26 CFR 1.881-3 - Conduit financing arrangements. (United States)

...2010-04-01 false Conduit financing arrangements. 1.881-3... § 1.881-3 Conduit financing arrangements. (a) General...or otherwise. (ii ) Restrictions on payment. The fact...whose participation in the financing arrangement may be...



26 CFR 1.881-3 - Conduit financing arrangements. (United States)

...2 ) Financing entity's knowledge —(i ) In general...regarding financing entity's knowledge. It shall be...determined by comparing the aggregate tax imposed under section...generally is made by comparing the aggregate tax imposed under...



26 CFR 1.881-3 - Conduit financing arrangements. (United States)

...entities. (v ) Related means related within the meaning...2 ) Financing entity's knowledge —(i ) In general. ...regarding financing entity's knowledge. It shall be presumed...if its business is making or managing investments, unless...



26 CFR 1.881-3 - Conduit financing arrangements. (United States)

...interest at a specified time or the holder has...other payment with respect to the stock or have a right to force a redemption...LIBOR plus 50 basis points on a notional principal...LIBOR plus 50 basis points semiannually. ...financing activities with respect to certain...



26 CFR 1.881-3 - Conduit financing arrangements. (United States)

...which is equal to the lowest aggregate principal amount of the financing...denominator of which is the aggregate principal amount of the...FP makes an interest-free demand loan of $10,000,000...numerator of which is the lowest aggregate principal amount...



26 CFR 1.881-3 - Conduit financing arrangements. (United States)

...between FS and FP are income from U.S. sources under section 861(a)(4) subject...FP lends $100,000,000 to FS to finance FS' business operations. On January...borrow any cash necessary to meet those external obligations and invests any...



26 CFR 1.881-3 - Conduit financing arrangements. (United States)

...On January 1, 1995, FP lends $100,000,000 to FS to finance FS' business operations. On January 1, 1996, FS ships...unrelated parties. FS must borrow any cash necessary to meet those external obligations and invests any excess cash for the...



26 CFR 1.881-3 - Conduit financing arrangements. (United States)

...BK's right of offset against FP' manage the risks arising from...their currency risk and, as a result...cost efficient hedging arrangements...any long-term hedging transaction with...and currency risk arising...



26 CFR 1.881-3 - Conduit financing arrangements. (United States)

...eliminated all material market risks arising from those...managing their currency risk and, as a result, frequently...into more cost efficient hedging arrangements with unrelated...into any long-term hedging transaction with respect...interest rate and currency risk arising from the...



26 CFR 1.881-3 - Conduit financing arrangements. (United States)

...and FP1 would not be eligible for the portfolio interest exemption and would not be...determine whether they are the most cost efficient way of managing their currency risk and...swaps in favor of entering into more cost efficient hedging arrangements with unrelated...



Arrangement of heat conduits  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two conventional heat conducting systems are combined end to end in opposition, one end of the arrangement being exposed and sensitive to the temperature of one environment or object being monitored, whilst the heat furnished at the other end is intentionally controlled. The condensation sections adjacent to the respective heat conduits combine to form a common condensation area that is in turn coupled to an appropriate thermal dissipator. The temperature of the monitored end and that of the controlled end of the heat conducting arrangement each produce a vaporisation of the working fluid resulting in a flow of the respective vaporised fluids moving in opposite directions and which meet in the end to form an interaction interface in the common condensation area. The position of this interaction interface depends on the steam pressure in the respective heat conduits. These pressures depend in turn on the respective temperatures and thermal powers of the sources at the controlled and monitored ends of the heat conducting arrangement. This arrangement of heat conduits can be employed as a heat valve or heat bridge


26 CFR 1.881-3 - Conduit financing arrangements. (United States)

...payable. Cash management includes the operation of a sweep...continues to service the installment...substantial manufacturing of manufacturing and operations. On January...centralized cash management risk management....



26 CFR 1.881-3 - Conduit financing arrangements. (United States)

...all material market risks arising from pursuant to a tax avoidance plan on the basis of...cost efficient way of managing their currency risk and, as a pursuant to a tax avoidance plan. Example...



26 CFR 1.881-3 - Conduit financing arrangements. (United States)

...complementary or integrated trades or businesses...complementary or integrated trades or businesses...Active risk management —(1 ) In...intermediate entity's financial and capital requirements (including management of risks of...



26 CFR 1.881-3 - Conduit financing arrangements. (United States) determined as of the close of business on the last...determined by reference to the nature of the recharacterized...allow LC1 and LC2 to take advantage of accelerated depreciation...acquisition is scheduled to close on January 15,...



26 CFR 1.881-3 - Conduit financing arrangements. (United States) not otherwise affect the allocation...of the debt are financial institutions and there is no...are reduced to a single balance either...FS enters into a currency swap with BK...transactions through its currency swap with...



26 CFR 1.881-3 - Conduit financing arrangements. (United States)

...881 within the meaning of paragraph...note that pays interest annually at a rate of 8 percent...that pays no interest annually. When...note that pays interest annually at a rate of 10 percent...transactions within the meaning of...



26 CFR 1.881-3 - Conduit financing arrangements. (United States)

...transactions in the ordinary course of business. (i) FP is...interest-bearing account receivable on its books. FS' shipment is in the ordinary course of the active conduct of its...FS is created in the ordinary course of the active conduct of...



26 CFR 1.881-3 - Conduit financing arrangements. (United States)

...unrelated to FP and its subsidiaries. M, a country N, is wholly-owned by the sole shareholder...000 to FS2, a wholly-owned subsidiary of FS organized...000 to FS2, a wholly-owned subsidiary of FS...



26 CFR 1.881-3 - Conduit financing arrangements. (United States)

...unrelated to FP and its subsidiaries. FP often sells goods and purchases raw materials in the United States. FP opened the...account receivable from DS to FS when DS delivers to FP goods with a value of $1,000,000. (ii) The...



26 CFR 1.881-3 - Conduit financing arrangements. (United States)

...Business activity and risk management requirements...only if, within the country in which the intermediate...necessary to manage the risks arising from mismatches...personnel, located in country T. At the request...activities—active risk management. ...banks located in Country N. On January...



26 CFR 1.881-3 - Conduit financing arrangements. (United States)

...requirements (including management of risks of currency and interest rate fluctuations...efficient way of managing their currency risk and, as a result, frequently...manages the interest rate and currency risk arising from the...



26 CFR 1.881-3 - Conduit financing arrangements. (United States)

...related persons as a single intermediate made in a blocked currency, will not affect the...ultimately are reduced to a single balance either due...basis. FS enters into a currency swap with BK, an unrelated...transactions through its currency swap with BK....



26 CFR 1.881-3 - Conduit financing arrangements. (United States)

...States to manufacture product A. FS agrees to pay...based upon the units of product A manufactured by DS...BK, qualify for the portfolio interest eligible for the portfolio interest exemption...manufacturing and selling product A. DS...



26 CFR 1.881-3 - Conduit financing arrangements. (United States)

...engaged in a substantial trade or business. An intermediate entity will not be...related persons. An intermediate entity's trade or business is substantial...account whereby the intermediate entity nets intercompany trade payables and...



26 CFR 1.7701(l)-3 - Recharacterizing financing arrangements involving fast-pay stock. (United States)

...financing arrangements involving fast-pay stock. 1.7701(l)-3 Section 1.7701...financing arrangements involving fast-pay stock. (a) Purpose and scope...arrangement in which a corporation has fast-pay stock outstanding for any part of its...



Financing arrangements for nuclear power projects in developing countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This reference book reviews the main features and problems or difficulties involved in the financing of nuclear power projects with special reference to developing countries. It provides basic information and advice to developing countries interested in nuclear power projects as part of their power sector planning. The book outlines the general characteristics of financing a nuclear power project and presents innovative approaches for power generation financing. It discusses the special conditions and requirements of nuclear power projects and their financing complexities. The focus is on the practical issues that need to be dealt with in order to successfully finance these power projects, as well as the constraints faced by most developing countries. Possible ways and means of dealing with these constraints are presented. 58 refs, figs and tabs


Summary of a reference book on financing arrangements for nuclear power projects in developing countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The IAEA has recently published a reference book entitled Financing Arrangements for Nuclear Power Projects in Developing Countries (Technical Reports Series No. 353). The book reviews comprehensively the main features and problems concerning the financing of such projects in developing countries and presents innovative approaches for power generation financing. It also discusses the special conditions and requirements of nuclear power projects and the complexities of their financing, focusing on the practical issues to be dealt with to achieve successful financing, as well as the constraints encountered by most developing countries. This booklet summarizes the important features of the financing arrangements discussed in the reference book and was prepared with the aim of widely disseminating the results


26 CFR 1.7701(l)-3 - Recharacterizing financing arrangements involving fast-pay stock. (United States)

...significantly different characteristics) is benefited...imposed by the Internal Revenue Code...instruments (the financing instruments...significantly different characteristics from any other...position in the financing instruments at...imposed by the Internal Revenue...



26 CFR 1.7701(l)-3 - Recharacterizing financing arrangements involving fast-pay stock. (United States)

...holding one share of C Stock...seller's position in the financing...instruments at fair market value is...basis in the share of D Stock...seller's position in the financing...instruments at fair market value...seller's position in the financing...instruments at fair market value...acquires shares of...



Financing arrangements for nuclear power projects - Past and present experience, future expectations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear energy is a clean, safe, and economical industrial electricity source, with many environmental benefits. It does not emit greenhouse gases that contribute to climate change, or combustion by-products and acid gases that cause air, water resource and land pollution. Nuclear energy has also many benefits in the areas of medicine, industry, agriculture, and research. Moreover, the results are revealing. Over the past 12 years, from 1900 to 2002, the global 'energy availability factor' - representing the percentage of time that nuclear power plants worldwide were up and running - increased from 72.9% to 83.4%. At the same time, based on statistics gathered by the World Association of Nuclear Operators - WANO, the number of industrial accidents has gone down, radiation exposure has dropped sharply and the annual volume of radioactive waste produced has been reduced substantially. In other words, the safety, performance and economic competitiveness of the nuclear industry are at an all time high, reflecting a mature and vibrant enterprise. These are several reasons why a prospective host nation and other nations around the world may be attracted by nuclear power generation. Nuclear power can be and has been financed by world capital markets. The crucial question is whether host governments and interested utilities are willing to take the steps required to attract investment with reasonable assurance of success, and whether the nuclear industry is willing and able to become competitive in increasingly deregulated financial and electricity markets. The present paper will have the following structure: the first part will refer to general financing guidelines, and the second part will present a case study. The latter will treat the past experience as provided by the financing scheme of Cernavoda NPP Unit 1, the present experience, i.e. ongoing financing issues for Cernavoda NPP Unit 2 and potential future shared contribution to financing Cernavoda NPP Unit 3, 4 and 5. (authors)


Joining insulated elongate conduit members  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An insulated elongate conduit member is provided, along with an assembly and a method for joining insulated elongate conduit members. The invention is described with reference to joining of thermally insulated pipes suitable for use in a district heating or cooling system. The insulated member of this invention is arranged so that connection to the member or interconnection of 2 such members may be effected in a particularly convenient manner, without subsequently having to create a layer of insulation around the connection. In one aspect, a pipe is provided with thermal insulation in which, at an end of the pipe, there is an annular recess to allow access for connection. To make a connection, a recoverable connecting collar is positioned at least partially within the recess, and allowed to recover into gripping engagement with the exposed portion of the pipe. The recoverable connecting collar may comprise metallic and/or polymeric material, such as heat recoverable metals that exhibit the shape memory effect, or a conductive polymeric material which can be electrically heated to its recovery temperature. 4 figs.

Van Dijck, F.S.J.



Transverse colon conduit diversion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The versatility and other advantages of the transverse colon conduit for urinary diversion have been described and implemented in 50 patients. Because most patients considered for this procedure will be at high risk because of a history of significant pelvic irradiation, underlying malignancy, poor renal function, fistula, and so forth, the technical details of surgery and patient selection cannot be minimized. The transverse colon segment is indicated for primary supravesical diversion as well as for salvage of problems related to ileal conduits. Adenocarcinoma of the colon is an unlikely long-term complication of this form of diversion because the fecal stream is absent. Now that the transverse colon conduit has been used for more than 10 years, meaningful comparisons with ileal segments should soon be available


Solar thermal financing guidebook  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This guidebook contains information on alternative financing methods that could be used to develop solar thermal systems. The financing arrangements discussed include several lease alternatives, joint venture financing, R and D partnerships, industrial revenue bonds, and ordinary sales. In many situations, alternative financing arrangements can significantly enhance the economic attractiveness of solar thermal investments by providing a means to efficiently allocate elements of risk, return on investment, required capital investment, and tax benefits. A net present value approach is an appropriate method that can be used to investigate the economic attractiveness of alternative financing methods. Although other methods are applicable, the net present value approach has advantages of accounting for the time value of money, yielding a single valued solution to the financial analysis, focusing attention on the opportunity cost of capital, and being a commonly understood concept that is relatively simple to apply. A personal computer model for quickly assessing the present value of investments in solar thermal plants with alternative financing methods is presented in this guidebook. General types of financing arrangements that may be desirable for an individual can be chosen based on an assessment of his goals in investing in solar thermal systems and knowledge of the individual's tax situation. Once general financing arrangements have been selected, a screening analysis can quickly determine if the solar investment is worthy of detailed study.

Williams, T.A.; Cole, R.J.; Brown, D.R.; Dirks, J.A.; Edelhertz, H.; Holmlund, I.; Malhotra, S.; Smith, S.A.; Sommers, P.; Willke, T.L.



Leaf Arrangement (United States)

This illustrated guide to leaf arrangement shows students how leaves attached at a stem node can be in alternate, opposite, or whorled arrangements. This single Web page can be easily printed for use at field sites.


Private Placement Debt Financing for Public Entities (United States)

Private placement financing is a debt or capital lease obligation arranged between a municipality or a 501(c) (3) not-for-profit organization and a single sophisticated institutional investor. The investor can be a bank, insurance company, finance company, hedge fund, or high-net worth individual. Private placement financing is similar to…

Holman, Lance S.



The CONDUIT Series in Physics. (United States)

CONDUIT distributes eight packages of computer-based instructional materials in its physics series; three are simulations of physical phenomena, and the others require students to write programs to solve physics problems. Specialized versions are being developed for microcomputers with graphical output and modern computer languages. (CMV)

Peters, H. J.



