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Sample records for constructal solar chimney

  1. Solar chimney

    Solar Chimney is an interesting unconventional method for production of electricity from the sun. It consists of a large greenhouse which purpose is to heat the air and create air flow directing it to the base of the chimney and then through the pressure-staged turbine array. Solar Chimney can be used for pick load operation. Australia plans 200 MW solar plant for the and of 2004, which will be the tallest man made structure in the world with a height of almost 1 km and greenhouse diameter reaching 7.5 km. It is a result of Australia's commitment to find alternative energy solutions in order to reduce the environmental impact of fossil and nuclear technologies for electric power production. (Author)

  2. Inclined solar chimney for power production

    Highlights: → Solar energy harnessing using inclined face of high mountains as solar chimney. → Solar chimneys with structural stability, ease of construction and lower cost. → Mathematical model developed, using complete (mechanical and thermal) energy balance. → Can harness wind power also, as wind velocities at mountain top add to power output. → Air temperature and velocity increase, as air rises in inclined chimney. - Abstract: The present concept of solar chimney is a tall vertical chimney constructed at the center of a large area, which is the collector. This creates questions about stability and economic viability of the chimney and also demands elaborate engineering techniques for constructing a tall chimney. We suggest geometry of 'Inclined Solar Chimney' (ISC), which is constructed along the face of a high rising mountain, on which maximum solar insolation is incident throughout the year. The chimney and the collector get merged here. This makes the structure stable, cost effective and easy for construction. A mathematical model has been developed considering the total energy balance. It predicts the temperature and velocity and kinetic power of the emerging air draft for some chosen values of other parameters. The model also shows the proportion in which absorbed solar energy is divided into different forms, and hence predicts the dependence of kinetic of emerging air draft upon dimensions of the chimney and properties of materials used. Further, it is shown that external winds enhance the kinetic power of the emerging air. Thus ISC can also harness the wind energy, available at the top of the mountain.

  3. Experimental Investigations on Performance and Design Parameters of Solar Chimney

    İbrahim ÜÇGÜL; KOYUN, Arif

    2010-01-01

    In this study, a solar chimney system, which is suitable for climate conditions of Isparta and its surroundings, is designed theoretically. With the aim of studying experimentally as based on that design, a prototype solar chimney has been constructed in the university campus area of Süleyman Demirel University-RACRER (Research and Application Center for Renewable Energy Resources). Additionally, after the experimental studies, the system is modelled theoretically with depending on the design...

  4. A simple theoretical model of a solar chimney

    A simple theoretical model of a solar chimney to predict its performance under varying ambient and geometrical features was proposed. Steady state heat transfer equations were set up using a thermal resistance network and solved using matrix inversion. Surface temperatures of the heat absorbing wall and glass and induced air flow velocity in the chimney are predicted. An experiment model 2 m high x 0.45 m wide with air channel gaps of 0.1, to 0.3 m wide was constructed. Outdoor tests were performed by exposure to both direct and diffuse solar radiation. The effects of air channel gap and solar radiation intensity were investigated. Air velocities between 0.25 to 0.39 ms-1 at radiation intensities up to 650 W m-2 were obtained. No reserve air circulation was observed at the chimney exit. The model was found more suitable for solar chimney with large air gaps

  5. Free-standing inflatable solar chimney: experiment and theory

    Vorobieff, Peter; Mammoli, Andrea; Fathi, Nima; Putkaradze, Vakhtang

    2014-11-01

    Solar chimneys (or solar updraft towers) offer an attractive way to use solar energy for production of baseload power. In a power plant of this type, sunshine heats the air under a wide greenhouse-like roofed collector surrounding the central base of a tall chimney. The heated air drives an updraft flow through the tower, whose energy is harvested with turbines. For a sufficiently large plant of this type, the thermal mass of the heated ground under the collector is sufficient to drive the flow even when the sun is down. The primary challenge in building the solar chimney power plant is the construction of the chimney that generates the updraft, which must be very tall (hundreds of meters for a commercial-sized plant). Here we present a study of an inflatable chimney which is a self-supporting, deformable, free-standing stack of gas-filled tori. The structure is stabilized via a combination of shape, overpressure, and buoyancy. Theoretical considerations suggest that filling the tori with air rather than with a light gas may be advantageous for stability. The chimney shape is optimized for deformation under wind loading. A prototype chimney has demonstrated the viability of the concept, with experimental results in good agreement with theoretical predictions. This research is partially supported by the UNM Research Allocations Comittee (RAC) and UNM Center for Emerging Energy Technologies (CEET).

  6. Experimental Investigations on Performance and Design Parameters of Solar Chimney

    İbrahim ÜÇGÜL

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a solar chimney system, which is suitable for climate conditions of Isparta and its surroundings, is designed theoretically. With the aim of studying experimentally as based on that design, a prototype solar chimney has been constructed in the university campus area of Süleyman Demirel University-RACRER (Research and Application Center for Renewable Energy Resources. Additionally, after the experimental studies, the system is modelled theoretically with depending on the design. Then, this model constituted the basis for developed computer programme and performance parameters of the system are obtained. The obtained findings showed that the solar chimney, which is suitable for climate conditions of Isparta and its surroundings, are sufficient for determining design and performance parameters. The results showed that electricity generation with solar chimney is suitable for areas which have high solar incident and long sunshine duration and similar climate conditions as such as Isparta and its surroundings. When the results are evaluated, it is seen that electricity generation power of solar chimney depends on the region solar data, the chimney height and the size of greenhouse area.

  7. Simulation and optimization of geometric parameters of a solar chimney in Tehran

    Highlights: • A fundamental mathematical of solar chimney model was described. • The performance of solar chimney power plant was analytically simulated. • The results of predictions were compared with the experimental data. • The velocity magnitude can be raised 4–25% in different cases. - Abstract: An analytical and numerical study for geometrical optimizing of a solar chimney prototype at University of Tehran was performed. A fundamental mathematical model that describes the flow was presented, and the performance evaluation of solar chimney was simulated with operational and geometric configurations. The numerical predictions were validated through comparison with the experimental data of the solar chimney pilot which was constructed in height of 2 m and collector radius of 3 m. The results show that, the collector inlet of 6 cm, the chimney height of 3 m, and the chimney diameter of 10 cm were the best alternatives for the constructed solar chimney pilot. It is found that the velocity magnitude can be raised to 4–25% in different cases; also the analysis indicated that the height and diameter of the chimney are the most important physical variables for solar chimney design

  8. Design and measured performance of a solar chimney for natural-circulation solar-energy dryers

    The design and construction of a solar chimney which was undertaken as part of a study on natural-circulation solar-energy dryers is reported. The experimental solar chimney consists of a 5.3m high and 1.64m diameter cylindrical polyethylene-clad vertical chamber, supported structurally by steel framework and draped internally with a selectively-absorbing surface. The performance of the chimney which was monitored extensively with and without the selective surface in place (to study the effectiveness of this design option) is also reported. (author). 14 refs, 7 figs

  9. EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF A VELOCITY FIELD USING VARIABLE CHIMNEY DIAMETER FOR SOLAR UPDRAFT TOWER

    Neeraj Mehla,

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A solar updraft tower consists of an air collector 1.4 m in diameter and 80 cm tall chimney was set upin NIT Hamirpur, Himachal-Pradesh, India. The objective of the study was to investigate the variation of velocity with essential geometricparameter of the system. The solar updraft tower system consists of three essential elements- collector, chimney height and wind turbine. The output power of a system is depended on the input velocity to the wind turbine. Turbine inlet velocity (V is the function of five parameter of the solar updraft tower systems such as collector diameter (Dc, roof glass angle (β, entrance height (h, tower's height (Ht, tower's diameter (D, out of which variable roof angle and the chimney height is analysis. It was found that the solar chimney diameter of 8 cm is having the maximum velocity for the constructed setup, and the ratio of chimney diameter to chimney heightwas found to be 0.1.

  10. Solar Chimney Model Parameters to Enhance Cooling PV Panel Performance

    Mohammed Sh Elden; K. Sopian; Fatah O. Alghoul; Abdelnasser Abouhnik; Ae. Muftah M.

    2013-01-01

    The concept of using the Solar Chimney plays an important role in a wide range of topics to improve cooling system efficiency such as drying process, and single and multi-story buildings ventilation against temperature rising. In this paper, study the effective solar cooling chimney parameter model to enhance the performance of photovoltaic (PV) cooling system. First, a brief description of theoretical performance predictions of the solar cooling chimney also discusses the effect of the ambie...

  11. Simulation of a sloped solar chimney power plant in Lanzhou

    Research highlights: → A sloped solar chimney power plant in Lanzhou, China is investigated. → The configuration sizes are designed separately. → The system has high periodicity and stability but low efficiency. → The sloped solar chimney power system is of high value for Northwest China. -- Abstract: Solar chimney power system is one large-scale utilization style of solar energy, which has drawn high attentions worldwide. Though scholars all over the world have made many researches on the solar chimney power system, reports of sloped solar chimney power system are still few. A sloped solar chimney power plant, which is expected to provide electric power for remote villages in Northwest China, has been designed for Lanzhou City in this paper. The designed plant, in which the height and radius of the chimney are 252.2 m and 14 m respectively, the radius and angle of the solar collector are 607.2 m and 31o respectively, is designed to produce 5 MW electric power on a monthly average all year. The performances, such as the airflow temperature increase, pressure, the airflow speed, system efficiency and solar collector efficiency, of the built sloped solar chimney power plant are simulated and presented. Simulation results show that parameters of the sloped solar chimney power plant are symmetrical and stable; the power plant has better performances in spring and autumn days; the overall efficiency of the power plant is low. Considering the abundant solar radiation, environmental friendliness, easy management and low population density, the sloped solar chimney power system is of high value to Northwest China.

  12. Numerical simulation and exergetic analysis of building ventilation solar chimneys

    Highlights: • Exergetic analysis of a building ventilation solar chimney. • Numerical CFD model developed, validated and employed to study the flow. • Analysis of the solar chimney energy and exergy efficiencies. • Mechanical and thermal exergy distributions have been analysed. • Crucial points in the chimney identified to improve its performance. - Abstract: The solar chimneys used in buildings are passive solar devices which improve natural ventilation. A detailed exergetic analysis has been developed in this work, both for general balance and specific variables. To apply this analysis, a three-dimensional CFD model has been built and validated with bibliographic experimental data. The values of the variables have been examined both inside and at the exit of the solar chimney, resulting in a detailed description of the inner phenomena and parameters influencing the exergetic efficiency. The results of this study offer new tools: a numerical methodology and an exergetic analysis, to improve the design of building ventilation solar chimneys. It also affords a deeper understanding of the thermal and fluid-dynamic behaviour, and suggests some qualitative improvements. However, the numerical data obtained from the case studied, show that solar chimneys as natural ventilation systems offer quite a small efficiency and will remain within the sphere of architectural decisions

  13. Experimental study for natural ventilation on a solar chimney

    Arce, J. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia (CIE-UNAM), Termociencias, Priv. Xochicalco S/N Col. Centro, Temixco, Morelos, CP 62580 (Mexico); Jimenez, M.J.; Guzman, J.D.; Heras, M.R. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Av. Complutense, 22, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Alvarez, G.; Xaman, J. [Centro Nacional de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico (CENIDET-DGEST-SEP), Prol. Av. Palmira S/N. Col. Palmira, Cuernavaca, Morelos, CP 62490 (Mexico)

    2009-12-15

    Thermal performance of a solar chimney for natural ventilation was experimentally investigated. The experimental model was implemented on full scale and real meteorological conditions, so that experimental results will be compared with the simulation results. The results show that for a maximum irradiance of 604 W/m{sup 2}, occurring around 13:00 h on September 15th, 2007, a maximum air temperature increment of 7 C was obtained through the solar chimney. Also, a volumetric air flow rate ranging from 50 to 374 m{sup 3}/h was measured on that day. Thus, an average air flow rate of 177 m{sup 3}/h was achieved from 0:00 h to 24:00 h. The experimental solar chimney discharge coefficient, C{sub d}, was 0.52. This coefficient is useful to determine the mass flow rate in the solar chimney design. It was observed that the air flow rate through the solar chimney is influenced by a pressure difference between input and output, caused by thermal gradients and wind velocity, mainly. (author)

  14. Experimental investigations of a chimney-dependent solar crop dryer

    Afriyie, J.K.; Nazha, M.A.A.; Rajakaruna, H. [School of Engineering and Technology, De Montfort University, Queens Building, The Gateway, Leicester LE1 9BH (United Kingdom); Forson, F.K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi (Ghana)

    2009-01-15

    An experimental investigation into the performance of a solar crop dryer with solar chimney and no air preheating is described. Tests were first performed on the cabinet dryer, using a normal chimney. The trials were repeated with a solar chimney. Still with the solar chimney, further trials were carried out with the roof of the drying chamber inclined further to form a tent dryer. The described tests include no-load tests for airflow rate measurements and drying tests, with cassava as the crop. Air velocities, temperatures, ambient relative humidity and the drop in crop moisture contents at different stages of the drying process are also presented. The effects of the various configurations described above on the drying process are deduced and discussed while comparing the experimental results with one another. In addition, the performance of the dryer in relation to other natural convection dryers is discussed. The results show that the solar chimney can increase the airflow rate of a direct-mode dryer especially when it is well designed with the appropriate angle of drying-chamber roof. However, the increase in flow rate only increases the drying rate when the relative humidity (RH) of the ambient air is below a certain mark (60% for cassava). (author)

  15. DESIGN OF A SMALL – SCALE SOLAR CHIMNEY FOR SUSTAINABLE POWER

    After several months of design and testing it has been determined that a small scale solar chimney can be built using nearly any local materials and simple hand tools without needing superior construction knowledge. The biggest obstacle to over come was the weather conditions....

  16. A performance analysis of solar chimney thermal power systems

    Al-Dabbas Awwad Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the solar chimney performance theoretically (techno-economic. A mathematical model was developed to estimate the following parameter: Power output, Pressure drop across the turbine, the max chimney height, Airflow temperature, and the overall efficiency of solar chimney. The mathematical model was validated with experimental data from the prototype in Manzanares power. It can be concluded that the differential pressure of collector-chimney transition section in the system, is increase with the increase of solar radiation intensity. The specific system costs are between 2000 Eur/kW and 5000 Eur/kW depending on the system size, system concept and storage size. Hence, a 50 MWe solar thermal power plant will cost 100-250 Eur million. At very good sites, today’s solar thermal power plants can generate electricity in the range of 0.15 Eur/kWh, and series production could soon bring down these costs below 0.10 Eur /kWh.

  17. A NUMERICAL study of solar chimney power plants in Tunisia

    Bahar F, Attig; S, Guellouz M.; M, Sahraoui; S, Kaddeche

    2015-04-01

    A 3D CFD (Computational fluid dynamics) model of a Solar Chimney Power Plant (SCPP) was developed and validated through comparison with the experimental data of the Manzanares plant. Then, it was employed to study the SCPP performance for locations throughout Tunisia.

  18. Solar ventilation: The use of solar chimneys for natural ventilation of buildings

    Macquoy, B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper is written for the TIDO-course AR0532 Smart & Bioclimatic Design Theory. A very old principle is the system of the solar chimney for ventilation, which in recent years has regained interests. This essay will explore the potentials of solar chimneys in a modern application.

  19. Experimental and numerical investigation on an innovative solar chimney

    Highlights: • Intensifiers were applied to increase heat flux. • Numerical and experimental data were compered. • We investigated the rotational pattern of the air inside the SC. • This chimney is equipped with a container, placed exactly beneath the collector. - Abstract: A novel small scale model of solar chimney was investigated experimentally and numerically. Air flow, heat transfer and flow characteristics were numerically calculated and compared with the experimental results in this paper. Two intensifiers were used to intensify the heat flux radiated by the sun all around the solar chimney in the experimental case. An air tank was located downside the system to increase the absorption of the solar radiation reflected by the intensifiers. RNG k–ε model was chosen to simulate the turbulence and the well-known SIMPLE algorithm was used to solve the coupled velocity and pressure equations. Results show that utilization of intensifiers caused an increase in velocity magnitude in the chimney and consequently more power was generated. The maximum velocity of 5.12 m/s was reached which is remarkable, considering the small size of the SC structure

  20. Numerical Study of a Solar Chimney Power Plant

    A. Dhahri

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to present a numerical analysis on the performance of a solar chimney power plant using steady state Navier-Stokes and energy equations in cylindrical coordinate system. The fluid flow inside the chimney is assumed to be turbulent and simulated with the k-ε turbulent model, using the FLUENT software package. Numerical simulations were performed using the Spanish prototype as reference. The computed results are in good agreement with experimental measurements of Manzanares power plant. Besides, a theoretical model was proposed taking into account the kinetic energy difference within the solar collector. The effects of the main geometrical parameters of the collector and the solar radiation intensity on the air mass flow rate and the temperature rise in the collector have been investigated. The fluid and ground temperature distributions were also presented and analyzed.

  1. Annual performance analysis of the solar chimney power plant in Sinkiang, China

    Highlights: • A theoretical model was developed concerning hourly variation of solar radiation. • A limitation on maximum collector radius of an SCPP with a given chimney exists. • Annual performance of a 100 MW SCPP was predicted in hourly interval. • The Hami region is considered suitable for the construction of SCPP. - Abstract: To obtain more accurate prediction of the annual performance of solar chimney power plants (SCPPs), a comprehensive theoretical model is developed by taking into account the hourly variation of solar radiation. The effects of the collector and chimney radii on the power output of the SCPP are analyzed, and the results reveal that a limitation on the maximum collector radius exists for the maximum attainable power output of the SCPP. Then four designs of 100 MW SCPPs with different combinations of collector and chimney radii are proposed and the most cost effective one is chosen from among the four SCPPs. The annual power output of the chosen SCPP in the Hami region is estimated at an interval of 1 h for a whole year. The results indicate that the power generation of SCPP presents obvious seasonal variation. Furthermore, the use of 14% of the unused land in the Hami region for the installation of SCPPs would satisfy the annual power requirement for the whole of the Sinkiang region

  2. Parameterization Studies of Solar Chimneys in the Tropics

    Alex Yong Kwang Tan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the effect of the solar chimney’s stack height, depth, width and inlet position on the interior performance (air temperature and speed at 1.20 m height above the ground as well as proposes an optimal tropical solar chimney design. Simulations show that the output air temperature remains constant while the solar chimney’s width is the most significant factor influencing output air speed. The solar chimney’s inlet position has limited influence on the output air speed although regions near the solar chimney’s inlet show an increase in air speed. Furthermore, a regression model is developed based on the solar chimney’s stack height, depth and width to predict the interior air speed. To optimize solar chimney in the tropics, the recommendation is to first maximize its width as the interior’s width, while allowing its stack height to be the building’s height. Lastly, the solar chimney’s depth is determined from the regression model by allocating the required interior air speed.

  3. Power generation from wind turbines in a solar chimney

    Tudor Foote, Ramesh K. Agarwal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that shrouded wind turbines can generate greater power compared to bare turbines. A solar chimney generates an upward draft of wind inside a tower and a shroud around the wind turbine. There are numerous empty silos on farms in the U.S. that can be converted to solar chimneys with minor modifications at modest cost. The objective of this study is to determine the potential of these silos/chimneys for generating wind power. The study is conducted through analytical/computational approach by employing the commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD software. Computations are performed for five different geometric configurations consisting of a turbine, a cylindrical silo, and/or a venturi and/or a diffuser using the dimensions of typical silos and assuming Class 3 wind velocity. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations with the Boussinesq approximation and a two equation realizable k – ε model are employed in the calculations, and the turbine is modeled as an actuator disk. The power coefficient (Cp and generated power are calculated for the five cases. Consistent with recent literature, it was found that the silos with diffusers increase the Cp beyond Betz’s limit significantly and thus the generated power. It should be noted that Cp is calculated by normalizing it by the turbine area swept by the wind. This study shows the potential of using abandoned silos in the mid-west and other parts of the country for localized wind power generation.

  4. Power generation from wind turbines in a solar chimney

    Foote, Tudor [Graduate Student, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Washington University in St. Louis, Jolley Hall, Campus Box 1185, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, Missouri, 63130 (United States); Agarwal, Ramesh K. [William Palm Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Washington University in St. Louis, Jolley Hall, Campus Box 1185, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, Missouri, 63130 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Recent studies have shown that shrouded wind turbines can generate greater power compared to bare turbines. A solar chimney generates an upward draft of wind inside a tower and a shroud around the wind turbine. There are numerous empty silos on farms in the U.S. that can be converted to solar chimneys with minor modifications at modest cost. The objective of this study is to determine the potential of these silos/chimneys for generating wind power. The study is conducted through analytical/computational approach by employing the commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software. Computations are performed for five different geometric configurations consisting of a turbine, a cylindrical silo, and/or a venturi and/or a diffuser using the dimensions of typical silos and assuming Class 3 wind velocity. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations with the Boussinesq approximation and a two equation realizable {kappa}-{epsilon} model are employed in the calculations, and the turbine is modeled as an actuator disk. The power coefficient (Cp) and generated power are calculated for the five cases. Consistent with recent literature, it was found that the silos with diffusers increase the Cp beyond Betz’s limit significantly and thus the generated power. It should be noted that Cp is calculated by normalizing it by the turbine area swept by the wind. This study shows the potential of using abandoned silos in the mid-west and other parts of the country for localized wind power generation.

  5. Solar chimney design: Investigating natural ventilation and cooling in offices with the aid of computer simulation

    Angelis, Nikolaos

    Solar chimney design is investigated as a means of improving natural ventilation and passive cooling in office buildings. Existing scientific research and built precedents are generally limited literature review findings on various features of solar chimneys were categorised and used to develop a building simulation strategy. Using UK climatic data, simulations were performed on several computer models in order to investigate solar chimney performance during a single day period and an entire cooling season. Passive cooling with a solar chimney is possible but actual reduction in temperatures in most cases examined could be negligible. Cooling potential is increased on still, warm days, while the prospects for night cooling are further improved. A solar chimney may help reduce considerably the occurrence of resultant temperatures at or above the 25 C and 28 C thresholds. Solar chimney width, height, apertures and integral use of thermal mass are the most significant parameters for cooling. Simulation results showed that a solar chimney can increase significantly natural ventilation rates. Total ventilation rates may be increased by at least 22%. During still days a solar chimney can enhance ventilation rates by 36% or more. Stack ventilation through a solar chimney is typically 20% of cross ventilation during night time this may increase to at least 40-45% and on still days it may reach 100% of typical cross ventilation rates. Solar chimney induced stack ventilation and cross ventilation are interrelated. Resultant air flow patterns may have an important effect on convective heat transfers and thermal comfort. Climate and microclimate conditions should be an integral part of solar chimney design. Key aspects and recommendations regarding solar chimneys, passive cooling and natural ventilation are provided for design guidance and feedback in further research.

  6. Solar chimney power generation project - The case for Botswana

    Import of a huge proportion of electrical energy from the Southern African Power Pool, and the geographical location and population distribution of Botswana stimulated the need to consider renewable energy as an alternative to imported power. The paper describes a systematic experimental study on a mini-solar chimney system. Particular attention is given to measurements of air velocity, temperature and solar radiation. The results for the selected 5 and 6 clear days of October and November, respectively, are presented. These results enable the relationship between average insolation, temperature difference and velocity for selected clear days to be discussed. (author)

  7. Experimental study of temperature field in a solar chimney power setup

    A pilot experimental solar chimney power setup consisted of an air collector 10 m in diameter and an 8 m tall chimney has been built. The temperature distribution in the solar chimney power setup was measured. Temperature difference between the collector outlet and the ambient usually can reach 24.1 deg. C, which generates the driving force of airflow in the setup. This is the greenhouse effect produced in the solar collector. It is found that air temperature inversion appears in the latter chimney after sunrise both on a cool day and on a warm day. Air temperature inversion is formed by the increase of solar radiation from the minimum and clears up some time later when the absorber bed is heated to an enough high temperature to make airflow break through the temperature inversion layer and flow through the chimney outlet

  8. Experimental study of temperature field in a solar chimney power setup

    A pilot experimental solar chimney power setup consisted of an air collector 10 m in diameter and an 8 m tall chimney has been built. The temperature distribution in the solar chimney power setup was measured. Temperature difference between the collector outlet and the ambient usually can reach 24.1 C, which generates the driving force of airflow in the setup. This is the greenhouse effect produced in the solar collector. It is found that air temperature inversion appears in the latter chimney after sunrise both on a cool day and on a warm day. Air temperature inversion is formed by the increase of solar radiation from the minimum and clears up some time later when the absorber bed is heated to an enough high temperature to make airflow break through the temperature inversion layer and flow through the chimney outlet. (author)

  9. Numerical investigation on thermal and fluid dynamic behaviors of solar chimney building systems

    Full text: Buildings as big energy-consuming systems require large amount of energy to operate. Globally, buildings are responsible for approximately 40% of total world annual energy consumption. Sustainable buildings with renewable energy systems are trying to operate independently without consumption of conventional resources. Renewable energy is a significant approach to reduce resource consumption in sustainable building. A solar chimney is essentially divided into two parts, one - the solar air heater (collector) and second - the chimney. Two configurations of solar chimney are usually used: vertical solar chimney with vertical absorber geometry, and roof solar chimney. For vertical solar chimney, vertical glass is used to gain solar heat. Designing a solar chimney includes height, width and depth of cavity, type of glazing, type of absorber, and inclusion of insulation or thermal mass. Besides these system parameters, other factors such as the location, climate, and orientation can also affect its performance. In this paper a numerical investigation on a prototypal solar chimney system integrated in a south facade of a building is presented. The analysis is carried out on a three-dimensional model in air flow and the governing equations are given in terms of k-s turbulence model. Two geometrical configurations are investigated: 1) a channel with vertical parallel walls and 2) a channel with principal walls one vertical and the other inclined. The problem is solved by means of the commercial code Ansys-Fluent and the results are performed for a uniform wall heat flux on the vertical wall is equal to 300 and 600 W/m2. Results are given in terms of wall temperature distributions, air velocity and temperature fields and transversal profiles in order to evaluate the differences between the two base configurations and thermal and fluid dynamic behaviors. Further, the ground effect on thermal performances is examined. key words: mathematical modeling, solar chimney

  10. Cloud Formation in the Plumes of Solar Chimney Power Generation Facilities: A Modeling Study

    Vanreken, T. M.; Nenes, A.

    2006-12-01

    The mounting negative impacts of our dependence on fossil fuels make obvious the need for continued development of alternative power generation technologies. One promising technology is the solar chimney power plant, the concept of which is straightforward and consists of three main components: a solar air collector, the chimney itself, and a power turbine. The solar collector is a large, circular, greenhouse-like structure that gently slopes toward its center; air enters at the outer edge, and as the air parcel warms buoyancy causes it to move upward and toward the center of the collector. When the air has reached the center of the collector, its temperature has increased by an amount ΔT, at which point it enters the chimney. The chimney functions as the main thermal engine in the power plant; the available power for electrical conversion is a function of the maximum potential air velocity through the chimney, which depends primarily on its height and on ΔT. The actual air velocity is determined by the efficiency of the turbine, which is placed between the solar collector and the chimney. A pilot-scale solar chimney power plant has operated in Manzanares, Spain for two decades, and larger facilities have been proposed in China and Australia. As with all new technologies, it is important to consider the potential adverse impacts of solar chimney power generation facilities. This study considers one such impact- the potential for water vapor in solar chimney plumes to affect both the performance of the facility and the local meteorology. Using a cloud parcel model, the progress of a plume up through and out of a solar chimney was simulated for a range of conditions consistent with the proposed Australian facility. As might be expected, in the absence of any water vapor enhancement the plume demonstrated minimal cloud forming potential. However, our results indicate that in cases of moderate water vapor enhancement, cloud formation can occur after the plume exits

  11. Modeling and characteristics analysis of hybrid cooling-tower-solar-chimney system

    Highlights: • A 3-D model for hybrid cooling-tower-solar-chimney system is developed. • The inclusion of heat exchangers into solar chimney boosts the power output. • The huge jump in power output is at the expense of heat dissipation capacity. • The heat exchanger as second heat source has greater impact on system performance. - Abstract: The hybrid cooling-tower-solar-chimney system (HCTSC), combining solar chimney with natural draft dry cooling tower, generates electricity and dissipates waste heat for the coupled geothermal power plant simultaneously. Based on a developed 3-D model, performance comparisons between the HCTSC system, solar chimney and natural draft dry cooling tower were performed in terms of power output of turbine and heat dissipation capacity. Results show that compared to the traditional solar chimney with similar geometric dimensions, HCTSC system can achieve over 20 times increase in the power output of turbine. However, this huge jump in power output is at the expense of heat dissipation capacity, which may lead to the malfunction of the coupled thermal power plant. By increasing the heat transfer area of the heat exchanger, the HCTSC system can manage to recover its heat dissipation capacity

  12. Effect of solar chimney inclination angle on space flow pattern and ventilation rate

    Bassiouny, Ramadan; Korah, Nader S.A. [Department of Mechanical Power Engineering and Energy, Minia University, Minia 61111 (Egypt)

    2009-02-15

    The solar chimney is a simple and practical idea that is applied to enhance space natural ventilation. The chimney could be vertical or inclined. The chimney inclination angle is an important parameter that greatly affects space flow pattern and ventilation rate. In the present study, the effect of chimney inclination angle on air change per hour and indoor flow pattern was numerically and analytically investigated. A numerical simulation using Ansys, a FEM-based code, was used to predict flow pattern. Then the results were compared with published experimental measurements. A FORTRAN program was developed to iteratively solve the mathematical model that was obtained through an overall energy balance on the solar chimney. The analytical results showed that an optimum air flow rate value was achieved when the chimney inclination is between 45 and 70 for latitude of 28.4 . The numerically predicted flow pattern inside the space supports this finding. Moreover, in the present study a correlation to predict the air change per hour was developed. The correlation was tested within a solar intensity greater than or equal to 500 W/m{sup 2}, and chimney width from 0.1 m to 0.35 m for different inclination angles with acceptable values. (author)

  13. Numerical simulation and comparison of conventional and sloped solar chimney power plants: the case for Lanzhou.

    Cao, Fei; Li, Huashan; Zhang, Yang; Zhao, Liang

    2013-01-01

    The solar chimney power plant (SCPP) generates updraft wind through the green house effect. In this paper, the performances of two SCPP styles, that is, the conventional solar chimney power plant (CSCPP) and the sloped solar chimney power plant (SSCPP), are compared through a numerical simulation. A simplified Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model is built to predict the performances of the SCPP. The model is validated through a comparison with the reported results from the Manzanares prototype. The annual performances of the CSCPP and the SSCPP are compared by taking Lanzhou as a case study. Numerical results indicate that the SSCPP holds a higher efficiency and generates smoother power than those of the CSCPP, and the effective pressure in the SSCPP is relevant to both the chimney and the collector heights. PMID:24489515

  14. Feasibility study on optimization of a typical solar chimney power plant

    Najmi, Mohsen; Nazari, Ali; Mansouri, Hossein; Zahedi, Ghazzanfar

    2012-03-01

    The solar chimney which has been built in Kerman (Kerman city-Iran) is a small scale electrical power plant. The chimney of this unit has 60 m height and 3 m diameter. The collector of this unit is 40 m × 40 m square. To reach nominal power of this unit of power plant, parameters which are effective in optimization are studied. In this regard, we deliberate and propose suggestions to maximize usage of solar energy and kinetic energy. The calculation of maximum power is one of the objectives of this study, so the paper present economic analysis for Kerman solar chimney. A home code has been written for this modeling, in MATLAB.

  15. Solar chimney for the natural ventilation of buildings: simulation and mediation; Chimenea solar para la ventilacion natural de edificios: simulacion y mediacion

    Lanceta, D.; Llorente, J.

    2008-07-01

    In this article, the first part of a research project about the modelling of a solar chimney is presented. In this first part, the average ventilation flows measured in an experimental installation have been compared to the results obtained by CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulations. In order to do so, a solar chimney with a cross-section of 0.78 m x 0.156 m, height 3,6 m, has been constructed. The chimney consists of a glass surface oriented towards the south. The internal (absorber) surface is made of a copper plate, which has been painted black in order to increase the solar absorption. The chimney is connected to a room measuring 5 m x 2.5 m x 2.5 m, from where it extracts air. The comparison of the results obtained by measurements with those obtained by CFD simulations show that computational tools are accurate enough to predict the behaviour of natural buoyancy in this kind of installations. (Author)

  16. Economic analysis of power generation from floating solar chimney power plant

    Solar chimney thermal power technology that has a long life span is a promising large-scale solar power generating technology. This paper performs economic analysis of power generation from floating solar chimney power plant (FSCPP) by analyzing cash flows during the whole service period of a 100 MW plant. Cash flows are influenced by many factors including investment, operation and maintenance cost, life span, payback period, inflation rate, minimum attractive rate of return, non-returnable subsidy rate, interest rate of loans, sale price of electricity, income tax rate and whether additional revenue generated by carbon credits is included or not. Financial incentives and additional revenue generated by carbon credits can accelerate the development of the FSCPP. Sensitivity analysis to examine the effects of the factors on cash flows of a 100 MW FSCPP is performed in detail. The results show that the minimum price for obtaining minimum attractive rate of return (MARR) of 8% reaches 0.83 yuan (kWh)-1 under financial incentives including loans at a low interest rate of 2% and free income tax. Comparisons of economics of the FSCPP and reinforced concrete solar chimney power plant or solar photovoltaic plant are also performed by analyzing their cash flows. It is concluded that FSCPP is in reality more economical than reinforced concrete solar chimney power plant (RCSCPP) or solar photovoltaic plant (SPVP) with the same power capacity. (author)

  17. On the form of the power equation for modeling solar chimney power plant systems

    Fathi, Nima; Vorobieff, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Recently several mathematical models of a solar chimney power plant were derived, studied for a variety of boundary conditions, and compared against CFD calculations. The importance of these analyses is about the accuracy of the derived pressure drop and output power equation for solar chimney power plant systems (SCPPS). We examine the assumptions underlying the derivation and present reasons to believe that some of the derived equations, specifically the power equation in this model, may require a correction to be applicable in more realistic conditions. The analytical resutls are compared against the available experimental data from the Manzanares power plant.

  18. Numerical analysis on the performance of solar chimney power plant system

    Power generating technology based on renewable energy resources will definitely become a new trend of future energy utilization. Numerical simulations on air flow, heat transfer and power output characteristics of a solar chimney power plant model with energy storage layer and turbine similar to the Spanish prototype were carried out in this paper, and mathematical model of flow and heat transfer for the solar chimney power plant system was established. The influences of solar radiation and pressure drop across the turbine on the flow and heat transfer, output power and energy loss of the solar chimney power plant system were analyzed. The numerical simulation results reveal that: when the solar radiation and the turbine efficiency are 600 W/m2 and 80%, respectively, the output power of the system can reach 120 kW. In addition, large mass flow rate of air flowing through the chimney outlet become the main cause of energy loss in the system, and the collector canopy also results in large energy loss.

  19. Computational studies on the effect of geometric parameters on the performance of a solar chimney power plant

    Graphical abstract: This work is aimed at optimizing the geometry of the major components of a solar chimney power plant using ANSYS-CFX. The collector inlet opening, collector height, collector outlet diameter, the chimney throat diameter and the chimney divergence angle were varied for the same chimney height and collector diameter and the performance of the plant was studied in terms of the available power and an optimum configuration was obtained. The temperature and velocity variations in the collector and along the chimney height were also studied. - Highlights: • Geometry of the major components of a solar chimney power plant optimized using CFX. • Collector inlet opening, height, outlet diameter, chimney throat diameter, and the chimney divergence angle were varied. • Temperature and velocity variations and available power were obtained for different configurations. • Optimum values of collector outlet height and diameter and the divergence angle were obtained. - Abstract: A solar chimney power plant (SCPP) is a renewable-energy power plant that transforms solar energy into electricity. The SCPP consists of three essential elements – solar air collector, chimney tower, and wind turbine(s). The present work is aimed at optimizing the geometry of the major components of the SCPP using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software ANSYS-CFX to study and improve the flow characteristics inside the SCPP. The overall chimney height and the collector diameter of the SCPP were kept constant at 10 m and 8 m respectively. The collector inlet opening was varied from 0.05 m to 0.2 m. The collector outlet diameter was also varied from 0.6 m to 1 m. These modified collectors were tested with chimneys of different divergence angles (0°–3°) and also different chimney inlet openings of 0.6 m to 1 m. The diameter of the chimney was also varied from 0.25 m to 0.3 m. Based on the CFX computational results, the best configuration was achieved using the chimney

  20. Analysis and feasibility of implementing solar chimney power plants in the Mediterranean region

    This paper analyzes the feasibility of solar chimney power plants as an environmentally acceptable energy source for small settlements and islands of countries in the Mediterranean region. For the purpose of these analyses, two characteristic geographic locations (Split and Dubrovnik) in Croatia were chosen and simplified model for calculation of produced electric power output is also developed. These locations possess typical characteristics of the Mediterranean climate. The solar characteristics of the chosen geographic locations are shown along with characteristic meteorological data. A solar chimney (SC) power plant with a chimney height of 550 m and a collector roof diameter of 1250 m would produce 2.8-6.2 MW of power. The average annual electric power production of this SC power plant would range between 4.9 and 8.9 GWh/year, but in reality from 5.0 to 6.0 GWh/year in average. An approximate costs analysis, which included a total investment estimate, was performed. The levelized electricity cost was also calculated. It is found that the price of produced electric energy by solar chimney power plant in Mediterranean region is considerably higher compared to the other power sources. (author)

  1. A Cost Effective Desalination Plant Using a Solar Chimney with Recycled Aluminum Can Collector

    Singuru Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the work was to use solar energy for desalination of water. A solar chimney desalination system, which includes the solar chimney, solar collector, evaporation system, and passive condenser, was designed and built. The air enters into collector and gets heated and released at the bottom of chimney. Due to draught effect dry air goes upward. The air is humidified by spraying salt water into the hot air stream using a mistifier at the middle of chimney. Then, the partial vapours contained in the air are condensed to give desalinated water. The performance of the integrated system including power and potable water production was estimated and the results were discussed. With a 3.4 m height setup, experimental test rig was capable of evaporating 3.77 L water daily condensing 2.3 L water. It is compact in nature as it is easy to assemble and dissemble. It can be used for purifying rain water in summer under rain water harvesting. Because of using country wood, recycled Al cans, and GI sheet in fabrication, it is lower in cost.

  2. An analytical and numerical study of solar chimney use for room natural ventilation

    Bassiouny, Ramadan; Koura, Nader S.A. [Department of Mechanical Power Engineering and Energy, Minia University, Minia 61111 (Egypt)

    2008-07-01

    The solar chimney concept used for improving room natural ventilation was analytically and numerically studied. The study considered some geometrical parameters such as chimney inlet size and width, which are believed to have a significant effect on space ventilation. The numerical analysis was intended to predict the flow pattern in the room as well as in the chimney. This would help optimizing design parameters. The results were compared with available published experimental and theoretical data. There was an acceptable trend match between the present analytical results and the published data for the room air change per hour, ACH. Further, it was noticed that the chimney width has a more significant effect on ACH compared to the chimney inlet size. The results showed that the absorber average temperature could be correlated to the intensity as: (T{sub w} = 3.51I{sup 0.461}) with an accepted range of approximation error. In addition the average air exit velocity was found to vary with the intensity as ({nu}{sub ex} = 0.013I{sup 0.4}). (author)

  3. Numerical study on mixed buoyancy-wind driving induced flow in a solar chimney for building ventilation

    Zamora, B.; Kaiser, A.S. [Dpto. Ingenieria Termica y de Fluidos, Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena, Doctor Fleming s/n, 30202 Cartagena (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    In a solar chimney, the buoyancy induced flow of air generates ventilation of the building where the chimney is attached. When atmospheric wind blows over the upper part of a solar chimney, a mixed buoyancy-wind driving induced flow appears, and then the thermal behaviour of the chimney changes drastically. Assuming that the chimney is devoid of any protective device at its upper part, numerical results for the pressure difference coefficients, average Nusselt number and the induced mass flow rate are obtained for values of Rayleigh number varying from 10{sup 7} to 10{sup 12} (symmetrically, isothermal heating condition) and 10{sup 11} to 10{sup 15} (symmetrically, uniform heat flux heating condition), with wind speeds from 0 to 10 m/s. A correlation for the non-dimensional mass flow rate is presented, which is valid for the complete range of relevant parameters regarded, with an average deviation about 6%. (author)

  4. Basement Kind Effects on Air Temperature of a Solar Chimney in Baghdad - Iraq Weather

    Miqdam Tariq Chaichan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A solar updraft tower power plant (solar tower is a solar thermal power plant that utilizes a combination of solar air collector and central updraft tube to generate an induced convective flow which drives pressure staged turbines to generate electricity. This paper presents practical results of a prototype of a solar chimney with thermal mass, where the glass surface is replaced by transparence plastic cover. The study focused on chimney's basements kind effect on collected air temperatures. Three basements were used: concrete, black concrete and black pebbles basements. The study was conducted in Baghdad from August to November 2009. The results show that the best chimney efficiency attained was 49.7% for pebbles base. The highest collected air temperature reached was 49ºC when using the black pebbles basement also.also, the maximum basement temperature measured was 59ºC for black pebbles. High increaments in collected air temperatures were achieved in comparison with the ambient air temperatures for the three basement kinds. The highest temperature difference reached was 22ºC with the pebble ground.

  5. Performance analysis of conventional and sloped solar chimney power plants in China

    The solar chimney power plant (SCPP) has been accepted as one of the most promising approaches for future large-scale solar energy applications. This paper reports on a heat transfer model that is used to compare the performance of a conventional solar chimney power plant (CSCPP) and two sloped solar chimney power plants (SSCPPs) with the collector oriented at 30° and 60°, respectively. The power generation from SCPPs at different latitudes in China is also analyzed. Results indicate that the larger solar collector angle leads to improved performance in winter but results in lower performance in summer. It is found that the optimal collector angle to achieve the maximum power in Lanzhou, China, is around 60°. Main factors that influence the performance of SCPPs also include the system height and the air thermophysical characteristics. The ground energy loss, reflected solar radiation, and kinetic loss at the chimney outlet are the main energy losses in SCPPs. The studies also show SSCPPs are more suitable for high latitude regions in Northwest China, but CSCPPs are suggested to be built in southeastern and eastern parts of China with the combination to the local agriculture. - Highlights: ► The optimum collector angle for maximum power generation is 60° in Lanzhou. ► Main parameters influencing performances are the system height and air property. ► Ground loss, reflected loss and outlet kinetic loss are the main energy losses. ► The sloped styles are suitable for Northwest China. ► The conventional styles are suitable for Southeast and East China.

  6. Solar chimney: A sustainable approach for ventilation and building space conditioning

    Lal, S.,

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The residential and commercial buildings demand increase with rapidly growing population. It leads to the vertical growth of the buildings and needs proper ventilation and day-lighting. The natural air ventilation system is not significantly works in conventional structure, so fans and air conditioners are mandatory to meet the proper ventilation and space conditioning. Globally building sector consumed largest energy and utmost consumed in heating, ventilation and space conditioning. This load can be reduced by application of solar chimney and integrated approaches in buildings for heating, ventilation and space conditioning. It is a sustainable approach for these applications in buildings. The authors are reviewed the concept, various method of evaluation, modelings and performance of solar chimney variables, applications and integrated approaches.

  7. Design and simulation of a geothermal–solar combined chimney power plant

    Highlights: • A geothermal–solar chimney power plant (GSCPP) is designed and analyzed. • Three different models, viz. full solar model, full geothermal model and geothermal–solar mode are compared. • Power generation under GSM is larger than the sum of FSM and FGM. • GSCPP can effectively solve the continuous operation problem of the SCPP. - Abstract: The solar chimney power plant (SCPP) is dominated by the solar radiation, and therefore its discontinuous operation is an unavoidable problem. In this paper, low temperature geothermal water is introduced into the SCPP for overcoming this problem. Based on a developed transient model, theoretical analyses are carried out to investigate the performance of the geothermal–solar chimney power plant (GSCPP) with main dimensions the same as the Manzanares prototype in Spain. Three operation models, viz. the full solar model, the full geothermal model and the geothermal–solar combined model are compared in typical summer and winter days and throughout the year. It is found that the GSCPP can attractively run in the GSM to deliver power continuously. Due to the ambient-dependant geothermal water outlet temperature, introducing the geothermal water makes greater contribution in winter days than in summer days, in the night than in the daytime. Power generation under GSM is larger than the sum of FSM and FGM. GSM is not the simple superposition of FSM and FGM, but makes better utilization of solar and geothermal energy. In addition, introducing high temperature and mass flow rate geothermal water can doubled and redoubled improve the GSCPP’s power capacity

  8. A scaling investigation of the laminar convective flow in a solar chimney for natural ventilation

    Highlights: • Scaling investigation of a solar chimney for ventilation is carried out. • Three distinct flow regimes are identified depending on the Rayleigh number. • Scaling relations are proposed to describe the transient flow development and are verified by numerical data. -- Abstract: The flow behavior due to natural convection of air (with a Prandtl number less than 1) inside a solar chimney with an imposed heat flux on a vertical absorber wall is investigated by a scaling analysis and a corresponding numerical simulation. Three distinct flow regimes are identified, one with a distinct thermal boundary layer and the other two without a distinct thermal boundary layer, depending on the Rayleigh number. The two regimes without a distinct thermal boundary layer are further classified into low and medium Rayleigh number sub-regimes respectively. These sub-regimes are characterized by conduction dominance in which the thermal boundary layer grows to encompass the entire width of the channel before convection becomes important. Flow development in each of these flow regimes and sub-regimes is characterized through transient scaling, and scaling correlations are developed to describe the temperature, flow velocity and mass flow rate, which characterize the ventilation performance of the solar chimney. The scaling arguments are validated by the corresponding numerical data

  9. Numerical investigation of a plume from a power generating solar chimney in an atmospheric cross flow

    Zhou, Xinping; Yang, Jiakuan; Ochieng, Reccab M.; Li, Xiangmei; Xiao, Bo

    2009-01-01

    A plume in an atmospheric cross flow from a power generating solar chimney is investigated using a three-dimensional numerical simulation model. The simulation model is validated by comparing the data calculated using our model with the numerical simulated results for one-dimensional buoyancy-driven compressible flow in a proposed 1500 m high solar chimney. In this paper, the parametric performances including static pressure, static temperature, density, streamline, and relative humidity field of the flow at the symmetry plane, at the cross plane 2700 m high and at the cross plane 750 m high in the geometry are simulated. It is found that relative humidity of the plume is greatly increased due to the jet of a plume into the surroundings colder than the plume. In addition to a great amount of tiny granules in the plume originating from the ground as effective condensation nuclei of moisture, a condensation would occur, a cloud system and precipitation e.g. rainfall, snow and hail would be formed around the plume when vapor is supersaturated. It is also found that with an increase in chimney height or relative humidity of atmosphere, or a reduction in wind velocity, relative humidity is increased, and increases the probability of precipitation and the potential precipitation areas. Furthermore, the latent heat released from the condensation of supersaturated vapor can aid the plume to keep on rising.

  10. Application of Solar Chimney Concept to Solve Potential Safety Issues of Nuclear Power Plants

    LUHS. In addition to its dual functionality; it provides a complete independent and diverse means of safety functions supporting, a free carbon oxide power production source and allow following the world's trend toward the usage of renewable energy sources. The Solar Chimney Power Plant was suggested to be employed as a supporting system for NPPs to provide emergency power, in case of SBO, and emergency cooling, in case of LUHS. It provides a complete independent and diverse means of safety function supporting. Following the SCPP operation requirements of the availability of high solar irradiation, the UAE region provides a perfect environment for its implementation; furthermore, it can be linked to the under-construction NPPs at Al-Barakah site to deliver alternative emergency power and emergency cooling. Due to the inherent unreliability of the currently utilized EDGs and the AAC power sources, a postulated SBO event could affect the safety of the NPP in general, and for the specific case of the UAE NPPs, a LUHS caused by oil spill accident in the UHS could be experienced, given the massive oil related activates being performed in the Arabian Gulf. Comparing the similarity between Al-Barakah site and the Loviisa NPP in Finland; looking for solution and alternatives for the enhancement of their reactors safety should be considered by the UAE nuclear regulator

  11. Application of Solar Chimney Concept to Solve Potential Safety Issues of Nuclear Power Plants

    Khasawneh, Khalid; PARK, Youn Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    LUHS. In addition to its dual functionality; it provides a complete independent and diverse means of safety functions supporting, a free carbon oxide power production source and allow following the world's trend toward the usage of renewable energy sources. The Solar Chimney Power Plant was suggested to be employed as a supporting system for NPPs to provide emergency power, in case of SBO, and emergency cooling, in case of LUHS. It provides a complete independent and diverse means of safety function supporting. Following the SCPP operation requirements of the availability of high solar irradiation, the UAE region provides a perfect environment for its implementation; furthermore, it can be linked to the under-construction NPPs at Al-Barakah site to deliver alternative emergency power and emergency cooling. Due to the inherent unreliability of the currently utilized EDGs and the AAC power sources, a postulated SBO event could affect the safety of the NPP in general, and for the specific case of the UAE NPPs, a LUHS caused by oil spill accident in the UHS could be experienced, given the massive oil related activates being performed in the Arabian Gulf. Comparing the similarity between Al-Barakah site and the Loviisa NPP in Finland; looking for solution and alternatives for the enhancement of their reactors safety should be considered by the UAE nuclear regulator.

  12. DESIGN NOTE: Ultrasonic velocity meter to evaluate the behaviour of a solar chimney

    Olmos, P.

    2004-07-01

    The addition of solar chimneys represents a substantial improvement in the natural ventilation scheme of a building and is thus an important component of so-called passive cooling, mainly in warm climates. In order to evaluate and/or control its performance, an accurate measurement of the velocity and temperature of the air passing through the duct is needed. Normal commercial equipment, developed for other applications, does not suit this particular scenario very well. An ultrasonic velocity meter has been specially designed, manufactured and tested inside an actual chimney, proving that this approach is a reliable solution to the problem of measuring the ventilation parameters. Here a detailed description of the instrument is given, along with a presentation of its first operational tests.

  13. Simulation of solar chimney power plant with an external heat source

    Solar chimney power plant is a sustainable source of power production. The key parameter to increase the system power output is to increase its size but the plant cannot operate during night hours. This study deals with simulation work to validate results of pilot plant at Manzanares and include the effects of waste heat from a gas turbine power plant in the system. The effects show continuous night operation, a 38.8 percent increase in power at 1000 W/m2 global solar irradiation at daytime and 1.14 percent increase in overall efficiency.

  14. Simulation of solar chimney power plant with an external heat source

    Islamuddin, Azeemuddin; Al-Kayiem, Hussain H.; Gilani, Syed I.

    2013-06-01

    Solar chimney power plant is a sustainable source of power production. The key parameter to increase the system power output is to increase its size but the plant cannot operate during night hours. This study deals with simulation work to validate results of pilot plant at Manzanares and include the effects of waste heat from a gas turbine power plant in the system. The effects show continuous night operation, a 38.8 percent increase in power at 1000 W/m2 global solar irradiation at daytime and 1.14 percent increase in overall efficiency.

  15. Evaluation of the influence of soil thermal inertia on the performance of a solar chimney power plant

    Solar chimney power plants are a technology capable to generate electric energy through a wind turbine using the solar radiation as energy source; nevertheless, one of the objectives pursued since its invention is to achieve energy generation during day and night. Soil under the power plant plays an important role on the energy balance and heat transfer, due to its natural behavior as a heat storage system. The characteristics of the soil influence the ability of the solar chimney power plant to generate power continuously. Present work analyzes the thermodynamic behavior and the power output of a solar chimney power plant over a daily operation cycle taking into account the soil as a heat storage system, through a numerical modeling under non-steady conditions. The influence of the soil thermal inertia and the effects of soil compaction degree on the output power generation are studied. A sizeable increase of 10% in the output power is obtained when the soil compaction increases. -- Highlights: ► Solar chimney power plants are a technology capable to generate renewable energy from solar radiation. ► The ground under the solar chimney can act as a heat storage system. ► The soil thermal inertia plays a relevant role in a scenario where the plant operates continuously. ► A higher compaction of soil causes a relevant increase on total energy generation.

  16. A First Approach to Natural Thermoventilation of Residential Buildings through Ventilation Chimneys Supplied by Solar Ponds

    Ferdinando Salata

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The exploitation of natural ventilation is a good solution to improve buildings from an energetic point of view and to fulfill the requirements demanded by the thermohygrometric comfort and the air quality in enclosed spaces. Some past researches demonstrated how some devices, useful to this purpose, follow the principles of solar chimneys and are able to move air masses while exploiting the Archimedes thrust. The natural ventilation must be supplied by a flow moving upward, generated by a heat source performing at temperatures slightly higher than the one present in the environment. To have a minimum energetic effect, the heat can be extracted from solar ponds; solar ponds are able to collect and store solar energy in the geographical regions characterized by sufficient values of solar radiation. Thus it is possible, in summer, to provoke a nocturnal natural ventilation useful for the air change in indoor spaces (in those climatic areas where, during the night, there is a temperature gradient.

  17. Heat transfer by convection, conduction and radiation in solar chimney systems for ventilation of dwellings

    Numerical study by conjugate heat transfer is carried out of solar chimney systems for heating and ventilation of dwellings. Conservation equations are solved by finite difference-control volume numerical method. The governing parameters were: the Rayleigh numbers from 5 x 108 to 1011, the Prandtl number, Pr = 0.7, constant for air, the chimney aspect ratio, A = H/L from 6 to 15, the air channel width l'/L = 0.2 to 0.5, the air entrance port size, h/L = 0.167-0.667, the wall thickness l/L = 0.25-0.4, the conductivity ratio kr from 5 to 50 and the surface emissivity, ε from 0 to 1. The Nusselt number, the dimensionless volume flow rate V. and radiation heat flux ratio qr/qtot are calculated as a function of the governing parameters, and streamlines and isotherms are produced. The results show that the surface radiation modifies the flow and temperature fields, affects the Nusselt number and the volume flow rate, both in a positive way, and improves the ventilation performance of the chimneys

  18. The experimental design of solar heating thermoelectric generator with wind cooling chimney

    Highlights: • We model an experimental design of thermal electrical generator. • Electrical parameters were collected under the solar radiation. • All the calculated values were obtained from collected data. • Generated power and electrical efficiency were changed by thermal gradient. - Abstract: In this paper we present an experimental design of new solar based thermoelectric generator with wind chimney. Presented generator mainly consists of four parts: a heat pipe with solar collector tube for solar heating, a wind chimney for cooling, a thermoelectric (TE) module for electricity generation and measurement devices-sensors. Presented generator based on experimental design. Aim of this experimental design is to show an alternative way for cheap and efficiently renewable energy producing. The most important features of presented generator are uncomplicated structure, efficiently and cheapness. This experimental design can be improved and used for domestic and commercial application. For this reason, main parts of system can be enhanced and system can be improved. To evaluate of presented generator we collected some experimental data on designed system. Then maximum output power, electrical efficiency and Seebeck coefficient are calculated from obtained data. Results of the measurement are displayed in the form of graphs and tables. Our experiment was carried out on 16th and 21th August, in Samsun, on the north coast of Turkey with the exact location 41°14′N 36°26′E with sea level. Collection of the data was performed from 8:30 a.m. to 4 p.m

  19. A parametric study on the feasibility of solar chimney power plants in North Cyprus conditions

    Highlights: • A parametric for solar chimney power plants (SCPPs) feasibility approach is proposed. • We found the annual electricity production of a 30 MW SCPP to be 94.5 GW h. • We compare this production with the same capacity fossil fuel thermal power plant. • We assess the effect of varying some parameters on economic viability of the SCPP. • Capital expenditure plays a critical role in assessing SCPP economic feasibility. - Abstract: The present work investigates the feasibility of installing a solar chimney power plant (SCPP) under North Cyprus (NC) conditions. The method utilized for the simulations of electricity production was compared and verified by the experimental recordings of the prototype in Manzanares, Spain, before carrying out performance predictions for different plant sizes, collector diameters and chimney heights. The annual electricity production of a 30 MW hypothetical SCPP system is estimated to be 94.5 GW h, which can cater for annual electricity needs of over 22,128 residences without any CO2, NOx and SOx emissions. For an installation cost of €145 million, it was estimated that the savings-to-investment ratio (SIR) would be 1.14, indicating a marginal economic feasibility. It is important to find ways of reducing the installation cost in order to strengthen the economic viability of the system. Considering that, at present, fuel oil no. 6 is being used in NC to produce electricity; the SCPP would cause avoidance of 24,840 tonnes of CO2 delivered into the atmosphere annually, if it replaced an equivalently-sized conventional power unit. To identify the most feasible cost option for the installation of the SCPP, a parametric cost analysis is carried out by varying the parameters such as; capital investment costs, carbon dioxide emission trading system price, chimney height, collector diameter and SCPP plant capacity. In all cases, the effect of these parameters on the economic feasibility indicators, such as SIR, net present

  20. Thermal Analyses of Combined Utilization Process of Seawater by Solar Chimney

    WANG Yiping; FANG Zhenlei; ZHU Li

    2009-01-01

    It is promising to simultaneously develop multiple products through the combined utilization of sea-water by solar chimney technology. A small scale experimental system was set up. The collector temperature, the seawater temperature, and the temperature and humidity of the airflow under the collector were measured. Thermal network analysis of the system was carried out. The results show that the airflow is nearly saturated at the entrance of the chimney, and the mean dry-bulb and wet-bulb temperatures of the airflow have increased by 8.4℃ and 9.6℃ respectively. The radiation heat transfer between the collector and the sky is the biggest heat loss in the system, which is up to 29.1% on average of the solar energy. However, the water evaporation heat is about 23.6% on average of the solar energy. To reduce the heat loss and enhance the water evaporation, it is necessary to reduce the emissivity and thermal conductivity of the collector and increase the evaporation areas.

