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Solar chimney  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Solar Chimney is an interesting unconventional method for production of electricity from the sun. It consists of a large greenhouse which purpose is to heat the air and create air flow directing it to the base of the chimney and then through the pressure-staged turbine array. Solar Chimney can be used for pick load operation. Australia plans 200 MW solar plant for the and of 2004, which will be the tallest man made structure in the world with a height of almost 1 km and greenhouse diameter reaching 7.5 km. It is a result of Australia's commitment to find alternative energy solutions in order to reduce the environmental impact of fossil and nuclear technologies for electric power production. (Author)

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Technical feasibility assessment of a solar chimney for food drying  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Solar dryers use free and renewable energy sources, reduce drying losses (as compared to sun drying) and show lower operational costs than the artificial drying, thus presenting an interesting alternative to conventional dryers. This work proposes to study the feasibility of a solar chimney to dry agricultural products. To assess the technical feasibility of this drying device, a prototype solar chimney, in which the air velocity, temperature and humidity parameters were monitored as a function of the solar incident radiation, was built. Drying tests of food, based on theoretical and experimental studies, assure the technical feasibility of solar chimneys used as solar dryers for agricultural products. The constructed chimney generates a hot airflow with a yearly average rise in temperature (compared to the ambient air temperature) of 13 {+-} 1 C. In the prototype, the yearly average mass flow was found to be 1.40 {+-} 0.08 kg/s, which allowed a drying capacity of approximately 440 kg. (author)

Ferreira, Andre G. [Departamento de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologia, Centro Universitario de Belo Horizonte, Av. Professor Mario Werneck, 1685. Buritis, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, CEP 30455-610 (Brazil); Maia, Cristiana B. [Pontificia Universidade Catolica de Minas Gerais, Av. Dom Jose Gaspar, 500 - Coracao Eucaristico, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, CEP 30535-901 (Brazil); Cortez, Marcio F.B.; Valle, Ramon M. [Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antonio Carlos, 6627 - Campus Pampulha, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, CEP 31270-901 (Brazil)

2008-03-15

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A simple theoretical model of a solar chimney  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A simple theoretical model of a solar chimney to predict its performance under varying ambient and geometrical features was proposed. Steady state heat transfer equations were set up using a thermal resistance network and solved using matrix inversion. Surface temperatures of the heat absorbing wall and glass and induced air flow velocity in the chimney are predicted. An experiment model 2 m high x 0.45 m wide with air channel gaps of 0.1, to 0.3 m wide was constructed. Outdoor tests were performed by exposure to both direct and diffuse solar radiation. The effects of air channel gap and solar radiation intensity were investigated. Air velocities between 0.25 to 0.39 ms-1 at radiation intensities up to 650 W m-2 were obtained. No reserve air circulation was observed at the chimney exit. The model was found more suitable for solar chimney with large air gaps

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Parameterization Studies of Solar Chimneys in the Tropics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper examines the effect of the solar chimney’s stack height, depth, width and inlet position on the interior performance (air temperature and speed at 1.20 m height above the ground as well as proposes an optimal tropical solar chimney design. Simulations show that the output air temperature remains constant while the solar chimney’s width is the most significant factor influencing output air speed. The solar chimney’s inlet position has limited influence on the output air speed although regions near the solar chimney’s inlet show an increase in air speed. Furthermore, a regression model is developed based on the solar chimney’s stack height, depth and width to predict the interior air speed. To optimize solar chimney in the tropics, the recommendation is to first maximize its width as the interior’s width, while allowing its stack height to be the building’s height. Lastly, the solar chimney’s depth is determined from the regression model by allocating the required interior air speed.

Alex Yong Kwang Tan

2013-01-01

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DESIGN OF A SMALL ? SCALE SOLAR CHIMNEY FOR SUSTAINABLE POWER  

Science.gov (United States)

After several months of design and testing it has been determined that a small scale solar chimney can be built using nearly any local materials and simple hand tools without needing superior construction knowledge. The biggest obstacle to over come was the weather conditions....

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Design and measured performance of a solar chimney for natural-circulation solar-energy dryers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The design and construction of a solar chimney which was undertaken as part of a study on natural-circulation solar-energy dryers is reported. The experimental solar chimney consists of a 5.3m high and 1.64m diameter cylindrical polyethylene-clad vertical chamber, supported structurally by steel framework and draped internally with a selectively-absorbing surface. The performance of the chimney which was monitored extensively with and without the selective surface in place (to study the effectiveness of this design option) is also reported. (author). 14 refs, 7 figs

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EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF A VELOCITY FIELD USING VARIABLE CHIMNEY DIAMETER FOR SOLAR UPDRAFT TOWER  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A solar updraft tower consists of an air collector 1.4 m in diameter and 80 cm tall chimney was set upin NIT Hamirpur, Himachal-Pradesh, India. The objective of the study was to investigate the variation of velocity with essential geometricparameter of the system. The solar updraft tower system consists of three essential elements- collector, chimney height and wind turbine. The output power of a system is depended on the input velocity to the wind turbine. Turbine inlet velocity (V is the function of five parameter of the solar updraft tower systems such as collector diameter (Dc, roof glass angle (?, entrance height (h, tower's height (Ht, tower's diameter (D, out of which variable roof angle and the chimney height is analysis. It was found that the solar chimney diameter of 8 cm is having the maximum velocity for the constructed setup, and the ratio of chimney diameter to chimney heightwas found to be 0.1.

Neeraj Mehla,

2011-04-01

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Experimental study and simulation of airflow in solar chimneys  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With the depletion of traditional energies, new technologies are arising that use renewable energies. The aim of this paper is to present a study of airflow in solar chimneys. Mathematical simulation and experiments were carried out on solar chimneys with different geometries. It was found that the width of the channel and the angle of inclination of the chimney influence the field speed. A case study was then carried out on a solar chimney in Ouargla Province, Algeria, to assess the impact of a chimney's inclination on its performance. The simulation was conducted using a finite volume method in Fluent 6.3.26 computer software. A good match between experimental and simulation results was found. This paper presented a study on airflow in solar chimney and demonstrated that simulations using Fluent and the finite element method were able to provide good results.

Saifi, Nadia; Dokkar, Boubekeur; Negrou, Belkhir; Settou, Noureddine [Laboratory for Bioressources Saharan Preservation and Enhancement, University of Kasdi Merbah (Algeria)], e-mail: saifi.nadia2009@gmail.com

2011-07-01

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Simulation of a sloped solar chimney power plant in Lanzhou  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Research highlights: {yields} A sloped solar chimney power plant in Lanzhou, China is investigated. {yields} The configuration sizes are designed separately. {yields} The system has high periodicity and stability but low efficiency. {yields} The sloped solar chimney power system is of high value for Northwest China. -- Abstract: Solar chimney power system is one large-scale utilization style of solar energy, which has drawn high attentions worldwide. Though scholars all over the world have made many researches on the solar chimney power system, reports of sloped solar chimney power system are still few. A sloped solar chimney power plant, which is expected to provide electric power for remote villages in Northwest China, has been designed for Lanzhou City in this paper. The designed plant, in which the height and radius of the chimney are 252.2 m and 14 m respectively, the radius and angle of the solar collector are 607.2 m and 31{sup o} respectively, is designed to produce 5 MW electric power on a monthly average all year. The performances, such as the airflow temperature increase, pressure, the airflow speed, system efficiency and solar collector efficiency, of the built sloped solar chimney power plant are simulated and presented. Simulation results show that parameters of the sloped solar chimney power plant are symmetrical and stable; the power plant has better performances in spring and autumn days; the overall efficiency of the power plant is low. Considering the abundant solar radiation, environmental friendliness, easy management and low population density, the sloped solar chimney power system is of high value to Northwest China.

Cao, Fei [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Zhao, Liang, E-mail: lzhao@mail.xjtu.edu.c [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Guo, Liejin [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China)

2011-06-15

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Simulation of a sloped solar chimney power plant in Lanzhou  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Research highlights: ? A sloped solar chimney power plant in Lanzhou, China is investigated. ? The configuration sizes are designed separately. ? The system has high periodicity and stability but low efficiency. ? The sloped solar chimney power system is of high value for Northwest China. -- Abstract: Solar chimney power system is one large-scale utilization style of solar energy, which has drawn high attentions worldwide. Though scholars all over the world have made many researches on the solar chimney power system, reports of sloped solar chimney power system are still few. A sloped solar chimney power plant, which is expected to provide electric power for remote villages in Northwest China, has been designed for Lanzhou City in this paper. The designed plant, in which the height and radius of the chimney are 252.2 m and 14 m respectively, the radius and angle of the solar collector are 607.2 m and 31o respectively, is designed to produce 5 MW electric power on a monthly average all year. The performances, such as the airflow temperature increase, pressure, the airflow speed, system efficiency and solar collector efficiency, of the built sloped solar chimney power plant are simulated and presented. Simulation results show that parameters of the sloped solar chimney power plant are symmetrical and stable; the power plant has better performances in spring and autumn days; the overall efficiency of the power plant is low. Considering the abundant solar radiation, environmental friendliness, easy management and low population density, the sloped solar chimney power system is of high value to Northwest China.

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Performance of a Solar Chimney Under Egyptian Weather Conditions: Numerical Simulation and Experimental Validation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

High solar radiation and ambient temperature, and large desert in Egypt are excellent conditions to install efficiently solar chimney power plants there. Therefore this research aimed to develop a validated mathematical model and governing equations of solar chimney. It is proposed to improve the performance of solar chimney under effects of various parameters, and study of possibility of installing solar chimney in Egypt. The mathematical simulation of the solar chimney has been developed in...

Mostafa, A. A.; Sedrak, M. F.; Abdel Dayem, Adel M.

2011-01-01

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Solar Chimney Model Parameters to Enhance Cooling PV Panel Performance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The concept of using the Solar Chimney plays an important role in a wide range of topics to improve cooling system efficiency such as drying process, and single and multi-story buildings ventilation against temperature rising. In this paper, study the effective solar cooling chimney parameter model to enhance the performance of photovoltaic (PV cooling system. First, a brief description of theoretical performance predictions of the solar cooling chimney also discusses the effect of the ambient wind velocity on the photovoltaic panel. Second, analysis air velocities at different points in solar cooling chimney are predicted and the temperature drop also estimated to predicted air velocities in the duct. Finally, from simulation result it was found for chimney height range 0.3 m - 3 m and at 60 oC, the air velocity increase from 0.6 to 1.78 m/s and Pressure difference between inlet and outlet increase from 0.5 to 5.3 KPa, which improve the PV panel voltage 8%.

Mohammed Sh Elden

2013-01-01

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A performance analysis of solar chimney thermal power systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the solar chimney performance theoretically (techno-economic. A mathematical model was developed to estimate the following parameter: Power output, Pressure drop across the turbine, the max chimney height, Airflow temperature, and the overall efficiency of solar chimney. The mathematical model was validated with experimental data from the prototype in Manzanares power. It can be concluded that the differential pressure of collector-chimney transition section in the system, is increase with the increase of solar radiation intensity. The specific system costs are between 2000 Eur/kW and 5000 Eur/kW depending on the system size, system concept and storage size. Hence, a 50 MWe solar thermal power plant will cost 100-250 Eur million. At very good sites, today’s solar thermal power plants can generate electricity in the range of 0.15 Eur/kWh, and series production could soon bring down these costs below 0.10 Eur /kWh.

Al-Dabbas Awwad Mohammed

2011-01-01

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Passive cooling with solar updraft and evaporative downdraft chimneys  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Computer models have been developed to describe the operation of both solar updraft and evaporative downdraft chimneys. Design studies are being conducted at the present time to use the towers for cooling an experimental, well instrumented, structure to study passive cooling in residential buildings. (MHR)

Mignon, G.V.; Cunningham, W.A.; Thompson, T.L.

1985-01-01

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Performance of a Solar Chimney Under Egyptian Weather Conditions: Numerical Simulation and Experimental Validation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available High solar radiation and ambient temperature, and large desert in Egypt are excellent conditions to install efficiently solar chimney power plants there. Therefore this research aimed to develop a validated mathematical model and governing equations of solar chimney. It is proposed to improve the performance of solar chimney under effects of various parameters, and study of possibility of installing solar chimney in Egypt. The mathematical simulation of the solar chimney has been developed including all its performance parameters, dimensions (of collector, chimney and turbine and the metrological data; which were considered as inputs of the simulation program. A comparison between the mathematical and experimental performance has been investigated to validate the mathematical simulation. The mathematical model has been used to predict the performance of the solar chimney power plant over a year in Egypt. It is used to study of effects of geometrical parameters, and investigate possibility of the optimum geometrical dimensions. It is obtained that there is in fact no optimum physical size for such plants without considering the economical constraints. The chimney height has a significant effect in the chimney performance. Visualizing of annual performance of the solar chimney would seem to be essentially a power generator in Egypt if it installed in a large scale.Key words: Solar chimney; Numerical simulation; Annual performance; Experimental validation; Optimization

A. A. Mostafa

2011-02-01

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Power generation from wind turbines in a solar chimney  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recent studies have shown that shrouded wind turbines can generate greater power compared to bare turbines. A solar chimney generates an upward draft of wind inside a tower and a shroud around the wind turbine. There are numerous empty silos on farms in the U.S. that can be converted to solar chimneys with minor modifications at modest cost. The objective of this study is to determine the potential of these silos/chimneys for generating wind power. The study is conducted through analytical/computational approach by employing the commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software. Computations are performed for five different geometric configurations consisting of a turbine, a cylindrical silo, and/or a venturi and/or a diffuser using the dimensions of typical silos and assuming Class 3 wind velocity. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations with the Boussinesq approximation and a two equation realizable {kappa}-{epsilon} model are employed in the calculations, and the turbine is modeled as an actuator disk. The power coefficient (Cp) and generated power are calculated for the five cases. Consistent with recent literature, it was found that the silos with diffusers increase the Cp beyond Betz’s limit significantly and thus the generated power. It should be noted that Cp is calculated by normalizing it by the turbine area swept by the wind. This study shows the potential of using abandoned silos in the mid-west and other parts of the country for localized wind power generation.

Foote, Tudor [Graduate Student, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Washington University in St. Louis, Jolley Hall, Campus Box 1185, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, Missouri, 63130 (United States); Agarwal, Ramesh K. [William Palm Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Washington University in St. Louis, Jolley Hall, Campus Box 1185, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, Missouri, 63130 (United States)

2013-07-01

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Power generation from wind turbines in a solar chimney  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that shrouded wind turbines can generate greater power compared to bare turbines. A solar chimney generates an upward draft of wind inside a tower and a shroud around the wind turbine. There are numerous empty silos on farms in the U.S. that can be converted to solar chimneys with minor modifications at modest cost. The objective of this study is to determine the potential of these silos/chimneys for generating wind power. The study is conducted through analytical/computational approach by employing the commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD software. Computations are performed for five different geometric configurations consisting of a turbine, a cylindrical silo, and/or a venturi and/or a diffuser using the dimensions of typical silos and assuming Class 3 wind velocity. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations with the Boussinesq approximation and a two equation realizable k – ? model are employed in the calculations, and the turbine is modeled as an actuator disk. The power coefficient (Cp and generated power are calculated for the five cases. Consistent with recent literature, it was found that the silos with diffusers increase the Cp beyond Betz’s limit significantly and thus the generated power. It should be noted that Cp is calculated by normalizing it by the turbine area swept by the wind. This study shows the potential of using abandoned silos in the mid-west and other parts of the country for localized wind power generation.

Tudor Foote, Ramesh K. Agarwal

2013-01-01

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Experimental investigation of solar chimney assisted bioclimatic architecture  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Human health and human comfort have been perceived as the most important parameters while assessing the indoor environment. Developing countries, constrained by extreme environmental conditions, poor building technologies and limited financial resources, find it difficult to adopt expensive technologies for a better indoor environment. Passive architectures, such as inclusion of solar chimneys, can reduce adverse health effects due to indoor contaminants, while green areas can be developed to reduce outdoor contaminants in the ventilation component. An analysis of bioclimatic architecture, assisted by a wind tower system, is presented for a better indoor environment. (Author)

Kumar, Sanjay [Indian Inst. of Technology, Centre for Atmospheric Sciences, New Delhi (India); Sinha, S. [Institute of Social Forestry and Eco-rehabilitation, ICFRE, Allahabad (India); Kumar, N. [MIT, Civil Engineering Dept., Bihar (India)

1998-12-31

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Basement Kind Effects on Air Temperature of a Solar Chimney in Baghdad - Iraq Weather  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A solar updraft tower power plant (solar tower) is a solar thermal power plant that utilizes a combination of solar air collector and central updraft tube to generate an induced convective flow which drives pressure staged turbines to generate electricity. This paper presents practical results of a prototype of a solar chimney with thermal mass, where the glass surface is replaced by transparence plastic cover. The study focused on chimney's basements kind effect on collec...

Miqdam Tariq Chaichan

2011-01-01

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Review on the Enhancement Techniques and Introduction of an Alternate Enhancement Technique of Solar Chimney Power Plant  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Due to the low plant efficiency associated with Solar Chimney Power Plant, there is a need for the plant performance enhancement. This study presents the enhancement techniques of solar chimney power plant. It reviews previous works that had been done in performance enhancement of solar chimney power plants. It also, introduces an alternative approach to enhance the solar chimney performance by hybridizing the solar operation mode and waste heat energy from flue gas. The new idea is to convert the waste thermal energy in the flue to useful thermal energy in a Solar Chimney Power Plant collector. It is another form of waste heat energy recovery and utilization method.

Hussain H. Al-Kayiem

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Heat and fluid flows analysis in solar chimney power plants for different flow regimes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Solar chimneys are natural generators of power which use solar radiation to increase the internal energy of the air flowing within them. This study investigated the effect of fluid flow regimes on the performance of a solar chimney power plant (SCPP). The originality of the work was related to the mathematical and numerical modelling of fluid flow in a complex geometry with dimensionless variables. The thermal hydrodynamic aspect of flow was analyzed by solving the fluid dynamics equations using a finite volumes method with adequate boundary conditions. The study focused primarily on the performance analysis and cost of SCPPs. The efficiency of the solar chimney was studied from a thermo-fluid point of view under steady state conditions. The results were presented in terms of air flow velocity distributions versus Rayleigh number and some geometrical and physical parameters, such as the height of the chimney and solar radiation. The simulation results were in good agreement with experimental results from the Mansanares solar chimney power plant in Algeria, in terms of electric power generated by the chimney power plant and the fluid flow velocity in the chimney tower. 13 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs.

Gahgah, M.; Chergui, T. [Applied Research Center in Renewable Energies, Adrar (Algeria); Larbi, S. [National Polytechnic School of Algiers, Algiers (Algeria). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Laboratory of Mechanical Engineering and Development; Bouhdjar, A. [Development Center of Renewable Energies, Algiers (Algeria)

2010-07-01

22

Feasibility study on optimization of a typical solar chimney power plant  

Science.gov (United States)

The solar chimney which has been built in Kerman (Kerman city-Iran) is a small scale electrical power plant. The chimney of this unit has 60 m height and 3 m diameter. The collector of this unit is 40 m × 40 m square. To reach nominal power of this unit of power plant, parameters which are effective in optimization are studied. In this regard, we deliberate and propose suggestions to maximize usage of solar energy and kinetic energy. The calculation of maximum power is one of the objectives of this study, so the paper present economic analysis for Kerman solar chimney. A home code has been written for this modeling, in MATLAB.

Najmi, Mohsen; Nazari, Ali; Mansouri, Hossein; Zahedi, Ghazzanfar

2012-03-01

23

A single dimensionless variable for solar chimney power plant modeling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The solar chimney power plant is a relatively new technology for generating electricity from solar energy. In this paper dimensional analysis is used together with engineering intuition to combine eight primitive variables into only one dimensionless variable that establishes a dynamic similarity between a prototype and its scaled models. Three physical configurations of the plant were numerically tested for similarity: fully geometrically similar, partially geometrically similar, and dissimilar types. The values of the proposed dimensionless variable for all these cases were found to be nominally equal to unity. The value for the physical plant actually built and tested previously was also evaluated and found to be about the same as that of the numerical simulations, suggesting the validity of the proposition. The physical meaning of this dimensionless (similarity) variable is also interpreted; and the connection between the Richardson number and this new variable was found. It was found also that, for a fixed solar heat flux, different-sized models that are fully or partially geometrically similar share an equal excess temperature across the roof outlet. (author)

Koonsrisuk, Atit; Chitsomboon, Tawit [School of Mechanical Engineering, Institute of Engineering, Suranaree University of Technology, Muang District, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000 (Thailand)

2009-12-15

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Numerical Simulation and Comparison of Conventional and Sloped Solar Chimney Power Plants: The Case for Lanzhou  

Science.gov (United States)

The solar chimney power plant (SCPP) generates updraft wind through the green house effect. In this paper, the performances of two SCPP styles, that is, the conventional solar chimney power plant (CSCPP) and the sloped solar chimney power plant (SSCPP), are compared through a numerical simulation. A simplified Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model is built to predict the performances of the SCPP. The model is validated through a comparison with the reported results from the Manzanares prototype. The annual performances of the CSCPP and the SSCPP are compared by taking Lanzhou as a case study. Numerical results indicate that the SSCPP holds a higher efficiency and generates smoother power than those of the CSCPP, and the effective pressure in the SSCPP is relevant to both the chimney and the collector heights. PMID:24489515

Zhang, Yang; Zhao, Liang

2013-01-01

25

Numerical simulation and comparison of conventional and sloped solar chimney power plants: the case for Lanzhou.  

Science.gov (United States)

The solar chimney power plant (SCPP) generates updraft wind through the green house effect. In this paper, the performances of two SCPP styles, that is, the conventional solar chimney power plant (CSCPP) and the sloped solar chimney power plant (SSCPP), are compared through a numerical simulation. A simplified Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model is built to predict the performances of the SCPP. The model is validated through a comparison with the reported results from the Manzanares prototype. The annual performances of the CSCPP and the SSCPP are compared by taking Lanzhou as a case study. Numerical results indicate that the SSCPP holds a higher efficiency and generates smoother power than those of the CSCPP, and the effective pressure in the SSCPP is relevant to both the chimney and the collector heights. PMID:24489515

Cao, Fei; Li, Huashan; Zhang, Yang; Zhao, Liang

2013-01-01

26

Comparison of modelling approaches and layouts for solar chimney turbines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The turbogenerator is a core component of any solar chimney power plant. Various layouts for the turbogenerator have been proposed in the literature. In this paper the performance of these layouts is compared using analytical models and optimization techniques, and the important design parameters are discussed. The turbine layouts under consideration are single rotor and counter rotating turbines, both with or without inlet guide vanes. In contrast to similar investigations found in the literature, various radial sections along the blades are analysed in the turbine model. This approach is more appropriate than using a simple mean line analysis when dealing with turbines with high blade aspect ratio and low hub to tip ratio. Furthermore, a limit to the degree of reaction of the turbine has been introduced to avoid diffusion at the hub. It is shown in this paper that these slight changes in modelling approach have a significant impact on the performance prediction. Further it can be concluded that the single rotor layout without guide vanes performs very poorly; the efficiency of the other three layouts is much better and lies in a narrow band. The counter rotating layouts provide the highest peak efficiencies, but at relatively low speeds, which leads to an undesirable higher torque for the same power output. (author)

Fluri, T.P.; von Backstroem, T.W. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Stellenbosch, Private Bag X1, Stellenbosch 7602 (South Africa)

2008-03-15

27

Performance analysis of a solar chimney power plant in the southwestern region of Algeria  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper, we present the performance analysis of a solar chimney power plant expected to provide the remote villages located in Algerian southwestern region with electric power. Solar energy and the psychometric state of the air in the south of Algeria are important to encourage the full development of solar chimney power plant for the thermal and electrical production of energy for various uses. We are interested in Adrar where solar radiation is better than other areas of Algeria. The obtained results show that the solar chimney power plant can produce from 140 to 200 kW of electricity on a site like Adrar during the year, according to an estimate made on the monthly average of sunning. This production is sufficient for the needs of the isolated areas. (author)

Larbi, Salah [Laboratory of Mechanical Engineering and Development, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Polytechnic National School of Algiers, 10, Avenue Hassen Badi, El-Harrach (Algeria); Bouhdjar, Amor [Development Center of Renewable Energies, Bouzeriah, Algiers (Algeria); Chergui, Toufik [Applied Research Center in Renewable Energies, Adrar (Algeria)

2010-01-15

28

Accuracy of theoretical models in the prediction of solar chimney performance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A solar chimney is a solar power plant which generates mechanical energy (usually in terms of turbine shaft work) from a rising hot air that is heated by solar energy. The present paper compares the predictions of performances of solar chimney plants by using five simple theoretical models that have been proposed in the literature. The parameters used in the study were various plant geometrical parameters and the insolation. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation was also conducted and its results compared with the theoretical predictions. The power output and the efficiency of the solar chimney plants as functions of the studied parameters were used to compare relative merits of the five theoretical models. Models that performed better than the rest are finally recommended. (author)

Koonsrisuk, Atit; Chitsomboon, Tawit [School of Mechanical Engineering, Institute of Engineering, Suranaree University of Technology, Muang District, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000 (Thailand)

2009-10-15

29

Establish feasibility for providing passive cooling with solar updraft and evaporate downdraft chimneys  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Natural draft towers can be used for cooling and ventilating structures. From an operational perspective, the downdraft evaporatively cooled tower is preferred for a dry climate. Solar chimneys, when used alone, tend to require an excessively large solar collector area when appreciable quantities of air must be moved. When used in combination with a downdraft tower, the roof and attic of buildings may assist the solar chimney and their use becomes more attractive. Both a frame building and a greenhouse were successfully cooled during this program. The economics of the downdraft tower compare favorably with conventional evaporative cooling for some applications.

Cunningham, W.A.; Mignon, G.V.; Thompson, T.L.

1987-01-01

30

Establish feasibility for providing passive cooling with solar updraft and evaporative downdraft chimneys  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Natural draft towers can be used for cooling and ventilating structures. From an operational perspective, the downdraft evaporatively cooled tower is preferred for a dry climate. Solar chimneys, when used alone, tend to require an excessively large solar collector area when appreciable quantities of air must be moved. When used in combination with a downdraft tower, the roof and attic of buildings may assist the solar chimney and their use becomes more attractive. Both a frame building and a greenhouse were successfully cooled during this program. The economics of the downdraft tower compare favorably with conventional evaporative cooling for some application.

Cunningham, W.A.; Mignon, G.V.; Thompson, T.L.

1987-01-01

31

Evaluation of operational control strategies applicable to solar chimney power plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Numerical simulations are carried out to study the performance of two schemes of power output control applicable to solar chimney power plants. Either the volume flow or the turbine pressure drop is used as independent control variable. Values found in the literature for the optimum ratio of turbine pressure drop to pressure potential vary between 2/3 and 0.97. It is shown that the optimum ratio is not constant during the whole day and it is dependent of the heat transfer coefficients applied to the collector. This study is a contribution towards understanding solar chimney power plant performance and control and may be useful in the design of solar chimney turbines. (author)

Bernardes, Marco Aurelio dos Santos [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Minas Gerais - CEFET-MG, Av. Amazonas, 7675, Nova Gameleira, 30510-000 Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); von Backstroem, Theodor W. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Stellenbosch, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602 (South Africa)

2010-02-15

32

Performance analysis of conventional and sloped solar chimney power plants in China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The solar chimney power plant (SCPP) has been accepted as one of the most promising approaches for future large-scale solar energy applications. This paper reports on a heat transfer model that is used to compare the performance of a conventional solar chimney power plant (CSCPP) and two sloped solar chimney power plants (SSCPPs) with the collector oriented at 30° and 60°, respectively. The power generation from SCPPs at different latitudes in China is also analyzed. Results indicate that the larger solar collector angle leads to improved performance in winter but results in lower performance in summer. It is found that the optimal collector angle to achieve the maximum power in Lanzhou, China, is around 60°. Main factors that influence the performance of SCPPs also include the system height and the air thermophysical characteristics. The ground energy loss, reflected solar radiation, and kinetic loss at the chimney outlet are the main energy losses in SCPPs. The studies also show SSCPPs are more suitable for high latitude regions in Northwest China, but CSCPPs are suggested to be built in southeastern and eastern parts of China with the combination to the local agriculture. - Highlights: ? The optimum collector angle for maximum power generation is 60° in Lanzhou. ? Main parameters influencing performances are the system height and air property. ? Ground loss, reflected loss and outlet kinetic loss are the main energy losses. ? The sloped styles are suitable for Northwest China. ? The conventional styles are suitable for Southeast and East China.

33

Numerical analysis on the performance of solar chimney power plant system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Power generating technology based on renewable energy resources will definitely become a new trend of future energy utilization. Numerical simulations on air flow, heat transfer and power output characteristics of a solar chimney power plant model with energy storage layer and turbine similar to the Spanish prototype were carried out in this paper, and mathematical model of flow and heat transfer for the solar chimney power plant system was established. The influences of solar radiation and pressure drop across the turbine on the flow and heat transfer, output power and energy loss of the solar chimney power plant system were analyzed. The numerical simulation results reveal that: when the solar radiation and the turbine efficiency are 600 W/m2 and 80%, respectively, the output power of the system can reach 120 kW. In addition, large mass flow rate of air flowing through the chimney outlet become the main cause of energy loss in the system, and the collector canopy also results in large energy loss.

34

Numerical analysis on the performance of solar chimney power plant system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Power generating technology based on renewable energy resources will definitely become a new trend of future energy utilization. Numerical simulations on air flow, heat transfer and power output characteristics of a solar chimney power plant model with energy storage layer and turbine similar to the Spanish prototype were carried out in this paper, and mathematical model of flow and heat transfer for the solar chimney power plant system was established. The influences of solar radiation and pressure drop across the turbine on the flow and heat transfer, output power and energy loss of the solar chimney power plant system were analyzed. The numerical simulation results reveal that: when the solar radiation and the turbine efficiency are 600 W/m{sup 2} and 80%, respectively, the output power of the system can reach 120 kW. In addition, large mass flow rate of air flowing through the chimney outlet become the main cause of energy loss in the system, and the collector canopy also results in large energy loss.

Xu Guoliang [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Ming Tingzhen, E-mail: mtzhen@163.co [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Pan Yuan; Meng Fanlong; Zhou Cheng [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

2011-02-15

35

Numerical analysis on the performance of solar chimney power plant system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Power generating technology based on renewable energy resources will definitely become a new trend of future energy utilization. Numerical simulations on air flow, heat transfer and power output characteristics of a solar chimney power plant model with energy storage layer and turbine similar to the Spanish prototype were carried out in this paper, and mathematical model of flow and heat transfer for the solar chimney power plant system was established. The influences of solar radiation and pressure drop across the turbine on the flow and heat transfer, output power and energy loss of the solar chimney power plant system were analyzed. The numerical simulation results reveal that: when the solar radiation and the turbine efficiency are 600 W/m{sup 2} and 80%, respectively, the output power of the system can reach 120 kW. In addition, large mass flow rate of air flowing through the chimney outlet become the main cause of energy loss in the system, and the collector canopy also results in large energy loss. (author)

Xu, Guoliang; Ming, Tingzhen; Pan, Yuan; Meng, Fanlong; Zhou, Cheng [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

2011-02-15

36

Analysis and feasibility of implementing solar chimney power plants in the Mediterranean region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper analyzes the feasibility of solar chimney power plants as an environmentally acceptable energy source for small settlements and islands of countries in the Mediterranean region. For the purpose of these analyses, two characteristic geographic locations (Split and Dubrovnik) in Croatia were chosen and simplified model for calculation of produced electric power output is also developed. These locations possess typical characteristics of the Mediterranean climate. The solar characteristics of the chosen geographic locations are shown along with characteristic meteorological data. A solar chimney (SC) power plant with a chimney height of 550 m and a collector roof diameter of 1250 m would produce 2.8-6.2 MW of power. The average annual electric power production of this SC power plant would range between 4.9 and 8.9 GWh/year, but in reality from 5.0 to 6.0 GWh/year in average. An approximate costs analysis, which included a total investment estimate, was performed. The levelized electricity cost was also calculated. It is found that the price of produced electric energy by solar chimney power plant in Mediterranean region is considerably higher compared to the other power sources. (author)

37

Thermo-hydrodynamic aspect analysis of flows in solar chimney power plants - A case study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of the work presented in this study is related to heat transfer and airflow modelling analysis in solar chimneys, according to some dominant parameters. A typical case of application is given in this study. It consists in analyzing a natural laminar convective heat transfer problem taking place in a chimney. Heat transfer and fluid dynamic aspects of the airflow, through an axis symmetric system in a dimensionless form, with well defined boundary conditions is thus examined. Results are related to the temperature distribution and the velocity field in the chimney and in the collector, determined by solving the energy equation, and the Navier-Stokes equations, using finite volume method. The numerical code based on this modelling is validated through the Vahl Davis benchmark solution for natural convection and to other authors for other cases. (author)

Chergui, Toufik [Applied Research Center in Renewable Energies, Adrar (Algeria); Larbi, Salah [Laboratory of Mechanical Engineering and Development, Polytechnic National School of Algiers, 10, Avenue Hassen Badi, El-Harrach, Alger (Algeria); Bouhdjar, Amor [Renewable Energies Development Center, Bouzeriah, Algiers (Algeria)

2010-06-15

38

Air flow and thermal efficiency characteristics in solar chimneys and Trombe Walls  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reports on an experimental investigation into heat transfer and mass flow in thermosyphoning air heaters, such as solar chimneys and Trombe Walls. The test rig comprised a vertical open-ended channel with closed sides, resembling a solar collector or solar chimney of approximately 1 m{sup 2}. Close control of the heat input was achieved by using an electrical heating mat - steady-state heat inputs ranged from 200 to 1000 W, and the channel depth was varied between 20 and 110 mm. Temperatures were recorded throughout the test rig, as was the air velocity. The principal results from the data showed: (i) The mass flow rate through the channel was a function of both the heat input and the channel depth. (ii) The thermal efficiency of the system (as a solar collector) was a function of the heat input, and not dependent on the channel depth. Correlations are given in dimensionless forms. (author)

Burek, S.A.M. [Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom); Habeb, A. [Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Sebha University, Brack Alshty (Libyan Arab Jamahiriya)

2007-07-01

39

Basement Kind Effects on Air Temperature of a Solar Chimney in Baghdad - Iraq Weather  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A solar updraft tower power plant (solar tower is a solar thermal power plant that utilizes a combination of solar air collector and central updraft tube to generate an induced convective flow which drives pressure staged turbines to generate electricity. This paper presents practical results of a prototype of a solar chimney with thermal mass, where the glass surface is replaced by transparence plastic cover. The study focused on chimney's basements kind effect on collected air temperatures. Three basements were used: concrete, black concrete and black pebbles basements. The study was conducted in Baghdad from August to November 2009. The results show that the best chimney efficiency attained was 49.7% for pebbles base. The highest collected air temperature reached was 49ºC when using the black pebbles basement also.also, the maximum basement temperature measured was 59ºC for black pebbles. High increaments in collected air temperatures were achieved in comparison with the ambient air temperatures for the three basement kinds. The highest temperature difference reached was 22ºC with the pebble ground.

Miqdam Tariq Chaichan

2011-01-01

40

Passive cooling of buildings by using integrated earth to air heat exchanger and solar chimney  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Passive cooling is being employed as a low-energy consuming technique to remove undesirable interior heat from a building in the hot seasons. There are numerous ways to promote this cooling technique, and in the present study the use of solar chimney (SC) together with earth to air heat exchanger (EAHE) is introduced. Consequently, theoretical analyses have been conducted in order to investigate the cooling and ventilation in a solar house through combined solar chimney and underground air channel. The finding shows that the solar chimney can be perfectly used to power the underground cooling system during the daytime, without any need to electricity. Moreover, this system with a proper design may also provide a thermally comfortable indoor environment for a large number of hours in the scorching summer days. Based on the required indoor thermal comfort conditions, the numbers of required SCs and EAHEs are calculated and some features of such a system is presented. It is widely expected that the proposed concept is useful enough to be incorporated with a stand-alone or a cluster of buildings especially in some favorable climates. (author)

Maerefat, M.; Haghighi, A.P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, 14115-143 (Iran)

2010-10-15

 
 
 
 
41

Dynamics and performance of the Barra-Costantini system thermal transient analysis of the solar chimney  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Barra-Costantini system is a passive tool allowing the collection of high rates of energy in winter and providing natural cooling in summer, due to high performance of the solar chimney and to an appropriate use of the ceiling floor as thermal storage. Improvements on the system performance may be achieved by providing solar chimney with a finned absorber. A computer algorithm was therefore developed in order to describe the thermal transient of such a wall as well as the flow dynamics of the air through the channel and to compute the rates of the collected energy. The energy balance equations were solved according to a typical approach of the state space analysis. The outputs of the proposed method show a good agreement with the experimental results.

Cammarata, G.; Marletta, L.; Patane, F.; Patania, F.

42

A scaling investigation of the laminar convective flow in a solar chimney for natural ventilation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • Scaling investigation of a solar chimney for ventilation is carried out. • Three distinct flow regimes are identified depending on the Rayleigh number. • Scaling relations are proposed to describe the transient flow development and are verified by numerical data. -- Abstract: The flow behavior due to natural convection of air (with a Prandtl number less than 1) inside a solar chimney with an imposed heat flux on a vertical absorber wall is investigated by a scaling analysis and a corresponding numerical simulation. Three distinct flow regimes are identified, one with a distinct thermal boundary layer and the other two without a distinct thermal boundary layer, depending on the Rayleigh number. The two regimes without a distinct thermal boundary layer are further classified into low and medium Rayleigh number sub-regimes respectively. These sub-regimes are characterized by conduction dominance in which the thermal boundary layer grows to encompass the entire width of the channel before convection becomes important. Flow development in each of these flow regimes and sub-regimes is characterized through transient scaling, and scaling correlations are developed to describe the temperature, flow velocity and mass flow rate, which characterize the ventilation performance of the solar chimney. The scaling arguments are validated by the corresponding numerical data

43

Simulation of solar chimney power plant with an external heat source  

Science.gov (United States)

Solar chimney power plant is a sustainable source of power production. The key parameter to increase the system power output is to increase its size but the plant cannot operate during night hours. This study deals with simulation work to validate results of pilot plant at Manzanares and include the effects of waste heat from a gas turbine power plant in the system. The effects show continuous night operation, a 38.8 percent increase in power at 1000 W/m2 global solar irradiation at daytime and 1.14 percent increase in overall efficiency.

Islamuddin, Azeemuddin; Al-Kayiem, Hussain H.; Gilani, Syed I.

2013-06-01

44

Simulation of solar chimney power plant with an external heat source  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Solar chimney power plant is a sustainable source of power production. The key parameter to increase the system power output is to increase its size but the plant cannot operate during night hours. This study deals with simulation work to validate results of pilot plant at Manzanares and include the effects of waste heat from a gas turbine power plant in the system. The effects show continuous night operation, a 38.8 percent increase in power at 1000 W/m2 global solar irradiation at daytime and 1.14 percent increase in overall efficiency.

45

Thermal effects of chimneys  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Presently, the design and construction of concrete chimneys can be governed by criteria established by two chimney code organizations. These organizations are the American Concrete Institute (ACI) and the International Committee on Industrial Chimneys (CICIND). ACI 307-95 {open_quotes}Standard Practice for the Design and Construction of Cast-in-Place Reinforced Concrete Chimneys{close_quotes} is the code recognized for use in the United States. Similarly, CICIND {open_quotes}Model Code for Concrete Chimneys{close_quotes} can be used in Europe. Both codes attempt to predict the stress experienced by reinforced concrete chimneys due to thermal and other contributing loads. The research contained herein, conducted at the University of Florida, calculated the temperature differentials, stresses, and crack widths as predicted by ACI and CICIND based on thermal data collected from the Florida Power and Light Turkey Point Fossil Unit 2 chimney during the period conducted from January 15, 1993 to March 3, 1993.

Cook, R.A.; Hatfield, J.T.; Brannen, W.F.; Joseph, T.D.

1995-12-31

46

Passive cooling with solar updraft and evaporative downdraft chimneys. Interim report, June 15, 1984--March 1, 1985  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Computer models have been developed to describe the operation of both solar updraft and evaporative downdraft chimneys. Design studies are being conducted at the present time to use the towers for cooling an experimental, well instrumented, structure to study passive cooling in residential buildings. (MHR)

Mignon, G.V.; Cunningham, W.A.; Thompson, T.L.

1985-12-31

47

Performance of solar chimney power plant in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A solar chimney power plant (SCPP) is proposed to be built in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau where there is abundant solar radiation, high direct solar radiation low atmospheric temperature, large diurnal temperature range, and lots of salt lakes working as heat storage system, which can help to improve the power output of SCPP. The plant is expected to power local railway traffic lines and act as a solar power base to supply power for national development. The performance of the SCPP that will be built in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is analyzed and power potential estimated by developing a simple mathematical model. It is found that SCPP if built in the plateau can produce twice more power than an SCPP built on the same latitude of other regions. The yearly power potential for SCPP in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is estimated to be 86.8 million TJ. When 10-20% of the plateau land is used for the SCPP, the yearly power output may reach 8.7 million TJ to 17.4 million TJ, accounting for 10.7-21.3% of China's energy consumption in 2008 which stood at 81.6 million TJ. It is found that the SCPP in the plateau can support local and national development together with other renewable energy resources such as hydroelectric power and wind power. (author)

Zhou, Xinping; Wang, Fang [Department of Mechanics, School of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Luoyu Road 1037, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Hubei Key Laboratory for Engineering Structural Analysis and Safety Assessment, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Luoyu Road 1037, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Fan, Jian [Hubei Key Laboratory for Engineering Structural Analysis and Safety Assessment, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Luoyu Road 1037, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Ochieng, Reccab M. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Maseno University, P.O. Box 333, Maseno (Kenya)

2010-10-15

48

Natural cooling of stand-alone houses using solar chimney and evaporative cooling cavity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this study a low-energy-consumption technique to enhance passive cooling and natural ventilation in a solar house, using a system consisting of a Solar Chimney (SC) and an Evaporative Cooling Cavity (ECC) has been proposed. The capability of the system to meet the required thermal needs of individuals and the effects of main geometric parameters on the system performance has been studied. The dependence of the system performance on outdoor air temperature has been studied to determine the operative conditions for appropriate effectiveness, regarding thermal comfort criteria. To determine the heat and mass transfer characteristics of the system, a mathematical model based on conservation equations of mass and energy has been developed and solved by an iterative method. The findings show that the system is capable of providing good indoor air condition at daytime in a living room, even with poor solar intensity of 200 W/m{sup 2}. The results show that when the relative humidity is lower than 50%, the system can make good indoor air condition even at 40 C, and a higher performance is achieved using ECC with cocurrent configuration. It is found that the proposed system may be applied successfully in hot arid climates to fulfill the indoor thermal comfort expectations. (author)

Maerefat, M.; Haghighi, A.P. [Mech. Eng. Department, Faculty of Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran 14115-143 (Iran)

2010-09-15

49

Numerical analysis of flow and heat transfer characteristics in solar chimney power plants with energy storage layer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Numerical simulations have been performed to analyze the characteristics of heat transfer and air flow in the solar chimney power plant system with an energy storage layer. Different mathematical models for the collector, the chimney and the energy storage layer have been established, and the effect of solar radiation on the heat storage characteristic of the energy storage layer has been analyzed. The numerical simulation results show that: (1) the heat storage ratio of the energy storage layer decreases firstly and then increases with the solar radiation increasing from 200 W/m2 to 800 W/m2; (2) the relative static pressure decreases while the velocity increases significantly inside the system with the increase of solar radiation; (3) the average temperature of the chimney outlet and the energy storage layer may increase significantly with the increase of solar radiation. In addition, the temperature gradient of the storage medium may increase, which results in an increase of energy loss from the bottom of the energy storage layer

50

Establish feasibility for providing passive cooling with solar updraft and evaporative downdraft chimneys. Final report, June 15, 1984--December 31, 1987  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Natural draft towers can be used for cooling and ventilating structures. From an operational perspective, the downdraft evaporatively cooled tower is preferred for a dry climate. Solar chimneys, when used alone, tend to require an excessively large solar collector area when appreciable quantities of air must be moved. When used in combination with a downdraft tower, the roof and attic of buildings may assist the solar chimney and their use becomes more attractive. Both a frame building and a greenhouse were successfully cooled during this program. The economics of the downdraft tower compare favorably with conventional evaporative cooling for some application.

Cunningham, W.A.; Mignon, G.V.; Thompson, T.L.

1987-12-31

51

Establish feasibility for providing passive cooling with solar updraft and evaporate downdraft chimneys. Final report, June 15, 1984--December 31, 1987  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Natural draft towers can be used for cooling and ventilating structures. From an operational perspective, the downdraft evaporatively cooled tower is preferred for a dry climate. Solar chimneys, when used alone, tend to require an excessively large solar collector area when appreciable quantities of air must be moved. When used in combination with a downdraft tower, the roof and attic of buildings may assist the solar chimney and their use becomes more attractive. Both a frame building and a greenhouse were successfully cooled during this program. The economics of the downdraft tower compare favorably with conventional evaporative cooling for some applications.

Cunningham, W.A.; Mignon, G.V.; Thompson, T.L.

1987-12-31

52

Furnaces and chimneys. Correct planning and construction of room heating systems. 7. rev. ed.; Oefen und Kamine. Raumheizungen fachgerecht planen und bauen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The book is a completely revised new edition of the standard reference manual 'Kacheloefen und Kamine handwerksgerecht gebaut' by Karl Heinz Pfestorf. It provides practical information on calculation, design and construction of furnaces and chimneys. It comprises step-by-step instructions, solutions to common problems, and pertinent regulations and standards. The new TR OL was taken into account. Subjects: Legal fundamentals; Fundamentals of heat transfer and fluid dynamics; Fundamentals of safety requirements; Energy sources (fuels); Combustion and combustion air; Open chimneys and heating chimneys, hot-air furnaces, combined furnaces, basic furnaces; Chimneys, dimensioning, damage in furnace systems. [German] Dieses Buch ist eine vollstaendige Ueberarbeitung des Standardwerks ''Kacheloefen und Kamine handwerksgerecht gebaut'' von Karl Heinz Pfestorf. Es vermittelt praxisnah die Fachkenntnisse zum fachgerechten Berechnen, Konstruieren und dem darauf basierenden ordnungsgemaessen Bauen von Oefen und Kaminen. Das Buch enthaelt Handlungsanleitungen, Loesungsvorschlaege fuer haeufig auftretende Probleme und Verweise auf geltende Vorschriften und Normen. Bei der Ueberarbeitung wurde die neue TR OL beruecksichtigt. Folgende Themen werden behandelt: Gesetzliche Grundlagen, Grundlagen der Waerme- und Stroemungslehre; Grundlegende Sicherheitsanforderungen; verschiedene Energietraeger (Brennstoffe); Verbrennung und Verbrennungsluft; Offene Kamine und Heizkamine, Warmluftoefen, Kombioefen, Grundoefen; Schornsteine, feuertechnische Bemessung, Schaeden an Feuerungsanlagen.

Herrmann, Michael; Weber, Juergen (eds.); Bochmann, Werner; Huppmann, Ralf; Pfestorf, Karl Heinz; Traeger, Katja; Willnat, Reinhold

2011-07-01

53

Passive-solar construction handbook  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Many of the basic elements of passive solar design are reviewed. Passive solar construction is covered according to system type, each system type discussion including a general discussion of the important design and construction issues which apply to the particular system and case studies illustrating designed and built examples of the system type. The three basic types of passive solar systems discussed are direct gain, thermal storage wall, and attached sunspace. Thermal performance and construction information is presented for typical materials used in passive solar collector components, storage components, and control components. Appended are an overview of analysis methods and a technique for estimating performance. (LEW)

Levy, E.; Evans, D.; Gardstein, C.

1981-02-01

54

Sandwich Construction Solar Structural Facets  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Silver/glass mirrors have excellent optical properties but need a method of support in order to be used in concentrating solar thermal systems. In collaboration with the Cummins dish/Stirling development program, they started investigating sandwich construction as a way to integrate silver/glass mirrors into solar optical elements. In sandwich construction, membranes such as sheet metal or plastic are bonded to the front and back of a core (like a sandwich). For solar optical elements, a glass mirror is bonded to one of the membranes. This type of construction has the advantages of a high strength-to-weight ratio, and reasonable material and manufacturing cost. The inherent stiffness of sandwich construction mirror panels also facilitates large panels. This can have cost advantages for both the amount of hardware required as well as reduced installation and alignment costs. In addition, by incorporating the panels into the support structure reductions in the amount of structural support required are potentially possible.

Diver, R. B.; Grossman, J.W.

1998-12-22

55

33 CFR 165.T01-0176 - Regulated Navigation Area; Lake Champlain Bridge Construction, Crown Point, New York and Chimney...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Environmental Conservation, Vermont State Police, and Vermont Fish and Game or other designated craft, or may be on shore...certain construction activities including installation of the bridge lift span and as deemed necessary by the COTP, all vessel...

2010-07-01

56

Análisis de la ventilación inducida en un espacio habitable, mediante un sistema de Chimenea Hidro-Solar / Analisys of Ventilation induced in a Livable Space through a hydro-solar Chimney System  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El Cuerpo Académico Arquitectura y Tecnología Ambiental de la Universidad Juárez Autónoma de Tabasco, desarrolla la Línea de Investigación Arquitectura y Medio Ambiente, realiza análisis sobre el diseño y la arquitectura bioclimática, teniendo como premisa la sustentabilidad entre usuario, entorno y [...] espacio construido. Este último, en sitios con clima cálido húmedo, presenta incomodidad térmica debido a los altos índices de temperatura y humedad relativa, condición mitigada mediante equipos de aire acondicionado que repercuten en el gasto energético y la economía del usuario. De acuerdo con la arquitectura bioclimática una técnica pasiva para este hecho es la ventilación. La presente investigación es la tercera etapa de una propuesta de ventilación inducida. Consistió en la simulación del sistema denominado Chimenea Hidro-Solar, empleando tubería de cobre y agua como elementos captores de calor. Se planteó el diseño, construcción y evaluación del prototipo. Se construyeron modelos, del espacio proyectado y de referencia, a escala 1:6, observando las dimensiones establecidas por el Reglamento de Construcción para una recámara. El análisis se centró en obtener, valorar y categorizar los datos de magnitud del viento que conllevaron a evaluar el comportamiento del espacio. Los datos validaron el sistema propuesto, proporcionando alternativas de acondicionamiento pasivo al espacio habitable. Abstract in english The academic group called Architecture and Environmental Technology of the Universidad Juárez Autónoma de Tabasco, develops Line Architecture and Environmental Research, producing analyzes on the design and bioclimatic architecture, with the premise of sustainability between user space and built env [...] ironment. The latter, presents thermal discomfort due to the high levels of temperature and relative humidity, condition is mitigated by air conditioners that affect energy expenditure and the economy user. According to the bioclimatic architecture a passive technique for this, is ventilation. This research is the third stage of a proposal on ventilator-induced. It consisted of the simulation system called Hydro-Solar Chimney, using copper tubing and water and heat sensors elements. The steps contemplated the design, construction and evaluation of the prototype. Models were constructed, the projected space and reference, 1:6 scale, noting the dimensions set by the Building Code of the State of Tabasco. The analysis focused on obtaining, evaluating and categorizing the magnitude of the wind data that led to evaluate the behavior within the space. Schematized data validated the proposed system, providing passive conditioning alternative to living space.

