficiency. The voltage output of an InGaAs quantum well waveguide photovoltaic device can be increased by employing a III-V material structure with an extended wide band gap emitter heterojunction. Analysis of the light IV characteristics reveals that non-radiative recombination components of the underlying dark diode current have been reduced, exposing the limiting radiative recombination component and providing a pathway for realizing solar-electric conversion efficiency of 30% or more in single junction cells.

  10. Analysis of the temperatures measured in very thick and insulating roofs in the vicinity of a chimney

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, M.; Luscietti, D.; Bani, S.; Fiorentino, A.; Pilotelli, M.

    2015-11-01

    Chimneys convey exhaust gas produced in domestic heat appliances to the external environment and to do this they have to pass through elements such as roofs and floors. If these elements are made up of flammable materials the fire hazard may occur. In some European countries the number of roof fire is very high and they affect also certified chimneys, that is, tested following the prescription of the related standards. The aim of this paper is to highlight that the certification procedure does not allow to test chimneys in the worst condition, therefore, chimney installed following the manufacturer prescriptions may in some cases cause the overheating and subsequent roof fire. To do this, experimental tests have been performed for measuring the temperature on roofs in the vicinity of a certified chimney. The results show that the certification procedure should be revised.

  11. Solar thermal utilization--an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solar energy is an ideal renewable energy source and its thermal utilization is one of its most important applications. We review the status of solar thermal utilization, including: (1) developed technologies which are already widely used all over the world, such as solar assisted water heaters, solar cookers, solar heated buildings and so on; (2) advanced technologies which are still in the development or laboratory stage and could have more innovative applications, including thermal power generation, refrigeration, hydrogen production, desalination, and chimneys; (3) major problems which need to be resolved for advanced utilizaiton of solar thermal energy. (authors)

  12. A Contemporary Analysis of the O'Neill-Glaser Model for Space-Based Solar Power and Habitat Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curreri, Peter A.; Detweiler, Michael K.

    2011-01-01

    In 1975 Gerard O Neill published in the journal Science a model for the construction of solar power satellites. He found that the solar power satellites suggested by Peter Glaser would be too massive to launch economically from Earth, but could be financially viable if the workforce was permanently located in free space habitats and if lunar and asteroid materials were used for construction. All new worldwide electrical generating capacity could be then achieved by solar power satellites. The project would financially break even in about 20 years after which it would generate substantial income selling power below fossil fuel prices. Two NASA / Stanford University led studies at Ames Research center during the summers of 1974 and 1976 found the concept technically sound and developed a detailed financial parametric model. Although the project was not undertaken when suggested in the 1970s, several contemporary issues make pursuing the O Neill -- Glaser concept more compelling today. First, our analysis suggests that if in the first ten years of construction that small habitats (compared to the large vista habitats envisioned by O Neill) supporting approximately 300 people were utilized, development costs of the program and the time for financial break even could be substantially improved. Second, the contemporary consensus is developing that carbon free energy is required to mitigate global climate change. It is estimated that 300 GW of new carbon free energy would be necessary per year to stabilize global atmospheric carbon. This is about 4 times greater energy demand than was considered by the O Neill Glaser model. Our analysis suggests that after the initial investments in lunar mining and space manufacturing and transportation, that the profit margin for producing space solar power is very high (even when selling power below fossil fuel prices). We have investigated the financial scaling of ground launched versus space derived space solar power satellites. We find that for the carbon mitigation case even modernized ground launched space solar power satellites are not financially viable. For space derived solar power satellites, however, the increased demand makes them break even substantially sooner and yield much higher profit. Third, current awareness is increasing about the dangers of humanity remaining a single planet species. Our technological power has been increasing relative to the size of the planet Earth. Since the middle of the 20th century our technological power has grown large relative to our planet's size. This presents a very real potential for human self-extinction. We argue that the potential for human self-extinction is increasing with time in proportion to the exponential growth of our technological power making self-extinction likely within this century if humanity remains a single planet species. The O Neill model of multiple independent free space habitats, it is argued, can protect humanity from extinction in the same way that portfolio diversification protects ones assets from total loss. We show that about 1 million people for the electricity only case, and about 1 billion people for the carbon mitigation case, can be provided with permanent space habitats and transportation from Earth in 30 years and can be funded by the space derived solar power satellite program. 1.2 Scope of this Chapter The goal of this chapter is to illustrate the power and importance of the O'Neill-Glaser concept in the context of human survival and maintaining a healthy planet Earth. We argue that at this point in human history our technological power is too dangerous to our selves and our home planet for us not to expand into space. We show by the models presented in the chapter that the imminent dangers of global warming and human self-extinction mandate that humanity move aggressively into the solar system in this generation. We show that the production of solar power satellites using space resources and with a work foe living in space provides a viable financial model to mitigate CO2 preventing the worst global w

  13. The design, construction, and monitoring of photovoltaic power system and solar thermal system on the Georgia Institute of Technology Aquatic Center. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, R.C.

    1996-12-31

    This is a report on the feasibility study, design, and construction of a PV and solar thermal system for the Georgia Tech Aquatic Center. The topics of the report include a discussion of site selection and system selection, funding, design alternatives, PV module selection, final design, and project costs. Included are appendices describing the solar thermal system, the SAC entrance canopy PV mockup, and the PV feasibility study.

  14. SOLAR POWER PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KALMÁR Ferenc

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The electrical energy import-export balance of Hungary is negative. The renewable energy sources will not solve the power supply of the country but there are cases when these systems offer an optimal solution for energy supply of special establishments. This paper presents the possibilities of power production using solar energy. The efficiency of power production using different systems is analysed taking into consideration the Hungarian climate and design parameters. Different solutions of power plant conception are presented comparing the efficiency of power production process. Beside the well known photovoltaic systems, the solar trough, the solar dish/engine system, the solar power tower, the solar chimney, the solar lake is presented.

  15. 75 FR 2133 - Construction and Operation of the Quartzsite Solar Energy Project, La Paz County, AZ (DOE/EIS-0440)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-14

    ...and Operation of the Quartzsite Solar Energy Project, La Paz County, AZ...EIS) for the proposed Quartzsite Solar Energy Project (Project) in La Paz County...Quartzsite, Arizona. Quartzsite Solar Energy, LLC (QSE) has applied to...

  16. Influence of Chimney Flow Pattern on Natural Convection Heat Transfer of Open Channel Finned Plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The enhancement of the efficiency and effectiveness of the passive cooling system, have long been the topic of those studies. In this study, we investigated the heat transfer enhancement of finned plates, especially the chimney effect appeared in finned plates. The fin not only enlarges the heat transfer area but also draws fresh fluid from the open side of the channel composed of the base plate and fins, which further enhances the cooling capability of finned plate – a chimney flow pattern. This study aims at investigating the influence of the chimney flow pattern on the natural convection heat transfer of the finned plate. To analyze the phenomenological study, both experimental and numerical analyses were performed. Numerical analysis was performed for the natural convection heat transfer of a finned plate in an open channel. In order to investigate the influence of the chimney flow pattern the heat transfer, several fin height were simulated and compared. The temperature profiles varied drastically depending on the values of the Prandtl number. As the Prandtl number increases, the thermal boundary layer reduces

  17. D0 Solenoid Upgrade Project: Pressure Ratings for Some Chimney and Control Dewar Componenets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rucinski, R.; /Fermilab

    1993-05-25

    Pressure rating calculations were done for some of the chimney and control dewar components. This engineering note documents these calculations. The table below summarizes the components looked at, and what pressure rating are. The raw engineering calculations for each of the components is given.

  18. Design construction and analysis of solar ridge concentrator photovoltaic (PV) system to improve battery charging performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimman, Kalaiselvan; Selvarasan, Iniyan

    2016-05-01

    A ridge concentrator photovoltaic system for a 10W multi-crystalline solar panel was designed with the concentration ratios of 1X and 2X. The ray tracing model of ridge concentrator photovoltaic system was carried out using Trace-Pro simulation. The optimum tilt angle for the concentrator PV system throughout the year was computed. The electrical parameters of the 3 panels were analyzed. The effect of temperature on the electrical performance of the panel was also studied. The reduction of voltage due to increasing panel temperature was managed by MPES type Charge controller. Glass reflector with reflectivity 0.95 was chosen as the ridge wall for the concentrator system. The maximum power outputs for the 1X and 2X panel reached were 9W and 10.5W with glass reflector. The percentage of power improvement for 1X and 2X concentrations were 22.3% and 45.8% respectively. The 2X concentrated panel connected battery takes lower time to charge compared with normal panel connected battery. PMID:26852396

  19. Convection chimneys in three-phase magmas (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, A.; Fowler, A. C.; McGuinness, M. J.; Mitchell, S.

    2010-12-01

    Lavas are three-phase mixtures of viscous liquid (silicate melt), vapour bubbles and solid crystals. The contrasting density and deformability of the phases can lead to complex flows and segregation features. Here we focus on the origin of vertical cylinders of vesicular (bubbly) magma that form in many basalt lava flows that have been inflated by the injection of molten lava below a solid crust. The very top and bottom of the lava flows cool quickly enough for bubbles to be quenched in place but in the hot interior, bubbles rise easily and collect below the crust. The rise of bubbles leaves a non-vesicular core; however, as the base cools and crystallizes, water concentrates in the residual melt, and new bubbles form in the mush, making the interstitial fluid (melt and bubbles) buoyant. Obstructed by crystals, the bubbles do not rise freely; rather, their growth causes segregation by pushing residual melt and bubbles out between the crystals. The bubbly residuum somehow rises through the lava in regularly-spaced vertical cylinders and then seems to spread laterally into vesicular sheets. The generally-accepted origin of the vesicular cylinders in lava flows is that bubbly residual fluid collects on the top of mush at the base of the lava and regularly-spaced bumps that become cylindrical conduits spontaneously grow from ambient noise once the buoyant layer thickness exceeds a critical value. However, our analogue experiments, combined with existing theory, suggest that such Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities are not the origin of the vesicular lava cylinders. An alternative explanation is ”mushy convection” where flow within a stationary crystallizing mush is driven by gradients in liquid density that are generated because some components are preferentially incorporated into the crystals leaving a buoyant residual liquid. Such mushy convection is known to focus flow in vertical “chimneys” devoid of crystals in mushy (crystal-rich) layers of sea ice and metal alloys. We present a theoretical and numerical analysis of mushy convection in lava as it cools from above and below. A mush layer grows upwards from the base of the flow and is overlain by crystal-poor lava. Rayleigh numbers for this crystal-poor magma indicate that it will convect vigorously, but since it is cooled from above and below, dense plumes of fluid will descend towards the lower unit, where they will pond, and deliver a conductive heat flux to the underlying mush. The model for convection within the mush itself assumes a simplified phase diagram for the magma, that the pore liquid and gas move homogeneously through the pore space of the mush, and also that the pressure in the liquid and gas phases are equal. One difference between classic mushy convection in metal alloys and mushy convection in lava, is that in the latter, the residual melt contains bubbles. The much lower bulk density of the bubbly fluid will help drive convection, although bubbles can reduce the effective permeability of the mush if bubbles are trapped in constrictions due to capillary stress.

  20. 75 FR 21990 - Safety Zone; Extended Debris Removal in the Lake Champlain Bridge Construction Zone (Between...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ... Champlain Bridge Construction Zone (Between Vermont and New York), Crown Point, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... navigable waters immediately surrounding the Lake Champlain Bridge construction zone between Chimney Point... removal of the bridge piers within this construction zone. DATES: This rule is effective in the CFR...

  1. Design and Construction of Variable DC Source for Laboratory Using Solar Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hnin Mar Wai

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to design and construct variable DC power supply for laboratory using switch mode DC to DC converter. The regulated power of a variable output voltage ranging is from 0 to 36 V with a maximum output current of 3A is presented in this paper. This variable DC power supply is based on the step-down and step-up output voltage process which use both buck and boost converter topologies. A switching converter comprise of capacitors, an inductor, a diode and a switch. DC power supply is an essential device for most of electrical circuits and engineering students. The benefits of this design are; reduce size, less expensive and energy save. In this design, a microcontroller is used to control output voltage for precise and stability. The output voltage and duty cycle is displayed with LCD display.

  2. Construction and Analysis of PbSe Quantum Dot Heterojunction Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Markelle Lewis

    PbX (X = S, Se, Te) quantum dot (QD) thin films have the potential to push photovoltaic efficiencies over the Shockley-Queisser limit. The focus of this thesis is the development of a robust and reproducible process for making thin film PbX QD heterojunction solar cells (HSC). Literature already has several examples of methods used to optimize the synthesis and film deposition techniques for PbX QD devices. So experiments here are designed to optimize the sputtering conditions and material selection for the metal oxide window layers. PbSe QDs treated with 1,2-ethanedithiol (EDT) are well suited to be the conductive absorber layer of HSCs. The sputtering conditions and post deposition processing of metal oxide window layers, ZnO and SnO2 thin films, are correlated with HSC performance. Junctions made of 1.4 eV PbSe QDs and ZnO produce HSCs with an average efficiency of 2.9% (+/- 0.1%), while SnO2 is a better match with 1.1 eV PbSe QDs with an average efficiency of 0.9% (+/- 0.1%). Photovoltaic performance is very sensitive to the relative band positions of the metal oxide window layer and PbSe QDs. However, this sensitivity is confined to the interface of the heterojunction. Changing the bulk material of the window layer had no detectable impact on the performance of the PbSe QD HSCs. This demonstrates the need for precise control of material surface properties and interfacial engineering. impact on the performance of the PbSe QD HSCs. This demonstrates the need for precise control of material surface properties and interfacial engineering.

  3. Novel Barite Chimneys at the Loki's Castle Vent Field Shed Light on Key Factors Shaping Microbial Communities and Functions in Hydrothermal Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Ida H; Dahle, Håkon; Stokke, Runar; Roalkvam, Irene; Daae, Frida-Lise; Rapp, Hans Tore; Pedersen, Rolf B; Thorseth, Ingunn H

    2015-01-01

    In order to fully understand the cycling of elements in hydrothermal systems it is critical to understand intra-field variations in geochemical and microbiological processes in both focused, high-temperature and diffuse, low-temperature areas. To reveal important causes and effects of this variation, we performed an extensive chemical and microbiological characterization of a low-temperature venting area in the Loki's Castle Vent Field (LCVF). This area, located at the flank of the large sulfide mound, is characterized by numerous chimney-like barite (BaSO4) structures (? 1 m high) covered with white cotton-like microbial mats. Results from geochemical analyses, microscopy (FISH, SEM), 16S rRNA gene amplicon-sequencing and metatranscriptomics were compared to results from previous analyses of biofilms growing on black smoker chimneys at LCVF. Based on our results, we constructed a conceptual model involving the geochemistry and microbiology in the LCVF. The model suggests that CH4 and H2S are important electron donors for microorganisms in both high-temperature and low-temperature areas, whereas the utilization of H2 seems restricted to high-temperature areas. This further implies that sub-seafloor processes can affect energy-landscapes, elemental cycling, and the metabolic activity of primary producers on the seafloor. In the cotton-like microbial mats on top of the active barite chimneys, a unique network of single cells of Epsilonproteobacteria interconnected by threads of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) was seen, differing significantly from the long filamentous Sulfurovum filaments observed in biofilms on the black smokers. This network also induced nucleation of barite crystals and is suggested to play an essential role in the formation of the microbial mats and the chimneys. Furthermore, it illustrates variations in how different genera of Epsilonproteobacteria colonize and position cells in different vent fluid mixing zones within a vent field. This may be related to niche-specific physical characteristics. Altogether, the model provides a reference for future studies and illustrates the importance of systematic comparative studies of spatially closely connected niches in order to fully understand the geomicrobiology of hydrothermal systems. PMID:26779165

  4. Novel Barite Chimneys at the Loki's Castle Vent Field Shed Light on Key Factors Shaping Microbial Communities and Functions in Hydrothermal Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Ida H.; Dahle, Håkon; Stokke, Runar; Roalkvam, Irene; Daae, Frida-Lise; Rapp, Hans Tore; Pedersen, Rolf B.; Thorseth, Ingunn H.

    2016-01-01

    In order to fully understand the cycling of elements in hydrothermal systems it is critical to understand intra-field variations in geochemical and microbiological processes in both focused, high-temperature and diffuse, low-temperature areas. To reveal important causes and effects of this variation, we performed an extensive chemical and microbiological characterization of a low-temperature venting area in the Loki's Castle Vent Field (LCVF). This area, located at the flank of the large sulfide mound, is characterized by numerous chimney-like barite (BaSO4) structures (? 1 m high) covered with white cotton-like microbial mats. Results from geochemical analyses, microscopy (FISH, SEM), 16S rRNA gene amplicon-sequencing and metatranscriptomics were compared to results from previous analyses of biofilms growing on black smoker chimneys at LCVF. Based on our results, we constructed a conceptual model involving the geochemistry and microbiology in the LCVF. The model suggests that CH4 and H2S are important electron donors for microorganisms in both high-temperature and low-temperature areas, whereas the utilization of H2 seems restricted to high-temperature areas. This further implies that sub-seafloor processes can affect energy-landscapes, elemental cycling, and the metabolic activity of primary producers on the seafloor. In the cotton-like microbial mats on top of the active barite chimneys, a unique network of single cells of Epsilonproteobacteria interconnected by threads of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) was seen, differing significantly from the long filamentous Sulfurovum filaments observed in biofilms on the black smokers. This network also induced nucleation of barite crystals and is suggested to play an essential role in the formation of the microbial mats and the chimneys. Furthermore, it illustrates variations in how different genera of Epsilonproteobacteria colonize and position cells in different vent fluid mixing zones within a vent field. This may be related to niche-specific physical characteristics. Altogether, the model provides a reference for future studies and illustrates the importance of systematic comparative studies of spatially closely connected niches in order to fully understand the geomicrobiology of hydrothermal systems. PMID:26779165

  5. Analysis Study of Solar Tower Power Plant & Its Configuration Effects on Its Performance in Iraq (Baghdad City)

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed H. Ali

    2013-01-01

    A solar chimney power plant model, consisting of a solar collector to produce a hot air when the incident solar radiation hit it, a solar chimney and a wind turbine with generator was investigated in this study. The mathematical model as a tool was used to study and analyze the performance of the power plant for electrical production in Baghdad city of Iraq as a result a mathematical equation was obtained for the hot air outlet temperature from the collector as a function of collector’s area ...

  6. Study on the long-term diffusion factor for the chimneys of Biblis reactors A, B, C. Report 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The largest long-term diffusion factors are anticipated on the leeward side of the cooling towers and within a distance of x -7 s/m3, in the distance range of 700 to 800 m from the chimney. Since neither measurements for shorter distances from the chimney near wind tunnel surveys for the maximum ground concentrations in critical spots are available, greater values for LTDF are anticipated in ranges closer to the chimney. Further model surveys have been suggested in order to clarify the actual situation. (orig./DG)

  7. An Assessment of Water Demand and Availability to meet Construction and Operational Needs for Large Utility-Scale Solar Projects in the Southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klise, G. T.; Tidwell, V. C.; Macknick, J.; Reno, M. D.; Moreland, B. D.; Zemlick, K. M.

    2013-12-01

    In the Southwestern United States, there are many large utility-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) facilities currently in operation, with even more under construction and planned for future development. These are locations with high solar insolation and access to large metropolitan areas and existing grid infrastructure. The Bureau of Land Management, under a reasonably foreseeable development scenario, projects a total of almost 32 GW of installed utility-scale solar project capacity in the Southwest by 2030. To determine the potential impacts to water resources and the potential limitations water resources may have on development, we utilized methods outlined by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to determine potential water use in designated solar energy zones (SEZs) for construction and operations & maintenance (O&M), which is then evaluated according to water availability in six Southwestern states. Our results indicate that PV facilities overall use less water, however water for construction is high compared to lifetime operational water needs. There is a transition underway from wet cooled to dry cooled CSP facilities and larger PV facilities due to water use concerns, though some water is still necessary for construction, operations, and maintenance. Overall, ten watersheds, 9 in California, and one in New Mexico were identified as being of particular concern because of limited water availability. Understanding the location of potentially available water sources can help the solar industry determine locations that minimize impacts to existing water resources, and help understand potential costs when utilizing non-potable water sources or purchasing existing appropriated water. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  8. Diffusion of solar energy technologies in the new-construction market: a survey of new solar-home and onventional-home buyers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rains, D.; Dunipace, D.; Woo, C.K.

    1981-02-01

    Comsumer motivations for choosing a solar energy equipped new home when the non-solar or conventional model was also available were investigated. The approach was to test the relative importance of demographic, dwelling unit, and heating system characteristics in household decisions to purchase a home equipped with solar energy devices. Two statistical models were developed: one to examine the relationship between the types of home buyers (as an identifiable market segment) and the decision to purchase a solar home, and the other to compare the energy use of solar vs. conventional homes selected in the sample. (MHR)

  9. Scenarios for solar thermal energy applications in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Solar and Wind Energy Resource Assessment (SWERA) database is used to prepare and discuss scenarios for solar thermal applications in Brazil. The paper discusses low temperature applications (small and large scale water heating) and solar power plants for electricity production (concentrated solar power plants and solar chimney plants) in Brazil. The results demonstrate the feasibility of large-scale application of solar energy for water heating and electricity generation in Brazil. Payback periods for water heating systems are typically below 4 years if they were used to replace residential electric showerheads in low-income families. Large-scale water heating systems also present high feasibility and many commercial companies are adopting this technology to reduce operational costs. The best sites to set up CSP plants are in the Brazilian semi-arid region where the annual energy achieves 2.2 MW h/m2 and averages of daily solar irradiation are larger than 5.0 kW h/m2/day. The western area of Brazilian Northeastern region meets all technical requirements to exploit solar thermal energy for electricity generation based on solar chimney technology. Highlights: ? Scenarios for solar thermal applications are presented. ? Payback is typically below 4 years for small scale water heating systems. ? Large-scale water heating systems also present high feasibility. ? The Brazilian semi-arid region is the best sites for CSP and chimney tower plants.

  10. Variable solution projects for measuring: 1. The flue gases from the TPP chimneys; 2. The flue gases nearby the ground around the TPP or in populated site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is aimed to determine the possible variants for installation of electronic equipment for the environmental control in the TPP area. The system for control of the emissions for the TPP chimneys is installed on site and measures the following parameters: temperature, pressure and humidity of the flue gases and the air; velocity of the flue gases and the air; content of SO2, NOx, O2 and ashes in the flue gases and dust in the air. The system for monitoring of meteorological conditions and emissions in the surface atmosphere, close to the TPP and the populated area, is installed in the town and it measures the following parameters: temperature, pressure and humidity of the air, wind velocity, content of SO2, NOx and dust in the air and the solar radiation. Results from the measurements of these parameters are presented. Several variants for technical solution are presented and the optimal variants are chosen

  11. Microbial lipid remnants within sulfide chimneys reveal organic matter transport in seafloor hydrothermal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, E.; Goldenstein, N. I.; Yoshinaga, M. Y.; Pjevac, P.; Bach, W.; Hinrichs, K.

    2013-12-01

    Several investigations have detected enigmatic evidence for microbial life in high-temperature (>150°C) interiors of hydrothermal vent ';chimney' structures - habitats much hotter than the known temperature limit of life. It is unclear whether these findings reflect fluid ingress after collection, cross-contamination with exterior microbial biomass, or genuine natural phenomena. While the abundant microbial biomass on the exteriors of vent edifices has been more commonly characterized, the origin of biomolecules inside these structures is poorly understood. In this study, we used a novel ';clean' sampling approach to investigate these interior regions in both a moderate temperature ';diffuser' and an inactive ';smoker' chimney structure from the Manus Basin, and use microbial DNA- and detailed lipid-based characterization to elucidate provenances. Mineralogical analysis using scanning-electron- and reflected-light-microscopy suggests vent fluid temperatures of up to ~200°C for the diffuser and >200°C during previous venting of the inactive chimney. No DNA could be amplified from any interior samples and cell membrane intact polar lipids were only recovered from the outer surfaces of the structures, precluding the possibility of active microbial communities in interior regions of either. Free fatty acids from bacteria, however, were abundant in the inactive chimney, including the previously high temperature interior, suggesting possible microbial colonization of the interior or inward transport of biomass during waning of fluid flow. Free fatty acids were not detected in the interior of the active diffuser chimney, consistent with uninhabitable temperatures for microbes and outward fluid flow. In contrast to fatty acids, archaeal core diether and tetraether lipid remnants with distinctive provenances were present in interior and exterior samples from both structures. Principal component analysis (PCA) of these mixtures reveals gradients in their distribution, with presumed hyperthermophilic archaeal lipid remnants more prevalent in interior and more mesophilic lipids in outer regions of the inactive chimney. Diffuser interior samples, however, are highly unusual, in that they contain presumed mesophilic archaeal core lipids, despite uninhabitable temperatures. Thermal degradation of an in situ microbial community (e.g. due to transient fluid flow variability) is a possible explanation, but the nature of these lipids suggests they may instead reflect transport and pyrolysis of microbial material from lower temperature mixing zones within the crustal aquifer. Not only does this study broaden our understanding of lipid biomolecule distribution in the interiors of sulfide edifices, it provides an initial evaluation of possible sources and implications for carbon cycling in seafloor hydrothermal systems.

  12. Controllable Electrochemical Synthesis of Reduced Graphene Oxide Thin-Film Constructed as Efficient Photoanode in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soon Weng Chong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A controllable electrochemical synthesis to convert reduced graphene oxide (rGO from graphite flakes was introduced and investigated in detail. Electrochemical reduction was used to prepare rGO because of its cost effectiveness, environmental friendliness, and ability to produce rGO thin films in industrial scale. This study aimed to determine the optimum applied potential for the electrochemical reduction. An applied voltage of 15 V successfully formed a uniformly coated rGO thin film, which significantly promoted effective electron transfer within dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. Thus, DSSC performance improved. However, rGO thin films formed in voltages below or exceeding 15 V resulted in poor DSSC performance. This behavior was due to poor electron transfer within the rGO thin films caused by poor uniformity. These results revealed that DSSC constructed using 15 V rGO thin film exhibited high efficiency (η = 1.5211% attributed to its higher surface uniformity than other samples. The addition of natural lemon juice (pH ~ 2.3 to the electrolyte accelerated the deposition and strengthened the adhesion of rGO thin film onto fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO glasses.

  13. A unique Fe-rich carbonate chimney associated with cold seeps in the Northern Okinawa Trough, East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhilei; Wei, Helong; Zhang, Xunhua; Shang, Luning; Yin, Xijie; Sun, Yunbao; Xu, Lei; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Xianrong

    2015-01-01

    The East China Sea is an important marginal sea of the Western Pacific Ocean, from which natural gas hydrate sample has not been acquired so far. Recently, copious carbonate chimneys have been discovered in turbidite deposits in the olistostrome zone located on the west slope of the northern section of Okinawa Trough. Here, the petrology, geochemistry and chronology of an iron-rich carbonate chimney were characterized, confirming a close relationship between its formation and the dissociation of natural gas hydrate beneath the chimney in OT. A distinctive relationship has been observed between goethite and total carbonate contents along with a negative correlation between Fe and Ca contents. Conversely, abundant Fe accumulated on carbonate substrate by mineralized microorganisms. The ?13C values of the chimney wall were from -27.56 to -43.66‰ (average: -37.18‰, V-PDB), implying anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) as a predominant controlling factor on carbonate precipitation. As no pyrite and organic residues were identified in the iron-rich chimney, it was assumed that AOM was coupled to the iron reduction reaction at least to some extent during the chimney growth owing to the local deficiency of sulfate supply. The ?56Fe values of bulk chimney wall (ranging from -0.316‰ to -0.023‰, average -0.134‰) suggest mass and isotope exchanges between the chimney and ambient environment during its growth history, whereas the enrichment of ?18O of the carbonate implies these carbonate sourcing from hydrate dissociation underlying our sampling site. This assumption has been supported by a distinct bottom simulation reflector (BSR) and a well-developed fault system beneath the sampling site. This is the first report of cold seepage inside the OT and the identified iron-dependent AOM has shed a new light to the Carbon cycle related to the marine methane oxidation, particularly before the Great Oxidation Event ~2.45 Ga ago.

