WorldWideScience

Sample records for conduit financing arrangements

  1. 76 FR 76895 - Conduit Financing Arrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ...C) of the conduit financing regulations to treat an...determining whether a conduit financing arrangement exists. The...foreign law purposes and equity for U.S. purposes) should constitute per se ``financing transactions''...

  2. 26 CFR 1.881-3 - Conduit financing arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... state (the source state) to a resident of the other state from tax in the source state. Example 1... income from U.S. sources under section 861(a)(4) subject to the 30 percent gross tax imposed by § 1.881-2... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conduit financing arrangements. 1.881-3...

  3. 26 CFR 1.881-3 - Conduit financing arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...is product A. FS' business activity is substantial...000,000 to FS to finance FS' business operations. On January...substantial trades or businesses and are located in...centralized cash management accounting system for...

  4. 26 CFR 1.7701(l)-1 - Conduit financing arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES General Actuarial Valuations § 1.7701...such recharacterization is appropriate to prevent avoidance of any tax imposed by title 26 of the United States...

  5. Financing arrangements for nuclear power projects in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This reference book reviews the main features and problems or difficulties involved in the financing of nuclear power projects with special reference to developing countries. It provides basic information and advice to developing countries interested in nuclear power projects as part of their power sector planning. The book outlines the general characteristics of financing a nuclear power project and presents innovative approaches for power generation financing. It discusses the special conditions and requirements of nuclear power projects and their financing complexities. The focus is on the practical issues that need to be dealt with in order to successfully finance these power projects, as well as the constraints faced by most developing countries. Possible ways and means of dealing with these constraints are presented. 58 refs, figs and tabs

  6. Summary of a reference book on financing arrangements for nuclear power projects in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA has recently published a reference book entitled Financing Arrangements for Nuclear Power Projects in Developing Countries (Technical Reports Series No. 353). The book reviews comprehensively the main features and problems concerning the financing of such projects in developing countries and presents innovative approaches for power generation financing. It also discusses the special conditions and requirements of nuclear power projects and the complexities of their financing, focusing on the practical issues to be dealt with to achieve successful financing, as well as the constraints encountered by most developing countries. This booklet summarizes the important features of the financing arrangements discussed in the reference book and was prepared with the aim of widely disseminating the results

  7. 26 CFR 1.7701(l)-3 - Recharacterizing financing arrangements involving fast-pay stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... involving fast-pay stock. 1.7701(l)-3 Section 1.7701(l)-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE....7701(l)-3 Recharacterizing financing arrangements involving fast-pay stock. (a) Purpose and scope. This section is intended to prevent the avoidance of tax by persons participating in fast-pay arrangements...

  8. Financing arrangements for nuclear power projects - past and present experience and future expectations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The intent of the author of the present paper is to demonstrate, in a practical manner, the role of the past experience and the new approaches of the nuclear projects financing, especially as nuclear generation financing in developing countries involves complex issues that need to be fully understood and dealt with by all the parties involved, namely: high investment costs, generally long construction periods, a high degree of uncertainty with respect to costs and schedule and to public acceptance, particularly because of safety, waste disposal and non-proliferation issues. Moreover, as many associations whose activities consist of ensuring and facilitating at different levels the exchange of knowledge between generations, i.e.: European Nuclear Society (ENS) Young Generation, North American Young Generation in Nuclear (NA-YGN), the goal of the paper is also to outline the importance of the education in nuclear field, i.e. training a young team of specialists to be ready to take over the movement and responsibility in continuing the further development of nuclear program in Romania, mainly with view to the Financing Arrangements for Nuclear Power Projects. The first part of the paper is referring to general financing procedures, while the second part is focusing on a case study related to the: past experience the financing scheme of Cernavoda NPP Unit 1, present or actual experience ongoing financing issues for Cernavoda NPP Unit 2 and potential future shared contribution to the financing of the next Cernavoda NPP units.(author)

  9. LEASING ARRANGEMENTS AS A FORM OF FINANCING BUSINESS ENTITIES IN REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DRAGICA ODZAKLIESKA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the modern conditions for working, the problems with providing appropriate sources for financing business entities are more emphasized. In fact, the access to the financing sources is one of the limiting factors for the business entities development. If the business entity is able to satisfy completely or on a higher degree its financing needs from its own sources, then it gains significant competitive advantage and possibility for growth, by decreasing the costs for financing and minimizing the risk. But, these sources most often are not sufficient for business financing. In R. Macedonia, most usually used sources for work financing are the bank loans, which is a result mainly to the nonsufficiently developed financial market, and generally, the low degree of the economic development. However, the bank loans are expensive source of financing, which is negatively reflected into the financial result of the business entities. Because of that, the business entities get down to use alternative financing sources, such as: portfolio investments, foreign direct investments, issue of shares and bonds and specific sources of financing ( factoring financing, forfeiting financing, leasing and financing by franchise. In this paper, the accent will be put on the leasing as a specific form for financing the business entities in R. Macedonia. A research for that how much the business entities are acquainted with the advantages of using this financing source, how much the leasing is present as a financing form and if there are limiting factors in its use, will be conducted. At the end, on the basis of the obtained results from the research, some measures and recommendations for higher leasing implementation in the business entities in Republic of Macedonia will be given

  10. 26 CFR 1.7701(l)-3 - Recharacterizing financing arrangements involving fast-pay stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...section is intended to prevent the avoidance of tax by persons participating...fast-pay arrangement is the avoidance of any tax imposed by the Internal Revenue...for using such rules is the avoidance of any tax imposed by the Internal...

  11. Flexible cryogenic conduit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A flexible and relatively low cost cryogenic conduit is described. The flexible cryogenic conduit of the present invention comprises a first inner corrugated tube with single braided serving, a second outer corrugated tube with single braided serving concentric with the inner corrugated tube, and arranged outwardly about the periphery of the inner corrugated tube and between the inner and outer corrugated tubes: a superinsulation layer; a one half lap layer of polyester ribbon; a one half lap layer of copper ribbon; a spirally wound refrigeration tube; a second one half lap layer of copper ribbon; a second one half lap layer of polyester ribbon; a second superinsulation layer; a third one half lap layer of polyester ribbon; and a spirally wound stretchable and compressible filament

  12. Contractual arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conceptually there are a number of different contract models from which a country can select the most suitable for its social, political and economic requirements. These include: 1) the traditional concession, 2) production sharing contracts, 3) service contracts, and 4) equity sharing contracts, i.e. joint ventures. The joint venture arrangement, as it is most commonly used in uranium exploration and mining, is discussed in light of national objectives; geological and technical aspects; infrastructural aspects; and economic aspects. Topics covered include: the exploration phases; the exploration license; exploration area; minimum exploration commitment; host country investor relationship; financing of exploration expenditures; minerals other than uranium; feasibility studies; taxation and levies; and termination of the agreement. During the production phase consideration must be given to such aspects as: The operating company; participation ratio; financing of the participation share; export of production; fiscal regime; imports of goods and services; training of local personnel; provision of support by the host country; assignment of rights; duration of contract; disputes and arbitration procedures; decisions making; transfer of technology; safety; environmental protection and compensation; and restoration of sites. These considerations are all discussed, particularly in regard to the joint venture agreement. The paper emphasises the need, in a successful agreement, for openness and understanding between the parties. No agreement can cover every possible subject that can become a source of disagreement. Only by a sympathetic understanding of each others position and needs can a joint project be successful. (author). 11 refs

  13. Portable conduit retention apparatus for releasably retaining a conduit therein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Richard H. (West Seneca, NY)

    1998-01-01

    Portable conduit retention apparatus for releasably retaining a conduit therein. The apparatus releasably retains the conduit out of the way of nearby personnel and equipment. The apparatus includes a portable support frame defining a slot therein having an open mouth portion in communication with the slot for receiving the conduit through the open mouth portion and into the slot. A retention bar is pivotally connected to the support frame adjacent the mouth portion for releasably retaining the conduit in the slot. The retention bar freely pivots to a first position, so that the mouth portion is unblocked in order that the conduit is received through the mouth portion and into the slot. In addition, the retention bar freely pivots to a second position, so that the mouth portion is blocked in order that the conduit is retained in the slot. The conduit is released from the slot by pivoting the retention bar to the first position to unblock the mouth portion and thereafter manipulating the conduit from the slot and through the mouth portion. The apparatus may further include a mounting member attached to the support frame for mounting the apparatus on a vertical support surface. Another embodiment of the apparatus includes a shoe assembly of predetermined weight removably connected to the support frame for resting the apparatus on a floor in such a manner that the apparatus is substantially stationary on the floor.

  14. Alternative Tuition Pricing Arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Alan C.

    This document discusses alternative tuition pricing arrangements in higher education. Reference is made to National Commission on Financing Postsecondary Education generalizations that would enable policymakers to anticipate the likely consequences of their decisions. These generalizations suggest: (1) aid to reduce tuition will accomplish less in…

  15. Solar thermal financing guidebook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, T.A.; Cole, R.J.; Brown, D.R.; Dirks, J.A.; Edelhertz, H.; Holmlund, I.; Malhotra, S.; Smith, S.A.; Sommers, P.; Willke, T.L.

    1983-05-01

    This guidebook contains information on alternative financing methods that could be used to develop solar thermal systems. The financing arrangements discussed include several lease alternatives, joint venture financing, R and D partnerships, industrial revenue bonds, and ordinary sales. In many situations, alternative financing arrangements can significantly enhance the economic attractiveness of solar thermal investments by providing a means to efficiently allocate elements of risk, return on investment, required capital investment, and tax benefits. A net present value approach is an appropriate method that can be used to investigate the economic attractiveness of alternative financing methods. Although other methods are applicable, the net present value approach has advantages of accounting for the time value of money, yielding a single valued solution to the financial analysis, focusing attention on the opportunity cost of capital, and being a commonly understood concept that is relatively simple to apply. A personal computer model for quickly assessing the present value of investments in solar thermal plants with alternative financing methods is presented in this guidebook. General types of financing arrangements that may be desirable for an individual can be chosen based on an assessment of his goals in investing in solar thermal systems and knowledge of the individual's tax situation. Once general financing arrangements have been selected, a screening analysis can quickly determine if the solar investment is worthy of detailed study.

  16. 30 CFR 18.39 - Hose conduit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ...Hose conduit shall be provided for mechanical protection of all machine cables that are exposed to damage. Hose conduit shall be flame...

  17. Limitations of Conduits in Peripheral Nerve Repairs

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Amy M.; Kasukurthi, Rahul; Magill, Christina K.; Farhadi, H. Francis; Borschel, Gregory H; Mackinnon, Susan E.

    2009-01-01

    Nerve conduits have emerged as alternatives to autologous nerve grafts, but their use in large-diameter nerve deficits remains untested. We report four patients who underwent repair of large-diameter nerves using absorbable nerve conduits and discuss the failed clinical outcomes. The reported cases demonstrate the importance of evaluating the length, diameter, and function of nerves undergoing conduit repair. In large-diameter nerves, the use of conduits should be carefully considered.

  18. Ductile compaction in volcanic conduits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, Fabian; Vasseur, Jeremie; Lavallée, Yan; Scheu, Bettina; Dingwell, Donald

    2014-05-01

    Silicic magmas typically outgas through connected pore and crack networks with a high gas permeability without the need for decoupled movement of pores in the melt. It is the efficiency with which this process can occur which governs the pressure in the pore network. However, such a connected coupled network is generally mechanically unstable and will relax until volume equilibrium when the pores become smaller and isolated. Consequently, gas permeability can be reduced during densification. Cycles of outgassing events recorded in gas monitoring data show that permeable flow of volatiles is often transient, which is interpreted to reflect magma densification and the closing of pore-networks. Understanding the timescale over which this densification process occurs is critical to refining conduit models that seek to predict the pressure evolution in a pore-network leading to eruptions. We conduct uniaxial compaction experiments to parameterize non-linear creep and relaxation processes that occur in magmas with total pore fractions 0.2-0.85. We analyze our results by applying both viscous sintering and viscoelastic deformation theory to test the applicability of currently accepted models to flow dynamics in the uppermost conduit involving highly porous magmas. We show that purely ductile compaction can occur rapidly and that pore networks can close over timescales analogous to the inter-eruptive periods observed during classic cyclic eruptions such as those at Soufriere Hills volcano, Montserrat, in 1997. At upper-conduit axial stresses (0.1-5 MPa) and magmatic temperatures (830-900 oC), we show that magmas can evolve to porosities analogous to dome lavas erupted at the same volcano. Such dramatic densification events over relatively short timescales and in the absence of brittle deformation show that permeable flow will be inhibited at upper conduit levels. We therefore propose that outgassing is a key feature at many silicic volcanoes and should be incorporated into conduit flow models.

  19. Conduits for Coronary Bypass: Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Barner, Hendrick B

    2013-01-01

    Strategic planning is integral to any operation but complexity varies immensely and therefore the effort necessary to create the optimal plan. The previous three reports have discussed individual conduits and herein is an attempt to present approaches to common situations which the author favors. Although much has been learned over 45 years about use and subsequent behavior of venous and arterial grafts we continue to learn and, as a result, evolve new strategies or modify those now popular. ...

  20. Peripheral nerve conduits: technology update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arslantunali D

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available D Arslantunali,1–3,* T Dursun,1,2,* D Yucel,1,4,5 N Hasirci,1,2,6 V Hasirci,1,2,7 1BIOMATEN, Center of Excellence in Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering, Middle East Technical University (METU, Ankara, Turkey; 2Department of Biotechnology, METU, Ankara, Turkey; 3Department of Bioengineering, Gumushane University, Gumushane, Turkey; 4Faculty of Engineering, Department of Medical Engineering, Acibadem University, Istanbul, Turkey; 5School of Medicine, Department of Histology and Embryology, Acibadem University, Istanbul, Turkey; 6Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, METU, Ankara, Turkey; 7Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, METU, Ankara, Turkey *These authors have contributed equally to this work Abstract: Peripheral nerve injury is a worldwide clinical problem which could lead to loss of neuronal communication along sensory and motor nerves between the central nervous system (CNS and the peripheral organs and impairs the quality of life of a patient. The primary requirement for the treatment of complete lesions is a tension-free, end-to-end repair. When end-to-end repair is not possible, peripheral nerve grafts or nerve conduits are used. The limited availability of autografts, and drawbacks of the allografts and xenografts like immunological reactions, forced the researchers to investigate and develop alternative approaches, mainly nerve conduits. In this review, recent information on the various types of conduit materials (made of biological and synthetic polymers and designs (tubular, fibrous, and matrix type are being presented. Keywords: peripheral nerve injury, natural biomaterials, synthetic biomaterials

  1. Biological conduits combining bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and extracellular matrix to treat long-segment sciatic nerve defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The transplantation of polylactic glycolic acid conduits combining bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and extracellular matrix gel for the repair of sciatic nerve injury is effective in some respects, but few data comparing the biomechanical factors related to the sciatic nerve are available. In the present study, rabbit models of 10-mm sciatic nerve defects were prepared. The rabbit models were repaired with autologous nerve, a polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, or a polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells + extracellular matrix gel. After 24 weeks, mechanical testing was performed to determine the stress relaxation and creep parameters. Following sciatic nerve injury, the magnitudes of the stress decrease and strain increase at 7,200 seconds were largest in the polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells + extracellular matrix gel group, followed by the polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells group, and then the autologous nerve group. Hematoxylin-eosin staining demonstrated that compared with the polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells group and the autologous nerve group, a more complete sciatic nerve regeneration was found, including good myelination, regularly arranged nerve fibers, and a completely degraded and resorbed conduit, in the polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells + extracellular matrix gel group. These results indicate that bridging 10-mm sciatic nerve defects with a polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells + extracellular matrix gel construct increases the stress relaxation under a constant strain, reducing anastomotic tension. Large elongations under a constant physiological load can limit the anastomotic opening and shift, which is beneficial for the regeneration and functional reconstruction of sciatic nerve. Better regeneration was found with the polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells + extracellular matrix gel grafts than with the polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells grafts and the autologous nerve grafts.

  2. Equity Financing: Real Estate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Richard; Davies, Jonathan

    1987-01-01

    Many small, private colleges are examining aggressive ways of economically developing their land and other physical assets by strategies ranging from direct ownership of tangible property to joint and participating ownership arrangements consisting of leases, financing, and partnerships. In all cases, however, potential tax consequences should be…

  3. Financing Public Library Construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohlf, Robert H.; Stoffel, Lester L.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews financing options available to Illinois public libraries for construction or expansion, including general obligation bonds, mortgage funds, building reserve funds, building fund levies, lease back arrangements, sale of air or ground development rights, interest on special funds, gift funds and grants, Library Service and Construction Act…

  4. Sealing of conduits penetrating fire barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the results of a research fire test conducted to evaluate the internal sealing requirements for conduits penetrating fire barriers. The project was funded by a group of nuclear utilities in order to develop conduit sealing guidelines based on sound technical information in response to regulatory guidance. A test slab incorporating 101 conduit penetrations was exposed to the ASTM E-119 standard fire exposure for three hours. During the test, no flames propagated through the conduits and no cables were ignited on the unexposed side of the test slab. Guidelines were developed based on the test results which provide recommended sealing practices for conduits of diameters six inches or smaller which penetrate fire barriers. The test report has been submitted to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for review as a proprietary topical report. 4 refs., 3 figs

  5. Private Placement Debt Financing for Public Entities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Lance S.

    2010-01-01

    Private placement financing is a debt or capital lease obligation arranged between a municipality or a 501(c) (3) not-for-profit organization and a single sophisticated institutional investor. The investor can be a bank, insurance company, finance company, hedge fund, or high-net worth individual. Private placement financing is similar to…

  6. Pumped Storage and Potential Hydropower from Conduits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2015-02-25

    Th is Congressional Report, Pumped Storage Hydropower and Potential Hydropower from Conduits, addresses the technical flexibility that existing pumped storage facilities can provide to support intermittent renewable energy generation. This study considered potential upgrades or retrofit of these facilities, the technical potential of existing and new pumped storage facilities to provide grid reliability benefits, and the range of conduit hydropower opportunities available in the United States.

  7. Crystallographic arrangements: Weyl groupoids and simplicial arrangements

    OpenAIRE

    Cuntz, Michael

    2010-01-01

    We introduce the simple notion of a "crystallographic arrangement" and prove a one-to-one correspondence between these arrangements and the connected simply connected Cartan schemes for which the real roots are a finite root system (up to equivalence on both sides). We thus obtain a more accessible definition for this very large subclass of the class of simplicial arrangements for which a complete classification is known.

  8. Karst conduit sinuosity as a driver of karst hyporheic exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J. L.; Henry, K.

    2013-12-01

    It has recently been suggested by the authors that water from a flowing phreatic karst conduit can enter the surrounding permeable matrix, in an analogy to hyporheic exchange for streams. Within the matrix two consequences of this exchange are processing of conduit water chemistry and speleogenesis. Small-scale exchange to and from the conduit is promoted by hydraulic head variations created by the conduit wall topology, but there is also a larger scale exchange created by conduit sinuosity and axial conduit head gradients. Considering several types of sinuosity, we use mathematical modeling of conduit flow to drive 3D matrix flow and exchange, examining the patterns, rates, and residence times of exchange and the resulting implications for water chemistry and additional speleogenesis. Presenting results in terms of dimensionless numbers allows us to address karst conduits at different stages of development, and to assess the importance of sinuosity driven exchange in terms of diver-observable features in the larger conduits.

  9. Variability of permeability with diameter of conduit

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J A Adegoke; J A Olowofela

    2008-05-01

    An entry length is always observed before laminar flow is achieved in fluid flowing in a conduit. This depends on the Reynolds number of the flow and the degree of smoothness of the conduit. This work examined this region and the point where laminar flow commences in the context of flow through conduit packed with porous material like beads, of known porosity. Using some theoretical assumptions, it is demonstrated that permeability varies from zero at wall-fluid boundary to maximum at mid-stream, creating a permeability profile similar to the velocity profile. An equation was obtained to establish this. We also found that peak values of permeability increase with increasing porosity, and therefore entry length increases with increasing porosity with all other parameters kept constant. A plot of peak permeability versus porosity revealed that they are linearly related.

  10. A case report of complication liked jejunal conduit syndrome induced by reconstruction of ileal conduit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The patient was a 77-year-old man who underwent radical cystectomy and ileal conduit urinary diversion due to bladder cancer in 1989. A stenosis of the right uretero-ileal anastomosis occurred in 1992, and of the left uretero-ileal anastomosis in 1999. These were treated with indwelling of a ureteral stent and percutaneous nephrostomy, respectively. He was admitted to our hospital for progressive renal dysfunction due to frequent pyelonephritis. We performed a reconstruction of the ileal conduit urinary diversion and after the removal of the bilateral ureteral stent he complained of nausea and general malaise. The laboratory data showed hyponatremia, hyperkalemia and azotemia, which were diagnosed as complication liked jejunal conduit syndrome. He was treated with hydration and salt supplementation. With regard to this case, we considered that a long ileal conduit close to the jejunum and renal dysfunction caused the complication liked jejunal conduit syndrome. Careful observation and follow-up laboratory examination should be performed if the patient has renal dysfunction and a long conduit near the jejunum is used for the ileal conduit. (author)

  11. Project financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Project financing was defined ('where a lender to a specific project has recourse only to the cash flow and assets of that project for repayment and security respectively') and its attributes were described. Project financing was said to be particularly well suited to power, pipeline, mining, telecommunications, petro-chemicals, road construction, and oil and gas projects, i.e. large infrastructure projects that are difficult to fund on-balance sheet, where the risk profile of a project does not fit the corporation's risk appetite, or where higher leverage is required. Sources of project financing were identified. The need to analyze and mitigate risks, and being aware that lenders always take a conservative view and gravitate towards the lowest common denominator, were considered the key to success in obtaining project financing funds. TransAlta Corporation's project financing experiences were used to illustrate the potential of this source of financing

  12. Financing Investment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirth, Stefan; Flor, Christian Riis

    2008-01-01

    Intuition suggests that corporate investment should be decreasing in financing constraints. We show that even when financing is obtained using a standard debt contract and there is symmetric information between the firm and outside investors, the relation is actually U-shaped. We thus provide a new theoretical explanation for the recent empirical findings of Cleary et al. (2007). We split up the endogenously implied financing costs and propose a trade-off between expected liquidation costs and s...

  13. Drill pipes and casings utilizing multi-conduit tubulars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curlett, H.B.

    1989-01-24

    A seal adapted for use with a multi-conduit well tubular, or the like, is described which consists of: a plate with fluid passages, each passage corresponding to an opening of a conduit of the multiconduit tubular, and a groove on the plate around each passage; and elastomer means partially embeddable into each groove for sealing each conduit of a tubular to a corresponding conduit of another similar tubular.

  14. Project financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the basic concepts and components of the project financing of large industrial facilities. Diagrams of a simple partnership structure and a simple leveraged lease structure are included. Finally, a Hypothetical Project is described with basic issues identified for discussion purposes. The topics of the paper include non-recourse financing, principal advantages and objectives, disadvantages, project financing participants and agreements, feasibility studies, organization of the project company, principal agreements in a project financing, insurance, and an examination of a hypothetical project

  15. Structuring and financing power projects in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contractual arrangements for the financing and construction of three 660 MW coal fired power plants in Hong Kong are summarized in the form of headings and a diagram. These cover the joint venture arrangement, construction and equipment supply, the operation and offtake contract, coal supply and the financial structure with respect to commercial risk. (UK)

  16. Apartment purchase financing analysis since World War II until today

    OpenAIRE

    Staniša, Maja

    2009-01-01

    The diploma work deals with the possibility of financing the apartment purchase since World War II until today. In the history of the financing residential economy we are trying to determine legal basis arranging financing, basic characteristics of financing, loaning and institutions which have a leading role in financing in certain periods of history. Residential politicy in Slovenia went through different periods and it always reflected the influence of economical and political systems duri...

  17. Optical Arrangement and Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Processing of electromagnetic radiation is described, said incoming electromagnetic radiation comprising radiation in a first wavelength interval and a plurality of spatial frequencies. An arrangement comprises a focusing arrangement for focusing the incoming electromagnetic radiation, a first cavity configured to comprise an intra cavity laser beam, a nonlinear crystal arranged in the first cavity such that it is capable of receiving the focused electromagnetic radiation and, in dependence on t...

  18. Dispersive Hydrodynamics in Viscous Fluid Conduits

    CERN Document Server

    Lowman, Nicholas K

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of the interface separating a conduit of light, viscous fluid rising buoyantly through a heavy, more viscous, exterior fluid at small Reynolds numbers is governed by the interplay between nonlinearity and dispersion. Previous authors have proposed an approximate model equation based on physical arguments, but a precise theoretical treatment for this two fluid system with a free boundary is lacking. Here, a derivation of the interfacial equation via a multiple scales, perturbation technique is presented. Perturbations about a state of vertically uniform, laminar conduit flow are considered in the context of the Navier-Stokes equations with appropriate boundary conditions. The ratio of interior to exterior viscosities is the small parameter used in the asymptotic analysis, which leads systematically to a maximal balance between buoyancy driven, nonlinear self-steepening and viscous, interfacial stress induced, nonlinear dispersion. This results in a scalar, nonlinear partial differential equation ...

  19. Biochemical engineering nerve conduits using peptide amphiphiles.

    OpenAIRE

    A Tan; Rajadas, J.; Seifalian, A M

    2012-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injury is a debilitating condition. The gold standard for treatment is surgery, requiring an autologous nerve graft. Grafts are harvested from another part of the body (a secondary site) to treat the affected primary area. However, autologous nerve graft harvesting is not without risks, with associated problems including injury to the secondary site. Research into biomaterials has engendered the use of bioartificial nerve conduits as an alternative to autologous nerve grafts....

  20. Financing a nuclear programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power plant construction projects have many characteristics in common with other types of large infrastructure investment, both within the power generation sector and elsewhere. However, nuclear power itself has special features that can make nuclear financing particularly challenging. These features include the high capital cost, the relatively long period required to recoup investments, the often controversial nature of nuclear projects. The need for clear solutions and financing schemes for radioactive waste management and decommissioning and the need for nuclear power plants to operate at high capacity factors, preferably under base load conditions. During the previous major expansion of nuclear power in the 1970 and 1980, many nuclear projects suffered very large construction delays and cost overruns. The legacy of such problems increases the risks perceived by potential investors. A recent study undertaken jointly by the Iea and the Nea showed that the competitiveness of nuclear power strongly depends on the cost of financing due to the high share of fixed capital costs in the total lifetime costs of nuclear power. A key issue in this context is the long-term predictability of carbon pricing arrangements, which, for the time being and despite positive evolutions in this respect, most notably in Europe, does not yet exist. This paper will consider how the risks can be mitigated and examine in detail various models for corporate finance and the role of government assistance in providing a suitable financial basis. (Author)

  1. Thermal damping and retardation in karst conduits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Luhmann

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Water temperature is a non-conservative tracer in the environment. Variations in recharge temperature are damped and retarded as water moves through an aquifer due to heat exchange between water and rock. However, within karst aquifers, seasonal and short-term fluctuations in recharge temperature are often transmitted over long distances before they are fully damped. Using analytical solutions and numerical simulations, we develop relationships that describe the effect of flow path properties, flow-through time, recharge characteristics, and water and rock physical properties on the damping and retardation of thermal peaks/troughs in karst conduits. Using these relationships, one can estimate the thermal retardation and damping that would occur under given conditions with a given conduit geometry. Ultimately, these relationships can be used with thermal damping and retardation field data to estimate parameters such as conduit diameter. We also examine sets of numerical experiments where we relax some of the assumptions used to develop these relationships, testing the effects of variable diameter, variable velocity, open channels, and recharge shape on thermal damping and retardation to provide some constraints on uncertainty. Finally, we discuss a tracer experiment that provides field confirmation of our relationships. High temporal resolution water temperature data are required to obtain sufficient constraints on the magnitude and timing of thermal peaks and troughs in order to take full advantage of water temperature as a tracer.

  2. Arrangement for detecting radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improved arrangement of ionization chambers for use in particle accelerators is described in which two measuring chambers are formed between three mutually parallel walls. The arrangement is used to monitor the homogeneity of the dose output on the cone of emitted rays. (U.K.)

  3. An Exploratory Study of the Effects of Project Finance on Project Risk Management : How the Distinguishing Attributes of Project Finance affects the Prevailing Risk Factor?

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Ka Fai

    2011-01-01

    Project finance is a financing arrangement for projects, and it is characterised by the creation of a legally independent project company financed with non- or limited recourse loans. It is observed that the popularity of project finance is increasing in the recent decades, despite of the impact of Asian financial crisis. Especially in emerging markets, project finance is very common among the public-private partnership projects. It is possible that project finance yields some benefits in pro...

  4. Bank finance versus bond finance

    OpenAIRE

    De Fiore, Fiorella; Uhlig, Harald

    2005-01-01

    We present a dynamic general equilibrium model with agency costs, where heterogeneous firms choose among two alternative instruments of external finance - corporate bonds and bank loans. We characterize the financing choice of firms and the endogenous financial structure of the economy. The calibrated model is used to address questions such as: What explains differences in the financial structure of the US and the euro area? What are the implications of these differences for allocations? We f...

  5. Delayed complication of pelvic lymphocele: Ileal conduit obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankar, Sanket S; Bakshi, Ganesh K; Prakash, Gagan; Sable, Nilesh P

    2015-01-01

    Radical cystectomy is the standard treatment for muscle invasive bladder cancer. Lymphocele is a common sequalae of pelvic lymphadenectomy. We report an unusual presentation of pelvic lymphocele developing after radical cystectomy reconstructed with an ileal conduit where the patient developed obstruction of the ileal conduit loop due to external pressure of the lymphocele. Catheter drainage of the conduit relieved the symptoms and a computerized tomography scan showed a large lymphocele causing acute angulation and resultant obstruction of the ileal conduit. The patient was treated with percutaneous drainage of the lymphocele and remains symptom-free on follow-up at 1 year. PMID:26166973

  6. Quantum Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baaquie, Belal E.

    2007-09-01

    Foreword; Preface; Acknowledgements; 1. Synopsis; Part I. Fundamental Concepts of Finance: 2. Introduction to finance; 3. Derivative securities; Part II. Systems with Finite Number of Degrees of Freedom: 4. Hamiltonians and stock options; 5. Path integrals and stock options; 6. Stochastic interest rates' Hamiltonians and path integrals; Part III. Quantum Field Theory of Interest Rates Models: 7. Quantum field theory of forward interest rates; 8. Empirical forward interest rates and field theory models; 9. Field theory of Treasury Bonds' derivatives and hedging; 10. Field theory Hamiltonian of forward interest rates; 11. Conclusions; Appendix A: mathematical background; Brief glossary of financial terms; Brief glossary of physics terms; List of main symbols; References; Index.

  7. Micro finance

    OpenAIRE

    Ramachandran, Ramakrishnan; Senthil Kumar, T. S.

    2006-01-01

    Poor people often have just hand to mouth existence and have few reserves for major expenses such as illness, weddings, house repairs or education. They are unable to build their savings and are forced to borrow at exorbitant rates. This further adds to their burden and worsens their economic situation. Micro finance is the supply of loans, savings, and other basic financial services to the poor. The idea of micro finance was developed as a survival strategy for the poor. In India, Ela Bha...

  8. The effect of Ti conduit on the critical current in (Nb,Ti)3Sn cable-in-conduit conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of titanium conduit on the critical current in (Nb,Ti)3Sn cable-in-conduit conductors was investigated to obtain a high performance conductor which would be applied to large superconducting magnets such as those for fusion machines. Titanium has equivalent thermal contraction coefficient to that of (Nb,Ti)3Sn filaments, and it is expected by using titanium as the conduit to suppress degradation of critical current due to excess thermal prestrain on (Nb,Ti)3Sn filaments. Some titanium conduit sample conductors were made, and thier critical current performance were measured together with some stainless steel (SUS316) and copper-nickel alloy (Cu-10Ni) conduit conductors. The experimental results indicated that the titanium conduit conductors had no critical current degradation due to thermal strain, whereas the stainless steel and copper-nickel alloy conduit conductors showed remarkable degradation on thier critical current performance and greater degradation was observed with smaller void conductor. In conclusion, titanium is verified to be excellent conduit material for (Nb,Ti)3Sn cable-in-conduit conductors. (author)

  9. Financing strategic healthcare facilities: the growing attraction of alternative capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zismer, Daniel K; Fox, James; Torgerson, Paul

    2013-05-01

    Community health system leaders often dismiss use of alternative capital to finance strategic facilities as being too expensive and less strategically useful, preferring to follow historical precedent and use tax-exempt bonding to finance such facilities. Proposed changes in accounting rules should cause third-party-financed facility lease arrangements to be treated similarly to tax-exempt debt financings with respect to the income statement and balance sheet, increasing their appeal to community health systems. An in-depth comparison of the total costs associated with each financing approach can help inform the choice of financing approaches by illuminating their respective advantages and disadvantages. PMID:23678696

  10. National arrangements for radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a presentation of several letters exchanged between the French health ministry and public agencies in charge of public health or nuclear safety after a radiotherapy accident in Epinal, this report comments the evolution of needs in cancerology care and the place given to radiotherapy. It outlines the technological and organisational evolution of radiotherapy and presents the distribution of radiotherapy equipment, of radio-therapists and other radiotherapy professionals in France. Within the context of radiotherapy accidents which occurred in 2007, it presents the regulatory arrangements which aimed at improving the safety, short term and middle term arrangements which are needed to support and structure radiotherapy practice quality. It stresses the fact that the system will deeply evolve by implementing a radiotherapy vigilance arrangement and a permanent follow-on and adaptation plan based on surveys and the creation of a national committee

  11. Stability of quasi-steady flow in an englacial conduit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilder, Krzysztof; Lozowski, Edward P.

    1997-10-01

    The stability of water flow in an englacial conduit is examined with particular reference to catastrophic outbursts of water. Quasi-steady flow of water in a conduit is considered, the conduit being simultaneously enlarged by frictional heating and compressed by plastic deformation in response to the pressure difference across the tunnel wall. The conduit is fed by an ice-dammed reservoir. With the aid of simplifying assumptions, we have devised a mathematical model consisting of two time-dependent, non-linear, dimensionless ordinary differential equations, which describe the time evolution of the conduit cross-section and the water depth in the reservoir. The conditions leading to different types of time-dependent flow behaviour are examined. Regions of the parameter space where the water flow is stable and unstable have been identified. In the unstable regime, the process of emptying the reservoir has either an oscillatory or an exponential character. In the stable regime, the system's return to equilibrium, following a perturbation, also exhibits an oscillatory or exponential character. Examples of this time-dependent behaviour are presented. The model has also been used to study the influence of the glacier, conduit and reservoir geometries on the system's stability. The results show that an increase in the horizontal area of the water reservoir or an increase in the slope of the conduit enhance the likelihood of a sudden outburst. However, an increase in the glacier thickness or the conduit length stabilizes the equilibria.

  12. Apparatus for sealing the seam between two conduits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An apparatus is described for sealing the seam between first and second axially aligned conduits comprising: sealing means disposed at the seam between the first and second conduits; a spacer having means for detachable connecting to the first conduit in such a manner as to apply a generally uniform axial force to the perimeter of the first conduit and a first threaded surface; a second spacer connecting to the second conduit; at least one of the spacer means being rotatably disposed with respect to the connected conduit; and the first threaded surface and a second threaded surface cooperating to relatively axially displace the first conduit and the second conduit by applying the axial forces thereto to compress the sealing means when the first spacer means and the second spacer means are relatively rotated. This patent also describes means for this apparatus to be used in a nuclear reactor pressure vessel in combination with an instrumentation port extending through the pressure vessel and comprising a male flange secured to the pressure vessel, an instrumentation port column extending through the male flange, and generally annular sealing means between the male flange and instrumentation port column which forms a seal therebetween when the port column is axially displaced relative to the male flange

  13. Characteristic varieties of arrangements

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Daniel C.; Suciu, Alexander I.

    1998-01-01

    The k-th Fitting ideal of the Alexander invariant B of an arrangement A of n complex hyperplanes defines a characteristic subvariety, V_k(A), of the complex algebraic n-torus. In the combinatorially determined case where B decomposes as a direct sum of local Alexander invariants, we obtain a complete description of V_k(A). For any arrangement A, we show that the tangent cone at the identity of this variety coincides with R^1_k(A), one of the cohomology support loci of the Or...

  14. Nuclear reactor internals arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nuclear reactor internals arrangement is disclosed which facilitates reactor refueling. A reactor vessel and a nuclear core is utilized in conjunction with an upper core support arrangement having means for storing withdrawn control rods therein. The upper core support is mounted to the underside of the reactor vessel closure head so that upon withdrawal of the control rods into the upper core support, the closure head, the upper core support and the control rods are removed as a single unit thereby directly exposing the core for purposes of refueling

  15. The Japanese approach to financing LNG projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Japanese approach approach to financing LNG project has been what could be called a combined purchase and finance system which has been arranged mainly at the initiative of japan's Sogo Shosh (general trading companies) with the support of japanese governmental financial agencies and a purchase commitment from japanese utilities. In the QATARGAS project, despite it being the first greenfield LNG project in decade since North West Shelf Australia LNG project, financing for the LNG plant phase has been successfully arranged through Japanese financing. The structuring of the financial facilities for the QATARGAS project seems to have lessons for future development of the next generation of greenfield LNG projects. Discharge of the parties' liability, proper sharing of the risk burden and reconfirmation of the spirit of mutual understanding and trust among the parties concerned are key factors for the success of any new LNG project in the future. (Author)

  16. Peak load arrangements : Assessment of Nordel guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    Two Nordic countries, Sweden and Finland, have legislation that empowers the TSO to acquire designated peak load resources to mitigate the risk for shortage situations during the winter. In Denmark, the system operator procures resources to maintain a satisfactory level of security of supply. In Norway the TSO has set up a Regulation Power Option Market (RKOM) to secure a satisfactory level of operational reserves at all times, also in winter with high load demand. Only the arrangements in Finland and Sweden fall under the heading of Peak Load Arrangements defined in Nordel Guidelines. NordREG has been invited by the Electricity Market Group (EMG) to evaluate Nordel's proposal for 'Guidelines for transitional Peak Load Arrangements'. The EMG has also financed a study made by EC Group to support NordREG in the evaluation of the proposal. The study has been taken into account in NordREG's evaluation. In parallel to the EMG task, the Swedish regulator, the Energy Markets Inspectorate, has been given the task by the Swedish government to investigate a long term solution of the peak load issue. The Swedish and Finnish TSOs have together with Nord Pool Spot worked on finding a harmonized solution for activation of the peak load reserves in the market. An agreement accepted by the relevant authorities was reached in early January 2009, and the arrangement has been implemented since 19th January 2009. NordREG views that the proposed Nordel guidelines have served as a starting point for the presently agreed procedure. However, NordREG does not see any need to further develop the Nordel guidelines for peak load arrangements. NordREG agrees with Nordel that the market should be designed to solve peak load problems through proper incentives to market players. NordREG presumes that the relevant authorities in each country will take decisions on the need for any peak load arrangement to ensure security of supply. NordREG proposes that such decisions should be taken after consultation with parties in other Nordic countries, and involving also regulators and TSOs. In NordREG's view there are basically three principles that should be guiding any decision to introduce peak load arrangements in the Nordic countries: i), the peak load arrangements should be introduced only in situations when security of supply cannot be met without these arrangements. Since the decision to introduce peak load arrangements might be of a political/legal nature, the length of such arrangement cannot be fixed. However, there should be a regular evaluation by the competent authority of any need or prolonged need for peak load arrangements and its effects of price formation in the Nordic market. ii), when peak load arrangements are introduced they should be designed to minimize the adverse effects on price formation in the Nordic market. Furthermore, if there are to be peak load arrangements, there might be a need for how to distinguish these peak load reserves from other reserves at the disposal of the TSOs. However, this issue needs further discussions and development. iii), Nordic consultation should be carried out where the views of all relevant authorities and stake holders in the market affected are invited. It is recommended that the governments consult with their Nordic counter parties before submitting legal proposals on peak load arrangements affecting Nordic price formation. These consultations should also be with regulators and TSOs who are involved in the design of the actual peak load arrangements. (Author)

  17. The Commitment Role of Equity Financing

    OpenAIRE

    Fahn, Matthias; Merlo, Valeria; Wamser, Georg

    2014-01-01

    Existing theories of a firm?s optimal capital structure seem to fail in explaining why many healthy and profitable firms rely heavily on equity financing, even though benefits associated with debt (like tax shields) appear to be high and the bankruptcy risk low. This holds in particular for firms that show a strong commitment towards their workforce and are popular among employees. We demonstrate that such financing behavior may be driven by implicit arrangements made between a firm and its m...

  18. Arranging the Informal Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Brenda S.

    With the advent of the informal or open classroom, a new area of concern has become important--classroom arrangement. In the past, classrooms were oriented toward the front, toward the teacher's desk and the blackboard. Education depended mainly on the pupil's interaction with the teacher and with printed materials. Nowadays, in informal…

  19. Nanofibrous nerve conduit-enhanced peripheral nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xu; Mi, Ruifa; Hoke, Ahmet; Chew, Sing Yian

    2014-05-01

    Fibre structures represent a potential class of materials for the formation of synthetic nerve conduits due to their biomimicking architecture. Although the advantages of fibres in enhancing nerve regeneration have been demonstrated, in vivo evaluation of fibre size effect on nerve regeneration remains limited. In this study, we analyzed the effects of fibre diameter of electrospun conduits on peripheral nerve regeneration across a 15-mm critical defect gap in a rat sciatic nerve injury model. By using an electrospinning technique, fibrous conduits comprised of aligned electrospun poly (?-caprolactone) (PCL) microfibers (981?±?83 nm, Microfiber) or nanofibers (251?±?32 nm, Nanofiber) were obtained. At three months post implantation, axons regenerated across the defect gap in all animals that received fibrous conduits. In contrast, complete nerve regeneration was not observed in the control group that received empty, non-porous PCL film conduits (Film). Nanofiber conduits resulted in significantly higher total number of myelinated axons and thicker myelin sheaths compared to Microfiber and Film conduits. Retrograde labeling revealed a significant increase in number of regenerated dorsal root ganglion sensory neurons in the presence of Nanofiber conduits (1.93 ± 0.71 × 10(3) vs. 0.98 ± 0.30 × 10(3) in Microfiber, p?conduit group compared to the Microfiber group. This study demonstrated the impact of fibre size on peripheral nerve regeneration. These results could provide useful insights for future nerve guide designs. PMID:22700359

  20. Arrangement for temperature measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the device for temperature measurement, temperatures in a range from near 0 up to 3,000 K can be determined with high precision. The temperature is determined by means of a switching arrangement which is connected to a standard resistor and a measuring resistor. The measuring resistor consists of a material changing its electric resistance value as a function of temperature. The standard resistor is varied in such a way that the voltages resulting in both resistors and being fed to capacitors are balanced. The switching arrangement consists of two synchronously operating switches each connecting an amplifier cascade, formed by a preamplifier, a filter, and a main amplifier, with a multiplier through cables to the measuring or standard resistor. In this way the results of measurements are not influenced by the noise voltages of the cable resistances. The measuring device can therefore be applied also in high radiation fields. (DG)

  1. Imaging arrangement and microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pertsinidis, Alexandros; Chu, Steven

    2015-12-15

    An embodiment of the present invention is an imaging arrangement that includes imaging optics, a fiducial light source, and a control system. In operation, the imaging optics separate light into first and second tight by wavelength and project the first and second light onto first and second areas within first and second detector regions, respectively. The imaging optics separate fiducial light from the fiducial light source into first and second fiducial light and project the first and second fiducial light onto third and fourth areas within the first and second detector regions, respectively. The control system adjusts alignment of the imaging optics so that the first and second fiducial light projected onto the first and second detector regions maintain relatively constant positions within the first and second detector regions, respectively. Another embodiment of the present invention is a microscope that includes the imaging arrangement.

  2. Proximal conduit obstruction after Sano modified Norwood procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigro, John J; Bart, Robert D; Derby, Christopher D; Sklansky, Mark S; Starnes, Vaughn A

    2005-11-01

    Sano and colleagues recently described a modification of first stage palliation for hypoplastic left heart syndrome utilizing a right ventricle to pulmonary artery conduit. Preliminary results are favorable, but experience with this technique is limited. We report a case of sudden death due to obstruction of the proximal conduit by fibrointimal hyperplasia. This case of lethal conduit obstruction presented 3 months after initial palliation. Early cardiac catheterization and second stage palliation may be necessary to minimize the risk of such adverse events after the Sano modification. PMID:16242490

  3. Independent power project finance rating criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Continuing growth of project financing for non-utility generators in the US and abroad has led to growing focus on their credit strength. In general, the financings remain relatively risky and would likely be rated below investment grade, because of various factors: loose power purchase arrangements, poor match between power pricing and fuel costs, aggressive leverage, troubled operating performance. But S and P believes some projects have the credit strength to support investment grade ratings. As traditional financing markets for these projects --- bank lending and private placements with highly specialized institutional investors --- have contracted, project sponsors and developers are considering broader markets. These include institutional investors without specialized focus on power project finance. In these markets, distinctions among projects may lead to greater liquidity and efficiency in developing the pricing and terms under which projects can be financed. This paper reports that ratings are most appropriate for projects seeking permanent financing as they enter commercial operations. They also may be useful for projects which have been operating for some time and for some very strong projects which are raising construction financing. To guide both project developers and investors in project financing, S and P has developed the following approach for rating these types of financings

  4. Inspection of Emergency Arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Working Group on Inspection Practices (WGIP) was tasked by the NEA CNRA to examine and evaluate the extent to which emergency arrangements are inspected and to identify areas of importance for the development of good inspection practices. WGIP members shared their approaches to the inspection of emergency arrangements by the use of questionnaires, which were developed from the requirements set out in IAEA Safety Standards. Detailed responses to the questionnaires from WGIP member countries have been compiled and are presented in the appendix to this report. The following commendable practices have been drawn from the completed questionnaires and views provided by WGIP members: - RBs and their Inspectors have sufficient knowledge and information regarding operator's arrangements for the preparedness and response to nuclear emergencies, to enable authoritative advice to be given to the national coordinating authority, where necessary. - Inspectors check that the operator's response to a nuclear emergency is adequately integrated with relevant response organisations. - Inspectors pay attention to consider the integration of the operator's response to safety and security threats. - The efficiency of international relations is checked in depth during some exercises (e.g. early warning, assistance and technical information), especially for near-border facilities that could lead to an emergency response abroad. - RB inspection programmes consider the adequacy of arrangements for emergency preparedness and response to multi-unit accidents. - RBs assess the adequacy of arrangements to respond to accidents in other countries. - The RB's role is adequately documented and communicated to all agencies taking part in the response to a nuclear or radiological emergency. - Inspectors check that threat assessments for NPPs have been undertaken in accordance with national requirements and that up-to-date assessments have been used as the basis for developing emergency plans for NPPs. - Where RBs have an influence over land use around NPPs, they use the knowledge of their local or resident inspectors to inform decisions. - Inspectors check that appropriate action levels or criteria to identify an actual or radiological emergency are clearly defined and readily available to decision makers. - When observing emergency exercises inspectors check that: an appropriate and timely declaration is made, plant operators respond in accordance with the emergency plan and emergency instructions, and an appropriate level of response is initiated on and off-site. - RBs conduct follow-up inspections after real events, to ensure that the correct emergency response has been followed. - Inspectors verify that reliable data will be used to support the evaluation of environmental impact from a nuclear or radiological emergency, to the extent that this is within the jurisdiction of the RB. - Routine inspections and emergency exercise observations include a check that lines of communication are sufficiently resilient. - When observing emergency exercises inspectors, where practicable, check that timely, accurate and consistent information is provided to the public, in accordance with the off-site emergency plan. - RBs inspect the ability of the operator to give accurate medical and radiological information about casualties, to enable the correct treatment to be given. - Additional emergency equipment that is held in reserve off-site, provided to enhance resilience (post Fukushima), is included in the RB planned inspection and/or emergency exercise programme. - Inspectors check that licensee staff are adequately trained to connect and use additional equipment provided to enhance resilience. - Inspectors utilise the NPP operator's approved on-site emergency plan when inspecting on-site emergency arrangements. - RBs include human factors staff in emergency exercise evaluation teams to consider safety culture and human performance. - RBs consider the need for exercise scenarios to be undisclosed to exercise participants. - Bilateral trans-national inspection pro

  5. Tax issues in structuring gas process arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current status of various tax issues regarding ownership, operation and financing of gas processing facilities in Canada was discussed. Frequently, energy companies are not taxed because of their large pools of un-depreciated capital cost and other resource related accounts. In addition, their time horizons for taxability are being extended in line with the expansion of their businesses. However, other investors are fully taxable, hence they wish to shelter their income through the use of tax efficient investment arrangements. This paper provides a detailed description of the tax treatment of gas processing facilities, tax implications of various structures between the producer and the investor such as lease, processing fee arrangements etc., and use of 'Canadian Renewable and Conservation Expense' (CRCE) for cogeneration projects within processing plants. All these need to be considered before completing a financing transaction involving a gas processing facility, since the manner in which the transaction is completed will determine the advantages and benefits from an income tax perspective. The accounting and legal aspects must be similarly scrutinized to ensure that the intended results for all parties are achieved. 8 figs

  6. Nuclear reactor core arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nuclear reactor core consists of a number of fuel elements, some of which are adapted to receive control rods for reactivity control in the core. Dependent on location in the core, the control rods have different control worths. At least one of the fuel elements receiving a control rod with the highest control worth includes mixed-oxide (plutonium-uranium) fuel while the other fuel elements have only uranium fuel. With this arrangement, increased amounts of mixed oxide fuels may be utilized with no loss in safety margin. (U.K.)