H, Pérez Castro; J, Flores; A, López.

57

Análisis de la ventilación inducida en un espacio habitable, mediante un sistema de Chimenea Hidro-Solar / Analisys of Ventilation induced in a Livable Space through a hydro-solar Chimney System  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El Cuerpo Académico Arquitectura y Tecnología Ambiental de la Universidad Juárez Autónoma de Tabasco, desarrolla la Línea de Investigación Arquitectura y Medio Ambiente, realiza análisis sobre el diseño y la arquitectura bioclimática, teniendo como premisa la sustentabilidad entre usuario, entorno y [...] espacio construido. Este último, en sitios con clima cálido húmedo, presenta incomodidad térmica debido a los altos índices de temperatura y humedad relativa, condición mitigada mediante equipos de aire acondicionado que repercuten en el gasto energético y la economía del usuario. De acuerdo con la arquitectura bioclimática una técnica pasiva para este hecho es la ventilación. La presente investigación es la tercera etapa de una propuesta de ventilación inducida. Consistió en la simulación del sistema denominado Chimenea Hidro-Solar, empleando tubería de cobre y agua como elementos captores de calor. Se planteó el diseño, construcción y evaluación del prototipo. Se construyeron modelos, del espacio proyectado y de referencia, a escala 1:6, observando las dimensiones establecidas por el Reglamento de Construcción para una recámara. El análisis se centró en obtener, valorar y categorizar los datos de magnitud del viento que conllevaron a evaluar el comportamiento del espacio. Los datos validaron el sistema propuesto, proporcionando alternativas de acondicionamiento pasivo al espacio habitable. Abstract in english The academic group called Architecture and Environmental Technology of the Universidad Juárez Autónoma de Tabasco, develops Line Architecture and Environmental Research, producing analyzes on the design and bioclimatic architecture, with the premise of sustainability between user space and built env [...] ironment. The latter, presents thermal discomfort due to the high levels of temperature and relative humidity, condition is mitigated by air conditioners that affect energy expenditure and the economy user. According to the bioclimatic architecture a passive technique for this, is ventilation. This research is the third stage of a proposal on ventilator-induced. It consisted of the simulation system called Hydro-Solar Chimney, using copper tubing and water and heat sensors elements. The steps contemplated the design, construction and evaluation of the prototype. Models were constructed, the projected space and reference, 1:6 scale, noting the dimensions set by the Building Code of the State of Tabasco. The analysis focused on obtaining, evaluating and categorizing the magnitude of the wind data that led to evaluate the behavior within the space. Schematized data validated the proposed system, providing passive conditioning alternative to living space.

H, Pérez Castro; J, Flores; A, López.

2013-11-01

58

Procedimentos estimativos do potencial de uso de chaminés solares para promover a ventilação natural em edificações de baixa altura / Procedures for estimating the potential use of solar chimneys for natural ventilation enhancement in low-rise buildings  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A ventilação natural é uma das estratégias mais importantes para o condicionamento térmico passivo de ambientes internos de edificações, podendo ocorrer pela ação dos ventos, pelo efeito chaminé ou pela combinação de ambos. Em áreas urbanizadas, a velocidade do vento é sensivelmente reduzida pelos o [...] bstáculos locais, tornando o efeito chaminé uma alternativa de projeto mais viável, pois independe dos ventos. Este artigo tem por objetivo apresentar e discutir procedimentos estimativos do potencial de uso de chaminés solares para edificações de baixa altura, localizadas em regiões de baixa latitude. Desenvolveram-se previsões teóricas, através de um modelo matemático e de simulação computacional. Realizou-se um processo de calibração destes modelos, utilizando como referência os resultados do monitoramento experimental de uma célula de teste. O processo baseou-se na análise comparativa de algumas variáveis selecionadas, considerando-se dados de temperatura superficial, temperatura do ar e vazão volumétrica no interior da chaminé. Os resultados indicaram que os modelos teóricos têm potencial de aplicação na avaliação do desempenho de chaminés solares, especialmente o modelo de simulação, em que foram observadas diferenças inferiores a 20% entre resultados medidos e calculados. Abstract in english Natural ventilation is one of the most important strategies for passive cooling of indoor environments. It can occur by wind forces, by stack effect or by a combination of both strategies. The second choice tends to be more effective in urban areas, where there are obstacles that block or significan [...] tly reduce wind speed. This paper analyses prediction procedures for the potential use of solar chimneys in low-rise buildings at low latitude locations. Theoretical predictions were developed using a mathematical model and computer simulation. A calibration procedure was used, based on results obtained through an experimental set up. The procedure consisted in a comparative analysis of chosen variables, considering data of surface temperature, air temperature and volumetric flow rate inside the chimney channel. The results confirmed the great potential of applicability of the theoretical models in the performance analysis of solar chimneys, especially the simulation model, which presented differences lower than 20% between measured and estimated results.

Leticia de Oliveira, Neves; Maurício, Roriz.

59

Procedimentos estimativos do potencial de uso de chaminés solares para promover a ventilação natural em edificações de baixa altura / Procedures for estimating the potential use of solar chimneys for natural ventilation enhancement in low-rise buildings  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A ventilação natural é uma das estratégias mais importantes para o condicionamento térmico passivo de ambientes internos de edificações, podendo ocorrer pela ação dos ventos, pelo efeito chaminé ou pela combinação de ambos. Em áreas urbanizadas, a velocidade do vento é sensivelmente reduzida pelos o [...] bstáculos locais, tornando o efeito chaminé uma alternativa de projeto mais viável, pois independe dos ventos. Este artigo tem por objetivo apresentar e discutir procedimentos estimativos do potencial de uso de chaminés solares para edificações de baixa altura, localizadas em regiões de baixa latitude. Desenvolveram-se previsões teóricas, através de um modelo matemático e de simulação computacional. Realizou-se um processo de calibração destes modelos, utilizando como referência os resultados do monitoramento experimental de uma célula de teste. O processo baseou-se na análise comparativa de algumas variáveis selecionadas, considerando-se dados de temperatura superficial, temperatura do ar e vazão volumétrica no interior da chaminé. Os resultados indicaram que os modelos teóricos têm potencial de aplicação na avaliação do desempenho de chaminés solares, especialmente o modelo de simulação, em que foram observadas diferenças inferiores a 20% entre resultados medidos e calculados. Abstract in english Natural ventilation is one of the most important strategies for passive cooling of indoor environments. It can occur by wind forces, by stack effect or by a combination of both strategies. The second choice tends to be more effective in urban areas, where there are obstacles that block or significan [...] tly reduce wind speed. This paper analyses prediction procedures for the potential use of solar chimneys in low-rise buildings at low latitude locations. Theoretical predictions were developed using a mathematical model and computer simulation. A calibration procedure was used, based on results obtained through an experimental set up. The procedure consisted in a comparative analysis of chosen variables, considering data of surface temperature, air temperature and volumetric flow rate inside the chimney channel. The results confirmed the great potential of applicability of the theoretical models in the performance analysis of solar chimneys, especially the simulation model, which presented differences lower than 20% between measured and estimated results.

Leticia de Oliveira, Neves; Maurício, Roriz.

2012-03-01

60

Fairy chimneys in Peru  

CERN Document Server

Erosion creates beautiful landscapes. A large part of them is known just by the local population. Google Maps can help in locating the places, study them and start any project for preservation. An interesting example is given by a landscape of fairy chimneys in Peru, near San Pedro de Larcay. It is remarkable the fact that some of them have been adapted as dwelling places.

Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Solar building construction. Town planning - construction planning. 2. rev. ed.  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The book discusses the problems of solar energy use under the following aspects: Town planing; Typology of green solar architecture; Typologie of solar architecture; Vegetation in green solar architecture; Planning and simulation; Building materials; Ventilation, illumination; Research projects. (HW)

62

Dimensioning, construction and commissioning of a coffee beans drying system with use of solar collectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A system of low-cost solar drying of coffee beans is dimensioned, built and commissioned by using solar collectors based on recycled aluminum cans. The information is collected from literature about the drying of coffee, types of drying and the various types of solar dryers.The coffee beans drying system is conceptualized and sized based on a solar collector constructed of aluminum cans as solar radiation absorbing material. The grain drying system is then built in coffee benefit CoopeTarrazu to all provided by the company and help materials and labor facilities. A guide to implementation of solar drying technology with general information is tailored to implement, select, build and maintain a solar grain dryer in Central America. The launch of the drying system was made by checking the proper functioning of the system and measurement instruments variables selected to calculate the efficiency of the system. The drying system is tested with a load of 45 kg of coffee bean, using a flow of air through natural convection to operate the system with the exclusive use of renewable energy. The grain is drying from a humidity of 50% (b.n), up to a humidity between 11% and 13% (b.n), which is the range generally used for the safe storage of grain. Facts of solar radiation, temperature, air velocity, relative humidity and grain humidity were taken to determine the behavior of the sized system. The maximum thermal efficiency achieved by the solar collector is determined constructed of 18%, with an air flow of 0.013 kg/s and a solar radiation 1138 W/m2. The average drying efficiency during experimentation was 17.8%, which is among the range of efficiencies for the type of drying equipment. Best thermal efficiencies were obtained from the solar collector built that the commercial solar collector compared. Controlling the flow of air into the equipment is recommended in order to improve the thermal efficiency and drying equipment, using blowers, fans or induced draft chimney. (author)

63

Psychology and photography: chimneys dreaming and chimneys warriors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article covers two aspects related to Psychology and Art. The first aspect concerns the similarities found between photography and various Schools of experimental psychology. For instance, the scientists of Psychology of ethological theory, and Non-verbal communication (NVC, observe with particular methodologies the non-verbal messages that animals and humans transmit to their peers through expressions, posture, gestures. The same is done by photographers (those who use the “camera” with a good knowledge of the medium and a “photographic  eye” when they look around, careful to catch an expression, any unusual attitude, or a gesture of friendship. Another School of psychology, the Gestalpsychologie (Gestalt: form, figure, configuration, attributes a decisive value to the perception of space, the foreground and the background, the perspective and vanishing points, the contrast between black and white. All aspects that effectively interest psychologists just as much as photographers. Finally, the second aspect relates to the art of Antony Gaudì and makes some hypothesis about the personality and behavior of the great architect, with regard to the construction of two houses, "Casa Batllo" and "Casa Mila": particularly because of the configuration or Gestalt of the "chimneys" that dominate the two buildings. In this study, cooperate each other psychological analysis and the art of photography. The last enables us to study also the details of the work of Gaudì, as can be seen in the pictures of this essay.

Tilde Giani Gallino

2013-02-01

64

Corrosion at system chimneys made of CrNi-steels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Names like 'chimney' und 'funnel' usually identify flue gas devices made of bricks. Much less known is the fact that chimney elements are still manufactured from alloys. The following article describes the particular demands ruled by legislation on building pro-ducts, just as the consequences resulting from corrosion loads by flue gas condensates. Difficulties caused by manufacturing and construction are primarily discussed. Furthermore a test procedure is introduced that allows to catch and correlate corrosion loads and technical designs systematically to corrosion behaviour and service life of flue gas devices. For the first time a tool for active quality assurance has been given by this test rig allowing to recognize construction errors systematically. This way, manufacturers of system chimneys and flue liners are enabled to optimize their products applications going ahead to the respective requests of the market. (authors)

Pajonk, Gunther [Institute of Materials Testing of Northrhine-Westfalia, D-44285 Dortmund (Germany)

2004-07-01

65

Novel concept for producing energy integrating a solar collector with a man made mountain hollow  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The concept of the solar chimney thermal power technology was proven with the successful operation of the Manzanares prototype built in the 1980s. However, all previous attempts at producing energy from a commercial solar chimney thermal power plant on a large scale have failed because of bad engineering and safety. A novel concept for producing energy by integrating a solar collector with a mountain hollow is presented and described. Solar energy is collected in the collector and heats the ground, which is used to store heat energy and heat the indoor air. Then, the hot air is forced by the pressure difference between it and the ambient air to move along the tilted segment and up the vertical segment of the 'chimney', driving the turbine generators to generate electricity. The mountain hollow, formed by excavation in a large-elevation mountain, can avoid the safety issues of erecting a gigantic concrete chimney, which is needed for commercial solar chimney thermal power plants. Furthermore, it can also save a great amount of construction materials for constructing a robust chimney structure and reduce the energy cost to a level less than that of a clean coal power plant, providing a good solution to the reclamation and utilization of undeveloped mountains, especially in mountainous countries

66

Novel concept for producing energy integrating a solar collector with a man made mountain hollow  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The concept of the solar chimney thermal power technology was proven with the successful operation of the Manzanares prototype built in the 1980s. However, all previous attempts at producing energy from a commercial solar chimney thermal power plant on a large scale have failed because of bad engineering and safety. A novel concept for producing energy by integrating a solar collector with a mountain hollow is presented and described. Solar energy is collected in the collector and heats the ground, which is used to store heat energy and heat the indoor air. Then, the hot air is forced by the pressure difference between it and the ambient air to move along the tilted segment and up the vertical segment of the 'chimney', driving the turbine generators to generate electricity. The mountain hollow, formed by excavation in a large-elevation mountain, can avoid the safety issues of erecting a gigantic concrete chimney, which is needed for commercial solar chimney thermal power plants. Furthermore, it can also save a great amount of construction materials for constructing a robust chimney structure and reduce the energy cost to a level less than that of a clean coal power plant, providing a good solution to the reclamation and utilization of undeveloped mountains, especially in mountainous countries. (author)

Zhou, Xinping [School of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Luoyu Road, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Yang, Jiakuan; Wang, Jinbo; Xiao, Bo [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Luoyu Road Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China)

2009-03-15

67

Novel concept for producing energy integrating a solar collector with a man made mountain hollow  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The concept of the solar chimney thermal power technology was proven with the successful operation of the Manzanares prototype built in the 1980s. However, all previous attempts at producing energy from a commercial solar chimney thermal power plant on a large scale have failed because of bad engineering and safety. A novel concept for producing energy by integrating a solar collector with a mountain hollow is presented and described. Solar energy is collected in the collector and heats the ground, which is used to store heat energy and heat the indoor air. Then, the hot air is forced by the pressure difference between it and the ambient air to move along the tilted segment and up the vertical segment of the 'chimney', driving the turbine generators to generate electricity. The mountain hollow, formed by excavation in a large-elevation mountain, can avoid the safety issues of erecting a gigantic concrete chimney, which is needed for commercial solar chimney thermal power plants. Furthermore, it can also save a great amount of construction materials for constructing a robust chimney structure and reduce the energy cost to a level less than that of a clean coal power plant, providing a good solution to the reclamation and utilization of undeveloped mountains, especially in mountainous countries.

Zhou Xinping [School of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Luoyu Road, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China)], E-mail: zhxpmark@hotmail.com; Yang Jiakuan; Wang Jinbo; Xiao Bo [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Luoyu Road Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China)

2009-03-15

68

Solar Glazing Tips for School Construction  

Science.gov (United States)

Glazing can be optimized to enhance passive solar heating and daylight harvesting by exceeding the prescriptive limits of the energy code. This savings can be garnered without the high cost of external overhangs or expensive glazing products. The majority of savings from solar glazing are attributable to the increase in solar heating and…

Smith, Jonathan

2012-01-01

69

Microbial mediated formation of low-temperature hydrothermal barite chimneys  

Science.gov (United States)

A low-temperature (20 degrees C) venting area with numerous active and extinct barite chimneys (up to 1 m tall) are located on the eastern flank of the hydrothermal mound of Loki's Castle black smoker field at the Mohns-Knipovich bend of the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge. The active barite chimneys are covered by white mats containing abundant microbial cells and extracellular material with attached barite crystals. Within the chimneys microbial cells are partly embedded in barite and crystals are covered by extracellular material. These observations indicate that the microbial material serve as a substrate for nucleation and precipitation of barite with the potential of having an important control on the construction of the chimneys. In addition, the presence of framboidal pyrite in black interior flow channels and in the underlying hydrothermal sediment further suggests that the chimney formation is linked to microbial sulphate reduction (MSR). To further investigate the relationship between chimney growth and microbial activity we used a combination of biomolecular and isotope analyses. Pyrosequencing of PCR amplicons of 16S rRNA followed by taxonomic classification revealed that sulphide oxidizers (Sulfurimonas) within the Epsilonproteobacteria dominate the microbial mats and the white barite of the chimney wall. In the black interior flow channel a more diverse microbial community was observed indicating methane, sulphur and ammonia oxidation as well as heterotrophic processes. Multiple isotope analyses (?18O, ?34S, ?33S) reveal that the barite chimneys precipitated from a fluid that was modified by subseafloor MSR in the sulphide mound. This is supported by the sulphur isotope signature of the framboidal pyrite, pore water, and mono- and disulphides extracted from the hydrothermal sediment as well as the biomolecular data. We suggest that the MSR was triggered by mixing of the H2 and CH4 rich high-temperature (320 degrees C) fluids and percolating seawater, which resulted in remobilization of hydrothermal barite deposited as debris and plume fall out in the mound. The combined results strongly suggest that the formation of the barite chimneys is a result of complex seafloor and subseafloor geobio-interactions.

Thorseth, I. H.; Steen, I. H.; Eickmann, B.; Dahle, H.; Baumberger, T.; Peters, M.; Strauss, H.; Pedersen, R. B.

2012-12-01

70

Solar thermal systems successful planning and construction  

CERN Document Server

Solar Thermal Systems summarizes the theoretical and practical knowledge gained from over 20 years of research, implementation and operation of thermal solar installations. This work provides answers to a variety of key questions by examining current solar installations, drawing upon past experiences and making proposals for future planning.- how do system components and materials behave under continuous operation?- which components have proven themselves and how are they used properly?- what are the causes of defects and how can they be avoided?- how long is the service life of modern solar i

Peuser, Dr Felix A; Schnauss, Martin

2013-01-01

71

Design and Construction of a Domestic Passive Solar Food Dryer  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The solar drying system utilizes solar energy to heat up air and to dry any food substance loaded, which is not only beneficial in that it reduces wastage of agricultural produce and helps in preservation of agricultural produce, but it also makes transportation of such dried produce easy and promotes the health and welfare of the people. This paper presents the design and construction of a domestic passive solar food dryer. The dryer is composed of solar collector (air heater) and a solar dr...

Alamu, Oguntola J.; Nwaokocha, Collins N.; Adunola, Olayinka

2010-01-01

72

Microbial Diversity of Carbonate Chimneys at the Lost City Hydrothermal Field: Implications for Life-Sustaining Systems in Peridotite Seafloor Environments  

Science.gov (United States)

The Lost City Hydrothermal Field (LCHF) is a novel peridotite-hosted vent environment discovered in Dec. 2000 at 30 N near the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. This field contains multiple large (up to 60 m), carbonate chimneys venting high pH (9-10), moderate temperature (45-75 C) fluids. The LCHF is unusual in that it is located on 1.5 my-old oceanic crust, 15 km from the nearest spreading axis. Hydrothermal flow in this system is believed to be driven by exothermic serpentinization reactions involving iron-bearing minerals in the underlying seafloor. The conditions created by such reactions, which include significant quantities of dissolved methane and hydrogen, create habitats for microbial communities specifically adapted to this unusual vent environment. Ultramafic, reducing hydrothermal environments like the LCHF may be analogous to geologic settings present on the early Earth, which have been suggested to be important for the emergence of life. Additionally, the existence of hydrothermal environments far away from an active spreading center expands the range of potential life-supporting environments elsewhere in the solar system. To study the abundance and diversity of microbial communities inhabiting the environments that characterize the LCHF, carbonate chimney samples were analyzed by microscopic and molecular methods. Cell densities of between 105 and 107 cells/g were observed within various samples collected from the chimneys. Interestingly, 4-11% of the microbial population in direct contact with vent fluids fluoresced with Flavin-420, a key coenzyme involved in methanogenesis. Enrichment culturing from chimney material under aerobic and anaerobic conditions yielded microorganisms in the thermophilic and mesophilic temperature regimes in media designed for methanogenesis, methane-oxidation, and heterotrophy. PCR analysis of chimney material indicated the presence of both Archaea and Eubacteria in the carbonate samples. SSU rDNA clone libraries constructed from the Eubacterial DNA show that diverse microbial communities, including autotrophic microorganisms and animal symbionts, are contained within the vent structures. In concert, these results indicate that abundant and varied microbial communities inhabit different regions of the chimney structure and may be specifically adapted to the reducing, volatile-rich fluids percolating through the chimneys. In addition to expanding the range of known deep-sea ecosystems, the microbial ecology of carbonate structures associated with hydrothermal venting at the LCHF may provide key insights into the microbiology of subsurface environments near this site. Studying the microbial communities within these systems will enable us to better understand geo-microbial processes associated with serpentinite environments and perhaps allow us to expand our search for life elsewhere in the universe.

Schrenk, M. O.; Cimino, P.; Kelley, D. S.; Baross, J. A.

2002-12-01

73

Method of construction of a multi-cell solar array  

Science.gov (United States)

The method of constructing a high voltage, low power, multicell solar array is described. A solar cell base region is formed in a substrate such as but not limited to silicon or sapphire. A protective coating is applied on the base and a patterned etching of the coating and base forms discrete base regions. A semiconductive junction and upper active region are formed in each base region, and defined by photolithography. Thus, discrete cells which are interconnected by metallic electrodes are formed.

Routh, D. E.; Hollis, B. R., Jr.; Feltner, W. R. (inventors)

1979-01-01

74

Design, Construction and Testing of Simple Solar Maize Dryer  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This project reports the design, construction and testing of a simple solar maize dryer. It is design in such a way that solar radiation is not incident directly on the maize, but preheated air warmed during its flow through a low pressure thermosphonic solar energy air heater or collector made up of an insulating material (polystyrene) of size 100mmx50mmx25.4mm, absorber plate (aluminium) sheet painted black of size 100mmx50mm and a cover glass (5mm thickness) measuring 100mmx50mm all arrang...

Folaranmi, Joshua

2008-01-01

75

Analysis of Self-Supporting Chimney  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Chimneys are tall structures and the major loads acting on these are self weight of the structure, wind load, live load due to lining, earthquake load & temperature loads. In this paper a RC chimneys will be designed considering dead load, wind load and earthquake load. The Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS design codes procedures will be used for the design of chimney. The present paper discusses the parametric study of RC chimney which is made by obtaining the results from software for different heights, diameter, earthquake zones, wind zones, type of soils and various load conditions because of changes in the dimensions of chimney, structural analysis such as response to earthquake and wind oscillations have become more critical to influence on the response and design of chimney. Parametric study on chimney from height 150 meters to 250 meters at an interval of 5 meters, for Zone II, Hard soil & Critical Zone of Zone V, Soft soil with wind speed varying from 33 meters/sec to 55 meters/sec with an internal temperature of 100 Degrees. The response of the chimney is studied & recorded in Tables & Graphs. The analysis is carried out using programming software Microsoft Visual Basic 6.0. The results obtained from the above cases are compared. Finally, the maximum values obtained in wind analysis and seismic analyses are then compared for deciding the design value.

Rajkumar

2013-10-01

76

Solar dryer: design, construction and performance; Deshidratador solar: diseno, construccion y funcionamiento  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This project presents the design, construction and operation of a system consisting of 20 m{sup 2} of air solar collectors and a tunnel, through which carriages containing the product, move against the flow of air. There is an overall energy balance between the product, solar radiation and air conditions. (author)

Rodriguez, Jose Luis; Guerrero, Mario E.; Gimenez, Ana Maria; Palma, Marcelo Ruiz [Universidad Nacional de San Juan (Puerto Rico). Facultad de Ingenieria. Inst. de Mecanica Aplicada

1996-07-01

77

Design and Construction of a Domestic Passive Solar Food Dryer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The solar drying system utilizes solar energy to heat up air and to dry any food substance loaded, which is not only beneficial in that it reduces wastage of agricultural produce and helps in preservation of agricultural produce, but it also makes transportation of such dried produce easy and promotes the health and welfare of the people. This paper presents the design and construction of a domestic passive solar food dryer. The dryer is composed of solar collector (air heater and a solar drying chamber containing rack of four cheese cloth (net trays both being integrated together. The air allowed in through air inlet is heated up in the solar collector and channeled through the drying chamber where it is utilized in drying (removing the moisture content from the food substance or agricultural produce loaded. The design was based on the geographical location which is Abeokuta and meteorological data were obtained for proper design specification. Locally available materials were used for the construction, chiefly comprising of wood (gmelina, polyurethane glass, mild steel metal sheet and net cloth for the trays.

Oguntola J. ALAMU

2010-12-01

78

The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope: design and early construction  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Solar Observatory’s (NSO) Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) is the first large U.S. solar telescope accessible to the worldwide solar physics community to be constructed in more than 30 years. The 4-meter diameter facility will operate over a broad wavelength range (0.35 to 28 ?m ), employing adaptive optics systems to achieve diffraction limited imaging and resolve features approximately 20 km on the Sun; the key observational parameters (collecting area, spatial resolution, spectral coverage, polarization accuracy, low scattered light) enable resolution of the theoretically-predicted, fine-scale magnetic features and their dynamics which modulate the radiative output of the sun and drive the release of magnetic energy from the Sun’s atmosphere in the form of flares and coronal mass ejections. In 2010, the ATST received a significant fraction of its funding for construction. In the subsequent two years, the project has hired staff and opened an office on Maui. A number of large industrial contracts have been placed throughout the world to complete the detailed designs and begin constructing the major telescope subsystems. These contracts have included the site development, AandE designs, mirrors, polishing, optic support assemblies, telescope mount and coudé rotator structures, enclosure, thermal and mechanical systems, and high-level software and controls. In addition, design development work on the instrument suite has undergone significant progress; this has included the completion of preliminary design reviews (PDR) for all five facility instruments. Permitting required for physically starting construction on the mountaintop of Haleakal?, Maui has also progressed. This paper will review the ATST goals and specifications, describe each of the major subsystems under construction, and review the contracts and lessons learned during the contracting and early construction phases. Schedules for site construction, key factory testing of major subsystems, and integration, test and commissioning activities will also be discussed.

McMullin, Joseph P.; Rimmele, Thomas R.; Keil, Stephen L.; Warner, Mark; Barden, Samuel; Bulau, Scott; Craig, Simon; Goodrich, Bret; Hansen, Eric; Hegwer, Steve; Hubbard, Robert; McBride, William; Shimko, Steve; Wöger, Friedrich; Ditsler, Jennifer

2012-09-01

79

Construction status of the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope  

Science.gov (United States)

The Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST, renamed in December 2013 from the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope) will be the largest solar facility built when it begins operations in 2019. Designed and developed to meet the needs of critical high resolution and high sensitivity spectral and polarimetric observations of the Sun, the observatory will enable key research for the study of solar magnetism and its influence on the solar wind, flares, coronal mass ejections and solar irradiance variations. The 4-meter class facility will operate over a broad wavelength range (0.38 to 28 microns, initially 0.38 to 5 microns), using a state-of-the-art adaptive optics system to provide diffraction-limited imaging and the ability to resolve features approximately 25 km on the Sun. Five first-light instruments will be available at the start of operations: Visible Broadband Imager (VBI; National Solar Observatory), Visible SpectroPolarimeter (ViSP; NCAR High Altitude Observatory), Visible Tunable Filter (VTF; Kiepenheuer Institut für Sonnenphysik), Diffraction Limited Near InfraRed SpectroPolarimeter (DL-NIRSP; University of Hawai'i, Institute for Astronomy) and the Cryogenic Near InfraRed SpectroPolarimeter (Cryo-NIRSP; University of Hawai'i, Institute for Astronomy). As of mid-2014, the key subsystems have been designed and fabrication is well underway, including the site construction, which began in December 2012. We provide an update on the development of the facilities both on site at the Haleakal? Observatories on Maui and the development of components around the world. We present the overall construction and integration schedule leading to the handover to operations in mid 2019. In addition, we outline the evolving challenges being met by the project, spanning the full spectrum of issues covering technical, fiscal, and geographical, that are specific to this project, though with clear counterparts to other large astronomical construction projects.

McMullin, Joseph P.; Rimmele, Thomas R.; Martínez Pillet, Valentin; Berger, Thomas E.; Casini, Roberto; Craig, Simon C.; Elmore, David F.; Goodrich, Bret D.; Hegwer, Steve L.; Hubbard, Robert P.; Johansson, Erik M.; Kuhn, Jeffrey R.; Lin, Haosheng; McVeigh, William; Schmidt, Wolfgang; Shimko, Steve; Tritschler, Alexandra; Warner, Mark; Wöger, Friedrich

2014-07-01

80

Design and Construction of a Passive Solar Power Clothing Dryer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This manuscript presents the design and construction of the energy efficient, time saving, cost effective of passive solar powered clothes dryer. This manuscript begins with a derivation of mathematical model represents of solar dryer followed with an analysis of the elements necessary for successfully designing the various components of a solar dryer. The solar drying performance achieved an average drying rate of 0.35 kg/h and drying time of 3 h in a typical day, even under local low ambient humidity of around 35% and at moderate outdoor wind speed. Also, the computational fluid dynamic CFD of transient thermal behavior based on Navier-Stokes equations was used to demonstrate the prevailing temperature rises in the solar natural-ventilation system associated with the internal heat flux due to solar radiation and moisture removal. The efficiency of solar dryer was improved using Nano coating technology. The result showed good agreement between the computational solid simulation and the experimental measurements obtained from this system.

Ali Alahmer

2014-04-01

 
 
 
 
81

Design, Construction and Testing of a Parabolic Solar Steam Generator  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper reports the design, construction and testing of a parabolic dish solar steam generator. Using concentrating collector, heat from the sun is concentrated on a black absorber located at the focus point of the reflector in which water is heated to a very high temperature to form steam. It also describes the sun tracking system unit by manual tilting of the lever at the base of the parabolic dish to capture solar energy. The whole arrangement is mounted on a hinged frame supported with...

Folaranmi, Joshua

2009-01-01

82

Upper Sand Mountain Parish Solar Construction Workshops. Final performance report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Upper Sand Mountain Parish continues to employ its initial strategy for involving high school vocational students with the pre cutting and instructional assembly aid to area families. The parish project works with high school vocational classes in pre fabbing solar devices into kit form. Then, students are employed to serve as instructors for Saturday construction workshops at the local electric cooperative. Trained teams of older and unemployed adults work with youth in building solar greenhouses for those able to pay labor. Over three years, the project has assisted and built 50 to 60 attached solar greenhouses with construction teams realizing in excess of $26,000 in labor for newly developed skills. The project continues to assist owners in monitoring and developing horticulturally as well as energy producing greenhouses. During the spring of 1982, the parish assisted greenhouse owners in marketing over 60,000 bedding plants worth over $3000. Monthly Greenhouse Owner Fellowship meetings have been a helpful setting for sharing of ideas and exchange of insights. A low interest solar loan fund, offering 5% loans for three years, has assisted over 30 families in going solar. The principle for this revolving fund has almost reached the $15,000 mark. The track record for loan repayments has been exceptional. Through workshops and tours we have aquainted hundreds of people across the southeast with low cost/low technology solar projects and a workable strategy for involving community groups and students in them. With church involvement, we have provided over $25,000 in grants to over 200 area families. Workshop information and plans are available to those interested for bread box solar water heaters, food dryers, window box collectors, insulation panels, and greenhouses.

1983-02-01

83

Piping systems, containment pre-stressing and steel ventilation chimney  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Units 5 and 6 of NPP Kozloduy have been designed initially for seismic levels which are considered too low today. In the frame of an IAEA Coordinated Research Programme, a Swiss team has been commissioned by Natsionalna Elektricheska Kompania, Sofia, to analyse the relevant piping system, the containment prestressing and the steel ventilation chimney and to recommend upgrade measures for adequate seismic capacity where applicable. Seismic input had been specified by and agreed upon earlier by IAEA experts. The necessary investigations have been performed in 1995 and discussed with internationally recognized experts. The main results may be summarized as follows: Upgrades are necessary at different piping sy ports (additional snubbers or viscous dampers). These fixes can be done easily at low cost. The containment prestressing tendons are adequately designed for the specified load combinations. However, unfavourable construction features endanger the reliability. It is therefore strongly recommended to replace the tendons stepwise and to upgrade the existing monitoring system. Finally, the steel ventilation chimney may not withstand a seismic event, however the containment and diesel generator building will not be destroyed at possible impact by the chimney. On the other hand the roof of the main building has to be reinforced partially. It is recommended to continue the project for 1996 and 1997 to implement the upgrade measures mentioned above, to analyse the remaining piping systems and to consolidate all results obtained by different research groups of the IAEA programme with respect to piping systems including components and tanks

84

Design, Construction and Testing of Simple Solar Maize Dryer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This project reports the design, construction and testing of a simple solar maize dryer. It is design in such a way that solar radiation is not incident directly on the maize, but preheated air warmed during its flow through a low pressure thermosphonic solar energy air heater or collector made up of an insulating material (polystyrene of size 100mmx50mmx25.4mm, absorber plate (aluminium sheet painted black of size 100mmx50mm and a cover glass (5mm thickness measuring 100mmx50mm all arranged in this order contributed to the heating. The test results gave temperature above 45OC in the drying chamber, and the moisture content of 50kg of maize reduced to about 12.5% in three days of 9hours each day of drying.

Joshua FOLARANMI

2008-12-01

85

Solar power plant in light-weight construction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A solar power plant built as a light-weight construction is introduced. The development had been started in 1972. This power plant is characterized by extremely light rotating parabolic mirrors and a highly transparent cupola under which the mirrors are protected from weather influences, controlled by sensors and directed to the sun. The central point of this new type of power plant are the big foil membrane mirrors. These mirrors concentrate the directly falling sun light on a specially developed linear-Stirling-generator which converts the solar energy directly into electric alternating current. Arranged as modules, the parabolic mirrors can be assembled to solar copula power plant forms. Data of a system with mirrors with 10 m-diameters are presented.

1982-09-01

86

Construction and evaluation of a timber-drying solar kiln  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A solar timber kiln with the capacity to season 3.24 m{sup 3} of lumber was designed, constructed and used for seasoning commercial sawnwood. The kiln was constructed of a timber frame covered with transparent polythene sheet on the top and black leatherette on the sides. Corrugated, galvanized-iron sheet painted black and tilted at 30{sup o} to the horizontal served as a heat collector. Two fans were fitted for air circulation. The kiln attained a maximum temperature of 24{sup o} above the ambient temperature. The average efficiency of the heat collector was 38.5%. The solar kiln reduced timber drying time by 33.3-57.1% when compared with an air-drying technique. Sawnwoods (25 mm by 300 mm by 360 mm) of Mansonia altissima and Terminalia superba were dried from 46.16 to 15.02% and from 52 to 15.4% moisture content respectively in 12 days. (Author)

Fuwape, I.A.; Fuwape, J.A.

1995-09-01

87

Suitability of locally constructed solar dryers for vegetable drying  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Indigenous vegetables and spices are usually common and abundant during the rainy season but unfortunately, almost disappear during the dry season due to inadequate processing because of their high moisture content, poor storage and marketing facilities. A study was therefore conducted to find the possibilities of drying vegetables using locally constructed solar dryers at the Mechanisation section of the University of Education, Mampong Campus. The study was done during the months of March to September, 2004 and six designs of solar panels were used. The panels were constructed using hard wood, binding materials (nails), chicken mesh, nylon net, and black and white polythene sheets. Variations in panels resulted from the type of polythene sheet used (white, black or both), drying platform and shape of the roof. The panels with their interior lined with the black polythene sheet recorded higher temperatures than those with their bases covered with only the chicken mesh and nylon nettings. All the designs recorded higher temperatures than the ambient temperature. The drying of vegetables was observed to be faster in the panels with their drying platforms lined with the black polythene sheet than those with their bases covered with only the chicken mesh and nylon net. Appearance of the vegetables after drying in the solar panels was almost the same as before drying as compared to the open sun drying that got mouldy after drying. Those vegetables that were dried directly Those vegetables that were dried directly on the black polythene sheet however were slightly darker in colour. Solar drying with these locally constructed panels would be a better means of drying vegetables by rural folks. (au)

88

Energy efficient and solar construction. Themes 2008; Energieeffizientes und solares Bauen. Themen 2008  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Within the annual meeting of the Renewable Energy Research Association (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) at 29th to 30th September, 2008, the lectures were held to the following themes: (a) Energy efficient and solar construction - a change of paradigm; (b) Revolution in construction technology; (c) Energetic sanitation of old buildings; (d) Innovative technologies of energy supply; (e) Integrated facility management; (f) Demonstration and practice of new technologies; (g) Market, politics, and sustainability.

Stadermann, Gerd (ed.)

2009-04-15

89

The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope: beginning construction of the world's largest solar telescope  

Science.gov (United States)

The 4m Advance Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) will be the most powerful solar telescope and the world's leading ground-based resource for studying solar magnetism that controls the solar wind, flares, coronal mass ejections and variability in the Sun's output. The project has successfully passed its final design review and the Environmental Impact Study for construction of ATST on Haleakala, Maui, HI has been concluded in December of 2009. The project is now entering its construction phase. As its highest priority science driver ATST shall provide high resolution and high sensitivity observations of the dynamic solar magnetic fields throughout the solar atmosphere, including the corona at infrared wavelengths. With its 4 m aperture, ATST will resolve features at 0."03 at visible wavelengths and obtain 0."1 resolution at the magnetically highly sensitive near infrared wavelengths. A high order adaptive optics system delivers a corrected beam to the initial set of state-of-the-art, facility class instrumentation located in the coudé laboratory facility. The initial set of first generation instruments consists of five facility class instruments, including imagers and spectropolarimeters. The high polarimetric sensitivity and accuracy required for measurements of the illusive solar magnetic fields place strong constraints on the polarization analysis and calibration. Development and construction of a fourmeter solar telescope presents many technical challenges, including thermal control of the enclosure, telescope structure and optics and wavefront control. A brief overview of the science goals and observational requirements of the ATST will be given, followed by a summary of the design status of the telescope and its instrumentation, including design status of major subsystems, such as the telescope mount assembly, enclosure, mirror assemblies, and wavefront correction

Rimmele, T. R.; Wagner, J.; Keil, S.; Elmore, D.; Hubbard, R.; Hansen, E.; Warner, M.; Jeffers, P.; Phelps, L.; Marshall, H.; Goodrich, B.; Richards, K.; Hegwer, S.; Kneale, R.; Ditsler, J.

2010-07-01

90

Construction of Solar-Wind-Like Magnetic Fields  

Science.gov (United States)

Fluctuations in the solar wind fields tend to not only have velocities and magnetic fields correlated in the sense consistent with Alfven waves traveling from the Sun, but they also have the magnitude of the magnetic field remarkably constant despite their being broadband. This paper provides, for the first time, a method for constructing fields with nearly constant magnetic field, zero divergence, and with any specified power spectrum for the fluctuations of the components of the field. Every wave vector, k, is associated with two polarizations the relative phases of these can be chosen to minimize the variance of the field magnitude while retaining the\\random character of the fields. The method is applied to a case with one spatial coordinate that demonstrates good agreement with observed time series and power spectra of the magnetic field in the solar wind, as well as with the distribution of the angles of rapid changes (discontinuities), thus showing a deep connection between two seemingly unrelated issues. It is suggested that using this construction will lead to more realistic simulations of solar wind turbulence and of the propagation of energetic particles.

Roberts, Dana Aaron

2012-01-01

91

Design, Construction and Effectiveness Analysis of Hybrid Automatic Solar Tracking System for Amorphous and Crystalline Solar Cells  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

- This paper concerns the design and construction of a Hybrid solar tracking system. The constructed device was implemented by integrating it with Amorphous & Crystalline Solar Panel, three dimensional freedom mechanism and microcontroller. The amount of power available from a photovoltaic panel is determined by three parameters, the type of solar tracker, materials of solar panel and the intensity of the sunlight. The objective of this paper is to present analysis on the use of two differ...

Bhupendra Gupta

2013-01-01

92

Design and construction of a low cost solar simulator  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A solar simulator has been designed and constructed for indoor testing for solar collectors. The simulator consists of 45 halogen lamps. Each lamp has a rated power of a 300 watts. The lamps in ten rows where each row consists of 4 to 5 lamps. The lamps occupied area 6 m2. Dimmers are used to control the amount of lamp intensities. The spacing between the lamps and the collector is about 150 cm. The intensities of the lamps are measured using a pyranometer. The intensity contours or mappings for minimum and maximum average pyranometer readings about 280 to 640 W/m2 are produced, with errors are about of 3.16 % to 4.5 %. (Author)

93

Design, Construction and Testing of a Parabolic Solar Steam Generator  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper reports the design, construction and testing of a parabolic dish solar steam generator. Using concentrating collector, heat from the sun is concentrated on a black absorber located at the focus point of the reflector in which water is heated to a very high temperature to form steam. It also describes the sun tracking system unit by manual tilting of the lever at the base of the parabolic dish to capture solar energy. The whole arrangement is mounted on a hinged frame supported with a slotted lever for tilting the parabolic dish reflector to different angles so that the sun is always directed to the collector at different period of the day. On the average sunny and cloud free days, the test results gave high temperature above 200°C.

Joshua FOLARANMI

2009-07-01

94

Chimney`s economic temperature in steam generator; Temperatura economica de chamine em gerador de vapor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is analysed and optimized, from the economic point of view, the heat recovery from stack gases of boilers, throughout the installation of economizers and combustion air pre heaters. A simplified mathematical model is suggested for the heat exchange and applied together with the minimum cost method in order to determine the areas of the mentioned exchangers above which it is not economic to recover additional heat. This point settles chimney temperature that is called chimney`s economic temperature. The results from the application of this model are presented to a practical case. (author). 2 figs., 2 refs

Santos, R.L.P.M. [Centro de Pesquisas e Desenvolvimento, Camacari, BA (Brazil)

1984-12-31

95

The W4 chimney/superbubble  

CERN Document Server

A conical void in the Galactic HI within the Perseus arm has been proposed to be a chimney. However, Halpha data suggest that the structure may be closed at higher latitudes and therefore is a superbubble rather than a chimney. Recent observations have extended our view of the HI and the radio continuum emission to higher latitudes, up to 8 degrees;. The new images show the HI structure to be open at the top and a small filament suggests recent breakout. The conical shape of the structure is not easily explained by superbubble models.

Normandeau, M

2000-01-01

96

Measurement of chimney dimensions and development of special tools for installation of in-chimney bracket in HANARO  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The in-chimney bracket is a structure which supports the guide tubes of irradiation facilities at the irradiation sites of CT, IR1, IR2, OR4 and/or OR5 in HANARO core to reduce the flow-induced vibration and the dynamic response to seismic load. It horizontally supports the middle part of lthe irradiation facilities for CT/IR sites in addition to the robot arms which had already been installed at the reactor pool liner to support the top of the facilities, and supports the top of the guide tubes for OR sites. For these purposes, the in-chimney bracket was installed in the chimney using four siphoning holes located at 70 cm below the chimney top. It is necessary to measure the dimensions of chimney before the design of in-chimney bracket because there must be manufacturing tolerances and the deformation of the chimney due to the load of the system pipes. To implement this, various special tools had been developed to measure the as-built dimensions of the chimney at the elevation of the siphoning holes, and measured the chimney dimensions and the eccentricity of the chimney center from the reactor core center. Also, a special tool was developed for the installation of the in-chimney bracket by remote operating at the pool top 10 meters apart from the chimney. The installation procedures were established through the enough installation rehearsal using the installation tool and the dummhy chimney which was fabricated to the same dimensions of the real chimney, and the installation interference problems were resolved through the preliminaly installation to the reactor chimney. Finally, the in-chimey bracket was successfully installed at the reactor chimney and is well being used for the irradiation test since the installation on May 16, 2000

97

Preliminary work for stage 2 decommissioning of B16 pile chimney  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Planning of the second stage of decommissioning of the two pile chimneys at Sellafield started while work was underway on the first stage, which involved removal of the sections above the filters. The second stage requires the removal of all radio-active parts and the dismantling of the filter and diffuser sections, and has to be completed by 1997. The planning involved studying the many possible options and their effects on both radiological and industrial safety. This decommissioning project employs a high proportion of civil engineering and construction techniques, which are then developed to eliminate the hazards from radioactive dusts, and to minimise the effect of radiation on operatives working on the project. Much of this equipment is modified forms of standard construction equipment and includes cutting equipment and remotely operated vehicles. The initial phases of the work involve: provision of a waste packaging and access building; provision of temporary ventilation systems to control the dust generated by the work, cutting of 3 m square access doorway through the 1.5 m thick reinforced concrete wall of the chimney; provision of Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) to act as a tool carrier for lining stripping work; removal of the thermal lining from the floor and lower walls of the chimney, and installation of precast concrete walls which separate the pile reactor core from the chimney flue. (author)

98

Design, Construction and Effectiveness Analysis of Hybrid Automatic Solar Tracking System for Amorphous and Crystalline Solar Cells  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available - This paper concerns the design and construction of a Hybrid solar tracking system. The constructed device was implemented by integrating it with Amorphous & Crystalline Solar Panel, three dimensional freedom mechanism and microcontroller. The amount of power available from a photovoltaic panel is determined by three parameters, the type of solar tracker, materials of solar panel and the intensity of the sunlight. The objective of this paper is to present analysis on the use of two different material of Solar panel like Amorphous & Crystalline in a Solar tracking system at Stationary, Single Axis, Dual Axis & Hybrid Axis solar tracker to have better performance with minimum losses to the surroundings, as this device ensures maximum intensity of sun rays hitting the surface of the panel from sunrise to sunset

Bhupendra Gupta

2013-10-01

99

Construction of a Small Scale Laboratory for Solar Collectors and Solar Cells in a Developing Country  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the field of renewable energy, self-provided research in developing countries is barely present, but most welcomed. The creation of know-how and self-development of technologies should reduce the dependence on industrialized countries for both materials and knowledge. This work presents technological and social issues related to the construction of a low budget solar laboratory in Mozambique. The goal is to demonstrate that scientific level research can be carried out in developing countries by using affordable solutions without sacrificing quality of the results. For this investigation, a solar laboratory was built in 2011 at Universidade Eduardo Mondlane of Maputo. The laboratory enables measurements to evaluate solar thermal and photovoltaic-thermal hybrid collectors. Thanks to the flexibility of the system, students and teaching staff can add/remove equipment and develop customised local research programs. In addition, a course on the principles of solar energy and collector simulation for local students was taught. The needed data acquisition devices usually used in Europe were compared with cheaper and easy-maintenance ones. Calibration and estimation of the uncertainty were successfully performed. Approximately 9% of inaccuracy in the measurement was introduced by the cheaper equipment, but the investment cost was reduced by more than 90%. Other issues, results and future recommendations are shown.

Gentile Niko

2013-01-01

100

Self-construction of a solar water heater; Calentador solar de agua de auto-construccion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this work a flat receiver of self construction is shown with relatively low cost and easy manufacture, but with a thermal efficiency superior to 40% for applications at temperatures less than 60 degrees Celsius, that allows satisfying international standards in this respect. The heater has been matter of study in open courses distributed in the Universidad Autonoma de la Ciudad de Mexico (UACM) oriented to that the participants construct their own system, in addition to its installation and tests. The obtained results have been excellent. The massive use of efficient solar receivers of self-construction can truly help to the decreasing of the gas discharges of greenhouse effect. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presenta un captador plano de auto construccion con relativamente bajo costo y facil manufactura, pero con un rendimiento termico superior a 40% para aplicaciones a temperatura menos de 60 grados centigrados que le permite satisfacer estandares internacionales a este respecto. El calentador ha sido materia de estudio en cursos abiertos impartidos en la Universidad Autonoma de la Ciudad de Mexico (UACM) orientados a que los participantes construyan su propio sistema, ademas de su instalacion y pruebas. Los resultados obtenidos han sido excelentes. El uso masivo de captadores solares eficientes de autoconstruccion puede en verdad coadyuvar a la disminucion de las emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero.

Lentz Herrera, Alvaro E.; Rincon Mejia, Eduardo A. [Universidad Autonoma de la Ciudad de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

2009-07-01

 
 
 
 
101

Hybrid solar-electric oven construction prototype; Construccion de prototipo de horno hibrido solar-electrico  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The oven construction consists of a solar collector system of cylindrical parabolic type, a heating through electrical resistance and a curing chamber. The warm fluid is air, which is injected into the chamber through forced draft. The temperature required in the system is within a range of 150 to 300 degrees Celsius. [Spanish] La construccion del horno consta de un sistema de captacion solar del tipo cilindrico parabolico, un sistema de calentamiento a traves de resistencias electricas y una camara de curado. El fluido a calentar es aire, el cual es inyectado dentro de la camara a traves de tiro forzado. La temperatura solicitada en el sistema es dentro de un rango de 150 a 300 grados centigrados.

Hernandez Roman, M. A; Pineda Pinon, J; Arcos Pichardo, A [CICATA, Santiago de Queretaro, Queretaro (Mexico)

2013-03-15

102

Solar UV exposure in construction workers in Valencia, Spain.  