  14. Radioactive orphans in barite-rich chimneys, Axial Caldera, Juan de Fuca Ridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma ray measurements on samples from two unusually radioactive barite-rich chimneys on Axial Seamount, Juan de Fuca Ridge, gave equivalent concentrations of ?0.1% Th and 0.2% U. The gamma ray emitting nuclides in both the Th and U decay series were found to be unsupported by their parents 232Th and 238U and are therefore orphans. Measurements on three chimney fragments showed that 238Th was not in radioactive equilibrium with 238Ra, which allowed their apparent ages and initial 226Ra/228Ra ratios to be determined. Based on the 228Th/228Ra ages of 3 and 6 years for two adjacent samples, a maximum growth rate of 6 cm per year was established. Calculated initial 226Ra/228Ra ratios indicate that the fluids which precipitated the barite took 20 years to acquire their radiochemical signatures from mid-ocean ridge basalts. (27 refs., tab., 6 figs.)

  15. Barometric pressure transient testing applications at the Nevada Test Site. Nuclear chimney analysis. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, J.M.

    1985-12-01

    Investigations of barometric pressure testing of NTS nuclear chimneys were reviewed. This review includes the models used in the interpretation, methods of analysis, and results. Analytic and semi-analytic models were presented and applied to both historical data and new data taken for this current project. An interpretation technique based on non-linear least squares methods was used to analyze this data in terms of historic and more recent chimney models. Finally, a detailed discussion of radioactive gas transport due to surface barometric pressure fluctuations was presented. This mechanism of transport, referred to as ''barometric pumping,'' is presented in terms of conditions likely to be encountered at the NTS. The report concludes with a discussion of the current understanding of gas flow properties in the alluvial and volcanic areas of the NTS, and suggestions for future efforts directed toward increasing this understanding are presented.

  16. D0 Solenoid Upgrade Project: Heat Load Calculations for the Solenoid Chimney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rucinski, R.; /Fermilab

    1993-05-26

    This engineering note documents the calculations done to determine the chimney heat loads. These heat load numbers were reported in the D0 solenoid upgrade design report. The heat loads to the LN2 circuit were done by Andrew Stefanik, RDIMechanical Systems group. They were part of his LN2 shield calculations dated 2/23/93. Pages 1 thru 3 of his calculations that apply to the chimney are attached. The heat loads to the LHe circuit were done originally on 12/16/92 and then revised on 12/23/92 to be more conservative. The raw calculations are attached. I include both the original 12/16 version and the 12/23 revised version to document the amount of conservativeness added.

  17. Barometric pressure transient testing applications at the Nevada Test Site. Nuclear chimney analysis. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations of barometric pressure testing of NTS nuclear chimneys were reviewed. This review includes the models used in the interpretation, methods of analysis, and results. Analytic and semi-analytic models were presented and applied to both historical data and new data taken for this current project. An interpretation technique based on non-linear least squares methods was used to analyze this data in terms of historic and more recent chimney models. Finally, a detailed discussion of radioactive gas transport due to surface barometric pressure fluctuations was presented. This mechanism of transport, referred to as ''barometric pumping,'' is presented in terms of conditions likely to be encountered at the NTS. The report concludes with a discussion of the current understanding of gas flow properties in the alluvial and volcanic areas of the NTS, and suggestions for future efforts directed toward increasing this understanding are presented

  18. Seismic chimneys in the Southern Viking Graben - Implications for palaeo fluid migration and overpressure evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karstens, Jens; Berndt, Christian

    2015-02-01

    Detailed understanding of natural fluid migration systems is essential to minimize risks during hydrocarbon exploration and to evaluate the long-term efficiency of the subsurface storage of waste water and gas from hydrocarbon production as well as CO2. The Southern Viking Graben (SVG) hosts numerous focused fluid flow structures in the shallow (SVG hosts more than 46 large-scale vertical chimney structures, which can be divided in three categories implying different formation processes. Our analysis reveals that seal-weakening, formation-wide overpressure and the presence of free gas are required to initiate the formation of vertical fluid conduits in the SVG. The presence of numerous vertical fluid conduits implies inter-stratigraphic hydraulic connectivity, which significantly affects the migration of fluids in the subsurface. Chimney structures are important for understanding the transfer of pore pressure anomalies to the shallow parts of the basin.

  19. Prototype implementation and experimental analysis of water heating using recovered waste heat of chimneys

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoud Khaled; Mohamad Ramadan; Khaled Chahine; Ali Assi

    2015-01-01

    This work discusses a waste heat recovery system (WHRS) applied to chimneys for heating water in residential buildings. A prototype illustrating the suggested system is implemented and tested. Different waste heat scenarios by varying the quantity of burned firewood (heat input) are experimented. The temperature at different parts of the WHRS and the gas flow rates of the exhaust pipes are measured. Measurements showed that the temperature of 95 L tank of water can be increased by 68 °C withi...

  20. Uranium prospecting in alkaline mountain chimneys of Serra Negra and Salitre - Minas Gerais, Brasil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The occurence of radioactive minerals such as apatite and pyrochlore, in the alkaline chimneys of Serra Negra and Salitre (Minas Gerais, Brazil), is discussed. Also mentioned are other minerals of interest associated with the alkaline magma such as columbite, fluorite, monazite, zircon, baddeleyite, etc, which in favourable conditions may occur in deposits of great economical value, and which may present high contents of rare earths, thorium and uranium

  1. The Guaymas Basin Hiking Guide to Hydrothermal Mounds, Chimneys, and Microbial Mats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teske, Andreas; de Beer, Dirk; McKay, Luke J; Tivey, Margaret K; Biddle, Jennifer F; Hoer, Daniel; Lloyd, Karen G; Lever, Mark A; Røy, Hans; Albert, Daniel B; Mendlovitz, Howard P; MacGregor, Barbara J

    2016-01-01

    The hydrothermal mats, mounds, and chimneys of the southern Guaymas Basin are the surface expression of complex subsurface hydrothermal circulation patterns. In this overview, we document the most frequently visited features of this hydrothermal area with photographs, temperature measurements, and...... hydrothermal features and sampling locations within the southern Guaymas Basin suggest linkages to underlying shallow sills and heat flow gradients. Recognizing the inherent spatial limitations of much current Guaymas Basin sampling calls for comprehensive surveys of the wider spreading region....

  2. The application of masonry chimney venting tables for oil-fired appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krajewski, R.F.; Strasser, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-04-01

    This paper presents an overview of the results of work in developing a set of rational guidelines for the venting of modern oil-fired appliances. The activities included the continued development and completion of the Oil-Heat Vent Analysis Program (OHVAP), Version 1.0 and the interpretation of nearly 2,000 runs in preparing recommendations for presentation in table form. These results are presented in the form of venting tables for the installation of chimney vent systems for mid- and high-efficiency oil-fired heating appliances using masonry chimneys. A brief description of OHVAP is given as well as a discussion of what the program does. Recommendations based on the results of OHVAP are presented in the form of five tables spanning oil-fired appliance Steady state Efficiencies (Eff{sub ss}) of 80% to 88%. The assumptions used in the calculations and examples of the computed results are presented as well as a discussion of the rationale for masonry chimney system treatment. Working examples are given with suggested diagnostic approaches for application of the table recommendations.

  3. Alternativas de construcción utilizando materiales de bajo costo para la evaluación térmica de cocinas solares tipo caja / Construction alternatives using low-cost materials for the thermal test of box-type solar cookers

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luis Enrique, Mealla Sánchez; Pablo Daniel, Bonaveri Arangoa.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta la evaluación y resultados térmicos de cocinas tipo cajas, realizadas con el objeto de comparar diversos factores constructivos de las mismas utilizando un protocolo de prueba conocido como RICSA (Red Interamericana de Cocción Solar de Alimentos). Para ellos se dispuso de cuatro cocinas [...] en donde se combinaron dos materiales de placa y dos materiales que sirven como aislante. Se sometieron a radiación solar directa calentando la placa colectora y luego al calentamiento utilizando agua como líquido de prueba. Se procedió a medir las perdidas térmicas y la eficiencia térmica. Parámetros adicionales como el tiempo en que alcanza la temperatura de cocción efectiva y el tiempo en que la mantiene sin intervención del operador también fueron medidos. De aquí, el análisis de la información proporcionó un buen rendimiento comparable entre cocinas con placa de hierro y los dos aislantes probados por sobre las cocinas de placa de aluminio; además, por la relación precio-rendimiento, se recomienda su construcción utilizando materiales que tienen alto rendimiento y bajo precio. Abstract in english This document presents the evaluation of a different set of solar ovens in terms of their thermal performance by the RICSA protocol. For this purpose, four solar ovens were constructed differentiated mainly by the type of isolation and plates. All were exposed to direct solar radiation. First, only [...] the collector plate was heated to measure thermal losses and efficiency and second, a determined amount of water was introduced to measure the thermal power of the solar oven. Additional parameters like the time in which it reaches the temperature of effective boiling point and the time in which it maintains functioning without intervention of the operator also were measured. The analysis provide empirical evidence regarding adequate levels of thermal performance of solar ovens constructed using iron on one hand, and aluminum on the other. It is recommended to extend the use of this type of equipments given the priceeffi ciency obtained in the experiments.

  4. Continuous In Situ Measurements of Near Bottom Chemistry and Sediment-Water Fluxes with the Chimney Sampler Array (CSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, C. S.; Mendlovitz, H. P.; White, B. L.; Hoer, D.; Sleeper, K.; Chanton, J.; Wilson, R.; Lapham, L.

    2011-12-01

    The Chimney Sampler Array (CSA) was designed to measure in situ chemical and physical parameters within the benthic boundary layer plus methane and oxygen sediment-water chemical fluxes at upper slope sites in the northern Gulf of Mexico. The CSA can monitor temporal changes plus help to evaluate oceanographic and sub-seafloor processes that can influence the formation and stability of gas hydrates in underlying sediments. The CSA consists of vertical cylinders (chimneys) equipped with internal chemical sensors and with laboratory flume-calibrated washout rates. Chimney washout rates multiplied by chimney mean versus ambient concentrations allow calculation of net O2 and methane sediment-water fluxes. The CSA is emplaced on the seafloor by a ROVARD lander using a ROV for chimney deployments. The CSA presently includes two 30 cm diameter by 90 cm length cylinders that seal against the sediment with lead pellet beanbags; within each chimney cylinder are optode, conductivity and methane sensors. The CSA's data logger platform also includes pressure and turbidity sensors external to the chimneys along with an acoustic Doppler current meter to measure temporal variation in ambient current velocity and direction. The CSA was deployed aboard a ROVARD lander on 9/13/2010 in the northern Gulf of Mexico (Lat. 28 51.28440, Long. 088 29.39421) on biogeochemically active sediments within Block MC-118. A ROV was utilized for chimney deployment away from the ROVARD lander. The CSA monitored temporal changes in water column physical parameters, obtained near-bottom chemical data to compare with pore fluid and sediment core measurements and measured temporal variability in oxygen and methane sediment-water fluxes at two closely spaced stations at MC-118. A continuous, three-week data set was obtained that revealed daily cycles in chemical parameters and episodic flux events. Lower than ambient chimney dissolved O2 concentrations controlled by temporal variability in washout rates were used to calculate sediment O2 demand. Episodic events yielding turbidity spikes produced episodic spikes in chimney methane concentrations and sediment-water fluxes. The robust data set reveals new capabilities for long-term monitoring of near-bottom processes in biogeochemically active, continental margin environments.

  5. Biogeochemistry of Hydrothermal Chimney Environments: Continuous-Flow Experiments at in situ Temperature and Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, J.; Seyfried, W.; Reysenbach, A.; Banta, A.; von Damm, K.

    2002-12-01

    Recent interest in the existence of a subsurface microbial biosphere at hydrothermal vents has resulted in a plethora of new questions that might best be answered using interdisciplinary techniques that combine geochemistry, microbial ecology, and molecular biology. Ideally, such studies will quantitatively address issues concerning what organisms exist in the subsurface, what metabolisms are sustained in the hydrothermal environment, and what effects these active organisms might have on the nearby fluid and rock. We present a new experimental approach to studying these questions that enables monitoring of an active hydrothermal community of microbes in the presence of chimney material at in situ temperature and pressure. This apparatus is designed as a continuous-flow reactor from which fluid samples can be extracted during the course of the experiment to measure chemistry and biomass, and at the termination of an experiment solids can be extracted for analysis of mineralogical changes and microbial identification. Results of a series of experiments conducted using hydrothermal chimney material (solids and microbial community) collected from 21° N and 9° N East Pacific Rise are presented. At 70° C, a seawater-based fluid with additional NO3-, CO2(aq), and H2(aq) was reacted with chimney material from L vent, 9° N EPR. The fluid lost significant NO3-, PO43-, and gained SO42- even after accounting for the contribution from anhydrite dissolution. No significant sulfide or iron was observed in the fluid. Analysis of the DNA extracted from the solids at the termination of the experiment using partial 16S-rRNA sequence data revealed that the dominant bacteria were S-oxidizing tube worm endosymbionts, a S/NO3- reducing member of the Deferribacter genus, and a H2-oxidizing/NO3- reducing strain of Aquifex. Mineral analysis from before and after the experiment indicates the loss of pyrrhotite (FeS) and anhydrite (CaSO4), and the gain of an Fe-oxide phase tentatively identified using magnetic remnance and Mossbauer as goethite (FeOOH), responsible for the minimal Fe in solution. An abiotic control experiment was conducted under the same conditions, where the chimney material was first freeze-dried under vacuum, then autoclaved to sterilize without producing any artificial mineral changes. This experiment shows no loss of NO3-, PO43-, no additional SO42- gain after anhydrite dissolution, and a steadily increasing dissolved iron concentration, implying the net dissolution of pyrrhotite. Results from additional experiments testing different fluid chemistry, temperature, and source chimney similarly show linkages between the measured fluid chemistry, the identity of the dominant organisms in the experiment, and bulk changes in the mineralogy.

  6. Performance of digester decant system with biological filter followed by constructed wetland and solar reactor in the treatment of domestic sewage

    OpenAIRE

    Delfran Batista dos Santos; Miguel Ferreira Neto; Luis César de Aquino Lemos Filho; Rafael de Oliveira Batista; Paulo César Moura da Silva; Glícia Pinto Barra Reinaldo

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the performance of digester decant system with biological filter followed by constructed wetland and solar reactor in the treatment of domestic sewage from Milagres rural community in Apodi-RN. The treatment system was monitored for the period of October and November 2010, 48 days after planting Pennisetum purpureum Schumach. Samples of domestic sewage were collected at different stages of treatment, in four replications on time, to determine physicochemical and mi...

  7. Enhancement of Nutrient Removal in a Hybrid Constructed Wetland Utilizing an Electric Fan Air Blower with Renewable Energy of Solar and Wind Power

    OpenAIRE

    Dong Jin Lee; Se Won Kang; Jong Hwan Park; Seong Heon Kim; Ik Won Choi; Tae Hee Hwang; Byung Jin Lim; Soo Jung Jung; Ha Na Park; Ju Sik Cho; Dong Cheol Seo

    2015-01-01

    The sewage treatment efficiency of hybrid constructed wetlands (CWs) was evaluated under different ventilation methods. The removal efficiencies of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) in the vertical flow- (VF-) horizontal flow (HF) CWs using an electric fan air blower by the renewable energy of solar and wind power were higher than those by natural ventilation, excluding only suspended solids (SS). The TN treatment efficiency in the CW using the ai...

  8. NASA advanced design program: Analysis, design, and construction of a solar powered aircraft. B.S. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Agnes; Conley, Kristin; Javorski, Christian T.; Cheung, Kwok-Hung; Crivelli, Paul M.; Torrey, Nancy P.; Traver, Michael L.

    1992-01-01

    Increase in energy demands coupled with rapid depletion of natural energy resources have deemed solar energy as the most logical alternative source of power. The major objective of this project was to build a solar powered remotely controlled aircraft to demonstrate the feasibility of solar energy as an effective, alternate source of power. The final design was optimized for minimum weight and maximum strength of the structure. These design constraints necessitated a carbon fiber composite structure. Surya is a lightweight, durable aircraft capable of achieving level flight powered entirely by solar cells.

  9. Solar chimney: A sustainable approach for ventilation and building space conditioning

    OpenAIRE

    Lal, S.; Kaushik, S.C.; Bhargav, P.K.

    2013-01-01

    The residential and commercial buildings demand increase with rapidly growing population. It leads to the vertical growth of the buildings and needs proper ventilation and day-lighting. The natural air ventilation system is not significantly works in conventional structure, so fans and air conditioners are mandatory to meet the proper ventilation and space conditioning. Globally building sector consumed largest energy and utmost consumed in heating, ventilation and space conditioning. This lo...

  10. Passive-solar retrofit concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    Four retrofit passive solar designs for single family dwellings are presented. The first design, for a house in Minnesota, involves insulating wall cavities and the attic with blown cellulose, reduction of infiltration, and installation of insulating shades on all windows. The second, for a house in Michigan, combines weatherization, a sunspace with clerestory, and a thermosiphoning collector. The third, for a house in Missouri, involves the addition of a large sunspace with a passive solar hot water preheater for a hot tub. The fourth, for a house in Indiana, combines intensive weatherization with a two story sunspace and thermal chimney addition. All designs are thoroughly illustrated.

  11. Geodetical aspects of nuclear power plant construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The requirements of nuclear power plant construction and the problems of site selection are discussed. The need for construction capacity of the Hungarian nuclear power plant project is estimated. The geometrical base point network of the Paks Power Plant was designed and equalized by computer methods. The measurements have been made by electrooptical range finders. After equalization the network was further divided. The results of equalization and error analysis are presented. The requirements for geodetical surveying for the indoor construction are described. The leaning of the auxiliary boiler chimneys of the plant were studied by photogrammetry. (R.J.)

  12. Performance of digester decant system with biological filter followed by constructed wetland and solar reactor in the treatment of domestic sewage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delfran Batista dos Santos

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the performance of digester decant system with biological filter followed by constructed wetland and solar reactor in the treatment of domestic sewage from Milagres rural community in Apodi-RN. The treatment system was monitored for the period of October and November 2010, 48 days after planting Pennisetum purpureum Schumach. Samples of domestic sewage were collected at different stages of treatment, in four replications on time, to determine physicochemical and microbiological characteristics about the system performance. The results indicated significant removal of turbidity, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total solids, suspended solids, phosphorus and oil and grease using the set digester decant with biological filter, followed by constructed wetland and solar reactor; the association of average solar radiation of 28.73 MJ m-2 d-1, effluent depth of 0.10 m on reactor and time of sun exposure of 12 hours provided removal of fecal coliform up to 99.99% of domestic sewage in Apodi, RN, the treated effluent met microbiological standard of the Brazilian guidelines for agricultural use with restrictions.

  13. Improvement of the Vertical Dispersion of Pollutants Resulting From Chimneys by Thermosiphon Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O.M. Mahmoud

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The dispersion of pollutants, resulting from industrial chimneys, in the surrounding atmosphere made the interest in realizing emitting conditions appears. It also encourages the vertical dispersion of these pollutants. At a given wind velocity, the height of this dispersion is essentially a function of the thermal power and the flow rate at the chimney exit. To improve these qualities, we propose a system that could be integrated to the industrial chimney exit. An open-ended vertical cylinder of larger diameter essentially constitutes this system. In order to determine the characteristics of the resulting flow, we simulated the problem in the laboratory while studying the evolution of a free thermal plume generated by a disk heated uniformly by the Joule effect at a constant temperature. The thermal plume expands in a quiet environment of isotherm temperature. To study the thermosiphon effect, we surrounded the plume source by a vertical cylinder opened at the extremities. Thermal radiation emitted by the hot disk heats the cylinder wall. The pressure drop due to the acceleration of the flow at the cylinder inlet causes the appearance of thermosiphon effect around the thermal plume. The analysis of the average fields of velocity and temperature shows that the thermosiphon effect entails a good homogenization of the flow at the system exit. Furthermore, the comparison of the results obtained at the exit of the two studied systems shows a relative increase of the flow rate and the thermal power absorbed by the air of the order of 50% under the thermosiphon effect. This result is expressed by a gain in the plume rise of the order of 40%.

  14. Endovascular Aortic Aneurysm Repair with Chimney and Snorkel Grafts: Indications, Techniques and Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Rakesh P., E-mail: rpatel9@nhs.net [Northwick Park Hospital, Department of Vascular Radiology (United Kingdom); Katsargyris, Athanasios, E-mail: kthanassos@yahoo.com; Verhoeven, Eric L. G., E-mail: Eric.Verhoeven@klinikum-nuernberg.de [Klinikum Nuernberg, Department of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery (Germany); Adam, Donald J., E-mail: donald.adam@tiscali.co.uk [Heartlands Hospital, Department of Vascular Surgery (United Kingdom); Hardman, John A., E-mail: johnhardman@doctors.org.uk [Royal United Hospital Bath, Department of Vascular Radiology (United Kingdom)

    2013-12-15

    The chimney technique in endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (Ch-EVAR) involves placement of a stent or stent-graft parallel to the main aortic stent-graft to extend the proximal or distal sealing zone while maintaining side branch patency. Ch-EVAR can facilitate endovascular repair of juxtarenal and aortic arch pathology using available standard aortic stent-grafts, therefore, eliminating the manufacturing delays required for customised fenestrated and branched stent-grafts. Several case series have demonstrated the feasibility of Ch-EVAR both in acute and elective cases with good early results. This review discusses indications, technique, and the current available clinical data on Ch-EVAR.

  15. Dryout heat fluxes for surfaces overlayed with chimney-type porous deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dryout heat flux applicable to light water reactor fuel elements covered with porous deposits characterized by the presence of steam channels, or chimneys, is determined by the wicking or choking limit. The results of a study of these limits show that the dryout heat flux for thick, dense, or small particle size deposits is controlled by the wicking limit. In contrast, the choking limit is limiting for thin, highly porous, or large particle size deposits. The calculations also show that the choking limit results in dryout heat fluxes that are two to three times greater than dryout heat fluxes on clean surfaces

  16. Endovascular Aortic Aneurysm Repair with Chimney and Snorkel Grafts: Indications, Techniques and Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chimney technique in endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (Ch-EVAR) involves placement of a stent or stent-graft parallel to the main aortic stent-graft to extend the proximal or distal sealing zone while maintaining side branch patency. Ch-EVAR can facilitate endovascular repair of juxtarenal and aortic arch pathology using available standard aortic stent-grafts, therefore, eliminating the manufacturing delays required for customised fenestrated and branched stent-grafts. Several case series have demonstrated the feasibility of Ch-EVAR both in acute and elective cases with good early results. This review discusses indications, technique, and the current available clinical data on Ch-EVAR

  17. Solar greenhouse and warm room with a spiral piping system for hot water and a low-cost building-construction method. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peckworth, R.H.

    1983-01-01

    This project involved the construction of two small buildings, each mounted on skids, so that, if desired, they could be moved to various sites to demonstrate the following energy proposals: the use of a combination greenhouse and warm room as an addition to an older house for an economical heating solution; the use of PB (polybutylene) black flexible pipe as a solar water heating collector housed in the above solar area; and the use of COST FREE BUILDING BLOCKS made from readily available recycled waste material, namely empty steel and tin cans, repacked in used corrugated cartons. These blocks, laid up into a wall, using glue instead of mortar, make an excellent core wall that can later be covered with protective surfacing, perhaps a rigid foam plastic surface.

  18. Positional Arrangements of Waste Exhaust Gas Ducts of C-Type Balanced Chimney Heating Devices on Building Façades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkan AVLAR

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In Turkey today, with the increase in availability of natural gas,detached heating devices are being preferred over existingheating devices. Due to the lack of chimneys in existing buildingsin Turkey or the presence of chimneys that fail to conformto standards, the use of C-type balanced chimney devices has increased.C-type balanced chimney devices take the combustionair directly from the outside by a specific air duct as detachedheating equipment, with enclosed combustion chambers anda specific waste gas exhaust duct, and they are ventilated independentlyof the field of equipment. Because of their essentiality,the use of a chimney is not required in these devices;the waste gas is exhausted through walls, windows, doors, orbalconies. The natural gas is a clean fossil fuel that requires nostorage in buildings and is easy to use. However, water vapor,carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides are produced by the combustionof natural gas. It is widely known that high concentrationsof these products can have some adverse effects onhumans such as dizziness, headaches and nausea. As a result,the waste products could recoil through wall openings on thefaçade to create unhealthy indoor environments that could bedangerous to human health. Therefore, the importance of standardsand regulations about the positional arrangements of thewaste gas exhaust ducts of C-type balanced chimney devices onbuilding façades is increasing. In this research, we analyze thestudies of the Institution of Turkish Standards, Chamber of MechanicalEngineers, gas distribution companies, municipalitiesand authorized firms and compare the criteria to determine thenecessary application method. According to our comparison ofthe references accessed, the criteria are not uniform.

  19. Re-construction of global solar radiation time series from 1933 to 2013 at the Izaña Atmospheric Observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. García

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the re-construction of the 80 year time series of daily global shortwave downward radiation (SDR at the subtropical high-mountain Izaña Atmospheric Observatory (IZO, Spain. For this purpose, we combine SDR estimates from sunshine duration (SD data using the Ångström–Prescott method over the 1933/1991 period, and SDR observations directly performed by pyranometers between 1992 and 2013. Since SDR measurements have been used as a reference, a strict quality control has been applied, when it was not possible data have been re-calibrated by using the LibRadtran model. By comparing to high quality SDR measurements, the precision and consistency over time of SDR estimations from SD data have successfully been documented. We obtain a overall root mean square error (RMSE of 9.2% and an agreement between the variances of SDR estimations and SDR measurements within 92% (correlation coefficient of 0.96. Nonetheless, this agreement significantly increases when the SDR estimation is done considering different daily fractions of clear sky (FCS. In that case, RMSE is reduced by half, up to about 4.5%, when considering percentages of FCS > 40% (90% of days in the testing period. Furthermore, we prove that the SDR estimations can monitor the SDR anomalies in consistency with SDR measurements and, then, can be suitable for re-constructing solar radiation time series. The re-constructed IZO global SDR time series between 1933 and 2013 confirms discontinuities and periods of increases/decreases of solar radiation at Earth's surface observed at a global scale, such as the early brightening, dimming and brightening. This fact supports the consistency of the IZO SDR time series presented in this work, which may be a reference for solar radiation studies in the subtropical North Atlantic region.

  20. High emissions of PCDD/Fs from coal-fired stoves : indications of the formation in the chimney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paradiz, B.; Horak, J.; Dilara, P.; Umlauf, G. [Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, Brussels (Belgium). Inst. of Environment and Sustainability

    2005-07-01

    Solid fuel heating appliances are known to emit dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs). In 2000, the dioxin emission inventory for the European Union attributed 29 per cent of total PCDD/F emissions to the residential combustion of wood and coal. High emissions of PCDD/Fs for coal combustion in stoves have been reported in various countries. The conditions and mechanisms that lead to high PCDD/F emissions are not well understood. This paper provided details of an experiment conducted to investigate the effects of temperature profiles in chimneys on PCDD/F emissions. An optimized commercial stove was used for the experiments. Two PCDD/F sampling points were used at the bottom and top a chimney. Different temperature profiles in the chimney were obtained by insulating the entire length of the chimney with a 25 mm -thick mineral glass insulation. A commercial Polish hard coal with a calorific value of 30.0 MJ/kg was used. Each combustion cycle consisted of 2 phases. Hot ash was used for the ignition of the main batch of 5 kg coal. During the operational phase, the complete main batch of the coal was combusted for a period of 3 hours and 45 minutes. PCDD/F sampling was performed using a cooled probe method at a constant speed. The average velocity of the flue gases in the chimney was determined from the calculated flue gas volume based on the carbon content and consumption of the fuel as well as the composition of the flue gases. A Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer was used to measure carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), nitric oxide (NO), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), and halogenated cyclic hydrocarbons (HCI) concentrations. Very high emissions of PCDD/Fs were observed in all combustion experiments. Concentrations of PCDD/Fs in the flue gases were between 6 and 115 ng-I-TEQ/Nm{sup 3}. Values were comparable to those of waste incinerators with minimal air pollution control. Emissions of PCDD/Fs were higher when the chimney was insulated. Emissions of other pollutants and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were not affected by the different temperature profiles in the chimney. It was concluded that higher temperatures in chimneys can contribute to higher emissions of PCDD/Fs. 5 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

  1. An exposition of the role of external base absorbent of solar energy with intelligent constructional structures with a view to reduction in energy use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Sadeghi Kelishadi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available There is no doubt that one of the most important challenges facing engineers and designers ofarchitectural design and engineering is indeed the problem of energy. It is inline with this trend of thought that energy can be seen as a critical elementwith a view to the enhancement of mans economical and social welfare and it isin the sphere of construction engineering that the need arises for the use ofthe appropriate construction material which can best serve this vital aim ofenergy conservation by using renewable energy sources such as solar energy. Itis therefore a foregone conclusion that the more we are capable of using solarenergy we are helping to conserve our other energy sources and thus help toreduce our overall energy consumption. It is with this view in mind thatconstruction engineers and those working in building design have aimed at usingsystems that can manage energy consumption within their constructionalstructures, having arrived at a point where their building designs can actuallybe termed intelligent or smart constructionalstructures, whereby the system asa whole is capable of using solar energy instead of the traditional fossilfuels. Yet that which makes possible the use of solar energy more so today thanever before is the use of external ducts, which are installed in places mostexposed to sunlight, and have the capability of changing color and becominglighter or darker as the state of exposure calls for is the use of a certaintype of smart glass within the built structure, that makes possible the mostefficient use of sunlight entering the building, having the capability ofchanging color in correlation to the amount of sunlight received and becominglighter or darker appropriately, allowing that quantity of sunlight to enter thebuilding as is needed to counteract the greenhouse effect which causes anuncontrolled increase of temperature within the built structure, and thusallowing the most efficient use of solar energy in keeping the place pleasantlywarm in winter and cool during the summer months. It is therefore from thisperspective that we have through the use of library studies embarked on theinvestigation of the particular structural make up of this type of smart glasswith the capability of structural change in its color variance which counts as the most important compositional part ofsmart buildings, to explicate the mechanisms at work and the benefits acquiredfrom the use of such ducts within a smart constructional structure as apracticaltechnique in line with reducing energy consumption so that designersof any type of construction may make efficient use of this technology.