  7. Nuclear fuel storage arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An arrangement is disclosed for the storage of nuclear reactor fuel assemblies having a section wherein fuel is present and a section wherein fuel is not present. The fuel assemblies are placed in a plurality of elongated cells which are joined together to form a cellular structure. The fuel assemblies are placed within the cells at different elevations so that the fuel-containing section of one fuel assembly is next to the non-fuel-containing sections of each fuel assembly surrounding the first fuel assembly. The vertical staggering of the fuel-containing sections achieves space reductions while maintaining the stored fuel in a subcritical assemblage. 12 claims, 10 figures

  8. Temperature limited heater with a conduit substantially electrically isolated from the formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Sandberg, Chester Ledlie (Palo Alto, CA)

    2009-07-14

    A system for heating a hydrocarbon containing formation is described. A conduit may be located in an opening in the formation. The conduit includes ferromagnetic material. An electrical conductor is positioned inside the conduit, and is electrically coupled to the conduit at or near an end portion of the conduit so that the electrical conductor and the conduit are electrically coupled in series. Electrical current flows in the electrical conductor in a substantially opposite direction to electrical current flow in the conduit during application of electrical current to the system. The flow of electrons is substantially confined to the inside of the conduit by the electromagnetic field generated from electrical current flow in the electrical conductor so that the outside surface of the conduit is at or near substantially zero potential at 25.degree. C. The conduit may generate heat and heat the formation during application of electrical current.

  9. Financing the Ranger uranium project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Construction of the Ranger uranium project located 230 km east of Darwin in the Northern Territory commenced in January 1979. Energy Resources of Australia Ltd was incorporated in February 1980 to acquire all the rights in the project. The total cost to ERA of these rights was $407 million. In October 1980 ERA'S cash requirements were estimated to be $553 million. Overseas participants (power utilities who had agreed to purchase uranium yellowcake under contract) arranged to take up 25% of the equity capital, Peko-Wallsend Ltd and EZ Industries Ltd were allotted 30.5% each and 14% was issued to Australian residents. The loan and equity financing arrangements required the successful resolution of many complex and interlocking factors, including technical and economic feasibility, agreement with aboriginal interests, compliance with Government policies and securing of sales contracts

  10. Creative Bus Financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Wade

    1982-01-01

    Alternative ways of financing school bus purchases include financing privately through contractors or commercial banks, financing through sources such as insurance companies and pension funds, leasing the buses, or contracting for transportation services. (Author/MLF)

  11. Thermally actuated linkage arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A reusable thermally actuated linkage arrangement includes a first link member having a longitudinal bore therein adapted to receive at least a portion of a second link member therein, the first and second members being sized to effect an interference fit preventing relative movement there-between at a temperature below a predetermined temperature. The link members have different coefficients of thermal expansion so that when the linkage is selectively heated by heating element to a temperature above the predetermined temperature, relative longitudinal and/or rotational movement between the first and second link members is enabled. Two embodiments of a thermally activated linkage are disclosed which find particular application in actuators for a grapple head positioning arm in a nuclear reactor fuel handling mechanism to facilitate back-up safety retraction of the grapple head independently from the primary fuel handling mechanism drive system. (author)

  12. $k$-Parabolic Subspace Arrangements

    CERN Document Server

    Barcelo, Hélène; White, Jacob A

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we study $k$-parabolic arrangements, a generalization of $k$-equal arrangements for finite real reflection groups. When $k=2$, these arrangements correspond to the well-studied Coxeter arrangements. Brieskorn (1971) showed that the fundamental group of the complement, over $\\mathbb{C}$, of the type $W$ Coxeter arrangement is isomorphic to the pure Artin group of type $W$. Khovanov (1996) gave an algebraic description for the fundamental group of the complement, over $\\mathbb{R}$, of the 3-equal arrangement. We generalize Khovanov's result to obtain an algebraic description of the fundamental groups of the complements of 3-parabolic arrangements for arbitrary finite reflection groups. Our description is a real analogue to Brieskorn's description.

  13. Financing wind power projects : perspectives from the US market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation outlined the recent assignments, core competencies and scope of services provided by Alyra Renewable Energy Finance Advisors. Renewable energy developers seek Alyra's assistance in developing strategies to achieve the most competitive solutions in finance and strategy. Alyra has broad finance expertise in renewable energy projects, a deep knowledge of markets and a significant wind industry network. Alyra identifies emerging issues, completes financing solutions and helps with contract negotiations. This presentation outlined the notable features of wind financing, wind assessment, offtake arrangements, equity considerations, US wind debt markets, long term bank financing, and combined bank and private placement financing. It also included recent debt market activity for seven large wind farms in the United States. tabs., figs

  14. Financial Collateral Arrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulenay Rusen

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasing use of securities and collaterals in transactions brings the legal ambiguity in today’s financialmarkets which are trying to globalise. It should have been noted that without legal certainty an achievement cannot be obtained in a complete manner. To solve this legal ambiguity in financial markets, reform movements havebeen started through out the world from different groups, institutions and communities involving both jurists andpractitioners., The Directive on settlement finality in payment and securities settlement systems and the Directiveon financial collateral arrangements were adopted. These two directives are both supplementary legislations for theDirective of the Parliament and of the Council on the reorganisation and winding up of credit institutions dated 4April 2001. All of these directives are the circles of a chain that aim the proper functioning of the internal financialmarket in European Union. In this study, mainly the Collateral Directive will be taken into account. Firstly, thenecessity of a harmonised collateral law and the aims of the Collateral Directive will be handled. Following, themain provisions of the directive will be analysed in details. While analysing in details, the differentimplementations of the directive in member states will be mentioned. Finally, the conflict of laws clause and theconsequences of the directive will be explained.

  15. Multiderivations of Coxeter arrangements

    CERN Document Server

    Terao, H

    2002-01-01

    Let $V$ be an $\\ell$-dimensional Euclidean space. Let $G \\subset O(V)$ be a finite irreducible orthogonal reflection group. Let ${\\cal A}$ be the corresponding Coxeter arrangement. Let $S$ be the algebra of polynomial functions on $V.$ For $H \\in {\\cal A}$ choose $\\alpha_H \\in V^*$ such that $H = {\\rm ker}(\\alpha_H).$ For each nonnegative integer $m$, define the derivation module $\\sD^{(m)}({\\cal A}) = \\{\\theta \\in {\\rm Der}_S | \\theta(\\alpha_H) \\in S \\alpha^m_H\\}$. The module is known to be a free $S$-module of rank $\\ell$ by K. Saito (1975) for $m=1$ and L. Solomon-H. Terao (1998) for $m=2$. The main result of this paper is that this is the case for all $m$. Moreover we explicitly construct a basis for $\\sD^{(m)} (\\cal A)$. Their degrees are all equal to $mh/2$ (when $m$ is even) or are equal to $((m-1)h/2) + m_i (1 \\leq i \\leq \\ell)$ (when $m$ is odd). Here $m_1 \\leq ... \\leq m_{\\ell}$ are the exponents of $G$ and $h= m_{\\ell} + 1$ is the Coxeter number. The construction heavily uses the primitive derivati...

  16. Financial Collateral Arrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulenay Rusen

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Increasing use of securities and collaterals in transactions brings the legal ambiguity in today’s financial markets which are trying to globalise. It should have been noted that without legal certainty an achievement can not be obtained in a complete manner. To solve this legal ambiguity in financial markets, reform movements have been started through out the world from different groups, institutions and communities involving both jurists and practitioners., The Directive on settlement finality in payment and securities settlement systems and the Directive on financial collateral arrangements were adopted. These two directives are both supplementary legislations for the Directive of the Parliament and of the Council on the reorganisation and winding up of credit institutions dated 4 April 2001. All of these directives are the circles of a chain that aim the proper functioning of the internal financial market in European Union. In this study, mainly the Collateral Directive will be taken into account. Firstly, the necessity of a harmonised collateral law and the aims of the Collateral Directive will be handled. Following, the main provisions of the directive will be analysed in details. While analysing in details, the different implementations of the directive in member states will be mentioned. Finally, the conflict of laws clause and the consequences of the directive will be explained.

  17. Link complexes of subspace arrangements

    OpenAIRE

    Hultman, Axel

    2005-01-01

    Given a simplicial hyperplane arrangement H and a subspace arrangement A embedded in H, we define a simplicial complex Delta_{A,H} as the subdivision of the link of A induced by H. In particular, this generalizes Steingrimsson's coloring complex of a graph. We do the following: (1) When A is a hyperplane arrangement, Delta_{A,H} is shown to be shellable. As a special case, we answer affirmatively a question of Steingrimsson on coloring complexes. (2) For H being ...

  18. Development of conduits for the ITER central solenoid conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency has developed a JK2LB conduit for the Nb3Sn conductor of the ITER central solenoid (CS). Mechanical requirements for the CS conductor conduit are a 0.2% yield strength of more than 900 MPa and a fracture toughness KIC (J) of more than 130 MPa ?m after a compaction and aging heat treatment (650degC, 240 hours). In a previous work, it was shown that an aged JK2LB conduit has high strength and sufficient fracture toughness enough to satisfy the requirements. As the next step, work was performed to determine the specifications of the JK2LB conduit taking into account of cold work, including compaction and winding, and to simplify its fabrication process. To simulate the cold work effect with cold work of 10% and aging, mechanical tests were performed at 4.2 K on laboratory-scale (20-30 kg) ingot samples at 4.2 K. It was found that the sum of carbon and nitrogen content should be in the range from 0.11% to 0.18% to achieve the ITER mechanical requirements. To obtain a grain-sized of conduit as well as that of a small ingot sample, the appropriate solution heat-treatment temperature and holding time were studied. In order to simplify the billet production process, we confirmed the internal metallurgical qualities of a JK2LB-cast ingot. Since significant segregation was not observed, it was possible to exclude the electroslag remelting process. Based on the above achievements, full-size JK2LB conduits that satisfy the ITER mechanical requirements were fabricated. (author)

  19. Topological invariants of line arrangements

    OpenAIRE

    Guerville-Ball??, Beno??t; Artal-Bartolo, Enrique; Florens, Vincent; Vall??s, Jean

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is the intersection point between the two facets of the study of line arrangements: combinatorics and topology. In the first part, we study the inclusion of the boundary manifold in the complement of an arrangement. We generalize the results of E. Hironaka to the case of any complex line arrangement. To get around the problems due to the case of non complexified real arrangement, we study the braided wiring diagram. We develop a Sage program to compute it from the equation of the ...

  20. Havery Mudd 2014-2015 Computer Science Conduit Clinic Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aspesi, G [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bai, J [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Deese, R [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Shin, L [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-05-12

    Conduit, a new open-source library developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, provides a C++ application programming interface (API) to describe and access scientific data. Conduit’s primary use is for inmemory data exchange in high performance computing (HPC) applications. Our team tested and improved Conduit to make it more appealing to potential adopters in the HPC community. We extended Conduit’s capabilities by prototyping four libraries: one for parallel communication using MPI, one for I/O functionality, one for aggregating performance data, and one for data visualization.

  1. Nuclear fuel financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuel financing is only at its beginning. A logical way of developing financing model is a step by step method starting with the financing of pre-payments. The second step will be financing of natural uranium and enrichment services to the point where the finished fuel elements are delivered to the reactor operator. The third step should be the financing of fuel elements during the time the elements are inserted in the reactor. (orig.)

  2. Money in finance

    OpenAIRE

    Wray, L. Randall

    2011-01-01

    This paper begins by defining, and distinguishing between, money and finance, and addresses alternative ways of financing spending. We next examine the role played by financial institutions (e.g., banks) in the provision of finance. The role of government as both regulator of private institutions and provider of finance is also discussed, and related topics such as liquidity and saving are explored. We conclude with a look at some of the new innovations in finance, and at the global financial...

  3. IAEA paper on institutional arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At its fifth series of meetings, Working Group 3 received a background paper prepared by the IAEA which had a threefold purpose: firstly, to provide an overview on institutional arrangements under consideration by the INFCE Working Groups; secondly, to explore potential relationships between the various institutional arrangements under consideration; and thirdly, to identify areas where further analysis might be desirable

  4. Nuclear core region fastener arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An arrangement is disclosed for cooling the fasteners affixing a core barrel to a core former and a core baffle to a core former in the reactor vessel internals of a nuclear reactor. The arrangement allows the flowing reactor coolant to contact the fasteners, preferably bolts with an elliptical neck, and maintains lower bolt operating temperatures than previously experienced

  5. Morphometric analysis of three-dimensional networks of karst conduits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-Iguzquiza, Eulogio; Durán-Valsero, Juan J.; Rodríguez-Galiano, Victor

    2011-09-01

    The main idiosyncrasy of a typical karst system is the presence of a three-dimensional network of conduits behaving as drains in the system and being responsible of both the quick response of karst springs to rainfall events and the complex distribution of solutes in the system. A morphometric analysis of the three-dimensional geometry of conduits provides quantitative measures that can be used in a range of applications. These morphometric parameters can be used as descriptors of the underground geomorphology, they provide information on speleogenesis processes, they can be correlated with karst denudation ratios, they can be used to control the simulation of realistic stochastic karst networks of conduits, and they can be correlated with hydrogeologic behaviour of the karst system. The main purpose of this paper is to define, describe and illustrate a range of morphometric indexes and morphometric functions that can be calculated nowadays because the availability of three-dimensional topographies provided by speleological work and the availability of the computational and graphical power provided by modern computers. Some of the morphometric parameters describe the existence of preferential directions of karstification, others describe the kartification along the vertical and the possible presence of inception horizons. Other indexes describe the shape complexity of the karstic network, whilst other indexes describe spatial variability of the conduit geometry, and other parameters give account of the connectivity of the three-dimensional network. The morphometric analysis is illustrated with a three-dimensional karstic network in Southern France.

  6. Aorto-conduit fistula developing four years after esophagectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, S; Higgs, S; Streets, C; Titcomb, D; Barham, P; Blazeby, J; Hollowood, A

    2012-01-01

    A 71 year old lady was treated for a squamous cell carcinoma of the oesophagus with neo-adjuvant chemotherapy followed by a two phase Ivor-Lewis oesophagectomy with two field lymphadenectomy. She presented four years later with life threatening bleeding from a fistula between the thoracic aorta and the gastric conduit, which was treated successfully with a thoracic aortic stent. PMID:24960784

  7. Perspectives applicable to financing midstreamers: legal considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Systemic changes that have affected the sale, distribution and transportation of gas near the burner tip (collectively called 'midstream' activities) are reviewed, examining the causes of change, and the types of midstream asset transactions that are occurring, whether they involve structured financing arrangements or midstream companies. Also addressed are issues involved in transactions of this type, especially as they relate to gathering and processing agreements and construction, ownership and operation (CO and O) agreements. The two principal alternative structures (1) the financing party who does not assume operational control of the facility, and the (2) midstream company who build or acquire assets and operate them, the different implications for financing of each of the structural alternatives and the changing attitudes of producers towards midstream entities are explained. Closer examination of these new business structures reveals that they conflict with the terms and conditions of midstream agreements commonly used throughout the industry. It is recommended that these standard agreements be amended to permit midstream transactions to occur without undue restrictions. The kind of amendments suggested include automatic consent to a transfer of a facility to a Financing Party that meets certain reasonable financial tests; allowing the reconveyance from the Financing Party to the producer under a repurchase option; allowing the producer to act as Operator in place of its Financing Party

  8. Caring finance practices

    OpenAIRE

    Staveren, I.P. van

    2013-01-01

    The 2008 financial crisis has demonstrated the failure of both utilitarian and deontological ethics in finance. Alternatives do not need to be created from nothing, because the crisis itself has stimulated the emergence of ethically sound finance practices from within the sector. This article presents two cases of such alternatives, which can be understood as caring finance. Caring finance is built around more personal relationships, responsibility, and risk reduction. The examples are from t...

  9. Financing petroleum agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter describes the typical type of financing agreements which are currently used to finance North Sea petroleum projects whether they are in the cause of development or have been developed and are producing. It deals with the agreements which are entered into to finance borrowings for petroleum projects on a non-resource or limited resource basis. (UK)

  10. CODUL EUROPEAN DE BUN? CONDUIT? ADMINISTRATIV? ?I FENOMENUL ADMINISTRATIV ROMÂNESC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Nicu

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Pour vivre parmi les membres d¢une certaine collectivité humaine, il est absolument nécessaire de connaître et respecter les valeurs fondamentales de celle-ci. Il est nécessaire également de respecter et d’appliquer les lignes de conduite importées par les normes juridiques réglementant les relations sociales qui se forment dans la collectivité respective pour realiser et protéger ces valeurs. Le peuple roumain, étant impliqué dans la procedure d¢adhésion à l¢Union européenne, a le devoir de connaître le droit communautaire. Le législateur roumain a la mission d'élaborer et d'adopter des lois compatibles avec les normes juridiques communautaires. L'exécutif doit agir pour que les lois soient appliques par tous ceux qui l’exécutif vivent en Roumanie. Par couséquence, il est absolument nécessaire de réformer l'administration publique roumaine de sorte que la relation fonctionnaire public et autres agents de l'administration publique – citoyen destinataire et bénéficiaire de la décision administrative et de la prestation administrative, soit conforme aux standards de l'Union européenne. Cet ouvrage a comme but de présenter en quelle mesure les règles écrites dans le Code européen de bonne conduite administrative peuvent être un modèle pour le législateur roumain. Même si le Code européen de bonne conduite administrative est un document rédigé pour établir les principes généraux à observer dans les relations entre les institutions communautaires européennes et le public, nous considerons qu'il y a plusieurs raisons pour considérer ce Code comme un modèle digne d'être suivi dans l'activité du législateur roumain. Parmi ces raisons, se trouve la performance d'établir le contenu de la base légale pour la bonne conduite administrative utilisant seulement vingt-sept articles dans lesquels on précise les principes généraux pour ce domaine d'activité sociale. Donc, le caractère concis et pourtant explicite du texte est un modèle pour une loi roumaine concernant la bonne conduite administrative ou pour un chapitre du Code administratif, chapitre ayant comme sujet la bonne conduite administrative. Une autre raison est celle que des principes comme „légitimité”, „absence de discri­mination”, „la proportionnalité”, „absense d'abus de pouvoir”, „impartialité et indépendance”, „objectivité”, „équité”, „confiance légitime, cohérence et conseil” et „courtoisie” doivent être présents parmi les principes fondamentaux de l'administration publique, quel que soit le pays dont il s'agit.

  11. Advance-Purchase Financing of Projects with Few Buyers

    OpenAIRE

    Sahm, Marco

    2015-01-01

    I investigate a simple model of advance-purchase contracts as a mode of financing costly projects. The analysis can easily be reinterpreted as a model of monopolistic provision of excludable public goods under private information. An entrepreneur has to meet some capital requirement in order to start production and sell the related good to a limited number of potential buyers who are privately informed about their willingness to pay. I find that advance-purchase arrangements allow to finance ...

  12. Single-friction-surface triboelectric generator with human body conduit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Bo; Cheng, Xiaoliang; Zhang, Xiaosheng; Han, Mengdi; Liu, Wen; Zhang, Haixia, E-mail: zhang-alice@pku.edu.cn [National Key Lab of Nano/Micro Fabrication Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2014-03-10

    We present a transparent single-friction-surface triboelectric generator (STEG) employing human body as the conduit, making the applications of STEG in portable electronics much more practical and leading to a significant output improvement. The STEG with micro-patterned polydimethylsiloxane surface achieved an output voltage of over 200 V with a current density of 4.7 ?A/cm{sup 2}. With human body conduit, the output current increased by 39% and the amount of charge that transferred increased by 34% compared to the results with grounded electrode. A larger increment of 210% and 81% was obtained in the case of STEG with a large-size flat polyethylene terephthalate surface.

  13. CODUL EUROPEAN DE BUN? CONDUIT? ADMINISTRATIV? ?I FENOMENUL ADMINISTRATIV ROMÂNESC

    OpenAIRE

    Alina Nicu

    2006-01-01

    Pour vivre parmi les membres d¢une certaine collectivité humaine, il est absolument nécessaire de connaître et respecter les valeurs fondamentales de celle-ci. Il est nécessaire également de respecter et d’appliquer les lignes de conduite importées par les normes juridiques réglementant les relations sociales qui se forment dans la collectivité respective pour realiser et protéger ces valeurs. Le peuple roumain, étant impliqué dans la procedure d¢adhésion à l¢Union européenne, a le devoir de ...

  14. Injunctions against mere conduit of information protected by copyright

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandfeld Jakobsen, Søren; Petersen, Clement Salung

    2011-01-01

    This paper includes an in-depth analysis of EU law and Scandinavian law on injunctions against internet access providers (IAPs) performing as mere conduit of information protected by copyright. In recent Scandinavian case law, courts have granted preliminary injunctions which have caused IAPs to either shut down specific internet connections allegedly used to infringe copyright or to block access to internet content, which allegedly infringed applicable copyright rules. This paper considers some...

  15. Peripheral nerve regeneration with conduits: use of vein tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Guerra Sabongi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of peripheral nerve injuries remains a challenge to modern medicine due to the complexity of the neurobiological nerve regenerating process. There is a greater challenge when the transected nerve ends are not amenable to primary end-to-end tensionless neurorraphy. When facing a segmental nerve defect, great effort has been made to develop an alternative to the autologous nerve graft in order to circumvent morbidity at donor site, such as neuroma formation, scarring and permanent loss of function. Tubolization techniques have been developed to bridge nerve gaps and have been extensively studied in numerous experimental and clinical trials. The use of a conduit intends to act as a vehicle for moderation and modulation of the cellular and molecular ambience for nerve regeneration. Among several conduits, vein tubes were validated for clinical application with improving outcomes over the years. This article aims to address the investigation and treatment of segmental nerve injury and draw the current panorama on the use of vein tubes as an autogenous nerve conduit.

  16. Manipulating Multistage Interconnection Networks Using Fundamental Arrangements

    OpenAIRE

    E. Gur; Zalevsky, Z.

    2010-01-01

    Optimizing interconnection networks is a prime object in switching schemes. In this work the authors present a novel approach for obtaining a required channel arrangement in a multi-stage interconnection network, using a new concept - a fundamental arrangement. The fundamental arrangement is an initial N-1 stage switch arrangement that allows obtaining any required output channel arrangement given an input arrangement, using N/2 binary switches at each stage. The paper demon...

  17. Guidebook to financing CDM projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamel, S.

    2007-07-01

    One of the challenges facing Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects today is their limited ability to secure financing for the underlying greenhouse gas emission reduction activities, particularly in the least developed countries. Among the key reasons for this is the fact that most financial intermediaries in the CDM host countries have limited or no knowledge of the CDM Modalities and Procedures. Moreover, approaches, tools and skills for CDM project appraisal are lacking or are asymmetrical to the skills in comparable institutions in developed countries. Consequently, developing country financial institutions are unable to properly evaluate the risks and rewards associated with investing or lending to developers undertaking CDM projects, and therefore have, by-and-large, refrained from financing these projects. In addition, some potential project proponents lack experience in structuring arrangements for financing a project. This Guidebook - commissioned by the UNEP Risoe Centre as part of the activities of the Capacity Development for CDM (CD4CDM) project (http://www.cd4cdm.org) - addresses these barriers by providing information aimed at both developing country financial institutions and at CDM project proponents. It should be noted that while the Guidebook was developed particularly with the CDM in mind, most sections will also be relevant for Joint Implementation (JI) project activities. For more detailed information on JI modalities and procedures please consult: http://ji.unfccc.int The purpose of this Guidebook is two-fold: 1) To guide project developers on obtaining financing for the implementation of activities eligible under the CDM; and 2) To demonstrate to developing country financial institutions typical approaches and methods for appraising the viability of CDM projects and for optimally integrating carbon revenue into overall project financing. The target audiences for the Guidebook are therefore, primarily: 1) CDM project proponents in developing countries, including but not limited to utilities, private and public sector entities, municipalities, and other specialised consultancies and intermediaries; and 2) Credit officers and other decision-makers within banking institutions and financial intermediaries in developing countries. (au)

  18. Manipulating Multistage Interconnection Networks Using Fundamental Arrangements

    CERN Document Server

    Gur, Eran

    2010-01-01

    Optimizing interconnection networks is a prime object in switching schemes. In this work the authors present a novel approach for obtaining a required channel arrangement in a multi-stage interconnection network, using a new concept - a fundamental arrangement. The fundamental arrangement is an initial N-1 stage switch arrangement that allows obtaining any required output channel arrangement given an input arrangement, using N/2 binary switches at each stage. The paper demonstrates how a fundamental arrangement can be achieved and how, once this is done, any required arrangement may be obtained within 2(N-1) steps.

  19. Manipulating Multistage Interconnection Networks Using Fundamental Arrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Gur

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Optimizing interconnection networks is a prime object in switching schemes. In this work the authors present a novel approach for obtaining a required channel arrangement in a multi-stage interconnectionnetwork, using a new concept – a fundamental arrangement. The fundamental arrangement is an initial N-1 stage switch arrangement that allows obtaining any required output channel arrangement given an input arrangement, using N/2 binary switches at each stage. The paper demonstrates how a fundamental arrangement can be achieved and how, once this is done, any required arrangement may be obtained within 2(N-1 steps.

  20. Reactor vessel head support arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A support and sealing arrangement is described for the vessel head of a nuclear reactor. The arrangement comprises a first support ring supported in the vessel cavity in which the reactor vessel is disposed, a plurality of flexible struts spaced about the circumference of the reactor vessel each of which has one end connected to the first support ring, and a second support ring which is supported by the other ends of the flexible struts to support the vessel head. The first and second support rings are each concentrically arranged with respect to the reactor vessel. Also, sealing means are provided for preventing fluid communication between the interior of the reactor vessel and the vessel cavity, and between the vessel cavity and the outside atmosphere

  1. Financing Distributed Generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper introduces the engineer who is undertaking distributed generation projects to a wide range of financing options. Distributed generation systems (such as internal combustion engines, small gas turbines, fuel cells and photovoltaics) all require an initial investment, which is recovered over time through revenues or savings. An understanding of the cost of capital and financing structures helps the engineer develop realistic expectations and not be offended by the common requirements of financing organizations. This paper discusses several mechanisms for financing distributed generation projects: appropriations; debt (commercial bank loan); mortgage; home equity loan; limited partnership; vendor financing; general obligation bond; revenue bond; lease; Energy Savings Performance Contract; utility programs; chauffage (end-use purchase); and grants. The paper also discusses financial strategies for businesses focusing on distributed generation: venture capital; informal investors (''business angels''); bank and debt financing; and the stock market

  2. FINANCING OF INTERNATIONAL TRANSACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADU NICOLAE B?LUN?

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Financing (funding is essentially the purchase of funds necessary for a business. This can be done from internal sources (company’s own funds or external (borrowed funds. The high value of goods traded in international trade makes revenues generated from internal resources not sufficient to settle the value of the goods. Thus, it is frequent to resort to borrowed funds. In International Business Transactions, external financing is done both by classical techniques of credit (credit supplier and buyer credit and modern techniques of financing (factoring, forfeiting, leasing all trade tailored. In terms of the length of financing, accounting funding is short-term (1-12 months and long-term financing (over a year. In principle, export and import operations prevailing short-term financing techniques, while international investment and industrial cooperation actions are specific long-term funding

  3. Project financing in Latin America: The search for greener pastures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper addresses the basic requisites for inducing private capital to engage in infrastructure project financing. Part 1 of this paper provides an overview of project financing considerations, such as how pricing of project outputs and the credit history of output purchasers can affect the availability of project financing, and explores the use of ''Revolving Funds'' as a stimulus for private investment. Part 2 discusses several areas in which governments can become pro-active participants in establishing a sound framework for project financing of infrastructure. Part 3 briefly addresses project structuring and the contractual risk allocation process which is central to project financing, and highlights some of the key legal arrangements found in project contracts

  4. Financing Strategies for Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Shropshire; Sharon Chandler

    2005-12-01

    To help meet our nation’s energy needs, reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel is being considered more and more as a necessary step in a future nuclear fuel cycle, but incorporating this step into the fuel cycle will require considerable investment. This report presents an evaluation of financing scenarios for reprocessing facilities integrated into the nuclear fuel cycle. A range of options, from fully government owned to fully private owned, was evaluated using a DPL (Dynamic Programming Language) 6.0 model, which can systematically optimize outcomes based on user-defined criteria (e.g., lowest life-cycle cost, lowest unit cost). Though all business decisions follow similar logic with regard to financing, reprocessing facilities are an exception due to the range of financing options available. The evaluation concludes that lowest unit costs and lifetime costs follow a fully government-owned financing strategy, due to government forgiveness of debt as sunk costs. Other financing arrangements, however, including regulated utility ownership and a hybrid ownership scheme, led to acceptable costs, below the Nuclear Energy Agency published estimates. Overwhelmingly, uncertainty in annual capacity led to the greatest fluctuations in unit costs necessary for recovery of operating and capital expenditures; the ability to determine annual capacity will be a driving factor in setting unit costs. For private ventures, the costs of capital, especially equity interest rates, dominate the balance sheet; the annual operating costs dominate the government case. It is concluded that to finance the construction and operation of such a facility without government ownership could be feasible with measures taken to mitigate risk, and that factors besides unit costs should be considered (e.g., legal issues, social effects, proliferation concerns) before making a decision on financing strategy.

  5. Financing Strategies for Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To help meet our nation's energy needs, reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel is being considered more and more as a necessary step in a future nuclear fuel cycle, but incorporating this step into the fuel cycle will require considerable investment. This report presents an evaluation of financing scenarios for reprocessing facilities integrated into the nuclear fuel cycle. A range of options, from fully government owned to fully private owned, was evaluated using a DPL (Dynamic Programming Language) 6.0 model, which can systematically optimize outcomes based on user-defined criteria (e.g., lowest life-cycle cost, lowest unit cost). Though all business decisions follow similar logic with regard to financing, reprocessing facilities are an exception due to the range of financing options available. The evaluation concludes that lowest unit costs and lifetime costs follow a fully government-owned financing strategy, due to government forgiveness of debt as sunk costs. Other financing arrangements, however, including regulated utility ownership and a hybrid ownership scheme, led to acceptable costs, below the Nuclear Energy Agency published estimates. Overwhelmingly, uncertainty in annual capacity led to the greatest fluctuations in unit costs necessary for recovery of operating and capital expenditures; the ability to determine annual capacity will be a driving factor in setting unit costs. For private ventures, the costs of capital, especially equity interest rates, dominate the balance sheet; the annual operating costs dominate the government case. It is concluded that to finance the construction and operation of such a facility without government ownership could be feasible with measures taken to mitigate risk, and that factors besides unit costs should be considered (e.g., legal issues, social effects, proliferation concerns) before making a decision on financing strategy

  6. Nuclear reactor core stabilizing arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nuclear reactor core stabilizing arrangement is described wherein a plurality of actuators, disposed in a pattern laterally surrounding a group of elongated fuel assemblies, press against respective contiguous fuel assemblies on the periphery of the group to reduce the clearance between adjacent fuel assemblies thereby forming a more compacted, vibration resistant core structure. 7 claims, 4 drawing figures

  7. Creative Capital Financing: Lease Purchase and Leasing Air Space (The Florida Approach).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Franklin L.

    1983-01-01

    Among recent creative financing arrangements for public sector construction in Florida are the Duval County Central Administration Building, constructed with a lease purchase arrangement, and state legislation that provides for the leasing or sale of air space by local school boards or boards of regents. (MLF)

  8. Conduit speed limit promotes formation of explosive `super slugs'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellin, E. W.; Burton, M. R.; Mader, H. M.; Polacci, M.

    2014-12-01

    Strombolian activity - characterized by discrete, impulsive explosions - is common at basaltic volcanoes. The explosions are caused by the arrival, at the volcanic vent, of over-pressured `slugs' of magmatic gas, which have ascended the volcanic conduit. We present data from large-scale analogue experiments which reveal a previously-undescribed process which promotes the formation of large, highly over-pressured `super slugs'. We propose that these large slugs may drive the most violent Strombolian eruptions. Experiments were performed at the Large Analogue Volcano Apparatus at Durham University, UK, which comprises a 13m tall, 24cm diameter transparent conduit, surmounting a reservoir of analogue magma held at constant pressure. We simulate a vesiculation event deep in the sub-volcanic plumbing system by fluxing gas into the reservoir. Magma analogues with a range of viscosities are used, giving slug Reynolds numbers in the range 16 to 140,000. At moderate-to-high Reynolds number, we find that the gas rapidly self-organizes to form a conduit-filling lead slug; this slug ascends the column slowly, at a velocity limited by the flux of the falling film of liquid around it. Trailing bubbles, which ascend through the wake of the lead slug, rise much more rapidly. As they catch and coalesce with the lead slug, it grows and becomes increasingly over-pressured. This mechanism causes large slugs to form rapidly and we propose that it underpins the formation of the very large slugs that are responsible for the most explosive strombolian eruptions.

  9. Mental health: financial arrangements for long-stay residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, P; Robertson, P

    The process of preparing long-stay patients for relocation from mental health hospitals to the community has been well described, but little attention has been paid to the effects such a move has on arrangements for residents' finances. This article describes a system which seemed to mix the best of the traditional hospital banking system with modern community-based commercial banking services, and how the provision of a financial service to a group of institutionalised residents assisted in the process of re-personalisation. PMID:8260386

  10. Heating-induced flows in cable-in-conduit conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoenig et al and Miller et al have both reported high stability margins for cable-in-conduit conductors cooled by stationary supercritical helium. Miller et al proposed that strong flows induced in the helium in the early stages of recovery enhanced heat transfer and greatly increased the stability margin over what had been expected for stationary helium. In this memorandum, the flow and pressure transients induced in initially stationary helium by energy transfers typical of those associated with conductor recovery (50 to 200 mJ cm-3 in 10 to 20 msec) are calculated

  11. Hydraulic and geological factors influencing conduit flow depth

    OpenAIRE

    Worthington, S.R.H.

    2005-01-01

    There has much been speculation as to whether cave formation should occur at, above, or below the water table, but a satisfactory explanation has been lacking until recently. The last 50 years has seen extensive mapping of caves both above and, more recently, below the water table. It is now becoming apparent that there are systematic differences in depth of flow between different areas and that conduit flow to depths >100m below the water table is not uncommon. Such deep flow is facilitated ...

  12. Financing - general considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various aspects of the problems of financing a multinational regional fuel cycle centre (RFCC) are briefly discussed. Some of the points covered are: financing by participants; floating long-term loans on capital markets outside the countries of the participants; and export credits for the purchase of equipment manufactured outside the countries of the participants

  13. Geothermal Financing Workbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battocletti, E.C.

    1998-02-01

    This report was prepared to help small firm search for financing for geothermal energy projects. There are various financial and economics formulas. Costs of some small overseas geothermal power projects are shown. There is much discussion of possible sources of financing, especially for overseas projects. (DJE-2005)

  14. Quo Vadis Infrastructure Financing?

    OpenAIRE

    Brodehser, Peter

    2013-01-01

    1. Introduction 2. The project finance market in 2006/2007 3. Areas affected by the global financial crisis 4. Areas affected by the euro financial crisis 5. Basel III and the consequences for infrastructure financing 6. Outlook – Where do we go from here?

  15. Ground water flux distribution between matrix, fractures, and conduits: constraints on modeling

    OpenAIRE

    White, W. B.; White, E.L.

    2005-01-01

    Calculations are presented to show the relative contribution of the matrix, fracture, and conduit permeability to the overall flow of ground water through a karst aquifer. The conceptual model is a cross-section spanning the full width and thickness of the aquifer. A constant, but adjustable head is assumed. The rock matrix is characterized by an adjustable hydraulic conductivity. Varying proportions of fractures and conduits of adjustable fracture apertures and conduit diameters were the...

  16. Rotational pectoral musculocutaneous flap for the repair of gastric conduit necrosis in cervical esophagogastrostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Jun; Park, Jae Kil; Hwang, Sun Jin; Moon, Seok Whan

    2012-12-01

    We experienced a case of wide necrosis of the cervical gastric conduit during esophageal cancer surgery. We attempted to repair this defect with various methods including conservative care, stents two times, and sternocleidomastoid muscle flap without successful results. Finally, we were able to reconstruct the gastric conduit defect with rotational pectoralis major musculocutaneous (PMM) flap. PMM flap is thought to be a reconstruction method applicable to the intractable gastric conduit defect. PMID:23230559

  17. Rotational pectoral musculocutaneous flap for the repair of gastric conduit necrosis in cervical esophagogastrostomy

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jae Jun; Park, Jae Kil; Hwang, Sun Jin; Moon, Seok Whan

    2012-01-01

    We experienced a case of wide necrosis of the cervical gastric conduit during esophageal cancer surgery. We attempted to repair this defect with various methods including conservative care, stents two times, and sternocleidomastoid muscle flap without successful results. Finally, we were able to reconstruct the gastric conduit defect with rotational pectoralis major musculocutaneous (PMM) flap. PMM flap is thought to be a reconstruction method applicable to the intractable gastric conduit def...

  18. Financing health care in Egypt: Current issues and options for reform

    OpenAIRE

    Gericke, Christian A.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: The Government of Egypt has embarked on a process of reforming health care financing in the country. Under the influence of external advisers it has so far focused on social health insurance as the main funding mechanism. Other options, in particular tax-based financing, have hardly been considered. Methods: Review of current health care financing arrangements in Egypt, of potential areas for improvement, and of stated health policy goals. Analysis of social health insurance and...

  19. Financing Internal Buyouts of Private Companies: SCIN Attractive If Valuation Issues Can Be Resolved

    OpenAIRE

    Crain, Terry; Hamill, James

    1995-01-01

    In planning for succession of ownership, oftentimes the owner of a private business seeks to sell the business to either family members or employees. Arranging outside financing may be difficult or costly, making internal financing attractive. Self-cancelling installment notes (SCINs) provide an opportunity to finance the transfer of ownership at a favorable interest rate and to obtain income and estate tax advantages. However, to pass muster with the Internal Revenue Service, the SCIN must i...

  20. Financing Canadian international operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A primer on financing international operations by Canadian corporations was provided. Factors affecting the availability to project finance (location, political risk), the various forms of financing (debt, equity, and combinations), the main sources of government backed financing to corporations (the International Finance Corporation) (IFC), the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), the Asian Development Bank (ADB), the Overseas Property Insurance Corporation (OPIC), government or agency guarantees, political risk coverage, the use of offshore financial centres, and the where, when and how these various organizations operate, were reviewed. Examples of all of the above, taken from the experiences of Canadian Occidental Petroleum of Calgary in the U.S., in South America, in the Middle and Far East, and in Kazakhstan, were used as illustrations. figs

  1. Healthcare financing in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kananatu, K

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Malaysian healthcare system and its method of financing. The development of the healthcare delivery system in Malaysia is commendable. However, the strength and weaknesses of the public healthcare system and the financing problems encountered are also discussed. Cost of healthcare and funding of both the public and private sectors were also revealed. One must optimise the advantages of operating a health financing scheme which is affordable and controllable which contribute towards cost-containment and quality assurance. Thus, there is a need for the establishment of a National Healthcare Financing, a mechanism to sustain the healthcare delivery network and operate it as a viable option. A model of the National Health Financing Scheme (NHFS) was proposed. PMID:12597514

  2. Principles of Arrangement Field Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Marin, Diego

    2012-01-01

    In this paper I attempt to summarize the fundamental principles which underlie to Arrangement Field Theory. In my intention the exposition would be the most possible intelligible and self-contained. However the exposed concepts are revisited in the light of the new researches, so that they could appear slightly different than in the previous works. Much emphasis is posed here to the power of theory to predict the number of fermionic families (flavours) and space-time dimensi...

  3. Two-dimensional simulations of magma ascent in volcanic conduits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, J. I.

    1999-04-01

    A two-dimensional model for magma ascent in volcanic conduits is presented. The model accounts for the magma rheology, heat flux to the surrounding country rock, planar and axisymmetric geometries, and flow in the mushy region by means of a continuum mixture formulation that does not require keeping track of the liquid-solid interfaces. Numerical experiments for Newtonian and visco-plastic Bingham rheologies of magmas are presented as functions of the volumetric flow rate at the dyke's entrance and wall heat fluxes for both round conduits and fissures. It is shown that, depending on the magma rheology, dyke geometry, volumetric flow rate and wall heat flux, the magma may solidify along the original dyke's walls, thus reducing the available cross-sectional area to the flow, or the original dyke's walls may melt. It is also shown that the dyke's wall temperature may first increase and then decrease, and that the axial velocity profile exhibits a parabolic shape in the core region and a plug zone near the dyke's walls for Bingham rheologies. Copyright

  4. Guide to financing of mining projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potts, D.

    1985-07-01

    The different sources and types of finance for mining projects are described and the factors that determine their costs are examined. Most mining engineers are familiar with the cash flow techniques that are used to assess the economic viability of a project, but that non-technical financial executives usually play the principal part in arranging the final financial package. The fundamental difference between debt and equity is explained to illustrate the importance of gearing. The choice of a particular financial method often depends on the accountancy system and tax rules in the country in which the project is located. New financing techniques are often developed in response to changes in accountancy and taxation rules.

  5. Innovative M and A financing structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structuring and financing of mergers and acquisitions (M and A) is one of the most critical elements of a takeover process, given that Canadian securities law requires that any takeover must be 'fully financed'. It follows therefore, that in order to comply with securities laws, the financing for a takeover must be arranged in advance of making such a bid. This paper describes the structuring of an offer, outlines the sources of M and A financing, including a review of the 'full capital solution', reviews the key forces influencing the financial structuring of takeover bids, and provides examples of recent M and A transactions in the oil and gas resources sectors. Case histories of two recent mergers and acquisitions, one involving Sun Media Corporation and Rogers Communication Inc., the other John Labatt Limited and the Onex Corporation, were reviewed in detail. The importance of proper structuring of the offer for the specific target's shareholders, as well as for future business operations was stressed

  6. Multicriteria analysis in finance

    CERN Document Server

    Doumpos, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a concise introduction into the fundamentals and applied techniques of multiple criteria decision making in the finance sector. Based on an analysis of the nature of financial decisions and the general methods of financial modelling, risk management and financial engineering, the book introduces into portfolio management, banking management and credit scoring. Finally the book presents an overview of further applications of multi criteria analysis in finance and gives an outlook on future perspectives for the application of MCDA in finance.

  7. Drill pipes and casings utilizing multi-conduit tubular; Flerkanals roerstreng

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curlett, H.B.

    1997-04-23

    The invention relates to a multi-conduit tubular having fluid conduits and electrical conduits, with associated surface fluid and electrical commutators, and downhole sensors for providing surface monitors with instantaneous formation data. Each tubular includes a plurality of uniform linear conduits there through, with a gasket seal plate interposed between joined tubular for assuring a high pressure seal between joined conduits. the seal plate includes an intermediate electrical connector for connecting electrical conduit connectors of one tubular to another. A coupling collar with uniform diameter internal coarse and fine threads joins the tubular ends having similar threads by differential thread action without respective tubular rotation. Each tubular end includes an inter-engaging index recess and index lug, and drive recesses and lugs for maintaining angular registry of the tubular string and for driving one drill tubular with another. A fluid commutator includes a rotating shaft with passages connected to the tubular conduits, and rotating in a manifold having annular grooves in communication with the shaft passages and external fluid sources. An adaptor couples each commutator shaft passage to one or more tubular conduits. Slip rings on a quill shaft and stationary brush means provide electrical continuity from the electrical conduit wires to surface equipment. A cross-over sub includes formation parameter sensors and telemetry equipment in a blocked off portion of a fluid conduit. An annular accumulator connected with the well bore annulus applies a pressure thereto in response to downhole sensors to change the effective density of the drill mud. The multi-conduit tubular is further adapted for use as a well casing to provide downhole access of a plurality of fluids and electrical parameter sensors. 28 figs.