  1. Experimental investigation into heating and airflow in trombe walls and solar chimneys

    Trombe Walls and solar chimneys are examples of passive solar air heating systems. However, the airflow and thermal efficiency characteristics of this type of system are not well understood, and partly for this reason, they are not commonly utilised. This paper reports on an experimental investigation into buoyancy-driven convection in a test rig designed to simulate the operation of a passive solar collector. The test rig comprised a vertical open-ended channel, approximately 1a square, heated from one side. The channel depth could be varied from 20mm to 110mm, and heating inputs varied from 200W to 1000W. Temperatures and airflow rates were measured and recorded, to characterise both steady-state and transient performance. The principal findings are: 1. Time constants (for heating)ranged typically between 30 and 70 minutes. 2. Flow regimes were mainly laminar (Reynolds number varing from ∼500 to ∼4000, depending on heat input and channel depth. 3. The thermal efficiency (as a solar collector and the heat transfer coefficient were functions of heat input, and were not depended on the channel depth. 4. The mass flow rate through the channel increased bath as the heat input increased and as the channel depth increased. The paper presents these findings and discusses their implications in more detail.(Author)

  2. Thermodynamic analysis of a low-temperature waste heat recovery system based on the concept of solar chimney

    Highlights: • A low grade waste heat recovery system based on the concept of solar chimney is proposed. • The effects of three key factors on the system performance are examined. • Thermodynamics analysis is to find a better way to utilize low grade heat source efficiently. - Abstract: The utilization of low-temperature waste heat draws more and more attention due to serious energy crisis nowadays. This paper proposes a low-temperature waste heat recovery system based on the concept of solar chimney. In the system, low-temperature waste heat is used to heat air to produce an air updraft in the chimney tower. The air updraft propels a turbine fixed at the base of the chimney tower to convert waste heat into electricity. The mathematical model of the system is established based on first law and second law of thermodynamics. Hot water is selected as the representative of low-temperature waste heat sources for researching. The heat source temperature, ambient air temperature and area of heat transfer are examined to evaluate their effects on the system performance such as velocity of updraft, mass flow rate of air, power output, conversion efficiency, and exergy efficiency. The velocity of air demonstrates a better stability than the mass flow rate of air and the pressure difference when temperature of heat source, ambient air temperature or area of heat transfer changes

  3. Numerical analysis of flow and heat transfer characteristics in solar chimney power plants with energy storage layer

    Numerical simulations have been performed to analyze the characteristics of heat transfer and air flow in the solar chimney power plant system with an energy storage layer. Different mathematical models for the collector, the chimney and the energy storage layer have been established, and the effect of solar radiation on the heat storage characteristic of the energy storage layer has been analyzed. The numerical simulation results show that: (1) the heat storage ratio of the energy storage layer decreases firstly and then increases with the solar radiation increasing from 200 W/m2 to 800 W/m2; (2) the relative static pressure decreases while the velocity increases significantly inside the system with the increase of solar radiation; (3) the average temperature of the chimney outlet and the energy storage layer may increase significantly with the increase of solar radiation. In addition, the temperature gradient of the storage medium may increase, which results in an increase of energy loss from the bottom of the energy storage layer

  4. A cost-benefit analysis of power generation from commercial reinforced concrete solar chimney power plant

    Highlights: • We develop an economic model different from related models. • We evaluate the initial investment cost of a plant built in northwest China. • We analyze the cost and benefit of a plant built in northwest China. • By the sensitivity analysis, we examine the sensitivity of TNPV to many parameters. - Abstract: This paper develops a model different from existing models to analyze the cost and benefit of a reinforced concrete solar chimney power plant (RCSCPP) built in northwest China. Based on the model and some assumptions for values of parameters, this work calculates total net present value (TNPV) and the minimum electricity price in each phase by dividing the whole service period into four phases. The results show that the minimum electricity price in the first phase is higher than the current market price of electricity, but the minimum prices in the other phases are far less than the current market price. The analysis indicates that huge advantages of the RCSCPP over coal-fired power plants can be embodied in phases 2–4. In addition, the sensitivity analysis performed in this paper discovers TNPV is very sensitive to changes in the solar electricity price and inflation rate, but responds only slightly to changes in carbon credits price, income tax rate and interest rate of loans. Our analysis predicts that RCSCPPs have very good application prospect. To encourage the development of RCSCPPs, the government should provide subsidy by setting higher electricity price in the first phase, then lower electricity price in the other phases

  5. Mathematical modelling and validation of the drying process in a Chimney-Dependent Solar Crop Dryer

    Highlights: ► The simulation code predicts temperatures to within 1.5% of recorded data. ► The ventilation is predicted to within 5% accuracy. ► Effects of heat inertia cause the actual drying path to deviate from the simulated path. ► The two paths converge in the end with a final moisture content prediction to within 10%. ► The simulation code can be used to compare and refine the dryer designs for optimum drying performance. - Abstract: A simulation procedure describing the drying process within a Chimney-Dependent Solar Crop Dryer (CDSCD) has been developed. The simulation follows the authors’ experimental work on the effect of varying drying chamber roof inclination on the ventilation and drying processes, and their work on the development of simulation code to help optimise ventilation in such dryers. The current paper presents the modelling and subsequent validation of the drying process inside the dryer, to come out with a design tool for the CDSCD. The work considers the height of the crop shelf above the drying-chamber base, crop resistance to airflow and the shading on the drying-chamber base and their effects on the drying process. The under-load condition temperatures and velocities are predicted to within a relative difference of 1.5% and 10%, respectively of the observed values. Even though the heat inertia of the physical model causes deviation between the predicted drying path and the observed drying path, the two paths tend to converge at the end of each drying cycle, with a general prediction to within 10% relative difference of the observed crop moisture content. The validation results show that the simulation code can serve as an effective tool for comparing and refining the designs of the CDSCD for optimum drying performance

  6. Examining potential benefits of combining a chimney with a salinity gradient solar pond for production of power in salt affected areas

    Akbarzadeh, Aliakbar; Johnson, Peter; Singh, Randeep [Energy Conservation and Renewable Energy Group, School of Aerospace Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, RMIT University, P.O. Box 71, Bundoora 3083, Vic. (Australia)

    2009-08-15

    The concept of combining a salinity gradient solar pond with a chimney to produce power in salt affected areas is examined. Firstly the causes of salinity in salt affected areas of northern Victoria, Australia are discussed. Existing salinity mitigation schemes are introduced and the integration of solar ponds with those schemes is discussed. Later it is shown how a solar pond can be combined with a chimney incorporating an air turbine for the production of power. Following the introduction of this concept the preliminary design is presented for a demonstration power plant incorporating a solar pond of area 6 hectares and depth 3 m with a 200 m tall chimney of 10 m diameter. The performance, including output power and efficiency of the proposed plant operating in northern Victoria is analysed and the results are discussed. The paper also discusses the overall advantages of using a solar pond with a chimney for production of power including the use of the large thermal mass of a solar pond as a practical and efficient method of storing collected solar energy. (author)

  7. Passive solar construction handbook

    Levy, E.; Evans, D.; Gardstein, C.

    1981-08-01

    Many of the basic elements of passive solar design are reviewed. The unique design constraints presented in passive homes are introduced and many of the salient issues influencing design decisions are described briefly. Passive solar construction is described for each passive system type: direct gain, thermal storage wall, attached sunspace, thermal storage roof, and convective loop. For each system type, important design and construction issues are discussed and case studies illustrating designed and built examples of the system type are presented. Construction details are given and construction and thermal performance information is given for the materials used in collector components, storage components, and control components. Included are glazing materials, framing systems, caulking and sealants, concrete masonry, concrete, brick, shading, reflectors, and insulators. The Load Collector Ratio method for estimating passive system performance is appended, and other analysis methods are briefly summarized. (LEW)

  8. Numerical simulation of an innovated building cooling system with combination of solar chimney and water spraying system

    Rabani, Ramin; Faghih, Ahmadreza K.; Rabani, Mehrdad; Rabani, Mehran

    2014-05-01

    In this study, passive cooling of a room using a solar chimney and water spraying system in the room inlet vents is simulated numerically in Yazd, Iran (a hot and arid city with very high solar radiation). The performance of this system has been investigated for the warmest day of the year (5 August) which depends on the variation of some parameters such as water flow rate, solar heat flux, and inlet air temperature. In order to get the best performance of the system for maximum air change and also absorb the highest solar heat flux by the absorber in the warmest time of the day, different directions (West, East, North and South) have been studied and the West direction has been selected as the best direction. The minimum amount of water used in spraying system to set the inside air averaged relative humidity <65 % is obtained using trial and error method. The simulation results show that this proposed system decreases the averaged air temperature in the middle of the room by 9-14 °C and increases the room relative humidity about 28-45 %.

  9. Passive-solar construction handbook

    Levy, E.; Evans, D.; Gardstein, C.

    1981-02-01

    Many of the basic elements of passive solar design are reviewed. Passive solar construction is covered according to system type, each system type discussion including a general discussion of the important design and construction issues which apply to the particular system and case studies illustrating designed and built examples of the system type. The three basic types of passive solar systems discussed are direct gain, thermal storage wall, and attached sunspace. Thermal performance and construction information is presented for typical materials used in passive solar collector components, storage components, and control components. Appended are an overview of analysis methods and a technique for estimating performance. (LEW)

  10. Electricity production with low grade heat in thermal power plants by design improvement of a hybrid dry cooling tower and a solar chimney concept

    Highlights: • A system of a dry cooling tower and a solar chimney are recombined. • The hot flue gas is injected in the hybrid tower to maximize the power output. • Effects of the angle of the tower walls (convergent or divergent) are studied. • Effects of the collector roof slope and base ground slope are studied. • The thermal efficiency of a 250 MW power plant is increased more than 0.5%. - Abstract: In this study, an improved concept design is presented to increase the thermal efficiency of the Rankine cycle of a typical steam power plant by combining a solar chimney and a dry cooling tower. The sources of the wind energy generation, include: the rejected heat from condenser to the air entering dry cooling tower, solar radiation and the airlift pumping effect on the air flow created by the stack hot flue gas which is injected into the hybrid tower as a novel change. This research primarily focuses on the Shahid Rajaee 250 MW steam power plant to determine the velocity of generated flow at the turbine inlet; a numerical finite volume code was employed for a dry cooling tower having a base diameter and a chimney height of 250 and 200 m, respectively. Calculations have been iterated for different angles of chimney walls, slopes of collectors and the base ground to find their effects on the output power. A range of 360 kW to more than 4.4 MW power is captured by the wind turbine by changing the hybrid tower geometrical parameters. Obtained results reveal a maximum of 0.538% increase for the thermal efficiency of the fossil fuel power plant

  11. Hybrid Solar Chimney and Evaporative Cooling System Used in Xinjiang%新疆地区太阳能烟囱复合蒸发冷却通风降温系统

    宣永梅; 马柱柱; 黄翔

    2013-01-01

    提出了太阳能烟囱复合蒸发冷却系统,对复合系统模型进行了理论分析及计算,得出通风量与烟囱高度、宽度及太阳辐射强度之间的关系。结果表明,太阳能烟囱的自然通风量随太阳能辐射强度及烟囱高度的增加而增加;在计算条件下,当宽度取1m 时通风量取得最大值。在此基础上分析得到太阳辐射照度400W/m2、烟囱高度3m、宽度1m 时,太阳能烟囱复合蒸发冷却系统应用于乌鲁木齐建筑时烟囱的理论通风量为0.21kg/s,该通风量基本满足乌鲁木齐夏季通风设计工况下,蒸发冷却降温时所需动力(0.23kg/s),且室内通风换气次数达到10次/h 以上,是一种节能环保的自然通风降温技术。%A hybrid system of solar chimney and evaporative cooling was proposed.The model of this hybrid system was studied by theoritical analysis and calculation.The relationships between air flow rate with chimney height,width and solar radiation were obtained.The calculation results indicated that the air flow rate of solar chimney increases with solar radiation and chimney height.Under design conditions,the air flow rate of solar chimney reaches its maximum value at solar chimney width of 1m. When applied to actual buildings in Urumqi,the obtained air mass flow rate (0.21kg/s)of solar chimney under optimum condi-tions (at chimney height of 3m,width of 1m,solar radiation of 400W/m2 )can approximately meet the ventilation requirements of evaporative cooling (0.23kg/s),and air changes more than 10 times per hour.The proposed hybrid system is an environmental friendly and energy efficient natural ventilation and free cooling technology.

  12. Fairy chimneys in Peru

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2011-01-01

    Erosion creates beautiful landscapes. A large part of them is known just by the local population. Google Maps can help in locating the places, study them and start any project for preservation. An interesting example is given by a landscape of fairy chimneys in Peru, near San Pedro de Larcay. It is remarkable the fact that some of them have been adapted as dwelling places.

  13. 基于火积耗散法的立式集热板太阳能热气流发电系统传热性能分析%Entransy dissipation based performance analysis for solar chimney power plant system with vertical collectors

    周艳; 刘峰; 王莉; 巢军; 李庆领

    2015-01-01

    基于火积耗散及火积耗散热阻极值定律推导出立式集热板太阳能热气流发电系统的火积耗散率表达式,并对系统的传热性能进行分析.结果表明:立式集热板太阳能热气流发电系统的烟囱尺寸是影响系统传热性能的主要因素,但是烟囱的高度和宽度受高层建筑的高度及窗户间距的限制,因此烟囱厚度成为系统火积耗散热阻的主要影响因素;在烟囱高度和宽度不变的条件下,厚度取0.9598 m 时系统火积耗散热阻最小,系统性能最优.%On the basis of the principle of entransy dissipation and the principle of minimum thermal resist-ance in heat transfer theory,the expression of entransy dissipation rate of the solar chimney power plant system with vertical collectors was derived and the heat transfer performance of this system was analyzed. The results show that,the structure dimensions of the chimney are the main factors affecting the perform-ance of the solar chimney power plant system with vertical collectors.However,the height and width of the solar chimney are limited by the height and space between the windows of high buildings,thus the thick-ness of the solar chimney is the foremost factor to decrease the entransy dissipation of the solar power plant system.Under conditions with constant chimney height and width,the thermal resistance of entransy dissipation of the solar system reached the minimum when the solar chimney thickness was 0.959 8 m,indi-cating the performance of the system achieved the optimum.

  14. Entransy dissipation based performance analysis for solar chimney power plant system with vertical collectors%基于火积耗散法的立式集热板太阳能热气流发电系统传热性能分析

    周艳; 刘峰; 王莉; 巢军; 李庆领

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of the principle of entransy dissipation and the principle of minimum thermal resist-ance in heat transfer theory,the expression of entransy dissipation rate of the solar chimney power plant system with vertical collectors was derived and the heat transfer performance of this system was analyzed. The results show that,the structure dimensions of the chimney are the main factors affecting the perform-ance of the solar chimney power plant system with vertical collectors.However,the height and width of the solar chimney are limited by the height and space between the windows of high buildings,thus the thick-ness of the solar chimney is the foremost factor to decrease the entransy dissipation of the solar power plant system.Under conditions with constant chimney height and width,the thermal resistance of entransy dissipation of the solar system reached the minimum when the solar chimney thickness was 0.959 8 m,indi-cating the performance of the system achieved the optimum.%基于火积耗散及火积耗散热阻极值定律推导出立式集热板太阳能热气流发电系统的火积耗散率表达式,并对系统的传热性能进行分析.结果表明:立式集热板太阳能热气流发电系统的烟囱尺寸是影响系统传热性能的主要因素,但是烟囱的高度和宽度受高层建筑的高度及窗户间距的限制,因此烟囱厚度成为系统火积耗散热阻的主要影响因素;在烟囱高度和宽度不变的条件下,厚度取0.9598 m 时系统火积耗散热阻最小,系统性能最优.

  15. Dimensioning, construction and commissioning of a coffee beans drying system with use of solar collectors

    A system of low-cost solar drying of coffee beans is dimensioned, built and commissioned by using solar collectors based on recycled aluminum cans. The information is collected from literature about the drying of coffee, types of drying and the various types of solar dryers.The coffee beans drying system is conceptualized and sized based on a solar collector constructed of aluminum cans as solar radiation absorbing material. The grain drying system is then built in coffee benefit CoopeTarrazu to all provided by the company and help materials and labor facilities. A guide to implementation of solar drying technology with general information is tailored to implement, select, build and maintain a solar grain dryer in Central America. The launch of the drying system was made by checking the proper functioning of the system and measurement instruments variables selected to calculate the efficiency of the system. The drying system is tested with a load of 45 kg of coffee bean, using a flow of air through natural convection to operate the system with the exclusive use of renewable energy. The grain is drying from a humidity of 50% (b.n), up to a humidity between 11% and 13% (b.n), which is the range generally used for the safe storage of grain. Facts of solar radiation, temperature, air velocity, relative humidity and grain humidity were taken to determine the behavior of the sized system. The maximum thermal efficiency achieved by the solar collector is determined constructed of 18%, with an air flow of 0.013 kg/s and a solar radiation 1138 W/m2. The average drying efficiency during experimentation was 17.8%, which is among the range of efficiencies for the type of drying equipment. Best thermal efficiencies were obtained from the solar collector built that the commercial solar collector compared. Controlling the flow of air into the equipment is recommended in order to improve the thermal efficiency and drying equipment, using blowers, fans or induced draft chimney

  16. Psychology and photography: chimneys dreaming and chimneys warriors

    Tilde Giani Gallino

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article covers two aspects related to Psychology and Art. The first aspect concerns the similarities found between photography and various Schools of experimental psychology. For instance, the scientists of Psychology of ethological theory, and Non-verbal communication (NVC, observe with particular methodologies the non-verbal messages that animals and humans transmit to their peers through expressions, posture, gestures. The same is done by photographers (those who use the “camera” with a good knowledge of the medium and a “photographic  eye” when they look around, careful to catch an expression, any unusual attitude, or a gesture of friendship. Another School of psychology, the Gestalpsychologie (Gestalt: form, figure, configuration, attributes a decisive value to the perception of space, the foreground and the background, the perspective and vanishing points, the contrast between black and white. All aspects that effectively interest psychologists just as much as photographers. Finally, the second aspect relates to the art of Antony Gaudì and makes some hypothesis about the personality and behavior of the great architect, with regard to the construction of two houses, "Casa Batllo" and "Casa Mila": particularly because of the configuration or Gestalt of the "chimneys" that dominate the two buildings. In this study, cooperate each other psychological analysis and the art of photography. The last enables us to study also the details of the work of Gaudì, as can be seen in the pictures of this essay.

  17. Corrosion at system chimneys made of CrNi-steels

    Pajonk, Gunther [Institute of Materials Testing of Northrhine-Westfalia, D-44285 Dortmund (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Names like 'chimney' und 'funnel' usually identify flue gas devices made of bricks. Much less known is the fact that chimney elements are still manufactured from alloys. The following article describes the particular demands ruled by legislation on building pro-ducts, just as the consequences resulting from corrosion loads by flue gas condensates. Difficulties caused by manufacturing and construction are primarily discussed. Furthermore a test procedure is introduced that allows to catch and correlate corrosion loads and technical designs systematically to corrosion behaviour and service life of flue gas devices. For the first time a tool for active quality assurance has been given by this test rig allowing to recognize construction errors systematically. This way, manufacturers of system chimneys and flue liners are enabled to optimize their products applications going ahead to the respective requests of the market. (authors)

  18. Novel concept for producing energy integrating a solar collector with a man made mountain hollow

    The concept of the solar chimney thermal power technology was proven with the successful operation of the Manzanares prototype built in the 1980s. However, all previous attempts at producing energy from a commercial solar chimney thermal power plant on a large scale have failed because of bad engineering and safety. A novel concept for producing energy by integrating a solar collector with a mountain hollow is presented and described. Solar energy is collected in the collector and heats the ground, which is used to store heat energy and heat the indoor air. Then, the hot air is forced by the pressure difference between it and the ambient air to move along the tilted segment and up the vertical segment of the 'chimney', driving the turbine generators to generate electricity. The mountain hollow, formed by excavation in a large-elevation mountain, can avoid the safety issues of erecting a gigantic concrete chimney, which is needed for commercial solar chimney thermal power plants. Furthermore, it can also save a great amount of construction materials for constructing a robust chimney structure and reduce the energy cost to a level less than that of a clean coal power plant, providing a good solution to the reclamation and utilization of undeveloped mountains, especially in mountainous countries

  19. Design and Construction of a Passive Solar Power Clothing Dryer

    Ali Alahmer; Mohammed Al-Dabbas

    2014-01-01

    This manuscript presents the design and construction of the energy efficient, time saving, cost effective of passive solar powered clothes dryer. This manuscript begins with a derivation of mathematical model represents of solar dryer followed with an analysis of the elements necessary for successfully designing the various components of a solar dryer. The solar drying performance achieved an average drying rate of 0.35 kg/h and drying time of 3 h in a typical day, even under local low ambien...

  20. Solar Glazing Tips for School Construction

    Smith, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Glazing can be optimized to enhance passive solar heating and daylight harvesting by exceeding the prescriptive limits of the energy code. This savings can be garnered without the high cost of external overhangs or expensive glazing products. The majority of savings from solar glazing are attributable to the increase in solar heating and…

  1. Solar thermal systems successful planning and construction

    Peuser, Dr Felix A; Schnauss, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Solar Thermal Systems summarizes the theoretical and practical knowledge gained from over 20 years of research, implementation and operation of thermal solar installations. This work provides answers to a variety of key questions by examining current solar installations, drawing upon past experiences and making proposals for future planning.- how do system components and materials behave under continuous operation?- which components have proven themselves and how are they used properly?- what are the causes of defects and how can they be avoided?- how long is the service life of modern solar i

  2. Toward a Heat Recovery Chimney

    Min Pan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The worldwide population increase and subsequent surge in energy demand leads electricity producers to increase supply in an attempt to generate larger profit margins. However, with Global Climate Change becoming a greater focus in engineering, it is critical for energy to be converted in as environmentally benign a way as possible. There are different sustainable methods to meet the energy demand. However, the focus of this research is in the area of Waste Heat Recovery. The waste heat stored in the exiting condenser cooling water is delivered to the air flow through a water-air cross flow heat exchanger. A converging thermal chimney structure is then applied to increase the velocity of the airflow. The accelerated air can be used to turn on the turbine-generator installed on the top the thermal chimney so that electricity can be generated. This system is effective in generating electricity from otherwise wasted heat.

  3. Investigation and Construction of a Thermosyphoning Solar Hot Water System

    Johnson, Harvey

    1978-01-01

    Describes how a thermosyphoning solar water heater capable of heating 110 kilogram of water to 80 degree Celsius and maintaining this temperature for 24 hours was constructed by four students in the fifth form of Sekolah Date Abdul Razak, Seremban, Malaysia in 1976. (HM)

  4. Do-it-yourself construction guide for solar systems. Projecting and construction of solar systems - a guide. 7. ed.; Solaranlagen Selbstbau. Planung und Bau von Solaranlagen - ein Leitfaden

    Themessl, Armin; Weiss, Werner

    2009-07-01

    Do-it-yourself construction of solar plants is quite common in Austria. The book presents the fundamentals of DIY construction of solar systems, the organization of construction worker groups, the technical trends in DIY systems, and the methodology of construction in a group of co-operative partners.

  5. Experimental study of the resulting flow of plume-thermosiphon interaction: application to chimney problems

    Zinoubi, J.; Maad, R.B.; Belghith, A. [Faculte des Sciences de Tunis, Tunis (Tunisia). Departement de Physique, Laboratoire d' Energetique et des Transferts de Chaleur et de Masse

    2005-03-01

    The quality of the surrounding air depends on the various dismissals of the combustion gases (exhaust cars, smokes of chimneys, ...), their scattering in the environment. Urban development around industrial zones and overexploitation of lands near factories triggered responsible interest in the problem of pollution. In order to decrease the impact of air pollution, several chimneys have been constructed in the different industrial facilities. So the improvement of the industrial chimney range became one of the current research problems. In order to improve the industrial chimney efficiency and to increase the vertical scattering of combustion products, we studied a system that could be integrated to the industrial chimney exit. This system is essentially constituted of an open-ended vertical cylinder of larger diameter. Thermal radiance emitted by smoke heats the internal cylinder wall. The heating of the fluid at the cylinder-inlet is the cause of the thermosiphon effect around the thermal plume. To study the problem in the laboratory we simulated the plume exiting of a chimney by a disk heated uniformly by the Joule effect at constant temperature. Different configurations were studied, while acting, on the source-cylinder spacing and the cylinder height. The study of the average fields permits, in a first stage, to get better information about the mechanism of the resulting flow development, and in a second stage, to determine the spacing of the source-cylinder and cylinder height optima, for which a clean increase of fluid flow rate is obtained. (author)

  6. Design and Construction of a Passive Solar Power Clothing Dryer

    Ali Alahmer

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript presents the design and construction of the energy efficient, time saving, cost effective of passive solar powered clothes dryer. This manuscript begins with a derivation of mathematical model represents of solar dryer followed with an analysis of the elements necessary for successfully designing the various components of a solar dryer. The solar drying performance achieved an average drying rate of 0.35 kg/h and drying time of 3 h in a typical day, even under local low ambient humidity of around 35% and at moderate outdoor wind speed. Also, the computational fluid dynamic CFD of transient thermal behavior based on Navier-Stokes equations was used to demonstrate the prevailing temperature rises in the solar natural-ventilation system associated with the internal heat flux due to solar radiation and moisture removal. The efficiency of solar dryer was improved using Nano coating technology. The result showed good agreement between the computational solid simulation and the experimental measurements obtained from this system.

  7. Piping systems, containment pre-stressing and steel ventilation chimney

    Units 5 and 6 of NPP Kozloduy have been designed initially for seismic levels which are considered too low today. In the frame of an IAEA Coordinated Research Programme, a Swiss team has been commissioned by Natsionalna Elektricheska Kompania, Sofia, to analyse the relevant piping system, the containment prestressing and the steel ventilation chimney and to recommend upgrade measures for adequate seismic capacity where applicable. Seismic input had been specified by and agreed upon earlier by IAEA experts. The necessary investigations have been performed in 1995 and discussed with internationally recognized experts. The main results may be summarized as follows: Upgrades are necessary at different piping sy ports (additional snubbers or viscous dampers). These fixes can be done easily at low cost. The containment prestressing tendons are adequately designed for the specified load combinations. However, unfavourable construction features endanger the reliability. It is therefore strongly recommended to replace the tendons stepwise and to upgrade the existing monitoring system. Finally, the steel ventilation chimney may not withstand a seismic event, however the containment and diesel generator building will not be destroyed at possible impact by the chimney. On the other hand the roof of the main building has to be reinforced partially. It is recommended to continue the project for 1996 and 1997 to implement the upgrade measures mentioned above, to analyse the remaining piping systems and to consolidate all results obtained by different research groups of the IAEA programme with respect to piping systems including components and tanks

  8. Seismic modelling of a masonry chimney

    Pallarés Rubio, Francisco Javier; Ivorra Chorro, Salvador

    2007-01-01

    Different plastic/failure are applied to a masonry structure showing the difficulties to deal with masonry material and the results obtained for a masonry chimney under erathquake loading when two different criteria are used.

  9. Evaluation of corrosion attack of chimney liners

    Blahetová M.; Horák J.; Kubesa P.; Lasek S.; Ochodek T.

    2016-01-01

    The case study of chimney liner corrosion addresses three specific cases of damage of chimney systems from of stainless steels. These systems were used for flue of gas arising from the combustion of brown coal in small automatic boilers, which are used for heating. Detailed analyzes implied that the cause of devastating corrosion of the steel AISI 316 and 304 steel (CSN 17349, 17241) was particularly high content of halides (chlorides and fluorides), which caused a severe pitting corrosion, w...

  10. Design, Construction and Testing of a Parabolic Solar Steam Generator

    Folaranmi, Joshua

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the design, construction and testing of a parabolic dish solar steam generator. Using concentrating collector, heat from the sun is concentrated on a black absorber located at the focus point of the reflector in which water is heated to a very high temperature to form steam. It also describes the sun tracking system unit by manual tilting of the lever at the base of the parabolic dish to capture solar energy. The whole arrangement is mounted on a hinged frame supported with...

  11. Energy efficient and solar construction. Themes 2008; Energieeffizientes und solares Bauen. Themen 2008

    Stadermann, Gerd (ed.)

    2009-04-15

    Within the annual meeting of the Renewable Energy Research Association (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) at 29th to 30th September, 2008, the lectures were held to the following themes: (a) Energy efficient and solar construction - a change of paradigm; (b) Revolution in construction technology; (c) Energetic sanitation of old buildings; (d) Innovative technologies of energy supply; (e) Integrated facility management; (f) Demonstration and practice of new technologies; (g) Market, politics, and sustainability.

  12. Suitability of locally constructed solar dryers for vegetable drying

    Indigenous vegetables and spices are usually common and abundant during the rainy season but unfortunately, almost disappear during the dry season due to inadequate processing because of their high moisture content, poor storage and marketing facilities. A study was therefore conducted to find the possibilities of drying vegetables using locally constructed solar dryers at the Mechanisation section of the University of Education, Mampong Campus. The study was done during the months of March to September, 2004 and six designs of solar panels were used. The panels were constructed using hard wood, binding materials (nails), chicken mesh, nylon net, and black and white polythene sheets. Variations in panels resulted from the type of polythene sheet used (white, black or both), drying platform and shape of the roof. The panels with their interior lined with the black polythene sheet recorded higher temperatures than those with their bases covered with only the chicken mesh and nylon nettings. All the designs recorded higher temperatures than the ambient temperature. The drying of vegetables was observed to be faster in the panels with their drying platforms lined with the black polythene sheet than those with their bases covered with only the chicken mesh and nylon net. Appearance of the vegetables after drying in the solar panels was almost the same as before drying as compared to the open sun drying that got mouldy after drying. Those vegetables that were dried directly on the black polythene sheet however were slightly darker in colour. Solar drying with these locally constructed panels would be a better means of drying vegetables by rural folks. (au)

  13. Design, Construction and Effectiveness Analysis of Hybrid Automatic Solar Tracking System for Amorphous and Crystalline Solar Cells

    Bhupendra Gupta

    2013-01-01

    - This paper concerns the design and construction of a Hybrid solar tracking system. The constructed device was implemented by integrating it with Amorphous & Crystalline Solar Panel, three dimensional freedom mechanism and microcontroller. The amount of power available from a photovoltaic panel is determined by three parameters, the type of solar tracker, materials of solar panel and the intensity of the sunlight. The objective of this paper is to present analysis on the use of two differ...

  14. Constructal method to optimize solar thermochemical reactor design

    Tescari, S.; Mazet, N. [PROMES-CNRS, Rambla de la Thermodynamique, Tecnosud, 66100 Perpignan (France); Neveu, P. [PROMES-CNRS, Rambla de la Thermodynamique, Tecnosud, 66100 Perpignan (France); Universite de Perpignan Via Domitia, 52 Avenue Paul Alduy, 66860 Perpignan (France)

    2010-09-15

    The objective of this study is the geometrical optimization of a thermochemical reactor, which works simultaneously as solar collector and reactor. The heat (concentrated solar radiation) is supplied on a small peripheral surface and has to be dispersed in the entire reactive volume in order to activate the reaction all over the material. A similarity between this study and the point to volume problem analyzed by the constructal approach (Bejan, 2000) is evident. This approach was successfully applied to several domains, for example for the coupled mass and conductive heat transfer (Azoumah et al., 2004). Focusing on solar reactors, this work aims to apply constructal analysis to coupled conductive and radiative heat transfer. As a first step, the chemical reaction is represented by a uniform heat sink inside the material. The objective is to optimize the reactor geometry in order to maximize its efficiency. By using some hypothesis, a simplified solution is found. A parametric study provides the influence of different technical and operating parameters on the maximal efficiency and on the optimal shape. Different reactor designs (filled cylinder, cavity and honeycomb reactors) are compared, in order to determine the most efficient structure according to the operating conditions. Finally, these results are compared with a CFD model in order to validate the assumptions. (author)

  15. Design, Construction and Testing of a Parabolic Solar Steam Generator

    Joshua FOLARANMI

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the design, construction and testing of a parabolic dish solar steam generator. Using concentrating collector, heat from the sun is concentrated on a black absorber located at the focus point of the reflector in which water is heated to a very high temperature to form steam. It also describes the sun tracking system unit by manual tilting of the lever at the base of the parabolic dish to capture solar energy. The whole arrangement is mounted on a hinged frame supported with a slotted lever for tilting the parabolic dish reflector to different angles so that the sun is always directed to the collector at different period of the day. On the average sunny and cloud free days, the test results gave high temperature above 200°C.

  16. Design and construction of a low cost solar simulator

    A solar simulator has been designed and constructed for indoor testing for solar collectors. The simulator consists of 45 halogen lamps. Each lamp has a rated power of a 300 watts. The lamps in ten rows where each row consists of 4 to 5 lamps. The lamps occupied area 6 m2. Dimmers are used to control the amount of lamp intensities. The spacing between the lamps and the collector is about 150 cm. The intensities of the lamps are measured using a pyranometer. The intensity contours or mappings for minimum and maximum average pyranometer readings about 280 to 640 W/m2 are produced, with errors are about of 3.16 % to 4.5 %. (Author)

  17. Solar building construction - new technologies; Solares Bauen - Neue Technologien fuer Gebaeude

    Luther, J.; Voss, K.; Wittwer, V. [Fraunhofer-Inst. fuer Solare Energiesysteme, Freiburg (Germany). Abt. ``Thermische und Optische Systeme``

    1998-02-01

    There is an increasing demand for integrated building concepts in order to reduce energy consumption. Building design, construction and heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) technology are decisive in this respect. Thus, an essentially higher energy efficiency is achieved and solar energy becomes the main energy source. An `active building envelope` assumes the task of controlling the energy flows between inside and outside. This paper reports on new components, system concepts and planning tools for solar building. (orig.) [Deutsch] Fuer zukuenftige Bauten werden in hohem Masse Forderungen nach integrierten Konzepten zur Begrenzung des Energieverbrauchs gestellt. Gestalt, Konstruktion und Klimatechnik sind dabei massgebliche Einflussfaktoren. Hierdurch wird eine wesentlich hoehere Energieeffizienz erzielt und Solarenergie kann die uebrigen Energiequellen zurueckdraengen. Eine `aktive Gebaeudehuelle` uebernimmt die Aufgabe, den Energiefluss zwischen Innen und Aussen zu steuern. Der Beitrag berichtet ueber neue Komponenten, Systemkonzepte und Planungswerkzeuge fuer das Solare Bauen. (orig.)

  18. Evaluation of corrosion attack of chimney liners

    Blahetová M.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The case study of chimney liner corrosion addresses three specific cases of damage of chimney systems from of stainless steels. These systems were used for flue of gas arising from the combustion of brown coal in small automatic boilers, which are used for heating. Detailed analyzes implied that the cause of devastating corrosion of the steel AISI 316 and 304 steel (CSN 17349, 17241 was particularly high content of halides (chlorides and fluorides, which caused a severe pitting corrosion, which led up to the perforation of the liner material. Simultaneous reduction of the thickness of the used sheets was due to by the general corrosion, which was caused by the sulfur in the solid fuel. The condensation then led to acid environment and therefore the corrosion below the dew point of the sulfuric acid has occurred. All is documented by metallographic analysis and microanalysis of the corrosion products.

  19. Design, Construction and Effectiveness Analysis of Hybrid Automatic Solar Tracking System for Amorphous and Crystalline Solar Cells

    Bhupendra Gupta

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available - This paper concerns the design and construction of a Hybrid solar tracking system. The constructed device was implemented by integrating it with Amorphous & Crystalline Solar Panel, three dimensional freedom mechanism and microcontroller. The amount of power available from a photovoltaic panel is determined by three parameters, the type of solar tracker, materials of solar panel and the intensity of the sunlight. The objective of this paper is to present analysis on the use of two different material of Solar panel like Amorphous & Crystalline in a Solar tracking system at Stationary, Single Axis, Dual Axis & Hybrid Axis solar tracker to have better performance with minimum losses to the surroundings, as this device ensures maximum intensity of sun rays hitting the surface of the panel from sunrise to sunset

  20. 太阳能烟囱与露点间接蒸发冷却复合空调节能系统分析%Analysis of an Energy Saving Air Conditioning System Integrated with Solar Chimney and Dew-point Evaporative Cooling

    倪诚明

    2014-01-01

    太阳能烟囱是一种热压作用下的自然通风设备,它利用太阳辐射作为动力,为空气流动提供浮升力,将热能转化为动能。露点间接蒸发冷却技术利用空气的干球温度和不断降低的湿球温度之差进行换热,可以将空气温度冷却到低于环境湿球温度且接近露点温度。本文介绍了太阳能烟囱与露点间接蒸发冷却技术的研究现状,提出一套太阳能烟囱与露点间接蒸发冷却复合的空调节能系统。分析表明,该系统可合理的利用太阳能解决室内通风降温问题,投资和运行费用都很低,节能环保效果显著。%Solar chimney is a kind of natural ventilation application under the action of hot pressing, it using solar radiation as power, providing buoyancy lift for air flow, transfer the thermal energy into kinetic energy.The technol-ogy of dew-point evaporative cooling using the temperature difference of air between dry bulb temperature and low-ing wet bulb temperature to transfer heat.Its able to cool air to temperature below ambient wet bulb temperature and approaching dew-point temperature.This paper review the research status of solar chimney and dew-point evapora-tive cooling.The analysis results showed that the proposed system is a reasonable way to solve the indoor ventilation and cooling problems.its investment and operating cost is lower, and has a remarkable energy saving and environ-ment protection effect.

  1. Self-construction of a solar water heater; Calentador solar de agua de auto-construccion

    Lentz Herrera, Alvaro E.; Rincon Mejia, Eduardo A. [Universidad Autonoma de la Ciudad de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    In this work a flat receiver of self construction is shown with relatively low cost and easy manufacture, but with a thermal efficiency superior to 40% for applications at temperatures less than 60 degrees Celsius, that allows satisfying international standards in this respect. The heater has been matter of study in open courses distributed in the Universidad Autonoma de la Ciudad de Mexico (UACM) oriented to that the participants construct their own system, in addition to its installation and tests. The obtained results have been excellent. The massive use of efficient solar receivers of self-construction can truly help to the decreasing of the gas discharges of greenhouse effect. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presenta un captador plano de auto construccion con relativamente bajo costo y facil manufactura, pero con un rendimiento termico superior a 40% para aplicaciones a temperatura menos de 60 grados centigrados que le permite satisfacer estandares internacionales a este respecto. El calentador ha sido materia de estudio en cursos abiertos impartidos en la Universidad Autonoma de la Ciudad de Mexico (UACM) orientados a que los participantes construyan su propio sistema, ademas de su instalacion y pruebas. Los resultados obtenidos han sido excelentes. El uso masivo de captadores solares eficientes de autoconstruccion puede en verdad coadyuvar a la disminucion de las emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero.

  2. Hybrid solar-electric oven construction prototype; Construccion de prototipo de horno hibrido solar-electrico

    Hernandez Roman, M. A; Pineda Pinon, J; Arcos Pichardo, A [CICATA, Santiago de Queretaro, Queretaro (Mexico)

    2013-03-15

    The oven construction consists of a solar collector system of cylindrical parabolic type, a heating through electrical resistance and a curing chamber. The warm fluid is air, which is injected into the chamber through forced draft. The temperature required in the system is within a range of 150 to 300 degrees Celsius. [Spanish] La construccion del horno consta de un sistema de captacion solar del tipo cilindrico parabolico, un sistema de calentamiento a traves de resistencias electricas y una camara de curado. El fluido a calentar es aire, el cual es inyectado dentro de la camara a traves de tiro forzado. La temperatura solicitada en el sistema es dentro de un rango de 150 a 300 grados centigrados.

  3. Pendulum Dampers for Tall RC Chimney Subjected To Wind

    Dr. B K Raghu Prasad,

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Chimneys are a part of industrial growth in any country. Most current chimney design standards require analysis of dynamic analysis of chimney for earthquake and wind induced loads. Because of variation in dimensions of chimney along its height structural analysis such as wind oscillations have become more critical. If ductility is an important consideration in earthquake resistant design, control of deflection become critical in wind induced vibrations. Pendulum dampers are of the devices to control the deflection. In the present work pendulum dampers of different natural frequencies have been tried. The one which has the largest equivalent logarithmic decrement is found to reduce the response significantly. The response is compared with that of chimney with a tip mass. The paper discusses the dynamic analysis of 150m high RCC chimney subjected to wind. Analysis has been carried out for fixed base case.

  4. Constructal Optimization of Top Contact Metallization of a Photovoltaic Solar Cell

    Santanu Bandyopadhyay; Aditya Bhakta

    2005-01-01

    A top contact metallization of a photovoltaic solar cell collects the current generated by incident solar radiation. Several power-loss mechanisms are associated with the current flow through the front contact grid. The design of the top metal contact grid is one of the most important areas of efficient photovoltaic solar cell design. In this paper, an approach based on the constructal theory is proposed to design the grid pattern in a photovoltaic solar cell, minimizing total resistive losse...

  5. Solar updraft tower - structural optimisation under dynamic wind action

    Van Eck, S.; Coenders, J.L.; Doomen, R.

    2015-01-01

    A solar updraft tower is a type of power plant which uses solar irradiation to generate electricity. It consists of three elements: a solar air collector, wind turbines and a chimney. The proposed concepts for this chimney schematise it as a 1-km-tall reinforced concrete shell, which are vulnerable

  6. Design, construction and evaluation of solarized airlift tubular photobioreactor

    Bahadur, A.; Zubair, M.; Khan, M. B.

    2013-06-01

    An innovative photobioreactor is developed for growing algae in simulated conditions. The proposed design comprises of a continuous tubular irradiance loop and air induced liquid circulation with gas separation through air lift device. The unique features of air lift system are to ensure the shear free circulation of sensitive algal culture and induce light/dark cycles to the photosynthetic micro-organisms. The design strategy employs to model and construct a 20-liter laboratory scale unit using Boro-silicate glass tubing. The material is selected to ensure maximum photon transmission. All components of the device are designed to have flexibility to be replaced with an alternative design, providing fair chance of modification for future investigators. The principles of fluid mechanics are applied to describe geometrical attributes of the air lift system. Combination of LEDs and Florescent tube lights (Warm white) were used to illuminate the photosynthesis reaction area providing a possibility to control both illumination duration and light intensity. 200 Watt Solar PV system is designed to power up the device which included air pump (100 Watt) and illumination system (100 Watt). Algal strain Chlorella sp was inoculated in photobioreactor which was sparged with air and carbon dioxide. The growth was sustained in the batch mode with daily monitoring of temperature, pH and biomass concentration. The novel photobioreactor recorded a maximum experimental average yield of 0.65 g/l.day (11.3 g/m2.day) as compared to theoretical modeled yield of 0.82 g/l.day (14.26 g/m2.day), suggesting the device can be efficiently and cost-effectively employed in the production of algal biomass for biofuels, concomitantly mitigating CO2.

  7. Design, construction and evaluation of solarized airlift tubular photobioreactor

    An innovative photobioreactor is developed for growing algae in simulated conditions. The proposed design comprises of a continuous tubular irradiance loop and air induced liquid circulation with gas separation through air lift device. The unique features of air lift system are to ensure the shear free circulation of sensitive algal culture and induce light/dark cycles to the photosynthetic micro-organisms. The design strategy employs to model and construct a 20-liter laboratory scale unit using Boro-silicate glass tubing. The material is selected to ensure maximum photon transmission. All components of the device are designed to have flexibility to be replaced with an alternative design, providing fair chance of modification for future investigators. The principles of fluid mechanics are applied to describe geometrical attributes of the air lift system. Combination of LEDs and Florescent tube lights (Warm white) were used to illuminate the photosynthesis reaction area providing a possibility to control both illumination duration and light intensity. 200 Watt Solar PV system is designed to power up the device which included air pump (100 Watt) and illumination system (100 Watt). Algal strain Chlorella sp was inoculated in photobioreactor which was sparged with air and carbon dioxide. The growth was sustained in the batch mode with daily monitoring of temperature, pH and biomass concentration. The novel photobioreactor recorded a maximum experimental average yield of 0.65 g/l.day (11.3 g/m2.day) as compared to theoretical modeled yield of 0.82 g/l.day (14.26 g/m2.day), suggesting the device can be efficiently and cost-effectively employed in the production of algal biomass for biofuels, concomitantly mitigating CO2.

  8. Construction and characterization of spherical Si solar cells combined with SiC electric power inverter

    Oku, Takeo; Matsumoto, Taisuke; Hiramatsu, Kouichi; Yasuda, Masashi; Shimono, Akio; Takeda, Yoshikazu; Murozono, Mikio

    2015-02-01

    Spherical silicon (Si) photovoltaic solar cell systems combined with an electric power inverter using silicon carbide (SiC) field-effect transistor (FET) were constructed and characterized, which were compared with an ordinary Si-based converter. The SiC-FET devices were introduced in the direct current-alternating current (DC-AC) converter, which was connected with the solar panels. The spherical Si solar cells were used as the power sources, and the spherical Si panels are lighter and more flexible compared with the ordinary flat Si solar panels. Conversion efficiencies of the spherical Si solar cells were improved by using the SiC-FET.

  9. Code manual for passive solar design single family residential construction

    None

    1979-08-01

    General information is presented on types of passive solar techniques and a method for estimating passive solar performance. Important codes and standards are described, each description listing the items in the code which could have a potential impact on a passive solar design and analyzing the effect of the code on the use of such techniques. State and local codes and code agencies are summarized. The local summary contains the name of a contact in the enforcement agency to whom specific questions may be addressed. The requirements to file for a building permit are given briefly. (LEW)

  10. A new picture of interstellar medium: chimney model

    Many observational facts which indicate a different picture of the interstellar medium from the McKee-Ostriker's three-phase model are accumulated in this decade. Based upon the sequential star formation model in molecular clouds the gigantic superbubbles are formed by sequential supernova explosions. Such superbubbles stand perpendicular to the disk like chimneys and the hot gas can go up to the halo like smoke in chimneys. About one thousand of chimneys smoke in a galaxy along, the spiral arms. At the interarm region the classical two-phase model is preferable. Here, several observational evidences for this picture are presented, and some implications to the evolution of galaxies are discussed

  11. Solar thermal power plants

    The solar thermal power plant technology, the opportunities it presents and the developments in the market are outlined. The focus is on the technology of parabolic trough power plants, a proven technology for solar power generation on a large scale. In a parabolic trough power plant, trough-shaped mirrors concentrate the solar irradiation onto a pipe in the focal line of the collector. The thermal energy thus generated is used for electricity generation in a steam turbine. Parabolic trough plants can be combined with thermal storage and fossil or biomass fired heat exchangers to generate electricity even when the sun is not shining. Solar Millennium AG in Erlangen has developed the first power plant of this kind in Europe. After two years of construction the plant started operation in Southern Spain in 2008. This one and its sister projects are important steps leading the way for the whole market. The paper also covers the technological challenges, the key components used and the research and development activities concerning this technology. Solar thermal power plants are ideal for covering peak and medium loads in power grids. In hybrid operation they can also cover base-load. The Solar Chimney power plant, another striking technology for the conversion of solar into electric energy, is described briefly. The paper concludes with a look at the future - the import of solar energy from the deserts of North Africa to central Europe. (author)

  12. Seismic response Analyses of Hanaro in-chimney bracket structures

    Lee, Jae Han; Ryu, J.S.; Cho, Y.G.; Lee, H.Y.; Kim, J.B

    1999-05-01

    The in-chimney bracket will be installed in the upper part of chimney, which holds the capsule extension pipes in upper one-third of length. For evaluating the effects on the capsules and related reactor structures, ANSYS finite element analysis model is developed and the dynamic characteristics are analyzed. The seismic response anlayses of in-chimney bracket and related reactor structures of HANARO under the design earthquake response spectrum loads of OBE (0.1 g) and SSE (0.2 g) are performed. The maximum horizontal displacements of the flow tubes are within the minimum half gaps between close flow tubes, it is expected that these displacement will not produce any contact between neighbor flow tubes. The stress values in main points of reactor structures and in-chimney bracket for the seismic loads are also within the ASME Code limits. It is also confirmed that the fatigue usage factor is muchless than 1.0. So, any damage on structural integrity is not expected when an in-chimney bracket is installed to upper part of the reactor chimney. (author). 12 refs., 24 tabs., 37 figs.

  13. Solar Energy Block-Based Residential Construction for Rural Areas in the West of China

    Jizhong Shao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on the Great Western Development Strategy and the requirement for sustainable development in the west of China, rural affordable housing, energy conservation, and environmental protection are becoming development standards in the construction field. This paper mainly explores an innovative, sustainable, residential construction method for rural areas in western China, particularly the integration of solar energy technology with modern prefabricated building techniques, formally named solar energy block-based construction. The conscious approach of using volumetric blocks provides superior adaptability and expansibility in integration with a steel structure, thereby reducing the construction time and cost. Allowing a wide variety of configurations and styles in the building layout, this approach can be customized to the end-user’s precise location and climate, making rural residential buildings much more flexible and modern. To take advantage of adequate solar energy resource in western China, the blocks are associated with active and passive solar energy technologies, thereby reducing pollution, mitigating global warming, and enhancing sustainability. Therefore, we concluded that solar energy block-based construction could bring significant benefits to the environment, economy, and society. It could also promote sustainable development in the rural regions of western China.

  14. 75 FR 2133 - Construction and Operation of the Quartzsite Solar Energy Project, La Paz County, AZ (DOE/EIS-0440)

    2010-01-14

    ... Area Power Administration Construction and Operation of the Quartzsite Solar Energy Project, La Paz... used during the construction phase of the Project. The laydown areas, outside of the solar facility... EIS, as defined at 40 CFR 1501.5. The proposed Project would include construction of a new...

  15. Self-Aligning Solar Panel : Construction of a self-aligning platform for solar panels

    Dahlqvist, Mattias; Nilsson-Hedman, Tommy

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to create a self-aligning platform for solar panels for better utilization of the renewable solar energy source that is available. The difference between present self-aligning solutions and the proposed one is its two repositioning modes to find the optimal position which implies higher efficiency in terms of harnessing the solar energy. The movement is based on two axes rotation. The objective is to compare the final prototype with a stationary support structur...

  16. NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF HEAT STORAGE OF SOLAR HEAT IN FLOOR CONSTRUCTION

    Weitzmann, Peter; Holck, Ole; Svendsen, Svend

    2003-01-01

    including pipe spacing, storage materials, and distribution of insulation around the thermal storage layer. The energy consump-tion, reduction due to the heat storage and total performance of the solar heating system was calculated. The largest reduction of 100 kWh/m² solar collector occurred in the house......In this paper, heat storage of solar heating in the floor construction of single-family houses is examined. A floor construction with two concrete decks is investigated. The lower is used as heat storage while the upper deck has a floor heating system. The potential for a reduction of the energy...... system room temperature and energy consumption. A single-family house with and without heat recovery unit on the ventilation system of 130 m² with heating demand of approximately 70 kWh/m² and 40 kWh/m² is investigated. A parametrical analysis was performed for the solar collector area, and floor layouts...

  17. Human cultures as niche constructions within the solar system

    Van de Vliert, Evert

    2016-01-01

    This commentary seeks to refine Kashima’s (2016) timely and topical but too-general call for embedding culture within the planetary ecosystem. My starting point is that cultures are to an underestimated extent ongoing niche constructions within the merry-go-round of the Sun’s radiation, the Earth’s

  18. Passive solar systems (solar architecture research and development in Italy). Solare passivo: sottoprogetto energia solare, eolica ed idraulica

    1989-02-01

    This collection of papers on solar achitecture research and development deals with test facilities now available in Italy for performance testing/data acquisition relative to passive solar system components (i.e.Trombe walls) and provides an update on the developments by various consultants of marketable products (solar water heaters, solar chimneys, sunlight dousers, etc).

  19. Experimental investigations of the sodium/air heat exchanger with natural draught chimney for the EFR

    In a first series of experiments in the new large sodium experimental plant ILONA, the post-shutdown heat removal system for the European Fast Breeder Reactor EFR developed by Interatom and working by natural convection was tested. The air-side flow in the heat exchanger and chimney was optimized in extensive model experiments and the results were taken into account in the construction of the Na/air heat exchanger in the ILONA. A considerable increase in output was achieved, compared to the design, based on the flow model experiments for the ILONA heat exchanger. (orig.)

  20. Solar Energy Block-Based Residential Construction for Rural Areas in the West of China

    Jizhong Shao; Huixian Chen; Ting Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Based on the Great Western Development Strategy and the requirement for sustainable development in the west of China, rural affordable housing, energy conservation, and environmental protection are becoming development standards in the construction field. This paper mainly explores an innovative, sustainable, residential construction method for rural areas in western China, particularly the integration of solar energy technology with modern prefabricated building techniques, formally named so...