  2. Conserving gallons and kilowatts. Challenges of today's solar power plants. An EPC (Engineering, Procurement and Construction) perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoemaker, Jeanette [Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating Facility, CA (United States); Bechtel Power Corp., Frederick, MD (United States); Huth, Christopher; Sinha, Kumar [Bechtel Power Corp., Frederick, MD (United States)

    2013-03-15

    With the increasing restrictions on CO2 emissions, the utilization of solar power is emerging as an effective way to increase the renewable portfolio for utility power. For example in California, the utilities' current renewable portfolios must increase from 20% to 33% by 2020. This drive has made renewable power considerably more desirable. However, fresh water availability and optimal solar irradiation are generally two mutually exclusive local characteristics that make locating and designing these plants challenging. Not only is fresh water scarce at the desert locations where these solar plants are generally located, but options for disposal of wastewater can be very limited as well. These factors have pushed the design of these plants to develop a fine balance between conserving and reusing water to the greatest extent practical and reducing parasitic electrical loads. This paper addresses the challenges associated with developing solar power plant designs that optimize house electrical load while minimizing water footprint. Through the implementation of operational water management techniques and optimized water treatment processes, water usage can be reduced to manageable levels. Utilizing systems that recover and recycle wastewater, the system can be further optimized to reduce the overall water footprint. Case studies are presented for multiple sites detailing the individual optimization required based on the water quality provided. Lessons learned during plant siting and permitting are provided to shed light on the current issues associated with wastewater disposal in these areas and utilization of evaporation ponds. In addition, various design philosophies are discussed to guide the reader through the difficulties of determining the right mix of initial capital cost, optimized water usage, minimized operating cost and minimized parasitic electrical load. (orig.)

  3. Prediction of Air Flow and Temperature Profiles Inside Convective Solar Dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Vintilă

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Solar tray drying is an effective alternative for post-harvest processing of fruits and vegetables. Product quality and uniformity of the desired final moisture content are affected by the uneven air flow and temperature distribution inside the drying chamber. The purpose of this study is to numerically evaluate the operation parameters of a new indirect solar dryer having an appropriate design based on thermal uniformity inside the drying chamber, low construction costs and easy accessibility to resources needed for manufacture. The research was focused on both the investigation of different operation conditions and analysis of the influence of the damper position, which is incorporated into the chimney, on the internal cabinet temperature and air flow distribution. Numerical simulation was carried out with Comsol Multiphysics CFD commercial code using a reduced 2D domain model by neglecting any end effects from the side walls. The analysis of the coupled thermal-fluid model provided the velocity field, pressure distribution and temperature distribution in the solar collector and in the drying chamber when the damper was totally closed, half open and fully open and for different operation conditions. The predicted results were compared with measurements taken in-situ. With progressing computing power, it is conceivable that CFD will continue to provide explanations for more fluid flow, heat and mass transfer phenomena, leading to better equipment design and process control for the food industry.

  4. Thermal Safety of the Current Buses in the Chimney of the D0 Solenoid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermal and electrical behaviour of the current buses in the chimney of the D0 solenoid during upset conditions is modeled to guide the selection of trip levels for magnet protection circuits which discharge the magnet if abnormal conditions are detected. The current buses in the chimney are designed to operate safely without likelihood of loss of superconductivity as long as normal cooling conditions are maintained. Helium liquid level probes, helium flow instrumentation, and thermometry all are provided to certify that proper cooling conditions exist in the subcooler and chimney at all times. Rising temperatures in any portion of the system, excessive voltage drops on the vapor cooled leads, or decreasing liquid level in the subcooler or flow rate in the system, will each cause the fast discharge system to be triggered. Postulated failures of the helium flow system, somehow undetected by any and all of the aforementioned instrumentation, can in principal eventually lead to loss of superconductivity in the buses. Quenching in one bus will rapidly lead to quenching in the other. Potential taps on the buses and magnet coil halves connected to voltage-detection bridges external to the system provide at least dually redundant signals which will unambiguously trigger the magnet rapid discharge system. The conservative design of the bus system ensures that it will not be damaged during such incidents, however improbable they may be. The transition leads in the subcooler are equally conservatively designed, and would not be damaged if they were operated in a fully non-superconducting state for several minutes. The loss of liquid helium in the sub cooler required to cause this condition would imply that helium flow from the magnet had stopped, which in turn would imply that flow to the magnet had also stopped. The lack of flow into the sub cooler would result in insufficient flow to the vapor cooled leads. Any or all of these conditions would be detected, as would easily detected spurious voltages on the potential tap system, before damage to the transition leads occurred.

  5. Automating the Solar DRYER—AIRFLOW Control Utilizing Pressure Diffrence Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, T. B.; Vakhguelt, A.

    2009-08-01

    The presence of a chimney in natural convective solar dryer has proven its benefit in accelerated transport of moist air from the drying compartment and thus shortening the drying time for intended crops. The experiment and simulation studies done by various parties have guaranteed increases in the airflow in relation to the physical height of chimney. A simple automated control system is proposed to assist the controls of airflow rate so that a near optimum mass flow rate could be achieved for the best possible dried product quality in the shortest possible drying period.

  6. Innovative chimney-graft technique for endovascular repair of a pararenal abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galiñanes, Edgar Luis; Hernandez-Vila, Eduardo A; Krajcer, Zvonimir

    2015-02-01

    After abdominal aortic aneurysm repair, progressive degeneration of the aneurysm can be challenging to treat. Multiple comorbidities and previous operations place such patients at high risk for repeat surgery. Endovascular repair is a possible alternative; however, challenging anatomy can push the limits of available technology. We describe the case of a 71-year-old man who presented with a 5.3-cm pararenal aneurysm 4 years after undergoing open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. To avoid reoperation, we excluded the aneurysm by endovascular means, using visceral-artery stenting, a chimney-graft technique. Low-profile balloons on a monorail system enabled the rapid exchange of coronary wires via a buddy-wire technique. This novel approach facilitated stenting and simultaneous angioplasty of multiple visceral vessels and the abdominal aorta. PMID:25873796

  7. Prototype implementation and experimental analysis of water heating using recovered waste heat of chimneys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Khaled

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This work discusses a waste heat recovery system (WHRS applied to chimneys for heating water in residential buildings. A prototype illustrating the suggested system is implemented and tested. Different waste heat scenarios by varying the quantity of burned firewood (heat input are experimented. The temperature at different parts of the WHRS and the gas flow rates of the exhaust pipes are measured. Measurements showed that the temperature of 95 L tank of water can be increased by 68 °C within one hour. Obtained results show that the convection and radiation exchanges at the bottom surface of the tank have a considerable impact on the total heat transfer rate of the water (as high as 70%.

  8. D0 Solenoid Upgrade Project: Chimney LN2 Radiation Shield Attachment Area Calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rucinski, R.; /Fermilab

    1993-05-26

    A short calculation was done to check the attachment method of the radiation shield to it's LN2 cooling tubes. The case considered was only for the obround chimney section. The proposed attachment method was to use 1/8-inch plug welds spaced every 5-inch along the length of the shield. The calculations were done conservatively for 6-inch spacing between plug welds. The criteria used was that the LN2 shield warmest temperature be less than 2 K above the temperature of the LN2 fluid. Using a very conservative heat transfer model. the calculations predict that the warmest temperature on the radiation shield will be < 1.4 K warmer than the LN2 fluid temperature.

  9. D0 Solenoid Upgrade Project: Thermal Contraction Analysis for the D0 Solenoid Chimney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rucinski, R.; /Fermilab

    1993-09-30

    This engineering note documents the thermal contraction analysis that was done for the D-Zero solenoid chimney. The analysis was done as support of the 'Design Report of the 2 Tesla Superconducting Solenoid for the Fermilab DO Detector upgrade.' The cryogenic LHE and LN2 lines were analyzed for combined pressure, thermal movement, and dead weight. The tubing was stress analyzed per ASME code for Pressure Piping, standard ANSI AS:ME B31.3, for eight combinations ofthermal loading. A commercial pipe stress analysis and design system by Algor{reg_sign} was used for the analysis. Stresses calculated were well below allowables. Based on the analysis, the cryogenic lines will be installed at an offset from the vacuum jacket centerline so that during steady state cold operation, the cryogenic lines will be in a proper location.

  10. Contaminant transport during atmospheric pumping of a nuclear chimney: Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cyclical variations in barometric pressure cause an oscillatory up-and-down motion of gases within the chimney produced by an underground nuclear test. Analytical and experimental modeling of this atmospheric pumping mechanism has been undertaken to better understand and to quantify the associated rates of cavity gas migration toward the earth's surface and the probable rate of release to the atmosphere. Three different types of models are being investigated: (1) homogeneous porous medium; (2) fractured medium with impermeable matrix blocks; and (3) double-porosity media consisting of fracture networks among porous matrix blocks. A primary purpose is to understand how the oscillatory character of the atmospheric pumping process might significantly enhance the contaminant transport in any or all of the three classes of media. This preliminary report describes some of the analytical, numerical, and experimental work which have been completed

  11. Mackinawite and greigite in ancient alkaline hydrothermal chimneys: Identifying potential key catalysts for emergent life

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Lauren M.; Bhartia, Rohit; Stucky, Galen D.; Kanik, Isik; Russell, Michael J.

    2015-11-01

    One model for the emergence of life posits that ancient, low temperature, submarine alkaline hydrothermal vents, partly composed of iron-sulfides, were capable of catalyzing the synthesis of prebiotic organic molecules from CO2, H2 and CH4. Specifically, hydrothermal mackinawite (FeIIS) and greigite (FeIIFeIII2S4) have been highlighted in previous studies as analogs of the active centers of hydrogenase, ferredoxin, acetyl coenzyme-A synthase and carbon monoxide dehydrogenase featured in the biochemistry of certain autotrophic prokaryotes that occupy the base of the evolutionary tree. Despite the proposed importance of iron sulfide minerals and clusters in the synthesis of abiotic organic molecules, the mechanisms for the formation of these sulfides from solution and their preservation under the anoxic and low temperature (below 100 °C) conditions expected in off-axis submarine alkaline vent systems is not well understood (Bourdoiseau et al., 2011; Rickard and Luther, 2007). To rectify this, single hydrothermal chimneys were precipitated using a unique apparatus to simulate growth at hydrothermal vents of moderate temperature under supposed Hadean ocean-bottom conditions. Iron sulfide phases were observed through Raman spectroscopy at growth temperatures ranging from 40° to 80 °C. Fe(III)-containing mackinawite is confirmed to be present with mackinawite and greigite, supporting an FeIII-mackinawite intermediate mechanism for the transformation of mackinawite to greigite below 100 °C. Raman spectroscopy of the chimneys revealed a maximum yield of greigite at 75 °C. These results suggest abiotic production of catalytically active mackinawite and greigite are possible under early Earth hydrothermal conditions as well as on other wet, rocky worlds geochemically similar to the Earth.

  12. Solar-optimized building construction. TC3: Solar-optimized new building ECOTEC 1 and 2: Construction of a new office and laboratory building in two stages, optimised according to solar, energetic and ecological aspects. Phase 1: Projecting, construction and system optimisation. Final report; Solaroptimiertes Bauen. TK 3: Solaroptimierter Neubau ECOTEC 1 und 2: Neubau eines Buero und Laborgebaeudes in zwei Bauabschnitten, optimiert nach solaren, energetischen und oekologischen Gesichtspunkten. Phase 1: Planung, Bauausfuehrung und Systemoptimierung. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The two ECOTEC buildings are constructed on the premises of Bremen university. They are identical mirror buildings with optimised solar technology and heat pumps to reduce the dependence on external energy supply. The results achieved so far are promising. [German] Im Mittelpunkt des Vorhabens stand die Errichtung der solaroptimierten Niedrigenergie-Gebaeude ECOTEC in zwei Bauabschnitten gleichem, aber spiegelverkehrtem Grundrissen auf dem Gelaende des Technologieparks der Universitaet Bremen. Das Planungskonzept sah zur Reduktion des Fremdenergiebedarfs den optimierten Einsatz und die Kopplung von Solarenergie, Waermepumpe ueber die Gebaeudeleittechnik vor. Basis fuer alle Berechnungen und Planungen war der Niedrigenergiestandard, der durch erhoehte Waermedaemmung der Gebaeudehuelle, kontrollierte Lueftung, solartechnische Module und solararchitektonische Merkmale erreicht und sogar ueberschritten wurde. Durch den gezielten Einsatz der Gebaeudeleit- und -systemtechnik wird ein energiesparender Betrieb insbesondere der Gebaeudebeheizung, der Lueftungsanlage sowie der Beleuchtung schon in der Planungsphase vorbereitet. Zusammenfassend laesst sich feststellen, dass das entwickelte Technikkonzept nach erfolgter Abstimmung mit den Nutzerbeduerfnissen geringste Energieverbraeuche bei sehr gutem Komfort bietet. (orig.)

  13. Re-construction of global solar radiation time series from 1933 to 2013 at the Izaña Atmospheric Observatory

    OpenAIRE

    García, R.D.; Cuevas, E.; García, O.E.; Cachorro, V. E.; P. Pallé; Bustos, J. J.; Romero-Campos, P. M.; A. M. de Frutos

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the re-construction of the 80 year time series of daily global shortwave downward radiation (SDR) at the subtropical high-mountain Izaña Atmospheric Observatory (IZO, Spain). For this purpose, we combine SDR estimates from sunshine duration (SD) data using the Ångström–Prescott method over the 1933/1991 period, and SDR observations directly performed by pyranometers between 1992 and 2013. Since SDR measurements have been used as a referen...

  14. Distribution of Microorganisms in Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent Chimneys Investigated by Whole-Cell Hybridization and Enrichment Culture of Thermophilic Subpopulations

    OpenAIRE

    Harmsen, H.; Prieur, D; Jeanthon, C.

    1997-01-01

    The microbial community structure of hydrothermal vent chimneys was evaluated by the combined use of enrichment cultures and whole-cell hybridizations with fluorescently labeled 16S rRNA-based oligonucleotide probes. Chimneys were collected during the Microsmoke cruise on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and were subsampled on board and stored under reduced conditions or fixed. For estimation of culturable thermophiles, selective media were inoculated by dilution series of the samples and incubated at ...

  15. Solar housing construction. Thousands of solar cells form the facade of a living project for homeless people in Paris; Solarer Wohnungsbau. Tausende von Solarzellen bilden die Fassade eines Wohnprojekts fuer Obdachlose in Paris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korn, Stefan

    2013-02-15

    A house on the banks of the historic channel Saint Martin in Paris in the elegant tenth arrondissement attracts attention: An emerald-colored solar facade extends from the roof to the ground floor between town palaces. But the spectacular front of the building does not cover luxury condominiums for the Parisian upper class, but a social housing project for families in need.

  16. Microbial life associated with low-temperature hydrothermal venting and formation of barite chimneys at Loki's Castle vent field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorseth, I. H.; Steen, I.; Roalkvam, I.; Dahle, H.; Stokke, R.; Rapp, H.; Pedersen, R.

    2010-12-01

    A low-temperature diffuse venting area with numbers of small barite chimneys is located on the flank of the large sulphide mound of the Loki’s Castle black smoker vent field at the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge (AMOR). White cotton-like microbial mats on top of the barite chimneys and associated siboglinid tubeworms were observed. The temperature was determined to 20°C for the surface sediment and 0°C for the white microbial mats, just above the ambient bottom seawater temperature of -0.8°C. The microbial mats were sampled using a remote operating vehicle (ROV) equipped with a hydraulic sampling cylinder (biosyringe) and the chimneys using an aluminum scuffle box. Black colored interior flow channels surrounded by white outer sections of nearly pure barite, were observed. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of mats showed numerous microbial cells and large amounts of extracellular thread-like material with attached barite crystals. Inside the chimneys microbial cells are partially embedded in barite, and individual crystals are also frequently covered by extracellular material. The microbial activity could thus have an important influence on the nucleation and growth of the barite crystals and thus on the formation of the chimneys. To reveal the microbial community structure, 16S rRNA gene sequence tag-encoded pyrosequencing (1.1 x 104 - 3.5 x 104 amplicons per library) followed by taxonomic classification of the reads using the MEGAN software, were performed. Organisms assigned to a genus of sulfide oxidizers (Sulfurimonas) within the e-Proteobacteria were abundant in each chimney structure; the white microbial mats (86-96% of the reads), the white barite (36% of total reads); the black flow channel (9.9%). The second most dominating taxon in the white chimney barite, including 26% of the reads, was anaerobic methanotrophs (ANME) of the ANME-1 clade, indicating anaerobic methane oxidation (AOM) as a major microbial process. Furthermore, the novel AOM associated clade, GOM-arc1 was apparently highly abundant (14.3% of total reads). These latter taxa were identified but clearly less abundant in the mats (ANME-1, 0.7%; GOM-arc1, 2.7%) as well as in black flow channel (ANME-1, 8%; GOM-arc1, 0.49%). Other dominating taxa in the flow channel were; Planctomycetales, 13.5%; Thiotrichales, Leucotrix, 8.8%; Thaumarchaeota, Marine Group 1, 9.35%; Pseudomonadales, Psychrobacter, 7.2%; Rhodobacterales, Rhodobacteraceae, 6.1%; Candidate division TM7, 5.9%; Flavobacteriales, 4.8% and Methylococcales, 3.5% altogether indicating a more diverse microbial community, performing methane, sulfur and ammonia oxidation as well as heterotrophic processes. To further clarify the relationship between crystallization, chimney growth and microbial activity, and the potential for preservation of biosignatures in barite formations, these data will be supplemented by geochemical characteristics, more detailed SEM observations and knowledge of In situ activities determine by analysis of community transcriptome and proteome.

  17. Dioxin emissions from coal combustion in domestic stove: Formation in the chimney and coal chlorine content influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paradiz Bostjan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Combustion experiments conducted in domestic stove burning hard coal demonstrated a predominant influence of the coal chlorine content on the PCDD/F emissions, together with a pronounced effect of the flue gas temperature. PCDD/F concentrations of over 100 ng TEQ/m3, three orders of magnitude higher than in a modern waste incinerator, were measured in the flue gases of a domestic stove when combusting high chlorine coal (0.31 %. The PCDD/F concentrations in the flue gases dropped below 0,5 ng TEQ/m3, when low chlorine coal (0.07 % was used. When low chlorine coal was impregnated with NaCl to obtain 0.38 % chlorine content, the emission of the PCDD/Fs increased by two orders of magnitude. Pronounced nonlinearity of the PCDD/F concentrations related to chlorine content in the coal was observed. The combustion of the high chlorine coal yielded PCDD/F concentrations in flue gases one order of magnitude lower in a fan cooled chimney when compared to an insulated one, thus indicating formation in the chimney. The influence of flue gas temperature on the PCDD/F emissions was less pronounced when burning low chlorine coal. The predominant pathway of the PCDD/F emissions is via flue gases, 99 % of the TEQ in the case of the high chlorine coal for insulated chimney.

  18. Exit chimney joint and method of forming the joint for closed circuit steam cooled gas turbine nozzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdgick, Steven Sebastian (Schenectady, NY); Burns, James Lee (Schenectady, NY)

    2002-01-01

    A nozzle segment for a gas turbine includes inner and outer band portions and a vane extending between the band portions. The inner and outer band portions are each divided into first and second plenums separated by an impingement plate. Cooling steam is supplied to the first cavity for flow through the apertures to cool the outer nozzle wall. The steam flows through a leading edge cavity in the vane into the first cavity of the inner band portion for flow through apertures of the impingement plate to cool the inner nozzle wall. Spent cooling steam flows through a plurality of cavities in the vane, exiting through an exit chimney in the outer band. The exit chimney is secured at its inner end directly to the nozzle vane wall surrounding the exit cavities, to the margin of the impingement plate at a location intermediate the ends of the exit chimney and to margins of an opening through the cover whereby each joint is externally accessible for joint formation and for subsequent inspection.

  19. Crystal Structure and Thermoelectric Properties of the Incommensurate Chimney-Ladder Compound VGe? (? ~1.82)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Haruki; Kikuchi, Yuta; Hayashi, Kei; Miyazaki, Yuzuru

    2015-09-01

    A single-phase sample of a Nowotny chimney-ladder phase known as V17Ge31 has been prepared and its modulated crystal structure has been determined by means of a (3+1)-dimensional superspace approach. As in the case of higher manganese silicides (HMSs) MnSi?, the compound consists of two tetragonal subsystems of [V] and [Ge] with an irrational c-axis ratio ? = c_{V} /c_{Ge} ˜ 1.82, and hence the structure formula is represented as VGe ? . As expected from the valence electron count estimated from the refined ?, the present germanide exhibits a metallic behavior with the electrical conductivity ? = 6.25 × 103 S/cm and the Seebeck coefficient S = 10.2 ?V/K at 900 K. The resulting thermoelectric power factor of S^2? = 6.56 × 10-5 W/mK2 and the dimensionless figure-of-merit, ZT, = 3.7 × 10-3 at 900 K demonstrate that the germanide is not a promising thermoelectric material. However, as the determined lattice thermal conductivity is comparable to that of HMSs, thermoelectric properties can be maximized through the partial substitution of V with group 6-8 elements to decrease hole carrier concentration.

  20. Project Rio Blanco - Part I: Nuclear operations and chimney re-entry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rio Blanco was the third experiment in the USAEC's Plowshare Program to develop technology to stimulate gas production from geologic formations not conducive to production by conventional means. The project was sponsored by CER Geonuclear Corporation with the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory providing the explosives and several technical programmes, such as spall measurement. Three nuclear explosives, specifically designed for this application, were detonated simultaneously in a minimum-diameter emplacement well using many commercially available components of established reliability. The explosive system performed properly under extreme temperature and pressure conditions. Emplacement and stemming operations were designed with the aim of simplifying both the emplacement and re-entry, and fully containing the detonation products. An integrated command and control system was used with communication to all three explosives through a single coaxial cable. Re-entry and the initial production testing have been completed. To date 98 million cubic feet at STP (2.78 x 106m3 (STP)) of chimney gas have been produced. (author)

  1. Plume rise from a chimney with an elongated exit cross section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, A.; Shemer, L.

    The effect of using a nozzle with an elongated exit cross section as a passive device for increasing jet penetration into cross flow was studied experimentally in a wind tunnel. It was found that the smoke plume dispersion and jet penetration are governed not only by the ratio of flow velocities in the pipe and in the cross flour, but also by the shape of the exit cross section and its orientation with respect to the cross flow. An elongated exit cross section may be particularly effective whenever only a narrow wedge of wind directions leads to air pollution of populated areas. It was found that when such a nozzle is oriented along the wind direction, the chimney effective height is increased as compared to a circular exit cross section, in spite of the fact that the velocity ratio in our experiments was higher for the circular exit. Possible physical reasons for the advantage of the elongated over the circular section shape at the exit are discussed.

  2. A comparative integrated geophysical study of Horseshoe Chimney Cave, Colorado Bend State Park, Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Wesley A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An integrated geophysical study was performed over a known cave in Colorado Bend State Park (CBSP, Texas, where shallow karst features are common within the Ellenberger Limestone. Geophysical survey such as microgravity, ground penetrating radar (GPR, direct current (DC resistivity, capacitively coupled (CC resistivity, induced polarization (IP and ground conductivity (GC measurements were performed in an effort to distinguish which geophysical method worked most effectively and efficiently in detecting the presence of subsurface voids, caves and collapsed features. Horseshoe Chimney Cave (HCC, which is part of a larger network of cave systems, provides a good control environment for this research. A 50 x 50 meter grid, with 5 m spaced traverses was positioned around the entrance to HCC. Geophysical techniques listed above were used to collect geophysical data which were processed with the aid of commercial software packages. A traditional cave survey was conducted after geophysical data collection, to avoid any bias in initial data collection. The survey of the cave also provided ground truthing. Results indicate the microgravity followed by CC resistivity techniques worked most efficiently and were most cost effective, while the other methods showed varying levels of effectiveness.

  3. The thermal performances of a solar wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the computational fluid dynamics technique (CFD) was used for air flow simulation in the solar chimney. The flow is assumed laminar, unsteady and incompressible. The air flow model consisted of a system of governing equations continuity, momentum, energy are solved for 2D Cartesian system uses the SIMPLE algorithm and the Power–Law differencing scheme. The influence of the variation depth of the solar chimney on the thermal efficiency of the system was studies. The principle of functioning of the system is visualized. The temperatures obtained on the level of the zone of occupation are adaptable to the interval of thermal comfort. The results of simulation are congruent with those of the literature. -- Highlights: ? The present work consists of the modilisation of the natural convection flow in a room heated by the technique of a ventilated Trombe wall. ? The use of solar energy consists in profiting from the direct contribution of the solar radiation. ? With vented thermal storage walls, the vents can provide an important control mechanism both in heating and cooling the building. ? The results obtained for the area of Bechar seem interesting, which makes it possible to do much energy saving.

  4. Construction of a photometer to detect stellar occultations by outer solar system bodies for the Whipple mission concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Ralph P.; Kenter, Almus T.; Alcock, Charles; Murray, Stephen S.; Loose, Markus; Gauron, Thomas; Germain, Gregg; Peregrim, Lawrence

    2014-08-01

    The Whipple mission was a proposal submitted to the NASA Discovery AO in 2010 to study the solid bodies of the Kuiper Belt and Oort Cloud via a blind occultation survey. Though not accepted for flight, the proposal was awarded funding for technology development. Detecting a significant number of Trans Neptunian Objects (TNOs) via a blind occultation survey requires a low noise, wide field of view, multi object differential photometer. The light curve decrement is typically a few percent over timescales of tenths of seconds or seconds for Kuiper Belt and Oort cloud objects, respectively. To obtain a statistically interesting number of detections, this photometer needs to observe many thousands of stars over several years since the rate of occultation for a single star given the space density of the TNOs is low. The light curves from these stars must be monitored with a sensor with a temporal resolution of rv 25-50 ms and with a read noise ofmode. The full Whipple focal plane consists of a 3x3 array of these sensors, with each sensor comprised of 1024x 1024 36/?m pixels. Combined with the telescope optic, the Whipple focal plane provides a FOV of rv36 deg2 . In operation, each HyViSI detector, coupled to a Teledyne SIDECAR ASIC, monitors the flux from 650 stars at 40 Hz. The ASIC digitizes the data at the required cadence and an FPGA provides preliminary occultation event selection. The proposed 2010 Whipple mission utilized a spacecraft in a a "drift-away" orbit which signifi­ cantly limited the available telemetry data rate. Most of the light curve processing is required to be on-board the satellite so only candidate occultation events are telemetered to the ground. Occul­ tation light curves must be processed in real time on the satellite by an Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). A simple, real time band pass filter, called the Equivalent Width (EW) algorithm, has been instantiated in the FPGA. This EW filter selects for telemetry only those occultation event light curves that differed significantly from noise. As part of our technology development program, a key facet of the proposed Whipple focal plane was constructed and operated in our laboratory consisting of a single HyViSI H2RG sensor, a Teledyne SIDECAR ASIC, and a flight-like Virtex-5 FPGA. In order to fully demonstrate the capabilities of this photometer, we also made a occultation light-curve simulator. The entire system can generate simulated occultation light curves, project them onto an H2RG sensor, read out the sensor in windowing mode at 40 Hz, pass the data to an FPGA that continuously monitors the light curves and dumps candidate occultation events to our simulated Ground Support Equipment (GSE). In this paper, we summarize the technical capabilities of our system, present sample data, and discuss how this system will be used to support our proposal effort for the next Discovery round.