Artificial conduits in reconstructive microsurgery  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis describes experimental studies focussed on the elucidation of the function, healing, and performance of artificial conduits used to restore the continuity of small vessels and nerves, thus moving us another step further in realizing reliable readily available synthetic alternatives for clinical application. ... Zie: Summary and conclusions

Robinson, Peter Hague



Ductile compaction in volcanic conduits (United States)

Silicic magmas typically outgas through connected pore and crack networks with a high gas permeability without the need for decoupled movement of pores in the melt. It is the efficiency with which this process can occur which governs the pressure in the pore network. However, such a connected coupled network is generally mechanically unstable and will relax until volume equilibrium when the pores become smaller and isolated. Consequently, gas permeability can be reduced during densification. Cycles of outgassing events recorded in gas monitoring data show that permeable flow of volatiles is often transient, which is interpreted to reflect magma densification and the closing of pore-networks. Understanding the timescale over which this densification process occurs is critical to refining conduit models that seek to predict the pressure evolution in a pore-network leading to eruptions. We conduct uniaxial compaction experiments to parameterize non-linear creep and relaxation processes that occur in magmas with total pore fractions 0.2-0.85. We analyze our results by applying both viscous sintering and viscoelastic deformation theory to test the applicability of currently accepted models to flow dynamics in the uppermost conduit involving highly porous magmas. We show that purely ductile compaction can occur rapidly and that pore networks can close over timescales analogous to the inter-eruptive periods observed during classic cyclic eruptions such as those at Soufriere Hills volcano, Montserrat, in 1997. At upper-conduit axial stresses (0.1-5 MPa) and magmatic temperatures (830-900 oC), we show that magmas can evolve to porosities analogous to dome lavas erupted at the same volcano. Such dramatic densification events over relatively short timescales and in the absence of brittle deformation show that permeable flow will be inhibited at upper conduit levels. We therefore propose that outgassing is a key feature at many silicic volcanoes and should be incorporated into conduit flow models.

Wadsworth, Fabian; Vasseur, Jeremie; Lavallée, Yan; Scheu, Bettina; Dingwell, Donald



47 CFR 32.2441 - Conduit systems. (United States)

...CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2441 Conduit systems. (a) This account shall include the original cost of conduit,...



Project financing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Project financing was defined ('where a lender to a specific project has recourse only to the cash flow and assets of that project for repayment and security respectively') and its attributes were described. Project financing was said to be particularly well suited to power, pipeline, mining, telecommunications, petro-chemicals, road construction, and oil and gas projects, i.e. large infrastructure projects that are difficult to fund on-balance sheet, where the risk profile of a project does not fit the corporation's risk appetite, or where higher leverage is required. Sources of project financing were identified. The need to analyze and mitigate risks, and being aware that lenders always take a conservative view and gravitate towards the lowest common denominator, were considered the key to success in obtaining project financing funds. TransAlta Corporation's project financing experiences were used to illustrate the potential of this source of financing


Finance - OECD  

...Finance &ndash OECD, Sovereign debt and financial stability Data and research on finance including financial markets, monetary issues, insurance, private pensions,..., sovereign debt, public debt management and financial education., In-depth analysis from the OECD addresses the financial market dimension of sovereign debt ... finance, financial markets, monetary issues, insurance, private pensions, sovereign debt, public debt management, financial education, Blundell-Wignall, sovereign debt, ... bond markets, financial markets, monetary policy, basel III, banking regulations Finance - OECD Français Follow us E-mail Alerts Blogs OECD ...


An Exploratory Study of the Effects of Project Finance on Project Risk Management : How the Distinguishing Attributes of Project Finance affects the Prevailing Risk Factor?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Project finance is a financing arrangement for projects, and it is characterised by the creation of a legally independent project company financed with non- or limited recourse loans. It is observed that the popularity of project finance is increasing in the recent decades, despite of the impact of Asian financial crisis. Especially in emerging markets, project finance is very common among the public-private partnership projects. It is possible that project finance yields some benefits in pro...

Chan, Ka Fai



Financing a nuclear programme  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear power plant construction projects have many characteristics in common with other types of large infrastructure investment, both within the power generation sector and elsewhere. However, nuclear power itself has special features that can make nuclear financing particularly challenging. These features include the high capital cost, the relatively long period required to recoup investments, the often controversial nature of nuclear projects. The need for clear solutions and financing schemes for radioactive waste management and decommissioning and the need for nuclear power plants to operate at high capacity factors, preferably under base load conditions. During the previous major expansion of nuclear power in the 1970 and 1980, many nuclear projects suffered very large construction delays and cost overruns. The legacy of such problems increases the risks perceived by potential investors. A recent study undertaken jointly by the Iea and the Nea showed that the competitiveness of nuclear power strongly depends on the cost of financing due to the high share of fixed capital costs in the total lifetime costs of nuclear power. A key issue in this context is the long-term predictability of carbon pricing arrangements, which, for the time being and despite positive evolutions in this respect, most notably in Europe, does not yet exist. This paper will consider how the risks can be mitigated and examine in detail various models for corporate finance and the role of government assistance in providing a suitable financial basis. (Author)


Financing a nuclear programme  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nuclear power plant construction projects have many characteristics in common with other types of large infrastructure investment, both within the power generation sector and elsewhere. However, nuclear power itself has special features that can make nuclear financing particularly challenging. These features include the high capital cost, the relatively long period required to recoup investments, the often controversial nature of nuclear projects. The need for clear solutions and financing schemes for radioactive waste management and decommissioning and the need for nuclear power plants to operate at high capacity factors, preferably under base load conditions. During the previous major expansion of nuclear power in the 1970 and 1980, many nuclear projects suffered very large construction delays and cost overruns. The legacy of such problems increases the risks perceived by potential investors. A recent study undertaken jointly by the Iea and the Nea showed that the competitiveness of nuclear power strongly depends on the cost of financing due to the high share of fixed capital costs in the total lifetime costs of nuclear power. A key issue in this context is the long-term predictability of carbon pricing arrangements, which, for the time being and despite positive evolutions in this respect, most notably in Europe, does not yet exist. This paper will consider how the risks can be mitigated and examine in detail various models for corporate finance and the role of government assistance in providing a suitable financial basis. (Author)




Financing Privatization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This presentation material is for the International Conference on the Korean Power Industry Restructuring, organized by Korea Energy Economics Institute, held on Oct 1999 in Seoul, Korea, discussed on Financing Privatization on the Korean Power Industry Restructuring. Global themes in electric utility industry and overviews of major electric power markets in the world were introduced. Provision for competitive acquisition finance and debt allocation structure for Korean power industry restructuring were analyzed.

David Dunn [Merrill Lynch (United States)



Structuring and financing power projects in Asia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The contractual arrangements for the financing and construction of three 660 MW coal fired power plants in Hong Kong are summarized in the form of headings and a diagram. These cover the joint venture arrangement, construction and equipment supply, the operation and offtake contract, coal supply and the financial structure with respect to commercial risk. (UK)


Study Finance (United States)

Created and maintained by the University of Arizona, this site is designed to assist beginning finance students by offering very basic information about the study of finance. Be sure to look at the online lectures, which include RealAudio files as well as accompanying handouts and tables. Also on-site are well-written, basic overviews of topics including ratio analysis, time valuation of money, and capitol budgeting. In addition, the site contains several helpful links to outside resources about market information, careers, and publications.


A conduit to amplify innate immunity. (United States)

In this issue of Immunity, Py et al. (2013) report that upon bacterial infection, a fragment of the matrix protein cochlin is released from the conduits of B cell follicles to trigger protective cytokines in the periphery. PMID:23706666

Moussion, Christine; Sixt, Michael



The interior coating of rectangular conduit structures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The problems associated with the interior coating of rectangular conduit structures are considered in the context of a concrete application example, viz. the interior goldplating of a rectangular, conduit-shaped antenna for 2.4 MW and 1.3 GHz used to heat plasma with radio waves. The antenna in question is the ASDEX transmitter of the Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics (IPP) in Garching near Munich. (orig.)


Campaign Finance (United States)

This site from the Hoover Institution at Stanford University contains a number of resources, primarily essays, articles, and op-ed pieces, related to various facets of campaign finance, its history, and reform proposals. As a whole, the site serves as a solid backgrounder to the issues and should interest a wide range of readers.


Personal Finance. (United States)

This newsletter presents four articles designed to help business educators educate learners in grades K-12 about personal finance. "Now More Than Ever: The Need for Financial Literacy" examines the following topics: evidence that the United States is becoming a nation of debtors; the plummeting personal savings rate; the increasing complexity of…

Wagner, June G.



Finances publiques et financements privés : Quel nouvel équilibre pour les investissements des Etats ?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

La raréfaction des fonds publics résulte à la fois de la dégradation des soldes publics et de la rigidification croissante des budgets. Le poids des dépenses irréversibles conduit à l'éviction des investissements publics. Face à cette contrainte financière, la demande d'infrastructures et d'équipements publics peut être partiellement satisfaite par le recours au financement privé. Au-delà d'un étalement des coûts des projets, les formules de partenariat public-privé apportent...

Marty, Fre?de?ric; Voisin, Arnaud



On Arrangements of Pseudohyperplanes  

CERN Document Server

We study arrangements of pseudohyperplanes (hyperplanes that are topologically deformed in some mild way). In general these arrangements correspond to non-realizable oriented matroids and arise as a consequence of the Folkman-Lawrence Topological Representation Theorem. We introduce a topological space naturally associated with these pseudo arrangements that has the homotopy type of the associated Salvetti complex.

Deshpande, Priyavrat



48 CFR 832.202-4 - Security for Government financing. (United States)

...AFFAIRS GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Commercial...audited and certified by an independent public accountant or an appropriate...contract term showing the planned origin and use of cash within...arrangements, insurance, planned capital expenditures,...



Nerve conduits for peripheral nerve surgery. (United States)

Autologous nerve grafts are the current criterion standard for repair of peripheral nerve injuries when the transected nerve ends are not amenable to primary end-to-end tensionless neurorrhaphy. However, donor-site morbidities such as neuroma formation and permanent loss of function have led to tremendous interest in developing an alternative to this technique. Artificial nerve conduits have therefore emerged as an alternative to autologous nerve grafting for the repair of short peripheral nerve defects of less than 30 mm; however, they do not yet surpass autologous nerve grafts clinically. A thorough understanding of the complex biological reactions that take place during peripheral nerve regeneration will allow researchers to develop a nerve conduit with physical and biological properties similar to those of an autologous nerve graft that supports regeneration over long nerve gaps and in large-diameter nerves. In this article, the authors assess the currently available nerve conduits, summarize research in the field of developing these conduits, and establish areas within this field in which further research would prove most beneficial. PMID:24867724

Pabari, Amit; Lloyd-Hughes, Hawys; Seifalian, Alexander M; Mosahebi, Ash



Extreme loads seismic testing of conduit systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rigid steel conduit (thin-wall tubes with threaded connections) containing electrical cabling are a common feature in nuclear power plants. Conduit systems are in many cases classified in U.S.A. practice as Seismic Category I structures. this paper summarizes results and others aspects of a dynamic test program conducted to investigate conduit systems seismic performance under three-axis excitation for designs representative at a nuclear power plant sited near Ft. Worth, Texas (a moderate seismic zone), with a Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE) of 0.12 g. Test specimens where subjected to postulated seismic events, including excitation well in excess of Safe Shutdown Earthquake events typical for U.S.A. nuclear power stations. A total of 18 conduit systems of 9-meter nominal lengths were shake table mounted and subjected to a variety of tests. None of the specimens suffered loss of load capacity when subjected to a site-enveloping Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE). Clamp/attachment hardware failures only began to occur when earthquake input motion was scaled upward to minimum values of 2.3-4.6 times site enveloping SSE response spectra. Tensile and/or shear failure of clamp attachment bolts or studs was the failure mode in all case in which failure was induced. (author)


Biochemical engineering nerve conduits using peptide amphiphiles. (United States)

Peripheral nerve injury is a debilitating condition. The gold standard for treatment is surgery, requiring an autologous nerve graft. Grafts are harvested from another part of the body (a secondary site) to treat the affected primary area. However, autologous nerve graft harvesting is not without risks, with associated problems including injury to the secondary site. Research into biomaterials has engendered the use of bioartificial nerve conduits as an alternative to autologous nerve grafts. These include synthetic and artificial materials, which can be manufactured into nerve conduits using techniques inspired by nanotechnology. Recent evidence indicates that peptide amphiphiles (PAs) are promising candidates for use as materials for bioengineering nerve conduits. PAs are biocompatible and biodegradable protein-based nanomaterials, capable of self-assembly in aqueous solutions. Their self-assembly system, coupled with their intrinsic capacity for carrying bioactive epitopes for tissue regeneration, form particularly novel attributes for biochemically-engineered materials. Furthermore, PAs can function as biomimetic materials and advanced drug delivery platforms for sustained and controlled release of a plethora of therapeutic agents. Here we review the realm of nerve conduit tissue engineering and the potential for PAs as viable materials in this exciting and rapidly advancing field. PMID:22910143

Tan, Aaron; Rajadas, Jayakumar; Seifalian, Alexander M



Dispersive hydrodynamics in viscous fluid conduits (United States)

The evolution of the interface separating a conduit of light, viscous fluid rising buoyantly through a heavy, more viscous, exterior fluid at small Reynolds numbers is governed by the interplay between nonlinearity and dispersion. Previous authors have proposed an approximate model equation based on physical arguments, but a precise theoretical treatment for this two-fluid system with a free boundary is lacking. Here, a derivation of the interfacial equation via a multiple scales, perturbation technique is presented. Perturbations about a state of vertically uniform, laminar conduit flow are considered in the context of the Navier-Stokes equations with appropriate boundary conditions. The ratio of interior to exterior viscosities is the small parameter used in the asymptotic analysis, which leads systematically to a maximal balance between buoyancy driven, nonlinear self-steepening and viscous, interfacial stress induced, nonlinear dispersion. This results in a scalar, nonlinear partial differential equation describing large amplitude dynamics of the cross-sectional area of the intrusive fluid conduit, in agreement with previous derivations. The leading order behavior of the two-fluid system is completely characterized in terms of the interfacial dynamics. The regime of model validity is characterized and shown to agree with previous experimental studies. Viscous fluid conduits provide a robust setting for the study of nonlinear, dispersive wave phenomena.