Science.gov (United States)

Exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) has long been recognized as the most important environmental risk factor for melanoma and skin cancer. Outdoor workers are among the groups most at risk from exposure to solar UVR in their daily activities. Sensitive spore-film filter-type personal dosimeters (VioSpor) were used to measure the biologically effective UVR received by construction workers in the course of their daily work. The study took place in Valencia, Spain, in July 2010 and involved a group of eight workers for a period of 5 days. The median UV exposure was 6.11 standard erythema dose (SED) per day, with 1 SED defined as effective 100 J/m(2) when weighted with the Commission Internationale de L'Eeclairage erythemal response function. These workers were found to receive a median of 13.9% of total daily ambient ultraviolet erythemal radiation (UVER). Comparison with the occupational UVR exposure limit showed that the subjects had received UVER exposure in excess of occupational guidelines, indicating that protective measures against this risk are highly advisable. PMID:22739681

Serrano, María-Antonia; Cañada, Javier; Moreno, Juan Carlos

2013-01-01

103

Constructal Optimization of Top Contact Metallization of a Photovoltaic Solar Cell  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A top contact metallization of a photovoltaic solar cell collects the current generated by incident solar radiation. Several power-loss mechanisms are associated with the current flow through the front contact grid. The design of the top metal contact grid is one of the most important areas of efficient photovoltaic solar cell design. In this paper, an approach based on the constructal theory is proposed to design the grid pattern in a photovoltaic solar cell, minimizing total resistive losse...

Santanu Bandyopadhyay; Aditya Bhakta

2005-01-01

104

Design of a solar power satellite for construction from lunar materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Solar Power Satellites may be constructed from materials mined on the Moon and transported into free space by means of an electromagnetic catapult called a mass-driver. Both the mass-driver and the chemical processing techniques required to obtain construction materials from lunar soil have been demonstrated in the laboratory. A Solar Power Satellite has been designed for construction from lunar materials. This design requires only 1% of its mass from the Earth.

Maryniak, G.E.; Tillotson, B.

1988-01-01

105

Design, construction and evaluation of solarized airlift tubular photobioreactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An innovative photobioreactor is developed for growing algae in simulated conditions. The proposed design comprises of a continuous tubular irradiance loop and air induced liquid circulation with gas separation through air lift device. The unique features of air lift system are to ensure the shear free circulation of sensitive algal culture and induce light/dark cycles to the photosynthetic micro-organisms. The design strategy employs to model and construct a 20-liter laboratory scale unit using Boro-silicate glass tubing. The material is selected to ensure maximum photon transmission. All components of the device are designed to have flexibility to be replaced with an alternative design, providing fair chance of modification for future investigators. The principles of fluid mechanics are applied to describe geometrical attributes of the air lift system. Combination of LEDs and Florescent tube lights (Warm white) were used to illuminate the photosynthesis reaction area providing a possibility to control both illumination duration and light intensity. 200 Watt Solar PV system is designed to power up the device which included air pump (100 Watt) and illumination system (100 Watt). Algal strain Chlorella sp was inoculated in photobioreactor which was sparged with air and carbon dioxide. The growth was sustained in the batch mode with daily monitoring of temperature, pH and biomass concentration. The novel photobioreactor recorded a maximum experimental average yield of 0 a maximum experimental average yield of 0.65 g/l.day (11.3 g/m2.day) as compared to theoretical modeled yield of 0.82 g/l.day (14.26 g/m2.day), suggesting the device can be efficiently and cost-effectively employed in the production of algal biomass for biofuels, concomitantly mitigating CO2.

106

78 FR 72060 - Chimney Rock National Monument Management Plan; San Juan National Forest; Colorado  

Science.gov (United States)

...Forest Service Chimney Rock National Monument Management Plan; San Juan National Forest...resources within Chimney Rock National Monument, designated by Presidential Proclamation...Proclamation establishing Chimney Rock National Monument (the Monument) requires...

2013-12-02

107

Constructal Optimization of Top Contact Metallization of a Photovoltaic Solar Cell  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A top contact metallization of a photovoltaic solar cell collects the current generated by incident solar radiation. Several power-loss mechanisms are associated with the current flow through the front contact grid. The design of the top metal contact grid is one of the most important areas of efficient photovoltaic solar cell design. In this paper, an approach based on the constructal theory is proposed to design the grid pattern in a photovoltaic solar cell, minimizing total resistive losses. Constructal theory explains the geometric form (shape and structure of most volume-to-point systems in nature. In this paper, the applicability of the constructal theory to design top contact metallization for a photovoltaic solar cell has been extended.

Santanu Bandyopadhyay

2005-12-01

108

77 FR 59275 - Establishment of the Chimney Rock National Monument  

Science.gov (United States)

...Establishment of the Chimney Rock National Monument By the President of the United States...Government of the United States to be national monuments, and to reserve as a part thereof parcels...reserve as the Chimney Rock National Monument (monument) the objects identified...

2012-09-27

109

Design, construction and testing of parabolic solar energy cooker  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Parabolic solar energy cooker was designed using locally available materials such as pieces of iron and plane mirrors. The diameter of the dish was 12 x 10-3 mm and pieces of glass mirrors were adhered to its concave surface using abro silicon gum as solar energy reflectors. The solar cooker was used to cook different food materials such as rice, bean, yam and stew between 11am and 3pm. The time taken to cook the food materials were measured and compared to the time it takes to cook similar food samples of the same quantity using kerosene and electric stove. It took the kerosene and electric stoves two hours, forty minutes (2.40) and two hours, ten minutes (2.10) respectively to cook beans with all the ingredients while the fabricated solar cooker took only one hour fifteen minutes. Due to high solar energy absorption capacity of the solar cooker and insolation rate, the study has reveled that it is faster, safer and takes less time to cook using cooker than either kerosene or electric stove.

110

Design manual for HANARO in-chimney bracket  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As a supplementary structure supporting the irradiation facilities, the in-chimney bracket holds guide tubes whose holding position in CT or IR is the middle part of the instrumented facility between the hole spider and the robot arm already provided in the reactor pool liner. Also, the bracket grips the upper part of the guide tubes when it is applied to hold the instrumented facility loaded in OR sites. The irradiation test will be successfully conducted since this bracket reduces the flow-induced vibration (FIV) and the dynamic response to seismic load. The installation position of the bracket is 60 cm below the top of the chimney, i.e., thermo siphoning hole position. To evaluate the structural integrity on the in-chimney bracket and the related reactor structures, ANSYS finite element analysis model is developed and the dynamic characteristics are analyzed. The seismic response analyses were performed for the in-chimney bracket and the related reactor structures of HANARO under the design earthquake response spectrum loads of OBE and SSE. The analysis results show that the stress values in main points of reactor structures and in-chimney bracket for the seismic loads are also within the ASME code limits. It is also confirmed that the fatigue usage factor is much less than 1.0. Therefore any damage on structural integrity is not expected when the in-chimney bracket is installed at the upper part of the reactor chimney. This bracket had been designed and manufactured based on the dimensions of the as-built chimney. In the process of design and preliminary installation, chimney measurement tools, dummy chimney, and installation tools were developed and the installation procedure was prepared and verified through the installation rehearsal.

Ryu, Jeong Soo; Cho, Y. G.; Whang, S. Y.; Wu, J. S.; Jun, B. J

2000-06-01

111

Construction and operation activities at the University of Illinois salt gradient solar pond  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The construction and operational activities at the University of Illinois (U.I.) salt gradient solar pond facility are described. Several discussions are given on major topics related to solar ponds. The discussions also contain cost information where available or relevant. Overall, the U.I. solar pond has demonstrated that solar ponds for low grade heating applications, such as space heating and grain drying, can be designed in a simple manner that requires minimal maintenance duties. More time is needed to refine operation procedures, however, enough information has been collected such that the basic design used for the pond can be replicated without significant modifications.

Newell, T.A.; Cowie, R.G.; Upper, J.M.; Smith, M.K. (Univ. of Illinois, Urbana (USA)); Cler, G.L. (Army Construction Engineering Research Lab., Champaign, IL (USA))

1990-01-01

112

Design and construction of a solar multistory building in Tuscany (Italy)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A solar low income multifamily housing project, under construction in Leghorn (Tuscany, Italy), which combines passive and conservative technologies with an active solar energy plant is presented. The working group took into consideration the following items: the local climatic conditions; the Italian housing laws; a specific heating service contract; a minimum required annual energy saving; and a fixed economic budget. In order to meet the above conditions most satisfactorily, it was necessary to use a number of computer programs as design and performance evaluation tools and to develop a special passive solar component. The six-story high building, consisting of 24 flats, with linear typology is described. The south facade has been realized with two different passive systems: direct gain and solar wall. An active solar system provides part of the building hot water requirement. The minimization of thermal loss has been emphasized by means of reduction of surface/volume ratio and an adequate study of the building construction details.

D' Alessandro, G.; Serravezza, A.

1981-01-01

113

Effects of heat and radiation on Gasbuggy chimney gas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chemical changes in the gas in the Gasbuggy chimney were observed for about six months following the explosion. Heat and radiation are postulated to cause this change. Samples of gas taken from the chimney at one month were heated and irradiated in the laboratory. Heat produced a decrease in H2 and an increase in CH4 concentration--trends that were observed in the chimney. On the other hand, irradiated samples of this gas showed a dose-related increase in H2 and decrease in CH4. Irradiation also caused about one-third of each gas sample to change into an oil

114

Construction and initial operation of the combined solar thermal and electric desiccant cooling system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reports the constructed combined solar thermal and electric desiccant cooling system - its initial operation and operational procedures. The system, as designed, can be operated during nighttime and daytime. The nighttime operation is for thermal energy storage using the auxiliary electric heater, while the daytime operation is for solar energy collection and desiccant cooling. Ongoing experimental evaluation is being undertaken to observe and determine the long-term performance of the system. (author)

Enteria, Napoleon; Yoshino, Hiroshi; Mochida, Akashi; Takaki, Rie [Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Satake, Akira [Technical Research Institute, Maeda Corporation, Tokyo 179-8914 (Japan); Yoshie, Ryuichiro [Faculty of Engineering, Tokyo Polytechnic University, Atsugi 243-0297 (Japan); Mitamura, Teruaki [Faculty of Engineering, Ashikaga Institute of Technology, Ashikaga 326-8558 (Japan); Baba, Seizo [Earth Clean Tohoku Co., Ltd., Sendai 984-0038 (Japan)

2009-08-15

115

Design and Construction of Solar Power-Based Lighting System.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Over the years, security posed a major concern at night due to the total darkness. The need to supply light without manually switching it on and off arises as years roll by. Automatic Street Light Control System is a simple yet powerful concept, which uses transistor as a switch. This paper presents how solar energy is being harnessed to power street light and virtually removes manual works to 100%. The system automatically switches ON lights when the sunlight goes below the visible region of the eyes. This is done by a sensor called Light Dependant Resistor (LDR which senses the light actually like the human eyes. It automatically switches OFF lights whenever the sunlight comes, visible to the eyes. By using this system energy consumption is also reduced because presently the manually operated street lights are not switched off at sunlight nor switched on earlier before sunset

Oke A. O.

2013-09-01

116

Constructing ballistic capture orbits in the real Solar System model  

Science.gov (United States)

A method to design ballistic capture orbits in the real Solar System model is presented, so extending previous works using the planar restricted three-body problem. In this generalization a number of issues arise, which are treated in the present work. These involve reformulating the notion of stability in three-dimensions, managing a multi-dimensional space of initial conditions, and implementing a restricted -body model with accurate planetary ephemerides. Initial conditions are categorized into four subsets according to the orbits they generate in forward and backward time. These are labelled weakly stable, unstable, crash, and acrobatic, and their manipulation allows us to derive orbits with prescribed behavior. A post-capture stability index is formulated to extract the ideal orbits, which are those of practical interest. Study cases analyze ballistic capture about Mercury, Europa, and the Earth. These simulations show the effectiveness of the developed method in finding solutions matching mission requirements.

Luo, Z.-F.; Topputo, F.; Bernelli-Zazzera, F.; Tang, G.-J.

2014-12-01

117

Solar hot water systems for the southeastern United States: principles and construction of breadbox water heaters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of solar energy to provide hot water is among the easier solar technologies for homeowners to utilize. In the Southeastern United States, because of the mild climate and abundant sunshine, solar energy can be harnessed to provide a household's hot water needs during the non-freezing weather period mid-April and mid-October. This workbook contains detailed plans for building breadbox solar water heaters that can provide up to 65% of your hot water needs during warm weather. If fuel costs continue to rise, the annual savings obtained from a solar water heater will grow dramatically. The designs in this workbook use readily available materials and the construction costs are low. Although these designs may not be as efficient as some commercially available systems, most of a household's hot water needs can be met with them. The description of the breadbox water heater and other types of solar systems will help you make an informed decision between constructing a solar water heater or purchasing one. This workbook is intended for use in the southeastern United States and the designs may not be suitable for use in colder climates.

None

1983-02-01

118

Solar thermal power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The solar thermal power plant technology, the opportunities it presents and the developments in the market are outlined. The focus is on the technology of parabolic trough power plants, a proven technology for solar power generation on a large scale. In a parabolic trough power plant, trough-shaped mirrors concentrate the solar irradiation onto a pipe in the focal line of the collector. The thermal energy thus generated is used for electricity generation in a steam turbine. Parabolic trough plants can be combined with thermal storage and fossil or biomass fired heat exchangers to generate electricity even when the sun is not shining. Solar Millennium AG in Erlangen has developed the first power plant of this kind in Europe. After two years of construction the plant started operation in Southern Spain in 2008. This one and its sister projects are important steps leading the way for the whole market. The paper also covers the technological challenges, the key components used and the research and development activities concerning this technology. Solar thermal power plants are ideal for covering peak and medium loads in power grids. In hybrid operation they can also cover base-load. The Solar Chimney power plant, another striking technology for the conversion of solar into electric energy, is described briefly. The paper concludes with a look at the future - the import of solar energy from the deserts of North Africa to central Europe. (author)urope. (author)

119

Solar thermal power plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The solar thermal power plant technology, the opportunities it presents and the developments in the market are outlined. The focus is on the technology of parabolic trough power plants, a proven technology for solar power generation on a large scale. In a parabolic trough power plant, trough-shaped mirrors concentrate the solar irradiation onto a pipe in the focal line of the collector. The thermal energy thus generated is used for electricity generation in a steam turbine. Parabolic trough plants can be combined with thermal storage and fossil or biomass fired heat exchangers to generate electricity even when the sun is not shining. Solar Millennium AG in Erlangen has developed the first power plant of this kind in Europe. After two years of construction the plant started operation in Southern Spain in 2008. This one and its sister projects are important steps leading the way for the whole market. The paper also covers the technological challenges, the key components used and the research and development activities concerning this technology. Solar thermal power plants are ideal for covering peak and medium loads in power grids. In hybrid operation they can also cover base-load. The Solar Chimney power plant, another striking technology for the conversion of solar into electric energy, is described briefly. The paper concludes with a look at the future - the import of solar energy from the deserts of North Africa to central Europe. (author)

Schnatbaum, L. [Solar Millennium AG, Erlanger (Germany)

2009-09-15

120

NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF HEAT STORAGE OF SOLAR HEAT IN FLOOR CONSTRUCTION  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper, heat storage of solar heating in the floor construction of single-family houses is examined. A floor construction with two concrete decks is investigated. The lower is used as heat storage while the upper deck has a floor heating system. The potential for a reduction of the energy consumption for heating, by using heat storage in the floor construction is calculated using a dynamic simulation model of solar collector, solar tank and heat storage coupled to a building model, using the Danish Design Ref-erence Year as input. The model calculates the performance of the solar heating system room temperature and energy consumption. A single-family house with and without heat recovery unit on the ventilation system of 130 m² with heating demand of approximately 70 kWh/m² and 40 kWh/m² is investigated. A parametrical analysis was performed for the solar collector area, and floor layouts including pipe spacing, storage materials, and distribution of insulation around the thermal storage layer. The energy consump-tion, reduction due to the heat storage and total performance of the solar heating system was calculated. The largest reduction of 100 kWh/m² solar collector occurred in the house with the highest energy con-sumption. The reduction depends on the solar collector area, distribution of the insulation thickness, heat-ing demand and control strategy, but not on pipe spacing and layer thickness and material. Finally, it is shown that the system can also be used for comfort heating of tiled floors during the summer period.

Weitzmann, Peter; Holck, Ole

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Development and construction of the novel solar thermal desiccant cooling system incorporating hot water production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reports the development and construction of the novel solar cooling and heating system. The system consists of the thermal energy subsystem and the desiccant cooling subsystem. The system utilizes both the cheaper nighttime electric energy and the free daytime solar energy. The system is conceptualized to produce both cooling during summer daytime and hot water production during winter. Testing and evaluation of the system had been done to determine its operational procedure and performance. Based on the results, the thermal energy subsystem functioned to its expected performance in solar energy collection and thermal storage. The desiccant cooling subsystem reduced both the temperature and the humidity content of the air using solar energy with a minimal amount of back-up electric energy. The system however, needs further investigation under real conditions. (author)

Enteria, Napoleon; Yoshino, Hiroshi; Mochida, Akashi; Takaki, Rie [Faculty of Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Satake, Akira [Technical Research Institute, Maeda Corporation, Tokyo 179-8914 (Japan); Yoshie, Ryuichiro [Faculty of Engineering, Tokyo Polytechnic University, Atsugi 243-0297 (Japan); Baba, Seizo [Earth Clean Tohoku Co. Ltd., Sendai 984-0038 (Japan)

2010-02-15

122

Design, Engineering, and Construction of Photosynthetic Microbial Cell Factories for Renewable Solar Fuel Production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There is an urgent need to develop sustainable solutions to convert solar energy into energy carriers used in the society. In addition to solar cells generating electricity, there are several options to generate solar fuels. This paper outlines and discusses the design and engineering of photosynthetic microbial systems for the generation of renewable solar fuels, with a focus on cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria are prokaryotic microorganisms with the same type of photosynthesis as higher plants. Native and engineered cyanobacteria have been used by us and others as model systems to examine, demonstrate, and develop photobiological H{sub 2} production. More recently, the production of carbon-containing solar fuels like ethanol, butanol, and isoprene have been demonstrated. We are using a synthetic biology approach to develop efficient photosynthetic microbial cell factories for direct generation of biofuels from solar energy. Present progress and advances in the design, engineering, and construction of such cyanobacterial cells for the generation of a portfolio of solar fuels, e.g., hydrogen, alcohols, and isoprene, are presented and discussed. Possibilities and challenges when introducing and using synthetic biology are highlighted

Lindblad, Peter; Lindberg, Pia; Stensjoe, Karin (Photochemistry and Molecular Science, Dept. of Chemistry-Aangstroem Laboratory, Uppsala Univ., Uppsala (Sweden)), E-mail: Peter.Lindblad@kemi.uu.se; Oliveira, Paulo (Instituto de Biologia Molecular e Celular, Porto (Portugal)); Heidorn, Thorsten (Bioforsk-Norwegian Inst. for Agricultural and Environmental Research, Aas Oslo, (Norway))

2012-03-15

123

Design, engineering, and construction of photosynthetic microbial cell factories for renewable solar fuel production.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is an urgent need to develop sustainable solutions to convert solar energy into energy carriers used in the society. In addition to solar cells generating electricity, there are several options to generate solar fuels. This paper outlines and discusses the design and engineering of photosynthetic microbial systems for the generation of renewable solar fuels, with a focus on cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria are prokaryotic microorganisms with the same type of photosynthesis as higher plants. Native and engineered cyanobacteria have been used by us and others as model systems to examine, demonstrate, and develop photobiological H(2) production. More recently, the production of carbon-containing solar fuels like ethanol, butanol, and isoprene have been demonstrated. We are using a synthetic biology approach to develop efficient photosynthetic microbial cell factories for direct generation of biofuels from solar energy. Present progress and advances in the design, engineering, and construction of such cyanobacterial cells for the generation of a portfolio of solar fuels, e.g., hydrogen, alcohols, and isoprene, are presented and discussed. Possibilities and challenges when introducing and using synthetic biology are highlighted. PMID:22434446

Lindblad, Peter; Lindberg, Pia; Oliveira, Paulo; Stensjö, Karin; Heidorn, Thorsten

2012-01-01

124

Microbiological Oxidation Of Sulfide Chimney Promoted By Warm Diffusing Flow In CDE Hydrothermal Field In Eastern Lau Spreading Center  

Science.gov (United States)

A hydrothermal field named as "CDE"(COMRA Discovery Expedition) at 176°11'W, 20° 40'S, about 4 miles south of known ABE hydrothermal field, was discovered by R/V DaYang YiHao in May, 2007. There are amounts of anemones and white microbe mats attached on some pillar sulfide chimneys (from less than one meter to more than 5 meters in height). Some crabs, fishes and microbe mats could be seen in/near chimney groups. Abnormal signatures of turbidity, temperature and CH4 are very strong shown by intensive surveys in deep waters above/near the CDE hydrothermal field by MAPR, CTD and onboard GC analysis of water samplers, respectively. Another prominent characteristics of the chimneys in the CDE is that they are cover with thick oxides/hydroxides crust. It is interesting to notice that there are considerable amounts of Fe oxidant bacteria (FeOB) clones exist in sample of oxide crust according to the phylogenetic analysis by 16S rRNA genes libraries construction. The FeOB clones have higher similarity (>94%) with those known Fe oxidant bacteria such as the genus of Gallionella and Mariprofundus ferrooxydans. In addition, abundant spiral, sheath-like textures known typical sign of FeOB are observed in the samples by Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (ESEM). Optimum grow temperature of isolations similar to our clones is 20- 35°C. The heat, supporting to colonization of anemones, microbe mats and FeOB with oxides crust, could be supplied by probably neighboring high temperature active venting in the field as there are no visible black or white plumes associated with those video-imaged chimneys during our survey. Another alternative speculation is that those chimneys are warm. After extinction of high temperature venting, diffuse flow with a temperature lower than about 100°C are still active through porous structure in the chimney. The warm chimney provides the ideal habitats of some biologic colonization. In turn, oxidation promoted by FeOB activities makes a result of thick oxides/hydroxides crust.

Zhou, H.; Li, J.; Yang, Q.

2008-12-01

125

Wisdom Way Solar Village: Design, Construction, and Analysis of a Low Energy Community  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes work conducted at the Wisdom Way Solar Village (WWSV), a community of 10 high performance duplexes (20 homes) in Greenfield, MA, constructed by Rural Development, Inc. (RDI). Building America's CARB team monitored temperatures and comfort in several homes during the winter of 2009-2010, and tracked utility bill information from 13 occupied homes. Because of efficient lights, appliances, and conscientious home occupants, the energy generated by the solar electric systems exceeded the electric energy used in most homes.

Aldrich, R.

2012-08-01

126

Chimney for enhancing flow of coolant water in natural circulation boiling water reactor  

Science.gov (United States)

A chimney which can be reconfigured or removed during refueling to allow vertical removal of the fuel assemblies. The chimney is designed to be collapsed or dismantled. Collapse or dismantlement of the chimney reduces the volume required for chimney storage during the refueling operation. Alternatively, the chimney has movable parts which allow reconfiguration of its structure. In a first configuration suitable for normal reactor operation, the chimney is radially constricted such that the chimney obstructs vertical removal of the fuel assemblies. In a second configuration suitable for refueling or maintenance of the fuel core, the parts of the chimney which obstruct access to the fuel assemblies are moved radially outward to positions whereat access to the fuel assemblies is not obstructed.

Oosterkamp, Willem Jan (Oosterbeek, NL); Marquino, Wayne (San Jose, CA)

1999-01-05

127

Study of the chimney produced by an underground nuclear explosion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Underground nuclear explosions lead to the formation of a cavity which is roughly of spherical shape. The roof of this cavity is unstable and collapses in most cases, leading to the formation of a chimney. The height and the diameter depend on the energy of the charge and on the nature of the surroundings. The chronology of the various stages can be determined by seismic observations. The interior of the chimney is filled, either partially or completely, with rubble earth. This phenomenon is of great importance as far as the use of nuclear explosions for industrial applications is concerned. (author)

128

Design, Construction And Characterization Of A Pyranometer For Measuring Global Solar Radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Due to cost and stringent importation requirement, we have designed and constructed a Pyranometer from locally available materials. The constructed Pyranometer was calibrated against a standard calibrated Eppley pyranometer model PSP17190F3. the two pyranometers were used simultaneously in measuring global solar radiation at Nsukka, Nigeria on latitude 6.8 degree North and longitude 7.35 degree East, located 488m above sea level. The average insolation for each of the two typical clear sky days were 3.221KW per square metre and 3.266KW per square metre. The maximum insolation obtained with the constructed pyranometer was 965.5 W per square metre on 16/1/03. The corresponding insolation obtained with the reference Eppley pyranometre on the same day was 1087.5W per square metre. We are happy to remark that there was not significant difference between the performances of the constructed pyranometer and the standard Eppley pyranometer

129

Design, construction and experimental study of Electric Cum Solar Oven-II  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As in many developing countries, 35-40% of the population of Costa Rica still use firewood for domestic cooking. Considering the fact that Costa Rica is blessed with good sunshine, good hydroelectric potential, and a good electric network, a hybrid solar oven was thought to be useful. In the present paper the construction and working of a new type of Electric Cum Solar Oven (ECSO) has been described. This oven can be used for cooking and baking any type of meal at any time during the year employing solar and/or electric energy but consuming the minimum quantity of electric energy in case it is required. (author). 9 refs, 6 figs, 1 tab

130

10-MWe solar-thermal central-receiver pilot plant: collector subsystem foundation construction. Revision No. 1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bid documents are provided for the construction of the collector subsystem foundation of the Barstow Solar Pilot Plant, including invitation to bid, bid form, representations and certifications, construction contract, and labor standards provisions of the Davis-Bacon Act. Instructions to bidders, general provisions and general conditions are included. Technical specifications are provided for the construction. (LEW)

1979-12-18

131

Natural convection solar crop-dryers of commercial scale in Ghana: design, construction and performance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Traditional open sun-drying, the predominant method of food preservation in Ghana, has serious drawbacks leading to significant post-harvest losses (between 20 and 30%). Mechanical dryers can provide high quality products with minimum losses but they require sources of electrical or chemical energy which, in the case of Ghana, are costly or scarce. This makes the development of an effective natural convection solar dryer an attractive alternative. A mixed-mode natural convection solar crop-dryer (a dryer in which the crop is dried by a combination of the direct absorption of solar radiation and by natural convection where air, heated by solar energy, is passed over the crop) has been designed. Two commercial dryers, based on this design and capable of handling between 1,000 and 1,500 kg of various agricultural products (such as cassava, pepper, maize, okra, etc.) have been constructed and partially tested at Agona-Asafo in the central region of Ghana. The results of these preliminary tests indicate that it takes 3-5 days to dry 1,000 kg of pepper from moisture content level of 78% to a safe storage level of 8%. The design, construction details, and the results of the preliminary tests are presented in this paper. (author)

Forson, F.K.; Nazha, M.A.A. [De Montfort University, Leicester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mechanical and Manufacture Engineering; Akuffo, F.O. [UST Kumasi (Ghana). Dept. of Mechanical and Manufacture Engineering

1996-07-01

132

Research on gas transport in chimneys: a progress report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of the AGRINI and TIERRA experiments have led us to study three general topics: collapse phenomenology, CO2 content measurement, and gas transport in chimneys. Our results so far are fragmentary, but we have been able to come to some tentative conclusions: (1) a layer of strong material between depths of 24 and 32 m, and perhaps some relatively strong material deeper, may have caused the AGRINI crater shape. This layer was absent at the nearby LABAN and CROWDIE events. We were unable to locate the layer with a surface penetrometer or surface seismic methods, but it may be possible to measure strength vs depth in situ by examining the penetration depth of a projectile. (2) We can probably improve our knowledge of the in situ CO2 content by calibrating a commercial carbon/oxygen logging system for NTS conditions. (3) It is possible to measure the response of the gas in a chimney to changes in atmospheric pressure. There can be significantly different gas transport in chimneys with the same pressure response, depending on the porosity and the distribution of the porosity. It is possible to perform an inexpensive experiment to study the gas transport in an existing chimney

133

Solar dryer with thermal storage and biomass-backup heater  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An indirect type natural convection solar dryer with integrated collector-storage solar and biomass-backup heaters has been designed, constructed and evaluated. The major components of the dryer are biomass burner (with a rectangular duct and flue gas chimney), collector-storage thermal mass and drying chamber (with a conventional solar chimney). The thermal mass was placed in the top part of the biomass burner enclosure. The dryer was fabricated using simple materials, tools and skills, and it was tested in three modes of operation (solar, biomass and solar-biomass) by drying twelve batches of fresh pineapple (Ananas comosus), with each batch weighing about 20 kg. Meteorological conditions were monitored during the dehydration process. Moisture and vitamin C contents were determined in both fresh and dried samples. Results show that the thermal mass was capable of storing part of the absorbed solar energy and heat from the burner. It was possible to dry a batch of pineapples using solar energy only on clear days. Drying proceeded successfully even under unfavorable weather conditions in the solar-biomass mode of operation. In this operational mode, the dryer reduced the moisture content of pineapple slices from about 669 to 11% (db) and yielded a nutritious dried product. The average values of the final-day moisture-pickup efficiency were 15%, 11% and 13% in the solar, biomass and solar-biomass modes of operation respectively. It appears that the solar dryer is suitable for preservation of pineapples and other fresh foods. Further improvements to the system design are suggested. (author)

Madhlopa, A. [Department of Physics and Biochemical Sciences, Malawi Polytechnic, P/Bag 303, Blantyre 3 (Malawi); Ngwalo, G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Malawi Polytechnic, P/Bag 303, Blantyre 3 (Malawi)

2007-04-15

134

The use of a rubble chimney for denitrification of irrigation return waters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Biological denitrification has been proposed as a means of removing nitrates from waste waters to control eutrophication in receiving waters. A potential use for this method is the treatment of irrigation return waters containing high concentrations of nitrate-nitrogen, since direct discharge of such wastes may cause objectionable algal growth in the receiving waters. For example, the process may be used to treat agricultural waste waters in the San Joaquin Valley in California, where an estimated 580,000 acre-feet/year of return waters, containing 20 mg/l of nitrate-nitrogen, will require disposal by A.D. 2020. Two methods of biological denitrification are presently under study for possible use in the San Joaquin Valley. In one method nitrates are reduced to nitrogen gas by bacterial action in deep ponds; in the other method bacterial denitrification takes place in biological filters. In biological filters, bacteria are grown on columns of submerged stones. A possible alternative to the conventional construction of these filters is the creation of a rubble chimney by a contained nuclear explosion. This paper presents the results of a preliminary investigation of the feasibility of using a rubble chimney as a biological filter for denitrification. (author)

135

The computational optimization of heat exchange efficiency in stack chimneys  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For many industrial processes, the chimney is the final step before hot fumes, with high thermal energy content, are discharged into the atmosphere. Tapping into this energy and utilizing it for heating or cooling applications, could improve sustainability, efficiency and/or reduce operational costs. Alternatively, an unused chimney, like the monumental chimney at the Eindhoven University of Technology, could serve as an 'energy channeler' once more; it can enhance free cooling by exploiting the stack effect. This study aims to identify design parameters that influence annual heat exchange in such stack chimney applications and optimize these parameters for specific scenarios to maximize the performance. Performance is defined by annual heat exchange, system efficiency and costs. The energy required for the water pump as compared to the energy exchanged, defines the system efficiency, which is expressed in an efficiency coefficient (EC). This study is an example of applying building performance simulation (BPS) tools for decision support in the early phase of the design process. In this study, BPS tools are used to provide design guidance, performance evaluation and optimization. A general method for optimization of simulation models will be studied, and applied in two case studies with different applications (heating/cooling), namely; (1) CERES case: 'Eindhoven University of Technology monumental stack chimney equipped with a heat exchanger, rejects heat to load the cold source of the aquifer system on the campus of the university and/or provides free cooling to the CERES building'; and (2) Industrial case: 'Heat exchanger in an industrial stack chimney, which recoups heat for use in e.g. absorption cooling'. The main research question, addressing the concerns of both cases, is expressed as follows: 'what is the optimal set of design parameters so heat exchange in stack chimneys is optimized annually for the cases in which a stack chimney heat exchanger is used for heating or cooling applications, what is the expected performance and how do the design parameters relate to this performance'. Simulation models were developed in the BPS tool ESP-r. The most important design parameters and their relative influence on the performance indicators were analysed based on sensitivity analysis (SA). From this analysis general design guidelines were derived ('optimal set of design parameters'). A multi objective optimization of the design parameters was performed on the simulation models, using the responsive surface methods and artificial neural network capabilities of optimization environment ModEContier to speed up the iteration process. In this optimization, 'heat exchange in stack chimneys is optimized annually'. The uncertainty in the optimized results has been analysed using uncertainty analysis (UA). Finally, the appropriateness of deploying a complex, high resolution simulation has been evaluated by studying current modelling resolution selection methodology found in literature.

Van Goch, T.A.J.

2012-02-15

136

Construction and startup performance of the Miamisburg salt-gradient solar pond  

Science.gov (United States)

An account is given of the construction and 1.5 years of operation of the Miamisburg, Ohio salt-gradient solar pond which, with 2020 sq m, is the largest solar collector in the U.S. The 18% sodium chloride solution pond has reached storage temperatures of 64 C in July and 28 C in February. Under steady-state conditions, conservative heat-yield estimates on the order of 962 million Btu have been made. The heat is used to warm-up a summer outdoor swimming pool and in winter a recreational building. Installation costs were only $35/sq m, and heat costs based on a 15-year depreciation of installation costs is below that of fuel oil heating, at $9.45 per million Btu. Further study is recommended for maintenance of water clarity, metallic component corrosion and assurance of pond water containment.

Wittenberg, L. J.; Harris, M. J.

1981-02-01

137

Guide for a building energy label. Promoting bio-climatic and solar construction and renovation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Technically speaking, building experts have the knowledge to deal with thermal inertia of buildings, solar gains, insulation, efficient ventilation, and daylighting... to get low energy buildings that provide comfort for the users. Buildings should always be designed according to the specificities of the local climate, according to a ''solar and bio-climatic construction'' approach. It is not always possible to fully apply these principles, particularly in urban areas with high density. However, this is unacceptable to keep building with such errors as insufficient insulation and direct electrical heating, single glazing, thermal bridges, low efficiency heating systems. This guide aims at encouraging the building experts to take into account the energy efficiency. Implementing a building energy label will allow general public to be aware of this issue and then, and will then lead to develop better practices. (author)

NONE

2004-07-01

138

Construction of a multilayered X-ray telescope for solar coronal studies from space  

Science.gov (United States)

The construction and testing of soft x-ray Ritchey-Chretien aplanatic telescope which is to be flown on a NASA sounding rocket in 1986 for very high resolution studies of the solar corona are discussed. Goals include figuring, polishing and measuring the mirror surfaces to tolerances exceding the 5000 A wavelength diffraction limit while achieving a superpolished surface finish, and the development of a structural design to withstand the rigors of the launch. Multilayer coatings are used to achieve usable reflectivity in the soft X-ray regime, and the design goal is for spatial resolution of 1/4 sec. Future applications are discussed.

Golub, L.; Nystrom, G.; Spiller, E.; Wilczynski, J.

1985-01-01

139

Total solar irradiance variations: The construction of a composite and its comparison with models  

Science.gov (United States)

Measurements of the total solar irradiance (TSI) during the last 18 years from spacecraft are reviewed. Corrections are determined for the early measurements made by the HF radiometer within the ERB experiment on NIMBUS 7 and the factor to refer active cavity radiometer irradiation monitoring (ACRIM) 2 to the ACRIM 1 irradiance scale. With these corrections, a composite TSI is constructed with a model that combines a magnetic brightness proxy with observed sunspot darkening and explains nearly 90 percent of the observed short and long term variance. Possible, but still unverified degradation of the radiometers hampers conclusions about irradiance changes on decadal time scales and longer.

Froehlich, Claus; Lean, Judith

1997-01-01

140

Formation of Chimneys in Mushy Layers: Experiment and Simulation  

CERN Document Server

In this fluid dyanmics video, we show experimental images and simulations of chimney formation in mushy layers. A directional solidification apparatus was used to freeze 25 wt % aqueous ammonium chloride solutions at controlled rates in a narrow Hele-Shaw cell (1mm gap). The convective motion is imaged with schlieren. We demonstrate the ability to numerically simulate mushy layer growth for direct comparison with experiments.

Anderson, Anthony M; Worster, Grae

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Corrosion in flue gas purification systems and chimneys. Proceedings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At the 6th Corrosion Meeting in Frankfurt, selected experts described the state of knowledge of the materials and corrosion protection systems of flue gas purification systems in powerstations, waste incinerators and sludge combustion plants, including the steel chimneys after combustion plants. The author's work in this Meeting Handbook is divided into basic information on the materials and corrosion protection systems used and the representation of practical experience from the last ten years, with consequences for the future. (orig./HP)

142

Evaluation of a stack: A concrete chimney with brick liner  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A 200 ft. tall stack, consisting of a concrete chimney with an independent acid proof brick liner built in the 1950's, serving the Separations facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS), was evaluated for the performance category 3 (PC3) level of Natural Phenomena Hazards (NPH) effects. The inelastic energy absorption capacity of the concrete chimney was considered in the evaluation of the earthquake resistance, in particular, to compute the F? factor. The calculated value of F? exceeded 3.0, while the seismic demand for the PC3 level, using an F? value of 1.5, was found to be less than the capacity of the concrete chimney. The capacity formulation of ACI 307 was modified to incorporate the effect of an after design opening on the tension side. There are considerable uncertainties in determining the earthquake resistance of the independent brick liner. The critical liner section, located at the bottom of the breeching opening, does not meet the current recommendations. A discussion is provided for the possible acceptable values for the ''Moment Reduction Factor'', Rw or F? for the liner. Comments are provided on the comparison of stack demands using response spectra (RS) versus time history (TH) analysis, with and without soil structure interaction (SSI) effects

143

Evaluation of a stack: A concrete chimney with brick liner  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A 200 ft. tall stack, consisting of a concrete chimney with an independent acid proof brick liner built in the 1950`s, serving the Separations facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS), was evaluated for the performance category 3 (PC3) level of Natural Phenomena Hazards (NPH) effects. The inelastic energy absorption capacity of the concrete chimney was considered in the evaluation of the earthquake resistance, in particular, to compute the F{sub {mu}} factor. The calculated value of F{sub {mu}} exceeded 3.0, while the seismic demand for the PC3 level, using an F{sub {mu}} value of 1.5, was found to be less than the capacity of the concrete chimney. The capacity formulation of ACI 307 was modified to incorporate the effect of an after design opening on the tension side. There are considerable uncertainties in determining the earthquake resistance of the independent brick liner. The critical liner section, located at the bottom of the breeching opening, does not meet the current recommendations. A discussion is provided for the possible acceptable values for the ``Moment Reduction Factor``, R{sub w} or F{sub {mu}} for the liner. Comments are provided on the comparison of stack demands using response spectra (RS) versus time history (TH) analysis, with and without soil structure interaction (SSI) effects.

Joshi, J.R.; Amin, J.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Porthouse, R.A. [Chimney Consultants, West Lebanon, NH (United States)

1995-12-31

144

Solar-wall house with an integrated heating system. Design and construction; Solvaegshus med integreret varmeanlaeg; Projektering og opbygning  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this project is to design and construct a solar-wall house with an integrated heating system, able to become a self-sufficient unit with regard to its heat requirements. The house has an air-aperture inside to provide hot air circulation as a substitute for radiators. Solar heat storage is located in the floor construction, in a rock bed facility. The experimental house of such design with an area of about 36 m{sup 2} is now under construction at the Thermal Insulation Laboratory. At present the solar walls are constructed with a double glazing (hardened glass), but in future experiments a more insulating transparent layer will be tested. (EG)

Bruun Joergensen, O.; Svendsen, S.Aa.

1992-12-01

145

Seismic decoupling of an explosion centered in a granite chimney rubble -- scaled experiment results. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes the small scale evaluation of the feasibility of significant decoupling by siting an explosion in granite rubble. The chimney characteristics scaled to laboratory dimensions were those of the PILE DRIVER event. The scaled charges were of 1 KT and 8KT in the PILE DRIVER chimney. The measure of the effect was the velocity field history in the granite outside the chimney volume with the chimney rubble and with no rubble. A number of chimney sizes and shapes were studied. The explosion process was modeled via two-din=mensional, finite-difference methods used for prediction of velocity histories at the Nevada Test Site. The result was that both the spectral shape and the magnitude of the transmitted shock wave were drastically altered. The chimney geometry was as important as the rubble characteristics.

Keller, C. [Science & Engineering Associates, Inc., Santa Fe, NM (United States); Miller, S.; Florence, A.; Fogle, M.; Kilb, D.

1991-12-01

146

Design, construction and characterization of a rural solar furnace; Diseno, construccion y caracterizacion de un horno solar rural  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This thesis presents the design, construction and characterization of a solar furnace, box type, for its use in rural communities in the inter-tropical zone. The work presented in this thesis departs from the opto-geometric design of a solar furnace, box type, proposed by an enthusiastic group of young students from the Centro de Investigacion de Energia (CIE) of the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM). The contents of this thesis includes the systematization of the work previously made by these authors: the design and the optimization of geometry, the experimental evaluation of the same, as well as a theoretical model of the thermal behavior of the solar furnace based on a global balance of energy that assumes thermal states in cuasi-equilibrium of the internal components of the furnace. In this thesis a theoretical model of the solar concentration of energy by the reflectors of the furnace based on the model of Peres and Karsson (1993) is developed. The predictions of this model are satisfactorily compared with the experimental results of Jaramillo et al. (1999). Counting on the opto-geometric design of the furnace, the design is completed selecting the materials to be used in the different parts of the same, as well as defining constructive details. The material selected for the inner and outer boxes and the reflectors is stainless steel mirror finishing. Mineral wool is used As insulating mineral. The upper part of the furnace is protected by a glass that allows the entrance of the solar energy and diminishes the energy convective and radiation losses. For the thermal evaluation of the furnace an experimental methodology, based on the international procedures standardized for tests of furnaces and solar stoves is followed. Three tests for each one of the following operation conditions were performed: without load, with oil and with water. The maximum temperature registered in the inside air of the furnace, for the first condition was of 150 centigrade, followed of the condition using 6 liters of oil, in which a maximum temperature of 115 centigrade was obtained and in the tests with 6 liters of water as load a maximum temperature of 95 centigrade was registered. In these tests the temperature of the oil surpasses 60 centigrade during an approximate period of 7 hours and is higher than 80 centigrade by a lapse of 5 hours. The water temperature is higher than 60 centigrade for a period of more than 5 hours and during 3 hours is higher than 80 centigrade. These results are satisfactory, because they assure the accomplishment of the process of baking inside the furnace. A calculation program was elaborated to implement the theoretical model of the concentration. This program reads the data of radiation intensity in the horizontal plane supplied by the weather station of the CIE and determines the incident radiation in the furnace collector. The theoretical model of the thermal behavior was implemented in another computer program; this program reads the data of the incident radiation in the collector of the furnace and the data of room temperature and calculates the temperature of the furnace as a time function. The model overestimates the temperature reached in the furnace, nevertheless reproduces qualitatively the thermal behavior of the same. In spite of the limitations of the theoretical model, this can be of utility in achieving the reproduction of the temperature of the load experimentally registered, through an effective coefficient of heat losses and an effective coefficient of heat capacity, characteristic of each one of the conditions of the test. [Spanish] Esta tesis presenta el diseno, construccion y caracterizacion de un horno solar tipo caja para su uso en comunidades rurales en la zona intertropical. El trabajo presentado en esta tesis parte del diseno opto-geometrico de un horno solar tipo caja propuesto por un entusiasta grupo de jovenes estudiantes (Acosta et al., 1996, Vazquez et al., 1998, Jaramillo et al., 1999) del Centro de Investigacion en Energia (CIE) de la Universidad Nacional Autonom

Hernandez Luna, Gabriela

2001-06-15

147

Antecedent and progress of the project on the treatment of chimney gases with electrons in Mexico  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After the realization of the chimney gases treatment seminar with electrons, organized jointly among the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), in August of 1990 and following one of the received recommendations, it was elaborated an economic technical feasibility study of this process in Mexico, using technical data of a thermoelectric power station of Federal Commission of Electricity, where is being consumed fuel oil. This study is good to know some technical parameters of a plant of this process, proposed to settle in Mexico, so as some economic estimates of installation and operation costs of this plant; also, it is traced about the construction of a demonstration plant of the process, with capacity of 20,000 m3N/h, using the same data of the thermoelectric power station considered previously, as the first step in the scaling of this process toward industrial level. (Author)

148

Borehole techniques identifying subsurface chimney heights in loose ground-some experiences above underground nuclear explosions  

Science.gov (United States)

The location of the subsurface top of the chimney formed by the collapse of the cavity resulting from an underground nuclear explosion is examined at five sites at the Nevada Test Site. The chimneys were investigated by drilling, coring, geophysical logging (density, gamma-ray, caliper), and seismic velocity surveys. The identification of the top of the chimney can be complicated by chimney termination in friable volcanic rock of relatively high porosity. The presence of an apical void in three of the five cases is confirmed as the chimney horizon by coincidence with anomalies observed in coring, caliper and gamma-ray logging (two cases), seismic velocity, and drilling. In the two cases where an apical void is not present, several of these techniques yield anomalies at identical horizons, however, the exact depth of chimney penetration is subject to some degree of uncertainty. This is due chiefly to the extent to which core recovery and seismic velocity may be affected by perturbations in the tuff above the chimney due to the explosion and collapse. The data suggest, however, that the depth uncertainty may be only of the order of 10 m if several indicators are available. Of all indicators, core recovery and seismic velocity indicate anomalous horizons in every case. Because radiation products associated with the explosion are contained within the immediate vicinity of the cavity, gamma-ray logs are generally not diagnostic of chimney penetration. In no case is the denisty log indicative of the presence of the chimney. ?? 1993.

Carroll, R. D.; Lacomb, J. W.

1993-01-01

149

Design, construction and performance testing of a solar dryer for agroindustrial by-products  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Spain generates a big amount of agroindustrial by-products of high moisture that produce a high environmental impact. This fact motivates the aim of this paper, in which a solar dryer prototype is designed, constructed, and performance tested for the analysis of the drying kinetics of these by-products and their possible power valuation. The characteristics of the prototype are presented, together with the variations of the properties of temperature, relative humidity, air mass flow, and efficiency for indirect, mixed, passive, active, and hybrid operation modes. The most efficient operation mode will be the forced-hybrid one, followed by the passive and active modes. The analysis of the drying kinetics of the olive pomace shows the better performance of the hybrid and mixed modes, obtaining reductions of the drying time of a 50% in both cases.

150

Construction of research wind-solar monitoring station 'North-East Bulgaria'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The rising energy prices, the lack of conventional energy sources, as well as the growing ecological problems, imposing the development of a new energy strategy of Bulgaria, are the prerequisites for the thorough researches in the field of wind-solar resources and the construction of experimental bases with modern equipment for the detailed investigations on the specificities of these resources with the view of their optimal utilization. The lack of homogenous covering of the territory of the country with meteorological stations, as well as the rather specific microclimatic conditions in the diverse physical-geographic localities in the country make the necessity of building experimental stations for meteo-monitoring under specific local conditions still more indispensable. This work presents the monitoring parameters of wind-solar resources in a real physical-geographic environment, for carrying out scientific-research, applied-practical and educational-training activity. A broad spectrum of scientific methods and approaches - instrumental, topographic, terrain, mathematical-statistical, numerical modeling, cartographic, educational and team-working, are envisaged for attaining the set objective. (author)

151

Project, construction and operation of solar thermal power plant with parabolic through collectors; Projeto, construcao e operacao de uma usina termeletrica solar experimental com concentradores cilindrico-parabolicos  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The high level of solar radiation in Brazilian territory and the experience accumulated with the solar energy, become it fundamental for the national energy sector. Thus, the Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais (CEMIG) and the Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica (CEFET-MG) had initiated, in Julho/2001, a P and D project aiming at to construct, to operate and to evaluate a 10 kW mini solar thermal plant performance, using solar troughs and searching the maximum of nationalization of materials and equipment. In this work the characteristics of the technology, the challenges, the studied innovations, the main presented problems and solutions are described. The foreseen ending of this project is September, 2004. (Author)

Lisboa, A. H.; Poluceno, J.

2004-07-01

152

Planning and management of stage 1 dismantling of B16 pile chimney, Sellafield  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper describes the planning and execution of the decommissioning and dismantling of the top sections of the two Pile Chimneys at Sellafield. It describes the complex structure of the Chimneys, their history and original function, and summarises the investigations into the condition of the chimneys, which led to the decision to decommission and the resultant study into the alternative methods to achieve this. Specific mention is made of the approach to safety, both radiological and industrial. This includes preparation of safety cases, environmental protection methods, detailed method statements for the work and safety equipment used. It also explains the management structure and contractual arrangements used to control both safety and cost. The paper then describes the six specific phases of the work, and how each was carried out. The phases of the work are: 1) preparatory work of removing redundant equipment and provision of access to the Chimney top; 2) removal of glass fibre insulation from the cavity above the filters at the Chimney top; 3) protection measures to surrounding plant and buildings; 4) erection of scaffolding around the head of the Chimney and installation of working platforms within the Chimney flue; 5) Removal of the aluminium lining from above the filters and the Chimney cap plates; 6) removal of brickwork and structural steel frame of the Upper and Concentrator Sections. (Author)

153

Microbial lipids reveal carbon assimilation patterns on hydrothermal sulfide chimneys.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sulfide 'chimneys' characteristic of seafloor hydrothermal venting are diverse microbial habitats. (13) C/(12) C ratios of microbial lipids have rarely been used to assess carbon assimilation pathways on these structures, despite complementing gene- and culture-based approaches. Here, we integrate analyses of the diversity of intact polar lipids (IPL) and their side-chain ?(13) C values (?(13) Clipid ) with 16S rRNA gene-based phylogeny to examine microbial carbon flow on active and inactive sulfide structures from the Manus Basin. Surficial crusts of active structures, dominated by Epsilonproteobacteria, yield bacterial ?(13) Clipid values higher than biomass ?(13) C (total organic carbon), implicating autotrophy via the reverse tricarboxylic acid cycle. Our data also suggest ?(13) Clipid values vary on individual active structures without accompanying microbial diversity changes. Temperature and/or dissolved substrate effects - likely relating to variable advective-diffusive fluxes to chimney exteriors - may be responsible for differing (13) C fractionation during assimilation. In an inactive structure, ?(13) Clipid values lower than biomass ?(13) C and a distinctive IPL and 16S rRNA gene diversity suggest a shift to a more diverse community and an alternate carbon assimilation pathway after venting ceases. We discuss here the potential of IPL and ?(13) Clipid analyses to elucidate carbon flow in hydrothermal structures when combined with other molecular tools. PMID:24905086

Reeves, Eoghan P; Yoshinaga, Marcos Y; Pjevac, Petra; Goldenstein, Nadine I; Peplies, Jörg; Meyerdierks, Anke; Amann, Rudolf; Bach, Wolfgang; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe

2014-11-01

154

Pressurizing brick-lined chimneys prevents acid damage. [USA - Kentucky  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 1980, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) retrofitted limestone scrubbers to its Paradise fossil plant Units 1 and 2. When installed, the scrubbers used hot water reheat bundles to heat exit gases past the few point (120 F) to 170 F. After a few years of use, however, the reheat bundles began to corrode, and it was decided to remove the reheaters. However, this would have left the chimney exposed to acidic moisture from unreheated flue gas. A consultant predicted that acid would quickly penetrate the brick liner and then degrade the concrete and reinforcing steel. It was recommended that pressurizing the annulus or space between the chimney's shell and liner would prevent this. The paper describes the design, installation start up, inspection and testing of the pressurizing system. The work was carried out during the spring and summer of 1992. In October, 1992, an inspection of the liner from the gas path side revealed that the system was operating correctly and pressurizing the annulus. 3 figs., 2 tabs., 3 photos.