  5. Design, construction and test run of a solid adsorption solar refrigerator using activated carbon/methanol, as adsorbent/adsorbate pair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design, construction and test run of a solid adsorption solar refrigerator are presented. It used activated carbon/methanol as the adsorbent/adsorbate pair. The refrigerator has three major components: collector/generator/adsorber, condenser and evaporator. Its flat plate type collector/generator/adsorber used clear plane glass sheet of effective exposed area of 1.2 m2. The steel condenser tube with a square plan view was immersed in pool of stagnant water contained in a reinforced sandcrete tank. The evaporator is a spirally coiled copper tube immersed in stagnant water. Adsorbent cooling during the adsorption process is both by natural convection of air over the collector plate and tubes and night sky radiation facilitated by removing the collector box end cover plates. Ambient temperatures during the adsorbate generation and adsorption process varied over 18.5-34 deg. C. The refrigerator yielded evaporator temperatures ranging over 1.0-8.5 deg. C from water initially in the temperature range 24-28 deg. C. Accordingly, the maximum daily useful cooling produced was 266.8 kJ/m2 of collector area

  6. Solar habitats: a transmodern architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pajvanski, Victor [Skopje Univ., Faculty of Architecture, Skopje (Macedonia (The Former Yugoslav Republic of))

    2000-04-01

    Architecture is both a science and an art. The cities in Macedonia were built as an image inherited mainly from ancient civilisations of the Roman empire, until the XIXth century. During this period, the proportions used for designing places were to a human scale. Today we recapture these traditional architectural images for living as made 'in situ and natura'. Human scale implies that housing units are single, double and multi houses at every level, surrounded with gardens and water. Also environmentally-oriented housing units are employed for collecting solar energy. Transmodern architecture takes, as an inspirational source, traditional Macedonian architecture coupled with contemporary building technology employing solar harnessing and energy efficiency, including the use of conservatories (for heat gain), chimneys (for heat loss) and water. (Author)

  7. Microbial carbon cycling in Lost City hydrothermal chimneys and other serpentinite-hosted ecosystems (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazelton, W. J.; Lang, S. Q.; Morrill, P. L.; Twing, K. I.; Crespo-Medina, M.; Morgan-Smith, D.; Früh-Green, G. L.; Schrenk, M. O.

    2013-12-01

    Ultramafic rocks formed in the Earth's mantle and uplifted into the crust represent an immense but poorly described reservoir of carbon. The biological availability of this rock-hosted carbon reservoir is unknown, but the set of geochemical reactions known as serpentinization can mobilize carbon from the subsurface and trigger the growth of dense microbial communities. Serpentinite-hosted ecosystems such as the chimney biofilms of the Lost City hydrothermal field can support dense populations of bacteria and archaea fueled by the copious quantities of H2 and methane (CH4) released by serpentinization (1-5). The metabolic pathways involved, however, remain unknown, and conventional interpretations of genomic and experimental data are complicated by the unusual carbon speciation in these environments. Carbon dioxide is scarce due to the highly reducing, high pH conditions. Instead, the predominant forms of carbon are CH4 and formate (5). Despite its natural abundance, however, direct evidence for CH4-derived biomass is lacking (1,4,5), and the role of formate is potentially significant but largely unexplored (1,5). To gain a more generalized perspective of carbon cycling in serpentinite-hosted ecosystems, we have recently investigated fluids and rocks collected from serpentinizing ophiolites in California, Canada, and Italy. Our results point to potentially H2-utilizing, autotrophic Betaproteobacteria thriving in shallow, oxic-anoxic transition zones and anaerobic Clostridia inhabiting anoxic, subsurface zones (1,6). The carbon sources utilized by the Clostridia are unknown, but preliminary metagenomic evidence is consistent with a fermentation-style metabolic strategy that may be conducive to an oxidant-limited, subsurface environment. Curiously, despite the abundance of H2 and CH4 in these continental springs, none of the geochemical, genomic, or experimental results obtained thus far contain any evidence for biological methanogenesis (1,6). This is in stark contrast to the dense populations of methanogen-like archaea in Lost City chimneys. Clearly, the role of methanogens must be constrained in order to gain a firm understanding of the carbon flux from serpentinite ecosystems, and future potential investigations of these systems will be discussed. References 1. Schrenk MO, Brazelton WJ, Lang SQ. 2013. Rev. Mineral. Geochem. 75:575-606. 2. Schrenk MO, Kelley DS, Bolton SA, Baross JA. 2004. Environ. Microbiol. 6:1086-1095. 3. Brazelton WJ, Schrenk MO, Kelley DS, Baross JA. 2006. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 72:6257-6270. 4. Brazelton WJ, Mehta MP, Kelley DS, Baross JA. 2011. mBio2:4. doi:10.1128/mBio.00127-11. 5. Lang SQ, Früh-Green GL, Bernasconi SM, Lilley MD, Proskurowski G, Méhay S, Butterfield D a. 2012. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta. 92:82-99. 6. Brazelton WJ, Morrill PL, Szponar N, Schrenk MO. 2013. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 79:3906.

  8. Solar Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Calibrated in kilowatt hours per square meter, the solar counter produced by Dodge Products, Inc. provides a numerical count of the solar energy that has accumulated on a surface. Solar energy sensing, measuring and recording devices in corporate solar cell technology developed by Lewis Research Center. Customers for their various devices include architects, engineers and others engaged in construction and operation of solar energy facilities; manufacturers of solar systems or solar related products, such as glare reducing windows; and solar energy planners in federal and state government agencies.

  9. Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) observations of emitting and absorbing gas in the Local Interstellar Chimney

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, B. Y.; Sallmen, S.; Sfeir, D.; Shelton, R. L.; Lallement, R.

    2002-11-01

    We present Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) satellite measurements of the absorption and emission characteristics of interstellar gas associated with the Local Interstellar Chimney, which is an extension of the rarefied Local Bubble cavity that extends outward from the galactic disk towards the lower galactic halo. Far ultraviolet (FUV) diffuse background emission has been detected in the high ionization line of O VI (lambda 1032 Å) for two lines-of-sight (l = 162.7deg, b = +57.0deg) and (l = 156.3deg, b = +57.8deg) at emission levels of 2500+/-700 photons cm-2 s-1 sr-1 (LU) and 3300+/-1100 LU respectively. These levels of O VI emission are very similar to those found for four other lines-of-sight sampled thus far by the FUSE satellite, implying a fairly constant level of average O VI surface brightness emission at high galactic latitudes of about 2700 LU with a standard deviation of 450 LU. These emission-line data are supplemented by FUV interstellar absorption line measurements taken towards the hot DA white dwarf star, REJ 1032+532 (l = 157.5deg, b = +53.2deg), whose distance of 116 pc places it within the Local Bubble region. No high ionization interstellar O VI lambda 1032 Å absorption has been detected (N(O VI) Snowden (\\cite{kuntz00}). Any (new) model of the Local Bubble must now be able to explain (i) the low levels of variability in both the O VI emission-line intensity and the associated soft X-ray background flux for galactic sight-lines >|40|o, (ii) the observed pressure of P/k ~ 10 000 cm-3 K for the local hot interstellar gas, and (iii) the paucity of high ionization absorption lines observed within the local ISM and the sudden increase in their measured column density for distances beyond the Local Bubble neutral boundary.

  10. Characteristics of Cu isotopes from chalcopyrite-rich black smoker chimneys at Brothers volcano, Kermadec arc, and Niuatahi volcano, Lau basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkenbosch, H. A.; de Ronde, C. E. J.; Paul, B. T.; Gemmell, J. B.

    2015-10-01

    We analysed primary chalcopyrite from modern seafloor `black smoker' chimneys to investigate high-temperature hydrothermal Cu isotope fractionation unaffected by metamorphism. Samples came from nine chimneys collected from Brothers volcano, Kermadec arc, and Niuatahi volcano, Lau backarc basin. This is the first known study of Cu isotopes from submarine intraoceanic arc/backarc volcanoes, with both volcanoes discharging significant amounts of magmatic volatiles. Our results ( n = 22) range from ?65Cu = -0.03 to 1.44 ± 0.18 ‰ (2 sd), with the majority of samples between ˜0.00 and 0.50 ‰. We interpret this cluster ( n = 17) of lower ?65Cu values as representing a mantle source for the chimney Cu, in agreement with ?65Cu values for mantle rocks. The few higher ?65Cu values (>0.90 ‰) occur (1) within the same chimneys as lower values, (2) randomly distributed within the chimneys (i.e. near the top and bottom, interior and exterior), and (3) within chalcopyrite of approximately the same age (convergent tectonic settings.

  11. Endovascular Treatment of a Symptomatic Thoracoabdominal Aortic Aneurysm by Chimney and Periscope Techniques for Total Visceral and Renal Artery Revascularization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cariati, Maurizio, E-mail: cariati.maurizio@sancarlo.mi.it [San Carlo Borromeo Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Sciences (Italy); Mingazzini, Pietro; Dallatana, Raffaello [San Carlo Borromeo Hospital, Department of Vascular Surgery (Italy); Rossi, Umberto G. [San Carlo Borromeo Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Sciences (Italy); Settembrini, Alberto [San Carlo Borromeo Hospital, Università degli Studi di Milano (Italy); Santuari, Davide [San Carlo Borromeo Hospital, Department of Vascular Surgery (Italy)

    2013-05-02

    Conventional endovascular therapy of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm with involving visceral and renal arteries is limited by the absence of a landing zone for the aortic endograft. Solutions have been proposed to overcome the problem of no landing zone; however, most of them are not feasible in urgent and high-risk patients. We describe a case that was successfully treated by total endovascular technique with a two-by-two chimney-and-periscope approach in a patient with acute symptomatic type IV thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm with supra-anastomotic aneurysm formation involving the renal and visceral arteries and a pseduaneurismatic sac localized in the left ileopsoas muscle.

  12. Development of a practical training program based on BNL`s input to new NFPA Lined Masonary Chimney Venting Tables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, G. [Agway Energy Products, Tully, NJ (United States)

    1997-09-01

    This paper describes how we developed a practical training program for technicians and sales personnel from the BNL studies that evolved into the Lined Chimney Venting Tables. One of the topics discussed is our search for solutions to the reoccurring problems associated with flue gas condensation on newly installed oil fired appliances. The paper will also discuss our own experiences in applying the new venting tables and working through the questions that arise when we encounter installations beyond the scope of the present tables.

  13. Design and construction of models of solar thermal facilities in the ''Centro integrado de FP superior de energias renovables de Imarcoain''(Navarra); Maquetas de instalaciones solares termicas para la formacion profesional de grado superior en el centro integrado de formacion profesional superior de energias renovables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, M. A.; Orus, L. M.; Yerro, C.; Aguado, H.; Cambra, T.; Oroz, J.

    2004-07-01

    This article shows how we have approached the solar energy installations in the ''Centro integrado de FP superior de energias renovables de Imarcoain''(Navarra) with the design and construction of models which allow us to teach in this type of installations at different levels. (Author)

  14. Distribution of Microorganisms in Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent Chimneys Investigated by Whole-Cell Hybridization and Enrichment Culture of Thermophilic Subpopulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmsen, H.; Prieur, D.; Jeanthon, C.

    1997-01-01

    The microbial community structure of hydrothermal vent chimneys was evaluated by the combined use of enrichment cultures and whole-cell hybridizations with fluorescently labeled 16S rRNA-based oligonucleotide probes. Chimneys were collected during the Microsmoke cruise on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and were subsampled on board and stored under reduced conditions or fixed. For estimation of culturable thermophiles, selective media were inoculated by dilution series of the samples and incubated at 65, 80, and 95(deg)C. To analyze the microbial diversity of the samples, cells were extracted from the fixed chimney structure samples and hybridized with domain- and kingdom-specific probes. Quantification of the extracted cells was assessed by whole-cell hybridization on membrane filters. By both methods, the largest amounts of microorganisms were found in the upper and outer parts of the chimneys, although even the inner parts contained culturable and detectable amounts of cells. Different morphotypes of thermophilic and hyperthermophilic microorganisms were enriched and detected in samples. Our data clearly indicate that the morphological diversity observed by using whole-cell hybridization is much larger than that assessed by use of culture-based enrichments. This new approach, including culture-independent and -dependent methods to study hydrothermal vent chimneys, showed an uneven distribution of a diverse microbial community. Application of lower-level specific probes for known families and genera within each domain by our approach will be useful to reveal the real extent and nature of the chimney microbial diversity and to support cultivation attempts. PMID:16535655

  15. An Experimental Study and Analysis on Solar Drying of Bitter Gourd Using an Evacuated Tube Air Collector in Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu, India

    OpenAIRE

    Umayal Sundari, AR.; Neelamegam, P.; C. V. Subramanian

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research work is to design and develop a forced convection solar dryer using evacuated tube air collector and study its performance on bitter gourd in Thanjavur District, Tamilnadu, India. The designed solar dryer consists of a drying chamber, evacuated tube air collector, a blower, and a chimney. Drying parameters, moisture ratio and drying rates, are calculated and their performance is compared with natural sun drying. The results of the present study show that the pro...

  16. Impact of the light intensity variation on the performance of solar cell constructed from (Muscovite/TiO2/Dye/Al)

    OpenAIRE

    R. Abd Elgani; M. H. M. HILO; M. D. Abd Allah; A. Al Hassan; R. Abd Elhai

    2013-01-01

    In this work, the influence of the light intensity as one of the parameters that control the solar cell is studied. The effect of the other main variables, such as temperature, rotation per Minuit of the spin coating instrument, and the samples concentration, was found to be in conformity with other results, but unfortunately the intensity of light does not increase the solar cell efficiency, and fill factor, by other words it was found to play only a secondary role.

  17. Saurians vs. cuts on reimbursement rates. In the vicinity of Berlin, plans for construction of a solar power plant almost failed because of conservation concerns; Echsen versus Verguetungskuerzung. In der Naehe von Berlin waere der Bau eines Solarkraftwerks beinahe am Naturschutz gescheitert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, Matthias B.

    2010-09-15

    Abandoned industrial or military sites and similar terrains are preferred sites for solar power plant construction. This is a good thing, in principle, as any land pollution will be removed at the same time. However, if construction projects go too fast they may interfere with conservation concerns. The contribution presents the case of the 24 MW 'Finowtower' solar power station. The project almost had to be abandoned because of a small lizard. (orig.)

  18. Solar power towers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etievant, M. C.

    1982-11-01

    Experimental solar power towers actually in construction or already in existence in the world are described. Seven of these installations are examined: three involve water vapor with solar superheating (EURELIOS, CESA 1, SOLAR ONE); two involve saturated water vapor (NIO, CES 5); one involves sodium (SSPS, CRS), and one molten salt (TEMIS). The principal characteristics of these receivers are presented as well as some results of economic studies of heliostat construction and the cost of electricity.

  19. Solar Thermal Electricity Generating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sambeet; Tripathy, Pratyasha

    2012-08-01

    A Solar Thermal Electricity generating system also known as Solar Thermal Power plant is an emerging renewable energy technology, where we generate the thermal energy by concentrating and converting the direct solar radiationat medium/high temperature (300?C ñ 800?C). The resulting thermal energy is then used in a thermodynamic cycleto produce electricity, by running a heat engine, which turns a generator to make electricity. Solar thermal power is currently paving the way for the most cost-effective solar technology on a large scale and is heading to establish a cleaner, pollution free and secured future. Photovoltaic (PV) and solar thermal technologies are two main ways of generating energy from the sun, which is considered the inexhaustible source of energy. PV converts sunlight directly into electricity whereas in Solar thermal technology, heat from the sun's rays is concentrated to heat a fluid, whose steam powers a generator that produces electricity. It is similar to the way fossil fuel-burning power plants work except that the steam is produced by the collected heat rather than from the combustion of fossil fuels. In order to generate electricity, five major varieties of solar thermal technologies used are:* Parabolic Trough Solar Electric Generating System (SEGS).* Central Receiver Power Plant.* Solar Chimney Power Plant.* Dish Sterling System.* Solar Pond Power Plant.Most parts of India,Asia experiences a clear sunny weather for about 250 to 300 days a year, because of its location in the equatorial sun belt of the earth, receiving fairly large amount of radiation as compared to many parts of the world especially Japan, Europe and the US where development and deployment of solar technologies is maximum.Whether accompanied with this benefit or not, usually we have to concentrate the solar radiation in order to compensate for the attenuation of solar radiation in its way to earthís surface, which results in from 63,2 GW/m2 at the Sun to 1 kW/m2 at Earth¥s surface. The higher the concentration, the higher the temperatures we can achieve when converting solar radiation into thermal energy

  20. Global and diffuse solar irradiance modelling over north-western Europe using MAR regional climate model : validation and construction of a 30-year climatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumet, Julien; Doutreloup, Sébastien; Fettweis, Xavier; Erpicum, Michel

    2015-04-01

    Solar irradiance modelling is crucial for solar resource management, photovoltaic production forecasting and for a better integration of solar energy in the electrical grid network. For those reasons, an adapted version of the Modèle Atmospheric Regional (MAR) is being developed at the Laboratory of Climatology of the University of Liège in order to provide high quality modelling of solar radiation, wind and temperature over north-western Europe. In this new model version, the radiation scheme has been calibrated using solar irradiance in-situ measurements and CORINE Land Cover data have been assimilated in order to improve the modelling of 10 m wind speed and near-surface temperature. In this study, MAR is forced at its boundary by ERA-40 reanalysis and its horizontal resolution is 10 kilometres. Diffuse radiation is estimated using global radiation from MAR outputs and a calibrated version of Ruiz-Arias et al., (2010) sigmoid model. This study proposes to evaluate the method performance for global and diffuse radiation modelling at both the hourly and daily time scale using data from the European Solar Radiation Atlas database for the weather stations of Uccle (Belgium) and Braunschweig (Germany). After that, a 30-year climatology of global and diffuse irradiance for the 1981-2010 period over western Europe is built. The created data set is then analysed in order to highlight possible regional or seasonal trends. The validity of the results is then evaluated after comparison with trends found in in-situ data or from different studies from the literature.

  1. 76 FR 54454 - Issuance of Loan Guarantee to Genesis Solar, LLC, for the Genesis Solar Energy Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ...Genesis Solar, LLC, for the Genesis Solar Energy Project AGENCY: U.S. Department...construction and startup of the Genesis Solar Energy Project (GSEP), a 250-megawatt...Impact Statement for the Genesis Solar Energy Project, Riverside County,...

  2. In situ ore formation experiment: Amino acids and amino sugars trapped in artificial chimneys on deep-sea hydrothermal systems at Suiyo Seamount, Izu-Bonin Arc, Pacific Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Takano; Y.; Marumo; Ebashi; Gupta; P., L.; Kawahata; H1; Kobayashi; K.; Yamagishi; A.*;; Kuwabara; T.

    2013-01-01

    The present study reports on the bio-organic composition of a deep-sea venting hydrothermal system originating from arc volcanism; the origin of the particulates in hydrothermal fluids from the Suiyo Seamount in the southern Izu-Bonin (Ogasawara) Arc is discussed with regard to amino compounds. Chimney samples on deep-sea hydrothermal systems and core samples at Suiyo Seamount were determined for amino acids, and occasionally amino sugars. Two types of chimney samples were o...

  3. Interpretation of seismic reflection data from the Piledriver Event Area, Nevada Test Site; A case study for evaluation of technique for characterization of void and chimney features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonander, K.E. [New Mexico Inst. of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States)

    1993-12-31

    A remote sensing geophysical method is needed to properly characterize the void and chimney characteristics of underground nuclear tests. Various techniques were considered and a seismic reflection survey was selected. This survey was then fitted to the conditions at the test site so as to give optimum results. The data was then reduced via DOS computer and analyzed for content. The planned survey using a 50 ft offset did not show any useful information, however, a second survey with a variable longer offset was also conducted which was capable of determining the depth to the top and the bottom of the chimney with reasonable accuracy. Measurements of the horizontal spread of the structure, though, were inconclusive.

  4. Composition of hydrothermal fluids and mineralogy of associated chimney material on the East Scotia Ridge back-arc spreading centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Rachael H.; Green, Darryl R. H.; Stock, Michael J.; Alker, Belinda J.; Banerjee, Neil R.; Cole, Catherine; German, Christopher R.; Huvenne, Veerle A. I.; Powell, Alexandra M.; Connelly, Douglas P.

    2014-08-01

    The East Scotia Ridge is an active back-arc spreading centre located to the west of the South Sandwich island arc in the Southern Ocean. Initial exploration of the ridge by deep-tow surveys provided the first evidence for hydrothermal activity in a back-arc setting outside of the western Pacific, and we returned in 2010 with a remotely operated vehicle to precisely locate and sample hydrothermal sites along ridge segments E2 and E9. Here we report the chemical and isotopic composition of high- and low-temperature vent fluids, and the mineralogy of associated high-temperature chimney material, for two sites at E2 (Dog’s Head and Sepia), and four sites at E9 (Black & White, Ivory Tower, Pagoda and Launch Pad). The chemistry of the fluids is highly variable between the ridge segments. Fluid temperatures were ?350 °C at all vent sites except Black & White, which was significantly hotter (383 °C). End-member chloride concentrations in E2 fluids (532-536 mM) were close to background seawater (540 mM), whereas Cl in E9 fluids was much lower (98-220 mM) indicating that these fluids are affected by phase separation. Concentrations of the alkali elements (Na, Li, K and Cs) and the alkaline earth elements (Ca, Sr and Ba) co-vary with Cl, due to charge balance constraints. Similarly, concentrations of Mn and Zn are highest in the high Cl fluids but, by contrast, Fe/Cl ratios are higher in E9 fluids (3.8-8.1 × 10-3) than they are in E2 fluids (1.5-2.4 × 10-3) and fluids with lowest Cl have highest Cu. Although both ridge segments are magmatically inflated, there is no compelling evidence for input of magmatic gases to the vent fluids. Fluid ?D values range from 0.2‰ to 1.5‰, pH values (3.02-3.42) are not especially low, and F concentrations (34.6-54.4 ?M) are lower than bottom seawater (62.8 ?M). The uppermost sections of conjugate chimney material from E2, and from Ivory Tower and Pagoda at E9, typically exhibit inner zones of massive chalcopyrite enclosed within an outer zone of disseminated sulphide, principally sphalerite and pyrite, in an anhydrite matrix. By contrast, the innermost part of the chimneys that currently vent fluids with lowest Cl (Black & White and Launch Pad), is dominated by anhydrite. By defining and assessing the controls on the chemical composition of these vent fluids, and associated mineralisation, this study provides new information for evaluating the significance of hydrothermal processes at back-arc basins for ocean chemistry and the formation of seafloor mineral deposits.

  5. Desempenho de sistema decanto-digestor com filtro biológico seguido por alagado construído e reator solar no tratamento de esgoto doméstico / Performance of digester decant system with biological filter followed by constructed wetland and solar reactor in the treatment of domestic sewage

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Glícia Pinto Barra, Reinaldo; Rafael Oliveira, Batista; Paulo Cesar Moura da, Silva; Luis Cesar de Aquino, Lemos Filho; Miguel, Ferreira Neto; Delfran Batista dos, Santos.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou analisar o desempenho de sistema decanto-digestor com filtro biológico seguido por alagado construído e reator solar no tratamento de esgoto doméstico do assentamento rural Milagres em Apodi-RN. Nos meses de outubro e novembro de 2010 realizou-se o monitoramento do sist [...] ema 48 dias após o plantio do capim elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach). Foram coletadas amostras do esgoto doméstico nas distintas etapas de tratamento, em quatro repetições no tempo, para determinação de características físico-químicas e microbiológicas referentes ao desempenho do sistema. Os resultados indicaram que houve remoção significativa de turbidez, Demanda Bioquímica de Oxigênio, Demanda Química de Oxigênio, sólidos totais, sólidos suspensos, fósforo e óleos e graxas com o uso sistema decanto-digestor com filtros biológicos seguidos de alagado construído e reator solar; a associação de radiação solar média de 28,73 MJ m-2 d-1, lâmina de 0,10 m de efluente no reator e tempo de exposição solar de 12 horas permitiu remoção de até 99,99% dos coliformes termotolerantes no esgoto doméstico em Apodi-RN; e o efluente tratado apresenta padrão microbiológico satisfatório às diretrizes brasileiras para uso agrícola com restrição. Abstract in english This study aimed to analyze the performance of digester decant system with biological filter followed by constructed wetland and solar reactor in the treatment of domestic sewage from Milagres rural community in Apodi-RN. The treatment system was monitored for the period of October and November 2010 [...] , 48 days after planting Pennisetum purpureum Schumach. Samples of domestic sewage were collected at different stages of treatment, in four replications on time, to determine physicochemical and microbiological characteristics about the system performance. The results indicated significant removal of turbidity, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total solids, suspended solids, phosphorus and oil and grease using the set digester decant with biological filter, followed by constructed wetland and solar reactor; the association of average solar radiation of 28.73 MJ m-2 d-1, effluent depth of 0.10 m on reactor and time of sun exposure of 12 hours provided removal of fecal coliform up to 99.99% of domestic sewage in Apodi, RN, the treated effluent met microbiological standard of the Brazilian guidelines for agricultural use with restrictions.

  6. Bacterial Lifestyle in a Deep-sea Hydrothermal Vent Chimney Revealed by the Genome Sequence of the Thermophilic Bacterium Deferribacter desulfuricans SSM1

    OpenAIRE

    Takaki, Yoshihiro; Shimamura, Shigeru; Nakagawa, Satoshi; Fukuhara, Yasuo; Horikawa, Hiroshi; Ankai, Akiho; Harada, Takeshi; Hosoyama, Akira; Oguchi, Akio; Fukui, Shigehiro; Fujita, Nobuyuki; Takami, Hideto; Takai, Ken

    2010-01-01

    The complete genome sequence of the thermophilic sulphur-reducing bacterium, Deferribacter desulfuricans SMM1, isolated from a hydrothermal vent chimney has been determined. The genome comprises a single circular chromosome of 2 234 389 bp and a megaplasmid of 308 544 bp. Many genes encoded in the genome are most similar to the genes of sulphur- or sulphate-reducing bacterial species within Deltaproteobacteria. The reconstructed central metabolisms showed a heterotrophic lifestyle primarily d...

  7. Solar Adaptive Optics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R. Rimmele

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive optics (AO has become an indispensable tool at ground-based solar telescopes. AO enables the ground-based observer to overcome the adverse effects of atmospheric seeing and obtain diffraction limited observations. Over the last decade adaptive optics systems have been deployed at major ground-based solar telescopes and revitalized ground-based solar astronomy. The relatively small aperture of solar telescopes and the bright source make solar AO possible for visible wavelengths where the majority of solar observations are still performed. Solar AO systems enable diffraction limited observations of the Sun for a significant fraction of the available observing time at ground-based solar telescopes, which often have a larger aperture than equivalent space based observatories, such as HINODE. New ground breaking scientific results have been achieved with solar adaptive optics and this trend continues. New large aperture telescopes are currently being deployed or are under construction. With the aid of solar AO these telescopes will obtain observations of the highly structured and dynamic solar atmosphere with unprecedented resolution. This paper reviews solar adaptive optics techniques and summarizes the recent progress in the field of solar adaptive optics. An outlook to future solar AO developments, including a discussion of Multi-Conjugate AO (MCAO and Ground-Layer AO (GLAO will be given.