  8. Project financing in the energy sector: The Indonesian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Past Indonesian experiences in arranging Project Financing or Limited Recourse Financing in the Energy Sector and the feasibility of such a structure for Nuclear Power Projects are reviewed in this paper. Many of the projects in the energy sector, including Nuclear Power Project are capital intensive projects. A single project may require an investment level of several billion dollars. Large capital investments of this nature may drastically limit the availability of funds from external sources used to finance other non-energy projects in a developing country such as Indonesia. Therefore, the financing concept of a project is becoming a paramount element in the policies adopted by the Republic of Indonesia. As an example, a non-recourse finance structure is the preference of the government for export oriented energy projects. The aim of the government financing policy for export oriented energy projects is to limit the recourse to the applicable Indonesian state enterprise (the project sponsor) by transferring to third parties as much of the project risks as possible. Most of the export oriented energy projects come close to achieving a non-recourse structure. Domestic oriented energy projects however, continue to be financed with a loan guarantee by the government or by state owned enterprises. In addition to maintaining fund availability from external sources for the non-energy sector, Indonesia's reported external debts as well as debt service ratios are other factors in considering a limited recourse financing structure for capital intensive projects. (author)

  9. Export development financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main activities of the Export Development Corporation (EDC) were described, as well as some of the changes currently being implemented. EDC is Canada's official export credit agency, providing risk management services such as insurance, loans, guarantees, equity and leasing. EDC's project finance initiative started in 1991, and focused mainly on the up-front process. It has established itself as a recognized leader in project financing. It has over 15 years experience in a variety of sectors and countries. Energy projects financed to date include hydro projects in India, Argentina and Pakistan, and thermal projects in Thailand, China, Indonesia and Egypt. Lending criteria used to select projects were outlined, along with the risks endemic to project financing

  10. FINANCING INNOVATION IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SORIN SERBAN

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This article based on an examination of empirical literature, analyses the financing of innovative enterprises in Romania and presents the characteristics of Romanian policies in this regard. It sets forth an estimation of the number of innovative enterprises in Romania based on figures from different sources. Assessing the role of financial restrictions on innovation reveals that a firm is facing obstacles to finance its innovative activities but also other difficulties to innovate which appears to be enhanced. This article also puts forward the role of different financing actors and instruments at different stages of the firm's life cycle and emphasizes the function of proximity capital in filling the gap between supply and demand of financing. Finally a framework for policy is recommended.

  11. To finance the transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A set of brief articles illustrates the emergence of innovating and operational financing tools aimed at supporting energy transition in France and in Europe. As far as France is concerned, different examples are evoked: raising local savings, crowd-funding for renewable energies, citizen investment, cooperation between industries, communities and citizens, a semi-public company with citizen participation, the case of the Nancy urban community, a joint experience by a local public company and an investment fund. As far as Europe is concerned, the following topics or examples are evoked: local policies as lever for European financing, the Danish example of citizen-based financing, crowd-funding in the UK, the European emergence of cooperatives. As far as banks and institutions are concerned, the following topics are addressed: tools implemented by the Caisse des Depots for energy transition, the roles of banks and of public institutions in the financing of energy transition

  12. Financing the German Mittelstand

    OpenAIRE

    Hommel, Ulrich; Schneider, Hilmar

    2003-01-01

    Based on a survey conducted among German Mittelstand firms and capital structure data on the Mittelstand, this paper sheds light on the current and future financing situation of the Mittelstand. The paper documents the equity shortage and dependence on bank debt typically associated with the Mittelstand. It further emphasises that - at present - fears of systematic credit rationing are difficult to substantiate (though a lack of alternative sources of finance can be expected to adversely affe...

  13. Hawkes processes in finance

    OpenAIRE

    Bacry, Emmanuel; Mastromatteo, Iacopo; Muzy, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we propose an overview of the recent academic literature devoted to the applications of Hawkes processes in finance. Hawkes processes constitute a particular class of multivariate point processes that has become very popular in empirical high frequency finance this last decade. After a reminder of the main definitions and properties that characterize Hawkes processes, we review their main empirical applications to address many different problems in high frequen...

  14. Financing asset growth

    OpenAIRE

    Brennan, Michael J.; Kraft, Holger

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we provide new evidence that corporate financing decisions are associated with managerial incentives to report high equity earnings. Managers rely most heavily on debt to finance their asset growth when their future earnings prospects are poor, when they are under pressure due to past declines in earnings, negative past stock returns, and excessively optimistic analyst earnings forecasts, and when the earnings yield is high relative to bond yields so that from an accounting pers...

  15. Arrangement for selectively irradiating webs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The arrangement for selectively irradiating a web includes a perforated band of a radiation impermeable substance which is guided in an endless path via a pair of guide rollers and has two juxtaposed runs in this path. A take-up roller conveys a web of material past one of the runs at a side thereof remote from the other run, the direction of movement of the web being other than parallel to that of the band and, preferably, normal thereto. An electron accelerator is provided at the far side of the run remote from the web and is effective for directing a radiation beam at the web through the perforations

  16. Moduli of weighted hyperplane arrangements

    CERN Document Server

    Lahoz, Martí; Macrí, Emanuele; Stellari, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    This book focuses on a large class of geometric objects in moduli theory and provides explicit computations to investigate their families. Concrete examples are developed that take advantage of the intricate interplay between Algebraic Geometry and Combinatorics. Compactifications of moduli spaces play a crucial role in Number Theory, String Theory, and Quantum Field Theory – to mention just a few. In particular, the notion of compactification of moduli spaces has been crucial for solving various open problems and long-standing conjectures. Further, the book reports on compactification techniques for moduli spaces in a large class where computations are possible, namely that of weighted stable hyperplane arrangements.

  17. A one-dimensional heat-transport model for conduit flow in karst aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, A.J.; Gilcrease, P.C.

    2009-01-01

    A one-dimensional heat-transport model for conduit flow in karst aquifers is presented as an alternative to two or three-dimensional distributed-parameter models, which are data intensive and require knowledge of conduit locations. This model can be applied for cases where water temperature in a well or spring receives all or part of its water from a phreatic conduit. Heat transport in the conduit is simulated by using a physically-based heat-transport equation that accounts for inflow of diffuse flow from smaller openings and fissures in the surrounding aquifer during periods of low recharge. Additional diffuse flow that is within the zone of influence of the well or spring but has not interacted with the conduit is accounted for with a binary mixing equation to proportion these different water sources. The estimation of this proportion through inverse modeling is useful for the assessment of contaminant vulnerability and well-head or spring protection. The model was applied to 7 months of continuous temperature data for a sinking stream that recharges a conduit and a pumped well open to the Madison aquifer in western South Dakota. The simulated conduit-flow fraction to the well ranged from 2% to 31% of total flow, and simulated conduit velocity ranged from 44 to 353 m/d.

  18. In vivo studies of silk based gold nano-composite conduits for functional peripheral nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Suradip; Sharma, Manav; Saharia, Dhiren; Sarma, Kushal Konwar; Sarma, Monalisa Goswami; Borthakur, Bibhuti Bhusan; Bora, Utpal

    2015-09-01

    We report a novel silk-gold nanocomposite based nerve conduit successfully tested in a neurotmesis grade sciatic nerve injury model in rats over a period of eighteen months. The conduit was fabricated by adsorbing gold nanoparticles onto silk fibres and transforming them into a nanocomposite sheet by electrospinning which is finally given a tubular structure by rolling on a stainless steel mandrel of chosen diameter. The conduits were found to promote adhesion and proliferation of Schwann cells in vitro and did not elicit any toxic or immunogenic responses in vivo. We also report for the first time, the monitoring of muscular regeneration post nerve conduit implantation by recording motor unit potentials (MUPs) through needle electromyogram. Pre-seeding the conduits with Schwann cells enhanced myelination of the regenerated tissue. Histo-morphometric and electrophysiological studies proved that the nanocomposite based conduits pre-seeded with Schwann cells performed best in terms of structural and functional regeneration of severed sciatic nerves. The near normal values of nerve conduction velocity (50 m/sec), compound muscle action potential (29.7 mV) and motor unit potential (133 ?V) exhibited by the animals implanted with Schwann cell loaded nerve conduits in the present study are superior to those observed in previous reports with synthetic materials as well as collagen based nerve conduits. Animals in this group were also able to perform complex locomotory activities like stretching and jumping with excellent sciatic function index (SFI) and led a normal life. PMID:26026910

  19. International energy financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some of the innovative financing options being considered by developing countries and economies in transition as ways of mobilizing international energy financing are discussed. Build-Own-Operate (BOO) and Transfer (BOOT) is the most commonly adopted approach. This involves limited resource financing of a project on the basis of the associated cash flow and risks and not on the credit of the project owners. The World Bank has set up the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency to provide, on a fee basis, guarantees against certain non-commercial forms of risk in order to promote international capital flow to developing countries. In 1989, the World Bank introduced the Expanded Co-financing Operations (ECO) programme as an instrument to catalyze the flow of private finance into developing countries and to improve their access to international financial markets. Other financial instruments currently being established include: leasing of equipment or whole plants by foreign investors; private ownership or operation of generation and distribution facilities; exchange of specific export goods for energy imports; developing instruments to finance local costs; revenue bonds; tax-exempt bonds; sale of electricity futures to those seeking more stable, longer term electricity price contracts. (UK)

  20. Financing responsibility for nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic premise for financing arrangements for the disposal of nuclear waste is that the nuclear industry - not the taxpayer - must bear the costs. Present regulations, however, are imperfect in this regard. The Inquiry therefore proposes extending the financial liability of the nuclear industry and introducing new fee-setting arrangements. It is proposed that a new law be enacted to regulate these changes. The present financing system is regulated in the 'Financing Act' 1. Under this Act, the licensed owner and operator of a nuclear reactor is required to pay an annual fee and provide guarantees to the State. Four companies are reactor owners. These companies are wholly or partly owned by other companies according to various arrangements. Each reactor owner is responsible for its own dismantling costs and for its share of allocated common costs of disposal and related measures. If there is insufficient money in the funds, the nuclear industry will still be liable. The basic premise of the Inquiry is that the financing system should be designed so as to minimise the risk that the State (and taxpayers) will need to step in and pay. Although the nuclear industry is intended to have full liability for payment, in practice it does not. This is because the formal full liability for payment in the nuclear industry rests with the reactor companies and not where the industry's long-term ability to pay is to be found. Essentially, the present arrangements mean that: - Companies that cannot be expected to have any long-term ability to pay have unlimited liability, and - Companies that can be expected to have an ability to pay have very limited liability. The Inquiry therefore proposes that ability to pay and liability are brought into line by a formal assumption by owning companies of the sort of liability for payment that now rests solely with the reactor companies. This means that the owning company in each group that is best suited to bear the liability for payment - which in principle is likely to be the leading company in the group - will also assume liability through a payment guarantee. The extended requirement to pay fees for the period until the final disposal sites are sealed and the secondary liability for payment are central components of the proposed new design of the financing system. In other cases where the State assumes risks, risk assessments are made. This applies, for example, when the State provides guarantees in the area of export credits. In the view of the Inquiry, however, the State has not followed an appropriate course of action in managing the financial risk involved in this case. Use must be made of descriptions of risks in other projects and experience of managing financial risks of other projects. The Inquiry considers that a different system and different management is required in order to put the liability of the nuclear industry for costs into place - and so limit the financial risk borne by the State. The Inquiry considers it essential that the use of funds is followed up and audited so as to maintain confidence in the financing system. The Inquiry considers that a three-year fee period should create scope for auditing and control and proposes that the safety authority be instructed in an ordinance to draw up rules aimed at facilitating follow-up by requiring time limits, comparability, etc. It is proposed that auditing be made part of a new financially oriented line of activity at the authority. It is proposed further that the safety authority be instructed to deliver an account to the Government every three years regarding its assessment of the most important risk factors in the withdrawals process. The Inquiry proposes that the National Debt Office be instructed to review the issue of a fee for the State's financial risk three years after a new financing system has entered into force

  1. ‘Chrysanthemum petal’ arrangements of silver nano wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hui-Wang; Jiu, Jin-Ting; Sugahara, Tohru; Nagao, Shijo; Suganuma, Katsuaki; Uchida, Hiroshi

    2014-12-01

    Highly ordered ‘Chrysanthemum petal’ arrangements of silver nano wires were fabricated in a biodegradable polymer of polyvinyl alcohol using a simple one-step blending method without any template. The degree of the arrangement increased with the decreasing content of polyvinyl alcohol. The mechanism for the formation of these ‘Chrysanthemum petal’ arrangements was discussed specifically. These ‘Chrysanthemum petal’ arrangements will be helpful to increase the electrical conductivity of silver nano wires films.

  2. 'Chrysanthemum petal' arrangements of silver nano wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hui-Wang; Jiu, Jin-Ting; Sugahara, Tohru; Nagao, Shijo; Suganuma, Katsuaki; Uchida, Hiroshi

    2014-12-01

    Highly ordered 'Chrysanthemum petal' arrangements of silver nano wires were fabricated in a biodegradable polymer of polyvinyl alcohol using a simple one-step blending method without any template. The degree of the arrangement increased with the decreasing content of polyvinyl alcohol. The mechanism for the formation of these 'Chrysanthemum petal' arrangements was discussed specifically. These 'Chrysanthemum petal' arrangements will be helpful to increase the electrical conductivity of silver nano wires films. PMID:25397618

  3. Palliative urinary conduit diversion in cases of intolerable urinary discomfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyndrup, J.; Sorensen, B.L.

    1983-12-01

    Fifteen patients with incurable gynecological cancers, all primary radiation treated and all having severe urinary discomfort due to urinary tract injuries were retrospectively examined after urinary conduit diversion. All have been followed-up until termination or until all survivors had lived for 6 months after the operation. Twelve of the 15 were discharged from the hospital, 10 of whom survived the first 6 months. Of those discharged 82% of the cumulated sum of postoperative observations days was spent out of the hospital. At the end of the observation period nine patients had been supplied with a colostomy as well, thus having double stomas. All six patients still alive declared in retrospect that given the choice again, they would still be willing to undergo the operation.

  4. Nerve conduit using fascia-wrapped fibrocollagenous tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, K; Tsukagoshi, T; Kuroda, M; Hosaka, Y

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the application of autogenous fascia as a framework of a fibrocollagen tube for a nerve conduit in Japanese white rabbits. The fascia was wrapped with a double layer around a silicone rod 3.0 mm in diameter. After the implantation of the fascia-wrapped silicone rod into a subcutaneous pocket for 2 weeks, a 3.0 x 30-mm fascia-wrapped fibrocollagen (FFC) tube was prepared. With microvascular techniques, the tube was interposed into a right sciatic nerve gap which was 25 mm long. The results of nerve regeneration in the FFC tube group, in particular, the formation of epineurium, were able to stand comparison with the results of a control group under both histologic and electron micrographic examination. PMID:11499471

  5. Totally biological composite aortic stentless valved conduit for aortic root replacement: 10-year experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meduoye Ayo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To retrospectively analyze the clinical outcome of a totally biological composite stentless aortic valved conduit (No-React® BioConduit implanted using the Bentall procedure over ten years in a single centre. Methods Between 27/10/99 and 19/01/08, the No-React® BioConduit composite graft was implanted in 67 patients. Data on these patients were collected from the in-hospital database, from patient notes and from questionnaires. A cohort of patients had 2D-echocardiogram with an average of 4.3 ± 0.45 years post-operatively to evaluate valve function, calcification, and the diameter of the conduit. Results Implantation in 67 patients represented a follow-up of 371.3 patient-year. Males were 60% of the operated population, with a mean age of 67.9 ± 1.3 years (range 34.1-83.8 years, 21 of them below the age of 65. After a mean follow-up of 7.1 ± 0.3 years (range of 2.2-10.5 years, more than 50% of the survivors were in NYHA I/II and more than 60% of the survivors were angina-free (CCS 0. The overall 10-year survival following replacement of the aortic valve and root was 51%. During this period, 88% of patients were free from valved-conduit related complications leading to mortality. Post-operative echocardiography studies showed no evidence of stenosis, dilatation, calcification or thrombosis. Importantly, during the 10-year follow-up period no failures of the valved conduit were reported, suggesting that the tissue of the conduit does not structurally change (histology of one explant showed normal cusp and conduit. Conclusions The No-React® BioConduit composite stentless aortic valved conduit provides excellent long-term clinical results for aortic root replacement with few prosthesis-related complications in the first post-operative decade.

  6. Financing energy projects in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Overview of financing trends in Africa; Multilateral support - Bedrock of Africa's first generation energy projects; ECA insurance and financing; Bilateral development finance; Offshore commercial bank lending; Local commercial bank finance; Capital markets; Legal ramifications ; Risk factors; Conclusions. (Author)

  7. Engineering a multimodal nerve conduit for repair of injured peripheral nerve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, A. F.; Bulluss, K. J.; Kyratzis, I. L. B.; Gilmore, K.; Mysore, T.; Schirmer, K. S. U.; Kennedy, E. L.; O'Shea, M.; Truong, Y. B.; Edwards, S. L.; Peeters, G.; Herwig, P.; Razal, J. M.; Campbell, T. E.; Lowes, K. N.; Higgins, M. J.; Moulton, S. E.; Murphy, M. A.; Cook, M. J.; Clark, G. M.; Wallace, G. G.; Kapsa, R. M. I.

    2013-02-01

    Injury to nerve tissue in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) results in long-term impairment of limb function, dysaesthesia and pain, often with associated psychological effects. Whilst minor injuries can be left to regenerate without intervention and short gaps up to 2 cm can be sutured, larger or more severe injuries commonly require autogenous nerve grafts harvested from elsewhere in the body (usually sensory nerves). Functional recovery is often suboptimal and associated with loss of sensation from the tissue innervated by the harvested nerve. The challenges that persist with nerve repair have resulted in development of nerve guides or conduits from non-neural biological tissues and various polymers to improve the prognosis for the repair of damaged nerves in the PNS. This study describes the design and fabrication of a multimodal controlled pore size nerve regeneration conduit using polylactic acid (PLA) and (PLA):poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) fibers within a neurotrophin-enriched alginate hydrogel. The nerve repair conduit design consists of two types of PLGA fibers selected specifically for promotion of axonal outgrowth and Schwann cell growth (75:25 for axons; 85:15 for Schwann cells). These aligned fibers are contained within the lumen of a knitted PLA sheath coated with electrospun PLA nanofibers to control pore size. The PLGA guidance fibers within the nerve repair conduit lumen are supported within an alginate hydrogel impregnated with neurotrophic factors (NT-3 or BDNF with LIF, SMDF and MGF-1) to provide neuroprotection, stimulation of axonal growth and Schwann cell migration. The conduit was used to promote repair of transected sciatic nerve in rats over a period of 4 weeks. Over this period, it was observed that over-grooming and self-mutilation (autotomy) of the limb implanted with the conduit was significantly reduced in rats implanted with the full-configuration conduit compared to rats implanted with conduits containing only an alginate hydrogel. This indicates return of some feeling to the limb via the fully-configured conduit. Immunohistochemical analysis of the implanted conduits removed from the rats after the four-week implantation period confirmed the presence of myelinated axons within the conduit and distal to the site of implantation, further supporting that the conduit promoted nerve repair over this period of time. This study describes the design considerations and fabrication of a novel multicomponent, multimodal bio-engineered synthetic conduit for peripheral nerve repair.

  8. The physics of custody arrangements

    CERN Document Server

    Gomberoff, Andrés; Romagnoli, Pierre Paul

    2013-01-01

    Divorced individuals face complex situations when they have children with different ex-partners, or even more, when their new partners have children of their own. In such cases, and when kids spend every other weekend with each parent, a practical problem emerges: Is it possible to have such a custody arrangement that every couple has either all of the kids together or no kids at all? We show that in general, it is not possible, but that the number of couples that do can be maximized. The problem turns out to be equivalent to finding the ground state of a spin glass system, which is known to be equivalent to what is called a weighted max-cut problem in graph theory, and hence it is NP-Complete.

  9. High mass isotope separation arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An isotope separation arrangement for separating a preselected isotope from a mixture of chemically-identical but isotopically-different molecules by either photon-induced pure revibrational or vibronic selective excitation of the molecules containing the atoms of the isotope to be separated from a lower to a higher energy state, and a chemical reaction of the higher energy state molecules with a chemically-reactive agent to form a chemical compound containing primarily the atoms of the isotope to be separated in a physicochemical state different from the physicochemical state of the mixture of chemically-identical but isotopically-different molecules. The chemical compound containing the atoms of the isotope to be separated may be subsequently processed to obtain the isotope. The laser configuration used to generate the photon beam is fully described

  10. International arrangements against nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    International efforts to show the spread of nuclear weapons have created an international norm of nonproliferation, backed by a variety of enforcement mechanisms. Together they are often referred to as the nonproliferation regime. This regime is reviewed, starting with the 1963 Limited Test Ban Treaty. The centerpiece of the regime, the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), signed in 1968, now has 135 parties, including most of the advanced industrial nuclear countries. Results of the 1985 NPT Review Conference are briefly discussed; the 86 NPT parties that attended reaffirmed the treaty's value, pledged continued support for the IAEA safeguards system, and called upon nonsigners to renounce nuclear weapons and accept IAEA safeguards. A section is devoted to the physical protection of nuclear materials, facilities, and weapons. Finally, recommendations are presented to improve international arrangements against nuclear terrorists

  11. MUSICAL ARRANGEMENT OF MEDIA ADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernyshov Alexander V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The music-compositional principles of commercial and political advertising and also the self-promotion of electronic media (radio, television, Internet are considered in this mediatext: from the elementary beeps, symbolic functions, emblems/logos and musical brands to the sound engineering technology to underscore the product's name and the complex synthesis between music and intra movements and color-light design of frames. Simultaneously examines, how the musical arrangement of ethereal advertising is involved in creation the emotional drama or bravado which reach the level of explicit or associative counterpoint 'music with the advertised object or subject' and which extend to expression of cultural image of all the broadcast channel. The article explores the works of the next genres like infomercial, teleshopping, film-ad, and autonomous commercials that have been produced in European countries or USA.

  12. Algorithms for Optimally Arranging Multicore Memory Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Che Tseng

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As more processing cores are added to embedded systems processors, the relationships between cores and memories have more influence on the energy consumption of the processor. In this paper, we conduct fundamental research to explore the effects of memory sharing on energy in a multicore processor. We study the Memory Arrangement (MA Problem. We prove that the general case of MA is NP-complete. We present an optimal algorithm for solving linear MA and optimal and heuristic algorithms for solving rectangular MA. On average, we can produce arrangements that consume 49% less energy than an all shared memory arrangement and 14% less energy than an all private memory arrangement for randomly generated instances. For DSP benchmarks, we can produce arrangements that, on average, consume 20% less energy than an all shared memory arrangement and 27% less energy than an all private memory arrangement.

  13. Algorithms for Optimally Arranging Multicore Memory Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tseng Wei-Che

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract As more processing cores are added to embedded systems processors, the relationships between cores and memories have more influence on the energy consumption of the processor. In this paper, we conduct fundamental research to explore the effects of memory sharing on energy in a multicore processor. We study the Memory Arrangement (MA Problem. We prove that the general case of MA is NP-complete. We present an optimal algorithm for solving linear MA and optimal and heuristic algorithms for solving rectangular MA. On average, we can produce arrangements that consume 49% less energy than an all shared memory arrangement and 14% less energy than an all private memory arrangement for randomly generated instances. For DSP benchmarks, we can produce arrangements that, on average, consume 20% less energy than an all shared memory arrangement and 27% less energy than an all private memory arrangement.

  14. Financing and insurance problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author analyses the papers presented at the Paris Conference on the maturity of nuclear energy. It is evident that financing possibilities will be a determinant factor in the rate of development of nuclear power during the years to come. After having evaluated the capital requirements necessitated for the development of nuclear programmes, the parties intervening have examined the means at the disposal of electricity manufacturers to meet these needs (self-financing, recourse to external financing, regrouping, on an international scale of the electricity manufacturers of the setting up of high capacity plants). As concerns the insurance problems, they are becoming more and more involved as nuclear applications, are further diversified and intensified. The parties intervening have discussed new tarification techniques likely to be applied and pointed out the possibilities offered by regrouping or pooling of insurers (Market Pool) which allow for a maximum of risks to be covered without exceeding the means proper to each company concerned

  15. Financing tourist activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujovi? Slavoljub

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper researches which of the possible financing models (self-financing, loan, mutual fund, issuing securities and leasing is the most convenient for tourism financing on the grounds of opinions and views of student population. Taking into account that future social and economic development depends on student population, that in every society intellectual endeavor (science and art exists ever since man exists, that the overall progress of mankind is based on the great intellectual endeavor of former civilizations, as well as the fact that Western Serbia has remarkable natural and anthropogenic characteristics suitable for valorization for the purpose of tourism development, the research questions were formulated and the research was performed. The methods used were: analysis, correlation, deduction and induction. Field research has been of the primary importance and it was based on questionnaires, interviews and in-depth interview. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 46001 i br. 47007

  16. Relative Importance of Karst-Conduit Hyporheic Zones Co-occuring at Different Spatial Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, K.; Wilson, J. L.

    2014-12-01

    Hyporheic zones at the margin of karst conduits occur at different spatial scales, from those associated with the smallest scales (cm) of conduit-wall topography (e.g., scallops) to large-scale (100 m) conduit sinuosity, and to even larger conduit network patterns. Hyporheic flows are believed to influence the processing of nutrients and dissolved organic carbon from the conduit flow, the evolution of karst-water chemistry, the reaction and sequestration of contaminants, and speleogenesis. Multiple spatial scales of hyporheic interaction lead to a wide distribution of hyporheic flow path lengths, residence times, and opportunities for both abiotic and microbially-mediated reactions of various kinetics. Using mathematical modeling we examine hyporheic flows for a single karst conduit with two different scales of flow disturbance: wall topography at the sub-meter scale and sinuosity at the scale of 10's of meters. By varying the amplitude of each disturbance we examine changes in hyporheic flow magnitude, paths, residence times, and other metrics. We test the hypothesis that while sinuosity-driven hyporheic flow occupies the greatest volume of karst matrix rock, with the longest residence times, the much smaller volume of topographically-driven hyporheic flow is more important because it turns over far more conduit flow and does so with much shorter and possibly more important residence times.

  17. Multi-track financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Steven W; Randolph, John; Taddey, Anthony J

    2012-05-01

    In today's uncertain economic environment, when seeking to finance a capital project, healthcare borrowers should adopt a multi-tracked funding strategy that permits them to change capital-funding routes quickly in response to changing circumstances. The multi-tracking process requires two stages prior to securing a commitment and beginning the closing process: due diligence and indication of interest. This process should present no material additional cost during these two stages, giving healthcare borrowers the flexibility to explore a variety of financing options. PMID:22616512

  18. Empirical techniques in finance

    CERN Document Server

    Bhar, Ramaprasad

    2006-01-01

    This book offers the opportunity to study and experience advanced empi- cal techniques in finance and in general financial economics. It is not only suitable for students with an interest in the field, it is also highly rec- mended for academic researchers as well as the researchers in the industry. The book focuses on the contemporary empirical techniques used in the analysis of financial markets and how these are implemented using actual market data. With an emphasis on Implementation, this book helps foc- ing on strategies for rigorously combing finance theory and modeling technology to ext

  19. Guidebook to Geothermal Finance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmon, J. P.; Meurice, J.; Wobus, N.; Stern, F.; Duaime, M.

    2011-03-01

    This guidebook is intended to facilitate further investment in conventional geothermal projects in the United States. It includes a brief primer on geothermal technology and the most relevant policies related to geothermal project development. The trends in geothermal project finance are the focus of this tool, relying heavily on interviews with leaders in the field of geothermal project finance. Using the information provided, developers and investors may innovate in new ways, developing partnerships that match investors' risk tolerance with the capital requirements of geothermal projects in this dynamic and evolving marketplace.

  20. Whither multilateral development finance?

    OpenAIRE

    Wihtol, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Multilateral development finance is at a critical juncture. In the past 70 years, it has developed through four distinct stages. The Bretton Woods conference established the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund in 1944 to finance post-war reconstruction and stabilize the global economy. The second stage saw the establishment of regional development banks in the 1950s and 1960s. This was followed by the emergence of subregional banks. In the fourth stage, from the mid-1970s to the 20...

  1. A nonlinear analysis methodology for the one hole malleable iron conduit clamp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A generalized nonlinear finite element methodology for determining the load-deflection behavior of a malleable iron one hole conduit clamp is developed. This clamp is used to support electrical-conduit in industry and nuclear power plants. Two different types of one hole malleable iron conduit clamps are analyzed using two dimensional plane stress finite element models. The analysis used the following nonlinear options: large displacement option, interface option, plasticity option, and bilinear material stress-strain capabilities. The analytical methodology gives similar results to those measured in actual clamp tests

  2. Totally biological composite aortic stentless valved conduit for aortic root replacement: 10-year experience

    OpenAIRE

    Meduoye Ayo; Ferreira Ignacio; Galiñanes Manuel; Sosnowski Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objectives To retrospectively analyze the clinical outcome of a totally biological composite stentless aortic valved conduit (No-React® BioConduit) implanted using the Bentall procedure over ten years in a single centre. Methods Between 27/10/99 and 19/01/08, the No-React® BioConduit composite graft was implanted in 67 patients. Data on these patients were collected from the in-hospital database, from patient notes and from questionnaires. A cohort of patients had 2D-echocardiogram w...

  3. Equity in Education Financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    This paper addresses concerns with equity in education financing in Alberta, Canada. It describes the major issues involved in funding education and proposes alternative ways of addressing them. The issues are the following: (1) every student should have access to an education which meets his/her needs, but the costs of this education varies…

  4. Mathematical Models in Finance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halim Kazan

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Finance is the corner stone of the free enterprise system. Good financial management is therefore vitally important to the economic health of business firms, and thus the nation and the world. The field is relatively complex, and it is undergoing constant change in response to shifts in economic conditions say Brigham and Gapenski in the introduction of their Financial Management book (Brigham, Eugene F., Gapenski, Louis C 1994. As they said the field is relatively complex since most of the financial decisions are involved with uncertainty and risk. This is where quantitative methods and finance meets. In financial decision making process, like most of the decision making process, final decision made by managers, not by some mathematical tools. However, those mathematical tools, used in financial decision making process, contribute to managers' decision a lot. Finance is consist of three interrelated areas which are Money and Capital Markets, dealing with securities markets and financial institutions, Investments, focusing on the decisions of individuals, financial and other institutions while they choose securities for their investment portfolios; and Financial Management, involving the actual management of non financial firms (Brigham, E. F., Gapenski, L. C;1994 In this study I tried to summarize mathematical methods that have been used in finance historically.

  5. Financing emerging energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the financing of emerging energies in Canada. Transforming energy markets will involve billions of dollars of investment from businesses and residents. Many different types of return on investment can be expected. These benefits will continue to grow over time and provide a permanent income

  6. Specialized financing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specific financing techniques applicable to wind energy projects in Canada are discussed. A limited partnership is the classic Canadian approach to tax-advantaged financing. For a typical wind project, the limited partners would get an internal rate of return of around 8% over 20 years as well as income tax deductions on Class 34 investments. This rate can be improved if the investors borrow some of the money; they get tax-free cash flow while having deductible loan interest, raising their rate of return after taxes to ca 9-10%. Special situation investors can get to take all of the Class 34 deduction right away, raising their return up to the 12% range. These investors include principal business corporations (such as utilities or oil companies), or companies who have sold their business. A second type of financing structure is related to inflation-indexed debt. The loan is structured like a mortgage, with the annual payments indexed to inflation but nevertheless low enough to provide an early positive cash flow from the project. Other possible financing structures are the immigrant investor fund and the provincial incentive corporations

  7. Campaign Finance: Reporter Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieder, Ben

    2014-01-01

    Campaign finance might seem like the exclusive province of political reporters, but there are many good reasons why authors should be paying attention--both in races for education positions and in other key races at the local, state, and federal levels with implications for education. Basic math is a necessary skill and familiarity with a…

  8. Financing social housing.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Amann, W.; Hegedüs, J.; Lux, Martin; Springler, E.

    New York/Londýn : Routledge, 2013 - (Hegedüs, J.; Lux, M.; Teller, N.), s. 50-64 ISBN 978-0-415-89014-4 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA403/09/1915 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : Housing finance * transition countries * social housing Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography

  9. A Cable-in-Conduit Superconductor for Pulsed Accelerator Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Bottura, L; Fischer, E; Kauschke, M; Moritz, G; Vysotsky, V S; Sytnikov, V E; Wilson, M

    2005-01-01

    Superconducting magnets for future accelerators such as the SIS-100 ring of the International Accelerator Facility at GSI-Darmstadt, or a superconducting injector at the LHC, require that the magnetic field is pulsed with high repetition rate and high reliability over periods of several years. As an example the SIS-100 at the IAF is planned to be operated up to 2 T at 4 T/s for more than 100 millions cycles. Achieving these objectives requires that the superconductor has an excellent mechanical stability as well as a sufficient energy margin to tolerate foreseen and unforeseen energy inputs. In addition the cryogenic loss must be controlled at low levels, while the field errors due to coupling currents must be compatible with the beam dynamics requirements. In this paper we describe a cable-in-conduit design that is suitable for the challenging operating conditions described above, we give the expected performances and report on the on-going manufacturing demonstration and planned supporting tests.

  10. A conduit dilation model of methane venting from lake sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scandella, B.P.; Varadharajan, C.; Hemond, Harold F.; Ruppel, C.; Juanes, R.

    2011-01-01

    Methane is a potent greenhouse gas, but its effects on Earth's climate remain poorly constrained, in part due to uncertainties in global methane fluxes to the atmosphere. An important source of atmospheric methane is the methane generated in organic-rich sediments underlying surface water bodies, including lakes, wetlands, and the ocean. The fraction of the methane that reaches the atmosphere depends critically on the mode and spatiotemporal characteristics of free-gas venting from the underlying sediments. Here we propose that methane transport in lake sediments is controlled by dynamic conduits, which dilate and release gas as the falling hydrostatic pressure reduces the effective stress below the tensile strength of the sediments. We test our model against a four-month record of hydrostatic load and methane flux in Upper Mystic Lake, Mass., USA, and show that it captures the complex episodicity of methane ebullition. Our quantitative conceptualization opens the door to integrated modeling of methane transport to constrain global methane release from lakes and other shallow-water, organic-rich sediment systems, and to assess its climate feedbacks.

  11. Data Transfer via Alternative Conduits: Using Fluid Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Willow

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Digital convergence has reshaped a gamut of industry demographics in the 21C, comprised of cloud computing, healthcare, pharmaceutical, consumer supplies, government, defense, manufacturing, entertainment, and even on-line education, among many others.   At the center of the web-convergence lies the problem of network bandwidth limitation.  Traditionally, research has focused on two major resolution strategies in parallel:  data compression to minimize the network traffic (i.e. algorithmic; software and alternative conduit for data transfer such as wireless (i.e. infrastructural; hardware.Building a network infrastructure is extremely costly.   In addition, maintenance and upgrade costs may be prohibitive, given the U.S. consumer demographics.   To this end, the emphasis is placed on seeking existing infrastructure which connects business and residential entities.The objective of this research, therefore, is to seek the possibility and feasibility of (digital data transfers via the extensive water and/or sewer network(s, while minimizing structural modifications to the existing infrastructure.   To date, sonar has been proven to be effective.   If successful, the value of this intellectual property may be immeasurable.

  12. Limitations of nerve repair of segmental defects using acellular conduits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrocal, Yerko A; Almeida, Vania W; Levi, Allan D

    2013-09-01

    The authors present the case of a 20-year-old man who, 3 months after his initial injury, underwent repair of a 1.7-cm defect of the ulnar nerve at the wrist; repair was performed with an acellular nerve allograft. Given the absence of clinical or electrophysiological recovery at 8 months postrepair, the patient underwent reexploration, excision of the "regenerated cable," and rerepair of the ulnar nerve with sural nerve autografts. Histology of the cable demonstrated minimal axonal regeneration at the midpoint of the repair. At the 6- and 12-month follow-ups of the sural nerve graft repair, clinical and electrophysiological evidence of both sensory and motor reinnervation of the ulnar nerve and associated hand muscles was demonstrated. In this report, the authors describe a single case of failed acellular nerve allograft and correlate the results with basic science and human studies reporting length and diameter limitations in human nerve repair utilizing grafts or conduits devoid of viable Schwann cells. PMID:23746100

  13. Injunctions against mere conduit of information protected by copyright

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandfeld Jakobsen, SØren; Petersen, Clement Salung

    2011-01-01

    This paper includes an in-depth analysis of EU law and Scandinavian law on injunctions against internet access providers (IAPs) performing as mere conduit of information protected by copyright. In recent Scandinavian case law, courts have granted preliminary injunctions which have caused IAPs to either shut down specific internet connections allegedly used to infringe copyright or to block access to internet content, which allegedly infringed applicable copyright rules. This paper considers some significant legal challenges, which are emerging in the wake of this case law, and which should attract attention in all European member states. Firstly, it is shown that rules on preliminary injunctions are generally unable to safeguard the significant legitimate interests of third parties, which may be harmed by such relief, and that a proper implementation of Art. 8(3) of the Infosoc Directive requires rules, which take into due consideration the special aspects related to enforcement of copyright on the internet through IAPs. Secondly, it is shown that the termination of internet connections and the blocking of access to internet content may not support the public policies behind copyright law and also may restrict the freedom of expression under European human rights law. The analysis is based on a brief account for the relevant EU Directives, the implementation of these Directives in the Scandinavian countries and the Scandinavian case law regarding use of injunctions against IAPs to enforce copyright on the internet.

  14. On Security of Collateral in Danish Mortgage Finance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haldrup, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Specialized mortgage intermediaries in Denmark have for over two hundred years provided owners and buyers of real property wide access to credit. The present paper sets out to explore the safeguards that nurtured development of a robust, market based financing system and a deep mortgage market. Observations are made on the nature of collateral performance in respect to property rights, mortgage law and market development in search of general features of required institutional arrangements. The r...

  15. Adapting Mudarabah Financing to Contemporary Realities: A Proposed Financing Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Bacha, Obiyathulla I.

    1997-01-01

    Islamic banking in Malaysia, despite its recent start, has seen very rapid growth. This growth however has been uneven. While short-term trade financing has always been dominant and grown rapidly, Mudarabah financing by Islamic banks in Malaysia has reduced to insignificantly amounts. Yet, Mudarabah which is based on profit and loss sharing has always been considered to be at the core of Islamic financing and in tune with the shariah’s injunctions against interest based financing. The ...

  16. MRI of the heart following implantation of a left ventricular apico-aortic conduit; Kernspintomografie zur umfassenden Untersuchung des Herzens nach Implantation von linksventrikulaeren apikoaortalen Conduits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruhl, K.M.; Katoh, M.; Guenther, R.W.; Krombach, G.A. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik; Langebartels, G.; Autschbach, R. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Klinik fuer Thorax-, Herz- und Gefaesschirurgie

    2007-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the potential of ECG-triggered MRI for the evaluation of postoperative anatomy and function of the heart and conduit following implantation of a left-ventricular apico-aortic conduit. Materials and Methods: 5 patients (2 female, 3 male, mean age 72.5 years) were examined using a 1.5 Tesla whole-body MRI (Gyroscan Intera, Philips Medical Systems, Best, The Netherlands) following apico-aortic conduit surgery due to severe aortic valve stenosis. The reason for performing conduit implantation instead of aortic valve replacement was the risk of injuring a bypass graft from prior coronary artery bypass surgery. Cine steady-state-free-precession (SSFP) sequences were used to assess ventricular function, navigator-gated 3D-SSFP and breath-hold, time-resolved contrast-enhanced MR angiography was used to display the postoperative anatomy, and 2D-gradient echo sequences with an inversion pulse to suppress the signal of the healthy myocardium were used to evaluate potential myocardial scarring. Flow sensitive gradient echo sequences were performed to determine the blood flow in the conduit. Results: In all patients the apico-aortic conduit proved to be open with a maximum flow velocity of 126 (+ 43) cm/s. The postoperative anatomy was able to be evaluated in all patients and perioperative myocardial infarction was able to be ruled out. The mean ejection fraction of the left ventricle was 44.2 + 6.2 % with a mean volume of 80 + 20.6 ml per heart beat. (orig.)

  17. Effect of Multiwall Carbon Nanotube Reinforcement on Coaxially Extruded Cellular Vascular Conduits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yahui; Yu, Yin; Dolati, Farzaneh; Ozbolat, Ibrahim T

    2014-01-01

    Due to its abundant source, good biocompatibility, low price and mild crosslinking process, alginate is an ideal selection for tissue engineering applications. In this work, alginate vascular conduits were fabricated through a coaxial extrusion-based system. However, due to the inherent weak mechanical properties of alginate, the vascular conduits are not capable of biomimicking natural vascular system. In this paper, multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) were used to reinforce vascular conduits. Mechanical, dehydration, swelling and degradation tests were performed to understand influences of MWCNT reinforcement. The unique mechanical properties together with perfusion and diffusional capability are two important factors to mimic the nature. Thus, perfusion experiments were also conducted to explore the MWCNT reinforcement effect. In addition, cell viability and tissue histology were conducted to evaluate the biological performance of conduits both in short and long term for MWCNT reinforcement. PMID:24863208

  18. Investigation of entrance length in circular and noncircular conduits by computational fluid dynamics simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pimpun Tongpun

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study estimated entrance length of circular and noncircular conduits, including circle, triangle, square and hexagon cross-sectional conduit, by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD. For simulation condition, the length of noncircular conduit was 10 m and the hydraulic diameter was 0.2 m. The laminar flow with Reynolds number of 500 and turbulent flow with Reynolds number of 50,000 were applied to investigate water flow in conduits. The governing equations were solved iteratively by using ANSYS FLUENT 14.0. For turbulent flow simulation, standard k-epsilon and RNG k-epsilon model were employed to simulate turbulence. The preliminary results were validated by comparison with theoretical data. At first, grid independency was evaluated to optimize the model. Norm* was employed to investigate the entrance length, which is related to velocity. The simulated results revealed that the entrance length for laminar flow was longer than turbulent flow.

  19. Financing of Renewable Energy Projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the role of the Banco Centroamericano de Integracion Economica in financing renewable energy projects in Central America. Also decribes the different financing modes to the goverment and private sectors

  20. Effects of dynamically variable saturation and matrix-conduit coupling of flow in karst aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimann, T.; Geyer, T.; Shoemaker, W.B.; Liedl, R.; Sauter, M.

    2011-01-01

    Well-developed karst aquifers consist of highly conductive conduits and a relatively low permeability fractured and/or porous rock matrix and therefore behave as a dual-hydraulic system. Groundwater flow within highly permeable strata is rapid and transient and depends on local flow conditions, i.e., pressurized or nonpressurized flow. The characterization of karst aquifers is a necessary and challenging task because information about hydraulic and spatial conduit properties is poorly defined or unknown. To investigate karst aquifers, hydraulic stresses such as large recharge events can be simulated with hybrid (coupled discrete continuum) models. Since existing hybrid models are simplifications of the system dynamics, a new karst model (ModBraC) is presented that accounts for unsteady and nonuniform discrete flow in variably saturated conduits employing the Saint-Venant equations. Model performance tests indicate that ModBraC is able to simulate (1) unsteady and nonuniform flow in variably filled conduits, (2) draining and refilling of conduits with stable transition between free-surface and pressurized flow and correct storage representation, (3) water exchange between matrix and variably filled conduits, and (4) discharge routing through branched and intermeshed conduit networks. Subsequently, ModBraC is applied to an idealized catchment to investigate the significance of free-surface flow representation. A parameter study is conducted with two different initial conditions: (1) pressurized flow and (2) free-surface flow. If free-surface flow prevails, the systems is characterized by (1) a time lag for signal transmission, (2) a typical spring discharge pattern representing the transition from pressurized to free-surface flow, and (3) a reduced conduit-matrix interaction during free-surface flow. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  1. Evolution of karst conduit networks in transition from pressurized flow to free-surface flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perne, M.; Covington, M.; Gabrovšek, F.

    2014-11-01

    Most of the existing models of speleogenesis are limited to situations where flow in all conduits is pressurized. The feedback between the distribution of hydraulic head and growth of new solution conduits determines the geometry of the resulting conduit network. We present a novel modeling approach that allows a transition from pressurized (pipe) flow to a free-surface (open-channel) flow in evolving discrete conduit networks. It calculates flow, solute transport and dissolution enlargement within each time step and steps through time until a stable flow pattern is established. The flow in each time step is calculated by calling the US Environmental Protection Agency Storm Water Management Model (US Environmental Protection Agency, 2014), which efficiently solves the 1-D Saint-Venant equations in a network of conduits. Two basic scenarios are modeled, a low-dip scenario and a high-dip scenario. In the low-dip scenario a slightly inclined plane is populated with a rectangular grid of solution conduits. The recharge is distributed to randomly selected junctions. The results for the pressurized flow regime resemble those of the existing models. When the network becomes vadose, a stable flow pathway develops along a system of conduits that occupy the lowest positions at their inlet junctions. This depends on the initial diameter and inlet position of a conduit, its total incision in a pressurized regime and its alignment relative to the dip of the plane, which plays important role during the vadose entrenchment. In the high-dip scenario a sub-vertical network with recharge on the top and outflow on the side is modeled. It is used to demonstrate the vertical development of karst due to drawdown of the water table, development of invasion vadose caves during vadose flow diversion and to demonstrate the potential importance of deeply penetrating conductive structures.

  2. Ileal-conduit following cystectomy, single-institution revision of indications and outcome.

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan A. Abol-Enein; Ausama S. Abdul-Muhsin; Yousuf M. Alhallaq

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To revise indications, case fatality ratio, and postoperative early and late complications of ileal conduit as a method of urinary diversion. METHODS This is a retrospective study in which 200 patients underwent an ileal conduit from August 1994 to December 2000 in Mansoura Urology and Nephrology Center, Mansoura, Egypt. Preoperative criteria of patient selection, peroperative findings, and postoperative follow-up data were reviewed. RESULTS In 200 patients aged 29-7...

  3. Study on the air flow field of the drawing conduit in the spunbonding process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Li-Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The air flow field of the drawing conduit in the spunbonding process has a great effect on the polymer drawing, the filament diameter and orientation. A numerical simulation of the process is carried out, and the results are compared with the experimental data, showing good accuracy of the numerical prediction. This research lays an important foundation for the optimal design of the drawing conduit in the spunbonding process.

  4. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduit for repair of injured sciatic nerve: A mechanical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Tao; Zhao, Changfu; Li, Peng; Liu, Guangyao; Luo, Min

    2013-01-01

    Tensile stress and tensile strain directly affect the quality of nerve regeneration after bridging nerve defects by poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduit transplantation and autogenous nerve grafting for sciatic nerve injury. This study collected the sciatic nerve from the gluteus maximus muscle from fresh human cadaver, and established 10-mm-long sciatic nerve injury models by removing the ischium, following which poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduits or autogenous nerve grafts were transpl...

  5. The Challenge of Islamic Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Sheng, Andrew; Singh, Ajit

    2012-01-01

    From its humble beginnings in the 1990s, Islamic finance has become a trillion US dollar industry. The market consensus is that Islamic finance has a bright future due to favourable demographics and rising incomes in the Muslim community. Moreover, despite voices sceptical of an accommodation between Islamic and global finance, leading global banks are buying Islamic bonds and forming subsidiaries specially to conduct Islamic finance business. Special laws have been passed in non-Muslim fi...