Purkey, R.E. (Tennessee Valley Authority, Knoxville, TN (United States))

1993-10-01

155

Expansion joints for multi-flue chimneys in a coal-fired power plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Power stations are now looking for ways to optimize chimneys from which flue gases are exhausted. The combustion flue gases inside chimneys are much hotter and less dense than ambient air, which causes the bottom of hot flue gas columns to have lower pressures than the air outside the chimney. Higher pressure outside the chimney creates the natural ventilation process that moves flue gas up and out of the chimney. Chimney designs include brick flues, top-supported metal flues, and multi-supported metal flues. Gaps must be properly sealed to prevent the escape of flue gas and ash particles. Seals and expansion joints must be used to compensate for the thermal expansion that occurs in chimneys and to prevent duct fouling. The height of expansion joints is now being increased by design in order to increase the capacity for handling larger volumes of flue gases. Top-supported flue cans are combined with flue gas expansion joints in order to prevent corrosion. It was concluded that the appropriate fabrics must be used in expansion joints in order to reduce the impacts of fly ash dust, high temperatures, and chemicals that cause corrosion. 6 figs.

Anon.

2009-05-15

156

Concentration levels of solutes in porous deposits with chimneys under wick boiling conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Concentration levels of infinitely soluble solutes in porous deposits with chimneys, for which wick boiling appears to be the major mode of heat transfer, has been investigated by a two-dimensional model. Wick boiling promotes the development of high concentration levels of solutes within porous deposits, especially in the region near the intersection of the heating surface and the chimney wall. The maximum concentration factor increases with decreasing porosity; with increasing chimney population; with increasing system pressure in the range of system pressures of interest to LWRs, and approximately exponentially with both increasing heat flux and crud thickness

157

Analysis Study of Solar Tower Power Plant & Its Configuration Effects on Its Performance in Iraq (Baghdad City  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A solar chimney power plant model, consisting of a solar collector to produce a hot air when the incident solar radiation hit it, a solar chimney and a wind turbine with generator was investigated in this study. The mathematical model as a tool was used to study and analyze the performance of the power plant for electrical production in Baghdad city of Iraq as a result a mathematical equation was obtained for the hot air outlet temperature from the collector as a function of collector’s area and solar radiation. The Manzanares model was used in this study and the results obtained from the proposed model of solar tower, having the height 195 m, diameter of 10 m, and the solar collector diameter of 244 m were compared with the results obtained when the solar tower configuration is changed. The results indicate that the significant impact to improve the output power is by increasing the collector’s diameter from 244 m to 300 m. It is also found that output power is effectively dependent on the chimney’s height, it yields moderate increasing in power output when the height is increased from 195 m to 300 m, and the chimney’s diameter has a lower impact on solar tower output power in comparison with the other configuration of solar tower when it increases from 10 m to 20 m.

Mohammed H. Ali

2013-03-01

158

Concentration levels of solutes in porous deposits with chimneys under wick boiling conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Concentration levels of highly-soluble impurities and additives in porous deposits with chimneys, when wick boiling is the major mode of heat transfer, have been investigated by a two-dimensional model. Wick boiling promotes the development of high concentration levels of solutes within porous deposits, especially in the region near the intersection of the heating surface and the chimney wall. The maximum concentration factor increases with decreasing porosity; increasing chimney population density; increasing system pressure in the range of interest to LWRs; and approximately exponentially with heat flux and crud thickness. The two-dimensional solute concentration distribution in porous deposits is consistent with limited experimental observations of higher concentration at the chimney wall. (orig.)

159

Leakage-flow induced vibrations of a chimney structure suspended in a liquid flow  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents the results of flow-induced vibration tests conducted to assess the vibration characteristics of a chimney structure suspended in a liquid flow. The test article is a full-scale model of a flow chimney used in a nuclear reactor as a part of reactor upper internals. Tests were performed by simulating all pertinent prototype conditions achievable in a laboratory environment. The test results show that there exists a fluid-elastic instability of the chimney motion which has a distinct lock-in phenomenon with respect to the flow rate. This unstable vibration is associated with the leakage-flow-modulated excitation through the small clearances between the chimney and its supports

160

NPS-SCAT (Solar Cell Array Tester), The Construction of NPS' First Prototype CubeSat.  

Science.gov (United States)

Large, expensive satellites have had failures or degraded missions due to solar cells that had not been tested in the space environment. To address these issues, a solar cell testing CubeSat prototype has been developed as part of the Space Systems Academ...

A. L. Bein

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Hullco Construction, Prescott, Arizona: Solar energy system performance evaluation October 1979 - May 1980  

Science.gov (United States)

A single-family passive solar residence located in Prescott, Arizona was designed to supply 97 percent of the heating load. Included in the system is an attached greenhouse, a Trombe wall, rock bin, direct gain floor slab, and secondary storage in the building mass. The actual solar contribution was 91 percent in this colder than average season.

Miller, P. C.; Pollock, E.

162

Modelling and simulation of condensation phenomena of acid gases in an industrial chimney  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Coal power stations as well as waste incinerators produce humid acid gases which condensate in industrial chimneys. These condensates may cause corrosion of the internal cladding made of stainless steels, nickel base alloys or non metallic materials. In the aim of polluting emission reduction and material optimal choice, it is necessary to determine all the phenomena which occur throughout the chimney such as condensation and dissolution of acid gases (in this particular case, sulphur dioxide...

Serris, Eric; Cournil, Michel; Peultier, Je?ro?me

2007-01-01

163

Technical report for quality requirements establishment of in-chimney bracket  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This technical report provides the methods on how to sustain the items of experimental materials, nuclear fuel on examination, ect. This report applies to the quality assurance(QA) programmes of the design, fabrication in-chimney bracket.The organization having overall responsibility for the nuclear power item design, preservation, fabrication shall be described in this report in each stage of chimney bracket fabrication project.

Kim, Kwan Hyun

2000-06-01

164

Solar ventilation and tempering  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper presents basic information about solar panels, designed, realized and used for solar ventilation of rooms. Used method of numerical flow simulation gives good overview about warming and flowing of the air in several kinds of realized panels (window, facade, chimney). Yearlong measurements give a good base for calculations of economic return of invested capital. The operation of the system in transient period (spring, autumn) prolongs the period without classical heating of the room or building, in winter the classical heating is supported. In the summer period the system, furnished with chimney, can exhaust inner warm air together with necessary cooling of the system by gravity circulation, only. System needs not any invoiced energy source; it is supplied entirely by solar energy. Large building systems are supported by classical electric fan respectively.

Adámek, Karel; Pavlů, Miloš; Bandouch, Milan

2014-08-01

165

Turbulent mixing inside the chimney model of a pool type research reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Open pool type research reactors often use a chimney structure to prevent mixing of core outlet water directly into the pool in order to keep the radioactivity level at the pool top to a lower limit. This chimney structure facilitates guiding of the radioactive water from the reactor core towards the side outlet nozzles and simultaneously sucking water from the reactor pool through the chimney top. The present work aims at studying the turbulent mixing behaviour of water coolant inside a 1/6th scaled down model of chimney structure. The range of dimensionless numbers considered in the simulation are 1.44 x 106 6 and 0.002 < Ri < 0.008. The effects of flow ratio between upward flow and downward flow and their temperature difference on the mixing behaviour are analysed by means of commercial software. Turbulence is modelled by using the Reynolds averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) equation. The results indicate that the increase in downward (core bypass) flow, increases stagnation depth and try to keep the radio-activity well within the chimney region. On the contrary, the temperature difference between the hot upward fluid and cold downward fluid tries to reduce the stagnation depth. It is observed that if sufficient bypass flow is provided, no water from the core will reach the reactor pool through the chimney top opening. (author)

166

Effect of cold inflow on chimney height of natural draft cooling towers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Natural convection data were obtained from an air-cooled heat exchanger model. ? The extent of cold inflow was quantified to relate to the decrease in effective chimney height. ? Installation of wire mesh screen on chimney outlet blocked off cold inflow to improve the chimney efficiency. ? Evidence of existence of effective plume-chimney for when cold inflow was blocked off warrants further work. - Abstract: Temperature and pressure drop data obtained from an air-cooled heat exchanger model with cross-sectional flow areas of 0.56 m2, 1.00 m2 and 2.25 m2 operating under natural convection are presented that indicate significant cold inflow, resulting in the reduction of effective chimney height. Cold inflows encountered in actual applications where the Froude number is typically 0.2, may not be as severe as described in this paper, which was of the order of 10?6–10?4. Additional tests on smaller scale models appeared to favor the explanation that the occurrence of cold inflow in the air-cooled heat exchanger model was primarily due to the relative ease in either drawing cold air from inlet or from outlet, and to a lesser extent the Froude number of the chimney or the critical velocity estimated by formula. A CFD study will bring much understanding of the phenomenon for the different situations.

167

Zinc stable isotopes in seafloor hydrothermal vent fluids and chimneys  

Science.gov (United States)

Many of the heaviest and lightest natural zinc (Zn) isotope ratios have been discovered in hydrothermal ore deposits. However, the processes responsible for fractionating Zn isotopes in hydrothermal systems are poorly understood. In order to better assess the total range of Zn isotopes in hydrothermal systems and to understand the factors which are responsible for this isotopic fractionation, we have measured Zn isotopes in seafloor hydrothermal fluids from numerous vents at 9-10°N and 21°N on the East Pacific Rise (EPR), the TAG hydrothermal field on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, and in the Guaymas Basin. Fluid ?66Zn values measured at these sites range from + 0.00‰ to + 1.04‰. Of the many physical and chemical parameters examined, only temperature was found to correlate with fluid ?66Zn values. Lower temperature fluids (< 250 °C) had both heavier and more variable ?66Zn values compared to higher temperature fluids from the same hydrothermal fields. We suggest that subsurface cooling of hydrothermal fluids leads to precipitation of isotopically light sphalerite (Zn sulfide), and that this process is a primary cause of Zn isotope variation in hydrothermal fluids. Thermodynamic calculations carried out to determine saturation state of sphalerite in the vent fluids support this hypothesis with isotopically heaviest Zn found in fluids that were calculated to be saturated with respect to sphalerite. We have also measured Zn isotopes in chimney sulfides recovered from a high-temperature (383 °C) and a low-temperature (203 °C) vent at 9-10°N on the EPR and, in both cases, found that the ?66Zn of chimney minerals was lighter or similar to the fluid ?66Zn. The first measurements of Zn isotopes in hydrothermal fluids have revealed large variations in hydrothermal fluid ?66Zn, and suggest that subsurface Zn sulfide precipitation is a primary factor in causing variations in fluid ?66Zn. By understanding how chemical processes that occur beneath the seafloor affect hydrothermal fluid ?66Zn, Zn isotopes may be used as a tracer for studying hydrothermal processes.

John, Seth G.; Rouxel, Olivier J.; Craddock, Paul R.; Engwall, Alison M.; Boyle, Edward A.

2008-05-01

168

Development of the lined masonry chimney oil appliance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes the development of the lined masonry chimney venting tables form the output of the Oil Heat Analysis Program 9OHVAP. These new tables are different from the prior format, offered in the Proceedings of the 1995 Oil Heat Technology Conference and Workshop, paper No. 95-4. Issues expressed by representatives of the oil heat industry at last years conference during the Venting Technology Workshop resulted in subsequent discussions. A full day meeting was held, co-sponsored by BNL and the Oilheat Manufacturers Association (OMA), to address revision of the format of the venting tables prior to submission to the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Standard 31 Technical Committee. The resulting tables and text were submitted to NFPA during the first week of October, 1995. Since then minor changes were made reflecting the addition of data obtained by including intermediate firing rates (0.4, 0.65, and 0.85 gph) not included in the original tables which were developed in increments of 0.25 gph. The new tables address the specific question; {open_quotes}If remediation is required, what is the recommendation for the sizing of a metal liner and the appropriate firing rate range to be used with that liner?{close_quotes}

Krajewski, R.; Strasser, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1996-07-01

169

Beautiful heat: a master chimney sweep talks about burning issues  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fire has played a major role in mankind's life from the beginning. Used for heating and cooking, its various uses have evolved to include controlled explosions shortly after the development of gunpowder, and the generation of electricity made other uses possible. The author, a certified solid fuel technician and chimney sweep, as well as a licensed technician for natural gas and propane, has written this book to enable the reader to enjoy safe and dependable wood fires year round by taking the necessary steps. The first recommendation made is against the homeowner installing himself/herself any solid fuel system. It is a job better left to the professionals, considering the substantial product and regulation knowledge and experience required. Specific information related to solid fuel burning technology is included in this book, to be used as a guide. Part 1 of the book deals with the fuel, touching on issues such as energy and the environment, wood combustion and air pollution, buying firewood, wood ashes, cleaning your heating system and others. Part 2 is devoted to the heating system. It introduces topics ranging from the systems advisor to the location and installation of the system, the principles of space heating, high efficiency wood burning, inspections, to name just a few. 22 refs., tabs., figs.

Hederich, M.P.

2001-07-01

170

Uranium series disequilibrium dating of black smoker chimneys  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Within New Zealand's Exclusive Economic Zone there exists a vast submarine hydrothermal mineral resource associated with the Kermadec Ridge. Along this ridge twenty-six submarine volcanoes have been explored by GNS lead-researchers, and at least another nine await investigation. Of these, fifteen are known to be hydrothermally active, and each is almost certainly a site of active seafloor mineralisation. Determination of whether this mineralisation is economically viable in terms of grade and tonnage requires detailed seafloor exploration using manned submersibles and/or remotely operated vehicles capable of high-precision imagery and discrete rock and fluid sampling. A key aspect of these investigations is determining the age of the mineralisation, which will have a direct bearing on its mode of formation, time elapsed to amass an economic deposit and, ultimately, its capacity for sustainable extraction. An intact barite-rich 'black-smoker' chimney recovered from Brothers volcano, along with other hydrothermal deposits provide evidence of active mineralisation along the arc. The age range of such massive sulphide deposits can be determined from the disequilibrium between isotopes within the thorium or uranium decay chains. (author). 1 ref., 5 figs., 1 tab

171

Design, construction and test run of a two-tonne capacity solar rice dryer with rice-husk-fired auxiliary heater  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The design and construction details of a two-tonne per batch capacity natural-circulation solar rice dryer and the highlights of the design of its rice-husk-fired auxiliary heating system which is still under construction are presented. The dryer measures approximately 17.7m long by 9.8m wide by 6m high. Preliminary results of a test run on the solar dryer section only is reported. (author). 5 refs, 3 figs

172

Solar project description for Design Construction Association single family dwelling, Big Fork, Montana  

Science.gov (United States)

A solar energy system was installed in a 2100 sq ft house located in Big Fork, Montana. The system is designed to provide solar energy for heating and domestic hot water. Solar energy is collected by flat plate collectors with a gross area of 792 square feet. The collector banks are mounted on the roof of the house and face due south at an angle of 45 deg to the horizontal optimizing solar energy collection. Solar energy is transferred from the collector array to a 1500 gallon storage tank. Water is used as the heat collection, transfer and storage medium. Freeze protection is provided by use of a drain down system. Space heating demands are met by circulating hot water from storage through baseboard units in the distribution system of the house. Auxiliary space heating is provided by an electrical heating element in the boiler. Similarly, an electrical heating element in the DHW tank provides energy for water heating. The dwelling was fully instrumented for performance evaluation since October 1977 and the data is integrated into the National Solar Data Network.

1980-04-01

173

Ant mound as an optimal shape in constructal design: solar irradiation and circadian brood/fungi-warming sorties.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sizes, shapes, ambient and in-dome temperature, incoming solar radiation and illumination are measured on a Formica rufa anthill in a mixed forest of the Volga-Kama National Reserve in Russia. These data are used in a conceptual model of insolation of a right conical surface by direct-beam, descending atmospheric and ascending ground-reflected radiation. Unlike a standard calculation of the energy flux intercepted by a solar panel, the anthill is a 3-D structure and double-integration of the cosine of the angle between the solar beams and normal to the surface is carried out for a "cozy trapezium", where the insects expose themselves and the brood to "morning" sunbathing pulses (Jones and Oldroyd, 2007). Several constructal design problems are formulated with the criteria involving either a pure solar energy gained by the dome or this energy, as a mathematical criterion, penalized by additive terms of mechanical energy (potential and friction) lost by the ants in their diurnal forays from a "heartland" of the nest to the sun-basking zone on the surface. The unique and global optima are analytically found, with the optimal tilt angle of the cone explicitly expressed through the zenith angle of the Sun and meteorological constants for the isotropic sky model. PMID:24681404

Kasimova, R G; Tishin, D; Obnosov, Yu V; Dlussky, G M; Baksht, F B; Kacimov, A R

2014-08-21

174

Toward the Understanding and Optimization of Chimneys for Buoyantly Driven Biomass Stoves  

Science.gov (United States)

The vast majority of indoor combustion devices in the developed world make use of stacks (flues, vents, chimneys, smokestacks) to channel flue gases out of the operator space. In the developing world, where indoor air pollution kills several million people every year, the use of chimneys with biomass cooking and heating stoves has been met with limited success and a high level of controversy. Due to a lack of theoretical understanding, design criteria, poorly executed installation practices, and/or insufficient maintenance routines, many chimney stoves have exhibited inadequate indoor emissions reductions in addition to low thermal efficiencies. This work aims (a) shed light on the physical phenomenon of the "stack effect" as it pertains to dynamic, non-adiabatic, buoyancy-driven stoves (b) apply new understanding toward the optimization of two types of biomass chimney stoves: plancha or griddle type stoves popular in Central America and two-pot stoves common in South America. A numerical heat and fluid flow model was developed that takes into account the highly-coupled variables and dynamic nature of such systems. With a comprehensive physical model, parameter studies were conducted to determine how several field-relevant variables influence the performance of stack-outfitted systems. These parameters include, but are not limited to: power/wood consumption rate, chimney geometry, stove geometry, material properties, heat transfer, and ambient conditions. An instrumented experimental chimney was built to monitor relationships between air flow, differential pressure, gas temperatures, emissions, and thermal efficiency. The draft provided by chimneys was found to have a strong influence over the bulk air-to-fuel ratio of buoyantly-driven cookstoves, greatly affecting the stove's overall performance by affecting gas temperatures, emissions, and efficiency. Armed with new information from the modeling and experimental work, two new stoves were designed and optimized to have significant reductions in fuel use and emissions.

Prapas, Jason

175

Metagenome reveals potential microbial degradation of hydrocarbon coupled with sulfate reduction in an oil-immersed chimney from Guaymas Basin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimneys contain a high diversity of microorganisms, yet the metabolic activity and the ecological functions of the microbial communities remain largely unexplored. In this study, a metagenomic approach was applied to characterize the metabolic potential in a Guaymas hydrothermal vent chimney and to conduct comparative genomic analysis among a variety of environments with sequenced metagenomes. Complete clustering of functional gene categories with a comparative metagenomic approach showed that this Guaymas chimney metagenome was clustered most closely with a chimney metagenome from Juan de Fuca. All chimney samples were enriched with genes involved in recombination and repair, chemotaxis and flagellar assembly, highlighting their roles in coping with the fluctuating extreme deep-sea environments. A high proportion of transposases was observed in all the metagenomes from deep-sea chimneys, supporting the previous hypothesis that horizontal gene transfer may be common in the deep-sea vent chimney biosphere. In the Guaymas chimney metagenome, thermophilic sulfate reducing microorganisms including bacteria and archaea were found predominant, and genes coding for the degradation of refractory organic compounds such as cellulose, lipid, pullullan, as well as a few hydrocarbons including toluene, ethylbenzene and o-xylene were identified. Therefore, this oil-immersed chimney supported a thermophilic microbial community capable of oxidizing a range of hydrocarbons that served as electron donors for sulphate reduction under anaerobic conditions.

YingHe

2013-06-01

176

Constructing a One-solar-mass Evolutionary Sequence Using Asteroseismic Data from Kepler  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Asteroseismology of solar-type stars has entered a new era of large surveys with the success of the NASA Kepler mission, which is providing exquisite data on oscillations of stars across the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. From the time-series photometry, the two seismic parameters that can be most readily extracted are the large frequency separation (??) and the frequency of maximum oscillation power (?max). After the survey phase, these quantities are available for hundreds of solar-type stars. By scaling from solar values, we use these two asteroseismic observables to identify for the first time an evolutionary sequence of 1 M sun field stars, without the need for further information from stellar models. Comparison of our determinations with the few available spectroscopic results shows an excellent level of agreement. We discuss the potential of the method for differential analysis throughout the main-sequence evolution and the possibility of detecting twins of very well-known stars.

Silva Aguirre, Victor; Chaplin, W. J.

2011-01-01

177

Design and Construction of a Solar Observatory in a Liberal Arts Environment: Austin College’s Gnomon and Meridian Line  

Science.gov (United States)

Austin College’s indoor solar observatory is one of the most distinctive features in its new IDEA Center science building. Patterned after 16th and 17th century solar observatories in European cathedrals, the IDEA Center solar facility will be used extensively for public events, introductory astronomy courses, and reproductions of important historical scientific measurements. A circular aperture, or gnomon hole, on the roof with diameter 32 mm allows a beam of sunlight to trace a path across the atrium floor 15.37 meters below. At local solar noon, the Sun’s image falls directly on a brass meridian line. Special markers for solstices and equinoxes highlight western, eastern, and indigenous cultural contributions to astronomy: Macedonian symbol of the Sun marks summer solstice, Chinese Sun symbol showcases the equinoxes, and the Mayan symbol of the Sun celebrates winter solstice. The location directly beneath the gnomon hole is marked by the universal scientific symbol of the Sun. Direct solar measurements and mathematical models were used in design and implementation of the meridian line. During IDEA Center building construction in Fall 2012, undergraduate students measured the Sun’s position at various times. The finished floor was set in February 2013, well before a full year’s worth of measurements could be recorded. A mathematical model including the effects of aperture size and atmospheric refraction was needed to predict the size and location of the Sun on the meridian line throughout the year. Confirmation of the meridian line occurred on Summer Solstice 2013 when the Sun’s image precisely hit the Macedonian marker at the correct time.

Baker, David; Salisbury, D.

2014-01-01

178

Design, construction and operation of spherical solar cooker with automatic sun tracking system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work, the effect of two axes tracking on a solar cooking system was studied. A dish was built to concentrate solar radiation on a pan that is fixed at the focus of the dish. The dish tracks the sun using a two axes sun tracking system. This system was built and tested. Experimental results obtained show that the temperature inside the pan reached more than 93 oC in a day where the maximum ambient temperature was 32 oC. This temperature is suitable for cooking purposes and this was achieved by using the two axes sun tracking system.

179

Design, construction and operation of spherical solar cooker with automatic sun tracking system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this work, the effect of two axes tracking on a solar cooking system was studied. A dish was built to concentrate solar radiation on a pan that is fixed at the focus of the dish. The dish tracks the sun using a two axes sun tracking system. This system was built and tested. Experimental results obtained show that the temperature inside the pan reached more than 93 C in a day where the maximum ambient temperature was 32 C. This temperature is suitable for cooking purposes and this was achieved by using the two axes sun tracking system. (author)

Abu-Malouh, Riyad; Abdallah, Salah; Muslih, Iyad M. [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Applied Science University, Amman 11931 (Jordan)

2011-01-15

180

Simulation, construction and testing of a two-cylinder solar Stirling engine powered by a flat-plate solar collector without regenerator  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this research, a gamma-type, low-temperature differential (LTD) solar Stirling engine with two cylinders was modeled, constructed and primarily tested. A flat-plate solar collector was employed as an in-built heat source, thus the system design was based on a temperature difference of 80{sup o}C. The principles of thermodynamics as well as Schmidt theory were adapted to use for modeling the engine. To simulate the system some computer programs were written to analyze the models and the optimized parameters of the engine design were determined. The optimized compression ratio was computed to be 12.5 for solar application according to the mean collector temperature of 100{sup o}C and sink temperature of 20{sup o}C. The corresponding theoretical efficiency of the engine for the mentioned designed parameters was calculated to be 0.012 for zero regenerator efficiency. Proposed engine dimensions are as follows: power piston stroke 0.044 m, power piston diameter 0.13 m, displacer stroke 0.055 m and the displacer diameter 0.41 m. Finally, the engine was tested. The results indicated that at mean collector temperature of 110{sup o}C and sink temperature of 25{sup o}C, the engine produced a maximum brake power of 0.27 W at 14 rpm. The mean engine speed was about 30 rpm at solar radiation intensity of 900 W/m{sup 2} and without load. The indicated power was computed to be 1.2 W at 30 rpm. (author)

Tavakolpour, Ali Reza; Zomorodian, Ali [Department of Mechanics of Farm Machinery Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran); Akbar Golneshan, Ali [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran)

2008-01-15

 
 
 
 
181

Feasibility of utilising solar-induced ventilation in Malaysia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The feasibility of applying solar-induced ventilation in a typical Malaysian house measuring 3 m high x wide x 5 m deep was considered based on experimental results obtained from a laboratory-scale model. A wall-type solar chimney was considered. The design of the solar chimney incorporated providing a glass panel alongside a vertical wall of a building. Openings at the top and bottom of the wall allowed fresh air to be introduced into the building. Simulations obtained from a simple theoretical model showed that the solar chimney was able to induce air flow rates of between 640 to 1040 m3 h-1 with a 0.3 m air gap. These ventilation rates are found to be in compliance with codes specified by ASHRAE and the Uniform Building By-laws. Full scale studies would need to be conducted in order to evaluate its effectiveness especially the flow pattern in the room

182

Innovative second-generation wavelets construction with recurrent neural networks for solar radiation forecasting.  

Science.gov (United States)

Solar radiation prediction is an important challenge for the electrical engineer because it is used to estimate the power developed by commercial photovoltaic modules. This paper deals with the problem of solar radiation prediction based on observed meteorological data. A 2-day forecast is obtained by using novel wavelet recurrent neural networks (WRNNs). In fact, these WRNNS are used to exploit the correlation between solar radiation and timescale-related variations of wind speed, humidity, and temperature. The input to the selected WRNN is provided by timescale-related bands of wavelet coefficients obtained from meteorological time series. The experimental setup available at the University of Catania, Italy, provided this information. The novelty of this approach is that the proposed WRNN performs the prediction in the wavelet domain and, in addition, also performs the inverse wavelet transform, giving the predicted signal as output. The obtained simulation results show a very low root-mean-square error compared to the results of the solar radiation prediction approaches obtained by hybrid neural networks reported in the recent literature. PMID:24808074

Capizzi, Giacomo; Napoli, Christian; Bonanno, Francesco

2012-11-01

183

Survey of new forms of organization and financing constructions in the Dutch solar electricity market  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the title project the focus is on organizations and projects in the Dutch market for solar electricity, characterized by: minimal dependence on subsidies (state aid), the removal of high initial investments by users (financing), and structures that can easily be extended or replicated (scale)

184

Novel construction of CdTe solar cell based on polyketanil structure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A novel concept of CdS/CdTe solar cell structure utilisation for BIPV concept is reported. ICSVT as the base manufacturing technology is presented, in the background of its new properties investigation. Technological concepts of the cadmium telluride structure employment in its new application field are described.

185

Vibration test report for in-chimney bracket and instrumented fuel assembly  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The vibration levels of in-chimney bracket structure which is installed in reactor chimney and instrumented fuel assembly(Type-B Bundle) are investigated under the steady state normal operating condition of the reactor. For this purpose, 4 acceleration data on the guide tube of the instrumented fuel assembly and in-chimney bracket structures subjected to fluid induced vibration are measured. For the analysis of the vibration data, vibration analysis program which can perform basic time and frequency domain analysis, is prepared, and its reliability is verified by comparing the analysis results with those of commercial analysis program(I-DEAS). In time domain analysis, maximum amplitudes, and RMS values of accelerations and displacements from the measured vibration signal, are obtained. The frequency components of the vibration data are analyzed by using the frequency domain analysis. These analysis results show that the levels of the measured vibrations are within the allowable level, and the low frequency component near 10 Hz is dominant in the vibration signal. For the evaluation of the structural integrity on the in-chimney bracket and related structures including the instrumented fuel assembly, the static analysis for ANSYS finite element model is carried out. These analysis results show that the maximum stresses are within the allowable stresses of the ASME code, and the maximum displacement of the top of the flow tube is within the displacement limit. Therefore any damage on the structural integrity is not expected when the irradiation test is performed using the in-chimney bracket.

Ryu, Jeong Soo; Yoon, D. B.; Cho, Y. G.; Ahn, G. H.; Lee, J. H.; Park, J.H

2000-10-01

186

Loops, Drips, and Walls in the Galactic Chimney GSH 277+00+36  

Science.gov (United States)

We present new high-resolution H I images of the Galactic chimney GSH 277+00+36. The chimney is at a distance of ~6.5 kpc, is more than 600 pc in diameter, and extends at least 1 kpc above and below the Galactic midplane. Using the Australia Telescope Compact Array and the Parkes Radiotelescope as part of the Southern Galactic Plane Survey, we have imaged the H I associated with this chimney, with a spatial resolution of ~6 pc. These are among the highest spatial resolution images of an H I chimney. We find very narrow well-defined shell walls, a remarkably empty interior, and complex small-scale structures. The shell walls show a very steep reduction in emission at the interior edge and a more gradual decline toward the exterior. We suggest that this structure is characteristic of compression and may be used to distinguish stellar by-product shells from shell-like structures resulting from random turbulent motions. The shell and chimney walls also exhibit a great deal of small-scale structure, which we discuss in the context of hydrodynamic instabilities. We find that these structures are primarily cold gas with narrow line widths in the range 1.5-2.5 km s-1.

McClure-Griffiths, N. M.; Dickey, John M.; Gaensler, B. M.; Green, A. J.

2003-09-01

187

Dolo?itev nevertikalnosti visokih dimnikov ; Determination of the nonverticality of high chimneys  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available V ?lanku je obravnavan prakti?en primer uporabe aplikacij sodobnega tahimetra pri dolo?evanju nevertikalnosti visokih industrijskih dimnikov kot alternativa klasi?nemu na?inu dolo?itve. Opisana je možnost merjenja to?k brez uporabe reflektorja, s ?imer na obodu dimnika dolo?imo množico to?k. Na njihovi podlagi lahko modeliramo dimnik kot pravilno matemati?no telo v prostoru z uporabo izravnave po metodi najmanjših kvadratov. Nevertikalnost dimnika nato dolo?imo kot odmik glavne osi modeliranega telesa od navpi?nice ; This article deals with practical examples of the applications of modern tachymeters in the determination of the nonverticality of high industrial chimneys, as an alternative to the classic methods. The possibility of a reflectorless measuring mode to determine the point cloud at the chimney’s circumference is described. Using these points, we are able to model the chimney as a mathematically correct body using the least squares adjustment method. Subsequently, the unknown nonverticality of the chimney is determined as the deviation of the primary axis of the modelled body from the vertical.

Dušan Kogoj

2011-01-01

188

Vibration test report for in-chimney bracket and instrumented fuel assembly  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The vibration levels of in-chimney bracket structure which is installed in reactor chimney and instrumented fuel assembly(Type-B Bundle) are investigated under the steady state normal operating condition of the reactor. For this purpose, 4 acceleration data on the guide tube of the instrumented fuel assembly and in-chimney bracket structures subjected to fluid induced vibration are measured. For the analysis of the vibration data, vibration analysis program which can perform basic time and frequency domain analysis, is prepared, and its reliability is verified by comparing the analysis results with those of commercial analysis program(I-DEAS). In time domain analysis, maximum amplitudes, and RMS values of accelerations and displacements from the measured vibration signal, are obtained. The frequency components of the vibration data are analyzed by using the frequency domain analysis. These analysis results show that the levels of the measured vibrations are within the allowable level, and the low frequency component near 10 Hz is dominant in the vibration signal. For the evaluation of the structural integrity on the in-chimney bracket and related structures including the instrumented fuel assembly, the static analysis for ANSYS finite element model is carried out. These analysis results show that the maximum stresses are within the allowable stresses of the ASME code, and the maximum displacement of the top of the flow tube is within the displacement limit. Therefore any damage on the structural integrity is not expected when the irradiation test is performed using the in-chimney bracket

189

New energy from an old chimney; Nieuwe energie uit een oude schoorsteen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new purpose has been found for the unused monumental stack chimney at the Eindhoven University of Technology. The idea is to use the chimney to provide free cooling. Using advanced simulation and analysis methods, the feasibility of the concept was studied. The results show that it is indeed possible to use the chimney effectively to provide free cooling to the neighbouring Ceres (Central Energy and Control Station) building [Dutch] De ongebruikte monumentale schoorsteen van de Universiteit Eindhoven is nieuw leven ingeblazen door hem in te zetten voor vrije koeling. Een studie naar de haalbaarheid hiervan is uitgevoerd met behulp vangeavanceerde simulatie en analysetechnieken. Het is gebleken dat de schoorsteen inderdaad effectief kan worden ingezet voor het leveren van koeling aan het naastgelegen Ceres (Centraal Energie en Regelstation) gebouw.

Van Goch, T.A.J. [BAM Techniek, Benningbroek (Netherlands)

2013-07-15

190

Quantifying metabolic rates in submarine hydrothermal vent chimneys: A reaction transport model  

Science.gov (United States)

The fluids emanating from active submarine hydrothermal vent chimneys provide a window into subseafloor processes and, through mixing with seawater, are responsible for steep thermal and compositional gradients that provide the energetic basis for diverse biological communities. Although several models have been developed to better understand the dynamic interplay of seawater, hydrothermal fluid, minerals and microorganisms inside chimney walls, none provide a fully integrated approach to quantifying the biogeochemistry of these hydrothermal systems. In an effort to remedy this, a fully coupled biogeochemical reaction transport model of a hydrothermal vent chimney has been developed that explicitly quantifies the rate of microbial catalysis while taking into account geochemical processes such as fluid flow, solute transport and oxidation-reduction reactions associated with fluid mixing as a function of temperature. Methanogenesis, hydrogen oxidation by oxygen and sulfate, sulfide oxidation by oxygen and methane oxidation by oxygen and sulfate are the metabolisms included in the reaction network. Model results indicate that microbial catalysis is fastest in the hottest habitable portion of the vent chimney except for methane oxidation by oxygen, which peaks near the seawater-side of the chimney at 20 nmol /cm^3 yr. The dominant metabolisms in the chimney are hydrogen oxidation by sulfate and oxygen and sulfide oxidation at peak rates 3200 , 300 and 900 nmol /cm^3 yr, respectively. The maximum rate of hydrogenotrophic methanogensis is just under 0.07 nmol /cm^3 yr, the slowest of the metabolisms considered. Due to thermodynamic inhibition, there is no anaerobic oxidation of methane by sulfate (AOM). The model developed here provides a quantitative approach to understanding the rates of biogeochemical transformations in hydrothermal systems and can be used to better understand the role of microbial activity in the deep subsurface.

LaRowe, D.; Dale, A.; Aguilera, D.; Amend, J. P.; Regnier, P.

2012-12-01

191

Modeling microbial reaction rates in a submarine hydrothermal vent chimney wall  

Science.gov (United States)

The fluids emanating from active submarine hydrothermal vent chimneys provide a window into subseafloor processes and, through mixing with seawater, are responsible for steep thermal and compositional gradients that provide the energetic basis for diverse biological communities. Although several models have been developed to better understand the dynamic interplay of seawater, hydrothermal fluid, minerals and microorganisms inside chimney walls, none provide a fully integrated approach to quantifying the biogeochemistry of these hydrothermal systems. In an effort to remedy this, a fully coupled biogeochemical reaction-transport model of a hydrothermal vent chimney has been developed that explicitly quantifies the rates of microbial catalysis while taking into account geochemical processes such as fluid flow, solute transport and oxidation-reduction reactions associated with fluid mixing as a function of temperature. The metabolisms included in the reaction network are methanogenesis, aerobic oxidation of hydrogen, sulfide and methane and sulfate reduction by hydrogen and methane. Model results indicate that microbial catalysis is generally fastest in the hottest habitable portion of the vent chimney (77-102 °C), and methane and sulfide oxidation peak near the seawater-side of the chimney. The fastest metabolisms are aerobic oxidation of H2 and sulfide and reduction of sulfate by H2 with maximum rates of 140, 900 and 800 pmol cm-3 d-1, respectively. The maximum rate of hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis is just under 0.03 pmol cm-3 d-1, the slowest of the metabolisms considered. Due to thermodynamic inhibition, there is no anaerobic oxidation of methane by sulfate (AOM). These simulations are consistent with vent chimney metabolic activity inferred from phylogenetic data reported in the literature. The model developed here provides a quantitative approach to describing the rates of biogeochemical transformations in hydrothermal systems and can be used to constrain the role of microbial activity in the deep subsurface.

LaRowe, Douglas E.; Dale, Andrew W.; Aguilera, David R.; L'Heureux, Ivan; Amend, Jan P.; Regnier, Pierre

2014-01-01

192

Hydrologic processes and radionuclide distribution in a cavity and chimney produced by the Cannikin nuclear explosion, Amchitka Island, Alaska  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An analysis of hydraulic, chemical, and radiochemical data obtained in the vicinity of the site of a nuclear explosion (code-named Cannikin, 1971), on Amchitka Island, Alaska, was undertaken to describe the hydrologic processes associated with the saturation of subsurface void space produced by the explosion. Immediately after detonation of the explosive, a subsurface cavity was created surrounding the explosion point. This cavity soon was partly filled by collapse of overburden, producing void volume in a rubble chimney extending to land surface and forming a surface-collapse sink. Surface and groundwater immediately began filling the chimney but was excluded for a time from the cavity by the presence of steam. When the steam condensed, the accumulated water in the chimney flowed into the cavity region, picking up and depositing radioactive materials along its path. Refilling of the chimney voids then resumed and was nearly complete about 260 days after the explosion. The hydraulic properties of identified aquifers intersecting the chimney were used with estimates of surface-water inflow, chimney dimensions, and the measured water-level rise in the chimney to estimate the distribution of explosion-created porosity in the chimney, which ranged from about 10 percent near the bottom to 4 percent near the top. Chemical and radiochemical analyses of water from the cavity resulted in identification of three aqueous phases: groundwater, surface water, and condensed steam. Although most water samples represented mixtures of these phases, they contained radioactivity representative of all radioactivity produced by the explosion

193

Structural Integrity Evaluation of an New In-Chimney Bracket Structures for HANARO  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In HANARO are there provided three hexagonal irradiation holes (CT, IR1 and IR2) in the central region of the core while four circular irradiation holes (OR3 ? OR6) in the outer core. There exist two types of irradiation facilities: uninstrumented or instrumented. The uninstrumented irradiation facility is little influenced by the coolant flow. But the dynamic behavior by the flow-induced vibration (FIV) and seismic loads is expected to largely occur in case of the instrumented test facility due to the long guide tube to protect the instrumentation cables. To suppress this dynamic behavior of the facility, the in-chimney bracket was designed. As a supplementary supporting structure for irradiation facility, this bracket will hold guide tubes whose holding position of the instrumented facility in CT or IR is the middle part of the instrumented facility between the hole spider and the robot arm already provided in the reactor pool liner. On the while, the bracket will grip the upper part of the guide tube when it is applied to hold the instrumented facility loaded in OR sites. Therefore it is believed that the irradiation test can be successfully conducted since this bracket can reduce the FIV and dynamic response to seismic load as well. In new in-chimney bracket, IR1 is reserved for IPS(In-Pile Section) so only CT/IR2 guide tubes are supported by CT/IR clamp units and the shape of In-chimney bracket is redesigned. For evaluating the structural integrity on the new in-chimney bracket and related reactor structures, ANSYS finite element analysis model is developed and the dynamic characteristics are analyzed. The seismic response analyses of new in-chimney bracket and related reactor structures of HANARO under the design earthquake response spectrum loads of OBE(0.1g) and SSE(0.2g) are performed. The response shows that the stress values for main points on the reactor structures and the new in-chimney bracket for seismic loads are within the ASME Code limits. It is also confirmed that the fatigue usage factor is much less than 1.0. Therefore any damage on structural integrity is not expected when a new in-chimney bracket is installed in the upper part of the reactor chimney

194

Dose reduction during remote dismantling of pile chimneys at BNFL Sellafield  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A remote handling machine (RHM) and a radio controlled excavator will be deployed to dismantle parts of the Windscale pile reactor chimneys. The potential radiation dose uptake associated with decommissioning parts of pile 1 chimney makes remote controlled equipment an essential part of the dose control strategy. During the project planning phase, the major areas of examination leading to the chosen engineering methodologies have been (1)dose rate variation and source distribution; (2) phasing of major source removal; (3) minimization of work in high dose rate areas; (4) development of remote/semiremote technology; (5) waste handling and packaging requirements; and (6) analysis of shielding options

195

Studies of the thermohydraulics of the Irradiation Research Facility (IRF) chimney using computational fluid dynamics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

AECL is developing a concept for a new Irradiation Research Facility (IRF) that will be used to support ongoing development of CANDU technology and advanced materials research after the NRU reactor shuts down. As part of the IRF Pre-Project Engineering Program, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses of the flow patterns and heat transfer within four reactor components - the inlet plenum, reflector tank, chimney, and the pool - were done to support the design. This paper describes the results of the CFD analyses of the IRF chimney. (author)

196

Solar Cookers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes the use of solar cookers in the science classroom. Includes instructions for construction of a solar cooker, an explanation of how solar cookers work, and a number of suggested activities. (DS)

King, Richard C.

1981-01-01

197

Combining interventions: improved chimney stoves, kitchen sinks and solar disinfection of drinking water and kitchen clothes to improve home hygiene in rural Peru L’association d’interventions - améliorer les cuisinières à bois, mettre en place des éviers, désinfecter l’eau domestique et le linge de cuisine par le solaire – permet d’améliorer l’hygiène dans les foyers ruraux du Pérou Intervenciones combinadas: mejorar las cocinas a leña, instalar fregaderos y desinfectar el agua para beber y los paños de cocina con energía solar para mejorar la higiene en hogares rurales en Perú  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Home based interventions are advocated in rural areas against a variety of diseases. The combination of different interventions might have synergistic effects in terms of health improvement and cost effectiveness. However, it is crucial to ensure cultural acceptance. The aim of the study was to develop an effective and culturally accepted home-based intervention package to reduce diarrhoea and lower respiratory illnesses in children. In two rural Peruvian communities we evaluated the performance and acceptance of cooking devices, household water treatments (HWT and home- hygiene interventions, with qualitative and quantitative methods. New ventilated stove designs reduced wood consumption by 16%. The majority of participants selected solar water disinfection as HWT in a blind tasting. In-depth interviews on hygiene improvement further revealed a high demand for kitchen sinks. After one year of installation the improved chimney stoves and kitchen sinks were all in use.  The intervention package was successfully adapted to local customs, kitchen-, home- and hygiene management. High user satisfaction was primarily driven by convenience gains due to the technical improvements and only secondarily by perceived health benefits.Les interventions à domicile sont recommandées dans les zones rurales pour éviter diverses maladies. L’association de différentes interventions entraîne une synergie en termes d’amélioration de la santé et de rapport coût-efficacité. Il est cependant crucial d’obtenir l’adhésion de la population. Le but de l’étude était d'élaborer un programme d’interventions à domicile, efficaces et acceptées par la population, visant à réduire la diarrhée et les affections des voies respiratoires basses chez l’enfant. Nous avons évalué, dans deux communautés rurales du Pérou, l’efficacité et l’acceptation d’appareils de cuisson, des traitements de l’eau domestique (HWT et d’interventions d’hygiène à domicile à l’aide de méthodes qualitatives et quantitatives. De nouvelles cuisinières avec ventilation ont permis de réduire la consommation de bois de 16 %. La majorité des participants ont choisi la désinfection solaire de l’eau comme moyen de HWT lors d’un essai à l’aveugle. Des entretiens approfondis sur l’amélioration de l’hygiène ont en outre révélé une forte demande d’éviers. Un an après leur installation, les nouvelles cuisinières et les éviers sont tous utilisés. Le programme d’interventions a été adapté avec succès aux coutumes locales, à la gestion de la cuisine, du foyer et de l’hygiène. Le haut degré de satisfaction des utilisateurs résulte en premier lieu des bénéfices obtenus en termes de commodité dus aux améliorations techniques, et, en second lieu, des bénéfices obtenus en termes de santé.Las intervenciones en los hogares en áreas rurales se recomiendan para luchar contra una variedad de enfermedades. Combinar distintas intervenciones puede tener efectos de sinergia en cuanto a mejorar la salud y la rentabilidad. Sin embargo, es indispensable lograr la aceptación cultural. El objeto de este estudio fue desarrollar un paquete de intervención en el hogar eficaz y culturalmente aceptado para reducir la diarrea y las enfermedades de las vías respiratorias inferiores en niños. En dos comunidades rurales en Perú, se evaluó el rendimiento y la aceptación de dispositivos de cocina, tratamientos de agua doméstica (HWT e intervenciones de higiene del hogar, con métodos cualitativos y cuantitativos. El nuevo diseño de las cocinas reduce el consumo de madera en un 16 %. La mayoría de los participantes eligió la desinfección solar del agua como método de HWT en una cata ciega. Las entrevistas detalladas acerca de las mejoras de la higiene también revelaron una alta demanda de fregaderos. Un año después de ser instaladas, las cocinas mejoradas y los fregaderos estaban todos en uso. El paquete de intervención fue adaptado con éxito a las costumbres locales y de gestión de la cocin

Ana I. Gil

2012-05-01

198

The design, construction, and initial operation of a closed-cycle, salt-gradient solar pond  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In operation of a closed-cycle salt-gradient solar pond (CCSGSP) system, fresh or low salinity water is supplied at the surface of the solar pond (SP) as make-up for evaporation losses as well as for surface washing. In the present investigation the surface water is flushed to an evaporation pond (EP) and concentrated for reinjection at the bottom of the SP. A 20 m[sup 2] SP incorporating an EP for concentrating brine, has been established. Theoretical modelling of the CCSGSP is presented. Results from the initial operation of the SP show that wind action and convective mixing caused some erosion of the gradient layer thereby increasing the surface layer thickness. Salt flux to the surface was found to be approximately 19 kg/m[sup 2] per year. Sodium hypochlorite solution proved successful as shock treatment during severe algal bloom. The result of acidification w as less promising in maintaining pond clarity. Occasional addition of alum helped in settling some of the suspended particulates in the pond.

Alagao, F.B.; Akbarzadeh, A.; Johnson, P.W. (Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, Victoria (Australia))

1994-10-01

199

The design, construction, and monitoring of photovoltaic power system and solar thermal system on the Georgia Institute of Technology Aquatic Center. Volume 1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This is a report on the feasibility study, design, and construction of a PV and solar thermal system for the Georgia Tech Aquatic Center. The topics of the report include a discussion of site selection and system selection, funding, design alternatives, PV module selection, final design, and project costs. Included are appendices describing the solar thermal system, the SAC entrance canopy PV mockup, and the PV feasibility study.

Long, R.C.

1996-12-31

200

A Contemporary Analysis of the O'Neill-Glaser Model for Space-Based Solar Power and Habitat Construction  

Science.gov (United States)

In 1975 Gerard O Neill published in the journal Science a model for the construction of solar power satellites. He found that the solar power satellites suggested by Peter Glaser would be too massive to launch economically from Earth, but could be financially viable if the workforce was permanently located in free space habitats and if lunar and asteroid materials were used for construction. All new worldwide electrical generating capacity could be then achieved by solar power satellites. The project would financially break even in about 20 years after which it would generate substantial income selling power below fossil fuel prices. Two NASA / Stanford University led studies at Ames Research center during the summers of 1974 and 1976 found the concept technically sound and developed a detailed financial parametric model. Although the project was not undertaken when suggested in the 1970s, several contemporary issues make pursuing the O Neill -- Glaser concept more compelling today. First, our analysis suggests that if in the first ten years of construction that small habitats (compared to the large vista habitats envisioned by O Neill) supporting approximately 300 people were utilized, development costs of the program and the time for financial break even could be substantially improved. Second, the contemporary consensus is developing that carbon free energy is required to mitigate global climate change. It is estimated that 300 GW of new carbon free energy would be necessary per year to stabilize global atmospheric carbon. This is about 4 times greater energy demand than was considered by the O Neill Glaser model. Our analysis suggests that after the initial investments in lunar mining and space manufacturing and transportation, that the profit margin for producing space solar power is very high (even when selling power below fossil fuel prices). We have investigated the financial scaling of ground launched versus space derived space solar power satellites. We find that for the carbon mitigation case even modernized ground launched space solar power satellites are not financially viable. For space derived solar power satellites, however, the increased demand makes them break even substantially sooner and yield much higher profit. Third, current awareness is increasing about the dangers of humanity remaining a single planet species. Our technological power has been increasing relative to the size of the planet Earth. Since the middle of the 20th century our technological power has grown large relative to our planet's size. This presents a very real potential for human self-extinction. We argue that the potential for human self-extinction is increasing with time in proportion to the exponential growth of our technological power making self-extinction likely within this century if humanity remains a single planet species. The O Neill model of multiple independent free space habitats, it is argued, can protect humanity from extinction in the same way that portfolio diversification protects ones assets from total loss. We show that about 1 million people for the electricity only case, and about 1 billion people for the carbon mitigation case, can be provided with permanent space habitats and transportation from Earth in 30 years and can be funded by the space derived solar power satellite program. 1.2 Scope of this Chapter The goal of this chapter is to illustrate the power and importance of the O'Neill-Glaser concept in the context of human survival and maintaining a healthy planet Earth. We argue that at this point in human history our technological power is too dangerous to our selves and our home planet for us not to expand into space. We show by the models presented in the chapter that the imminent dangers of global warming and human self-extinction mandate that humanity move aggressively into the solar system in this generation. We show that the production of solar power satellites using space resources and with a work foe living in space provides a viable financial model to mitigate CO2 preventing the worst global w

Curreri, Peter A.; Detweiler, Michael K.