  8. Solar Radiation Estimation on Building Roofs and Web-Based Solar Cadastre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agugiaro, G.; Nex, F.; Remondino, F.; De Filippi, R.; Droghetti, S.; Furlanello, C.

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study is the estimation of solar irradiance on building roofs in complex Alpine landscapes. Very high resolution geometric models of the building roofs are generated by means of advanced automated image matching methods. Models are combined with raster and vector data sources to estimate the incoming solar radiation hitting the roofs. The methodology takes into account for atmospheric effects, site latitude and elevation, slope and aspect of the terrain as well as the effects of shadows cast by surrounding buildings, chimneys, dormers, vegetation and terrain topography. An open source software solution has been developed and applied to a study area located in a mountainous site and containing some 1250 residential, commercial and industrial buildings. The method has been validated by data collected with a pyranometer and results made available through a prototype WebGIS platform.

  9. Crystal Structure and Thermoelectric Properties of the Incommensurate Chimney-Ladder Compound VGeγ (γ ~1.82)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Haruki; Kikuchi, Yuta; Hayashi, Kei; Miyazaki, Yuzuru

    2016-03-01

    A single-phase sample of a Nowotny chimney-ladder phase known as V17Ge31 has been prepared and its modulated crystal structure has been determined by means of a (3+1)-dimensional superspace approach. As in the case of higher manganese silicides (HMSs) MnSiγ, the compound consists of two tetragonal subsystems of [V] and [Ge] with an irrational c-axis ratio γ = c_{{V}}/c_{{Ge}} ˜ 1.82, and hence the structure formula is represented as VGe γ . As expected from the valence electron count estimated from the refined γ, the present germanide exhibits a metallic behavior with the electrical conductivity σ = 6.25 × 103 S/cm and the Seebeck coefficient S = 10.2 μV/K at 900 K. The resulting thermoelectric power factor of S^2σ = 6.56 × 10-5 W/mK2 and the dimensionless figure-of-merit, ZT, = 3.7 × 10-3 at 900 K demonstrate that the germanide is not a promising thermoelectric material. However, as the determined lattice thermal conductivity is comparable to that of HMSs, thermoelectric properties can be maximized through the partial substitution of V with group 6-8 elements to decrease hole carrier concentration.

  10. Space Solar Power Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arif, H.; Barbosa, H.; Bardet, C.; Baroud, M.; Behar, A.; Berrier, K.; Berthe, P.; Bertrand, R.; Bibyk, I.; Bisson, J.; Bloch, L.; Bobadilla, G.; Bourque, D.; Bush, L.; Carandang, R.; Chiku, T.; Crosby, N.; De Seixas, M.; De Vries, J.; Doll, S.; Dufour, F.; Eckart, P.; Fahey, M.; Fenot, F.; Foeckersperger, S.; Fontaine, J.E.; Fowler, R.; Frey, H.; Fujio, H.; Gasa, J.M.; Gleave, J.; Godoe, J.; Green, I.; Haeberli, R.; Hanada, T.; Ha

    1992-08-01

    Information pertaining to the Space Solar Power Program is presented on energy analysis; markets; overall development plan; organizational plan; environmental and safety issues; power systems; space transportation; space manufacturing, construction, operations; design examples; and finance.

  11. Thoracic aortic stent-graft placement combined with left subclavian artery 'chimney operation': therapeutic analysis of 15 cases with insufficient proximal anchor area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To discuss the strategies for the management of insufficient proximal anchoring area during the performance of transluminal stent-graft placement (TSGP), and to evaluate the feasibility of intentional coverage of the left subclavian artery (LSA) together with left subclavian artery stent-graft placement by using 'chimney operation' technique. Methods: A total of 15 patients with thoracic aortic diseases complicated by insufficient proximal anchoring area, who were encountered in authors' hospital during the period from Dec. 2009 to April 2011, were enrolled in this study. The clinical data were retrospectively analyzed. The thoracic aortic diseases included aortic dissection (n=6), aortic pseudoaneurysm (n=1), aortic aneurysm (n=4) and penetrating ulcer (n=4). Of the 15 patients, the distance between the lesion and LSA anchoring site 15 mm in 2. TSGP was carried out. The ostium of LSA was intentionally and completely covered by thoracic aortic stent-graft and left subclavian artery stent-graft placement was subsequently performed. The patients were kept under observation for symptoms of cerebral and upper limb ischemia. The postoperative complications such as endoleak and the patency of LSA were assessed with angiography. Results: Thoracic aortic stent-graft placement was successfully carried out in all 15 patients. In addition, one 'chimney' stent was properly implanted in LSA in each patient. After the procedure, no complications of nervous system or severe ischemia of upper extremity occurred. Follow-up examinations performed between 5 days to 3 months after the treatment revealed that the aortic stent-graft remained in stable condition and no type ? endoleak occurred, meanwhile the blood flow in 'chimney' stent was unobstructed. Conclusion: Intentional LSA coverage with 'chimney operation' can expand the applicability of TSGP with high tolerability. It is especially useful for patients with left vertebral artery blood supply dominance or with cerebral infarction, sleep apnoea syndrome and other brain insufficient blood supply diseases. Some parameters should be assessed before the procedure, which include the diameter and location of the chimney stent. Avoidance of type ? endoleak of aortic stent should be stressed. (authors)

  12. Solar energy emplacement developer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Michael; Sauls, Bob

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary design was developed for a Lunar Power System (LPS) composed of photovoltaic arrays and microwave reflectors fabricated from lunar materials. The LPS will collect solar energy on the surface of the Moon, transform it into microwave energy, and beam it back to Earth where it will be converted into usable energy. The Solar Energy Emplacement Developer (SEED) proposed will use a similar sort of solar energy collection and dispersement to power the systems that will construct the LPS.

  13. Solar Ready: An Overview of Implementation Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, A.; Guidice, L.; Lisell, L.; Doris, L.; Busche, S.

    2012-01-01

    This report explores three mechanisms for encouraging solar ready building design and construction: solar ready legislation, certification programs for solar ready design and construction, and stakeholder education. These methods are not mutually exclusive, and all, if implemented well, could contribute to more solar ready construction. Solar ready itself does not reduce energy use or create clean energy. Nevertheless, solar ready building practices are needed to reach the full potential of solar deployment. Without forethought on incorporating solar into design, buildings may be incompatible with solar due to roof structure or excessive shading. In these cases, retrofitting the roof or removing shading elements is cost prohibitive. Furthermore, higher up-front costs due to structural adaptations and production losses caused by less than optimal roof orientation, roof equipment, or shading will lengthen payback periods, making solar more expensive. With millions of new buildings constructed each year in the United States, solar ready can remove installation barriers and increase the potential for widespread solar adoption. There are many approaches to promoting solar ready, including solar ready legislation, certification programs, and education of stakeholders. Federal, state, and local governments have the potential to implement programs that encourage solar ready and in turn reduce barriers to solar deployment. With the guidance in this document and the examples of jurisdictions and organizations already working to promote solar ready building practices, federal, state, and local governments can guide the market toward solar ready implementation.

  14. Construction management

    CERN Document Server

    Pellicer, Eugenio; Teixeira, José C; Moura, Helder P; Catalá, Joaquín

    2014-01-01

    The management of construction projects is a wide ranging and challenging discipline in an increasingly international industry, facing continual challenges and demands for improvements in safety, in quality and cost control, and in the avoidance of contractual disputes. Construction Management grew out of a Leonardo da Vinci project to develop a series of Common Learning Outcomes for European Managers in Construction. Financed by the European Union, the project aimed to develop a library of basic materials for developing construction management skills for use in a pan-European context. Focused exclusively on the management of the construction phase of a building project from the contractor's point of view, Construction Management covers the complete range of topics of which mastery is required by the construction management professional for the effective delivery of new construction projects. With the continued internationalisation of the construction industry, Construction Management will be required rea...

  15. In situ growth of CuInS2 nanocrystals on nanoporous TiO2 film for constructing inorganic/organic heterojunction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhigang; Tang, Minghua; Song, Linlin; Tang, Guoqiang; Zhang, Bingjie; Zhang, Lisha; Yang, Jianmao; Hu, Junqing

    2013-08-01

    Inorganic/organic heterojunction solar cells (HSCs) have attracted increasing attention as a cost-effective alternative to conventional solar cells. This work presents an HSC by in situ growth of CuInS2 (CIS) layer as the photoabsorption material on nanoporous TiO2 film with the use of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) as hole-transport material. The in situ growth of CIS nanocrystals has been realized by solvothermally treating nanoporous TiO2 film in ethanol solution containing InCl3 · 4H2O, CuSO4 · 5H2O, and thioacetamide with a constant concentration ratio of 1:1:2. InCl3 concentration plays a significant role in controlling the surface morphology of CIS layer. When InCl3 concentration is 0.1 M, there is a layer of CIS flower-shaped superstructures on TiO2 film, and CIS superstructures are in fact composed of ultrathin nanoplates as `petals' with plenty of nanopores. In addition, the nanopores of TiO2 film are filled by CIS nanocrystals, as confirmed using scanning electron microscopy image and by energy dispersive spectroscopy line scan analysis. Subsequently, HSC with a structure of FTO/TiO2/CIS/P3HT/PEDOT:PSS/Au has been fabricated, and it yields a power conversion efficiency of 1.4%. Further improvement of the efficiency can be expected by the optimization of the morphology and thickness of CIS layer and the device structure. PACS: 81.15.-z; 84.60.Jt; 73.40.Lq

  16. In situ growth of CuInS2 nanocrystals on nanoporous TiO2 film for constructing inorganic/organic heterojunction solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhigang; Tang, Minghua; Song, Linlin; Tang, Guoqiang; Zhang, Bingjie; Zhang, Lisha; Yang, Jianmao; Hu, Junqing

    2013-01-01

    Inorganic/organic heterojunction solar cells (HSCs) have attracted increasing attention as a cost-effective alternative to conventional solar cells. This work presents an HSC by in situ growth of CuInS2(CIS) layer as the photoabsorption material on nanoporous TiO2 film with the use of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) as hole-transport material. The in situ growth of CIS nanocrystals has been realized by solvothermally treating nanoporous TiO2 film in ethanol solution containing InCl3?·?4H2O, CuSO4?·?5H2O, and thioacetamide with a constant concentration ratio of 1:1:2. InCl3 concentration plays a significant role in controlling the surface morphology of CIS layer. When InCl3 concentration is 0.1 M, there is a layer of CIS flower-shaped superstructures on TiO2 film, and CIS superstructures are in fact composed of ultrathin nanoplates as 'petals' with plenty of nanopores. In addition, the nanopores of TiO2 film are filled by CIS nanocrystals, as confirmed using scanning electron microscopy image and by energy dispersive spectroscopy line scan analysis. Subsequently, HSC with a structure of FTO/TiO2/CIS/P3HT/PEDOT:PSS/Au has been fabricated, and it yields a power conversion efficiency of 1.4%. Further improvement of the efficiency can be expected by the optimization of the morphology and thickness of CIS layer and the device structure. PMID:23947562

  17. Solar Walls for concrete renovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gramkow, Lotte; Vejen, Niels Kristian; Olsen, Lars; Jensen, Søren; Michaelsen, Lisbet; Schmidt, Thomas; Kellerup, Ulla; Madsen, Michael

    1996-01-01

    This repport gives a short presentation of three full-scale testing solar walls, the construction including the architectural design, materials and components, transportation and storage of solar enegy, the effect on the construction behind, statics and practical experience.The results of the...... measurments (energy- and temperature conditions, airchange-, termovisions- and moist measurments), operation- and user experience from the three buildings are describet....

  18. 76 FR 62052 - Issuance of a Loan Guarantee to First Solar, Inc., for the Desert Sunlight Solar Farm Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-06

    ... FR 50493). In December 2009, First Solar applied to DOE for a loan guarantee under Title XVII of... of a Loan Guarantee to First Solar, Inc., for the Desert Sunlight Solar Farm Project AGENCY: U.S... Solar, Inc., (First Solar) for construction and start-up of the Desert Sunlight Solar Farm...

  19. Solar astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, Robert; Noyes, Robert; Antiochos, Spiro K.; Canfield, Richard C.; Chupp, Edward L.; Deming, Drake; Doschek, George A.; Dulk, George A.; Foukal, Peter V.; Gilliland, Ronald L.

    1991-01-01

    An overview is given of modern solar physics. Topics covered include the solar interior, the solar surface, the solar atmosphere, the Large Earth-based Solar Telescope (LEST), the Orbiting Solar Laboratory, the High Energy Solar Physics mission, the Space Exploration Initiative, solar-terrestrial physics, and adaptive optics. Policy and related programmatic recommendations are given for university research and education, facilitating solar research, and integrated support for solar research.

  20. Basic study for the construction of solar cell using CdS photocatalysts and Na{sub 2}S{sub 4} electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mabuchi, Takashi, E-mail: hideyuki@mail.kankyo.tohoku.ac.jp; Hayashi, Tsugumi, E-mail: hideyuki@mail.kankyo.tohoku.ac.jp; Takahashi, Hideyuki, E-mail: hideyuki@mail.kankyo.tohoku.ac.jp; Tohji, Kazuyuki, E-mail: hideyuki@mail.kankyo.tohoku.ac.jp [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan)

    2013-12-10

    Photoexcited electrons pathway from thin film consisting of semiconductor particles to electrode was tried to develop by using conducting polymers. PEDOT/PSS and polyaniline was selected as transparent conducting polymer material. In the case of the cell consisted by using polyaniline, it was confirmed that conductive emeraldine salt stated polyaniline converted to non-conductive emeraldine base state because of contact with strong basic Na{sub 2}S{sub 4} electrolyte solution. On the other hand, as regards the cell with PEDOT/PSS, it was expected that positive and negative electrode short-circuited and/or Schottky junction was formed between CdS and PEDOT/PSS. The formation of Schottky junction between CdS and PEDOT/PSS was reduced the kinetic energy of the photoexcited electrons to 5.1eV which was the Fermi level of PEDOT. These electrons could not reduce Na{sub 2}S{sub 4} electrolyte solution since oxidation-reduction potential was 4.1eV. As a result, it considered that photoexcited electrons transfer was restricted, which read the decreasement of mobility of photoexcited electron, while the cell “without” PEDOT/PSS could operate as a solar cell.

  1. Web based Measurement System for Solar Radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Shachi Awasthi; Dr. P. Mor

    2012-01-01

    We present in this paper, the principles of the measurement system for solar radiation, and our implementation using Web based data logging concept. The photocurrent produced by Silicon PN junction is used as a solar radiation transducer, to make it more viable we have used commercially available solar panels as our transducers. Using a silicon solar cell as sensor, a low cost solar radiometer can be constructed. The photocurrent produced by solar cell is electronically tailored to be measure...

  2. Solar neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the last decade solar neutrino physics has evolved into a field of relevance not only for probing our understanding of stellar physics, but also for investigating and pinpointing intrinsic neutrino properties, most importantly neutrino masses and mixing angles. To date, results from six different and partly complementary experiments have been acquired. Taken together, these experimental data provide evidence for neutrino oscillations, i.e. neutrino masses and mixing, and thus physics beyond the standard model of electroweak interactions. Several new experiments currently being planned or constructed will commence operation within the next few years. They will provide additional complementary data and allow - together with the already running detectors - performance of a full solar neutrino spectroscopy in both the charged-current and the neutral-current detection mode. Performing a thorough comparison of the spectral shape observed on Earth and the neutrino spectrum expected from solar model computations will be essential for further pinpointing neutrino masses and mixing parameters. This article, after giving a short introduction to the field, reviews the current status of solar neutrino physics and gives an outlook on the potential which the upcoming experiments offer for further progress. (author)

  3. Acetoanaerobium pronyense sp. nov., an anaerobic alkaliphilic bacterium isolated from a carbonate chimney of the Prony Hydrothermal Field (New Caledonia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bes, Méline; Merrouch, Mériem; Joseph, Manon; Quéméneur, Marianne; Payri, Claude; Pelletier, Bernard; Ollivier, Bernard; Fardeau, Marie-Laure; Erauso, Gaël; Postec, Anne

    2015-08-01

    A novel anaerobic bacterial strain, ST07-YET, was isolated from a carbonate chimney of the Prony Hydrothermal Field (PHF) in New Caledonia. Cells were Gram-stain-positive, straight rods (0.7-0.8?×?3.0-5.0??m) and motile by means of lateral flagella. Strain ST07-YET was mesophilic (optimum 35?°C), moderately alkaliphilic and halotolerant (optimum pH?8.7 and 5?g l-?1 NaCl). Elemental sulfur, sulfate, thiosulfate, sulfite, nitrate and nitrite were not used as terminal electron acceptors. Yeast extract, peptone, tryptone, Casamino acids, crotonate, pyruvate, galactose, maltose, sucrose, ribose, trehalose and glucose were used as carbon sources. Glucose fermentation led to acetate, H2 and CO2 formation. Arginine, serine, histidine, lysine, methionine and cysteine improved growth, but the Stickland reaction was negative for the combinations of amino acids tested. The major metabolic products from yeast extract fermentation were H2, CO2, acetate, butyrate, isobutyrate, isovalerate and propionate. The predominant cellular fatty acids were C16? :? 0, C16? :? 1cis9, C14? :? 0 and C16? :? 1cis7 (>5?% of total fatty acids). The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 32.9?mol%. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that strain ST07-YET was most closely related to Clostridium sticklandii DSM 519T and Acetoanaerobium noterae NOT-3T (96.7?% and 96.8?% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, respectively). On the basis of phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic and physiological properties, strain ST07-YET is proposed to represent a novel species of the genus Acetoanaerobium (order Clostridiales, phylum Firmicutes) with the name Acetoanaerobium pronyense sp. nov. The type strain is ST07-YET (?=?DSM 27512T?=?JCM 19400T). PMID:25948619

  4. Enhancement of the potential biodegradability and the mineralization of a pesticides mixture after being treated by a coupled process of TiO2-based solar photocatalysis with constructed wetlands / Mejora de la biodegradabilidad potencial y la mineralización de una mezcla de pesticidas después de ser tratada con un sistema acoplado de fotocatálisis solar con TiO2 y humedales artificiales

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José, Colina-Márquez; Fiderman, Machuca-Martínez; Wilson, Salas.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La fotocatálisis solar homogénea es un proceso de oxidación avanzada que permite tratar de forma exitosa un gran número de contaminantes recalcitrantes, como: pesticidas, tintas industriales y compuestos farmacéuticos. No obstante, a pesar de su efectividad, los costos de aplicación de este proceso [...] son altos cuando se trata de alcanzar la mineralización completa o de obtener un efluente amigable con el medio ambiente. Los sistemas acoplados fotocatalítico-biológicos se han convertido en una alternativa factible para tratar de forma eficiente estos contaminantes. En este trabajo, un sistema acoplado de dos reactores solares de colectores parabólicos compuestos (CPC) y humedales artificiales de flujos sub-superficial (HFSS) a escala piloto se evaluó para degradar un mezcla de pesticidas comerciales usados en el cultivo de la caña de azúcar. Para medir el desempeño del proceso para eliminar el contaminante, se estimaron el aumento de la relación DBO5/DQO y la reducción del carbono orgánico total (COT) para cada sistema por separado y para el acople. Se consideraron tres diferentes niveles de radiación solar UV acumulada y de flujos de alimentación al HFSS en el diseño experimental. La relación DBO5/DQO aumentó de 0.15 a 0.90 y la reducción de COT (mineralización total) estuvo alrededor del 80% Abstract in english Solar heterogeneous photocatalysis is an advanced oxidation technology, which allows a successful treatment of many recalcitrant and emergent pollutants, such as: pesticides, industrial dyes and pharmaceutical compounds. Nonetheless, despite its effectiveness, the costs of applying this process are [...] high when it is necessary to achieve a complete mineralization or to obtain an environment-friendly effluent. Photocatalytic-biological coupled systems have become in a feasible alternative able to treat efficiently these pollutants. In this work, a coupled system consistent of two compound parabolic collectors (CPC) solar photoreactors and a subsurface flow constructed wetland (SFCW) at pilot-scale was tested for degrading a mixture of commercial pesticides used in sugar cane crops. For measuring the process performance, regarding to the pollutant removal, the increase of the BOD5/COD ratio and the total organic carbon (TOC) removal were estimated for each separated system and the coupled system. Three different levels of solar UV accumulated energy and feed flow-rates to the SFCW were considered for the experimental design. The pilot-scale coupled system increased the BOD5/COD ratio from 0.15 to 0.90, and the TOC removal (total mineralization) was around 80%

  5. Neutrinos and Solar Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After summarizing principles of solar model construction and presenting an updated prediction for the neutrino counting rates, I focus this review on the question of reliability of current models. Methods and results of seismic sounding of the solar interior are presented in some detail. The results confirm the standard scenario of the solar evolution. This conclusion, combined with the evidences for neutrino oscillations, means the end of astrophysical aspect of the solar neutrino problem. The models of the Sun interior remain important for interpretation of the data from the neutrino detectors but the data cannot be used to contradict the models, not even to constrain them. (author)

  6. Solar Indices - Solar Irradiance

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  7. Solar Indices - Solar Corona

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  8. Solar Indices - Solar Ultraviolet

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  9. Solar energy in Amersfoort, Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the first time in the world a newly to be built housing area (Nieuwland in Amersfoort, Netherlands) will be constructed, exclusively on the basis of sustainability. First, the use of three forms of solar energy conversion techniques (thermal solar energy, passive solar energy and photovoltaic energy) is going to be integrated in 50 rental houses. At the end of this century 10,000 m2 of solar cells will be installed with a capacity of 1 MWp. 2 figs

  10. Geologic, geophysical, and in-situ stress investigations in the vicinity of the Dining Car chimney, Dining Car/Hybla Gold Drifts, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hybla Gold event, detonated on Nov. 1, 1977, was conducted in the U12e.20 drifts of the E-tunnel complex beneath the surface of Rainier Mesa at the Nevada Test Site. Though the proximity of the Hybla Gold working point to the chimney of the Dining Car event was important to the experiment, the observable geologic effects from Dining Car on the Hybla Gold site were minor. Overburden above the working point is approximately 385 m (1263 ft). The pre-Tertiary surface, probably quartzite, lies approximately 254 m (833 ft) below the working point. This report comprises three chapters detailing the geologic, geophysical, and in situ stress data gathered in the period January through June 1977, in the course of mining and drilling in the Hybla Gold/Dining Car region. These investigations confirm several observations reported previously for the Rainier event, i.e., a zone of microfailure observable in thin-section and in physical properties exists adjacent to the chimney. In addition, however, a number of investigations add new information to our understanding of effects near the detonation point. Shear waves were found to be highly diagnostic in the microcracked zone near the chimney as well as zones of failure at greater range not discernible as well as zones of failure at greater range not discernible by other techniques. Extensive in situ stress measurements made by the hydrofracture and overcore techniques indicate changes in the orientation and magnitude of the pre-Dining Car stress field. The hydrofracture technique further suggests pronounced gradients in minimum stress magnitudes over short distances at some locations in the postshot stress regime

  11. Geodesy work in the construction of cooling towers of the Temelin nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The specifications are described of the cooling tower foundations, the bottom part of the flue chimney and of the cooling tower casing. In view of the cooling tower configuration, the ground control points inside the tower were selected in the pit bottom and the layout and check were performed of the inner tower wall. The methodology of measuring the basic layout network, and of laying out up to the fiftieth (ca. 80 m) and from the 70th (106 m) strip is described. The measurement results are computer-processed. The accuracy is assessed of the cooling tower construction in the Temelin nuclear power plant. (E.J.). 1 fig., 5 refs

  12. Additional income with open chimneys and stove. Nostalgia, romanticism and thermal comfort; Zusatzgeschaeft mit Oefen und Kaminen. Nostalgisch-romantische Gefuehle und behagliche Waerme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, G. [Buderus Heiztechnik GmbH, Wetzlar (Germany)

    2004-01-01

    Stoves and open fireplaces are coming into fashion again with the trend towards nostalgia and design awareness. Further, wood-fuelled chimneys and stoves are viewed as romantic, and they also provide high thermal comfort. Heating systems experts can get additional income from this trend. (orig.) [German] Kamine und Oefen sind bei vielen Hausbesitzern und Bauherrn wieder in Mode. Dieser Trend ist zum einen Teil eines gestiegenen Nostalgie- und Designbewusstseins. Zum anderen gelten vor allem holzbefeuerte Kamine und Oefen als romantisch und ihre Waerme aufgrund des hohen Strahlungsanteils als behaglich. Fuer den aktiven Heizungsfachhandwerker laesst sich aus dieser Modestroemung ein lukratives Zusatzgeschaeft ableiten. (orig.)

  13. Solar Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    The Vanguard I dish-Stirling module program, initiated in 1982, produced the Vanguard I module, a commercial prototype erected by the Advanco Corporation. The module, which automatically tracks the sun, combines JPL mirrored concentrator technology, an advanced Stirling Solar II engine/generator, a low cost microprocessor-controlled parabolic dish. Vanguard I has a 28% sunlight to electricity conversion efficiency. If tests continue to prove the system effective, Advanco will construct a generating plant to sell electricity to local utilities. An agreement has also been signed with McDonnell Douglas to manufacture a similar module.

  14. 76 FR 60475 - Issuance of a Loan Guarantee to Tonopah Solar Energy, LLC, for the Crescent Dunes Solar Energy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ...ENERGY Issuance of a Loan Guarantee to Tonopah Solar Energy, LLC, for the Crescent Dunes Solar Energy Project AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy...Act of 2009 (Recovery Act), to Tonopah Solar Energy, LLC (TSE), for construction and...

  15. Economic aspects of Solar Thermal Technologies for electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Economic results of German studies are presented, which compare the four solar thermal technologies for electricity generation (parabolic trough collector system, central receiver system, parabolic dish/Stirling system, solar chimney plant). These studies were carried out by Interatom (today Siemens/KWU) in Bergisch Gladbach, Flachglas Solartechnik in Koln and Schlaich Bergermann and Partner in Stuggart under contract of DLR in Koln. Funds were made available by the German Ministry of Research and Development (BMFT). The results indicate that all of the investigated technologies have the potential to reduce the generating costs and that in the future costs of below 0.30 DM/kWh could be expected under excellent insolation conditions (e.G. 2850 kWh/m''2 a direct insolation as in California/USA). (Author) 25 refs

  16. Constructing Galileons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trodden, Mark

    2015-07-01

    In this plenary talk delivered at the DISCRETE 2014 conference in London, I briefly summarize the ideas behind and attractive properties of the Galileon field theories, and describe a broad class of scalar field theories that share these properties. After describing how Galileons arise, and commenting on their fascinating properties, in the latter half of the talk I focus on novel ways of constructing Galileon-like theories, using both the probe brane construction, and the coset construction.

  17. FFTF constructibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of the design criteria on the constructibility of the Fast Flux Test Facility is described. Specifically, the effects of requirements due to maintenance accessibility, inerting of cells, seismicity, codes, and standards are addressed. The design and construction techniques developed to minimize the impact of the design criteria on cost and schedule are presented with particular emphasis on the cleanliness and humidity controls imposed during construction of the sodium systems. (U.S.)

  18. Solar Lentigo

    Science.gov (United States)

    newsletter | contact Share | Solar Lentigo Information for adults A A A This image displays many solar lentigos due to the patient having many sunburns as a child and teenager. Overview A solar lentigo (plural, solar lentigines), also known as a ...

  19. Solar building

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Luxin

    2014-01-01

    In my thesis I describe the utilization of solar energy and solar energy with building integration. In introduction it is also mentioned how the solar building works, trying to make more people understand and accept the solar building. The thesis introduces different types of solar heat collectors. I compared the difference two operation modes of solar water heating system and created examples of solar water system selection. I also introduced other solar building applications. It is conv...

  20. Superstring construction

    CERN Document Server

    1989-01-01

    The book includes a selection of papers on the construction of superstring theories, mainly written during the years 1984-1987. It covers ten-dimensional supersymmetric and non-supersymmetric strings, four-dimensional heterotic strings and four-dimensional type-II strings. An introduction to more recent developments in conformal field theory in relation to string construction is provided.