  6. A nerve guidance conduit with topographical and biochemical cues: potential application using human neural stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Phillip M; Laughter, Melissa R; Lee, David J; Lee, Young M; Freed, Curt R; Park, Daewon

    2015-12-01

    Despite major advances in the pathophysiological understanding of peripheral nerve damage, the treatment of nerve injuries still remains an unmet medical need. Nerve guidance conduits present a promising treatment option by providing a growth-permissive environment that 1) promotes neuronal cell survival and axon growth and 2) directs axonal extension. To this end, we designed an electrospun nerve guidance conduit using a blend of polyurea and poly-caprolactone with both biochemical and topographical cues. Biochemical cues were integrated into the conduit by functionalizing the polyurea with RGD to improve cell attachment. Topographical cues that resemble natural nerve tissue were incorporated by introducing intraluminal microchannels aligned with nanofibers. We determined that electrospinning the polymer solution across a two electrode system with dissolvable sucrose fibers produced a polymer conduit with the appropriate biomimetic properties. Human neural stem cells were cultured on the conduit to evaluate its ability to promote neuronal growth and axonal extension. The nerve guidance conduit was shown to enhance cell survival, migration, and guide neurite extension. PMID:26071111

  7. Comparison of a karst groundwater model with and without discrete conduit flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saller, Stephen P.; Ronayne, Michael J.; Long, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Karst aquifers exhibit a dual flow system characterized by interacting conduit and matrix domains. This study evaluated the coupled continuum pipe-flow framework for modeling karst groundwater flow in the Madison aquifer of western South Dakota (USA). Coupled conduit and matrix flow was simulated within a regional finite-difference model over a 10-year transient period. An existing equivalent porous medium (EPM) model was modified to include major conduit networks whose locations were constrained by dye-tracing data and environmental tracer analysis. Model calibration data included measured hydraulic heads at observation wells and estimates of discharge at four karst springs. Relative to the EPM model, the match to observation well hydraulic heads was substantially improved with the addition of conduits. The inclusion of conduit flow allowed for a simpler hydraulic conductivity distribution in the matrix continuum. Two of the high-conductivity zones in the EPM model, which were required to indirectly simulate the effects of conduits, were eliminated from the new model. This work demonstrates the utility of the coupled continuum pipe-flow method and illustrates how karst aquifer model parameterization is dependent on the physical processes that are simulated.

  8. MR and CT imaging of pulmonary valved conduits in children and adolescents: normal appearance and complications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenisch, Estelle V.; Alamo, Leonor T.; Gudinchet, Francois [Lausanne University Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Lausanne (Switzerland); Sekarski, Nicole [Lausanne University Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Lausanne (Switzerland); Hurni, Michel [Lausanne University Hospital, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2014-12-15

    The Contegra registered is a conduit made from the bovine jugular vein and then interposed between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery. It is used for cardiac malformations in the reconstruction of right ventricular outflow tract. To describe both normal and pathological appearances of the Contegra registered in radiological imaging, to describe imaging of complications and to define the role of CT and MRI in postoperative follow-up. Forty-three examinations of 24 patients (17 boys and 7 girls; mean age: 10.8 years old) with Contegra registered conduits were reviewed. Anatomical description and measurements of the conduits were performed. Pathological items examined included stenosis, dilatation, plicature or twist, thrombus or vegetations, calcifications and valvular regurgitation. Findings were correlated to the echographic gradient through the conduit when available. CT and MR work-up showed Contegra registered stenosis (n = 12), dilatation (n = 9) and plicature or twist (n = 7). CT displayed thrombus or vegetations in the Contegra registered in three clinically infected patients. Calcifications of the conduit were present at CT in 12 patients and valvular regurgitation in three patients. The comparison between CT and/or MR results showed a good correlation between the echographic gradient and the presence of stenosis in the Contegra registered. CT and MR bring additional information about permeability and postoperative anatomy especially when echocardiography is inconclusive. Both techniques depict the normal appearance of the conduit, and allow comparison and precise evaluation of changes in the postoperative follow-up. (orig.)

  9. In vitro evaluation of carbon-nanotube-reinforced bioprintable vascular conduits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vascularization of thick engineered tissue and organ constructs like the heart, liver, pancreas or kidney remains a major challenge in tissue engineering. Vascularization is needed to supply oxygen and nutrients and remove waste in living tissues and organs through a network that should possess high perfusion ability and significant mechanical strength and elasticity. In this paper, we introduce a fabrication process to print vascular conduits directly, where conduits were reinforced with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to enhance their mechanical properties and bioprintability. In vitro evaluation of printed conduits encapsulated in human coronary artery smooth muscle cells was performed to characterize the effects of CNT reinforcement on the mechanical, perfusion and biological performance of the conduits. Perfusion and permeability, cell viability, extracellular matrix formation and tissue histology were assessed and discussed, and it was concluded that CNT-reinforced vascular conduits provided a foundation for mechanically appealing constructs where CNTs could be replaced with natural protein nanofibers for further integration of these conduits in large-scale tissue fabrication. (paper)

  10. MR and CT imaging of pulmonary valved conduits in children and adolescents: normal appearance and complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Contegra registered is a conduit made from the bovine jugular vein and then interposed between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery. It is used for cardiac malformations in the reconstruction of right ventricular outflow tract. To describe both normal and pathological appearances of the Contegra registered in radiological imaging, to describe imaging of complications and to define the role of CT and MRI in postoperative follow-up. Forty-three examinations of 24 patients (17 boys and 7 girls; mean age: 10.8 years old) with Contegra registered conduits were reviewed. Anatomical description and measurements of the conduits were performed. Pathological items examined included stenosis, dilatation, plicature or twist, thrombus or vegetations, calcifications and valvular regurgitation. Findings were correlated to the echographic gradient through the conduit when available. CT and MR work-up showed Contegra registered stenosis (n = 12), dilatation (n = 9) and plicature or twist (n = 7). CT displayed thrombus or vegetations in the Contegra registered in three clinically infected patients. Calcifications of the conduit were present at CT in 12 patients and valvular regurgitation in three patients. The comparison between CT and/or MR results showed a good correlation between the echographic gradient and the presence of stenosis in the Contegra registered. CT and MR bring additional information about permeability and postoperative anatomy especially when echocardiography is inconclusive. Both techniques depict the normal appearance of the conduit, and allow comparison and precise evaluation of changes in the postoperative follow-up. (orig.)

  11. Long-term follow-up of patients with extracardiac valved conduits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sano,Shunji

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available Seventeen patients having extracardiac valved conduits placed between the right ventricle and pulmonary artery were followed for 7 to 87 months postoperatively (mean, 42 months, at the Heart Institute, Kenritsu Amagasaki Hospital, Japan. There were no late deaths in the study group. Three conduits have been replaced, all because of conduit stenosis. In two-dimensional echocardiographic examinations, commissural fusion and calcification of the valve were noted in 6 out of 16 xenograft valved conduits. Mechanical valve immobility was found in one patient. Neointimal peel of the dacron graft was noted in 6 out of 17 cases, and marked left ventricular deformity in the short axis view was found in 6. Late cardiac catheterization was done in 6 patients who were suspected of having valve failure and right ventricular hypertension by two-dimensional echocardiography. All 6 of these patients showed a high pressure gradient between the pulmonary artery and right ventricle and also had elevated right ventricular pressure. In conclusion, two-dimensional echocardiography is a simple, non-invasive and very accurate method for detecting conduit stenosis and valve failure. An echocardiographic series should be performed for a long-time postoperatively because obstructions of valved conduits may be progressive, and an operation may be advisable in order to prevent the development of advanced right ventricular hypertrophy and deterioration.

  12. A nerve guidance conduit with topographical and biochemical cues: potential application using human neural stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Phillip M.; Laughter, Melissa R.; Lee, David J.; Lee, Young M.; Freed, Curt R.; Park, Daewon

    2015-06-01

    Despite major advances in the pathophysiological understanding of peripheral nerve damage, the treatment of nerve injuries still remains an unmet medical need. Nerve guidance conduits present a promising treatment option by providing a growth-permissive environment that 1) promotes neuronal cell survival and axon growth and 2) directs axonal extension. To this end, we designed an electrospun nerve guidance conduit using a blend of polyurea and poly-caprolactone with both biochemical and topographical cues. Biochemical cues were integrated into the conduit by functionalizing the polyurea with RGD to improve cell attachment. Topographical cues that resemble natural nerve tissue were incorporated by introducing intraluminal microchannels aligned with nanofibers. We determined that electrospinning the polymer solution across a two electrode system with dissolvable sucrose fibers produced a polymer conduit with the appropriate biomimetic properties. Human neural stem cells were cultured on the conduit to evaluate its ability to promote neuronal growth and axonal extension. The nerve guidance conduit was shown to enhance cell survival, migration, and guide neurite extension.

  13. Private finance and public policy

    OpenAIRE

    Schinasi, Garry J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper articulates a logical foundation—drawn from disparate literatures—for understanding why safeguarding financial stability is an important economic policy objective. The paper also explains why private aspects of finance provide broader social economic benefits and have the characteristics of public goods. Unique aspects of finance are examined, as are the linkages between finance, money, and the real economy.

  14. Finance and Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugo Panizza

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Published by Palgrave MacmillanThis chapter reviews the literature on finance and economic development. It starts with a description of the roles of finance, a definition of financial efficiency, and a discussion of whether countries may have financial sectors that are ‘too large’ compared to the size of the domestic economy. Next, the author describes several indicators of financial development and reviews the literature on the relationship between financial development and economic growth. In the literature review, he discusses in detail some recent evidence indicating that the marginal contribution of financial development to gross domestic product (GDP growth becomes negative when credit to the private sector reaches 110 per cent of GDP. The chapter concludes with some policy conclusions targeted to developing countries.

  15. Legal aspects of financing Canadian offshore oil and gas developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is presented of the significant legal considerations involved in structuring, negotiating, and documenting commercial financing of a Canadian offshore oil and gas production facility. Emphasis is placed on the Hibernia Project in the Newfoundland offshore as an example, and more specifically the $450 million bank financing completed in November 1991. The legal framework governing offshore production financing in this case was complex, due to the project's location in international waters on the continental shelf. Complex intergovernmental arrangements have been implemented between Canada and Newfoundland to govern the offshore area and regulate the project. An agreement called the Atlantic Accord allowed the Canada Newfoundland Offshore Petroleum Board (CNOPB) to grant production licenses and to regulate offshore exploration and development, with matters relating to legislation, taxation, and royalties shared between the governments. Certain other acts were enacted or extended for application to the offshore area. The CNOPB administers a registry system for transfers and security interests in offshore licenses. Security interests including property are ensured by the Hibernia Act, which makes Newfoundland's existing security interest regime applicable to the offshore. The project owners are operating Hibernia as a joint venture, and the structure of project financing and inter-creditor arrangements is examined. The competing security interest of project lenders and non-defaulting participants is discussed, along with assignment of priorities on the security in case of default

  16. Essays in Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Rasid, Mohamed Eskandar Shah

    2014-01-01

    This thesis which compromise of three essays focuses on the theme of valuation, value premium anomaly, financing behaviour and emerging markets. The first essay studies the value growth puzzle in the context of conflict of interest between taxable and institutional investors. We model this conflict in a rational expectations framework and demonstrate how the differences in firm's characteristics (in terms of value versus growth) and the risk profile of the investors can explain the shape of C...

  17. Essays in corporate finance

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Na Young; Noe, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Prior research on corporations finds that there exists a large unexplained firm-specific heterogeneity in corporate behaviors stemming from the effects of managers. This research identifies managerial personalities and tests their effects on corporate behaviors both experimentally and empirically. First, the effects of managerial personalities on corporate financing decisions are tested using a laboratory experiment with managers in South Korea. The laboratory experimental market is à la Modi...

  18. Equilibrium Corporate Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Bisin, Alberto; Gottardi, Piero; RUTA, Guido

    2010-01-01

    We study a general equilibrium model with production where financial markets are incomplete. At a competitive equilibrium firms take their production and financial decisions so as to maximize their value. We show that shareholders unanimously sup- port value maximization. Furthermore, competitive equilibria are constrained Pareto efficient. Finally the Modigliani-Miller theorem typically does not hold and the firms’ corporate financing structure is determined at equilibrium. Su...

  19. Financing Public Service Broadcasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Christian Edelvold; Lund, Anker Brink

    2012-01-01

    Recently several European countries have abolished the traditional public service licence fee system, replacing it with direct public funding. But except for Iceland, the Nordic countries have not followed suit. The article discusses this development within a comparative framework of Public Service Broadcasting (PSB) financing regimes in Europe, concluding that Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden may still be considered conventional, licence fee PSB countries, but with some interesting...

  20. Islamic Finance in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Rodney.

    2007-01-01

    Islam all too often resonates negatively in Europe, with a great part of non-Muslim public opinion uncomfortable with Islamic culture and values. Secular and Christian opinion is at best suspicious of shariah, Islamic law, and indeed often antagonistic. The notion of wanting to apply shariah principles to banking and finance is treated with scepticism if not outright hostility, especially as there is no concept of Christian or Jewish banking, even if there are some parallels between shariah f...

  1. Mathematical Models in Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Halim Kazan; Ahmet Ergülen

    2005-01-01

    Finance is the corner stone of the free enterprise system. Good financial management is therefore vitally important to the economic health of business firms, and thus the nation and the world. The field is relatively complex, and it is undergoing constant change in response to shifts in economic conditions say Brigham and Gapenski in the introduction of their Financial Management book (Brigham, Eugene F., Gapenski, Louis C 1994). As they said the field is relatively complex since most of the ...

  2. Financing of nuclear projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delays in the completion of nuclear power plants aggravate the financing of such ventures because the contractual sums to be paid for interest and amortization are not generated. Moreover, economic feasibility analyses by the banks are rendered ineffective by changes in the underlying data, such as the structure of electricity rates and the supply monopoly held by utilities. The German nuclear power plants at present in operation or under construction were financed mainly through subsidiares of the participating utilities outside the balance sheets of the parent companies. The banks have developed a number of financing concepts to adapt funding to the specific needs of practice. Future nuclear power plants make-up one third of the present capacity of the participating utilities. However, they will require three to four times the previous volume of capital investments. Yet it is certain that the expansion of nuclear power in the Federal Republic of Germany will not be hampered by financial problems. The funding models developed for nuclear power plants have already proved their qualities. However, the problems of nuclear power have not become less. Attention must also be drawn to some weak spots in the financial sector. (orig.)

  3. Current distribution in Cable-In-Conduit Conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferri, M.A.

    1994-05-01

    A numerical study of the current distribution in Cable-In-Conduit Conductors (CICC`s) experiencing linearly ramping transport currents and transverse magnetic fields was conducted for both infinitely long, periodic cables and finite length cables terminated in low resistance joints. The goal of the study was to gain insight into the phenomenon known as Ramp Rate Limitation, an as yet unexplained correspondence between maximum attainable current and the ramp time taken to reach that current in CICC superconducting magnets. A discrete geometric model of a 27 strand multiply twisted CICC was developed to effectively represent the flux linkages, mutual inductances, and resistive contact points between the strands of an experimentally tested cable. The results of the numerical study showed that for fully periodic cables, the current imbalances due to ramping magnetic fields and ramping transport currents are negligible in the range of experimentally explored operating conditions. For finite length, joint terminated cables, however, significant imbalances can exist. Unfortunately, quantitative results are limited by a lack of knowledge of the transverse resistance between strands in the joints. Nonetheless, general results are presented showing the dependency of the imbalance on cable length, ramp time, and joint resistance for both ramping transverse magnet fields and ramping transport currents. At the conclusion of the study, it is suggested that calculated current imbalances in a finite length cable could cause certain strands to prematurely ``quench`` -- become non-superconducting --thus leading to an instability for the entire cable. This numerically predicted ``current imbalance instability`` is compared to the experimentally observed Ramp Rate Limitation for the 27 strand CICC sample.

  4. Current distribution in Cable-In-Conduit Conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A numerical study of the current distribution in Cable-In-Conduit Conductors (CICC's) experiencing linearly ramping transport currents and transverse magnetic fields was conducted for both infinitely long, periodic cables and finite length cables terminated in low resistance joints. The goal of the study was to gain insight into the phenomenon known as Ramp Rate Limitation, an as yet unexplained correspondence between maximum attainable current and the ramp time taken to reach that current in CICC superconducting magnets. A discrete geometric model of a 27 strand multiply twisted CICC was developed to effectively represent the flux linkages, mutual inductances, and resistive contact points between the strands of an experimentally tested cable. The results of the numerical study showed that for fully periodic cables, the current imbalances due to ramping magnetic fields and ramping transport currents are negligible in the range of experimentally explored operating conditions. For finite length, joint terminated cables, however, significant imbalances can exist. Unfortunately, quantitative results are limited by a lack of knowledge of the transverse resistance between strands in the joints. Nonetheless, general results are presented showing the dependency of the imbalance on cable length, ramp time, and joint resistance for both ramping transverse magnet fields and ramping transport currents. At the conclusion of the study, it is suggested that calculated current imbalances in a finite length cable could cause certain strands to prematurely ''quench'' -- become non-superconducting --thus leading to an instability for the entire cable. This numerically predicted ''current imbalance instability'' is compared to the experimentally observed Ramp Rate Limitation for the 27 strand CICC sample

  5. Cooling arrangement for a tapered turbine blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, George (Palm City, FL)

    2010-07-27

    A cooling arrangement (11) for a highly tapered gas turbine blade (10). The cooling arrangement (11) includes a pair of parallel triple-pass serpentine cooling circuits (80,82) formed in an inner radial portion (50) of the blade, and a respective pair of single radial channel cooling circuits (84,86) formed in an outer radial portion (52) of the blade (10), with each single radial channel receiving the cooling fluid discharged from a respective one of the triple-pass serpentine cooling circuit. The cooling arrangement advantageously provides a higher degree of cooling to the most highly stressed radially inner portion of the blade, while providing a lower degree of cooling to the less highly stressed radially outer portion of the blade. The cooling arrangement can be implemented with known casting techniques, thereby facilitating its use on highly tapered, highly twisted Row 4 industrial gas turbine blades that could not be cooled with prior art cooling arrangements.

  6. Use new PLGL-RGD-NGF nerve conduits for promoting peripheral nerve regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Qiongjiao

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nerve conduits provide a promising strategy for peripheral nerve injury repair. However, the efficiency of nerve conduits to enhance nerve regeneration and functional recovery is often inferior to that of autografts. Nerve conduits require additional factors such as cell adhesion molecules and neurotrophic factors to provide a more conducive microenvironment for nerve regeneration. Methods In the present study, poly{(lactic acid-co-[(glycolic acid-alt-(L-lysine]} (PLGL was modified by grafting Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Gly (RGD peptide and nerve growth factor (NGF for fabricating new PLGL-RGD-NGF nerve conduits to promote nerve regeneration and functional recovery. PLGL-RGD-NGF nerve conduits were tested in the rat sciatic nerve transection model. Rat sciatic nerves were cut off to form a 10 mm defect and repaired with the nerve conduits. All of the 32 Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: group PLGL-RGD-NGF, group PLGL-RGD, group PLGL and group autograft. At 3 months after surgery, the regenerated rat sciatic nerve was evaluated by footprint analysis, electrophysiology, and histologic assessment. Experimental data were processed using the statistical software SPSS 10.0. Results The sciatic function index value of groups PLGL-RGD-NGF and autograft was significantly higher than those of groups PLGL-RGD and PLGL. The nerve conduction velocities of groups PLGL-RGD-NGF and autograft were significantly faster than those of groups PLGL-RGD and PLGL. The regenerated nerves of groups PLGL-RGD-NGF and autograft were more mature than those of groups PLGL-RGD and PLGL. There was no significant difference between groups PLGL-RGD-NGF and autograft. Conclusions PLGL-RGD-NGF nerve conduits are more effective in regenerating nerves than both PLGL-RGD nerve conduits and PLGL nerve conduits. The effect is as good as that of an autograft. This work established the platform for further development of the use of PLGL-RGD-NGF nerve conduits for clinical nerve repair.

  7. Project financing renewable energy schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The viability of many Renewable Energy projects is critically dependent upon the ability of these projects to secure the necessary financing on acceptable terms. The principal objective of the study was to provide an overview to project developers of project financing techniques and the conditions under which project finance for Renewable Energy schemes could be raised, focussing on the potential sources of finance, the typical project financing structures that could be utilised for Renewable Energy schemes and the risk/return and security requirements of lenders, investors and other potential sources of financing. A second objective is to describe the appropriate strategy and tactics for developers to adopt in approaching the financing markets for such projects. (author)

  8. Evolution of karst conduit networks in transition from pressurised flow to free surface flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Perne

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel modelling approach to study the evolution of conduit networks in soluble rocks. Unlike the models presented so far, the model allows a transition from pressurised (pipe flow to a free surface (open channel flow in evolving discrete conduit networks. It calculates flow, solute transport and dissolutional enlargement within each time step and steps through time until a stable flow pattern establishes. The flow in each time step is calculated by calling the EPA Storm Water Management Model (EPA SWMM, which efficiently solves the 1-D Saint Venant equations in a network of conduits. We present several cases with low dip and sub-vertical networks to demonstrate mechanisms of flow pathway selection. In low dip models the inputs were randomly distributed to several junctions. The evolution of pathways progresses upstream: initially pathways linking outlets to the closest inputs evolve fastest because the gradient along these pathways is largest. When a pathway efficiently drains the available recharge, the head drop along the pathway attracts flow from the neighbouring upstream junctions and new connecting pathways evolve. The mechanism progresses from the output boundary inwards until all inputs are connected to the stable flow system. In the pressurised phase, each junction is drained by at least one conduit, but only one conduit remains active in the vadose phase. The selection depends on the initial geometry of a junction, initial distribution of diameters, the evolution in a pressurised regime, and on the dip of the conduits, which plays an important role in vadose entrenchment. In high dip networks, the vadose zone propagates downwards and inwards from the rim of the massif. When a network with randomly distributed initial diameters is supplied with concentrated recharge from the adjacent area, the sink point regresses up upstream along junctions connected to the prominent pathways. Large conductive structures provide deep penetration of high hydraulic head and give rise to high gradients and possible fast evolution of conduit systems deep within the massif.

  9. Financing, Overhead, and Profit: An In-Depth Discussion of Costs Associated with Third-Party Financing of Residential and Commercial Photovoltaic Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, D.; Friedman, B.; Margolis, R.

    2013-10-01

    Previous work quantifying the non-hardware balance-of-system costs -- or soft costs -- associated with building a residential or commercial photovoltaic (PV) system has left a significant portion unsegmented in an 'other soft costs' category. This report attempts to better quantify the 'other soft costs' by focusing on the financing, overhead, and profit of residential and commercial PV installations for a specific business model. This report presents results from a bottom-up data-collection and analysis of the upfront costs associated with developing, constructing, and arranging third-party-financed residential and commercial PV systems. It quantifies the indirect corporate costs required to install distributed PV systems as well as the transactional costs associated with arranging third-party financing.

  10. Comparison of health care financing arrangements in Egypt and Cuba: Lessons for health reform in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Christian A Gericke

    2004-01-01

    Egypt and Cuba are both lower-middle income countries with a history of socialist rule and which have embarked on economic liberalisation since the 1990s. Health status in both countries is extremely different. While life expectancy of the Cuban population in all age-groups is similar to that of many high-income industrialised countries, health status in Egypt is relatively poor compared to countries with a similar national income and compared to regional comparators. Health care systems in b...

  11. Coil arrangement for nuclear fusion apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The patent concerns a transition-feeding structure for the coil arrangement for a nuclear fusion device. This feeding structure is designed to reduce current loops generated by transition currents, which in turn reduces the generation of error magnetic fields, and so improving the characteristics of the plasma confinement within the coil. The coil arrangement in the invention has a return conductor radially penetrating its turns at a position where each turn bends into the next. Also a supply conductor is symmetrically arranged relative to the axis of the return conductor. (U.K.)

  12. The homotopy type of toric arrangements

    OpenAIRE

    Moci, Luca; Settepanella, Simona

    2010-01-01

    A toric arrangement is a finite set of hypersurfaces in a complex torus, every hypersurface being the kernel of a character. In the present paper we build a CW-complex S homotopy equivalent to the arrangement complement Rx, with a combinatorial description similar to that of the well-known Salvetti complex. If the toric arrangement is defined by a Weyl group, we also provide an algebraic description, very handy for cohomology computations. In the last part we give a description in terms of ta...

  13. Arrangement and Description of the CERN Archive

    CERN Document Server

    Hollier, Anita

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes recent work on the arrangement and description of the CERN Archive. In order to improve access a shelf list was created and then adapted to become a Guide for public use. A functional arrangement was chosen for the Guide, in the hope that this would accommodate ongoing reorganisations and would grow with CERN. A re-evaluation of this approach was carried out 18 months later, and produced several improvements. It also raised a number of questions concerning the theoretical basis for some of the decisions taken about archival arrangement, and suggested ideas for future directions.

  14. Financing college education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    You have more options than ever before for financing a college education. You can: Split income with your children Prepay your child's tuition Buy a rental house for your college student Hire your child Establish and educational IRA Deduct interest on some student loans Claim the new tax credits for education. With today's educational cost, you need more possibilities for maximizing your dollars. Keep this article handy. Use it to help you take full advantage of the old, new, and varied possibilities. PMID:9872099

  15. F# for quantitative finance

    CERN Document Server

    Astborg, Johan

    2013-01-01

    To develop your confidence in F#, this tutorial will first introduce you to simpler tasks such as curve fitting. You will then advance to more complex tasks such as implementing algorithms for trading semi-automation in a practical scenario-based format.If you are a data analyst or a practitioner in quantitative finance, economics, or mathematics and wish to learn how to use F# as a functional programming language, this book is for you. You should have a basic conceptual understanding of financial concepts and models. Elementary knowledge of the .NET framework would also be helpful.

  16. Relationship finance, market finance and endogenous business cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Deidda, Luca Gabriele; Fattouh, Bassam

    2010-01-01

    This paper develops an overlapping generation model with asymmetric information in the credit market such that the interplay between relationship finance supplied by investors who monitor investment decisions ex-ante and market finance supplied by investors who relay on public information can be the source of endogenous business fluctuations. Monitoring helps reducing the inefficiency caused by moral hazard. However, the incentives of entrepreneurs to demand relationship finance to induce mon...

  17. LEASE FINANCING: A NEW DUAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina-Aurora, BUNEA-BONTAS

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Leasing is an important additional financing technique used by many companies, enabling them to use property, plant and equipment without making large initial cash outlays. It also provides flexibility, allowing entities to address obsolescence risks. Under current accounting rules, when referring to the operating leasing in particular, there is a lack of comparability between the financial position and operating results of companies that buy assets and the financial position and operating results of those that lease similar assets. This has led critics to assert that the current accounting does not portray the economics of lease arrangements. In response to this criticism, the IASB and FASB have developed a new approach to lease accounting that would require a lessee to recognise assets and liabilities for the rights and obligations created by leases, this providing greater transparency and comparability for financial statements users. On the other hand, the proposals will affect almost every company and the impact of the proposed changes may be significant, as recognising additional assets and liabilities and finance expense will affect key performance ratios and, consequently, the ability to satisfy debt covenants.

  18. Apparatus and methods for splicing conduits and hoses subsea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocum, Alexander Henry; Gutierrez, Luis Javier

    2014-03-11

    A hose connection system comprises a body including an internal cavity and a port in fluid communication with a portion of the internal cavity. In addition, the system comprises a hose end fitting positioned in the cavity. The hose end fitting includes an inner tubular member and an outer tubular member concentrically disposed about the inner tubular member. The outer tubular member includes a plurality of circumferentially spaced axial slits. Further, the system comprises a plurality of wedge members arranged circumferentially about the outer tubular member. Still further, the system comprises an annular piston movably disposed within the internal cavity of the body. An end of the piston has an inner frustoconical surface that slidingly engages the plurality of wedge members. The piston is configured to move axially through the body and compress the wedge members and the outer tubular member radially inward.

  19. Financing wind energy projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triodos Bank has more than 10 years of experience with developing and financing wind projects in the Netherlands. Over 50 Megawatt has been installed with direct involvement of the bank. The experience is both as a bank and as a venture capital fund. In this contribution the perspective will be more from a venture capital point of view than as a bank. The bank's activities in the wind energy sector started in 1986 by forming a joint venture with an engineering bureau, experienced i wind energy but not yet in developing wind projects. From 1989 onwards the joint venture started to build wind farms, both as a private company and in a joint venture with utilities. The European Investment Bank became involved with a long-term debt finance facility (15 years, fixed interest loan). The main difficulties were long-term commitments from landowners (Dike authorities) and utilities with regard to power contracts. The development got really stuck when utilities refused to pay a fair price anymore. Also, site development became more and more difficult. Even the poor technical performance improved drastically and did not frighten developers and banks too much. (author)

  20. Gauge theory of Finance?

    CERN Document Server

    Sornette, D

    1998-01-01

    Some problems with the recent stimulating proposal of a ``Gauge Theory of Finance'' by Ilinski and collaborators are outlined. First, the derivation of the log-normal distribution is shown equivalent both in information and mathematical content to the simpler and well-known derivation, dating back from Bachelier and Samuelson. Similarly, the re-derivation of Black-Scholes equation is shown equivalent to the standard one because the limit of no uncertainty is equivalent to the standard risk-free replication argument. Both re-derivations of the log-normality and Black-Scholes result do not provide a test of the theory because it is degenerate in the limits where these results apply. Third, the choice of the exponential form a la Boltzmann, of the weight of a given market configuration, is a key postulate that requires justification. In addition, the ``Gauge Theory of Finance'' seems to lead to ``virtual'' arbitrage opportunities for pure Markov random walk market when there should be none. These remarks are off...

  1. Financing energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1990s is likely to be a decade of double growth: in energy demand and environmental protection. This leads the author of this paper to ask the pertinent questions of where the money will come from, and in what form, to finance the growth in capacity to produce this energy and the technology required to produce and burn it cleanly. With a focus on Asian energy markets, this paper first illustrates the problem by describing the rapid growth of energy demand in the region. It describes the growth in Japan as well as China and the fast-growing economies of Hong Kong, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand. Energy demand growth rates of almost 5 percent in the 1980s are expected to continue to grow at that rate at least until 2005, doubling today's level of consumption and putting the energy supply system under great strain. Because of the large sums involved, this paper pints out the necessity of inventing new, innovative devices for future fund raising. This will require the participation of institutions such as insurance companies and regional banks that have little experience in the energy field. This paper suggests that these and the established players in energy finance will have recourse to two new approaches: Build-Operate-Transfer and Trustee Borrowing schemes

  2. Statistics for Finance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindström, Erik; Madsen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Statistics for Finance develops students’ professional skills in statistics with applications in finance. Developed from the authors’ courses at the Technical University of Denmark and Lund University, the text bridges the gap between classical, rigorous treatments of financial mathematics that rarely connect concepts to data and books on econometrics and time series analysis that do not cover specific problems related to option valuation. The book discusses applications of financial derivatives pertaining to risk assessment and elimination. The authors cover various statistical and mathematical techniques, including linear and nonlinear time series analysis, stochastic calculus models, stochastic differential equations, It?’s formula, the Black–Scholes model, the generalized method-of-moments, and the Kalman filter. They explain how these tools are used to price financial derivatives, identify interest rate models, value bonds, estimate parameters, and much more. This textbook will help students understand and manage empirical research in financial engineering. It includes examples of how the statistical tools can be used to improve value-at-risk calculations and other issues. In addition, end-of-chapter exercises develop students’ financial reasoning skills.

  3. Influence of Phreatic Conduit Floods on Matrix Storage in Unconfined Karst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J. L.; Koski, K.

    2009-12-01

    Conduits from cm’s to m’s in effective diameter are common features in some karst aquifers, providing most of the flow capacity, but relatively little of the storage. Unconfined karst aquifers have a water table and no caprock. Phreatic conduits are completely submerged below the water table. These conditions are found, for example, in the unconfined Floridan aquifer of the United States and on the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico. Karst conduits respond quickly to precipitation events, propagating floods that might originate with a sinking stream and eventually discharge to a spring. As the flood passes, water moves from the pressurized conduit to the surrounding rock matrix where it is stored; then, as the flood passes some of the stored flood water returns to the conduit. The amount, pattern and nature of storage is strongly influenced by the presence of an overlying water table and natural recharge. We investigate this influence using mathematical models, with implications for speleogenesis, contaminant sequestration, and aqueous geochemistry.

  4. Midterm results of bovine jugular vein conduit for right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the midterm results of Contegra conduit. Methods: The retrospective study comprised patient record at Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, of conduits implanted between May 2007 and June 2012. Data collection was made from the clinical notes and from serial echocardiograms by a single cardiologist. The last followup echocardiography was done at the time of data collection in June 2012. SPSS 19 was used for statistical analysis. Results: A total of 18 conduits had been implanted (16-22mm) during the study period. Median age at the time of surgery was 9 years (range: 2.5-16 years). Early mortality was seen in 3 (16.66%) patients, but none was Contegra related. Of the remaining 15 patients, 2 (13.33%) with a diagnosis of Pulmonary Atresia-Ventricular Septal Defect with hypoplastic peripheral Pulmonary Arteries (PA), developed severe distal pressure gradient (50mmHg) across Contegra over a median period of 18 months (range: 12-24 months), with resultant severe regurgitation and needed percutaneous intervention. There was no thrombosis, calcification, anuerysmal dilation or late deaths. Conclusion: At midterm followup, Contegra conduit was associated with low re-intervention rates with satisfactory haemodynamic results. However, long-term durability must be determined for this conduit, especially in patients with Pulmonary Atresia-Ventricular Septal Defect with hypoplastic peripheral Pulmonary Arteries. (author)

  5. Long Term Complications Following Heal Conduit Urinary Diversion after Radical Cystectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the long term complications of ileal conduit urinary diversion in 36 patients with invasive urinary bladder cancer who lived more than 5 years after surgery. Patients and Methods: A retrospective study included 36 long term survivors (survival 5 years or greater) with invasive bladder cancer who did radical cystectomy or anterior pelvic excentration with ileal conduit urinary diversion at the National Cancer Institute, Cairo University before January 2004. Results: A total of 36 patients, 28 Males and 8 females, with median age at surgery of 62 years. Complications developed in 22 (61 %) patients and surgical re-intervention was needed, in 14 patients (39%). Stoma related complications developed in 7 (19%) patients, bowel related complications developed in 4 (11%), urinary tract infection and pyelonephritis was observed in 9 (25%) patients, conduit/ureteral anastomosis related complications developed in 5 (14%) patients, urolithiasis developed in 4 (11%) patients. Renal function deterioration (morphological and functional) was observed in 9 (25%) patients, nephrectomy was required in 2 patients, hemodialysis was required in 1 patient, and 1 patient had persistent hyperchloraemic acidosis. Conclusion: Long term follow-up for patients with ileal conduit urinary diversion shows high complication and high surgical re-intervention rates following this technique. Longer follow-up period for 20 or more years is needed for all urinary diversion techniques to prove either the ileal conduit will remain the gold standard for urinary diversion or other newly developed techniques will take its place

  6. PFI redux? Assessing a new model for financing hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellowell, Mark

    2013-11-01

    There is a growing need for investments in hospital facilities to improve the efficiency and quality of health services. In recent years, publicly financed hospital organisations in many countries have utilised private finance arrangements, variously called private finance initiatives (PFIs), public-private partnerships (PPPs) or P3s, to address their capital requirements. However, such projects have become more difficult to implement since the onset of the global financial crisis, which has led to a reduction in the supply of debt capital and an increase in its price. In December 2012, the government of the United Kingdom outlined a comprehensive set of reforms to the private finance model in order to revive this important source of capital for hospital investments. This article provides a critical assessment of the 'Private Finance 2' reforms, focusing on their likely impact on the supply and cost of capital. It concludes that constraints in supply are likely to continue, in part due to regulatory constraints facing both commercial banks and institutional investors, while the cost of capital is likely to increase, at least in the short term. PMID:24138730

  7. Valve Technology Arrangement of Cryopump: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjiv Y. Rajput

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A cryopump or a "cryogenic pump" is a vacuum pump that pumps the trap gases and vapours by condensing them on a cold surface. Helium gas which is very light can only be pumped by Cryopump. Cryopump cannot be used when working for continuous operation as it pumps the effluent till the saturation state is achieved. Then the absorbed gases are to be collected through other mechanical pump through regeneration process. Hence, valve technology arrangement is incorporated with the cryopump in order to achieve the continuous pumping when two cryopump are used in alternate processes (i.e. absorption and regeneration. Various design of Valve technology arrangement is proposed by different researcher all over the world. This review paper focuses on the different proposed valve technology arrangement and elaborately explains the various components of valve technology and concludes the best possible arrangement that can be used in Cryopump.

  8. Flood risk governance arrangements in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matczak, P.; Lewandowski, J.; Chory?ski, A.; Szwed, M.; Kundzewicz, Z. W.

    2015-06-01

    The STAR-FLOOD (Strengthening and Redesigning European Flood Risk Practices Towards Appropriate and Resilient Flood Risk Governance Arrangements) project, funded by the European Commission, investigates strategies for dealing with flood risk in six European countries: Belgium, the UK, France, the Netherlands, Poland and Sweden and in 18 vulnerable urban regions in these countries. The project aims to describe, analyse, explain, and evaluate the main similarities and differences between the selected EU Member States in terms of development and performance of flood risk governance arrangements. It also discusses the scientific and societal importance of these similarities and differences. Attention is paid to identification and characterization of shifts in flood risk governance arrangements and in flood risk management strategies and to determination of triggering factors and restraining factors. An assessment of a change of resilience and appropriateness (legitimacy, effectiveness, efficiency) of flood risk governance arrangements in Poland is presented and comparison with other European countries is offered.

  9. Cubic Partial Cubes from Simplicial Arrangements

    OpenAIRE

    Eppstein, David

    2005-01-01

    We show how to construct a cubic partial cube from any simplicial arrangement of lines or pseudolines in the projective plane. As a consequence, we find nine new infinite families of cubic partial cubes as well as many sporadic examples.

  10. 21 CFR 26.64 - Transitional arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01...arrangements. 26.64 Section 26.64 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD...

  11. Responding to environmental regulations through collaborative arrangements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asai, Masayasu; Langer, Vibeke; Frederiksen, Pia

    2014-01-01

    In livestock-intensive regions of Europe, on-farm application of manure and other fertilisers is being increasingly regulated to protect aquatic environments. This study examined collaborative arrangements between intensive livestock farms in Denmark with surplus manure and farms requiring crop nutrients, in order to manage the manure resource at landscape scale and comply with environmental regulations. The extent of collaborative arrangements for manure among Danish farms was explored at natio...

  12. New multiple aperture arrangements for speckle photography

    OpenAIRE

    Angel-Toro, Luciano; Tebaldi, Myrian; Trivi, Marcelo; Bolognini, N??stor

    2000-01-01

    Abstract We propose a multiple exposure specklegram by using an optical system whose multiple aperture pupil changes between exposures. In particular, we analyze experimentally two arrangements and we show that it is possible to store the required information by employing a minimum number of registers if an adequate selection of the pupil is done. We study the effect of the decorrelation (among the stored speckle pattern) introduced by changing the multiple aperture pupil arrangements betw...

  13. Exchange rate regimes and monetary arrangements

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Ribnikar

    2005-01-01

    There is a close relationship between a country’s exchange rate regime and monetary arrangement and if we are to examine monetary arrangements then exchange rate regimes must first be analysed. Within the conventional and most widely used classification of exchange rate regimes into rigid and flexible or into polar regimes (hard peg and float) on one side, and intermediate regimes on the other there, is a much greater variety among intermediate regimes. A more precise and, as will be seen, mo...

  14. Application of arrangement theory to unfolding models

    CERN Document Server

    Kamiya, Hidehiko; Tokushige, Norihide

    2010-01-01

    Arrangement theory plays an essential role in the study of the unfolding model used in many fields. This paper describes how arrangement theory can be usefully employed in solving the problems of counting (i) the number of admissible rankings in an unfolding model and (ii) the number of ranking patterns generated by unfolding models. The paper is mostly expository but also contains some new results such as simple upper and lower bounds for the number of ranking patterns in the unidimensional case.

  15. Application of arrangement theory to unfolding models

    OpenAIRE

    Kamiya, Hidehiko; Takemura, Akimichi; Tokushige, Norihide

    2010-01-01

    Arrangement theory plays an essential role in the study of the unfolding model used in many fields. This paper describes how arrangement theory can be usefully employed in solving the problems of counting (i) the number of admissible rankings in an unfolding model and (ii) the number of ranking patterns generated by unfolding models. The paper is mostly expository but also contains some new results such as simple upper and lower bounds for the number of ranking patterns in t...

  16. Study on power plants arrangements for integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Improved performance of combined cycle power plant. • Comparative study of two options in triple cycle arrangements. • Investigation on critical operational conditions to gain the performance benefit. • Possible new cycles integrations. • Study on heat sink variations. - Abstract: The three power cycles viz. gas cycle (Brayton cycle), steam cycle (Rankine cycle) and organic Rankine cycle (ORC) are arranged in two possible methods to form a triple cycle and to increase its power generating performance. In one approach, all the three cycles are arranged in series, the heat rejection of gas cycle is supplied to steam power plant having back pressure turbine and the heat rejection of steam plant is supplied to ORC plant similar to a cascading. In second option, the two bottoming cycles i.e. steam plant and ORC plant are arranged in parallel to gas turbine exhaust. In this connection, steam cycle works with high temperature heat recovery and ORC plant with low temperature heat recovery. Thermal efficiency and specific work of two triple cycles are compared with combined cycle (CC) power plant to draw the relative merits of two choices with a focus on compressor pressure ratio and gas turbine inlet temperature (GTIT). The results showed that the parallel arrangement in triple cycle offers greater benefit over the series arrangement. Therefore the wok is focused on parallel configuration triple cycle results

  17. Accounting & Finance; a Basic Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, ewoud

    2011-01-01

    The book is about finance and accounting, subjects widely discussed in many other books. What sets this book apart from most others is that it discusses all the basic aspects of finance and accounting in one single textbook. Three areas of interest are discussed: Financial Management; Management Accounting; Financial Accounting. Typically, these three subjects are treated separately as individual topics. They are closely related, however, since they all deal with the many financi...

  18. The role of lease financing

    OpenAIRE

    Mendes, Rodrigo de Pinto

    2015-01-01

    Leasing has become, throughout recent years, an increasingly important financing source for companies’ operational activities and has deserved some attention in the corporate finance literature. Understanding the leasing decision, through a comparison with other external financing options and an evaluation of its overall fit with firms’ specific characteristics has been the focus of existing investigations and it is the goal of this study. Our analysis is focused on the relationship between l...

  19. Financing Infrastructure in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Estache, Antonio; Serebrisky, Tomas; Wren-Lewis, Liam

    2015-01-01

    This article develops a theoretical framework to analyze options for financing infrastructurein developing countries. We build a basic model that gives motivations for usinga combination of public finance, private debt and private equity. The model is thenextended in a number of ways to examine a variety of factors that are important fordeveloping countries when considering financing choices. We focus in particular on keyinstitutional weaknesses that are often important for infrastructure inv...

  20. Profit taxation and finance constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Keuschnigg, Christian; Ribi, Evelyn

    2010-01-01

    In the absence of financing frictions, profit taxes reduce investment by their effect on the user cost of capital. With finance constraints due to moral hazard, investment becomes sensitive to cash-flow and own equity of firms. We propose a corporate finance model of investment and derive three central results: (i) Even small taxes impose first order welfare losses on financially constrained firms; (ii) ACE and cashflow tax systems, which are investment neutral in the neoclassical model, are ...

  1. The epistemology of modern finance

    OpenAIRE

    De Scheemaekere, Xavier

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates modern finance’s epistemological status with a special emphasis on its most quantitative part: Black-Scholes option pricing model and its extensions. It zeroes on the analysis of mathematical methods in financial economics and their connection to risk and uncertainty. Risk-neutral valuation, a direct consequence of Black-Scholes model, restricts the range of individual and subjective uncertainty by putting a price on replicable risk, thereby conferring to modern financ...

  2. Profit Taxes and Financing Constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Keuschnigg; Evelyn Ribi

    2012-01-01

    Without financing frictions, profit taxes reduce investment by their effect on the user cost of capital. With financing constraints, investment becomes sensitive to cash-flow. In this situation, even small taxes impose first order welfare losses, and ACE and cash-flow tax systems are no longer neutral. When banks become active and provide monitoring services in addition to finance, an ACE tax yields larger investment and welfare than an equal yield cash-flow tax.

  3. PUBLIC FINANCING OF HEALTHCARE SERVICES

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka Bem

    2013-01-01

    Healthcare in Poland is mainly financed by public sector entities, among them the National Health Fund (NFZ), state budget and local government budgets. The task of the National Health Fund, as the main payer in the system, is chiefly currently financing the services. The state budget plays a complementary role in the system, and finances selected groups of services, health insurance premiums and investments in healthcare infrastructure. The basic role of the local governments is to ensure ac...

  4. Family control and financing decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Crocci, Ettore; Doukas, John A.; Gonenc, Halit

    2010-01-01

    Empirical studies examining the financing decisions of the firm focus exclusively on publicly held firms, not family-controlled firms despite their economic importance. This study investigates the external financing behavior of family-controlled firms, using a comprehensive sample of 777 large European firms during the period 1998 to 2008. We document that, unlike nonfamily-controlled firms, the external financing decisions of family-controlled firms are influenced by control incentives and i...

  5. Household external finance and consumption

    OpenAIRE

    BESLEY, Timothy; Meads, Neil; Surico, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses mortgage data to construct a measure of terms on which households access to external finance, and relates it to consumption at both the aggregate and cohort levels. The Household External Finance (HEF) index is based on the spread paid by risky borrowers in the mortgage market. There is evidence that the terms of access to external finance matter more for the consumption of young cohorts in UK data. Results are robust to a wide variety of specifications.

  6. From Finance Capitalism to Financialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per H.

    2014-01-01

    In this article I interpret 150 years of financial history with a focus on shifts in the role of finance in society. I argue that over time the role of finance has shifted twice from that of servant to that of master of society, and that this process has been driven by sense making through narratives that legitimized and shaped these changes. When finance became a master rent seeking, cultural capture and out-of control financial innovation resulted in financial and social instability. Finance a...

  7. Radiation response of optical fibers encased in a radiation resistant telecommunications conduit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the results of exposing two multimode silica core optical fibers to Co-60 gamma irradiation in a radiation shielded configuration exposure consisted of dose rates at the fibers ranging from 59.6 rad(Si)/min to 92.2 rad(Si)/min within the radiation resistant conduit (RRC) and plastic conduit respectively. In was observed that the fiber within the RRC experienced approximately 8.0 dB/km less radiation induced attenuation than the fiber within the plastic conduit with identical external radiation exposure and geometries. The measurements were performed at room temperature (T = 21.5 degrees C) using well defined, highly stable optical sources and detectors

  8. Internationally Recommended Best Practices in Transportation Financing Public-Private Partnerships (P3s)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, Lawrence; Lawther, Wendell

    2013-01-01

    Transportation financing public-private partnerships (P3s) are a common practice in many countries. However, they represent a relatively new approach to transportation infrastructure financing for state and local governments in the United States. In a transportation financing P3 project, a private sector partner designs-builds-finances-operates- maintains (DBFOM) a transportation infrastructure asset (road, highway, bridge, tunnel, etc.) with an emphasis on financing. Under this type of arrangement, the private sector partner is primarily responsible for securing all or substantially all of the funding necessary to construct new transportation infrastructure and/or rehabilitate existing transportation infrastructure. This study reviews the international experience of national and sub-national governments with transportation financing P3s. The primary purpose of this study is to identify internationally recommended best practices in transportation financing P3s. Based upon the study findings, a checklist in then proposed that can be used by U.S. state and local governments to assess their current or proposed transportation financing P3 policies and procedures. The article makes a contribution to the literature on transportation financing P3s by bringing together for the first time internationally recommended best practices in ten major areas.