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Investigations on health hazards of chimney sweeps in Germany: results of a follow-up study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Within the framework of a longitudinal study, 127 chimney sweeps from the area of Upper and Middle Franconia (Bavaria, Germany), who had participated in a first medical check-up in 1974, were offered follow-up examinations in 1990. Eighty-one subjects participated in these examinations; in addition individual occupational case histories and medical case histories were obtained for a further 15 and 35 chimney sweeps, respectively. Five test subjects had died before the evaluation deadline (August 15, 1990). The causes of death were a non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, a bladder carcinoma, pulmonary metastases with unknown primary tumour, a suicide and an acute myocardial infarction. Conspicuous results were carcinoma of the oesophagus in one case and leucoplakia of the mucous membranes in the mouth and pharyngeal region in three cases; furthermore one chimney sweep had two haemorrhagic lumps on his vocal cords. Taking into account important non-occupational hazards (alcohol and nicotine abuse) as possible causes of these changes and the lack of relevant occupational exposure to products of incineration over a number of years, none of these cases nor any of the other ascertained results could be considered likely to be causally related to occupational activities. Due to the small number of cases, an epidemiological risk evaluation did not seem useful. Comparison with the results of other chimney sweep studies published in the international literature is not helpful due to the differences in study design, the varying case frequencies, and the different conditions of exposure. PMID:1399014

Letzel, S; Weber, A; Schaller, K H; Angerer, J; Iro, H; Waitz, G; Knorr-Held, F; Weltle, D; Lehnert, G

1992-01-01

202

Solar thermal utilization--an overview  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Solar energy is an ideal renewable energy source and its thermal utilization is one of its most important applications. We review the status of solar thermal utilization, including: (1) developed technologies which are already widely used all over the world, such as solar assisted water heaters, solar cookers, solar heated buildings and so on; (2) advanced technologies which are still in the development or laboratory stage and could have more innovative applications, including thermal power generation, refrigeration, hydrogen production, desalination, and chimneys; (3) major problems which need to be resolved for advanced utilizaiton of solar thermal energy. (authors)

203

Solar  

Science.gov (United States)

What part does solar energy play in satisfying energy demands? This informational piece, part of a series about the future of energy, introduces students to solar energy. Here students read about the uses, benefits, and active and passive methods of solar energy. Information is also presented about limitations, geographical considerations of solar power in the United States, and current uses of solar energy around the world. Thought-provoking questions afford students chances to reflect on what they've read about the uses of solar energy. Articles and information about a solar power plant in the Mohave Desert, the use of solar energy in Iowa, and statistics about solar energy are provided in a sidebar.

Project, Iowa P.

2004-01-01

204

Geochemical processes and fluxes at a methane gas chimney on the Hikurangi Margin (New Zealand)  

Science.gov (United States)

The initial results presented in this study focus on the pore water geochemistry of Takahe methane seep located at 1050 m water depth on the Hikurangi Margin. The main objectives are to characterize and quantify the geochemical processes occurring in the upper meters of sediment. Parasound images of the study site showed a well-defined seismic blanking zone of around 230 m in diameter that is likely generated by trapped methane gas. At the northern edge of this seismic gas chimney bubble release has been observed by using hydroacoustic methods (singlebeam and multibeam echosounders). At the seafloor the more northern part of the chimney area showed white Beggiatoa bacterial mats and in places dark sediment patches due to geochemically reduced environments. No other "seep specific" fauna as tube worms or clams as well as no massive chemoherm carbonate where found in the area. This points towards a rather young seepage history. Geochemical data measured in 8 gravity cores across the gas chimney support this notion and gas hydrate layers several cm thick were observed in several cores. Sulphate and total alkalinity concentrations varied little from seawater values in the upper 50 to 100 cm towards the southerly end of the seismic gas chimney area; a feature attributed to irrigation by escaping methane gas bubbles. At these stations, the pore fluids were highly enriched in biogenic methane. However, the dissolved methane was mostly consumed anaerobically by sulphate, resulting in steep gradients of sulphate, methane, total alkalinity and hydrogen sulphide. Geochemical gradients at reference site immediately outside the chimney area were essentially vertical, indicating very little upwards transport and dissolution of methane. The geochemical data are applied to a numerical reaction-transport model to quantify the total upward flux of methane at each station and, ultimately, for the entire gas chimney. Temperature measurements of thermistor probes attached to the barrel of the gravity core show no significant differences between inside and outside the gas chimney. XRF core scanner data did not show significant changes in any of the cores. However, increased Ca concentrations were found and the sulphate-methane transition zone clearly indication authigenic precipitation of Ca-rich carbonates.

Dale, A.; Haffert, L.; Hütten, E.; Crutchley, G.; Greinert, J.; de Haas, H.; de Stigter, H.; Bialas, J.

2012-04-01

205

Effect of chimneys on indoor air concentrations of PM10 and benzo(a)pyrene in Xuan Wei, China  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reports the effect of chimneys in reducing indoor air pollution in a lung cancer epidemic area of rural China. Household indoor air pollution concentrations were measured during unvented burning (chimneys blocked) and vented burning (chimneys open) of bituminous coal in Xuan Wei, China. Concentrations of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 {mu} m or less (PM10) and of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) were measured in 43 homes during normal activities. The use of chimneys led to significant decreases in indoor air concentrations of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 mu m or less (PM10) by 66% and of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) by 84%. The average BaP content of PM10 also decreased by 55% with the installation of a chimney. The reduction of indoor pollution levels by the installation of a chimney supports the epidemiology findings on the health benefits of stove improvement. However, even in the presence of a chimney, the indoor air concentrations for both PM10 and BaP still exceeded the indoor air quality standards of China. Movement up the energy ladder to cleaner liquid or gaseous fuels is probably the only sustainable indoor air pollution control measure.

Tian, L.W.; Lan, Q.; Yang, D.; He, X.Z.; Yu, I.T.S.; Hammond, S.K. [Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China). School for Public Health

2009-07-15

206

SOLAR POWER PLANTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The electrical energy import-export balance of Hungary is negative. The renewable energy sources will not solve the power supply of the country but there are cases when these systems offer an optimal solution for energy supply of special establishments. This paper presents the possibilities of power production using solar energy. The efficiency of power production using different systems is analysed taking into consideration the Hungarian climate and design parameters. Different solutions of power plant conception are presented comparing the efficiency of power production process. Beside the well known photovoltaic systems, the solar trough, the solar dish/engine system, the solar power tower, the solar chimney, the solar lake is presented.

KALMÁR Ferenc

2009-06-01

207

Distribution of trace elements including tellurium, gallium, indium, and select REE in sulfide chimneys from Brothers submarine volcano, Kermadec arc  

Science.gov (United States)

Brothers volcano is a dacitic volcano located along the Kermadec arc, New Zealand, and hosts the NW Caldera hydrothermal vent field perched on part of the steep caldera walls. The field strikes for ~600 m between depths of 1550 and 1700 m and includes numerous, active, high-temperature (max 302°C) chimneys and even more dead, sulfide-rich spires. Chimney samples collected from Brothers show distinct mineralogical zonation reflecting gradients in oxidation state, temperature, and pH from the inner walls in contact with hydrothermal fluids through to the outer walls in contact with seawater. Minerals deposited from hotter fluids (e.g., chalcopyrite) are located in the interior of the chimneys and are surrounded by an external zone of minerals deposited by cooler fluids (e.g., sulfates, sphalerite). Four chimneys types are identified at Brothers volcano based on the relative proportions of chalcopyrite and sulfate layers, and the presence or absence of anhydrite. Two are Cu-rich, i.e., chalcopyrite-rich and chalcopyrite-bornite-rich chimneys, and two are Zn-rich, i.e., sphalerite-rich and sphalerite-chalcopyrite-rich. Barite and anhydrite are common to both Cu-rich chimney types whereas Zn-rich chimneys contain barite only. The main mineral phases in all the chimneys are anhydrite, barite, chalcopyrite, pyrite/marcasite, and sphalerite. Trace minerals include galena, covellite, tennantite, realgar, chalcocite, bornite, hematite, goethite, Pb-As sulfosalts, and Bi- or Au-tellurides. The vast majority of tellurides are mineral associations and zonation of these and other trace elements within the chimney walls, we have undertaken element mapping on the four different chimneys types with both X-Ray fluorescence microscopy using synchrotron radiation and with Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICPMS). For example, in a chalcopyrite-rich chimney visibly laminated chalcopyrite in the interior contains bands of Co, Mo, Ag, Te, Au, and Bi, whereas In, La, Ce, Ga, and Y are concentrated in other mineral phases towards the exterior. Element mapping allows us to better understand the physico-chemical gradients within chimney walls, as well as metal sources and transportation, and depositional processes.

Berkenbosch, H. A.; de Ronde, C. E.; McNeill, A.; Goemann, K.; Gemmell, J. B.

2011-12-01

208

An Assessment of Water Demand and Availability to meet Construction and Operational Needs for Large Utility-Scale Solar Projects in the Southwestern United States  

Science.gov (United States)

In the Southwestern United States, there are many large utility-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) facilities currently in operation, with even more under construction and planned for future development. These are locations with high solar insolation and access to large metropolitan areas and existing grid infrastructure. The Bureau of Land Management, under a reasonably foreseeable development scenario, projects a total of almost 32 GW of installed utility-scale solar project capacity in the Southwest by 2030. To determine the potential impacts to water resources and the potential limitations water resources may have on development, we utilized methods outlined by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to determine potential water use in designated solar energy zones (SEZs) for construction and operations & maintenance (O&M), which is then evaluated according to water availability in six Southwestern states. Our results indicate that PV facilities overall use less water, however water for construction is high compared to lifetime operational water needs. There is a transition underway from wet cooled to dry cooled CSP facilities and larger PV facilities due to water use concerns, though some water is still necessary for construction, operations, and maintenance. Overall, ten watersheds, 9 in California, and one in New Mexico were identified as being of particular concern because of limited water availability. Understanding the location of potentially available water sources can help the solar industry determine locations that minimize impacts to existing water resources, and help understand potential costs when utilizing non-potable water sources or purchasing existing appropriated water. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

Klise, G. T.; Tidwell, V. C.; Macknick, J.; Reno, M. D.; Moreland, B. D.; Zemlick, K. M.

2013-12-01

209

Mortality and incidence of cancer in a cohort of Swedish chimney sweeps: an extended follow up study.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Despite 200 years of efforts to regulate safety in this occupation, chimney sweeps have increased mortality from cancer, ischaemic heart disease, and respiratory disease. Mortality and incidence of cancer were examined in a cohort of 5542 Swedish chimney sweeps employed through their national trade union at any time between 1918 and 1980. Previous studies of this cohort found increased risks of ischaemic heart disease, respiratory disease, accidental deaths, and various neoplasms. By increasi...

Evanoff, B. A.; Gustavsson, P.; Hogstedt, C.

1993-01-01

210

Construction of planar and bulk integrated heterojunction polymer solar cells using cross-linkable D-A copolymer.  

Science.gov (United States)

An integrated device architecture was constructed via vertical combination of planar and bulk heterojunctions by solution processing, where a cross-linked D-A copolymer (PBDTTT-Br25) was inserted between a PEDOT:PSS layer and the blended photoactive layer. PBDTTT-Br25 can readily undergo photo crosslinking to form an insoluble robust film via ultraviolet irradiation after solution-deposition, which enables the subsequent solution processing of a photoactive layer on the robust surface. The insertion of a pure PBDTTT-Br25 layer to build an integrated heterojunction could provide an additional donor/acceptor interface, which enables hole transport to the anode without interruption, thereby reducing the charge carrier recombination probability. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the polymer solar cell (PSC) with the integrated architecture reaches 5.24% under an AM1.5G illumination of 100 mW/cm(2), which is increased by 65%, in comparison with that of the reference single heterojunction device (3.17%), under the same experimental conditions. PMID:23815293

Xu, Qi; Wang, Fuzhi; Qian, Deping; Tan, Zhan'ao; Li, Liangjie; Li, Shusheng; Tu, Xiaohe; Sun, Gang; Hou, Xuliang; Hou, Jianhui; Li, Yongfang

2013-07-24

211

Experiment, construction and demonstration of solar cell panel. Development of techniques for sheet-type substrate production process  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As part of a project for experiment, construction and demonstration of solar cell panels, an effort is made to develop techniques required for producing sheet-type substrates. Various improvements are made in mold modules to increase the productivity. Such improvements include the change in the size of clamp-plate fixing screws and modification in the tapered portion of the upper member of the mold in order to ensure an increased durability; the U-shape hole in the screw portion of the clamp plates; improvement to allow a high-frequency current to flow all over the module; and prevention of improper connection between the inlet and cavity. The improvement made in production processes include the use of a heat insulating box to reduce the heating time; increase in the strength of the high-temperature portions of the mold module driving unit; addition of gas feeding and exhaust systems; and use of a newly developed process for feeding molten silicon continuously at a constant feed rate. It is found that the optimum rotation rate of the mold module is 250-300 rpm and that the time period which can be used for crystal growth is 120 sec or less. It is also revealed that the crystal growth during continuous operation can be controlled by changing the heat capacity of the mold. (9 figs, 3 tabs)

1987-09-01

212

Scientific and Cost Effective Monitoring: The Case of an Aerial Insectivore, the Chimney Swift  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The increased pace of species listing worldwide, coupled with the scarcity of conservation funding, promote the use of targeted monitoring. We applied the recommendations of Nichols and Williams (Trends in Ecology and Evolution 2006 24:668-673 to optimize the Québec Chimney Swift Monitoring Program, an ongoing volunteer-based monitoring initiative launched in 1998. Past objectives of the program were to fill knowledge gaps about occupancy patterns at roosts sites, determine spatial and temporal distribution of Chimney Swifts (Chaetura pelagica across the province, locate active nest sites, and monitor temporal fluctuations of the population. By applying an adaptive management framework, we modified the current monitoring scheme into a more focused initiative testing newly developed hypotheses about the state of the system. This new approach yielded significant scientific gains as well as annual savings of 19.6%. It may prove pertinent to current and future swift monitoring initiatives and to other aerial insectivore species.

Sébastien Rioux

2010-12-01

213

Active reduction of the dominant clear tone component of the noise pollution from power plant chimneys  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An investigation of a system for active reduction of an irritating dominant clear tone emitted as a part of the noise pollution from a power plant chimney is described. Experiments were carried out on a scale model with diameters 3-4 times less than the actual chimney. Reduction of 25-30 decibels was achieved in relation to the clear tone in the frequency range in connection with which it could be expected that the noise-muffling system would work. The system was also seen to be able to follow the expected variation in the noise signals and to be stable during a longer period of time. The theories on which the experiment was based, the experimental setup and measurement methods and results are presented. (AB)

214

Barometric pressure transient testing applications at the Nevada Test Site. Nuclear chimney analysis. Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Investigations of barometric pressure testing of NTS nuclear chimneys were reviewed. This review includes the models used in the interpretation, methods of analysis, and results. Analytic and semi-analytic models were presented and applied to both historical data and new data taken for this current project. An interpretation technique based on non-linear least squares methods was used to analyze this data in terms of historic and more recent chimney models. Finally, a detailed discussion of radioactive gas transport due to surface barometric pressure fluctuations was presented. This mechanism of transport, referred to as ''barometric pumping,'' is presented in terms of conditions likely to be encountered at the NTS. The report concludes with a discussion of the current understanding of gas flow properties in the alluvial and volcanic areas of the NTS, and suggestions for future efforts directed toward increasing this understanding are presented

215

Scenarios for solar thermal energy applications in Brazil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Solar and Wind Energy Resource Assessment (SWERA) database is used to prepare and discuss scenarios for solar thermal applications in Brazil. The paper discusses low temperature applications (small and large scale water heating) and solar power plants for electricity production (concentrated solar power plants and solar chimney plants) in Brazil. The results demonstrate the feasibility of large-scale application of solar energy for water heating and electricity generation in Brazil. Payback periods for water heating systems are typically below 4 years if they were used to replace residential electric showerheads in low-income families. Large-scale water heating systems also present high feasibility and many commercial companies are adopting this technology to reduce operational costs. The best sites to set up CSP plants are in the Brazilian semi-arid region where the annual energy achieves 2.2 MW h/m2 and averages of daily solar irradiation are larger than 5.0 kW h/m2/day. The western area of Brazilian Northeastern region meets all technical requirements to exploit solar thermal energy for electricity generation based on solar chimney technology. Highlights: ? Scenarios for solar thermal applications are presented. ? Payback is typically below 4 years for small scale water heating systems. ? Large-scale water heating systems also present high feasibility. ? The Brazilian semi-arid region is the best sites for CSP and chimney tower plants.

216

Archaea and bacteria with surprising microdiversity show shifts in dominance over 1,000-year time scales in hydrothermal chimneys.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Lost City Hydrothermal Field, an ultramafic-hosted system located 15 km west of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, has experienced at least 30,000 years of hydrothermal activity. Previous studies have shown that its carbonate chimneys form by mixing of approximately 90 degrees C, pH 9-11 hydrothermal fluids and cold seawater. Flow of methane and hydrogen-rich hydrothermal fluids in the porous interior chimney walls supports archaeal biofilm communities dominated by a single phylotype of Methanosarcinales. In this study, we have extensively sampled the carbonate-hosted archaeal and bacterial communities by obtaining sequences of >200,000 amplicons of the 16S rRNA V6 region and correlated the results with isotopic ((230)Th) ages of the chimneys over a 1,200-year period. Rare sequences in young chimneys were commonly more abundant in older chimneys, indicating that members of the rare biosphere can become dominant members of the ecosystem when environmental conditions change. These results suggest that a long history of selection over many cycles of chimney growth has resulted in numerous closely related species at Lost City, each of which is preadapted to a particular set of reoccurring environmental conditions. Because of the unique characteristics of the Lost City Hydrothermal Field, these data offer an unprecedented opportunity to study the dynamics of a microbial ecosystem's rare biosphere over a thousand-year time scale. PMID:20080654

Brazelton, William J; Ludwig, Kristin A; Sogin, Mitchell L; Andreishcheva, Ekaterina N; Kelley, Deborah S; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Edwards, R Lawrence; Baross, John A

2010-01-26

217

The application of masonry chimney venting tables for oil-fired appliances  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents an overview of the results of work in developing a set of rational guidelines for the venting of modern oil-fired appliances. The activities included the continued development and completion of the Oil-Heat Vent Analysis Program (OHVAP), Version 1.0 and the interpretation of nearly 2,000 runs in preparing recommendations for presentation in table form. These results are presented in the form of venting tables for the installation of chimney vent systems for mid- and high-efficiency oil-fired heating appliances using masonry chimneys. A brief description of OHVAP is given as well as a discussion of what the program does. Recommendations based on the results of OHVAP are presented in the form of five tables spanning oil-fired appliance Steady state Efficiencies (Eff{sub ss}) of 80% to 88%. The assumptions used in the calculations and examples of the computed results are presented as well as a discussion of the rationale for masonry chimney system treatment. Working examples are given with suggested diagnostic approaches for application of the table recommendations.

Krajewski, R.F.; Strasser, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1995-04-01

218

Diffusion of solar energy technologies in the new-construction market: A survey of new solar-home and conventional-home buyers  

Science.gov (United States)

Consumer motivations for choosing a solar energy equipped home when the nonsolar or conventional model was available were investigated. The approach was to test the relative importance of demographic, dwelling unit, and heating system characteristics in household decisions to purchase a home equipped with solar energy devices. Two statistical models were developed: one to examine the relationship between the types of home buyers (as an identifiable market segment) and the decision to purchase a solar home; and the other to compare the energy use of solar vs. conventional homes selected in the sample.

Rains, D.; Dunipace, D.; Woo, C. K.

1981-02-01

219

Continuous In Situ Measurements of Near Bottom Chemistry and Sediment-Water Fluxes with the Chimney Sampler Array (CSA)  

Science.gov (United States)

The Chimney Sampler Array (CSA) was designed to measure in situ chemical and physical parameters within the benthic boundary layer plus methane and oxygen sediment-water chemical fluxes at upper slope sites in the northern Gulf of Mexico. The CSA can monitor temporal changes plus help to evaluate oceanographic and sub-seafloor processes that can influence the formation and stability of gas hydrates in underlying sediments. The CSA consists of vertical cylinders (chimneys) equipped with internal chemical sensors and with laboratory flume-calibrated washout rates. Chimney washout rates multiplied by chimney mean versus ambient concentrations allow calculation of net O2 and methane sediment-water fluxes. The CSA is emplaced on the seafloor by a ROVARD lander using a ROV for chimney deployments. The CSA presently includes two 30 cm diameter by 90 cm length cylinders that seal against the sediment with lead pellet beanbags; within each chimney cylinder are optode, conductivity and methane sensors. The CSA's data logger platform also includes pressure and turbidity sensors external to the chimneys along with an acoustic Doppler current meter to measure temporal variation in ambient current velocity and direction. The CSA was deployed aboard a ROVARD lander on 9/13/2010 in the northern Gulf of Mexico (Lat. 28 51.28440, Long. 088 29.39421) on biogeochemically active sediments within Block MC-118. A ROV was utilized for chimney deployment away from the ROVARD lander. The CSA monitored temporal changes in water column physical parameters, obtained near-bottom chemical data to compare with pore fluid and sediment core measurements and measured temporal variability in oxygen and methane sediment-water fluxes at two closely spaced stations at MC-118. A continuous, three-week data set was obtained that revealed daily cycles in chemical parameters and episodic flux events. Lower than ambient chimney dissolved O2 concentrations controlled by temporal variability in washout rates were used to calculate sediment O2 demand. Episodic events yielding turbidity spikes produced episodic spikes in chimney methane concentrations and sediment-water fluxes. The robust data set reveals new capabilities for long-term monitoring of near-bottom processes in biogeochemically active, continental margin environments.

Martens, C. S.; Mendlovitz, H. P.; White, B. L.; Hoer, D.; Sleeper, K.; Chanton, J.; Wilson, R.; Lapham, L.

2011-12-01

220

Porous ZnO nanosheet arrays constructed on weaved metal wire for flexible dye-sensitized solar cells  

Science.gov (United States)

Porous zinc oxide (ZnO) nanosheet (NS) arrays constructed by connected nanocrystallites were built on weaved metal wire (WMW) via hydrothermal treatment followed by calcination, and used as photoanodes for flexible dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). An overall light-to-electricity conversion efficiency (?) of 2.70% was achieved for the DSSC under 100 mW cm-2 illumination, and this ? was found to be much higher than that of the DSSC with ZnO nanowire (NW) as the photoanode (0.71%). The far superior performance of the DSSC with ZnO-NS is essentially attributed to: (i) the film consisting of nanosheets with interconnected nanocrystallites can allow relatively direct pathways for the transportation of electrons as the nanosheets have a regular structure with the sheets being oriented to the electrode; (ii) the nanocrystallites assembly and porous character of the nanosheets can provide a large surface area for dye adsorption, which is in favor of enhancing the light absorption and the light propagation; (iii) the nanopores embedded in the nanosheet can act as ``branch lines'' for more efficient electrolyte diffusion into the interstice of the densely packed nanosheets in the array. A further improvement in the efficiency of the DSSC with ZnO-NS was achieved through the atomic layer deposition (ALD) of an ultrathin titanium oxide (TiO2) layer onto the ZnO-NS layer. The larger charge transfer resistance along with the introduction of a TiO2 shell is thought to reduce the surface recombination and thus contribute to the increase in the open circuit voltage (Voc) of the DSCs and higher conversion efficiency (3.09%).Porous zinc oxide (ZnO) nanosheet (NS) arrays constructed by connected nanocrystallites were built on weaved metal wire (WMW) via hydrothermal treatment followed by calcination, and used as photoanodes for flexible dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). An overall light-to-electricity conversion efficiency (?) of 2.70% was achieved for the DSSC under 100 mW cm-2 illumination, and this ? was found to be much higher than that of the DSSC with ZnO nanowire (NW) as the photoanode (0.71%). The far superior performance of the DSSC with ZnO-NS is essentially attributed to: (i) the film consisting of nanosheets with interconnected nanocrystallites can allow relatively direct pathways for the transportation of electrons as the nanosheets have a regular structure with the sheets being oriented to the electrode; (ii) the nanocrystallites assembly and porous character of the nanosheets can provide a large surface area for dye adsorption, which is in favor of enhancing the light absorption and the light propagation; (iii) the nanopores embedded in the nanosheet can act as ``branch lines'' for more efficient electrolyte diffusion into the interstice of the densely packed nanosheets in the array. A further improvement in the efficiency of the DSSC with ZnO-NS was achieved through the atomic layer deposition (ALD) of an ultrathin titanium oxide (TiO2) layer onto the ZnO-NS layer. The larger charge transfer resistance along with the introduction of a TiO2 shell is thought to reduce the surface recombination and thus contribute to the increase in the open circuit voltage (Voc) of the DSCs and higher conversion efficiency (3.09%). Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Details of experimental procedures, characterizations, and supporting images. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr34265d

Dai, Hui; Zhou, Yong; Chen, Liang; Guo, Binglei; Li, Aidong; Liu, Jianguo; Yu, Tao; Zou, Zhigang

2013-05-01

 
 
 
 
221

Modeling Collapse Chimney and Spall Zone Settlement as a Source of Post-Shot Subsidence Detected by Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ground surface subsidence resulting from the March 1992 JUNCTION underground nuclear test at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) imaged by satellite synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR) wholly occurred during a period of several months after the shot (Vincent et al., 1999) and after the main cavity collapse event. A significant portion of the subsidence associated with the small (less than 20 kt) GALENA and DIVIDER tests probably also occurred after the shots, although the deformation detected in these cases contains additional contributions from coseismic processes, since the radar scenes used to construct the deformation interferogram bracketed these two later events, The dimensions of the seas of subsidence resulting from all three events are too large to be solely accounted for by processes confined to the damage zone in the vicinity of the shot point or the collapse chimney. Rather, the subsidence closely corresponds to the span dimensions predicted by Patton's (1990) empirical relationship between spall radius and yield. This suggests that gravitational settlement of damaged rock within the spall zone is an important source of post-shot subsidence, in addition to settlement of the rubble within the collapse chimney. These observations illustrate the potential power of InSAR as a tool for Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) monitoring and on-site inspection in that the relatively broad ({approx} 100 m to 1 km) subsidence signatures resulting from small shots detonated at normal depths of burial (or even significantly overburied) are readily detectable within large geographical areas (100 km x 100 km) under favorable observing conditions. Furthermore, the present results demonstrate the flexibility of the technique in that the two routinely gathered satellite radar images used to construct the interferogram need not necessarily capture the event itself, but can cover a time period up to several months following the shot.

Foxwall, W.

2000-07-24

222

Solar updraft power plants. A structural engineering contribution for sustainable and economic power generation; Solare Aufwindkraftwerke.: Ein Beitrag der Bautechnik zur nachhaltigen und wirtschaftlichen Energieerzeugung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Solar updraft power technology serves to generate electricity in the world-wide deserts, overcoming several deficits of present renewable energy technologies. In several suited countries such power plant projects are in preparation. The present contribution starts with an explanation of the working principle of solar updraft power plants, followed by their climatic and wind-technologic design assumptions, terminated by the wind-load determination in boundary layer wind-tunnels. Then the central solar chimney - the power tower - will be treated, a thin ring-stiffened RC shell of extreme height forming the utmost structural challenge of such power plants. This part is followed by an explanation of technical requirements for the collector construction, which represents by far the largest glass-covered area ever built, and of the wind loading at the glazing and the supporting structure. Further important aspects are formed by the durability requirements of the applied construction materials for at least 100 years of service-duration of the tower in extreme desert climates. The paper closes with cost estimates for the generated electric power and with a technology outlook. (orig.)

Harte, Reinhard [Bergische Univ. Wuppertal (Germany). Fachbereich D - Abt. Bauingenieurwesen; Hoeffer, Ruediger; Mark, Peter [Bochum Univ. (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Bau- und Umweltingenieurwissenschaften; Kraetzig, Wilfried B. [Kraetzig und Partner Ingenieurgesellschaft mbH, Bochum (Germany); Niemann, Hans-Juergen [Ingenieurgemeinschaft Niemann und Partner GbR, Bochum (Germany). Technologiezentrum Ruhr

2012-03-15

223

Geodetical aspects of nuclear power plant construction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The requirements of nuclear power plant construction and the problems of site selection are discussed. The need for construction capacity of the Hungarian nuclear power plant project is estimated. The geometrical base point network of the Paks Power Plant was designed and equalized by computer methods. The measurements have been made by electrooptical range finders. After equalization the network was further divided. The results of equalization and error analysis are presented. The requirements for geodetical surveying for the indoor construction are described. The leaning of the auxiliary boiler chimneys of the plant were studied by photogrammetry. (R.J.)

224

Tellurium-bearing minerals in zoned sulfide chimneys from Cu-Zn massive sulfide deposits of the Urals, Russia  

Science.gov (United States)

Tellurium-bearing minerals are generally rare in chimney material from mafic and bimodal felsic volcanic hosted massive sulfide (VMS) deposits, but are abundant in chimneys of the Urals VMS deposits located within Silurian and Devonian bimodal mafic sequences. High physicochemical gradients during chimney growth result in a wide range of telluride and sulfoarsenide assemblages including a variety of Cu-Ag-Te-S and Ag-Pb-Bi-Te solid solution series and tellurium sulfosalts. A change in chimney types from Fe-Cu to Cu-Zn-Fe to Zn-Cu is accompanied by gradual replacement of abundant Fe-, Co, Bi-, and Pb- tellurides by Hg, Ag, Au-Ag telluride and galena-fahlore with native gold assemblages. Decreasing amounts of pyrite, both colloform and pseudomorphic after pyrrhotite, isocubanite ISS and chalcopyrite in the chimneys is coupled with increasing amounts of sphalerite, quatz, barite or talc contents. This trend represents a transition from low- to high sulphidation conditions, and it is observed across a range of the Urals deposits from bimodal mafic- to bimodal felsic-hosted types: Yaman-Kasy ? Molodezhnoye ? Uzelga ? Valentorskoye ? Oktyabrskoye ? Alexandrinskoye ? Tash-Tau ? Jusa.

Maslennikov, V. V.; Maslennikova, S. P.; Large, R. R.; Danyushevsky, L. V.; Herrington, R. J.; Stanley, C. J.

2013-02-01

225

Passive-solar retrofit concepts  

Science.gov (United States)

Four retrofit passive solar designs for single family dwellings are presented. The first design, for a house in Minnesota, involves insulating wall cavities and the attic with blown cellulose, reduction of infiltration, and installation of insulating shades on all windows. The second, for a house in Michigan, combines weatherization, a sunspace with clerestory, and a thermosiphoning collector. The third, for a house in Missouri, involves the addition of a large sunspace with a passive solar hot water preheater for a hot tub. The fourth, for a house in Indiana, combines intensive weatherization with a two story sunspace and thermal chimney addition. All designs are thoroughly illustrated.

1981-09-01

226

Remote dismantling experience at Windscale pile chimneys and other AEA/BNFL facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper described recent remote dismantling experience at British Nuclear Fuels Ltd and at AEA Technology. Three areas are considered, firstly transfer of proven technology from non-nuclear industries, aimed at ensuring low commercial risk where tasks are relatively simple and radiation levels permit some human intervention. Work on dismantling the Windscale Pile Chimneys falls into this category. Secondly the equipment developed to support the decommissioning of the Windscale Advanced Gas Cooled Reactor is discussed. Finally a summary is given of the systems developed to cut, divert and weld a highly active raffinate line and to recover fuel rods within the Sellafield Magnox Reprocessing Plant

227

Endovascular Aortic Aneurysm Repair with Chimney and Snorkel Grafts: Indications, Techniques and Results  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The chimney technique in endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (Ch-EVAR) involves placement of a stent or stent-graft parallel to the main aortic stent-graft to extend the proximal or distal sealing zone while maintaining side branch patency. Ch-EVAR can facilitate endovascular repair of juxtarenal and aortic arch pathology using available standard aortic stent-grafts, therefore, eliminating the manufacturing delays required for customised fenestrated and branched stent-grafts. Several case series have demonstrated the feasibility of Ch-EVAR both in acute and elective cases with good early results. This review discusses indications, technique, and the current available clinical data on Ch-EVAR

228

Positional Arrangements of Waste Exhaust Gas Ducts of C-Type Balanced Chimney Heating Devices on Building Façades  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In Turkey today, with the increase in availability of natural gas,detached heating devices are being preferred over existingheating devices. Due to the lack of chimneys in existing buildingsin Turkey or the presence of chimneys that fail to conformto standards, the use of C-type balanced chimney devices has increased.C-type balanced chimney devices take the combustionair directly from the outside by a specific air duct as detachedheating equipment, with enclosed combustion chambers anda specific waste gas exhaust duct, and they are ventilated independentlyof the field of equipment. Because of their essentiality,the use of a chimney is not required in these devices;the waste gas is exhausted through walls, windows, doors, orbalconies. The natural gas is a clean fossil fuel that requires nostorage in buildings and is easy to use. However, water vapor,carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides are produced by the combustionof natural gas. It is widely known that high concentrationsof these products can have some adverse effects onhumans such as dizziness, headaches and nausea. As a result,the waste products could recoil through wall openings on thefaçade to create unhealthy indoor environments that could bedangerous to human health. Therefore, the importance of standardsand regulations about the positional arrangements of thewaste gas exhaust ducts of C-type balanced chimney devices onbuilding façades is increasing. In this research, we analyze thestudies of the Institution of Turkish Standards, Chamber of MechanicalEngineers, gas distribution companies, municipalitiesand authorized firms and compare the criteria to determine thenecessary application method. According to our comparison ofthe references accessed, the criteria are not uniform.

Erkan AVLAR

2009-01-01

229

Formation of carbonate chimneys in the Mediterranean Sea linked to deep-water oxygen depletion  

Science.gov (United States)

Marine sediments at ocean margins vent substantial amounts of methane. Microbial oxidation of the methane released can trigger the precipitation of carbonate within sediments and support a broad diversity of seafloor ecosystems. The factors controlling microbial activity and carbonate precipitation associated with the seepage of submarine fluid over geological time remain poorly constrained. Here, we characterize the petrology and geochemistry of rocks sampled from metre-size build-ups of methane-derived carbonate chimneys located at the Amon mud volcano on the Nile deep-sea fan. We find that these carbonates comprise porous structures composed of aggregated spherules of aragonite, and closely resemble microbial carbonate reefs forming at present in the anoxic bottom waters of the Black Sea. Using U-series dating, we show that the Amon carbonate build-ups formed between 12 and 7 thousand years ago, contemporaneous with the deposition of organic-rich sediments in the eastern Mediterranean, the so-called sapropel layer S1. We propose that the onset of deep-water suboxic or anoxic conditions associated with sapropel formation resulted in the development of intense anaerobic microbial activity at the sea floor, and thus the formation of carbonate chimneys.

Bayon, Germain; Dupré, Stéphanie; Ponzevera, Emmanuel; Etoubleau, Joël; Chéron, Sandrine; Pierre, Catherine; Mascle, Jean; Boetius, Antje; de Lange, Gert J.

2013-09-01

230

Gas chimney detection based on improving the performance of combined multilayer perceptron and support vector classifier  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Seismic object detection is a relatively new field in which 3-D bodies are visualized and spatial relationships between objects of different origins are studied in order to extract geologic information. In this paper, we propose a method for finding an optimal classifier with the help of a statistical feature ranking technique and combining different classifiers. The method, which has general applicability, is demonstrated here on a gas chimney detection problem. First, we evaluate a set of input seismic attributes extracted at locations labeled by a human expert using regularized discriminant analysis (RDA. In order to find the RDA score for each seismic attribute, forward and backward search strategies are used. Subsequently, two non-linear classifiers: multilayer perceptron (MLP and support vector classifier (SVC are run on the ranked seismic attributes. Finally, to capitalize on the intrinsic differences between both classifiers, the MLP and SVC results are combined using logical rules of maximum, minimum and mean. The proposed method optimizes the ranked feature space size and yields the lowest classification error in the final combined result. We will show that the logical minimum reveals gas chimneys that exhibit both the softness of MLP and the resolution of SVC classifiers.

H. Hashemi

2008-11-01

231

Gas chimney detection based on improving the performance of combined multilayer perceptron and support vector classifier  

Science.gov (United States)

Seismic object detection is a relatively new field in which 3-D bodies are visualized and spatial relationships between objects of different origins are studied in order to extract geologic information. In this paper, we propose a method for finding an optimal classifier with the help of a statistical feature ranking technique and combining different classifiers. The method, which has general applicability, is demonstrated here on a gas chimney detection problem. First, we evaluate a set of input seismic attributes extracted at locations labeled by a human expert using regularized discriminant analysis (RDA). In order to find the RDA score for each seismic attribute, forward and backward search strategies are used. Subsequently, two non-linear classifiers: multilayer perceptron (MLP) and support vector classifier (SVC) are run on the ranked seismic attributes. Finally, to capitalize on the intrinsic differences between both classifiers, the MLP and SVC results are combined using logical rules of maximum, minimum and mean. The proposed method optimizes the ranked feature space size and yields the lowest classification error in the final combined result. We will show that the logical minimum reveals gas chimneys that exhibit both the softness of MLP and the resolution of SVC classifiers.

Hashemi, H.; Tax, D. M. J.; Duin, R. P. W.; Javaherian, A.; de Groot, P.

2008-11-01

232

Evidence for chimney breakout in the Galactic supershell GSH 242-03+37  

CERN Document Server

We present new high resolution neutral hydrogen (H I) images of the Galactic supershell GSH 242-03+37. These data were obtained with the Parkes Radiotelescope as part of the Galactic All-Sky Survey (GASS). GSH 242-03+37 is one of the largest and most energetic H I supershells in the Galaxy with a radius of $565 \\pm 65$ pc and an expansion energy of 3x10^{53} ergs. Our images reveal a complicated shell with multiple chimney structures on both sides of the Galactic plane. These chimneys appear capped by narrow filaments about 1.6 kpc above and below the Galactic mid-plane, confirming structures predicted in simulations of expanding supershells. The structure of GSH 242-03+37 is extremely similar to the only other Galactic supershell known to have blown out of both sides of the plane, GSH 277+00+36. We compare the GASS H I data with X-ray and H-alpha, finding no strong correlations.

McClure-Griffiths, N M; Pisano, D J; Gibson, B K; Staveley-Smith, L; Calabretta, M R; Dedes, L; Kalberla, P M W

2006-01-01

233

Evidence for Chimney Breakout in the Galactic Supershell GSH 242-03+37  

Science.gov (United States)

We present new high-resolution neutral hydrogen (H I) images of the Galactic supershell GSH 242-03+37. These data were obtained with the Parkes Radiotelescope as part of the Galactic All-Sky Survey (GASS). GSH 242-03+37 is one of the largest and most energetic H I supershells in the Galaxy, with a radius of 565+/-65 pc and an expansion energy of 3×1053 ergs. Our images reveal a complicated shell with multiple chimney structures on both sides of the Galactic plane. These chimneys appear capped by narrow filaments about 1.6 kpc above and below the Galactic midplane, confirming structures predicted in simulations of expanding supershells. The structure of GSH 242-03+37 is extremely similar to the only other Galactic supershell known to have blown out of both sides of the plane, GSH 277+00+36. We compare the GASS H I data with X-ray and H? images, finding no strong correlations.

McClure-Griffiths, N. M.; Ford, Alyson; Pisano, D. J.; Gibson, B. K.; Staveley-Smith, L.; Calabretta, M. R.; Dedes, L.; Kalberla, P. M. W.

2006-02-01

234

The versatile in situ gene expression of an Epsilonproteobacteria-dominated biofilm from a hydrothermal chimney.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Epsilonproteobacteria, including members of the genus Sulfurovum, are regarded as important primary producers in hydrothermal systems. However, their in situ gene expression in this habitat has so far not been investigated. We report a metatranscriptomic analysis of a Sulfurovum-dominated biofilm from one of the chimneys at the Loki's Castle hydrothermal system, located at the Arctic Mid Ocean Ridge. Transcripts involved in hydrogen oxidation, oxidation of sulfur species, aerobic respiration and denitrification were abundant and mostly assigned to Sulfurovum, indicating that members of this genus utilize multiple chemical energy sources simultaneously for primary production. Sulfurovum also seemed to have a diverse expression of transposases, potentially involved in horizontal gene transfer. Other transcripts were involved in CO? fixation by the reverse TCA cycle, the CRISPR-Cas system, heavy metal resistance, and sensing and responding to changing environmental conditions. Through pyrosequencing of PCR amplified 16S rRNA genes, the Sulfurovum-dominated biofilm was compared with another biofilm from the same chimney, revealing a large shift in the community structure of Epsilonproteobacteria-dominated biofilms over a few metres. PMID:23584970

Dahle, Håkon; Roalkvam, Irene; Thorseth, Ingunn H; Pedersen, Rolf B; Steen, Ida H

2013-04-01

235

Metal sources of black smoker chimneys, Endeavour Segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge: Pb isotope constraints  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hydrothermal chimney sulfides, vent cap chimney samples, Fe-oxide and basalts from sediment-starving Juan de Fuca Ridge, in the Endeavour segment, exhibit a range of Pb isotope ratios (206Pb/204Pb = 18.658-18.769; 207Pb/204Pb = 15.457-15.566; 208Pb/204Pb = 37.810-38.276). The data array is not parallel to the northern hemisphere mantle reservoirs indicating a possible sediment component within the sulfides. By assuming that the potential end-member sediment component has a 207Pb/204Pb (15.70) similar to Middle Valley sediment, it is suggested the potential end-member sediment component may have 206Pb/204Pb = 18.90; 208Pb/204Pb = 38.82. Basalt-derived Pb for the Endeavour segment hydrothermal system involves about 50/50 leaching of E-MORB and T2-MORB. Detailed observations show the Mothra field derives more Pb from T2-MORB than the Main Endeavour field does. According to the binary mixing model, the results show little Pb (4+, CH4 and Br/Cl ratios in hydrothermal fluids are consistent with a sediment component within the segment. Reconciling the Pb isotope data with the chemistry data of hydrothermal fluids, it is suggested that the sediment component may be located in a lower temperature recharge zone where Pb could not be mobilized from the sediment.

236

Alternativas de construcción utilizando materiales de bajo costo para la evaluación térmica de cocinas solares tipo caja / Construction alternatives using low-cost materials for the thermal test of box-type solar cookers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se presenta la evaluación y resultados térmicos de cocinas tipo cajas, realizadas con el objeto de comparar diversos factores constructivos de las mismas utilizando un protocolo de prueba conocido como RICSA (Red Interamericana de Cocción Solar de Alimentos). Para ellos se dispuso de cuatro cocinas [...] en donde se combinaron dos materiales de placa y dos materiales que sirven como aislante. Se sometieron a radiación solar directa calentando la placa colectora y luego al calentamiento utilizando agua como líquido de prueba. Se procedió a medir las perdidas térmicas y la eficiencia térmica. Parámetros adicionales como el tiempo en que alcanza la temperatura de cocción efectiva y el tiempo en que la mantiene sin intervención del operador también fueron medidos. De aquí, el análisis de la información proporcionó un buen rendimiento comparable entre cocinas con placa de hierro y los dos aislantes probados por sobre las cocinas de placa de aluminio; además, por la relación precio-rendimiento, se recomienda su construcción utilizando materiales que tienen alto rendimiento y bajo precio. Abstract in english This document presents the evaluation of a different set of solar ovens in terms of their thermal performance by the RICSA protocol. For this purpose, four solar ovens were constructed differentiated mainly by the type of isolation and plates. All were exposed to direct solar radiation. First, only [...] the collector plate was heated to measure thermal losses and efficiency and second, a determined amount of water was introduced to measure the thermal power of the solar oven. Additional parameters like the time in which it reaches the temperature of effective boiling point and the time in which it maintains functioning without intervention of the operator also were measured. The analysis provide empirical evidence regarding adequate levels of thermal performance of solar ovens constructed using iron on one hand, and aluminum on the other. It is recommended to extend the use of this type of equipments given the priceeffi ciency obtained in the experiments.

Luis Enrique, Mealla Sánchez; Pablo Daniel, Bonaveri Arangoa.

237

Alternativas de construcción utilizando materiales de bajo costo para la evaluación térmica de cocinas solares tipo caja / Construction alternatives using low-cost materials for the thermal test of box-type solar cookers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se presenta la evaluación y resultados térmicos de cocinas tipo cajas, realizadas con el objeto de comparar diversos factores constructivos de las mismas utilizando un protocolo de prueba conocido como RICSA (Red Interamericana de Cocción Solar de Alimentos). Para ellos se dispuso de cuatro cocinas [...] en donde se combinaron dos materiales de placa y dos materiales que sirven como aislante. Se sometieron a radiación solar directa calentando la placa colectora y luego al calentamiento utilizando agua como líquido de prueba. Se procedió a medir las perdidas térmicas y la eficiencia térmica. Parámetros adicionales como el tiempo en que alcanza la temperatura de cocción efectiva y el tiempo en que la mantiene sin intervención del operador también fueron medidos. De aquí, el análisis de la información proporcionó un buen rendimiento comparable entre cocinas con placa de hierro y los dos aislantes probados por sobre las cocinas de placa de aluminio; además, por la relación precio-rendimiento, se recomienda su construcción utilizando materiales que tienen alto rendimiento y bajo precio. Abstract in english This document presents the evaluation of a different set of solar ovens in terms of their thermal performance by the RICSA protocol. For this purpose, four solar ovens were constructed differentiated mainly by the type of isolation and plates. All were exposed to direct solar radiation. First, only [...] the collector plate was heated to measure thermal losses and efficiency and second, a determined amount of water was introduced to measure the thermal power of the solar oven. Additional parameters like the time in which it reaches the temperature of effective boiling point and the time in which it maintains functioning without intervention of the operator also were measured. The analysis provide empirical evidence regarding adequate levels of thermal performance of solar ovens constructed using iron on one hand, and aluminum on the other. It is recommended to extend the use of this type of equipments given the priceeffi ciency obtained in the experiments.

Luis Enrique, Mealla Sánchez; Pablo Daniel, Bonaveri Arangoa.

2012-06-01

238

Effect of doping concentration on the performance of solar cell constructed from (Muscovite/TiO2/Dye/Al  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Solar cells were fabricated from (Muscovite/ TiO2/Dye/Al, the effect of temperature, concen- tration and light intensity on the electrical prop- erties of (Muscovite/TiO2/Dye/Al was studied. The relationship between current and voltage was found to be algorism, which is in agreement with the ordinary relation for solar cells. When dye concentration was increased the conductivity, fill factor and efficiency were also increased. This result is found to be in conformity with the theoretical relations. The small energy gaps for their samples show that they are semiconductors. The maximum efficiency obtained is 33.2%.

R. Abd Elgani

2013-01-01

239

Trace element distribution, with a focus on gold, in copper-rich and zinc-rich sulfide chimneys from Brothers submarine volcano, Kermadec arc  

Science.gov (United States)

Brothers volcano is a dacitic volcano located along the Kermadec arc, New Zealand, and hosts the NW Caldera hydrothermal vent field perched on part of the steep caldera walls. The field strikes for ~600 m between depths of 1550 and 1700 m and includes numerous, active, high-temperature (max 302°C) chimneys and even more dead, sulfide-rich spires. Chimney samples collected from Brothers show distinct mineralogical zonation reflecting gradients in oxidation state, temperature, and pH from the inner walls in contact with hydrothermal fluids through to the outer walls in contact with seawater. Minerals deposited from hotter fluids (e.g., chalcopyrite) are located in the interior of the chimneys and are surrounded by an external zone of minerals deposited by cooler fluids (e.g., sulfates, sphalerite). Four chimneys types are identified at Brothers volcano based on the relative proportions of chalcopyrite and sulfate layers, and the presence or absence of anhydrite. Two are Cu-rich, i.e., chalcopyrite-rich and chalcopyrite-bornite-rich chimneys, and two are Zn-rich, i.e., sphalerite-rich and sphalerite-chalcopyrite-rich. Barite and anhydrite are common to both Cu-rich chimney types whereas Zn-rich chimneys contain barite only. The main mineral phases in all the chimneys are anhydrite, barite, chalcopyrite, pyrite/marcasite, and sphalerite. Trace minerals include galena, covellite, tennantite, realgar, chalcocite, bornite, hematite, goethite, Pb-As sulfosalts, and Bi- or Au-tellurides. The vast majority of tellurides are mineral associations and zonation of these and other trace elements within the chimney walls, we have undertaken element mapping on the four different chimneys types with both X-Ray fluorescence microscopy using synchrotron radiation and with Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICPMS). For example, in a chalcopyrite-rich chimney, visibly laminated chalcopyrite in the interior contains bands with a magmatic suite of elements including Co, Mo, Ag, Te, Au, and Bi. In comparison in a sphalerite-chalcopyrite-rich chimney, Au is again associated with minor Cu, although not with Bi and Te indicating alternative methods of gold transport and deposition are dominant. Element mapping allows us to better understand the physico-chemical gradients within chimney walls, as well as metal sources and transportation, and depositional processes.

Berkenbosch, H. A.; de Ronde, C. E.; McNeill, A.; Goemann, K.; Gemmell, J. B.