  1. Solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, William G. (Cutchogue, NY)

    1982-01-01

    The field of this invention is solar collectors, and more particularly, the invention pertains to a flat plate collector that employs high performance thin films. The solar collector of this invention overcomes several problems in this field, such as excessive hardware, cost and reliability, and other prior art drawbacks outlined in the specification. In the preferred form, the apparatus features a substantially rigid planar frame (14). A thin film window (42) is bonded to one planar side of the frame. An absorber (24) of laminate construction is comprised of two thin film layers (24a, 24b) that are sealed perimetrically. The layers (24a, 24b) define a fluid-tight planar envelope (24c) of large surface area to volume through which a heat transfer fluid flows. Absorber (24) is bonded to the other planar side of the frame. The thin film construction of the absorber assures substantially full envelope wetting and thus good efficiency. The window and absorber films stress the frame adding to the overall strength of the collector.

  2. Solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter discusses the role solar energy may have in the energy future of the US. The topics discussed in the chapter include the solar resource, solar architecture including passive solar design and solar collectors, solar-thermal concentrating systems including parabolic troughs and dishes and central receivers, photovoltaic cells including photovoltaic systems for home use, and environmental, health and safety issues

  3. Where does the huge orbital a.m. of solar and exoplanets come from? Evidence in both arenas that they get it during during nebula-borne construction, the property of new insight on the physics of gravitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmaston, M. F.

    2013-09-01

    The present solar planetary system is replete with dynamical constraints on how it was built, and further constraint is provided by accumulating exoplanet observations. In this regard, the most securely determined and far-reaching dynamical constraint of all - the high orbital angular momenta of the planets, relative to solar rotation - has been recognized for nearly a century [1-5], but has proven to be the very elusive to explain within the currently prevailing variants of the Kant-Laplace solar nebula paradigm. One of the most recent, the 'Nice' model, see [6], lacks systematic treatment of the prograde directions of planetary spins and satellite orbits. My purpose here is to underline the significance of these and other failures by working through the various planetary system features at issue, and then to outline a possible way ahead. The mean specific orbital angular momentum (a.m.) of the solar planetary materials is ~1.3x105 times the rotational a.m. of solar material. Individual planetary a.m. arises from the prevailing Keplerian velocity pattern; the question is how they got there. Sparse exoplanet data on central-body rotation show no sign that the star's rotation is anywhere near fast enough to remove this huge disparity of a.m. So we seek to resolve this problem by recognizing that nebular action during planet formation was the only agent available for such 'partition' of a.m. Such action, by whatever means, requires completion of planetary growth within the period of nebular presence, so that their growth materials also be equipped with the appropriate a.m. This limitation accords with two constraints from meteorites:- accretion onto asteroids continued until ~4563Ma (but no later), and relationships between very shortlife isotopes require that they were imported very soon (1Ma?) after their production in a stellar explosion [7]. So the >50Ma timescales of the Nice model, to provide for orbit migration in the presence of much other material, seem to be ruled out. The near-circular orbits of all except Mercury are indeed consistent with completion in the presence of nebular gas-drag. But planetary growth by randomly directed impact would not systematically increase their orbit size and a.m. So where and how were the SS protoplanets nucleated and achieve their growth? This introduces the matter of planetary spin directions. Mercury's spin is probably irrelevant, having suffered a late giant impact (tilted and highly eccentric orbit, /3rds of its mantle missing) [8,9]. Of the 7 other planets all are prograde except Venus, whose very slow retrograde spin might be due to retrograde-capturing large amounts of the Mercury impact debris, another 2.7% of which may have built the Moon. The 98deg inclination of Uranus does not render it 'retrograde'. Restoring it by that angle makes its satellite pattern like those of the other three Giant Planets (GP). Moreover, Uranus' orbit is now as circular as its GP brethren, so the impact which tilted its axis must have been quite early, giving time for subsequent circularization by nebular action. So we are looking for a nebula-present mode of planetary construction which leads to a systematically prograde spin result. Such systematic behaviour hints strongly at gravitational nucleation. Note at once that in a Keplerian disc the vorticity is retrograde. The only place where prograde vorticity would be available in a plasma-rich protoplanetary disc is very close to the Sun and due to quasi-equatorial magnetic coupling. This point immediately strikes a chord with the exoplanet scene. There, ~23% of all those found are grouped around an orbital distance of ~10 solar radii. The proportion has changed little as the numbers grew, despite changes in detection methods. It is not a matter of ease of detection, but of why they are there at all, when Mercury, our closest-in planet, is at 83 solar radii. Some have sought to explain this as the result of inward migration due to gas drag, but that overlooks the problem of how they had the highera.m. of being in a bigger orbit to start with. (The same objection applies to the treatment [6] of Jupiter as a source of a.m. for exchanges.) Evidently, the SS planets must have derived their prograde spins from being nucleated - perhaps successively - in close-to-Sun positions, screened from it by nebular opacity, then enlarging their orbits and increasing their a.m. The close-in exoplanets that we can see are exposed to us and to their star by departure of the nebular agent that would have continued to push them outward, so they may eventually vanish by evaporation. As did any inside Mercury? The remaining dynamical question is how to preserve, during protoplanet growth and outward progress to its present orbital distance, the prograde spin that each acquired by close-in nucleation. The answer, affirmed by the systematically prograde orbits of the inner 56 satellites of the Giant Planets, is that those are the residual part of a tidal capture population [10], the retrograde members having spiralled inward and built up the interiors of those planets. A dynamically balanced population of tidal captures during outward motion will leave the protoplanet with its original spin direction, but slower. To achieve efficient tidal capture the need for nebular gas-drag assistance during the first pass further confirms that, bar the Mercury impact, the entire planetary construction process was accomplished within a nebula-present timescale - a not-unreasonable result in view of the big capture cross-section thereby offered. This timescale (~5Ma?) rules out the supposed formation of planetary cores by percolation of molten iron, thought to require >30Ma, but is consistent with the nebula-present mode of so doing [11,12], with the further great benefit of providing the otherwise obscure source of the abundant SS water [12], including that subsequently carried out to the cometary belts. So the substantial detection of water in an exoplanet may have similar significance. In summary, the very high orbital angular momenta of planets, w.r.t. their star, demands a scenario in which the motion of materials in the protoplanetary disc is outward. (A recent image of the Beta Pictoris young exoplanet system is persuasive visual evidence of such a flow pattern.) If a frame for doing that can be provided, the other features discussed above could all fit in, replacing the Kant-Laplace paradigm and its problems. To meet this demand, I will outline a 2-stage scenario [9,13] which embodies my finding that the Newtonian gravity field of a body is inevitably accompanied by a radial electric field, the Gravity- Electric (G-E) field, provisionally extrapolated from [14] at ~30V/m at the solar surface. In essence, when the ion plasma-rich protoplanetary disc was present, this field would provide outward force on these materials, creating a.m., none of it coming from the Sun/star. Final expulsion of the disc materials - a process portrayed in the Beta Pic image - allows the non-ionized elements of the system to adjust to the Keplerian state which now prevails. Evidently, the GE field is the essential agent for the high a.m. of planetary orbits. Without it, the only planets anywhere would be close-in and ephemeral.

  4. Construction management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PEFP, Proton Engineering Frontier Project, puts its aim to building 100MeV 20mA linear proton accelerator which is national facility for NT, BT, IT, and future technologies, expected to boost up the national industry competitiveness. This R and D, Construction Management is in charge of the supportive works as site selection, architecture and engineering of conventional facilities, and overall construction management. The major goals of this work are as follows: At first, architecture and engineering of conventional facilities. Second, construction management, audit and inspection on construction of conventional facilities. Lastly, cooperation with the project host organization for adjusting technical issues of overall construction. In this research, We made a conceptual design, basic design and detail design of conventional facilities. Also, we made the engineering support for host site construction as follows : selection of project host organization and host site selection, construction technical work for project host organization and procedure management and impact analysis on the delay of project site selection

  5. 76 FR 60475 - Issuance of a Loan Guarantee to Tonopah Solar Energy, LLC, for the Crescent Dunes Solar Energy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... Issuance of a Loan Guarantee to Tonopah Solar Energy, LLC, for the Crescent Dunes Solar Energy Project... 2009 (Recovery Act), to Tonopah Solar Energy, LLC (TSE), for construction and start-up of the Crescent Dunes Solar Energy Project (the Project). The Project is a proposed 110- megawatt solar power...

  6. 76 FR 54454 - Issuance of Loan Guarantee to Genesis Solar, LLC, for the Genesis Solar Energy Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... Issuance of Loan Guarantee to Genesis Solar, LLC, for the Genesis Solar Energy Project AGENCY: U.S... Genesis Solar, LLC, for construction and startup of the Genesis Solar Energy Project (GSEP), a 250... Statement for the Genesis Solar Energy Project, Riverside County, California (75 Federal Register...

  7. Construction mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Virdi, Surinder

    2006-01-01

    Taking a starting point below that of GCSE level, by assuming no prior mathematical knowledge, Surinder Virdi and Roy Baker take the reader step by step through the mathematical requirements for Level 2 and 3 Building and Construction courses.Unlike the majority of basic level maths texts available, this book focuses exclusively on mathematics as it is applied in actual construction practice. As such, topics specific to the construction industry are presented, as well as essential areas for Level 2 craft NVQs - for example, costing calculations, labor costs, cost of materials and setting out o

  8. Building Construction

    OpenAIRE

    Ilveskoski, Olli

    2014-01-01

    This publication is a summary of the Building Construction handscript and the virtual material in the address www.amk.fi. The objective is that the student gets involved with the construction of Single-Family House, Multi-Storey Residential House and Commercial-Office houses. As the student works with the project he/she learns topics like Information Sources, Law, Act, Codes, Framing, Loads, Thermal Insulation, Moisture, Soundproofing and Fire Engineering. The Materials and Products are studi...

  9. Worldwide construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper lists major construction projects in worldwide processing and pipelining, showing capacities, contractors, estimated costs, and time of construction. The lists are divided into refineries, petrochemical plants, sulfur recovery units, gas processing plants, pipelines, and related fuel facilities. This last classification includes cogeneration plants, coal liquefaction and gasification plants, biomass power plants, geothermal power plants, integrated coal gasification combined-cycle power plants, and a coal briquetting plant

  10. Construction aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, T.I.; Bolen, W.P.

    2007-01-01

    Construction aggregates, primarily stone, sand and gravel, are recovered from widespread naturally occurring mineral deposits and processed for use primarily in the construction industry. They are mined, crushed, sorted by size and sold loose or combined with portland cement or asphaltic cement to make concrete products to build roads, houses, buildings, and other structures. Much smaller quantities are used in agriculture, cement manufacture, chemical and metallurgical processes, glass production and many other products.

  11. Sexy Constructions

    OpenAIRE

    Juhl, Sidsel Sara

    2009-01-01

    Sexy Constructions is a project that treats the notion of gender. It seeks to investigate the tension created between two poles: the idea of a socially constructed gender and the idea of one based on essence. The project introduces theories by Judith Butler, Anne-Fausto Sterling, and Diana Fuss which all represent an anti-essentialist standpoint. As an object of analysis, the project scrutinizes the book "Ta' Mig" by Danish sexologist Joan Ørting. She offers advice to modern relationships, an...

  12. Usability Constructs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Clemmesen, Torkil; Hornbæk, Kasper Anders Søren; Kumar, Jyoti; Shi, Qinxing; Yammiyavar, Pradeep

    Whereas research on usability predominantly employs universal definitions of the aspects that comprise usability, people experience their use of information systems through personal constructs. Based on 48 repertory-grid interviews, this study investigates how such personal constructs are affected...... by two factors crucial to the international development and uptake of information systems: cultural background (Chinese, Danish, or Indian) and stakeholder group (developer or user). We find that for the user group frustrating and useful systems are experienced similarly, whereas for the developers...

  13. In situ ore formation experiment: Amino acids and amino sugars trapped in artificial chimneys on deep-sea hydrothermal systems at Suiyo Seamount, Izu-Bonin Arc, Pacific Ocean

    CERN Document Server

    Takano,; Marumo,; K.,; Ebashi,; T.,; Gupta,; P., L; Kawahata,; H.,; Kobayashi,; K.,; Yamagishi,; A.,; Kuwabara,; T,

    2013-01-01

    The present study reports on the bio-organic composition of a deep-sea venting hydrothermal system originating from arc volcanism; the origin of the particulates in hydrothermal fluids from the Suiyo Seamount in the southern Izu-Bonin (Ogasawara) Arc is discussed with regard to amino compounds. Chimney samples on deep-sea hydrothermal systems and core samples at Suiyo Seamount were determined for amino acids, and occasionally amino sugars. Two types of chimney samples were obtained from active hydrothermal systems by submersible vehicles: one was natural chimney (NC) on a hydrothermal natural vent; the other was artificial chimneys (AC), mainly formed by the growth and deposition of sulfide-rich particulate components in a Kuwabara-type in situ incubator (KI incubator). Total hydrolyzed amino acids (THAA) and hydrolyzed hexosamines (HA) in AC ranged from 10.7 nmol/g to 64.0 nmol/g and from 0 nmol/g to 8.1 nmol/g, respectively, while THAA in hydrothermally altered core samples ranged from 26.0 nmol/g to 107.4 ...

  14. Solar powered aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, W. H. (inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A cruciform wing structure for a solar powered aircraft is disclosed. Solar cells are mounted on horizontal wing surfaces. Wing surfaces with spanwise axis perpendicular to surfaces maintain these surfaces normal to the Sun's rays by allowing aircraft to be flown in a controlled pattern at a large bank angle. The solar airplane may be of conventional design with respect to fuselage, propeller and tail, or may be constructed around a core and driven by propeller mechanisms attached near the tips of the airfoils.

  15. Construction history and construction management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process of pre-design and design preparation of the Mochovce NPP as well as the construction history of the plant is highlighted, including the financing aspect and problems arising from changes in the technological and other conditions of start-up of the reactor units. The results of international audits performed to improve the level of nuclear safety and implementation of the measures suggested are also described. The milestones of the whole construction process and start-up process, the control and quality system, and the methods of control and management of the complex construction project are outlined. (author)

  16. Seafloor mounds, craters and depressions linked to seismic chimneys breaching fossilized diagenetic bottom simulating reflectors in the central and southern Scotia Sea, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somoza, Luis; León, Ricardo; Medialdea, Teresa; Pérez, Lara F.; González, Francisco J.; Maldonado, Andrés

    2014-12-01

    Based on an extensive dataset including swath bathymetry, chirp sub-bottom profiler (TOPAS) and multichannel seismic reflection profiles obtained during four cruises in the Scotia Sea aboard the R/V Hespérides, we report a variety of seismic and morphological structures related to focused fluid flow in the Scan Basin (southern Scotia Sea) and the central Scotia Sea (Antarctica). We show that both positive-relief (mounds) and negative-relief (craters and elongated depressions) seafloor morphologies are associated with deep seismic chimneys that link the deep source zone to the subsurface structures through a network of fractures that progressively breach sub-horizontal bands of anomalously high-amplitude reflections. Based on the recognition that these bands of reflections generally mimic the seafloor topography and locally cross-cut the stratigraphic seismic reflections, we recognize three different bottom simulating reflectors (BSRs). According to the theoretical model for hydrate and silica diagenesis stability conditions in the central and southern Scotia Sea and the calculations of temperature and seismic polarity for the three BSRs, we infer that BSR-2 and BSR-3 are reflections caused by the transformation between Opal-A/Opal-CT and Opal-CT/Quartz, respectively. We thus postulate that the successive diagenetic fronts were caused by significantly high geothermal gradients during the early-middle Miocene. In contrast, the low temperatures calculated for the depth of the BSR-1 event rule out its diagenetic origin but delineate the base of the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ). An evolutionary model is proposed to explain the plumbing system and chimney structures that help the focused flow of gas-rich fluids to migrate into the subsurface. Firstly, the formation of silica transformation zones may have acted as reservoir traps during Neogene times. Secondly, the progressive decrease of heat flow during the late Pliocene and Quaternary favored the development of the networks of polygonal faults forming collapses and downward tapering chimneys. Finally, seafloor mounds are formed as a result of the continuous injection of gas-enriched fluids through these networks of fractures; they are transformed into gas hydrates above the present base of the GHSZ and move upwards by buoyancy drive as they lose density and increase their volume. We present these structures as type cases that might represent highly concentrated hydrates around local seafloor fluid venting structures. Furthermore, they may be one of the most important conduits into the ocean-atmosphere system for deep methane in the Antarctic seafloor. The breach of BSRs influenced by global warming may induce the catastrophic release of greenhouse gases to the ocean-atmosphere system and, in turn, impact on the Earth's evolution.

  17. A novel design for construction of dwellings in radon prone areas of Ramsar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon can accumulate in residential places at sufficiently high levels. Indoor radon levels in some regions of Ramsar are up to 3700 Bq m-3, a concentration that is much higher than US EPA recommended action level of 148 Bq m-3 (4 pCi/L). Radon is the 2nd leading cause of lung cancer, after cigarette smoking. It is widely believed that there is no threshold for lung cancer from radon exposure. In this study after reviewing the meteorological changes of Ramsar over the past 50 years (1955-2005), a novel design for constructing dwellings in radon prone areas is introduced. Natural ventilation is a type of ventilation that is created by the differences in the distribution of air pressures around a building. The basic element of our design is enhancement of natural ventilation by making wind and chimney effect to move fresh air through dwellings. The buoyancy effect caused by temperature differences makes air flow. The size and location of openings in each dwelling determine the extent of natural ventilation. In our two-storey house model, wind speed and direction, relative humidity, average temperature, and especially the traditional architecture of the northern coastal part of Iran, are taken into account. Furthermore, in this model, windows and skylights, evergreen or deciduous trees and fireplace chimneys as well as construction materials and wall coverings are the key components of the natural ventilation system. (author)

  18. Black Liquid Solar Collector Demonstrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weichman, F. L.; Austen, D. J.

    1979-01-01

    Describes the details of constructing, and use of, a solar collector. Uses a black liquid to absorb the energy, the thermosyphon effect to drive the liquid through the collector, and a floodlamp as a surrogate sun. (GA)

  19. Construction safety

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Rita Yi Man

    2013-01-01

    A close-to-ideal blend of suburb and city, speedy construction of towers of Babylon, the sparkling proportion of glass and steel buildings’ facade at night showcase the wisdom of humans. They also witness the footsteps, sweats and tears of architects and engineers. Unfortunately, these signatures of human civilizations are swathed in towering figures of construction accidents. Fretting about these on sites, different countries adopt different measures on sites. This book firstly sketches the construction accidents on sites, followed by a review on safety measures in some of the developing countries such as Bermuda, Egypt, Kuwait and China; as well as developed countries, for example, the United States, France and Singapore. It also highlights the enormous compensation costs with the courts’ experiences in the United Kingdom and Hong Kong.

  20. System analysis of a PV/T hybrid solar window

    OpenAIRE

    Davidsson, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    A building-integrated multifunctional PV/T solar window was suggested and developed by Andreas Fieber. The solar window is constructed of PV cells laminated on solar absorbers placed in a window behind the glazing. To reduce the costs of solar electricity, tiltable reflectors have been introduced in the construction to focus radiation onto the solar cells. The reflectors make it possible to control the amount of radiation transmitted into the building. The insulated reflectors also reduce the...

  1. Solar Features - Solar Flares

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A solar flare is a short-lived sudden increase in the intensity of radiation emitted in the neighborhood of sunspots. For many years it was best monitored in the...

  2. Worldwide construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Major construction projects in worldwide processing and pipelining are tested, showing capacities, contractors, estimated costs, and time of completion. Total capacity figure in Remarks and completion column includes capacity of project listed. The information is divided into petroleum refineries, petrochemical plants, sulfur recovery units, gas processing plants, related fuel plants (cogeneration, coal gasification, combined cycles), and pipeline companies

  3. Worldwide construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper tabulates major construction projects by category and country. The table lists company name and location, project type, added capacity, status of the project, expected completion date, contractor, and additional comments. Projects are classified as refineries, petrochemical plants, sulfur plants, gas processing plants, and pipelines

  4. Combining interventions: improved chimney stoves, kitchen sinks and solar disinfection of drinking water and kitchen clothes to improve home hygiene in rural Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Stella M. Hartinger; Lanata, Claudio F; Ana I. Gil; Hattendorf, Jan; Verastegui, Hector; Mäusezahl, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Home based interventions are advocated in rural areas against a variety of diseases. The combination of different interventions might have synergistic effects in terms of health improvement and cost effectiveness. However, it is crucial to ensure cultural acceptance. The aim of the study was to develop an effective and culturally accepted home-based intervention package to reduce diarrhoea and lower respiratory illnesses in children. In two rural Peruvian communities we evaluated the performa...

  5. Solar Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of solar feature datasets contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide.

  6. Job creation potential of solar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document defines the size of the job market within Canada's solar industry and presents a preliminary forecast of the employment opportunities through to 2025. The issue of job potential within Canada's solar technologies is complicated by the wide range of different fields and technologies within the solar industry. The largest energy generator of the solar technologies is passive solar, but the jobs in this sector are generally in the construction trades and window manufacturers. The Canadian Solar Industries Association estimates that there are about 360 to 500 firms in Canada with the primary business of solar technologies, employing between 900 to 1,200 employees. However, most solar manufacturing jobs in Canada are for products exports as demonstrated by the 5 main solar manufacturers in Canada who estimate that 50 to 95 per cent of their products are exported. The main reason for their high export ratio is the lack of a Canadian market for their products. The 3 categories of job classifications within the solar industry include manufacturing, installation, and operations and maintenance. The indirect jobs include photovoltaic system hardware, solar hot water heating, solar air ventilation, and glass/metal framing. 17 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

  7. Modelling Constructs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindler, Ekkart

    There are many different notations and formalisms for modelling business processes and workflows. These notations and formalisms have been introduced with different purposes and objectives. Later, influenced by other notations, comparisons with other tools, or by standardization efforts, these...... notations have been extended in order to increase expressiveness and to be more competitive. This resulted in an increasing number of notations and formalisms for modelling business processes and in an increase of the different modelling constructs provided by modelling notations, which makes it difficult...... to compare modelling notations and to make transformations between them. One of the reasons is that, in each notation, the new concepts are introduced in a different way by extending the already existing constructs. In this chapter, we go the opposite direction: We show that it is possible to add...

  8. Constructive Visualization

    OpenAIRE

    Huron, Samuel,; Carpendale, Sheelagh; Thudt, Alice; Tang, Anthony; Mauerer, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Si la visualisation doit être démocratisé, il faut concevoir des moyens engageants qui permettent aux personnes non-expertes de créer des visualisations. Nous présentons la *construction de visualisation* un nouveau paradigme pour la création simple de visualisations dynamiques, et flexibles. Ce paradigme est simple car les compétences ces nécessaires a mettre en œuvre pour construire et manipuler une visualisations sont semblables à celle développer à l'école maternelle; il est expressif - d...

  9. Theory Construction

    OpenAIRE

    Sallantin, Jean; Cerri, Stefano A.

    2012-01-01

    Theory construction is a process, i.e., a set of state changes by an autonomous agent, or by an organism composed of several autonomous agents. In the first case, we may recall the approach of Pierce (1931) that considers three logical operations (inference rules) on a knowledge base, i.e., a set of propositions asserted to be valid: abduction, deduction, and induction. Abduction generates new hypotheses from which deduction derives predictions to be confirmed by experience. The confirmed hyp...

  10. Solar Energy Education. Home economics: student activities. Field test edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-01

    A view of solar energy from the standpoint of home economics is taken in this book of activities. Students are provided information on solar energy resources while performing these classroom activities. Instructions for the construction of a solar food dryer and a solar cooker are provided. Topics for study include window treatments, clothing, the history of solar energy, vitamins from the sun, and how to choose the correct solar home. (BCS)

  11. Requirements for solar predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The types of data analyzed and disseminated by the Space Environment Services Center (SESC) and the Air Force Global Weather Central (AFGWC) are outlined. Manned by U.S. Air Force and NOAA personnel under the auspices of the DoD and the DoC, the services provide solar predictions on x-ray events, optical flares, radio bursts, high energy particle events, solar wind variations or geomagnetic activity, background radio flux and the general level of solar activity in terms of real-time data and probabilities of events. Sample forecast documents are provided for the various types of events. It is noted that new facilities are being planned or constructed to upgraded existing computing capabilities and to incorporate state-of-the-art predictive models of the solar processes being monitored. 5 references

  12. Solar chemical engineering and solar materials research into the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funken, Karl-Heinz; Becker, Manfred [Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Solare Energietechnik, Koeln (Germany)

    2001-11-01

    Solar Chemistry and Solar Materials Research is one important task of the Solar Energy Association North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Numerous individual projects have been carried out which address the construction and operation of a high-flux solar furnace, solar chemical engineering, and solar materials research. Almost 10 years of research and development have led to significant progress. This paper reviews the scope of work in solar chemistry and summarizes the results. The authors present perspectives for commercialization and address open questions and needs for further research and development. (Author)

  13. Solar Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, William W.

    Presented is the utilization of solar radiation as an energy resource principally for the production of electricity. Included are discussions of solar thermal conversion, photovoltic conversion, wind energy, and energy from ocean temperature differences. Future solar energy plans, the role of solar energy in plant and fossil fuel production, and…

  14. Solar Combisystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thür, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    This note first introduces what is a solar combisystem, the structure how a solar combisystem is build up and what are criteria’s to evaluate a solar combisystem concept. Further on the main components of a solar combisystem, the main characteristics and possible advantages and disadvantages...... compared to each other are described. It is not the goal of this note to explain the technical details how to design all components of a solar combisystem. This is done during other lectures of the solar course and in other basic courses as well. This note tries to explain how a solar combisystem and the...

  15. Constructing Catalonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Phillips

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Catalonia, in common with other nations, has long b een concerned with the question of identity and difference. Its problemati c relationship with Spain has led to an emphasis on differentiating itself from its larger neighbour (if we are to accept, as most Spaniards do not, that Catalonia is not Spain, a s ituation complicated by the loss of the Spanish colonies of Cuba and The Philippines in 189 8, and the Spanish Civil War and subsequent dictatorship from 1936 to 1976. Beginnin g in the late nineteenth century, the construction of a Catalan identity followed a simil ar route to that taken by other European nations such as England, Ireland and, inde ed, Spain, including an emphasis on rural values, activities and the countryside, and t he conversion of specifically local traditions into national past times. It is only in the last ten years or so that this model of Catalan identity has been recognised for what it is – a model constructed and encouraged for and by specific nationalist politica l interests. Ironically, Catalonia’s identity abroad has also been constructed and manip ulated for political purposes, but from quite a different perspective. Orwell’s /Homag e to Catalonia/ (1938 narrates an extremely blinkered version of the Spanish Civil Wa r which has achieved iconic status as a result of cold war politics. Subsequent portra yals of the Spanish Civil War – Valentine Cunningham’s /The Penguin Book of Spanish Civil War Verse/ (ed., Penguin, 1980, or Ken Loach’s 1995 film /Land and F reedom/ base their arguments unquestioningly on /Homage to Catalonia/, perpetuat ing a view of the nation’s recent history that is both reductive and inaccurate

  16. Constructing History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Riber

    2010-01-01

    The Icelandic sagas can be read and interpreted in many ways. This article examines the sagas both as literary expressions of a longstanding oral tradition and as part of a collective and cultural memory. The focus in the first part is on people and places in the sagas as ‘realms of memory’: things that help construct a common past and a common identity. The second part of the article explores the role of the sagas in medieval Iceland as ‘key myths’ that explain the origin and uniqueness of a so...

  17. Solar Desalination System by Humidification Dehumidification Method

    OpenAIRE

    Sousi, Abdulla

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: A humidification/dehumidification (HDH) solar desalination unit having combined solar water/air heater was designed constructed and experimentally investigated. The main components of the desalination system are the combined solar air/water heater collector with double glazing, humidifier (evaporator), dehumidifier (condenser), circulating pump, fan and a storage tank. Both air and saline (or brackish water) were heated in a single combined solar water/air heater. The effect of air ...

  18. 78 FR 63276 - Interim Policy, FAA Review of Solar Energy System Projects on Federally Obligated Airports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ...Interim Policy, FAA Review of Solar Energy System Projects on Federally Obligated...obligated airports to construct solar energy systems on airport property. FAA...measuring ocular impact of proposed solar energy systems which are effective...

  19. Solar-thermal experimental projects on the Spanish Plataforma Solar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasse, W.