  1. The gas chimney formation during the steam explosion premixing phase

    The crucial part in isothermal premixing experiment simulation is the correct prediction of the gas chimney, which forms when the spheres penetrate into water. The first simulation results with the developed original combined multiphase model showed that the gas chimney starts to close at the wrong place at the top of the chimney and not in the middle, like it was observed in the experiments. To find the physical explanation for this identified weakness of our numerical model a comprehensive parametric analysis (mesh size, initial water-air surface thickness, water density, momentum coupling starting position) has been performed. It was established that the reason for the unphysical gas chimney closing at the top could be the gradual air-water density transition in the experiment model, since there is due to the finite differences description always a transition layer with intermediate phases density over the pure water phase. It was shown that this difference between our numerical model and the experiment can be somewhat compensated if the spheres interfacial drag coefficient at the upmost mesh plane of the unphysical air-water transition layer is artificially risen. On this way a more correct gas chimney formation can be obtained.(author)

  2. Solar project description. Houston Construction Company single family residence, Eden Prairie, Minnesota March 19, 1982

    The Houston Construction Company solar energy system is designed to provide 62 percent of the space heating and domestic hot water energy requirements for a single-family detached residence containing 1796 square feet. The residence is in Eden Prairie, MN. Energy collection is accomplished by 468 square feet of Solaron flat-plate collectors which face south at an angle of 60 degrees from the horizontal. air is the medium for transfer of solar energy from the collectors to either the conditioned space or storage. Storage is a 314 cubic foot bin containing approximately 24,000 lbs of crushed rock located in a utility room. when solar energy is inadequate to satisfy the requirements of the space heating subsystem, auxiliary thermal energy is supplied from an 80,000 Btu per hour natural gas furnace. Domestic hot water is provided by a 30,000 Btu per hour natural gas water heater if the solar contribution is insufficient.

  3. The construction of a process line for high efficiency silicon solar cells under clean-room conditions

    The aim of this research project was to plan, construct and test a clean-room technology laboratory for the manufacturing of silicon solar cells with 20% efficiency (1.5AM). In addition to the establishment of the laboratory, there existed the case of establishing the material and technological fundamentals of high-efficiency solar cells, testing and optimizing all stages of production as well as constructing test stands for accompanying characterisation work. The following final report describes the construction of the laboratory and characterisation systems, the material elements of high-efficiency solar cells as well as the most important results of solar cell production and optimisation. (orig./BWI)

  4. Design, Engineering, and Construction of Photosynthetic Microbial Cell Factories for Renewable Solar Fuel Production

    Lindblad, Peter; Lindberg, Pia; Stensjoe, Karin (Photochemistry and Molecular Science, Dept. of Chemistry-Aangstroem Laboratory, Uppsala Univ., Uppsala (Sweden)), E-mail: Peter.Lindblad@kemi.uu.se; Oliveira, Paulo (Instituto de Biologia Molecular e Celular, Porto (Portugal)); Heidorn, Thorsten (Bioforsk-Norwegian Inst. for Agricultural and Environmental Research, Aas Oslo, (Norway))

    2012-03-15

    There is an urgent need to develop sustainable solutions to convert solar energy into energy carriers used in the society. In addition to solar cells generating electricity, there are several options to generate solar fuels. This paper outlines and discusses the design and engineering of photosynthetic microbial systems for the generation of renewable solar fuels, with a focus on cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria are prokaryotic microorganisms with the same type of photosynthesis as higher plants. Native and engineered cyanobacteria have been used by us and others as model systems to examine, demonstrate, and develop photobiological H{sub 2} production. More recently, the production of carbon-containing solar fuels like ethanol, butanol, and isoprene have been demonstrated. We are using a synthetic biology approach to develop efficient photosynthetic microbial cell factories for direct generation of biofuels from solar energy. Present progress and advances in the design, engineering, and construction of such cyanobacterial cells for the generation of a portfolio of solar fuels, e.g., hydrogen, alcohols, and isoprene, are presented and discussed. Possibilities and challenges when introducing and using synthetic biology are highlighted

  5. Construction Status and Early Science with the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope

    McMullin, Joseph P.; Rimmele, Thomas R.; Warner, Mark; Martinez Pillet, Valentin; Craig, Simon; Woeger, Friedrich; Tritschler, Alexandra; Berukoff, Steven J.; Casini, Roberto; Goode, Philip R.; Knoelker, Michael; Kuhn, Jeffrey Richard; Lin, Haosheng; Mathioudakis, Mihalis; Reardon, Kevin P.; Rosner, Robert; Schmidt, Wolfgang

    2016-05-01

    The 4-m Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST) is in its seventh year of overall development and its fourth year of site construction on the summit of Haleakala, Maui. The Site Facilities (Utility Building and Support & Operations Building) are in place with ongoing construction of the Telescope Mount Assembly within. Off-site the fabrication of the component systems is completing with early integration testing and verification starting.Once complete this facility will provide the highest sensitivity and resolution for study of solar magnetism and the drivers of key processes impacting Earth (solar wind, flares, coronal mass ejections, and variability in solar output). The DKIST will be equipped initially with a battery of first light instruments which cover a spectral range from the UV (380 nm) to the near IR (5000 nm), and capable of providing both imaging and spectro-polarimetric measurements throughout the solar atmosphere (photosphere, chromosphere, and corona); these instruments are being developed by the National Solar Observatory (Visible Broadband Imager), High Altitude Observatory (Visible Spectro-Polarimeter), Kiepenheuer Institute (Visible Tunable Filter) and the University of Hawaii (Cryogenic Near-Infrared Spectro-Polarimeter and the Diffraction-Limited Near-Infrared Spectro-Polarimeter). Further, a United Kingdom consortium led by Queen's University Belfast is driving the development of high speed cameras essential for capturing the highly dynamic processes measured by these instruments. Finally, a state-of-the-art adaptive optics system will support diffraction limited imaging capable of resolving features approximately 20 km in scale on the Sun.We present the overall status of the construction phase along with the current challenges as well as a review of the planned science testing and the transition into early science operations.

  6. Wisdom Way Solar Village: Design, Construction, and Analysis of a Low Energy Community

    Aldrich, R.

    2012-08-01

    This report describes work conducted at the Wisdom Way Solar Village (WWSV), a community of 10 high performance duplexes (20 homes) in Greenfield, MA, constructed by Rural Development, Inc. (RDI). Building America's CARB team monitored temperatures and comfort in several homes during the winter of 2009-2010, and tracked utility bill information from 13 occupied homes. Because of efficient lights, appliances, and conscientious home occupants, the energy generated by the solar electric systems exceeded the electric energy used in most homes.

  7. Solar building construction. Special edition of the journal 'Sonnenenergie'; Solares Bauen. Sonderheft der Sonnenenergie

    NONE

    2006-11-15

    In this edition of ''solar building construction'' designs and completed buildings from Germany and foreign countries are presented, in which passive cooling, an improved daylight use or the utilization of environmental heat were considered. The expected overall energy consumption of the office building Capricorn in Duesseldorf will be approximately 25 percent below the legal requirements due to exemplary thermal insulation, modern air ventilation plants with heat recovery as well as cement core activation. The present edition further provides useful advice for planning and realisation of photovoltaic plants integrated into buildings by showing different plant examples. Additionally award-winning buildings are presented. (orig.)

  8. Design, Construction And Characterization Of A Pyranometer For Measuring Global Solar Radiation

    Due to cost and stringent importation requirement, we have designed and constructed a Pyranometer from locally available materials. The constructed Pyranometer was calibrated against a standard calibrated Eppley pyranometer model PSP17190F3. the two pyranometers were used simultaneously in measuring global solar radiation at Nsukka, Nigeria on latitude 6.8 degree North and longitude 7.35 degree East, located 488m above sea level. The average insolation for each of the two typical clear sky days were 3.221KW per square metre and 3.266KW per square metre. The maximum insolation obtained with the constructed pyranometer was 965.5 W per square metre on 16/1/03. The corresponding insolation obtained with the reference Eppley pyranometre on the same day was 1087.5W per square metre. We are happy to remark that there was not significant difference between the performances of the constructed pyranometer and the standard Eppley pyranometer

  9. Power plants of modular construction with quasi-paraboloidal concentrators of solar energy

    Baranov, V. K.

    1984-02-01

    Solar electric power plants with parabolocylindrical concentrators are not as efficient as those of the tower type and, therefore, another modular construction is considered. The idea is to concentrate solar energy on a small spot and to locate the power plant, which consists of a heat collector and a Stirling, Brayton, or Rankine engine with an electric generator, near that spot. The solar energy concentrator is designed and built to perform like a paraboloidal mirror. The first 13 concepts are based on using plane, spherical, or double curvature facets made of silicate glass with silver backing or polymer film with aluminum coating. The next 4 concepts are based on using aluminized polymer film and forming it by means of air inflation. The last 5 concepts are based on using plane or cylindrical Fresnel mirrors, or a Fresnel lens. These concepts are in various stages of develoment and production.

  10. Natural convection solar crop-dryers of commercial scale in Ghana: design, construction and performance

    Forson, F.K.; Nazha, M.A.A. [De Montfort University, Leicester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mechanical and Manufacture Engineering; Akuffo, F.O. [UST Kumasi (Ghana). Dept. of Mechanical and Manufacture Engineering

    1996-07-01

    Traditional open sun-drying, the predominant method of food preservation in Ghana, has serious drawbacks leading to significant post-harvest losses (between 20 and 30%). Mechanical dryers can provide high quality products with minimum losses but they require sources of electrical or chemical energy which, in the case of Ghana, are costly or scarce. This makes the development of an effective natural convection solar dryer an attractive alternative. A mixed-mode natural convection solar crop-dryer (a dryer in which the crop is dried by a combination of the direct absorption of solar radiation and by natural convection where air, heated by solar energy, is passed over the crop) has been designed. Two commercial dryers, based on this design and capable of handling between 1,000 and 1,500 kg of various agricultural products (such as cassava, pepper, maize, okra, etc.) have been constructed and partially tested at Agona-Asafo in the central region of Ghana. The results of these preliminary tests indicate that it takes 3-5 days to dry 1,000 kg of pepper from moisture content level of 78% to a safe storage level of 8%. The design, construction details, and the results of the preliminary tests are presented in this paper. (author)

  11. 10-MWe solar-thermal central-receiver pilot plant: collector subsystem foundation construction. Revision No. 1

    1979-12-18

    Bid documents are provided for the construction of the collector subsystem foundation of the Barstow Solar Pilot Plant, including invitation to bid, bid form, representations and certifications, construction contract, and labor standards provisions of the Davis-Bacon Act. Instructions to bidders, general provisions and general conditions are included. Technical specifications are provided for the construction. (LEW)

  12. The computational optimization of heat exchange efficiency in stack chimneys

    Van Goch, T.A.J.

    2012-02-15

    For many industrial processes, the chimney is the final step before hot fumes, with high thermal energy content, are discharged into the atmosphere. Tapping into this energy and utilizing it for heating or cooling applications, could improve sustainability, efficiency and/or reduce operational costs. Alternatively, an unused chimney, like the monumental chimney at the Eindhoven University of Technology, could serve as an 'energy channeler' once more; it can enhance free cooling by exploiting the stack effect. This study aims to identify design parameters that influence annual heat exchange in such stack chimney applications and optimize these parameters for specific scenarios to maximize the performance. Performance is defined by annual heat exchange, system efficiency and costs. The energy required for the water pump as compared to the energy exchanged, defines the system efficiency, which is expressed in an efficiency coefficient (EC). This study is an example of applying building performance simulation (BPS) tools for decision support in the early phase of the design process. In this study, BPS tools are used to provide design guidance, performance evaluation and optimization. A general method for optimization of simulation models will be studied, and applied in two case studies with different applications (heating/cooling), namely; (1) CERES case: 'Eindhoven University of Technology monumental stack chimney equipped with a heat exchanger, rejects heat to load the cold source of the aquifer system on the campus of the university and/or provides free cooling to the CERES building'; and (2) Industrial case: 'Heat exchanger in an industrial stack chimney, which recoups heat for use in e.g. absorption cooling'. The main research question, addressing the concerns of both cases, is expressed as follows: 'what is the optimal set of design parameters so heat exchange in stack chimneys is optimized annually for the cases in which a

  13. The use of a rubble chimney for denitrification of irrigation return waters

    Biological denitrification has been proposed as a means of removing nitrates from waste waters to control eutrophication in receiving waters. A potential use for this method is the treatment of irrigation return waters containing high concentrations of nitrate-nitrogen, since direct discharge of such wastes may cause objectionable algal growth in the receiving waters. For example, the process may be used to treat agricultural waste waters in the San Joaquin Valley in California, where an estimated 580,000 acre-feet/year of return waters, containing 20 mg/l of nitrate-nitrogen, will require disposal by A.D. 2020. Two methods of biological denitrification are presently under study for possible use in the San Joaquin Valley. In one method nitrates are reduced to nitrogen gas by bacterial action in deep ponds; in the other method bacterial denitrification takes place in biological filters. In biological filters, bacteria are grown on columns of submerged stones. A possible alternative to the conventional construction of these filters is the creation of a rubble chimney by a contained nuclear explosion. This paper presents the results of a preliminary investigation of the feasibility of using a rubble chimney as a biological filter for denitrification. (author)

  14. The Inventory Of High Objects Applying Laser Scanning, Focus On The Cataloguing A Reinforced Concrete Industrial Chimney

    Gawałkiewicz, Rafał

    2015-12-01

    There are many surveying methods to measure the inclination of a chimney with the use of classical protractor instruments (Theo 010A/B, T2 Wild), electronic theodolites (TC2002 Wild-Leica), electronic total stations, including mirrorless ones, allowing to define indirectly the course of the construction's axis on the selected observation levels. The methods are the following: indentations, direct projection, double-edged method, polar method with the option of mirrorless measurement. At the moment a very practical and quick measurement technology, significantly eliminating the influence of human errors on the observation results, is laser scanning. The article presents the results of the scanning of 120-metres high reinforced concrete industrial chimney of the Cement Plant "Ożarów", with the application of modern scanning total station VX Spatial Station by Trimble, as an alternative to the methods applied so far. The advantage of scanning is the possibility to obtain a point cloud, which, apart from the information on the course of the chimney axis in the space, provides detail information on the real shape and deformations of the coating of the object's core.

  15. Formation of Chimneys in Mushy Layers: Experiment and Simulation

    Anderson, Anthony M; Worster, Grae

    2011-01-01

    In this fluid dyanmics video, we show experimental images and simulations of chimney formation in mushy layers. A directional solidification apparatus was used to freeze 25 wt % aqueous ammonium chloride solutions at controlled rates in a narrow Hele-Shaw cell (1mm gap). The convective motion is imaged with schlieren. We demonstrate the ability to numerically simulate mushy layer growth for direct comparison with experiments.

  16. GPS FOM Chimney Analysis using Generalized Extreme Value Distribution

    Ott, Rick; Frisbee, Joe; Saha, Kanan

    2004-01-01

    Many a time an objective of a statistical analysis is to estimate a limit value like 3-sigma 95% confidence upper limit from a data sample. The generalized Extreme Value Distribution method can be profitably employed in many situations for such an estimate. . .. It is well known that according to the Central Limit theorem the mean value of a large data set is normally distributed irrespective of the distribution of the data from which the mean value is derived. In a somewhat similar fashion it is observed that many times the extreme value of a data set has a distribution that can be formulated with a Generalized Distribution. In space shuttle entry with 3-string GPS navigation the Figure Of Merit (FOM) value gives a measure of GPS navigated state accuracy. A GPS navigated state with FOM of 6 or higher is deemed unacceptable and is said to form a FOM 6 or higher chimney. A FOM chimney is a period of time during which the FOM value stays higher than 5. A longer period of FOM of value 6 or higher causes navigated state to accumulate more error for a lack of state update. For an acceptable landing it is imperative that the state error remains low and hence at low altitude during entry GPS data of FOM greater than 5 must not last more than 138 seconds. I To test the GPS performAnce many entry test cases were simulated at the Avionics Development Laboratory. Only high value FoM chimneys are consequential. The extreme value statistical technique is applied to analyze high value FOM chimneys. The Maximum likelihood method is used to determine parameters that characterize the GEV distribution, and then the limit value statistics are estimated.

  17. D0 - Chimney Lead Quench Detection, Beta Solenoid

    The voltage drop across the superconducting chimney lead is sensed to detect a quench. The return sense lead is mounted outside the chimney. The return sense lead and the superconducting chimney wire form a loop with area A ∼ 1.7 m2 (information from R. Ru. cinski). Changing flux through area A will induce a voltage in the sense loop and could cause false quench detection. Assume that the field through A changes 1 kGauss (0.1 Wb/m2) in 10-3 sec. The induced voltage is then: e = d0/dt = dBA/dt and e = 0.1 x 1.7/10-3 = 170 V. This is probably a very pessimistic estimate, but it shows that we have to watch out. Changes of 100 Gauss in 100 msec (CDF experience?) are probably more likely and cause: e = 0.01 x 1.7/10-2 ∼ 1.7 V noise. This noise is still too high because trip levels are planned to sit at ∼50 mV? It is practically impossible to predict what the real noise values would be, but I expect them to be in the order of 1 to 10 V. This is more than we can handle and I would expect nuisance trips.

  18. Guide for a building energy label. Promoting bio-climatic and solar construction and renovation

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Technically speaking, building experts have the knowledge to deal with thermal inertia of buildings, solar gains, insulation, efficient ventilation, and daylighting... to get low energy buildings that provide comfort for the users. Buildings should always be designed according to the specificities of the local climate, according to a ''solar and bio-climatic construction'' approach. It is not always possible to fully apply these principles, particularly in urban areas with high density. However, this is unacceptable to keep building with such errors as insufficient insulation and direct electrical heating, single glazing, thermal bridges, low efficiency heating systems. This guide aims at encouraging the building experts to take into account the energy efficiency. Implementing a building energy label will allow general public to be aware of this issue and then, and will then lead to develop better practices. (author)

  19. Seismic decoupling of an explosion centered in a granite chimney rubble -- scaled experiment results. Final report

    Keller, C. [Science & Engineering Associates, Inc., Santa Fe, NM (United States); Miller, S.; Florence, A.; Fogle, M.; Kilb, D.

    1991-12-01

    This report describes the small scale evaluation of the feasibility of significant decoupling by siting an explosion in granite rubble. The chimney characteristics scaled to laboratory dimensions were those of the PILE DRIVER event. The scaled charges were of 1 KT and 8KT in the PILE DRIVER chimney. The measure of the effect was the velocity field history in the granite outside the chimney volume with the chimney rubble and with no rubble. A number of chimney sizes and shapes were studied. The explosion process was modeled via two-din=mensional, finite-difference methods used for prediction of velocity histories at the Nevada Test Site. The result was that both the spectral shape and the magnitude of the transmitted shock wave were drastically altered. The chimney geometry was as important as the rubble characteristics.

  20. Construction and Testing of Lightweight and Low-Cost Pneumatically Inflated Solar Concentrators

    F. M. I. De Los Santos-García; Y. Nahmad-Molinari; J. Nieto-Navarro; Alanís-Ruiz, C.; Felipe Patiño-Jiménez

    2016-01-01

    Design, construction, and evaluation of a cylindrical-trough solar concentrator with 1.3 m aperture, 2.15 m length, and 0.54 m focal length, with heat-pipe or vacuum tube receiver and one axis tracking system, are presented. Design performance was tested under ASHRAE standard 93-1986 (RA 91). The concentrator system is lightweight and inexpensive since it was made of polymeric membranes and was pneumatically inflated to acquire its cylindrical shape achieving good optical quality. Further imp...

  1. Antecedent and progress of the project on the treatment of chimney gases with electrons in Mexico

    After the realization of the chimney gases treatment seminar with electrons, organized jointly among the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), in August of 1990 and following one of the received recommendations, it was elaborated an economic technical feasibility study of this process in Mexico, using technical data of a thermoelectric power station of Federal Commission of Electricity, where is being consumed fuel oil. This study is good to know some technical parameters of a plant of this process, proposed to settle in Mexico, so as some economic estimates of installation and operation costs of this plant; also, it is traced about the construction of a demonstration plant of the process, with capacity of 20,000 m3N/h, using the same data of the thermoelectric power station considered previously, as the first step in the scaling of this process toward industrial level. (Author)

  2. Improvement of the Vertical Dispersion of Pollutants Resulting From Chimneys by Thermosiphon Effect

    A. O.M. Mahmoud; J. Zinoubi; R.B. Maad; A. Belghith

    2006-01-01

    The dispersion of pollutants, resulting from industrial chimneys, in the surrounding atmosphere made the interest in realizing emitting conditions appears. It also encourages the vertical dispersion of these pollutants. At a given wind velocity, the height of this dispersion is essentially a function of the thermal power and the flow rate at the chimney exit. To improve these qualities, we propose a system that could be integrated to the industrial chimney exit. An open-ended vertical cylinde...

  3. Simplifying the construction of dye-sensitized solar cells to increase their accessibility for community education

    Appleyard, Steve [Department of Environment and Conservation, PO Box K822, Perth, WA 6842 (Australia)

    2010-01-15

    Simple dye-sensitized solar cells were developed using blackboard chalk as a substrate for mixed ZnO and SnO{sub 2} films that were sensitized with Mercurochrome (Merbromine) dye. Graphite pencil 'leads' were used as counter electrodes for the cells and the electrolyte consisted of an aqueous solution of iodine and potassium iodide that was gelled with a disinfectant containing quaternary ammonium compounds and cyanoacrylate adhesive (Superglue {sup registered}). The open circuit potential of constructed cells was typically 0.50-0.64 V and the short circuit current varied between 0.5 and 2.0 mA cm{sup -2}. The cells were developed as an educational resource that could be simply and safely constructed in a home or school environment with readily accessible materials. (author)

  4. Natural convection enhancement in an asymmetrically heated channel-chimney system

    In this paper, a numerical study is performed in order to analyze the effect of adding a chimney to a vertical open channel. The channel is heated asymmetrically at uniform heat flux while the chimney is symmetric and wider than the channel. The thermal and dynamic aspects of the channel-chimney system (T chimney) are studied by varying the width and the height of the chimney while the aspect ratio of the channel is kept fixed. The main objective of this work is to determine the optimal geometric parameters of the chimney: the expansion ratio B (chimney width normalized by the channel width) and the extension ratio Er (chimney height normalized by the channel height), that maximize the mass flow rate (G) and the average Nusselt number (Nua). More than four hundred numerical simulations have been carried out at modified Rayleigh numbers ranging from 102 to 5x104 (laminar regime). The computations allowed the identification of three types of system responses. The flow structure and the pressure field were also analyzed to elucidate why the increase of the chimney width can improve or deteriorate the mass flow rate and the heat transfer. Finally, appropriate correlations have been proposed for determining the optimal configurations and the corresponding enhancement of the mass flow rate and the heat transfer coefficient. (authors)

  5. Design, construction and characterization of a rural solar furnace; Diseno, construccion y caracterizacion de un horno solar rural

    Hernandez Luna, Gabriela

    2001-06-15

    This thesis presents the design, construction and characterization of a solar furnace, box type, for its use in rural communities in the inter-tropical zone. The work presented in this thesis departs from the opto-geometric design of a solar furnace, box type, proposed by an enthusiastic group of young students from the Centro de Investigacion de Energia (CIE) of the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM). The contents of this thesis includes the systematization of the work previously made by these authors: the design and the optimization of geometry, the experimental evaluation of the same, as well as a theoretical model of the thermal behavior of the solar furnace based on a global balance of energy that assumes thermal states in cuasi-equilibrium of the internal components of the furnace. In this thesis a theoretical model of the solar concentration of energy by the reflectors of the furnace based on the model of Peres and Karsson (1993) is developed. The predictions of this model are satisfactorily compared with the experimental results of Jaramillo et al. (1999). Counting on the opto-geometric design of the furnace, the design is completed selecting the materials to be used in the different parts of the same, as well as defining constructive details. The material selected for the inner and outer boxes and the reflectors is stainless steel mirror finishing. Mineral wool is used As insulating mineral. The upper part of the furnace is protected by a glass that allows the entrance of the solar energy and diminishes the energy convective and radiation losses. For the thermal evaluation of the furnace an experimental methodology, based on the international procedures standardized for tests of furnaces and solar stoves is followed. Three tests for each one of the following operation conditions were performed: without load, with oil and with water. The maximum temperature registered in the inside air of the furnace, for the first condition was of 150

  6. Design, construction and evaluation of a system of forced solar water heating.

    Hernández, E.; Bautista, G. A.; Ortiz, I. L.

    2016-07-01

    The main purpose of this project was to design, construct and evaluate a system of forced solar water heating for domestic consumption, at the Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana-Bucaramanga, Colombia; using solar energy. This is a totally system independent of the electrical grid and an important characteristic is the heating water doesn't mix with the consumption water. The system receives the solar radiation through a flat-plate collector, which it transmits the heat to the water that it flow with impulse from the centrifugal pump of 12VDC, the water circulates toward helical serpentine it is inside of the tank of the storage whose capacity is 100 liters of water. The temperature of the tank is regulated with a controller in such a way that de-energized the pump when it gets the temperature required. The performance thermal or efficiency of the system was evaluated like a relationship between the delivered energy to the water in storage tank and the incident energy in the flat-plate collector.

  7. Renewable energy and wild life conservation: design and construction of a solar incubator

    Evans, John Martin; Schiller, Silvia de; Garreta, Fabian [Universidad de Buenos Aires, Centro de Investigacion Habitat y Energia, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    1998-09-01

    This paper presents the design, construction and results of a solar powered incubator and pools for rearing yacare, a specie of the crocodile family, found in northern Argentina. The design was developed by the Research Centre Habitat and Energy, Faculty of Architecture, Design and Urbanism, Buenos Aires University in the framework of a Cooperation Agreement with the Argentine Wild Life Foundation. The installation, located in a Wild Life Refuge in a remote sub-tropical area of the Chaco Province in the north-east region of Argentina, consists of an incubation chamber for hatching the yacare with strict temperature conditions, pools for rearing the young during a year, heated by solar energy, an auxiliary wood-fired water heater and PV system to power the pumps control system and other minimal requirements such as lighting. The concepts, system development and integration, construction process and measured performance are presented together with the first results of this project which integrates low impact renewable energy systems to support the conservation of an endangered specie. (Author)

  8. Growth history of hydrothermal chimneys at EPR 9―10°N: A structural and mineralogical study

    PENG; Xiaotong; ZHOU; Huaiyang

    2005-01-01

    Based on structural and mineralogical characteristics of four hydrothermal chimney samples collected by submersible Alvin, growth history and formation environment of hydrothermal chimney at EPR 9―10°N are established. It is shown that there occur two types of hydrothermal chimney with different deposition environments at EPR 9―10°N according to differences in their shape, structure and mineral assemblage: type I chimney forms in an environment with high temperature, low pH and strong reducing hydrothermal focus flow and type II chimney forms in a relatively low temperature, high pH and rich Zn hydrothermal environment. Growth of type I chimney begins with the formation of anhydrite. Subsequently deposition of Cu-Fe-Zn sulphide in various directions of chimneys decides the final structure of this type of chimney. According to observation and analysis of mineral assemblages, the formation process of type I chimney could be divided into three stages from early, middle to late. Changes of temperature and major chemical reaction type in the process of hydrothermal chimney formation are also deduced. Different from type I chimney, quenching crystalline of pyrite and/or crystalline of sphalerite provide the growth foundation of type II chimney in the early stage of chimney formation.

  9. Methane seepage in the Shenhu area of the northern South China Sea: constraints from carbonate chimneys

    Guan, Hongxiang; Zhang, Mei; Mao, Shengyi; Wu, Nengyou; Lu, Hongfeng; Chen, Duofu

    2016-06-01

    Two authigenic carbonate chimneys were recovered from the Shenhu area in the northern South China Sea at approximately 400 m water depth. The chimneys' mineralogy, isotopic composition, and lipid biomarkers were studied to examine the biogeochemical process that induced the formation of the chimneys. The two chimneys are composed mostly of dolomite, whereas the internal conduits and semi-consolidated surrounding sediments are dominated by aragonite and calcite. The specific biomarker patterns (distribution of lipids and their depleted δ13C values) indicate the low occurrence of methanotrophic archaea ANME-1 responsible for the chimneys' formation via anaerobic oxidation of methane. A significant input of bacteria/planktonic algae and cyanobacteria to the carbon pool during the precipitation of the carbonate chimneys is suggested by the high contributions of short-chain n-alkanes (69% of total hydrocarbons) and long-chain n-alcohols (on average 56% of total alcohols). The oxygen isotopic compositions of the carbonate mixtures vary from 3.1‰ to 4.4‰ in the dolomite-rich chimneys, and from 2.1‰ to 2.5‰ in the internal conduits, which indicates that they were precipitated from seawater-derived pore waters during a long period covering the last glacial and interglacial cycles. In addition, the mixture of methane and bottom seawater dissolved inorganic carbon could be the carbon sources of the carbonate chimneys.

  10. Methane seepage in the Shenhu area of the northern South China Sea: constraints from carbonate chimneys

    Guan, Hongxiang; Zhang, Mei; Mao, Shengyi; Wu, Nengyou; Lu, Hongfeng; Chen, Duofu

    2016-02-01

    Two authigenic carbonate chimneys were recovered from the Shenhu area in the northern South China Sea at approximately 400 m water depth. The chimneys' mineralogy, isotopic composition, and lipid biomarkers were studied to examine the biogeochemical process that induced the formation of the chimneys. The two chimneys are composed mostly of dolomite, whereas the internal conduits and semi-consolidated surrounding sediments are dominated by aragonite and calcite. The specific biomarker patterns (distribution of lipids and their depleted δ13C values) indicate the low occurrence of methanotrophic archaea ANME-1 responsible for the chimneys' formation via anaerobic oxidation of methane. A significant input of bacteria/planktonic algae and cyanobacteria to the carbon pool during the precipitation of the carbonate chimneys is suggested by the high contributions of short-chain n-alkanes (69% of total hydrocarbons) and long-chain n-alcohols (on average 56% of total alcohols). The oxygen isotopic compositions of the carbonate mixtures vary from 3.1‰ to 4.4‰ in the dolomite-rich chimneys, and from 2.1‰ to 2.5‰ in the internal conduits, which indicates that they were precipitated from seawater-derived pore waters during a long period covering the last glacial and interglacial cycles. In addition, the mixture of methane and bottom seawater dissolved inorganic carbon could be the carbon sources of the carbonate chimneys.

  11. 29 CFR 1926.854 - Removal of walls, masonry sections, and chimneys.

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Removal of walls, masonry sections, and chimneys. 1926.854....854 Removal of walls, masonry sections, and chimneys. (a) Masonry walls, or other sections of masonry... steel framing may be left in place during the demolition of masonry. Where this is done, all steel...

  12. Drying and jerking with solar energy. Construction and operation of solar driers. 2. ed.; Trocknen and Doerren mit der Sonne. Bau und Betrieb von Solartrocknern

    Lorenz-Ladener, Claudia (ed.)

    2011-07-01

    Drying is an age-old method of conservation. The book presents solar driers for the home garden or balcony. They are robust, long-lived and can be made in DIY construction. Only simple tools are required, and the cost is low. The book also contains basic information on drying and practical hints. (orig./AKB)

  13. Design, construction and performance testing of a solar dryer for agroindustrial by-products

    Montero, I.; Miranda, T.; Rojas, S.; Celma, A.R. [University of Extremadura, Department of Chemical and Energetics Engineering, Industrial Engineering School, Av. Elvas s/n, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Blanco, J. [PSA (CIEMAT), Department of Solar Chemistry, Ctra. Sens, P.O. Box 22, 04200 Tabernas (Almera) (Spain)

    2010-07-15

    Spain generates a big amount of agroindustrial by-products of high moisture that produce a high environmental impact. This fact motivates the aim of this paper, in which a solar dryer prototype is designed, constructed, and performance tested for the analysis of the drying kinetics of these by-products and their possible power valuation. The characteristics of the prototype are presented, together with the variations of the properties of temperature, relative humidity, air mass flow, and efficiency for indirect, mixed, passive, active, and hybrid operation modes. The most efficient operation mode will be the forced-hybrid one, followed by the passive and active modes. The analysis of the drying kinetics of the olive pomace shows the better performance of the hybrid and mixed modes, obtaining reductions of the drying time of a 50% in both cases. (author)

  14. Construction of a 100 kW solar thermal-electric experimental plant

    Boy-Marcotte, J. L.; Dancette, M.; Bliaux, J.; Bacconnet, E.; Malherbe, J.

    1985-08-01

    A focusing collector thermal-electric power plant has been erected in Corsica (France). This plant consists of a field of 1176 sq m fixed mirror concentrators, producing heat at 250 C, a stratification thermal energy storage of about 1250 kWh, two power conversion units of 45 kWe each, with a supersonic turbine expanding a heavy organic working fluid, and two cooling towers of 200 kW each. This full-scale prototype has been built mainly to demonstrate the capability of the distributed collector solar plant concept, in the power range from 50 kWe to 1000 kWe, and the temperature range from 150 to 300 C. This paper describes the conceptual design and the performance of the plant and discusses problems that were met during construction.

  15. Thermal management of a symmetrically heated channel-chimney system

    Andreozzi, A. [Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Dipt. di Energetica, Termofluidodinamica applicata e Condizionamenti ambientali, Napoli (Italy); Buonomo, B.; Manca, O. [Seconda Universita degli Studi di Napoli, Dipt. di Ingegneria Aerospaziale e Meccanica, (CE) (Italy)

    2009-03-15

    A parametric analysis of natural convection in air, in a channel-chimney system, symmetrically heated at uniform heat flux, obtained by means of a numerical simulation, is carried out. The analyzed regime is two-dimensional, laminar and steady-state. Results are presented in terms of wall temperature profiles in order to show the more thermally convenient configurations which correspond to the channel-chimney system with the lowest maximum wall temperature. For the considered Rayleigh number, the difference between the highest and the lowest maximum wall temperatures increases with increasing the channel aspect ratio. The optimal expansion ratio values depend strongly on the Rayleigh number and extension ratio values and slightly on the channel aspect ratio. Correlations for dimensionless mass flow rate, maximum wall temperature and average Nusselt number, in terms of Rayleigh number and dimensionless geometric parameters are presented in the ranges: 5{<=}Ra{sup *}{<=}2.0 x 10{sup 4}, 1.5{<=}L/L{sub h}{<=}4.0 and 1.0{<=}B/b{<=}4.0. (authors)

  16. Thermal management of a symmetrically heated channel-chimney system

    A parametric analysis of natural convection in air, in a channel-chimney system, symmetrically heated at uniform heat flux, obtained by means of a numerical simulation, is carried out. The analyzed regime is two-dimensional, laminar and steady-state. Results are presented in terms of wall temperature profiles in order to show the more thermally convenient configurations which correspond to the channel-chimney system with the lowest maximum wall temperature. For the considered Rayleigh number, the difference between the highest and the lowest maximum wall temperatures increases with increasing the channel aspect ratio. The optimal expansion ratio values depend strongly on the Rayleigh number and extension ratio values and slightly on the channel aspect ratio. Correlations for dimensionless mass flow rate, maximum wall temperature and average Nusselt number, in terms of Rayleigh number and dimensionless geometric parameters are presented in the ranges: 5≤Ra*≤2.0 x 104, 1.5≤L/Lh≤4.0 and 1.0≤B/b≤4.0. (authors)

  17. Tree cavity use by Chimney Swifts: implications for forestry and population recovery

    Carolyn Zanchetta

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Chimney Swift (Chaetura pelagica is an aerial insectivore and a cavity-nesting/roosting specialist designated as threatened in several jurisdictions. As the occurrence of suitable chimneys declines, Chimney Swifts may increasingly nest and roost in tree cavities. It is therefore important to identify characteristics of suitable nest or roost trees and assess their frequency of occurrence. We reviewed 59 historic and modern records of trees used by Chimney Swifts to understand characteristics of suitable nest or roost trees. Chimney Swifts used at least 13 different deciduous and coniferous tree species. All of the trees were greater than 0.5 m diameter at breast height (DBH and were described as hollow or having cavities. Nest or roost tree height was 12.7 ± 7.0 m (mean ± SD; range: 3.6-28.0 m; n = 25 and DBH was 1.0 m ± 0.5 m (range 0.5-2.1 m; n = 21. According to our description of used trees, the number of suitably hollow Chimney Swift nest or roost trees may be two to three times higher, although still rare, in most unlogged compared to logged hardwood forests. Whether the current total supply of suitable nest or roost trees is sufficient to carry the anticipated increase in use by Chimney Swifts as chimney habitat is modified or deteriorates is unknown. Monitoring the frequency of use of tree cavities by nesting and roosting Chimney Swifts over time, and more robustly quantifying the availability of suitable tree cavities in different forest types for nesting and roosting Chimney Swifts, particularly in unlogged versus logged forests, are fruitful areas for future research.

  18. Full scale monitoring of the twin chimneys of the rovinari power plant

    Bayati I.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The presented paper deals with the structural identification and monitoring of two twin chimneys in very close arrangement. Due to twin arrangement, important interference effects are expected to modify the chimney response to wind action, causing vortex shedding and state-dependent excitation associated to the oscillatory motion of the leeward chimney, in and out of the windward chimney wake. The complexity of the physics of this problem is increased by the dependency of the aerodynamics of circular cylinders on Reynolds number; however, there is a weakness of literature about cylinders behaviour at critical and super-critical range of Reynolds number, due to experimental limitations. Also the International Committee on Industrial Chimneys (CICIND does not provide, at present, any specific technical guideline about twin chimneys whose interaxis distance is less or equal two times the diameter, as in this case. For this reason a Tuned Mass Damper (TMD has been installed in order to increase the damping of the chimney, as merely suggested. This work aims at assessing the effectiveness of the installed TMD and characterizing the tower dynamic behaviour itself due to the wind excitation, as well as providing full scale measurements for twin cylinders configuration at high Reynolds numbers.

  19. ChEVAS: Combining Suprarenal EVAS with Chimney Technique

    Torella, Francesco, E-mail: f.torella@liverpool.ac.uk [Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Liverpool Vascular & Endovascular Service (United Kingdom); Chan, Tze Y., E-mail: tze.chan@rlbuht.nhs.uk; Shaikh, Usman, E-mail: usman.shaikh@rlbuht.nhs.uk [Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); England, Andrew, E-mail: a.england@salford.ac.uk [University of Salford, Department of Radiography (United Kingdom); Fisher, Robert K., E-mail: robert.fisher@rlbuht.nhs.uk [Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Liverpool Vascular & Endovascular Service (United Kingdom); McWilliams, Richard G., E-mail: richard.mcwilliams@rlbuht.nhs.uk [Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-15

    Endovascular sealing with the Nellix{sup ®} endoprosthesis (EVAS) is a new technique to treat infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms. We describe the use of endovascular sealing in conjunction with chimney stents for the renal arteries (chEVAS) in two patients, one with a refractory type Ia endoleak and an expanding aneurysm, and one with a large juxtarenal aneurysm unsuitable for fenestrated endovascular repair (EVAR). Both aneurysms were successfully excluded. Our report confirms the utility of chEVAS in challenging cases, where suprarenal seal is necessary. We suggest that, due to lack of knowledge on its durability, chEVAS should only been considered when more conventional treatment modalities (open repair and fenestrated EVAR) are deemed difficult or unfeasible.

  20. ChEVAS: Combining Suprarenal EVAS with Chimney Technique

    Endovascular sealing with the Nellix® endoprosthesis (EVAS) is a new technique to treat infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms. We describe the use of endovascular sealing in conjunction with chimney stents for the renal arteries (chEVAS) in two patients, one with a refractory type Ia endoleak and an expanding aneurysm, and one with a large juxtarenal aneurysm unsuitable for fenestrated endovascular repair (EVAR). Both aneurysms were successfully excluded. Our report confirms the utility of chEVAS in challenging cases, where suprarenal seal is necessary. We suggest that, due to lack of knowledge on its durability, chEVAS should only been considered when more conventional treatment modalities (open repair and fenestrated EVAR) are deemed difficult or unfeasible

  1. A laboratory and theoretical study of the growth of ``black smoker'' chimneys

    Turner, J. S.; Campbell, I. H.

    1987-03-01

    Observational evidence suggests that black smoker chimneys are formed by the precipitation of anhydrite from seawater producing a solid framework which is replaced successively by iron, zinc and copper sulfides. We have demonstrated the feasibility of this process using a laboratory model in which KNO 3 is first crystallized from a warm, nearly saturated solution round an inflowing plume of cold K 2CO 3. The chimney grows in length at a nearly constant rate and, at the same time, it thickens as heat conduction causes further crystallization. The dynamic replacement process has been modelled separately, with CuSO 4 passed through a previously formed chimney of KNO 3 and flowing out through the porous walls when the flow rate, and hence the pressure difference, is increased. The formation of chimneys at a line or slit source has also been investigated in the laboratory. It has been shown that, in this case, the slit is quickly blocked off by crystallization over most of its length and that the growth is concentrated at just a few points to form a small number of nearly axisymmetric chimneys. A theory has been developed which predicts both the diameter of the outlet vent and the sign of the pressure difference between the inside and the outside of an axisymmetric chimney of constant internal diameter for a specified flow rate and density difference. It suggests that changes in flow rate or in the internal diameter of the chimney can cause fluid to flow in or out through the porous wall, leading to changes in the position of mineral stability fields within the evolving chimney. The theory has been extended to describe the pressure distribution in tapering interior conduits and it leads to the conclusion that the direction of flow through a porous chimney can reverse along its length.

  2. Finite Element Analysis and Linear Regression of Maximum Temperature for Inner Wall of Chimney Foundation

    2005-01-01

    The uniform design method was adopted and the twenty-four groups of different geometric and physical parameters were chosen. The finite element model was built. Comparisons between the simulation results and the test results prove that the simulation results are correct. The distribution of the temperature field of the chimney foundation was analyzed. The multivariate linear regression of the hightest tomperature was performed on the inner wall of the chimney foundation by the numerical calculated results. The fitting property of the highest temperature with six influence factors was obtained. A simple method for the calculation of the temperature field of the chimney foundation was provided.

  3. Solar ventilation and tempering

    Adámek, Karel; Pavlů, Miloš; Bandouch, Milan

    2014-08-01

    The paper presents basic information about solar panels, designed, realized and used for solar ventilation of rooms. Used method of numerical flow simulation gives good overview about warming and flowing of the air in several kinds of realized panels (window, facade, chimney). Yearlong measurements give a good base for calculations of economic return of invested capital. The operation of the system in transient period (spring, autumn) prolongs the period without classical heating of the room or building, in winter the classical heating is supported. In the summer period the system, furnished with chimney, can exhaust inner warm air together with necessary cooling of the system by gravity circulation, only. System needs not any invoiced energy source; it is supplied entirely by solar energy. Large building systems are supported by classical electric fan respectively.

  4. Analytical study of the closure flow inside the ETRR-2 core chimney

    El-Din El-Morshdy, S. [Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt). Reactors Dept.

    2006-12-15

    The present work is carried out in order to study the closure flow inside the core chimney of the Egypt second research reactor (ETRR-2). Based on the finite difference technique, a two dimensional model is developed to simulate the coolant flow inside the chimney. The model is verified by FEHT finite element program. Then a study of different closure flow values inside the chimney was made using the developed model where a flow map is plotted showing the stagnation depth for each closure flow. The flow map shows that for a closure flow greater than 0.16 m{sup 3}/h, no active water ascends from the core to the pool through the chimney. The model results are analyzed and discussed. (orig.)

  5. Analytical study of the closure flow inside the ETRR-2 core chimney

    El-Morshdy, Salah El-Din [Reactors Department, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)]. E-mail: selmorshedy@etrr2-aea.org.eg

    2007-03-15

    The present work is carried out in order to study the closure flow inside the core chimney of the Egypt second research reactor (ETRR-2). Based on the finite difference technique, a two dimensional model is developed to simulate the coolant flow inside the chimney. The model is verified by FEHT finite element program. Then a study of different closure flow values inside the chimney was made using the developed model where a flow maps is plotted showing the stagnation depth for each closure flow. The flow maps shows that for a closure flow greater than 0.16 m{sup 3}/h, no radioactive water ascends from the core to the pool through the chimney. The model results are analyzed and discussed.

  6. Dynamic characteristic and seismic response analyses for installation of in-chimney bracket structures in HANARO

    The in-chimney bracket structures will be installed on the upper part of chimney, which holds the capsule extension pipes in upper one-third of length. For evaluating the seismic effects on the capsules and related reactor structures by installation of the in-chimney bracket, an ANSYS analysis model is developed, and the dynamic characteristics are analyzed. The seismic response analyses of in-chimney bracket and related reactor structures of HANARO under the design earthquake response spectrum loads of SSE(0.2g) are performed. The several candidated designs of the capsule extension pipes and support spring stiffness to meet the displacement limit of the flow tubes in core region are proposed

  7. Analytical study of the closure flow inside the ETRR-2 core chimney

    The present work is carried out in order to study the closure flow inside the core chimney of the Egypt second research reactor (ETRR-2). Based on the finite difference technique, a two dimensional model is developed to simulate the coolant flow inside the chimney. The model is verified by FEHT finite element program. Then a study of different closure flow values inside the chimney was made using the developed model where a flow map is plotted showing the stagnation depth for each closure flow. The flow map shows that for a closure flow greater than 0.16 m3/h, no active water ascends from the core to the pool through the chimney. The model results are analyzed and discussed. (orig.)

  8. Analytical study of the closure flow inside the ETRR-2 core chimney

    The present work is carried out in order to study the closure flow inside the core chimney of the Egypt second research reactor (ETRR-2). Based on the finite difference technique, a two dimensional model is developed to simulate the coolant flow inside the chimney. The model is verified by FEHT finite element program. Then a study of different closure flow values inside the chimney was made using the developed model where a flow maps is plotted showing the stagnation depth for each closure flow. The flow maps shows that for a closure flow greater than 0.16 m3/h, no radioactive water ascends from the core to the pool through the chimney. The model results are analyzed and discussed

  9. Fish assemblages in Tanzanian mangrove creek systems influenced by solar salt farm constructions

    Mwandya, Augustine W.; Gullström, Martin; Öhman, Marcus C.; Andersson, Mathias H.; Mgaya, Yunus D.

    2009-04-01

    Deforestation of mangrove forests is common occurrence worldwide. We examined fish assemblage composition in three mangrove creek systems in Tanzania (East Africa), including two creeks where the upper parts were partly clear-cut of mangrove forest due to the construction of solar salt farms, and one creek with undisturbed mangrove forest. Fish were caught monthly for one year using a seine net (each haul covering 170 m 2) within three locations in each creek, i.e. at the upper, intermediate and lower reaches. Density, biomass and species number of fish were lower in the upper deforested sites compared to the mangrove-fringed sites at the intermediate and lower parts in the two creeks affected by deforestation, whereas there were no differences among the three sites in the undisturbed mangrove creek system. In addition, multivariate analyses showed that the structure of fish assemblages varied between forested and clear-cut sites within the two disturbed creeks, but not within the undisturbed creek. Across the season, we found no significant differences except for a tendency of a minor increase in fish densities during the rainy season. At least 75% of the fishes were juveniles and of commercial interest for coastal fisheries and/or aquaculture. Mugil cephalus, Gerres oyena and Chanos chanos were the most abundant species in the forested sites. The dominant species in the clear-cut areas were M. cephalus and Elops machnata, which were both found in relatively low abundances compared to the undisturbed areas. The conversion of mangrove forests into solar salt farms not only altered fish assemblage composition, but also water and sediment conditions. In comparison with undisturbed areas, the clear-cut sites showed higher salinity, water temperature as well as organic matter and chlorophyll a in the sediments. Our results suggest that mangrove habitat loss and changes in environmental conditions caused by salt farm developments will decrease fish densities, biomass

  10. Modelling and simulation of condensation phenomena of acid gases in an industrial chimney

    Serris, Eric; Cournil, Michel; Peultier, Jérôme

    2007-01-01

    Coal power stations as well as waste incinerators produce humid acid gases which condensate in industrial chimneys. These condensates may cause corrosion of the internal cladding made of stainless steels, nickel base alloys or non metallic materials. In the aim of polluting emission reduction and material optimal choice, it is necessary to determine all the phenomena which occur throughout the chimney such as condensation and dissolution of acid gases (in this particular case, sulphur dioxide...

  11. Effect of cold inflow on chimney height of natural draft cooling towers

    Highlights: ► Natural convection data were obtained from an air-cooled heat exchanger model. ► The extent of cold inflow was quantified to relate to the decrease in effective chimney height. ► Installation of wire mesh screen on chimney outlet blocked off cold inflow to improve the chimney efficiency. ► Evidence of existence of effective plume-chimney for when cold inflow was blocked off warrants further work. - Abstract: Temperature and pressure drop data obtained from an air-cooled heat exchanger model with cross-sectional flow areas of 0.56 m2, 1.00 m2 and 2.25 m2 operating under natural convection are presented that indicate significant cold inflow, resulting in the reduction of effective chimney height. Cold inflows encountered in actual applications where the Froude number is typically 0.2, may not be as severe as described in this paper, which was of the order of 10−6–10−4. Additional tests on smaller scale models appeared to favor the explanation that the occurrence of cold inflow in the air-cooled heat exchanger model was primarily due to the relative ease in either drawing cold air from inlet or from outlet, and to a lesser extent the Froude number of the chimney or the critical velocity estimated by formula. A CFD study will bring much understanding of the phenomenon for the different situations.

  12. SolarBau: MONITOR, a forum for information exchange on energy efficiency and solar energy use in non-domestic building construction; SolarBau: MONITOR - Ein Forum fuer Erfahrungen und Ergebnisse ueber Energieeffizienz und Solarenergienutzung im Nichtwohnungsbau

    Voss, K. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme (ISE), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany). Gruppe Solares Bauen; Loehnert, G. [Architekturbuero solidar, Berlin (Germany); Wagner, A. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Architektur

    1999-03-01

    Within it's program 'Optimized Solar Construction', the German Ministry of Economics and Technology supports large non-housing construction demonstration projects. Meaningfully combining energy saving measures with utilization of renewable energies within an integral planning process, the objective is to achieve primary energy needs below 100 kWh/m{sup 2}a for heating, ventilation, in-door climate control and lighting combined. Data/results of the demonstration projects are assembled, analyzed and published (via print media and Internet) in an accompanying project named SolarBau:MONITOR, serving also as a forum for the exchange of ideas for the different planning teams. The Solar Bau:MONITOR concept and the demonstration project under construction are presented. (orig.) [German] Mit dem Foerderprogramm 'Solaroptimiertes Bauen' foerdert das Bundesministerium fuer Wirtschaft und Technologie (BMWi) Demonstrationsprojekte aus dem Bereich grosser Nichtwohnungs-Neubauten. Durch eine sinnvolle Kombination aus Massnahmen zur Energieeinsparung und der Nutzung erneuerbarer Energien im Rahmen eines integralen Planungsprozesses ist als wesentliches Ziel gefordert, dass die Primaerenergiekennzahl fuer Heizung, Lueftung, Klima und Licht in Summe unter 100 kWh/m{sup 2}a liegt. SolarBau:MONITOR ist das dazugehoerige Begleitprojekt. Es stellt Fakten und Analysen zu den Einzelprojekten auf einer gemeinsamen Informationsplattform via Internet und Printmedien zusammen und bietet ein Forum fuer die Planungsteams der Projekte. Der Beitrag stellt das Konzept von SolarBau:MONITOR und die bereits begonnenen Demonstrationsprojekte vor. (orig.)

  13. Photovoltaic solar panel and procedure to construction it; Fotovoltaisch zonnepaneel en werkwijze voor het vervaardigen daarvan

    Verhoef, L.A.; Michiels, P.P.

    1995-07-03

    The panel surface of a photovoltaic (PV) solar panel consists of active areas where incoming solar radiation results in an electric current from the solar panel, and inactive areas, where no or hardly any electric current is generated. The title invention aims at improving those panels such that solar radiation that comes in on inactive areas is intercepted to use it for the production of electricity and thus increase the peak capacity. This is realized by means of positioned directional tools, which direct at least a part of the solar radiation that comes in on the inactive areas to the solar panel active surface. The directional tools can be reflectors, diffractors, scattering tools or a combination of such tools. 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. MPPT algorithm test on a photovoltaic emulating system constructed by a DC power supply and an indoor solar panel

    Highlights: • A novel PV emulator is constructed by using conventional solar panels with a DC power supply. • The proposed PV emulator is cost-effectiveness, relatively easy implementation. • The proposed PV emulator avoids the bandwidth problem associated with electronics PV emulators. • Indoor testing of MPPT algorithms and power converters avoids the dependency on solar irradiation. • The PV emulating system has been used for testing a P and O MPPT algorithm and a boost dc converter. - Abstract: In this paper a novel photovoltaic (PV) emulating scheme for testing maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithms and PV inverters has been proposed. It is constructed by the parallel connection of conventional solar panels with a DC power supply operating in current source mode. The advantages of the proposed scheme are cost-effectiveness, relatively easy implementation and indoor testing of MPPT algorithms and power converters avoiding weather and time of day dependency on solar irradiation levels. Furthermore, the proposed PV emulator avoids the bandwidth problem associated with the dc converter based PV emulating systems. Detailed circuit connection, parameters, electrical characteristics and mathematical model of the PV emulator are presented and discussed. Proposed PV emulating system has been used to test a boost DC/DC converter controlled by Perturb and Observe (P and O) MPPT algorithm. Test results confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed PV emulation system and all achieved results correspond well to the original designed values

  15. Use of chemical explosives for emergency solar flare shelter construction and other excavations on the Martian surface

    The necessity to shelter people on the Martian surface from solar flare particles at short notice and the need for long-term habitats with thick cosmic ray shielding suggests that explosives could be used effectively for excavation of such structures. Modern insensitive high explosives are safe, efficient, and reliable for rock breakage and excavation. Extensive Earth-bound experience leads us to propose several strategies for explosively-constructed shelters based on tunneling, cratering, and rock casting techniques

  16. Innovative Second-Generation Wavelets Construction With Recurrent Neural Networks for Solar Radiation Forecasting

    Capizzi, Giacomo; Napoli, Christian; Bonanno, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Solar radiation prediction is an important challenge for the electrical engineer because it is used to estimate the power developed by commercial photovoltaic modules. This paper deals with the problem of solar radiation prediction based on observed meteorological data. A 2-day forecast is obtained by using novel wavelet recurrent neural networks (WRNNs). In fact, these WRNNS are used to exploit the correlation between solar radiation and timescale-related variations of wind speed, humidity, ...

  17. CFD simulation of a solar tower

    Koten, Hasan; Yukselenturk, Yalcyn; Yilmaz, Mustafa [Marmara University Mechanical Engineering Department (Turkey)], E-mail: hasan.koten@marmara.edu.tr

    2011-07-01

    With the depletion of fossil fuels and the rising concerns about their impacts on the environment, the use of alternative energy sources has become necessary. Among the alternatives, solar energy, with its unlimited resources and its low impact on the environment, is the most promising. The aim of this paper is to present a numerical model of a regular solar tower. A CFD analysis of the solar tower was performed with a commercial CFD code and velocity fields, temperature measurements and flow characteristics were determined and compared to experimental results available in the literature. It was found that the numerical model is capable of assessing the buoyant air flow in chimneys. In addition results showed that increasing the solar chimney height, solar collector area, or solar irradiance increases power generation capacity while ambient temperature does not significantly affect this capacity. This study provided a numerical model which is proficient in modeling solar towers.