  9. Adequacy, Efficiency and Equity of Higher Education Financing: The Case of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahim, Yasmine; Sami, Noha

    2011-01-01

    To meet its future challenges in financing higher education, Egypt has no option but to search for alternative funding arrangements. This article considers the question of how to do so, keeping in mind the need to ensure equitable access to good quality education for those who cannot afford it. To this end, the article begins by assessing public…

  10. A Nationwide Survey of Financing Health-Related Services for Special Education Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodman, Jack; Weill, Kenny; Driscoll, Margaret; Fenton, Terry; Alpert, Hillel; Salem-Schatz, Susanne; Palfrey, Judith S.

    1999-01-01

    Surveys of directors of special education, Medicaid, and public health departments in all 50 states examined the financing arrangements covering health-related services for students with special health care needs in the schools. Results indicated that schools tapped traditional health resources to supplement educational dollars in paying for…

  11. Financing electricity expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Expansion of electricity supply is associated with economic development. The installation and enlargement of power systems in developing countries entails a huge financial burden, however. Energy consumers in such countries must pay not only for supplies but for the cost of raising the capital for expansion on the international markets. Estimates are presented for the capital expenditure for electricity supply over the period 1990 to 2020 for the major world regions, using approximations for the cost of plant and capital and for the returns earned. These data lead to the conclusion that the five regions with the lowest per capita incomes are those which will need the major part of the capital expenditure and the highest percentage of external finance. (6 tables) (UK)

  12. Romanian SMEs Financing Options:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan E. Nistor

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the most pressing problems faced by micro, small and medium sized enterprises (henceforth SMEs in Europe is the access to sufficient funds to sustain their long term growth. Romanian SMEs make no exception. In this context the present paper focuses on analyzing the extent to which external funding sources have contributed to the value added created by the Romanian SMEs between 2007 and 2011.The investigation’s results indicate the existence of a causal link between some forms of external financing (namely bank loans, leasing, factoring, guarantee products and European funds and the value added created by the Romanian micro, small and medium sized enterprises in the aforementioned period.

  13. Financing wind projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation reviewed some of the partnership opportunities available from GE Energy. GE Energy's ecomagination commitment has promised to double research investment, make customers true partners and reduce greenhouse gases (GHGs). GE Energy's renewable energy team provides a broad range of financial products, and has recently funded 30 wind farms and 2 large solar projects. The company has a diverse portfolio of technology providers and wind regimes, and is increasing their investment in technology. GE Energy recognizes that the wind industry is growing rapidly and has received increased regulatory support that is backed by strong policy and public support. It is expected that Canada will have 3006 wind projects either planned or under construction by 2007. According to GE Energy, successful wind financing is dependent on the location of the site and its wind resources, as well as on the wind developer's power sales agreement. The success of a wind project is also determined by clear financing goals. Site-specific data is needed to determine the quality of wind resource, and off-site data can also be used to provide validation. Proximity to load centres will help to minimize capital costs. Power sales agreements should be based on the project's realistic net capacity factor as well as on the cost of the turbines. The economics of many wind farms is driven by the size of the turbines used. Public consultations are also needed to ensure the success of wind power projects. It was concluded that a good partner will have staying power in the wind power industry, and will understand the time-lines and needs that are peculiar to wind energy developers. refs., tabs., figs

  14. Pressure distribution along the AGS vacuum chambers with new types of pump out conduits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayak, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Mapes, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Smart, L. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Weiss, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-10-28

    The AGS HEBT and ring vacuum system is monitored by the discharge current of the magnet ion pumps, which is proportional to the pressure at the inlet port of these ion pumps. The discharge current is measured and suitably calibrated to indicate the ion pump pressure. In order to calculate the vacuum chamber pressure from the ion pump pressure, a detailed analysis is essential to compute their difference in different scenarios. Such analysis has been carried out numerically in the past for the system with the older type of pump out conduits and similar analysis using FEM in ANSYS is presented in this paper with the newer type of pump out conduit.

  15. The grain-size distribution of pyroclasts: Primary fragmentation, conduit sorting or abrasion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kueppers, U.; Schauroth, J.; Taddeucci, J.

    2013-12-01

    Explosive volcanic eruptions expel a mixture of pyroclasts and lithics. Pyroclasts, fragments of the juvenile magma, record the state of the magma at fragmentation in terms of porosity and crystallinity. The grain size distribution of pyroclasts is generally considered to be a direct consequence of the conditions at magma fragmentation that is mainly driven by gas overpressure in bubbles, high shear rates, contact with external water or a combination of these factors. Stress exerted by any of these processes will lead to brittle fragmentation by overcoming the magma's relaxation timescale. As a consequence, most pyroclasts exhibit angular shapes. Upon magma fragmentation, the gas pyroclast mixture is accelerated upwards and eventually ejected from the vent. The total grain size distribution deposited is a function of fragmentation conditions and transport related sorting. Porous pyroclasts are very susceptible to abrasion by particle-particle or particle-conduit wall interaction. Accordingly, pyroclastic fall deposits with angular clasts should proof a low particle abrasion upon contact to other surfaces. In an attempt to constrain the degree of particle interaction during conduit flow, monomodal batches of washed pyroclasts have been accelerated upwards by rapid decompression and subsequently investigated for their grain size distribution. In our set-up, we used a vertical cylindrical tube without surface roughness as conduit. We varied grain size (0.125-0.25; 0.5-1; 1-2 mm), porosity (0; 10; 30 %), gas-particle ratio (10 and 40%), conduit length (10 and 28 cm) and conduit diameter (2.5 and 6 cm). All ejected particles were collected after settling at the base of a 3.3 m high tank and sieved at one sieve size below starting size (half-?). Grain size reduction showed a positive correlation with starting grain size, porosity and overpressure at the vent. Although milling in a volcanic conduit may take place, porous pyroclasts are very likely to be a primary product of magma fragmentation at or close to the fragmentation level. Given the high abrasiveness of pumice, hemispherical clasts should be observed if clast break-up followed efficient clast abrasion. As a consequence, finer grained pyroclastic fall deposits do not necessarily proof efficient secondary fragmentation in the conduit but may rather reveal the influence of conduit length on 'What size of pyroclasts can be erupted'?

  16. Arrangement of in-core neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To optimize the arrangement of neutron detectors in an intermediate power regions, to thereby improve the responsivity to the worst operation disable state and provide sensitive function as the safety protection system. Constitution: Intermediate power region monitors (IRM) are arranged as below (wherein R is the distance from the control rod at the center to the farthest control rod). (1) In the case where IRM number is less than 6, detectors are concentrated near the center of the reactor core and the adjacent IRM belong to trap systems different from each other. (2) In the case where IRM number is 8, two IRM belonging to trap systems different from each other are arranged near the center of the reactor core and the remaining detectors are arranged at an equal pitch on a same circle with a radius of about (3/2)sup(1/2) around the central control rod as the center in which trip systems A and B are alternate. (3) In the case where IRM number is greater than 10, detectors are arranged at an equal pitch on a same circle with a radius of about R cos 4 ?/M (where M is the number of IRM) around the central control rod as the center and in which trip systems A and B are alternate. (Kawakami, Y.)

  17. EXTERNAL FINANCING FOR CONSTRUCTION ENTITIES

    OpenAIRE

    ADELA BREUER; MIHAELA LESCONI FRUMU?ANU; BEATRIX LIGHEZAN BREUER; DOREL JURCHESCU

    2011-01-01

    The external financing of the construction entities does not differ from the one of other entities within other activities, but the construction entities have also a financing source, represented by the funds for the site organization, funds which are analysed and accounted in the present paper.

  18. Mastering R for quantitative finance

    CERN Document Server

    Berlinger, Edina; Badics, Milán; Banai, Ádám; Daróczi, Gergely; Dömötör, Barbara; Gabler, Gergely; Havran, Dániel; Juhász, Péter; Margitai, István; Márkus, Balázs; Medvegyev, Péter; Molnár, Julia; Szucs, Balázs Árpád; Tuza, Ágnes; Vadász, Tamás; Váradi, Kata; Vidovics-Dancs, Ágnes

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for those who want to learn how to use R's capabilities to build models in quantitative finance at a more advanced level. If you wish to perfectly take up the rhythm of the chapters, you need to be at an intermediate level in quantitative finance and you also need to have a reasonable knowledge of R.

  19. The Possibilities of Strategic Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffee, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Strategic finance is aligning financial decisions--regarding revenues, creating and maintaining institutional assets, and using those assets--with the institution's mission and strategic plan. The concept known as "strategic finance" increasingly is being seen as a useful perspective for helping boards and presidents develop a sustainable…

  20. EXTERNAL FINANCING FOR CONSTRUCTION ENTITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADELA BREUER

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The external financing of the construction entities does not differ from the one of other entities within other activities, but the construction entities have also a financing source, represented by the funds for the site organization, funds which are analysed and accounted in the present paper.

  1. Statistics and finance an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Ruppert, David

    2004-01-01

    This textbook emphasizes the applications of statistics and probability to finance. Students are assumed to have had a prior course in statistics, but no background in finance or economics. The basics of probability and statistics are reviewed and more advanced topics in statistics, such as regression, ARMA and GARCH models, the bootstrap, and nonparametric regression using splines, are introduced as needed. The book covers the classical methods of finance such as portfolio theory, CAPM, and the Black-Scholes formula, and it introduces the somewhat newer area of behavioral finance. Applications and use of MATLAB and SAS software are stressed. The book will serve as a text in courses aimed at advanced undergraduates and masters students in statistics, engineering, and applied mathematics as well as quantitatively oriented MBA students. Those in the finance industry wishing to know more statistics could also use it for self-study. David Ruppert is the Andrew Schultz, Jr. Professor of Engineering, School of Oper...

  2. A novel balloon assisted two-stents telescoping technique for repositioning an embolized stent in the pulmonary conduit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Daisuke; Gowda, Srinath T; Forbes, Thomas J

    2014-08-01

    A 9-year-old male, with history of pulmonary atresia and ventricular septal defect, status post complete repair with a 16 mm pulmonary homograft in the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) underwent 3110 Palmaz stent placement for conduit stenosis. Following deployment the stent embolized proximally into the right ventricle (RV). We undertook the choice of repositioning the embolized stent into the conduit with a transcatheter approach. Using a second venous access, the embolized stent was carefully maneuvered into the proximal part of conduit with an inflated Tyshak balloon catheter. A second Palmaz 4010 stent was deployed in the distal conduit telescoping through the embolized stent. The Tyshak balloon catheter was kept inflated in the RV to stabilize the embolized stent in the proximal conduit until it was successfully latched up against the conduit with the deployment of the overlapping second stent. One year later, he underwent Melody valve implantation in the pre-stented conduit relieving conduit insufficiency. This novel balloon assisted two-stents telescoping technique is a feasible transcatheter option to secure an embolized stent from the RV to the RVOT. PMID:24402732

  3. US Food and Drug Administration /Conformit Europe- approved absorbable nerve conduits for clinical repair of peripheral and cranial nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, M F; Coert, J H

    2008-04-01

    Several absorbable nerve conduits are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Conformit Europe (CE) for clinical repair of peripheral and cranial nerves . Surgeons are often not aware of the different(bio) materials of these conduits when performing nerve repair. An overview of these FDA- and CE-approved absorbable nerve conduits for clinical use is presented . PubMed, MEDLINE, and the companies selling the conduits were consulted . The available FDA and CE absorbable nerve conduits for peripheral and cranial nerve repair are 2 collagen- and 2 synthetic- polyester based conduits. The available clinical data, the price, the length, and the composition of the tube show significant differences. Based on the available data in this paper at this moment, we favor the PGA (Neurotube) nerve conduit for repair of peripheral and cranial nerve defects because of its advantages in length, price, and availability of clinical data. However, no prospective studies comparing the available nerve conduits have been published. PMID:18437784

  4. Java meshing tool for sphere arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A tool for meshing sphere arrangements was programmed in order to perform finite element calculations. Sphere arrangements are investigated in frame of the feasibility study of the sphere-pac nuclear fuel. One major concern of this study is the thermal conductivity of the arrangement. Further concerns are the mechanical behavior and sintering of the fuel. The thermal conductivity of the fuel was addressed with the computer code SPACON based on a unit cell approach and a radial heat flow experiment. However, a further approach using the finite element method is desirable, in order to better understanding the thermal flow through the package and to cross check with SPACON data and with experimental data. Also the mechanical behavior of the fuel could be addressed using the finite element technique. (author)

  5. Exchange rate regimes and monetary arrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Ribnikar

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a close relationship between a country’s exchange rate regime and monetary arrangement and if we are to examine monetary arrangements then exchange rate regimes must first be analysed. Within the conventional and most widely used classification of exchange rate regimes into rigid and flexible or into polar regimes (hard peg and float on one side, and intermediate regimes on the other there, is a much greater variety among intermediate regimes. A more precise and, as will be seen, more useful classification of exchange rate regimes is the first topic of the paper. The second topic is how exchange rate regimes influence or determine monetary arrangements and monetary policy or monetary policy regimes: monetary autonomy versus monetary nonautonomy and discretion in monetary policy versus commitment in monetary policy. Both topics are important for countries on their path to the EU and the euro area

  6. Financing long term liabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the '80 even if there were no precise law disposition in this specific matter, Enel has created a fund for the plants decommissioning and a fund for the irradiated fuel management. A setting aside pluri-annual plan has been defined. Cumulated funds transferred to the Sogin at the date of its constitution amount to about 1500 MLD ITL (750 M Euro). This amount was adequate to complete decommissioning activities within the Safe Store strategy. Following the separation of Sogin from Enel, a funding mechanism has been defined to provide resources for additional costs deriving from the different economic conditions (new discount rate and taxes), from the management costs for the new company, and from the change in strategy (from Safe Store to DECON). A Decree of the Ministry of the Industry, issued on 26 January 2000, states that the above mentioned extra costs for Sogin shall be financed on a levy on the price of the sold kWh. Every year Sogin shall present the program of future activities, with associated costs: on this basis, the national Authority for Electric energy and Gas (the national body which defines tariff policy) shall re-evaluate the global amount to be granted to Sogin and the levy on the price of the kWh due to Sogin for next three years. The re-evaluation will take into account economic efficiency criteria. For the period 2002- 2004 the Authority has defined a global amount of about 362 M euros to be granted to Sogin, corresponding to ?0,04 cents of Euro per kWh. The same procedure is foreseen by the Decree in order to finance Sogin for additional costs related to the dismantling of nuclear installations now property of ENEA. In this context, a Consortium between ENEA and Sogin has been established. The Authority for the period 2002-2004 has defined a global amount of about 106 M euros to be granted to the Consortium, corresponding to ?0,015 cents of Euro per kWh. (author)

  7. Arrangements stable under the Coxeter groups

    OpenAIRE

    Kamiya, Hidehiko; Takemura, Akimichi; Terao, Hiroaki

    2011-01-01

    Let B be a real hyperplane arrangement which is stable under the action of a Coxeter group W. Then B acts naturally on the set of chambers of B. We assume that B is disjoint from the Coxeter arrangement A=A(W) of W. In this paper, we show that the W-orbits of the set of chambers of B are in one-to-one correspondence with the chambers of C=A\\cup B which are contained in an arbitrarily fixed chamber of A. From this fact, we find that the number of W-orbits of the set of chambe...

  8. Computing for Finance

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    The finance sector is one of the driving forces for the use of distributed or Grid computing for business purposes. The speakers will review the state-of-the-art of high performance computing in the financial sector, and provide insight into how different types of Grid computing – from local clusters to global networks - are being applied to financial applications. They will also describe the use of software and techniques from physics, such as Monte Carlo simulations, in the financial world. There will be four talks of 20min each. The talk abstracts and speaker bios are listed below. This will be followed by a Q&A panel session with the speakers. From 19:00 onwards there will be a networking cocktail for audience and speakers. This is an EGEE / CERN openlab event organized in collaboration with the regional business network rezonance.ch. A webcast of the event will be made available for subsequent viewing, along with powerpoint material presented by the speakers. Attendance is free and open to all. R...

  9. Percutaneous transthoracic computed tomography-guided AICD insertion in a patient with extracardiac Fontan conduit.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Darra T

    2011-02-01

    Percutaneous pulmonary venous atrial puncture was performed under computed tomography guidance to successfully place an automated implantable cardiac defibrillator into a 26-year-old patient with extracardiac Fontan conduit who had presented with two out-of-hospital cardiac arrests. The procedure avoided the need for lead placement at thoracotomy.

  10. Jean Vigo's "Zéro De Conduite" and the Spaces of Revolt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanobbergen, Bruno; Grosvenor, Ian; Simon, Frank

    2014-01-01

    In this article we will contribute to the contemporary theoretical debate about film by considering, from a history-of-education perspective, the film "Zéro de conduite" by Jean Vigo (1905--1934). This film is classified under the umbrella of "poetic realism": a product of "cinéma de gauche" and an avant-gardist,…

  11. Percutaneous Transthoracic Computed Tomography-Guided AICD Insertion in a Patient with Extracardiac Fontan Conduit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percutaneous pulmonary venous atrial puncture was performed under computed tomography guidance to successfully place an automated implantable cardiac defibrillator into a 26-year-old patient with extracardiac Fontan conduit who had presented with two out-of-hospital cardiac arrests. The procedure avoided the need for lead placement at thoracotomy.

  12. A Simplified 1-D Model for Calculating CO2 Leakage through Conduits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y.; Oldenburg, C.M.

    2011-02-15

    In geological CO{sub 2} storage projects, a cap rock is generally needed to prevent CO{sub 2} from leaking out of the storage formation. However, the injected CO{sub 2} may still encounter some discrete flow paths such as a conductive well or fault (here referred to as conduits) through the cap rock allowing escape of CO{sub 2} from the storage formation. As CO{sub 2} migrates upward, it may migrate into the surrounding formations. The amount of mass that is lost to the formation is called attenuation. This report describes a simplified model to calculate the CO{sub 2} mass flux at different locations of the conduit and the amount of attenuation to the surrounding formations. From the comparison among the three model results, we can conclude that the steady-state conduit model (SSCM) provides a more accurate solution than the PMC at a given discretization. When there is not a large difference between the permeability of the surrounding formation and the permeability of the conduits, and there is leak-off at the bottom formation (the formation immediately above the CO{sub 2} plume), a fine discretization is needed for an accurate solution. Based on this comparison, we propose to use the SSCM in the rapid prototype for now given it does not produce spurious oscillations, and is already in FORTRAN and therefore can be easily made into a dll for use in GoldSim.

  13. The financing of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Existing nuclear generating capacity plays an important role in providing secure, economic and low-carbon electricity supplies in many OECD countries. At the same time, there is increasing recognition that an expansion of nuclear power could play a valuable role in reducing future carbon dioxide emissions. However, in recent years only a handful of new nuclear power plants (NPPs) have been built in just a few OECD countries. An important reason for this is the challenges associated with financing the construction of new NPPs. The just-published NEA report entitled The Financing of Nuclear Power Plants examines these challenges. In addition, recognizing that any expansion of nuclear power programmes will require strong and sustained government support, the report highlights the role of governments in facilitating and encouraging investment in new nuclear capacity. Key actions that should be considered by governments that wish to see investment in new NPPs include: - Provide clear and sustained policy support for the development of nuclear power, by setting out the case for a nuclear component in energy supply as part of a long-term national energy strategy. - Work with electricity utilities, financial companies and other potential investors, and the nuclear industry from an early stage to address concerns that may prevent nuclear investment and to avoid mistakes in establishing the parameters for new NPPs. - Establish an efficient and effective regulatory system which provides adequate opportunities for public involvement in the decision-making process, while also providing potential investors with the certainty they require to plan such a major investment. - Put arrangements in place for the management of radioactive waste and spent fuel, and show progress towards a solution for final disposal of waste. For investors in NPPs, the financial arrangements for paying their fair share of the costs must be clearly defined. - Ensure that electricity market regulation does not disadvantage NPPs. Long-term arrangements may be necessary to provide certainty for investors in NPPs, reflecting the long-term nature of nuclear power projects. Where reducing CO2 emissions is to act as an incentive for investments in nuclear power, the government may need to provide some guarantees that policy measures will keep carbon prices at sufficiently high levels. In countries where there are large utilities with the financial strength to invest directly in new NPPs, or where there are well-resourced foreign utilities willing to make such investments, fully commercial financing may be possible. However, in other cases it may prove impossible for a nuclear power plant project to go ahead without direct or indirect public sector financial support, which would reduce the investment risks to acceptable levels. Public sector financial support could involve supporting a state-owned utility in making nuclear power plant investments, providing support to private sector utilities through loan guarantees, tax credits or other measures, or establishing public-private partnerships. However, governments should ensure that, overall, investment risk remains appropriately shared with the private sector

  14. Bridging the finance gap for small firms. The role of information flows across large firm-based production networks in supplying finance to small firms: the case of France

    OpenAIRE

    Hancké, Bob; Cieply, Sylvie

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses finance problems of small firms. Since small firms and banks belong to different economic worlds, as a result of which information assymetries emerge, credit rationing leads to sub-optimal financing arrangements. The paper analyses institutional solutions to these information assymetries between banks andsmall firms and argues that, as a result of the political-economic development ofFrance since the Second World War, production networks around large firms have become the...

  15. Sharing of risks in Islamic finance

    OpenAIRE

    Sekreter, Ahmet

    2011-01-01

    For most of the people the prohibition on interest is the well known part of Islamic finance. Indeed, the concept of Islamic finance was not being discussed enough till financial crisis, after crisis it started to be seen as an alternative financial system for conventional finance. Sharing the risks is the main concept of Islamic finance and one of the main differences between conventional and Islamic finance. Depositors/savers do not bear any risk in conventional finance however Islamic fina...

  16. PUBLIC FINANCING OF HEALTHCARE SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Bem

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare in Poland is mainly financed by public sector entities, among them the National Health Fund (NFZ, state budget and local government budgets. The task of the National Health Fund, as the main payer in the system, is chiefly currently financing the services. The state budget plays a complementary role in the system, and finances selected groups of services, health insurance premiums and investments in healthcare infrastructure. The basic role of the local governments is to ensure access to the services, mostly by performing ownership functions towards healthcare institutions.

  17. Essais en finance mathématique et en épistémologie de la finance

    OpenAIRE

    De Scheemaekere, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this thesis in finance is to combine the use of advanced mathematical methods with a return to foundational economic issues. In that perspective, I study generalized rational expectations and asset pricing in Chapter 2, and a converse comparison principle for backward stochastic differential equations with jumps in Chapter 3. Since the use of stochastic methods in finance is an interesting and complex issue in itself - if only to clarify the difference between the use of mathemati...

  18. Metacognitive Scaffolding in an Innovative Learning Arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Inge; van Boxtel, Carla A. M.; Sleegers, Peter J. C.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effects of metacognitive scaffolds on learning outcomes of collaborating students in an innovative learning arrangement. The triads were supported by computerized scaffolds, which were dynamically integrated into the learning process and took a structuring or problematizing form. In an experimental design the two…

  19. Speleogenetic effects of interaction between deeply derived fracture-conduit flow and intrastratal matrix flow in hypogene karst settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tymokhina Elizaveta

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In carbonate rocks, especially in those with high primary porosity such as most Cenozoic carbonates, the interaction between deeply derived rising flow through sub-vertical fracture-controlled conduits and intrastratal matrix flow of shallower systems can invoke mixing cor- rosion and result in prominent speleogenetic effects. This paper outlines a conceptual model of such interaction and provides instructive field examples of relevant morphological effects from two different regions within the Prichernomorsky (north Black Sea basin, where karst features are developed in lower Pliocene, Eocene and Paleocene limestones. In the Crimean fore-mountain region, extensive steep to ver- tical limestone scarps formed through recent exposure of hypogenic fracture-controlled conduits provide outstanding possibilities to directly examine details of the original karstic porosity. The morphological effects of the conduit/matrix interaction, documented in both caves and exposed scarps, include lateral widening of sub-vertical conduits within the interaction intervals (formation of lateral notches and niches and the development of side bedding-parallel conduits, pockets and vuggy-spongework zones. Natural convection circulation, invoked by interaction of the two flow systems, spreads the morphological effects throughout the conduit space above the interaction interval. Where the interaction of the two flow systems is particularly strongly localized, such as along junctions of two vertical fracture sets, the resultant morphological effect can take the form of isolated chambers. The variety of speleogenetic features developed through the conduit/matrix interaction, can be broadly grouped into two categories: 1 variously shaped swells of the major fracture conduit itself (morphological fea- tures of its walls – niches and pockets, and 2 features of the vuggy-spongework halo surrounding the conduit. This halo includes clustered and stratiform cavities, spongework zones and lateral side conduits. The speleogenetic features due to conduit/matrix flow interaction, especially the halo forms, often demonstrate distinct asymmetry between opposite walls of the conduits. The prominent phenomenon of the vuggy-spongework halo around fracture-controlled conduits has important hydrogeological implications. A comparison of karst features in different regions and rock formations clearly shows that in spite of some distinctions imposed by local structural, sedimentological and paleo-hydrogeological peculiarities, hypogenic speleoforms in limestones of different age and of different degree of diagenetic maturity demonstrate remarkable similarities.

  20. The Development of the CONDUIT Advanced Control System Design and Evaluation Interface with a Case Study Application to an Advanced Fly by Wire Helicopter Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbourne, Jason

    1999-01-01

    This report details the development and use of CONDUIT (Control Designer's Unified Interface). CONDUIT is a design tool created at Ames Research Center for the purpose of evaluating and optimizing aircraft control systems against handling qualities. Three detailed design problems addressing the RASCAL UH-60A Black Hawk are included in this report to show the application of CONDUIT to helicopter control system design.

  1. Health, autonomic financing and transferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cantarero Prieto

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper has as objective to study the whole relative problem to the autonomous communities and regional heath care expenditure financing in Spain. This article has a dual purpose. First, the financing of the current health care attendance is approached in the Spanish regions passing magazine to its possible variants and we observe that the balance of our system is clearly inclined towards the side of the integration in the general pattern of financing («Fiscal Room» with specific conditions («Mixed System». Secondly, we examine the new situation in the mark of health care and its corresponding financing in the new model approved in 2001, in terms of the effects of tax assignment on autonomous communities.

  2. Alternative institutional arrangements for developing and commercializing breeder reactor technology. Final report 15 Nov 1975--31 Mar 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In light of large costs, potential benefits, and uncertainties surrounding breeder development, many questions need to be addressed concerning the roles of government, equipment vendors, and electric power utilities in financing, owning, and managing breeder development. The study assesses nine institutional arrangements, ranging from those with heavy private sector initiative to complete government ownership and control. These arrangements are evaluated in terms of: the degree of clearly defined centralized management control that would be afforded; the effectiveness of cost control; the strength of the vendor-utility interface; the value of information produced for subsequent commercialization; the ease of financing; the prospects for risk-sharing; and overall plausibility. Some time-slippage at this stage in order to ensure strong private sector involvement might well accelerate commercialization in the longer run. The alternative is a government-directed program that might proceed faster in the next decade but subsequently encounter more barriers to commercial adoption

  3. The finance-strategy relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D G; Wheeler, J R

    2001-01-01

    The connection between the finance function and strategy in health systems is explored through discussions with chief financial officers (CFOs). The integration of finance into strategy is explored through the use of balanced scorecards, strategic investments and the analysis of core competencies and core enterprises. Divestiture of investments in health plans, physician practices and long-term care facilities is common, while outsourcing activity is increasing. PMID:11794752

  4. Corporate Finance and Comparative Advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Keuschnigg, Christian; Egger, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Since innovative firms are often financially constrained, access to external funds is important for the expansion of innovative industries. This paper reports four important results. First, comparative advantage is shaped by factor endowments as well as fundamental determinants of corporate finance. In particular, a larger equity ratio of firms and tough governance standards relax finance constraints and create a comparative advantage in innovative industries. Second, factor price equalizatio...

  5. ACCOUNTING TREATMENTS FOR FINANCING ENTITIES

    OpenAIRE

    CRISTINA MIHAELA NAGY; VIOREL TRIF; BOGDAN COTLE?

    2010-01-01

    One of the most important aspects of an entity is, without doubt, how to finance it, this being an ongoing concern of managers, particularly seeking the cost reduction of the borrowed capital and the increase of the financial profitability instalment. Accessing irredeemable funds is a reality of the recent years. Increasingly more companies are looking to these funds to achieve some development objectives. A thorough analysis of the financing possibilities (subsidy) is important for any entit...

  6. The Financing of Innovative Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Bronwyn H.

    2010-01-01

    To what extent are new and/or innovative firms fundamentally different from established firms, and therefore require a different form of financing? The theoretical background for this proposition is presented, and the empirical evidence on its importance is reviewed. Owing to the intangible nature of their investment, asymmetric-information and moral-hazard, these firms are more likely to be financed by equity than debt and behave in some cases as though they are cash-constrained, especially ...

  7. TOURIST ENTERPRISES FINANCING IN GREECE

    OpenAIRE

    Balomenou, Chryssanthi; Arsenos, Panagyiotis; Lagos, Dimitris

    2005-01-01

    The main purpose of our paper is to examine the financing framework of the Greek tourist enterprises. More specifically, in the first part of this paper we analyze the sector of the Greek tourism market in order to be able to define its operational framework. Then, we examine the structural problems of the sector and analyze the relevant Institutional financing framework. In the second part we work out a critical assessment of the tourist enterprises existing financial framework, focussing on...

  8. Statistical likelihood methods in finance

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, Arnold; Tietje, Martin

    2013-01-01

    It is known from previous work of the authors that non-negative arbitrage free price processes in finance can be described in terms of filtered likelihood processes of statistical experiments and vice versa. The present paper summarizes and outlines some similarities between finance and the statistical likelihood theory of Le Cam. Options are linked to statistical tests of the underlying experiments. In particular, some price formulas for options are expressed by the power o...

  9. Overvalued equity and financing decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Ming; Hirshleifer, David; Teoh, Siew Hong

    2012-01-01

    We test whether and how equity overvaluation affects corporate financing decisions using an ex ante misvaluation measure that filters firm scale and growth prospects from market price. We find that equity issuance and total financing increase with equity overvaluation; but only among overvalued stocks; and that equity issuance is more sensitive than debt issuance to misvaluation. Consistent with managers catering to maintain overvaluation and with investment scale economy effects, the sensiti...

  10. A Novel 'Test Arrangement for Strain Influence on Strands' (TARSIS): Mechanical and Electrical Testing of ITER Nb3Sn Strands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowledge on the deformation state of the strands in International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) type Cable-In-Conduit Conductors (CICC) and its impact on both the transport properties and the superconducting transition is essential for optimal cable and magnet design. To date a relatively large part of the attention is concentrated on the influence of purely axial strain on the performance of Nb3Sn strands and sub-size cables. However, local deformations such as strand-to-strand, strand to conduit contact pressure and strand bending will occur as well in multi strand CICC's experiencing an electromagnetic load. More basic experimental verification is required on strand level from virgin state towards multi-cyclic loading. Therefore a new test arrangement is developed in which the influence of various principle deformation states that occur in a CICC, i.e. local transverse deformations, transverse homogeneous loads, bending and axial load, can be studied separately or combined. Beside precise displacement and force measurements for stress-strain analysis, the voltage-current and voltage-temperature characteristics are traced. A description of TARSIS is presented and the first preliminary results on periodical strand bending are reported

  11. Challenges of using electrical resistivity method to locate karst conduits-A field case in the Inner Bluegrass Region, Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, J.; Currens, J.C.; Dinger, J.S.

    2011-01-01

    Conduits serve as major pathways for groundwater flow in karst aquifers. Locating them from the surface, however, is one of the most challenging tasks in karst research. Geophysical methods are often deployed to help locate voids by mapping variations of physical properties of the subsurface. Conduits can cause significant contrasts of some physical properties that can be detected; other subsurface features such as water-bearing fractures often yield similar contrasts, which are difficult to distinguish from the effects of the conduits. This study used electrical resistivity method to search for an unmapped karst conduit that recharges Royal Spring in the Inner Bluegrass karst region, Kentucky, USA. Three types of resistivity techniques (surface 2D survey, quasi-3D survey, and time-lapse survey) were used to map and characterize resistivity anomalies. Some of the major anomalies were selected as drilling targets to verify the existence of the conduits. Drilling near an anomaly identified by an electrical resistivity profile resulted in successful penetration of a major water-filled conduit. The drilling results also suggest that, in this study area, low resistivity anomalies in general are associated with water-bearing features. However, differences in the anomaly signals between the water-filled conduit and other water-bearing features such as water-filled fracture zones were undistinguishable. The electrical resistivity method is useful in conduit detection by providing potential drilling targets. Knowledge of geology and hydrogeology about the site and professional judgment also played important roles in locating the major conduit. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  12. Constraints on the Geometries and Compositions of Subvolcanic Conduits from Intrusions of the San Rafael Swell, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetmore, P. H.; Connor, C.; Wilson, J.

    2010-12-01

    Conduit models incorporate varying degrees of complexity (or parsimony) and account for the transport properties of magmas, steady-state or transient behavior, and conduit geometry (e.g., 1- to 1.5 D, variable width and erodable conduit walls). Improvement of these models is important if we are to work toward deployment of eruption models at active volcanoes, link these models to geophysical observations (seismic, deformation, gravity) and eventually forecast eruption magnitude. One conclusion of a recent comparison of many conduit models (Sahagian, 2005 JVGR) is that next generation models need to better account for interaction of the erupting mixture with surrounding wall rocks (accounting for melting, solidification, and erosion) and better account for the effects of conduit shape on flows. In an effort to address these issues our research group has completed mapping of a suite of subvolcanic intrusions (dikes, sills, and conduits) from the west-central San Rafael Swell of central Utah. The results of this study demonstrate that vertical flow of melt through crust in this system of intrusion was dominated by dikes. Conduits form, in nearly all cases, as a result of localized flow along dikes. The conduits are commonly comprised of three distinct lithologic units: brecciated host rock (without any intrusive material), brecciated host rock mixed with brecciated and mechanically contaminated intrusive, and relatively clean (i.e. containing less than ~10% accidental material) intrusive. Contacts between all three of these units are typically discreet and traceable for several tens of meters. In some examples clasts within the unmixed breccia unit exhibit a strong alignment of clasts dipping into the core of the conduit. These observations suggests an evolutionary history that involves an early phase of brecciation and mixing, followed by confined flow with a fluidized mixed unit and an essentially uninvolved outer zone (i.e. the breccia). The final phase likely involves the inward collapse as fluid pressures reduce.

  13. A method of gastric conduit elevation via the posterior mediastinal pathway in thoracoscopic subtotal esophagectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirahara Noriyuki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite efforts to improve surgical techniques, serious complications still sometimes occur. Use of a physiological posterior mediastinal pathway has increased given advances such as automated anastomotic devices and a reduction in the incidence of anastomotic sufficiency. Until now the gastric conduit created has been protected by an echo probe cover and, sown to the ventral side of polyester tape placed through the abdomen to the neck, and then blindly elevated to the neck. We report on a new method of gastric conduit elevation. Methods Two 60-cm lengths polyester tape are ligated at both ends to form a loop. An echo probe cover of 10 cm in diameter and 50 cm in length is prepared and the tip cut off, forming a cylinder. The knots in the previously looped polyester tape are inserted into the echo probe cover. The looped polyester tape and echo probe cover is ligated with silk approximately 5 cm in front of the knots on both sides. After dissection is carried out according to practice, the previously crafted polyester tape is inserted into the chest cavity. One end of polyester tape is fixed to the distal esophageal stump with the clips, with the opposite end fixed to the proximal esophageal stump. The echo probe cover that connects the proximal esophagus and distal esophagus is monitored for the presence of creases along the long axis to ensure there are no twists in the echo probe cover. We carry out a laparoscopic-assisted perigastric lymph node dissection, make a small skin incision, and guide part of the thoracic esophagus and stomach outside the body. Either one of the two lengths of polyester tape is connected to the gastric conduit. By pulling up this length of polyester tape from the neck, the gastric conduit can pass through the echo probe cover and be elevated to the neck. Results No perioperative complications such as bleeding or difficulty of the gastric conduit elevation were recognized with this method. Conclusions This method is considered to serve as a useful technique for gastric conduit elevation.

  14. Data in support of in vivo studies of silk based gold nano-composite conduits for functional peripheral nerve regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suradip Das

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present data article we report the in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility of fabricated nerve conduits described in Das et al. [1]. Green synthesised gold nanoparticles (GNPs were evaluated for their cytotoxicity in rat Schwann cells (SCTM41. We also describe herein the adhesion and proliferation of Schwann cells over the nanofibrous scaffolds. Methods describing surgical implantation of conduits in a rat sciatic nerve injury model, confirming its accurate implantation as well as the porosity and swelling tendency of the nerve conduits are illustrated in the various figures and graphs.

  15. Robot-Assisted Laparoscopic Partial Colpectomy and Intracorporeal Ileal Conduit Urinary Diversion (Bricker) for Cervical Adenocarcinoma Recurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzan, Jennifer; Cornou, Caroline; Bensaid, Chérazade; Audenet, François; Ngô, Charlotte; Bats, Anne-Sophie; Lecuru, Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    Ileal conduit urinary diversion (Bricker) is a standard surgical open procedure. The Da Vinci robot allowed precision for this surgical procedure, especially for intracorporeal suturing. Meanwhile, few reports of robot-assisted laparoscopic ileal conduit diversion (Bricker) are described in the literature. We report the case of a 69-year-old patient with a vaginal recurrence of cervical adenocarcinoma associated with vesicovaginal fistula treated by robot-assisted laparoscopic partial colpectomy and ileal conduit urinary diversion (Bricker). The robot-assisted laparoscopic procedure followed all surgical steps of the open procedure. Postoperative period was free of complications. PMID:26634161

  16. Co-Management Arrangements in Orthopedic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushnell, Brandon D

    2015-06-01

    A co-management arrangement (CMA) is a contractual relationship between physicians and a hospital that results in a shared-responsibility management structure for a specific service line. In orthopedic surgery, CMAs are becoming increasingly popular as stakeholders in the health care market seek increased value (ie, higher-quality care at lower costs). A CMA can significantly improve the efficiency and the outcomes of a musculoskeletal service line if it adheres to the basic principles of a focus on the patient, evidence-based decision-making, physician leadership, appropriate physician compensation, transparency, reasonable and modifiable goals, and accountability. While the specifics of each CMA will vary, all CMAs have common operational elements that include the arrangement's legal structure, legal compliance, leadership and reporting structure, facilities management, personnel management, clinical data management, financial data management, and quality and effectiveness reporting. PMID:26047000

  17. The characteristic quasi-polynomials of the arrangements of root systems and mid-hyperplane arrangements

    OpenAIRE

    Kamiya, Hidehiko; Takemura, Akimichi; Terao, Hiroaki

    2007-01-01

    Let $q$ be a positive integer. In our recent paper, we proved that the cardinality of the complement of an integral arrangement, after the modulo $q$ reduction, is a quasi-polynomial of $q$, which we call the characteristic quasi-polynomial. In this paper, we study general properties of the characteristic quasi-polynomial as well as discuss two important examples: the arrangements of reflecting hyperplanes arising from irreducible root systems and the mid-hyperplane arrangem...

  18. Financing energy projects: experience of the International Finance Corporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides an overview of the recent trend towards private ownership and financing of power projects in the developing countries, focusing on the role played by both private and public agencies in meeting the large financing challenges. The paper draws upon the operational experience of the International Finance Corporation, which has been involved in the financing of more than 30 private power projects in the developing countries over the past three decades. Among the issues that affect implementation of private power projects is the balancing of risk and reward to equity investors and to commercial lenders. The paper discusses the principal sources of risk and the strategies used to manage them. A related issue is the competition for capital on the international markets, and the techniques that are being devised to bring more finance to the power sector. Finally, the paper considers the role of government in bringing private investors to the power sector, and the approaches being adopted to balance the needs of investors with the needs of the public. (author)

  19. Algorithms for Optimally Arranging Multicore Memory Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Tseng Wei-Che; Hu Jingtong; Zhuge Qingfeng; He Yi; Sha EdwinH-M

    2010-01-01

    Abstract As more processing cores are added to embedded systems processors, the relationships between cores and memories have more influence on the energy consumption of the processor. In this paper, we conduct fundamental research to explore the effects of memory sharing on energy in a multicore processor. We study the Memory Arrangement (MA) Problem. We prove that the general case of MA is NP-complete. We present an optimal algorithm for solving linear MA and optimal and heuristic algorithm...

  20. Sleeping Arrangements in Families with Twins

    OpenAIRE

    Damato, Elizabeth G.; Brubaker, Jennifer A.; Burant, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes home sleeping arrangements used by parents of twins and investigates whether room sharing (twins in the same room as parents) or cobedding (crib-sharing between twins) influences parental night time sleep duration or sleep quality. A secondary analysis of data obtained from a longitudinal study of sleep in 104 families with twins was undertaken. Over 65% of twins were cobedded at 4 weeks; this decreased to approximately 42% by 13 weeks of age. Approximately 64% of familie...

  1. Arrangement for wear determination with radioactive isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The abrasion of radioactive labelled components of the engine is led together with the oil into a flowmeter tube that passes through a hole in a NaJ-crystal. A cooling jacket for thermal decoupling is arranged between the measuring line and the neighbouring area of the crystal. The cooling jacket is operated with water. A Pb-shielding covers the complete measuring head. (DG)

  2. Regional currency arrangements in North America

    OpenAIRE

    Arndt, Sven W.

    2006-01-01

    Choosing an exchange-rate regime is largely a matter of choosing the variables that will bear the brunt of adjustment to shocks and disturbances. Floating rates, supported by inflation-targeting regimes of varying degrees of transparency, have dominated currency arrangements in North America, especially after the peso crisis of 1994. Although the member countries have pursued their policy goals without formal coordination, their objectives have been very similar. Meanwhile, de facto integrati...

  3. Recurring part arrangements in shape collections

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Youyi

    2014-05-01

    Extracting semantically related parts across models remains challenging, especially without supervision. The common approach is to co-analyze a model collection, while assuming the existence of descriptive geometric features that can directly identify related parts. In the presence of large shape variations, common geometric features, however, are no longer sufficiently descriptive. In this paper, we explore an indirect top-down approach, where instead of part geometry, part arrangements extracted from each model are compared. The key observation is that while a direct comparison of part geometry can be ambiguous, part arrangements, being higher level structures, remain consistent, and hence can be used to discover latent commonalities among semantically related shapes. We show that our indirect analysis leads to the detection of recurring arrangements of parts, which are otherwise difficult to discover in a direct unsupervised setting. We evaluate our algorithm on ground truth datasets and report advantages over geometric similarity-based bottom-up co-segmentation algorithms. © 2014 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2014 The Eurographics Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Frequency Arrangement For 700 MHz Band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ancans G.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The 694-790 MHz (700 MHz band was allocated by the 2012 World Radiocommunication Conference (WRC-12 in ITU Region 1 (Europe included, to the mobile service on a co-primary basis with other services to which this band was allocated on the primary basis and identified for the International Mobile Telecommunications (IMT. At the same time, the countries of Region 1 will be able also to continue using these frequencies for their broadcasting services if necessary. This allocation will be effective immediately after 2015 World Radiocommunication Conference (WRC-15. In order to make the best possible use of this frequency band for mobile service, a worldwide harmonized frequency arrangement is to be prepared to allow for large economies of scale and international roaming as well as utilizing the available spectrum in the best possible way, minimizing possible interference between services, facilitating deployment and cross-border coordination. The authors analyze different possible frequency arrangements and conclude on the frequency arrangement most suitable for Europe.

  5. SABER-School Finance: Data Collection Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Elizabeth; Patrinos, Harry; Rogers, Halsey

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the SABER-school finance initiative is to collect, analyze and disseminate comparable data about education finance systems across countries. SABER-school finance assesses education finance systems along six policy goals: (i) ensuring basic conditions for learning; (ii) monitoring learning conditions and outcomes; (iii) overseeing…

  6. The international Finance Corporation and financing of sustainable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Finance Corporation (IFC), a member of the World Bank Group, is the largest multilateral source of loan and equity financing for private sector projects in the developing world. IFC participates in an investment only when it can make a special contribution that complements the role of market operators. Since its founding 40 years ago, IFC has provided more than $18.8 billion in financing for 1,706 companies in developing countries. Its share capital is provided by its 170 member countries, which collectively determine its policies and activities. Strong shareholder support and a substantial paid-in capital base have allowed IFC to raise funds for its lending activities through its triple-A rated bond issues in international financial markets. (orig.)

  7. TPX superconducting cable-in-conduit 1995 design and development progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A unique feature of the magnet system for the Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) is that all the magnets are superconducting. With the exception of the outer poloidal coils, the magnet system uses Nb3Sn cable-in-conduit conductor; the outer poloidal coils use Nb-Ti cable-in-conduit conductor. We describe the current TPX conductor design and present a progress report on the conductor development. Our strand development contracts have resulted in demonstrating that at least two vendors can produce Nb3Sn strand which meets the TPX specification. Subcable testing gives confidence that the TPX conductor will satisfy the magnet operational requirements. Fabrication of full-size conductors is underway and tests on these will give verification that the TPX conductor meets the operational requirements. Our industrial cabling and sheathing contract to produce demonstration conductor using copper strands is exploring a production technique that differs from the conventional tube mill approach

  8. Solving the flow fields in conduits and networks using energy minimization principle with simulated annealing

    CERN Document Server

    Sochi, Taha

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose and test an intuitive assumption that the pressure field in single conduits and networks of interconnected conduits adjusts itself to minimize the total energy consumption required for transporting a specific quantity of fluid. We test this assumption by using linear flow models of Newtonian fluids transported through rigid tubes and networks in conjunction with a simulated annealing (SA) protocol to minimize the total energy cost. All the results confirm our hypothesis as the SA algorithm produces very close results to those obtained from the traditional deterministic methods of identifying the flow fields by solving a set of simultaneous equations based on the conservation principles. The same results apply to electric ohmic conductors and networks of interconnected ohmic conductors. Computational experiments conducted in this regard confirm this extension. Further studies are required to test the energy minimization hypothesis for the non-linear flow systems.

  9. Crab burrows as conduits for groundwater-surface water exchange in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Mason O.; Tarek, M. H.; Yeo, Darren C. J.; Badruzzaman, A. B. M.; Harvey, Charles F.

    2014-12-01

    Groundwater recharge affects water budgets and groundwater quality on the deltas and floodplains of South and Southeast Asia. Rain and flooding rivers recharge groundwater during the monsoon; irrigated rice fields and surface water bodies recharge aquifers during the dry season. Groundwater throughout the region is severely contaminated by arsenic, and recent research suggests that quantifying and characterizing recharge is important to understand whether recharge flushes or mobilizes arsenic from aquifers. At a field site in Bangladesh, we found that burrows of terrestrial crabs short-circuit low-permeability surface sediments, providing the primary conduit for recharge. We combine field observations along with a model that couples isotope and water balances to quantify the effect of crab burrows on aquifer recharge. Given the wide distribution of burrowing crabs and the surficial geology, we suggest that crab burrows provide widespread conduits for groundwater recharge.

  10. In vitro biocompatibility testing of some synthetic polymers used for the achievement of nervous conduits

    OpenAIRE

    Mihai, R; Florescu, IP; Coroiu, V; A. Oancea; Lungu, M

    2011-01-01

    Biocompatible synthetic polymers are largely used in the bio–medical domain, tissue engineering and in controlled release of medicines. Polymers can be used in the achievement of cardiac and vascular devices, mammary implants, eye lenses, surgical threads, nervous conduits, adhesives, blood substitutes, etc. Our study was axed on the development of cytotoxicity tests for 3 synthetic polymers, namely polyvinyl alcohol, polyethylene glycol and polyvinyl chloride. These tests targeted to determi...