2012-12-01

240

Experience of the remote dismantling of the Windscale advanced gas-cooled reactor and Windscale pile chimneys  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper gives brief descriptions of some of the remote dismantling work and equipment used on two large decommissioning projects: the BNFL Windscale Pile Chimneys Project (remote handling machine, waste packaging machine, remotely controlled excavator, remotely controlled demolition machine) and the AEA Windscale Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor Project (remote dismantling machine, operational waste, bulk removal techniques, semi-remote cutting operations)

 
 
 
 
241

A variety of Microbial Mats cover the Chimney Walls of the Loki's Castle Hydrothermal Field  

Science.gov (United States)

Active vent chimneys of the Loki’s castle hydrothermal field at 73°N are the most northerly black smokers ever located. Vent fluids reach temperatures of >300°C, have a pH of around 5.5 and high concentrations of reduced compounds representing important energy sources for microbial life. Particularly they are extremely rich in methane (13.5 mM) and hydrogen (4.9 mM) while hydrogen sulphide concentrations are more typical for black smoker fluids (4.1 mM). Another characteristic of Loki’s castle is the unusually high abundance of microbial mats on the exterior of the chimneys. During a cruise in 2009 we used a ROV equipped with a hydraulic sampling cylinder (biosyringe) to collect samples of five mats varying in color and texture. Pyrosequencing of amplified 16S rRNA gene sequences yielded 9000 - 25000 reads per sample. Although all mats were dominated by a relatively low number of OTUs, we observed large differences in microbial composition, richness, and evenness of the mats. Also, the most dominating metabolic process occurring in each mat seemed to vary considerably. Two of the mats were largely dominated (60-90% of the reads) by relatives of mesophilic sulfur oxidizing ?-Proteobacteria (e.g. Sulfurovum) while another mat was dominated (48 % of the reads) by organisms affiliated with methanotrophic Methylococcales. In the last two mats we found a high abundance ( >20% - >40% of the reads) of organisms clustering among thermophilic organisms such as Thermodesulfobacteriales, Archaeoglobales, Thermococcales, Thermotogales, and Aquificales. The observed variation of the microbial composition between the different mats is possibly linked to variations in temperature and chemistry of fluids diffusely venting from the chimney. The study was supplemented by pyrosequencing of environmental cDNA from three of the samples (totally 1 100 000 reads). This dataset, which is currently being analyzed, will provide more information about the most active phylotypes in the microbial mats, and give further insight about the major in situ microbial processes occurring in these environments.

Dahle, H.; Roalkvam, I.; Jørgensen, S. L.; Stokke, R.; Thorseth, I. H.; Pedersen, R.; Steen, I.

2010-12-01

242

Conserving gallons and kilowatts. Challenges of today's solar power plants. An EPC (Engineering, Procurement and Construction) perspective  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With the increasing restrictions on CO2 emissions, the utilization of solar power is emerging as an effective way to increase the renewable portfolio for utility power. For example in California, the utilities' current renewable portfolios must increase from 20% to 33% by 2020. This drive has made renewable power considerably more desirable. However, fresh water availability and optimal solar irradiation are generally two mutually exclusive local characteristics that make locating and designing these plants challenging. Not only is fresh water scarce at the desert locations where these solar plants are generally located, but options for disposal of wastewater can be very limited as well. These factors have pushed the design of these plants to develop a fine balance between conserving and reusing water to the greatest extent practical and reducing parasitic electrical loads. This paper addresses the challenges associated with developing solar power plant designs that optimize house electrical load while minimizing water footprint. Through the implementation of operational water management techniques and optimized water treatment processes, water usage can be reduced to manageable levels. Utilizing systems that recover and recycle wastewater, the system can be further optimized to reduce the overall water footprint. Case studies are presented for multiple sites detailing the individual optimization required based on the water quality provided. Lessons learned during plant siting and permitting are provided to shed light on the current issues associated with wastewater disposal in these areas and utilization of evaporation ponds. In addition, various design philosophies are discussed to guide the reader through the difficulties of determining the right mix of initial capital cost, optimized water usage, minimized operating cost and minimized parasitic electrical load. (orig.)

Shoemaker, Jeanette [Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating Facility, CA (United States); Bechtel Power Corp., Frederick, MD (United States); Huth, Christopher; Sinha, Kumar [Bechtel Power Corp., Frederick, MD (United States)

2013-03-15

243

Contaminant transport during atmospheric pumping of a nuclear chimney: Progress report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cyclical variations in barometric pressure cause an oscillatory up-and-down motion of gases within the chimney produced by an underground nuclear test. Analytical and experimental modeling of this atmospheric pumping mechanism has been undertaken to better understand and to quantify the associated rates of cavity gas migration toward the earth's surface and the probable rate of release to the atmosphere. Three different types of models are being investigated: (1) homogeneous porous medium; (2) fractured medium with impermeable matrix blocks; and (3) double-porosity media consisting of fracture networks among porous matrix blocks. A primary purpose is to understand how the oscillatory character of the atmospheric pumping process might significantly enhance the contaminant transport in any or all of the three classes of media. This preliminary report describes some of the analytical, numerical, and experimental work which have been completed

244

Metal sources of black smoker chimneys, Endeavour Segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge: Pb isotope constraints  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydrothermal chimney sulfides, vent cap chimney samples, Fe-oxide and basalts from sediment-starving Juan de Fuca Ridge, in the Endeavour segment, exhibit a range of Pb isotope ratios ({sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb = 18.658-18.769; {sup 207}Pb/{sup 204}Pb = 15.457-15.566; {sup 208}Pb/{sup 204}Pb = 37.810-38.276). The data array is not parallel to the northern hemisphere mantle reservoirs indicating a possible sediment component within the sulfides. By assuming that the potential end-member sediment component has a {sup 207}Pb/{sup 204}Pb (15.70) similar to Middle Valley sediment, it is suggested the potential end-member sediment component may have {sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb = 18.90; {sup 208}Pb/{sup 204}Pb = 38.82. Basalt-derived Pb for the Endeavour segment hydrothermal system involves about 50/50 leaching of E-MORB and T2-MORB. Detailed observations show the Mothra field derives more Pb from T2-MORB than the Main Endeavour field does. According to the binary mixing model, the results show little Pb (<1.5%) or no Pb derivation from sedimentary sources. However, the high NH{sub 4}{sup +}, CH{sub 4} and Br/Cl ratios in hydrothermal fluids are consistent with a sediment component within the segment. Reconciling the Pb isotope data with the chemistry data of hydrothermal fluids, it is suggested that the sediment component may be located in a lower temperature recharge zone where Pb could not be mobilized from the sediment.

Yao Huiqiang, E-mail: hqyao11@yahoo.com [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou 510640 (China); National Key Lab of Marine Geology, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhou Huaiyang, E-mail: zhouhy@tongji.edu.cn [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou 510640 (China); National Key Lab of Marine Geology, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Peng Xiaotong [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou 510640 (China); National Key Lab of Marine Geology, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Bao Shenxu [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou 510640 (China); National Key Lab of Marine Geology, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wu Zijun; Li Jiangtao [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou 510640 (China); National Key Lab of Marine Geology, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Sun Zhilei; Chen Zhiqiang; Li Jiwei [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou 510640 (China); National Key Lab of Marine Geology, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Chen Guangqian [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

2009-10-15

245

Solar-optimized building construction. TC3: Solar-optimized new building ECOTEC 1 and 2: Construction of a new office and laboratory building in two stages, optimised according to solar, energetic and ecological aspects. Phase 1: Projecting, construction and system optimisation. Final report; Solaroptimiertes Bauen. TK 3: Solaroptimierter Neubau ECOTEC 1 und 2: Neubau eines Buero und Laborgebaeudes in zwei Bauabschnitten, optimiert nach solaren, energetischen und oekologischen Gesichtspunkten. Phase 1: Planung, Bauausfuehrung und Systemoptimierung. Schlussbericht  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The two ECOTEC buildings are constructed on the premises of Bremen university. They are identical mirror buildings with optimised solar technology and heat pumps to reduce the dependence on external energy supply. The results achieved so far are promising. [German] Im Mittelpunkt des Vorhabens stand die Errichtung der solaroptimierten Niedrigenergie-Gebaeude ECOTEC in zwei Bauabschnitten gleichem, aber spiegelverkehrtem Grundrissen auf dem Gelaende des Technologieparks der Universitaet Bremen. Das Planungskonzept sah zur Reduktion des Fremdenergiebedarfs den optimierten Einsatz und die Kopplung von Solarenergie, Waermepumpe ueber die Gebaeudeleittechnik vor. Basis fuer alle Berechnungen und Planungen war der Niedrigenergiestandard, der durch erhoehte Waermedaemmung der Gebaeudehuelle, kontrollierte Lueftung, solartechnische Module und solararchitektonische Merkmale erreicht und sogar ueberschritten wurde. Durch den gezielten Einsatz der Gebaeudeleit- und -systemtechnik wird ein energiesparender Betrieb insbesondere der Gebaeudebeheizung, der Lueftungsanlage sowie der Beleuchtung schon in der Planungsphase vorbereitet. Zusammenfassend laesst sich feststellen, dass das entwickelte Technikkonzept nach erfolgter Abstimmung mit den Nutzerbeduerfnissen geringste Energieverbraeuche bei sehr gutem Komfort bietet. (orig.)

NONE

1999-07-01

246

"The Ruins": Large cold seep sandstone chimneys in the upper Miocene Santa Margarita Sandstone, Scotts Valley, CA  

Science.gov (United States)

In 1856 a peculiar letter in a San Francisco newspaper reported the discovery of an ancient ruin on a sandy hillside in Scotts Valley, CA (Santa Cruz County). The purported "great and magnificent structure" consisted of 50 sandstone columns, some of which were said to be capped by a dome. Exploration of the site by speculators and treasure hunters in the 1850's produced no artifacts or evidence of human activity and regrettably resulted in removal or destruction of most of the original columns. Despite its depletion, and subsequent assessment as a wholly geological phenomenon, the locality is still known locally as "The Ruins". In order to evaluate the origin of the distinctive cementation at the Ruins we mapped its remaining features and collected samples for petrographic, XRD and stable isotope analysis. The site, presently located on private property, consists of at least 12 columns and numerous flattened, discontinuous slabs of well indurated sandstone exposed over ~160 square meters. Stratigraphically it is in the uppermost part of the upper Miocene Santa Margarita Sandstone, 7-15 m below its contact with the overlying Santa Cruz Mudstone. The columns range from 0.5-2 m in diameter and the tallest rises 1.5 m above the surface. All of the columns are distinctly chimney-like, with circular cross sections and hollow central cavities that in some cases are partially filled with separately cemented rings. They describe a SW-NE linear trend on the south side of a hill. A horizon of sandstone slabs, 0.2-1.7 m in length, stratigraphically overlies the chimneys at the top of the hill. Both chimneys and slabs consist of coarse-grained, moderately-sorted sandstone cemented by sparry low-Mg calcite. Most samples also contain abundant remains of the echinoid Astrodapsis spatiosus. ?18O values range from -5.15‰ (chimney) to -2.32‰ (slab); ?13C values range from -19.89‰ (chimney) to -1.95‰ (slab). Stable isotope values seem tied to location rather than contrasting mode of formation of chimneys/slabs or evolution over time of the fluids that produced successive generations of chimney cements. For instance, the heaviest ?13C values (-7.73‰ to -1.95‰) are associated with slabs, but some slabs have ?13C values as light as -17.82‰. We conclude, on the basis of their geometry and geochemistry, that the once-famous columns at the Ruins represent a field of exhumed cold seep chimneys (and related authigenic features) that originally formed around rising columns of methane-rich fluids in the shallow marine subsurface. Their linear distribution suggests that a fault or fracture focused seepage locally. Somewhat younger cold seep chimneys of similar scale occur in the Santa Cruz Mudstone ~15 km west of the Ruins and it is likely that both seep sites are related to Miocene hydrocarbon generation and fluid mobility, as evidenced by widespread coastal exposures of bitumen-saturated sandstones and sandstone injectites. The Ruins site provides the oldest evidence for seepage within this transform continental margin fluid system and shows that the region of fluid expulsion was broader than previously recognized.

Schwartz, H.; Bazan, C.; Perry, F.; Garrison, R. E.

2012-12-01

247

ZnO nanosheet arrays constructed on weaved titanium wire for CdS-sensitized solar cells  

Science.gov (United States)

Ordered ZnO nanosheet arrays were grown on weaved titanium wires by a low-temperature hydrothermal method. CdS nanoparticles were deposited onto the ZnO nanosheet arrays using the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method to make a photoanode. Nanoparticle-sensitized solar cells were assembled using these CdS/ZnO nanostructured photoanodes, and their photovoltaic performance was studied systematically. The best light-to-electricity conversion efficiency was obtained to be 2.17% under 100 mW/cm2 illumination, and a remarkable short-circuit photocurrent density of approximately 20.1 mA/cm2 was recorded, which could attribute to the relatively direct pathways for transportation of electrons provided by ZnO nanosheet arrays as well as the direct contact between ZnO and weaved titanium wires. These results indicate that CdS/ZnO nanostructures on weaved titanium wires would open a novel possibility for applications of low-cost solar cells. PMID:24618047

2014-01-01

248

The design and construction of a low power gas turbine for solar energy conversion - An analytical model of operation of the installation in a variable mode  

Science.gov (United States)

A thermodynamic analysis of a Brayton cycle engine used for the conversion of solar thermal energy to electricity is presented and compared with experimental results. The power configuration is a parabolic concentrator with the engine placed at the focus. Its benefits are a minimal visual impact, modular construction, rapid start-up, simple site planning, and flexibility as to end use. Consideration is given to a generator powered by hot air and mounted in series with other modules, and to heating elements mounted in parallel. A numerical model accounts for system losses, and application is demonstrated with a system producing 2.5 kWe at 800 C, i.e., a 45 kWt output. A second model is devised to describe the isentropic efficiencies which can be expected during variable speed operations. Finally costs of the power plant are compared with costs of conventionally fueled facilities.

Leone, J. F.

249

Biological construction of single-walled carbon nanotube electron transfer pathways in dye-sensitized solar cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

We designed and mass-produced a versatile protein supramolecule that can be used to manufacture a highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). Twelve single-walled carbon-nanotube (SWNT)-binding and titanium-mineralizing peptides were genetically integrated on a cage-shaped dodecamer protein (CDT1). A process involving simple mixing of highly conductive SWNTs with CDT1 followed by TiO2 biomineralization produces a high surface-area/weight TiO2 -(anatase)-coated intact SWNT nanocomposite under environmentally friendly conditions. A DSSC with a TiO2 photoelectrode containing 0.2?wt?% of the SWNT-TiO2 nanocomposite shows a current density improvement by 80?% and a doubling of the photoelectric conversion efficiency. The SWNT-TiO2 nanocomposite transfers photon-generated electrons from dye molecules adsorbed on the TiO2 to the anode electrode swiftly. PMID:25111295

Inoue, Ippei; Watanabe, Kiyoshi; Yamauchi, Hirofumi; Ishikawa, Yasuaki; Yasueda, Hisashi; Uraoka, Yukiharu; Yamashita, Ichiro

2014-10-01

250

Endovascular Aneurysm Repair Using a Reverse Chimney Technique in a Patient With Marfan Syndrome and Contained Ruptured Chronic Type B Dissection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report endovascular thoracic and abdominal aneurysm repair (EVAR) with reverse chimney technique in a patient with contained ruptured type B dissection. EVAR seems feasible as a bailout option in Marfan patients with acute life-threatening disease.

251

A Large Body of Hydrate defined by 3D Seismic Tomography in a Chimney beneath the CNE03 Pockmark on the Vøring Plateau, offshore Norway  

Science.gov (United States)

Very many pockmarks underlain by chimney-like structures exist in the southeastern part of the Vøring plateau on the Norwegian continental margin. The chimney beneath one of these pockmarks, CNE03, was investigated with a high-resolution seismic experiment, employing an array of sixteen 4-component ocean-bottom seismic recorders at approximately 100-m separation and a dense network of shots from mini-GI guns to define the 3D variation of the chimney’s structure and properties. This was supplemented by MAK deep-tow 5-kHz profiles to provide very high-resolution detail of features within the top 1-40 m sub-seabed. Travel-time tomography was used to derive the variation in P-wave velocity (Vp) within and around the chimney. The chimney, defined by stratal deformation, by Vp increasing towards its centre and by localised seismic attenuation, is about 500 m in diameter and extends to a depth of 250 m beneath the seabed, where it is underlain by a layer containing free gas, indicated by reduced Vp and attenuation. At the centre of the chimney, Vp is as much as 300 m/s greater than Vp of the host sediment, which ranges from 1490 to 1700 m/s. The zone of large Vp anomalies is about 190 m thick and 190 m in diameter and occupies the lowest part of the chimney just above the gas-rich layer beneath the methane hydrate stability zone. Most of the high velocity material in the chimney is too deep to be authigenic carbonate. If the high velocity is caused by methane hydrate, the maximum concentration of hydrate is between 11% and 27% of sediment volume, depending on the models for hydrate formation, which assume that it is predominantly fracture-filling in the muddy hemipelagic host sediment. Below the gas-rich layer that underlies the body of hydrate, the chimney does not deform the strata through which it passes to the same extent, although there is local reduction in the coherence of reflectors. There is evidence of active seepage, hydrate and authigenic carbonate at or near the seabed at the top of the chimney.

Westbrook, G. K.; Plaza-Faverola, A.; Ker, S.; Exley, R.; Gailler, A.; Minshull, T. A.; Broto, K.

2009-12-01

252

Tin-bearing chalcopyrite and platinum-bearing bismuthinite in the active Tiger sulfide chimney, Yonaguni Knoll IV seafloor hydrothermal system, Okinawa Trough, Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

The active submarine hydrothermal field at the Yonaguni Knoll IV is located in the southern Okinawa Trough, behind the Ryukyu trench-arc system, Japan. This field consists of seven active hydrothermal venting sites (Mosquito chimney, Carp Chimney, Abyss vent, Shallow Chimney, Tiger Chimney, Lion Chimney, Crystal Chimney) which are hosted by thick sediments and an underlying felsic volcanic rock of rhyolitic composition. The sulfides from the flank of the Tiger chimney consist of chalcopyrite, bismuthinite, pyrite, galena, sphalerite and gangue mineral of anhydrite which is slightly different to the mineral assemblage of sphalerite, pyrite, wurtzite, chalcopyrite, galena, tennanite-tetrahedrite series, stibnite, As-Sb-Tl-Hg-S bearing phase, bornite, covellite, nukundamite, alabandite and gangue minerals of barite, anhydrite, calcite, and rhodocrosite seen in the other chimneys in this field. Electron microprobe analysis of the chalcopyrite and bismuthinite from the flank of the Tiger chimney, indicates that the chalcopyrite and bismuthinite contain significantly high tin (0.51 to 2.40wt.% Sn, n = 16 ) and platinum (1.30 to 1.69 wt.% Pt, n = 9)respectively and are quite different to the sulfide chemistry of the other chimneys in this field The high Sn and Pt content in chalcopyrite and bismuthinite respectively, are significantly high and has never been reported previously for the submarine hydrothermal systems. The high Sn content in chalcopyrite confirms that the Sn enters the chalcopyrite as a solid solution towards stannite by the coupled substitution of Sn4+Fe2+ for Fe3+Fe3+ while the high Pt content in bismuthinite might indicate that Pt probably enters the bismuthinite by interstitial substitution of Pt2+Cu1+ for Bi3+ although very limited published data is available to verify this observation. Fluid inclusion data of anhydrite (297-313°C) and measured end-member temperature of the vent fluid (325°C) does not exceed 400°C. Previous experimental studies suggest that high Sn content in chalcopyrite and Pt content in bismuthinite precipitated metastably in the Tiger chimney. The present mineralogical observation strongly suggests that the Yonaguni Knoll IV site in the southern Okinawa Trough is slightly different to the middle Okinawa trough and other known submarine hydrothermal systems of the back-arc basins in terms of mineralogy and sulfide chemistry.

Gena, K.; Kase, K.; Chiba, H.; Nakashima, K.

2005-12-01

253

Evidence from three-dimensional seismic tomography for a substantial accumulation of gas hydrate in a fluid-escape chimney in the Nyegga pockmark field, offshore Norway  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In recent years, it has become evident that features commonly called gas chimneys provide major routes for methane to pass through the methane-hydrate stability zone in continental margins and escape to the ocean. One of many such chimneys lying beneath pockmarks in the southeastern Vøring Plateau off Norway was investigated with a high-resolution seismic experiment employing a 2-D array of sixteen 4-component ocean bottom seismic recorders at approximately 100 m separation and a dense netwo...

Plaza-faverola, A.; Westbrook, Graham K.; Ker, Stephan; Exley, Russel J. K.; Gailler, A.; Minshull, T. A.; Broto, Karine

2010-01-01

254

Experiments of chimney flows for the validation of the behaviour of passive autocatalytic recombiners; Experimente zur Validierung eines Kaminmodells fuer die Simulation des Betriebsverhaltens eines Wasserstoffrekombinators  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For the validation of the computational code REKO-DIREKT simulating the operational behaviour of passive autocatalytic recombiners in severe accidents, experiments on chimney flows were performed in cooperation between RWTH Aachen and Forschungszentrum Juelich. This compact describes the experimental setup and shows the correlation between the H{sub 2} concentration, the catalyst temperature and the inlet velocity at various recombiner chimney heights. (orig.)

Simon, Berno [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Reaktorsicherheit und -technik (LRST)

2013-10-15

255

Solar Meter  

Science.gov (United States)

The instrument pictured is an inexpensive solar meter which is finding wide acceptance among architects, engineers and others engaged in construction of solar energy facilities. It detects the amount of solar energy available at a building site, information necessary to design the most efficient type of solar system for a particular location. Incorporating technology developed by NASA's Lewis Research Center, the device is based upon the solar cell, which provides power for spacecraft by converting the sun's energy to electricity. The meter is produced by Dodge Products, Inc., Houston, Texas, a company formed to bring the technology to the commercial marketplace.

1978-01-01

256

Microbial life associated with low-temperature hydrothermal venting and formation of barite chimneys at Loki's Castle vent field  

Science.gov (United States)

A low-temperature diffuse venting area with numbers of small barite chimneys is located on the flank of the large sulphide mound of the Loki’s Castle black smoker vent field at the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge (AMOR). White cotton-like microbial mats on top of the barite chimneys and associated siboglinid tubeworms were observed. The temperature was determined to 20°C for the surface sediment and 0°C for the white microbial mats, just above the ambient bottom seawater temperature of -0.8°C. The microbial mats were sampled using a remote operating vehicle (ROV) equipped with a hydraulic sampling cylinder (biosyringe) and the chimneys using an aluminum scuffle box. Black colored interior flow channels surrounded by white outer sections of nearly pure barite, were observed. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of mats showed numerous microbial cells and large amounts of extracellular thread-like material with attached barite crystals. Inside the chimneys microbial cells are partially embedded in barite, and individual crystals are also frequently covered by extracellular material. The microbial activity could thus have an important influence on the nucleation and growth of the barite crystals and thus on the formation of the chimneys. To reveal the microbial community structure, 16S rRNA gene sequence tag-encoded pyrosequencing (1.1 x 104 - 3.5 x 104 amplicons per library) followed by taxonomic classification of the reads using the MEGAN software, were performed. Organisms assigned to a genus of sulfide oxidizers (Sulfurimonas) within the e-Proteobacteria were abundant in each chimney structure; the white microbial mats (86-96% of the reads), the white barite (36% of total reads); the black flow channel (9.9%). The second most dominating taxon in the white chimney barite, including 26% of the reads, was anaerobic methanotrophs (ANME) of the ANME-1 clade, indicating anaerobic methane oxidation (AOM) as a major microbial process. Furthermore, the novel AOM associated clade, GOM-arc1 was apparently highly abundant (14.3% of total reads). These latter taxa were identified but clearly less abundant in the mats (ANME-1, 0.7%; GOM-arc1, 2.7%) as well as in black flow channel (ANME-1, 8%; GOM-arc1, 0.49%). Other dominating taxa in the flow channel were; Planctomycetales, 13.5%; Thiotrichales, Leucotrix, 8.8%; Thaumarchaeota, Marine Group 1, 9.35%; Pseudomonadales, Psychrobacter, 7.2%; Rhodobacterales, Rhodobacteraceae, 6.1%; Candidate division TM7, 5.9%; Flavobacteriales, 4.8% and Methylococcales, 3.5% altogether indicating a more diverse microbial community, performing methane, sulfur and ammonia oxidation as well as heterotrophic processes. To further clarify the relationship between crystallization, chimney growth and microbial activity, and the potential for preservation of biosignatures in barite formations, these data will be supplemented by geochemical characteristics, more detailed SEM observations and knowledge of In situ activities determine by analysis of community transcriptome and proteome.

Thorseth, I. H.; Steen, I.; Roalkvam, I.; Dahle, H.; Stokke, R.; Rapp, H.; Pedersen, R.

2010-12-01

257

Toward resolving an earthquake ground motion mystery in west Seattle, Washington State: Shallow seismic focusing may cause anomalous chimney damage  

Science.gov (United States)

A shallow bedrock fold imaged by a 1.3-km long high-resolution shear-wave seismic reflection profile in west Seattle focuses seismic waves arriving from the south. This focusing may cause a pocket of amplified ground shaking and the anomalous chimney damage observed in earthquakes of 1949, 1965 and 2001. The 200-m bedrock fold at ???300-m depth is caused by deformation across an inferred fault within the Seattle fault zone. Ground motion simulations, using the imaged geologic structure and northward-propagating north-dipping plane wave sources, predict a peak horizontal acceleration pattern that matches that observed in strong motion records of the 2001 Nisqually event. Additionally, a pocket of chimney damage reported for both the 1965 and the 2001 earthquakes generally coincides with a zone of simulated amplification caused by focusing. This study further demonstrates the significant impact shallow (<1km) crustal structures can have on earthquake ground-motion variability.

Stephenson, W.J.; Frankel, A.D.; Odum, J.K.; Williams, R.A.; Pratt, T.L.

2006-01-01

258

Basic study for the construction of solar cell using CdS photocatalysts and Na2S4 electrolyte  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Photoexcited electrons pathway from thin film consisting of semiconductor particles to electrode was tried to develop by using conducting polymers. PEDOT/PSS and polyaniline was selected as transparent conducting polymer material. In the case of the cell consisted by using polyaniline, it was confirmed that conductive emeraldine salt stated polyaniline converted to non-conductive emeraldine base state because of contact with strong basic Na2S4 electrolyte solution. On the other hand, as regards the cell with PEDOT/PSS, it was expected that positive and negative electrode short-circuited and/or Schottky junction was formed between CdS and PEDOT/PSS. The formation of Schottky junction between CdS and PEDOT/PSS was reduced the kinetic energy of the photoexcited electrons to 5.1eV which was the Fermi level of PEDOT. These electrons could not reduce Na2S4 electrolyte solution since oxidation-reduction potential was 4.1eV. As a result, it considered that photoexcited electrons transfer was restricted, which read the decreasement of mobility of photoexcited electron, while the cell “without” PEDOT/PSS could operate as a solar cell

259

Construction and characteristics of tandem organic solar cells featuring small molecule-based films on polymer-based subcells  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, we stacked a small molecule-based cell onto another polymer-based device to fabricate a tandem organic solar cell that extended the absorption range of the entire cell over a wider spectral range. Between the two subcells, we positioned a connecting structure comprising layers of Cs2CO3, Ag and MoO3. Current matching phenomena played an important role in determining the device efficiency. The judicious selection of subcells exhibiting superior current matching improved the performance of the tandem cell. Indeed, in the optimally performing tandem cells we obtained both a high open-circuit voltage (1.21 V) and an improved power conversion efficiency (1.81%). From analyses of the surface morphology and transmission spectra of the middle Ag layers, we deduced that the main function of this film was to provide more sites for efficient recombination of holes and electrons. The thickness of this layer was limited by its transmittance. A thinner Ag layer allowed more light to be harvested by the top cell, increasing the overall performance of the tandem cell.

Chen, Fang-Chung; Lin, Cheng-Hao

2010-01-01

260

Construction and characteristics of tandem organic solar cells featuring small molecule-based films on polymer-based subcells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this study, we stacked a small molecule-based cell onto another polymer-based device to fabricate a tandem organic solar cell that extended the absorption range of the entire cell over a wider spectral range. Between the two subcells, we positioned a connecting structure comprising layers of Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, Ag and MoO{sub 3}. Current matching phenomena played an important role in determining the device efficiency. The judicious selection of subcells exhibiting superior current matching improved the performance of the tandem cell. Indeed, in the optimally performing tandem cells we obtained both a high open-circuit voltage (1.21 V) and an improved power conversion efficiency (1.81%). From analyses of the surface morphology and transmission spectra of the middle Ag layers, we deduced that the main function of this film was to provide more sites for efficient recombination of holes and electrons. The thickness of this layer was limited by its transmittance. A thinner Ag layer allowed more light to be harvested by the top cell, increasing the overall performance of the tandem cell.

Chen, Fang-Chung [Department of Photonics and Display Institute, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan (China); Lin, Cheng-Hao, E-mail: fcchen@mail.nctu.edu.t [Department of Photonics and Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan (China)

2010-01-20

 
 
 
 
261

Swarms of gas chimneys and methane plumes in southern end of the Sea of Okhotsk, offshore Hokkaido, Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

Gas hydrate expedition UT12 in July-August 2012 has identified more than fifty gas chimneys with occasional methane plumes in narrow study area, 3 km x 10 km, in southern end of the Sea of Okhotsk, offshore Hokkaido, Japan. Gas chimneys are either observed to extrude to the seafloor to form gas hydrate mound and pockmarks or buried under the seafloor. Gas hydrates occur as cm thick horizontal layers or broken chunks in piston cores, suggesting that the hydrates precipitate within clayey matrix and grew up in muddy host sediments, pushing aside the sediments. Depth profile of the concentrations of DIC and sulfate on and near chimneys place the sulfate-methane transition (SMT) at surprisingly shallow levels, methane flux in study area. Gases of hydrate are mostly derived from bacterial CO2 reduction with carbon isotopic composition of methane, -65 to 68 permil, and ethane, -30 to -36 permil. Identification of new shallow gas hydrate field within Japan's EEZ after the well constraint hydrate field of Joetsu basin, eastern margin of Japan Sea, seems to attract strong interest in shallow gas hydrates as a potential natural gas resources.

Matsumoto, R.

2012-12-01

262

Free release waste characterisation during the decommissioning of windscale Pile 2 Chimney  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The decommissioning of windscale Pile 2 Chimney resulted in the removal of one of most historically significant and prominent features of the Sellafield site. The project was the first large scale concrete ''free release'' operation to be undertaken on the Sellafield nuclear site, producing 4500 tons of concrete of which 3000 tons was demonstrated to be ''free release''. The paper describes the radiometric techniques employed in the characterisation and segregation of the concrete into low level waste (LLW), very low level waste (VLLW) and free release categories. It examines the robust solutions that were developed to meet the technical and regulatory challenges of the project, which included the definition of free release, the selection of averaging volumes, the testing and validation of the monitoring systems employed for ton quantities of concrete and the identification and removal of small numbers of fuel particles from the free release waste stream. As a result of interest shown by other BNFL and UKAEA decommissioning projects at Sellafield, the paper finishes by discussing ways in which the system may be developed to assay other waste streams. (orig.)

Frith, A.J. [NIRAS (United Kingdom); Dickson, E.D.; Hewetson, J.A.; McCormick, K. [BNFL (United Kingdom)

2003-07-01

263

Free release waste characterisation during the decommissioning of windscale Pile 2 Chimney  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The decommissioning of windscale Pile 2 Chimney resulted in the removal of one of most historically significant and prominent features of the Sellafield site. The project was the first large scale concrete ''free release'' operation to be undertaken on the Sellafield nuclear site, producing 4500 tons of concrete of which 3000 tons was demonstrated to be ''free release''. The paper describes the radiometric techniques employed in the characterisation and segregation of the concrete into low level waste (LLW), very low level waste (VLLW) and free release categories. It examines the robust solutions that were developed to meet the technical and regulatory challenges of the project, which included the definition of free release, the selection of averaging volumes, the testing and validation of the monitoring systems employed for ton quantities of concrete and the identification and removal of small numbers of fuel particles from the free release waste stream. As a result of interest shown by other BNFL and UKAEA decommissioning projects at Sellafield, the paper finishes by discussing ways in which the system may be developed to assay other waste streams. (orig.)

264

A comparative integrated geophysical study of Horseshoe Chimney Cave, Colorado Bend State Park, Texas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An integrated geophysical study was performed over a known cave in Colorado Bend State Park (CBSP, Texas, where shallow karst features are common within the Ellenberger Limestone. Geophysical survey such as microgravity, ground penetrating radar (GPR, direct current (DC resistivity, capacitively coupled (CC resistivity, induced polarization (IP and ground conductivity (GC measurements were performed in an effort to distinguish which geophysical method worked most effectively and efficiently in detecting the presence of subsurface voids, caves and collapsed features. Horseshoe Chimney Cave (HCC, which is part of a larger network of cave systems, provides a good control environment for this research. A 50 x 50 meter grid, with 5 m spaced traverses was positioned around the entrance to HCC. Geophysical techniques listed above were used to collect geophysical data which were processed with the aid of commercial software packages. A traditional cave survey was conducted after geophysical data collection, to avoid any bias in initial data collection. The survey of the cave also provided ground truthing. Results indicate the microgravity followed by CC resistivity techniques worked most efficiently and were most cost effective, while the other methods showed varying levels of effectiveness.

Brown Wesley A.

2011-01-01

265

Modulated crystal structure of chimney-ladder higher manganese silicides MnSi? (?˜1.74)  

Science.gov (United States)

The crystal structure of a polycrystalline sample of higher manganese silicide (HMS) has been determined by means of the (3+1) -dimensional superspace group approach. The structural parameters were refined with a superspace group of I41/amd(00?)00ss using powder neutron-diffraction data collected at 295 K. The compound belongs to a composite crystal family consisting of [Mn] and [Si] subsystems, with an irrational c -axis ratio (misfit parameter) of ?=cMn/cSi˜1.74 . Significant in-plane rotational modulation was revealed in the “chimney”-[Si] subsystem, while positional modulation in the “ladder”-[Mn] subsystem was only realized along cMn . The electronic structure of the sample was calculated on the basis of a commensurate approximation of the modulated structure using the full potential linearized augmented plane-wave method. The obtained band gap of Eg˜0.6eV agreed well with the experimentally observed one. It appears that the band gap and density of states of the HMS samples depend on the positional modulation of the Si atoms. The various controversial formulas (for example, Mn4Si7 , Mn11Si19 , and so on) of the HMS phases reported thus far can be regarded as commensurate cases of a series of incommensurate MnSi? phases in which the ? value ranges from ˜1.70 to 1.75.

Miyazaki, Yuzuru; Igarashi, Dai; Hayashi, Kei; Kajitani, Tsuyoshi; Yubuta, Kunio

2008-12-01

266

Novel insights into methane cycling, lateral gene transfer, and the rare biosphere within carbonate chimneys of the Lost City Hydrothermal Field (Invited)  

Science.gov (United States)

The Lost City Hydrothermal Field, an ultramafic-hosted system located 15 km west of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, has experienced at least 30,000 years of hydrothermal activity. Previous studies have shown that its carbonate chimneys form by mixing of ~90°C, pH 9-11 hydrothermal fluids and cold seawater. Flow of methane and hydrogen-rich hydrothermal fluids through the carbonate chimneys supports dense microbial biofilm communities. This presentation will describe recent studies using new techniques that have provided greater insight into the microbial ecology and biogeochemistry of Lost City chimneys. We have investigated the archaeal and bacterial communities of Lost City carbonate chimneys that vary in age between ~30 and ~1200 years, as determined by U-Th isotope systematics. Using next-generation pyrosequencing technology, we collected >200,000 sequences of the V6 region of 16S rRNA genes. This extremely deep sequencing effort enabled detection of very rare organisms as well as abundant organisms detected by previous studies. The taxonomic composition of the archaeal and bacterial communities clearly differed in chimneys of different ages, and many of the rare sequences in young chimneys were more abundant in older chimneys, indicating that members of the rare biosphere can become dominant members of the ecosystem when environmental conditions change. These results suggest that a long history of selection over many cycles of chimney growth has resulted in numerous closely related species at Lost City, each of which is pre-adapted to a particular set of re-occurring environmental conditions. In this model, the rare biosphere can be considered a repository for genes that are not currently advantageous but have been in the past and may be again in the future. Interestingly, metagenomic sequencing at Lost City has indicated the potential for frequent lateral gene transfer among organisms inhabiting the chimney biofilms. Specifically, the Lost City metagenomic dataset contains the highest proportion of genes encoding transposases (the enzymes required for lateral gene transfer) of any metagenome yet reported. Therefore, we intend to test the hypothesis that the rare biosphere can serve as a source of genes that can be laterally transferred to and benefit organisms of ecological importance. The metagenomic dataset also provides clues regarding the physiology of the dominant organisms. For example, bacterial genes associated with sulfide and sulfur oxidation are present. We have also detected archaeal genes associated with nitrogen fixation and conversion of acetate to methane. Laboratory incubation experiments have shown that anaerobic methane oxidation also occurs in Lost City chimney biofilms. We will present a conceptual model of biogeochemical reactions expected to occur in Lost City biofilms.

Brazelton, W. J.; Ludwig, K. A.; Schrenk, M. O.; Kelley, D. S.; Sogin, M. L.; Baross, J. A.

2010-12-01

267

Constructing high-efficiency D-A-?-A-featured solar cell sensitizers: a promising building block of 2,3-diphenylquinoxaline for antiaggregation and photostability.  

Science.gov (United States)

Controlling the sensitizer morphology on a nanocrystalline TiO2 surface is beneficial to facilitating electron injection and suppressing charge recombination. Given that the grafted alkyl chain on a ?-bridge thiophene segment for preventing ? aggregation can deteriorate its intrinsic photostability, we incorporate a promising building block of 2,3-diphenylquinoxaline as the additional acceptor to construct a novel D-A-?-A-featured dye IQ4, which exhibits several characteristics: (i) efficiently decreasing the molecular HOMO-LUMO energy gap by extending its absorption bands; (ii) showing a moderate electron-withdrawing capability for an ideal balance in both promising photocurrent and photovoltage; (iii) endowing an ideal morphology control with strong capability of restraining the intermolecular aggregation and facilitating the formation of a compact sensitizer layer via two twisted phenyl groups grafted onto the quinoxaline unit. The coadsorbent-free dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) based on dye IQ4 exhibits very promising conversion efficiency as high as 9.24 ± 0.05%, with a short-circuit current density (Jsc) of 17.55 mA cm(-2), an open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.74 V, and a fill factor (FF) of 0.71 under AM 1.5 illumination (100 mW cm(-2)). IQ4-based DSSC devices with an ionic liquid electrolyte can keep constant performance during a 1000 h aging test under 1 sun at 60 °C. Because of spatial restriction, the two phenyl groups grafted onto the additional electron-withdrawing quinoxaline are demonstrated as efficient building blocks, not only improving its photostability and thermal stability but also allowing it to be a successful antiaggregation functional unit. As a consequence, the incorporated 2,3-diphenylquinoxaline unit can realize a facile structural modification for constructing organic coadsorbent-free D-A-?-A-featured sensitizers, thus paving a way to replace the common, stability-deleterious grafted alkyl chain on the thienyl bridge. PMID:23688179

Pei, Kai; Wu, Yongzhen; Islam, Ashraful; Zhang, Qiong; Han, Liyuan; Tian, He; Zhu, Weihong

2013-06-12

268

Construction of a photometer to detect stellar occultations by outer solar system bodies for the Whipple mission concept  

Science.gov (United States)

The Whipple mission was a proposal submitted to the NASA Discovery AO in 2010 to study the solid bodies of the Kuiper Belt and Oort Cloud via a blind occultation survey. Though not accepted for flight, the proposal was awarded funding for technology development. Detecting a significant number of Trans Neptunian Objects (TNOs) via a blind occultation survey requires a low noise, wide field of view, multi object differential photometer. The light curve decrement is typically a few percent over timescales of tenths of seconds or seconds for Kuiper Belt and Oort cloud objects, respectively. To obtain a statistically interesting number of detections, this photometer needs to observe many thousands of stars over several years since the rate of occultation for a single star given the space density of the TNOs is low. The light curves from these stars must be monitored with a sensor with a temporal resolution of rv 25-50 ms and with a read noise ofread mode. The full Whipple focal plane consists of a 3x3 array of these sensors, with each sensor comprised of 1024x 1024 36/?m pixels. Combined with the telescope optic, the Whipple focal plane provides a FOV of rv36 deg2 . In operation, each HyViSI detector, coupled to a Teledyne SIDECAR ASIC, monitors the flux from 650 stars at 40 Hz. The ASIC digitizes the data at the required cadence and an FPGA provides preliminary occultation event selection. The proposed 2010 Whipple mission utilized a spacecraft in a a "drift-away" orbit which signifi­ cantly limited the available telemetry data rate. Most of the light curve processing is required to be on-board the satellite so only candidate occultation events are telemetered to the ground. Occul­ tation light curves must be processed in real time on the satellite by an Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). A simple, real time band pass filter, called the Equivalent Width (EW) algorithm, has been instantiated in the FPGA. This EW filter selects for telemetry only those occultation event light curves that differed significantly from noise. As part of our technology development program, a key facet of the proposed Whipple focal plane was constructed and operated in our laboratory consisting of a single HyViSI H2RG sensor, a Teledyne SIDECAR ASIC, and a flight-like Virtex-5 FPGA. In order to fully demonstrate the capabilities of this photometer, we also made a occultation light-curve simulator. The entire system can generate simulated occultation light curves, project them onto an H2RG sensor, read out the sensor in windowing mode at 40 Hz, pass the data to an FPGA that continuously monitors the light curves and dumps candidate occultation events to our simulated Ground Support Equipment (GSE). In this paper, we summarize the technical capabilities of our system, present sample data, and discuss how this system will be used to support our proposal effort for the next Discovery round.

Kraft, Ralph P.; Kenter, Almus T.; Alcock, Charles; Murray, Stephen S.; Loose, Markus; Gauron, Thomas; Germain, Gregg; Peregrim, Lawrence

2014-08-01

269

Vallitalea pronyensis sp. nov., isolated from a marine alkaline hydrothermal chimney.  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel thermotolerant, anaerobic, Gram-stain-positive, spore-forming bacterium was isolated from a hydrothermal chimney in Prony Bay, New Caledonia. This strain, designated FatNI3(T), grew at 15-55 °C (optimum 30 °C) and at pH 5.8-8.9 (optimum 7.7). It was slightly halophilic, requiring at least 0.5?% NaCl for growth (optimum 2.5-3.0?%), and was able to grow at up to 6?% NaCl. Sulfate, thiosulfate, elemental sulfur, sulfite, nitrate and nitrite were not used as terminal electron acceptors. Growth of strain FatNI3(T) was inhibited in the presence of sulfite (2 mM) or nitrite (2 mM). Strain FatNI3(T) fermented cellobiose, glucose, mannose, maltose, sucrose, galactose, lactose, ribose, fructose, rhamnose, raffinose, xylose, yeast extract, peptone and biotrypticase. The main fermentation products from glucose metabolism were acetate, ethanol, H2 and CO2. The predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C15?:?0 and anteiso-C15?:?0. The main polar lipids consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, and unknown glycolipids and phospholipids. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 36.6 mol%. On the basis of phylogenetic and physiological properties, strain FatNI3(T) (?=?DSM 25904?=?JCM 18391) belonging to the phylum Firmicutes, class Clostridia, order Clostridiales, is proposed as the type strain of a novel species of the genus Vallitalea, for which the name Vallitalea pronyensis sp. nov. is proposed. PMID:24408522

Ben Aissa, Fatma; Postec, Anne; Erauso, Gaël; Payri, Claude; Pelletier, Bernard; Hamdi, Moktar; Ollivier, Bernard; Fardeau, Marie-Laure

2014-04-01

270

Evidence from 3D seismic tomography for hydrate accumulation in a fluid-escape chimney in the Nyegga area on the Vøring plateau.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vertical fluid-migration features in continental margins, so-called gas chimneys (fluid-escape chimneys), have become an important target of investigation because of their potential as major routes for the escape of methane to the ocean. One of these chimneys, associated with a pockmark in the seafloor at the Nyegga region, offshore Norway, was investigated with a 3D high-resolution seismic experiment. Reflection travel-times recorded by sixteen ocean bottom seismic recorders, located around the pockmark with a separation of approximately 100-m, were used for tomographic inversion to provide a detailed 3D P-wave velocity model. The chimney is about 500 m in diameter at its base. It is defined by stratal deformation, by Vp increasing towards its centre and by localized seismic attenuation. The tomography experiment shows that P-wave velocity within the hydrate stability zone inside the chimney is up to 300 m/s higher than Vp of the host sediment, which ranges from 1490 to 1700 m/s. The highest anomalous velocities appear in a zone of about 150 m above the top of a gas-rich layer. Unless carbonate has been preserved in layers at hundreds of meters beneath the present seafloor, the depth extent of the anomalous velocity zone makes it more likely to be explained by the occurrence of gas hydrates in the flanks and interior of the chimney. On the basis that a predominantly fracture-filling model is appropriate for the formation of hydrate in low-permeability sediment, the maximum hydrate concentration in the chimney is estimated to be 11% -27 % by total volume, depending on how host sediment properties are affected by hydrate formation. The doming of the strata penetrated by the chimney appears to be associated with the growth of hydrate. The chimney is inferred to have originated as a vigorous gas vent system, but at present it is likely to be dominated by the slow dissociation of hydrate in upwardly migrating pore-water.

Plaza-Faverola, Andreia; Westbrook, Graham; Ker, Stephan; Exley, Russell; Gailler, Audrey; Minshull, Tim; Broto, Karine

2010-05-01

271

The thermal performances of a solar wall  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, the computational fluid dynamics technique (CFD) was used for air flow simulation in the solar chimney. The flow is assumed laminar, unsteady and incompressible. The air flow model consisted of a system of governing equations continuity, momentum, energy are solved for 2D Cartesian system uses the SIMPLE algorithm and the Power–Law differencing scheme. The influence of the variation depth of the solar chimney on the thermal efficiency of the system was studies. The principle of functioning of the system is visualized. The temperatures obtained on the level of the zone of occupation are adaptable to the interval of thermal comfort. The results of simulation are congruent with those of the literature. -- Highlights: ? The present work consists of the modilisation of the natural convection flow in a room heated by the technique of a ventilated Trombe wall. ? The use of solar energy consists in profiting from the direct contribution of the solar radiation. ? With vented thermal storage walls, the vents can provide an important control mechanism both in heating and cooling the building. ? The results obtained for the area of Bechar seem interesting, which makes it possible to do much energy saving.

272

Solar Sailing  

Science.gov (United States)

Solar sailing is a topic of growing technical and popular interest. Solar sail propulsion will make space exploration more affordable and offer access to destinations within (and beyond) the solar system that are currently beyond our technical reach. The lecture will describe solar sails, how they work, and what they will be used for in the exploration of space. It will include a discussion of current plans for solar sails and how advanced technology, such as nanotechnology, might enhance their performance. Much has been accomplished recently to make solar sail technology very close to becoming an engineering reality and it will soon be used by the world s space agencies in the exploration of the solar system and beyond. The first part of the lecture will summarize state-of-the-art space propulsion systems and technologies. Though these other technologies are the key to any deep space exploration by humans, robots, or both, solar-sail propulsion will make space exploration more affordable and offer access to distant and difficult destinations. The second part of the lecture will describe the fundamentals of space solar sail propulsion and will describe the near-, mid- and far-term missions that might use solar sails as a propulsion system. The third part of the lecture will describe solar sail technology and the construction of current and future sailcraft, including the work of both government and private space organizations.

Johnson, Les

2009-01-01

273

Development of a practical training program based on BNL`s input to new NFPA Lined Masonary Chimney Venting Tables  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes how we developed a practical training program for technicians and sales personnel from the BNL studies that evolved into the Lined Chimney Venting Tables. One of the topics discussed is our search for solutions to the reoccurring problems associated with flue gas condensation on newly installed oil fired appliances. The paper will also discuss our own experiences in applying the new venting tables and working through the questions that arise when we encounter installations beyond the scope of the present tables.

Potter, G. [Agway Energy Products, Tully, NJ (United States)

1997-09-01

274

Mortality and incidence of cancer in a cohort of Swedish chimney sweeps: an extended follow up study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite 200 years of efforts to regulate safety in this occupation, chimney sweeps have increased mortality from cancer, ischaemic heart disease, and respiratory disease. Mortality and incidence of cancer were examined in a cohort of 5542 Swedish chimney sweeps employed through their national trade union at any time between 1918 and 1980. Previous studies of this cohort found increased risks of ischaemic heart disease, respiratory disease, accidental deaths, and various neoplasms. By increasing follow up, we sought to increase the power of the study and examine disease time trends. Mortality analysis was extended 7.5 years to cover the period 1951-90; cancer incidence analysis was extended six years to cover the period 1958-87. New findings include increased incidence and mortality of prostate cancer (SMR 169, 95% CI 106-256, 22 observed) and increased incidence of total haematolymphatic cancers (SIR 151, 95% CI 106-209, 36 observed). When only the most recent follow up period was analysed, previously observed risks persisted for total lung cancer (SIR 178, 95% CI 99-293), oat cell lung cancer (SIR 240, 95% CI 103-472), bladder cancer (SIR 247, 95% CI 131-422), and oesophageal cancer (Obs/Exp = 2/1.1). Mortality from ischaemic heart disease (SMR 98, 95% CI 76-123) and respiratory disease (SMR 111, 95% CI 56-199) declined during recent follow up, although significant excess mortality remained during analysis of the entire study period (ischaemic heart disease SMR 128, 95% CI 112-145; respiratory disease SMR 159, 95% CI 115-213). In analyses of the entire study period, risks of ischaemic heart disease and lung, bladder, and oesophageal cancer were adjusted for smoking; oesophageal cancer was also adjusted for use of alcohol. All risks remained significantly raised. Exposure-response analyses showed significant positive associations between duration of employment and risks for mortality from lung, oesophageal, and total cancer. Chimney sweeps remain at increased risk for cancers of the lung, oesophagus, and bladder. Our study supports a casual role for exposure to chimney soot, which contains carcinogens including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Extended follow up of this cohort now shows increased risks of prostate and haematolymphatic cancers. PMID:8507598

Evanoff, B A; Gustavsson, P; Hogstedt, C

1993-01-01

275

Solar Energy Systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Calibrated in kilowatt hours per square meter, the solar counter produced by Dodge Products, Inc. provides a numerical count of the solar energy that has accumulated on a surface. Solar energy sensing, measuring and recording devices in corporate solar cell technology developed by Lewis Research Center. Customers for their various devices include architects, engineers and others engaged in construction and operation of solar energy facilities; manufacturers of solar systems or solar related products, such as glare reducing windows; and solar energy planners in federal and state government agencies.