  18. Development of the lined masonry chimney oil appliance

    Krajewski, R.; Strasser, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1996-07-01

    This paper describes the development of the lined masonry chimney venting tables form the output of the Oil Heat Analysis Program 9OHVAP. These new tables are different from the prior format, offered in the Proceedings of the 1995 Oil Heat Technology Conference and Workshop, paper No. 95-4. Issues expressed by representatives of the oil heat industry at last years conference during the Venting Technology Workshop resulted in subsequent discussions. A full day meeting was held, co-sponsored by BNL and the Oilheat Manufacturers Association (OMA), to address revision of the format of the venting tables prior to submission to the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Standard 31 Technical Committee. The resulting tables and text were submitted to NFPA during the first week of October, 1995. Since then minor changes were made reflecting the addition of data obtained by including intermediate firing rates (0.4, 0.65, and 0.85 gph) not included in the original tables which were developed in increments of 0.25 gph. The new tables address the specific question; {open_quotes}If remediation is required, what is the recommendation for the sizing of a metal liner and the appropriate firing rate range to be used with that liner?{close_quotes}

  19. Beautiful heat: a master chimney sweep talks about burning issues

    Hederich, M.P.

    2001-07-01

    Fire has played a major role in mankind's life from the beginning. Used for heating and cooking, its various uses have evolved to include controlled explosions shortly after the development of gunpowder, and the generation of electricity made other uses possible. The author, a certified solid fuel technician and chimney sweep, as well as a licensed technician for natural gas and propane, has written this book to enable the reader to enjoy safe and dependable wood fires year round by taking the necessary steps. The first recommendation made is against the homeowner installing himself/herself any solid fuel system. It is a job better left to the professionals, considering the substantial product and regulation knowledge and experience required. Specific information related to solid fuel burning technology is included in this book, to be used as a guide. Part 1 of the book deals with the fuel, touching on issues such as energy and the environment, wood combustion and air pollution, buying firewood, wood ashes, cleaning your heating system and others. Part 2 is devoted to the heating system. It introduces topics ranging from the systems advisor to the location and installation of the system, the principles of space heating, high efficiency wood burning, inspections, to name just a few. 22 refs., tabs., figs.

  20. Effects of industrial chimney gases on the Nif Mountain vegetation

    Cireli, B.

    1975-01-01

    This investigation has been carried out on vegetation in order to find out changes in the morphology, anatomy and ultrastructure of cells brought about by the chimney gases from the surrounding factories. Different dicots and monocots have been used as experimental material. Results obtained are summarized as follows: (A) In all the experimental plants affected by the pollutants, an inhibition of the elongation has been observed. (B) Anatomical studies revealed that the epidermis, palisade and spongy parenchymatic tissues and cells of pollutant-affected plants appeared to be different from those of control plants. (C) Along with the anatomical changes, ultrastructural modifications have also been observed between pollutant-affected and control plants. (D) In order to investigate the causes of loss of green color in pollutant-affected plants, spectrophotometric pigmentation determinations have been carried out. The results have indicated such a decrease in pigment contents of pollutant-affected plants. (E) Calcium, magnesium and sulphate contents of control and pollutant-affected plants have been determined with an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Pollutant-affected plants appeared to contain less calcium and magnesium and more sulphate than control plants. (F) Comparative oil analyses of fruits of pollutant-affected and control Olea plants have been carried out. (G) It has been concluded that air pollutants, affecting the various metabolic activities of the cells, cause modifications in the cell ultrastructure and cell anatomy and consequently give rise to typical morphological changes manifested in the form of growth inhibition.

  1. Construction of 3-dimensional ZnO-nanoflower structures for high quantum and photocurrent efficiency in dye sensitized solar cell

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The structural and optical characterizations of ZnO nanoflowers were carried out on ITO by hydrothermal method. • Dye sensitized solar cell based ZnO nanoflowers were constructed on substrate. • The surface morphology effect on quantum efficiency and solar conversion efficiency were investigated. - Abstract: 3-dimensional ZnO nanoflower were obtained on FTO (F:SnO2) substrate by hydrothermal method in order to produce high efficiency dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). We showed that nanoflowers structures have nanoscale branches that stretch to fill gaps on the substrate and these branches of nano-leaves provide both a larger surface area and a direct pathway for electron transport along the channels. It was found that the solar conversion efficiency and quantum efficiency (QE) or incident photon to current conversion efficiencies (IPCE) is highly dependent on nanoflower surface due to high electron injection process. The highest solar conversion efficiency of 5.119 and QE of 60% was obtained using ZnO nanoflowers/N719 dye/I−/I−3 electrolyte. In this study, three dimensional (3D)-nanoflower and one dimensional (1D)-nanowires ZnO nanostructures were also compared against each other in respect to solar conversion efficiency and QE measurements. In the case of the 1D-ZnO nanowire conversion efficiency (η) of 2.222% and IPCE 47% were obtained under an illumination of 100 mW/cm2. It was confirmed that the performance of the 3D-nanoflowers was better than about 50% that of the 1D-nanowire dye-sensitized solar cells

  2. Improved solar models constructed with a formulation of convection for stellar structure and evolution calculations without the mixing-length theory approximations

    Lydon, Thomas J.; Fox, Peter A.; Sofia, Sabatino

    1993-01-01

    We have updated a previous attempt to incorporate within a solar model a treatment of convection based upon numerical simulations of convection rather than mixing-length theory (MLT). We have modified our formulation of convection for a better treatment of the kinetic energy flux. Our solar model has been updated to include a complete range of OPAL opacities, the Debye-Hueckel correction to the equation of state, helium diffusion due to gravitational settling, and atmospheres by Kurucz. We construct a series of models using both MLT and our revised formulation of convection and the compared results to measurements of the solar radius, the solar luminosity, and the depth of the solar convection zone as inferred from helioseismology. We find X(solar) = 0.702 +/- 0.005, Y(solar) = 0.278 +/- 0.005, and Z(solar) = 0.0193 +/- 0.0005.

  3. Plastic Solar Cells: A Multidisciplinary Field to Construct Chemical Concepts from Current Research

    Gomez, Rafael; Segura, Jose L.

    2007-01-01

    Examples of plastic solar-cell technology to illustrate core concepts in chemistry are presented. The principles of operations of a plastic solar cell could be used to introduce key concepts, which are fundamentally important to understand photosynthesis and the basic process that govern most novel optoelectronic devices.

  4. Solar building construction. Special edition of the journal 'Sonnenenergie'; Solares Bauen. Sonderheft der Sonnenenergie

    NONE

    2005-10-01

    This special issues of SOLARES BAUEN presents examples of solar architecture to illustrate the many options for combining aesthetically pleasing architecture with sustainable power supply. An initiative of the Deutsche Energie-Agentur dena shows that a structural change in power supply in existing buildings is urgently required. Germany is a densely built country, so innovative new buildings can never solve the existing energy problems. Up to 80 percent of the energy demand of existing buildings may be covered by renewables after modernisation. In order to mobilise this enormous potential, the dena initiative comprised the testing of innovative technical standards from which economically acceptable recommendations can be derived for the future. The high potential for savings can be utilized only if measures like thermal insulation, controlled ventilation, modern windows, high-efficiency boilers and renewable energy sources are combined. (orig.)

  5. Metagenome reveals potential microbial degradation of hydrocarbon coupled with sulfate reduction in an oil-immersed chimney from Guaymas Basin

    Ying eHe

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimneys contain a high diversity of microorganisms, yet the metabolic activity and the ecological functions of the microbial communities remain largely unexplored. In this study, a metagenomic approach was applied to characterize the metabolic potential in a Guaymas hydrothermal vent chimney and to conduct comparative genomic analysis among a variety of environments with sequenced metagenomes. Complete clustering of functional gene categories with a comparative metagenomic approach showed that this Guaymas chimney metagenome was clustered most closely with a chimney metagenome from Juan de Fuca. All chimney samples were enriched with genes involved in recombination and repair, chemotaxis and flagellar assembly, highlighting their roles in coping with the fluctuating extreme deep-sea environments. A high proportion of transposases was observed in all the metagenomes from deep-sea chimneys, supporting the previous hypothesis that horizontal gene transfer may be common in the deep-sea vent chimney biosphere. In the Guaymas chimney metagenome, thermophilic sulfate reducing microorganisms including bacteria and archaea were found predominant, and genes coding for the degradation of refractory organic compounds such as cellulose, lipid, pullullan, as well as a few hydrocarbons including toluene, ethylbenzene and o-xylene were identified. Therefore, this oil-immersed chimney supported a thermophilic microbial community capable of oxidizing a range of hydrocarbons that served as electron donors for sulphate reduction under anaerobic conditions.

  6. Feasibility of utilising solar-induced ventilation in Malaysia

    The feasibility of applying solar-induced ventilation in a typical Malaysian house measuring 3 m high x wide x 5 m deep was considered based on experimental results obtained from a laboratory-scale model. A wall-type solar chimney was considered. The design of the solar chimney incorporated providing a glass panel alongside a vertical wall of a building. Openings at the top and bottom of the wall allowed fresh air to be introduced into the building. Simulations obtained from a simple theoretical model showed that the solar chimney was able to induce air flow rates of between 640 to 1040 m3 h-1 with a 0.3 m air gap. These ventilation rates are found to be in compliance with codes specified by ASHRAE and the Uniform Building By-laws. Full scale studies would need to be conducted in order to evaluate its effectiveness especially the flow pattern in the room

  7. Design, construction and test run of a two-tonne capacity solar rice dryer with rice-husk-fired auxiliary heater

    The design and construction details of a two-tonne per batch capacity natural-circulation solar rice dryer and the highlights of the design of its rice-husk-fired auxiliary heating system which is still under construction are presented. The dryer measures approximately 17.7m long by 9.8m wide by 6m high. Preliminary results of a test run on the solar dryer section only is reported. (author). 5 refs, 3 figs

  8. Construction and simulation of a solar dryer for drying pineapples in Ghana

    Bogojevic, Ivana

    2012-01-01

    Drying of agricultural products using solar energy is a method for preservation that has been used for centuries all over the world. This method has been effective especially in tropical and subtropical climates, due to the great availability to solar energy. The village Edumafa in Ghana has great cultivation of pineapples but has no post harvest process. A post harvest process as drying of pineapples can increase cultivation and introduce a new product to be sold at the market. This thesis i...

  9. Vibration test for HANARO in-chimney bracket and instrumented fuel assembly

    The vibration characteristics and structural integrity of the instrumented fuel assembly and in-chimney bracket structures, which is recently installed in HANARO reactor chimney, are investigated. For this purpose, four acceleration data on the guide tube of the instrumented fuel assembly and in-chimney bracket structures subjected to fluid induced vibration are measured and analyzed. In time domain analysis, maximum amplitudes and RMS values of accelerations and displacements are obtained from the measured vibration signal. The frequency components of the vibration data are analyzed by using the frequency domain analysis. These analysis results show that the levels of the measured vibrations are within the allowable limit, and the low frequency component near 10 Hz is dominant in the vibration signal. For the evaluation of the structural integrity on the in-chimney bracket and related structures, the static analysis for ANSYS finite element model is carried out. The maximum displacements of the measured vibration signals are used as the load inputs. These analysis results show that the maximum stresses and within the allowable stresses of the ASME code, and the maximum displacement at the top of the flow tube is within the displacement limit. Therefore any damage on the structural integrity is not expected when the irradiation test is performed using the in-chimney bracket

  10. Numerical simulation of turbulent flow mixing inside a square chimney structure of a research reactor

    Sengupta, S.; Bhatnagar, A. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India). Research Reactor Design and Projects Div.; Vijayan, P.K. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India). Reactor Engineering Div.; Singh, R.K. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India). Reactor Safety Div.; Raina, V.K. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India). Reactor Group

    2013-11-15

    Numerical simulation was performed to study the turbulent mixing behavior of two opposing flows inside a square chimney structure of a research reactor. The chimney design facilitates drawing pool water in the downward direction and thereby suppresses the upward flow of radioactive water jet to limit the radiation field at the reactor pool top. Analyses were carried out considering a mass flow rate of 750 kg/s for the upward flowing hot water from the core, which corresponds to Reynolds number of 3 x 10{sup 6}. Mass flow ratios of the downward flow and the upward flow were 0.0, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.15. The effects of mass flow ratio, chimney height on the velocity and temperature distribution inside three-dimensional chimney structure was evaluated using CFD code PHOENICS. The effect of temperature difference between the opposing flows on velocity was also analysed. It is observed that increase in downward flow causes the jet height to decrease due to the opposing momentum of downward flow against the upward jet. The effects of chimney height and temperature difference on the jet height are found to be marginal because of dominating inertial force over buoyancy force for the study. (orig.)

  11. Simulation, construction and testing of a two-cylinder solar Stirling engine powered by a flat-plate solar collector without regenerator

    Tavakolpour, Ali Reza; Zomorodian, Ali [Department of Mechanics of Farm Machinery Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran); Akbar Golneshan, Ali [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran)

    2008-01-15

    In this research, a gamma-type, low-temperature differential (LTD) solar Stirling engine with two cylinders was modeled, constructed and primarily tested. A flat-plate solar collector was employed as an in-built heat source, thus the system design was based on a temperature difference of 80{sup o}C. The principles of thermodynamics as well as Schmidt theory were adapted to use for modeling the engine. To simulate the system some computer programs were written to analyze the models and the optimized parameters of the engine design were determined. The optimized compression ratio was computed to be 12.5 for solar application according to the mean collector temperature of 100{sup o}C and sink temperature of 20{sup o}C. The corresponding theoretical efficiency of the engine for the mentioned designed parameters was calculated to be 0.012 for zero regenerator efficiency. Proposed engine dimensions are as follows: power piston stroke 0.044 m, power piston diameter 0.13 m, displacer stroke 0.055 m and the displacer diameter 0.41 m. Finally, the engine was tested. The results indicated that at mean collector temperature of 110{sup o}C and sink temperature of 25{sup o}C, the engine produced a maximum brake power of 0.27 W at 14 rpm. The mean engine speed was about 30 rpm at solar radiation intensity of 900 W/m{sup 2} and without load. The indicated power was computed to be 1.2 W at 30 rpm. (author)

  12. Design and Construction of a Solar Observatory in a Liberal Arts Environment: Austin College’s Gnomon and Meridian Line

    Baker, David; Salisbury, D.

    2014-01-01

    Austin College’s indoor solar observatory is one of the most distinctive features in its new IDEA Center science building. Patterned after 16th and 17th century solar observatories in European cathedrals, the IDEA Center solar facility will be used extensively for public events, introductory astronomy courses, and reproductions of important historical scientific measurements. A circular aperture, or gnomon hole, on the roof with diameter 32 mm allows a beam of sunlight to trace a path across the atrium floor 15.37 meters below. At local solar noon, the Sun’s image falls directly on a brass meridian line. Special markers for solstices and equinoxes highlight western, eastern, and indigenous cultural contributions to astronomy: Macedonian symbol of the Sun marks summer solstice, Chinese Sun symbol showcases the equinoxes, and the Mayan symbol of the Sun celebrates winter solstice. The location directly beneath the gnomon hole is marked by the universal scientific symbol of the Sun. Direct solar measurements and mathematical models were used in design and implementation of the meridian line. During IDEA Center building construction in Fall 2012, undergraduate students measured the Sun’s position at various times. The finished floor was set in February 2013, well before a full year’s worth of measurements could be recorded. A mathematical model including the effects of aperture size and atmospheric refraction was needed to predict the size and location of the Sun on the meridian line throughout the year. Confirmation of the meridian line occurred on Summer Solstice 2013 when the Sun’s image precisely hit the Macedonian marker at the correct time.

  13. Constructing a One-solar-mass Evolutionary Sequence Using Asteroseismic Data from Kepler

    Silva Aguirre, V.; Chaplin, W.J.; Ballot, J.;

    2011-01-01

    Asteroseismology of solar-type stars has entered a new era of large surveys with the success of the NASA Kepler mission, which is providing exquisite data on oscillations of stars across the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. From the time-series photometry, the two seismic parameters that can be most...

  14. Survey of new forms of organization and financing constructions in the Dutch solar electricity market

    In the title project the focus is on organizations and projects in the Dutch market for solar electricity, characterized by: minimal dependence on subsidies (state aid), the removal of high initial investments by users (financing), and structures that can easily be extended or replicated (scale)

  15. Innovative second-generation wavelets construction with recurrent neural networks for solar radiation forecasting.

    Capizzi, Giacomo; Napoli, Christian; Bonanno, Francesco

    2012-11-01

    Solar radiation prediction is an important challenge for the electrical engineer because it is used to estimate the power developed by commercial photovoltaic modules. This paper deals with the problem of solar radiation prediction based on observed meteorological data. A 2-day forecast is obtained by using novel wavelet recurrent neural networks (WRNNs). In fact, these WRNNS are used to exploit the correlation between solar radiation and timescale-related variations of wind speed, humidity, and temperature. The input to the selected WRNN is provided by timescale-related bands of wavelet coefficients obtained from meteorological time series. The experimental setup available at the University of Catania, Italy, provided this information. The novelty of this approach is that the proposed WRNN performs the prediction in the wavelet domain and, in addition, also performs the inverse wavelet transform, giving the predicted signal as output. The obtained simulation results show a very low root-mean-square error compared to the results of the solar radiation prediction approaches obtained by hybrid neural networks reported in the recent literature. PMID:24808074

  16. Studies of the thermohydraulics of the Irradiation Research Facility (IRF) chimney using computational fluid dynamics

    AECL is developing a concept for a new Irradiation Research Facility (IRF) that will be used to support ongoing development of CANDU technology and advanced materials research after the NRU reactor shuts down. As part of the IRF Pre-Project Engineering Program, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses of the flow patterns and heat transfer within four reactor components - the inlet plenum, reflector tank, chimney, and the pool - were done to support the design. This paper describes the results of the CFD analyses of the IRF chimney. (author)

  17. Structural Integrity Evaluation of an New In-Chimney Bracket Structures for HANARO

    In HANARO are there provided three hexagonal irradiation holes (CT, IR1 and IR2) in the central region of the core while four circular irradiation holes (OR3 ∼ OR6) in the outer core. There exist two types of irradiation facilities: uninstrumented or instrumented. The uninstrumented irradiation facility is little influenced by the coolant flow. But the dynamic behavior by the flow-induced vibration (FIV) and seismic loads is expected to largely occur in case of the instrumented test facility due to the long guide tube to protect the instrumentation cables. To suppress this dynamic behavior of the facility, the in-chimney bracket was designed. As a supplementary supporting structure for irradiation facility, this bracket will hold guide tubes whose holding position of the instrumented facility in CT or IR is the middle part of the instrumented facility between the hole spider and the robot arm already provided in the reactor pool liner. On the while, the bracket will grip the upper part of the guide tube when it is applied to hold the instrumented facility loaded in OR sites. Therefore it is believed that the irradiation test can be successfully conducted since this bracket can reduce the FIV and dynamic response to seismic load as well. In new in-chimney bracket, IR1 is reserved for IPS(In-Pile Section) so only CT/IR2 guide tubes are supported by CT/IR clamp units and the shape of In-chimney bracket is redesigned. For evaluating the structural integrity on the new in-chimney bracket and related reactor structures, ANSYS finite element analysis model is developed and the dynamic characteristics are analyzed. The seismic response analyses of new in-chimney bracket and related reactor structures of HANARO under the design earthquake response spectrum loads of OBE(0.1g) and SSE(0.2g) are performed. The response shows that the stress values for main points on the reactor structures and the new in-chimney bracket for seismic loads are within the ASME Code limits. It is

  18. Structural Integrity Evaluation of an New In-Chimney Bracket Structures for HANARO

    Ryu, Jeong Soo; Cho, Yeong Garp; Lee, Jung Hee; Jung, Hoan Sung; Seo, Choon Gyo; Shin, Jin Won

    2007-12-15

    In HANARO are there provided three hexagonal irradiation holes (CT, IR1 and IR2) in the central region of the core while four circular irradiation holes (OR3 {approx} OR6) in the outer core. There exist two types of irradiation facilities: uninstrumented or instrumented. The uninstrumented irradiation facility is little influenced by the coolant flow. But the dynamic behavior by the flow-induced vibration (FIV) and seismic loads is expected to largely occur in case of the instrumented test facility due to the long guide tube to protect the instrumentation cables. To suppress this dynamic behavior of the facility, the in-chimney bracket was designed. As a supplementary supporting structure for irradiation facility, this bracket will hold guide tubes whose holding position of the instrumented facility in CT or IR is the middle part of the instrumented facility between the hole spider and the robot arm already provided in the reactor pool liner. On the while, the bracket will grip the upper part of the guide tube when it is applied to hold the instrumented facility loaded in OR sites. Therefore it is believed that the irradiation test can be successfully conducted since this bracket can reduce the FIV and dynamic response to seismic load as well. In new in-chimney bracket, IR1 is reserved for IPS(In-Pile Section) so only CT/IR2 guide tubes are supported by CT/IR clamp units and the shape of In-chimney bracket is redesigned. For evaluating the structural integrity on the new in-chimney bracket and related reactor structures, ANSYS finite element analysis model is developed and the dynamic characteristics are analyzed. The seismic response analyses of new in-chimney bracket and related reactor structures of HANARO under the design earthquake response spectrum loads of OBE(0.1g) and SSE(0.2g) are performed. The response shows that the stress values for main points on the reactor structures and the new in-chimney bracket for seismic loads are within the ASME Code limits

  19. Linkages between mineralogy, fluid chemistry, and microbial communities within hydrothermal chimneys from the Endeavour Segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge

    Lin, T. J.; Ver Eecke, H. C.; Breves, E. A.; Dyar, M. D.; Jamieson, J. W.; Hannington, M. D.; Dahle, H.; Bishop, J. L.; Lane, M. D.; Butterfield, D. A.; Kelley, D. S.; Lilley, M. D.; Baross, J. A.; Holden, J. F.

    2016-02-01

    Rock and fluid samples were collected from three hydrothermal chimneys at the Endeavour Segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge to evaluate linkages among mineralogy, fluid chemistry, and microbial community composition within the chimneys. Mössbauer, midinfrared thermal emission, and visible-near infrared spectroscopies were utilized for the first time to characterize vent mineralogy, in addition to thin-section petrography, X-ray diffraction, and elemental analyses. A 282°C venting chimney from the Bastille edifice was composed primarily of sulfide minerals such as chalcopyrite, marcasite, and sphalerite. In contrast, samples from a 300°C venting chimney from the Dante edifice and a 321°C venting chimney from the Hot Harold edifice contained a high abundance of the sulfate mineral anhydrite. Geochemical modeling of mixed vent fluids suggested the oxic-anoxic transition zone was above 100°C at all three vents, and that the thermodynamic energy available for autotrophic microbial redox reactions favored aerobic sulfide and methane oxidation. As predicted, microbes within the Dante and Hot Harold chimneys were most closely related to mesophilic and thermophilic aerobes of the Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria and sulfide-oxidizing autotrophic Epsilonproteobacteria. However, most of the microbes within the Bastille chimney were most closely related to mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobes of the Deltaproteobacteria, especially sulfate reducers, and anaerobic hyperthermophilic archaea. The predominance of anaerobes in the Bastille chimney indicated that other environmental factors promote anoxic conditions. Possibilities include the maturity or fluid flow characteristics of the chimney, abiotic Fe2+ and S2- oxidation in the vent fluids, or O2 depletion by aerobic respiration on the chimney outer wall.

  20. Solar thermal utilization--an overview

    Solar energy is an ideal renewable energy source and its thermal utilization is one of its most important applications. We review the status of solar thermal utilization, including: (1) developed technologies which are already widely used all over the world, such as solar assisted water heaters, solar cookers, solar heated buildings and so on; (2) advanced technologies which are still in the development or laboratory stage and could have more innovative applications, including thermal power generation, refrigeration, hydrogen production, desalination, and chimneys; (3) major problems which need to be resolved for advanced utilizaiton of solar thermal energy. (authors)

  1. Translucent load-bearing GFRP envelopes for daylighting and solar cell integration in building construction

    Pascual Agullo, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    This project investigates the light transmittance of load-bearing glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) laminates with a view to two architectural applications: the daylighting of buildings through load-bearing translucent GFRP envelopes and encapsulation of solar cells into the GFRP building skins of sandwich structures. The total and diffuse visible light transmittances of the laminates were experimentally investigated using a spectrophotometer coupled to an integrating sphere. The refracti...

  2. Experimental Investigation of Two Modified Energy-Saving Constructions of Solar Greenhouses

    Ermuratskii, V; Oleschuk, V.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents outcomes of experimental evaluation of operation of two structures of sustainable greenhouse systems. Thermal performance of greenhouse with on-ground heat accumulator and movable internal heat reflectors, and of greenhouse with under-ground accumulator and movable heat (roof-b......-based) reflectors, has been analyzed. Metering of solar irradiation, and temperature and humidity inside greenhouses, has been executed for different seasons and regimes. Conclusions regarding basic peculiarities of operation of two topologies of greenhouses have been formulated....

  3. Construction of a Quadratic Model for Predicted and Measured Global Solar Radiation in Chile

    Ercan YILMAZ; Beatriz CANCINO; Edmundo LOPEZ

    2007-01-01

    @@ Global solar radiation data for sites in Chile are analysed and presented in a form suitable for their use in engineering. A new model for monthly average data is developed to predict monthly average global radiation with acceptable accuracy by using actinographic data due to scarcing of pyranometer data. Use of the new quadratic model is proposed because of its relatively wider spectrum of values for (A)ngstrom coefficients a0, a1,and a2.

  4. Upward-migrating methane induced seismic chimney formation in the Nordland Group, Southern Viking Graben

    Kempka, Thomas; Unger, Victoria; Kühn, Michael

    2016-04-01

    The Nordland Group in the Southern Viking Graben hosts seismic chimneys, represented by anomalies in seismic data and determined by residual methane accumulations. These seismic chimneys are generally interpreted as focused fluid flow structures, and thus pose the risk of potential fluid leakage in geological subsurface utilization. The aim of the present study was to assess two popular scientific hypotheses on seismic chimney formation in the Nordland Group. The first one assumes excess pore pressure to result from buoyancy effects caused by upward-migrating methane and the development of a gas column with a thickness of several hundred meters, whereas the second one considers the load of the Fennoscandian ice sheet to be responsible for occurrence of hydraulic fracturing. In this context, we applied coupled hydromechanical simulations to determine the mechanism inducing the formation of these potential leakage pathways. Our simulation results demonstrate that hydraulic fracturing in the Nordland Group already occurs before the maximum methane column heights develop below. Consequently, the load of the Fennoscandian ice sheet is not initiating seismic chimneys formation.

  5. Influence of Chimney Flow Pattern on Natural Convection Heat Transfer of Open Channel Finned Plates

    Hong, Seung-Hyun; Chung, Bum-Jin [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The enhancement of the efficiency and effectiveness of the passive cooling system, have long been the topic of those studies. In this study, we investigated the heat transfer enhancement of finned plates, especially the chimney effect appeared in finned plates. The fin not only enlarges the heat transfer area but also draws fresh fluid from the open side of the channel composed of the base plate and fins, which further enhances the cooling capability of finned plate – a chimney flow pattern. This study aims at investigating the influence of the chimney flow pattern on the natural convection heat transfer of the finned plate. To analyze the phenomenological study, both experimental and numerical analyses were performed. Numerical analysis was performed for the natural convection heat transfer of a finned plate in an open channel. In order to investigate the influence of the chimney flow pattern the heat transfer, several fin height were simulated and compared. The temperature profiles varied drastically depending on the values of the Prandtl number. As the Prandtl number increases, the thermal boundary layer reduces.

  6. Influence of Chimney Flow Pattern on Natural Convection Heat Transfer of Open Channel Finned Plates

    The enhancement of the efficiency and effectiveness of the passive cooling system, have long been the topic of those studies. In this study, we investigated the heat transfer enhancement of finned plates, especially the chimney effect appeared in finned plates. The fin not only enlarges the heat transfer area but also draws fresh fluid from the open side of the channel composed of the base plate and fins, which further enhances the cooling capability of finned plate – a chimney flow pattern. This study aims at investigating the influence of the chimney flow pattern on the natural convection heat transfer of the finned plate. To analyze the phenomenological study, both experimental and numerical analyses were performed. Numerical analysis was performed for the natural convection heat transfer of a finned plate in an open channel. In order to investigate the influence of the chimney flow pattern the heat transfer, several fin height were simulated and compared. The temperature profiles varied drastically depending on the values of the Prandtl number. As the Prandtl number increases, the thermal boundary layer reduces

  7. 78 FR 72060 - Chimney Rock National Monument Management Plan; San Juan National Forest; Colorado

    2013-12-02

    .... Forest Service (USFS) planning regulations (36 CFR part 219) as allowed by the transition provision of the 2012 forest planning regulations. The 1982 planning regulations are available at http://www.fs.fed...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Chimney Rock National Monument Management Plan; San Juan...

  8. Geochemical processes and fluxes at a methane gas chimney on the Hikurangi Margin (New Zealand)

    Dale, A.; Haffert, L.; Hütten, E.; Crutchley, G.; Greinert, J.; de Haas, H.; de Stigter, H.; Bialas, J.

    2012-04-01

    The initial results presented in this study focus on the pore water geochemistry of Takahe methane seep located at 1050 m water depth on the Hikurangi Margin. The main objectives are to characterize and quantify the geochemical processes occurring in the upper meters of sediment. Parasound images of the study site showed a well-defined seismic blanking zone of around 230 m in diameter that is likely generated by trapped methane gas. At the northern edge of this seismic gas chimney bubble release has been observed by using hydroacoustic methods (singlebeam and multibeam echosounders). At the seafloor the more northern part of the chimney area showed white Beggiatoa bacterial mats and in places dark sediment patches due to geochemically reduced environments. No other "seep specific" fauna as tube worms or clams as well as no massive chemoherm carbonate where found in the area. This points towards a rather young seepage history. Geochemical data measured in 8 gravity cores across the gas chimney support this notion and gas hydrate layers several cm thick were observed in several cores. Sulphate and total alkalinity concentrations varied little from seawater values in the upper 50 to 100 cm towards the southerly end of the seismic gas chimney area; a feature attributed to irrigation by escaping methane gas bubbles. At these stations, the pore fluids were highly enriched in biogenic methane. However, the dissolved methane was mostly consumed anaerobically by sulphate, resulting in steep gradients of sulphate, methane, total alkalinity and hydrogen sulphide. Geochemical gradients at reference site immediately outside the chimney area were essentially vertical, indicating very little upwards transport and dissolution of methane. The geochemical data are applied to a numerical reaction-transport model to quantify the total upward flux of methane at each station and, ultimately, for the entire gas chimney. Temperature measurements of thermistor probes attached to the barrel

  9. The design, construction, and monitoring of photovoltaic power system and solar thermal system on the Georgia Institute of Technology Aquatic Center. Volume 1

    Long, R.C.

    1996-12-31

    This is a report on the feasibility study, design, and construction of a PV and solar thermal system for the Georgia Tech Aquatic Center. The topics of the report include a discussion of site selection and system selection, funding, design alternatives, PV module selection, final design, and project costs. Included are appendices describing the solar thermal system, the SAC entrance canopy PV mockup, and the PV feasibility study.

  10. Experimental and numerical characterization of wind-induced pressure coefficients on nuclear buildings and chimney exhausts

    Ricciardi, Laurent, E-mail: laurent.ricciardi@irsn.fr; Gélain, Thomas; Soares, Sandrine

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Experiments on scale models of nuclear buildings and chimney exhausts were performed. • Pressure coefficient fields on buildings are shown for various wind directions. • Evolution of pressure coefficient vs U/W ratio is given for various chimney exhausts. • RANS simulations using SST k–ω turbulence model were performed on most studied cases. • A good agreement is overall observed, with Root Mean Square Deviation lower than 0.15. - Abstract: Wind creates pressure effects on different surfaces of buildings according to their exposure to the wind, in particular at external communications. In nuclear facilities, these effects can change contamination transfers inside the building and can even lead to contamination release into the environment, especially in damaged (ventilation stopped) or accidental situations. The diversity of geometries of facilities requires the use of a validated code for predicting pressure coefficients, which characterize the wind effect on the building walls and the interaction between the wind and chimney exhaust. The first aim of a research program launched by the French Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), was therefore to acquire experimental data of the mean pressure coefficients for different geometries of buildings and chimneys through wind tunnel tests and then to validate a CFD code (ANSYS CFX) from these experimental results. The simulations were performed using a steady RANS approach and a two-equation SST k–ω turbulence model. After a mesh sensitivity study for one configuration of building and chimney, a comparison was carried out between the numerical and experimental values for other studied configurations. This comparison was generally satisfactory, averaged over all measurement points, with values of Root Mean Square Deviations lower than 0.15 for most cases.

  11. Origin of a native sulfur chimney in the Kueishantao hydrothermal field, offshore northeast Taiwan

    ZENG; ZhiGang; LIU; ChangHua; CHEN; ChenTung; A; YIN; XueBo; CHEN; DaiGeng; WANG; XiaoYuan; WANG; XiaoMei; ZHANG; GuoLiang

    2007-01-01

    Analyses of rare earth and trace element concentrations of native sulfur samples from the Kueishantao hydrothermal field were performed at the Seafloor Hydrothermal Activity Laboratory of the Key Laboratory of Marine Geology and Environment,Institute of Oceanology,Chinese Academy of Sciences.Using an Elan DRC II ICP-MS,and combining the sulfur isotopic compositions of native sulfur samples,we studied the sources and formation of a native sulfur chimney.The results show,when comparing them with native sulfur from crater lakes and other volcanic areas,that the native sulfur content of this chimney is very high (99.96%),the rare earth element (REE) and trace element constituents of the chimney are very low (ΣREE<21×10-9),and the chondrite-normalized REE patterns of the native sulfur samples are similar to those of the Kueishantao andesite,implying that the interaction of subseafloor fluid-andesite at the Kueishantao hydrothermal field was of short duration.The sulfur isotopic compositions of the native sulfur samples reveal that the sulfur of the chimney,from H2S and SO2,originated by magmatic degassing and that the REEs and trace elements are mostly from the Kueishantao andesite and partly from seawater.Combining these results with an analysis of the thermodynamics,it is clear that from the relatively low temperature (<116℃),the oxygenated and acidic environment is favorable for formation of this native sulfur chimney in the Kueishantao hydrothermal field.

  12. Experimental and numerical characterization of wind-induced pressure coefficients on nuclear buildings and chimney exhausts

    Highlights: • Experiments on scale models of nuclear buildings and chimney exhausts were performed. • Pressure coefficient fields on buildings are shown for various wind directions. • Evolution of pressure coefficient vs U/W ratio is given for various chimney exhausts. • RANS simulations using SST k–ω turbulence model were performed on most studied cases. • A good agreement is overall observed, with Root Mean Square Deviation lower than 0.15. - Abstract: Wind creates pressure effects on different surfaces of buildings according to their exposure to the wind, in particular at external communications. In nuclear facilities, these effects can change contamination transfers inside the building and can even lead to contamination release into the environment, especially in damaged (ventilation stopped) or accidental situations. The diversity of geometries of facilities requires the use of a validated code for predicting pressure coefficients, which characterize the wind effect on the building walls and the interaction between the wind and chimney exhaust. The first aim of a research program launched by the French Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), was therefore to acquire experimental data of the mean pressure coefficients for different geometries of buildings and chimneys through wind tunnel tests and then to validate a CFD code (ANSYS CFX) from these experimental results. The simulations were performed using a steady RANS approach and a two-equation SST k–ω turbulence model. After a mesh sensitivity study for one configuration of building and chimney, a comparison was carried out between the numerical and experimental values for other studied configurations. This comparison was generally satisfactory, averaged over all measurement points, with values of Root Mean Square Deviations lower than 0.15 for most cases

  13. Optical and structural characterization od titanium dioxide films used for construction of dye-sensitized solar cells

    The dye-sensitized solar cells are the most serious concept that could replace the silicon solar cells. These are low-cost photovoltaic, and represent a technology which could seriously decrease the cost of the electrical energy they produce. The dye-sensitized solar cells are composed of several layers of materials that belong to the group of inorganic semiconductors. For the efficiency improvement of these cells, there are two basic concepts of research regarding the construction materials. On one side, investigation of new materials that will, as a result of their physical and electrochemical characteristics, increase the cell efficiency, and on the other side, use of materials that will contribute to the long term stability of the cell in atmospheric conditions. As a part of this Master thesis, compact and meso porous Ti(>2 films for dye- sensitized solar cells have been prepared. The compact Ti02 films were deposited with the technique of spray pyrolysis, and the preparation of the meso porous films was made with a blade casting technique. The optical and structural analysis and characterization of the films was done with optical spectroscopy in the visible and ultraviolet spectral region (UV- Vis), Raman spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The crystal structure of the films, surface uniformity, thickness and grain size dependence on the deposition parameters was investigated, this led to calculation of the optical constants for the compact films, as well as the determination of the electron transitions and the determination of the bang gap energy. Also regarding the structure and porosity of the meso porous films, characterization of the quality of the film depending on the chemical composition of the paste used for deposition was made. As a result of the preformed investigations, through defining the structural and optical parameters of quality compact and meso porous TiC>2 films for dye-sensitized solar cells, the optimal parameters for film

  14. High Efficiency Quantum Well Waveguide Solar Cells and Methods for Constructing the Same

    Welser, Roger E. (Inventor); Sood, Ashok K. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Photon absorption, and thus current generation, is hindered in conventional thin-film solar cell designs, including quantum well structures, by the limited path length of incident light passing vertically through the device. Optical scattering into lateral waveguide structures provides a physical mechanism to increase photocurrent generation through in-plane light trapping. However, the insertion of wells of high refractive index material with lower energy gap into the device structure often results in lower voltage operation, and hence lower photovoltaic power conversion efficiency. The voltage output of an InGaAs quantum well waveguide photovoltaic device can be increased by employing a III-V material structure with an extended wide band gap emitter heterojunction. Analysis of the light IV characteristics reveals that non-radiative recombination components of the underlying dark diode current have been reduced, exposing the limiting radiative recombination component and providing a pathway for realizing solar-electric conversion efficiency of 30% or more in single junction cells.

  15. Concentrated solar power on demand demonstration: Construction and operation of a 25 kW prototype

    Gil, Antoni; Codd, Daniel S.; Zhou, Lei; Trumper, David; Calvet, Nicolas; Slocum, Alexander H.

    2016-05-01

    Currently, the majority of concentrated solar power (CSP) plants built worldwide integrate thermal energy storage (TES) systems which enable dispatchable output and higher global plant efficiencies. TES systems are typically based on two tank molten salt technology which involves inherent drawbacks such as parasitic pumping losses and electric tracing of pipes, risk of solidification and high capital costs. The concept presented in this paper is based on a single tank where the concentrated sunlight is directly focused on the molten salt. Hot and cold volumes of salt (at 565 °C and 280 °C, respectively) are axially separated by an insulated divider plate which helps maintain the thermal gradient. The concept, based on existing technologies, seeks to avoid the listed drawbacks as well as reducing the final cost of the TES system. In order to demonstrate its feasibility, Masdar Institute (MI) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology are developing a 25 kW prototype to be tested in the Masdar Solar Platform beam down facility.

  16. A Contemporary Analysis of the O'Neill-Glaser Model for Space-Based Solar Power and Habitat Construction

    Curreri, Peter A.; Detweiler, Michael K.

    2011-01-01

    In 1975 Gerard O Neill published in the journal Science a model for the construction of solar power satellites. He found that the solar power satellites suggested by Peter Glaser would be too massive to launch economically from Earth, but could be financially viable if the workforce was permanently located in free space habitats and if lunar and asteroid materials were used for construction. All new worldwide electrical generating capacity could be then achieved by solar power satellites. The project would financially break even in about 20 years after which it would generate substantial income selling power below fossil fuel prices. Two NASA / Stanford University led studies at Ames Research center during the summers of 1974 and 1976 found the concept technically sound and developed a detailed financial parametric model. Although the project was not undertaken when suggested in the 1970s, several contemporary issues make pursuing the O Neill -- Glaser concept more compelling today. First, our analysis suggests that if in the first ten years of construction that small habitats (compared to the large vista habitats envisioned by O Neill) supporting approximately 300 people were utilized, development costs of the program and the time for financial break even could be substantially improved. Second, the contemporary consensus is developing that carbon free energy is required to mitigate global climate change. It is estimated that 300 GW of new carbon free energy would be necessary per year to stabilize global atmospheric carbon. This is about 4 times greater energy demand than was considered by the O Neill Glaser model. Our analysis suggests that after the initial investments in lunar mining and space manufacturing and transportation, that the profit margin for producing space solar power is very high (even when selling power below fossil fuel prices). We have investigated the financial scaling of ground launched versus space derived space solar power satellites. We

  17. Novel Barite Chimneys at the Loki's Castle Vent Field Shed Light on Key Factors Shaping Microbial Communities and Functions in Hydrothermal Systems

    Steen, Ida H.; Dahle, Håkon; Stokke, Runar; Roalkvam, Irene; Daae, Frida-Lise; Rapp, Hans Tore; Pedersen, Rolf B.; Thorseth, Ingunn H.

    2016-01-01

    In order to fully understand the cycling of elements in hydrothermal systems it is critical to understand intra-field variations in geochemical and microbiological processes in both focused, high-temperature and diffuse, low-temperature areas. To reveal important causes and effects of this variation, we performed an extensive chemical and microbiological characterization of a low-temperature venting area in the Loki's Castle Vent Field (LCVF). This area, located at the flank of the large sulfide mound, is characterized by numerous chimney-like barite (BaSO4) structures (≤ 1 m high) covered with white cotton-like microbial mats. Results from geochemical analyses, microscopy (FISH, SEM), 16S rRNA gene amplicon-sequencing and metatranscriptomics were compared to results from previous analyses of biofilms growing on black smoker chimneys at LCVF. Based on our results, we constructed a conceptual model involving the geochemistry and microbiology in the LCVF. The model suggests that CH4 and H2S are important electron donors for microorganisms in both high-temperature and low-temperature areas, whereas the utilization of H2 seems restricted to high-temperature areas. This further implies that sub-seafloor processes can affect energy-landscapes, elemental cycling, and the metabolic activity of primary producers on the seafloor. In the cotton-like microbial mats on top of the active barite chimneys, a unique network of single cells of Epsilonproteobacteria interconnected by threads of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) was seen, differing significantly from the long filamentous Sulfurovum filaments observed in biofilms on the black smokers. This network also induced nucleation of barite crystals and is suggested to play an essential role in the formation of the microbial mats and the chimneys. Furthermore, it illustrates variations in how different genera of Epsilonproteobacteria colonize and position cells in different vent fluid mixing zones within a vent field

  18. Design, construction, and testing of the Colorado State University Solar House I heating and cooling system. United States special format report

    Loef, G.O.G.; Ward, D.S.

    1976-06-01

    The primary objective of the project is the design, construction, testing, and evaluation of a practical system for utilizing solar energy to drive heating, cooling, and domestic hot water subsystems, supplemented as necessary with auxiliary fuel. System design was accomplished during the first five months (September 1973 to January 1974) and construction completed during the following five month period (February to June 1974). This report details the evaluation of the system's performance during the period 1 September 1974 through 31 August 1975. Efforts are now underway to modify and improve the performance of the solar system, and conduct a comparative evaluation of the original design and the modified system. (WDM)

  19. Geochemistry and mineralogy of a silica chimney from an inactive seafloor hydrothermal field (East Pacific Rise, 18°S)

    Dekov, V.M.; Lalonde, S.V.; Kamenov, G.D.; Bayon, G.; Shanks, W. C.; Fortin, D.; Fouquet, Y.; Moscati, R.J.

    2015-01-01

    An inactive vent field comprised of dead chimneys was discovered on the ultrafast East Pacific Rise (EPR) at 18 degrees S during the research campaign NAUDUR with the R/V Le Nadir in December 1993. One of these chimneys was sampled, studied and found to be largely composed of silica-mineralized bacterial-like filaments. The filaments are inferred to be the result of microbial activity leading to silica (+/- Fe-oxyhydroxide) precipitation. The chimney grew from the most external layer (precipi...

  20. A study on thermo-hydraulic instability of boiling natural circulation loop with a chimney. 4. An analytical consideration of the stability and thermo-hydraulic characteristics in the chimney in high pressure

    Thermo-hydraulic instabilities of a boiling natural circulation loop with a chimney under high pressure were investigated using linear stability analysis. Drift-flux model was used for two-phase flow model. The instability regions as well as the thermo-hydraulic characteristics in the chimney such as wavy feature were examined, which were compared with the characteristics in low pressure. Instability could occur when exit quality was relatively low, which was the same manner as the characteristics in low pressure. In high-pressure, void was generated near channel exit, and void wave propagated in the chimney. In low pressure, steam was generated only near the chimney exit due to gravity induced flashing, and single-phase enthalpy wave, that is, temperature wave propagated in single-phase flow region. Though flow could be very stable in the high pressure and high power condition, the decay ratio of higher mode could be larger than that of lower mode. (author)

  1. Iron-sulfide-bearing chimneys as potential catalytic energy traps at life's emergence.

    Mielke, Randall E; Robinson, Kirtland J; White, Lauren M; McGlynn, Shawn E; McEachern, Kavan; Bhartia, Rohit; Kanik, Isik; Russell, Michael J

    2011-12-01

    The concept that life emerged where alkaline hydrogen-bearing submarine hot springs exhaled into the most ancient acidulous ocean was used as a working hypothesis to investigate the nature of precipitate membranes. Alkaline solutions at 25-70°C and pH between 8 and 12, bearing HS(-)±silicate, were injected slowly into visi-jars containing ferrous chloride to partially simulate the early ocean on this or any other wet and icy, geologically active rocky world. Dependent on pH and sulfide content, fine tubular chimneys and geodal bubbles were generated with semipermeable walls 4-100 μm thick that comprised radial platelets of nanometric mackinawite [FeS]±ferrous hydroxide [∼Fe(OH)(2)], accompanied by silica and, at the higher temperature, greigite [Fe(3)S(4)]. Within the chimney walls, these platelets define a myriad of micropores. The interior walls of the chimneys host iron sulfide framboids, while, in cases where the alkaline solution has a pH>11 or relatively low sulfide content, their exteriors exhibit radial flanges with a spacing of ∼4 μm that comprise microdendrites of ferrous hydroxide. We speculate that this pattern results from outward and inward radial flow through the chimney walls. The outer Fe(OH)(2) flanges perhaps precipitate where the highly alkaline flow meets the ambient ferrous iron-bearing fluid, while the intervening troughs signal where the acidulous iron-bearing solutions could gain access to the sulfidic and alkaline interior of the chimneys, thereby leading to the precipitation of the framboids. Addition of soluble pentameric peptides enhances membrane durability and accentuates the crenulations on the chimney exteriors. These dynamic patterns may have implications for acid-base catalysis and the natural proton motive force acting through the matrix of the porous inorganic membrane. Thus, within such membranes, steep redox and pH gradients would bear across the nanometric platelets and separate the two counter-flowing solutions

  2. Design construction and analysis of solar ridge concentrator photovoltaic (PV) system to improve battery charging performance.

    Narasimman, Kalaiselvan; Selvarasan, Iniyan

    2016-05-01

    A ridge concentrator photovoltaic system for a 10W multi-crystalline solar panel was designed with the concentration ratios of 1X and 2X. The ray tracing model of ridge concentrator photovoltaic system was carried out using Trace-Pro simulation. The optimum tilt angle for the concentrator PV system throughout the year was computed. The electrical parameters of the 3 panels were analyzed. The effect of temperature on the electrical performance of the panel was also studied. The reduction of voltage due to increasing panel temperature was managed by MPES type Charge controller. Glass reflector with reflectivity 0.95 was chosen as the ridge wall for the concentrator system. The maximum power outputs for the 1X and 2X panel reached were 9W and 10.5W with glass reflector. The percentage of power improvement for 1X and 2X concentrations were 22.3% and 45.8% respectively. The 2X concentrated panel connected battery takes lower time to charge compared with normal panel connected battery. PMID:26852396

  3. Scenarios for solar thermal energy applications in Brazil

    The Solar and Wind Energy Resource Assessment (SWERA) database is used to prepare and discuss scenarios for solar thermal applications in Brazil. The paper discusses low temperature applications (small and large scale water heating) and solar power plants for electricity production (concentrated solar power plants and solar chimney plants) in Brazil. The results demonstrate the feasibility of large-scale application of solar energy for water heating and electricity generation in Brazil. Payback periods for water heating systems are typically below 4 years if they were used to replace residential electric showerheads in low-income families. Large-scale water heating systems also present high feasibility and many commercial companies are adopting this technology to reduce operational costs. The best sites to set up CSP plants are in the Brazilian semi-arid region where the annual energy achieves 2.2 MW h/m2 and averages of daily solar irradiation are larger than 5.0 kW h/m2/day. The western area of Brazilian Northeastern region meets all technical requirements to exploit solar thermal energy for electricity generation based on solar chimney technology. Highlights: ► Scenarios for solar thermal applications are presented. ► Payback is typically below 4 years for small scale water heating systems. ► Large-scale water heating systems also present high feasibility. ► The Brazilian semi-arid region is the best sites for CSP and chimney tower plants.

  4. Assessing the influence of physical, geochemical and biological factors on anaerobic microbial primary productivity within hydrothermal vent chimneys.

    Olins, H C; Rogers, D R; Frank, K L; Vidoudez, C; Girguis, P R

    2013-05-01

    Chemosynthetic primary production supports hydrothermal vent ecosystems, but the extent of that productivity and its governing factors have not been well constrained. To better understand anaerobic primary production within massive vent deposits, we conducted a series of incubations at 4, 25, 50 and 90 °C using aggregates recovered from hydrothermal vent structures. We documented in situ geochemistry, measured autochthonous organic carbon stable isotope ratios and assessed microbial community composition and functional gene abundances in three hydrothermal vent chimney structures from Middle Valley on the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Carbon fixation rates were greatest at lower temperatures and were comparable among chimneys. Stable isotope ratios of autochthonous organic carbon were consistent with the Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle being the predominant mode of carbon fixation for all three chimneys. Chimneys exhibited marked differences in vent fluid geochemistry and microbial community composition, with structures being differentially dominated by gamma (γ) or epsilon (ε) proteobacteria. Similarly, qPCR analyses of functional genes representing different carbon fixation pathways showed striking differences in gene abundance among chimney structures. Carbon fixation rates showed no obvious correlation with observed in situ vent fluid geochemistry, community composition or functional gene abundance. Together, these data reveal that (i) net anaerobic carbon fixation rates among these chimneys are elevated at lower temperatures, (ii) clear differences in community composition and gene abundance exist among chimney structures, and (iii) tremendous spatial heterogeneity within these environments likely confounds efforts to relate the observed rates to in situ microbial and geochemical factors. We also posit that microbes typically thought to be mesophiles are likely active and growing at cooler temperatures, and that their activity at these temperatures comprises the

  5. Diffusion of solar energy technologies in the new-construction market: a survey of new solar-home and onventional-home buyers

    Rains, D.; Dunipace, D.; Woo, C.K.

    1981-02-01

    Comsumer motivations for choosing a solar energy equipped new home when the non-solar or conventional model was also available were investigated. The approach was to test the relative importance of demographic, dwelling unit, and heating system characteristics in household decisions to purchase a home equipped with solar energy devices. Two statistical models were developed: one to examine the relationship between the types of home buyers (as an identifiable market segment) and the decision to purchase a solar home, and the other to compare the energy use of solar vs. conventional homes selected in the sample. (MHR)

  6. An Assessment of Water Demand and Availability to meet Construction and Operational Needs for Large Utility-Scale Solar Projects in the Southwestern United States

    Klise, G. T.; Tidwell, V. C.; Macknick, J.; Reno, M. D.; Moreland, B. D.; Zemlick, K. M.

    2013-12-01

    In the Southwestern United States, there are many large utility-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) facilities currently in operation, with even more under construction and planned for future development. These are locations with high solar insolation and access to large metropolitan areas and existing grid infrastructure. The Bureau of Land Management, under a reasonably foreseeable development scenario, projects a total of almost 32 GW of installed utility-scale solar project capacity in the Southwest by 2030. To determine the potential impacts to water resources and the potential limitations water resources may have on development, we utilized methods outlined by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to determine potential water use in designated solar energy zones (SEZs) for construction and operations & maintenance (O&M), which is then evaluated according to water availability in six Southwestern states. Our results indicate that PV facilities overall use less water, however water for construction is high compared to lifetime operational water needs. There is a transition underway from wet cooled to dry cooled CSP facilities and larger PV facilities due to water use concerns, though some water is still necessary for construction, operations, and maintenance. Overall, ten watersheds, 9 in California, and one in New Mexico were identified as being of particular concern because of limited water availability. Understanding the location of potentially available water sources can help the solar industry determine locations that minimize impacts to existing water resources, and help understand potential costs when utilizing non-potable water sources or purchasing existing appropriated water. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract

  7. Scientific and Cost Effective Monitoring: The Case of an Aerial Insectivore, the Chimney Swift

    Sébastien Rioux

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The increased pace of species listing worldwide, coupled with the scarcity of conservation funding, promote the use of targeted monitoring. We applied the recommendations of Nichols and Williams (Trends in Ecology and Evolution 2006 24:668-673 to optimize the Québec Chimney Swift Monitoring Program, an ongoing volunteer-based monitoring initiative launched in 1998. Past objectives of the program were to fill knowledge gaps about occupancy patterns at roosts sites, determine spatial and temporal distribution of Chimney Swifts (Chaetura pelagica across the province, locate active nest sites, and monitor temporal fluctuations of the population. By applying an adaptive management framework, we modified the current monitoring scheme into a more focused initiative testing newly developed hypotheses about the state of the system. This new approach yielded significant scientific gains as well as annual savings of 19.6%. It may prove pertinent to current and future swift monitoring initiatives and to other aerial insectivore species.

  8. Barometric pressure transient testing applications at the Nevada Test Site. Nuclear chimney analysis. Final report

    Hanson, J.M.

    1985-12-01

    Investigations of barometric pressure testing of NTS nuclear chimneys were reviewed. This review includes the models used in the interpretation, methods of analysis, and results. Analytic and semi-analytic models were presented and applied to both historical data and new data taken for this current project. An interpretation technique based on non-linear least squares methods was used to analyze this data in terms of historic and more recent chimney models. Finally, a detailed discussion of radioactive gas transport due to surface barometric pressure fluctuations was presented. This mechanism of transport, referred to as ''barometric pumping,'' is presented in terms of conditions likely to be encountered at the NTS. The report concludes with a discussion of the current understanding of gas flow properties in the alluvial and volcanic areas of the NTS, and suggestions for future efforts directed toward increasing this understanding are presented.

  9. Barometric pressure transient testing applications at the Nevada Test Site. Nuclear chimney analysis. Final report

    Investigations of barometric pressure testing of NTS nuclear chimneys were reviewed. This review includes the models used in the interpretation, methods of analysis, and results. Analytic and semi-analytic models were presented and applied to both historical data and new data taken for this current project. An interpretation technique based on non-linear least squares methods was used to analyze this data in terms of historic and more recent chimney models. Finally, a detailed discussion of radioactive gas transport due to surface barometric pressure fluctuations was presented. This mechanism of transport, referred to as ''barometric pumping,'' is presented in terms of conditions likely to be encountered at the NTS. The report concludes with a discussion of the current understanding of gas flow properties in the alluvial and volcanic areas of the NTS, and suggestions for future efforts directed toward increasing this understanding are presented

  10. Active reduction of the dominant clear tone component of the noise pollution from power plant chimneys

    An investigation of a system for active reduction of an irritating dominant clear tone emitted as a part of the noise pollution from a power plant chimney is described. Experiments were carried out on a scale model with diameters 3-4 times less than the actual chimney. Reduction of 25-30 decibels was achieved in relation to the clear tone in the frequency range in connection with which it could be expected that the noise-muffling system would work. The system was also seen to be able to follow the expected variation in the noise signals and to be stable during a longer period of time. The theories on which the experiment was based, the experimental setup and measurement methods and results are presented. (AB)

  11. Scientific and Cost Effective Monitoring: The Case of an Aerial Insectivore, the Chimney Swift

    Sébastien Rioux; Savard, Jean-Pierre L.; François Shaffer

    2010-01-01

    The increased pace of species listing worldwide, coupled with the scarcity of conservation funding, promote the use of targeted monitoring. We applied the recommendations of Nichols and Williams (Trends in Ecology and Evolution 2006 24:668-673) to optimize the Québec Chimney Swift Monitoring Program, an ongoing volunteer-based monitoring initiative launched in 1998. Past objectives of the program were to fill knowledge gaps about occupancy patterns at roosts sites, determine spatial and tempo...