Lowman, N. K.; Hoefer, M. A.



Dispersive Hydrodynamics in Viscous Fluid Conduits  

CERN Document Server

The evolution of the interface separating a conduit of light, viscous fluid rising buoyantly through a heavy, more viscous, exterior fluid at small Reynolds numbers is governed by the interplay between nonlinearity and dispersion. Previous authors have proposed an approximate model equation based on physical arguments, but a precise theoretical treatment for this two fluid system with a free boundary is lacking. Here, a derivation of the interfacial equation via a multiple scales, perturbation technique is presented. Perturbations about a state of vertically uniform, laminar conduit flow are considered in the context of the Navier-Stokes equations with appropriate boundary conditions. The ratio of interior to exterior viscosities is the small parameter used in the asymptotic analysis, which leads systematically to a maximal balance between buoyancy driven, nonlinear self-steepening and viscous, interfacial stress induced, nonlinear dispersion. This results in a scalar, nonlinear partial differential equation ...

Lowman, Nicholas K



Acoustic signal propagation characterization of conduit networks (United States)

Analysis of acoustic signal propagation in conduit networks has been an important area of research in acoustics. One major aspect of analyzing conduit networks as acoustic channels is that a propagating signal suffers frequency dependent attenuation due to thermo-viscous boundary layer effects and the presence of impedance mismatches such as side branches. The signal attenuation due to side branches is strongly influenced by their numbers and dimensions such as diameter and length. Newly developed applications for condition based monitoring of underground conduit networks involve measurement of acoustic signal attenuation through tests in the field. In many cases the exact installation layout of the field measurement location may not be accessible or actual installation may differ from the documented layout. The lack of exact knowledge of numbers and lengths of side branches, therefore, introduces uncertainty in the measurements of attenuation and contributes to the random variable error between measured results and those predicted from theoretical models. There are other random processes in and around conduit networks in the field that also affect the propagation of an acoustic signal. These random processes include but are not limited to the presence of strong temperature and humidity gradients within the conduits, blockages of variable sizes and types, effects of aging such as cracks, bends, sags and holes, ambient noise variations and presence of variable layer of water. It is reasonable to consider that the random processes contributing to the error in the measured attenuation are independent and arbitrarily distributed. The error, contributed by a large number of independent sources of arbitrary probability distributions, is best described by an approximately normal probability distribution in accordance with the central limit theorem. Using an analytical approach to model the attenuating effect of each of the random variable sources can be very complex and may be intractable. A tractable approach is to develop an empirical model of the attenuation that has a stochastic component of a finite mean and variance to account for the random variable error akin to addition of a normally distributed random variable shadowing component in the path loss models of radio frequency (RF) wireless communication channels. This approach forms the crux of the present study. To develop an empirical model, a large number of measurements in conduit networks were made in the field and in a laboratory test set up to measure the variability of attenuation with variation in four parameters. These parameters include distance of the receiver from the source, frequency, numbers and lengths of side branches. Variation in signal attenuation with distance at each transmitted frequency is predicted by using linear regression through the scatter plot of the measured data. Variations in signal attenuation due to change in frequency, number and lengths of side branches are measured in the field and laboratory tests by comparing the reference transmitted pressure with the received pressure at either the open end or at some distance away from the source along the conduit length. Residuals between measured and predicted sound pressure levels are computed and tested for normal probability distribution through a graphical method as well as a statistical goodness of fit test for quantifiable results. The findings indicate that an empirical model of signal attenuation, which includes a normally distributed random variable component to account for random variable errors in the attenuation measurements, gives a more accurate prediction of received acoustic signal strength in a conduit compared to existing theoretical models.

Khan, Muhammad Safeer


Financing wind power projects : perspectives from the US market  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This presentation outlined the recent assignments, core competencies and scope of services provided by Alyra Renewable Energy Finance Advisors. Renewable energy developers seek Alyra's assistance in developing strategies to achieve the most competitive solutions in finance and strategy. Alyra has broad finance expertise in renewable energy projects, a deep knowledge of markets and a significant wind industry network. Alyra identifies emerging issues, completes financing solutions and helps with contract negotiations. This presentation outlined the notable features of wind financing, wind assessment, offtake arrangements, equity considerations, US wind debt markets, long term bank financing, and combined bank and private placement financing. It also included recent debt market activity for seven large wind farms in the United States. tabs., figs


Secure E-Link For Jostle Conduit  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, we delineated secure e-link for jostle conduit. Also, we depicted nearness function to obtain error free original message , which is deliberately required for Internet communication. It is the model of a real-life secures e-link system for any organization. In this model a sender can send a secret message even to a unacquainted person in an anonymous way.

Meenu Sahni



Secure E-Link For Jostle Conduit  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, we delineated secure e-link for jostle conduit. Also, we depicted nearness function to obtain error free original message , which is deliberately required for Internet communication. It is the model of a real-life secures e-link system for any organization. In this model a sender can send a secret message even to a unacquainted person in an anonymous way.

Meenu Sahni



Thermal damping and retardation in karst conduits  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Water temperature is a non-conservative tracer in the environment. Variations in recharge temperature are damped and retarded as water moves through an aquifer due to heat exchange between water and rock. However, within karst aquifers, seasonal and short-term fluctuations in recharge temperature are often transmitted over long distances before they are fully damped. Using analytical solutions and numerical simulations, we develop relationships that describe the effect of flow path properties, flow-through time, recharge characteristics, and water and rock physical properties on the damping and retardation of thermal peaks/troughs in karst conduits. Using these relationships, one can estimate the thermal retardation and damping that would occur under given conditions with a given conduit geometry. Ultimately, these relationships can be used with thermal damping and retardation field data to estimate parameters such as conduit diameter. We also examine sets of numerical experiments where we relax some of the assumptions used to develop these relationships, testing the effects of variable diameter, variable velocity, open channels, and recharge shape on thermal damping and retardation to provide some constraints on uncertainty. Finally, we discuss a tracer experiment that provides field confirmation of our relationships. High temporal resolution water temperature data are required to obtain sufficient constraints on the magnitude and timing of thermal peaks and troughs in order to take full advantage of water temperature as a tracer.

A. J. Luhmann



Assessment of conduit artery vasomotion using photoplethysmography (United States)

Vasomotion is a spontaneous oscillation of vascular tone. The phenomenon has been observed in small arterioles and capillaries as well as in the large conduit arteries. The layer of smooth muscle cells that surrounds a blood vessel can spontaneously and periodically change its tension and thereby the arterial wall stiffness also changes. As the understanding of the phenomenon is still rather obscure, researchers would benefit from a low-cost and reliable investigation technique such as photoplethysmography (PPG). PPG is an optical blood pulsation measurement technique that can offer substantial information about the arterial stiffness. The aims of this pilot study were to evaluate the usefulness of the PPG technique in the research of vasomotion and to investigate vasomotion in the relatively large conduit arteries. Continuous 15 minute long measurements of posterior tibial artery wall stiffness were taken. Artery diameter, electrocardiogram, blood pressure and respiration were also simultaneously registered. Fast Fourier Transform power spectra were calculated to identify unique stiffness oscillations that did not correspond to fluctuations in the systemic parameters and thus would indicate vasomotion. We concluded that photoplethysmography is a convenient method for the research of the vasomotion in large arteries. Local stiffness parameter b/a is more accurate to use and easier to measure than the pulse wave velocity which describes stiffness of a segment of an artery. Conduit arteries might exhibit a low amplitude high frequency vasomotion ( 9 to 27 cycles per minute). Low frequency vasomotion is problematic to distinguish from the passive oscillations imposed by the arterial pressure.

Kanders, Karlis; Grabovskis, Andris; Marcinkevics, Zbignevs; Aivars, Juris Imants



Institutional arrangements for nuclear fuel cycle services  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Institutional arrangements include a range of undertakings by governments and private entities to facilitate the efficient and secure functioning of the nuclear fuel cycle. They encompass trade options, commercial contracts, supply assurances, technical assistance programs, and nonproliferation agreements. The purpose of institutional arrangements is to support, improve, and strengthen the existing mechanisms of cooperation in the peaceful use of nuclear energy and nonproliferation. The INFCE study assessed the need to make nuclear energy widely available to all countries, consistent with nonproliferation, and examined systematically what institutional arrangements and common approaches would be available for suppliers and consumers. This paper reviews the INFCE study, then examines the movement toward setting up new institutional mechanisms since INFCE. As with all institutional or multinational arrangements, decisions would be required on sensitive questions such as membership, financing, status of the host government, and the like. However, if acceptable arrangements can be worked out in time, new schemes for international storage of plutonium and multinational management of spent fuel can be introduced that could give better assurance of nonproliferation and supply. (author)


Budgeting and Finance (United States)

The following are budgeting and finance sites National Budget Simulation National Budget Simulation Money Math Money Math: Lessons for Life Reality Math "Reality Math: Fact or Fiction" Family Finances Family Finances Consumer Jungle Consumer Jungle It All Adds Up It All Adds Up Herkimer\\'s Hideaway Herkimer's Hideaway Wise Pockets World Wise Pockets World Project Finance Portal Project Finance Portal Lesson Plan on Budgeting Lesson Plan on Budgeting Personal Budget Webquest Personal Budget WebQuest ...

Dale, Mrs.



Finance Site List (United States)

Maintained by the Journal of Finance "for those interested in understanding and teaching financial ideas," this extensive metasite links readers to institutions, publications, and people engaged in finance research. In addition to links to online finance journals, working paper collections, and research centers, the Finance Site List presents additional metasites and educational resources as well as statistical software information and the "interesting, fun and odd" among finance homepages.


Foam suppression arrangement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This invention is directed to a foam control apparatus, and in particular to a heavy water separation plant incorporating a foam suppression arrangement within a deuterium isotope exchange tower thereof. (author)


Optical Arrangement and Method  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Processing of electromagnetic radiation is described, said incoming electromagnetic radiation comprising radiation in a first wavelength interval and a plurality of spatial frequencies. An arrangement comprises a focusing arrangement for focusing the incoming electromagnetic radiation, a first cavity configured to comprise an intra cavity laser beam, a nonlinear crystal arranged in the first cavity such that it is capable of receiving the focused electromagnetic radiation and, in dependence on the spatial overlap between the focused electromagnetic radiation and the intra-cavity laser beam, by interaction with the intra-cavity laser beam provide processed electromagnetic radiation, said processed electromagnetic radiation comprising radiation in a second wavelength interval and at least a subset of said plurality of spatial frequencies. In other words, such an arrangement is capable of enabling imaging, e.g. by utilizing a detector that is sensitive in the second wavelength interval, a source of radiation that emits in a first wavelength interval and comprising several spatial frequencies. Furthermore, such arrangement is capable of improving the spatial quality of the incoming radiation.

Karamehmedovic, Emir Technical University of Denmark,


National arrangements for radiotherapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After a presentation of several letters exchanged between the French health ministry and public agencies in charge of public health or nuclear safety after a radiotherapy accident in Epinal, this report comments the evolution of needs in cancerology care and the place given to radiotherapy. It outlines the technological and organisational evolution of radiotherapy and presents the distribution of radiotherapy equipment, of radio-therapists and other radiotherapy professionals in France. Within the context of radiotherapy accidents which occurred in 2007, it presents the regulatory arrangements which aimed at improving the safety, short term and middle term arrangements which are needed to support and structure radiotherapy practice quality. It stresses the fact that the system will deeply evolve by implementing a radiotherapy vigilance arrangement and a permanent follow-on and adaptation plan based on surveys and the creation of a national committee


Peak load arrangements : Assessment of Nordel guidelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two Nordic countries, Sweden and Finland, have legislation that empowers the TSO to acquire designated peak load resources to mitigate the risk for shortage situations during the winter. In Denmark, the system operator procures resources to maintain a satisfactory level of security of supply. In Norway the TSO has set up a Regulation Power Option Market (RKOM) to secure a satisfactory level of operational reserves at all times, also in winter with high load demand. Only the arrangements in Finland and Sweden fall under the heading of Peak Load Arrangements defined in Nordel Guidelines. NordREG has been invited by the Electricity Market Group (EMG) to evaluate Nordel's proposal for 'Guidelines for transitional Peak Load Arrangements'. The EMG has also financed a study made by EC Group to support NordREG in the evaluation of the proposal. The study has been taken into account in NordREG's evaluation. In parallel to the EMG task, the Swedish regulator, the Energy Markets Inspectorate, has been given the task by the Swedish government to investigate a long term solution of the peak load issue. The Swedish and Finnish TSOs have together with Nord Pool Spot worked on finding a harmonized solution for activation of the peak load reserves in the market. An agreement accepted by the relevant authorities was reached in early January 2009, and the arrangement has been implemented since 19th January 2009. NordREG views that the proposed Nordel guidelines have served as a starting point for the presently agreed procedure. However, NordREG does not see any need to further develop the Nordel guidelines for peak load arrangements. NordREG agrees with Nordel that the market should be designed to solve peak load problems through proper incentives to market players. NordREG presumes that the relevant authorities in each country will take decisions on the need for any peak load arrangement to ensure security of supply. NordREG proposes that such decisions should be taken after consultation with parties in other Nordic countries, and involving also regulators and TSOs. In NordREG's view there are basically three principles that should be guiding any decision to introduce peak load arrangements in the Nordic countries: i), the peak load arrangements should be introduced only in situations when security of supply cannot be met without these arrangements. Since the decision to introduce peak load arrangements might be of a political/legal nature, the length of such arrangement cannot be fixed. However, there should be a regular evaluation by the competent authority of any need or prolonged need for peak load arrangements and its effects of price formation in the Nordic market. ii), when peak load arrangements are introduced they should be designed to minimize the adverse effects on price formation in the Nordic market. Furthermore, if there are to be peak load arrangements, there might be a need for how to distinguish these peak load reserves from other reserves at the disposal of the TSOs. However, this issue needs further discussions and development. iii), Nordic consultation should be carried out where the views of all relevant authorities and stake holders in the market affected are invited. It is recommended that the governments consult with their Nordic counter parties before submitting legal proposals on peak load arrangements affecting Nordic price formation. These consultations should also be with regulators and TSOs who are involved in the design of the actual peak load arrangements. (Author)