  11. Biosorption of Copper by a Bacterial Biofilm on a Flexible Polyvinyl Chloride Conduit

    OpenAIRE

    Fouad M. Qureshi; Badar, Uzma; Ahmed, Nuzhat

    2001-01-01

    Inexpensive technologies with less-than-optimal efficiencies as a strategy for countering economic restraints to pollution control have been evaluated by using a laboratory-scale biotreatment process for copper-containing effluent. Economizing measures include the use of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) cylinders fashioned from commercially available flexible PVC conduit to support a biofilm that was cultured in an inexpensive medium prepared in wastewater. The biofilm was challenged by aqueous coppe...

  12. 3D Printed Trileaflet Valve Conduits Using Biological Hydrogels and Human Valve Interstitial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Duan, Bin; Kapetanovic, Edi; Hockaday, Laura A.; Jonathan T. Butcher

    2013-01-01

    Tissue engineering has great potential to provide a functional de novo living valve replacement capable of integration with host tissue and growth. Among various valve conduit fabrication techniques, 3D bioprinting enables deposition of cells and hydrogels into 3D constructs with anatomical geometry and heterogeneous mechanical properties. Successful translation of this approach is however constrained by the dearth of printable and biocompatible hydrogel materials. Furthermore, it is not know...

  13. Submarine Cascais Canyon as a sediment conduit to the deep sea : comparison with adjacent slopes

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, A.M.; Mil-Homens, Mário; Lebreiro, Susana; Stigter De, H.; Richter, T.; Boer, Wim de; Trancoso, Maria Ascensão; Melo, Zenaida; Mouro, F.; Mateus, M.

    2009-01-01

    Submarine canyons are known to be important conduits that trap, accumulate and deliver both natural and anthropogenic sediments from the shelf to the deep sea. Ten multi-cores from the Cascais Canyon and from the neighbour slopes (off Estremadura and Sines) were dated by 21Opb methodologies and analyzed for texture, major and trace metals to evaluate the role of submarine canyons in the transport of anthropogenic metals to the abyssal plains. Higher accumulation mass rates were ...

  14. A method of gastric conduit elevation via the posterior mediastinal pathway in thoracoscopic subtotal esophagectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Hirahara Noriyuki; Yamamoto Tetsu; Tanaka Tsuneo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Despite efforts to improve surgical techniques, serious complications still sometimes occur. Use of a physiological posterior mediastinal pathway has increased given advances such as automated anastomotic devices and a reduction in the incidence of anastomotic sufficiency. Until now the gastric conduit created has been protected by an echo probe cover and, sown to the ventral side of polyester tape placed through the abdomen to the neck, and then blindly elevated to the ne...

  15. Effect of Surface Pore Structure of Nerve Guide Conduit on Peripheral Nerve Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, Se Heang; Kim, Jin Rae; Kwon, Gu Birm; Namgung, Uk; Song, Kyu Sang; Lee, Jin Ho

    2012-01-01

    Polycaprolactone (PCL)/Pluronic F127 nerve guide conduits (NGCs) with different surface pore structures (nano-porous inner surface vs. micro-porous inner surface) but similar physical and chemical properties were fabricated by rolling the opposite side of asymmetrically porous PCL/F127 membranes. The effect of the pore structure on peripheral nerve regeneration through the NGCs was investigated using a sciatic nerve defect model of rats. The nerve fibers and tissues were shown to have regener...

  16. Constraining Crustal Volatile Release in Magmatic Conduits by Synchrotron X-ray ?-CT

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Sylvia

    2011-01-01

    Magma-crust interaction in magma reservoirs and conduits is a crucial process during magma evolution and ascent. This interaction is recorded by crustal xenoliths that frequently show partial melting, inflation and disintegration textures. Frothy xenoliths are widespread in volcanic deposits from all types of geological settings and indicate crustal gas liberation. To unravel the observed phenomena of frothy xenolith formation we experimentally simulated the behaviour of crustal lithologies i...

  17. Response of Various Conduit Arteries in Tachycardia- and Volume Overload-Induced Heart Failure

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Xiao; Zhang, Zhen-Du; Guo, Xiaomei; Choy, Jenny Susana; Yang, Junrong; Svendsen, Mark; Kassab, Ghassan

    2014-01-01

    Although hemodynamics changes occur in heart failure (HF) and generally influence vascular function, it is not clear whether various HF models will affect the conduit vessels differentially or whether local hemodynamic forces or systemic factors are more important determinants of vascular response in HF. Here, we studied the hemodynamic changes in tachycardia or volume-overload HF swine model (created by either high rate pacing or distal abdominal aortic-vena cava fistula, respectively) on ca...

  18. Endothelial barrier dysfunction in diabetic conduit arteries: a novel method to quantify filtration

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Xiao; Huxley, Virginia H; Kassab, Ghassan S.

    2012-01-01

    The endothelial barrier plays an important role in atherosclerosis, hyperglycemia, and hypercholesterolemia. In the present study, an accurate, reproducible, and user-friendly method was used to further understand endothelial barrier function of conduit arteries. An isovolumic method was used to measure the hydraulic conductivity (Lp) of the intact vessel wall and medial-adventitial layer. Normal arterial segments with diameters from 0.2 to 5.5 mm were used to validate the method, and femoral...

  19. Role of lymphatic vessels in tumor immunity: passive conduits or active participants?

    OpenAIRE

    Lund, Amanda W.; Swartz, M A

    2010-01-01

    Research in lymphatic biology and cancer immunology may soon intersect as emerging evidence implicates the lymphatics in the progression of chronic inflammation and autoimmunity as well as in tumor metastasis and immune escape. Like the blood vasculature, the lymphatic system comprises a highly dynamic conduit system that regulates fluid homeostasis, antigen transport and immune cell trafficking, which all play important roles in the progression and resolution of inflammation, autoimmune dise...

  20. Recurrent cervical esophageal stenosis after colon conduit failure: Use of myocutaneous flap

    OpenAIRE

    Young Jo Sa; Young Du Kim; Chi Kyung Kim; Jong Kyung Park; Seok Whan Moon

    2013-01-01

    A 53-year-old male developed cervical esophageal stenosis after esophageal bypass surgery using a right colon conduit. The esophageal bypass surgery was performed to treat multiple esophageal strictures resulting from corrosive ingestion three years prior to presentation. Although the patient underwent several endoscopic stricture dilatations after surgery, he continued to suffer from recurrent esophageal stenosis. We planned cervical patch esophagoplasty with a pedicled skin flap of sternocl...

  1. Preliminary Experience with GORE-TEX® Grafting for Right Ventricle-Pulmonary Artery Conduits

    OpenAIRE

    Molina, J Ernesto

    1986-01-01

    A consecutive series of 12 patients between the ages of 6½ and 37 years underwent implantation of venous ventricle-pulmonary artery conduits. GORE-TEX material without prosthetic valves was used. Four patients had L-transposition of the great vessels with ventricular septal defect (VSD) and pulmonary stenosis; four had tetralogy of Fallot with pulmonary atresia; and one had double outlet right ventricle, pulmonary stenosis, and a complete form of A-V canal. Two patients had D-transposition of...

  2. External financing during a company's life cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Rautanen, Jani

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to give an insight into a company’s external financing tools during its life cycle. There have been wide discussions on the financing situations of businesses all around the world and the tightening economical situation has had a major impact on the financing tools. This study examines the potential financing tools through the company’s life cycle. This study reviews the current financing situation of companies in Finland. The theoretical segment focuses to ...

  3. Financing Asset Sales and Business Cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Puhan, Tatjana-Xenia; Arnold, Marc; Hackbarth, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the decision of firms to sell assets to fund investments (financing asset sales). For a sample of U.S. manufacturing firms during the 1971-2010 period, we document new stylized facts about financing asset sales that cannot be explained by traditional motives for selling assets, such as financial distress or financing constraints. Using a structural model of financing, investment, and macroeconomic risk, we show that financing asset sales attenuate the debt overhang problem...

  4. The managerial process of business financing

    OpenAIRE

    Solomia Andres

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents some modalities and financing forces for business, getting out in the first place the entrepreneur ingenuity for finding these sources of financing necessary for the business success. Also get some contributions and proposals regarding the criteria’s of which the entrepreneur must be take care in choosing the financial sources, for preparing the finance pack and presenting the financing demands, which good documented, not only grows up the chances of one financing but also...

  5. Recent Developments in Quantitative Finance: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Chia-lin; Hu, Shing-Yang; Yu, Shih-Ti

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative finance combines mathematical finance, financial statistics, financial econometrics and empirical finance to provide a solid quantitative foundation for the analysis of financial issues. The purpose of this special issue on “Recent developments in quantitative finance” is to highlight some areas of research in which novel methods in quantitative finance have contributed significantly to the analysis of financial issues, specifically fast methods for large-scale non-elliptical por...

  6. Cardiovascular effects of right ventricle-pulmonary artery valved conduit implantation in experimental pulmonic stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Right ventricle (RV)-pulmonary artery (PA) valved conduit (RPVC) implantation decreases RV systolic pressure in pulmonic stenosis (PS) by forming a bypass route between the RV and the PA. The present study evaluates valved conduits derived from canine aortae in a canine model of PS produced by pulmonary artery banding (PAB). Pulmonary stenosis was elicited using PAB in 10 conditioned beagles aged 8 months. Twelve weeks after PAB, the dogs were assigned to one group that did not undergo surgical intervention and another that underwent RPVC using denacol-treated canine aortic valved grafts (PAB+RPVC). Twelve weeks later, the rate of change in the RV-PA systolic pressure gradient was significantly decreased in the PAB+RPVC, compared with the PAB group (60.5+-16.7% vs. 108.9+-22.9%; p0.01). In addition, the end-diastolic RV free wall thickness (RVFWd) was significantly reduced in the PAB+RPVC, compared with the PAB group (8.2+-0.2 vs. 9.4+-0.7 mm; p0.05). Thereafter, regurgitation was not evident beyond the conduit valve and the decrease in RV pressure overload induced by RPVC was confirmed. The present results indicate that RPVC can be performed under a beating heart without cardiopulmonary bypass and adapted to dogs with various types of PS, including 'supra valvular' PS or PS accompanied by dysplasia of the pulmonary valve. Therefore, we consider that this method is useful for treating PS in small animals

  7. Continent catheterizable conduit for urinary diversion in children: Applicability and acceptability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailesh Solanki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Continent catheterizable conduit (CCC has made clean intermittent catheterization (CIC painless and easy. It is applicable in diverse clinical conditions. Nonetheless, convincing the parents for the need of conduit procedure is still difficult. Materials and Methods: A prospective study, included children who underwent CCC procedure from March 2008 to February 2013. The data were assessed for; diagnosis, type of conduit, number of preoperative counselling sessions before acceptance, role of "self-help group" in decision making, parental concern and satisfaction for the procedure. Results: Twenty-nine patients (males; 24, females; 5 underwent CCC procedure for various clinical conditions. The multiple preoperative counselling sessions and creation of "self-help groups" were helped them for decision making. The main concerns among parents were: (1 Impact of procedure on future fertility and sexual life. (2 Patency of native urethral channel. (3 Permanent urinary stoma over the abdomen. Conclusion: CCC procedures are applicable to a wide array of clinical situations with a good outcome. The acceptability of the CCC procedure improves with preoperative counselling of parent/child, initiation of preoperative per urethral CIC and creation of self-help groups.

  8. Non-Newtonian rheology of bubble-bearing magmas: effects on conduit dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colucci, Simone; Papale, Paolo; Montagna, Chiara

    2015-04-01

    Non-Newtonian rheology typically arises in magmas from the presence of a dispersed phase. In particular bubbles can reduce or increase the relative viscosity, depending on size and strain regime (i.e., capillary number), for example large bubbles, as well as low strain, reduce the apparent viscosity. In a Non-Newtonian regime it is not possible to define a strain-rate-independent viscosity and the velocity profile is complex. In this work we extended the 1D, steady, isothermal, multiphase non-homogeneous magma ascent model of Papale (2001) to 1.5D to include the Non-Newtonian effect of a bubble-bearing magma. The model has been tested with a basaltic test case. In this way we were able to calculate depth-dependent Non-newtonian velocity profiles across the conduit radius along with shear strain-rate and viscosity distributions. Moreover, the model could quantify the effects of the Non-Newtonian rheology on conduit flow dynamics, in terms of flow variables (e.g. velocity, pressure). P. Papale (2001). Dynamics of magma flow in volcanic conduits with variable fragmentation efficiency and nonequilibrium pumice degassing. JGR, 106, 11043-11065.

  9. 75 FR 44982 - Arkansas Valley Conduit (AVC) and Long-Term Excess Capacity Master Contract, Fryingpan-Arkansas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-30

    ...Arkansas Valley Conduit (AVC) and Long-Term Excess Capacity Master Contract, Fryingpan-Arkansas Project (Fry-Ark...associated with the Excess Capacity Master Contract is to issue a long-term contract to Southeastern for storage of...

  10. Off-balance-sheet financing can generate capital for strategic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campobasso, F D

    2000-06-01

    To manage their real estate portfolios effectively and obtain funding for strategic development, IDSs should consider adopting off-balance-sheet financing strategies, such as sale-and-leaseback transactions, synthetic leases, and joint-venture arrangements. Under these approaches, real estate assets are moved off of the organization's balance sheet via a partial or complete transfer of ownership to a third-party entity. The organization typically retains a satisfactory degree of control over the assets as lessee in sale-and-leaseback and synthetic-lease arrangements, or limited or minority partner in a joint venture, while freeing up cash to use for other strategic purposes. PMID:11010180

  11. The Financing of Innovative Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronwyn H. Hall

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available To what extent are new and/or innovative firms fundamentally different from established firms, and therefore require a different form of financing? The theoretical background for this proposition is presented, and the empirical evidence on its importance is reviewed. Owing to the intangible nature of their investment, asymmetric-information and moral-hazard, these firms are more likely to be financed by equity than debt and behave in some cases as though they are cash-constrained, especially if they are small. Recognizing the role for public policy in this area, many countries have implemented specific policies to bring the cost of financing innovation more in line with the level that would prevail in the absence of market failures.

  12. Conduit fragmentation, cave patterns, and the localization of karst ground water basins: the Appalachians as a test case

    OpenAIRE

    White, W. B.; White, E.L.

    2003-01-01

    Because conduit systems in maturely developed karst aquifers have a low hydraulic resistance, aquifers drain easily and karst aquifers are subdivided into well-defined ground water basins. Ground water elevations are highest at basin boundaries; lowest at the spring where the ground water is discharged. Parameters that control the type of conduit development are (1) the effective hydraulic gradient, (2) the focus of the drainage basin, and (3) the karstifiability of the bedrock. Moderate to h...

  13. Minimum Energy Requirements in Complex Distillation Arrangements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halvorsen, Ivar J.

    2001-07-01

    Distillation is the most widely used industrial separation technology and distillation units are responsible for a significant part of the total heat consumption in the world's process industry. In this work we focus on directly (fully thermally) coupled column arrangements for separation of multicomponent mixtures. These systems are also denoted Petlyuk arrangements, where a particular implementation is the dividing wall column. Energy savings in the range of 20-40% have been reported with ternary feed mixtures. In addition to energy savings, such integrated units have also a potential for reduced capital cost, making them extra attractive. However, the industrial use has been limited, and difficulties in design and control have been reported as the main reasons. Minimum energy results have only been available for ternary feed mixtures and sharp product splits. This motivates further research in this area, and this thesis will hopefully give some contributions to better understanding of complex column systems. In the first part we derive the general analytic solution for minimum energy consumption in directly coupled columns for a multicomponent feed and any number of products. To our knowledge, this is a new contribution in the field. The basic assumptions are constant relative volatility, constant pressure and constant molar flows and the derivation is based on Underwood's classical methods. An important conclusion is that the minimum energy consumption in a complex directly integrated multi-product arrangement is the same as for the most difficult split between any pair of the specified products when we consider the performance of a conventional two-product column. We also present the Vmin-diagram, which is a simple graphical tool for visualisation of minimum energy related to feed distribution. The Vmin-diagram provides a simple mean to assess the detailed flow requirements for all parts of a complex directly coupled arrangement. The main purpose in the first part of the thesis has been to present a complete theory of minimum energy in directly coupled columns, not a design procedure for engineering purposes. Thus, our focus has been on the basic theory and on verification and analysis of the new results. However, based on these results, it is straightforward to develop design procedures including rigorous computations for real feed mixtures without the idealized assumptions used to deduce the analytic results. In part 2 we focus on optimization of operation, and in particular the concept of self-optimizing control. We consider a process where we have more degrees of freedom than are consumed by the product specifications. The remaining unconstrained degrees of freedom are used to optimize the operation, given by some scalar cost criterion. In addition there will in practice always be unknown disturbances, model uncertainty and uncertainty in measurements and implementation of manipulated inputs, which makes it impossible to precalculate and implement the optimal control inputs accurately. The main idea is to achieve self-optimizing control by turning the optimization problem into a constant setpoint problem. The issue is then to find (if possible) a set of variables, which when kept at their setpoints, indirectly ensures optimal operation. We have used the ternary Petlyuk arrangement to illustrate the concept. It is a quite challenging case where the potential energy savings may easily be lost if we do not manage to keep the manipulated inputs at their optimal values, and the optimum is strongly affected by changes in feed composition and column performance. This also applies to the best control structure selection, and we believe that the reported difficulties in control are really a control structure problem (the task of selecting the best variables to control and the best variables to manipulate). In this analysis we present in detail the properties of the Petlyuk arrangement, and show how important characteristics depend on the feed properties and product purity. We have used finite stage-by-stage mod

  14. Project finance for renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is intended to provide general advice to sponsors of renewable energy projects who expect to raise project-based financing from commercial banks to fund the development of their projects. It sets out, for the benefit of such sponsors, how bankers typically approach the analysis of these undertakings and in particular the risk areas on which they concentrate. By doing so it should assist sponsors to maximize their prospects of raising bank finance. The watchword for sponsors approaching banks must be ''Be Prepared'' . (author)

  15. DOES MARKETING RELATE TO FINANCE? – “MARKETING IS FINANCE?” THEORETICAL PERCEPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Fetahu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As market develops and grows continuously and internationalizes, the confusion among companies increases regarding their orientation of the business. They find it each day more difficult to grab new shares in the market, to capture and gain new customers, to hold their clientele, to increase continuously their customers’ satisfaction, to position properly in the market and to face competition, as well as to answer to the spontaneity of the market evolution.  This tells for an increasing role of marketing in the companies’ organization, and of course in their performance and profitability. Even this necessity, the top management and other departments, but especially the finance ones are often debating on the marketing role and its contribution in the overall profit of the company, as marketing is very much oriented and familiar with performance indicators rather than financial results and profit in itself. There are views recently which emphasize that marketing is finance too, as it completes the value chain and realizes indirectly all the company’s targets. To this logic it has become necessary to measure its performance not only using marketing KPI (Key Performance Indicator but financial metrics too. The study aims to show the reasons why marketing and finance are closely related and why “marketing is finance”. This is a deduction-induction-deduction theoretical review and treatment of the question, based on some facts and arguments both, from the world wide experience, as well as from Albanian reality of business and marketing.

  16. Discretely monitored tenor varying exchange arrangements

    OpenAIRE

    Tanpradist, Tanapan

    2006-01-01

    Our subject area of research is Mathematical Finance. In this thesis, we price a novel form of barrier structure which is closely related to a swaption having a continuous time log-normal model, which is the underlying dynamic of the asset, a forward par swap rate. The new feature is where the barrier is monitored before and during the swap period. It is called ”Tenor Varying Barrier Swaption”. It means that even though the exercise date of the swaption is fixed at time t0, the...

  17. Chromosomal arrangement of leghemoglobin genes in soybean.

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, J.S.; Brown, G G; Verma, D P

    1983-01-01

    A cluster of four different leghemoglobin (Lb) genes was isolated from AluI-HaeIII and EcoRI genomic libraries of soybean in a set of overlapping clones which together include 45 kilobases (kb) of contiguous DNA. These four genes, including a pseudogene, are present in the same orientation and are arranged in the order: 5'-Lba-Lbc1-Lb psi-Lbc3-3'. The intergenic regions average 2.5 kb. In addition to this main Lb locus, there are other Lb genes which do not appear to be contiguous to this loc...

  18. Independent contractor arrangements and IRS audits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelfrey, S; Theisen, B A

    1995-01-01

    As government auditors begin their challenges, nurse executives need to review their operations to remove any potential audit risks. Although a common practice for many institutions, the use of independent contractor arrangements may be ruled inappropriate. As a result, many individuals may be reclassified as employees, leading to Internal Revenue Service (IRS) assessments of penalties and back payroll taxes. It always is prudent to anticipate IRS actions and shore up any areas that may lead to tax assessments before they are imposed on the institution. PMID:7636578

  19. Ventricular torsional relation to ventricular fiber arrangement

    CERN Document Server

    Ranjbar, Saeed; Meybodi, Mahmood Emami

    2014-01-01

    Left ventricular torsion from helically oriented myofibers is a key parameter of cardiac performance. Physicians observing heart motion on echocardiograms, during cardiac catheterization, or in the operating room, are impressed by the twisting or rotary motion of the left ventricle during systole. Conceptually, the heart has been treated as a pressure chamber. The rotary or torsional deformation has been poorly understood by basic scientists and has lacked clinical relevance. The aim of this paper attempts to discuss about this question: Is ventricular twisting related to ventricular fiber arrangement? That is dependent to an assumed model of the left ventricular structure.

  20. A regional arrangement proposal for the UNASUR

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fernando, Ferrari-Filho.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the current process of economic integration in South America. Thus, concentrating our attention on the UNASUR regional integration process, two questions arise: First, is UNASUR the most viable institution to achieve a consistent economic integration process in South America? Se [...] cond, what model of economic integration should be adopted in the case of UNASUR, which would ensure macroeconomic stability and avoid financial and exchange rate crises in the South America? To answer these questions, the article proposes, based on the Keynes (1944/1980)'s revolutionary analysis presented in his International Clearing Union, during the Bretton Woods Conference in 1944, a regional arrangement to UNASUR.

  1. Rational homotopy type of subspace arrangements

    OpenAIRE

    Debongnie, Géry

    2008-01-01

    Un arrangement central A est un ensemble fini de sous-espaces vectoriels dans un espace vectoriel complexe V de dimension finie. L'espace topologique complémentaire M(A) est l'ensemble des points de V qui n'appartiennent à aucun des sous-espaces de A. Dans ce travail, nous étudions la topologie de l'espace M(A) du point de vue de l'homotopie rationnelle. L'outil clé qui a servi de départ à cette thèse est un modèle rationnel de M(A) qui s'avère relativement simple à manipuler. À l'aide de ce ...

  2. Hospitals, nursing homes turn to 3rd-party financing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaff, J.

    1982-07-05

    Experience is teaching the administrators of hospitals and nursing homes how to make better arrangements for third-party financing of energy-management systems. Accustomed to health-insurance reimbursement for health-care costs, hospitals have lacked incentives for conservation. Plans now used most by hospitals and health-care facilities involve third-party arrangements where: (1) an equipment vendor installs equipment and takes a share of the energy-cost savings; or (2) energy-services firms both install capital-intensive equipment and implement a variety of low-cost conservation measures, again for a percentage of the savings. Although most users think these arrangements are satisfactory, they advise a preliminary low-cost audit and participation in a basic energy-management seminar before employing an energy-services firm. Accurate baseline energy-consumption data should be developed in order to evaluate results, and assurance is needed that staff members understand the accounting formulas. Also recommended are independent audits after installation and attention to the legal clauses in contracts. (DCK)

  3. 24 CFR 3500.15 - Affiliated business arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...the charge using the same terminology, as far as practical...follows: § 3500.15 Controlled business arrangements...disclosure, in the format of the Controlled Business Arrangement Disclosure...charges (using the same terminology, as far as practical,...

  4. 20 CFR 725.705 - Arrangements for medical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Arrangements for medical care. 725.705 Section 725...SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT, AS AMENDED Medical Benefits and Vocational Rehabilitation § 725.705 Arrangements for medical care. (a) Operator...

  5. 33 CFR 157.11 - Pumping, piping and discharge arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 false Pumping, piping and discharge arrangements. 157...Installation § 157.11 Pumping, piping and discharge arrangements. (a) Each tank vessel must have a fixed piping system for transferring oily...

  6. Strategic Information Systems Arrangement: (Business Strategy of IS/IT Arrangement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhraddinmaroofi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is Strategic Information Systems Arrangement using information systems requires an understanding of the organization, management and the technology forming the systems. As the technology is developing extremely so are the opportunities to prepare the organization in the competitive advantage environment. In order to manage the IS/IT based systems; it is important to have a suitable strategy that defines the systems and provide to manage them. Strategic Information Systems Arrangement (SISA is an effective method of developing and protection the IS/IT systems that support the business functioning. Arrangement of the IS/IT plans and the business plans is essential for improved business discharges, this research looks at the essential element of SISA in the changing business circumstances in Iran.

  7. Institutional arrangements for municipal solid waste combustion projects

    OpenAIRE

    Kleiss, Torsten

    2008-01-01

    Die Arbeit analysiert verschiedene institutionelle Arrangements zur Bereitstellung von Siedlungsabfallverbrennungsanlagen zwischen Hierarchie und Markt auf Basis theoretischer und empirischer Untersuchungen.

  8. Arrangements stable under the Coxeter groups

    CERN Document Server

    Kamiya, Hidehiko; Terao, Hiroaki

    2011-01-01

    Let B be a real hyperplane arrangement which is stable under the action of a Coxeter group W. Then B acts naturally on the set of chambers of B. We assume that B is disjoint from the Coxeter arrangement A=A(W) of W. In this paper, we show that the W-orbits of the set of chambers of B are in one-to-one correspondence with the chambers of C=A\\cup B which are contained in an arbitrarily fixed chamber of A. From this fact, we find that the number of W-orbits of the set of chambers of B is given by the number of chambers of C divided by the order of W. We will also study the set of chambers of C which are contained in a chamber b of B. We prove that the cardinality of this set is equal to the order of the isotropy subgroup W_b of b. We illustrate these results with some examples, and solve an open problem in Kamiya, Takemura and Terao [Ranking patterns of unfolding models of codimension one, Adv. in Appl. Math. (2010)] by using our results.

  9. Guideposts for Low Carbon Finance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author proposes four guideposts for efficient low carbon finance: remove subsidies for high-carbon technologies, improve the cost-effectiveness of low-carbon subsidies, encourage private sector innovation and maintain transparent public policy tools that support cost-benefit accounting

  10. California's New School Finance Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindman, Erick L.

    Following a touch-and-go struggle in the California legislature, a school finance reform law, known as the Property Tax Relief Act of 1972, was passed. The contents of this act were affected in part by the California Supreme Court decision--Serrano vs Priest. The new law includes boosts in foundation programs, expressed in dollar amounts per pupil…

  11. Financing of wind energy projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper looks at what banks need to know to enable them to consider a wind energy project. The major experiences of banks in financing wind energy have been in the US where governmentally inspired long term sales contracts (PURPA Contracts) have given a security to sponsors and banks not available elsewhere. (Author)

  12. Off-Balance Sheet Financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Matthew C.

    1998-01-01

    Examines off-balance sheet financing, the facilities use of outsourcing for selected needs, as a means of saving operational costs and using facility assets efficiently. Examples of using outside sources for energy supply and food services, as well as partnering with business for facility expansion are provided. Concluding comments address tax…

  13. Emergency response arrangements for the Pacific Nuclear Transport Fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whilst the likelihood of an incident occurring during the transportation of radioactive material is very small and the safety arrangements are extensive, any organisation involved should ensure that comprehensive emergency management arrangements are in place. Details of the particular emergency response arrangements adopted for the Pacific Nuclear Transport Limited (PNTL) Fleet are covered by this paper. (author)

  14. 14 CFR 23.477 - Landing gear arrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Landing gear arrangement. 23.477 Section 23....477 Landing gear arrangement. Sections 23.479 through 23.483, or the conditions in appendix C, apply to airplanes with conventional arrangements of main and nose gear, or main and tail gear....

  15. 14 CFR 25.477 - Landing gear arrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Landing gear arrangement. 25.477 Section 25... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads § 25.477 Landing gear arrangement. Sections 25.479 through 25.485 apply to airplanes with conventional arrangements of main and nose gears,...

  16. Impact of pacing modality and biventricular pacing on cardiac output and coronary conduit flow in the post-cardiotomy patient.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Healy, David G

    2012-02-03

    We have previously demonstrated the role of univentricular pacing modalities in influencing coronary conduit flow in the immediate post-operative period in the cardiac surgery patient. We wanted to determine the mechanism of this improved coronary conduit and, in addition, to explore the possible benefits with biventricular pacing. Sixteen patients undergoing first time elective coronary artery bypass grafting who required pacing following surgery were recruited. Comparison of cardiac output and coronary conduit flow was performed between VVI and DDD pacing with a single right ventricular lead and biventricular pacing lead placement. Cardiac output was measured using arterial pulse waveform analysis while conduit flow was measured using ultrasonic transit time methodology. Cardiac output was greatest with DDD pacing using right ventricular lead placement only [DDD-univentricular 5.42 l (0.7), DDD-biventricular 5.33 l (0.8), VVI-univentricular 4.71 l (0.8), VVI-biventricular 4.68 l (0.6)]. DDD-univentricular pacing was significantly better than VVI-univentricular (P=0.023) and VVI-biventricular pacing (P=0.001) but there was no significant advantage to DDD-biventricular pacing (P=0.45). In relation to coronary conduit flow, DDD pacing again had the highest flow [DDD-univentricular 55 ml\\/min (24), DDD-biventricular 52 ml\\/min (25), VVI-univentricular 47 ml\\/min (23), VVI-biventricular 50 ml\\/min (26)]. DDD-univentricular pacing was significantly better than VVI-univentricular (P=0.006) pacing but not significantly different to VVI-biventricular pacing (P=0.109) or DDD-biventricular pacing (P=0.171). Pacing with a DDD modality offers the optimal coronary conduit flow by maximising cardiac output. Biventricular lead placement offered no significant benefit to coronary conduit flow or cardiac output.

  17. Mechanical properties and permeability of porous chitosan-poly(p-dioxanone)/silk fibroin conduits used for peripheral nerve repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hua; Zhang, Jun; Luo, Ying; Wan, Ying; Sun, Shaofa

    2015-10-01

    Some poly(p-dioxanone) (PDO) homopolymers were first synthesized and the selected PDO was conjugated onto chitosan using a group-protecting method to produce chitosan-poly(p-dioxanone) (CH-PDO) copolymers with various PDO percentages changing from around 30 to 60wt%. The CH-PDO with the PDO content of around 42wt% was used to blend with prescribed amounts of silk fibroin (SF) to build porous single-lumen conduits that are intended to be used for long-gap peripheral nerve repair. Some genipin-crosslinked CH-PDO/SF conduits were endowed with an average porosity of around 60% in their porous wall, and with changed pore-sizes varying from around 10 to ca. 70?m using optimized processing conditions. After being degraded in a PBS medium containing a certain amount of lysozyme for various periods up to 8 weeks, some optimal CH-PDO/SF conduits were able to retain their compressive load and deformation recovery at around 59N/m and 73% in wet state, respectively. In addition, the achieved CH-PDO/SF conduits allowed the permeation of nutritional molecules with various molecular weights while showing a certain ability to prevent cells from infiltrating through the conduit wall. Cell culture confirmed that the optimized CH-PDO/SF conduits were able well supported the growth of rat glioma C6 cells. These results suggest that presently developed CH-PDO/SF conduits have promising potential for long-gap peripheral nerve repair. PMID:26143352

  18. The International Finance Corporation and financing of sustainable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The International Finance Corporation (IFC), a member of the World Bank Group, is the largest multilateral source of loan and equity financing for private sector projects in the developing world. IFC participates in an investment only when it can make a special contribution that complements the role of market operators. Since its founding 40 years ago, IFC has provided more than $18.8 billion in financing for 1,706 companies in developing countries. Its share capital is provided by its 170 member countries, which collectively determine its policies and activities. Strong shareholder support and a substantial paid-in capital base have allowed IFC to raise funds for its lending activities through its triple-A rated bond issues in international financial markets. IFC created an Infrastructure Department in 1992 in response to the growing demand for its services in this area. During fiscal 1996 IFC approved 33 projects for new investments of $715 million of which 27% were in the power sector. In recognition of the continuing demand growth for private power investments an expanded Power Department has been formed to handle IFC`s investments in electric power generation projects using renewable resources such as: run-of-the-river hydro, geothermal, biomass cogeneration, wind energy, and solar (photovoltaic, solar thermal, etc.), as well as conventional thermal generation projects, transmission and distribution projects, and energy efficiency investments.

  19. Finance and Accounting; a comprehensive introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, ewoud

    2005-01-01

    Finance and accounting behandelt in een boek de essentiele aspecten van drie disciplines: financieel management, management accounting en financial accounting. Dit maakt Finance and accounting tot een breed en waardevol engelstalig naslagwerk.

  20. THE PROBLEM OF FINANCING INNOVATION OF ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Ildyakov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the main issues related to financing innovation in enterprises. The author proves the problem of financing innovation as a key deterrent to the innovative development of Russian enterprises.

  1. 7 CFR 3560.570 - Construction financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Construction financing. 3560.570 Section 3560.570...Housing § 3560.570 Construction financing. The requirements established in...following requirements apply. (a) Equity contributions being made by a...

  2. Tendons Arrangement Effects on Reinforced Concrete Frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayad B. Bahnam

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available  The tendons arrangement effects on the response of reinforced concrete frame experiencing blast loads is investigated in this paper. The structure is modeled using nonlinear finite elements employing a bilinear hysteretic model. So that elements are used so that yielding of the structures could be accurately modeled and captured. The frame is analyzed using a non-linear, elastic-plastic finite element program written in code MATLAB. Six tendon architectures were investigated. A single tendon was placed between different floors and its effects investigated. From the obtained results, the ideal case which causes a reduction in the maximum displacement and the amount of permanent deflection without increase in the maximum structural shear forces greatly is obtained.

  3. IFMIF-cells. Layout, arrangement, improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mittwollen, M.; Madzharov, V.; Kubaschewski, M.; Eilert, D.; Tian, K. [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Foerdertechnik und Logistiksysteme (IFL)

    2012-11-01

    After analyzing the maintenance period of IFMIF, characteristic flow of specimen was designed, components to be moved were separated in light and heavy parts. Considering an existing referential plant layout a first principal layout and arrangement of cells was created, followed by an according technical design. The design had to be ''compact'' and thus some complicated design solutions occured, resulting in limited speed and limited reliability. After been given free as a result of deliberation with IFMIF Project Team, improvement of the design was enabled. The chance was taken and cells were rearranged in a sense of getting simpler solutions accompanied by higher speed as well as higher reliability. (orig.)

  4. NRC Information No. 90-23: Improper installation of Patel conduit seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On November 6, 1989, the staff at the H.B. Robinson plant notified the NRC that they had discovered that some of the conduit seal grommets used to seal insulated wire conductors entering environmentally qualified instrument housings were oversized for the application. The seals are used to prevent moisture from entering safety-related electrical components following loss-of-coolant accidents. The problem was attributed to inadequate installation instructions that were used when the seals were installed in 1986 and 1987. These instructions listed the grommets by wire gauge size and gave maximum wire insulation diameters for each wire size. In accordance with these instructions, the seals were selected based on wire gauge alone. However, since the insulation thickness for a given wire gauge the correct grommet size would have been the minimum wire insulation diameter for which a particular grommet will achieve an effective seal. The selection of grommet size based only on wire gauge size resulted in the installation of some grommets that were too large to provide an effective seal. As a result, some of the seals failed pressure tests that were designed to simulate post-LOCA pressures. During the investigation of the grommet leakage problem, the Robinson staff also checked the torque on the conduit seal union nuts that are used to compress the seals. EGS Corporation recommends that the union nuts be torqued to 50 ft-lb. On approximately half of the 90 seals inspected, the union nut moved about 1/4 inch when this torque was applied. EGS Corporation reports that 1/4 inch of movement does not necessarily indicate a degraded seal but recommends that the correct torque be verified on a representative sample of installed conduit seals

  5. Troubles des conduites alimentaires et tempérament cyclothymique: étude transversale à propos de 107 étudiants Tunisiens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaweher, Masmoudi; Sonda, Trabelsi; Uta, Ouali; Inès, Feki; Rim, Sallemi; Imene, Baati; Abdelaziz, Jaoua

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Les objectifs de notre étude ont été d'estimer la prévalence des troubles des conduites alimentaires (TCA) chez les jeunes tunisiens et étudier la relation entre le tempérament cyclothymique et les TCA. Méthodes Nous avons ainsi mené une étude transversale descriptive et analytique. Elle a concerné 107 étudiants de l'Institut de Presse et des Sciences de l'Information de la Manouba, Tunisie. Pour l’évaluation des TCA, nous avons procédé par la passation de l'auto questionnaire EAT 40, dans sa version validée en Tunisie. C'est l'outil le plus utilisé pour le dépistage des TCA dans le monde. Pour l’évaluation du tempérament cyclothymique, nous avons utilisé le TEMPS A dans sa version arabe validée. Une fiche épidémiologique associée a permis de recueillir quelques facteurs sociodémographiques et hygiéno-diététiques. Résultats La prévalence des troubles de conduites alimentaires a été de 24,3%. Le pourcentage des étudiants ayant un score de tempérament cyclothymique ?14 a été de 37,4%. Une association a été trouvée entre les troubles de conduites alimentaires et le tempérament affectif cyclothymique que ce soit selon l'approche dimensionnelle (p=0,005) ou selon celle catégorielle (p=0,046). Le tempérament cyclothymique multiplie par deux le risque de développer un TCA chez les étudiants de sexe féminin (p=0,04). Conclusion Es TCA sont fréquents chez nos étudiants particulièrement de sexe féminin. De plus, la présence d'un tempérament cyclothymique associé permettrait de suspecter doublement une appartenance au spectre bipolaire et devrait conduire à une attention particulière de la part du clinicien pour définir au mieux les stratégies thérapeutiques. PMID:25404977

  6. Financing power projects in emerging markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Financing for power generation projects in the developing countries of the world has been provided by the United States Export-Import Bank. The loans provided by its new Project Finance Division, totalling $8.3 billion are described. The future of project financing for the power generation industry should, it is argued, rest not with government financing agencies, but with private sector financial markets. (UK)

  7. Multiple-Project Financing with Informed Trading

    OpenAIRE

    Cantale, Salvatore; Lukin, Dmitry

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents an adverse selection-based explanation of the fact that some entrepreneurs choose to finance multiple projects together by issuing a single security and other entrepreneurs decide to finance each project separately. We consider the financing problem of an entrepreneur who has access to two investment projects and needs to raise external financing to undertake these projects in the presence of asymmetric information. The entrepreneur has private information about the quality...

  8. Does PLS financing solve asymmetric information problems?

    OpenAIRE

    Yousfi, Ouidad

    2013-01-01

    Discussion of Islamic private equity (PE) financing modes rarely provides detailed analytical insights into their properties: there is no rigorous analysis of their features. The current paper analyzes how and when Profit Loss Sharing (PLS) financing methods can solve asymmetric information problems. I focus on Mudarabah and Musharakah financing schemes and consider agency models under moral hazard. The model shows some interesting results. First, I show that Mudarabah financing provide power...

  9. Mortgage Finance and Security of Collateral

    OpenAIRE

    Haldrup, Karin

    2011-01-01

    Developing economies face a gigantic lack of financing for urbanization due to the absence of formal and transparent property markets. The paper discuss the interference between mortgage finance and collateral security by using the Danish mortgage financing model as an example, because of its 200 years long history, and because the system is recommended as an option in emerging markets and as a possible model for remedying failures in mature housing finance markets. It is suggested that devel...

  10. Education Financing of Rural Households in China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hua-shu; Moll, Henk

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to examine children’s education financing alternatives among households in rural China. Data on education financing was from a household survey conducted in three poverty villages in Guizhou, China. The difference in financing education by households was verified through non-parametric testing. Findings show that private savings is dominant in financing education of children in school. Formal loans are almost absent even in the highest wealth group examined. The ...

  11. Increasing revenues for protected areas. A wealth of financing options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper aims at giving an overview of traditional and new financing mechanisms in support of protected areas. The web of life is breaking down: our world is facing biodiversity loss at unprecedented rates. Human impacts are causing the acceleration of species loss, at rates of several hundreds up to 1000 times the natural rate of species extinction, depending on the type of organisms. Habitat degradation and loss, introduction of invasive species, pollution, and overexploitation of resources are factors that determine the process of mass extinction. Protected areas obviously play a critical role in biodiversity conservation. Article 8 of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) obliges Parties to establish a system of protected areas to-conserve biodiversity, to develop guidelines for protected areas management and to promote appropriate development adjacent to protected areas. Besides agreeing on this global mandate for protected areas, through Article 8m of the CBD Parties committed themselves to cooperate in providing financial support for protected area systems: 'Each contracting party (...) shall cooperate in providing financial and other support for in-situ conservation (...) particularly to developing countries'. Current revenues for maintaining existing protected areas and the creation of new ones are insufficient. Annually, approximately USD 7 billion is spent on the creation and maintenance of protected areas around the world (Balmford, 2003). The amount required to adequately protect biodiversity is estimated to be about five times higher. The flow of revenues from traditional and new financing mechanisms should clearly be increased to mitigate the financing deficit for protected areas. As part of the solution, innovative financing mechanisms are being developed aimed at increasing the global revenues for protected areas, thus capturing the multiple values of ecosystem goods and services provided by protected areas to mankind. This scoping paper focuses on an overview of financing mechanisms in support of the creation and maintenance of protected areas comprising terrestrial ecosystems.The term 'protected area' refers in this paper to all IUCN protected area categories, including extractive reserves. The financing mechanisms are classified into six different categories, according to the type of institutional arrangement, and the dominant actor or group of actors

  12. Methods for coating conduit interior surfaces utilizing a thermal spray gun with extension arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Karen A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Zatorski, Raymond A. (East Hampton, CT)

    2007-10-02

    Systems and methods for applying a coating to an interior surface of a conduit. In one embodiment, a spray gun configured to apply a coating is attached to an extension arm which may be inserted into the bore of a pipe. The spray gun may be a thermal spray gun adapted to apply a powder coating. An evacuation system may be used to provide a volume area of reduced air pressure for drawing overspray out of the pipe interior during coating. The extension arm as well as the spray gun may be cooled to maintain a consistent temperature in the system, allowing for more consistent coating.

  13. Self-field effects in NbTi subsize cable-in-conduit conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesche, R.; Stepanov, B.; Anghel, A.; Huber, S.; Pasztor, G.; Vogel, M.; Bruzzone, P.

    2004-01-01

    In the framework of the conductor optimisation task (CONDOPT) five NbTi subsize cable-in-conduit conductors with parametric variations were fabricated. The DC performance of these conductors tested in the SULTAN test facility [IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 12 (2002) 520] and the strand properties including the voltage-current characteristic, are compared. The results clearly indicate that the current carrying capacity of the conductors is considerably reduced due to the self-field. In conductors with a hindered interstrand current sharing, the critical current has been found to be even below the predicted value at the peak field, suggesting an uneven current distribution among the strands.

  14. ITER Model Coil Tests Overview: Nb3Sn Strand Properties in Cable-in-Conduit-Conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martovetsky, N N

    2003-04-14

    During the ITER Model Coil Program two large coils and three Insert coils were built and tested. The test campaigns provided very valuable data on the Conductor in Conduit Cable (CICC) properties. The tests showed that the Nb3Sn strands in CICC behave differently than so-called witness strands, which underwent the same heat treatment. The paper describes Volt-temperature characteristics (VTC) and Volt-Ampere characteristics (VAC) measured in the tests, presents comparisons with the witness strands, and interprets the test results.

  15. Thermal-hydraulic simulation of helium expulsion from a cable-in-conduit conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents simulation results of a quenching cable-in-conduit conductor (CICC) for application in Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES). The details of the model and its computational implementation (the code HEDUMP) are discussed. An extensive verification process shows that HEDUMP can accurately model a quenching CICC. Preliminary results of the simulation are given and discussed. In particular, the normal zone propagation is studied. It is shown that CICCs exhibit a thermohydraulic quench back behavior whereby superconducting regions ahead of the normal front are suddenly driven normal by frictional dissipation and/or compression heating of the fluid

  16. Systems and methods for coating conduit interior surfaces utilizing a thermal spray gun with extension arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Karen A.; Zatorski, Raymond A.

    2005-07-12

    Systems and methods for applying a coating to an interior surface of a conduit. In one embodiment, a spray gun configured to apply a coating is attached to an extension arm which may be inserted into the bore of a pipe. The spray gun may be a thermal spray gun adapted to apply a powder coating. An evacuation system may be used to provide a volume area of reduced air pressure for drawing overspray out of the pipe interior during coating. The extension arm as well as the spray gun may be cooled to maintain a consistent temperature in the system, allowing for more consistent coating.

  17. Parametric study of the stability margins of cable-in-conduit superconductors: experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a previous experiment on the stability of cable-in-conduit superconductors, we sometimes observed multivalued stability margins, which we attributed to strong heating-induced transient flows. We proposed a schematic theory from which we derived a scaling relation for the limiting current below which the stability margin is always singlevalued. Measurements at different magnetic fields are used to test the scaling with critical temperature and resistivity. We also examine the scaling with heated length and heat pulse duration. The results of these experiments are given and compared with theory

  18. ITER Model Coil tests overview: Nb3Sn strand properties in cable-in-conduit conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the ITER Model Coil program two large coils and three insert coils were built and tested. The test campaigns provided very valuable data on the cable-in-conduit conductor (CICC) properties. The tests showed that the Nb3Sn strands in CICC behave differently than so-called witness strands, which underwent the same heat treatment. The paper describes volt-temperature characteristics (VTC) and volt-ampere characteristics (VAC) measured in the tests, presents comparisons with the witness strands, and interprets the test results

  19. ITER Model Coil Tests Overview: Nb3Sn Strand Properties in Cable-in-Conduit-Conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the ITER Model Coil Program two large coils and three Insert coils were built and tested. The test campaigns provided very valuable data on the Conductor in Conduit Cable (CICC) properties. The tests showed that the Nb3Sn strands in CICC behave differently than so-called witness strands, which underwent the same heat treatment. The paper describes Volt-temperature characteristics (VTC) and Volt-Ampere characteristics (VAC) measured in the tests, presents comparisons with the witness strands, and interprets the test results

  20. French public finances at risk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Creel Jérôme

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Using descriptive evidence, this paper contributes to the debate on French public finances’ consolidation by examining the long-term sustainability of France’s fiscal position. We trace the historical trends of government’s tax receipts and expenditures. We illustrate that while the level of public expenditure in France is larger than in the Euro Area, its trend is comparable to its neighbours. French net debt is comparable to Eurozone’s while French net wealth remains positive. However, the French tax system is not progressive with only 6% of compulsory levies raised that way, and too complex. The paper then acknowledges the efficient debt management of French authorities. As a conclusion, we see no risk of future unsustainability linked to the nature or the level of current French public finances.