  12. Lung function in woodsmoke-exposed Guatemalan children following a chimney stove intervention.

    Heinzerling, AP; Guarnieri, MJ; Mann, JK; Diaz, JV; Thompson, LM; Diaz, A.; Bruce, NG; Smith, KR; Balmes, JR

    2016-01-01

    Household air pollution (HAP) from solid fuel combustion is a major contributor to the global burden of disease, with considerable impact from respiratory infections in children. The impact of HAP on lung function is unknown.The Childhood Exposure to Respirable Particulate Matter (CRECER) prospective cohort study followed Guatemalan children who participated in the Randomised Exposure Study of Pollution Indoors and Respiratory Effects (RESPIRE) trial of a chimney stove intervention to determi...

  13. Uranium prospecting in alkaline mountain chimneys of Serra Negra and Salitre - Minas Gerais, Brasil

    The occurence of radioactive minerals such as apatite and pyrochlore, in the alkaline chimneys of Serra Negra and Salitre (Minas Gerais, Brazil), is discussed. Also mentioned are other minerals of interest associated with the alkaline magma such as columbite, fluorite, monazite, zircon, baddeleyite, etc, which in favourable conditions may occur in deposits of great economical value, and which may present high contents of rare earths, thorium and uranium

  14. Framework for the Energetic Assessment of South and South-East Asia Fixed Chimney Bull’s Trench Kiln

    Brun Niccolò Le

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the major sources of fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emission in South and South-East Asia is brick manufacturing. One of the most commonly implemented technologies for brick manufacturing in this region is the fixed chimney Bull’s trench kiln (FCBTK. This type of technology largely depends on manual labour and is very inefficient when compared to more modern technologies. Because the adoption of more advanced technologies is hindered by the socio-economical background, the much needed innovations in the brick sector are necessarily related to improving/modifying the FCBTK already operational. However, few scientific studies have been conducted on FCBTK probably due to the basic level of technological development. Such studies are however important to systematically and methodologically assess the challenges and solutions in FCBTK. In this study we develop a thermo-energetic model to evaluate the importance of the parameters pertained to FCBTK construction and operation. The prospective of this study is to build an initial thermo-energetic framework that will serve as a basis to investigate possible energetic improvements.

  15. The application of masonry chimney venting tables for oil-fired appliances

    Krajewski, R.F.; Strasser, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-04-01

    This paper presents an overview of the results of work in developing a set of rational guidelines for the venting of modern oil-fired appliances. The activities included the continued development and completion of the Oil-Heat Vent Analysis Program (OHVAP), Version 1.0 and the interpretation of nearly 2,000 runs in preparing recommendations for presentation in table form. These results are presented in the form of venting tables for the installation of chimney vent systems for mid- and high-efficiency oil-fired heating appliances using masonry chimneys. A brief description of OHVAP is given as well as a discussion of what the program does. Recommendations based on the results of OHVAP are presented in the form of five tables spanning oil-fired appliance Steady state Efficiencies (Eff{sub ss}) of 80% to 88%. The assumptions used in the calculations and examples of the computed results are presented as well as a discussion of the rationale for masonry chimney system treatment. Working examples are given with suggested diagnostic approaches for application of the table recommendations.

  16. Continuous In Situ Measurements of Near Bottom Chemistry and Sediment-Water Fluxes with the Chimney Sampler Array (CSA)

    Martens, C. S.; Mendlovitz, H. P.; White, B. L.; Hoer, D.; Sleeper, K.; Chanton, J.; Wilson, R.; Lapham, L.

    2011-12-01

    The Chimney Sampler Array (CSA) was designed to measure in situ chemical and physical parameters within the benthic boundary layer plus methane and oxygen sediment-water chemical fluxes at upper slope sites in the northern Gulf of Mexico. The CSA can monitor temporal changes plus help to evaluate oceanographic and sub-seafloor processes that can influence the formation and stability of gas hydrates in underlying sediments. The CSA consists of vertical cylinders (chimneys) equipped with internal chemical sensors and with laboratory flume-calibrated washout rates. Chimney washout rates multiplied by chimney mean versus ambient concentrations allow calculation of net O2 and methane sediment-water fluxes. The CSA is emplaced on the seafloor by a ROVARD lander using a ROV for chimney deployments. The CSA presently includes two 30 cm diameter by 90 cm length cylinders that seal against the sediment with lead pellet beanbags; within each chimney cylinder are optode, conductivity and methane sensors. The CSA's data logger platform also includes pressure and turbidity sensors external to the chimneys along with an acoustic Doppler current meter to measure temporal variation in ambient current velocity and direction. The CSA was deployed aboard a ROVARD lander on 9/13/2010 in the northern Gulf of Mexico (Lat. 28 51.28440, Long. 088 29.39421) on biogeochemically active sediments within Block MC-118. A ROV was utilized for chimney deployment away from the ROVARD lander. The CSA monitored temporal changes in water column physical parameters, obtained near-bottom chemical data to compare with pore fluid and sediment core measurements and measured temporal variability in oxygen and methane sediment-water fluxes at two closely spaced stations at MC-118. A continuous, three-week data set was obtained that revealed daily cycles in chemical parameters and episodic flux events. Lower than ambient chimney dissolved O2 concentrations controlled by temporal variability in washout rates

  17. Biogeochemistry of Hydrothermal Chimney Environments: Continuous-Flow Experiments at in situ Temperature and Pressure

    Houghton, J.; Seyfried, W.; Reysenbach, A.; Banta, A.; von Damm, K.

    2002-12-01

    Recent interest in the existence of a subsurface microbial biosphere at hydrothermal vents has resulted in a plethora of new questions that might best be answered using interdisciplinary techniques that combine geochemistry, microbial ecology, and molecular biology. Ideally, such studies will quantitatively address issues concerning what organisms exist in the subsurface, what metabolisms are sustained in the hydrothermal environment, and what effects these active organisms might have on the nearby fluid and rock. We present a new experimental approach to studying these questions that enables monitoring of an active hydrothermal community of microbes in the presence of chimney material at in situ temperature and pressure. This apparatus is designed as a continuous-flow reactor from which fluid samples can be extracted during the course of the experiment to measure chemistry and biomass, and at the termination of an experiment solids can be extracted for analysis of mineralogical changes and microbial identification. Results of a series of experiments conducted using hydrothermal chimney material (solids and microbial community) collected from 21° N and 9° N East Pacific Rise are presented. At 70° C, a seawater-based fluid with additional NO3-, CO2(aq), and H2(aq) was reacted with chimney material from L vent, 9° N EPR. The fluid lost significant NO3-, PO43-, and gained SO42- even after accounting for the contribution from anhydrite dissolution. No significant sulfide or iron was observed in the fluid. Analysis of the DNA extracted from the solids at the termination of the experiment using partial 16S-rRNA sequence data revealed that the dominant bacteria were S-oxidizing tube worm endosymbionts, a S/NO3- reducing member of the Deferribacter genus, and a H2-oxidizing/NO3- reducing strain of Aquifex. Mineral analysis from before and after the experiment indicates the loss of pyrrhotite (FeS) and anhydrite (CaSO4), and the gain of an Fe-oxide phase tentatively

  18. Diffusion of solar energy technologies in the new-construction market: A survey of new solar-home and conventional-home buyers

    Rains, D.; Dunipace, D.; Woo, C. K.

    1981-02-01

    Consumer motivations for choosing a solar energy equipped home when the nonsolar or conventional model was available were investigated. The approach was to test the relative importance of demographic, dwelling unit, and heating system characteristics in household decisions to purchase a home equipped with solar energy devices. Two statistical models were developed: one to examine the relationship between the types of home buyers (as an identifiable market segment) and the decision to purchase a solar home; and the other to compare the energy use of solar vs. conventional homes selected in the sample.

  19. Improvement of the Vertical Dispersion of Pollutants Resulting From Chimneys by Thermosiphon Effect

    A. O.M. Mahmoud

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The dispersion of pollutants, resulting from industrial chimneys, in the surrounding atmosphere made the interest in realizing emitting conditions appears. It also encourages the vertical dispersion of these pollutants. At a given wind velocity, the height of this dispersion is essentially a function of the thermal power and the flow rate at the chimney exit. To improve these qualities, we propose a system that could be integrated to the industrial chimney exit. An open-ended vertical cylinder of larger diameter essentially constitutes this system. In order to determine the characteristics of the resulting flow, we simulated the problem in the laboratory while studying the evolution of a free thermal plume generated by a disk heated uniformly by the Joule effect at a constant temperature. The thermal plume expands in a quiet environment of isotherm temperature. To study the thermosiphon effect, we surrounded the plume source by a vertical cylinder opened at the extremities. Thermal radiation emitted by the hot disk heats the cylinder wall. The pressure drop due to the acceleration of the flow at the cylinder inlet causes the appearance of thermosiphon effect around the thermal plume. The analysis of the average fields of velocity and temperature shows that the thermosiphon effect entails a good homogenization of the flow at the system exit. Furthermore, the comparison of the results obtained at the exit of the two studied systems shows a relative increase of the flow rate and the thermal power absorbed by the air of the order of 50% under the thermosiphon effect. This result is expressed by a gain in the plume rise of the order of 40%.

  20. Microbial Primary Productivity in Hydrothermal Vent Chimneys at Middle Valley, Juan de Fuca Ridge

    Olins, H. C.; Rogers, D.; Frank, K. L.; Girguis, P. R.; Vidoudez, C.

    2012-12-01

    Chemosynthetic primary productivity supports hydrothermal vent ecosystems, but the extent of that productivity has not been well measured. To examine the role that environmental temperature plays in controlling carbon fixation rates, and to assess the degree to which microbial community composition, in situ geochemistry, and mineralogy influence carbon fixation, we conducted a series of shipboard incubations across a range of temperatures (4, 25, 50 and 90°C) and at environmentally relevant geochemical conditions using material recovered from three hydrothermal vent chimneys in the Middle Valley hydrothermal vent field (Juan de Fuca Ridge). Net rates of carbon fixation (CFX) were greatest at lower temperatures, and were similar among structures. Rates did not correlate with the mineralogy or the geochemical composition of the high temperature fluids at each chimney. No obvious patterns of association were observed between carbon fixation rates and microbial community composition. Abundance of selected functional genes related to different carbon fixation pathway exhibited striking differences among the three study sites, but did not correlate with rates. Natural carbon isotope ratios implicate the Calvin Benson Bassham Cycle as the dominant mechanism of primary production in these systems, despite the abundance of genes related to other pathways (and presumably some degree of activity). Together these data reveal that primary productivity by endolithic communities does not exhibit much variation among these chimneys, and further reveal that microbial activity cannot easily be related to mineralogical and geochemical assessments that are made at a coarser scale. Indeed, the relationships between carbon fixation rates and community composition/functional gene abundance were also likely obfuscated by differences in scale at which these measurements were made. Regardless, these data reveal the degree to which endolithic, anaerobic carbon fixation contributes to

  1. Vallitalea pronyensis sp nova, isolated from a marine alkaline hydrothermal chimney

    Ben Aissa, F.; Postec, A.; Erauso, G.; Payri, Claude; Pelletier, Bernard; Hamdi, M.; Ollivier, Bernard; Fardeau, Marie-Laure

    2014-01-01

    A novel thermotolerant, anaerobic, Gram-stain-positive, spore-forming bacterium was isolated from a hydrothermal chimney in Prony Bay, New Caledonia. This strain, designated FatNl3(T), grew at 15-55 degrees C (optimum 30 degrees C) and at pH 5.8-8.9 (optimum 7.7). It was slightly halophilic, requiring at least 0.5% NaCl for growth (optimum 2.5-3.0 %), and was able to grow at up to 6% NaCl. Sulfate, thiosulfate, elemental sulfur, sulfite, nitrate and nitrite were not used as terminal electron ...

  2. Early Results of Chimney Technique for Type B Aortic Dissections Extending to the Aortic Arch

    ObjectiveTo summarize our early experience gained from the chimney technique for type B aortic dissection (TBAD) extending to the aortic arch and to evaluate the aortic remodeling in the follow-up period.MethodsFrom September 2011 to July 2014, 27 consecutive TBAD patients without adequate proximal landing zones were retrograde analyzed. Chimney stent-grafts were deployed parallel to the main endografts to reserve flow to branch vessels while extending the landing zones. In the follow-up period, aortic remodeling was observed with computed tomography angiography.ResultsThe technical success rate was 100 %, and endografts were deployed in zone 0 (n = 3, 11.1 %), zone 1 (n = 18, 66.7 %), and zone 2 (n = 6, 22.2 %). Immediately, proximal endoleaks were detected in 5 patients (18.5 %). During a mean follow-up period of 17.6 months, computed tomography angiography showed all the aortic stent-grafts and chimney grafts to be patent. Favorable remodeling was observed at the level of maximum descending aorta and left subclavian artery with expansion of true lumen (from 18.4 ± 4.8 to 25 ± 0.86 mm, p < 0.001 and 27.1 ± 0.62 to 28.5 ± 0.37 mm, p < 0.001) and depressurization of false lumen (from 23.7 ± 2.7 to 8.7 ± 3.8 mm, p < 0.001, from 5.3 ± 1.2 to 2.1 ± 2.1 mm, p < 0.001). While at the level of maximum abdominal aorta, suboptimal remodeling of the total aorta (from 24.1 ± 0.4 to 23.6 ± 1.5 mm, p = 0.06) and true lumen (from 13.8 ± 0.6 to 14.5 ± 0.4 mm, p = 0.08) was observed.ConclusionBased on our limited experience, the chimney technique with thoracic endovascular repair is demonstrated to be promising for TBAD extending to the arch with favorable aortic remodeling

  3. Retrieval columns of SO2 in industrial chimneys using DOAS passive in traverse

    Galicia Mejía, Rubén; de la Rosa Vázquez, José Manuel; Sosa Iglesias, Gustavo

    2011-10-01

    The optical Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) is a technique to measure pollutant emissions like SO2, from point sources and total fluxes in the atmosphere. Passive DOAS systems use sunlight like source. Measurements with such systems can be made in situ and in real time. The goal of this work is to report the implementation of hardware and software of a portable system to evaluate the pollutants emitted in the atmosphere by industrial chimneys. We show SO2 measurements obtained around PEMEX refinerys in Tula Hidalgo that enables the identification of their pollution degree with the knowledge of speed wind.

  4. Early Results of Chimney Technique for Type B Aortic Dissections Extending to the Aortic Arch

    Huang, Chen [Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, Department of General Surgery (China); Tang, Hanfei; Qiao, Tong; Liu, Changjian; Zhou, Min, E-mail: 813477618@qq.com [The Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Department of Vascular Surgery, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital (China)

    2016-01-15

    ObjectiveTo summarize our early experience gained from the chimney technique for type B aortic dissection (TBAD) extending to the aortic arch and to evaluate the aortic remodeling in the follow-up period.MethodsFrom September 2011 to July 2014, 27 consecutive TBAD patients without adequate proximal landing zones were retrograde analyzed. Chimney stent-grafts were deployed parallel to the main endografts to reserve flow to branch vessels while extending the landing zones. In the follow-up period, aortic remodeling was observed with computed tomography angiography.ResultsThe technical success rate was 100 %, and endografts were deployed in zone 0 (n = 3, 11.1 %), zone 1 (n = 18, 66.7 %), and zone 2 (n = 6, 22.2 %). Immediately, proximal endoleaks were detected in 5 patients (18.5 %). During a mean follow-up period of 17.6 months, computed tomography angiography showed all the aortic stent-grafts and chimney grafts to be patent. Favorable remodeling was observed at the level of maximum descending aorta and left subclavian artery with expansion of true lumen (from 18.4 ± 4.8 to 25 ± 0.86 mm, p < 0.001 and 27.1 ± 0.62 to 28.5 ± 0.37 mm, p < 0.001) and depressurization of false lumen (from 23.7 ± 2.7 to 8.7 ± 3.8 mm, p < 0.001, from 5.3 ± 1.2 to 2.1 ± 2.1 mm, p < 0.001). While at the level of maximum abdominal aorta, suboptimal remodeling of the total aorta (from 24.1 ± 0.4 to 23.6 ± 1.5 mm, p = 0.06) and true lumen (from 13.8 ± 0.6 to 14.5 ± 0.4 mm, p = 0.08) was observed.ConclusionBased on our limited experience, the chimney technique with thoracic endovascular repair is demonstrated to be promising for TBAD extending to the arch with favorable aortic remodeling.

  5. A novel large filamentous deltaproteobacterium on hydrothermally inactive sulfide chimneys of the Southern Mariana Trough

    Kato, Shingo; Yamagishi, Akihiko

    2016-04-01

    Unusual large filamentous bacteria (LFB) have been found on the deep seafloor environments. They play a significant role in geochemical cycling in the dark environments. However, our knowledge of the spatial distribution and phylogenetic diversity of the LFB on the deep seafloor are still limited due to the inaccessibility to these environments. Here, we report the discovery of a novel LFB on a hydrothermally inactive sulfide chimney in a deep-sea hydrothermal field of the Southern Mariana Trough. Light and electron microscopic observation showed that the width and total length of the LFB were >8 μm and >100 μm, respectively, of which morphology was similar to that of other known LFB such as "cable bacteria" of the Desulfobulbaceae. Analyses of a 16S rRNA gene clone library and fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that this LFB belongs to the Desulfobulbaceae. The 16S rRNA gene of the LFB showed 94% similarity to those of the reported cable bacteria and cultured deltaproteobacterial species, suggesting that the LFB is a novel cable bacterium of the Desulfobulbaceae. The novel LFB potentially play a role in sulfur cycling on sulfide chimneys at the hydrothermally ceasing or even ceased deep-sea hydrothermal fields.

  6. Gas chimney detection based on improving the performance of combined multilayer perceptron and support vector classifier

    H. Hashemi

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Seismic object detection is a relatively new field in which 3-D bodies are visualized and spatial relationships between objects of different origins are studied in order to extract geologic information. In this paper, we propose a method for finding an optimal classifier with the help of a statistical feature ranking technique and combining different classifiers. The method, which has general applicability, is demonstrated here on a gas chimney detection problem. First, we evaluate a set of input seismic attributes extracted at locations labeled by a human expert using regularized discriminant analysis (RDA. In order to find the RDA score for each seismic attribute, forward and backward search strategies are used. Subsequently, two non-linear classifiers: multilayer perceptron (MLP and support vector classifier (SVC are run on the ranked seismic attributes. Finally, to capitalize on the intrinsic differences between both classifiers, the MLP and SVC results are combined using logical rules of maximum, minimum and mean. The proposed method optimizes the ranked feature space size and yields the lowest classification error in the final combined result. We will show that the logical minimum reveals gas chimneys that exhibit both the softness of MLP and the resolution of SVC classifiers.

  7. Performance of digester decant system with biological filter followed by constructed wetland and solar reactor in the treatment of domestic sewage

    Delfran Batista dos Santos

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the performance of digester decant system with biological filter followed by constructed wetland and solar reactor in the treatment of domestic sewage from Milagres rural community in Apodi-RN. The treatment system was monitored for the period of October and November 2010, 48 days after planting Pennisetum purpureum Schumach. Samples of domestic sewage were collected at different stages of treatment, in four replications on time, to determine physicochemical and microbiological characteristics about the system performance. The results indicated significant removal of turbidity, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total solids, suspended solids, phosphorus and oil and grease using the set digester decant with biological filter, followed by constructed wetland and solar reactor; the association of average solar radiation of 28.73 MJ m-2 d-1, effluent depth of 0.10 m on reactor and time of sun exposure of 12 hours provided removal of fecal coliform up to 99.99% of domestic sewage in Apodi, RN, the treated effluent met microbiological standard of the Brazilian guidelines for agricultural use with restrictions.

  8. General Strategy to Construct Hierarchical TiO2 Nanorod Arrays coupling with Plasmonic Resonance for Dye-sensitized Solar Cells

    Graphical abstract: The general strategy reported here will offer a facile approach to improve the electron transfer process via the construction of HTNRs, and to further enhance the light harvesting of dye molecules by introduction of SPR effects. Display Omitted -- Abstract: We demonstrate a general strategy to construct hierarchical TiO2 nanorod arrays (HTNRs) coupling with plasmon resonant metallic nanoparticles for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). The electron transfer and interfacial recombination process have been optimized via the construction of photoanodes. Moreover, localized electric fields produced by the introduction of Au nanoparticles could excite dye molecules more effectively than the incident far-field light, resulting in further enhancement of light adsorption and photocurrent generation of DSCs. The synergistic effect of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and constructed HTNRs has been investigated by optical spectroscopy, J-V, IPCE, EIS and OCVD measurements. An evidently improvement in energy conversion efficiency of the devices beyond 25% has been achieved via the cooperation of constructed HTNRs and SPR effects in DSCs

  9. The Guaymas Basin Hiking Guide to Hydrothermal Mounds, Chimneys, and Microbial Mats: Complex Seafloor Expressions of Subsurface Hydrothermal Circulation

    Teske, Andreas; de Beer, Dirk; McKay, Luke J.; Margaret K. Tivey; Biddle, Jennifer F.; Hoer, Daniel; Lloyd, Karen G.; Lever, Mark A.; Røy, Hans; Albert, Daniel B.; Mendlovitz, Howard P.; MacGregor, Barbara J.

    2016-01-01

    The hydrothermal mats, mounds, and chimneys of the southern Guaymas Basin are the surface expression of complex subsurface hydrothermal circulation patterns. In this overview, we document the most frequently visited features of this hydrothermal area with photographs, temperature measurements, and selected geochemical data; many of these distinct habitats await characterization of their microbial communities and activities. Microprofiler deployments on microbial mats and hydrothermal sediment...

  10. Re-construction of global solar radiation time series from 1933 to 2013 at the Izaña Atmospheric Observatory

    R. D. García

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the re-construction of the 80 year time series of daily global shortwave downward radiation (SDR at the subtropical high-mountain Izaña Atmospheric Observatory (IZO, Spain. For this purpose, we combine SDR estimates from sunshine duration (SD data using the Ångström–Prescott method over the 1933/1991 period, and SDR observations directly performed by pyranometers between 1992 and 2013. Since SDR measurements have been used as a reference, a strict quality control has been applied, when it was not possible data have been re-calibrated by using the LibRadtran model. By comparing to high quality SDR measurements, the precision and consistency over time of SDR estimations from SD data have successfully been documented. We obtain a overall root mean square error (RMSE of 9.2% and an agreement between the variances of SDR estimations and SDR measurements within 92% (correlation coefficient of 0.96. Nonetheless, this agreement significantly increases when the SDR estimation is done considering different daily fractions of clear sky (FCS. In that case, RMSE is reduced by half, up to about 4.5%, when considering percentages of FCS > 40% (90% of days in the testing period. Furthermore, we prove that the SDR estimations can monitor the SDR anomalies in consistency with SDR measurements and, then, can be suitable for re-constructing solar radiation time series. The re-constructed IZO global SDR time series between 1933 and 2013 confirms discontinuities and periods of increases/decreases of solar radiation at Earth's surface observed at a global scale, such as the early brightening, dimming and brightening. This fact supports the consistency of the IZO SDR time series presented in this work, which may be a reference for solar radiation studies in the subtropical North Atlantic region.

  11. An exposition of the role of external base absorbent of solar energy with intelligent constructional structures with a view to reduction in energy use

    Samira Sadeghi Kelishadi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available There is no doubt that one of the most important challenges facing engineers and designers ofarchitectural design and engineering is indeed the problem of energy. It is inline with this trend of thought that energy can be seen as a critical elementwith a view to the enhancement of mans economical and social welfare and it isin the sphere of construction engineering that the need arises for the use ofthe appropriate construction material which can best serve this vital aim ofenergy conservation by using renewable energy sources such as solar energy. Itis therefore a foregone conclusion that the more we are capable of using solarenergy we are helping to conserve our other energy sources and thus help toreduce our overall energy consumption. It is with this view in mind thatconstruction engineers and those working in building design have aimed at usingsystems that can manage energy consumption within their constructionalstructures, having arrived at a point where their building designs can actuallybe termed intelligent or smart constructionalstructures, whereby the system asa whole is capable of using solar energy instead of the traditional fossilfuels. Yet that which makes possible the use of solar energy more so today thanever before is the use of external ducts, which are installed in places mostexposed to sunlight, and have the capability of changing color and becominglighter or darker as the state of exposure calls for is the use of a certaintype of smart glass within the built structure, that makes possible the mostefficient use of sunlight entering the building, having the capability ofchanging color in correlation to the amount of sunlight received and becominglighter or darker appropriately, allowing that quantity of sunlight to enter thebuilding as is needed to counteract the greenhouse effect which causes anuncontrolled increase of temperature within the built structure, and thusallowing the most efficient use of solar energy in keeping

  12. Construction of a SORCE-based Solar Spectral Irradiance (SSI) Record for Input into Chemistry Climate Models

    Harder, J. W.; Fontenla, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    We present a research program to produce a solar spectral irradiance (SSI) record suitable for whole atmosphere chemistry-climate model (CCM) transient studies over the 2001-2015 time period for Solar Cycle 23 and 24 (SC23-24). Climate simulations during this time period are particularly valuable because SC23-24 represents the best-observed solar cycle in history - both from the perspective of solar physics and in terms of Earth observation systems. This record will be based predominantly on the observed irradiance of the SORCE mission as measured by the SIM and SOLSTICE instruments from April of 2003 to the present time. The SSI data record for this proposed study requires very broad wavelength coverage (115-100000 nm), daily spectral coverage, compliance of the integrated SSI record with the TSI, and well-defined and documented uncertainty estimates. While the majority of the record will be derived from SORCE observations, extensions back to the SC23 maximum time period (early 2001) and closure of critical gaps in the SORCE record will be generated employing the Fontenla et al. (2015) Solar Radiation Physical Model (SRPMv2). Since SRPM is a physics-based model, estimates of the SSI for wavelengths outside the SORCE measurement range can be meaningfully included. This model now includes non-LTE contributions from metals in the atomic number range 22-28 (i.e. titanium through nickel) as well as important molecular photo-disassociation contributions from molecules such as NH, molecular hydrogen, CH, and OH led have led to greatly improved agreement between the model and the observed 0.1 nm SOLSTICE spectrum. Thus comparative studies of the SORCE observations with SRPMv2 provide meaningful insight into the nature of solar variability critical for subsequent Earth atmospheric modeling efforts.

  13. Prediction of Air Flow and Temperature Profiles Inside Convective Solar Dryer

    Marian Vintilă

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Solar tray drying is an effective alternative for post-harvest processing of fruits and vegetables. Product quality and uniformity of the desired final moisture content are affected by the uneven air flow and temperature distribution inside the drying chamber. The purpose of this study is to numerically evaluate the operation parameters of a new indirect solar dryer having an appropriate design based on thermal uniformity inside the drying chamber, low construction costs and easy accessibility to resources needed for manufacture. The research was focused on both the investigation of different operation conditions and analysis of the influence of the damper position, which is incorporated into the chimney, on the internal cabinet temperature and air flow distribution. Numerical simulation was carried out with Comsol Multiphysics CFD commercial code using a reduced 2D domain model by neglecting any end effects from the side walls. The analysis of the coupled thermal-fluid model provided the velocity field, pressure distribution and temperature distribution in the solar collector and in the drying chamber when the damper was totally closed, half open and fully open and for different operation conditions. The predicted results were compared with measurements taken in-situ. With progressing computing power, it is conceivable that CFD will continue to provide explanations for more fluid flow, heat and mass transfer phenomena, leading to better equipment design and process control for the food industry.

  14. The Guaymas Basin Hiking Guide to Hydrothermal Mounds, Chimneys, and Microbial Mats

    Teske, Andreas; de Beer, Dirk; McKay, Luke J; Tivey, Margaret K; Biddle, Jennifer F; Hoer, Daniel; Lloyd, Karen G; Lever, Mark A; Røy, Hans; Albert, Daniel B; Mendlovitz, Howard P; MacGregor, Barbara J

    2016-01-01

    The hydrothermal mats, mounds, and chimneys of the southern Guaymas Basin are the surface expression of complex subsurface hydrothermal circulation patterns. In this overview, we document the most frequently visited features of this hydrothermal area with photographs, temperature measurements, and...... selected geochemical data; many of these distinct habitats await characterization of their microbial communities and activities. Microprofiler deployments on microbial mats and hydrothermal sediments show their steep geochemical and thermal gradients at millimeter-scale vertical resolution. Mapping these...... hydrothermal features and sampling locations within the southern Guaymas Basin suggest linkages to underlying shallow sills and heat flow gradients. Recognizing the inherent spatial limitations of much current Guaymas Basin sampling calls for comprehensive surveys of the wider spreading region....

  15. Efficiency enhancement of wood stove integrated with catalytic combustor and modified chimney

    G. Murali

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Domestic wood combustion produces smoke that is harmful to human health and increases fine particle level in the atmosphere. Some necessary changes in the design are essential in the domestic wood stove in order to improve the performance and scale down the emission. In this work, an improved wood stove integrated with the catalytic combustor and modified chimney that uses wood as fuel has been experimentally evaluated. Water boiling test, cooking test and emission test have been conducted to evaluate the performance of the stove. It was observed that emission has been considerably controlled because of the incorporation of catalytic combustor. The heat losses through the walls of stove decresed by providing ceramic insulation. The thermal efficiency value of an improved wood stove obtained was 41.18% and this is 31.52% higher than traditional stove. The improved wood stove results better performance than a traditional wood stove.

  16. Survey of new forms of organization and financing constructions in the Dutch solar electricity market. Update 2011

    In the title project the focus is on organizations and projects in the Dutch market for solar electricity, characterized by: minimal dependence on subsidies (state aid), the removal of high initial investments by users (financing), and structures that can easily be extended or replicated (scale)

  17. Mackinawite and greigite in ancient alkaline hydrothermal chimneys: Identifying potential key catalysts for emergent life

    White, Lauren M.; Bhartia, Rohit; Stucky, Galen D.; Kanik, Isik; Russell, Michael J.

    2015-11-01

    One model for the emergence of life posits that ancient, low temperature, submarine alkaline hydrothermal vents, partly composed of iron-sulfides, were capable of catalyzing the synthesis of prebiotic organic molecules from CO2, H2 and CH4. Specifically, hydrothermal mackinawite (FeIIS) and greigite (FeIIFeIII2S4) have been highlighted in previous studies as analogs of the active centers of hydrogenase, ferredoxin, acetyl coenzyme-A synthase and carbon monoxide dehydrogenase featured in the biochemistry of certain autotrophic prokaryotes that occupy the base of the evolutionary tree. Despite the proposed importance of iron sulfide minerals and clusters in the synthesis of abiotic organic molecules, the mechanisms for the formation of these sulfides from solution and their preservation under the anoxic and low temperature (below 100 °C) conditions expected in off-axis submarine alkaline vent systems is not well understood (Bourdoiseau et al., 2011; Rickard and Luther, 2007). To rectify this, single hydrothermal chimneys were precipitated using a unique apparatus to simulate growth at hydrothermal vents of moderate temperature under supposed Hadean ocean-bottom conditions. Iron sulfide phases were observed through Raman spectroscopy at growth temperatures ranging from 40° to 80 °C. Fe(III)-containing mackinawite is confirmed to be present with mackinawite and greigite, supporting an FeIII-mackinawite intermediate mechanism for the transformation of mackinawite to greigite below 100 °C. Raman spectroscopy of the chimneys revealed a maximum yield of greigite at 75 °C. These results suggest abiotic production of catalytically active mackinawite and greigite are possible under early Earth hydrothermal conditions as well as on other wet, rocky worlds geochemically similar to the Earth.

  18. Origin of pockmarks and chimney structures on the flanks of the Storegga Slide, offshore Norway

    Paull, C.K.; Ussler, W., III; Holbrook, W.S.; Hill, T.M.; Keaten, R.; Mienert, J.; Haflidason, H.; Johnson, J.E.; Winters, W.J.; Lorenson, T.D.

    2008-01-01

    Seafloor pockmarks and subsurface chimney structures are common on the Norwegian continental margin north of the Storegga Slide scar. Such features are generally inferred to be associated with fluid expulsion, and imply overpressures in the subsurface. Six long gravity and piston cores taken from the interior of three pockmarks were compared with four other cores taken from the same area but outside the pockmarks, in order to elucidate the origins and stratigraphy of these features and their possible association with the Storegga Slide event. Sulfate gradients in cores from within pockmarks are less steep than those in cores from outside the pockmarks, which indicates that the flux of methane to the seafloor is presently smaller within the pockmarks than in the adjacent undisturbed sediments. This suggests that these subsurface chimneys are not fluid flow conduits lined with gas hydrate. Methane-derived authigenic carbonates and Bathymodiolus shells obtained from a pockmark at >6.3 m below the seafloor indicate that methane was previously available to support a chemosynthetic community within the pockmark. AMS 14C measurements of planktonic Foraminifera overlying and interlayered with the shell-bearing sediment indicate that methane was present on the seafloor within the pockmark prior to 14 ka 14C years B.P., i.e., well before the last major Storegga Slide event (7.2 ka 14C years B.P., or 8.2 ka calendar years B.P.). These observations provide evidence that overpressured fluids existed within the continental margin sediments off Norway during the last major advance of Pleistocene glaciation. ?? Springer-Verlag 2007.

  19. Metal sources of black smoker chimneys, Endeavour Segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge: Pb isotope constraints

    Yao Huiqiang, E-mail: hqyao11@yahoo.com [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou 510640 (China); National Key Lab of Marine Geology, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhou Huaiyang, E-mail: zhouhy@tongji.edu.cn [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou 510640 (China); National Key Lab of Marine Geology, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Peng Xiaotong [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou 510640 (China); National Key Lab of Marine Geology, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Bao Shenxu [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou 510640 (China); National Key Lab of Marine Geology, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wu Zijun; Li Jiangtao [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou 510640 (China); National Key Lab of Marine Geology, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Sun Zhilei; Chen Zhiqiang; Li Jiwei [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou 510640 (China); National Key Lab of Marine Geology, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Chen Guangqian [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2009-10-15

    Hydrothermal chimney sulfides, vent cap chimney samples, Fe-oxide and basalts from sediment-starving Juan de Fuca Ridge, in the Endeavour segment, exhibit a range of Pb isotope ratios ({sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb = 18.658-18.769; {sup 207}Pb/{sup 204}Pb = 15.457-15.566; {sup 208}Pb/{sup 204}Pb = 37.810-38.276). The data array is not parallel to the northern hemisphere mantle reservoirs indicating a possible sediment component within the sulfides. By assuming that the potential end-member sediment component has a {sup 207}Pb/{sup 204}Pb (15.70) similar to Middle Valley sediment, it is suggested the potential end-member sediment component may have {sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb = 18.90; {sup 208}Pb/{sup 204}Pb = 38.82. Basalt-derived Pb for the Endeavour segment hydrothermal system involves about 50/50 leaching of E-MORB and T2-MORB. Detailed observations show the Mothra field derives more Pb from T2-MORB than the Main Endeavour field does. According to the binary mixing model, the results show little Pb (<1.5%) or no Pb derivation from sedimentary sources. However, the high NH{sub 4}{sup +}, CH{sub 4} and Br/Cl ratios in hydrothermal fluids are consistent with a sediment component within the segment. Reconciling the Pb isotope data with the chemistry data of hydrothermal fluids, it is suggested that the sediment component may be located in a lower temperature recharge zone where Pb could not be mobilized from the sediment.

  20. Automating the Solar DRYER—AIRFLOW Control Utilizing Pressure Diffrence Concept

    Luk, T. B.; Vakhguelt, A.

    2009-08-01

    The presence of a chimney in natural convective solar dryer has proven its benefit in accelerated transport of moist air from the drying compartment and thus shortening the drying time for intended crops. The experiment and simulation studies done by various parties have guaranteed increases in the airflow in relation to the physical height of chimney. A simple automated control system is proposed to assist the controls of airflow rate so that a near optimum mass flow rate could be achieved for the best possible dried product quality in the shortest possible drying period.

  1. The influence of certain astronomical and constructive parameters on the concentration of solar radiation with plane heliostats fields

    Bădescu, V.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper, we present the influence of some astronomical and constructive parameters on the HFT working. The astronomical parameters are : (1) hour and (2) day. The constructive parameters are : (3, 4) the east-west and north-south distances between heliostats, (5) the mirror size, (6) the tower height, (7) the distance between the tower and the heliostats field. The HFT working is analysed from three points of view : (i) the mirrors orientation, (ii) the heliostats optical performances a...

  2. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction for the decontamination and closure of the 183-H Solar Evaporation Basins

    A Notice of Construction (NOC) is required by the Washington State Department of Health (DOH), pursuant to Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247-060, for any proposed construction or modification of an existing registered or unregistered emissions unit. The following document is the NOC application to be submitted to the DOH for the establishment of a new environmental analytical laboratory at the 100-N Area on the Hanford Site. The environmental analytical laboratory will contain a radioactive air emissions unit

  3. Pretty sporty - the swimming hall Biberach. Transparent construction uses solar yields; Ganz schoen sportlich - das Hallensportbad Biberach. Transparente Bauweise nutzt solare Gewinne

    Paulsen, Dagmar

    2011-07-01

    The expressive, dynamic design of the swimming hall Biberach (Federal Republic of Germany) symbolizes sporting character already outside. Inside, fresh colors create a friendly atmosphere. The focus of the planning realized by 4a Architekten (Stuttgart, Federal Republic of Germany) was a high design quality and an economic construction. The swimming hall was optimized according to ecological, economic and social aspects which ensures the sustainable operation and also enabled the compliance of a tight budget.

  4. Conserving gallons and kilowatts. Challenges of today's solar power plants. An EPC (Engineering, Procurement and Construction) perspective

    Shoemaker, Jeanette [Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating Facility, CA (United States); Bechtel Power Corp., Frederick, MD (United States); Huth, Christopher; Sinha, Kumar [Bechtel Power Corp., Frederick, MD (United States)

    2013-03-15

    With the increasing restrictions on CO2 emissions, the utilization of solar power is emerging as an effective way to increase the renewable portfolio for utility power. For example in California, the utilities' current renewable portfolios must increase from 20% to 33% by 2020. This drive has made renewable power considerably more desirable. However, fresh water availability and optimal solar irradiation are generally two mutually exclusive local characteristics that make locating and designing these plants challenging. Not only is fresh water scarce at the desert locations where these solar plants are generally located, but options for disposal of wastewater can be very limited as well. These factors have pushed the design of these plants to develop a fine balance between conserving and reusing water to the greatest extent practical and reducing parasitic electrical loads. This paper addresses the challenges associated with developing solar power plant designs that optimize house electrical load while minimizing water footprint. Through the implementation of operational water management techniques and optimized water treatment processes, water usage can be reduced to manageable levels. Utilizing systems that recover and recycle wastewater, the system can be further optimized to reduce the overall water footprint. Case studies are presented for multiple sites detailing the individual optimization required based on the water quality provided. Lessons learned during plant siting and permitting are provided to shed light on the current issues associated with wastewater disposal in these areas and utilization of evaporation ponds. In addition, various design philosophies are discussed to guide the reader through the difficulties of determining the right mix of initial capital cost, optimized water usage, minimized operating cost and minimized parasitic electrical load. (orig.)

  5. Experimental characterization of the thermal and solar behavior of constructed houses; Caracterizacion experimental del comportamiento termico y solar de viviendas construidas

    Carrillo, A.; Jurado, L.; Molina, J. C.; Druet, L.

    2008-07-01

    Nowadays, detailed simulation models are widely used to assess thermal performance of buildings, specially during the design stage. However it is usual to report significant differences in predicted thermal performance when confronted with measured data. Therefore the model should be calibrated. In this paper, the PSTAR framework (Subbarao, 1988) is used to calibrate a Energy Plus model of a single-family dwelling. PSTAR method yields a set of renormalization coefficients that offer quantitative interpretation of the predicted vs measured differences. Other experimental tests are used to gain additional insight on how the model should be twicked judiciously. Once calibrated, the model matches three important thermal parameters of the real buildings: heat loss coefficient, thermal mass and solar gains. (Author)

  6. Endovascular Aneurysm Repair Using a Reverse Chimney Technique in a Patient With Marfan Syndrome and Contained Ruptured Chronic Type B Dissection

    We report endovascular thoracic and abdominal aneurysm repair (EVAR) with reverse chimney technique in a patient with contained ruptured type B dissection. EVAR seems feasible as a bailout option in Marfan patients with acute life-threatening disease.

  7. Solar-optimized building construction. TC3: Solar-optimized new building ECOTEC 1 and 2: Construction of a new office and laboratory building in two stages, optimised according to solar, energetic and ecological aspects. Phase 1: Projecting, construction and system optimisation. Final report; Solaroptimiertes Bauen. TK 3: Solaroptimierter Neubau ECOTEC 1 und 2: Neubau eines Buero und Laborgebaeudes in zwei Bauabschnitten, optimiert nach solaren, energetischen und oekologischen Gesichtspunkten. Phase 1: Planung, Bauausfuehrung und Systemoptimierung. Schlussbericht

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The two ECOTEC buildings are constructed on the premises of Bremen university. They are identical mirror buildings with optimised solar technology and heat pumps to reduce the dependence on external energy supply. The results achieved so far are promising. [German] Im Mittelpunkt des Vorhabens stand die Errichtung der solaroptimierten Niedrigenergie-Gebaeude ECOTEC in zwei Bauabschnitten gleichem, aber spiegelverkehrtem Grundrissen auf dem Gelaende des Technologieparks der Universitaet Bremen. Das Planungskonzept sah zur Reduktion des Fremdenergiebedarfs den optimierten Einsatz und die Kopplung von Solarenergie, Waermepumpe ueber die Gebaeudeleittechnik vor. Basis fuer alle Berechnungen und Planungen war der Niedrigenergiestandard, der durch erhoehte Waermedaemmung der Gebaeudehuelle, kontrollierte Lueftung, solartechnische Module und solararchitektonische Merkmale erreicht und sogar ueberschritten wurde. Durch den gezielten Einsatz der Gebaeudeleit- und -systemtechnik wird ein energiesparender Betrieb insbesondere der Gebaeudebeheizung, der Lueftungsanlage sowie der Beleuchtung schon in der Planungsphase vorbereitet. Zusammenfassend laesst sich feststellen, dass das entwickelte Technikkonzept nach erfolgter Abstimmung mit den Nutzerbeduerfnissen geringste Energieverbraeuche bei sehr gutem Komfort bietet. (orig.)

  8. Soil-Structure Interaction Analysis of Tall Reinforced Concrete Chimney with Piled Raft and Annular Raft under Along-Wind Load

    B. R. Jayalekshmi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional (3D soil-structure interaction (SSI analysis of 300 m high reinforced concrete chimneys having piled annular raft and annular raft foundations subjected to along-wind load is carried out in the present study. To understand the significance of SSI, four types of soils were considered based on their flexibility. The effect of stiffness of the raft was evaluated using three different ratios of external diameter to thickness of the annular raft. The along-wind load was computed according to IS:4998 (Part 1-1992. The integrated chimney-foundation-soil system was analysed by commercial finite element (FE software ANSYS, based on direct method of SSI assuming linear elastic behaviour. FE analyses were carried out for two cases of SSI (I chimney with annular raft foundation and (II chimney with piled raft foundation. The responses in chimney such as tip deflection, bending moments, and base moment and responses in raft such as bending moments and settlements were evaluated for both cases and compared to that obtained from the conventional method of analysis. It is found that the responses in chimney and raft depend on the flexibility of the underlying soil and thickness of the raft.

  9. Magnetite formation from ferrihydrite by hyperthermophilic archaea from Endeavour Segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge hydrothermal vent chimneys.

    Lin, T Jennifer; Breves, E A; Dyar, M D; Ver Eecke, H C; Jamieson, J W; Holden, J F

    2014-05-01

    Hyperthermophilic iron reducers are common in hydrothermal chimneys found along the Endeavour Segment in the northeastern Pacific Ocean based on culture-dependent estimates. However, information on the availability of Fe(III) (oxyhydr) oxides within these chimneys, the types of Fe(III) (oxyhydr) oxides utilized by the organisms, rates and environmental constraints of hyperthermophilic iron reduction, and mineral end products is needed to determine their biogeochemical significance and are addressed in this study. Thin-section petrography on the interior of a hydrothermal chimney from the Dante edifice at Endeavour showed a thin coat of Fe(III) (oxyhydr) oxide associated with amorphous silica on the exposed outer surfaces of pyrrhotite, sphalerite, and chalcopyrite in pore spaces, along with anhydrite precipitation in the pores that is indicative of seawater ingress. The iron sulfide minerals were likely oxidized to Fe(III) (oxyhydr) oxide with increasing pH and Eh due to cooling and seawater exposure, providing reactants for bioreduction. Culture-dependent estimates of hyperthermophilic iron reducer abundances in this sample were 1740 and 10 cells per gram (dry weight) of material from the outer surface and the marcasite-sphalerite-rich interior, respectively. Two hyperthermophilic iron reducers, Hyperthermus sp. Ro04 and Pyrodictium sp. Su06, were isolated from other active hydrothermal chimneys on the Endeavour Segment. Strain Ro04 is a neutrophilic (pH opt 7-8) heterotroph, while strain Su06 is a mildly acidophilic (pH opt 5), hydrogenotrophic autotroph, both with optimal growth temperatures of 90-92 °C. Mössbauer spectroscopy of the iron oxides before and after growth demonstrated that both organisms form nanophase (hydrothermal systems that are mildly acidic where mineral weathering at increased temperatures occurs. PMID:24612368

  10. 某加热炉烟囱深基坑支护难点及对策%Difficulties and Solutions in the Deep Foundation Excavation Retaining for a Heating Furnace Chimney

    唐川

    2012-01-01

    A chimney foundation consists of two heating furnace chimney foundations. The depth of soil excavation reaches about 9.9 meters. The foundation is adjacent to a road with dynamic load of 600kN. And the foundation construction was during the rainy season of Shanghai, which causes extra danger to the excavation. This paper analyzes the key technology and construction difficulties of the engineering. The SMW method was used in combination with bracings, which successfully ensures the excavation safety and avoided any influence to the road traffic. This paper also analyzes the construction difficulties and compares different solutions.%某烟囱基础由2座加热炉烟囱基础组成,土方开挖深度达9.9m.基础紧邻道路,道路动荷载达600kN,同时基坑开挖正赶上上海的梅雨季节,基坑开挖过程中对安全十分不利.针对深基坑支护这一课题,分析了该工程的关键技术及难点,选择了SMW工法与斜撑结合的方案,实现既不影响深基坑安全,又不影响道路通行的目标.同时对加热烟囱深基坑施工的难点和对策进行了分析对比.

  11. Dioxin emissions from coal combustion in domestic stove: Formation in the chimney and coal chlorine content influence

    Paradiz Bostjan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Combustion experiments conducted in domestic stove burning hard coal demonstrated a predominant influence of the coal chlorine content on the PCDD/F emissions, together with a pronounced effect of the flue gas temperature. PCDD/F concentrations of over 100 ng TEQ/m3, three orders of magnitude higher than in a modern waste incinerator, were measured in the flue gases of a domestic stove when combusting high chlorine coal (0.31 %. The PCDD/F concentrations in the flue gases dropped below 0,5 ng TEQ/m3, when low chlorine coal (0.07 % was used. When low chlorine coal was impregnated with NaCl to obtain 0.38 % chlorine content, the emission of the PCDD/Fs increased by two orders of magnitude. Pronounced nonlinearity of the PCDD/F concentrations related to chlorine content in the coal was observed. The combustion of the high chlorine coal yielded PCDD/F concentrations in flue gases one order of magnitude lower in a fan cooled chimney when compared to an insulated one, thus indicating formation in the chimney. The influence of flue gas temperature on the PCDD/F emissions was less pronounced when burning low chlorine coal. The predominant pathway of the PCDD/F emissions is via flue gases, 99 % of the TEQ in the case of the high chlorine coal for insulated chimney.

  12. Boat, driven by solar energy, muscle power and by using the windows in a tent construction as sail; Boot, voortbewogen door zonne-energie, spierkracht en door het gebruik als zeil van ramen van een tentopbouw

    Husslage, J.

    1995-11-01

    The title invention concerns a boat or a vehicle on wheels with options to drive the vehicle by means of solar energy, wind energy and muscle power of arms and legs. The framed sail can be brought into a position out of the wind and can also be applied as a construction part of a tent in the form of a wall or a window (transparent). The functions of the solar energy and the wind energy receivers and the construction part of the tent are integrated in a supporting framework with rotation and fold up possibilities. 9 figs.

  13. Biological construction of single-walled carbon nanotube electron transfer pathways in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Inoue, Ippei; Watanabe, Kiyoshi; Yamauchi, Hirofumi; Ishikawa, Yasuaki; Yasueda, Hisashi; Uraoka, Yukiharu; Yamashita, Ichiro

    2014-10-01

    We designed and mass-produced a versatile protein supramolecule that can be used to manufacture a highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). Twelve single-walled carbon-nanotube (SWNT)-binding and titanium-mineralizing peptides were genetically integrated on a cage-shaped dodecamer protein (CDT1). A process involving simple mixing of highly conductive SWNTs with CDT1 followed by TiO2 biomineralization produces a high surface-area/weight TiO2 -(anatase)-coated intact SWNT nanocomposite under environmentally friendly conditions. A DSSC with a TiO2 photoelectrode containing 0.2 wt % of the SWNT-TiO2 nanocomposite shows a current density improvement by 80% and a doubling of the photoelectric conversion efficiency. The SWNT-TiO2 nanocomposite transfers photon-generated electrons from dye molecules adsorbed on the TiO2 to the anode electrode swiftly. PMID:25111295

  14. Hydrothermal pyrite chimneys from the Ballynoe baryte deposit, Silvermines, County Tipperary, Ireland

    Larter, R. C. L.; Boyce, A. J.; Russell, M. J.

    1981-08-01

    We report the discovery of pyrite tubes 0.1 to 20mm in diameter in the Ballynoe sedimentary baryte deposit. Well developed tubes comprise concentric layers of pyrite of contrasting crystal sizes 0.05 to 1 mm thick. An outer rim of crystalline baryte ⪕ 10mm thick commonly coats the tubes where these are not touching. The central canals contain myriad pyrite framboids. These tubes have characteristics in common with the chimney spires found on the East Pacific Rise at 21°N from which metal bearing solutions issue at temperatures of up to 380±30°C. Their presence carries the implication that the baryte deposit was not a distal facies of the Silvermines sedimentary pyritic zinc and lead ore, but was produced from local hydrothermal exhalations, though in a shallower part of the basin than the coeval sulphide deposits which had their own feeders. Some epigenetic mineralization may be awaiting discovery beneath the feeder sites at Ballynoe.

  15. Solar housing construction. Thousands of solar cells form the facade of a living project for homeless people in Paris; Solarer Wohnungsbau. Tausende von Solarzellen bilden die Fassade eines Wohnprojekts fuer Obdachlose in Paris

    Korn, Stefan

    2013-02-15

    A house on the banks of the historic channel Saint Martin in Paris in the elegant tenth arrondissement attracts attention: An emerald-colored solar facade extends from the roof to the ground floor between town palaces. But the spectacular front of the building does not cover luxury condominiums for the Parisian upper class, but a social housing project for families in need.

  16. 33 CFR 165.T01-0176 - Regulated Navigation Area; Lake Champlain Bridge Construction, Crown Point, New York and Chimney...

    2010-07-01

    .... (b) Regulations. In addition to 33 CFR 165.10, 165.11, and 165.13, the following restrictions or... these events, the COTP will give notice by all appropriate means to ensure the widest publicity...

  17. U-Th systematics and 230Th ages of carbonate chimneys at the Lost City Hydrothermal Field

    Ludwig, Kristin A.; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Kelley, Deborah S.; Cheng, Hai; Edwards, R. Lawrence

    2011-04-01

    The Lost City Hydrothermal Field (LCHF) is a serpentinite-hosted vent field located 15 km west of the spreading axis of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. In this study, uranium-thorium (U-Th) geochronological techniques have been used to examine the U-Th systematics of hydrothermal fluids and the 230Th ages of hydrothermally-precipitated carbonate chimneys at the LCHF. Fluid sample analyses indicate that endmember fluids likely contain only 0.0073 ng/g U or less compared to 3.28 ± 0.03 ng/g of U in ambient seawater. For fluid samples containing only 2-21% ambient seawater (1.1-11 mmol/kg Mg), Th concentration is 0.11-0.13 pg/g and surrounding seawater concentrations average 0.133 ± 0.016 pg/g. The 230Th/ 232Th atomic ratios of the vent fluids range from 1 (±10) × 10 -6 to 11 (±5) × 10 -6, are less than those of seawater, and indicate that the vent fluids may contribute a minor amount of non-radiogenic 230Th to the LCHF carbonate chimney deposits. Chimney 238U concentrations range from 1 to 10 μg/g and the average chimney corrected initial δ 234U is 147.2 ± 0.8, which is not significantly different from the ambient seawater value of 146.5 ± 0.6. Carbonate 232Th concentrations range broadly from 0.0038 ± 0.0003 to 125 ± 16 ng/g and 230Th/ 232Th atomic ratios vary from near seawater values of 43 (±8) × 10 -6 up to 530 (±25) × 10 -3. Chimney ages, corrected for initial 230Th, range from 17 ± 6 yrs to 120 ± 13 kyrs. The youngest chimneys are at the intersection of two active, steeply-dipping normal faults that cut the Atlantis Massif; the oldest chimneys are located in the southwest portion of the field. Vent deposits on a steep, fault-bounded wall on the east side of the field are all <4 kyrs old, indicating that mass wasting in this region is relatively recent. Comparison of results to prior age-dating investigations of submarine hydrothermal systems shows that the LCHF is the most long-lived hydrothermal system known to date. It is likely that seismic

  18. Construction and characteristics of tandem organic solar cells featuring small molecule-based films on polymer-based subcells

    In this study, we stacked a small molecule-based cell onto another polymer-based device to fabricate a tandem organic solar cell that extended the absorption range of the entire cell over a wider spectral range. Between the two subcells, we positioned a connecting structure comprising layers of Cs2CO3, Ag and MoO3. Current matching phenomena played an important role in determining the device efficiency. The judicious selection of subcells exhibiting superior current matching improved the performance of the tandem cell. Indeed, in the optimally performing tandem cells we obtained both a high open-circuit voltage (1.21 V) and an improved power conversion efficiency (1.81%). From analyses of the surface morphology and transmission spectra of the middle Ag layers, we deduced that the main function of this film was to provide more sites for efficient recombination of holes and electrons. The thickness of this layer was limited by its transmittance. A thinner Ag layer allowed more light to be harvested by the top cell, increasing the overall performance of the tandem cell.