Evolution of Hydraulic Roughness During Early Stages of Conduit Growth: Effects on Conduit Enlargement Rates (United States)

Hydraulic roughness exerts an important but poorly constrained control on the hydraulic capacity and enlargement rates of subglacial conduits. In an ideal, inviscid fluid, energy and mass are conserved along a flow line and the sum of the velocity, pressure and elevation heads equals the potential energy of the system, as described by the Bernoulli Equation. In real fluid flows, however, some of this energy is dissipated as heat due to friction and turbulence, resulting in a total head that is lower than predicted by the Bernoulli Equation. This departure from ideal is termed head loss, which is accounted for in simple hydrological models, such as the Manning or Darcy Weisbach equations, through the use of a roughness coefficient (n -s m1/3) or a friction factor (f - dimensionless), respectively. Both f and n relate hydraulic roughness to a relative roughness, or the ratio of the height that projections extend from the floor or wall of a conduit to the conduit hydraulic diameter. Such relationships, however, are empirically derived and only valid for relative roughness values that are 5% likely occur in subglacial conduits, particularly during early stages of conduit enlargement, which may limit ability to use relative roughness to calculate values of n or f. Understanding changes in roughness in the early stages of conduit enlargement is crucial for accurate modeling of glacier hydrological systems because nearly all glacier hydrological models rely on a hydraulic roughness parameterization to drive conduit melting. To address this knowledge gap, we calculated hydraulic roughness values from dye traces conducted at Rieperbreen, in Svalbard, Norway. Because conduit area and hydraulic gradients were constrained by direct mapping, and average flow velocities were obtained from dye traces, we were able to calculate f and n for each trace. Values of f and n declined from 75.01 and 0.68 s m1/3, respectively, to 0.97 and 0.04 s m1/3 over the melt season. Values of f and n calculated from dye tracing data exceeded values of f and n calculated solely from direct measurements of relative roughness by several orders of magnitude. Despite these discrepancies, values of f and n that were calculated from dye tracing data were highly correlated to measured relative roughness values using a power law, suggesting that new relationships may be developed for glacier hydrological systems. When we paramaterized a simple conduit enlargement model using our newly-discovered relationship between f, n and relative roughness, we found that the timescale required for conduits to grow from 0.5 m in diameter to a diameter where relative roughness was <5% was 4-9 times longer than enlargement times obtained using roughness parameterization schemes commonly used in glacier hydrological models.

Gulley, J. D.; Spellman, P.; Covington, M. D.; Martin, J. B.; Benn, D.; Catania, G. A.



Parastomal Hernia as a Risk Factor for Ileal Conduit Fistulae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: To review potential risk factors for the development of ileal conduit fistulae. Methods: Two patients were identified who had a remote history of an ileal conduit and who formed a fistula from the conduit—one to the small bowel and one to the skin. Their presentation, management and outcomes are described. Results: Both patients had parastomal hernias as the likely cause of their fistula formation. Discussion: Parastomal herniation may contribute to fistula formation due to a strangulated ischemic pressure necrosis of the adjacent ileal conduit and/or bowel.

Thomas A. A Skinner



The freeness of Ish arrangements  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Ish arrangement was introduced by Armstrong to give a new interpretation of the $q,t$-Catalan numbers of Garsia and Haiman. Armstrong and Rhoades showed that there are some striking similarities between the Shi arrangement and the Ish arrangement and posed some problems. One of them is whether the Ish arrangement is a free arrangement or not. In this paper, we verify that the Ish arrangement is supersolvable and hence free. Moreover, we give a necessary and sufficient co...

Abe, Takuro; Suyama, Daisuke; Tsujie, Shuhei



Perspectives applicable to financing midstreamers: legal considerations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Systemic changes that have affected the sale, distribution and transportation of gas near the burner tip (collectively called 'midstream' activities) are reviewed, examining the causes of change, and the types of midstream asset transactions that are occurring, whether they involve structured financing arrangements or midstream companies. Also addressed are issues involved in transactions of this type, especially as they relate to gathering and processing agreements and construction, ownership and operation (CO and O) agreements. The two principal alternative structures (1) the financing party who does not assume operational control of the facility, and the (2) midstream company who build or acquire assets and operate them, the different implications for financing of each of the structural alternatives and the changing attitudes of producers towards midstream entities are explained. Closer examination of these new business structures reveals that they conflict with the terms and conditions of midstream agreements commonly used throughout the industry. It is recommended that these standard agreements be amended to permit midstream transactions to occur without undue restrictions. The kind of amendments suggested include automatic consent to a transfer of a facility to a Financing Party that meets certain reasonable financial tests; allowing the reconveyance from the Financing Party to the producer under a repurchase option; allowing the producer to act as Operator in powing the producer to act as Operator in place of its Financing Party


Arrangement for computer tomography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An arrangement for computer tomography is described which consists of an X-ray source for the formation of a flat fan shaped bundle of radiation and an X-ray detector consisting of several circular arc, sequentially arranged detector elements where the X-ray detector and X-ray source which are rotatable around and across the surface of the wave beam equivalent axis of rotation and are characterised by the fact that the X-ray source has a relatively small surface for radiation, the distance of the radiation input surface of the detector elements to the rotation axis is substantially equal to the distance of the radiation surface of the source to the axis of rotation of the source and the detector has a rotational angular speed of substantially the same value on the opposite side of the rotation axis. (G.C.)


Inspection of Emergency Arrangements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Working Group on Inspection Practices (WGIP) was tasked by the NEA CNRA to examine and evaluate the extent to which emergency arrangements are inspected and to identify areas of importance for the development of good inspection practices. WGIP members shared their approaches to the inspection of emergency arrangements by the use of questionnaires, which were developed from the requirements set out in IAEA Safety Standards. Detailed responses to the questionnaires from WGIP member countries have been compiled and are presented in the appendix to this report. The following commendable practices have been drawn from the completed questionnaires and views provided by WGIP members: - RBs and their Inspectors have sufficient knowledge and information regarding operator's arrangements for the preparedness and response to nuclear emergencies, to enable authoritative advice to be given to the national coordinating authority, where necessary. - Inspectors check that the operator's response to a nuclear emergency is adequately integrated with relevant response organisations. - Inspectors pay attention to consider the integration of the operator's response to safety and security threats. - The efficiency of international relations is checked in depth during some exercises (e.g. early warning, assistance and technical information), especially for near-border facilities that could lead to an emergency response abroad. - RB inspection programmes consider the adequacy of arrangements for emergency preparedness and response to multi-unit accidents. - RBs assess the adequacy of arrangements to respond to accidents in other countries. - The RB's role is adequately documented and communicated to all agencies taking part in the response to a nuclear or radiological emergency. - Inspectors check that threat assessments for NPPs have been undertaken in accordance with national requirements and that up-to-date assessments have been used as the basis for developing emergency plans for NPPs. - Where RBs have an influence over land use around NPPs, they use the knowledge of their local or resident inspectors to inform decisions. - Inspectors check that appropriate action levels or criteria to identify an actual or radiological emergency are clearly defined and readily available to decision makers. - When observing emergency exercises inspectors check that: an appropriate and timely declaration is made, plant operators respond in accordance with the emergency plan and emergency instructions, and an appropriate level of response is initiated on and off-site. - RBs conduct follow-up inspections after real events, to ensure that the correct emergency response has been followed. - Inspectors verify that reliable data will be used to support the evaluation of environmental impact from a nuclear or radiological emergency, to the extent that this is within the jurisdiction of the RB. - Routine inspections and emergency exercise observations include a check that lines of communication are sufficiently resilient. - When observing emergency exercises inspectors, where practicable, check that timely, accurate and consistent information is provided to the public, in accordance with the off-site emergency plan. - RBs inspect the ability of the operator to give accurate medical and radiological information about casualties, to enable the correct treatment to be given. - Additional emergency equipment that is held in reserve off-site, provided to enhance resilience (post Fukushima), is included in the RB planned inspection and/or emergency exercise programme. - Inspectors check that licensee staff are adequately trained to connect and use additional equipment provided to enhance resilience. - Inspectors utilise the NPP operator's approved on-site emergency plan when inspecting on-site emergency arrangements. - RBs include human factors staff in emergency exercise evaluation teams to consider safety culture and human performance. - RBs consider the need for exercise scenarios to be undisclosed to exercise participants. - Bilateral trans-national inspection pro


Financing Distributed Generation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper introduces the engineer who is undertaking distributed generation projects to a wide range of financing options. Distributed generation systems (such as internal combustion engines, small gas turbines, fuel cells and photovoltaics) all require an initial investment, which is recovered over time through revenues or savings. An understanding of the cost of capital and financing structures helps the engineer develop realistic expectations and not be offended by the common requirements of financing organizations. This paper discusses several mechanisms for financing distributed generation projects: appropriations; debt (commercial bank loan); mortgage; home equity loan; limited partnership; vendor financing; general obligation bond; revenue bond; lease; Energy Savings Performance Contract; utility programs; chauffage (end-use purchase); and grants. The paper also discusses financial strategies for businesses focusing on distributed generation: venture capital; informal investors (''business angels''); bank and debt financing; and the stock market


Project financing in Latin America: The search for greener pastures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper addresses the basic requisites for inducing private capital to engage in infrastructure project financing. Part 1 of this paper provides an overview of project financing considerations, such as how pricing of project outputs and the credit history of output purchasers can affect the availability of project financing, and explores the use of ''Revolving Funds'' as a stimulus for private investment. Part 2 discusses several areas in which governments can become pro-active participants in establishing a sound framework for project financing of infrastructure. Part 3 briefly addresses project structuring and the contractual risk allocation process which is central to project financing, and highlights some of the key legal arrangements found in project contracts


Financing nuclear power  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Global energy security and climate change concerns sparked by escalating oil prices, high population growth and the rapid pace of industrialization are fueling the current interest and investments in nuclear power. Globally, a significant number policy makers and energy industry leaders have identified nuclear power as a favorable alternative energy option, and are presently evaluating either a new or an expanded role for nuclear power. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has reported that as of October 2008, 14 countries have plans to construct 38 new nuclear reactors and about 100 more nuclear power plants have been written into the development plans of governments for the next three decades. Hence as new build is expected to escalate, issues of financing will become increasingly significant. Energy supply, including nuclear power, considered as a premium by government from the socio-economic and strategic perspective has traditionally been a sector financed and owned by the government. In the case for nuclear power, the conventional methods of financing include financing by the government or energy entity (utility or oil company) providing part of the funds from its own resources with support from the government. As national financing is, as in many cases, insufficient to fully finance the nuclear power plants, additional financing is sourced from international sources of financing including, amongst others, Export Credit Agencies (ECAs) and Multilateral Development Institutions. However, arising from the changing dynamics of economics, financing and business model as well as increasing concerns regarding environmental degradation , transformations in methods of financing this energy sector has been observed. This paper aims to briefly present on financing aspects of nuclear power as well as offer some examples of the changing dynamics of financing nuclear power which is reflected by the evolution of ownership and management of nuclear power plants from Government and State-owned companies to large privatised utilities and independent developers. (Author)


Guidebook to financing CDM projects  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One of the challenges facing Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects today is their limited ability to secure financing for the underlying greenhouse gas emission reduction activities, particularly in the least developed countries. Among the key reasons for this is the fact that most financial intermediaries in the CDM host countries have limited or no knowledge of the CDM Modalities and Procedures. Moreover, approaches, tools and skills for CDM project appraisal are lacking or are asymmetrical to the skills in comparable institutions in developed countries. Consequently, developing country financial institutions are unable to properly evaluate the risks and rewards associated with investing or lending to developers undertaking CDM projects, and therefore have, by-and-large, refrained from financing these projects. In addition, some potential project proponents lack experience in structuring arrangements for financing a project. This Guidebook - commissioned by the UNEP Risoe Centre as part of the activities of the Capacity Development for CDM (CD4CDM) project ( - addresses these barriers by providing information aimed at both developing country financial institutions and at CDM project proponents. It should be noted that while the Guidebook was developed particularly with the CDM in mind, most sections will also be relevant for Joint Implementation (JI) project activities. For more detailed information on JI modalities and procedures please consult: The purpose of this Guidebook is two-fold: 1) To guide project developers on obtaining financing for the implementation of activities eligible under the CDM; and 2) To demonstrate to developing country financial institutions typical approaches and methods for appraising the viability of CDM projects and for optimally integrating carbon revenue into overall project financing. The target audiences for the Guidebook are therefore, primarily: 1) CDM project proponents in developing countries, including but not limited to utilities, private and public sector entities, municipalities, and other specialised consultancies and intermediaries; and 2) Credit officers and other decision-makers within banking institutions and financial intermediaries in developing countries. (au)

Kamel, S.