    1981-11-01

    The Plataforma Solar with an area of 1,000,000 sq m is located in Spain at a distance of approximately 50 km from the Mediterranean. In May 1979, nine members of the International Energy Agency (IEA) decided to support the construction of Small Solar Power Systems (SSPS). The countries involved include West Germany, the U.S., Spain, and Italy. The SSPS are to demonstrate the operational feasibility of solar technologies which have been mainly developed in Germany and the U.S. In addition, data are to be obtained regarding the relative competitive position of two different operational concepts for SSPS. The concepts are related to the central receiver system (solar tower) and the distributed collector system. Attention is also given to the Spanish solar power station CESA-1 and the German-Spanish technology program GAST, which is to explore the technological limits of solar-energy systems.

  20. 76 FR 78021 - Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the Rice Solar Energy, LLC, Rice Solar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-15

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the Rice Solar Energy, LLC, Rice Solar Energy Project (RSEP) and California Desert Conservation Area Plan Amendment, California...: Rice Solar Energy, LLC, a subsidiary of SolarReserve, LLC plans to construct a 150 megawatt (MW)...

  1. Solar Water Heating with Low-Cost Plastic Systems (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-01-01

    Newly developed solar water heating technology can help Federal agencies cost effectively meet the EISA requirements for solar water heating in new construction and major renovations. This document provides design considerations, application, economics, and maintenance information and resources.

  2. Solar energy use in a construction project: The new old people's home at Muenchenbernsdorf. Final report; Solarenergienutzung im Rahmen eines Bauvorhabens Neubau bzw. Umbau eines Senioren- und Pflegeheimes in Muenchenbernsdorf. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maschke, R.; Mueller; Grossmann

    2000-07-01

    Old people's homes have a high and largely constant water consumption in all seasons. They are therefore ideal objects for solar sytems. The new old people's home at Muenchenbernsdorf is presented which has a large thermal solar power system, which is also to induce private builder-owners to opt for solar power. [German] Aufgrund ihres hohen (und jahreszeitlich weitestgehend konstanten) Warmwasserverbrauches bieten Senioren- und Pflegeheime sehr gute Voraussetzungen fuer die Nutzung der thermischen Solarenergie zur Warmwasserbereitung. Der Ersatzneubau des Senioren- und Pflegeheims der Stadt Muenchenbernsdorf bietet sehr gute Ansatzpunkte fuer die Senkung des Energieverbrauches und der vom Objekt ausgehen Umweltbelastungen durch Nutzung regenerativer Energietraeger. Durch die Realisierung einer grossen thermischen Solaranlage auf einem oeffentlichen Gebaeude sollen private Bauherren der Region zu eigenen Energiesparinvestitionen angeregt werden. (orig.)

  3. Orbital origins of helices and magic electron counts in the Nowotny chimney ladders: the 18 - n rule and a path to incommensurability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yannello, Vincent J; Fredrickson, Daniel C

    2014-10-01

    Valence electron count is one of the key factors influencing the stability and structure of metals and alloys. However, unlike in molecular compounds, the origins of the preferred electron counts of many metallic phases remain largely mysterious. Perhaps the clearest-cut of such electron counting rules is exhibited by the Nowotny chimney ladder (NCL) phases, compounds remarkable for their helical structural motifs in which transition metal (T) helices serve as channels for a second set of helices formed from main group (E) elements. These phases exhibit density of states pseudogaps or band gaps, and thus special stability and useful physical properties, when their valence electron count corresponds to 14 electrons per T atom. In this Article, we illustrate, using DFT-calibrated Hückel calculations and the reversed approximation Molecular Orbital analysis, that the 14-electron rule of the NCLs is, in fact, a specific instance of an 18 - n rule emerging for T-E intermetallics, where n is the number of E-supported T-T bonds per T atom. The structural flexibility of the NCL series arises from the role of the E atoms as supports for these T-T bonds, which simply requires the E atoms to be as uniformly distributed within the T sublattice as possible. This picture offers a strategy for identifying other intermetallic structures that may be amenable to incommensurability between T and E sublattices. PMID:25215958

  4. Thoracic type Ia endoleak: direct percutaneous coil embolization of the aortic arch at the blood entry site after TEVAR and double-chimney stent-grafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To introduce a novel percutaneous technique to stop blood entry at the lesser aortic arch curvature by coil embolisation in type Ia endoleak after TEVAR. A 61-year-old Marfan patient presented with type Ia endoleak of the aortic arch and a growing aortic arch pseudoaneurysm after TEVAR. Multiple preceding operations and interventions made an endovascular approach unsuccessful. Direct percutaneous puncture of the aneurysmal sac would have cured the sign, but not the cause of blood entry at the lesser curvature of the aortic arch. Direct CT-guided percutaneous puncture of the blood entry site in the aortic arch with fluoroscopically guided coil embolisation using detachable extra-long coils was successfully performed. Three weeks after the intervention, the patient developed fever because of superinfection of the pseudoaneurysm. The blood cultures and CT-guided mediastinal aspirate were sterile. After intravenous administration of antibiotics, the fever disappeared and the patient recovered. Six-month follow-up showed permanent closure of the endoleak and a shrinking aneurysmal sac. Direct percutaneous puncture of the aortic arch at the blood entry site of a thoracic type Ia endoleak after TEVAR and double-chimney stent-grafts with coil embolisation of the wedge-shaped space between the lesser aortic curvature and the stent-graft is possible. (orig.)

  5. Thoracic type Ia endoleak: direct percutaneous coil embolization of the aortic arch at the blood entry site after TEVAR and double-chimney stent-grafts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bangard, Christopher; Franke, Mareike; Maintz, David; Chang, De-Hua [University Hospital, University of Cologne, Department of Radiology, Cologne (Germany); Pfister, Roman [University Hospital, University of Cologne, Department of Internal Medicine III, Cologne (Germany); Deppe, Antje-Christin [University Hospital, University of Cologne, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Cologne (Germany); Matoussevitch, Vladimir [University Hospital, University of Cologne, Department of Vascular Surgery, Cologne (Germany)

    2014-06-15

    To introduce a novel percutaneous technique to stop blood entry at the lesser aortic arch curvature by coil embolisation in type Ia endoleak after TEVAR. A 61-year-old Marfan patient presented with type Ia endoleak of the aortic arch and a growing aortic arch pseudoaneurysm after TEVAR. Multiple preceding operations and interventions made an endovascular approach unsuccessful. Direct percutaneous puncture of the aneurysmal sac would have cured the sign, but not the cause of blood entry at the lesser curvature of the aortic arch. Direct CT-guided percutaneous puncture of the blood entry site in the aortic arch with fluoroscopically guided coil embolisation using detachable extra-long coils was successfully performed. Three weeks after the intervention, the patient developed fever because of superinfection of the pseudoaneurysm. The blood cultures and CT-guided mediastinal aspirate were sterile. After intravenous administration of antibiotics, the fever disappeared and the patient recovered. Six-month follow-up showed permanent closure of the endoleak and a shrinking aneurysmal sac. Direct percutaneous puncture of the aortic arch at the blood entry site of a thoracic type Ia endoleak after TEVAR and double-chimney stent-grafts with coil embolisation of the wedge-shaped space between the lesser aortic curvature and the stent-graft is possible. (orig.)

  6. Tratamento Endovascular de Aneurisma de Aorta Abdominal pela Técnica de Chaminé / Endovascular Repair of Abdominal Aortic Aneurism Using the Chimney Graft Technique

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adriano Gonçalves de, Araujo; Fábio Henrique Ribeiro de, Souza; Fernando Henrique, Fernandes; Flávio Passos, Barbosa; José Antônio, Jatene; Paulo Cézar Guimarães, Câmara.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Paciente idoso, portador de insuficiência renal não dialítica e doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica dependente de oxigênio, foi admitido no pronto-socorro com quadro de dor abdominal lancinante. A angiotomografia de abdome revelou a presença de grande aneurisma aórtico com comprometimento das artéria [...] s viscerais. Devido ao elevado risco cirúrgico, foi proposto o tratamento endovascular pela técnica de chaminé para a preservação dos vasos viscerais. Essa técnica mostra-se promissora por permitir o reparo endovascular desses aneurismas, seja em casos eletivos, em situações de urgência/emergência ou de resgate de uma artéria visceral acidentalmente encoberta por uma endoprótese aórtica. Abstract in english An elderly patient with non-dialysis renal failure and oxygendependent chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was admitted to the emergency room with lancinating abdominal pain. Angiotomography of the abdomen revealed the presence of a large aortic aneurysm with involvement of visceral arteries. Due [...] to the high surgical risk, endovascular repair was proposed, using the chimney graft technique for the preservation of the visceral vessels. This technique is promising because it enables endovascular repair of aneurysms, be it in elective cases, emergencies, or rescue of a visceral artery accidentally covered by an aortic stent graft.

  7. Occurrence and distribution of seismic chimneys associated with gas hydrate using 2D multi-channel seismic data in the Ulleung Basin, East Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Nyeon-keon; Yoo, Dong-geun; Yi, Bo-yeon

    2015-04-01

    This study presents an interpretation of 2D multi-channel seismic data for the seismic chimneys in the Ulleung Basin, East Sea. Based on the geometry, seismic reflection pattern, well log response and lithology, we identified two representative types: (a) Type-I and Type-II. Type-I is pipe-like feature seen as the vertically stacked distorted reflectors in the seismic profile. This type is predominantly distributed on the northern part of the basin floor. Most of Type-I is connected to underlying deep seated fault. The well log response and lithology of Type-I indicate that they preserve the primary properties of sediments. Type-II is cone-like feature seen as transparent or chaotic reflection pattern in the seismic profile. The well log interpretation reveals that the Type-II consists of homogeneous and monotonous mud, different from same stratigraphic level. This type dominantly appeared over the mass transport deposit. Moreover, the distribution of Type-II represents a robust relationship to the underlying structural highs located on the northern and eastern basin floor. Our current study suggests that Type-I is a consequence of the natural hydraulic fracturing and Type-II results from the intrusive sediment remobilization. Indeed, the underlying structural highs and mass transport deposit mainly influenced the distribution of Type-II. The deep-seated fault, reactivated during the Quaternary, probably developed the Type-I.

  8. Solar Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of solar photographic and illustrated datasets contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide....

  9. Solar Indices

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  10. Solar oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Observed frequencies of solar oscillations comprise an extensive and accurate set of data related to the structure and dynamics of the solar interior. The physics determining the oscillation frequencies is sufficiently simple that a very detailed comparison between observations and theory is possible. This has provided tight constraints on the structure of the solar interior, as well as measurements of the variation of the solar rotation with depth. (orig.)

  11. Solar urticaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas C

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A 35-year-old female and a 41-year-old male presented with clinical features suggestive of solar urticaria. The diagnosis of solar urticaria and the effectiveness of a combination of H1 and H2 blocking antihistamines were confirmed by phototesting with a solar simulator

  12. Buying Solar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Joe

    Presented are guidelines for buying solar systems for the individual consumer. This is intended to help the consumer reduce many of the risks associated with the purchase of solar systems, particularly the risks of fraud and deception. Engineering terms associated with solar technology are presented and described to enable the consumer to discuss…

  13. Study on Construction Cost of Construction Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Hui Li

    2009-01-01

    China is a country which has the largest investment amount in engineering construction in the world and which has the most construction projects. It is a significant subject for the extensive engineering managers to have effective engineering cost management in construction project management and to reasonably determine and control construction cost on the condition of ensuring construction quality and time limit.On the basis of the status quo of losing control in Chinese construction investm...

  14. Numerical modelling of the process of heat transference, of the convective flow induced and the power generated in a wind power station; Modelizacion numerica del proceso de transferencia de calor, del flujo convectivo inducido y de la potencia generada en una central eolico solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurtado, F. J.; Kaiser, A. S.; Zamora, B.; Lucas, M.; Viedma, A.

    2008-07-01

    A thermodynamic analysis for solar chimney power plant has been carried out by numerical simulation. A numerical model has been developed using the general purpose code Fluent to study heat transfer and convective flow within the chimney power plant. The {kappa}-{epsilon} turbulence model has been employed. A heat transfer, mass flow and power production numerical analysis has been carried out on different hours during the day, assuming steady state conditions. The numeric values obtained are 10% different from experimental measures. Once model has been validated, a numeric study about flow within power plant, heat transfer and mass flow has been carry out, and the non-dimensional parameters obtained have been compared with studies about free convection. (Author)

  15. Solar Indices - Solar Radio Flux

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  16. Aboriginal consultation report, Amherstburg solar farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-05-15

    First Solar is constructing many solar farms in North America, Europe and Asia, including a planned solar farm in California expected to generate 550 MW of electricity and a completed 80 MW, 1150 acre solar farm in Sarnia, Ontario representing the largest photovoltaic (PV) solar facility in the world. First Solar is now working on the project of constructing a solar farm that will use thin film photovoltaic modules and convert the solar energy into electrical energy for distribution to the local electricity distribution system. This solar farm, identified as a Class 3 solar facility according to the Regulation, is expected to generate 10 MW of electricity. Class 3 solar facilities are renewable energy facilities presenting a name plate power capacity exceeding 10kW and they take place at any location other than a roof or the wall of a building. During the project development process, First Solar will keep on liaising and communicating with the two identified First Nations, the Windsor Essex Metis Council, MNO and the Crown authorities. The purpose of the process will keep on giving a particular attention to identifying any concerns raising from the project, and if some are identified, it will also focus on methods of reducing or preventing related impacts.

  17. System for solar heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The system shall be used in the construction of the so-called solar houses. The solar water collector and the water accumulator of the system are united in a compact element being interconnected by considerably shorter connections. The system includes a solar water collector and water accumulator. The collector circuit is formed by a lower and upper horizontal pipe interconnected by connection pipes bent at a right angle and vertical pipe connections fitted in the water accumulator. The water accumulator also houses second connection pipes bent at 900 belonging to the heating circuit. They conned a second lower horizontal pipe and a second upper horizontal pipe which are interconnected, and to second vertical pipes forming a radiator body. ( Patent for inventions, page 63, Patent abstracts of Bulgaria, No. 12 /1998).(author)

  18. Integrated photoelectrochemical energy storage: solar hydrogen generation and supercapacitor

    OpenAIRE

    Xinhui Xia; Jingshan Luo; Zhiyuan Zeng; Cao Guan; Yongqi Zhang; Jiangping Tu; Hua Zhang; Hong Jin Fan

    2012-01-01

    Current solar energy harvest and storage are so far realized by independent technologies (such as solar cell and batteries), by which only a fraction of solar energy is utilized. It is highly desirable to improve the utilization efficiency of solar energy. Here, we construct an integrated photoelectrochemical device with simultaneous supercapacitor and hydrogen evolution functions based on TiO2/transition metal hydroxides/oxides core/shell nanorod arrays. The feasibility of solar-driven pseud...

  19. Solar interior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Glossary is designed to be a technical dictionary that will provide solar workers of various specialities, students, other astronomers and theoreticians with concise information on the nature and properties of phenomena of solar and solar-terrestrial physics. Each term, or group of related terms, is given a concise phenomenological and quantitative description including the relationship to other phenomena and an interpretation in terms of physical processes. The references are intended to lead the non-specialist reader into the literature. This section deals with: solar standard model; internal rotation; energy generation; solar neutrinos; convection zone; convective theory; and Boussinesq assumption. (B.R.H.)

  20. Solar Energy: Solar System Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on solar system economics is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies.…

  1. Solar Energy: Solar System Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on solar system economics is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies.…

  2. Movable air solar collector and its efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Implementing the guidelines of the Latvian National Programme for Energy in the field of alternative energy, intensive research shall be carried on regarding the use of solar energy, as it can be successfully used not only for the purposes of water heating and production of electrical energy, but also for air warming. The amount of heat necessary for the drying of rough forage and grain drying by active aeration in June, July and August can be obtained using solar radiation. The Latvian Guidelines for the Energy Development 2006-2016 state that the solar radiance in Latvia is of quite low intensity. The total amount of solar energy is 1109 kWh m-2 per year. The period of usage of the solar thermal energy is beginning from the last decade of April, when the intensity of radiation is 120 kWh m-2, until the first decade of September. Within this period (approximately 1800 hours), it is possible to use the solar thermal energy by placing solar collectors. The usage of solar collectors for in drying of agricultural production is topical from the viewpoint of decreasing the consumption of energy used for the drying, as electrical energy and fossil energy resources become more expensive and tend to run out. In the processes that concern drying of agricultural production, efficiently enough solar radiation energy can be used. Due to this reason researching continues and expands in the field of usage of solar energy for the processes of drying and heating. The efficiency factor of the existing solar collectors is not high, but they are of simple design and cheep for production and exploitation. By improving the design of the solar collectors and choosing modern materials that absorb the solar radiation energy, it is possible the decrease the efficiency factor of solar collectors and decrease the production costs. In the scientific laboratory of grain drying and storage of Latvia University of Agriculture, a pilot device movable folding solar collector pilot device suitable for Latvia has been developed and constructed. Within the article, the movable folding solar collector is described, which has been constructed as a solar collector of module types for being able to move and unfold it in the place of work. The solar collector serves as an experimental prototype, as well as simultaneously as a ground for comparative researches in solar absorbent air. The solar collector serves as an experimental prototype and simultaneously also as a carrying surface for comparative researches in solar absorbent air. In the researches, the roof coverings available in Latvia and their suitability for construction of solar collectors will be compared. (author)

  3. Design of a Traditional Solar Tracking System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsoum, Nader; Vasant, Pandian

    2010-06-01

    Solar energy is rapidly advancing as an important means of renewable energy resource. More energy is produced by tracking the solar panel to remain aligned to the sun at a right angle to the rays of light. This paper describes in detail the design and construction of a prototype for solar tracking system with two degrees of freedom, which detects the sunlight using photocells. The control circuit for the solar tracker is based on a PIC16F84A microcontroller (MCU). This is programmed to detect the sunlight through the photocells and then actuate the motor to position the solar panel where it can receive maximum sunlight.

  4. Research and development of system to utilize photovoltaic energy. Survey on the high-durability and low-cost materials for constructing the solar-cell module and its structure; Taiyoko hatsuden riyo system no kenkyu. Taiyo denchi module yo kotaikyusei tei cost zairyo, kozo ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsuta, M. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the results obtained during fiscal 1994 on a survey on the high-durability and low-cost materials for constructing the solar-cell module and on its structure. With respect to forms and materials used in the present solar-cell modules, identification was made on the current status of products commercially available and developed inside and outside Japan. Main types of solar cells used for electric power are of crystal-based silicon. Amorphous silicon and CdS-CdTe are used for consumer applications of indoor and outdoor use. As regards transparent resin materials, fluorine resin, PET, acryl, and polyimide are used as surface materials, and EVA, silicon and PVB are often used as fillers. Developments inside and outside Japan are limited to systems of polycarbonate, methacryl, fluorine, polyurethane, acryl and polyester. Butyl rubber and polyurethane are used as sealing materials. Developments are being performed on silicon rubber, polychloroprene rubber and EPT rubber for shaped materials, and silicon systems, urethane systems and polysulfide systems for non-shaped materials. 3 figs., 8 tabs.

  5. Constructing Aligned Assessments Using Automated Test Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Andrew; Polikoff, Morgan S.; Barghaus, Katherine M.; Yang, Rui

    2013-01-01

    We describe an innovative automated test construction algorithm for building aligned achievement tests. By incorporating the algorithm into the test construction process, along with other test construction procedures for building reliable and unbiased assessments, the result is much more valid tests than result from current test construction…

  6. Solar Cracking and Solar Reforming

    OpenAIRE

    Sattler, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Using concentrated solar radiation to heat up traditional chemical process is the straight forward way to introduce such technologies into industrial applications. Therefore solar steam reforming of methane has been tested on solar towers since at least 1989. After a time of rather low activities in the 1990s and early 2000s it is now the most developed high temperature solar process available and probably the first one to be scaled-up into an industrial pilot plant. Solar cracking is much mo...

  7. Shenandoah parabolic dish solar collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, G.S.

    1985-01-01

    The objectives of the Shenandoah, Georgia, Solar Total Energy System are to design, construct, test, and operate a solar energy system to obtain experience with large-scale hardware systems for future applications. This report describes the initial design and testing activities conducted to select and develop a collector that would serve the need of such a solar total energy system. The parabolic dish was selected as the collector most likely to maximize energy collection as required by this specific site. The fabrication, testing, and installation of the parabolic dish collector incorporating improvements identified during the development testing phase are described.

  8. Nice module. Apollon Solar present their new line of solar modules; Nettes Modul. Apollon Solar stellt Linie fuer neuartige Modultechnologie vor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podewils, C.

    2008-06-15

    Solar modules, TGV engines and perfume Zerstaeuber seem to have nothing in common. The new solar module developed by French producer Apollon Solar makes use of both technologies in the construction process. The contribution presents the 'Nice' module which has many new features. (orig.)

  9. Space Solar Power Program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arif, H.; Barbosa, H.; Bardet, C.; Baroud, M.; Behar, A.; Berrier, K.; Berthe, P.; Bertrand, R.; Bibyk, I.; Bisson, J.; Bloch, L.; Bobadilla, G.; Bourque, D.; Bush, L.; Carandang, R.; Chiku, T.; Crosby, N.; De Seixas, M.; De Vries, J.; Doll, S.; Dufour, F.; Eckart, P.; Fahey, M.; Fenot, F.; Foeckersperger, S.; Fontaine, J.E.; Fowler, R.; Frey, H.; Fujio, H.; Gasa, J.M.; Gleave, J.; Godoe, J.; Green, I.; Haeberli, R.; Hanada, T.; Harris, P.; Hucteau, M.; Jacobs, D.F.; Johnson, R.; Kanno, Y.; Koenig, E.M.; Kojima, K.; Kondepudi, P.; Kottbauer, C.; Kuiper, D.; Kulagin, K.; Kumara, P.; Kurz, R.; Laaksonen, J.; Lang, A.N.; Lathan, C.; Le Fur, T.; Lewis, D.; Louis, A.; Mori, T.; Morlanes, J.; Murbach, M.; Nagatomo, H.; O`Brien, I.; Paines, J.; Palaszewski, B.; Palmnaes, U.; Paraschivoiu, M.; Pathare, A.; Perov, E.; Persson, J.; Pessoa-Lopes, I.; Pinto, M.; Porro, I.; Reichert, M.; Ritt-Fischer, M.; Roberts, M.; Robertson, L. II; Rogers, K.; Sasaki, T.; Scire, F.; Shibatou, K.; Shirai, T.; Shiraishi, A.; Soucaille, J.F.; Spivack, N.; St. Pierre, D.; Suleman, A.; Sullivan, T.; Theelen, B.J.; Thonstad, H.; Tsuji, M.; Uchiumi, M.; Vidqvist, J.; Warrell, D.; Watanabe, T.; Wills, R.; Wolf, F.; Yamakawa, H.; Zhao, H.

    1992-08-01

    Information pertaining to the Space Solar Power Program is presented on energy analysis; markets; overall development plan; organizational plan; environmental and safety issues; power systems; space transportation; space manufacturing, construction, & operations; design examples; and finance.

  10. Building and using the solar greenhouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1983-01-01

    Thorough directions are given for planning, constructing and using a solar greenhouse attached to a house. Included is a method of calculating the savings accruing from the use of the greenhouse. (LEW)

  11. Shuttle Engine Designs Revolutionize Solar Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Main Engine was built under contract to Marshall Space Flight Center by Rocketdyne, now part of Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR). PWR applied its NASA experience to solar power technology and licensed the technology to Santa Monica, California-based SolarReserve. The company now develops concentrating solar power projects, including a plant in Nevada that has created 4,300 jobs during construction.

  12. A Theory of Acoustics in Solar Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Himanshu Dehra

    2013-01-01

    A novel theory of acoustics in solar energy supporting the principle of source and sink of solar energy is presented. The significance of the theory is in ascertaining the aftermaths of turning off solar energy. An amplifier constituting of a parallel plate photovoltaic device connected to a potentiometer is illustrated. It was constructed with a pair of glass coated photovoltaic modules and polystyrene filled plywood board as back panel with air ventilation through a parallel plate channel ...

  13. Solar neutrino with Borexino: results and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Smirnov, O.; Bellini, G.; Benziger, J.; Bick, D; Bonfini, G.; Bravo, D.; Caccianiga, B.; Calaprice, F.; Caminata, A.; Cavalcante, P.; Chavarria, A.; Chepurnov, A.; D'Angelo, D.; Davini, S.(Department of Physics, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204, USA); Derbin, A.

    2014-01-01

    Borexino is a unique detector able to perform measurement of solar neutrinos fluxes in the energy region around 1 MeV or below due to its low level of radioactive background. It was constructed at the LNGS underground laboratory with a goal of solar $^{7}$Be neutrino flux measurement with 5\\% precision. The goal has been successfully achieved marking the end of the first stage of the experiment. A number of other important measurements of solar neutrino fluxes have been perf...

  14. Solar heat utilization for adsorption cooling device

    OpenAIRE

    Malcho Milan; Patsch Marek; Pilát Peter

    2012-01-01

    This article deals with possibility of solar system connection with adsorption cooling system. Waste heat from solar collectors in summer is possible to utilize in adsorption cooling systems, which desorption temperatures have to be lower than temperature of heat transport medium operation temperature. For verification of work of this system was constructed on the Department of power engineering on University of Zilina solar adsorption cooling device.

  15. Solar Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Oriel Corporation's simulators have a high pressure xenon lamp whose reflected light is processed by an optical system to produce a uniform solar beam. Because of many different types of applications, the simulators must be adjustable to replicate many different areas of the solar radiation spectrum. Simulators are laboratory tools for such purposes as testing and calibrating solar cells, or other solar energy systems, testing dyes, paints and pigments, pharmaceuticals and cosmetic preparations, plant and animal studies, food and agriculture studies and oceanographic research.

  16. Design of SMART waste heat removal dry cooling tower using solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 85% of cooling system are once-through cooling system and closed cycle wet cooling system. However, many countries are trying to reduce the power plant water requirement due to the water shortage and water pollution. Dry cooling system is investigated for water saving advantage. There are two dry cooling system which are direct and indirect cooling system. In direct type, turbine exhaust is directly cooled by air-cooled condenser. In indirect system, turbine steam is cooled by recirculating intermediate cooling water loop, then the loop is cooled by air-cooled heat exchanger in cooling tower. In this paper, the purpose is to remove SMART waste heat, 200MW by using newly designed tower. The possibility of enhancing cooling performance by solar energy is analyzed. The simple cooling tower and solar energy cooling tower are presented and two design should meet the purpose of removing SMART waste heat, 200MW. In first design, when tower diameter is 70m, the height of tower should be 360m high. In second design, the chimney height decrease from 360m to 180m as collector radius increase from 100m to 500m due to collector temperature enhancement by solar energy, To analyze solar cooling tower further, consideration of solar energy performance at night should be analyzed

  17. Design of SMART waste heat removal dry cooling tower using solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yong Jae; Jeong, Yong Hoon [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The 85% of cooling system are once-through cooling system and closed cycle wet cooling system. However, many countries are trying to reduce the power plant water requirement due to the water shortage and water pollution. Dry cooling system is investigated for water saving advantage. There are two dry cooling system which are direct and indirect cooling system. In direct type, turbine exhaust is directly cooled by air-cooled condenser. In indirect system, turbine steam is cooled by recirculating intermediate cooling water loop, then the loop is cooled by air-cooled heat exchanger in cooling tower. In this paper, the purpose is to remove SMART waste heat, 200MW by using newly designed tower. The possibility of enhancing cooling performance by solar energy is analyzed. The simple cooling tower and solar energy cooling tower are presented and two design should meet the purpose of removing SMART waste heat, 200MW. In first design, when tower diameter is 70m, the height of tower should be 360m high. In second design, the chimney height decrease from 360m to 180m as collector radius increase from 100m to 500m due to collector temperature enhancement by solar energy, To analyze solar cooling tower further, consideration of solar energy performance at night should be analyzed.

  18. Solar Energy Education. Industrial arts: student activities. Field test edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-02-01

    In this teaching manual several activities are presented to introduce students to information on solar energy through classroom instruction. Wind power is also included. Instructions for constructing demonstration models for passive solar systems, photovoltaic cells, solar collectors and water heaters, and a bicycle wheel wind turbine are provided. (BCS)

  19. Solar in the Krimea; Sonne ueber der Krim

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahrens, Ralph Heinrich

    2011-09-21

    Ukraine offers high reimbursement rates to potential investors in solar energy. One of these is Activ Solar, seated in Vienna. The company is currently modernizing a former Soviet silicon factory and is also constructing one of the world's biggest solar farms on the Krimea.