  19. The thermal performances of a solar wall

    In this paper, the computational fluid dynamics technique (CFD) was used for air flow simulation in the solar chimney. The flow is assumed laminar, unsteady and incompressible. The air flow model consisted of a system of governing equations continuity, momentum, energy are solved for 2D Cartesian system uses the SIMPLE algorithm and the Power–Law differencing scheme. The influence of the variation depth of the solar chimney on the thermal efficiency of the system was studies. The principle of functioning of the system is visualized. The temperatures obtained on the level of the zone of occupation are adaptable to the interval of thermal comfort. The results of simulation are congruent with those of the literature. -- Highlights: ► The present work consists of the modilisation of the natural convection flow in a room heated by the technique of a ventilated Trombe wall. ► The use of solar energy consists in profiting from the direct contribution of the solar radiation. ► With vented thermal storage walls, the vents can provide an important control mechanism both in heating and cooling the building. ► The results obtained for the area of Bechar seem interesting, which makes it possible to do much energy saving.

  20. Microbial carbon cycling in Lost City hydrothermal chimneys and other serpentinite-hosted ecosystems (Invited)

    Brazelton, W. J.; Lang, S. Q.; Morrill, P. L.; Twing, K. I.; Crespo-Medina, M.; Morgan-Smith, D.; Früh-Green, G. L.; Schrenk, M. O.

    2013-12-01

    Ultramafic rocks formed in the Earth's mantle and uplifted into the crust represent an immense but poorly described reservoir of carbon. The biological availability of this rock-hosted carbon reservoir is unknown, but the set of geochemical reactions known as serpentinization can mobilize carbon from the subsurface and trigger the growth of dense microbial communities. Serpentinite-hosted ecosystems such as the chimney biofilms of the Lost City hydrothermal field can support dense populations of bacteria and archaea fueled by the copious quantities of H2 and methane (CH4) released by serpentinization (1-5). The metabolic pathways involved, however, remain unknown, and conventional interpretations of genomic and experimental data are complicated by the unusual carbon speciation in these environments. Carbon dioxide is scarce due to the highly reducing, high pH conditions. Instead, the predominant forms of carbon are CH4 and formate (5). Despite its natural abundance, however, direct evidence for CH4-derived biomass is lacking (1,4,5), and the role of formate is potentially significant but largely unexplored (1,5). To gain a more generalized perspective of carbon cycling in serpentinite-hosted ecosystems, we have recently investigated fluids and rocks collected from serpentinizing ophiolites in California, Canada, and Italy. Our results point to potentially H2-utilizing, autotrophic Betaproteobacteria thriving in shallow, oxic-anoxic transition zones and anaerobic Clostridia inhabiting anoxic, subsurface zones (1,6). The carbon sources utilized by the Clostridia are unknown, but preliminary metagenomic evidence is consistent with a fermentation-style metabolic strategy that may be conducive to an oxidant-limited, subsurface environment. Curiously, despite the abundance of H2 and CH4 in these continental springs, none of the geochemical, genomic, or experimental results obtained thus far contain any evidence for biological methanogenesis (1,6). This is in stark

  1. Design of a solar updraft tower power plant for pakistan and its simulation in transys

    Solar updraft tower is a distinct and novel combination of three old concepts that are green house effect, chimney effect and wind turbine. It can be employed, with almost negligible maintenance cost, in electricity generation. Given the different climatic and economical conditions for different places, every region demands a specific design. As solar chimney power plant is a relatively new technology, much effort has not been done in evaluating the performances of the various plants. In this context, a solar updraft tower has been designed for the conditions of Pakistan (Lahore) and is simulated in TRNSYS to analyze the plant performance through different seasons and time of the year. The study reveals important results about the factors involved in determining the final output power produced. It is observed that the solar irradiance plays a more significant role in power generation than ambient temperature. The more the capacity of a plant to produce power, the more economical it would be. TRNSYS based program is presumed to be a handy mode of examining solar chimney power plants. (author)

  2. Vallitalea pronyensis sp. nov., isolated from a marine alkaline hydrothermal chimney.

    Ben Aissa, Fatma; Postec, Anne; Erauso, Gaël; Payri, Claude; Pelletier, Bernard; Hamdi, Moktar; Ollivier, Bernard; Fardeau, Marie-Laure

    2014-04-01

    A novel thermotolerant, anaerobic, Gram-stain-positive, spore-forming bacterium was isolated from a hydrothermal chimney in Prony Bay, New Caledonia. This strain, designated FatNI3(T), grew at 15-55 °C (optimum 30 °C) and at pH 5.8-8.9 (optimum 7.7). It was slightly halophilic, requiring at least 0.5 % NaCl for growth (optimum 2.5-3.0 %), and was able to grow at up to 6 % NaCl. Sulfate, thiosulfate, elemental sulfur, sulfite, nitrate and nitrite were not used as terminal electron acceptors. Growth of strain FatNI3(T) was inhibited in the presence of sulfite (2 mM) or nitrite (2 mM). Strain FatNI3(T) fermented cellobiose, glucose, mannose, maltose, sucrose, galactose, lactose, ribose, fructose, rhamnose, raffinose, xylose, yeast extract, peptone and biotrypticase. The main fermentation products from glucose metabolism were acetate, ethanol, H2 and CO2. The predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0 and anteiso-C15 : 0. The main polar lipids consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, and unknown glycolipids and phospholipids. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 36.6 mol%. On the basis of phylogenetic and physiological properties, strain FatNI3(T) ( = DSM 25904 = JCM 18391) belonging to the phylum Firmicutes, class Clostridia, order Clostridiales, is proposed as the type strain of a novel species of the genus Vallitalea, for which the name Vallitalea pronyensis sp. nov. is proposed. PMID:24408522

  3. Solar Energy Systems

    1984-01-01

    Calibrated in kilowatt hours per square meter, the solar counter produced by Dodge Products, Inc. provides a numerical count of the solar energy that has accumulated on a surface. Solar energy sensing, measuring and recording devices in corporate solar cell technology developed by Lewis Research Center. Customers for their various devices include architects, engineers and others engaged in construction and operation of solar energy facilities; manufacturers of solar systems or solar related products, such as glare reducing windows; and solar energy planners in federal and state government agencies.

  4. Numerical investigation on the enhancement capability of annular chimney towards natural convective heat transfer in the interior zone of scaled down FBR core catcher

    Full text of publication follows: A numerical study has been carried out to determine the influence of annular cylindrical chimney on buoyancy-induced flow in the dished end cavity of scaled down Fast Breeder Reactor. Results are presented for (i) cylindrical chimney configuration and (ii) annular chimney configuration occupying the center of the circular plate. Two dimensional laminar simulations are obtained by solving the fully elliptical governing equations of flow and energy. The fluid is Newtonian and incompressible and satisfies the Boussinesq approximation. Results for the upward facing isothermal circular plate with chimney configurations in confined enclosure are analyzed. The velocity fields and isotherms are studied extensively to assess the impact of both geometries on the flow structure, dynamics and overall heat transfer characteristics in the cavity, towards enhancement of natural convective heat transfer. The predicted results for the cylindrical chimney are compared with known experimental results. The results are of interest to post accident heat removal in fast breeder reactors (FBR). (authors)

  5. Development of a practical training program based on BNL`s input to new NFPA Lined Masonary Chimney Venting Tables

    Potter, G. [Agway Energy Products, Tully, NJ (United States)

    1997-09-01

    This paper describes how we developed a practical training program for technicians and sales personnel from the BNL studies that evolved into the Lined Chimney Venting Tables. One of the topics discussed is our search for solutions to the reoccurring problems associated with flue gas condensation on newly installed oil fired appliances. The paper will also discuss our own experiences in applying the new venting tables and working through the questions that arise when we encounter installations beyond the scope of the present tables.

  6. Acetoanaerobium pronyense sp. nov., an anaerobic alkaliphilic bacterium isolated from a carbonate chimney of the Prony Hydrothermal Field (New Caledonia)

    Bes, M. (Marta); Merrouch, M.; Joseph, Manon; Quéméneur, Marianne; Payri, Claude; Pelletier, Bernard; Ollivier, Bernard; Fardeau, Marie-Laure; Erausol, G.; A. Postec

    2015-01-01

    A novel anaerobic bacterial strain, ST07-YET, was isolated from a carbonate chimney of the Prony Hydrothermal Field (PHF) in New Caledonia. Cells were Gram-stain-positive, straight rods (0.7-0.8 x 3.0-5.0 mu m) and motile by means of lateral flagella. Strain ST07-YET was mesophilic (optimum 35 degrees C), moderately alkaliphilic and halotolerant (optimum pH 8.7 and 5 gr l(-1) NaCl). Elemental sulfur, sulfate, thiosulfate, sulfite, nitrate and nitrite were not used as terminal electron accepto...

  7. Construction of a photometer to detect stellar occultations by outer solar system bodies for the Whipple mission concept

    Kraft, Ralph P.; Kenter, Almus T.; Alcock, Charles; Murray, Stephen S.; Loose, Markus; Gauron, Thomas; Germain, Gregg; Peregrim, Lawrence

    2014-08-01

    . As part of our technology development program, a key facet of the proposed Whipple focal plane was constructed and operated in our laboratory consisting of a single HyViSI H2RG sensor, a Teledyne SIDECAR ASIC, and a flight-like Virtex-5 FPGA. In order to fully demonstrate the capabilities of this photometer, we also made a occultation light-curve simulator. The entire system can generate simulated occultation light curves, project them onto an H2RG sensor, read out the sensor in windowing mode at 40 Hz, pass the data to an FPGA that continuously monitors the light curves and dumps candidate occultation events to our simulated Ground Support Equipment (GSE). In this paper, we summarize the technical capabilities of our system, present sample data, and discuss how this system will be used to support our proposal effort for the next Discovery round.

  8. Combining interventions: improved chimney stoves, kitchen sinks and solar disinfection of drinking water and kitchen clothes to improve home hygiene in rural Peru L’association d’interventions - améliorer les cuisinières à bois, mettre en place des éviers, désinfecter l’eau domestique et le linge de cuisine par le solaire – permet d’améliorer l’hygiène dans les foyers ruraux du Pérou Intervenciones combinadas: mejorar las cocinas a leña, instalar fregaderos y desinfectar el agua para beber y los paños de cocina con energía solar para mejorar la higiene en hogares rurales en Perú

    Ana I. Gil

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Home based interventions are advocated in rural areas against a variety of diseases. The combination of different interventions might have synergistic effects in terms of health improvement and cost effectiveness. However, it is crucial to ensure cultural acceptance. The aim of the study was to develop an effective and culturally accepted home-based intervention package to reduce diarrhoea and lower respiratory illnesses in children. In two rural Peruvian communities we evaluated the performance and acceptance of cooking devices, household water treatments (HWT and home- hygiene interventions, with qualitative and quantitative methods. New ventilated stove designs reduced wood consumption by 16%. The majority of participants selected solar water disinfection as HWT in a blind tasting. In-depth interviews on hygiene improvement further revealed a high demand for kitchen sinks. After one year of installation the improved chimney stoves and kitchen sinks were all in use.  The intervention package was successfully adapted to local customs, kitchen-, home- and hygiene management. High user satisfaction was primarily driven by convenience gains due to the technical improvements and only secondarily by perceived health benefits.Les interventions à domicile sont recommandées dans les zones rurales pour éviter diverses maladies. L’association de différentes interventions entraîne une synergie en termes d’amélioration de la santé et de rapport coût-efficacité. Il est cependant crucial d’obtenir l’adhésion de la population. Le but de l’étude était d'élaborer un programme d’interventions à domicile, efficaces et acceptées par la population, visant à réduire la diarrhée et les affections des voies respiratoires basses chez l’enfant. Nous avons évalué, dans deux communautés rurales du Pérou, l’efficacité et l’acceptation d’appareils de cuisson, des traitements de l’eau domestique (HWT et d’interventions d

  9. Severe compression of a bailout self-expanding chimney stent for rescuing the miscoverage of left common carotid artery during TEVAR of a type B aortic dissection.

    Wang, Lixin; Guo, Daqiao; Jiang, Junhao; Shi, Zhenyu; Fu, Weiguo; Wang, Yuqi

    2014-04-01

    A 54-year-old man who suffered from paraplegia due to type B aortic dissection was treated with a Valiant stent-graft. However, attempts to gain secure proximal sealing resulted in an inadvertent coverage of the left common carotid artery by the endograft. The blood flow in the left common carotid artery was restored by a transcarotid Smart Control stent in a chimney fashion. At 6- and 18-month follow-up, computed tomography scan showed that the chimney stent was severely compressed by the stent graft, although the patient remained neurologically asymptomatic. PMID:24309751

  10. Experimental Study and Optimization of Thermoelectricity-Driven Autonomous Sensors for the Chimney of a Biomass Power Plant

    Rodríguez, A.; Astrain, D.; Martínez, A.; Aranguren, P.

    2014-06-01

    In the work discussed in this paper a thermoelectric generator was developed to harness waste heat from the exhaust gas of a boiler in a biomass power plant and thus generate electric power to operate a flowmeter installed in the chimney, to make it autonomous. The main objective was to conduct an experimental study to optimize a previous design obtained after computational work based on a simulation model for thermoelectric generators. First, several places inside and outside the chimney were considered as sites for the thermoelectricity-driven autonomous sensor. Second, the thermoelectric generator was built and tested to assess the effect of the cold-side heat exchanger on the electric power, power consumption by the flowmeter, and transmission frequency. These tests provided the best configuration for the heat exchanger, which met the transmission requirements for different working conditions. The final design is able to transmit every second and requires neither batteries nor electric wires. It is a promising application in the field of thermoelectric generation.

  11. Asbestos Exposure among Construction Workers During Demolition of Old Houses in Tehran, Iran

    Hossein KAKOOEI; NORMOHAMMADI, Mohhammad

    2013-01-01

    Air quality in demolition practices has seldom been evaluated in Iran. Accordingly, we evaluated asbestos exposure among Tehran construction workers during the demolition of old houses. To identify possible sources of asbestos exposure, including thermal insulations, chimney pipes and cement sheets, were all sampled. This study also were taken the personal air samples to evaluate any asbestos exposure during the demolition. The asbestos fibers found in the samples were analyzed by phase-contr...

  12. Microbial and Mineral Descriptions of the Interior Habitable Zones of Active Hydrothermal Chimneys from the Endeavour Segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge

    Holden, J. F.; Lin, T.; Ver Eecke, H. C.; Breves, E.; Dyar, M. D.; Jamieson, J. W.; Hannington, M. D.; Butterfield, D. A.; Bishop, J. L.; Lane, M. D.

    2013-12-01

    Actively venting hydrothermal chimneys and their associated hydrothermal fluids were collected from the Endeavour Segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge to determine the mineralogy, chemistry and microbial community composition of their interiors. To characterize the mineralogy, Mössbauer, FTIR, VNIR and thermal emission spectroscopies were used for the first time on this type of sample in addition to thin-section petrography, x-ray diffraction and elemental analyses. A chimney from the Bastille edifice was Fe-sulfide rich and composed primarily of chalcopyrite, marcasite-sphalerite, and pyrrhotite while chimneys from the Dante and Hot Harold edifices were Fe-sulfide poor and composed primarily of anhydrite. The bulk emissivity and reflectance spectroscopies corroborated well with the petrography and XRD analyses. The microbial community in the interior of Bastille was most closely related to mesophilic-to-thermophilic anaerobes of the deltaproteobacteria and hyperthermophilic archaea while those in the interiors of Dante and Hot Harold were most closely related to mesophilic-to-thermophilic aerobes of the beta-, gamma- and epsilonproteobacteria. The fluid temperatures (282-321°C) and chemistries of the three chimneys were very similar suggesting that differences in mineralogy and microbial community compositions were more dependent on fluid flow characteristics and paragenesis within the chimney. Thin-section petrography of the interior of another hydrothermal chimney collected from the Dante edifice (emitting 336°C fluid) shows a thin coat of Fe3+ oxide associated with amorphous silica on the exposed outer surfaces of pyrrhotite, sphalerite and chalcopyrite in pore spaces, along with anhydrite precipitation in the pores that is indicative of seawater ingress. The Fe-sulfide minerals were likely oxidized to ferrihydrite with increasing pH and Eh due to cooling and seawater exposure, providing reactants for bioreduction. Culture-based most-probable-number estimates of

  13. Standartization and Terminography of New Construction Terms

    Zofija Babickienė

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The past ten year period showed the occurance of a great number of new construction terms in the Lithua- nian language. Thus it is necessary to collect and systematize construction terms, terminoids, quasi-terms and standardize them from the point of view of the Standard Lithuanian Language taking into account both logic and terminology requirements. This article deals with modern construction terms from the point of view of the Standard Lithuanian Language including newest data bases saving all actual information on them. The reseach showed that The Dictionary of Construction Terms (2003 ought to be included into The Lithuanian language Term Bank (http://terminai.vlkk.lt. It is necessary to be done for the following reasons. Firstly, because of the creation and standartization as well as sistematization process of new construction terms. Secondly, for the development of continuous scientific discusion and successful professional education. It was established that a certain number of construction terms from the point of view of the Standard Lithuanian Language should be included into new Dictionary of Construction Terms as well as into Term Bank of the Lithuanian Republic. The terms analysed in the article are concerning basement types, pile types, construction joints, also details of walls, roofs, chimneys, construction materials and etc. The analysis showed how different morphological variants and undesirable synonymous terms occur. Finally, the analysis helped to identify that the informal terms mix with formal, standard terms and conclude in incorrect term usage.

  14. Research on Flat Solar Collector

    Kavolynas, Antanas

    2005-01-01

    The Thesis analyzes one of the spheres of alternative energy supply – the solar energy. The main objective of the Thesis is to determine the energy rates of the solar collector and its accumulative capacity. The Paper introduces a stand on the solar collector research which consists of a flat solar collector, heat accumulator and auxiliary equipment. The research object of the Thesis is a laboratory flat solar collector and its system. The Thesis analyses the constructions of the solar collec...

  15. Construction of a pilot plant of 500 KW it solar gasification of coke of oil. Synpet project; Construccion de una planta piloto de 500 kW para la gasificacion solar de coke de petroleo. Proyecto Synpet

    Vidal; Denk, T.; Valverde, A.; Steinfeld, A.; Zacarias, L.; Jesus, J. C. de; Romero, M.

    2008-07-01

    Solar thermochemistry is a novel and very promising route for the production of valuable fuels and chemicals, in which solar energy is collected and concentrated in order to supply the high temperature process heat necessary to drive highly endothermic chemical reactions. Some high temperature endothermic reactions for converting solar energy to chemical fuels have been investigated; the steam-gasification of petroleum derivatives and residues using concentrated solar radiation has been proposed more recently as a viable alternative to solar hydrogen production. This paper reviews this study which is being carried out within collaboration between Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA), the Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule (ETH) in Zurich/Switzerland, and the CIEMAT in Spain to study the feasibility of thermochemical falsification form petroleum coke. (Author)

  16. Solar Thermal Electricity Generating System

    Mishra, Sambeet; Tripathy, Pratyasha

    2012-08-01

    A Solar Thermal Electricity generating system also known as Solar Thermal Power plant is an emerging renewable energy technology, where we generate the thermal energy by concentrating and converting the direct solar radiationat medium/high temperature (300∫C ñ 800∫C). The resulting thermal energy is then used in a thermodynamic cycleto produce electricity, by running a heat engine, which turns a generator to make electricity. Solar thermal power is currently paving the way for the most cost-effective solar technology on a large scale and is heading to establish a cleaner, pollution free and secured future. Photovoltaic (PV) and solar thermal technologies are two main ways of generating energy from the sun, which is considered the inexhaustible source of energy. PV converts sunlight directly into electricity whereas in Solar thermal technology, heat from the sun's rays is concentrated to heat a fluid, whose steam powers a generator that produces electricity. It is similar to the way fossil fuel-burning power plants work except that the steam is produced by the collected heat rather than from the combustion of fossil fuels. In order to generate electricity, five major varieties of solar thermal technologies used are:* Parabolic Trough Solar Electric Generating System (SEGS).* Central Receiver Power Plant.* Solar Chimney Power Plant.* Dish Sterling System.* Solar Pond Power Plant.Most parts of India,Asia experiences a clear sunny weather for about 250 to 300 days a year, because of its location in the equatorial sun belt of the earth, receiving fairly large amount of radiation as compared to many parts of the world especially Japan, Europe and the US where development and deployment of solar technologies is maximum.Whether accompanied with this benefit or not, usually we have to concentrate the solar radiation in order to compensate for the attenuation of solar radiation in its way to earthís surface, which results in from 63,2 GW/m2 at the Sun to 1 kW/m2 at

  17. 燃煤电厂脱硫烟囱防腐技术创新和应用探讨%Discussion on technology innovation of coal -fired power plant desulfurization chimney corrosion and its application

    张庆虎; 吴金土

    2015-01-01

    Through the analysis of the existing coal-fired power plant desulfurization chimney corrosion technolo-gy, summed up the basic reason desulfurization chimney corrosion failures, technological innovation ideas pro-posed chimney desulfurization corrosion.And briefly describes the use of self-vulcanized butyl rubber anti-corrosion lining for coal-fired power plant desulfurization chimney antiseptic feasibility and success stories.%通过对现行燃煤电厂脱硫烟囱防腐技术分析,总结了脱硫烟囱防腐失效的原因,提出了脱硫烟囱防腐的技术创新思路。简要介绍了采用自硫化丁基橡胶防腐衬里对燃煤电厂脱硫烟囱进行防腐的可行性和成功案例。

  18. Global and diffuse solar irradiance modelling over north-western Europe using MAR regional climate model : validation and construction of a 30-year climatology

    Beaumet, Julien; Doutreloup, Sébastien; Fettweis, Xavier; Erpicum, Michel

    2015-04-01

    Solar irradiance modelling is crucial for solar resource management, photovoltaic production forecasting and for a better integration of solar energy in the electrical grid network. For those reasons, an adapted version of the Modèle Atmospheric Regional (MAR) is being developed at the Laboratory of Climatology of the University of Liège in order to provide high quality modelling of solar radiation, wind and temperature over north-western Europe. In this new model version, the radiation scheme has been calibrated using solar irradiance in-situ measurements and CORINE Land Cover data have been assimilated in order to improve the modelling of 10 m wind speed and near-surface temperature. In this study, MAR is forced at its boundary by ERA-40 reanalysis and its horizontal resolution is 10 kilometres. Diffuse radiation is estimated using global radiation from MAR outputs and a calibrated version of Ruiz-Arias et al., (2010) sigmoid model. This study proposes to evaluate the method performance for global and diffuse radiation modelling at both the hourly and daily time scale using data from the European Solar Radiation Atlas database for the weather stations of Uccle (Belgium) and Braunschweig (Germany). After that, a 30-year climatology of global and diffuse irradiance for the 1981-2010 period over western Europe is built. The created data set is then analysed in order to highlight possible regional or seasonal trends. The validity of the results is then evaluated after comparison with trends found in in-situ data or from different studies from the literature.

  19. Composition of hydrothermal fluids and mineralogy of associated chimney material on the East Scotia Ridge back-arc spreading centre

    James, Rachael H.; Green, Darryl R. H.; Stock, Michael J.; Alker, Belinda J.; Banerjee, Neil R.; Cole, Catherine; German, Christopher R.; Huvenne, Veerle A. I.; Powell, Alexandra M.; Connelly, Douglas P.

    2014-08-01

    The East Scotia Ridge is an active back-arc spreading centre located to the west of the South Sandwich island arc in the Southern Ocean. Initial exploration of the ridge by deep-tow surveys provided the first evidence for hydrothermal activity in a back-arc setting outside of the western Pacific, and we returned in 2010 with a remotely operated vehicle to precisely locate and sample hydrothermal sites along ridge segments E2 and E9. Here we report the chemical and isotopic composition of high- and low-temperature vent fluids, and the mineralogy of associated high-temperature chimney material, for two sites at E2 (Dog’s Head and Sepia), and four sites at E9 (Black & White, Ivory Tower, Pagoda and Launch Pad). The chemistry of the fluids is highly variable between the ridge segments. Fluid temperatures were ∼350 °C at all vent sites except Black & White, which was significantly hotter (383 °C). End-member chloride concentrations in E2 fluids (532-536 mM) were close to background seawater (540 mM), whereas Cl in E9 fluids was much lower (98-220 mM) indicating that these fluids are affected by phase separation. Concentrations of the alkali elements (Na, Li, K and Cs) and the alkaline earth elements (Ca, Sr and Ba) co-vary with Cl, due to charge balance constraints. Similarly, concentrations of Mn and Zn are highest in the high Cl fluids but, by contrast, Fe/Cl ratios are higher in E9 fluids (3.8-8.1 × 10-3) than they are in E2 fluids (1.5-2.4 × 10-3) and fluids with lowest Cl have highest Cu. Although both ridge segments are magmatically inflated, there is no compelling evidence for input of magmatic gases to the vent fluids. Fluid δD values range from 0.2‰ to 1.5‰, pH values (3.02-3.42) are not especially low, and F concentrations (34.6-54.4 μM) are lower than bottom seawater (62.8 μM). The uppermost sections of conjugate chimney material from E2, and from Ivory Tower and Pagoda at E9, typically exhibit inner zones of massive chalcopyrite enclosed

  20. Use of Oriented Spray Nozzles to Set the Vapor-Air Flow in Rotary Motion in the Superspray Space of the Evaporative Chimney-Type Tower

    Dobrego, K. V.; Davydenko, V. F.; Koznacheev, I. A.

    2016-01-01

    The present paper considers the problem of upgrading the thermal efficiency of chimney-type evaporative cooling towers due to the rotary motion of the vapor-air flow in the superspray space. To set the vapor-air flow in rotary motion, we propose to use the momentum of the sprayed water. It has been shown that the existing parameters of spray nozzles permit setting up to 30% of the water flow momentum in translatory motion, which is enough for changing considerably the aerodynamics of the vapor-air flow in the superspray space and improving the operation of the cooling tower. The optimal angle of axial inclination of the spray cone has been estimated. Recommendations are given and problems have been posed for engineering realization of the proposed technologies in a chimney-type cooling tower.

  1. Fermentative hydrogen production by a new alkaliphilic Clostridium sp (strain PROH2) isolated from a shallow submarine hydrothermal chimney in Prony Bay, New Caledonia

    MEI, N.; Zergane, N.; Postec, A.; Erauso, G.; Oilier, A.; Payri, Claude; Pelletier, Bernard; Fardeau, Marie-Laure; Ollivier, Bernard; Quéméneur, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    The hydrogen-producing strain PROH2 pertaining to the genus Clostridium was successfully isolated from a shallow submarine hydrothermal chimney (Prony Bay, New Caledonia) driven by serpentinization processes. Cell biomass and hydrogen production performances during fermentation by strain PROH2 were studied in a series of batch experiments under various conditions of pH, temperature, NaCl and glucose concentrations. The highest hydrogen yield, 2.71 mol H-2/mol glucose, was observed at initial ...

  2. Bacterial Lifestyle in a Deep-sea Hydrothermal Vent Chimney Revealed by the Genome Sequence of the Thermophilic Bacterium Deferribacter desulfuricans SSM1

    Takaki, Yoshihiro; Shimamura, Shigeru; Nakagawa, Satoshi; Fukuhara, Yasuo; Horikawa, Hiroshi; Ankai, Akiho; Harada, Takeshi; Hosoyama, Akira; Oguchi, Akio; Fukui, Shigehiro; Fujita, Nobuyuki; Takami, Hideto; Takai, Ken

    2010-01-01

    The complete genome sequence of the thermophilic sulphur-reducing bacterium, Deferribacter desulfuricans SMM1, isolated from a hydrothermal vent chimney has been determined. The genome comprises a single circular chromosome of 2 234 389 bp and a megaplasmid of 308 544 bp. Many genes encoded in the genome are most similar to the genes of sulphur- or sulphate-reducing bacterial species within Deltaproteobacteria. The reconstructed central metabolisms showed a heterotrophic lifestyle primarily d...

  3. Shallow submarine hydrothermal activity with significant contribution of magmatic water producing talc chimneys in the Wakamiko Crater of Kagoshima Bay, southern Kyushu, Japan

    Yamanaka, Toshiro; Maeto, Kotaro; Akashi, Hironori; Ishibashi, Jun-Ichiro; Miyoshi, Youko; Okamura, Kei; Noguchi, Takuroh; Kuwahara, Yoshihiro; Toki, Tomohiro; Tsunogai, Urumu; Ura, Tamaki; Nakatani, Takeshi; Maki, Toshihiro; Kubokawa, Kaoru; Chiba, Hitoshi

    2013-05-01

    Active hydrothermal venting from shallow seafloor (200-m depth) with talc chimneys has been discovered at the Wakamiko Crater floor in the Aira Caldera, southern Kyushu, Japan. The major chemical composition of the fluids suggests that the fluids are supplied from a single reservoir. The fluid is characterized by a low chloride concentration, low δD value, and a high δ18O value, suggesting that the endmember hydrothermal fluid is a mixture of seawater and andesitic water and possibly contribution of meteoric water and/or phase separation. Such noticeable magmatic input may be supported by high helium isotopic ratio (6.77 RA) of fumarolic gas discharging from the crater. Silica and alkaline geothermometers indicate that the fluid-rock interaction in the reservoir occurs in the temperature range of 230 to 250 °C. The high alkalinity and high ammonium and dissolved organic matter concentrations in the fluid indicate interaction of the fluid with organic matter in sedimentary layers. At least three hydrothermal vents have been observed in the crater. Two of these have similar cone-shaped chimneys. The chimneys have a unique mineralogy and consist dominantly of talc (kerolite and hydrated talc) with lesser amounts of carbonate (dolomite and magnesite), anhydrite, amorphous silica, and stibnite. The precipitation temperature estimated from δ18O values of talc was almost consistent with the observed fluid temperature. Geochemical modeling calculations also support the formation of talc and carbonate upon mixing of the endmember hydrothermal fluid with seawater and suggest that the talc chimneys are currently growing from venting fluid.

  4. Personal child and mother carbon monoxide exposures and kitchen levels: Methods and results from a randomized trial of woodfired chimney cookstoves in Guatemala (RESPIRE)

    Smith, Kirk R.; McCracken, John P; Thompson, Lisa; Edwards, Rufus; SHIELDS, KYRA N.; Canuz, Eduardo; Bruce, Nigel

    2009-01-01

    During the first randomized intervention trial (RESPIRE: Randomized Exposure Study of Pollution Indoors and Respiratory Effects) in air pollution epidemiology, we pioneered application of passive carbon monoxide (CO) diffusion tubes to measure long-term personal exposures to woodsmoke. Here we report on the protocols and validations of the method, trends in personal exposure for mothers and their young children, and the efficacy of the introduced improved chimney stove in reducing personal ex...

  5. Abundances of Hyperthermophilic Autotrophic Fe(III) Oxide Reducers and Heterotrophs in Hydrothermal Sulfide Chimneys of the Northeastern Pacific Ocean ▿ †

    Ver Eecke, Helene C.; Kelley, Deborah S.; Holden, James F.

    2008-01-01

    The abundances of hyperthermophilic heterotrophs, methanogens, and autotrophic reducers of amorphous Fe(III) oxide in 18 samples of deep-sea hydrothermal vent sulfide chimneys of the Endeavour Segment were measured. The results indicate that conditions favor the growth of iron reducers toward the interiors of these deposits and that of heterotrophs toward the outer surfaces near high-temperature polychaete worms (Paralvinella sulfincola).

  6. Complete Genome Sequence of the Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Pyrococcus sp. Strain ST04, Isolated from a Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Sulfide Chimney on the Juan de Fuca Ridge

    Jung, Jong-Hyun; Lee, Ju-Hoon; Holden, James F.; Seo, Dong-Ho; Shin, Hakdong; Kim, Hae-Yeong; Kim, Wooki; Ryu, Sangryeol; Park, Cheon-Seok

    2012-01-01

    Pyrococcus sp. strain ST04 is a hyperthermophilic, anaerobic, and heterotrophic archaeon isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal sulfide chimney on the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. To further understand the distinct characteristics of this archaeon at the genome level (polysaccharide utilization at high temperature and ATP generation by a Na+ gradient), the genome of strain ST04 was completely sequenced and analyzed. Here, we present the complet...

  7. Abundances of Hyperthermophilic Autotrophic Fe(III) Oxide Reducers and Heterotrophs in Hydrothermal Sulfide Chimneys of the Northeastern Pacific Ocean ▿ †

    Ver Eecke, Helene C.; Kelley, Deborah S.; Holden, James F.

    2009-01-01

    The abundances of hyperthermophilic heterotrophs, methanogens, and autotrophic reducers of amorphous Fe(III) oxide in 18 samples of deep-sea hydrothermal vent sulfide chimneys of the Endeavour Segment were measured. The results indicate that conditions favor the growth of iron reducers toward the interiors of these deposits and that of heterotrophs toward the outer surfaces near high-temperature polychaete worms (Paralvinella sulfincola). PMID:18978076

  8. Solar Adaptive Optics

    Thomas R. Rimmele

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive optics (AO has become an indispensable tool at ground-based solar telescopes. AO enables the ground-based observer to overcome the adverse effects of atmospheric seeing and obtain diffraction limited observations. Over the last decade adaptive optics systems have been deployed at major ground-based solar telescopes and revitalized ground-based solar astronomy. The relatively small aperture of solar telescopes and the bright source make solar AO possible for visible wavelengths where the majority of solar observations are still performed. Solar AO systems enable diffraction limited observations of the Sun for a significant fraction of the available observing time at ground-based solar telescopes, which often have a larger aperture than equivalent space based observatories, such as HINODE. New ground breaking scientific results have been achieved with solar adaptive optics and this trend continues. New large aperture telescopes are currently being deployed or are under construction. With the aid of solar AO these telescopes will obtain observations of the highly structured and dynamic solar atmosphere with unprecedented resolution. This paper reviews solar adaptive optics techniques and summarizes the recent progress in the field of solar adaptive optics. An outlook to future solar AO developments, including a discussion of Multi-Conjugate AO (MCAO and Ground-Layer AO (GLAO will be given.

  9. Solar Radiation Estimation on Building Roofs and Web-Based Solar Cadastre

    Agugiaro, G.; Nex, F.; Remondino, F.; De Filippi, R.; Droghetti, S.; Furlanello, C.

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study is the estimation of solar irradiance on building roofs in complex Alpine landscapes. Very high resolution geometric models of the building roofs are generated by means of advanced automated image matching methods. Models are combined with raster and vector data sources to estimate the incoming solar radiation hitting the roofs. The methodology takes into account for atmospheric effects, site latitude and elevation, slope and aspect of the terrain as well as the effects of shadows cast by surrounding buildings, chimneys, dormers, vegetation and terrain topography. An open source software solution has been developed and applied to a study area located in a mountainous site and containing some 1250 residential, commercial and industrial buildings. The method has been validated by data collected with a pyranometer and results made available through a prototype WebGIS platform.

  10. Crystal Structure and Thermoelectric Properties of the Incommensurate Chimney-Ladder Compound VGeγ (γ ~1.82)

    Hamada, Haruki; Kikuchi, Yuta; Hayashi, Kei; Miyazaki, Yuzuru

    2016-03-01

    A single-phase sample of a Nowotny chimney-ladder phase known as V17Ge31 has been prepared and its modulated crystal structure has been determined by means of a (3+1)-dimensional superspace approach. As in the case of higher manganese silicides (HMSs) MnSiγ, the compound consists of two tetragonal subsystems of [V] and [Ge] with an irrational c-axis ratio γ = c_{{V}}/c_{{Ge}} ˜ 1.82, and hence the structure formula is represented as VGe γ . As expected from the valence electron count estimated from the refined γ, the present germanide exhibits a metallic behavior with the electrical conductivity σ = 6.25 × 103 S/cm and the Seebeck coefficient S = 10.2 μV/K at 900 K. The resulting thermoelectric power factor of S^2σ = 6.56 × 10-5 W/mK2 and the dimensionless figure-of-merit, ZT, = 3.7 × 10-3 at 900 K demonstrate that the germanide is not a promising thermoelectric material. However, as the determined lattice thermal conductivity is comparable to that of HMSs, thermoelectric properties can be maximized through the partial substitution of V with group 6-8 elements to decrease hole carrier concentration.

  11. An exposition of the role of external base absorbent of solar energy with intelligent constructional structures with a view to reduction in energy use

    Samira Sadeghi Kelishadi; Zahra Kazemi

    2014-01-01

    There is no doubt that one of the most important challenges facing engineers and designers ofarchitectural design and engineering is indeed the problem of energy. It is inline with this trend of thought that energy can be seen as a critical elementwith a view to the enhancement of mans economical and social welfare and it isin the sphere of construction engineering that the need arises for the use ofthe appropriate construction material which can best serve this vital aim ofenergy conservatio...

  12. Thoracic aortic stent-graft placement combined with left subclavian artery 'chimney operation': therapeutic analysis of 15 cases with insufficient proximal anchor area

    Objective: To discuss the strategies for the management of insufficient proximal anchoring area during the performance of transluminal stent-graft placement (TSGP), and to evaluate the feasibility of intentional coverage of the left subclavian artery (LSA) together with left subclavian artery stent-graft placement by using 'chimney operation' technique. Methods: A total of 15 patients with thoracic aortic diseases complicated by insufficient proximal anchoring area, who were encountered in authors' hospital during the period from Dec. 2009 to April 2011, were enrolled in this study. The clinical data were retrospectively analyzed. The thoracic aortic diseases included aortic dissection (n=6), aortic pseudoaneurysm (n=1), aortic aneurysm (n=4) and penetrating ulcer (n=4). Of the 15 patients, the distance between the lesion and LSA anchoring site 15 mm in 2. TSGP was carried out. The ostium of LSA was intentionally and completely covered by thoracic aortic stent-graft and left subclavian artery stent-graft placement was subsequently performed. The patients were kept under observation for symptoms of cerebral and upper limb ischemia. The postoperative complications such as endoleak and the patency of LSA were assessed with angiography. Results: Thoracic aortic stent-graft placement was successfully carried out in all 15 patients. In addition, one 'chimney' stent was properly implanted in LSA in each patient. After the procedure, no complications of nervous system or severe ischemia of upper extremity occurred. Follow-up examinations performed between 5 days to 3 months after the treatment revealed that the aortic stent-graft remained in stable condition and no type Ⅰ endoleak occurred, meanwhile the blood flow in 'chimney' stent was unobstructed. Conclusion: Intentional LSA coverage with 'chimney operation' can expand the applicability of TSGP with high tolerability. It is especially useful for patients with left vertebral artery blood supply dominance or with

  13. Space Solar Power Program

    Arif, H.; Barbosa, H.; Bardet, C.; Baroud, M.; Behar, A.; Berrier, K.; Berthe, P.; Bertrand, R.; Bibyk, I.; Bisson, J.; Bloch, L.; Bobadilla, G.; Bourque, D.; Bush, L.; Carandang, R.; Chiku, T.; Crosby, N.; De Seixas, M.; De Vries, J.; Doll, S.; Dufour, F.; Eckart, P.; Fahey, M.; Fenot, F.; Foeckersperger, S.; Fontaine, J.E.; Fowler, R.; Frey, H.; Fujio, H.; Gasa, J.M.; Gleave, J.; Godoe, J.; Green, I.; Haeberli, R.; Hanada, T.; Ha

    1992-08-01

    Information pertaining to the Space Solar Power Program is presented on energy analysis; markets; overall development plan; organizational plan; environmental and safety issues; power systems; space transportation; space manufacturing, construction, operations; design examples; and finance.

  14. Solar energy emplacement developer

    Mortensen, Michael; Sauls, Bob

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary design was developed for a Lunar Power System (LPS) composed of photovoltaic arrays and microwave reflectors fabricated from lunar materials. The LPS will collect solar energy on the surface of the Moon, transform it into microwave energy, and beam it back to Earth where it will be converted into usable energy. The Solar Energy Emplacement Developer (SEED) proposed will use a similar sort of solar energy collection and dispersement to power the systems that will construct the LPS.

  15. Solar Ready: An Overview of Implementation Practices

    Watson, A.; Guidice, L.; Lisell, L.; Doris, L.; Busche, S.

    2012-01-01

    This report explores three mechanisms for encouraging solar ready building design and construction: solar ready legislation, certification programs for solar ready design and construction, and stakeholder education. These methods are not mutually exclusive, and all, if implemented well, could contribute to more solar ready construction. Solar ready itself does not reduce energy use or create clean energy. Nevertheless, solar ready building practices are needed to reach the full potential of solar deployment. Without forethought on incorporating solar into design, buildings may be incompatible with solar due to roof structure or excessive shading. In these cases, retrofitting the roof or removing shading elements is cost prohibitive. Furthermore, higher up-front costs due to structural adaptations and production losses caused by less than optimal roof orientation, roof equipment, or shading will lengthen payback periods, making solar more expensive. With millions of new buildings constructed each year in the United States, solar ready can remove installation barriers and increase the potential for widespread solar adoption. There are many approaches to promoting solar ready, including solar ready legislation, certification programs, and education of stakeholders. Federal, state, and local governments have the potential to implement programs that encourage solar ready and in turn reduce barriers to solar deployment. With the guidance in this document and the examples of jurisdictions and organizations already working to promote solar ready building practices, federal, state, and local governments can guide the market toward solar ready implementation.

  16. Solar Cooling System Using Solar-Driven Hybrid Chiller

    HIRAI, Akira

    2012-01-01

    We developed an appropriate Absorption chiller to "Solar cooling system" in 2010. In addition, we added the improvement to the machine. "Solar cooling system" can be easily constructed with the machine. and, we constructed the demonstration plant, and verified the utility

  17. Design, manufacture and construction of low-cost housing units equipped with solar energy technology in Iraq's marshes and remote areas

    Abdulhadi, Usama Abdulmajeed; Alwan, Angham Raad; Sarhan, Hani Hassan; Ali, Majid Hassan; Anjas, Jamal Jameel; Khaleel, Saba Mahdi; Abood, Ban Ali

    2012-09-01

    Samples of Iraq's marshes reed panels were prepared by a new method. Reed samples were coated by polyester and pressed isolating to produce reed panel. Thermal isolation of(0. 13%) was found less than concert (0.9 %). Water absorption resistance effect was achieved and mechanical bending under static load was conducted. Reed panels were used as construction materials.

  18. Solar Walls for concrete renovation

    Gramkow, Lotte; Vejen, Niels Kristian; Olsen, Lars;

    1996-01-01

    This repport gives a short presentation of three full-scale testing solar walls, the construction including the architectural design, materials and components, transportation and storage of solar enegy, the effect on the construction behind, statics and practical experience.The results of the...... measurments (energy- and temperature conditions, airchange-, termovisions- and moist measurments), operation- and user experience from the three buildings are describet....

  19. Acetoanaerobium pronyense sp. nov., an anaerobic alkaliphilic bacterium isolated from a carbonate chimney of the Prony Hydrothermal Field (New Caledonia).

    Bes, Méline; Merrouch, Mériem; Joseph, Manon; Quéméneur, Marianne; Payri, Claude; Pelletier, Bernard; Ollivier, Bernard; Fardeau, Marie-Laure; Erauso, Gaël; Postec, Anne

    2015-08-01

    A novel anaerobic bacterial strain, ST07-YET, was isolated from a carbonate chimney of the Prony Hydrothermal Field (PHF) in New Caledonia. Cells were Gram-stain-positive, straight rods (0.7-0.8 × 3.0-5.0 μm) and motile by means of lateral flagella. Strain ST07-YET was mesophilic (optimum 35 °C), moderately alkaliphilic and halotolerant (optimum pH 8.7 and 5 g l- 1 NaCl). Elemental sulfur, sulfate, thiosulfate, sulfite, nitrate and nitrite were not used as terminal electron acceptors. Yeast extract, peptone, tryptone, Casamino acids, crotonate, pyruvate, galactose, maltose, sucrose, ribose, trehalose and glucose were used as carbon sources. Glucose fermentation led to acetate, H2 and CO2 formation. Arginine, serine, histidine, lysine, methionine and cysteine improved growth, but the Stickland reaction was negative for the combinations of amino acids tested. The major metabolic products from yeast extract fermentation were H2, CO2, acetate, butyrate, isobutyrate, isovalerate and propionate. The predominant cellular fatty acids were C16  :  0, C16  :  1cis9, C14  :  0 and C16  :  1cis7 (>5 % of total fatty acids). The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 32.9 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that strain ST07-YET was most closely related to Clostridium sticklandii DSM 519T and Acetoanaerobium noterae NOT-3T (96.7 % and 96.8 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, respectively). On the basis of phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic and physiological properties, strain ST07-YET is proposed to represent a novel species of the genus Acetoanaerobium (order Clostridiales, phylum Firmicutes) with the name Acetoanaerobium pronyense sp. nov. The type strain is ST07-YET ( = DSM 27512T = JCM 19400T). PMID:25948619

  20. Web based Measurement System for Solar Radiation

    Shachi Awasthi; Dr. P. Mor

    2012-01-01

    We present in this paper, the principles of the measurement system for solar radiation, and our implementation using Web based data logging concept. The photocurrent produced by Silicon PN junction is used as a solar radiation transducer, to make it more viable we have used commercially available solar panels as our transducers. Using a silicon solar cell as sensor, a low cost solar radiometer can be constructed. The photocurrent produced by solar cell is electronically tailored to be measure...

  1. Solar Indices - Solar Corona

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  2. Solar Indices - Solar Flares

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  3. Solar Indices - Solar Irradiance

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  4. Geologic, geophysical, and in-situ stress investigations in the vicinity of the Dining Car chimney, Dining Car/Hybla Gold Drifts, Nevada Test Site

    The Hybla Gold event, detonated on Nov. 1, 1977, was conducted in the U12e.20 drifts of the E-tunnel complex beneath the surface of Rainier Mesa at the Nevada Test Site. Though the proximity of the Hybla Gold working point to the chimney of the Dining Car event was important to the experiment, the observable geologic effects from Dining Car on the Hybla Gold site were minor. Overburden above the working point is approximately 385 m (1263 ft). The pre-Tertiary surface, probably quartzite, lies approximately 254 m (833 ft) below the working point. This report comprises three chapters detailing the geologic, geophysical, and in situ stress data gathered in the period January through June 1977, in the course of mining and drilling in the Hybla Gold/Dining Car region. These investigations confirm several observations reported previously for the Rainier event, i.e., a zone of microfailure observable in thin-section and in physical properties exists adjacent to the chimney. In addition, however, a number of investigations add new information to our understanding of effects near the detonation point. Shear waves were found to be highly diagnostic in the microcracked zone near the chimney as well as zones of failure at greater range not discernible as well as zones of failure at greater range not discernible by other techniques. Extensive in situ stress measurements made by the hydrofracture and overcore techniques indicate changes in the orientation and magnitude of the pre-Dining Car stress field. The hydrofracture technique further suggests pronounced gradients in minimum stress magnitudes over short distances at some locations in the postshot stress regime

  5. Characterization of Alkaliphilus hydrothermalis sp nov., a novel alkaliphilic anaerobic bacterium, isolated from a carbonaceous chimney of the Prony hydrothermal field, New Caledonia

    Ben Aissa, F.; Postec, A.; Erauso, G.; Payri, Claude; Pelletier, Bernard; Hamdi, M.; Fardeau, Marie-Laure; Ollivier, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    A novel anaerobic, alkaliphilic, Gram-positive staining bacterium was isolated from a hydrothermal chimney in the Prony Bay, New Caledonia. This strain designated FatMR1(T) grew at temperatures from 20 to 55 A degrees C (optimum 37 A degrees C) and at pH between 7.5 and 10.5 (optimum 8.8-9). NaCl is not required for growth (optimum 0.2-0.5 %), but is tolerated up to 3 %. Sulfate, thiosulfate, elemental sulfur, sulfite, nitrate and nitrite are not used as terminal electron acceptors. Strain Fa...

  6. Additional income with open chimneys and stove. Nostalgia, romanticism and thermal comfort; Zusatzgeschaeft mit Oefen und Kaminen. Nostalgisch-romantische Gefuehle und behagliche Waerme

    Boehm, G. [Buderus Heiztechnik GmbH, Wetzlar (Germany)

    2004-01-01

    Stoves and open fireplaces are coming into fashion again with the trend towards nostalgia and design awareness. Further, wood-fuelled chimneys and stoves are viewed as romantic, and they also provide high thermal comfort. Heating systems experts can get additional income from this trend. (orig.) [German] Kamine und Oefen sind bei vielen Hausbesitzern und Bauherrn wieder in Mode. Dieser Trend ist zum einen Teil eines gestiegenen Nostalgie- und Designbewusstseins. Zum anderen gelten vor allem holzbefeuerte Kamine und Oefen als romantisch und ihre Waerme aufgrund des hohen Strahlungsanteils als behaglich. Fuer den aktiven Heizungsfachhandwerker laesst sich aus dieser Modestroemung ein lukratives Zusatzgeschaeft ableiten. (orig.)

  7. Solar building study. Summary report. Macdonald Road, Stornoway, Isle of Lewis

    1992-12-31

    Few of the buildings studied in the course of the Energy Performance Assessments project have such a strong foundation in solar energy theory as does the house at MacDonald Road, Stornoway. This evaluation has shown the theory to be essentially correct and that there is potential for passive solar design in high latitudes of the UK. That the building investigated has failed to realise these benefits must in a large part be attributed to the insensitivity of its heating system to solar gains. The house design is otherwise believed to be capable of utilising passive solar gains well, and the sunspace was shown to be a valuable buffer against heat loss. Appraising the measured fuel consumption is complicated by the chimney losses associated with the traditional Hebridean open fire, the occupants` practice of keeping the fire lit all through the year to heat domestic hot water, and the low average house temperatures achieved. (author)

  8. Old bulgarian architecture - an university of solar energy application

    Dobrinova, Annie [Bulgarian Solar Energy Society, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2008-07-01

    The impressing involvement of the ancient Bulgarian houses in the surroundings and their composition reveal nearly all aspects of Solar Energy (SE) and energy efficiency(EE) tools' application. In this paper are concerned (and richly illustrated), namely: direct/indirect gains, thermal mass, convectional loops, sun spaces (atrium case), solar chimney, synthesis exterior/interior; etc. The joint effect is highly convincing in the SE and EE knowledge of ancient anonymous master-builder. The SE conception is obviously always well considered, readable, well planned and its combined effect is not accidental at all. Such investigation could be of great importance for a new meaning (not only in Bulgaria) to History of Architecture. Investigations like this could motivate a future unwritten yet Bioclimatic history of world architecture. (orig.)

  9. Economic aspects of Solar Thermal Technologies for electricity generation

    Economic results of German studies are presented, which compare the four solar thermal technologies for electricity generation (parabolic trough collector system, central receiver system, parabolic dish/Stirling system, solar chimney plant). These studies were carried out by Interatom (today Siemens/KWU) in Bergisch Gladbach, Flachglas Solartechnik in Koln and Schlaich Bergermann and Partner in Stuggart under contract of DLR in Koln. Funds were made available by the German Ministry of Research and Development (BMFT). The results indicate that all of the investigated technologies have the potential to reduce the generating costs and that in the future costs of below 0.30 DM/kWh could be expected under excellent insolation conditions (e.G. 2850 kWh/m''2 a direct insolation as in California/USA). (Author) 25 refs

  10. Power plant construction. Plan, build, repair

    Modern thermal power plants can now convert up to 90 % of the energy input into electricity. This increase in efficiency has been made possible through technological progress, but also through improvements in power plant construction. Despite a distinct rise in the proportion of renewable energies in electricity supplies, traditional power stations are still responsible for guaranteeing a large share of our energy supplies. Air pollution control, noise control, protection of natural waters and soils plus careful use of resources are the key themes in the design, construction and maintenance of power plants. Publishing house Ernst and Sohn provides competent, up-to-date information for civil and structural engineers entrusted with such challenging engineering tasks. The special issue ''Power Plant Construction'' brings together the appropriate articles from the journals ''Bautechnik'', ''Stahlbau'', ''Beton- und Stahlbetonbau'' and ''Geomechanics and Tunnelling''. The themes in this compendium cover a wide range of topics, including analysis and design of power plant installations, power station refurbishment and maintenance, special structures such as cooling towers, chimneys and boiler house frames plus the engineering aspects of coal-fired, nuclear and hydroelectric power stations. Reports on current products and projects complement the technical papers. (orig.)

  11. Construction management

    Pellicer, Eugenio; Teixeira, José C; Moura, Helder P; Catalá, Joaquín

    2014-01-01

    The management of construction projects is a wide ranging and challenging discipline in an increasingly international industry, facing continual challenges and demands for improvements in safety, in quality and cost control, and in the avoidance of contractual disputes. Construction Management grew out of a Leonardo da Vinci project to develop a series of Common Learning Outcomes for European Managers in Construction. Financed by the European Union, the project aimed to develop a library of basic materials for developing construction management skills for use in a pan-European context. Focused exclusively on the management of the construction phase of a building project from the contractor's point of view, Construction Management covers the complete range of topics of which mastery is required by the construction management professional for the effective delivery of new construction projects. With the continued internationalisation of the construction industry, Construction Management will be required rea...

  12. In-situ construction of three-dimensional titania network on Ti foil toward enhanced performance of flexible dye-sensitized solar cells

    Rui, Yichuan; Wang, Yuanqiang; Zhang, Qinghong; Chi, Qijin; Zhang, Minwei; Wang, Hongzhi; Li, Yaogang; Hou, Chengyi

    2016-09-01

    Three-dimensional titania network was in-situ constructed on Ti foil via sequential acid and hydrogen peroxide treatments. The titania network was pure anatase phase and homogeneously covered on the titanium grain surface, which largely enhanced the roughness of the Ti foil. The as-received Ti foil and the treated one were used as the flexible substrates of DSSCs, and energy conversion efficiencies of 3.74% and 4.98% were obtained, respectively. Such remarkable increment can be ascribed to the good electrical contact between the nanocrystalline TiO2 and the Ti foil, the improved electron percolation pathways and recombination inhibition of electrons in Ti substrate with triiodide ions in electrolyte. Flexible DSSCs based on the treated Ti foil showed relatively good mechanical stability, which exhibited 97.3% retention of the initial efficieny after twenty consecutive bending.

  13. Construction of a Semiconductor-Biological Interface for Solar Energy Conversion: p-Doped Silicon/Photosystem I/Zinc Oxide.

    Beam, Jeremiah C; LeBlanc, Gabriel; Gizzie, Evan A; Ivanov, Borislav L; Needell, David R; Shearer, Melinda J; Jennings, G Kane; Lukehart, Charles M; Cliffel, David E

    2015-09-15

    The interface between photoactive biological materials with two distinct semiconducting electrodes is challenging both to develop and analyze. Building off of our previous work using films of photosystem I (PSI) on p-doped silicon, we have deposited a crystalline zinc oxide (ZnO) anode using confined-plume chemical deposition (CPCD). We demonstrate the ability of CPCD to deposit crystalline ZnO without damage to the PSI biomaterial. Using electrochemical techniques, we were able to probe this complex semiconductor-biological interface. Finally, as a proof of concept, a solid-state photovoltaic device consisting of p-doped silicon, PSI, ZnO, and ITO was constructed and evaluated. PMID:26318861

  14. Enhanced bilateral somatostatin receptor expression in mediastinal lymph nodes (''chimney sign'') in occult metastatic medullary thyroid cancer: a typical site of tumour manifestation?