Nanofibrous nerve conduit-enhanced peripheral nerve regeneration. (United States)

Fibre structures represent a potential class of materials for the formation of synthetic nerve conduits due to their biomimicking architecture. Although the advantages of fibres in enhancing nerve regeneration have been demonstrated, in vivo evaluation of fibre size effect on nerve regeneration remains limited. In this study, we analyzed the effects of fibre diameter of electrospun conduits on peripheral nerve regeneration across a 15-mm critical defect gap in a rat sciatic nerve injury model. By using an electrospinning technique, fibrous conduits comprised of aligned electrospun poly (?-caprolactone) (PCL) microfibers (981?±?83 nm, Microfiber) or nanofibers (251?±?32 nm, Nanofiber) were obtained. At three months post implantation, axons regenerated across the defect gap in all animals that received fibrous conduits. In contrast, complete nerve regeneration was not observed in the control group that received empty, non-porous PCL film conduits (Film). Nanofiber conduits resulted in significantly higher total number of myelinated axons and thicker myelin sheaths compared to Microfiber and Film conduits. Retrograde labeling revealed a significant increase in number of regenerated dorsal root ganglion sensory neurons in the presence of Nanofiber conduits (1.93 ± 0.71 × 10(3) vs. 0.98 ± 0.30 × 10(3) in Microfiber, p?conduit group compared to the Microfiber group. This study demonstrated the impact of fibre size on peripheral nerve regeneration. These results could provide useful insights for future nerve guide designs. PMID:22700359

Jiang, Xu; Mi, Ruifa; Hoke, Ahmet; Chew, Sing Yian



Spacer assembly retainer arrangement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In accordance with the principles of the invention, an arrangement is presented which restrains movement of the spacer assemblies within a fuel assembly. The spacer assemblies are composed of a grid of slotted rectangular plates arranged to intersect and interlock in an egg-crate fashion with their lengthwise edges perpendicular to the axes of the fuel elements and guide tubes. Each guide tube is provided with a number of longitudinally spaced sleeves attached by welding. Collars having machine slots designed to mechanically interlock each collar with each respective spacer assembly cell that receives a guide tube are provided and fixed with each of such cells. The sleeves contain apertures on the portions thereof extending beyond the grid plates. Thus, upon assembly, the grid plate collars generally circumscribe the sleeve portions of the guide tubes. The guide tubes are permanently fixed to the spacer assemblies into the apertures of the sleeves. Hence, the guide tubes are firmly fixed to the spacer assemblies without welding or brazing, and without otherwise distorting the guide tubes. (auth)


Financing Strategies for Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To help meet our nation's energy needs, reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel is being considered more and more as a necessary step in a future nuclear fuel cycle, but incorporating this step into the fuel cycle will require considerable investment. This report presents an evaluation of financing scenarios for reprocessing facilities integrated into the nuclear fuel cycle. A range of options, from fully government owned to fully private owned, was evaluated using a DPL (Dynamic Programming Language) 6.0 model, which can systematically optimize outcomes based on user-defined criteria (e.g., lowest life-cycle cost, lowest unit cost). Though all business decisions follow similar logic with regard to financing, reprocessing facilities are an exception due to the range of financing options available. The evaluation concludes that lowest unit costs and lifetime costs follow a fully government-owned financing strategy, due to government forgiveness of debt as sunk costs. Other financing arrangements, however, including regulated utility ownership and a hybrid ownership scheme, led to acceptable costs, below the Nuclear Energy Agency published estimates. Overwhelmingly, uncertainty in annual capacity led to the greatest fluctuations in unit costs necessary for recovery of operating and capital expenditures; the ability to determine annual capacity will be a driving factor in setting unit costs. For private ventures, the costs of capital, especially equity interest rates, dominat especially equity interest rates, dominate the balance sheet; the annual operating costs dominate the government case. It is concluded that to finance the construction and operation of such a facility without government ownership could be feasible with measures taken to mitigate risk, and that factors besides unit costs should be considered (e.g., legal issues, social effects, proliferation concerns) before making a decision on financing strategy


Conduits and dike distribution analysis in San Rafael Swell, Utah (United States)

Volcanic fields generally consist of scattered monogenetic volcanoes, such as cinder cones and maars. The temporal and spatial distribution of monogenetic volcanoes and probability of future activity within volcanic fields is studied with the goals of understanding the origins of these volcano groups, and forecasting potential future volcanic hazards. The subsurface magmatic plumbing systems associated with volcanic fields, however, are rarely observed or studied. Therefore, we investigated a highly eroded and exposed magmatic plumbing system on the San Rafael Swell (UT) that consists of dikes, volcano conduits and sills. San Rafael Swell is part of the Colorado Plateau and is located east of the Rocky Mountain seismic belt and the Basin and Range. The overburden thickness at the time of mafic magma intrusion (Pliocene; ca. 4 Ma) into Jurassic sandstone is estimated to be ~800 m based on paleotopographical reconstructions. Based on a geologic map by P. Delaney and colleagues, and new field research, a total of 63 conduits are mapped in this former volcanic field. The conduits each reveal features of root zone and / or lower diatremes, including rapid dike expansion, peperite and brecciated intrusive and host rocks. Recrystallized baked zone of host rock is also observed around many conduits. Most conduits are basaltic or shonkinitic with thickness of >10 m and associated with feeder dikes intruded along N-S trend joints in the host rock, whereas two conduits are syenitic and suggesting development from underlying cognate sills. Conduit distribution, which is analyzed by a kernel function method with elliptical bandwidth, illustrates a N-S elongate higher conduit density area regardless of the azimuth of closely distributed conduits alignment (nearest neighbor distance confidence on the basis of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. On the other hand, dike density at each conduits location also suggests that there is no threshold of dike density for conduit formation. In other words, conduits may be possible to develop from even short mapped dikes in low dike density areas. These results show effectiveness of studying volcanic vent distribution to infer the size of magmatic system below volcanic fields and highlight the uncertainty of forecasting the location of new monogenetic volcanoes in active fields, which may be associated with a single dike intrusion.

Kiyosugi, K.; Connor, C.; Wetmore, P. H.; Ferwerda, B. P.; Germa, A.



Effects of PVC conduits on sampling results of aerosol  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents the effects of PVC conduits on sampling results of aerosol. The MMAD of aerosol experimentally adopted is 7.1 ?m. Through 15 m PVC conduits with diameter of 30 mm and 50 mm, the concentration of aerosol decreased to 14.5% and 6.4% of the primary concentration respectively under laminar flow conditions, and to 21.3% and 15.4% under turbulence conditions. The aerosol size also changed, the mass fraction of particles of 4 ?m increases about 5 times. The method for determining the fraction of wall deposition is briefly introduced. The selection of sampling conduits and relevant aspects in application are also discussed


Hybrid drive arrangement  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The invention concerns a hybrid drive arrangement for vehicles, with an engine drive and with a flywheel storage drive, which includes a storage flywheel supported concentrically relative to the crankshaft for storing kinetic energy during such operations as braking operations of the vehicle. Both drives can be connected with the driving wheels of the vehicle by means of a common, preferably continuously variable, transmission. In order to obtain a faster response of the engine drive on suddenly occurring power demands and in order to achieve a more favorable design of the storage flywheel, there is to be provided in accordance with the invention, in addition to a storage flywheel, an engine flywheel associated with the reciprocating-piston internal combustion engine, which compensates for torque irregularities of the engine. The engine flywheel can be connected with a crankshaft by means of a first clutch and with the storage flywheel by means of at least one further clutch.

Oetting, H.; Heidemeyer, P.



Thermally actuated linkage arrangement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A reusable thermally actuated linkage arrangement includes a first link member having a longitudinal bore therein adapted to receive at least a portion of a second link member therein, the first and second members being sized to effect an interference fit preventing relative movement there-between at a temperature below a predetermined temperature. The link members have different coefficients of thermal expansion so that when the linkage is selectively heated by heating element to a temperature above the predetermined temperature, relative longitudinal and/or rotational movement between the first and second link members is enabled. Two embodiments of a thermally activated linkage are disclosed which find particular application in actuators for a grapple head positioning arm in a nuclear reactor fuel handling mechanism to facilitate back-up safety retraction of the grapple head independently from the primary fuel handling mechanism drive system. (author)


Power distribution arrangement  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

An arrangement and a method for distributing power supplied by a power source to two or more of loads (e.g., electrical vehicular systems) is disclosed, where a representation of the power taken by a particular one of the loads from the source is measured. The measured representation of the amount of power taken from the source by the particular one of the loads is compared to a threshold to provide an overload signal in the event the representation exceeds the threshold. Control signals dependant on the occurring of the overload signal are provided such that the control signal decreases the output power of the power circuit in case the overload signal occurs

Knott, Arnold Technical University of Denmark,


Auspicious tatami mat arrangements  

CERN Document Server

An \\emph{auspicious tatami mat arrangement} is a tiling of a rectilinear region with two types of tiles, $1 \\times 2$ tiles (dimers) and $1 \\times 1$ tiles (monomers). The tiles must cover the region and satisfy the constraint that no four corners of the tiles meet; such tilings are called \\emph{tatami tilings}. The main focus of this paper is when the rectilinear region is a rectangle. We provide a structural characterization of rectangular tatami tilings and use it to prove that the tiling is completely determined by the tiles that are on its border. We prove that the number of tatami tilings of an $n \\times n$ square with $n$ monomers is $n2^{n-1}$. We also show that, for fixed-height, the generating function for the number of tatami tilings of a rectangle is a rational function, and outline an algorithm that produces the generating function.

Erickson, Alejandro; Schurch, Mark; Woodcock, Jennifer



Articulated device for guiding a band of conduits  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The device consists of a support comprising at least two articulated arms to form of a pair of compasses; when the compasses are closed, all the conduits have the same internal radius of curvature. Each arm comprises two bars connected by a holding structure between which the conduits are disposed. A bar of one arm is connected to a bar of the other arm by an articulated joint so that the two joints between the bars are on either side of the band of conduits during actuation of the arms. The device is useful for guiding electrical cables, fluid supply tubes, etc, in the core cover of a liquid metal cooled, fast neutron nuclear reactor. The device can maintain a large number of conduits without risk of tangling or rupture when the arms are closed


Geothermal Financing Workbook  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report was prepared to help small firm search for financing for geothermal energy projects. There are various financial and economics formulas. Costs of some small overseas geothermal power projects are shown. There is much discussion of possible sources of financing, especially for overseas projects. (DJE-2005)

Battocletti, E.C.



Financing for Sustainable Development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This is a report prepared by the International Institute for Sustainable Development (IIED) addressing that sustainable development necessitates adequate sources of financing. In assessing the ability of Southern countries to finance sustainable development in a globalising context, this report looks at the role of official development assistance, debt and deficits, foreign capital flows, migrant remittances and sustainable trade among others.

International Institute for Environment and Development,



Modeling the evolution of karstic conduits along inception horizons (United States)

The evolution of karst systems is driven by a feedback mechanism between carbonate dissolution and flow processes. In general numerical simulations of this mechanism start with an initial configuration of inception horizons, such as fractures and bedding planes, which are horizons most susceptible to karstification. Since models for karst evolution have mainly focused on understanding the underlying physical and chemical processes, the initial configuration is usually based on very simple geometries. Consequently, simulation results usually do not resemble a realistic network of karstic voids. Our objective is to simulate more realistic karstic networks by starting with more complex and realistic configurations of inception horizons. The modeling approach permits a statistic control on the initial configuration and results in a simulated network of circular conduits. In a first step we define the bedding planes and use an existing stochastic model to generate sets of fractures. Subsequently, triangulations of these two-dimensional objects are used to define an initial geometry of the conduit network. Namely, every edge within these triangulations represents part of the initial conduit network. The initial diameter of the conduits is based on a probability distribution which is related to the properties of the inception horizons. The resulting conduit network, representing an assumed initial state of the inception horizons, is coupled with a surrounding three-dimensional matrix domain. Flow can thus be simulated using a model for coupled conduit-matrix flow, provided that the model can handle complex conduit networks. The flow model is coupled with a dissolution model based on classical methodologies which permits to increase the diameters of the conduits. With our model we test common hypotheses about cave development. We are particularly interested in how caves form in eogenetic karst systems which are characterized by a relatively permeable rock matrix.

De Rooij, R.; Graham, W. D.



Current understanding of phase separation mechanisms in branching conduits  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents a summary of the state-of-the-art in our understanding of phase separation in branching conduits. The currently existing data base and analytical models are reviewed, and the ''lessons learned'' are summarized. It is shown that no completely satisfactory model exists for the prediction of phase separation in conduits of untested geometry and/or operating conditions. Nevertheless, based on our current understanding, an interim model is proposed. (orig.)


Comminution and frictional melting in volcanic conduits (United States)

Shearing and faulting at active volcanoes may differ to tectonic faulting due to their distinct temperature conditions above those of the Earth's geotherm. In particular, the ascent of high-viscosity magma/rocks in upper conduits leads to shear/fault zones, with/without gouge formation and sometimes frictional melting; yet, details of the deformation and fracture mechanisms in these magma/rocks with different crystallinities reveal a different synopsis. For instance, the extrusion of lava domes proceeds endogenously or exogenically - a distinction generally understood as a shift in magma rheology to brittle failure, without consideration of the subsequent slip process. Exogenic growth and formation of a spine follow the dynamic rupture of the lava and the dome carapace, and suffer slip along the fault surface. Here, we present experimental investigations of the ability of volcanic rocks (with different glass/crystal and vesicle ratios) to sustain friction, and in cases melt, using a high-velocity rotary apparatus. During high-velocity rotary shear test, we find that slip of along andesite and basalt rocks generate heat which leads to frictional melting at temperature of ca. 1000 C, conciding to a total slip of 10-40 m (for slip initiating at room temperature). In contrast, slip along dense obsidian rocks or porous rocks cannot sustain slip along a discrete plane. Alternatively, obsidian can be slipped against a crystalline material. The width of the slip zone decreases in the presence of crystals. The findings suggest that the comminution of crystals is a requirement to the development of a localised slip zone. In absence of crystals, obsidian (and crystal-free magma) shatter catastrophically. We discuss the implication of our findings to the cases of tectonic faults, stability of volcanic edifices and evolution of lava dome eruptions.

Lavallee, Y.; Mitchell, T. M.; Heap, M. J.; Kendrick, J. E.; kennedy, B.; Ashwell, P. A.; Hirose, T.; Dingwell, D. B.



Project financing in the energy sector: The Indonesian experience  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Past Indonesian experiences in arranging Project Financing or Limited Recourse Financing in the Energy Sector and the feasibility of such a structure for Nuclear Power Projects are reviewed in this paper. Many of the projects in the energy sector, including Nuclear Power Project are capital intensive projects. A single project may require an investment level of several billion dollars. Large capital investments of this nature may drastically limit the availability of funds from external sources used to finance other non-energy projects in a developing country such as Indonesia. Therefore, the financing concept of a project is becoming a paramount element in the policies adopted by the Republic of Indonesia. As an example, a non-recourse finance structure is the preference of the government for export oriented energy projects. The aim of the government financing policy for export oriented energy projects is to limit the recourse to the applicable Indonesian state enterprise (the project sponsor) by transferring to third parties as much of the project risks as possible. Most of the export oriented energy projects come close to achieving a non-recourse structure. Domestic oriented energy projects however, continue to be financed with a loan guarantee by the government or by state owned enterprises. In addition to maintaining fund availability from external sources for the non-energy sector, Indonesia's reported external debts as well as debt service ratios are other factwell as debt service ratios are other factors in considering a limited recourse financing structure for capital intensive projects. (author)


Financial Collateral Arrangements  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Increasing use of securities and collaterals in transactions brings the legal ambiguity in today’s financial markets which are trying to globalise. It should have been noted that without legal certainty an achievement can not be obtained in a complete manner. To solve this legal ambiguity in financial markets, reform movements have been started through out the world from different groups, institutions and communities involving both jurists and practitioners., The Directive on settlement finality in payment and securities settlement systems and the Directive on financial collateral arrangements were adopted. These two directives are both supplementary legislations for the Directive of the Parliament and of the Council on the reorganisation and winding up of credit institutions dated 4 April 2001. All of these directives are the circles of a chain that aim the proper functioning of the internal financial market in European Union. In this study, mainly the Collateral Directive will be taken into account. Firstly, the necessity of a harmonised collateral law and the aims of the Collateral Directive will be handled. Following, the main provisions of the directive will be analysed in details. While analysing in details, the different implementations of the directive in member states will be mentioned. Finally, the conflict of laws clause and the consequences of the directive will be explained.