1984-01-01

276

Validation experiments of the chimney model for the operational simulation of hydrogen recombiners; Experimente zur Validierung eines Kaminmodells fuer die Simulation des Betriebsverhaltens eines Wasserstoffrekombinators  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The calculation program REKO-DIREKT allows the simulation of the operational behavior of a hydrogen recombiner during accidents with hydrogen release. The interest is focused on the interaction between the catalyst insertion and the chimney that influences the natural ventilation and thus the throughput through the recombiner significantly. For validation experiments were performed with a small-scale recombiner model in the test facility REKO-4. The results show the correlation between the hydrogen concentration at the recombiner entrance, the temperature on catalyst sheets and the entrance velocity using different chimney heights. The entrance velocity increases with the heights of the installed chimney that influences the natural ventilation significantly. The results allow the generation of a wide data base for validation of the computer code REKO-DIREKT.

Simon, Berno [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Reaktorsicherheit und -technik (LRST)

2013-07-01

277

Evidence from three-dimensional seismic tomography for a substantial accumulation of gas hydrate in a fluid-escape chimney in the Nyegga pockmark field, offshore Norway  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years, it has become evident that features commonly called gas chimneys provide major routes for methane to pass through the methane-hydrate stability zone in continental margins and escape to the ocean. One of many such chimneys lying beneath pockmarks in the southeastern Vøring Plateau off Norway was investigated with a high-resolution seismic experiment employing a 2-D array of sixteen 4-component ocean bottom seismic recorders at approximately 100 m separation and a dense network of shots to define the 3-D variation of the chimney's structure and seismic properties. The tomographic model derived from P wave travel times shows that P wave velocity inside the chimney is up to 300 m/s higher than in the surrounding strata within the methane-hydrate stability zone. The zone of anomalously high velocity, about 500 m wide near its base, narrowing to about 200 m near the seabed, extends to a depth of 250 m below the seafloor. The depth extent of this zone and absence of high velocity beneath the base of the methane-hydrate stability field make it more likely that it contains hydrate rather than carbonate. If a predominantly fracture-filling model is appropriate for the formation of hydrate in low-permeability sediment, the maximum hydrate concentration in the chimney is estimated to be 14%-27% by total volume, depending on how host-sediment properties are affected by hydrate formation. Doming of the strata penetrated by the chimney appears to be associated with the emplacement of hydrate, accompanying the invasion of the gas hydrate stability zone by free gas.

Plaza-Faverola, Andreia; Westbrook, Graham K.; Ker, Stephan; Exley, Russell J. K.; Gailler, Audrey; Minshull, Tim A.; Broto, Karine

2010-08-01

278

Toward clean environment: evaluation of solar electric power technologies using fuzzy logic  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The rapid expansion of the use of solar energy power plants worldwide is a subject that is being followed with interest. Fuzzy logic methodology is used for evaluating the solar thermal power technology, it compresses huge amount of data into smaller sets, and it has the ability to decide between different solar technologies on the basis of their benefits and costs. The most often considered solar technologies were parabolic trough, central receiver, dish sterling engine, compact linear Fresnel reflector (CLFR), solar chimney, photovoltaic (PV), and solar pond. The aim of our research is to provide the needed information to make a judgment or a decision of adopting the most preferred solar technology in terms of installation and development using fuzzy set methodology. The criteria of the evaluation were based on different parameters, i.e., power capacity, efficiency, availability, capacity factor, storage capability, cost, maturity, water usage, land usage, and safety. The key barriers and features for each technology on the basis of benefit-to-cost ratios are addressed. The results showed that CLFR was found to be the best choice in terms of research, development, and implementation, followed by parabolic trough technology, then the central receiver technology, dish sterling engine, solar chimney, PV, and solar pond, according to the order of preference. (orig.)

Badran, Omar; Abdulhadi, Emad [Al-Balqa Applied University, Mechatronics Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering Technology, Amman (Jordan); Mamlook, Rustom [College of Computer Engineering and Sciences, Al-kharj University, Department of Computer Engineering, Al-kharj (Saudi Arabia)

2012-04-15

279

Solar thermal chief: '  

...Solar thermal chief: ' We have experienced two years of recession' | EurActiv specialreport-solarpower,energy,Financial regulation,renewable energies,Solar thermal EU ... VIDEOS Home › Solar Power › Interview Solar thermal chief: ' We have experienced two years of recession' -A + A Published 27 ...May 2011 Tags specialreport-solarpower energy Financial regulation renewable energies Solar thermal The solar thermal sector has been hit badly by the crisis in the construction ...on the heating industry, said Xavier Noyon, secretary-general of the European Solar Thermal Industry Federation (ESTIF). Xavier Noyon is secretary-general of ...

280

Effect of doping concentration on the performance of solar cell constructed from (Muscovite/TiO2/Dye/Al)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Solar cells were fabricated from (Muscovite/ TiO2/Dye/Al), the effect of temperature, concen- tration and light intensity on the electrical prop- erties of (Muscovite/TiO2

Abd Elgani, R.; Hilo, M. H. M.; Al Hassan, A.; Abd Allah, M. D.

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Saurians vs. cuts on reimbursement rates. In the vicinity of Berlin, plans for construction of a solar power plant almost failed because of conservation concerns; Echsen versus Verguetungskuerzung. In der Naehe von Berlin waere der Bau eines Solarkraftwerks beinahe am Naturschutz gescheitert  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Abandoned industrial or military sites and similar terrains are preferred sites for solar power plant construction. This is a good thing, in principle, as any land pollution will be removed at the same time. However, if construction projects go too fast they may interfere with conservation concerns. The contribution presents the case of the 24 MW 'Finowtower' solar power station. The project almost had to be abandoned because of a small lizard. (orig.)

Krause, Matthias B.

2010-09-15

282

Impact of the light intensity variation on the performance of solar cell constructed from (Muscovite/TiO2/Dye/Al  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this work, the influence of the light intensity as one of the parameters that control the solar cell is studied. The effect of the other main variables, such as temperature, rotation per Minuit of the spin coating instrument, and the samples concentration, was found to be in conformity with other results, but unfortunately the intensity of light does not increase the solar cell efficiency, and fill factor, by other words it was found to play only a secondary role.

R. Abd Elgani

2013-09-01

283

Constructional physics yearbook 1986/1987. Passive solar architecture - tables, diagrams, definitions, lists of products, contributions. Bauphysik Taschenbuch 1986/1987. Tabellen, Diagramme, Begriffserlaeuterungen, Produktuebersichten, Beitraege zum Schwerpunktthema: Passive Solararchitektur  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Tables and diagrams, definitions, and lists of product systems are presented. Basic practical knowledge (conversion units, symbols, forces, momenta, loads per unit area, stresses, strength mass units of air pressure) is followed by detailed chapters on the fundamentals and requirements of thermal insulation, acoustic insulation and fire protection. Tables, dimensioning tables, guidelines, concepts, and specific aspects of constructional physics are presented to supplement these three subjects. The second part of the pocket book compares insulating window frames and glasses, while the third part discusses the dimensioning of acoustic insulation of windows, ventilated outer walls with good acoustic insulation and passive energy use characteristics, greenhouse solar walls, temporary thermal insulation of windows rolled-film systems for air conditioning, and passive solar use for domestic heating (exemplary calculations). (HWJ).

Saelzer, E.; Gothe, U. (eds.)

1986-01-01

284

Solarization of the Rural Education Center. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The solar retrofit of a greenhouse and the construction of a solar bath house are briefly discussed. The greenhouse and bath house were constructed to help demonstrate the use of solar energy in the New England area. (BCS)

Kaymen, S.

1982-02-28

285

Stable isotopic and molecular compositions of void and hydrate-bound gases in typical seismic chimney setting of the Ulleung Basin, East Sea, Korea  

Science.gov (United States)

Two UBGH cores were collected at vertical seismic chimney setting in the deep-water (> 2,000 m) Ulleung Basin, East Sea during UBGH-Expedition-01 in 2007. Gas hydrates were recovered from UBGH-10 and UBGH-09 sites with different occurrences associated with seismic chimney blanking zone. Site UBGH-10 is characterized by a small mound as well as a near-surface structure, indicated by a seafloor extension of vertical seismic chimney. Site UBGH-09 consists of acoustic blanking in the shallow section and seismic chimney in the deep section. Highly GH-concentrated zones have been found in vertical seismic chimney interval at these two sites from the Ulleung Basin. Methane is the dominant component of void gases with traces of C2 and C3 at UBGH-09. No C4 hydrocarbon gases were determined. The C1/C2+C3 ratio range from 3222 to 31654. The stable carbon (?13C) and hydrogen (?D) isotope values of CH4 range from -71.8‰ to -59.8‰ PDB and -203.6‰ to -185.6 ‰ SMOW, respectivley. Methane is the main component of void gases at UBGH-10. The C1/C2+C3 ratio range from 657 to 7968. The ?13C of CH4 varies from -67.7‰ to -60.6‰ PDB, and ?D of CH4 ranges from -201.9‰ to -183.3 ‰ SMOW. Isotopic properties of void gases from the two sites suggest that CH4 is largely microbial with CO2 reduction environment. In the vertical seismic chimney interval, void gases have low C1/C2+C3 ratio (> 10,000). At shallow depth (0-67 mbsf) in UBGH-09 contain relatively high C1/C2+C3 ratio (11115 to 31654). The stable carbon and hydrogen isotope values of hydrate-bound gases range from -63.1‰ to 61.9‰ PDB and -200.2‰ to -191.4‰ SMOW, respectively. The C1/C2+C3 ratio range from 979 to 5085. The molecular and stable isotopic compositions of hydrate-bound gases suggest that CH4 is largely microbial with CO2 reduction.

Chun, J.; Lee, J.; Kim, J.; Bahk, J.; Ryu, B.

2009-12-01

286

Composition of hydrothermal fluids and mineralogy of associated chimney material on the East Scotia Ridge back-arc spreading centre  

Science.gov (United States)

The East Scotia Ridge is an active back-arc spreading centre located to the west of the South Sandwich island arc in the Southern Ocean. Initial exploration of the ridge by deep-tow surveys provided the first evidence for hydrothermal activity in a back-arc setting outside of the western Pacific, and we returned in 2010 with a remotely operated vehicle to precisely locate and sample hydrothermal sites along ridge segments E2 and E9. Here we report the chemical and isotopic composition of high- and low-temperature vent fluids, and the mineralogy of associated high-temperature chimney material, for two sites at E2 (Dog’s Head and Sepia), and four sites at E9 (Black & White, Ivory Tower, Pagoda and Launch Pad). The chemistry of the fluids is highly variable between the ridge segments. Fluid temperatures were ?350 °C at all vent sites except Black & White, which was significantly hotter (383 °C). End-member chloride concentrations in E2 fluids (532-536 mM) were close to background seawater (540 mM), whereas Cl in E9 fluids was much lower (98-220 mM) indicating that these fluids are affected by phase separation. Concentrations of the alkali elements (Na, Li, K and Cs) and the alkaline earth elements (Ca, Sr and Ba) co-vary with Cl, due to charge balance constraints. Similarly, concentrations of Mn and Zn are highest in the high Cl fluids but, by contrast, Fe/Cl ratios are higher in E9 fluids (3.8-8.1 × 10-3) than they are in E2 fluids (1.5-2.4 × 10-3) and fluids with lowest Cl have highest Cu. Although both ridge segments are magmatically inflated, there is no compelling evidence for input of magmatic gases to the vent fluids. Fluid ?D values range from 0.2‰ to 1.5‰, pH values (3.02-3.42) are not especially low, and F concentrations (34.6-54.4 ?M) are lower than bottom seawater (62.8 ?M). The uppermost sections of conjugate chimney material from E2, and from Ivory Tower and Pagoda at E9, typically exhibit inner zones of massive chalcopyrite enclosed within an outer zone of disseminated sulphide, principally sphalerite and pyrite, in an anhydrite matrix. By contrast, the innermost part of the chimneys that currently vent fluids with lowest Cl (Black & White and Launch Pad), is dominated by anhydrite. By defining and assessing the controls on the chemical composition of these vent fluids, and associated mineralisation, this study provides new information for evaluating the significance of hydrothermal processes at back-arc basins for ocean chemistry and the formation of seafloor mineral deposits.

James, Rachael H.; Green, Darryl R. H.; Stock, Michael J.; Alker, Belinda J.; Banerjee, Neil R.; Cole, Catherine; German, Christopher R.; Huvenne, Veerle A. I.; Powell, Alexandra M.; Connelly, Douglas P.

2014-08-01

287

Development of 400/sup 0/F sealants for flat plate solar collector construction and installation. Final report, 1 October 1978-30 September 1979  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Twenty candidate sealants representing ten different polymer types were evaluated as potential solar collector sealants. Polymer types tested included epichlorohydrin rubber, EPDM rubber, silicone, polysulfide, acrylate rubber, and a fluoroelastomer. Initial screening of sealants consisted of measuring high temperature stability and adhesion retention. Several sealant compositions exhibited satisfactory performance in these tests and were selected for further evaluation. These materials were based on an EPDM rubber, a Viton fluoroelastomer, and silicone polymers. Further testing of these candidate materials included determination of adhesion retention under uv/water/heat conditions, fogging temperature, low temperature flexibility, and physical properties. Four silicone-based materials appeared to be suitable candidates for sealing solar collectors. These include Dow Corning 90-006-02 and 3120, General Electric 1200, and PR-1939 from Products Research and Chemical Corporation.

Morris, L.; Schubert, R.J.

1980-03-01

288

Shallow submarine hydrothermal activity with significant contribution of magmatic water producing talc chimneys in the Wakamiko Crater of Kagoshima Bay, southern Kyushu, Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

Active hydrothermal venting from shallow seafloor (200-m depth) with talc chimneys has been discovered at the Wakamiko Crater floor in the Aira Caldera, southern Kyushu, Japan. The major chemical composition of the fluids suggests that the fluids are supplied from a single reservoir. The fluid is characterized by a low chloride concentration, low ?D value, and a high ?18O value, suggesting that the endmember hydrothermal fluid is a mixture of seawater and andesitic water and possibly contribution of meteoric water and/or phase separation. Such noticeable magmatic input may be supported by high helium isotopic ratio (6.77 RA) of fumarolic gas discharging from the crater. Silica and alkaline geothermometers indicate that the fluid-rock interaction in the reservoir occurs in the temperature range of 230 to 250 °C. The high alkalinity and high ammonium and dissolved organic matter concentrations in the fluid indicate interaction of the fluid with organic matter in sedimentary layers. At least three hydrothermal vents have been observed in the crater. Two of these have similar cone-shaped chimneys. The chimneys have a unique mineralogy and consist dominantly of talc (kerolite and hydrated talc) with lesser amounts of carbonate (dolomite and magnesite), anhydrite, amorphous silica, and stibnite. The precipitation temperature estimated from ?18O values of talc was almost consistent with the observed fluid temperature. Geochemical modeling calculations also support the formation of talc and carbonate upon mixing of the endmember hydrothermal fluid with seawater and suggest that the talc chimneys are currently growing from venting fluid.

Yamanaka, Toshiro; Maeto, Kotaro; Akashi, Hironori; Ishibashi, Jun-Ichiro; Miyoshi, Youko; Okamura, Kei; Noguchi, Takuroh; Kuwahara, Yoshihiro; Toki, Tomohiro; Tsunogai, Urumu; Ura, Tamaki; Nakatani, Takeshi; Maki, Toshihiro; Kubokawa, Kaoru; Chiba, Hitoshi

2013-05-01

289

Solar Schematic  

Science.gov (United States)

The home shown at right is specially designed to accommodate solar heating units; it has roof planes in four directions, allowing placement of solar collectors for best exposure to the sun. Plans (bottom) and complete working blueprints for the solar-heated house are being marketed by Home Building Plan Service, Portland, Oregon. The company also offers an inexpensive schematic (center) showing how a homeowner only moderately skilled in the use of tools can build his own solar energy system, applicable to new or existing structures. The schematic is based upon the design of a low-cost solar home heating system built and tested by NASA's Langley Research Center; used to supplement a warm-air heating system, it can save the homeowner about 40 percent of his annual heating bill for a modest investment in materials and components. Home Building Plan Service saved considerable research time by obtaining a NASA technical report which details the Langley work. The resulting schematic includes construction plans and simplified explanations of solar heat collection, collectors and other components, passive heat factors, domestic hot water supply and how to work with local heating engineers.

1979-01-01

290

Desempenho de sistema decanto-digestor com filtro biológico seguido por alagado construído e reator solar no tratamento de esgoto doméstico / Performance of digester decant system with biological filter followed by constructed wetland and solar reactor in the treatment of domestic sewage  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho objetivou analisar o desempenho de sistema decanto-digestor com filtro biológico seguido por alagado construído e reator solar no tratamento de esgoto doméstico do assentamento rural Milagres em Apodi-RN. Nos meses de outubro e novembro de 2010 realizou-se o monitoramento do sist [...] ema 48 dias após o plantio do capim elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach). Foram coletadas amostras do esgoto doméstico nas distintas etapas de tratamento, em quatro repetições no tempo, para determinação de características físico-químicas e microbiológicas referentes ao desempenho do sistema. Os resultados indicaram que houve remoção significativa de turbidez, Demanda Bioquímica de Oxigênio, Demanda Química de Oxigênio, sólidos totais, sólidos suspensos, fósforo e óleos e graxas com o uso sistema decanto-digestor com filtros biológicos seguidos de alagado construído e reator solar; a associação de radiação solar média de 28,73 MJ m-2 d-1, lâmina de 0,10 m de efluente no reator e tempo de exposição solar de 12 horas permitiu remoção de até 99,99% dos coliformes termotolerantes no esgoto doméstico em Apodi-RN; e o efluente tratado apresenta padrão microbiológico satisfatório às diretrizes brasileiras para uso agrícola com restrição. Abstract in english This study aimed to analyze the performance of digester decant system with biological filter followed by constructed wetland and solar reactor in the treatment of domestic sewage from Milagres rural community in Apodi-RN. The treatment system was monitored for the period of October and November 2010 [...] , 48 days after planting Pennisetum purpureum Schumach. Samples of domestic sewage were collected at different stages of treatment, in four replications on time, to determine physicochemical and microbiological characteristics about the system performance. The results indicated significant removal of turbidity, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total solids, suspended solids, phosphorus and oil and grease using the set digester decant with biological filter, followed by constructed wetland and solar reactor; the association of average solar radiation of 28.73 MJ m-2 d-1, effluent depth of 0.10 m on reactor and time of sun exposure of 12 hours provided removal of fecal coliform up to 99.99% of domestic sewage in Apodi, RN, the treated effluent met microbiological standard of the Brazilian guidelines for agricultural use with restrictions.

Glícia Pinto Barra, Reinaldo; Rafael Oliveira, Batista; Paulo Cesar Moura da, Silva; Luis Cesar de Aquino, Lemos Filho; Miguel, Ferreira Neto; Delfran Batista dos, Santos.

291

Desempenho de sistema decanto-digestor com filtro biológico seguido por alagado construído e reator solar no tratamento de esgoto doméstico / Performance of digester decant system with biological filter followed by constructed wetland and solar reactor in the treatment of domestic sewage  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho objetivou analisar o desempenho de sistema decanto-digestor com filtro biológico seguido por alagado construído e reator solar no tratamento de esgoto doméstico do assentamento rural Milagres em Apodi-RN. Nos meses de outubro e novembro de 2010 realizou-se o monitoramento do sist [...] ema 48 dias após o plantio do capim elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach). Foram coletadas amostras do esgoto doméstico nas distintas etapas de tratamento, em quatro repetições no tempo, para determinação de características físico-químicas e microbiológicas referentes ao desempenho do sistema. Os resultados indicaram que houve remoção significativa de turbidez, Demanda Bioquímica de Oxigênio, Demanda Química de Oxigênio, sólidos totais, sólidos suspensos, fósforo e óleos e graxas com o uso sistema decanto-digestor com filtros biológicos seguidos de alagado construído e reator solar; a associação de radiação solar média de 28,73 MJ m-2 d-1, lâmina de 0,10 m de efluente no reator e tempo de exposição solar de 12 horas permitiu remoção de até 99,99% dos coliformes termotolerantes no esgoto doméstico em Apodi-RN; e o efluente tratado apresenta padrão microbiológico satisfatório às diretrizes brasileiras para uso agrícola com restrição. Abstract in english This study aimed to analyze the performance of digester decant system with biological filter followed by constructed wetland and solar reactor in the treatment of domestic sewage from Milagres rural community in Apodi-RN. The treatment system was monitored for the period of October and November 2010 [...] , 48 days after planting Pennisetum purpureum Schumach. Samples of domestic sewage were collected at different stages of treatment, in four replications on time, to determine physicochemical and microbiological characteristics about the system performance. The results indicated significant removal of turbidity, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total solids, suspended solids, phosphorus and oil and grease using the set digester decant with biological filter, followed by constructed wetland and solar reactor; the association of average solar radiation of 28.73 MJ m-2 d-1, effluent depth of 0.10 m on reactor and time of sun exposure of 12 hours provided removal of fecal coliform up to 99.99% of domestic sewage in Apodi, RN, the treated effluent met microbiological standard of the Brazilian guidelines for agricultural use with restrictions.

Glícia Pinto Barra, Reinaldo; Rafael Oliveira, Batista; Paulo Cesar Moura da, Silva; Luis Cesar de Aquino, Lemos Filho; Miguel, Ferreira Neto; Delfran Batista dos, Santos.

2012-06-01

292

Exploring Solar Power  

Science.gov (United States)

Students explore the methods engineers have devised for harnessing sunlight to generate power. First, they investigate heat transfer and heat storage through the construction, testing and use of a solar oven. With a lesson focused on photovoltaic cells, students learn the concepts of energy conversion, conservation of energy, current and voltage. By constructing model solar powered cars, students see these conceptual ideas manifested in modern technology. Furthermore, the solar car project provides opportunities to explore a number of other topics, such as gear ratios and simple mechanics. Both of these design and construction projects are examples of engineering design.

Techtronics Program

293

Multidimensional analysis of developing two-phase flows in an ESBWR chimney with and without riser channels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The object of this work was to simulate developing multidimensional velocity and void fraction distributions in bubbly and churn turbulent two-phase flows. An advanced Computational Multiphase Fluid Dynamics (CMFD) code, NPHASE, was used to perform three-dimensional, multi-field simulations of the developing phasic velocity and phase distributions in vertical adiabatic conduits. The NPHASE code employed a multi-field two-fluid model, in which, for churn turbulent flow, the vapor phase was divided into small and large, cap bubble fields. In addition, state-of-the-art interfacial area density and field-to-field mass transfer models were used for both the small and large, cap bubbles. In particular, the bubble breakup and coalescence processes were quantified using a two-group interfacial area density transport equation. This allowed the CMFD simulation of developing churn turbulent flows in an ESBWR with and without vertical riser channels in the chimney region above the core. Based on these simulations it was concluded that riser channels have little adverse effect on the induced natural circulation flow through the core and the stability characteristics of an ESBWR. (authors)

294

Endovascular Repair of Acute Symptomatic Pararenal Aortic Aneurysm With Three Chimney and One Periscope Graft for Complete Visceral Artery Revascularization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

PurposeTo describe a modified endovascular technique for complete revascularization of visceral and renal arteries in symptomatic pararenal aortic aneurysm (PRAA).TechniqueArterial access was surgically established in both common femoral arteries (CFAs) and the left subclavian artery (LSA). Revascularization of the left renal artery, the celiac trunk, and the superior mesenteric artery was performed through one single sheath via the LSA. Suitable covered stents were put in the aortic branches but not deployed. The right renal artery was accessed over the left CFA. Due to the longitudinal extension of the presented aneurysm two stent-grafts were introduced via the right CFA. After deploying the aortic stent-grafts, all covered stents in the side branches were deployed consecutively with a minimum overlap of 5 mm over the cranial and caudal stent-graft edges. Simultaneous ballooning was performed to fully expand all stent-grafts and warranty patency. Conclusion: This is the first report in the literature of chimney grafting in PRAA for complete revascularization of visceral and renal branches by using more than two covered stents introduced from one side through one single sheath. However this technique is modified, it should be used only in bailout situations when branched stent-grafts are not available and/or surgery is not suitable.

295

The solar Zeppelin project. French students intend to cross the Channel in a self-constructed solar Zeppelin; Mit Leichtigkeit zum Ziel. Franzoesische Studenten bauen einen Solarzeppelin und wollen damit den Aermelkanal ueberqueren  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This October, the world's first manned solar Zeppelin will take its virgin flight across the Channel. About 30 students worked on the project for more than two years in the interdisciplinary project ''PLrojet Sol'R''. The ''Nephelios'' zeppelin will use flexible but low-capacity CIGS modules for its first flight. (orig.)

Sollmann, Dominik

2009-10-15

296

Construction management  

CERN Document Server

The management of construction projects is a wide ranging and challenging discipline in an increasingly international industry, facing continual challenges and demands for improvements in safety, in quality and cost control, and in the avoidance of contractual disputes. Construction Management grew out of a Leonardo da Vinci project to develop a series of Common Learning Outcomes for European Managers in Construction. Financed by the European Union, the project aimed to develop a library of basic materials for developing construction management skills for use in a pan-European context. Focused exclusively on the management of the construction phase of a building project from the contractor's point of view, Construction Management covers the complete range of topics of which mastery is required by the construction management professional for the effective delivery of new construction projects. With the continued internationalisation of the construction industry, Construction Management will be required rea...

Pellicer, Eugenio; Teixeira, José C; Moura, Helder P; Catalá, Joaquín

2014-01-01

297

Climatic solar roof: an ecological alternative to heat dissipation in buildings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new system based on the harnessing of solar and wind power is presented for heat dissipation in air conditioning facilities. The innovation offered by the new system is the integration of two well-known subsystems: a cooling tower and a solar chimney which increases the air flow without the use of electric power. The system is described and presented together with a model for its study. The field data acquired from the prototype built in southern Spain establishes the actual potential of the system, which provides a new approach to a sustainable technological development. (author)

Sanchez, M.M.; Lucas, M.; Martinez, P.; Sanchez, A.; Viedma, A. [Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena (Spain). Departamento de Ingenieria Termica y de Fluidos

2002-12-01

298

Inventory of existing heat pump projects and the use of solar energy for heat pumps in the Dutch house construction sector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of the title inventory is to learn from the experiences with heat pump projects in the Netherlands. Descriptions are given of practical experiences with heat pump applications in the last 15 years in the housing sector. Possible and feasible heat pump system concepts are analyzed and energy balances and energy consumption are calculated. Special attention is paid to the use of solar energy in combination with electric (compression) heat pumps. One of the most important bottlenecks is the method and availability of heat extraction: the choice for the different options is determined by investment costs, permission, regulations, and local conditions. 14 refs., 4 appendices

299

Solarthermie 2000. Sub-programme 2: Construction of a solar system for hot water supply at Solingen Urban Hospital. Final report; Solarthermie-2000. Teilprogramm 2: Erstellung einer Solaranlage zur Warmwasserversorgung des Bettenhauses im Staedtischen Krankenhaus Solingen. Schlussbericht  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 1994, the hospital decided to construct a solar system for freshwater heating in the context of the Solarthermie 2000 research programme. The solar systems were constructed on the roof of the main hospital building. Funds were granted, and in Summer 1995 three volumeters were installed for electronic measurement of hot water consumption. The following data were obtained: 20 m{sup 3}/d at pressure stage 1, 6.6 m{sup 3}/d at pressure stage 2, and 3.8 m{sup 3}/d at pressure stage 3. Consumption at pressure stage 1 was sufficient to warrant the installation of a solar system on the roof of the main building, so the solar system was connected only to this pressure stage. [German] Im Jahre 1994 stellte das Klinikum den Antrag auf die Errichtung einer Solaranlage zur Trinkwassererwaermung im Rahmen des Forschungsprojektes Solarthermie-2000, Teilprogramm 2. Als Aufstellflaeche fuer die Kollektoren stand das Dach des Hauptgebaeudes zur Verfuegung. Nach einer Ortsbesichtigung durch Vertreter der ZfS und des Projekttraeger BEO wurde der Antrag als foerderungswuerdig angesehen. Im Sommer 1995 wurden daraufhin drei Volumenzaehler mit Impulsausgang zur elektronischen Messung des Warmwasserverbrauchs installiert. Die Verbrauchsmessungen in den drei Druckstufen des Haupthauses ergaben folgende Warmwasserverbraeuche (nach /1/): Druckstufe 1: 20 m{sup 3}/d; Druckstufe 2: 6,6 m{sup 3}/d; Druckstufe 3: 3,8 m{sup 3}/d. Da allein der Verbrauch in Druckstufe 1 mit 20 m{sup 3}/d ausreichend gross war um eine Kollektorflaeche auf dem Dach des Hauptgebaeudes zu rechtfertigen, wurde beschlossen die Solaranlage ausschliesslich an die Druckstufe 1 anzuschliessen. In einer Klinik hat die Versorgungssicherheit mit Waerme hoechste Prioritaet. Die Solaranlage muss daher so installiert und eingebunden sein, dass das bestehende Heizsystem nicht gestoert oder behindert wird. Nach fast zwei Betriebsjahren koennen wir feststellen, dass diese Versorgungssicherheit gegeben ist. Die aufgetretenen Stoerungen und Regelungs-Maengel am Solarsystem waren zwar unerfreulich in Bezug auf das Betriebsverhalten der Solaranlage, die Einbindung in die Heiztechnik aber ist problemlos und ohne stoerende Auswirkungen auf die Heiztechnik. Umgekehrt ergaben sich jedoch Auswirkungen von der Heiztechnik auf die Solaranlage. Durch Fehlstroemungen im Nachheizsystem fiel der Wasserverbrauch ueber die Solaranlage zweitweise erheblich ab und hat somit die Solaranlageneffizienz beeintraechtigt. Inzwischen sind die Fehlstroemungen unterbunden und der Verbrauch konnte sogar auf einen Wert gesteigert werden, der hoeher ist als zum Zeitpunkt der Inbetriebnahme der Solaranlage. Die Klinik waere auch bereit gewesen die Druckstufe 2 an die Solaranlage anzuschliessen. Nach Auskunft der ZfS ist der Verbrauch jedoch mittlerweile so hoch, dass dies nicht mehr erforderlich ist. (orig.)

Raasch, M.

2001-07-01

300

Solar Adaptive Optics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Adaptive optics (AO has become an indispensable tool at ground-based solar telescopes. AO enables the ground-based observer to overcome the adverse effects of atmospheric seeing and obtain diffraction limited observations. Over the last decade adaptive optics systems have been deployed at major ground-based solar telescopes and revitalized ground-based solar astronomy. The relatively small aperture of solar telescopes and the bright source make solar AO possible for visible wavelengths where the majority of solar observations are still performed. Solar AO systems enable diffraction limited observations of the Sun for a significant fraction of the available observing time at ground-based solar telescopes, which often have a larger aperture than equivalent space based observatories, such as HINODE. New ground breaking scientific results have been achieved with solar adaptive optics and this trend continues. New large aperture telescopes are currently being deployed or are under construction. With the aid of solar AO these telescopes will obtain observations of the highly structured and dynamic solar atmosphere with unprecedented resolution. This paper reviews solar adaptive optics techniques and summarizes the recent progress in the field of solar adaptive optics. An outlook to future solar AO developments, including a discussion of Multi-Conjugate AO (MCAO and Ground-Layer AO (GLAO will be given.

Thomas R. Rimmele

2011-06-01

 
 
 
 
301

Solar Cooker  

Science.gov (United States)

Learners build a simple solar oven from a shoebox, black construction paper, and aluminum foil. Over the course of a few hours, the oven heats up water enough to brew tea. When learners set up a free account at Kinetic City, they can answer bonus questions at the end of the activity as a quick assessment. As a larger assessment, learners can complete the Smart Attack game after they've completed several activities.

Science, American A.

2009-01-01

302

Solar Neutrinos  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Experimental work with solar neutrinos has illuminated the properties of neutrinos and tested models of how the sun produces its energy. Three experiments continue to take data, and at least seven are in various stages of planning or construction. In this review, the current experimental status is summarized, and future directions explored with a focus on the effects of a non-zero theta-13 and the interesting possibility of directly testing the luminosity constraint. Such a ...

Robertson, R. G. H.

2006-01-01

303

Microbial and Mineral Descriptions of the Interior Habitable Zones of Active Hydrothermal Chimneys from the Endeavour Segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge  

Science.gov (United States)

Actively venting hydrothermal chimneys and their associated hydrothermal fluids were collected from the Endeavour Segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge to determine the mineralogy, chemistry and microbial community composition of their interiors. To characterize the mineralogy, Mössbauer, FTIR, VNIR and thermal emission spectroscopies were used for the first time on this type of sample in addition to thin-section petrography, x-ray diffraction and elemental analyses. A chimney from the Bastille edifice was Fe-sulfide rich and composed primarily of chalcopyrite, marcasite-sphalerite, and pyrrhotite while chimneys from the Dante and Hot Harold edifices were Fe-sulfide poor and composed primarily of anhydrite. The bulk emissivity and reflectance spectroscopies corroborated well with the petrography and XRD analyses. The microbial community in the interior of Bastille was most closely related to mesophilic-to-thermophilic anaerobes of the deltaproteobacteria and hyperthermophilic archaea while those in the interiors of Dante and Hot Harold were most closely related to mesophilic-to-thermophilic aerobes of the beta-, gamma- and epsilonproteobacteria. The fluid temperatures (282-321°C) and chemistries of the three chimneys were very similar suggesting that differences in mineralogy and microbial community compositions were more dependent on fluid flow characteristics and paragenesis within the chimney. Thin-section petrography of the interior of another hydrothermal chimney collected from the Dante edifice (emitting 336°C fluid) shows a thin coat of Fe3+ oxide associated with amorphous silica on the exposed outer surfaces of pyrrhotite, sphalerite and chalcopyrite in pore spaces, along with anhydrite precipitation in the pores that is indicative of seawater ingress. The Fe-sulfide minerals were likely oxidized to ferrihydrite with increasing pH and Eh due to cooling and seawater exposure, providing reactants for bioreduction. Culture-based most-probable-number estimates of hyperthermophilic iron reducers in this sample were 1,740 and 10 cells/gram (dry weight) of material from scrapings of the outer surface and the soft, marcasite-sphalerite-rich interior region, respectively. Two hyperthermophilic iron reducers, Hyperthermus sp. Ro04 and Pyrodictium sp. Su06, were isolated from other active hydrothermal chimneys on the Endeavour Segment. Strain Ro04 is a neutrophilic (pHopt 7-8) heterotroph while strain Su06 is a mildly acidophilic (pHopt 5), hydrogenotrophic autotroph. Mössbauer spectroscopy of the iron oxides before and after growth demonstrated that both organisms form nanophase (<12 nm) magnetite [Fe3O4] from ferrihydrite [Fe(OH)3] with no detectable mineral intermediates. Both organisms grew optimally at 90-92°C with growth yields of 0.5-5×1012 cells/mol Fe2+ and Fe2+ production rates between 0.03-0.54 pmol Fe2+/cell/h. They produced up to 40 mM Fe2+ in a growth-dependent manner while all abiotic controls produced < 3 mM Fe2+. Electron micrographs show that the cells form aggregates with iron oxide particles during growth. Hyperthermophilic iron reducers may be common in mildly reducing, iron-rich hydrothermal systems where iron oxides are formed at hyperthermophile growth temperatures.

Holden, J. F.; Lin, T.; Ver Eecke, H. C.; Breves, E.; Dyar, M. D.; Jamieson, J. W.; Hannington, M. D.; Butterfield, D. A.; Bishop, J. L.; Lane, M. D.

2013-12-01

304

Geomicrobiological exploration and characterization of novel deep-sea hydrothermal activities accompanying with extremely acidic white smokers and elemental sulfur chimneys at the TOTO caldera in the Mariana Volcanic Arc  

Science.gov (United States)

Novel hydrothermal activities accompanying effluent white smokers and elemental sulfur chimney structures at the northeast lava dome of the TOTO caldera depression in the Mariana Volcanic Arc were explored by the manned submersible Shinkai 6500 and characterized by geochemical and microbiological surveys. The white smoker hydrothermal fluids were observed in the potential hydrothermal activity center of the field and represented a maximal temperature of 172 degree C and a lowest pH of 1.59, that was the lowest pH of the hydrothermal fluid ever recorded. The chimney structures consisting all of elemental sulfur (sulfur chimney) were also peculiar to the TOTO caldera hydrothermal field in the world. The geochemical characterization strongly suggested that the TOTO caldera hydrothermal field was a novel system driven by subseafloor mixing between the oxygenated seawater and the superheated volcanic gasses. Microbial community structures in a sulfur chimney structure and its formation hydrothermal fluid with a high concentration of hydrogen sulfide (15 mM) were investigated by culture-dependent and _|independent analyses. Ribosomal rRNA gene clone analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis revealed that epsilon-Proteobacteria, specifically classified into Group G and Group B, dominated the microbial communities in the sulfur chimney structure and formed a dense microbial mat covering the sulfur chimney surface. Archaeal phylotypes were consistently minor components in the communities and related to the genera Thermococcus, Pyrodictium, Aeropyrum, and the uncultivated archaeal group of Deep-sea Hydrothermal Vent Euryarchaeotal Group. Cultivation analysis suggested that the microbial components inhabiting in the sulfur chimney structure might be entrained by hydrothermal fluids from the potential subsurface habitats

Takai, K.; Nakagawa, T.; Suzuki, Y.; Hirayama, H.; Kosaka, A.; Tsunogai, U.; Gamo, T.; Nealson, K. H.; Horikoshi, K.

2004-12-01

305

The Solar Eclipse  

Science.gov (United States)

Instructions for observing the Solar Eclipse on Saturday, March 7, 1970, which will be total along a strip about 85 miles wide along the Atlantic Seaboard. Safety precautions and how to construct a pinhole camera to observe eclipse. (BR)

Stern, David

1970-01-01

306

Space Solar Power Program  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Information pertaining to the Space Solar Power Program is presented on energy analysis; markets; overall development plan; organizational plan; environmental and safety issues; power systems; space transportation; space manufacturing, construction, operations; design examples; and finance.

Arif, H.; Barbosa, H.; Bardet, C.; Baroud, M.; Behar, A.; Berrier, K.; Berthe, P.; Bertrand, R.; Bibyk, I.; Bisson, J.; Bloch, L.; Bobadilla, G.; Bourque, D.; Bush, L.; Carandang, R.; Chiku, T.; Crosby, N.; De Seixas, M.; De Vries, J.; Doll, S.; Dufour, F.; Eckart, P.; Fahey, M.; Fenot, F.; Foeckersperger, S.; Fontaine, J.E.; Fowler, R.; Frey, H.; Fujio, H.; Gasa, J.M.; Gleave, J.; Godoe, J.; Green, I.; Haeberli, R.; Hanada, T.; Ha

1992-08-01

307

STANDARDS OF SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURE: SOLAR HOUSE  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Solar houses are representing environmentally friendly method of construction, as they use renewable energy sources. Solar energy provides gain, which with the help of solar systems is exploited to convert in heat or energy. A solar house provides us with positive feeling, having regard to the standarts for sustainable construction. In the study is given the historical development of the solar house, presented are the natural, architecture and technical aspects. At the end on the basis of ...

Ternovs?ek, Erna

2010-01-01

308

Solar collection  

Science.gov (United States)

Solar dishes, photovoltaics, passive solar building and solar hot water systems, Trombe walls, hot air panels, hybrid solar heating systems, solar grain dryers, solar greenhouses, solar hot water worhshops, and solar workshops are discussed. These solar technologies are applied to residential situations.

Cole, S. I.

1984-08-01

309

Solar energy emplacement developer  

Science.gov (United States)

A preliminary design was developed for a Lunar Power System (LPS) composed of photovoltaic arrays and microwave reflectors fabricated from lunar materials. The LPS will collect solar energy on the surface of the Moon, transform it into microwave energy, and beam it back to Earth where it will be converted into usable energy. The Solar Energy Emplacement Developer (SEED) proposed will use a similar sort of solar energy collection and dispersement to power the systems that will construct the LPS.

Mortensen, Michael; Sauls, Bob

1991-01-01

310

Solar activity theories  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The possibility of construction of a solar activity theory is considered. For this purpose some basic processes are discussed. Generation of magnetic fields both large-scale (general) and local (magnetic fields of groups of spots) and their cyclic changes are attributed to such processes. A model of solar hydromagnetic dinamo developed by the authors is proposed. The model does not provide consistent description of all stages of the solar activity cycle development, but it shows the possibility of such a description

311

Reflective Solar Cooker  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity, learners use the Sun's energy to cook marshmallows. Learners construct the solar oven out of simple everyday materials. They experiment to see how the color of the marshmallow (vanilla or chocolate) and height of the straws affect cooking time. Use this activity to introduce learners to solar energy and reflection. Note: this activity requires adult supervision.

Observatory, Mcdonald

2011-01-01

312

Superstructure Construction  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

One element of the CIVCAL project Web-based resources containing images, tables, texts and associated data on Building Superstructure Construction. The main building is a 18 storey concrete frame structure. Ordinary timber formwork system was used. The construction cycle for the construction of the reinforced concrete structure.

Kumaraswamy, Mohan

2002-01-01

313

Improved performance of hybrid ZnO/polymer solar cell via construction of hierarchical nanostructures and surface modification of ZnO  

Science.gov (United States)

Photovoltaic performance of hybrid ZnO/polymer solar cell is enhanced through the addition of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) onto ZnO nanorod arrays (NRs), and surface modification with squaraine (Sq). The cluster of NPs at the end of NRs is formed during spin coating process but poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), as electron donor, is able to infiltrate into the rod-to-rod space, as confirmed by zero-loss energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (zero-loss EFTEM) observation. Due to the increase in ZnO/P3HT interface area, the NP-coated NR device shows power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 0.49%, which is higher than that of the pristine ZnO NRs/P3HT one (0.26%). Further improvement is achieved by the adsorption of Sq onto the NP-coated ZnO NR surfaces. After the dye-modification, the P3HT infiltration is poorer than the unmodified one. This leads to the ZnO NRs/Sq/air interface, where exciton separation does not occur. However, due to the large surface area of NPs and the light absorption in near IR region of Sq, the PCE increased to 1.37% with relatively higher short circuit current density as compared with the case without the NPs and Sq.

Ruankham, Pipat; Yoshikawa, Susumu; Sagawa, Takashi

2014-01-01

314

Enhanced dye-sensitized solar cells performance using anatase TiO2 mesocrystals with the Wulff construction of nearly 100% exposed {101} facets as effective light scattering layer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anatase TiO2 mesocrystals with a Wulff construction of nearly 100% exposed {101} facets were successfully synthesized by a facile, green solvothermal method. Their morphology, and crystal structure are characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Accordingly, a possible growth mechanism of anatase TiO2 mesocrystals is elucidated in this work. The as-prepared single anatase TiO2 mesocrystal's mean center diameter is about 500 nm, and the length is about 1 ?m. They exhibit high light adsorbance, high reflectance and low transmittance in the visible region due to the unique nearly 100% exposed {101} facets. When utilized as the scattering layer in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), such mesocrystals effectively enhanced light harvesting and led to an increase of the photocurrent of the DSSCs. As a result, by using an anatase TiO2 mesocrystal film as a scattering overlayer of a compact commercial P25 TiO2 nanoparticle film, the double layered DSSCs show a power conversion efficiency of 7.23%, indicating a great improvement compared to the DSSCs based on a P25 film (5.39%) and anatase TiO2 mesocrystal films, respectively. The synergetic effect of P25 and the mesocrystals as well as the latters unique feature of a Wulff construction of nearly 100% exposed (101) facets are probably responsible for the enhanced photoelectrical performance. In particular, we explore the possibility of the low surface area and exposed {101} facets as an efficient light scattering layer of DSSCs. Our work suggests that anatase TiO2 mesocrystals with the Wulff construction is a promising candidate as a superior scattering material for high-performance DSSCs. PMID:24468963

Zhou, Yu; Wang, Xinyu; Wang, Hai; Song, Yeping; Fang, Liang; Ye, Naiqing; Wang, Linjiang

2014-03-28

315

Geologic, geophysical, and in-situ stress investigations in the vicinity of the Dining Car chimney, Dining Car/Hybla Gold Drifts, Nevada Test Site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Hybla Gold event, detonated on Nov. 1, 1977, was conducted in the U12e.20 drifts of the E-tunnel complex beneath the surface of Rainier Mesa at the Nevada Test Site. Though the proximity of the Hybla Gold working point to the chimney of the Dining Car event was important to the experiment, the observable geologic effects from Dining Car on the Hybla Gold site were minor. Overburden above the working point is approximately 385 m (1263 ft). The pre-Tertiary surface, probably quartzite, lies approximately 254 m (833 ft) below the working point. This report comprises three chapters detailing the geologic, geophysical, and in situ stress data gathered in the period January through June 1977, in the course of mining and drilling in the Hybla Gold/Dining Car region. These investigations confirm several observations reported previously for the Rainier event, i.e., a zone of microfailure observable in thin-section and in physical properties exists adjacent to the chimney. In addition, however, a number of investigations add new information to our understanding of effects near the detonation point. Shear waves were found to be highly diagnostic in the microcracked zone near the chimney as well as zones of failure at greater range not discernible as well as zones of failure at greater range not discernible by other techniques. Extensive in situ stress measurements made by the hydrofracture and overcore techniques indicate changes in the orientation and magnitude of the pre-Dthe orientation and magnitude of the pre-Dining Car stress field. The hydrofracture technique further suggests pronounced gradients in minimum stress magnitudes over short distances at some locations in the postshot stress regime

316

Geodesy work in the construction of cooling towers of the Temelin nuclear power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The specifications are described of the cooling tower foundations, the bottom part of the flue chimney and of the cooling tower casing. In view of the cooling tower configuration, the ground control points inside the tower were selected in the pit bottom and the layout and check were performed of the inner tower wall. The methodology of measuring the basic layout network, and of laying out up to the fiftieth (ca. 80 m) and from the 70th (106 m) strip is described. The measurement results are computer-processed. The accuracy is assessed of the cooling tower construction in the Temelin nuclear power plant. (E.J.). 1 fig., 5 refs

317

FFTF constructibility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The influence of the design criteria on the constructibility of the Fast Flux Test Facility is described. Specifically, the effects of requirements due to maintenance accessibility, inerting of cells, seismicity, codes, and standards are addressed. The design and construction techniques developed to minimize the impact of the design criteria on cost and schedule are presented with particular emphasis on the cleanliness and humidity controls imposed during construction of the sodium systems. (U.S.)

318

Epitaxy-assisted creation of PCBM nanocrystals and its application in constructing optimized morphology for bulk-heterojunction polymer solar cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

PCBM (a C60 derivative) is so far the most successful electron acceptor for bulk-heterojunction polymer photovoltaic (PV) cells. Here we present a novel method epitaxy-assisted creation of PCBM nanocrystals and their homogeneous distribution in the matrix using freshly cleaved mica sheet as the substrate. The highly matched epitaxy relationship between the unit cell of PCBM crystal and crystallographic (001) surface of mica induces abundant PCBM nuclei, which subsequently develop into nanoscale crystals with homogeneous dispersion in the composite film. Both the shape and size of these nanocrystals could be tuned via choosing the type of matrix polymer, film thickness, ratio of PCBM in the composite film, and annealing temperature. Thus, the obtained thin composite film is removed from the original mica substrate via the flotation technique and transferred to a real substrate for device completion. The success of this method has been verified by the substantially improved device performance, in particular the increased short-circuit current, which is heavily dependent on the morphology of the photoactive layer. Therefore, we have actually demonstrated a novel approach to construct preferred morphology for high-performance optoelectronic devices via resorting to other specific substrates which could induce the formation of this type morphology. PMID:19367916

Li, Ligui; Lu, Guanghao; Li, Sijun; Tang, Haowei; Yang, Xiaoniu

2008-12-11

319

Construction Technologies.  

Science.gov (United States)

This document contains materials developed for and about the construction technologies tech prep program of the South-Western City Schools in Ohio. Part 1 begins with a map of the program, which begins with a construction technologies program in grades 11 and 12 that leads to entry-level employment or one of five 2-year programs at a community…

Columbus State Community Coll., OH.

320

Enhanced bilateral somatostatin receptor expression in mediastinal lymph nodes (''chimney sign'') in occult metastatic medullary thyroid cancer: a typical site of tumour manifestation?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In medullary thyroid cancer (MTC), post-surgically elevated plasma calcitonin and/or carcinoembryonic antigen levels frequently indicate persisting metastatic disease, although conventional diagnostic procedures fail to localize the responsible lesions (occult disease). Somatostatin analogues have been used successfully in disease localization, but recently concerns have been raised that increased thoracic uptake of indium-111 pentetreotide in patients with previous external beam irradiation may represent a false-positive finding, caused by post-irradiation pulmonary fibrosis. We recently examined seven patients with metastatic MTC by somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (six with occult and one with established disease). In four patients, all of whom had stable or slowly rising tumour marker levels over several years, a chimney-like bilateral mediastinal uptake of indium-111 pentetreotide was found. In two patients with persisting hypercalcitonaemia immediately after primary surgery, supraclavicular lymph node metastases were identified as the responsible lesions. None of these seven patients had prior external beam radiation therapy. In two cases, histological confirmation was obtained. In one patient, disease progression could be shown during follow-up. These data suggest that bilateral mediastinal lymph node involvement is a typical site of disease in slowly progressing occult metastatic MTC; the ''chimney sign'' may represent a typical finding with somatostatin analogues in such cases. Therefore, we believe that even in the case of prior external beam irradiation, mediastinal uptake of octreotide might represent metastatic MTC rather than radiation fibrosis. (orig.). With 2 figs., 1 tab

 
 
 
 
321

Enhanced bilateral somatostatin receptor expression in mediastinal lymph nodes (``chimney sign``) in occult metastatic medullary thyroid cancer: a typical site of tumour manifestation?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In medullary thyroid cancer (MTC), post-surgically elevated plasma calcitonin and/or carcinoembryonic antigen levels frequently indicate persisting metastatic disease, although conventional diagnostic procedures fail to localize the responsible lesions (occult disease). Somatostatin analogues have been used successfully in disease localization, but recently concerns have been raised that increased thoracic uptake of indium-111 pentetreotide in patients with previous external beam irradiation may represent a false-positive finding, caused by post-irradiation pulmonary fibrosis. We recently examined seven patients with metastatic MTC by somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (six with occult and one with established disease). In four patients, all of whom had stable or slowly rising tumour marker levels over several years, a chimney-like bilateral mediastinal uptake of indium-111 pentetreotide was found. In two patients with persisting hypercalcitonaemia immediately after primary surgery, supraclavicular lymph node metastases were identified as the responsible lesions. None of these seven patients had prior external beam radiation therapy. In two cases, histological confirmation was obtained. In one patient, disease progression could be shown during follow-up. These data suggest that bilateral mediastinal lymph node involvement is a typical site of disease in slowly progressing occult metastatic MTC; the ``chimney sign`` may represent a typical finding with somatostatin analogues in such cases. Therefore, we believe that even in the case of prior external beam irradiation, mediastinal uptake of octreotide might represent metastatic MTC rather than radiation fibrosis. (orig.). With 2 figs., 1 tab.