  1. Nuclear power: Financing big projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the early seventies, the Dresdner Bank AG has been intensively engaged in financing nuclear power plants, e.g., the Muelheim-Kaerlich Nuclear Power Station currently down because of legal technicaltities. The bank has also been involved in other large-scale projects in the energy sector and, in addition, has conceptually accompanied the stages of the nuclear fuel cycle, such as enrichment, fuel element fabrication, and reprocessing. However, for political reasons it has not been possible to carry out these projects and finance them in the Federal Republic. With appropriate modifications, these financial models can also be transferred to international projects; after all, the enrichment sector has always been characterized by trilateral ventures. (orig.)

  2. Commodities, energy and environmental finance

    CERN Document Server

    Ludkovski, Michael; Sircar, Ronnie

    2015-01-01

    This volume is a collection of chapters covering the latest developments in applications of financial mathematics and statistics to topics in energy, commodity financial markets and environmental economics. The research presented is based on the presentations and discussions that took place during the Fields Institute Focus Program on Commodities, Energy and Environmental Finance in August 2013. The authors include applied mathematicians, economists and industry practitioners, providing for a multi-disciplinary spectrum of perspectives on the subject. The volume consists of four sections: Electricity Markets; Real Options; Trading in Commodity Markets; and Oligopolistic Models for Energy Production. Taken together, the chapters give a comprehensive summary of the current state of the art in quantitative analysis of commodities and energy finance. The topics covered include structural models of electricity markets, financialization of commodities, valuation of commodity real options, game-theory analysis of ...

  3. Innovation Performance and Government Financing

    OpenAIRE

    Svensson, Roger

    2006-01-01

    External financing is important when inventors and small technology-based firms wish to commercialize their inventions. However, it is likely that problems related to adverse selection and moral hazard are present, and market failures occur, since inventors know more about the inventions than do potential external financiers. To overcome these problems, the Swedish Government has intervened in the market by offering loans with different terms to firms and inventors. Using a unique database on...

  4. The Dynamics of External Financing

    OpenAIRE

    Jansson, Joakim

    2000-01-01

    A dynamic process underlying firms' discrete financial choices has previously been found, but without controlling for unobserved heterogeneity, this dependence can either be of a true nature or an effect of firm-specific characteristics that we cannot observe. This study extends previous research focusing on firms' discrete external financing decision by adapting a model by Honoré and Kyriazidou (2000), which accommodates both fixed effects and a lagged dependent variable, which makes it poss...

  5. Attracting finance for hydroelectric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydroelectricity will continue to be important for meeting power requirements in developing countries. Much of the funding required for hydroelectric projects must come from non-government source; hydroelectric projects will therefore need to be attractive to private investors. This note explores the risks investors face, how this can be mitigated, and how the World Bank group can offer advice (as well as finance) to member countries to facilitate investment in hydro electric projects. 3 refs., 1 fig

  6. Margin Call in Islamic Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmet Suayb Gundogdu

    2014-01-01

    Murabaha, the most popular Islamic finance contract, has been subject of many studies. In its simplest form it is buying and selling with profit and has two forms: Asset based and Asset backed. Upto now, there are many studies on asset based Murabaha sale, which consist of buying a product and selling, transferring ownership, to loan seeker simultaneously in exchange of debt obligation. With this structure asset based Murabaha has been subject of much criticism. This article introduces the co...

  7. Financing a portfolio of projects

    OpenAIRE

    Inderst, Roman; Mueller, Holger M.; Münnich, Felix

    2009-01-01

    This article shows that investors financing a portfolio of projects may use the depth of their financial pockets to overcome entrepreneurial incentive problems. Competition for scarce informed capital at the refinancing stage strengthens investors’ bargaining positions. And yet, entrepreneurs’ incentives may be improved, because projects funded by investors with ‘‘shallow pockets’’ must have not only a positive net present value at the refinancing stage, but one that is higher than that of co...

  8. Risk Measures in Quantitative Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Mitra, Sovan

    2009-01-01

    This paper was presented and written for two seminars: a national UK University Risk Conference and a Risk Management industry workshop. The target audience is therefore a cross section of Academics and industry professionals. The current ongoing global credit crunch has highlighted the importance of risk measurement in Finance to companies and regulators alike. Despite risk measurement's central importance to risk management, few papers exist reviewing them or following t...

  9. Production and Finance in EURACE

    OpenAIRE

    Hoog, Sander van der; Deissenberg, Christophe; Dawid, Herbert

    2008-01-01

    EURACE is a major FP6 STREP project aiming at constructing anexhaustive agent-based model of the European economy, populated by avery large number of sophisticated, autonomous agents. The EURACEmodel, which has an explicit spatial structure, includes all the majormarkets considered in quantitative macroeconomic modelling (consumergoods, investment goods, labour, credit and finance). It offers aunique opportunity for studying, from a new perspective, theempirically observed but theoretically p...

  10. Factoring: Alternative model of financing

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanovic, Sasa; Baresa, Suzana; Sinisa, Bogdan

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to present factoring as an alternative funding model. This paper also tries to scientifically explore and emphasize its economic role thorough advantages and disadvantages of such financing model, and show condition in world and Croatia. Good corporate governance and professional financial management can contribute to the establishment of such business strategy (in terms of: strategy in relation to potential risks, the systems for managing risks and monitoring, investment stra...

  11. Essays in Finance and Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Kolev, Julian

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation consists of three essays on Finance and Innovation. The ?rst essay argues that openness of research inputs can enable greater exploration of new research lines, particularly by academic researchers. We test this hypothesis by examining a natural experiment: NIH agreements that reduced the access costs imposed on academics regarding certain genetically engineered mice. We ?nd that increased openness encourages the exploration of more diverse research paths, and does not reduc...

  12. Three Essays in Pension Finance

    OpenAIRE

    SHI, Z.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the three major participants in pension finance, namely, pension funds, individuals, and sponsoring companies. In the light of the fragile financial market performance, prudential regulatory rules, including Value-at-Risk (VaR) constraints, are imposed widely all over the world. The purpose of these regulations is to reduce the risk of pension funds and protect pension fund participants. However, the regulatory horizon is usually much shorter than the institutional inve...

  13. Conformal symmetry in quantum finance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quantum finance symmetries are studied. In order to do this, the one dimensional free non-relativistic particle and its symmetries are revisited and the particle mass is identified as the inverse of square of the volatility. Furthermore, using financial variables, a Schrödinger algebra representation is constructed. In addition, it is shown that the operators of this last representation are not hermitian and not conserved.

  14. (Micro)Financing to Give

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bajde, Domen

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the chapter is to engage with the relationship between the gift and the market in the context of philanthropic micro-lending. We seek to move beyond theorizing separate, ex-ante gift or market regimes and transactors who independently navigate between oppositional modes of transaction. We turn to recent efforts of hybridizing charity and venture finance, exemplified by microfinance platforms such as Kiva.org. We combine data from an existing study of Kiva and its online community,...

  15. French public finances at risk?

    OpenAIRE

    Creel Jérôme; Hubert Paul; Saraceno Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Using descriptive evidence, this paper contributes to the debate on French public finances’ consolidation by examining the long-term sustainability of France’s fiscal position. We trace the historical trends of government’s tax receipts and expenditures. We illustrate that while the level of public expenditure in France is larger than in the Euro Area, its trend is comparable to its neighbours. French net debt is comparable to Eurozone’s while French net we...

  16. Essays in Behavioral Household Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Skimmyhorn, William

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation investigates some of the factors affecting modern household finance decisions in the United States using natural experimental variation and administrative data. In Chapter 1 I estimate the effects of financial education on retirement savings decisions. Between 2007 and 2008 the U.S. Army implemented a mandatory 8 hour Personal Financial Management Course (PFMC) for new soldiers. Staggered implementation across locations and time provides quasi-experimental variation in whet...

  17. Behavioral Finance : The Student Investor

    OpenAIRE

    Sairafi, Kamran; Selleby, Karl; Ståhl, Thom

    2008-01-01

    Bachelor thesis within Business Administration Title: Behavioral Finance – The Student Perspective Authors: Kamran Sairafi, Karl Selleby, Thom Ståhl Tutor: Urban Österlund Date: 2008-05-30 Background: History is full of examples on how humans can create investment bubbles through speculation; from the Dutch tulip mania to the Dot Com bubble humans have proven to be capable of creating economical chaos. Classical economical theories hold the assumption that individuals act rationally regarding...

  18. Essays in macro-finance

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez, Pierlauro; Trojani, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    This doctoral thesis explores the boundary between macroeconomics and finance by focusing on three questions: (i) the measure of the cost of aggregate uncertainty at different horizons and over time; (ii) the role of nominal rigidities in explaining stock-bond yield comovement; (iii) the role of stock prices in the conduct of monetary policy. The objective is to identify some of the implications of asset pricing models for macroeconomics and of monetary economics for asset pricing.

  19. Calibration and Hedging in Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Lindholm, Love

    2014-01-01

    This thesis treats aspects of two fundamental problems in applied financial mathematics: calibration of a given stochastic process to observed marketprices on financial instruments (which is the topic of the first paper) and strategies for hedging options in financial markets that are possibly incomplete (which is the topic of the second paper). Calibration in finance means choosing the parameters in a stochastic process so as to make the prices on financial instruments generated by the proce...

  20. Taxing Externalities under Financing Constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmann, Florian; Inderst, Roman; Moslener, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    We consider an economy where production generates externalities, which can be reduced by additional firm level expenditures. This requires firms to raise outside financing, leading to deadweight loss due to a standard agency problem vis-à-vis outside investors. Policy is constrained as firms are privately informed about their marginal cost of avoiding externalities. We first derive the optimal linear pollution tax, which is strictly lower than the Pigouvian tax for two reasons: First, higher ...

  1. Project Finance in the Energy Industry: New Debt-based Financing Models

    OpenAIRE

    Enzo Scannella

    2012-01-01

    The paper aims to examine the development of new financing models for project finance to attract private investors to finance large European energy infrastructure projects. In particular, the paper investigates the uniqueness of the project finance as a rapidly growing field in finance, the financial characteristics of the project bond market as one of the vehicles for funding energy projects, and the role of the credit support provided by the European Investment Bank and the European Union t...

  2. Simulation of particle motion in a closed conduit validated against experimental data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolanský Jind?ich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Motion of a number of spherical particles in a closed conduit is examined by means of both simulation and experiment. The bed of the conduit is covered by stationary spherical particles of the size of the moving particles. The flow is driven by experimentally measured velocity profiles which are inputs of the simulation. Altering input velocity profiles generates various trajectory patterns. The lattice Boltzmann method (LBM based simulation is developed to study mutual interactions of the flow and the particles. The simulation enables to model both the particle motion and the fluid flow. The entropic LBM is employed to deal with the flow characterized by the high Reynolds number. The entropic modification of the LBM along with the enhanced refinement of the lattice grid yield an increase in demands on computational resources. Due to the inherently parallel nature of the LBM it can be handled by employing the Parallel Computing Toolbox (MATLAB and other transformations enabling usage of the CUDA GPU computing technology. The trajectories of the particles determined within the LBM simulation are validated against data gained from the experiments. The compatibility of the simulation results with the outputs of experimental measurements is evaluated. The accuracy of the applied approach is assessed and stability and efficiency of the simulation is also considered.

  3. Three-dimensional printed trileaflet valve conduits using biological hydrogels and human valve interstitial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, B; Kapetanovic, E; Hockaday, L A; Butcher, J T

    2014-05-01

    Tissue engineering has great potential to provide a functional de novo living valve replacement, capable of integration with host tissue and growth. Among various valve conduit fabrication techniques, three-dimensional (3-D) bioprinting enables deposition of cells and hydrogels into 3-D constructs with anatomical geometry and heterogeneous mechanical properties. Successful translation of this approach, however, is constrained by the dearth of printable and biocompatible hydrogel materials. Furthermore, it is not known how human valve cells respond to these printed environments. In this study, 3-D printable formulations of hybrid hydrogels are developed, based on methacrylated hyaluronic acid (Me-HA) and methacrylated gelatin (Me-Gel), and used to bioprint heart valve conduits containing encapsulated human aortic valvular interstitial cells (HAVIC). Increasing Me-Gel concentration resulted in lower stiffness and higher viscosity, facilitated cell spreading, and better maintained HAVIC fibroblastic phenotype. Bioprinting accuracy was dependent upon the relative concentrations of Me-Gel and Me-HA, but when optimized enabled the fabrication of a trileaflet valve shape accurate to the original design. HAVIC encapsulated within bioprinted heart valves maintained high viability, and remodeled the initial matrix by depositing collagen and glyosaminoglycans. These findings represent the first rational design of bioprinted trileaflet valve hydrogels that regulate encapsulated human VIC behavior. The use of anatomically accurate living valve scaffolds through bioprinting may accelerate understanding of physiological valve cell interactions and progress towards de novo living valve replacements. PMID:24334142

  4. Multiwalled CNT-pHEMA composite conduit for peripheral nerve repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslantunali, D; Budak, G; Hasirci, V

    2014-03-01

    A nerve conduit is designed to improve peripheral nerve regeneration by providing guidance to the nerve cells. Conductivity of such guides is reported to enhance this process. In the current study, a nerve guide was constructed from poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (pHEMA), which was loaded with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (mwCNT) to introduce conductivity. PHEMA hydrogels were designed to have a porous structure to facilitate the transportation of the compounds needed for cell nutrition and growth and also for waste removal. We showed that when loaded with relatively high concentrations of mwCNTs (6%, w/w in hydrogels), the pHEMA guide was more conductive and more hydrophobic than pristine pHEMA hydrogel. The mechanical properties of the composites were better when they carried mwCNT. Elastic modulus of 6% mwCNT loaded pHEMA was twofold higher (0.32 ± 0.06 MPa) and similar to that of the soft tissues. Electrical conductivity was significantly improved (11.4-fold) from 7 × 10(-3) ?(-1).cm(-1) (pHEMA) to 8.0 × 10(-2) ?(-1).cm(-1) (6% mwCNT loaded pHEMA). On application of electrical potential, the SHSY5Y neuroblastoma cells seeded on mwCNTs carrying pHEMA maintained their viability, whereas those on pure pHEMA could not, indicating that mwCNT helped conduct electricity and make them more suitable as nerve conduits. PMID:23554154

  5. Simulation of particle motion in a closed conduit validated against experimental data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolanský, Jind?ich

    2015-05-01

    Motion of a number of spherical particles in a closed conduit is examined by means of both simulation and experiment. The bed of the conduit is covered by stationary spherical particles of the size of the moving particles. The flow is driven by experimentally measured velocity profiles which are inputs of the simulation. Altering input velocity profiles generates various trajectory patterns. The lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) based simulation is developed to study mutual interactions of the flow and the particles. The simulation enables to model both the particle motion and the fluid flow. The entropic LBM is employed to deal with the flow characterized by the high Reynolds number. The entropic modification of the LBM along with the enhanced refinement of the lattice grid yield an increase in demands on computational resources. Due to the inherently parallel nature of the LBM it can be handled by employing the Parallel Computing Toolbox (MATLAB) and other transformations enabling usage of the CUDA GPU computing technology. The trajectories of the particles determined within the LBM simulation are validated against data gained from the experiments. The compatibility of the simulation results with the outputs of experimental measurements is evaluated. The accuracy of the applied approach is assessed and stability and efficiency of the simulation is also considered.

  6. Government experience in nuclear power plant export financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because the long-term funds at the disposal of the commercial banks were insufficient to make available the amounts required for the exportation of nuclear power plants, it was necessary to make available long-term funds of the mortgage banks. On account of the strict regulations governing the lending operations of such banks, it was, however, necessary to introduce a Federal guarantee which covers 100% of the contract value in each case. On balance, however, the Federal Government does not take over any additional risks, because recourse may be taken to the commercial banks, which are liable for all additional payments under the credit arrangement having arisen from the improvement of the guarantee in favour of the mortgage banks. This has resulted in a considerable improvement of the export financing system which, of course, is for benefit of other major export projects too. (HP)

  7. Financing of nuclear projects. Lessons from a recent experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advantages of mandating BNP Paribas as a lead bank and arranger for NPP Belene are presented. BNPP has an excellent record and credentials in Nuclear Power Plant Projects internationally and in the local energy sector and very recent experience as a lead bank for the fifth nuclear power plant in Finland. BNPP has a proven track record as Provider of rapid and efficient ECA financing in terms of: managing in parallel the number of ECA contractual relations, so as to provide 'matching opportunities' between the ECAs and leverage to improve their terms and conditions, and to harmonize them in one set of unified legal documentation. There is no cost to the Government of Bulgaria until the signing of the Facility Documentation

  8. Radical cystectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy with ileal conduit urinary diversion and abdominal wall reconstruction: an interesting case of multidisciplinary management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofos SS

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Stratos S Sofos,1 Ciaran Walsh,2 Nigel J Parr,2 Kevin Hancock11Whiston Hospital, Prescot, 2Arrowe Park Hospital, Wirral, Merseyside, UKAbstract: The ileal conduit for urinary diversion after radical cystectomy is a well-described procedure. Furthermore, parastomal hernias, prolapse, stenosis, and retraction of the stoma have been reported as some of the more common complications of this procedure. The subsequent repair of parastomal hernias with a biological mesh and the potential of the conduit to “tunnel” through it has also been described. In this case report, we present a combined repair of a large incisional hernia with a cystectomy and a pelvic lymphadenectomy for invasive bladder cancer, with the use of a biological mesh for posterior component abdominal wall primary repair as well as for support to the ileal conduit used for urinary diversion.Keywords: incisional hernia, posterior component separation, biological mesh 

  9. Contractual arrangements for uranium exploration and mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium exploration in WOCA, stabilized since 1985 at a level of annual expenditures of US $120-150 million. About half of this amount is funded by mining companies based in the uranium consumer countries such as the Federal Republic of Germany, France, the Republic of Korea, Japan, United Kingdom etc. and expended outside their home countries, mainly in Australia, Canada and USA, but also in a number of African countries. As WOCA's uranium production is concentrated in a few countries, in 1986, Australia, Canada, South Africa and USA had a combined share of nearly 70% of the total, a stronger diversification of uranium supplies may be desirable in the future. This expected trend may result in the planning or uranium exploration projects by international uranium companies in countries in Africa, Asia and South America. To provide information which can be helpful for both parties in the negotiations of cooperation agreement is the scope of this document. It contains a brief introductory part including an overview of the development of the different forms of international cooperation, a case history provided by Zambia, a report listing the essential subjects to be included in an uranium agreement as well as an example of a structure of contractual arrangements. This part is followed by an extensive annex with three ''no-names-no numbers'' contract texts, which were concluded in the later part of the 1970s and beginning of the 1980s

  10. Flexible working time arrangements in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena ZAMFIR

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is the analysis of women-related issues focusing on labour market policies and work flexibility in Romania. The active internal dynamics regarding gender issues are strongly influenced by the national and international political processes, especially those incorporating the necessary changes of European and international labour regulations. Anti-discriminatory strategies need to be promoted at every level of society. Sources of information are: literature in the field, official EU Commission documents, and reports of Romanian public institutions: National Institute of Statistics, Research Institute of the Quality of Life ( ICCV, as well as, research and reports of international organisations in Romania .Also analysed is information about the regulatory framework of labour flexibility at the national level, collective agreements, company level; working time organisation and its impact on private and family life, innovative working time arrangements. In Romania, especially in the last two years, there is an evident social stress generated by lower income, the increasing rate of unemployment and a lack of job security; and the risk involved in the new economic system yielding an increased level of corruption. Finally, an analysis of the current Romanian society shows the need to introduce efficient social policy for the labour market for supporting women in their work and private life.

  11. Strike a balance with flexible working arrangements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madison, Alison L.

    2012-12-15

    Monthly Economic Diversity column for the Tri-City Herald - Topic: Telworking - Excerpt below: As the holiday season kicks into high gear, work-life balance is on many of our minds. How can I meet all of my work commitments this month when no one will be in the office, and still strategically use very little vacation time to stretch the holiday break from four days to fourteen? Am I right? I think most all of us want to stay engaged with our professional lives while maintaining the freedom to prioritize our personal lives. And many employers have come up with ways to help us achieve that balance. Teleworking is not a brand new concept, but is certainly gaining steam as employers and employees alike try to find ways to meet a variety of wants and needs. There are benefits to both sides when it comes to offering flexible working arrangements such as teleworking. For businesses attempting to meet sustainability targets by reducing employee commuting and associated impacts to energy and environment, the benefits of this option can really add up.

  12. Building arrangement structure for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an existent nuclear power plant in which two reactor buildings are disposed in adjacent, independent central control chambers are disposed respectively. In the present invention, two reactor buildings are arranged in adjacent with each other. Earthquake proof foundations are disposed to each of the buildings respectively, and both of the buildings are bridged by way of the earthquake proof foundations and a central control chamber is disposed integrally in common use for two buildings. Even at a location where the level of the underground rock is so deep that control buildings for two reactor buildings can not be constructed and a central control chamber is disposed solely in the reactor building, the central control chamber can be used in common with two reactor buildings. Since the central control chamber is supported by the earthquake proof foundation, acceleration upon occurrence of earthquakes is reduced thereby enabling to moderate the earthquake proof design condition. Further, saving of construction work in the field and rationalization of combination test can be attained by adopting a module construction method. Complete integration of the central control chamber, an absorption for relative displacement and improvement for earthquake proofness, effective utilization for space and merits in view of operation can be attained. (N.H.)

  13. Electricity generation sectors under purchase obligation: support arrangement analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report aims at assessing the operation of the support arrangement by which currently benefit some electricity production sectors in France (renewable energies, co-generation) with respect to the evolution of the energy mix within the frame of energy transition. Other support arrangements presently adopted in Europe are also addressed as lessons to be learned. Criteria are established for any support arrangement. The report presents the French and European context regarding such support arrangement with purchasing obligation, and addresses the future evolutions of the European Commission. It highlights challenges for the electric system and for the energy market (impact on investments, optimization of market operation), describes and assesses the French purchasing obligation arrangement, and describes and assesses other existing support arrangements

  14. Concepts for institutional arrangements for the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper focuses on the role of institutional arrangements in developing a consensus in international nuclear cooperation. Institutional arrangements are defined as undertakings and activities by governments or private entities to facilitate the efficient and secure functioning of the nuclear fuel cycle. The first two sections of the paper explore the historical role of cooperative arrangements, suggest criteria for evaluating the usefulness of institutional arrangements, and review the status of the discussion of institutional arrangements in INFCE Working Groups as of December 1978. The final section of the paper, explores potential relationships between various institutional arrangements and suggests that certain areas such as, the standardization of nuclear practices, joint commercial and development undertakings, nuclear supply assurances, and the settlement of disputes may have broad application for several stages of the fuel cycle and merit further study

  15. 12 CFR 987.7 - Liability of Banks, Finance Board, Office of Finance and Federal Reserve Banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 false Liability of Banks, Finance Board, Office of Finance and Federal Reserve Banks. 987.7 Section 987.7 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD OFFICE OF FINANCE BOOK-ENTRY...

  16. 12 CFR 987.2 - Law governing rights and obligations of Banks, Finance Board, Office of Finance, United States...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...Law governing rights and obligations of Banks, Finance Board, Office of Finance, United States and Federal Reserve Banks; rights of any Person against Banks, Finance Board, Office of Finance, United States and...

  17. Measurements of stability margins and current distribution in large-scale Nb3Sn cable-in-conduit conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Stewart S.; Isono, Takaaki

    1995-03-01

    The main goal of the ITER Conductor Testing Program is to validate the design and the fabrication process of the CICC (Cable-In-Conduit Conductor) and its joints, in full-size samples. For testing large-scale cable-in-conduit conductors, several practical experimental techniques have been developed to specifically address the issues of conductor stability. The following described techniques enable experimentalists to quantify the effects and thus provide useful tools to improve the conductor performance in magnet applications. In this paper, the authors, present two experimental techniques: (a) stability margin calibration, and (b) current distribution. Both are much needed in the laboratory for testing the conductor stability.

  18. Supersolvability and Freeness for $\\psi$-graphical Arrangements

    OpenAIRE

    Mu, Lili; Stanley , Richard P

    2015-01-01

    Let $G$ be a simple graph on the vertex set $\\{v_1,\\dots,v_n\\}$ with edge set $E$. Let $K$ be a field. The graphical arrangement $\\mathcal{A}_G$ in $K^n$ is the arrangement $x_i-x_j=0, v_iv_j \\in E$. An arrangement $\\mathcal{A}$ is supersolvable if the intersection lattice $L(c(\\mathcal{A}))$ of the cone $c(\\mathcal{A})$ contains a maximal chain of modular elements. The second author has shown that a graphical arrangement $\\mathcal{A}_G$ is supersolvable if and only if $G$ i...

  19. Alternative transportation fuels: Financing issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A multitude of alternative fuels could reduce air pollution and the impact of oil price shocks. Only a few of these fuels are readily available and inexpensive enough to merit serious consideration over the coming five years. In New York City, safety regulations narrow the field still further by eliminating propane. As a result, this study focuses on the three alternative fuels readily available in New York City: compressed natural gas, methanol, and electricity. Each has significant environmental benefits and each has different cost characteristics. With the Clean Air Act and the National Energy Strategy highlighting the country's need to improve urban air quality and move away from dependence on imported fuels, fleets may soon have little choice but to convert to altemative fuels. Given the potential for large infrastructure and vehicle costs, these fleets may have difficulty finding the capital to make that conversion. Ultimately, then, it will be the involvement of the private sector that will determine the success of alternative fuels. Whether it be utilities, fuel distributors or suppliers, private financing partners or others, it is critical that altemative fuels programs be structured and planned to attract their involvement. This report examines financing methods that do not involve government subsidies. It also explores financing methods that are specific to alternative fuels. Bond issues and other mechanisms that are used for conventional vehicles are not touched upon in this report. This report explores ways to spread the high cost of alternative fuels among a number of parties within the private sector. The emphasis is on structuring partnerships that suit methanol, electric, or natural gas vehicle fleets. Through these partnerships, alternative fuels may ultimately compete effectively against conventional vehicle fuels

  20. Offsets - An opportunity of Financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear Research Reactors sometimes need to implement projects to upgrade, revamp or convert their reactor, acquire new fuel elements, etc. However, as their activities are mainly of noncommercial nature, they sometimes lack of financial resources to implement these projects by themselves. Several solutions exist: loans, governmental budget, subsidies from international organizations (IAEA). Offsets are another source of financing. They also are free of charge for the reactor. The objective of offsets is to Identify, implement and finance projects that: directly create or sustain a local economic activity of high-added value, would not have happened without the Obligor's intervention, and are of crucial importance given the country's political background (favor employment, technology transfers, training and education, research and development, etc.). Companies worldwide are willing to finance local projects to fulfill their Offset Obligation. Local organizations or institutions are willing to invest to increase their activities but lack of financial resources. Offset regulations are an opportunity on both sides and are free for the local organization. The monetary value of an Offset obligation is calculated as a percentage of the main contract price (or as a percentage of the imported part value). That percentage depends on the Country's legislation and on the nature of the main contract (defense or civilian). This value has to be compensated by an equivalent economic value (a Project's cost is different from its value). There is two ways of assessing a value: - Political aspects: The Project is of political importance for the country (development of an export capability, technology and/or know-how transfers) and the project in line with the country's political priorities (employment, research, international presence, etc.). - Economic benefits: the project directly sustains or creates additional activities, turnover, R and D, employment, etc. It benefits directly to the local institution. The offset valuation mechanisms leads to benefits for all parties: the project is implemented and this implementation is free of charge. For the Government: the project contributes to achieve its priorities without having to be financed on public funds. For the Obligor: its Offset obligation is compensated for a monetary value depending on the direct investment cost. Offset regulations are implemented in over 100 countries worldwide and are of common use on important public procurement markets. Examples of Countries implementing Offset regulations are: Austria, Brazil, Finland, Italy, Romania and many other

  1. Hidden Markov models in finance

    CERN Document Server

    Mamon, Rogemar S

    2007-01-01

    A number of methodologies have been employed to provide decision making solutions to a whole assortment of financial problems in today's globalized markets. Hidden Markov Models in Finance by Mamon and Elliott will be the first systematic application of these methods to some special kinds of financial problems; namely, pricing options and variance swaps, valuation of life insurance policies, interest rate theory, credit risk modeling, risk management, analysis of future demand and inventory level, testing foreign exchange rate hypothesis, and early warning systems for currency crises. This boo

  2. Optical properties of quasiperiodically arranged semiconductor nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werchner, Marco

    2009-12-18

    This work consists of two parts which are entitled ''One-Dimensional Resonant Fibonacci Quasicrystals'' and ''Resonant Tunneling of Light in Silicon Nanostructures''. A microscopic theory has been applied to investigate the optical properties of the respective semiconductor nanostructures. The studied one-dimensional resonant Fibonacci quasicrystals consist of GaAs quantum wells (QW) that are separated by either a large spacer L or a small one S. These spacers are arranged according to the Fibonacci sequence LSLLSLSL.. The average spacing satisfies a generalized Bragg condition with respect to the 1s-exciton resonance of the QWs. A theory, that makes use of the transfer-matrix method and that allows for the microscopic description of many-body effects such as excitation-induced dephasing caused by the Coulomb scattering of carriers, has been applied to compute the optical spectra of such structures. A pronounced sharp reflectivity minimum is found in the vicinity of the heavy-hole resonance both in the measured as well as in the calculated linear 54-QW spectra. Specifically, the influence of the carrier density, of the QW arrangement, of a detuning away from the exact Bragg condition, of the average spacing as well as of the ratio of the optical path lengths of the large and small spacers L and S, respectively, and of the QW number on the optical properties of the samples have been studied. Additionally, self-similarity among reflection spectra corresponding to different QW numbers that exceed a Fibonacci number by one is observed, which identifies certain spectral features as true fingerprints of the Fibonacci spacing. In the second part, resonant tunneling of light in stacked structures consisting of alternating parallel layers of silicon and air have been studied theoretically.Light may tunnel through the air barrier due to the existence of evanescent waves inside the air layers if the neighboring silicon layer is close enough. This tunneling of light is in analogy to the well-known tunneling of a quantum particle through a potential barrier. In particular, the wave equation and the stationary Schroedinger equation are of the same form. The transmission, reflection, and propagation properties of the samples have been determined numerically using a transfer-matrix method. Analytical expressions for the energetic resonance positions have been derived and are in excellent agreement with the numerical simulations. Special attention has been drawn to the lowest resonance out of a series of resonant-tunneling resonances. There, light has been observed to be concentrated within silicon layers the extension of which is smaller than the corresponding wavelength of the light. Specifically, the quality factor is large at the resonance energies, so that the resonant light leaves the sample delayed. A detailed investigation of how the sample geometry influences the optical properties of the sample has been presented. In particular, it has been outlined how to design a sample to obtain certain desired optical properties. The optical properties that are related to the resonant tunneling strongly rely on the (mirror-)symmetry of the samples. If asymmetries - especially of the silicon wells inside the air barrier - are present in the sample setup, the resonant-tunneling efficiency is diminished. Therefore, a parameter range has been identified in which reasonable transmission above a transmission probability of 50% can be expected taking typical fluctuations caused by the production process into account. (orig.)

  3. Non-recourse financing for a renewable energy project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper will discuss the development and financing of ARBRE Energy Limited, a joint venture company 85% owned by Yorkshire Water Projects Ltd of the United Kingdom, with minority participation by the Schelde Group of Holland and Termiska Processor AB of Sweden. The project will establish 600 hectares of short rotation coppices, some of which will be organically fertilised with digested sewage sludge, to provide 20% of the fuel requirement of a Biomass Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (BIGCC) electricity generation plant. The remaining 80% of the fuel requirements will come from forestry supplies, although in the first few years all the fuel will come from the forestry sources until the coppices are mature. The project has begun construction of a gasification plant at Eggborough, North Yorkshire, which will provide gas to a gas turbine and steam turbine generation system, producing 10MW and exporting 8MW of electricity. The project was included in the 1993 tranche of the UK's Non Fossil Fuel Obligation (NFFO) programme, and has gained financial support from the European Commission's THERMIE programme as a targeted BIGCC project. As background to the financing arrangements, the project's technical and environmental effects and benefits are described in some detail in the paper, together with the award of its planning permit and agreement on its operating license. (Author)

  4. Financing the export of nuclear power plants to developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japanese manufacturers of nuclear power plants are confident in quality and reliability of their products but so far they have played a minor role in the international market. In studying the finance for the future nuclear power projects in the developing country, the financial institutions will take into consideration such characteristics of the nuclear power project as: (1) Public acceptance and safety; (2) Commitments by host government and its involvement which are internationally required; (3) Huge amount of capital requirements over a long term for commissioning, operation and maintenance; (4) inability of the domestic market oriented project to generate foreign currency earnings; (5) Long lasting project life; (6) Creditworthiness of both the project owner and the host government and the debt problem of the country; (7) Priority; (8) Feasibility; (9) Available engineers and their level of technology, etc. Under the present circumstances, because of the inherent nature of the project and the creditworthiness, the owner of the project who imports the nuclear power plant and the host government will find it very difficult to receive enough funds for the project from the financial institutions, including the export credit agencies, and the manufacturers (exporters). On condition that the owner of the project and the host government make every effort and necessary arrangement to materialize the project, one of the measurers for the creditors to share such burdens and risks will be to form an international consortia among manufacturers and to organize co-finance among ECAs, private financial institutions and Multilateral Development Banks. (author)

  5. Biobank Finances: A Socio-Economic Analysis and Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Sally; Oliver, Rob; Corfield, Julie; Georghiou, Luke; Yuille, Martin

    2015-12-01

    This socio-economic study is based on the widely held view that there is an inadequate supply of human biological samples that is hampering biomedical research development and innovation (RDI). The potential value of samples and the associated data are thus not being realized. We aimed to examine whether the financing of biobanks contributes to this problem and then to propose a national solution. We combined three methods: a qualitative case study; literature analysis; and informal consultations with experts. The case study enabled an examination of the complex institutional arrangements for biobanks, with a particular focus on cost models. For the purposes of comparison, a typology for biobanks was developed using the three methods. We found that it is not possible to apply a standard cost model across the diversity of biobanks, and there is a deficit in coordination and sustainability and an excess of complexity. We propose that coordination across this diversity requires dedicated resources for a national biobanking distributed research infrastructure. A coordination center would establish and improve standards and support a national portal for access. This should be financed centrally by public funds, possibly supplemented by industrial funding. We propose that: a) sample acquisition continues to be costed into projects and project proposals to ensure biobanking is driven by research needs; b) core biobanking activities and facilities be supported by central public funds distributed directly to host public institutions; and c) marginal costs for access be paid for by the user. PMID:26697914

  6. Financing of radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waste disposal is modelled as a financial calculus. In this connection the particularity is not primarily the dimension to be expected of financial requirement but above all the uncertainty of financial requirement as well as the ecological, socio-economic and especially also the temporal dimension of the Nuclear Waste Disposal project (disposal of spent fuel elements from light-water reactors with and without reprocessing, decommissioning = safe containment and disposal of nuclear power plants, permanent isolation of radioactive waste from the biosphere, intermediate storage). Based on the above mentioned factors the author analyses alternative approaches of financing or financial planning. He points out the decisive significance of the perception of risks or the evaluation of risks by involved or affected persons - i.e. the social acceptance of planned and designed waste disposal concepts - for the achievement and assessment of alternative solutions. With the help of an acceptance-specific risk measure developed on the basis of a mathematical chaos theory he illustrates, in a model, the social influence on the financing of nuclear waste disposal. (orig./HP)

  7. Wind Levelized Cost of Energy: A Comparison of Technical and Financing Input Variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cory, K.; Schwabe, P.

    2009-10-01

    The expansion of wind power capacity in the United States has increased the demand for project development capital. In response, innovative approaches to financing wind projects have emerged and are proliferating in the U.S. renewable energy marketplace. Wind power developers and financiers have become more efficient and creative in structuring their financial relationships, and often tailor them to different investor types and objectives. As a result, two similar projects may use very different cash flows and financing arrangements, which can significantly vary the economic competitiveness of wind projects. This report assesses the relative impact of numerous financing, technical, and operating variables on the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) associated with a wind project under various financing structures in the U.S. marketplace. Under this analysis, the impacts of several financial and technical variables on the cost of wind electricity generation are first examined individually to better understand the relative importance of each. Then, analysts examine a low-cost and a high-cost financing scenario, where multiple variables are modified simultaneously. Lastly, the analysis also considers the impact of a suite of financial variables versus a suite of technical variables.

  8. Health-financing reforms in southeast Asia: challenges in achieving universal coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangcharoensathien, Viroj; Patcharanarumol, Walaiporn; Ir, Por; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed; Mukti, Ali Ghufron; Akkhavong, Kongsap; Banzon, Eduardo; Huong, Dang Boi; Thabrany, Hasbullah; Mills, Anne

    2011-03-01

    In this sixth paper of the Series, we review health-financing reforms in seven countries in southeast Asia that have sought to reduce dependence on out-of-pocket payments, increase pooled health finance, and expand service use as steps towards universal coverage. Laos and Cambodia, both resource-poor countries, have mostly relied on donor-supported health equity funds to reach the poor, and reliable funding and appropriate identification of the eligible poor are two major challenges for nationwide expansion. For Thailand, the Philippines, Indonesia, and Vietnam, social health insurance financed by payroll tax is commonly used for formal sector employees (excluding Malaysia), with varying outcomes in terms of financial protection. Alternative payment methods have different implications for provider behaviour and financial protection. Two alternative approaches for financial protection of the non-poor outside the formal sector have emerged-contributory arrangements and tax-financed schemes-with different abilities to achieve high population coverage rapidly. Fiscal space and mobilisation of payroll contributions are both important in accelerating financial protection. Expanding coverage of good-quality services and ensuring adequate human resources are also important to achieve universal coverage. As health-financing reform is complex, institutional capacity to generate evidence and inform policy is essential and should be strengthened. PMID:21269682

  9. A model of the demand for Islamic banks debt-based financing instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusoh, Mansor; Khalid, Norlin

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents a theoretical analysis of the demand for debt-based financing instruments of the Islamic banks. Debt-based financing, such as through baibithamanajil and al-murabahah, is by far the most prominent of the Islamic bank financing and yet it has been largely ignored in Islamic economics literature. Most studies instead have been focusing on equity-based financing of al-mudharabah and al-musyarakah. Islamic bank offers debt-based financing through various instruments derived under the principle of exchange (ukud al-mu'awadhat) or more specifically, the contract of deferred sale. Under such arrangement, Islamic debt is created when goods are purchased and the payments are deferred. Thus, unlike debt of the conventional bank which is a form of financial loan contract to facilitate demand for liquid assets, this Islamic debt is created in response to the demand to purchase goods by deferred payment. In this paper we set an analytical framework that is based on an infinitely lived representative agent model (ILRA model) to analyze the demand for goods to be purchased by deferred payment. The resulting demand will then be used to derive the demand for Islamic debt. We also investigate theoretically, factors that may have an impact on the demand for Islamic debt.

  10. Fairness through regulation? Reflections on a cosmopolitan approach to global finance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Božina Beroš

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In the aftermath of the last financial crisis a strong message prevails that ‘something’ has to be changed in the manner global finance is governed. What exactly this ‘something’ entails and what could constitute the ‘common ground’ of anticipated change is more difficult to determine. Many envisage future improvements of global financial governance by evoking deliberative democracy, political equality and cosmopolitanism. As financial regulation is the main instrument through which global finance is shaped and governed nowadays, these principles should then be transmitted to regulatory arrangements. This paper focuses on a new conceptual approach to regulatory and governance issues in global finance, by employing the philosophical idea of cosmopolitanism. It argues that although as a concept, cosmopolitanism cannot mitigate all the flaws attributed to contemporary finance, its development and extension to international financial regulation that is promulgated by institutions of the global financial system, would represent a worthwhile endeavour in making global finance more accountable and just in the eyes of many.

  11. Application of finance project for leverage of small size hydroelectric enterprising; Aplicacao do project finance para alavancagem de empreendimentos hidreletricos de pequeno porte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Silvana dos

    2003-07-01

    In the same way that the majority of the countries, project financing of substructure in Brazil, in project finance modality, depend on a skillful structure of guaranties and contracts to become possible. In the case of projects of centrals of generation of electrical energy, that financial engineering becomes still more complicated. In Brazil, due to particularities of the sectors of electricity, the arrangements of guaranties requested but creditors pass to present levels of complexity and exigency well elevated. The contractual appliances that give support to the project finance, originally projected to developed countries, request an extreme adaptation to these particularities. The development of Brazil is directly related to its capacity in expanding the offer of electric energy in the just measure of the national necessity. In this context, the small central hydroelectric (PCH's) represent, actually, an efficient and fast form to complete the offer of energy in such a way to supply the crescent demand the national market. For its characteristics, that type of undertaking can be developed by small manager, from among which are the owners of the areas in which on can find these hydraulic potentials which, however they do not dispose of capital to integral raising. These undertakings are tasks, normally, of low global cost, at the rate of US$ 1.000,00/k W, and of a smaller ambient impact, compared to the return that they give to the enterprise and to the Brazilian electric system as a whole, by having to receive special attention in the planned politics to the sector and to merit a series of incentives to become business still more attractive. By thinking in the found difficulty by small enterprises in rising undertakings of generation of electric energy of small port through the convectional mechanisms of financing is being proposed in that work a well-founded methodology in the concepts of the modality of financing project finance. (author)

  12. New directions in electric power financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper argues that it is necessary to raise the eyes from the current focus on independent power projects, buttressed by guarantees, to the longer horizon of electric power financing in open markets. Transitional strategies will need to move beyond the commonly seen IPP activity that occurs without fundamental sector reform, and demand-side incentives that introduce further market distortions. These efforts will have to focus on macroeconomic stabilization, removal of price distortions, as well as sector and corporate reform. Mobilization of domestic capital will be essential for sustainable sector financing. Although guarantees to encourage power sector investment can be designed to selectively cover risks, their elimination through fundamental sector reform should be the ultimate goal. Over the longer-term traditional corporate finance should become a more common financing strategy than project finance. Innovations in performance risk management and consumer credit will be crucial to the financing of energy efficiency. (author)

  13. 33 CFR 157.222 - Pump and piping arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pump and piping arrangements. 157.222 Section 157...and Equipment § 157.222 Pump and piping arrangements. (a) Dedicated clean...Number of pumps; and (2) Amount of piping. (b) Each piping system that...

  14. Improvements in or relating to electron gun cathode arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improved electron gun cathode arrangement is described which provides an electron beam suitable for focussing onto a target. It is especially, though not exclusively, applicable to gun arrangements for use with x-ray tubes in which the electron beam is to be scanned relative to the x-ray target. (U.K.)

  15. A Unit Cell Laboratory Experiment: Marbles, Magnets, and Stacking Arrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, David C.

    2011-01-01

    An undergraduate first-semester general chemistry laboratory experiment introducing face-centered, body-centered, and simple cubic unit cells is presented. Emphasis is placed on the stacking arrangement of solid spheres used to produce a particular unit cell. Marbles and spherical magnets are employed to prepare each stacking arrangement. Packing…

  16. 29 CFR 780.126 - Contract arrangements for raising poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Contract arrangements for raising poultry. 780.126 Section... General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.126 Contract arrangements for raising poultry. Feed dealers and processors sometimes enter into...

  17. 14 CFR 27.477 - Landing gear arrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Landing gear arrangement. 27.477 Section 27... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Ground Loads § 27.477 Landing gear arrangement. Sections 27.235, 27.479 through 27.485, and 27.493 apply to landing gear with two wheels aft,...

  18. 14 CFR 29.477 - Landing gear arrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Landing gear arrangement. 29.477 Section 29... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Ground Loads § 29.477 Landing gear arrangement. Sections 29.235, 29.479 through 29.485, and 29.493 apply to landing gear with two wheels aft,...

  19. Complex arrangements whose complement has Euler characteristic +/-1

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobs, Philippe; Laeremans, A

    1997-01-01

    In this article we prove that a complex arrangement (i.e. a finite union of hyperplanes in C-n) whose complement has Euler characteristic +/-1 is defined over Q, meaning that there exist coordinates such that the equations of the hyperplanes of the arrangement have rational coefficients.

  20. Arrangements for dealing with emergencies at civil nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the present arrangements for dealing with an emergency involving a release of radioactive material at a civil nuclear installation in the UK. It outlines the roles of Operators, Government Departments, Emergency Services and the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII) and how the arrangements are exercised. (author)

  1. DC behaviour of NbTi cable-in-conduit conductors for ITER-FEAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the SULTAN test facility the d.c. behaviour of three subsize NbTi cable-in-conduit (CIC) conductors has been studied. The d.c. performance of the cables is compared with the critical currents and the current sharing temperatures expected from the strand data. As a basis for this comparison the critical current of the NbTi strands has been measured in the temperature range of 4.2-6.5 K in magnetic fields of up to 7.5 T. The d.c. performance of the NbTi subsize conductors has been found to be not significantly affected by cyclic loading. Taking into consideration the self field of the conductor the cable critical current and the current sharing temperature are in agreement with the strand data

  2. Vein conduit associated with microsurgical suture for complete collateral digital nerve severance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alligand-Perrin, P; Rabarin, F; Jeudy, J; Césari, B; Saint-Cast, Y; Fouque, P-A; Raimbeau, G

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study is to present the long term results of a series of 53 vein conduit grafts as first line therapy to repair complete severance of one or more collateral digital nerves. The surgical technique included an epi-perineural suture of the nerve under minimal tension, associated with a vein graft harvested from the back of the hand to cover the nerve. None of the patients presented with a neuroma, spontaneous pain or had stopped using the injured finger. Sensibility results were good or very good in 67% of cases. The scar at the donor site was very light or invisible. A total of 96% of patients were satisfied or very satisfied. This simple technique, by protecting the injured nerve, results in a rate of sensory nerve recovery that is comparable or better than that of other series in the literature, without neuroma and with minimal scarring at the donor site. PMID:21531189

  3. Recurrent cervical esophageal stenosis after colon conduit failure: Use of myocutaneous flap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Jo Sa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 53-year-old male developed cervical esophageal stenosis after esophageal bypass surgery using a right colon conduit. The esophageal bypass surgery was performed to treat multiple esophageal strictures resulting from corrosive ingestion three years prior to presentation. Although the patient underwent several endoscopic stricture dilatations after surgery, he continued to suffer from recurrent esophageal stenosis. We planned cervical patch esophagoplasty with a pedicled skin flap of sternocleidomastoid (SCM muscle. Postoperative recovery was successful, and the patient could eat a solid meal without difficulty and has been well for 18 mo. SCM flap esophagoplasty is an easier and safer method of managing complicated and recurrent cervical esophageal strictures than other operations.

  4. Optimal capital stock and financing constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Saltari, Enrico; Giuseppe, Travaglini

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we show that financing constraints affect the optimal level of capital stock even when the financing constraint is ineffective. This happens when the firm rationally anticipates that access to external financing resources may be rationed in the future. We will show that with these expectations, the optimal investment policy is to invest less in any given period, thereby lowering the desired optimal capital stock in the long run.

  5. The financing of healthcare in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Durkan, Joe

    1994-01-01

    It is an interesting aspect of the current debate with regard to healthcare in developed countries that the discussion starts with the finance of healthcare. What makes it interesting is that, with the exception of the US, healthcare is predominantly financed by government through a combination of a social welfare contribution and general taxation. There is some private financing through private insurance, but tax benefits for insurance and the universality attaching to most public systems ef...