Gulenay Rusen



Financial Collateral Arrangements  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Increasing use of securities and collaterals in transactions brings the legal ambiguity in today’s financialmarkets which are trying to globalise. It should have been noted that without legal certainty an achievement cannot be obtained in a complete manner. To solve this legal ambiguity in financial markets, reform movements havebeen started through out the world from different groups, institutions and communities involving both jurists andpractitioners., The Directive on settlement finality in payment and securities settlement systems and the Directiveon financial collateral arrangements were adopted. These two directives are both supplementary legislations for theDirective of the Parliament and of the Council on the reorganisation and winding up of credit institutions dated 4April 2001. All of these directives are the circles of a chain that aim the proper functioning of the internal financialmarket in European Union. In this study, mainly the Collateral Directive will be taken into account. Firstly, thenecessity of a harmonised collateral law and the aims of the Collateral Directive will be handled. Following, themain provisions of the directive will be analysed in details. While analysing in details, the differentimplementations of the directive in member states will be mentioned. Finally, the conflict of laws clause and theconsequences of the directive will be explained.

Gulenay Rusen



Temperature limited heater with a conduit substantially electrically isolated from the formation (United States)

A system for heating a hydrocarbon containing formation is described. A conduit may be located in an opening in the formation. The conduit includes ferromagnetic material. An electrical conductor is positioned inside the conduit, and is electrically coupled to the conduit at or near an end portion of the conduit so that the electrical conductor and the conduit are electrically coupled in series. Electrical current flows in the electrical conductor in a substantially opposite direction to electrical current flow in the conduit during application of electrical current to the system. The flow of electrons is substantially confined to the inside of the conduit by the electromagnetic field generated from electrical current flow in the electrical conductor so that the outside surface of the conduit is at or near substantially zero potential at C. The conduit may generate heat and heat the formation during application of electrical current.

Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Sandberg, Chester Ledlie (Palo Alto, CA)



Public School Finance (United States)

This issue of Topic in Depth explores some of the resources available online regarding school finance. The first article from the RAND Review (1) discusses the challenges involved in meeting the ambitious goals established by the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act and the need to develop a school accountability system that can provide "the incentives and resources that the schools really need to help all students meet the state performance standards." In the second article (2), Linda Darling-Hammond, a Professor at Stanford University discusses the inequality of school funding across the US, again using California as an example. This website from CPRE (3) offers several articles that explain how school finance in the US works. The NCES Education Finance Statistics Center (4) is also a hub for information on public elementary/secondary education finance, including finance data on school districts nationwide. The Education Commission of the States (ECS) (5) offers this listing of state finance agencies for more state-specific information. Students can explore the topic further using this educational website from NCES (6). A collection of reports available through New American Schools (7) highlights one approach to the problem of school finance, namely resource reallocation. Taking yet another tactic, the author of this last article (8) proposes "a 'World Bank' for American education."


Development of conduits for the ITER central solenoid conductor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Japan Atomic Energy Agency has developed a JK2LB conduit for the Nb3Sn conductor of the ITER central solenoid (CS). Mechanical requirements for the CS conductor conduit are a 0.2% yield strength of more than 900 MPa and a fracture toughness KIC (J) of more than 130 MPa ?m after a compaction and aging heat treatment (650degC, 240 hours). In a previous work, it was shown that an aged JK2LB conduit has high strength and sufficient fracture toughness enough to satisfy the requirements. As the next step, work was performed to determine the specifications of the JK2LB conduit taking into account of cold work, including compaction and winding, and to simplify its fabrication process. To simulate the cold work effect with cold work of 10% and aging, mechanical tests were performed at 4.2 K on laboratory-scale (20-30 kg) ingot samples at 4.2 K. It was found that the sum of carbon and nitrogen content should be in the range from 0.11% to 0.18% to achieve the ITER mechanical requirements. To obtain a grain-sized of conduit as well as that of a small ingot sample, the appropriate solution heat-treatment temperature and holding time were studied. In order to simplify the billet production process, we confirmed the internal metallurgical qualities of a JK2LB-cast ingot. Since significant segregation was not observed, it was possible to exclude the electroslag remelting process. Based on the above achievements, full-size JK2LB conduits that satisfy the IT-size JK2LB conduits that satisfy the ITER mechanical requirements were fabricated. (author)


25 CFR 170.300 - May tribes use flexible financing to finance IRR transportation projects? (United States)

... May tribes use flexible financing to finance IRR transportation projects? 170... May tribes use flexible financing to finance IRR transportation projects? Yes...financing in the same manner as States to finance IRR transportation projects, unless...



Innovative M and A financing structures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The structuring and financing of mergers and acquisitions (M and A) is one of the most critical elements of a takeover process, given that Canadian securities law requires that any takeover must be 'fully financed'. It follows therefore, that in order to comply with securities laws, the financing for a takeover must be arranged in advance of making such a bid. This paper describes the structuring of an offer, outlines the sources of M and A financing, including a review of the 'full capital solution', reviews the key forces influencing the financial structuring of takeover bids, and provides examples of recent M and A transactions in the oil and gas resources sectors. Case histories of two recent mergers and acquisitions, one involving Sun Media Corporation and Rogers Communication Inc., the other John Labatt Limited and the Onex Corporation, were reviewed in detail. The importance of proper structuring of the offer for the specific target's shareholders, as well as for future business operations was stressed


To finance the transition  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A set of brief articles illustrates the emergence of innovating and operational financing tools aimed at supporting energy transition in France and in Europe. As far as France is concerned, different examples are evoked: raising local savings, crowd-funding for renewable energies, citizen investment, cooperation between industries, communities and citizens, a semi-public company with citizen participation, the case of the Nancy urban community, a joint experience by a local public company and an investment fund. As far as Europe is concerned, the following topics or examples are evoked: local policies as lever for European financing, the Danish example of citizen-based financing, crowd-funding in the UK, the European emergence of cooperatives. As far as banks and institutions are concerned, the following topics are addressed: tools implemented by the Caisse des Depots for energy transition, the roles of banks and of public institutions in the financing of energy transition


Personal Finance Calculations. (United States)

Contains explanations and examples of mathematical calculations for a secondary level course on personal finance. How to calculate total monetary cost of an item, monthly payments, different types of interest, annual percentage rates, and unit pricing is explained. (RM)

Argo, Mark




Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article based on an examination of empirical literature, analyses the financing of innovative enterprises in Romania and presents the characteristics of Romanian policies in this regard. It sets forth an estimation of the number of innovative enterprises in Romania based on figures from different sources. Assessing the role of financial restrictions on innovation reveals that a firm is facing obstacles to finance its innovative activities but also other difficulties to innovate which appears to be enhanced. This article also puts forward the role of different financing actors and instruments at different stages of the firm's life cycle and emphasizes the function of proximity capital in filling the gap between supply and demand of financing. Finally a framework for policy is recommended.




Export development financing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main activities of the Export Development Corporation (EDC) were described, as well as some of the changes currently being implemented. EDC is Canada's official export credit agency, providing risk management services such as insurance, loans, guarantees, equity and leasing. EDC's project finance initiative started in 1991, and focused mainly on the up-front process. It has established itself as a recognized leader in project financing. It has over 15 years experience in a variety of sectors and countries. Energy projects financed to date include hydro projects in India, Argentina and Pakistan, and thermal projects in Thailand, China, Indonesia and Egypt. Lending criteria used to select projects were outlined, along with the risks endemic to project financing


Financing Education in Kenya. (United States)

This article focuses on the financing of education in Kenya. It reviews government, parental, community, and international efforts aimed at improving education during a period of economic austerity. (JDH)

Olembo, Jotham Ombisi



Thermomechanical milling of accessory lithics in volcanic conduits (United States)

Accessory lithic clasts recovered from pyroclastic deposits commonly result from the failure of conduit wall rocks, and represent an underutilized resource for constraining conduit processes during explosive volcanic eruptions. The morphological features of lithic clasts provide distinctive 'textural fingerprints' of processes that have reshaped them during transport in the conduit. Here, we present the first study focused on accessory lithic clast morphology and show how the shapes and surfaces of these accessory pyroclasts can inform on conduit processes. We use two main types of accessory lithic clasts from pyroclastic fallout deposits of the 2360 B.P. subplinian eruption of Mount Meager, British Columbia, as a case study: (i) rough and subangular dacite clasts, and (ii) variably rounded and smoothed monzogranite clasts. The quantitative morphological data collected on these lithics include: mass, volume, density, 2-D image analysis of convexity (C), and 3-D laser scans for sphericity (?) and smoothness (S). Shaping and comminution (i.e. milling) of clasts within the conduit are ascribed to three processes: (1) disruptive fragmentation due to high-energy impacts between clasts or between clasts and conduit walls, (2) ash-blasting of clasts suspended within the volcanic flux, and (3) thermal effects. We use a simplified conduit eruption model to predict ash-blasting velocities and lithic residence times as a function of clast size and source depth, thereby constraining the lithic milling processes. The extent of shape and surface modification (i.e. rounding and honing) is directly proportional to clast residence times within the conduit prior to evacuation. We postulate that the shallow-seated dacite clasts remain subangular and rough due to short (<2 min) residence times, whereas monzogranite clasts are much more rounded and smoothed due to deeper source depths and consequently longer residence times (up to ˜1 h). Larger monzogranite clasts are smoother than smaller clasts due to longer residence times and to greater differential velocities within the ash-laden jet. Lastly, our model residence times and mass loss estimates for rounded clasts are used to estimate minimum attrition rates due to volcanic ash-blasting within the conduit (e.g., 12 cm3?s-1 for 25 cm clasts, sourced at 2500 m depth).

Campbell, Michelle E.; Russell, James K.; Porritt, Lucy A.



Financing the German Mittelstand  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Based on a survey conducted among German Mittelstand firms and capital structure data on the Mittelstand, this paper sheds light on the current and future financing situation of the Mittelstand. The paper documents the equity shortage and dependence on bank debt typically associated with the Mittelstand. It further emphasises that - at present - fears of systematic credit rationing are difficult to substantiate (though a lack of alternative sources of finance can be expected to adversely affe...

Hommel, Ulrich; Schneider, Hilmar



Financing Water in Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Despite repeated policy initiatives from donors and governments, the human and economic cost of continued lack of access to safe water and sanitation in sub-Saharan Africa remains high. Progress is in large part constrained by a persistent ‘financing gap’. This paper shows that a radical reorientation of policy is needed to achieve a significant increase in investment finance in order to raise access levels. Rather than continuing to pursue policies that have failed for the past two decad...

Bayliss, Kate



IAEA paper on institutional arrangements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At its fifth series of meetings, Working Group 3 received a background paper prepared by the IAEA which had a threefold purpose: firstly, to provide an overview on institutional arrangements under consideration by the INFCE Working Groups; secondly, to explore potential relationships between the various institutional arrangements under consideration; and thirdly, to identify areas where further analysis might be desirable


Nuclear core region fastener arrangement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An arrangement is disclosed for cooling the fasteners affixing a core barrel to a core former and a core baffle to a core former in the reactor vessel internals of a nuclear reactor. The arrangement allows the flowing reactor coolant to contact the fasteners, preferably bolts with an elliptical neck, and maintains lower bolt operating temperatures than previously experienced


Aeration efficiency of free-surface conduit flow systems. (United States)

Dissolved oxygen is a measure of the quantity of oxygen present in water and is one of the best indicators of the health of a water ecosystem. Dissolved oxygen levels in water can be increased by creating turbulent conditions where fine air bubbles are carried into the bulk of the flow. This is achieved by hydraulic structures. A free-surface conduit is a particular instance of this. In the present work, a series of experiments were conducted to investigate the aeration efficiency of free-surface conduit flow systems. The results indicate that free-surface conduit flow systems are very effective for oxygen transfer. At Froude numbers greater than 15, almost full oxygen transfer up to the saturation value was reached. Moreover, from experimental data, a regression equation was obtained with a very high correlation coefficient, showing the effect of various parameters on the aeration efficiency. PMID:20183998

Unsal, M; Baylar, A; Tugal, M; Ozkan, F



Interactions of large amplitude solitary waves in viscous fluid conduits  

CERN Document Server

The free interface separating an exterior, viscous fluid from an intrusive conduit of buoyant, less viscous fluid is known to support strongly nonlinear solitary waves due to a balance between viscosity-induced dispersion and buoyancy-induced nonlinearity. The overtaking, pairwise interaction of weakly nonlinear solitary waves has been classified theoretically for the Korteweg-de Vries equation and experimentally in the context of shallow water waves. We use numerical simulations and experimental observations to extend the classification scheme to the strongly nonlinear regime for viscous conduit solitary waves, where we identify three classes of nonlinear interaction behavior: purely bimodal, purely unimodal, and a mixed type. The magnitude of the dispersive radiation due to solitary wave interactions is quantified numerically and observed to be beyond the sensitivity of our experiments, suggesting that conduit solitary waves are approximately solitons. Experimental data are shown to be in excellent agreemen...