    In medullary thyroid cancer (MTC), post-surgically elevated plasma calcitonin and/or carcinoembryonic antigen levels frequently indicate persisting metastatic disease, although conventional diagnostic procedures fail to localize the responsible lesions (occult disease). Somatostatin analogues have been used successfully in disease localization, but recently concerns have been raised that increased thoracic uptake of indium-111 pentetreotide in patients with previous external beam irradiation may represent a false-positive finding, caused by post-irradiation pulmonary fibrosis. We recently examined seven patients with metastatic MTC by somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (six with occult and one with established disease). In four patients, all of whom had stable or slowly rising tumour marker levels over several years, a chimney-like bilateral mediastinal uptake of indium-111 pentetreotide was found. In two patients with persisting hypercalcitonaemia immediately after primary surgery, supraclavicular lymph node metastases were identified as the responsible lesions. None of these seven patients had prior external beam radiation therapy. In two cases, histological confirmation was obtained. In one patient, disease progression could be shown during follow-up. These data suggest that bilateral mediastinal lymph node involvement is a typical site of disease in slowly progressing occult metastatic MTC; the ''chimney sign'' may represent a typical finding with somatostatin analogues in such cases. Therefore, we believe that even in the case of prior external beam irradiation, mediastinal uptake of octreotide might represent metastatic MTC rather than radiation fibrosis. (orig.). With 2 figs., 1 tab

  15. Solar building

    Zhang, Luxin

    2014-01-01

    In my thesis I describe the utilization of solar energy and solar energy with building integration. In introduction it is also mentioned how the solar building works, trying to make more people understand and accept the solar building. The thesis introduces different types of solar heat collectors. I compared the difference two operation modes of solar water heating system and created examples of solar water system selection. I also introduced other solar building applications. It is conv...

  16. Geodesy work in the construction of cooling towers of the Temelin nuclear power plant

    The specifications are described of the cooling tower foundations, the bottom part of the flue chimney and of the cooling tower casing. In view of the cooling tower configuration, the ground control points inside the tower were selected in the pit bottom and the layout and check were performed of the inner tower wall. The methodology of measuring the basic layout network, and of laying out up to the fiftieth (ca. 80 m) and from the 70th (106 m) strip is described. The measurement results are computer-processed. The accuracy is assessed of the cooling tower construction in the Temelin nuclear power plant. (E.J.). 1 fig., 5 refs

  17. Epitaxy-assisted creation of PCBM nanocrystals and its application in constructing optimized morphology for bulk-heterojunction polymer solar cells.

    Li, Ligui; Lu, Guanghao; Li, Sijun; Tang, Haowei; Yang, Xiaoniu

    2008-12-11

    PCBM (a C60 derivative) is so far the most successful electron acceptor for bulk-heterojunction polymer photovoltaic (PV) cells. Here we present a novel method epitaxy-assisted creation of PCBM nanocrystals and their homogeneous distribution in the matrix using freshly cleaved mica sheet as the substrate. The highly matched epitaxy relationship between the unit cell of PCBM crystal and crystallographic (001) surface of mica induces abundant PCBM nuclei, which subsequently develop into nanoscale crystals with homogeneous dispersion in the composite film. Both the shape and size of these nanocrystals could be tuned via choosing the type of matrix polymer, film thickness, ratio of PCBM in the composite film, and annealing temperature. Thus, the obtained thin composite film is removed from the original mica substrate via the flotation technique and transferred to a real substrate for device completion. The success of this method has been verified by the substantially improved device performance, in particular the increased short-circuit current, which is heavily dependent on the morphology of the photoactive layer. Therefore, we have actually demonstrated a novel approach to construct preferred morphology for high-performance optoelectronic devices via resorting to other specific substrates which could induce the formation of this type morphology. PMID:19367916

  18. 76 FR 60475 - Issuance of a Loan Guarantee to Tonopah Solar Energy, LLC, for the Crescent Dunes Solar Energy...

    2011-09-29

    ... Issuance of a Loan Guarantee to Tonopah Solar Energy, LLC, for the Crescent Dunes Solar Energy Project... 2009 (Recovery Act), to Tonopah Solar Energy, LLC (TSE), for construction and start-up of the Crescent Dunes Solar Energy Project (the Project). The Project is a proposed 110- megawatt solar power...

  19. 76 FR 54454 - Issuance of Loan Guarantee to Genesis Solar, LLC, for the Genesis Solar Energy Project

    2011-09-01

    ... Issuance of Loan Guarantee to Genesis Solar, LLC, for the Genesis Solar Energy Project AGENCY: U.S... Genesis Solar, LLC, for construction and startup of the Genesis Solar Energy Project (GSEP), a 250... Statement for the Genesis Solar Energy Project, Riverside County, California (75 Federal Register...

  20. Usability Constructs

    Hertzum, Morten; Clemmesen, Torkil; Hornbæk, Kasper Anders Søren;

    2007-01-01

    Whereas research on usability predominantly employs universal definitions of the aspects that comprise usability, people experience their use of information systems through personal constructs. Based on 48 repertory-grid interviews, this study investigates how such personal constructs are affecte...

  1. The solar power satellite

    Combes, P.F.

    1982-01-01

    The construction, launch, components, and operations of satellite solar power systems (SSPS) for direct beaming of solar energy converted to electricity to earth stations are outlined. The reference designs of either Si or concentrator GaAs solar cell assemblies large enough to project 5 GW of power are described. The beam will be furnished by klystrons or amplitrons for reception by rectennas on earth. Conforming to the law of amplitude and the equiphase law will permit high efficiencies, pointing accuracy, and low power deposition/sq cm, thus avoiding environmental problems, although some telecommunications systems may suffer interference. The construction of the dipole rectenna grid is sketched, noting that one receiver would be an ellipse sized at 10 x 13 km. Various forms of pollution which could result from the construction of an SSPS are examined.

  2. In situ ore formation experiment: Amino acids and amino sugars trapped in artificial chimneys on deep-sea hydrothermal systems at Suiyo Seamount, Izu-Bonin Arc, Pacific Ocean

    Takano,; Marumo,; K.,; Ebashi,; T.,; Gupta,; P., L; Kawahata,; H.,; Kobayashi,; K.,; Yamagishi,; A.,; Kuwabara,; T,

    2013-01-01

    The present study reports on the bio-organic composition of a deep-sea venting hydrothermal system originating from arc volcanism; the origin of the particulates in hydrothermal fluids from the Suiyo Seamount in the southern Izu-Bonin (Ogasawara) Arc is discussed with regard to amino compounds. Chimney samples on deep-sea hydrothermal systems and core samples at Suiyo Seamount were determined for amino acids, and occasionally amino sugars. Two types of chimney samples were obtained from active hydrothermal systems by submersible vehicles: one was natural chimney (NC) on a hydrothermal natural vent; the other was artificial chimneys (AC), mainly formed by the growth and deposition of sulfide-rich particulate components in a Kuwabara-type in situ incubator (KI incubator). Total hydrolyzed amino acids (THAA) and hydrolyzed hexosamines (HA) in AC ranged from 10.7 nmol/g to 64.0 nmol/g and from 0 nmol/g to 8.1 nmol/g, respectively, while THAA in hydrothermally altered core samples ranged from 26.0 nmol/g to 107.4 ...

  3. Construction practice

    One has elaborated a virtual computer model (VRC) of construction of the AP1000 project reactor to demonstrate its viability, to improve the NPP project making it more easy for construction with simultaneous reduction of time, costs and risk of construction. The approach ensured time sequence of the 3-D visualization of NPP at the construction stages. The VRC ensures optimization of scheme implementation time period and specifies the basic costs. The VRC application offers essential advantages when planning construction of a nuclear power facility

  4. Solar thermal power towers

    Kreith, F.; Meyer, R. T.

    1984-07-01

    The solar thermal central receiver technology, known as solar power towers, is rapidly evolving to a state of near-term energy availability for electrical power generation and industrial process heat applications. The systems consist of field arrays of heliostat reflectors, a central receiver boiler, short term thermal storage devices, and either turbine-generators or heat exchangers. Fluid temperatures up to 550 C are currently achievable, and technology developments are underway to reach 1100 C. Six solar power towers are now under construction or in test operation in five countries around the world.

  5. Construction supervision in construction project

    Struna, Ervin

    2012-01-01

    Every construction project is a unique, complex process. Every completed structure is permanent act into space, and has therefore substantial influence upon social and natural environment. As a consequence, it is essential to provide professional supervision of the construction process that will ensure conformity of the construction with the project documentation and the building permit. The purpose of the thesis is to present the role of the construction supervision and the work of the s...

  6. System analysis of a PV/T hybrid solar window

    Davidsson, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    A building-integrated multifunctional PV/T solar window was suggested and developed by Andreas Fieber. The solar window is constructed of PV cells laminated on solar absorbers placed in a window behind the glazing. To reduce the costs of solar electricity, tiltable reflectors have been introduced in the construction to focus radiation onto the solar cells. The reflectors make it possible to control the amount of radiation transmitted into the building. The insulated reflectors also reduce the...

  7. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for earth science

    1980-01-01

    A teaching manual is provided to aid teachers in introducing renewable energy topics to earth science students. The main emphasis is placed on solar energy. Activities for the student include a study of the greenhouse effect, solar gain for home heating, measuring solar radiation, and the construction of a model solar still to obtain fresh water. Instructions for the construction of apparatus to demonstrate a solar still, the greenhouse effect and measurement of the altitude and azimuth of the sun are included. (BCS)

  8. 焦炉烟囱 NO x排放控制刍议%Comment on control of NOx emission from chimney of coke oven battery

    蔡承祐

    2013-01-01

    The new national standard“ Emission standard of pollutants for coking chemical industry”regulates the requirement for control of NO x emission from chimney of coke oven battery .The techni-cal measures on design of heating system of coke oven battery and treatment of oven flue gas after it is discharged from the battery for control of NO x emission are expounded in this paper .The author also makes brief description of technology on denitrification of flue gas by using SCR process and sug -gests that in order to meet the requirement of the national standard for control of NO x emission from chimney of coke oven battery located in the “special region”, flue gas discharged from the coke oven battery should be further treated by using SCR denitrification technology with learning experience of Tokyo Gas gained from test of pilot plant and engineering .%新的国家标准《炼焦化学工业污染物排放标准》提出了焦炉烟囱的NOx 排放控制要求。本文从焦炉加热系统的设计和对焦炉烟道废气的后处理2个层面论述了焦炉烟囱NOx 排放控制的技术措施,简要介绍了SCR烟气脱硝技术,提出了借鉴日本东京煤气公司的中试与工程经验,采用SCR脱硝技术对焦炉烟道废气进行后处理,以达到国家标准对“特别地区”焦炉烟囱的NOx排放控制要求。

  9. Combining interventions: improved chimney stoves, kitchen sinks and solar disinfection of drinking water and kitchen clothes to improve home hygiene in rural Peru

    Hartinger, Stella M.; Claudio F Lanata; Ana I. Gil; Hattendorf, Jan; Verastegui, Hector; Mäusezahl, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Home based interventions are advocated in rural areas against a variety of diseases. The combination of different interventions might have synergistic effects in terms of health improvement and cost effectiveness. However, it is crucial to ensure cultural acceptance. The aim of the study was to develop an effective and culturally accepted home-based intervention package to reduce diarrhoea and lower respiratory illnesses in children. In two rural Peruvian communities we evaluated the performa...

  10. Solar Features - Solar Flares

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A solar flare is a short-lived sudden increase in the intensity of radiation emitted in the neighborhood of sunspots. For many years it was best monitored in the...

  11. Solar storms; Tormentas solares

    Collaboration: Pereira Cuesta, S.; Pereira Pagan, B.

    2016-08-01

    Solar storms begin with an explosion, or solar flare, on the surface of the sun. The X-rays and extreme ultraviolet radiation from the flare reach the Earths orbit minutes later-travelling at light speed. The ionization of upper layers of our atmosphere could cause radio blackouts and satellite navigation errors (GPS). Soon after, a wave of energetic particles, electrons and protons accelerated by the explosion crosses the orbit of the Earth, and can cause real and significant damage. (Author)

  12. Torus Construction

    Valluri, Monica; Merritt, David

    1999-01-01

    The maximally compact representation of a regular orbit is in terms of its action-angle variables. Computing the map between a trajectory's Cartesian coordinates and its action-angle variables is called torus construction. This article reviews various approaches to torus construction and their application to galactic dynamics.

  13. Construction Management.

    Abbott, James F.

    This article provides a detailed discussion of a team approach to building that involves a construction manager, an architect, and a contractor. Bidding methods are outlined; the major components in construction management -- value engineering and fast track scheduling -- and the use of performance specifications are discussed. The construction…

  14. Superstring construction

    1989-01-01

    The book includes a selection of papers on the construction of superstring theories, mainly written during the years 1984-1987. It covers ten-dimensional supersymmetric and non-supersymmetric strings, four-dimensional heterotic strings and four-dimensional type-II strings. An introduction to more recent developments in conformal field theory in relation to string construction is provided.

  15. Job creation potential of solar

    This document defines the size of the job market within Canada's solar industry and presents a preliminary forecast of the employment opportunities through to 2025. The issue of job potential within Canada's solar technologies is complicated by the wide range of different fields and technologies within the solar industry. The largest energy generator of the solar technologies is passive solar, but the jobs in this sector are generally in the construction trades and window manufacturers. The Canadian Solar Industries Association estimates that there are about 360 to 500 firms in Canada with the primary business of solar technologies, employing between 900 to 1,200 employees. However, most solar manufacturing jobs in Canada are for products exports as demonstrated by the 5 main solar manufacturers in Canada who estimate that 50 to 95 per cent of their products are exported. The main reason for their high export ratio is the lack of a Canadian market for their products. The 3 categories of job classifications within the solar industry include manufacturing, installation, and operations and maintenance. The indirect jobs include photovoltaic system hardware, solar hot water heating, solar air ventilation, and glass/metal framing. 17 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

  16. Construction management

    PEFP, Proton Engineering Frontier Project, puts its aim to building 100MeV 20mA linear proton accelerator which is national facility for NT, BT, IT, and future technologies, expected to boost up the national industry competitiveness. This R and D, Construction Management is in charge of the supportive works as site selection, architecture and engineering of conventional facilities, and overall construction management. The major goals of this work are as follows: At first, architecture and engineering of conventional facilities. Second, construction management, audit and inspection on construction of conventional facilities. Lastly, cooperation with the project host organization for adjusting technical issues of overall construction. In this research, We made a conceptual design, basic design and detail design of conventional facilities. Also, we made the engineering support for host site construction as follows : selection of project host organization and host site selection, construction technical work for project host organization and procedure management and impact analysis on the delay of project site selection

  17. Solar Energy Education. Home economics: student activities. Field test edition

    1981-03-01

    A view of solar energy from the standpoint of home economics is taken in this book of activities. Students are provided information on solar energy resources while performing these classroom activities. Instructions for the construction of a solar food dryer and a solar cooker are provided. Topics for study include window treatments, clothing, the history of solar energy, vitamins from the sun, and how to choose the correct solar home. (BCS)

  18. Construction mathematics

    Virdi, Surinder

    2006-01-01

    Taking a starting point below that of GCSE level, by assuming no prior mathematical knowledge, Surinder Virdi and Roy Baker take the reader step by step through the mathematical requirements for Level 2 and 3 Building and Construction courses.Unlike the majority of basic level maths texts available, this book focuses exclusively on mathematics as it is applied in actual construction practice. As such, topics specific to the construction industry are presented, as well as essential areas for Level 2 craft NVQs - for example, costing calculations, labor costs, cost of materials and setting out o

  19. Solar Energy.

    Eaton, William W.

    Presented is the utilization of solar radiation as an energy resource principally for the production of electricity. Included are discussions of solar thermal conversion, photovoltic conversion, wind energy, and energy from ocean temperature differences. Future solar energy plans, the role of solar energy in plant and fossil fuel production, and…

  20. Solar Combisystems

    Thür, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    This note first introduces what is a solar combisystem, the structure how a solar combisystem is build up and what are criteria’s to evaluate a solar combisystem concept. Further on the main components of a solar combisystem, the main characteristics and possible advantages and disadvantages...... compared to each other are described. It is not the goal of this note to explain the technical details how to design all components of a solar combisystem. This is done during other lectures of the solar course and in other basic courses as well. This note tries to explain how a solar combisystem...

  1. Solar energy

    Rapp, D.

    1981-01-01

    The book opens with a review of the patterns of energy use and resources in the United States, and an exploration of the potential of solar energy to supply some of this energy in the future. This is followed by background material on solar geometry, solar intensities, flat plate collectors, and economics. Detailed attention is then given to a variety of solar units and systems, including domestic hot water systems, space heating systems, solar-assisted heat pumps, intermediate temperature collectors, space heating/cooling systems, concentrating collectors for high temperatures, storage systems, and solar total energy systems. Finally, rights to solar access are discussed.

  2. Worldwide construction

    The paper lists major construction projects in worldwide processing and pipelining, showing capacities, contractors, estimated costs, and time of construction. The lists are divided into refineries, petrochemical plants, sulfur recovery units, gas processing plants, pipelines, and related fuel facilities. This last classification includes cogeneration plants, coal liquefaction and gasification plants, biomass power plants, geothermal power plants, integrated coal gasification combined-cycle power plants, and a coal briquetting plant

  3. Nanowire-based All Oxide Solar Cells

    Yang, Peidong

    2009-01-01

    We present an all-oxide solar cell fabricated from vertically oriented zinc oxide nanowires and cuprous oxide nanoparticles. Our solar cell consists of vertically oriented n-type zinc oxide nanowires, surrounded by a film constructed from p-type cuprous oxide nanoparticles. Our solution-based synthesis of inexpensive and environmentally benign oxide materials in a solar cell would allow for the facile production of large-scale photovoltaic devices. We found that the solar cell performance is ...

  4. Solar Desalination System by Humidification Dehumidification Method

    Sousi, Abdulla

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: A humidification/dehumidification (HDH) solar desalination unit having combined solar water/air heater was designed constructed and experimentally investigated. The main components of the desalination system are the combined solar air/water heater collector with double glazing, humidifier (evaporator), dehumidifier (condenser), circulating pump, fan and a storage tank. Both air and saline (or brackish water) were heated in a single combined solar water/air heater. The effect of air ...

  5. Solar thanksgiving; Solarer Erntedank

    Zehner, Mike; Doll, Andreas [Hochschule Muenchen (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe PV-Systeme; Hammer, Annette [Oldenburg Univ. (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe Energiemeteorologie; Heesen, Henrik te [Meteocontrol GmbH, Augsburg (Germany). Forschungsprojekt zur Analyse von Fernueberwachungsmessdaten; Herbort, Volker [Meteocontrol GmbH, Augsburg (Germany). Bereich Data-Mining-Vorhaben; Mariani, Marco [Meteocontrol GmbH, Augsburg (Germany). Abt. PV Ertragsgutachten und Prognosen

    2012-03-09

    While the 'felt' weather in 2011 was quite rainy, it was in fact one of the five hottest years since 1881, with many sunshine hours. This is reflected in photovoltaic power generation in 2011. Many owners of PV systems were surprised to find record solar power generation figures. In many cases, even the best case scenarios were topped.

  6. Oscillations caused by flexible attached elements of satellite constructions

    Shatikhin, V. Ye.; Semenov, L. P.; Artemenko, Yu. H.; Borysenko, V. M.; Helenko, O. O.

    We consider oscillations caused by flexible attached elements of satellite constructions, namely, solar array panels and antenna. An analysis of models of oscillations produced by solar array panels is carried out. We give some recommendations concerning the improvement of calculations of oscillations caused by flexible elements of satellite constructions with allowance made for modern achievements in the space material science.

  7. 76 FR 78021 - Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the Rice Solar Energy, LLC, Rice Solar...

    2011-12-15

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the Rice Solar Energy, LLC, Rice Solar Energy Project (RSEP) and California Desert Conservation Area Plan Amendment, California...: Rice Solar Energy, LLC, a subsidiary of SolarReserve, LLC plans to construct a 150 megawatt (MW)...

  8. Construction safety

    Li, Rita Yi Man

    2013-01-01

    A close-to-ideal blend of suburb and city, speedy construction of towers of Babylon, the sparkling proportion of glass and steel buildings’ facade at night showcase the wisdom of humans. They also witness the footsteps, sweats and tears of architects and engineers. Unfortunately, these signatures of human civilizations are swathed in towering figures of construction accidents. Fretting about these on sites, different countries adopt different measures on sites. This book firstly sketches the construction accidents on sites, followed by a review on safety measures in some of the developing countries such as Bermuda, Egypt, Kuwait and China; as well as developed countries, for example, the United States, France and Singapore. It also highlights the enormous compensation costs with the courts’ experiences in the United Kingdom and Hong Kong.

  9. Construction Physics

    Bertelsen, Sven; Henrich, Guilherme; Koskela, Lauri; Rooke, John

    2007-01-01

    At the 14th annual conference in the International Group for Lean Construction in 2006 the authors presented the concept of construction as a process being fed by a number of flows out of which one is the critical one deciding the speed with which the process takes place. This contribution takes the idea further and sets out by discussing production in general and the underlying mental flow models associated with this understanding. It then suggests a new model for the understanding of the na...

  10. Solar Water Heating with Low-Cost Plastic Systems (Brochure)

    2012-01-01

    Newly developed solar water heating technology can help Federal agencies cost effectively meet the EISA requirements for solar water heating in new construction and major renovations. This document provides design considerations, application, economics, and maintenance information and resources.

  11. Construction work

    2004-01-01

    Construction work on building 179 will start on the 16th February 2004 and continue until November 2004. The road between buildings 179 and 158 will temporarily become a one way street from Route Democrite towards building 7. The parking places between buildings 179 and 7 will become obsolete. The ISOLDE collaboration would like to apologize for any inconveniences.

  12. Characterization of Alkaliphilus hydrothermalis sp. nov., a novel alkaliphilic anaerobic bacterium, isolated from a carbonaceous chimney of the Prony hydrothermal field, New Caledonia.

    Ben Aissa, Fatma; Postec, Anne; Erauso, Gaël; Payri, Claude; Pelletier, Bernard; Hamdi, Moktar; Fardeau, Marie-Laure; Ollivier, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    A novel anaerobic, alkaliphilic, Gram-positive staining bacterium was isolated from a hydrothermal chimney in the Prony Bay, New Caledonia. This strain designated FatMR1(T) grew at temperatures from 20 to 55 °C (optimum 37 °C) and at pH between 7.5 and 10.5 (optimum 8.8-9). NaCl is not required for growth (optimum 0.2-0.5%), but is tolerated up to 3%. Sulfate, thiosulfate, elemental sulfur, sulfite, nitrate and nitrite are not used as terminal electron acceptors. Strain FatMR1(T) fermented pyruvate, yeast extract, peptone and biotrypcase and used fructose as the only sugar. The main fermentation products from fructose and proteinaceous compounds (e.g. peptone and biotrypcase) were acetate, H2 and CO2. Crotonate was disproportionated to acetate and butyrate. The predominant cellular fatty acids were C14:0 and C16:0. The G + C content of the genomic DNA was 37.1 mol%. On the basis of phylogenetic, genetic, and physiological properties, strain FatMR1(T) (=DSM 25890(T), =JCM 18390(T)) belonging to the phylum Firmicutes, class Clostridia, order Clostridiales, is proposed as a novel species of the genus Alkaliphilus, A. hydrothermalis sp. nov. PMID:25319677

  13. Bacterial lifestyle in a deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimney revealed by the genome sequence of the thermophilic bacterium Deferribacter desulfuricans SSM1.

    Takaki, Yoshihiro; Shimamura, Shigeru; Nakagawa, Satoshi; Fukuhara, Yasuo; Horikawa, Hiroshi; Ankai, Akiho; Harada, Takeshi; Hosoyama, Akira; Oguchi, Akio; Fukui, Shigehiro; Fujita, Nobuyuki; Takami, Hideto; Takai, Ken

    2010-06-01

    The complete genome sequence of the thermophilic sulphur-reducing bacterium, Deferribacter desulfuricans SMM1, isolated from a hydrothermal vent chimney has been determined. The genome comprises a single circular chromosome of 2,234,389 bp and a megaplasmid of 308,544 bp. Many genes encoded in the genome are most similar to the genes of sulphur- or sulphate-reducing bacterial species within Deltaproteobacteria. The reconstructed central metabolisms showed a heterotrophic lifestyle primarily driven by C1 to C3 organics, e.g. formate, acetate, and pyruvate, and also suggested that the inability of autotrophy via a reductive tricarboxylic acid cycle may be due to the lack of ATP-dependent citrate lyase. In addition, the genome encodes numerous genes for chemoreceptors, chemotaxis-like systems, and signal transduction machineries. These signalling networks may be linked to this bacterium's versatile energy metabolisms and may provide ecophysiological advantages for D. desulfuricans SSM1 thriving in the physically and chemically fluctuating environments near hydrothermal vents. This is the first genome sequence from the phylum Deferribacteres. PMID:20189949

  14. Thoracic type Ia endoleak: direct percutaneous coil embolization of the aortic arch at the blood entry site after TEVAR and double-chimney stent-grafts

    Bangard, Christopher; Franke, Mareike; Maintz, David; Chang, De-Hua [University Hospital, University of Cologne, Department of Radiology, Cologne (Germany); Pfister, Roman [University Hospital, University of Cologne, Department of Internal Medicine III, Cologne (Germany); Deppe, Antje-Christin [University Hospital, University of Cologne, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Cologne (Germany); Matoussevitch, Vladimir [University Hospital, University of Cologne, Department of Vascular Surgery, Cologne (Germany)

    2014-06-15

    To introduce a novel percutaneous technique to stop blood entry at the lesser aortic arch curvature by coil embolisation in type Ia endoleak after TEVAR. A 61-year-old Marfan patient presented with type Ia endoleak of the aortic arch and a growing aortic arch pseudoaneurysm after TEVAR. Multiple preceding operations and interventions made an endovascular approach unsuccessful. Direct percutaneous puncture of the aneurysmal sac would have cured the sign, but not the cause of blood entry at the lesser curvature of the aortic arch. Direct CT-guided percutaneous puncture of the blood entry site in the aortic arch with fluoroscopically guided coil embolisation using detachable extra-long coils was successfully performed. Three weeks after the intervention, the patient developed fever because of superinfection of the pseudoaneurysm. The blood cultures and CT-guided mediastinal aspirate were sterile. After intravenous administration of antibiotics, the fever disappeared and the patient recovered. Six-month follow-up showed permanent closure of the endoleak and a shrinking aneurysmal sac. Direct percutaneous puncture of the aortic arch at the blood entry site of a thoracic type Ia endoleak after TEVAR and double-chimney stent-grafts with coil embolisation of the wedge-shaped space between the lesser aortic curvature and the stent-graft is possible. (orig.)

  15. Thoracic type Ia endoleak: direct percutaneous coil embolization of the aortic arch at the blood entry site after TEVAR and double-chimney stent-grafts

    To introduce a novel percutaneous technique to stop blood entry at the lesser aortic arch curvature by coil embolisation in type Ia endoleak after TEVAR. A 61-year-old Marfan patient presented with type Ia endoleak of the aortic arch and a growing aortic arch pseudoaneurysm after TEVAR. Multiple preceding operations and interventions made an endovascular approach unsuccessful. Direct percutaneous puncture of the aneurysmal sac would have cured the sign, but not the cause of blood entry at the lesser curvature of the aortic arch. Direct CT-guided percutaneous puncture of the blood entry site in the aortic arch with fluoroscopically guided coil embolisation using detachable extra-long coils was successfully performed. Three weeks after the intervention, the patient developed fever because of superinfection of the pseudoaneurysm. The blood cultures and CT-guided mediastinal aspirate were sterile. After intravenous administration of antibiotics, the fever disappeared and the patient recovered. Six-month follow-up showed permanent closure of the endoleak and a shrinking aneurysmal sac. Direct percutaneous puncture of the aortic arch at the blood entry site of a thoracic type Ia endoleak after TEVAR and double-chimney stent-grafts with coil embolisation of the wedge-shaped space between the lesser aortic curvature and the stent-graft is possible. (orig.)

  16. Solar Features

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of solar feature datasets contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide.

  17. Solar Indices

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  18. Solar Imagery

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of solar photographic and illustrated datasets contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide....

  19. Achievement report for fiscal 1997. Technological development for practical application of a solar energy power generation system/development of technology to manufacture thin film solar cells (development of technology to manufacture applied type thin film solar cells with new construction) (development of technology to manufacture micro light collection type solar cells); 1997 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, oyogata shinkozo usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (micro shukogata taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    These technological developments are intended to demonstrate module efficiency of a micro light collection type solar cell of 15% by fiscal 2000, and obtain prospect on the module manufacturing cost of 140 yen per watt. Discussions given during fiscal 1997 are as follows: development has been performed on a design method to decide construction of a non-tracking micro light collection type module; in the state of cells being integrated on the module, the cells are arranged minutely and discretely, whereas, with discussions on a method to form them and assessment of the optical system as the main objective, single crystal silicon solar cells with a size smaller than 5 mm were fabricated on a trial basis; problems of forming micro cells by using the wafer cutting process were clarified; micro cells operating on light collection were fabricated trially to extract technological problems in light collecting operation and discuss technical problems in mass production; and development was performed on an evaluation method to analyze the cells' light collecting operation, and discussions were given on a method to estimate power generation amount from the light collection type modules. (NEDO)

  20. Solar urticaria

    Srinivas C

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A 35-year-old female and a 41-year-old male presented with clinical features suggestive of solar urticaria. The diagnosis of solar urticaria and the effectiveness of a combination of H1 and H2 blocking antihistamines were confirmed by phototesting with a solar simulator

  1. Solar Equipment

    1983-01-01

    A medical refrigeration and a water pump both powered by solar cells that convert sunlight directly into electricity are among the line of solar powered equipment manufactured by IUS (Independent Utility Systems) for use in areas where conventional power is not available. IUS benefited from NASA technology incorporated in the solar panel design and from assistance provided by Kerr Industrial Applications Center.

  2. Modelling Constructs

    Kindler, Ekkart

    2009-01-01

    There are many different notations and formalisms for modelling business processes and workflows. These notations and formalisms have been introduced with different purposes and objectives. Later, influenced by other notations, comparisons with other tools, or by standardization efforts, these...... notations have been extended in order to increase expressiveness and to be more competitive. This resulted in an increasing number of notations and formalisms for modelling business processes and in an increase of the different modelling constructs provided by modelling notations, which makes it difficult...... to compare modelling notations and to make transformations between them. One of the reasons is that, in each notation, the new concepts are introduced in a different way by extending the already existing constructs. In this chapter, we go the opposite direction: We show that it is possible to add...

  3. Constructive Interactions

    Lemoisson, Philippe; Cerri, Stefano A.; Mahe, Serge-André; Sallantin, Jean

    2003-01-01

    The new paradigm of "knowledge construction using experiential based and collaborative learning approaches" is an outstanding opportunity for interdisciplinary research. This document is an attempt to introduce and exemplify as much as possible using the lexicon of "social sciences", considerations and tools belonging to "artificial intelligence" (eg.:the machine learning tradition). In the paper we first draw a conceptual framework for rational agents in conversational interaction; then we u...

  4. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for junior high/middle school science

    1985-01-01

    Some basic topics on the subject of solar energy are outlined in the form of a teaching manual. The manual is geared toward junior high or middle school science students. Topics include solar collectors, solar water heating, solar radiation, insulation, heat storage, and desalination. Instructions for the construction of apparatus to demonstrate the solar energy topics are provided. (BCS)

  5. Solar Indices - Solar Radio Flux

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  6. Integrated photoelectrochemical energy storage: solar hydrogen generation and supercapacitor

    Xinhui Xia; Jingshan Luo; Zhiyuan Zeng; Cao Guan; Yongqi Zhang; Jiangping Tu; Hua Zhang; Hong Jin Fan

    2012-01-01

    Current solar energy harvest and storage are so far realized by independent technologies (such as solar cell and batteries), by which only a fraction of solar energy is utilized. It is highly desirable to improve the utilization efficiency of solar energy. Here, we construct an integrated photoelectrochemical device with simultaneous supercapacitor and hydrogen evolution functions based on TiO2/transition metal hydroxides/oxides core/shell nanorod arrays. The feasibility of solar-driven pseud...

  7. Solar thermal and concentrated solar power barometer

    The European concentrated solar power plant market is steeling itself for tough time ahead. The number of projects under construction is a pittance compared with 2012 that was an excellent year for installations (an additional 802.5 MW of capacity recorded). This drop is the result of the moratorium on renewable energy power plants introduced by the Spanish government. The European solar thermal market is hardly any more encouraging . EurObserv'ER holds that it slipped for the fourth year in a row (it dropped 5.5% between 2011 and 2012). The newly-installed solar thermal collector surface area in the EU now stands at 3.4 million m2, far short of its 2008 installation record of 4.6 million m2. The EU's solar thermal base to date at the end of 2012 is 29.6 GWth with 2.4 GWth installed during the year 2012. This article gives tables gathering the figures of the production for every European country for 2012 and describes the market and the general trend for every EU member

  8. Solar Energy: Solar System Economics.

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on solar system economics is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies.…

  9. Movable air solar collector and its efficiency

    for Latvia has been developed and constructed. Within the article, the movable folding solar collector is described, which has been constructed as a solar collector of module types for being able to move and unfold it in the place of work. The solar collector serves as an experimental prototype, as well as simultaneously as a ground for comparative researches in solar absorbent air. The solar collector serves as an experimental prototype and simultaneously also as a carrying surface for comparative researches in solar absorbent air. In the researches, the roof coverings available in Latvia and their suitability for construction of solar collectors will be compared. (author)

  10. The Kinematic Theory of Solar Dynamo

    2003-01-01

    Generation of the Sun's magnetic fields by self-inductive processes inthe solar electrically conducting interior, the solar dynamo theory, is a fundamen-tally important subject in astrophysics. The kinematic dynamo theory concernshow the magnetic fields are produced by kinematically possible flows without beingconstrained by the dynamic equation. We review a number of basic aspects of thekinematic dynamo theory, including the magnetohydrodynamic approximation forthe dynamo equation, the impossibility of dynamo action with the solar differentialrotation, the Cowling's anti-dynamo theorem in the solar context, the turbulent al-pha effect and recently constructed three-dimensional interface dynamos controlledby the solar tachocline at the base of the convection zone.

  11. Solar heating and cooling of buildings

    Bourke, R. D.; Davis, E. S.

    1975-01-01

    Solar energy has been used for space heating and water heating for many years. A less common application, although technically feasible, is solar cooling. This paper describes the techniques employed in the heating and cooling of buildings, and in water heating. The potential for solar energy to displace conventional energy sources is discussed. Water heating for new apartments appears to have some features which could make it a place to begin the resurgence of solar energy applications in the United States. A project to investigate apartment solar water heating, currently in the pilot plant construction phase, is described.

  12. Constructing Catalonia

    Bill Phillips

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Catalonia, in common with other nations, has long b een concerned with the question of identity and difference. Its problemati c relationship with Spain has led to an emphasis on differentiating itself from its larger neighbour (if we are to accept, as most Spaniards do not, that Catalonia is not Spain, a s ituation complicated by the loss of the Spanish colonies of Cuba and The Philippines in 189 8, and the Spanish Civil War and subsequent dictatorship from 1936 to 1976. Beginnin g in the late nineteenth century, the construction of a Catalan identity followed a simil ar route to that taken by other European nations such as England, Ireland and, inde ed, Spain, including an emphasis on rural values, activities and the countryside, and t he conversion of specifically local traditions into national past times. It is only in the last ten years or so that this model of Catalan identity has been recognised for what it is – a model constructed and encouraged for and by specific nationalist politica l interests. Ironically, Catalonia’s identity abroad has also been constructed and manip ulated for political purposes, but from quite a different perspective. Orwell’s /Homag e to Catalonia/ (1938 narrates an extremely blinkered version of the Spanish Civil Wa r which has achieved iconic status as a result of cold war politics. Subsequent portra yals of the Spanish Civil War – Valentine Cunningham’s /The Penguin Book of Spanish Civil War Verse/ (ed., Penguin, 1980, or Ken Loach’s 1995 film /Land and F reedom/ base their arguments unquestioningly on /Homage to Catalonia/, perpetuat ing a view of the nation’s recent history that is both reductive and inaccurate

  13. Constructing Costs

    Donner, Henrik af

    2000-01-01

    The economic analysis of building contracts is an unexplored field within Law and Economics. This paper makes an attempt to cast some light over the subject and encourage to more research within the field. The main purpose has been to describe why the actual price in a public construction project often turns out to be higher than the contract price and offer a way of handle that risk. In the paper a model is set up that shows an optimal contract given expectations on actual price and gaps in ...

  14. Solar energy use in a construction project: The new old people's home at Muenchenbernsdorf. Final report; Solarenergienutzung im Rahmen eines Bauvorhabens Neubau bzw. Umbau eines Senioren- und Pflegeheimes in Muenchenbernsdorf. Abschlussbericht

    Maschke, R.; Mueller; Grossmann

    2000-07-01

    Old people's homes have a high and largely constant water consumption in all seasons. They are therefore ideal objects for solar sytems. The new old people's home at Muenchenbernsdorf is presented which has a large thermal solar power system, which is also to induce private builder-owners to opt for solar power. [German] Aufgrund ihres hohen (und jahreszeitlich weitestgehend konstanten) Warmwasserverbrauches bieten Senioren- und Pflegeheime sehr gute Voraussetzungen fuer die Nutzung der thermischen Solarenergie zur Warmwasserbereitung. Der Ersatzneubau des Senioren- und Pflegeheims der Stadt Muenchenbernsdorf bietet sehr gute Ansatzpunkte fuer die Senkung des Energieverbrauches und der vom Objekt ausgehen Umweltbelastungen durch Nutzung regenerativer Energietraeger. Durch die Realisierung einer grossen thermischen Solaranlage auf einem oeffentlichen Gebaeude sollen private Bauherren der Region zu eigenen Energiesparinvestitionen angeregt werden. (orig.)

  15. Shenandoah parabolic dish solar collector

    Kinoshita, G.S.

    1985-01-01

    The objectives of the Shenandoah, Georgia, Solar Total Energy System are to design, construct, test, and operate a solar energy system to obtain experience with large-scale hardware systems for future applications. This report describes the initial design and testing activities conducted to select and develop a collector that would serve the need of such a solar total energy system. The parabolic dish was selected as the collector most likely to maximize energy collection as required by this specific site. The fabrication, testing, and installation of the parabolic dish collector incorporating improvements identified during the development testing phase are described.

  16. Nice module. Apollon Solar present their new line of solar modules; Nettes Modul. Apollon Solar stellt Linie fuer neuartige Modultechnologie vor

    Podewils, C.

    2008-06-15

    Solar modules, TGV engines and perfume Zerstaeuber seem to have nothing in common. The new solar module developed by French producer Apollon Solar makes use of both technologies in the construction process. The contribution presents the 'Nice' module which has many new features. (orig.)

  17. FY 2000 report on the results of the development of technology for commercialization of the photovoltaic power system - R and D of the photovoltaic power generation utilization system/peripheral technology. R and D of new solar cell modules integrated with construction materials (high durability roof modules); 2000 nendo New sunshine keikaku seika hokokusho. Taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu, Taiyoko hatsuden riyo system, Shuhen gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu - Shinkenzai ittaigata taiyodenchi mojuru no kenkyu kaihatsu (Kotaikyusei yane mojuru)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The R and D were conducted of new AC-powered solar cell modules integrated with construction materials for residential use of the large roof panel system, and the FY 2000 results were summarized. In the study of the durable structure of solar cell modules and roof modules, development was made of the roof panel use thin film CdTe solar cell module of a hollow sealing structure and small size/high power system interconnection power conditioner. Further, by the design of PV installation structure and roof panel structure, the performance of construction materials and fire-resistance performance were secured, and the module and power conditioner passed the verification test under the Building Standard Law. At the efficiency of large CdTe thin film solar cell module of 11.0%, the roof array efficiency was 9.2% at roof panel and 8.6% at house roof, and the target efficiency was achieved. Moreover, the initial target of the system expansion cost of 170 yen/W or below was achieved by a combination of the large tireless roof panel assembled in factory, large frameless thin film solar cell module and power conditioner that is AC-powered at roof panel unit. (NEDO)

  18. Solar Photovoltaic

    Wang, Chen; Lu, Yuefeng

    2016-01-01

    In the 21st century, human demand for new energy sources is urgent, because the traditional fossil energy is unable to meet human needs, and the fossil resource will make pollution, in this situation, solar energy gradually into the vision of scientists. As science advances, humans can already extensive use of solar energy to generate electricity. Solar energy is an inexhaustible and clean energy. In the global energy crisis, environmental pollution is the growing problem of today. The us...

  19. Building and using the solar greenhouse

    None

    1983-01-01

    Thorough directions are given for planning, constructing and using a solar greenhouse attached to a house. Included is a method of calculating the savings accruing from the use of the greenhouse. (LEW)

  20. Solar Simulator

    1981-01-01

    Oriel Corporation's simulators have a high pressure xenon lamp whose reflected light is processed by an optical system to produce a uniform solar beam. Because of many different types of applications, the simulators must be adjustable to replicate many different areas of the solar radiation spectrum. Simulators are laboratory tools for such purposes as testing and calibrating solar cells, or other solar energy systems, testing dyes, paints and pigments, pharmaceuticals and cosmetic preparations, plant and animal studies, food and agriculture studies and oceanographic research.

  1. Enhancement of Integrated Solar Collector with Spherical Capsules PCM Affected by Additive Aluminum Powder

    Fatah O. Al Ghuol; Sopian, K.; Shahrir Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to study, analyze, design, and construct a solar air heater combined with an appropriate phase-change material (PCM) unit. This solar air heater is analogous to a collector integrating a thermal storage unit and a solar thermal collector. In this study, such single-pass solar air heater in amalgamation with PCM was constructed, and several tests were conducted on this device. During the experiments for the solar collector with PCM (spherical capsules), the temperature varie...

  2. Solar power pumping system for domestic appliences

    Lukhwareni, T.; Gouws, R; Dobzhanskyi, O.

    2014-01-01

    With the world encountering huge pollution problems, use of renewable energy is being encouraged in place of fossils fuels for electricity generation. On such renewable energies is solar power. Solar powered systems are able to generate electricity using photovoltaic (PV) panels, or thermal collectors directly from sunlight. Pool pump electricity consumption has also risen in South Africa. This paper presents the results of the design, and construction of a PV solar system to effect water pum...

  3. Solar heat utilization for adsorption cooling device

    Malcho Milan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with possibility of solar system connection with adsorption cooling system. Waste heat from solar collectors in summer is possible to utilize in adsorption cooling systems, which desorption temperatures have to be lower than temperature of heat transport medium operation temperature. For verification of work of this system was constructed on the Department of power engineering on University of Zilina solar adsorption cooling device.

  4. The apparent longitude distribution of solar flares

    Conway, A. J.; Matthews, S. A.

    2003-01-01

    The distribution of solar flares in solar disk longitude averaged over many solar rotations must be uniform. However, heliographic longitude distributions constructed from observed flare locations are obviously not uniform. In the wavelength ranges we consider (hard and soft X-rays and Halpha), where the emission is presumed to be nearly isotropic, we find a wavelength-dependent bias such that fewer flares than expected occur near the limb. We can explain this bias in terms of the method of l...

  5. Solar heat utilization for adsorption cooling device

    Malcho Milan; Patsch Marek; Pilát Peter

    2012-01-01

    This article deals with possibility of solar system connection with adsorption cooling system. Waste heat from solar collectors in summer is possible to utilize in adsorption cooling systems, which desorption temperatures have to be lower than temperature of heat transport medium operation temperature. For verification of work of this system was constructed on the Department of power engineering on University of Zilina solar adsorption cooling device.

  6. Shuttle Engine Designs Revolutionize Solar Power

    2014-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Main Engine was built under contract to Marshall Space Flight Center by Rocketdyne, now part of Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR). PWR applied its NASA experience to solar power technology and licensed the technology to Santa Monica, California-based SolarReserve. The company now develops concentrating solar power projects, including a plant in Nevada that has created 4,300 jobs during construction.

  7. Satellite Power System. Concept development and evaluation program, volume 6: Construction and operations

    Benson, H.; Jenkins, L. M.

    1981-01-01

    The construction, operation, and maintenance requirements for a solar power satellite, including the space and ground systems, are reviewed. The basic construction guidelines are explained, and construction location options are discussed. The space construction tasks, equipment, and base configurations are discussed together with the operations required to place a solar power satellite in geosynchronous orbit. A rectenna construction technique is explained, and operation with the grid is defined. Maintenance requirements are summarized for the entire system. Key technology issues required for solar power satellite construction operations are defined.

  8. Satellite power system. Concept Development and Evaluation Program, Volume 6: construction and operations

    Benson, H.; Jenkins, L.M.

    1981-04-01

    The construction, operation, and maintenance requirements for a solar power satellite, including the space and ground systems, are reviewed. The basic construction guidelines are explained, and construction location options are discussed. The space construction tasks, equipment, and base configurations are discussed together with the operations required to place a solar power satellite in geosynchronous orbit. A rectenna construction technique is explained, and operation with the grid is defined. Maintenance requirements are summarized for the entire system. Key technology issues required for solar power satellite construction operations are defined.

  9. 76 FR 37313 - Turning Point Solar LLC; Notice of Intent To Hold a Public Scoping Meeting and Prepare an...

    2011-06-27

    ... photovoltaic generating facility in Noble County, Ohio. Turning Point Solar LLC is requesting that RUS provide.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Turning Point Solar LLC proposes to construct a 49.9 MW solar generating facility in... monocrystalline photovoltaic panels mounted on fixed solar racking equipment and the construction of access...

  10. OUT Success Stories: Solar Trough Power Plants

    Jones, J.

    2000-08-01

    The Solar Electric Generating System (SEGS) plants use parabolic-trough solar collectors to capture the sun's energy and convert it to heat. The SEGS plants range in capacity from 13.8 to 80 MW, and they were constructed to meet Southern California Edison Company's periods of peak power demand.

  11. Outgassing tests on iras solar panel samples

    Premat, G.; Zwaal, A.; Pennings, N. H.

    1980-01-01

    Several outgassing tests were carried out on representative solar panel samples in order to determine the extent of contamination that could be expected from this source. The materials for the construction of the solar panels were selected as a result of contamination obtained in micro volatile condensable materials tests.

  12. Screen Printed Metallization of Silicon Solar Cells

    Govaerts, R.; Van Overstraeten, R.; Mertens, R.; Ph. Lauwers; Frisson, L.

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents a screen printing process for the metallization of silicon solar cells. The physics and construction of a classical solar cell are reviewed. The results obtained with a screen printing process are comparable with other, more expensive technologies. This technology does not introduce an additional contact resistance on silicon. The process optimization and the influence of different parameters are discussed.

  13. Analyzing, evaluating, and quantifying the thermal energy contributions of the passive solar-heating elements incorporated in the design and construction of the Plumblee residence located in Alamance County, NC

    Terrell, Mark A.

    2004-01-01

    Currently, nationwide efforts are being made to help policymakers, construction professionals and consumers become more aware of the benefits of incorporating sustainable energy principles in residential building design and construction (Miller 1996). Any success in applying these principles is the result of effective communication by design professionals to builders and homeowners in understanding cost benefit tradeoffs for using sustainable energies in homes. The Gordon and Janice Plumblee ...

  14. Constructing Brambles

    Chapelle, Mathieu; Mazoit, Frédéric; Todinca, Ioan

    Given an arbitrary graph G and a number k, it is well-known by a result of Seymour and Thomas [22] that G has treewidth strictly larger than k if and only if it has a bramble of order k + 2. Brambles are used in combinatorics as certificates proving that the treewidth of a graph is large. From an algorithmic point of view there are several algorithms computing tree-decompositions of G of width at most k, if such decompositions exist and the running time is polynomial for constant k. Nevertheless, when the treewidth of the input graph is larger than k, to our knowledge there is no algorithm constructing a bramble of order k + 2. We give here such an algorithm, running in {mathcal O}(n^{k+4}) time. For classes of graphs with polynomial number of minimal separators, we define a notion of compact brambles and show how to compute compact brambles of order k + 2 in polynomial time, not depending on k.

  15. Design of SMART waste heat removal dry cooling tower using solar energy

    The 85% of cooling system are once-through cooling system and closed cycle wet cooling system. However, many countries are trying to reduce the power plant water requirement due to the water shortage and water pollution. Dry cooling system is investigated for water saving advantage. There are two dry cooling system which are direct and indirect cooling system. In direct type, turbine exhaust is directly cooled by air-cooled condenser. In indirect system, turbine steam is cooled by recirculating intermediate cooling water loop, then the loop is cooled by air-cooled heat exchanger in cooling tower. In this paper, the purpose is to remove SMART waste heat, 200MW by using newly designed tower. The possibility of enhancing cooling performance by solar energy is analyzed. The simple cooling tower and solar energy cooling tower are presented and two design should meet the purpose of removing SMART waste heat, 200MW. In first design, when tower diameter is 70m, the height of tower should be 360m high. In second design, the chimney height decrease from 360m to 180m as collector radius increase from 100m to 500m due to collector temperature enhancement by solar energy, To analyze solar cooling tower further, consideration of solar energy performance at night should be analyzed

  16. Design of SMART waste heat removal dry cooling tower using solar energy

    Choi, Yong Jae; Jeong, Yong Hoon [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The 85% of cooling system are once-through cooling system and closed cycle wet cooling system. However, many countries are trying to reduce the power plant water requirement due to the water shortage and water pollution. Dry cooling system is investigated for water saving advantage. There are two dry cooling system which are direct and indirect cooling system. In direct type, turbine exhaust is directly cooled by air-cooled condenser. In indirect system, turbine steam is cooled by recirculating intermediate cooling water loop, then the loop is cooled by air-cooled heat exchanger in cooling tower. In this paper, the purpose is to remove SMART waste heat, 200MW by using newly designed tower. The possibility of enhancing cooling performance by solar energy is analyzed. The simple cooling tower and solar energy cooling tower are presented and two design should meet the purpose of removing SMART waste heat, 200MW. In first design, when tower diameter is 70m, the height of tower should be 360m high. In second design, the chimney height decrease from 360m to 180m as collector radius increase from 100m to 500m due to collector temperature enhancement by solar energy, To analyze solar cooling tower further, consideration of solar energy performance at night should be analyzed.

  17. Structural Reinforcement Design and Construction of Light-weight Steel Factory Buildings with Solar Panels%太阳能电池板轻钢厂房结构加固设计与施工

    杲磊; 吴高贤

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces a structural reinforcement and constrcution plan for light-weight steel factory buildings with protal rigid frames after the installation of solar panels on the roofs.%该文介绍了既有门式钢架轻钢结构厂房屋面增加太阳能电池板后厂房结构的加固设计与施工方案。

  18. Solar Energy Education. Industrial arts: student activities. Field test edition

    1981-02-01

    In this teaching manual several activities are presented to introduce students to information on solar energy through classroom instruction. Wind power is also included. Instructions for constructing demonstration models for passive solar systems, photovoltaic cells, solar collectors and water heaters, and a bicycle wheel wind turbine are provided. (BCS)

  19. The Economy of the Solar Energy in Czech Republic

    Voloshyna, Antonina

    2012-01-01

    This thesis describes the implementation of solar energy in the Czech energetic system. It examines various aspects, terms and conditions that affect the succes of construction of solar power plants. The aim of this thesis is to find a proper model of implementation of solar energy into Czech energetic system.

  20. Design, construction, operation, and evaluation of solar systems for industrial process-heat applications in the intermediate-temperature range (212/sup 0/F to 550/sup 0/F). Environmental assessment

    None

    1982-01-01

    The environmental impacts are assessed for a proposed 50,000 square foot field of single axis tracking, concentrating solar collectors along the Ohio River in southern Ohio. The facility is planned to produce process steam for use in the production of polystyrene. Absorbed solar energy would heat an aliphatic hydrocarbon synthetic heat transfer fluid to a maximum temperature of 500/sup 0/F. The existing environment is briefly described, particularly regarding air quality. The potential environmental impacts of the solar process heat system on the air, water, soil, endangered species and archaeological and historical resources are examined, including risks due to flood and glare and a comparison of alternatives. Also included are a Consent Judgment relating to two coal-fired boilers in violation of EPA regulations, property data of Gulf Synfluid 4CS (a candidate heat transfer fluid), piping and instrumentation diagrams and schematics, site grade and drainage plan, geological survey map, subsurface soil investigation, Ohio endangered species list, Ohio Archaeological Counsel certification list, and a study of heat transfer fluids and their properties. (LEW)

  1. Solar thermal

    While wind power is widely acknowledged as the most developed of the 'new' renewables, the number two technology, in terms of installed capacity functioning worldwide, is solar heating, or solar thermal. The author has investigated recent industry reports on how these markets are developing. The authors of an International Energy Agency (IEA) survey studied 41 countries in depth at the end of 2004, revealing that 141 million m3 - corresponding to an installed capacity of 98.4 GWth - were installed in the sample countries (these nations represent 3.74 billion people, about 57% of the world's population). The installed capacity within the areas studied represents approximately 85%-90% of the solar thermal market worldwide. The use of solar heating varies greatly between countries - even close neighbours - and between economic regions. Its uptake often has more to do with policy than solar resource. There is also different uptake of technology. In China, Europe and Japan, plants with flat-plate and evacuated tube collectors are used, mainly to heat water and for space heating. Unglazed plastic collectors, used mainly for swimming pool heating, meanwhile, dominate the North American markets. Though the majority of solar heating installations today are installed on domestic rooftops, the larger-scale installations should not be overlooked. One important part of the market is the hotel sector - in particular hotels in locations that serve the seasonal summer holiday market, where solar is extremely effective. Likewise hospitals and residential homes, multi-family apartment blocks and sports centres are all good examples of places where solar thermal can deliver results. There are also a growing number of industrial applications, where solar thermal can meet the hot water needs (and possibly more) of a range of industries, such as food processing and agriculture. The ability of solar to provide a heat source for cooling is expected to become increasingly important as fuel

  2. Low cost thermal solar collector

    Solar energy is a good alternative in the economy of the electric energy mainly for the water heating. However, the solar heaters used demand a high initial investment, becoming the warm water from solar energy inaccessible to a large part of the society. Thus, a low cost solar heater was developed, constructed and tested in the chemical engineering department of West Parana State University-Unioeste. This equipment consists of 300 cans, divided in 30 columns of 10 cans each, all painted in black to enhance the obsorption of the solar radiation. The columns are connected to a pipe of pvc of 8 liters with 0.085m of external diameter. The equipment is capable to heat 120 liters of water in temperatures around 60 degree centigrade. The heater is insolated in its inferior part with cardboard and aluminum, covered with a transparent plastic in its superior. The system still counts with a insulated thermal reservoir, which can conserve the water in temperatures adjusted for the night non-solar days domestic use. The advantage of the constructed is it low cost material. The results are given an graphical tabular from showing acceptable efficiencies.(Autho

  3. Papers presented at ISES solar world congress 1993 in Budapest, Hungary

    Papers presented at the ISES Solar World Congress 1993 by researchers employed at the Thermal Insulation Laboratory at the Technical University of Denmark. The subjects dealt with are: the design of small domestic hot water low-flow solar heating systems, heat storage for large low-flow solar heating systems, the monitoring of Danish marketed solar heating systems, conversion of indoor measurements to outdoor long term performances for low flow solar collectors, optimum ventilation rate of solar collectors, the construction of seasonal heat storage based on a pit with clay membrane, a solar house with a new solar collector, and a framing system for solar wall glazings. (AB)

  4. Bondings for tubular solar collectors

    We studied the following four models of constructing solar collectors: tubes bonded above the absorber plate, tubes bonded under the absorber plate tubes in-line with the absorber plate and bondless tubes in-line with the absorber plate. 2 refs, 6 figs

  5. Psychology and photography: chimneys dreaming and chimneys warriors

    Tilde Giani Gallino

    2013-01-01

    The article covers two aspects related to Psychology and Art. The first aspect concerns the similarities found between photography and various Schools of experimental psychology. For instance, the scientists of Psychology of ethological theory, and Non-verbal communication (NVC), observe with particular methodologies the non-verbal messages that animals and humans transmit to their peers through expressions, posture, gestures. The same is done by photographers (those who use the “camera” with...