  20. Solar prominences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanism of formation and the dynamics of different types of solar prominences and dark and bright solar flairs is described in a popularized form. One tries to explain the dynamics of the prominences as the result of the interactions of magnetic forces, the gas pressure and gravity. The work is illustrated with photographs and diagrams

  1. Solar window

    OpenAIRE

    ??????, ??????? ??????????; ??????, ??????? ??????????; Usenko, Nataliia Mykolaivna; Oliinyk, I.V.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years various companies are developing technology to turn ordinary windows into solar panels. And now the U.S. firm New Energy Technologies has also decided to compete in the creation of new sources of energy generation, providing SolarWindow. When you are citing the document, use the following link http://essuir.sumdu.edu.ua/handle/123456789/22075

  2. Solar Sprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabor, Richard; Anderson, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    In the "Solar Sprint" activity, students design, test, and race a solar-powered car built with Legos. The use of ratios is incorporated to simulate the actual work of scientists and engineers. This method encourages fourth-grade students to think about multiple variables and stimulates their curiosity when an activity doesn't come out as…

  3. The NASA Langley building solar project and the supporting Lewis solar technology program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragsdale, R. G.; Namkoong, D.

    1974-01-01

    The use of solar energy to heat and cool a new office building that is now under construction is reported. Planned for completion in December 1975, the 53,000 square foot, single story building will utilize 15,000 square feet of various types of solar collectors in a test bed to provide nearly all of the heating demand and over half of the air conditioning demand. Drawing on its space-program-developed skills and resources in heat transfer, materials, and systems studies, NASA-Lewis will provide technology support for the Langley building project. A solar energy technology program underway at Lewis includes solar collector testing in an indoor solar simulator facility and in an outdoor test facility, property measurements of solar panel coatings, and operation of a laboratory-scale solar model system test facility. Based on results obtained in this program, NASA-Lewis will select and procure the solar collectors for the Langley test bed.

  4. Solar thermal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While wind power is widely acknowledged as the most developed of the 'new' renewables, the number two technology, in terms of installed capacity functioning worldwide, is solar heating, or solar thermal. The author has investigated recent industry reports on how these markets are developing. The authors of an International Energy Agency (IEA) survey studied 41 countries in depth at the end of 2004, revealing that 141 million m3 - corresponding to an installed capacity of 98.4 GWth - were installed in the sample countries (these nations represent 3.74 billion people, about 57% of the world's population). The installed capacity within the areas studied represents approximately 85%-90% of the solar thermal market worldwide. The use of solar heating varies greatly between countries - even close neighbours - and between economic regions. Its uptake often has more to do with policy than solar resource. There is also different uptake of technology. In China, Europe and Japan, plants with flat-plate and evacuated tube collectors are used, mainly to heat water and for space heating. Unglazed plastic collectors, used mainly for swimming pool heating, meanwhile, dominate the North American markets. Though the majority of solar heating installations today are installed on domestic rooftops, the larger-scale installations should not be overlooked. One important part of the market is the hotel sector - in particular hotels in locations that serve the seasonal summer holiday market, where solar is extremely effective. Likewise hospitals and residential homes, multi-family apartment blocks and sports centres are all good examples of places where solar thermal can deliver results. There are also a growing number of industrial applications, where solar thermal can meet the hot water needs (and possibly more) of a range of industries, such as food processing and agriculture. The ability of solar to provide a heat source for cooling is expected to become increasingly important as fuel and electricity prices - and global temperatures - continue their upward curve

  5. New instruments for solar research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, David M.; O'Byrne, John W.; Sterner, Raymond E., II

    1990-01-01

    In fulfilment of its goal to develop early detection and warning of emerging solar magnetic fields, the Center for Applied Solar Physics (CASP) has designed and constructed a solar vector magnetograph (VMG) that will provide unique data on the sunspot regions where flares originate. The instrument is reportedly beginning to approach its goals of measuring all three components of the solar magnetic field with a sensitivity of 50 to 100 G and a spatial resolution on the sun of about 700 km (1 arcsec). Importance of new high-resolution capabilities is stressed and the interpretation of VMG measurements is discussed. The performance of the solar VMG, installed in a 6-m dome at the National Solar Observatory at Sacramento Peak in Sunspot, New Mexico, and its construction and environment are described; particular attention is given to the use and function of the filters. Initial results are examined, including a description and analysis of a magnetogram obtained after installation of an improved blocking filter.

  6. Solar energy; Aurinkoenergia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1998-12-01

    The newsletter discusses different means of using solar radiation and it is divided into four part. The topics discussed are: (1) Solar energy and availability of solar energy in Finland; (2) Solar photovoltaic energy including the solar power applications, solar panels, storage of solar power, control units for solar power systems, dimensioning and assembly of solar power systems, energy production of solar power systems, power consumption of the solar power applications, the solar power applications connected to power transmission networks, and self-sufficient solar power systems; (3) Solar thermal including active solar heating, solar collectors, storage of solar heat, dimensioning and assembly of solar heating systems; (4) Passive utilization of solar energy including the passive basic solutions, direct utilization of solar energy, and the positioning of the rooms

  7. Solar energy: photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This textbooks covers the following topics: foundations of photovoltaics, solar energy, P-N junctions, physics of solar cells, high-efficiency solar cells, technology of Si solar cells, other solar cells, photovoltaic applications. (orig.)

  8. Papers presented at ISES solar world congress 1993 in Budapest, Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papers presented at the ISES Solar World Congress 1993 by researchers employed at the Thermal Insulation Laboratory at the Technical University of Denmark. The subjects dealt with are: the design of small domestic hot water low-flow solar heating systems, heat storage for large low-flow solar heating systems, the monitoring of Danish marketed solar heating systems, conversion of indoor measurements to outdoor long term performances for low flow solar collectors, optimum ventilation rate of solar collectors, the construction of seasonal heat storage based on a pit with clay membrane, a solar house with a new solar collector, and a framing system for solar wall glazings. (AB)

  9. Solar Optimization in Urban Design

    OpenAIRE

    Magureanu, Andrei-Florin

    2014-01-01

    The thesis attempts to construct a framework for urban design by finding an optimal balance between urban density and solar access. It presents the results of running a multiple objective optimization process on a predesigned urban grid, in order to find the spatial configuration that performs the best both urban density-wise and having the best facade radiation.

  10. Prototype solar domestic hot water systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Construction of a double wall heat exchanger using soft copper tube coiled around a hot water storage tank was completed and preliminary tests were conducted. Solar transport water to tank potable water heat exchange tests were performed with a specially constructed test stand. Work was done to improve the component hardware and system design for the solar water heater. The installation of both a direct feed system and a double wall heat exchanger system provided experience and site data to enable informative decisions to be made as the solar market expands into areas where freeze protection is required.

  11. Concrete construction engineering handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Nawy, Edward G

    2008-01-01

    Provides coverage of concrete construction engineering and technology. This work features discussions focusing on: the advances in engineered concrete materials; reinforced concrete construction; specialized construction techniques; and, design recommendations for high performance.

  12. Closeout of the award DE-FG02-05ER46223. Trustees of the University of Pennsylvania. Project title- "Modular Designed Protein Constructions for Solar Generated H2 From Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, P. Leslie [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2015-02-18

    As the title of the grant clearly states, this project has explores a unique way that makes use of manmade proteins to turn solar energy into chemical fuels. A major impetus to the work is that there is growing support for the view that two related forces will impact on future livability of Earth. The first is the finite supply of fossil fuels to power the Earth making it prudent to save this resource for the creation of useful chemicals. The second is that burning fossil fuels to generate power releases “greenhouse” gases into the atmosphere. There is mounting evidence that this is a major contribution to the warming trend in the Earth’s atmosphere and biosphere.

  13. Thermal losses od solar distiller assisted with accumulator solar collector; Perdidas termicas del destilador solar asistido con colector solar acumalador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteban, C.; Fasulo, A.; Franco, J.

    2004-07-01

    In the Laboratory of Solar Energy of the National University of San Luis (Argentina), we have developed and tested a solar collector accumulator of simple characteristics. The same one consists in a tank of stainless steel, covered with black paint, circular section, and thermically protected with several layers of alveolar polycarbonate. It was considered that a good application for this device would be the feeding thermal assistant for a basin-type distiller. It was constructed and the new solar distiller's behavior was evaluated. With the purpose of introducing improvements in the new still we study their thermal losses. We find that to increase the efficiency of the new device it is necessary: to diminish the thermal losses increasing the insulation, and to increase the efficiency in the collection of solar radiation. (Author)

  14. How to transform an asphalt concrete pavement into a solar turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We create a system for harvesting energy from asphalt concrete. • We create an artificial porosity in the asphalt concrete. • We connect a chimney to this porosity. • Differences in temperature produce an air flow. • This air flow serves also for cooling down the pavement. - Abstract: Asphalt concrete can absorb a considerable amount of the incident solar radiation. For this reason asphalt roads could be used as solar collectors. There have been different attempts to achieve this goal. All of them have been done by integrating pipes conducting liquid, through the structure of the asphalt concrete. The problem of this system is that all pipes need to be interconnected: if one is broken, the liquid will come out and damage the asphalt concrete. To overcome these limitations, in this article, an alternative concept is proposed:parallel air conduits, where air can circulate will be integrated in the pavement structure. The idea is to connect these artificial pore volumes in the pavement to an updraft or to a downdraft chimney. Differences of temperature between the pavement and the environment can be used to create an air flow, which would allow wind turbines to produce an amount of energy and that would cool the pavement down in summer or even warm it up in winter. To demonstrate that this is possible, an asphalt concrete prototype has been created and basics calculations on the parameters affecting the system have been done. It has been found that different temperatures, volumes of air inside the asphalt and the difference of temperature between the asphalt concrete and the environment are critical to maximize the air flow through the pavement. Moreover, it has been found that this system can be also used to reduce the heat island effect

  15. Advanced Technology Solar Telescope project management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, J.; Hansen, E.; Hubbard, R.; Rimmele, T. R.; Keil, S.

    2010-07-01

    The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) has recently received National Science Foundation (NSF) approval to begin the construction process. ATST will be the most powerful solar telescope and the world's leading resource for studying solar magnetism that controls the solar wind, flares, coronal mass ejections and variability in the Sun's output. This paper gives an overview of the project, and describes the project management principles and practices that have been developed to optimize both the project's success as well as meeting requirements of the project's funding agency.

  16. Solar powered multipurpose remotely powered aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrou, A. N.; Durgin, W. W.; Cohn, R. F.; Olinger, D. J.; Cody, Charlotte K.; Chan, Agnes; Cheung, Kwok-Hung; Conley, Kristin; Crivelli, Paul M.; Javorski, Christian T.

    1992-01-01

    Increase in energy demands coupled with rapid depletion of natural energy resources have deemed solar energy as an attractive alternative source of power. The focus was to design and construct a solar powered, remotely piloted vehicle to demonstrate the feasibility of solar energy as an effective, alternate source of power. The final design included minimizing the power requirements and maximizing the strength-to-weight and lift-to-drag ratios. Given the design constraints, Surya (the code-name given to the aircraft), is a lightweight aircraft primarily built using composite materials and capable of achieving level flight powered entirely by solar energy.

  17. Nanowire-based All Oxide Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang*, Benjamin D. Yuhas and Peidong; Yang, Peidong

    2008-12-07

    We present an all-oxide solar cell fabricated from vertically oriented zinc oxide nanowires and cuprous oxide nanoparticles. Our solar cell consists of vertically oriented n-type zinc oxide nanowires, surrounded by a film constructed from p-type cuprous oxide nanoparticles. Our solution-based synthesis of inexpensive and environmentally benign oxide materials in a solar cell would allow for the facile production of large-scale photovoltaic devices. We found that the solar cell performance is enhanced with the addition of an intermediate oxide insulating layer between the nanowires and the nanoparticles. This observation of the important dependence of the shunt resistance on the photovoltaic performance is widely applicable to any nanowire solar cell constructed with the nanowire array in direct contact with one electrode.

  18. Solar Energy Education. Reader, Part IV. Sun schooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    A collection of magazine articles which focus on solar energy is presented. This is the final book of the four part series of the Solar Energy Reader. The articles include brief discussions on energy topics such as the sun, ocean energy, methane gas from cow manure, and solar homes. Instructions for constructing a sundial and a solar stove are also included. A glossary of energy related terms is provided. (BCS)

  19. Determination of thermal performance of solar air heater

    OpenAIRE

    Kozak, Christina; Zhelykh, Vasil

    2013-01-01

    Considered the basic aspects of passive solar building. Given the main types of solar air heating systems. Proposed heating and ventilation system at the basis of solar air heater. Constructed fourfactors nomohram for determining thermal power of the thermosiphon heliocollector. Obtained analytical dependence of the amount heat of thermo heliocollector from the differential temprature air inlet and outlet, of the area input and output apertures of solar collector, heat fl...

  20. Solar air heaters for industrial drying; Aquecedor solar de ar para secagem industrial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braga, Everaldo Mendes [Governo do Estado da Paraiba, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Secretaria de Planejamento e Gestao

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this study is to encourage the use of solar energy in industrial drying of fruits, with the producers poles, at the same time, promote the rational use of energy for heat, or replacing the hydroelectric and oil derivatives for this purpose. This study is presented in the following chapters: availability of solar energy; details of constructive solar heated air; drying fruit; market. (author)

  1. Construction management versus construction project management

    OpenAIRE

    Howes, Christopher John

    2010-01-01

    Within the South African construction industry today, the terms Construction Management and Construction Project Management are used by professionals when in fact they themselves are unsure of the exact definition and description of what each profession entails in adequate detail. This treatise aims to address that issue. It describes in detail exactly what each profession entails as well as highlighting software, systems and programs that both professions would need and be able to adeq...

  2. ASPEC: Solar power satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The solar power satellite (SPS) will provide a clean, reliable source of energy for large-scale consumption. The system will use satellites in geostationary orbits around the Earth to capture the Sun's energy. The intercepted sunlight will be converted to laser beam energy that can be transmitted to the Earth's surface. Ground systems on the Earth will convert the transmissions from space into electric power. The preliminary design for the SPS consists of one satellite in orbit around the Earth transmitting energy to a single ground station. The SPS design uses multilayer solar cell technology arranged on a 20 km squared planar array to intercept sunlight and convert it to an electric voltage. Power conditioning devices then send the electricity to a laser, which transmits the power to the surface of the Earth. A ground station will convert the beam into electricity. Typically, a single SPS will supply 5 GW of power to the ground station. Due to the large mass of the SPS, about 41 million kg, construction in space is needed in order to keep the structural mass low. The orbit configuration for this design is to operate a single satellite in geosynchronous orbit (GEO). The GEO allows the system to be positioned above a single receiving station and remain in sunlight 99 percent of the time. Construction will take place in low Earth orbit (LEO); array sections, 20 in total, will be sailed on solar wind out to the GEO location in 150 days. These individual transportation sections are referred to as solar sailing array panels (SSAP's). The primary truss elements used to support the array are composed of composite tubular members in a pentahedral arrangement. Smart segments consisting of passive and active damping devices will increase the control of dynamic SPS modes.

  3. Solar energy technologies and project delivery for buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Walker, Andy

    2013-01-01

    Solar Energy is an authoritative reference on the design of solar energy systems in building projects, with applications, operating principles, and simple tools for the construction, engineering, and design professional. The book simplifies the solar design and engineering process, providing sample documentation and special tools that provide all the information needed for the complete design of a solar energy system for buildings to enable mainstream MEP and design firms, and not just solar energy specialists, to meet the growing demand for solar energy systems in building projects.

  4. Solar Radio

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Scientists monitor the structure of the solar corona, the outer most regions of the Sun's atmosphere, using radio waves (100?s of MHz to 10?s of GHz). Variations in...

  5. Solar prominences

    CERN Document Server

    Engvold, Oddbjørn

    2015-01-01

    This volume presents the latest research results on solar prominences, including new developments on e.g. chirality, fine structure, magnetism, diagnostic tools and relevant solar plasma physics. In 1875 solar prominences, as seen out of the solar limb, were described by P.A. Secchi in his book Le Soleil as "gigantic pink or peach-flower coloured flames". The development of spectroscopy, coronagraphy and polarimetry brought tremendous observational advances in the twentieth century. The authors present and discuss exciting new challenges (resulting from observations made by space and ground-based telescopes in the 1990s and the first decade of the 21st century) concerning the diagnostics of prominences, their formation, their life time and their eruption along with their impact in the heliosphere (including the Earth). The book starts with a general introduction of the prominence “object” with some historical background on observations and instrumentation. In the next chapter, the various forms of promine...

  6. Solar flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerous phenomena in low and high temperature solar flares are reviewed. Attention is paid to observations in the H? line, e.g. the motions in flares and the relation of flares to magnetic fields, and to other aspects of the chromospheric low temperature flare spectra. The impulsive non-thermal effects observed in X-ray, EUV and radio spectral regions are presented as high temperature flare phenomena together with the thermal flare effects that are two or three orders of magnitude hotter than the chromospheric part of the flare. Non-thermal and thermal effects, e.g. coronal condensations, various aspects of soft X-ray emission and gradual microwave bursts, are coupled in the high temperature flare regions in the solar corona. Attention is paid to flare associated optical phenomena. The emission of particles from solar flares is discussed. A survey of various models dealing with different aspects of solar flares is presented

  7. Solar neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    General considerations on solar neutrinos are presented here. Detection experiment foreseen and completed are examined under a critical point of view. Our attention is focused on Indium detector using superconducting grains or tunnel junctions. Working plan is described

  8. Solar flair.

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel, John S.

    2003-01-01

    Design innovations and government-sponsored financial incentives are making solar energy increasingly attractive to homeowners and institutional customers such as school districts. In particular, the passive solar design concept of daylighting is gaining favor among educators due to evidence of improved performance by students working in daylit classrooms. Electricity-generating photovoltaic systems are also becoming more popular, especially in states such as California that have high electri...

  9. Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    The Heat Exchanger Method (HEM) produces high efficiency crystal ingots in an automated well-insulated furnace offering low equipment, labor and energy costs. The "grown" silicon crystals are used to make solar cells, or photovoltaic cells which convert sunlight directly into electricity. The HEM method is used by Crystal Systems, Inc. and was developed under a NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory contract. The square wafers which are the result of the process are sold to companies manufacturing solar panels.

  10. Push-Pull Ventilation in a Painting Shop for Large Steel Constructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svidt, Kjeld; Heiselberg, Per

    This paper describes the analysis of a push-pull ventilation system for a painting shop that is used for painting steel chimneys and windmill towers.......This paper describes the analysis of a push-pull ventilation system for a painting shop that is used for painting steel chimneys and windmill towers....

  11. Employment impacts of solar energy in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cetin, Muejgan, E-mail: mujgan@sistemyon.com.tr [SISTEM Yoenetim Danismanligi Ltd. Sti. Atatuerk Cad. Ulastirici sok. Eris Sitesi A Blok No:3/7 Sahrayicedid-Erenkoey Istanbul (Turkey); Egrican, Niluefer [Suntek International Orhangazi Cad. No:54/A Dragos- Istanbul (Turkey)

    2011-11-15

    Solar energy is considered a key source for the future, not only for Turkey, also for all of the world. Therefore the development and usage of solar energy technologies are increasingly becoming vital for sustainable economic development. The main objective of this study is investigating the employment effects of solar energy industry in Turkey. Some independent reports and studies, which analyze the economic and employment impacts of solar energy industry in the world have been reviewed. A wide range of methods have been used in those studies in order to calculate and to predict the employment effects. Using the capacity targets of the photovoltaic (PV) and concentrated solar power (CSP) plants in the solar Roadmap of Turkey, the prediction of the direct and indirect employment impacts to Turkey's economy is possible. As a result, solar energy in Turkey would be the primary source of energy demand and would have a big employment effects on the economics. That can only be achieved with the support of governmental feed-in tariff policies of solar energy and by increasing research-development funds. - Highlights: > The objective of the study, is investigating employment effects of solar energy. > Using the capacity targets of the PV and CSP plants in solar roadmap of Turkey. > Direct employment has been calculated by constructing of the solar power plant. > If multiplier effect is accepted as 2, total employment will be doubled. > Validity of the figures depends on the government's policies.

  12. Solar generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solar energy might become the main energy resource for mankind in the next 50 years. The author describes the assets of photovoltaic energy and helio-thermodynamics and reviews the conditions required for such a future. The first condition is an integrated approach for the development of solar energy in buildings, it means to develop in parallel the use of low-power appliances, to insulate buildings, to use daylight. Secondly to find an efficient solution to store solar energy. In the building sector this solution could be the use of solar energy (through solar panels) and geothermal heat pump to be able to recover in winter the calories caught in summer and stored in the ground. In a warmer and warmer world, the production of cold from solar calories has the advantage of sparing electricity and to make the demand for calories corresponding with the peak of the resource. A graph shows that the expected cost of photovoltaic electricity in 2020 will be half the 2011 cost and will correspond to the retail price of electricity. (A.C.)

  13. Toward a Heat Recovery Chimney

    OpenAIRE

    Min Pan; Zhen Gao; Yuelei Yang; Dan Zhang

    2011-01-01

    The worldwide population increase and subsequent surge in energy demand leads electricity producers to increase supply in an attempt to generate larger profit margins. However, with Global Climate Change becoming a greater focus in engineering, it is critical for energy to be converted in as environmentally benign a way as possible. There are different sustainable methods to meet the energy demand. However, the focus of this research is in the area of Waste Heat Recovery. The waste heat store...

  14. Effect of solar-terrestrial phenomena on solar cell's efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is assumed that the solar cell efficiency of PV device is closely related to the solar irradiance, consider the solar parameter Global Solar Irradiance (G) and the meteorological parameters like daily data of Earth Skin Temperature (E), Average Temperature (T), Relative Humidity (H) and Dew Frost Point (D), for the coastal city Karachi and a non-coastal city Jacobabad, K and J is used as a subscripts for parameters of Karachi and Jacobabad respectively. All variables used here are dependent on the location (latitude and longitude) of our stations except G. To employ ARIMA modeling, the first eighteen years data is used for modeling and forecast is done for the last five years data. In most cases results show good correlation among monthly actual and monthly forecasted values of all the predictors. Next, multiple linear regression is employed to the data obtained by ARIMA modeling and models for mean monthly observed G values are constructed. For each station, two equations are constructed, the R values are above 93% for each model, showing adequacy of the fit. Our computations show that solar cell efficiency can be increased if better modeling for meteorological predictors governs the process. (author)

  15. High Efficiency Dye-sensitized Solar Cells Constructed with Composites of TiO2 and the Hot-bubbling Synthesized Ultra-Small SnO2 Nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xiaoli; Zhou, Ru; Zhang, Shouwei; Ding, Liping; Wan, Lei; Qin, Shengxian; Chen, Zhesheng; Xu, Jinzhang; Miao, Shiding

    2016-01-01

    An efficient photo-anode for the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) should have features of high loading of dye molecules, favorable band alignments and good efficiency in electron transport. Herein, the 3.4?nm-sized SnO2 nanocrystals (NCs) of high crystallinity, synthesized via the hot-bubbling method, were incorporated with the commercial TiO2 (P25) particles to fabricate the photo-anodes. The optimal percentage of the doped SnO2 NCs was found at ~7.5% (SnO2/TiO2, w/w), and the fabricated DSSC delivers a power conversion efficiency up to 6.7%, which is 1.52 times of the P25 based DSSCs. The ultra-small SnO2 NCs offer three benefits, (1) the incorporation of SnO2 NCs enlarges surface areas of the photo-anode films, and higher dye-loading amounts were achieved; (2) the high charge mobility provided by SnO2 was confirmed to accelerate the electron transport, and the photo-electron recombination was suppressed by the highly-crystallized NCs; (3) the conduction band minimum (CBM) of the SnO2 NCs was uplifted due to the quantum size effects, and this was found to alleviate the decrement in the open-circuit voltage. This work highlights great contributions of the SnO2 NCs to the improvement of the photovoltaic performances in the DSSCs. PMID:26758941

  16. High Efficiency Dye-sensitized Solar Cells Constructed with Composites of TiO2 and the Hot-bubbling Synthesized Ultra-Small SnO2 Nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xiaoli; Zhou, Ru; Zhang, Shouwei; Ding, Liping; Wan, Lei; Qin, Shengxian; Chen, Zhesheng; Xu, Jinzhang; Miao, Shiding

    2016-01-01

    An efficient photo-anode for the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) should have features of high loading of dye molecules, favorable band alignments and good efficiency in electron transport. Herein, the 3.4?nm-sized SnO2 nanocrystals (NCs) of high crystallinity, synthesized via the hot-bubbling method, were incorporated with the commercial TiO2 (P25) particles to fabricate the photo-anodes. The optimal percentage of the doped SnO2 NCs was found at ~7.5% (SnO2/TiO2, w/w), and the fabricated DSSC delivers a power conversion efficiency up to 6.7%, which is 1.52 times of the P25 based DSSCs. The ultra-small SnO2 NCs offer three benefits, (1) the incorporation of SnO2 NCs enlarges surface areas of the photo-anode films, and higher dye-loading amounts were achieved; (2) the high charge mobility provided by SnO2 was confirmed to accelerate the electron transport, and the photo-electron recombination was suppressed by the highly-crystallized NCs; (3) the conduction band minimum (CBM) of the SnO2 NCs was uplifted due to the quantum size effects, and this was found to alleviate the decrement in the open-circuit voltage. This work highlights great contributions of the SnO2 NCs to the improvement of the photovoltaic performances in the DSSCs. PMID:26758941

  17. Solar Features - Solar Flares - SIDS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Sudden Ionospheric Disturbance (SID) is any of several radio propagation anomalies due to ionospheric changes resulting from solar or geophysical events.

  18. A partitioned central solar receiver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Else of solar energy as substitute for conventional fuels at a competitive cost requires efficient conversion from solar radiation to usable forms of energy. In solar thermal or thermochemical applications, high efficiency usually re- quires high temperature and high concentration of incoming radiation. The main form of energy loss from high temperature solar central receivers is thermal emission ('re radiation'), at an effective temperature close to the maximum receiver temperature. This loss is reduced if the aperture is divided into segments, most of which are maintained at lower temperatures. A two-stage partitioned receiver demonstrating this concept is under construction at the Weizman Solar Tower. The high-temperature stage is the DIAPR (Directly Irradiated Annular Pressurized Receiver). The low-temperature stage is made of tubular cavity receivers of simpler design. Preliminary optical and thermal design of the partitioned receiver is presented. For the design exit temperature of 1500 K, the aperture size of the partitioned receiver is about 60% of the equivalent single-stage receiver, indicating a significant increase of conversion efficiency. The exit temperature of the low-temperature stage is around 1100 K, allowing simpler design and inexpensive construction. (authors)

  19. The HERMES Solar Atlas and the spectroscopic analysis of the seismic solar analogue KIC3241581

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, P G; Van Reeth, T; Tkachenko, A; Raskin, G; van Winckel, H; Nascimento, J -D do; Salabert, D; Corsaro, E; Garcia, R A

    2015-01-01

    Solar-analog stars provide an excellent opportunity to study the Sun's evolution, i.e. the changes with time in stellar structure, activity, or rotation for solar-like stars. The unparalleled photometric data from the NASA space telescope Kepler allows us to study and characterise solar-like stars through asteroseismology. We aim to spectroscopically investigate the fundamental parameter and chromospheric activity of solar analogues and twins, based on observations obtained with the HERMES spectrograph and combine them with asteroseismology. Therefore, we need to build a solar atlas for the spectrograph, to provide accurate calibrations of the spectroscopically determined abundances of solar and late type stars observed with this instrument and thus perform differential spectral comparisons. We acquire high-resolution and high signal-to-noise spectroscopy to construct three solar reference spectra by observing the reflected light of Vesta and Victoria asteroids and Europa (100

  20. North Germany is gaining ground in solar power generation; Der Norden holt beim Sonnenstrom auf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2011-10-15

    In 2010, the North German states of Brandenburg and Schleswig-Holstein took second and third place in the construction of new solar systems. Bavaria is still leading. The capacity increase in the solar sector substitutes one nuclear power station.