Lowman, Nicholas K; El, Gennady A



Modeling Reactive Transport in Coupled Groundwater-Conduit Systems (United States)

Modeling reactive transport in coupled groundwater-conduit systems requires consideration of two transport time scales in the flow and transport models. Consider for example a subsurface mine consisting of a network of highly conductive shafts, drifts or ventilation raises (i.e., conduits) within the considerably less permeable ore material (i.e., matrix). In the conduits, potential contaminants can travel much more rapidly than in the background aquifer (matrix). Since conduits cannot necessarily be regarded as a continuum, double continuum models are only of limited use for simulation of contaminant transport in such coupled groundwater-conduit systems. This study utilizes a "hybrid" flow and transport model in which contaminants can in essence be transported at a slower time scale in the matrix and at a faster time scale in the conduits. The hybrid flow model uses an approach developed by Clemens et al. (1996), which is based on the modelling of flow in a discrete pipe network, coupled to a continuum representing the low-permeability inter-conduit matrix blocks. Laminar or turbulent flow can be simulated in the different pipes depending on the flow conditions in the model domain. The three-dimensional finite-difference groundwater flow model MODFLOW (Harbaugh and McDonald, 1996) is used to simulate flow in the continuum. Contaminant transport within the matrix is simulated with a continuum approach using the three-dimensional multi-species solute transport model MT3DMS (Zheng and Wang, 1999), while that in the conduit system is simulated with a one-dimensional advective transport model. As a first step for reactive transport modeling in such systems, only equilibrium reactions among multiple species are considered by coupling the hybrid transport model to a geochemical speciation package. An idealized mine network developed by Viswanathan and Sauter (2001) is used as a test problem in this study. The numerical experiment is based on reference date collected from the Ronneburg mine located in Eastern Germany. Different scenarios are investigated to examine whether dissolved uranium and other metals could be released from the mine, and to explore the influences of various physical and chemical factors.

Spiessl, S. M.; Sauter, M.; Zheng, C.; Viswanathan, H. S.



Totally free arrangements of hyperplanes  

CERN Document Server

A central arrangement $\\A$ of hyperplanes in an $\\ell$-dimensional vector space $V$ is said to be {\\it totally free} if a multiarrangement $(\\A, m)$ is free for any multiplicity $ m : \\A\\to \\Z_{> 0}$. It has been known that $\\A$ is totally free whenever $\\ell \\le 2$. In this article, we will prove that there does not exist any totally free arrangement other than the obvious ones, that is, a product of one-dimensional arrangements and two-dimensional ones.

Abe, Takuro; Yoshinaga, Masahiko



The Campaign Finance Institute (United States)

With funding from the Carnegie Corporation, The Joyce Foundation, and The Pew Charitable Trusts, The Campaign Finance Institute is a non-profit institute affiliated with The George Washington University that "conducts objective research and education, empanels task forces and makes recommendations for policy change in the field of campaign finance." Along the top of the homepage, visitors will find thematic sections that include "President", "Congress", and "Interest Groups". Each of these sections includes full reports, press releases, data tables and charts. Additionally, visitors can look for specific materials by using their embedded search engine. Also, visitors can sign up here to receive email updates on the Institute's research and programs. Overall, it's a very useful site for anyone with an interest in campaign finance from a personal or an academic perspective.


Survey: Online Finance (United States)

This lengthy article from The Economist gives an excellent, far-reaching overview of the industry of online banking. "Online Finance" considers the role of online banking within the finance industry as well as examining the benefits and pitfalls of banks transferring their services to the Internet. The survey is broken into nineteen sections which explore this phenomenon from a variety of angles including banking technology, online brokerage firms, and some of the obstacles of online finance, as well as looking at banking on the Internet in Japan and Scandinavia. The article also includes related titles in The Economist archive, as well as linking to several sections of the SEC Website that were mentioned in the article.


Financing tourist activity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper researches which of the possible financing models (self-financing, loan, mutual fund, issuing securities and leasing is the most convenient for tourism financing on the grounds of opinions and views of student population. Taking into account that future social and economic development depends on student population, that in every society intellectual endeavor (science and art exists ever since man exists, that the overall progress of mankind is based on the great intellectual endeavor of former civilizations, as well as the fact that Western Serbia has remarkable natural and anthropogenic characteristics suitable for valorization for the purpose of tourism development, the research questions were formulated and the research was performed. The methods used were: analysis, correlation, deduction and induction. Field research has been of the primary importance and it was based on questionnaires, interviews and in-depth interview. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 46001 i br. 47007

Vujovi? Slavoljub



Usability of photoplethysmography method in estimation of conduit artery stiffness (United States)

Three channel photoplethysmography (PPG) signal waveform studies of leg conduit arteries during a provocative occlusion test were performed. PPG waveform second derivative amplitude ratio and arterial pulse wave velocity values showed significant correlations with ultrasound (US) reference method of local and regional arterial stiffness (AS), showing the ability to use PPG for AS change quantitative assessment.

Grabovskis, A.; Marcinkevics, Z.; Lukstina, Z.; Majauska, M.; Aivars, J.; Lusa, V.; Kalinina, A.



Numerical study of axonal outgrowth in grooved nerve conduits (United States)

Nerve conduits with grooved inner texture, working as a topographical guidance cue, have been experimentally proved to play a significant role in axonal alignment. How grooved conduits guide axonal outgrowth is of particular interest for studying nerve regeneration. A viscoelastic model of axonal outgrowth in a conduit with a defined grooved geometry characterized by its width in the circumferential direction and its height in the radial direction is developed in this work. In this model, the axon is considered as an elastic beam and the axonal deformation and motion, including stretching, bending and torsion, are described using a Cosserat rod theory. The friction between axon and substrate is also considered in this model as well as the tip outgrowth. It is found that the directional outgrowth of the axon can be significantly improved by the grooved texture: when the groove width decreases or the groove height increases, the axonal elongation in the longitudinal direction of the conduit can be increased, which is in good agreement with experimental observations. This work is the first numerical model to study the effect of the substrate geometry on axonal outgrowth.

Yin, Jun; Coutris, Nicole; Huang, Yong



Evaluation of the MODFLOW-2005 Conduit Flow Process. (United States)

The recent development of the Conduit Flow Process (CFP) by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provides hydrogeologic modelers with a new tool that incorporates the non-Darcian, multiporosity components of flow characteristic of karst aquifers. CFP introduces new parameters extending beyond those of traditional Darcian groundwater flow codes. We characterize a karst aquifer to collect data useful for evaluating this new tool at a test site in west-central Florida, where the spatial distribution and cross-sectional area of the conduit network are available. Specifically, we characterize: (1) the potential for Darcian/non-Darcian flow using estimates of specific discharge vs. observed hydraulic gradients, and (2) the temporal variation for the direction and magnitude of fluid exchange between the matrix and conduit network during extreme hydrologic events. We evaluate the performance of CFP Mode 1 using a site-scale dual-porosity model and compare its performance with a comparable laminar equivalent continuum model (ECM) using MODFLOW-2005. Based on our preliminary analyses, hydraulic conductivity coupled with conduit wall conductance improved the match between observed and simulated discharges by 12% to 40% over turbulent flow alone (less than 1%). PMID:20113361

Hill, Melissa E; Stewart, Mark T; Martin, Angel



Recurrent transitional cell carcinoma in an ileal conduit. (United States)

A patient with recurrent transitional cell carcinoma involving an ileal conduit is reported. This case is unusual for the following reasons: the malignancy was located in an area where there was no transitional epithelium; a "napkin ring" deformity was present; there was a 6-year interval between the initial cystectomy and the recurrence of the malignancy. PMID:553366

Rubin, B E; Rodriguez, E; Mangasarian, R; Cummings, J; Kwart, A



Free Arrangements over Finite Field  

CERN Document Server

The freeness of hyperplane arrangements in a three dimensional vector space over finite field is discussed. We prove that if the number of hyperplanes is greater than some bound, then the freeness is determined by the characteristic polynomial.

Yoshinaga, M



Virtual Finance Library (United States)

Search Partners, a provider of executive financial search services, presents the Virtual Finance Library, a packed collection of links to financial sites. The main page of Virtual Finance Library contains general information including reference and dictionary sites, calculators and converters, and interesting links. The rest of the library is accessible via the table of contents on the left side of the screen. The Websites are organized by topic, geographic location, or subtopic. Each topic begins with a short introduction to the subject, several pages long, and most links are descriptively annotated.


Guidebook to Geothermal Finance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This guidebook is intended to facilitate further investment in conventional geothermal projects in the United States. It includes a brief primer on geothermal technology and the most relevant policies related to geothermal project development. The trends in geothermal project finance are the focus of this tool, relying heavily on interviews with leaders in the field of geothermal project finance. Using the information provided, developers and investors may innovate in new ways, developing partnerships that match investors' risk tolerance with the capital requirements of geothermal projects in this dynamic and evolving marketplace.

Salmon, J. P.; Meurice, J.; Wobus, N.; Stern, F.; Duaime, M.



Financing renewables - wind energy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the status of the wind energy markets world-wide, in Europe and in the UK. It outlines the main methods of financing wind energy installations and discusses why different institutional structures have led to different markets in the UK and in Germany, with some concern about the state of the UK onshore industry. The paper looks ahead to the opening up of the potentially much larger offshore wind resource, concluding that in this area, existing UK development and financing structures are well suited. (Author)


Bulk cargo ship hold arrangement  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The invention relates to an arrangement in ship holds for bulk cargo, for example coal. The hold bottom has one or more rows of discharge openings and is substantially flat on at least one side of the rows of discharge openings. A plurality of drivers are arranged in succession on the flat bottom and are displaceable by drive motors in a direction transverse to said row so as to feed the cargo to the openings.

Sandwall, N.K.



Extra cardiac conduit Fontan procedure in 41 patients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The Fontan operation is the definitive operation for palliation of complex congenital heart disease with single –ventricle physiology. The use of the extra cardiac conduit has recently been gaining popularity. The purpose of this study was to compare the outcomes of extra cardiac conduit Fontan procedure (off-pump technique and that of traditional technique (lateral tunnel technique in which cardiopulmonary bypass is routinely used. Methods: Forty one patients in different age groups underwent extra cardiac conduit Fontan procedure between April 2001 and December 2004. Data were collected from ICU sheets, files and during follow up visits. Under general anesthesia and through median sternotomy, using two temporary decompressing shunts, superior vena cava implanted on right pulmonary artery and a conduit interposed between transected inferior vena cava and main pulmonary artery. Fenestration was done in almost all patients and previous shunts were closed if there were any. Results: Of our patients, 13 were female and 28 were male. Mean age of the patients was 11.1 years (SD=7.8.In 24.4% of cases Fontan procedure was done as the first palliative surgery and in 75.6% of them there was previous history of palliative procedures. In 6 patients (14.6% we were constrained to use cardiopulmonary bypass which was predictable or necessary in 50% of cases. There was no reoperation due to post operative bleeding. Two cases suffered from prolonged plural effusion. Our in-hospital mortality was 9.8%. During 2-24 months follow up, we found two cases who were in NYHA functional class II and one case in functional class I. Conclusion: Extra cardiac conduit Fontan procedure could be used in a safe way. The results of this study were comparable and even in some cases better than that of the traditional technique.

Safarpour Gh



Combined physical and chemical nonequilibrium transport model for solution conduits (United States)

Solute transport in karst aquifers is primarily constrained to relatively complex and inaccessible solution conduits where transport is often rapid, turbulent, and at times constrictive. Breakthrough curves generated from tracer tests in solution conduits are typically positively-skewed with long tails evident. Physical nonequilibrium models to fit breakthrough curves for tracer tests in solution conduits are now routinely employed. Chemical nonequilibrium processes are likely important interactions, however. In addition to partitioning between different flow domains, there may also be equilibrium and nonequilibrium partitioning between the aqueous and solid phases. A combined physical and chemical nonequilibrium (PCNE) model was developed for an instantaneous release similar to that developed by Leij and Bradford (2009) for a pulse release. The PCNE model allows for partitioning open space in solution conduits into mobile and immobile flow regions with first-order mass transfer between the two regions to represent physical nonequilibrium in the conduit. Partitioning between the aqueous and solid phases proceeds either as an equilibrium process or as a first-order process and represents chemical nonequilibrium for both the mobile and immobile regions. Application of the model to three example breakthrough curves demonstrates the applicability of the combined physical and chemical nonequilibrium model to tracer tests conducted in karst aquifers, with exceptionally good model fits to the data. The three models, each from a different state in the United States, exhibit very different velocities, dispersions, and other transport properties with most of the transport occurring via the fraction of mobile water. Fitting the model suggests the potentially important interaction of physical and chemical nonequilibrium processes.

Field, Malcolm S.; Leij, Feike J.



AC loss characteristics of simulated CIC-type conductors having plastic conduit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When alternating current superconducting coils having cable-in-conduit conductors are fabricated, non-metallic conduit materials are necessary to avoid eddy current losses in the conduits. Using two kinds of non-metallic tapes made of glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRPs) and Dyneema fiber reinforced plastics (DFRPs), we made the conductors with the GFRP conduits and DFRP conduits, and experimentally studied the total losses of the conductors. The measured results showed that the total loss of the conductor with the GFRP conduit was smaller than that with the DFRP conduit at the same value of the void ratio, the transport current, the external magnetic field, and so on. When the void ratios become high, the superconducting bundle cable can easily move in the conduit. Hence the measured total losses increased with the void ratios of the conductors


78 FR 61985 - City of Astoria, Oregon; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower... (United States)

...Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower Facility and Soliciting Comments and...intent to construct a qualifying conduit hydropower facility, pursuant to section 30 of...Act, as amended by section 4 of the Hydropower Regulatory Efficiency Act of...



78 FR 53752 - City of Sandpoint, Idaho; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower... (United States)

...Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower Facility and Soliciting Comments and...intent to construct a qualifying conduit hydropower facility, pursuant to section 30 of...Act, as amended by section 4 of the Hydropower Regulatory Efficiency Act of...



78 FR 61987 - Corbett Water District; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower... (United States)

...Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower Facility and Soliciting Comments and...intent to construct a qualifying conduit hydropower facility, pursuant to section 30 of...Act, as amended by section 4 of the Hydropower Regulatory Efficiency Act of...



78 FR 56872 - City of Barre, Vermont; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower... (United States)

...Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower Facility and Soliciting Comments and...intent to construct a qualifying conduit hydropower facility, pursuant to section 30 of...Act, as amended by section 4 of the Hydropower Regulatory Efficiency Act of...



78 FR 62351 - North Side Canal Company; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower... (United States)

...Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower Facility and Soliciting Comments and...intent to construct a qualifying conduit hydropower facility, pursuant to section 30 of...Act, as amended by section 4 of the Hydropower Regulatory Efficiency Act of...