  6. Flexible Assembly Solar Technology (FAST) Final Technical Report

    Toister, Elad [BrightSource Energy Inc., Jerusalem (Israel)

    2014-11-06

    The Flexible Assembly Solar Technology (FAST) project was initiated by BrightSource in an attempt to provide potential solar field EPC contractors with an effective set of tools to perform specific construction tasks. These tasks are mostly associated with heliostat assembly and installation, and require customized non-standard tools. The FAST concept focuses on low equipment cost, reduced setup time and increased assembly throughput as compared to the Ivanpah solar field construction tools.

  7. Survey of new forms of organization and financing constructions in the Dutch solar electricity market. Update 2011; Inventarisatie van nieuwe organisatievormen en financieringsconstructies in de Nederlandse zonnestroommarkt. Update 2011

    Meijer, M. [Energy Indeed, Utrecht (Netherlands); Van Heemstra, W. [Agentschap NL, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2011-11-15

    In the title project the focus is on organizations and projects in the Dutch market for solar electricity, characterized by: minimal dependence on subsidies (state aid), the removal of high initial investments by users (financing), and structures that can easily be extended or replicated (scale) [Dutch] In het titel project ligt de nadruk op organisaties en projecten in de Nederlandse markt die getypeerd zijn door: Minimale afhankelijkheid van subsidies (overheidssteun); het wegnemen van hoge initiele investeringen bij gebruikers (financiering); en constructies die eenvoudig kunnen worden uitgebreid of nagevolgd (schaalgrootte)

  8. Sustainable solar housing - IEA Solar Task 28; Nachhaltige Solar-Wohnbauten - IEA Solar Task 28

    Hastings, R.

    2003-07-01

    This annual report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy discusses the importance of making sure that the experience gained in the construction of housing built to 'passive-house' standards and related findings of research are used in the next generation of housing. Also, the importance of recent developments in industry is stressed. These include innovations made in the area of highly-insulated windows and doors as well as in heat generation and distribution. Improvements considered necessary in the areas of heating and ventilation and the optimal use of solar gains are discussed, as are the activities of the Swiss group that has taken over the chairmanship of Task 28 in the International Energy Agency's (IEA) Solar Heating and Cooling Programme.

  9. Solar Energy Education. Reader, Part IV. Sun schooling

    1981-05-01

    A collection of magazine articles which focus on solar energy is presented. This is the final book of the four part series of the Solar Energy Reader. The articles include brief discussions on energy topics such as the sun, ocean energy, methane gas from cow manure, and solar homes. Instructions for constructing a sundial and a solar stove are also included. A glossary of energy related terms is provided. (BCS)

  10. Determination of thermal performance of solar air heater

    Kozak, Christina; Zhelykh, Vasil

    2013-01-01

    Considered the basic aspects of passive solar building. Given the main types of solar air heating systems. Proposed heating and ventilation system at the basis of solar air heater. Constructed fourfactors nomohram for determining thermal power of the thermosiphon heliocollector. Obtained analytical dependence of the amount heat of thermo heliocollector from the differential temprature air inlet and outlet, of the area input and output apertures of solar collector, heat fl...

  11. Meridional Circulation in Solar and Stellar Convection Zones

    Featherstone, Nicholas A.; Miesch, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    We present a series of 3-D nonlinear simulations of solar-like convection, carried out using the Anelastic Spherical Harmonic (ASH) code, that are designed to isolate those processes that drive and shape meridional circulations within stellar convection zones. These simulations have been constructed so as to span the transition between solar-like differential rotation (fast equator/slow poles) and ``anti-solar' differential rotation (slow equator/fast poles). Solar-like states of differential...

  12. How to transform an asphalt concrete pavement into a solar turbine

    Highlights: • We create a system for harvesting energy from asphalt concrete. • We create an artificial porosity in the asphalt concrete. • We connect a chimney to this porosity. • Differences in temperature produce an air flow. • This air flow serves also for cooling down the pavement. - Abstract: Asphalt concrete can absorb a considerable amount of the incident solar radiation. For this reason asphalt roads could be used as solar collectors. There have been different attempts to achieve this goal. All of them have been done by integrating pipes conducting liquid, through the structure of the asphalt concrete. The problem of this system is that all pipes need to be interconnected: if one is broken, the liquid will come out and damage the asphalt concrete. To overcome these limitations, in this article, an alternative concept is proposed:parallel air conduits, where air can circulate will be integrated in the pavement structure. The idea is to connect these artificial pore volumes in the pavement to an updraft or to a downdraft chimney. Differences of temperature between the pavement and the environment can be used to create an air flow, which would allow wind turbines to produce an amount of energy and that would cool the pavement down in summer or even warm it up in winter. To demonstrate that this is possible, an asphalt concrete prototype has been created and basics calculations on the parameters affecting the system have been done. It has been found that different temperatures, volumes of air inside the asphalt and the difference of temperature between the asphalt concrete and the environment are critical to maximize the air flow through the pavement. Moreover, it has been found that this system can be also used to reduce the heat island effect

  13. Solar Radio

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Scientists monitor the structure of the solar corona, the outer most regions of the Sun's atmosphere, using radio waves (100?s of MHz to 10?s of GHz). Variations in...

  14. Solar prominences

    Engvold, Oddbjørn

    2015-01-01

    This volume presents the latest research results on solar prominences, including new developments on e.g. chirality, fine structure, magnetism, diagnostic tools and relevant solar plasma physics. In 1875 solar prominences, as seen out of the solar limb, were described by P.A. Secchi in his book Le Soleil as "gigantic pink or peach-flower coloured flames". The development of spectroscopy, coronagraphy and polarimetry brought tremendous observational advances in the twentieth century. The authors present and discuss exciting new challenges (resulting from observations made by space and ground-based telescopes in the 1990s and the first decade of the 21st century) concerning the diagnostics of prominences, their formation, their life time and their eruption along with their impact in the heliosphere (including the Earth). The book starts with a general introduction of the prominence “object” with some historical background on observations and instrumentation. In the next chapter, the various forms of promine...

  15. Solar Lentigo

    ... your body. Treatments Your Physician May Prescribe If solar lentigines are cosmetically bothersome, your physician may: Freeze the area lightly with liquid nitrogen. Prescribe a bleaching cream (hydroquinone), but this is often not successful. Trusted ...

  16. Solar chulha

    Jadhao, P. H.; Patrikar, S. R.

    2016-05-01

    The main goal of the proposed system is to transfer energy from sun to the cooking load that is located in the kitchen. The energy is first collected by the solar collector lens system and two curve bars of same radius of curvature are mounted parallel and adjacent to each other at different height the solar collector is clamed on this two bars such that solar collector is exactly perpendicular to sunlight. The topology includes an additional feature which is window in the wall through which the beam is collimated is directed in the of kitchen. The solar energy that is collected is directed by the mirror system into the kitchen, where it is redirected to cooking platform located in the kitchen. The special feature in this system full Indian meal can be made since cooking platform is indoors.

  17. Employment impacts of solar energy in Turkey

    Cetin, Muejgan, E-mail: mujgan@sistemyon.com.tr [SISTEM Yoenetim Danismanligi Ltd. Sti. Atatuerk Cad. Ulastirici sok. Eris Sitesi A Blok No:3/7 Sahrayicedid-Erenkoey Istanbul (Turkey); Egrican, Niluefer [Suntek International Orhangazi Cad. No:54/A Dragos- Istanbul (Turkey)

    2011-11-15

    Solar energy is considered a key source for the future, not only for Turkey, also for all of the world. Therefore the development and usage of solar energy technologies are increasingly becoming vital for sustainable economic development. The main objective of this study is investigating the employment effects of solar energy industry in Turkey. Some independent reports and studies, which analyze the economic and employment impacts of solar energy industry in the world have been reviewed. A wide range of methods have been used in those studies in order to calculate and to predict the employment effects. Using the capacity targets of the photovoltaic (PV) and concentrated solar power (CSP) plants in the solar Roadmap of Turkey, the prediction of the direct and indirect employment impacts to Turkey's economy is possible. As a result, solar energy in Turkey would be the primary source of energy demand and would have a big employment effects on the economics. That can only be achieved with the support of governmental feed-in tariff policies of solar energy and by increasing research-development funds. - Highlights: > The objective of the study, is investigating employment effects of solar energy. > Using the capacity targets of the PV and CSP plants in solar roadmap of Turkey. > Direct employment has been calculated by constructing of the solar power plant. > If multiplier effect is accepted as 2, total employment will be doubled. > Validity of the figures depends on the government's policies.

  18. Employment impacts of solar energy in Turkey

    Solar energy is considered a key source for the future, not only for Turkey, also for all of the world. Therefore the development and usage of solar energy technologies are increasingly becoming vital for sustainable economic development. The main objective of this study is investigating the employment effects of solar energy industry in Turkey. Some independent reports and studies, which analyze the economic and employment impacts of solar energy industry in the world have been reviewed. A wide range of methods have been used in those studies in order to calculate and to predict the employment effects. Using the capacity targets of the photovoltaic (PV) and concentrated solar power (CSP) plants in the solar Roadmap of Turkey, the prediction of the direct and indirect employment impacts to Turkey's economy is possible. As a result, solar energy in Turkey would be the primary source of energy demand and would have a big employment effects on the economics. That can only be achieved with the support of governmental feed-in tariff policies of solar energy and by increasing research-development funds. - Highlights: → The objective of the study, is investigating employment effects of solar energy. → Using the capacity targets of the PV and CSP plants in solar roadmap of Turkey. → Direct employment has been calculated by constructing of the solar power plant. → If multiplier effect is accepted as 2, total employment will be doubled. → Validity of the figures depends on the government's policies.

  19. Effect of solar-terrestrial phenomena on solar cell's efficiency

    It is assumed that the solar cell efficiency of PV device is closely related to the solar irradiance, consider the solar parameter Global Solar Irradiance (G) and the meteorological parameters like daily data of Earth Skin Temperature (E), Average Temperature (T), Relative Humidity (H) and Dew Frost Point (D), for the coastal city Karachi and a non-coastal city Jacobabad, K and J is used as a subscripts for parameters of Karachi and Jacobabad respectively. All variables used here are dependent on the location (latitude and longitude) of our stations except G. To employ ARIMA modeling, the first eighteen years data is used for modeling and forecast is done for the last five years data. In most cases results show good correlation among monthly actual and monthly forecasted values of all the predictors. Next, multiple linear regression is employed to the data obtained by ARIMA modeling and models for mean monthly observed G values are constructed. For each station, two equations are constructed, the R values are above 93% for each model, showing adequacy of the fit. Our computations show that solar cell efficiency can be increased if better modeling for meteorological predictors governs the process. (author)

  20. Solar Features - Solar Flares - SIDS

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Sudden Ionospheric Disturbance (SID) is any of several radio propagation anomalies due to ionospheric changes resulting from solar or geophysical events.

  1. Solar Features - Solar Flares - Patrol

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The H-alpha Flare Patrol identifies time periods each day when the sun is being continuously monitored by select ground-based solar observatories.

  2. Closeout of the award DE-FG02-05ER46223. Trustees of the University of Pennsylvania. Project title- "Modular Designed Protein Constructions for Solar Generated H2 From Water

    Dutton, P. Leslie [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2015-02-18

    As the title of the grant clearly states, this project has explores a unique way that makes use of manmade proteins to turn solar energy into chemical fuels. A major impetus to the work is that there is growing support for the view that two related forces will impact on future livability of Earth. The first is the finite supply of fossil fuels to power the Earth making it prudent to save this resource for the creation of useful chemicals. The second is that burning fossil fuels to generate power releases “greenhouse” gases into the atmosphere. There is mounting evidence that this is a major contribution to the warming trend in the Earth’s atmosphere and biosphere.

  3. The HERMES Solar Atlas and the spectroscopic analysis of the seismic solar analogue KIC3241581

    Beck, P G; Van Reeth, T; Tkachenko, A; Raskin, G; van Winckel, H; Nascimento, J -D do; Salabert, D; Corsaro, E; Garcia, R A

    2015-01-01

    Solar-analog stars provide an excellent opportunity to study the Sun's evolution, i.e. the changes with time in stellar structure, activity, or rotation for solar-like stars. The unparalleled photometric data from the NASA space telescope Kepler allows us to study and characterise solar-like stars through asteroseismology. We aim to spectroscopically investigate the fundamental parameter and chromospheric activity of solar analogues and twins, based on observations obtained with the HERMES spectrograph and combine them with asteroseismology. Therefore, we need to build a solar atlas for the spectrograph, to provide accurate calibrations of the spectroscopically determined abundances of solar and late type stars observed with this instrument and thus perform differential spectral comparisons. We acquire high-resolution and high signal-to-noise spectroscopy to construct three solar reference spectra by observing the reflected light of Vesta and Victoria asteroids and Europa (100

  4. A partitioned central solar receiver

    Else of solar energy as substitute for conventional fuels at a competitive cost requires efficient conversion from solar radiation to usable forms of energy. In solar thermal or thermochemical applications, high efficiency usually re- quires high temperature and high concentration of incoming radiation. The main form of energy loss from high temperature solar central receivers is thermal emission ('re radiation'), at an effective temperature close to the maximum receiver temperature. This loss is reduced if the aperture is divided into segments, most of which are maintained at lower temperatures. A two-stage partitioned receiver demonstrating this concept is under construction at the Weizman Solar Tower. The high-temperature stage is the DIAPR (Directly Irradiated Annular Pressurized Receiver). The low-temperature stage is made of tubular cavity receivers of simpler design. Preliminary optical and thermal design of the partitioned receiver is presented. For the design exit temperature of 1500 K, the aperture size of the partitioned receiver is about 60% of the equivalent single-stage receiver, indicating a significant increase of conversion efficiency. The exit temperature of the low-temperature stage is around 1100 K, allowing simpler design and inexpensive construction. (authors)

  5. Solar boilers 1995. Five years solar boiler campaign

    An overview is given of the activities and the results of Marketing Communication Strategy for Solar Water Heaters in the Netherlands, carried out within the framework of the 1990-1994 National Research Program Thermal Solar Energy (NOZ-th) of the Netherlands Agency for Energy and the Environment (NOVEM). Subsequently attention is paid to the sales, the manufacturers and their products, public information activities and reactions from the consumers, the marketing activities of energy distribution companies, the role of installers, local governments and the building construction industry, and market developments. 24 figs., 21 ills., 5 tabs., 18 refs., 2 appendices

  6. 10000 solar children

    This is a progress report of the Working Group for Renewable Energy whose aim is to guide and to support the design and construction of individual (house) heating installations where a considerable part of constructional work is done by do-it-yourselfers. Up to now 10000 installations have been built in Austria under the auspices of the Working Group. Details of the organisation of work and data on the amount of solar heating use in Austria are given. Moreover the costs of home-made installations are compared to those of factory-made high-tech ones. It is concluded that considerable lower costs can be achieved with only a minor decrease in efficiency. (Quittner)

  7. Constructing Aligned Assessments Using Automated Test Construction

    Porter, Andrew; Polikoff, Morgan S.; Barghaus, Katherine M.; Yang, Rui

    2013-01-01

    We describe an innovative automated test construction algorithm for building aligned achievement tests. By incorporating the algorithm into the test construction process, along with other test construction procedures for building reliable and unbiased assessments, the result is much more valid tests than result from current test construction…

  8. Solar power satellite cost estimate

    Harron, R. J.; Wadle, R. C.

    1981-01-01

    The solar power configuration costed is the 5 GW silicon solar cell reference system. The subsystems identified by work breakdown structure elements to the lowest level for which cost information was generated. This breakdown divides into five sections: the satellite, construction, transportation, the ground receiving station and maintenance. For each work breakdown structure element, a definition, design description and cost estimate were included. An effort was made to include for each element a reference that more thoroughly describes the element and the method of costing used. All costs are in 1977 dollars.

  9. Developing an Inflatable Solar Array

    Malone, Patrick; Crawford, Larry; Williams, Geoffrey,

    1993-01-01

    L'Garde is developing a light weight deployable solar array wing in the 200-1000 watt range, on the Inflatable Torus Solar Array Technology Demonstration (ITSAT Demo) Project. The power density goal is 90-100 W/Kg for a 200 W wing, including structure and deployment mechanisms. In Phase 1, a proof of concept torus and array was constructed and deployed in the laboratory. A revised Phase 2 Torus and Array are now being fabricated. Phase 3 will be a space flight test. The current design uses cr...

  10. Solar Neutrinos

    Davis, R. Jr.; Harmer, D. S.

    1964-12-01

    The prospect of studying the solar energy generation process directly by observing the solar neutrino radiation has been discussed for many years. The main difficulty with this approach is that the sun emits predominantly low energy neutrinos, and detectors for observing low fluxes of low energy neutrinos have not been developed. However, experimental techniques have been developed for observing neutrinos, and one can foresee that in the near future these techniques will be improved sufficiently in sensitivity to observe solar neutrinos. At the present several experiments are being designed and hopefully will be operating in the next year or so. We will discuss an experiment based upon a neutrino capture reaction that is the inverse of the electron-capture radioactive decay of argon-37. The method depends upon exposing a large volume of a chlorine compound, removing the radioactive argon-37 and observing the characteristic decay in a small low-level counter.

  11. Solar oscillations

    Amongst all stars observed to pulsate, the Sun has by far the largest number and variety of modes of oscillation. This presents a unique opportunity to apply and test stellar oscillation theory. To match the observational accuracy, very precise calculations of oscillation frequencies are needed. Asymptotic methods have proved useful in the analysis and interpretation of the frequencies. The results provide tight constraints on solar models; they may also enable a direct determination of properties of the solar interior. There are difficulties in reconciling the amplitudes obtained in Doppler velocity with those observed in the apparent position of the solar limb. The excitation of the oscillations is so far not well understood, although it is probable that the interaction between pulsation and convection plays an important role. (orig.)

  12. Creating solar media nets solar tools, publicity

    Brewer, B.

    1980-01-01

    The utilization of locally produced solar tool to gain more access to commercial media is discussed. Central is a strategy of (1) giving commercial media something to report, (2) helping educate the media, and (3) simultaneously impacting that portion of the public which is likely to be most interested. Methods for reaching several target audiences include a Solar Calendar, a Passive Solar Film, a local Solar Directory, a local Solar Information Center, an Emergency Coolth brochure and a Conservation/Solar Retrofit Guide.

  13. Web based Measurement System for Solar Radiation

    Shachi Awasthi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We present in this paper, the principles of the measurement system for solar radiation, and our implementation using Web based data logging concept. The photocurrent produced by Silicon PN junction is used as a solar radiation transducer, to make it more viable we have used commercially available solar panels as our transducers. Using a silicon solar cell as sensor, a low cost solar radiometer can be constructed. The photocurrent produced by solar cell is electronically tailored to be measured and stored by our web based data acquisition and monitoring system. Measurement using real solar cell array gives a good measure of actual producible energy by solar arrays. Our portable instrument can be used in remote sites and substitutes the solar monitor and integrator, Current data of solar radiation can be monitored using Ethernet interface available in all PC, Laptops. We store the data into a secure digital card which can be retrieved to plot and analyse the data. We have developed system hardware and software based on ATmega32 AVR Microcontrollers and ENC28J60 Ethernet PHY and MAC network interface chip by Microchip. So the global irradiance data are obtained after correction using the instantaneous measurement of ambient temperature which allows us to calculate the junction temperature and consequently improve the precision of measurement of our data acquisition system.

  14. Cocedores Solares

    del Rio Portilla, Jesús Antonio; Tapia Salinas, Saúl; Jaramillo Salgado, Oscar Alfredo

    2011-01-01

    En este trabajo se presentan algunas ideas sobre las limitaciones que han tenido los hornos o las estufas estufas solares para su utilización en gran escala. Se propone una solución a través de un dispositivo híbrido, los cocedores solares automatizados. Se esquematiza un modelo termodinámico para describir la evolución de la temperatura en el interior del cocedor. Así como se presentan los resultados de la evaluación de indicadores de sabor, color, textura, olor y apariencia (las característ...

  15. Solar neutrinos

    The problem with solar neutrinos is that there seem to be too few of them, at least near the top end of the spectrum, since the 37Cl detector finds only about 35% of the standard predicted flux. Various kinds of explanation have been offered: (a) the standard solar model is wrong, (b) neutrinos decay, (c) neutrinos have magnetic moments, (d) neutrinos oscillate. The paper surveys developments in each of these areas, especially the possible enhancement of neutrino oscillations by matter effects and adiabatic level crossing. The prospects for further independent experiments are also discussed. (author)

  16. Solar cells

    Cuquel, A.; Roussel, M.

    The physical and electronic characteristics of solar cells are discussed in terms of space applications. The principles underlying the photovoltaic effect are reviewed, including an analytic model for predicting the performance of individual cells and arrays of cells. Attention is given to the effects of electromagnetic and ionizing radiation, micrometeors, thermal and mechanical stresses, pollution and degassing encountered in space. The responses of different types of solar cells to the various performance-degrading agents are examined, with emphasis on techniques for quality assurance in the manufacture and mounting of Si cells.

  17. Solar cells

    A method of producing solar cells is described which consists of producing a substantially monocrystalline tubular body of silicon or other suitable semiconductor material, treating this body to form an annular rectifying junction and then cutting it longitudinally to form a number of nearly flat ribbons from which the solar cells are fabricated. The P=N rectifying junction produced by the formation of silicon dioxide on the layers at the inner and outer surfaces of the body can be formed by ion-implantation or diffusion. (U.K.)

  18. Solar lighting

    Pode, Ramchandra

    2011-01-01

    Limited availability of grid-based electricity is a major challenge faced by many developing countries, particularly the rural population. Fuel-based lighting, such as the kerosene lantern, is widespread in these areas, but it is a poor alternative, contributing to global warming and causing serious health problems. Several developing countries are therefore now encouraging the use of sustainable lighting. ""Solar Lighting"" gives an in-depth analysis of energy-efficient light production through the use of solar-powered LED systems. The authors pay particular attention to the interplay between

  19. DUALPURPOSE SOLAR OVEN

    S. H. Sengar

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Dual purpose solar oven (DPSO was designed and constructed. It observed that by using the new design of solar oven, both function of cooking and drying were possible for meeting the requirement of a family. The maximum stagnation temperature of 119°C and water temperature of 93.25°C were obtained in winter in DPSO while using as cooker. The calculated values of figure of merit F in DPSO was 0.119 and the time duration 1 for raising water temperature from 60 C to 90°C in hot box was 120 min. Cooking trials have also been conducted 0.5 kg of rice in 1 kg of water and 0.250 Kg of green gram split washed in one and half hrs in winter while it took about one hour in summer. The maximum temperature of 58 °C was recorded at 14:00 hrs of the day at level of tray no.2 when used as dryer. The time required to dry maize on different trays upto average moisture content 7.13 %( w.w. for winter and 5.43 %( w.w. for summer (w.w.was 420 minute and 360 minute respectively. The total cost of solar oven was worked out to be Rs(.2,715. Its pay back period varied between 1.3 to 1.86 years depending upon fuel it replaced.

  20. Push-Pull Ventilation in a Painting Shop for Large Steel Constructions

    Svidt, Kjeld; Heiselberg, Per

    This paper describes the analysis of a push-pull ventilation system for a painting shop that is used for painting steel chimneys and windmill towers.......This paper describes the analysis of a push-pull ventilation system for a painting shop that is used for painting steel chimneys and windmill towers....

  1. Solar maximum: solar array degradation

    The 5-year in-orbit power degradation of the silicon solar array aboard the Solar Maximum Satellite was evaluated. This was the first spacecraft to use Teflon R FEP as a coverglass adhesive, thus avoiding the necessity of an ultraviolet filter. The peak power tracking mode of the power regulator unit was employed to ensure consistent maximum power comparisons. Telemetry was normalized to account for the effects of illumination intensity, charged particle irradiation dosage, and solar array temperature. Reference conditions of 1.0 solar constant at air mass zero and 301 K (28 C) were used as a basis for normalization. Beginning-of-life array power was 2230 watts. Currently, the array output is 1830 watts. This corresponds to a 16 percent loss in array performance over 5 years. Comparison of Solar Maximum Telemetry and predicted power levels indicate that array output is 2 percent less than predictions based on an annual 1.0 MeV equivalent election fluence of 2.34 x ten to the 13th power square centimeters space environment

  2. Concrete construction engineering handbook

    Nawy, Edward G

    2008-01-01

    Provides coverage of concrete construction engineering and technology. This work features discussions focusing on: the advances in engineered concrete materials; reinforced concrete construction; specialized construction techniques; and, design recommendations for high performance.

  3. Solar Energy and You.

    Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

    This booklet provides an introduction to solar energy by discussing: (1) how a home is heated; (2) how solar energy can help in the heating process; (3) the characteristics of passive solar houses; (4) the characteristics of active solar houses; (5) how solar heat is stored; and (6) other uses of solar energy. Also provided are 10 questions to…

  4. Solar Thermal Concept Evaluation

    Hawk, Clark W.; Bonometti, Joseph A.

    1995-01-01

    Concentrated solar thermal energy can be utilized in a variety of high temperature applications for both terrestrial and space environments. In each application, knowledge of the collector and absorber's heat exchange interaction is required. To understand this coupled mechanism, various concentrator types and geometries, as well as, their relationship to the physical absorber mechanics were investigated. To conduct experimental tests various parts of a 5,000 watt, thermal concentrator, facility were made and evaluated. This was in anticipation at a larger NASA facility proposed for construction. Although much of the work centered on solar thermal propulsion for an upper stage (less than one pound thrust range), the information generated and the facility's capabilities are applicable to material processing, power generation and similar uses. The numerical calculations used to design the laboratory mirror and the procedure for evaluating other solar collectors are presented here. The mirror design is based on a hexagonal faceted system, which uses a spherical approximation to the parabolic surface. The work began with a few two dimensional estimates and continued with a full, three dimensional, numerical algorithm written in FORTRAN code. This was compared to a full geometry, ray trace program, BEAM 4, which optimizes the curvatures, based on purely optical considerations. Founded on numerical results, the characteristics of a faceted concentrator were construed. The numerical methodologies themselves were evaluated and categorized. As a result, the three-dimensional FORTRAN code was the method chosen to construct the mirrors, due to its overall accuracy and superior results to the ray trace program. This information is being used to fabricate and subsequently, laser map the actual mirror surfaces. Evaluation of concentrator mirrors, thermal applications and scaling the results of the 10 foot diameter mirror to a much larger concentrator, were studied. Evaluations

  5. Solar satellites

    Poher, C.

    1982-01-01

    A reference system design, projected costs, and the functional concepts of a satellite solar power system (SSPS) for converting sunlight falling on solar panels of a satellite in GEO to a multi-GW beam which could be received by a rectenna on earth are outlined. Electricity transmission by microwaves has been demonstrated, and a reference design system for supplying 5 GW dc to earth was devised. The system will use either monocrystalline Si or concentrator GaAs solar cells for energy collection in GEO. Development is still needed to improve the lifespan of the cells. Currently, the cell performance degrades 50 percent in efficiency after 7-8 yr in space. Each SSPS satellite would weigh either 34,000 tons (Si) or 51,000 tons (GaAs), thereby requiring the fabrication of a heavy lift launch vehicle or a single-stage-to-orbit transport in order to minimize launch costs. Costs for the solar panels have been estimated at $500/kW using the GaAs technology, with transport costs for materials to GEO being $40/kg.

  6. Solar Power

    Ford, Norman C.; Kane, Joseph W.

    1971-01-01

    Proposes a method of collecting solar energy by using available plastics for Fresnel lenses to focus heat onto a converter where thermal dissociation of water would produce hydrogen. The hydrogen would be used as an efficient non-polluting fuel. Cost estimates are included. (AL)

  7. Solar Neutrinos

    Bellini, G.; Ranucci, G.

    2010-01-01

    Solar neutrino investigation has represented one of the most active field of particle physics over the past decade, accumulating important and sometimes unexpected achievements. After reviewing some of the most recent impressive successes, the future perspectives of this exciting area of neutrino research will be discussed.

  8. Solar system

    Homer, Charlene

    2007-01-01

    Thrill young astronomers with a journey through our Solar System. Find out all about the Inner and Outer Planets, the Moon, Stars, Constellations, Asteroids, Meteors and Comets. Using simplified language and vocabulary, concepts such as planetary orbits, the asteroid belt, the lunar cycle and phases of the moon, and shooting stars are all explored.

  9. Sistema Solar

    Federación de Asociaciones de Astronomía Cielo de Comellas

    2004-01-01

    Lección sobre el Sistema Solar. Curso de Astronomía Básica, segunda edición, impartido por los miembros de la Federación de Asociaciones de Astronomía Cielo de Comellas. Casa de la Ciencia, sábados, del 24 de septiembre al 22 de octubre de 2011

  10. Photovoltaic assisted solar drying system

    A photovoltaic assisted solar drying system has been constructed at the Solar Energy Research Park, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. This drying system uses a custom designed parallel flow V-groove type collector. A fan powered by photovoltaic source assists the air flow through the drying system. A funnel with increasing diameter towards the top with ventilator turbine is incorporated into the system to facilitate the air flow during the absence of photovoltaic energy source. This drying system is designed with high efficiency and portability in mind so that it can readily be used at plantation sites where the crops are harvested or produced. A daily mean efficiency about 44% with mean air flow rate 0.16 kgs-1 has been achieved at mean daily radiation intensity of 800 Wm-2. daily mean temperature of air drying chamber under the above conditions is 46 oC. Study has shown that the air flow and air temperature increase with the increase of solar radiation intensity. On a bright sunny day with instantaneous solar intensity about 600 Wm-2, the temperature of air entering the drying chamber of 45 oC has been measured. In the absence of photovoltaic or in natural convection flow, the instantaneous efficiency decreased when solar radiation increased. The instantaneous efficiency recorded are 35% and 27% respectively at 570 Wm-2 and 745 Wm-2 of solar radiation. The temperature of drying chamber for the same amount of solar radiation are 42 oC and 48 oC respectively. Thus, the solar dryer shows a great potential for application in drying process of agricultural produce

  11. Concentrating solar thermal power.

    Müller-Steinhagen, Hans

    2013-08-13

    In addition to wind and photovoltaic power, concentrating solar thermal power (CSP) will make a major contribution to electricity provision from renewable energies. Drawing on almost 30 years of operational experience in the multi-megawatt range, CSP is now a proven technology with a reliable cost and performance record. In conjunction with thermal energy storage, electricity can be provided according to demand. To date, solar thermal power plants with a total capacity of 1.3 GW are in operation worldwide, with an additional 2.3 GW under construction and 31.7 GW in advanced planning stage. Depending on the concentration factors, temperatures up to 1000°C can be reached to produce saturated or superheated steam for steam turbine cycles or compressed hot gas for gas turbine cycles. The heat rejected from these thermodynamic cycles can be used for sea water desalination, process heat and centralized provision of chilled water. While electricity generation from CSP plants is still more expensive than from wind turbines or photovoltaic panels, its independence from fluctuations and daily variation of wind speed and solar radiation provides it with a higher value. To become competitive with mid-load electricity from conventional power plants within the next 10-15 years, mass production of components, increased plant size and planning/operating experience will be accompanied by technological innovations. On 30 October 2009, a number of major industrial companies joined forces to establish the so-called DESERTEC Industry Initiative, which aims at providing by 2050 15 per cent of European electricity from renewable energy sources in North Africa, while at the same time securing energy, water, income and employment for this region. Solar thermal power plants are in the heart of this concept. PMID:23816910

  12. Solar Technology Center

    Boehm, Bob

    2011-04-27

    The Department of Energy, Golden Field Office, awarded a grant to the UNLV Research Foundation (UNLVRF) on August 1, 2005 to develop a solar and renewable energy information center. The Solar Technology Center (STC) is to be developed in two phases, with Phase I consisting of all activities necessary to determine feasibility of the project, including design and engineering, identification of land access issues and permitting necessary to determine project viability without permanently disturbing the project site, and completion of a National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Environmental Assessment. Phase II is the installation of infrastructure and related structures, which leads to commencement of operations of the STC. The STC is located in the Boulder City designated 3,000-acre Eldorado Valley Energy Zone, approximately 15 miles southwest of downtown Boulder City and fronting on Eldorado Valley Drive. The 33-acre vacant parcel has been leased to the Nevada Test Site Development Corporation (NTSDC) by Boulder City to accommodate a planned facility that will be synergistic with present and planned energy projects in the Zone. The parcel will be developed by the UNLVRF. The NTSDC is the economic development arm of the UNLVRF. UNLVRF will be the entity responsible for overseeing the lease and the development project to assure compliance with the lease stipulations established by Boulder City. The STC will be operated and maintained by University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV) and its Center for Energy Research (UNLV-CER). Land parcels in the Eldorado Valley Energy Zone near the 33-acre lease are committed to the construction and operation of an electrical grid connected solar energy production facility. Other projects supporting renewable and solar technologies have been developed within the energy zone, with several more developments in the horizon.

  13. High Efficiency Dye-sensitized Solar Cells Constructed with Composites of TiO2 and the Hot-bubbling Synthesized Ultra-Small SnO2 Nanocrystals.

    Mao, Xiaoli; Zhou, Ru; Zhang, Shouwei; Ding, Liping; Wan, Lei; Qin, Shengxian; Chen, Zhesheng; Xu, Jinzhang; Miao, Shiding

    2016-01-01

    An efficient photo-anode for the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) should have features of high loading of dye molecules, favorable band alignments and good efficiency in electron transport. Herein, the 3.4 nm-sized SnO2 nanocrystals (NCs) of high crystallinity, synthesized via the hot-bubbling method, were incorporated with the commercial TiO2 (P25) particles to fabricate the photo-anodes. The optimal percentage of the doped SnO2 NCs was found at ~7.5% (SnO2/TiO2, w/w), and the fabricated DSSC delivers a power conversion efficiency up to 6.7%, which is 1.52 times of the P25 based DSSCs. The ultra-small SnO2 NCs offer three benefits, (1) the incorporation of SnO2 NCs enlarges surface areas of the photo-anode films, and higher dye-loading amounts were achieved; (2) the high charge mobility provided by SnO2 was confirmed to accelerate the electron transport, and the photo-electron recombination was suppressed by the highly-crystallized NCs; (3) the conduction band minimum (CBM) of the SnO2 NCs was uplifted due to the quantum size effects, and this was found to alleviate the decrement in the open-circuit voltage. This work highlights great contributions of the SnO2 NCs to the improvement of the photovoltaic performances in the DSSCs. PMID:26758941

  14. Solar Panel based Milk Pasteurization

    Nielsen, Kirsten Mølgaard; Pedersen, Tom Søndergaard

    This paper treats the subject of analysis, design and development of the control system for a solar panel based milk pasteurization system to be used in small villages in Tanzania. The analysis deals with the demands for an acceptable pasteurization, the varying energy supply and the low cost, low...... complexity, simple user interface and high reliability demands. Based on these demands a concept for the pasteurization system is established and a control system is developed. A solar panel has been constructed and the energy absorption has been tested in Tanzania. Based on the test, the pasteurization...... system is dimensioned. A functional prototype of the pasteurization facility with a capacity of 200 l milk/hour has been developed and tested. The system is prepared for solar panels as the main energy source and is ready for a test in Tanzania....

  15. Solar Panel based Milk Pasteurization

    Nielsen, Kirsten Mølgaard; Pedersen, Tom Søndergaard

    2002-01-01

    This paper treats the subject of analysis, design and development of the control system for a solar panel based milk pasteurization system to be used in small villages in Tanzania. The analysis deals with the demands for an acceptable pasteurization, the varying energy supply and the low cost, low...... complexity, simple user interface and high reliability demands. Based on these demands a concept for the pasteurization system is established and a control system is developed. A solar panel has been constructed and the energy absorption has been tested in Tanzania. Based on the test, the pasteurization...... system is dimensioned. A functional prototype of the pasteurization facility with a capacity of 200 l milk/hour has been developed and tested. The system is prepared for solar panels as the main energy source and is ready for a test in Tanzania....

  16. 76 FR 65532 - Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Sonoran Solar...

    2011-10-21

    ... proposing to construct an up to 375-megawatt (MW) concentrated-solar-thermal (CST) power plant and ancillary...) for a ROW grant to construct, operate, and decommission a solar power plant on public lands in... number of related facilities and infrastructure including power blocks and solar trough arrays...

  17. 77 FR 42488 - Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Panoche Valley Solar...

    2012-07-19

    ... Army permit application to construct a solar photovoltaic energy plant in San Benito County, CA. The... Water Act to construct and operate a 399-Megawatt AC (MWAC) solar photovoltaic (PV) energy generating facility known as the Panoche Valley Solar Farm (the Project). The Project would be located on...

  18. Development of a digital mobile solar tracker

    Baidar, Sunil; Kille, Natalie; Ortega, Ivan; Sinreich, Roman; Thomson, David; Hannigan, James; Volkamer, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    We have constructed and deployed a fast digital solar tracker aboard a moving ground-based platform. The tracker consists of two rotating mirrors, a lens, an imaging camera, and a motion compensation system that provides the Euler angles of the mobile platform in real time. The tracker can be simultaneously coupled to UV–Vis and Fourier transform infrared spectrometers, making it a versatile tool to measure the absorption of trace gases using solar incoming radiation. The in...

  19. Development of a digital mobile solar tracker

    S. Baidar; N. Kille; I. Ortega; R. Sinreich; Thomson, D.; Hannigan, J.; R. Volkamer

    2015-01-01

    We have constructed and deployed a fast digital solar tracker aboard a moving ground-based platform. The tracker consists of two rotating mirrors, a lens, an imaging camera, and a motion compensation system that provides the Euler angles of the mobile platform in real time. The tracker can be simultaneously coupled to UV-Vis and FTIR spectrometers making it a versatile tool to measure the absorption of trace gases using solar incoming radi...

  20. Helioseismology, solar models and solar neutrinos

    Fiorentini, G; B. Ricci

    1999-01-01

    We review recent advances concerning helioseismology, solar models and solar neutrinos. Particularly we shall address the following points: i) helioseismic tests of recent SSMs; ii)the accuracy of the helioseismic determination of the sound speed near the solar center; iii)predictions of neutrino fluxes based on helioseismology, (almost) independent of SSMs; iv)helioseismic tests of exotic solar models.

  1. Collecting Solar Energy. Solar Energy Education Project.

    O'Brien, Alexander

    This solar energy learning module for use with junior high school students offers a list of activities, a pre-post test, job titles, basic solar energy vocabulary, and diagrams of solar energy collectors and installations. The purpose is to familiarize students with applications of solar energy and titles of jobs where this knowledge could be…

  2. Study on technique for integrated heating of a solar pond

    Cao Jinlong [Ke Yuan New Energy Tech. Development Co. Ltd., Weifang, SD (China); Lu Xiaoyan [English Dept. of Weifang Medical Univ., SD (China)

    2008-07-01

    The first example in China of an integrated heating system using a solar pond was constructed on the banks of Laizhou Bay of Weifang city, in Shandong province. Adopting heating systems for seawater solar ponds, shallow-styled solar ponds and conservatory-model solar ponds, the system solves the problem of how to overwinter warm seawater fish. The method of heating in the course of nursing young aquatic products provides a new technique for protected aquaculture using solar energy. This essay introduces the technical parameters and development of the system and analyzes the validity of the technique and its prospects for application. Several shortcomings are also discussed. (orig.)

  3. Solar variability observed through changes in solar figure and mean diameter

    The objective of the project is to detect and monitor climatically significant solar variability by accurate monitoring of the associated variability in solar shape and diameter. The observing program for this project was initiated in 1981. Solar diameter measurements have been taken and data reduction programs for these measurements have been developed. Theoretical analysis of the expected change in the intensity from the solar atmosphere to a given mechanial driving has progressed to the extent that changes in the solar diameter can be related to the associated change in the solar luminosity. An absolute calibration system for the telescope has been constructed and is currently being tested. A proposal is made for the continuation of the work in each of these areas

  4. Web based Measurement System for Solar Radiation

    Shachi Awasthi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We present in this paper, the principles of themeasurement system for solar radiation, and ourimplementation using Web based data loggingconcept.The photocurrent produced by Silicon PNjunction is used as a solar radiation transducer, tomake it more viable we have used commerciallyavailable solar panels as our transducers. Using asilicon solar cell as sensor, a low cost solarradiometer can be constructed. The photocurrentproduced by solar cell is electronically tailored to bemeasured and stored by our web based dataacquisition and monitoring system. Measurementusing real solar cell array gives a good measure ofactual producible energy by solar arrays. Ourportable instrument can be used in remote sites andsubstitutes the solar monitor and integrator,Current data of solar radiation can be monitoredusing Ethernet interface available in all PC,Laptops. We store the data into a secure digital cardwhich can be retrieved to plot and analyse the data.We have developed system hardware andsoftware based on ATmega32 AVR Microcontrollersand ENC28J60 Ethernet PHY and MAC networkinterface chip by Microchip.So the global irradiance data are obtained aftercorrection using the instantaneous measurement ofambient temperature which allows us to calculatethe junction temperature and consequently improvethe precision of measurement of our dataacquisition system

  5. Implications of solar wind measurements for solar models and composition

    Serenelli, Aldo; Villante, Francesco L; Vincent, Aaron C; Asplund, Martin; Basu, Sarbani; Grevesse, Nicolas; Pena-Garay, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    We critically examine recent claims of a high solar metallicity by von Steiger \\& Zurbuchen (2016; vSZ16) based on in situ measurements of the solar wind, rather than the standard spectroscopically-inferred abundances (Asplund et al. 2009). We test the claim by Vagnozzi et al. (2016) that a composition based on the solar wind enables one to construct a standard solar model in agreement with helioseismological observations and thus solve the decades-old solar modelling problem. We show that, although some helioseismological observables are improved compared to models computed with established abundances, most are in fact worse. The high abundance of refractory elements leads to an overproduction of neutrinos, with a predicted $^8$B flux that is nearly twice its observed value, and $^7$Be and CNO fluxes that are experimentally ruled out at high confidence. A combined likelihood analysis shows that models using the vSZ16 abundances fare much worse than AGSS09 despite a higher metallicity. We also present ast...

  6. Use of the solar and eolic energy in the drying of bean seed at rural level

    The drying is a camera through which is made pass air heated in a solar collector, by means of a rotational fan impelled by the wind. The dryer is wooden and the zinc consists of five levels where the trays are deposited that contain the product. In the end of the chimney placed above the drying camera this the fan that is a rotor of corrugate fins; when rotating under the action of the wind it extracts air of the ventilation chimney; in the periods that the wind doesn't blow the drying it happens for natural convention. In the collector the badge absorbent is zinc colored corrugate of black; the mark is wooden, isolated in its inferior part with icopor and the cover a sheet of plastic. To evaluate the dryer they were carried out four drying rehearsals with seed of bean variety Calima. One observes that the bean drying with this dryer type is feasible even with cloudy or partially cloudy sky. The drying was satisfactory with the two loads of 200 and 400 kg. With the flow of air through the trays and for the load of 210 kg with flow around them; being the drying uniform for this it finishes. The quality of the seeds was not affected in the drying coke superior temperatures they were presented to 43-centigrade degrees. The dryer can adapt to individual necessities and conditions you specify of operation. It is recommended to carry out rehearsals for other agricultural products that allow knowing the capacity and functionality from the dryer to property level

  7. Solar cooking and baking in Central Europe; Kochen mit der Sonne. Solar kochen und backen in Mitteleuropa

    Behringer, Rolf; Goetz, Michael

    2008-07-01

    Even in the Western and Central European climate, solar cookers can enable environment-friendly cooking and baking on about 100 to 150 days of the year. Some foods taste better when cooked more carefully, and vitamins and nutrients will be better preserved than in conventionally cooked food. After a short historical outline, the authors present some commercial solar cookers suited for our climate. This is followed by a detailed guide on how to construct a simple wooden solar cooker box from commercially available materials. Examples of solar cooking initiatives illustrate the many applications of solar cookers and parabolic trough cookers. The text is supplemented by practical hints and recipes.

  8. Mini-Optics Solar Energy Concentrator

    Davidson, M; Davidson, Mark; Rabinowitz, Mario

    2003-01-01

    This invention deals with the broad general concept for focussing light. A mini-optics tracking and focussing system is presented for solar power conversion that ranges from an individual's portable system to solar conversion of electrical power that can be used in large scale power plants for environmentally clean energy. It can be rolled up, transported, and attached to existing man-made, or natural structures. It allows the solar energy conversion system to be low in capital cost and inexpensive to install as it can be attached to existing structures since it does not require the construction of a superstructure of its own. This novel system is uniquely distinct and different from other solar tracking and focussing processes allowing it to be more economical and practical. Furthermore, in its capacity as a power producer, it can be utilized with far greater safety, simplicity, economy, and efficiency in the conversion of solar energy.

  9. Solar neutrino with Borexino: results and perspectives

    Smirnov, O; Benziger, J; Bick, D; Bonfini, G; Bravo, D; Caccianiga, B; Calaprice, F; Caminata, A; Cavalcante, P; Chavarria, A; Chepurnov, A; D'Angelo, D; Davini, S; Derbin, A; Empl, A; Etenko, A; Fomenko, K; Franco, D; Fiorentini, G; Galbiati, C; Gazzana, S; Ghiano, C; Giammarchi, M; Goeger-Neff, M; Goretti, A; Hagner, C; Hungerford, E; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Kobychev, V; Korablev, D; Korga, G; Kryn, D; Laubenstein, M; Lehnert, B; Lewke, T; Litvinovich, E; Lombardi, F; Lombardi, P; Ludhova, L; Lukyanchenko, G; Machulin, I; Manecki, S; Maneschg, W; Mantovani, F; Marcocci, S; Meindl, Q; Meroni, E; Meyer, M; Miramonti, L; Misiaszek, M; Mosteiro, P; Muratova, V; Oberauer, L; Obolensky, M; Ortica, F; Otis, K; Pallavicini, M; Papp, L; Perasso, L; Pocar, A; Ranucci, G; Razeto, A; Re, A; Ricci, B; Romani, A; Rossi, N; Saldanha, R; Salvo, C; Schoenert, S; Simgen, H; Skorokhvatov, M; Sotnikov, A; Sukhotin, S; Suvorov, Y; Tartaglia, R; Testera, G; Vignaud, D; Vogelaar, R B; von Feilitzsch, F; Wang, H; Winter, J; Wojcik, M; Wright, A; Wurm, M; Zaimidoroga, O; Zavatarelli, S; Zuber, K; Zuzel, G

    2014-01-01

    Borexino is a unique detector able to perform measurement of solar neutrinos fluxes in the energy region around 1 MeV or below due to its low level of radioactive background. It was constructed at the LNGS underground laboratory with a goal of solar $^{7}$Be neutrino flux measurement with 5\\% precision. The goal has been successfully achieved marking the end of the first stage of the experiment. A number of other important measurements of solar neutrino fluxes have been performed during the first stage. Recently the collaboration conducted successful liquid scintillator repurification campaign aiming to reduce main contaminants in the sub-MeV energy range. With the new levels of radiopurity Borexino can improve existing and challenge a number of new measurements including: improvement of the results on the Solar and terrestrial neutrino fluxes measurements; measurement of pp and CNO solar neutrino fluxes; search for non-standard interactions of neutrino; study of the neutrino oscillations on the short baselin...

  10. Solar club

    Solar club

    2013-01-01

    SOLAR CLUB Le  CERN-Solar-Club souhaite une  très bonne année 2013 à tous les Cernois et Cernoises, et remercie encore une fois  tous ceux et celles qui, fin octobre, par leur vote, nous ont permis de finir dans les 5 premiers du concours "Conforama Solidaire" et ainsi financer nôtre projet "énergie solaire et eau potable pour Kilela Balanda" en République Démocratique du Congo (voir : http://www.confo.ch/solidarite/?lang=fr). Nous vous annoncons également notre Assemblée Générale Annuelle jeudi 21 février à 18 h 00 Salle C, 1er étage, Bât. 61 Vous êtes les bienvenus si vous souhaitez en savoir un peu plus sur les énergies renouvelables.

  11. Fisica solare

    Degl’Innocenti, Egidio Landi

    2008-01-01

    Il volume è un'introduzione alla Fisica Solare che si propone lo scopo di illustrare alla persona che intende avvicinarsi a questa disciplina (studenti, dottori di ricerca, ricercatori) i meccanismi fisici che stanno alla base della complessa fenomenologia osservata sulla stella a noi più vicina. Il volume non ha la pretesa di essere esauriente (basta pensare che la fisica solare spazia su un gran numero di discipline, quali la Fisica Nucleare, la Termodinamica, L'Elettrodinamica, la Fisica Atomica e Molecolare, la Spettoscopia in tutte le bande dello spettro elettromagnetico, la Magnetoidrodinamica, la Fisica del Plasma, lo sviluppo di nuova strumentazione, l'Ottica, ecc.). Piuttosto, sono stati scelti un numero di argomenti di rilevanza fondamentale nello studio presente del Sole (soprattutto nei riguardi delle osservazioni da terra con grandi telescopi) e su tali argomenti si è cercato di dare una panoramica generale, inclusiva dell'evoluzione storica, senza scendere in soverchi dettagli. Siccome la Fis...

  12. Solar cells

    Treble, F. C.

    1980-11-01

    The history, state of the art, and future prospects of solar cells are reviewed. Solar cells are already competitive in a wide range of low-power applications, and during the 1980's they are expected to become cheaper to run than diesel or gasoline generators, the present mainstay of isolated communities. At this stage they will become attractive for water pumping, irrigation, and rural electrification, particularly in developing countries. With further cost reduction, they may be used to augment grid supplies in domestic, commercial, institutional, and industrial premises. Cost reduction to the stage where photovoltaics becomes economic for large-scale power generation in central stations depends on a technological breakthrough in the development of thin-film cells. DOE aims to reach this goal by 1990, so that by the end of the century about 20% of the estimated annual additions to their electrical generating capacity will be photovoltaic.

  13. Feasibility Study & Design of Brightfield Solar Farm

    Law, Susan

    2014-09-28

    This Congressionally Directed Project originally provided funds to the Township of Lower Providence, Pennsylvania for the purpose of investigating the potential for a renewable energy generation facility to make beneficial reuse of a closed landfill located within the Township, known as Moyer Landfill. Early in the course of the project, it was determined through collaboration and discussion with DOE to alter the scope of the project to include a feasibility assessment of a landfill solar project, as well as to construct a demonstration solar project at the municipal facilities to provide an educational and community outreach opportunity for the Township to offer regarding solar photovoltaic (“PV”) electricity generation.

  14. Solar vector magnetograph for Max 1991 programs

    An instrument for measuring solar magnetic fields is under construction. Key requirements for any solar vector magnetograph are high spatial resolution, high optical throughput, fine spectral selectivity, and ultralow instrumental polarization. An available 25 cm Cassegrain telescope will provide 0.5 arcsec spatial resolution. Spectral selection will be accomplished with a 150 mA filter based on electrically tunable solid Fabry-Perot etalon. Filter and polarization analyzer design concepts for the magnetograph are described in detail. The instrument will be tested at JHU/APL, and then moved to the National Solar Observatory in late 1988. It will be available to support the Max 1991 program

  15. Entrance Effects in Solar Hot Water Stores

    Shah, Louise Jivan; Furbo, Simon

    2003-01-01

    the inlet design on the flow patterns in the tank and thus how the energy quality in a hot water tank is reduced with a poor inlet design. The numerical investigations were followed by experiments. A test solar store, similar to the store investigated by numerical modelling was constructed with......A theoretical and experimental analysis of water jets entering a solar storage tank is performed. CFD calculations of three inlet designs with different inlet flow rates were carried out to illustrate the varying behaviour of the thermal conditions in a solar store. The results showed the impact of...

  16. Solar energy thermalization and storage device

    McClelland, J.F.

    A passive solar thermalization and thermal energy storage assembly which is visually transparent is described. The assembly consists of two substantial parallel, transparent wall members mounted in a rectangular support frame to form a liquid-tight chamber. A semitransparent thermalization plate is located in the chamber, substantially paralled to and about equidistant from the transparent wall members to thermalize solar radiation which is stored in a transparent thermal energy storage liquid which fills the chamber. A number of the devices, as modules, can be stacked together to construct a visually transparent, thermal storage wall for passive solar-heated buildings.

  17. Solar Simulation Laboratory description and manual

    Mabie, K. T.

    1985-06-01

    This research project consisted of writing a manual for testing solar cells. It was written for students in the Space Operations and Space Engineering curricula at the Naval Postrgraduate School. A location was selected and equipment was purchased for the construction. The manual begins with a introduction to solar cell theory. The individual components of the solar power laboratory are discussed in detail and their integration into a system is described. The system was designed for automated data acquisition. An IBM PC/XT is the central point of the system. Two computer programs written in IBM BASIC are included for the user with a complete discussion of each.

  18. Solar flares

    In this thesis an electrodynamic model for solar flares is developed. The main theoretical achievements underlying the present study are treated briefly and the observable flare parameters are described within the framework of the flare model of this thesis. The flare model predicts large induced electric fields. Therefore, acceleration processes of charged particles by direct electric fields are treated. The spectrum of the accelerated particles in strong electric fields is calculated, 3 with the electric field and the magnetic field perpendicular and in the vicinity of an X-type magnetic neutral line. An electromagnetic field configuration arises in the case of a solar flare. A rising current filament in a quiescent background bipolar magnetic field causes naturally an X-type magnetic field configuration below the filament with a strong induced electric field perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field. This field configuration drives particles and magnetic energy towards the neutral line, where a current sheet is generated. The global evolution of the fields in the flare is determined by force balance of the Lorentz forces on the filament and the force balance on the current sheet. The X-ray, optical and radio observations of a large solar flare on May 16, 1981 are analyzed. It is found that these data fit the model very well. (Auth.)

  19. Solar energy reflector for steel tempering

    Solar energy is a vital source of energy. It attracted the attention of many nations. In fact two aspects promote the use of solar energy specially for the low temperature heat treatment of metal: 1- Environmental protection. 2- Economical issue. The search for the implementation of solar energy as a source remains a key issue in widening the scope of solar energy application and use in industry. This paper is an attempt to explore the feasibility and efficiency of using solar reflector in the tempering treatment of steel. A solar reflector in constructed, basically by a rolled steel plate with glass mirror strips glued to the rolled steel plate. A heating chamber is constructed at the focal site of the parabola in which small steel specimens were placed and then under the effect of solar sun shine the temperature of the specimens raise and for a period of time they were subjected to tempering. The temperature in the chamber was monitored and it was found that it reaches 110 degree centigrade in the months July and August just past middy 12:35.(Author)

  20. Solar photons, phonons and neutrinos

    Chitre, S.M

    1998-06-01

    The inside of the Sun is not directly accessible to observations. Nonetheless, it is possible to construct a reasonable picture of its interior with the help of the theory of stellar structure along with the input physics describing a multitude of processes occurring inside the Sun. In order to check the validity of these theoretical models there have been valiant attempts to measure the flux of neutrinos generated in the Sun's energy-generating core. The solar neutrino event rates reported by all the experiments to date have been consistently lower than those predicted by standard solar models. There is now a complementary probe, furnished by the accurately measured helioseismic data which provides stringent constraints on the physical conditions prevailing inside the Sun. It turns out that the helioseismically inferred density and sound speed profiles throughout the Sun's internal layers are close to those obtained with a standard solar model. A cooler solar core is, therefore, not a viable solution to account for the deficit in the measured neutrino fluxes. This leads one to the unavoidable conclusion that the solution to the solar neutrino puzzle should be sought in the realm of particle physics.