  6. Financing Investment: The Cost Trade-Off

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirth, Stefan; Flor, Christian Riis

    2010-01-01

    Intuition suggests that corporate investment should be decreasing in financing constraints. We show that even when financing is obtained using a standard debt contract and there is symmetric information between the firm and outside investors, the relation is actually U-shaped. We thus provide a new theoretical explanation for the recent empirical findings of Cleary et al. (2007). We split up the endogenously implied financing costs and propose a trade-off between expected liquidation costs and s...

  7. Essays on banking and finance in China

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, L.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: The Chinese economy has grown at a spectacular speed during the past three decades while the financial system is not well developed in China. On the one hand, the informal financing channels, i.e. borrowing from family members, friends, moneylenders, trade credit, etc., may provide proper financing for the firms in China. On the other hand, the increasing intensity of banking competition may also enhance the access to finance in China. Chapter 1 introduces the Chinese economy; Chapt...

  8. Do SMEs follow Pecking Order Financing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartholdy, Jan; Mateus, Cèsario; Olson, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    This paper tests for "pecking order" financing of small and medium size firms. The main sources and "pecking order" of financing for SMEs are equity (internally generated cash), trade credit paid on time, credit provided by institutions such as banks and leasing companies, other sources of debt and delayed payment on trade credit. The "pecking order" of financing is driven by the costs of asymmetric information (cost of gathering and analysing information) and financial distress costs. Empirical...

  9. Quality of public finances and growth

    OpenAIRE

    Afonso, António; Ebert, Werner; SCHUKNECHT, Ludger; Thone, Michael

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we review the linkages between the quality of public finances, that is, the level and composition of public expenditure and its financing via revenue and deficits, and economic growth. We review the various channels through which public finances affect growth and its underlying determinants (institutional framework, employment, savings and investment, innovation). The paper addresses the approaches used to assess the performance and efficiency of public spending, and surveys the...

  10. Book review: Behavioural economics and finance

    OpenAIRE

    Grodecka, Anna

    2013-01-01

    "Behavioural Economics and Finance. Michelle Baddeley. Routledge. 2013. --- Standard models in economics usually assume that people are rational, self-interested maximisers, effectively co-ordinated via the invisible hand of the price mechanism. Whilst these approaches produce tractable, simple models, they cannot fully capture the uncertainties and instabilities that affect our everyday choices. Behavioural Economics and Finance brings economics and finance together with psychology, neur...

  11. Islamic Finance and Globalization: A Convergence?

    OpenAIRE

    Mirakhor, Abbas

    2007-01-01

    Islamic finance—understood as achieving maximum risk sharing—diversifies risk and allows it to be shared widely. Implications that follow are: (i) a close relationship between finance and real economic activities and (ii) the rate of return to finance determined by the rate of return to real economic activities rather than the reverse. This system’s full operation leads to financial stability, growth of income and employment, and, as a result, reduction in poverty. To obtain these results, pr...

  12. Integrating Laboratory and Numerical Decompression Experiments to Investigate Fluid Dynamics into the Conduit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spina, Laura; Colucci, Simone; De'Michieli Vitturi, Mattia; Scheu, Bettina; Dingwell, Donald Bruce

    2015-04-01

    The study of the fluid dynamics of magmatic melts into the conduit, where direct observations are unattainable, was proven to be strongly enhanced by multiparametric approaches. Among them, the coupling of numerical modeling with laboratory experiments represents a fundamental tool of investigation. Indeed, the experimental approach provide invaluable data to validate complex multiphase codes. We performed decompression experiments in a shock tube system, using pure silicon oil as a proxy for the basaltic melt. A range of viscosity comprised between 1 and 1000 Pa s was investigated. The samples were saturated with Argon for 72h at 10MPa, before being slowly decompressed to atmospheric pressure. The evolution of the analogue magmatic system was monitored through a high speed camera and pressure sensors, located into the analogue conduit. The experimental decompressions have then been reproduced numerically using a multiphase solver based on OpenFOAM framework. The original compressible multiphase Openfoam solver twoPhaseEulerFoam was extended to take into account the multicomponent nature of the fluid mixtures (liquid and gas) and the phase transition. According to the experimental conditions, the simulations were run with values of fluid viscosity ranging from 1 to 1000 Pa s. The sensitivity of the model has been tested for different values of the parameters t and D, representing respectively the relaxation time for gas exsolution and the average bubble diameter, required by the Gidaspow drag model. Valuable range of values for both parameters are provided from experimental observations, i.e. bubble nucleation time and bubble size distribution at a given pressure. The comparison of video images with the outcomes of the numerical models was performed by tracking the evolution of the gas volume fraction through time. Therefore, we were able to calibrate the parameter of the model by laboratory results, and to track the fluid dynamics of experimental decompression.

  13. Frictional melting dynamics in the upper conduit: A chemical answer to a complex physical question

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henton De Angelis, S.; Lavallee, Y.; Kendrick, J. E.; Hornby, A.; von Aulock, F. W.; Clesham, S.; Hirose, T.; Perugini, D.

    2013-12-01

    During volcanic eruptions the generation of frictional heat along the walls of the shallow conduit leads to melting of the rocks along the slip interface. Frictional melting has previously been described as a process out of thermodynamic equilibrium, but upon slip and mingling of the melt batches, homogeneity can be achieved, and may have an h important rheological control on the dynamics of slip. To test melt homogenization in the frictional melt zones of volcanic conduits we performed constant-rate slip experiments under controlled stress conditions using a high-velocity rotary shear apparatus. Volcanic dome samples from three different volcanoes (Volcán De Colima, Soufrière Hills Volcano and Santiaguito Volcano) were investigated. Each sample was subjected to a stress of 1 MPa and slip rate of 1 m/s. For each sample set 5 experiments were conducted: 1) experiment stopped at the onset of melting; 2) experiment stopped on the formation of a full melt layer; 3) experiment stopped after 5m of slip at steady state conditions; 4) experiment stopped after 10m of slip at steady state conditions; 5) experiment stopped after 15m of slip at steady state conditions. We analyzed the resulting proto-melt zones using micron sized X-ray spectroscopy in the high-brightness synchrotron beamline I18 (at Diamond Light Source UK). Particular focus was given to the concentration variance analysis of Rare Earth Elements as their mobilities can be used to precisely quantify the degree and timescale of homogenisation involved during frictional melting. This study refines our understanding of the chemical process of melting and mixing which carry important consequences for the rheological control on the physical dynamics of slip.

  14. Numerical simulation of explosive volcanic eruptions from the conduit flow to global atmospheric scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. J. Ernst

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Volcanic eruptions are unsteady multiphase phenomena, which encompass many inter-related processes across the whole range of scales from molecular and microscopic to macroscopic, synoptic and global. We provide an overview of recent advances in numerical modelling of volcanic effects, from conduit and eruption column processes to those on the Earth s climate. Conduit flow models examine ascent dynamics and multiphase processes like fragmentation, chemical reactions and mass transfer below the Earth surface. Other models simulate atmospheric dispersal of the erupted gas-particle mixture, focusing on rapid processes occurring in the jet, the lower convective regions, and pyroclastic density currents. The ascending eruption column and intrusive gravity current generated by it, as well as sedimentation and ash dispersal from those flows in the immediate environment of the volcano are examined with modular and generic models. These apply simplifications to the equations describing the system depending on the specific focus of scrutiny. The atmospheric dispersion of volcanic clouds is simulated by ash tracking models. These are inadequate for the first hours of spreading in many cases but focus on long-range prediction of ash location to prevent hazardous aircraft - ash encounters. The climate impact is investigated with global models. All processes and effects of explosive eruptions cannot be simulated by a single model, due to the complexity and hugely contrasting spatial and temporal scales involved. There is now the opportunity to establish a closer integration between different models and to develop the first comprehensive description of explosive eruptions and of their effects on the ground, in the atmosphere, and on the global climate.

  15. Grading complication following radical cystectomy and ileal conduit for bladder cancer using clavien grading system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the 30-day complication rate of radical cystectomy and urinary diversion using a validated system. Study Design: An analytical descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from 1990 to 2010. Methodology: Patients who had undergone ileal conduit (IC) formation, following radical cystectomy (RC) for muscle invasive transitional cell carcinoma, were studied, using a prospectively maintained data base. Basic details were determined, complications were noted and graded according to the modified Clavien grading system (CG). Results were presented using descriptive statistics. Results: Of all the RC performed at this hospital 89 patients received IC. Of them 75 were male and 14 female. Mean age was 60 years. Mean duration of hospital stay was 14 days. Ten patients each received pre-operative chemotherapy and radiotherapy, respectively. Mean duration of surgery was 8.2 hours, with mean estimated blood loss of 1334 ml. Preoperative radiotherapy was associated with more complications. No other factor like ASA, co-morbidities, blood loss or duration of stay influenced the complications. Fifty patients (56.2%) did not have any complications. Most common complication of wound infection was seen in 7 patients (CG-2), followed by uretero-ileal leakage in 5, requiring percutaneous intervention under local anaesthesia (GC-3a). Mortality rate was 4.5%, classified as CG-V. Conclusion: Radical cystectomy with Ileal conduit is a major procedure with a good safety profile at this institute. Long term follow up is still needed to evaluate delayed complications and quality of life. (author)

  16. Periodicity of non-central integral arrangements modulo positive integers

    CERN Document Server

    Kamiya, Hidehiko; Terao, Hiroaki

    2008-01-01

    An integral coefficient matrix determines an integral arrangement of hyperplanes in R^m. After modulo q reduction, the same matrix determines an arrangement A_q of ``hyperplanes'' in Z^m. In the special case of central arrangements, Kamiya, Takemura and Terao [J. Algebraic Combin., to appear] showed that the cardinality of the complement of A_q in Z_q^m is a quasi-polynomial in q. Moreover, they proved in the central case that the intersection lattice of A_q is periodic from some q on. The present paper generalizes these results to the case of non-central arrangements. The paper also studies the arrangement B_m^{[0,a]} of Athanasiadis [J. Algebraic Combin. Vol.10 (1999), 207-225] to illustrate our results.

  17. Effectiveness of community health financing in meeting the cost of illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preker Alexander S.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available How to finance and provide health care for the more than 1.3 billion rural poor and informal sector workers in low- and middle-income countries is one of the greatest challenges facing the international development community. This article presents the main findings from an extensive survey of the literature of community financing arrangements, and selected experiences from the Asia and Africa regions. Most community financing schemes have evolved in the context of severe economic constraints, political instability, and lack of good governance. Micro-level household data analysis indicates that community financing improves access by rural and informal sector workers to needed heath care and provides them with some financial protection against the cost of illness. Macro-level cross-country analysis gives empirical support to the hypothesis that risk-sharing in health financing matters in terms of its impact on both the level and distribution of health, financial fairness and responsiveness indicators. The background research done for this article points to five key policies available to governments to improve the effectiveness and sustainability of existing community financing schemes. This includes: (a increased and well-targeted subsidies to pay for the premiums of low-income populations; (b insurance to protect against expenditure fluctuations and re-insurance to enlarge the effective size of small risk pools; (c effective prevention and case management techniques to limit expenditure fluctuations; (d technical support to strengthen the management capacity of local schemes; and (e establishment and strengthening of links with the formal financing and provider networks.

  18. Terrestrial analogs to lunar sinuous rilles - Kauhako Crater and channel, Kalaupapa, Molokai, and other Hawaiian lava conduit systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two source vents, one explosive and one effusive erupted to form a cinder cone and low lava shield that together compose the Kalaupapa peninsula of Molokai, Hawaii, A 50-100-m-wide channel/tube system extends 2.3 km northward from kauhako crater in the center of the shield. Based on modeling, a volume of up to about 0.2 cu km of lava erupted at a rate of 260 cu m/sec to flow through the Kauhako conduit system in one of the last eruptive episodes on the peninsula. Channel downcutting by thermal erosion occurred at a rate of about 10 micron/sec to help form the 30-m-deep conduit. Two smaller, secondary tube systems formed east of the main lava channel/tube. Several other lava conduit systems on the islands of Oahu and Hawaii were also compared to the Kauhako and lunar sinuous rille systems. These other lava conduits include Whittington, Kupaianaha, and Mauna Ulu lava tubes. Morphologically, the Hawaiian tube systems studied are very similar to lunar sinuous rilles in that they have deep head craters, sinuous channels, and gentle slopes. Thermal erosion is postulated to be an important factor in the formation of these terrestrial channel systems and by analogy is inferred to be an important process involved in the formation of lunar sinuous rilles. 28 refs

  19. Fast evolving conduits in clay-bonded sandstone: Characterization, erosion processes and significance for the origin of sandstone landforms.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bruthans, J.; Svetlik, D.; Soukup, J.; Schweigstillová, Jana; Válek, Jan; Sedlá?ková, M.; Mayo, A.L.

    2012-01-01

    Ro?. 177, December (2012), s. 178-193. ISSN 0169-555X R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IAA300130806 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 ; RVO:68378297 Keywords : sandstone * erosion * piping * tensile strength * conduit * landform Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology Impact factor: 2.552, year: 2012

  20. FATIGUE PROPERTIES OF MODIFIED 316LN STAINLESS STEEL AT 4 K FOR HIGH FIELD CABLE-IN-CONDUIT APPLICATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cable-In-Conduit-Conductor (CICC) alloys, exposed to Nb3Sn reaction heat-treatments, such as modified 316LN require a design specific database. A lack of fatigue life data (S-n curves) that could be applied in the design of the ITER CS and the NHMFL Series Connected Hybrid magnets is the impetus for the research presented here. The modified 316LN is distinguished by a lower carbon content and higher nitrogen content when compared to conventional 316LN. Because the interstitial alloying elements affect the mechanical properties significantly, it is necessary to characterize this alloy in a systematic way. In conjunction, to ensure magnet reliability and performance, several criteria and expectations must be met, including: high fatigue life at the operating stresses, optimal stress management at cryogenic temperatures and thin walled conduit to reduce coil mass. Tension-tension load control axial fatigue tests have good applicability to CICC solenoid magnet design, thus a series of 4 K strength versus fatigue life curves have been generated. In-situ samples of 316LN base metal, seam welded, butt welded and seam plus butt welded are removed directly from the conduit in order to address base and weld material fatigue life variability. The more than 30 fatigue tests show good grouping on the fatigue life curve and allow discretionary 4 K fatigue life predictions for conduit made with modified 316LN.

  1. 75 FR 44982 - Arkansas Valley Conduit (AVC) and Long-Term Excess Capacity Master Contract, Fryingpan-Arkansas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-30

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Arkansas Valley Conduit (AVC) and Long-Term Excess Capacity Master Contract... (Reclamation) proposes to prepare a draft EIS that analyzes effects associated with construction of the AVC, a..., please call no later than one week before the public meeting of interest. Background Information The...

  2. Mortgage Finance and Security of Collateral

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haldrup, Karin

    2011-01-01

    Developing economies face a gigantic lack of financing for urbanization due to the absence of formal and transparent property markets. The paper discuss the interference between mortgage finance and collateral security by using the Danish mortgage financing model as an example, because of its 200 years long history, and because the system is recommended as an option in emerging markets and as a possible model for remedying failures in mature housing finance markets. It is suggested that development policies in land administration need to be revised in order to support a widening of credit markets and effectively serve pro-poor policies.

  3. The financing of new mining ventures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various options are presented for tackling the problem in mining today of the high capital costs required for a new mine combined with the front end exposure that the exploiters face. Equity finance from the producers, private investors, oil companies, consumers and governments is discussed as well as loan finance from export credit agencies, international agencies, production-related loans, leasing and commercial bank loans. The future in financing mining is outlined and it is proposed that the future will lie in smaller projects financed primarily with equity. (U.K.)

  4. Complications in financing new nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Historical Financing Approach; Recent Financing Complexities; Typical NPP Project Structure; Project Funding; Technical Developments; Financing Drivers; Conflicting Goals; Different Motivation/ Values: Public vs. Private and other financial aspects are discussed. Some suggestions for consideration are given, such as: Stronger involvement of Government. Stronger involvement of off takers as investors: – Large industrial entities – Utilities/ Distribution companies – Smaller, aggregated industrial entities. Return to corporate finance model (e.g. balance sheet based on existing operating assets), More creative BOO(T) structures, EPCM project execution structures; Better communication with outside stake holders, i.e., why nuclear is best option

  5. External financing, growth and capital structure

    OpenAIRE

    Asimakopoulos, Ioannis; Athanasoglou, Panayiotis; Siriopoulos, Konstantinos

    2006-01-01

    The study focuses on Greek non-financial firms listed on the Athens Exchange in the period 1998-2002 and shows that only a small fraction of these firms were in a position to finance their growth by exclusively using internal resources with the findings varying depending on the firms’ size. For those firms that had to resort to external financing, short-term financing was favoured compared to long-term financing. While the need for short-term debt did not differ significantly between small an...

  6. Reorganizing Rural Public Finance: Reforms and Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Q. Tian

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines recent reforms to restructure rural public finance in China and their impact on local-government finance. The focus is on how fiscal income and financial expenditure are managed by local-level governments, particularly at the county and township levels, and how rural public and social services are financed. The article also looks at the development of intergovernmental transfers, ongoing administrative reform, more recent initiatives to extend public finance to cover rural residents as part of the comprehensive rural reform, and a new campaign to build a new socialist rural China.

  7. FINANCING MECHANISMS OF AGRICULTURE IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BUMBESCU SORINA SIMONA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to highlight the importance of the agriculture financing ways, existing an interdependence relationship between the stage of agriculture development and its funding mechanisms. This article presents in a complex way, the general theoretical framework of the agriculture financing, and the practical methods of agriculture finance from bank loans to European programs and projects, the impact of EU funds on agriculture. The research leads to two important categories of tangible results; on one hand it highlights the most important and used ways to finance the Romanian agriculture, and on the other hand, there is analised the impact of EU funds on rural development, their absorption.

  8. Financing U.S. exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the challenges of financing U.S. exploration from the perspective of an independent oil and gas producer. When Burlington Resources was split into a separate company from the Burlington Northern Railroad three years ago, the company owned extensive resources but had little production capability, and had to resolve the problem of raising development capital. According to the author of this paper, three key elements in the company's perception of the business environment drove its strategy: that the role of independent producers would be crucial in new onshore oil and gas development as the majors moved offshore; that energy prices would remain weak; and that financial market sentiment would not favor a move to leverage the company more highly than its starting-point of 19 percent debt-to-total capital ratio

  9. Finance salaries. Account the cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robling, Andy

    2003-02-01

    Post-qualification salaries have increased by 4-7 per cent, a slowdown on last year's figures when increases were often more than 10 per cent. The highest increases this year tended to be in medium-sized trusts where newly qualified accountants' salaries rose 8.2 per cent. Directors of finance in large trusts earn about 20 per cent more than in medium trusts and about 40 per cent more than in small ones. Newly qualified accountants in large trusts earn 5 per cent more than in medium-sized trusts and 13 per cent more than in small ones. The survey is based on an analysis of salaries from Hays' jobs database, and salaries of registered candidates. PMID:12596492

  10. Ileal conduit without cystectomy may be an appropriate option in the treatment of intractable bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norus, Thomas; Fode, Mikkel

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective. The aim of this study was to report the outcomes of urinary diversion for bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) at a large university hospital over a period of more than 10 years. Material and methods. Chart reviews were performed for BPS/IC patients who had undergone ileal conduit with or without cystectomy. Questionnaires on quality of life, BPS/IC symptoms and pain were mailed to patients. Outcomes in the cystectomy and the non-cystectomy groups were compared with Fisher's exact test. Results. Ileal conduit without cystectomy was performed in 20 patients. Two underwent a subsequent cystectomy owing to persistent symptoms. Three patients underwent ileal conduit with concomitant primary cystectomy. Nineteen patients were alive at the time of the study and 15 returned the questionnaires. Twelve responders had been treated with ileal conduit and three had undergone primary cystectomy. The quality of life in both the cystectomy and the non-cystectomy groups was comparable withthat in the general population. Seven patients in the non-cystectomy group were free of specific BPS/IC symptoms. The remaining five patients had minimal symptoms. Two cystectomy patients were free of symptoms, while one still suffered from severe symptoms. Eleven patients reported having no pain while four patients had visual analogue scale (VAS) scores between 2 and 9.5. Three patients experiencing pain belonged to the non-cystectomy group. There was no difference between the cystectomy group and the non-cystectomy group with regard to the proportion of patients who were symptom free. Conclusion. Ileal conduit without cystectomy may be an appropriate option when performing urinary diversion in BPS/IC patients.

  11. Corporate finance in an interest free economy: An alternate approach to practiced Islamic Corporate Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Shaikh, Salman

    2009-01-01

    This paper suggests an alternate approach to corporate finance in an interest free economy by looking beyond practiced Islamic finance and suggesting alternatives for corporate finance in sourcing funds i.e. i) Ijara with embedded options, ii) limited liability partnership, iii) equity modes like Musharakah and Mudarabah iv) income bonds and v) convertible income bonds. It also suggests alternatives for corporate finance in using funds i.e. i) Islamic income funds, ii) Islamic REITs, iii) Tre...

  12. METHOD FOR DETERMINING THE MAXIMUM ARRANGEMENT FACTOR OF FOOTWEAR PARTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DRI?CU Mariana

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available By classic methodology, designing footwear is a very complex and laborious activity. That is because classic methodology requires many graphic executions using manual means, which consume a lot of the producer’s time. Moreover, the results of this classical methodology may contain many inaccuracies with the most unpleasant consequences for the footwear producer. Thus, the costumer that buys a footwear product by taking into consideration the characteristics written on the product (size, width can notice after a period that the product has flaws because of the inadequate design. In order to avoid this kind of situations, the strictest scientific criteria must be followed when one designs a footwear product. The decisive step in this way has been made some time ago, when, as a result of powerful technical development and massive implementation of electronical calculus systems and informatics, This paper presents a product software for determining all possible arrangements of a footwear product’s reference points, in order to automatically acquire the maximum arrangement factor. The user multiplies the pattern in order to find the economic arrangement for the reference points. In this purpose, the user must probe few arrangement variants, in the translation and rotate-translation system. The same process is used in establishing the arrangement factor for the two points of reference of the designed footwear product. After probing several variants of arrangement in the translation and rotation and translation systems, the maximum arrangement factors are chosen. This allows the user to estimate the material wastes.

  13. Municipal bond financing of solar energy facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, S.S.

    1979-12-01

    The application of the laws of municipal bond financing to solar facilities is examined. The type of facilities under consideration are outlined. The general legal principles of municipal securities financing are discussed. The effect of recent decisions applying antitrust liability to municipal corporations is also discussed. Five specific types of municipal bonds are explained. The application of Section 103 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954, as amended, to the issuance of municipal bonds for solar facility financing is examined also. Five bond laws of five representative states are examined and whether the eight types of solar facilities under consideration could be financed under such law is discussed. The application of the general legal principle is illustrated. Three hypothetical situations are set forth and common legal issues to be confronted by city officials in proposing such financing are discussed. These issues will be raised in most financings, but the purpose is to examine the common context in which they are raised. It is concluded that if it can be shown that the purpose of the solar facilities to be financed is to benefit the public, all legal obstacles to the use of municipal financing of solar facilities can be substantially overcome.

  14. Innovative financing techniques for nuclear power exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author makes general comments regarding the possible conflict between project risks, sponsors' ability to assume these risks, and the requirements and objectives of all project benficiaries: sponsors, lenders, consumers and government. To reconcile these conflicts there is an increasing use of project finance techniques to finance large capital projects

  15. Investments and financing in the energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In two brief articles aspects of investment and financing in the energy market are highlighted. In the first article the complexity of financing energy projects is discussed, while in the second article the opinion of a representative of the public utility E.On Benelux on newcomers in the energy market is reflected

  16. Threshold Concepts in Finance: Conceptualizing the Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoadley, Susan; Tickle, Leonie; Wood, Leigh N.; Kyng, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Graduates with well-developed capabilities in finance are invaluable to our society and in increasing demand. Universities face the challenge of designing finance programmes to develop these capabilities and the essential knowledge that underpins them. Our research responds to this challenge by identifying threshold concepts that are central to…

  17. Moving toward a Coherent School Finance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Heather

    2013-01-01

    California's current school finance system is a tangled web of funding programs, restrictions, inequities and confusion. Building a stronger finance system to benefit from resources is an important step in strengthening California's K-12 education system and better meeting the needs of its students. Gov. Brown has recently proposed the Local…

  18. Financing of nuclear trade. The brazilian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of financing instruments as means for the promotion of international nuclear trade is analysed. Besides the specific characteristics of nuclear trade is examined. Furthermore the role of governmental authorities and international agencies, mainly the IAEA is discussed. Finally the presence of Brazil in the international financial market and the financing of nuclear trade in Brazil are described

  19. Periodicity of non-central integral arrangements modulo positive integers

    OpenAIRE

    Kamiya, Hidehiko; Takemura, Akimichi; Terao, Hiroaki

    2008-01-01

    An integral coefficient matrix determines an integral arrangement of hyperplanes in R^m. After modulo q reduction, the same matrix determines an arrangement A_q of "hyperplanes" in Z^m. In the special case of central arrangements, Kamiya, Takemura and Terao [J. Algebraic Combin., to appear] showed that the cardinality of the complement of A_q in Z_q^m is a quasi-polynomial in q. Moreover, they proved in the central case that the intersection lattice of A_q is periodic from s...

  20. Do Portuguese SMEs Follow Pecking Order Financing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartholdy, Jan; Mateus, Cesario

    2012-01-01

    This paper tests for pecking order behavior in medium-sized private Portuguese firms. In contrast to the usual split between internal funds, debt, and external equity, we separate debt into four components – cheap trade credits (CTC), bank loans (BL), other loans, and expensive credits (EC). We use breakpoint tests to identify when firms switch between funding sources by examining the change in each funding source based on the financing deficit remaining after the previous pecking order funding source has been used. Our tests indicate that Portuguese companies generally move from lower cost to higher cost financing sources, but they do not exhaust each type of debt before moving on to the next funding source in the pecking order. Such behavior is consistent with a loose interpretation of pecking order financing, but not a strict interpretation of the theory. Instead, Portuguese firms may be balancing pecking order financing with a need to maintain some degree of financing flexibility.

  1. Investment Timing When External Financing Is Costly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirth, Stefan; Uhrig-Homburg, Marliese

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the investment timing of firms facing two dimensions of financing constraints: Liquidity constraints and capital market frictions inducing financing costs. We show that liquidity constraints are not sufficient to explain voluntary investment delay. However, when additionally considering financing costs, we can explain both voluntary delay and acceleration of investment. More precisely, we find that investment thresholds are U-shaped in liquid funds. For high-liquidity firms, investment thresholds are decreasing (i.e. accelerated investment takes place) in either dimension of financing constraint. In contrast, investment thresholds are increasing (i.e. investment is further delayed) in either form of financing constraint for low-liquidity firms. For intermediate levels of liquidity, investment thresholds are U-shaped in market frictions.

  2. Fabrication of bioactive conduits containing the fibroblast growth factor 1 and neural stem cells for peripheral nerve regeneration across a 15 mm critical gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nerve conduits are often used in combination with bioactive molecules and stem cells to enhance peripheral nerve regeneration. In this study, the acidic fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1) was immobilized onto the microporous/micropatterned poly (D, L-lactic acid) (PLA) nerve conduits after open air plasma treatment. PLA substrates grafted with chitosan in the presence of a small amount of gold nanoparticles (nano Au) showed a protective effect on the activity of the immobilized FGF1 in vitro. Different conduits were tested for their ability to bridge a 15 mm critical gap defect in a rat sciatic nerve injury model. Axon regeneration and functional recovery were evaluated by histology, walking track analysis and electrophysiology. Among different conduits, PLA conduits grafted with chitosan–nano Au and the FGF1 after plasma activation had the greatest regeneration capacity and functional recovery in the experimental animals. When the above conduit was seeded with aligned neural stem cells, the efficacy was further enhanced and it approached that of the autograft group. This work suggested that microporous/micropatterned nerve conduits containing bioactive growth factors may be successfully fabricated by micropatterning techniques, open plasma activation, and immobilization, which, combined with aligned stem cells, may synergistically contribute to the regeneration of the severely damaged peripheral nerve. (paper)

  3. Financing and cost-effectiveness analysis of public-private partnerships: provision of tuberculosis treatment in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Kumaranayake Lilani; Sinanovic Edina

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Public-private partnerships (PPP) could be effective in scaling up services. We estimated cost and cost-effectiveness of different PPP arrangements in the provision of tuberculosis (TB) treatment, and the financing required for the different models from the perspective of the provincial TB programme, provider, and the patient. Methods Two different models of TB provider partnerships are evaluated, relative to sole public provision: public-private workplace (PWP) and public...

  4. The new electricity trading arrangements: prospects for market development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Briefing Paper from OXERA argues that the OFGEM proposals will not solve the fundamental market problems and might even make things worse. They focus too narrowly on the technical design of one small part of the market (the Balancing Mechanism and associated imbalance settlement process), without considering the market context and dynamics. OXERA argues that the central emphasis of the White Paper was misplaced: reform of the electricity trading arrangements, the basis of the government's strategy, will not solve the upstream and downstream market problems. The Briefing Paper includes analysis of: the structure and operation of the proposed new electricity trading arrangements; risk in the electricity wholesale market, and the responses of market participants; the interaction between the new trading arrangements and other energy market developments - in particular, vertical integration between generators and suppliers; energy supply competition, and wider government policy; the prospects for market development under the new electricity trading arrangements. (author)

  5. Fuel arrangement for high temperature gas cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disclosed is a fuel arrangement for a high temperature gas cooled reactor including fuel assemblies with separate directly cooled fissile and fertile fuel elements removably inserted in an elongated moderator block also having a passageway for control elements

  6. A sampling plan for conduit-flow karst springs: Minimizing sampling cost and maximizing statistical utility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currens, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    Analytical data for nitrate and triazines from 566 samples collected over a 3-year period at Pleasant Grove Spring, Logan County, KY, were statistically analyzed to determine the minimum data set needed to calculate meaningful yearly averages for a conduit-flow karst spring. Results indicate that a biweekly sampling schedule augmented with bihourly samples from high-flow events will provide meaningful suspended-constituent and dissolved-constituent statistics. Unless collected over an extensive period of time, daily samples may not be representative and may also be autocorrelated. All high-flow events resulting in a significant deflection of a constituent from base-line concentrations should be sampled. Either the geometric mean or the flow-weighted average of the suspended constituents should be used. If automatic samplers are used, then they may be programmed to collect storm samples as frequently as every few minutes to provide details on the arrival time of constituents of interest. However, only samples collected bihourly should be used to calculate averages. By adopting a biweekly sampling schedule augmented with high-flow samples, the need to continuously monitor discharge, or to search for and analyze existing data to develop a statistically valid monitoring plan, is lessened.Analytical data for nitrate and triazines from 566 samples collected over a 3-year period at Pleasant Grove Spring, Logan County, KY, were statistically analyzed to determine the minimum data set needed to calculate meaningful yearly averages for a conduit-flow karst spring. Results indicate that a biweekly sampling schedule augmented with bihourly samples from high-flow events will provide meaningful suspended-constituent and dissolved-constituent statistics. Unless collected over an extensive period of time, daily samples may not be representative and may also be autocorrelated. All high-flow events resulting in a significant deflection of a constituent from base-line concentrations should be sampled. Either the geometric mean or the flow-weighted average of the suspended constituents should be used. If automatic samplers are used, then they may be programmed to collect storm samples as frequently as every few minutes to provide details on the arrival time of constituents of interest. However, only samples collected bihourly should be used to calculate averages. By adopting a biweekly sampling schedule augmented with high-flow samples, the need to continuously monitor discharge, or to search for and analyze existing data to develop a statistically valid monitoring plan, is lessened.

  7. Fault textures in volcanic conduits: evidence for seismic trigger mechanisms during silicic eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuffen, Hugh; Dingwell, Don

    2005-04-01

    It is proposed that fault textures in two dissected rhyolitic conduits in Iceland preserve evidence for shallow seismogenic faulting within rising magma during the emplacement of highly viscous lava flows. Detailed field and petrographic analysis of such textures may shed light on the origin of long-period and hybrid volcanic earthquakes at active volcanoes. There is evidence at each conduit investigated for multiple seismogenic cycles, each of which involved four distinct evolutionary phases. In phase 1, shear fracture of unrelaxed magma was triggered by shear stress accumulation during viscous flow, forming the angular fracture networks that initiated faulting cycles. Transient pressure gradients were generated as the fractures opened, which led to fluidisation and clastic deposition of fine-grained particles that were derived from the fracture walls by abrasion. Fracture networks then progressively coalesced and rotated during subsequent slip (phase 2), developing into cataclasite zones with evidence for multiple localised slip events, fluidisation and grain size reduction. Phase 2 textures closely resemble those formed on seismogenic tectonic faults characterised by friction-controlled stick-slip behaviour. Increasing cohesion of cataclasites then led to aseismic, distributed ductile deformation (phase 3) and generated deformed cataclasite zones, which are enriched in metallic oxide microlites and resemble glassy pseudotachylite. Continued annealing and deformation eventually erased all structures in the cataclasite and formed microlite-rich flow bands in obsidian (phase 4). Overall, the mixed brittle-ductile textures formed in the magma appear similar to those formed in lower crustal rocks close to the brittle-ductile transition, with the rheological response mediated by strain-rate variations and frictional heating. Fault processes in highly viscous magma are compared with those elsewhere in the crust, and this comparison is used to appraise existing models of volcano seismic activity. Based on the textures observed, it is suggested that patterns of long-period and hybrid earthquakes at silicic lava domes reflect friction-controlled stick-slip movement and eventual healing of fault zones in magma, which are an accelerated and smaller-scale analogue of tectonic faults.

  8. A microanalytical perspective on late stage conduit dynamics at Tungurahua and Cotopaxi Volcanoes, Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarr, G. J.; Garman, K. A.; Harpp, K. S.; Dufek, J.; Geist, D.

    2009-12-01

    Late-stage conduit dynamics can strongly influence the explosivity and eruption mechanisms of volatile rich magmas. Magmatic viscosity can affect bubble coalescence, differential magma-gas flow, and fragmentation style. We have examined the products of recent eruptions of an intermediate style of volcanism that produces pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) fed from low eruption columns. These boiling-over style eruptions were observed during the 2006 eruption of Tungurahua and were inferred from the deposits of the 1877 eruption of Cotopaxi. In the 2006 eruption of Tungurahua at least 56 PDCs were recorded; on the basis of observations during the eruptions, all the PDCs were attributed to the boiling over process. In eruptions from both volcanoes, juvenile bombs appear throughout the deposit, often concentrated in levees and in flow lobes. These bombs can be large (5 to 15 decimeters in diameter) and have a fragile bread-crust exterior. The majority of the smaller bombs from the Tungurahua deposits (1 to 5 decimeters in diameter) are flattened and highly vesicular with large vesicles up to 15 mm in diameter. The centers of the largest bombs (up to 1.8 meters across), however, are denser, lacking vesicles larger than 2 mm. At Cotopaxi the juvenile bombs have a similar size and density to those at Tungurahua, but lack large vesicles, instead having a relatively high abundance of vesicles less than 1 mm in diameter. Larger vesicles (up to 3 mm in diameter) are concentrated in frothy, brown to green regions in Cotopaxi deposits. Viscosity calculated using major element contents of the juvenile bombs suggests that those from Tungurahua may be more viscous than those at Cotopaxi by as much as 20 percent. We will examine the differences in bomb color, density, and crystal content at the microscopic level using LA-ICP-MS to determine small scale chemical variations. We propose that these differences at Tungurahua and Cotopaxi reflect subtle differences in magma viscosity and conduit dynamics, and that they have the potential to provide insight into the boiling-over PDC generation mechanism.

  9. Étude des perturbations conduites et rayonnées dans une cellule de commutation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, F.; Forest, F.; Puzo, A.; Rojat, G.

    1993-12-01

    The principles used in static conversion and the rise of the performances of the new switching devices contribue to increase the level of electromagnetic noises emitted by electronic converters. We have studied the way how these perturbations are created and coupled through their environment in conducted and radiated mode by a switching cell. This one can work in hard switching, zero current or voltage switching modes. We first outline the general problems of electromagnetic pollution and their metrology in converters. Then we describe the experimental environment. We analyse the mechanisms of generation of parasitic signals in a switching cell related to the electrical constraints and its switching mode. The simulated results, issued of the analytical models obtained, are confronted with the experimental ones. Then we show a method to calculate analytically the E and H near fields. It has been confirmed by experimental results. At last, we present, in a synthetic manner, the main results obtained, relative to the switching mode and the electrical constraints, using a new characterizing method. Theses results will allow the designer to incorporate the electromagnetic considerations in the conception of a converter. Les principes de commutation employés en conversion statique, l'évolution des performances statiques et dynamiques des composants, contribuent à faire des dispositifs de conversion statique de puissants générateurs de perturbations conduites et rayonnées. Nous nous sommes attachés à étudier les mécanismes de génération et de couplage des perturbations, tant en mode conduit que rayonné dans des structures à une seule cellule de commutation et fonctionnant selon les trois principaux modes de commutation : commutation forcée, à zéro de courant (ZCS), et à zéro de tension (ZVS). Après la mise en évidence de la problématique de pollution électromagnétique dans les structures et leur métrologie, nous décrivons l'environnement expérimental étudié. Nous analysons ensuite les principaux mécanismes produisant les perturbations au sein d'une cellule de commutation en introduisant un certain nombre de composants parasites. Les modèles sont simulés et confrontés aux résultats expérimentaux. Nous décrivons alors une méthode, validée expérimentalement et permettant de calculer les intensités des champs E et H proches émis. Enfin, nous présentons de façon synthétique les résultats observés selon les régimes de fonctionnement de la cellule de commutation et les contraintes électriques et dynamiques qu'elle subit. Nous avons, pour ce faire, développé une méthode originale de quantification des signaux perturbateurs. Les résultats obtenus doivent permettre d'intégrer les problèmes de pollution électromagnétique au stade de la conception d'un dispositif.

  10. Experimental composite guidance conduits for peripheral nerve repair: An evaluation of ion release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, X.F. [Department of Biological Sciences and Medical Engineering Design and Innovation Centre, Cork Institute of Technology, Cork (Ireland); Coughlan, A. [Inamori School of Engineering, Alfred University, Alfred, NY. 14802 (United States); O' Shea, H. [Department of Biological Sciences and Medical Engineering Design and Innovation Centre, Cork Institute of Technology, Cork (Ireland); Towler, M.R. [Inamori School of Engineering, Alfred University, Alfred, NY. 14802 (United States); Kehoe, S., E-mail: sharonkehoe@dal.ca [Department of Applied Oral Sciences, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, B3H 4R2 (Canada); School of Biomedical Engineering, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, B3H 4R2 (Canada); Boyd, D., E-mail: d.boyd@dal.ca [Department of Applied Oral Sciences, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, B3H 4R2 (Canada); School of Biomedical Engineering, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, B3H 4R2 (Canada)

    2012-08-01

    Poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) - Pluronic F127 - glass composites have demonstrated excellent potential, from the perspective of controlled mechanical properties and cytocompatibility, for peripheral nerve regeneration. In addition to controlling the mechanical properties and cytotoxicity for such composite devices, the glass component may mediate specific responses upon implantation via degradation in the physiological environment and release of constituent elements. However, research focused on quantifying the release levels of such therapeutic ions from these experimental medical devices has been limited. To redress the balance, this paper explores the ion release profiles for Si{sup 4+}, Ca{sup 2+}, Na{sup +}, Zn{sup 2+}, and Ce{sup 4+} from experimental composite nerve guidance conduits (CNGC) comprising PLGA (at 12.5, and 20 wt.%), F127 (at 0, 2.5 and 5 wt.%) and various loadings of Si-Ca-Na-Zn-Ce glass (at 20 and 40 wt.%) for incubation periods of up to 28 days. The concentration of each ion, at various time points, was determined using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry (Perkin Elmer Optima 3000). It was observed that the Si{sup 4+}, Na{sup +}, Ca{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+} release from CNGCs in this study ranged from 0.22 to 6.477 ppm, 2.307 to 3.277 ppm, 40 to 119 ppm, and 45 to 51 ppm, respectively. The Ce{sup 4+} concentrations were under the minimum detection limits for the ICP instrument utilized. The results indicate that the ion release levels may be appropriate to mediate therapeutic effects with respect to peripheral nerve regeneration. The data generated in this paper provides requisite evidence to optimize composition for pre-clinical evaluation of the experimental composite. - Graphical abstract: Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Time-dependent degradation studies of PLGA/glass composite nerve guidance conduits (NGCs). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Si{sup 4+}, Na{sup +}, Ca{sup 2+} and Zn{sup 2+} release levels for the glass containing NGCs are presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Release levels may mediate therapeutic effects to provoke nerve regeneration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Data provides requisite evidence to optimize composition to pre-clinical requirements.

  11. Experimental composite guidance conduits for peripheral nerve repair: An evaluation of ion release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) — Pluronic F127 — glass composites have demonstrated excellent potential, from the perspective of controlled mechanical properties and cytocompatibility, for peripheral nerve regeneration. In addition to controlling the mechanical properties and cytotoxicity for such composite devices, the glass component may mediate specific responses upon implantation via degradation in the physiological environment and release of constituent elements. However, research focused on quantifying the release levels of such therapeutic ions from these experimental medical devices has been limited. To redress the balance, this paper explores the ion release profiles for Si4+, Ca2+, Na+, Zn2+, and Ce4+ from experimental composite nerve guidance conduits (CNGC) comprising PLGA (at 12.5, and 20 wt.%), F127 (at 0, 2.5 and 5 wt.%) and various loadings of Si–Ca–Na–Zn–Ce glass (at 20 and 40 wt.%) for incubation periods of up to 28 days. The concentration of each ion, at various time points, was determined using Inductively Coupled Plasma–Atomic Emission Spectrometry (Perkin Elmer Optima 3000). It was observed that the Si4+, Na+, Ca2+, Zn2+ release from CNGCs in this study ranged from 0.22 to 6.477 ppm, 2.307 to 3.277 ppm, 40 to 119 ppm, and 45 to 51 ppm, respectively. The Ce4+ concentrations were under the minimum detection limits for the ICP instrument utilized. The results indicate that the ion release levels may be appropriate to mediate therapeutic effects with respect to peripheral nerve regeneration. The data generated in this paper provides requisite evidence to optimize composition for pre-clinical evaluation of the experimental composite. - Graphical abstract: Highlights: ? Time-dependent degradation studies of PLGA/glass composite nerve guidance conduits (NGCs). ? Si4+, Na+, Ca2+ and Zn2+ release levels for the glass containing NGCs are presented. ? Release levels may mediate therapeutic effects to provoke nerve regeneration. ? Data provides requisite evidence to optimize composition to pre-clinical requirements.

  12. Living arrangements in Western Europe: does cultural origin matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Giuliano, Paola

    2006-01-01

    Why are there such large differences in living arrangements across Western European countries? Conventional economic analyses have not been successful in explaining differences in living arrangements and particularly the dramatic increase in the fraction of young adults living with their parents in Mediterranean Europe. This paper presents a cultural interpretation. I argue that the sexual revolution of the 1970s - by liberalizing parental attitudes - had a differential impact on living arran...

  13. IMF arrangements, politics and the timing of stabilizations

    OpenAIRE

    Veiga, Francisco José

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyses the effects of International Monetary Fund (IMF) arrangements on the timing of inflation stabilization programs. Essentially, we test the hypothesis that IMF aid accelerates stabilization using probit and proportional hazards models. As in theoretical models, results are mixed: larger withdrawals of the amounts agreed to seem to hasten stabilization, but there is weak evidence that IMF arrangements lead to greater delays. Concerning other effects, greater fragmentation ...

  14. Guide for arranging a street floorball tournament in Leipzig, Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Jokiranta, Olli

    2011-01-01

    The subject of this practice based thesis is creating a guide for arranging a sports marketing event. The project is made for Mitteldeutscher Floorballclub, which operates in Leipzig, Germany. The aim of the thesis is to create a guidebook for arranging a floorball marketing event in Leipzig. This event is a street floorball tournament, which aims increasing awareness of floorball and Mitteldeutscher Floorballclub in Leipzig. The used data is collected mainly from literature...

  15. The IDDIR: an informal insurance arrangement in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    AREDO, DEJENE

    2010-01-01

    In the absence of formal insurance services, smallholder farmers are devoid of effective ways of managing numerous risks they encounter in their daily lives. One response mechanisms common among rural households is reliance on network-based collective action arrangement driven by motives of reciprocity and altruism. The indigenous financial institutions constitute a striking example of risk-sharing and risk-pooling arrangements widely practiced by the bulk of rural communities ...

  16. Spatial arrangement in texture discrimination and texture segregation

    OpenAIRE

    Vancleef, Kathleen; Putzeys, Tom; Gheorghiu, Elena; Sassi, Michaël; Machilsen, Bart; Wagemans, Johan

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the role of spatial arrangement of texture elements in three psychophysical experiments on texture discrimination and texture segregation. In our stimuli, oriented Gabor elements formed an iso-oriented and a randomly oriented texture region. We manipulated (1) the orientation similarity in the iso-oriented region by adding orientation jitter to the orientation of each Gabor; (2) the spatial arrangement of the Gabors: quasi-random or regular; and (3) the shape of the edge betwe...

  17. EXPERIMENTAL ARRANGEMENT FOR DETERMINING THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El?bieta Gogó?

    1977-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents principle of operation and construction description of an experimental arrangement for measuring thermal conductivity of solids. It consists of the Dynatech Corp. apparatus, control system of the cooling water pressure, thermal insulation removal systems and a vacuum system. The experimental arrangement may be used, among others, for investigation of the thermal conductivity temperature dependence of different kinds of steel.

  18. Internalisation or externalisation? : Examining organisational arrangements for industrial services

    OpenAIRE

    Kowalkowski, Christian; Kindström, Daniel; Witell, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – Manufacturing firms primarily organise service provision internally, externally or through a hybrid arrangement. This paper aims to analyse how firm-, offering-, and market-specific factors influence the way in which a firm organise its service provision. In addition, the paper analyses the specific challenges that each organisational arrangement presents for a firm. Design/Methodology/Approach – The study employed a qualitative, multiple-case research design that involved seven man...

  19. The Relationship between the Arrangement of Constituents and Reading Speed

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Jokar; Seyyed Mohammad Ali Soozandehfar

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the arrangement of constituents and reading speed. This study answered this question: “does the arrangement of constituent affect reading speed?” The subjects of the study were 30 female EFL graduate students at Isfahan University. Two forms of a passage were used. One form (form A) with breaks between constituents and one intact form (form “I”). These forms were given to two homogenous groups. To ac...

  20. Periodicity of hyperplane arrangements with integral coefficients modulo positive integers

    OpenAIRE

    Kamiya, Hidehiko; Takemura, Akimichi; Terao, Hiroaki

    2007-01-01

    We study central hyperplane arrangements with integral coefficients modulo positive integers $q$. We prove that the cardinality of the complement of the hyperplanes is a quasi-polynomial in two ways, first via the theory of elementary divisors and then via the theory of the Ehrhart quasi-polynomials. This result is useful for determining the characteristic polynomial of the corresponding real arrangement. With the former approach, we also prove that intersection lattices mod...