Behr, T.M. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Georg-August-University of Goettingen (Germany); Gratz, S. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Georg-August-University of Goettingen (Germany); Markus, P.M. [Department of Surgery (General and Endocrine Surgery), Georg-August-University of Goettingen (Germany); Dunn, R.M. [Garden State Cancer Center at the Center for Molecular Medicine and Immunology, Belleville (United States); Huefner, M. [Department of Internal Medicine (Endocrinology), Georg-August-University of Goettingen (Germany); Becker, H. [Department of Surgery (General and Endocrine Surgery), Georg-August-University of Goettingen (Germany); Becker, W. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Georg-August-University of Goettingen (Germany)

1997-02-01

322

Solar Generator  

Science.gov (United States)

The Vanguard I dish-Stirling module program, initiated in 1982, produced the Vanguard I module, a commercial prototype erected by the Advanco Corporation. The module, which automatically tracks the sun, combines JPL mirrored concentrator technology, an advanced Stirling Solar II engine/generator, a low cost microprocessor-controlled parabolic dish. Vanguard I has a 28% sunlight to electricity conversion efficiency. If tests continue to prove the system effective, Advanco will construct a generating plant to sell electricity to local utilities. An agreement has also been signed with McDonnell Douglas to manufacture a similar module.

1985-01-01

323

Economical solar-heating for homes  

Science.gov (United States)

Do-it-yourself supplementary solar-heating system is available for purchase at approximately $2,000. Report describes design, construction, testing, and economic analysis of low-cost solar heating system.

Allred, J. W.; Shinn, J. M., Jr.; Kirby, C. E.; Barringer, S. R.

1977-01-01

324

Construction management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

PEFP, Proton Engineering Frontier Project, puts its aim to building 100MeV 20mA linear proton accelerator which is national facility for NT, BT, IT, and future technologies, expected to boost up the national industry competitiveness. This R and D, Construction Management is in charge of the supportive works as site selection, architecture and engineering of conventional facilities, and overall construction management. The major goals of this work are as follows: At first, architecture and engineering of conventional facilities. Second, construction management, audit and inspection on construction of conventional facilities. Lastly, cooperation with the project host organization for adjusting technical issues of overall construction. In this research, We made a conceptual design, basic design and detail design of conventional facilities. Also, we made the engineering support for host site construction as follows : selection of project host organization and host site selection, construction technical work for project host organization and procedure management and impact analysis on the delay of project site selection

325

Passive options for solar cooling of buildings in arid areas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The major heat load of buildings and workshops, made of metal structures, is the solar energy supplied through the roof. Several passive modifications have been introduced to the roof in order to reduce the temperature of indoor air in arid areas. An experimental investigation, employing passive modifications, has been carried out to study the reduction in air temperature. The results show that the inside air temperature falls to within 6 and 3{sup o}C, respectively, from the ambient temperature when the ceiling is painted white, or provided with a layer of thermal insulation. Using evaporative cooling or a solar chimney leads to an inside temperature within 1{sup o}C of the ambient temperature. (author)

Amer, Emad H. [Department of Mechanical Power Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Menofiya University, Gamal Abdul Nasser St., Shebin El-kom, Menofiya (Egypt)

2006-07-15

326

Economic aspects of Solar Thermal Technologies for electricity generation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Economic results of German studies are presented, which compare the four solar thermal technologies for electricity generation (parabolic trough collector system, central receiver system, parabolic dish/Stirling system, solar chimney plant). These studies were carried out by Interatom (today Siemens/KWU) in Bergisch Gladbach, Flachglas Solartechnik in Koln and Schlaich Bergermann and Partner in Stuggart under contract of DLR in Koln. Funds were made available by the German Ministry of Research and Development (BMFT). The results indicate that all of the investigated technologies have the potential to reduce the generating costs and that in the future costs of below 0.30 DM/kWh could be expected under excellent insolation conditions (e.G. 2850 kWh/m''2 a direct insolation as in California/USA). (Author) 25 refs

327

Construction crane  

Science.gov (United States)

People who operate construction cranes carrying heavy loads must be coordinated. The load on the crane must not injure any workers or anyone else near the site. They must be careful to maneuver heavy loads around buildings without hitting them.

N/A N/A (None;)

2007-07-25

328

Worldwide construction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper lists major construction projects in worldwide processing and pipelining, showing capacities, contractors, estimated costs, and time of construction. The lists are divided into refineries, petrochemical plants, sulfur recovery units, gas processing plants, pipelines, and related fuel facilities. This last classification includes cogeneration plants, coal liquefaction and gasification plants, biomass power plants, geothermal power plants, integrated coal gasification combined-cycle power plants, and a coal briquetting plant

329

Solar Power  

Science.gov (United States)

Students learn about solar energy and how to calculate the amount of solar energy available at a given location and time of day on Earth. The importance of determining incoming solar energy for solar devices is discussed.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

330

Solar Lentigo  

Science.gov (United States)

newsletter | contact Share | Solar Lentigo Information for adults A A A This image displays many solar lentigos due to the patient having many sunburns as a child and teenager. Overview A solar lentigo (plural, solar lentigines), also known as a ...

331

In situ ore formation experiment: Amino acids and amino sugars trapped in artificial chimneys on deep-sea hydrothermal systems at Suiyo Seamount, Izu-Bonin Arc, Pacific Ocean  

CERN Document Server

The present study reports on the bio-organic composition of a deep-sea venting hydrothermal system originating from arc volcanism; the origin of the particulates in hydrothermal fluids from the Suiyo Seamount in the southern Izu-Bonin (Ogasawara) Arc is discussed with regard to amino compounds. Chimney samples on deep-sea hydrothermal systems and core samples at Suiyo Seamount were determined for amino acids, and occasionally amino sugars. Two types of chimney samples were obtained from active hydrothermal systems by submersible vehicles: one was natural chimney (NC) on a hydrothermal natural vent; the other was artificial chimneys (AC), mainly formed by the growth and deposition of sulfide-rich particulate components in a Kuwabara-type in situ incubator (KI incubator). Total hydrolyzed amino acids (THAA) and hydrolyzed hexosamines (HA) in AC ranged from 10.7 nmol/g to 64.0 nmol/g and from 0 nmol/g to 8.1 nmol/g, respectively, while THAA in hydrothermally altered core samples ranged from 26.0 nmol/g to 107.4 ...

Takano,; Marumo,; K.,; Ebashi,; T.,; Gupta,; P., L; Kawahata,; H.,; Kobayashi,; K.,; Yamagishi,; A.,; Kuwabara,; T,

2013-01-01

332

Field Analogues of Shallow-water Hydrocarbon Seepages in the Pleistocene Argille Azzurre Formation: the Chimneys Field of Enza River, Northern Apennines, Italy  

Science.gov (United States)

The geologically young Northern Apennines contain various natural seeps documenting a variability of reservoirs and fluids in terms of origin, age and evolution. Hydrocarbon and saline water seepages are controlled by the structures of the chain and the foredeep. In the geological record, the witness of these natural seepages are represented by authigenic carbonates. Their isotopic content allows to understand the carbon source and the processes of carbonate precipitation. The better known regional examples of Methane Derived Authigenic Carbonates (MDAC) and chemoherm build-ups, clustered in the Upper Miocene and Lower-Upper Pliocene successions, are formed in deep water (> 300 m) sediments. Occurrences in shallow water (shelf) settings have never been reported. Our case study describes the palisade chimneys field, recently exposed along the Enza riverbanks in the Northern Apennines in the Argille Azzurre Formation (blue mudstones) of Pleistocene age. The paleontological content (mainly bivalves) documents that this unit was deposited in an open marine muddy shelfal setting, in a bathymetric range of about 50-70 m, with local anoxic condition, documented by benthic foraminifer assemblages. The succession is biostratigraphically dated at the Early Pleistocene (Calabrian, nannoplancton zone MNN19e). A number of subvertical, metric-high columnar chimneys, ranging in diameter from 10 to 35 cm, in association with discontinuous planar carbonate concretions, intervening along the bedding planes, outcrop within the mudstones. Such concretions are clearly formed by the moderate cementation of the hosting pelitic sediments. The tubular concretions show central conduits running along the whole length, locally filled by sediments. The grain size within the concretions is homogeneous, both in the chimneys and planar concretions and irrespective of the bedding planes, suggesting a process of transport and homogenization prior to the cementation. Within the Enza river succession, some gas leakage still occurs, showing ?13C isotopic values of about -70‰, indicating a biogenic origin of the methane, generated within the Plio-Pleistocene mudstones. On the contrary, numerous hydrocarbon seepages along the same Northern Apennines foothills are characterized by thermogenic methane, generated at greater depth and presently trapped within Tertiary reservoirs. This documents the role of the different geologic context as the main control on gas generation and migration. The on-going research is focused on the petrographic, geochemical and biogeochemical characteristics of these concretions to unravel the different fluids involved in their formation, their concretioning modality and the fluid flow history.

Oppo, D.; Capozzi, R.; Dinelli, E.; Negri, A.; Montagna, P.; Picotti, V.; Scarponi, D.; Taviani, M.

2012-12-01

333

Solar energy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This chapter discusses the role solar energy may have in the energy future of the US. The topics discussed in the chapter include the solar resource, solar architecture including passive solar design and solar collectors, solar-thermal concentrating systems including parabolic troughs and dishes and central receivers, photovoltaic cells including photovoltaic systems for home use, and environmental, health and safety issues

334

Cooking with the Sun. How To Build and Use Solar Cookers.  

Science.gov (United States)

For those working with solar energy and/or conservation and the careful use of resources, constructing a solar oven can be a fun and useful activity. This book describes the construction and use of solar ovens for cooking. Construction details are provided for two inexpensive solar ovens and a reflector hot plate that can then be used to cook 100…

Halacy, Beth; Halacy, Dan

335

Solar ponds; Piscinas solares  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this chapter the characteristics of natural solar ponds are presented. It is then discussed the main motivations to reproduce this natural phenomenon in order to generate energy, and thus it is presented how to build a solar pond and how to generate the salt gradient, it is also discussed the wind effects, the solar ponds efficiency, some common problems limitations and applications. 15 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

Fraidenraich, Naum [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Centro de Energia Nuclear; Lyra, Francisco [Companhia Hidroeletrica do Sao Francisco (CHESF), Recife, PE (Brazil)

1995-12-31

336

Culture dependent and independent analyses of 16S rRNA and ATP citrate lyase genes: a comparison of microbial communities from different black smoker chimneys on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.  

Science.gov (United States)

The bacterial and archaeal communities of three deep-sea hydrothermal vent systems located on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR; Rainbow, Logatchev and Broken Spur) were investigated using an integrated culture-dependent and independent approach. Comparative molecular phylogenetic analyses, using the 16S rRNA gene and the deduced amino acid sequences of the alpha and beta subunits of the ATP citrate lyase encoding genes were carried out on natural microbial communities, on an enrichment culture obtained from the Broken Spur chimney, and on novel chemolithoautotrophic bacteria and reference strains originally isolated from several different deep-sea vents. Our data showed that the three MAR hydrothermal vent chimneys investigated in this study host very different microbial assemblages. The microbial community of the Rainbow chimney was dominated by thermophilic, autotrophic, hydrogen-oxidizing, sulfur- and nitrate-reducing Epsilonproteobacteria related to the genus Caminibacter. The detection of sequences related to sulfur-reducing bacteria and archaea (Archaeoglobus) indicated that thermophilic sulfate reduction might also be occurring at this site. The Logatchev bacterial community included several sequences related to mesophilic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria, while the archaeal component of this chimney was dominated by sequences related to the ANME-2 lineage, suggesting that anaerobic oxidation of methane may be occurring at this site. Comparative analyses of the ATP citrate lyase encoding genes from natural microbial communities suggested that Epsilonproteobacteria were the dominant primary producers using the reverse TCA cycle (rTCA) at Rainbow, while Aquificales of the genera Desulfurobacterium and Persephonella were prevalent in the Broken Spur chimney. PMID:18523725

Voordeckers, James W; Do, My H; Hügler, Michael; Ko, Vivian; Sievert, Stefan M; Vetriani, Costantino

2008-09-01

337

Construction work  

CERN Multimedia

Construction work on building 179 will start on the 16th February 2004 and continue until November 2004. The road between buildings 179 and 158 will temporarily become a one way street from Route Democrite towards building 7. The parking places between buildings 179 and 7 will become obsolete. The ISOLDE collaboration would like to apologize for any inconveniences.

2004-01-01

338

Personal child and mother carbon monoxide exposures and kitchen levels: methods and results from a randomized trial of woodfired chimney cookstoves in Guatemala (RESPIRE).  

Science.gov (United States)

During the first randomized intervention trial (RESPIRE: Randomized Exposure Study of Pollution Indoors and Respiratory Effects) in air pollution epidemiology, we pioneered application of passive carbon monoxide (CO) diffusion tubes to measure long-term personal exposures to woodsmoke. Here we report on the protocols and validations of the method, trends in personal exposure for mothers and their young children, and the efficacy of the introduced improved chimney stove in reducing personal exposures and kitchen concentrations. Passive diffusion tubes originally developed for industrial hygiene applications were deployed on a quarterly basis to measure 48-hour integrated personal carbon monoxide exposures among 515 children 0-18 months of age and 532 mothers aged 15-55 years and area samples in a subsample of 77 kitchens, in households randomized into control and intervention groups. Instrument comparisons among types of passive diffusion tubes and against a continuous electrochemical CO monitor indicated that tubes responded nonlinearly to CO, and regression calibration was used to reduce this bias. Before stove introduction, the baseline arithmetic (geometric) mean 48-h child (n=270), mother (n=529) and kitchen (n=65) levels were, respectively, 3.4 (2.8), 3.4 (2.8) and 10.2 (8.4) p.p.m. The between-group analysis of the 3355 post-baseline measurements found CO levels to be significantly lower among the intervention group during the trial period: kitchen levels: -90%; mothers: -61%; and children: -52% in geometric means. No significant deterioration in stove effect was observed over the 18 months of surveillance. The reliability of these findings is strengthened by the large sample size made feasible by these unobtrusive and inexpensive tubes, measurement error reduction through instrument calibration, and a randomized, longitudinal study design. These results from the first randomized trial of improved household energy technology in a developing country and demonstrate that a simple chimney stove can substantially reduce chronic exposures to harmful indoor air pollutants among women and infants. PMID:19536077

Smith, Kirk R; McCracken, John P; Thompson, Lisa; Edwards, Rufus; Shields, Kyra N; Canuz, Eduardo; Bruce, Nigel

2010-07-01

339

Samba Solar; Samba Solar  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Brazil, the biggest country of the South American subcontinent, has discovered the power of solar energy. Brazil recently introduced net metering of solar power plants and started to open the power supply grid to PV systems. The market has great potential as Brazil is the world's sixth biggest national economy.

Thurston, Charles W.

2012-07-01

340

Sandwich construction  

Science.gov (United States)

A form of composites known as structural sandwich construction is presented in terms of materials used, design details for solving edging and attachment problems, and charts of design material analysis. Sandwich construction is used in nearly all commercial airliners and helicopters, and military air and space vehicles, and it is shown that this method can stiffen a structure without causing a weight increase. The facing material can be made of 2024 or 7075 aluminum alloy, titanium, or stainless steel, and the core material can be wood or foam. The properties of paper honeycomb and various aluminum alloy honeycombs are presented. Factors pertaining to adhesive materials are discussed, including products given off during cure, bonding pressure, and adaptability. Design requirements and manufacturing specifications are resolved using numerous suggestions.

Marshall, A.

 
 
 
 
341

Modelling Constructs  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

There are many different notations and formalisms for modelling business processes and workflows. These notations and formalisms have been introduced with different purposes and objectives. Later, influenced by other notations, comparisons with other tools, or by standardization efforts, these notations have been extended in order to increase expressiveness and to be more competitive. This resulted in an increasing number of notations and formalisms for modelling business processes and in an increase of the different modelling constructs provided by modelling notations, which makes it difficult to compare modelling notations and to make transformations between them. One of the reasons is that, in each notation, the new concepts are introduced in a different way by extending the already existing constructs. In this chapter, we go the opposite direction: We show that it is possible to add most of the typical extensions on top of any existing notation or formalism—without changing the formalism itself. Basically, we introduce blocks with some additional attributes defining their initiation and termination behaviour. This serves two purposes: First, it gives a clearer understanding of the basic constructs and how they can be combined with more advanced constructs. Second, it will help combining different modelling notations with each other. Note that, though we introduce a notation for blocks in this chapter, we are not so much interested in promoting this notation here. The notation should just prove that it is possible to separate different issues of a modelling notation, and this way making its concepts clearer and the interchange of models easier. A fully-fledged block notation with a clear and simple interface to existing formalisms is yet to be developed.

Kindler, Ekkart

2009-01-01

342

Capital construction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Capital Construction Programme 1997 included 57 construction actions. There were total investments of 1,929,520,000 Slovak crowns. Activities of the V-1 NPP Gradual Reconstruction Programme were focused on the following technologic systems - pressurizer safety valves, steam generator super emergency feed water supply, the third emergency power supply from the Madunice Hydro Plant, and motor generator - were conducted at the V-1 NPP Unit 1 in 1997. Enhancement activities at the V-1 NPP Unit 2 included pressurizer safety valves, steam generator super emergency feed water supply, seismic reinforcement, fire protection improvement, and air-conditioning structures. Following activities were completed: the Unit 2 Release-to-Atmosphere Plant, 3rd emergency power supply from the Madunice Hydro Plant , closed cable rooms gas extinguishing system, motor generators replacement, seismic reinforcement of the super emergency feed water pump building, pressurizer safety valve joint reconstruction. The V-2 NPP nuclear safety enhancement and seismic reinforcement consist of a set of safety measures to improve the V-2 NPP nuclear safety and performance reliability. Replacement of the V-1 NPP and V-2 NPP cooling systems using freons belonged to the most important ecological constructions completed in 1997. The Heat Line uses heat withdrawn from the V-2 NPP for the towns of Leopoldov and Hlohovec centralized heat supply. There was the work conducted at the primary heating joints and Hlohovec and Leopoldov Heat Withdrawal Plants, at Heat Withdrawal Plants of other facilities in these towns and the redundant heating system in 1997. Having undergone testing and reviews all the line was set under trial operation on October 24, 1997. Bohunice NPPs AKOBOJE Security System assured the automatic system of security protection of the site. This construction was divided into several stages. First two stages were completed in 1996, the third one a year later. AKOBOJE Security System has been under its full operation since November 25, 1997

343

Prospectives for China's solar thermal power technology development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

China's total installed electrical power capacity reached 700 GW by the end of 2007 and is predicted to surpass 900 GW in 2010. The rapid increase in energy demand and increasing global warming have both pushed China to change its current electrical power structure where coal power accounts for nearly 75% of the total electric power generation. China has already become the world's largest solar water heater producer and user. However, there is still much to be done in the solar thermal power field before its commercialization. Solar thermal power technologies including solar power towers, solar parabolic trough concentrators, solar dish/stirling systems, linear Fresnel reflectors, and solar chimneys have been studied in China since the 1980s. A 10 kW dish/stirling project was funded by the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) during 2000-2005 with a 1 MW solar power tower and research of trough concentrator metal-glass evacuated tubes supported during 2006-2010. This paper describes a continued solar thermal power development roadmap in China in 5-year intervals between 2006 and 2025. (author)

Wang, Zhifeng [Key Laboratory of Solar Thermal Energy and Photovoltaic System of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Electrical Engineering, P.O. Box 2703, Beijing 100190 (China)

2010-11-15

344

Salt-gradient solar ponds  

Science.gov (United States)

A description of salt-gradient solar ponds is presented. Guidelines concerning the construction and maintenance of the pond are discussed. A computer model was used to study layer migration in laboratory tanks and in an outdoor pond. The status of solar ponds is briefly discussed. An equation relating heat flux and salt flux at a boundary is included.

Neeper, D. A.

345

USE OF GLASS IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Thesis deals with the use of glass in construction, therefore we will walk through the historic turning points in the development of glass and further display production. We will describe the main characteristics of the construction glass, its usefulness in the construction industry and the type of glass, suitable for making glass facades. We will see in more detail the types of glass facades and the types of solar protection, depending on the material, method of the affixing, and shape. We w...

Pangrc?ic?, Monika

2012-01-01

346

Solar optimized building construction. Concept 3: New building of Fachhochscule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg University at Sankt Augustin. Accompanying research and measuring programme. Part 1: Conception, planning and implementation. Part 2: Measurements, evaluations. Final report with two appendices; Solar optimiertes Bauen. Teilkonzept 3: Neubau der Fachhochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg in Sankt Augustin. Begleitforschung und Messprogramm. T. 1: Konzeption, Planung und Baudurchfuehrung. T. 2: Messungen, Auswertungen. Schlussberichte mit 2 Anlagenbaenden  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The new building of the FH Rhein-Sieg University at Sankt Augustin received funds from the SolarBau Teilkonzept 3 programme (www.solarbau.de). The construction team was made of architects, constructional engineers, and daylighting and thermal insulation experts. Construction was started in November 1997, and the building was put into use in the winter term of 1999/2000. (orig.) [German] Der Neubau der FH Rhein-Sieg in Sankt Augustin wurde als Projekt im Rahmen des Foerderprogramms Solar Bau Teilkonzept 3 (www.solarbau.de) gefoerdert. Folgende Kriterien waren fuer diese Entscheidung ausschlaggebend: (1) Aufgrund seiner Lage, der Architektur und der Nutzung handelt es sich um einen oeffentlichkeitswirksamen mehrgeschossigen Neubau, denn als Hochschule ist das Gebaeude ueberwiegend tagsueber genutzt und in Teilen oeffentlich zugaenglich. (2) Die Bruttogeschossflaeche liegt mit ca. 30.100 m{sup 2} deutlich ueber der geforderten Mindestflaeche von 1.000 m{sup 2}. (3) Das Planungsteam ist wie gefordert interdisziplinaer besetzt. Neben den Architekten und Bauingenieuren gehoeren dem Team Spezialisten fuer Tagelichtnutzung und Waermeschutz an. Der Baubeginn war im November 1997. Zum Wintersemester 1999/2000 wurde das Gebaeude in Betrieb genommen. Weil die Arbeit am Oekologiekonzept aus verwaltungstechnischen Gruenden erst Mitte 1998 beginnen konnte, war es nicht mehr moeglich, die Bauplanung von Anfang an zu begleiten. Dieses war aber insofern unproblematisch, da aufgrund der Auflage des Bauherrn, das Bauwerk energetisch und oekologisch vorbildlich zu errichten, die Planungsphase von vornherein von Optimierungsprozessen begleitet wurde, wie sie auch vom Oekologiekonzept gefordert werden. (orig.)

Kaufmann, B.; Kerschberger, A.; Oetzel, M.; Brach-Annies, C.; Ruff, S.; Kaul, P.; Schmitz, U.

2000-07-01

347

Solar oscillation frequency and solar neutrino predictions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The global quantities of mass, radius, surface effective temperature, luminosity, and the internal composition structure are used to calculate a mass zone model employed in pulsation analyses. The construction of this model is done by integrating the equations of pressure balance and luminosity conservation from the surface to the center in one pass. Pulsation mechanisms are discussed, frequencies are compared with observations, and the frequencies of weakly interacting massive particles are analyzed. It is concluded that solar-oscillation frequencies are predicted to be very close to those observed, but solar neutrino-flux predictions continue to be much larger than observed. 33 refs

348

Boom Construction  

Science.gov (United States)

Student teams design their own booms (bridges) and engage in a friendly competition with other teams to test their designs. Each team strives to design a boom that is light, can hold a certain amount of weight, and is affordable to build. Teams are also assessed on how close their design estimations are to the final weight and cost of their boom "construction." This activity teaches students how to simplify the math behind the risk and estimation process that takes place at every engineering firm prior to the bidding phaseâwhen an engineering firm calculates how much money it will take to build the project and then "bids" against other competitors.

AMPS GK-12 Program,

349

Constructing Emotion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Constructionist approaches to emotion have existed since the time of William James, and are united in the assumption that the psychological events called "anger", "sadness", and "fear" are not the elemental building blocks of emotion, but instead are mental events that result from the interplay of more basic psychological systems. This paper summarizes the three fundamental hypotheses that ground the Conceptual Act Model, a recently introduced constructionist approach to emotion. First, the mental events that people refer to as "emotion" are constructed, in the blink of an eye; from more basic psychological primitives that are always in play. Second, psychological primitives are not themselves specific to emotion, and are hypothesized to participate to some degree in constructing every psychological moment. Third, factors that have traditionally been treated as non-emotional such as concepts and language play a central role in making an instance of emotion what it is. Implications of the Conceptual Act Model for the science of emotion are then discussed.

Lisa Feldman Barrett

2011-12-01

350

Solar car. Solar car  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present report explained the technical and economic points of problem raised from the solar car. Being an electric car provided with a non-utility photovoltaic power generation unit, the solar car is built up by mitigating the necessary condition as a battery car and added/combined with the necessary condition for the power generation unit. In the World Solar Challenge 1990, all the five cars were mounted with Ag/Zn and solar cells. Extremely high-priced, those cells aimed at heightening in acceleration and slope ascension performances, and mean speed under the bad weather condition by a large electric capacity condensation to mitigate the increase in weight. The battery is indispensable to maintaining the practicability for the stabilized traveling and required performance with a large fluctuation in traveling load. The merit of practically using the solar car consists of diminution in capacity and lengthening in life of the battery. The motor, driving system, control system and wheels are technically in the stage of practical use, and appropriate technology of the two important elements, improvement and lowering in cost of the solar cell and battery will accelerate practical application. 1 fig.

Numasaki, H.

1992-06-18

351

Job creation potential of solar  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document defines the size of the job market within Canada's solar industry and presents a preliminary forecast of the employment opportunities through to 2025. The issue of job potential within Canada's solar technologies is complicated by the wide range of different fields and technologies within the solar industry. The largest energy generator of the solar technologies is passive solar, but the jobs in this sector are generally in the construction trades and window manufacturers. The Canadian Solar Industries Association estimates that there are about 360 to 500 firms in Canada with the primary business of solar technologies, employing between 900 to 1,200 employees. However, most solar manufacturing jobs in Canada are for products exports as demonstrated by the 5 main solar manufacturers in Canada who estimate that 50 to 95 per cent of their products are exported. The main reason for their high export ratio is the lack of a Canadian market for their products. The 3 categories of job classifications within the solar industry include manufacturing, installation, and operations and maintenance. The indirect jobs include photovoltaic system hardware, solar hot water heating, solar air ventilation, and glass/metal framing. 17 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

352

Solar Energy Education. Home economics: student activities. Field test edition  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A view of solar energy from the standpoint of home economics is taken in this book of activities. Students are provided information on solar energy resources while performing these classroom activities. Instructions for the construction of a solar food dryer and a solar cooker are provided. Topics for study include window treatments, clothing, the history of solar energy, vitamins from the sun, and how to choose the correct solar home. (BCS)

1981-03-01

353

TPG construction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

TPG is the acronym for a 3D imaging gas chamber with GEM amplification, hexaboard read-out and FADC electronics. We have constructed a TPG-head with three GEM foils (30cm diameter) and a read-out board (30cm diameter active surface) covered with 710,000 hexagonal pads of 300?m size. Aligned pads are connected in parallel to one strip out of three sets of 576 parallel strips (500?m pitch). The three sets of strips run at 120-bar from each other and at three different depths inside the hexaboard multilayer structure. Each strip is read out by FADC electronics. The TPG-head is under initial test in a small container with a drift volume 33mm long and of 30cm diameter. A 150cm long drift volume inside a 0.7T solenoidal magnetic field has been prepared by using HARP-TPC instrumentation as test bed

354

Constructing Catalonia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Catalonia, in common with other nations, has long been concerned with thequestion of identity and difference. Its problematic relationship with Spain has led to anemphasis on differentiating itself from its larger neighbour (if we are to accept, as mostSpaniards do not, that Catalonia is not Spain, a situation complicated by the loss of theSpanish colonies of Cuba and The Philippines in 1898, and the Spanish Civil War andsubsequent dictatorship from 1936 to 1976. Beginning in the late nineteenth century, theconstruction of a Catalan identity followed a similar route to that taken by otherEuropean nations such as England, Ireland and, indeed, Spain, including an emphasis onrural values, activities and the countryside, and the conversion of specifically localtraditions into national past times. It is only in the last ten years or so that this model ofCatalan identity has been recognised for what it is – a model constructed andencouraged for and by specific nationalist political interests. Ironically, Catalonia’sidentity abroad has also been constructed and manipulated for political purposes, butfrom quite a different perspective. Orwell’s /Homage to Catalonia/ (1938 narrates anextremely blinkered version of the Spanish Civil War which has achieved iconic statusas a result of cold war politics. Subsequent portrayals of the Spanish Civil War –Valentine Cunningham’s /The Penguin Book of Spanish Civil War Verse/ (ed.,Penguin, 1980, or Ken Loach’s 1995 film /Land and Freedom/ base their argumentsunquestioningly on /Homage to Catalonia/, perpetuating a view of the nation’s recenthistory that is both reductive and inaccurate.

Bill Phillips

2009-01-01

355

The Modified Chimney Technique With a Thoracic Aortic Stent Graft to Preserve the Blood Flow of the Left Common Carotid Artery for Treating Descending Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm and Dissection  

Science.gov (United States)

While thoracic endovascular aortic repair is an effective treatment option for descending thoracic aorta pathology, it does have limitations. The main limitation is related to the anatomical difficulties when disease involves the aortic arch. A fenestrated, branched aortic stent graft and hybrid operation has been introduced to overcome this limitation, but it is a custom-made device and is time consuming to manufacture. Furthermore, these devices cannot be used in an emergency setting. We report two patients with massive descending thoracic aortic aneurysm and ruptured aortic dissection very near the aortic arch who underwent a procedure which we named the modified chimney technique. The modified chimney technique can be used as a treatment option in such an emergency situation or as a rescue procedure when aortic pathology is involved near the supra-aortic vessels. PMID:22701139

Lee, Kyung Nam; Park, Jin Sup; Kim, Bo Won; Cha, Kwang Soo; Kim, Sang-Pil; Lee, Chung Won; Kim, Hae Kyu

2012-01-01

356

Solar energy collection system  

Science.gov (United States)

A fixed, linear, ground-based primary reflector having an extended curved sawtooth-contoured surface covered with a metalized polymeric reflecting material, reflects solar energy to a movably supported collector that is kept at the concentrated line focus reflector primary. The primary reflector may be constructed by a process utilizing well known freeway paving machinery. The solar energy absorber is preferably a fluid transporting pipe. Efficient utilization leading to high temperatures from the reflected solar energy is obtained by cylindrical shaped secondary reflectors that direct off-angle energy to the absorber pipe. A seriatim arrangement of cylindrical secondary reflector stages and spot-forming reflector stages produces a high temperature solar energy collection system of greater efficiency.

Miller, C. G.; Stephens, J. B. (inventors)

1979-01-01

357

Requirements for solar predictions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The types of data analyzed and disseminated by the Space Environment Services Center (SESC) and the Air Force Global Weather Central (AFGWC) are outlined. Manned by U.S. Air Force and NOAA personnel under the auspices of the DoD and the DoC, the services provide solar predictions on x-ray events, optical flares, radio bursts, high energy particle events, solar wind variations or geomagnetic activity, background radio flux and the general level of solar activity in terms of real-time data and probabilities of events. Sample forecast documents are provided for the various types of events. It is noted that new facilities are being planned or constructed to upgraded existing computing capabilities and to incorporate state-of-the-art predictive models of the solar processes being monitored. 5 references

358

77 FR 4989 - Turning Point Solar LLC: Notice of Availability of an Environmental Assessment  

Science.gov (United States)

...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Turning Point Solar LLC proposes to construct a 49.9 MW solar generating facility in Brookfield Township...efficiency monocrystalline photovoltaic panels mounted on fixed solar racking equipment and the...

2012-02-01

359

Solar Energy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presented is the utilization of solar radiation as an energy resource principally for the production of electricity. Included are discussions of solar thermal conversion, photovoltic conversion, wind energy, and energy from ocean temperature differences. Future solar energy plans, the role of solar energy in plant and fossil fuel production, and…

Eaton, William W.

360

Authigenic Carbonate Constructions From Deep Sea Cold Seeps  

Science.gov (United States)

Various examples of authigenic carbonates from modern marine cold seeps have been described worldwide on active or passive continental margins. They may be associated or not with gas hydrates. After a decade of microbiological and geochemical studies, we know that in cold seep marine environments, methane and other hydrocarbon compounds contained in the ascending fluids are oxidized as CO2 by a microbial consortium of sulfate reducing bacteria and methanotrophic archea. The Anaerobic Oxidation of Methane (AOM) represents the main microbial process driving the precipitation of authigenic carbonate crusts and concretions within the subsurface anoxic sediments. This explains why sea floor is often hardened by carbonate constructions at the sites of active methane seepage. The lateral and vertical extensions of these carbonate constructions are controlled by the balance between the intensity of the venting fluid flux and the ability of microbial communities to oxidize methane and to reduce sulfate. At steady state, the microbial filter transforms the totality of the emitted methane and generates carbonate; however, the efficiency of this filter can be counteracted by high methane flux, so that methane can escape in the water column and eventually reach the atmosphere ; numerical modelling of carbonate crust formation has shown that bioturbation and sedimentation rates are also important factors that control fluid and methane flow rates and thus carbonate precipitation at cold seep sites. The carbonate constructions observed at the sea floor exhibit various morphologies : massive to porous crusts, cm to meters thick, forming large pavements or fragmented slabs, circular chimneys, irregular concretions corresponding to cemented bioturbations. These hard substrates are often colonized by fixed organisms as polychaetes, tube-worms, molluscs, as well as by an abundant vagile fauna. The authigenic carbonates represent very useful archives to reconstruct the story of the seep activity. Their mineralogy, geochemical and isotopic compositions depend on the composition of the fluids and thus provide information of the origin of these fluids. It is noteworthy to mention that carbonate minerals are generally dominated by aragonite and Mg-calcite although dolomite and ankerite may become the unique species as in the carbonate chimneys of the Gulf of Cadiz. All cold seep carbonates are characterized by very low ?13C values down to - 60 permil clearly indicating that they were methane-derived products. The lipid biomarkers that are entrapped in the carbonate network provide the complementary information of the composition of the microbial communities that were involved during the diagenetic processes, AOM, sulfate reduction and methanogenesis.

Pierre, C.; Bouloubassi, I.

2008-12-01

 
 
 
 
361

MINIPILOT SOLAR SYSTEM: DESIGN/OPERATION OF SYSTEM AND RESULTS OF NON-SOLAR TESTING AT MRI  

Science.gov (United States)

A Minipilot Solar Reactor System (MSRS) with liquid organic feed was designed, constructed and tested without solar input (the Solar Tests were to be done later at DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory). he non-solar tests were done to determine whether use of EPA's sampling...

362

Solar energy  

Science.gov (United States)

The book opens with a review of the patterns of energy use and resources in the United States, and an exploration of the potential of solar energy to supply some of this energy in the future. This is followed by background material on solar geometry, solar intensities, flat plate collectors, and economics. Detailed attention is then given to a variety of solar units and systems, including domestic hot water systems, space heating systems, solar-assisted heat pumps, intermediate temperature collectors, space heating/cooling systems, concentrating collectors for high temperatures, storage systems, and solar total energy systems. Finally, rights to solar access are discussed.

Rapp, D.

363

Solar activity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report summarizes research in the study of solar activity over the three-year period from Dec 1972 to Sep 1975. Research is reported under the following headings: 1) Optical solar instrumentation; 2) Skylab - ATM results; 3) High resolution observations of the solar chromosphere with the CNRS instrument on OSO 9; 4) High-resolution spectrometer, University of Colorado/HAO experiment on OSO 8; 5) Solar radio astronomy; 6) Sunspots; 7) Solar active regions and periodicities in solar activity; 8) Faculae and plages; 9) Solar flares; 10) High-energy solar particles; 11) Prominences; 12) Non-spot magnetic fields; 13) Theory of the solar cycle; 14) Observations of the active corona; 15) Solar wind disturbances and 16) Sun-earth relations. Progress made by the Working Group on International Programs is summarized. (B.R.H.)

364

Solar Systems  

Science.gov (United States)

The solar collectors shown are elements of domestic solar hot water systems produced by Solar One Ltd., Virginia Beach, Virginia. Design of these systems benefited from technical expertise provided Solar One by NASA's Langley Research Center. The company obtained a NASA technical support package describing the d e sign and operation of solar heating equipment in NASA's Tech House, a demonstration project in which aerospace and commercial building technology are combined in an energy- efficient home. Solar One received further assistance through personal contact with Langley solar experts. The company reports that the technical information provided by NASA influenced Solar One's panel design, its selection of a long-life panel coating which increases solar collection efficiency, and the method adopted for protecting solar collectors from freezing conditions.

1979-01-01

365

Methanotorris formicicus sp. nov., a novel extremely thermophilic, methane-producing archaeon isolated from a black smoker chimney in the Central Indian Ridge.  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel extremely thermophilic, methane-producing archaeon was isolated from a black smoker chimney at the Kairei field in the Central Indian Ridge. Cells of this isolate were irregular cocci with several flagella; motility was not observed. Growth was observed between 55 and 83 degrees C (optimum of 75 degrees C; 30 min doubling time) and between pH 6.0 and 8.5 (optimum of pH 6.7). The isolate was a strictly anaerobic, methanogenic autotroph capable of using hydrogen and carbon dioxide as sole energy and carbon sources. Formate was utilized as an alternative energy source. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 33.3 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the isolate was most closely related to Methanotorris igneus strain Kol 5T. The isolate, however, could be genetically differentiated from this species by DNA-DNA hybridization analysis and on the basis of its physiological properties. The name Methanotorris formicicus sp. nov. is proposed for this isolate; the type strain is Mc-S-70T (=JCM 11930T=ATCC BAA-687T). PMID:15280275

Takai, Ken; Nealson, Ken H; Horikoshi, Koki

2004-07-01

366

Orbital origins of helices and magic electron counts in the nowotny chimney ladders: the 18 - N rule and a path to incommensurability.  

Science.gov (United States)

Valence electron count is one of the key factors influencing the stability and structure of metals and alloys. However, unlike in molecular compounds, the origins of the preferred electron counts of many metallic phases remain largely mysterious. Perhaps the clearest-cut of such electron counting rules is exhibited by the Nowotny chimney ladder (NCL) phases, compounds remarkable for their helical structural motifs in which transition metal (T) helices serve as channels for a second set of helices formed from main group (E) elements. These phases exhibit density of states pseudogaps or band gaps, and thus special stability and useful physical properties, when their valence electron count corresponds to 14 electrons per T atom. In this Article, we illustrate, using DFT-calibrated Hückel calculations and the reversed approximation Molecular Orbital analysis, that the 14-electron rule of the NCLs is, in fact, a specific instance of an 18 - n rule emerging for T-E intermetallics, where n is the number of E-supported T-T bonds per T atom. The structural flexibility of the NCL series arises from the role of the E atoms as supports for these T-T bonds, which simply requires the E atoms to be as uniformly distributed within the T sublattice as possible. This picture offers a strategy for identifying other intermetallic structures that may be amenable to incommensurability between T and E sublattices. PMID:25215958

Yannello, Vincent J; Fredrickson, Daniel C

2014-10-01

367

Thoracic type Ia endoleak: direct percutaneous coil embolization of the aortic arch at the blood entry site after TEVAR and double-chimney stent-grafts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To introduce a novel percutaneous technique to stop blood entry at the lesser aortic arch curvature by coil embolisation in type Ia endoleak after TEVAR. A 61-year-old Marfan patient presented with type Ia endoleak of the aortic arch and a growing aortic arch pseudoaneurysm after TEVAR. Multiple preceding operations and interventions made an endovascular approach unsuccessful. Direct percutaneous puncture of the aneurysmal sac would have cured the sign, but not the cause of blood entry at the lesser curvature of the aortic arch. Direct CT-guided percutaneous puncture of the blood entry site in the aortic arch with fluoroscopically guided coil embolisation using detachable extra-long coils was successfully performed. Three weeks after the intervention, the patient developed fever because of superinfection of the pseudoaneurysm. The blood cultures and CT-guided mediastinal aspirate were sterile. After intravenous administration of antibiotics, the fever disappeared and the patient recovered. Six-month follow-up showed permanent closure of the endoleak and a shrinking aneurysmal sac. Direct percutaneous puncture of the aortic arch at the blood entry site of a thoracic type Ia endoleak after TEVAR and double-chimney stent-grafts with coil embolisation of the wedge-shaped space between the lesser aortic curvature and the stent-graft is possible. (orig.)

368

Thoracic type Ia endoleak: direct percutaneous coil embolization of the aortic arch at the blood entry site after TEVAR and double-chimney stent-grafts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To introduce a novel percutaneous technique to stop blood entry at the lesser aortic arch curvature by coil embolisation in type Ia endoleak after TEVAR. A 61-year-old Marfan patient presented with type Ia endoleak of the aortic arch and a growing aortic arch pseudoaneurysm after TEVAR. Multiple preceding operations and interventions made an endovascular approach unsuccessful. Direct percutaneous puncture of the aneurysmal sac would have cured the sign, but not the cause of blood entry at the lesser curvature of the aortic arch. Direct CT-guided percutaneous puncture of the blood entry site in the aortic arch with fluoroscopically guided coil embolisation using detachable extra-long coils was successfully performed. Three weeks after the intervention, the patient developed fever because of superinfection of the pseudoaneurysm. The blood cultures and CT-guided mediastinal aspirate were sterile. After intravenous administration of antibiotics, the fever disappeared and the patient recovered. Six-month follow-up showed permanent closure of the endoleak and a shrinking aneurysmal sac. Direct percutaneous puncture of the aortic arch at the blood entry site of a thoracic type Ia endoleak after TEVAR and double-chimney stent-grafts with coil embolisation of the wedge-shaped space between the lesser aortic curvature and the stent-graft is possible. (orig.)

Bangard, Christopher; Franke, Mareike; Maintz, David; Chang, De-Hua [University Hospital, University of Cologne, Department of Radiology, Cologne (Germany); Pfister, Roman [University Hospital, University of Cologne, Department of Internal Medicine III, Cologne (Germany); Deppe, Antje-Christin [University Hospital, University of Cologne, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Cologne (Germany); Matoussevitch, Vladimir [University Hospital, University of Cologne, Department of Vascular Surgery, Cologne (Germany)

2014-06-15

369

Solar Water Heating with Low-Cost Plastic Systems (Brochure)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Newly developed solar water heating technology can help Federal agencies cost effectively meet the EISA requirements for solar water heating in new construction and major renovations. This document provides design considerations, application, economics, and maintenance information and resources.

2012-01-01

370

Optimal mixed convection for maximal energy recovery with vertical porous channel (solar wall)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A vertical open-ended channel filled with a porous medium, with an imposed heat flux and a heat loss coefficient on one of its walls, is studied numerically. A fan can enhance the self-driven flow, and therefore a mixed convection regime is considered. The objective is to maximize the overall energy recovery (heat transfer to the fluid minus fan power). Correlations are developed for optimal pressure drop to be imposed by the fan and maximal energy recovery, as a function of the Rayleigh number, the channel aspect ratio, and the heat loss coefficient. The optimal allocation of the total energy losses (i.e., sum of the heat loss and fan power) is shown. Potential applications include solar wall and solar chimney used for ventilation and preheating of makeup air in buildings. (author)

Boutin, Yanik; Gosselin, Louis [Departement de genie mecanique, Universite Laval, 1065, avenue de la Medecine, Quebec City, Quebec (Canada)

2009-12-15

371

Solar energy use in a construction project: The new old people's home at Muenchenbernsdorf. Final report; Solarenergienutzung im Rahmen eines Bauvorhabens Neubau bzw. Umbau eines Senioren- und Pflegeheimes in Muenchenbernsdorf. Abschlussbericht  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Old people's homes have a high and largely constant water consumption in all seasons. They are therefore ideal objects for solar sytems. The new old people's home at Muenchenbernsdorf is presented which has a large thermal solar power system, which is also to induce private builder-owners to opt for solar power. [German] Aufgrund ihres hohen (und jahreszeitlich weitestgehend konstanten) Warmwasserverbrauches bieten Senioren- und Pflegeheime sehr gute Voraussetzungen fuer die Nutzung der thermischen Solarenergie zur Warmwasserbereitung. Der Ersatzneubau des Senioren- und Pflegeheims der Stadt Muenchenbernsdorf bietet sehr gute Ansatzpunkte fuer die Senkung des Energieverbrauches und der vom Objekt ausgehen Umweltbelastungen durch Nutzung regenerativer Energietraeger. Durch die Realisierung einer grossen thermischen Solaranlage auf einem oeffentlichen Gebaeude sollen private Bauherren der Region zu eigenen Energiesparinvestitionen angeregt werden. (orig.)

Maschke, R.; Mueller; Grossmann

2000-07-01

372

Inlet throttling effect on the boiling two-phase flow stability in a natural circulation loop with a chimney  

Science.gov (United States)

Experiments have been conducted to investigate an effect of inlet restriction on the thermal-hydraulic stability. A Test facility used in this study was designed and constructed to have non-dimensional values that are nearly equal to those of natural circulation BWR. Experimental results showed that driving force of the natural circulation at the stability boundary was described as a function of heat flux and inlet subcooling independent of inlet restriction. In order to extend experimental database regarding thermal-hydraulic stability to different inlet restriction, numerical analysis was carried out based on the homogeneous flow model. Stability maps in reference to the core inlet subcooling and heat flux were presented for various inlet restrictions using the above-mentioned function. Instability region during the inlet subcooling shifted to the higher inlet subcooling with increasing inlet restriction and became larger with increasing heat flux.

Furuya, M.; Inada, F.; Yasuo, A.

373

Solar Special  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Solar power is growing much faster than most policymakers and analysts realise. As costs come down and feed-in tariffs go up across Europe, a number of countries have started in pursuit of market leader Germany. But in Germany criticism is growing of the multi-billion-euro support schemes that keep the solar industry booming. In this section of the magazine several articles are dedicated to developments in solar energy in Europe. The first article is an overview story on the strong growing global market for solar cells, mainly thanks to subsidy schemes. The second article is on the position of foreign companies in the solar market in Italy. Article number three is dedicated to the conditions for solar technology companies to establish themselves in the German state of Saxony. Also the fifth article deals with the development of solar cells in Saxony: scientists, plant manufacturers and module producers in Saxony are working on new technologies that can be used to produce solar electricity cost-effectively. The goal is to bring the price down to match that of conventionally generated electricity within the next few years. The sixth article deals with the the solar power market in Belgium, which may be overheated or 'oversubsidized'. Article seven is on France, which used to be a pioneer in solar technology, but now produces only a fraction of the solar output of market leader Germany. However, new attractive feed-in-tariffs are changing the solar landscape drastically changing the solar landscape drastically

374

Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for junior high/middle school science  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Some basic topics on the subject of solar energy are outlined in the form of a teaching manual. The manual is geared toward junior high or middle school science students. Topics include solar collectors, solar water heating, solar radiation, insulation, heat storage, and desalination. Instructions for the construction of apparatus to demonstrate the solar energy topics are provided. (BCS)

1985-01-01

375

Numerical modelling of the process of heat transference, of the convective flow induced and the power generated in a wind power station; Modelizacion numerica del proceso de transferencia de calor, del flujo convectivo inducido y de la potencia generada en una central eolico solar  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A thermodynamic analysis for solar chimney power plant has been carried out by numerical simulation. A numerical model has been developed using the general purpose code Fluent to study heat transfer and convective flow within the chimney power plant. The {kappa}-{epsilon} turbulence model has been employed. A heat transfer, mass flow and power production numerical analysis has been carried out on different hours during the day, assuming steady state conditions. The numeric values obtained are 10% different from experimental measures. Once model has been validated, a numeric study about flow within power plant, heat transfer and mass flow has been carry out, and the non-dimensional parameters obtained have been compared with studies about free convection. (Author)

Hurtado, F. J.; Kaiser, A. S.; Zamora, B.; Lucas, M.; Viedma, A.

2008-07-01

376

Electric dreams  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Outlines ideas for solar chimneys. South Africa and India have considered such projects, and a prototype was constructed in Spain. One suggestion is for a plant that would generate 100 megawatts of electricity and cost about 220 million UK pounds. It would require a chimney about 1 kilometre high and a collector about 3.5 kilometres across. It is estimated electricity from the plant would cost 7.6 pence per kilowatt hour

Hattersley, Lia

1999-03-06

377

Solar oscillations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Observed frequencies of solar oscillations comprise an extensive and accurate set of data related to the structure and dynamics of the solar interior. The physics determining the oscillation frequencies is sufficiently simple that a very detailed comparison between observations and theory is possible. This has provided tight constraints on the structure of the solar interior, as well as measurements of the variation of the solar rotation with depth. (orig.)

378

Solar Neutrinos  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study of solar neutrinos has given since ever a fundamental contribution both to astroparticle and to elementary particle physics, offering an ideal test of solar models and offering at the same time relevant indications on the fundamental interactions among particles. After reviewing the striking results of the last two decades, which were determinant to solve the long standing solar neutrino puzzle and refine the Standard Solar Model, we focus our attention on the more...

Antonelli, V.; Miramonti, L.; Pena-garay, C.; Serenelli, A.

2012-01-01

379

SOLAR TEXTILES  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Diploma work deals with the practicability of usage flat textiles for storage and transformation of solar energy. In the frame of introduction the technology for transformation of solar energy directly into electric and also the conventional solar cells’ limitations are presented. The main part presents the stage of development of textiles for producing light, flexible solar cells. The conclusion reweaves the usage of various flat textile with photovoltaics system used for clothes, interior...

Skus?ek, Petra

2010-01-01

380

Solar Neutrinos  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Present results and future measurements of solar neutrinos are discussed. The results to date indicate that solar electron neutrinos are changing to other active types and that transitions solely to sterile neutrinos are disfavored. The flux of $^{8}B$ solar neutrinos produced in the Sun, inferred assuming only active neutrino types, is found to be in very good agreement with solar model calculations. Future measurements will focus on greater accuracy for charged current...

Mcdonald, A. B.

2002-01-01