78 FR 69847 - North Side Canal Company; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower... (United States)

...Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower Facility and Soliciting Comments and...intent to construct a qualifying conduit hydropower facility, pursuant to section 30 of...Act, as amended by section 4 of the Hydropower Regulatory Efficiency Act of...



78 FR 63176 - Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower Facility and Soliciting... (United States)

...Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower Facility and Soliciting Comments and...intent to construct a qualifying conduit hydropower facility, pursuant to section 30 of...Act, as amended by section 4 of the Hydropower Regulatory Efficiency Act of...



Finance and the nuclear industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The subject is discussed under the headings: the energy situation today; energy investment and capital requirements (finding the necessary funds); further possibilities; future financing (project financing); summary. (U.K.)


Financing of Renewable Energy Projects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper describes the role of the Banco Centroamericano de Integracion Economica in financing renewable energy projects in Central America. Also decribes the different financing modes to the goverment and private sectors


Financing emerging energies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper discusses the financing of emerging energies in Canada. Transforming energy markets will involve billions of dollars of investment from businesses and residents. Many different types of return on investment can be expected. These benefits will continue to grow over time and provide a permanent income


Mathematical Models in Finance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Finance is the corner stone of the free enterprise system. Good financial management is therefore vitally important to the economic health of business firms, and thus the nation and the world. The field is relatively complex, and it is undergoing constant change in response to shifts in economic conditions say Brigham and Gapenski in the introduction of their Financial Management book (Brigham, Eugene F., Gapenski, Louis C 1994. As they said the field is relatively complex since most of the financial decisions are involved with uncertainty and risk. This is where quantitative methods and finance meets. In financial decision making process, like most of the decision making process, final decision made by managers, not by some mathematical tools. However, those mathematical tools, used in financial decision making process, contribute to managers' decision a lot. Finance is consist of three interrelated areas which are Money and Capital Markets, dealing with securities markets and financial institutions, Investments, focusing on the decisions of individuals, financial and other institutions while they choose securities for their investment portfolios; and Financial Management, involving the actual management of non financial firms (Brigham, E. F., Gapenski, L. C;1994 In this study I tried to summarize mathematical methods that have been used in finance historically.

Halim Kazan



Synergistic effects of micropatterned biodegradable conduits and Schwann cells on sciatic nerve regeneration (United States)

This paper describes a novel biodegradable conduit that provides a combination of physical, chemical and biological cues at the cellular level to facilitate peripheral nerve regeneration. The conduit consists of a porous poly(D,L-lactic acid) (PDLLA) tubular support structure with a micropatterned inner lumen. Schwann cells were pre-seeded into the lumen to provide additional trophic support. Conduits with micropatterned inner lumens pre-seeded with Schwann cells (MS) were fabricated and compared with three types of conduits used as controls: M (conduits with micropatterned inner lumens without pre-seeded Schwann cells), NS (conduits without micropatterned inner lumens pre-seeded with Schwann cells) and N (conduits without micropatterned inner lumens, without pre-seeded Schwann cells). The conduits were implanted in rats with 1 cm sciatic nerve transections and the regeneration and functional recovery were compared in the four different cases. The number or size of regenerated axons did not vary significantly among the different conduits. The time of recovery, and the sciatic function index, however, were significantly enhanced using the MS conduits, based on qualitative observations as well as quantitative measurements using walking track analysis. This demonstrates that biodegradable micropatterned conduits pre-seeded with Schwann cells that provide a combination of physical, chemical and biological guidance cues for regenerating axons at the cellular level offer a better alternative for repairing sciatic nerve transactions than conventional biodegradable conduits.

Rutkowski, Gregory E.; Miller, Cheryl A.; Jeftinija, Srdija; Mallapragada, Surya K.



Bubble Rise and Break-Up in Volcanic Conduits (United States)

The continual passive degassing occurring at open-vent mafic volcanoes is often punctuated by bursts of active degassing. The latter are generally thought to be the result of slug flow: large, conduit-filling bubbles periodically rising up the feeder conduit and bursting at the magma-air interface. Existing models of volcanic degassing systems make the simplifying assumption that the conduit is cylindrical; however, while this may be true at shallow levels, a flaring probably connects it to a dyke-like geometry at depth. The overall goal of this research is to assess the influence of conduit geometry on the speed and stability of bubbles rising in open-vent systems, and ultimately to devise a model to infer conduit shape from emerging bubbles size. In order to do that an analogue experimental approach was used. All of the experiments were two-phase (melt+volatiles); the analogue materials of choice were golden syrup-water mixtures ranging in viscosity from 10-1 to 104 Pa*s and air. Two experimental apparatuses were used: a bi-dimensional and a tri-dimensional one. The bi-dimensional set-up is a cell made of two flat transparent PVC plates (44x23cm) 10mm or 5mm apart (the front one having a hole at the bottom permitting bubble injection) containing a variety of parallelepipeds apt to outline different plumbing system geometries. The tri-dimensional one consists of a cylindrical tube (r=1,5cm; l=7cm) allowing bubble injection through the bottom rubber tap and terminating into a square tank (l=22cm). Results indicate that conduit geometry directly controls the slug rise velocity and the surrounding liquid descending speed, which in turn control the slug stability. Small enough bubbles simply deform as they go through the flaring, while bigger ones split into two daughter bubbles. A regime diagram has been constructed, illustrating the bubble break-up threshold dependence on the flare geometry and initial slug size, the two main controlling factors. The phenomenon of bubble break-up implies that there is a maximum size a system of a certain shape and size can deliver. The size of the upper daughter bubble has been measured in a variety of experiments, and it has been found to be independent of the original slug size, but related to the conduit-upper reservoir transition geometry. It has therefore been possible to establish a relation between conduit geometry and first emerging daughter bubble size. Under the reasonable assumption of a non-limiting supply of gas, this allowed to successfully design the envisaged model of conduit geometry inferral from delivered bubbles size. Data on the size of emerging bubbles, necessary to feed the model, can be obtained through infrasound techniques, as a bursting over-pressurized gas bubble produces a characteristic seismoacoustic signal, from which it is possible to infer its size.

Soldati, A.; Cashman, K. V.; Rust, A.; Rosi, M.



Real world financing opportunities for energy conservation projects  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Do you have the resources, dollars, people expertise and general know-how to do all the energy conservation measures. If you have the funds, do it yourself. Historically you would save more if you hired a private concern because that is the only job the contractor does for you. You have other hats to wear and fires to put out. Using third-party financing can be a good decision based on your specific needs. Procrastination is not the answer - the cost of delay is extensive. Financing energy conservation measures is no different from financing your automobile or home. If the benefits outweigh the negatives, the answer is obvious. Remember, in any case of using private sector financing, your are joining a partnership arrangement. The only way to succeed is to be honest with each other on the front end. There need not be any surprises. Any reputable company will gladly have your attorney evaluate all agreements, amortization schedules, and attachments. Real world financing alternatives will continue to change as the market matures. It's not too good to be true. It is no more than a vehicle to make the efforts of capital improvements streamlined. The money or financing is the catalyst to the project and makes the other areas meld.

Tramonte, D.J.




Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pour vivre parmi les membres d¢une certaine collectivité humaine, il est absolument nécessaire de connaître et respecter les valeurs fondamentales de celle-ci. Il est nécessaire également de respecter et d’appliquer les lignes de conduite importées par les normes juridiques réglementant les relations sociales qui se forment dans la collectivité respective pour realiser et protéger ces valeurs. Le peuple roumain, étant impliqué dans la procedure d¢adhésion à l¢Union européenne, a le devoir de connaître le droit communautaire. Le législateur roumain a la mission d'élaborer et d'adopter des lois compatibles avec les normes juridiques communautaires. L'exécutif doit agir pour que les lois soient appliques par tous ceux qui l’exécutif vivent en Roumanie. Par couséquence, il est absolument nécessaire de réformer l'administration publique roumaine de sorte que la relation fonctionnaire public et autres agents de l'administration publique – citoyen destinataire et bénéficiaire de la décision administrative et de la prestation administrative, soit conforme aux standards de l'Union européenne. Cet ouvrage a comme but de présenter en quelle mesure les règles écrites dans le Code européen de bonne conduite administrative peuvent être un modèle pour le législateur roumain. Même si le Code européen de bonne conduite administrative est un document rédigé pour établir les principes généraux à observer dans les relations entre les institutions communautaires européennes et le public, nous considerons qu'il y a plusieurs raisons pour considérer ce Code comme un modèle digne d'être suivi dans l'activité du législateur roumain. Parmi ces raisons, se trouve la performance d'établir le contenu de la base légale pour la bonne conduite administrative utilisant seulement vingt-sept articles dans lesquels on précise les principes généraux pour ce domaine d'activité sociale. Donc, le caractère concis et pourtant explicite du texte est un modèle pour une loi roumaine concernant la bonne conduite administrative ou pour un chapitre du Code administratif, chapitre ayant comme sujet la bonne conduite administrative. Une autre raison est celle que des principes comme „légitimité”, „absence de discri­mination”, „la proportionnalité”, „absense d'abus de pouvoir”, „impartialité et indépendance”, „objectivité”, „équité”, „confiance légitime, cohérence et conseil” et „courtoisie” doivent être présents parmi les principes fondamentaux de l'administration publique, quel que soit le pays dont il s'agit.

Alina Nicu



Arranged marriages annulled by law. (United States)

The arranged marriages of 210 young people in Yongle Town in Zunyi County of Guizhou Province were dissolved in 1995. The proportion of child betrothals, which generally happens among close relatives, is as high as 85% in the town. Some engagements, known as fetus betrothals or belt betrothals, are arranged before the children are born or while they are still infants strapped (belted) to their mothers. Dissemination of information from the Constitution, the Marriage Law, and the Regulations on the Registration of Marriage concerning marriage, healthier births, and good upbringing of children, and other information on reproductive health, has shown young people that they have the freedom to love and marry of their own free will, that their marriage is protected by law, and that consanguineous marriage is harmful to the health of future generations. Some convinced their parents that their arranged marriages should be annulled. PMID:12291696

Zhu, H



Transitional arrangements for ITER started  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Negotiations by the ITER Parties on the Agreement on the Establishment of the International Fusion Energy Organization for the Joint Implementation of the ITER Project (ITER Implementation Agreement, or simply 'the Agreement') and on the site selection for construction of the ITER machine are making good progress. Therefore, the ITER Parties decided that subsequent to the ITER Co-ordinated Technical Activities (CTA), the Transitional Arrangements for ITER (ITA or 'the Arrangements') will start on 1 January 2003, conducted under the auspices of the IAEA, and will terminate upon the entry into force of the Agreement, or at such earlier date as the Participants may decide. The Parties to the ITER Engineering Design Activities and the participants in the Negotiations on the ITER Joint Implementation wishing to co-operate in the ITER Transitional Arrangements will be the ITA Participants ('the Participants'). All four current ITER Parties, namely Canada, the European Union, Japan, and the Russian Federation confirmed, before the end of 2002, in their letters to the IAEA Director General their intention to participate in the ITA. The Arrangements are also open to new Participants acceding the Negotiations. The purpose of the ITA is to prepare for an efficient start of the Agreement, if and when so decided, and to maintain the integrity of the ITER Project. The overall direction of the Arrangements, as well as the supervision of their implementation will be exercised by the ITER Preparatory Committee ('the Committee'). It will be composed of two members from each Participant to the Arrangements. In exercising its functions, the Committee shall work for a smooth transition towards the organization and structure for ITER construction being developed in the frame of the ITER Negotiations. The first meeting of the Committee is scheduled for St. Petersburg, RF, on 17 February 2003


The Jacobian ideal of a hyperplane arrangement  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Jacobian ideal of a hyperplane arrangement is an ideal in the polynomial ring whose generators are the partial derivatives of the arrangements defining polynomial. In this article, we prove that an arrangement can be reconstructed from its Jacobian ideal.

Wakefield, Max; Yoshinaga, Masahiko



Compact moduli of hyperplane arrangements  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The minimal model program suggests a compactification of the moduli space of hyperplane arrangements which is a moduli space of stable pairs. Here, a stable pair consists of a scheme X which is a degeneration of projective space and a divisor D=D_1+..+D_n on X which is a limit of hyperplane arrangements. For example, in the 1-dimensional case, the stable pairs are stable curves of genus 0 with n marked points. Kapranov has defined an alternative compactification using his Ch...

Hacking, Paul



Patient positioning and supporting arrangement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This patent specification describes an E.M.I. claim relating to a patient positioning and support arrangement for a computerised axial tomography system, the arrangement comprising a curved platter upon which the patient can be disposed, a table having a curved groove to accommodate the platter, and means for driving the platter slidably along the groove; the platter being formed of a substantially rigid platform shaped to conform to the groove, and a shroud, secured to the platter and disposed between the platter and the surface of the groove, so as to permit the platter to slide smoothly. (U.K.)


Project financing renewable energy schemes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The viability of many Renewable Energy projects is critically dependent upon the ability of these projects to secure the necessary financing on acceptable terms. The principal objective of the study was to provide an overview to project developers of project financing techniques and the conditions under which project finance for Renewable Energy schemes could be raised, focussing on the potential sources of finance, the typical project financing structures that could be utilised for Renewable Energy schemes and the risk/return and security requirements of lenders, investors and other potential sources of financing. A second objective is to describe the appropriate strategy and tactics for developers to adopt in approaching the financing markets for such projects. (author)


Pyroclastic conduits of the late Cenozoic collapse calderas from Japan (United States)

There are many late Cenozoic calderas in Japan. Many of the late Cenozoic calderas are the large-scale collapse calderas of the piston-cylinder type, and consist of collapsed volcanic basin surrounded by arcuate ring faults or array of vents and the surrounding pyroclastic flow deposits. Yoshida (1984) reported intrusive breccia dikes between the subsided block and wall rocks of the Ishizuchi cauldron, SW Japan. The intrusive breccias consist of tuff and tuff breccias containing many kinds of rock fragments. Contacts with surrounding rocks are sharp. Some breccia dikes along the marginal ring fracture zone of the cauldron, which are composed of welded pyroclastic rocks, probably fill vents from which the surrounding pyroclastic flow deposits were discharged. The matrix of the intrusive breccia is welded ash and/or clastic powder. Fragments vary in size from millimeters to several meters. Local continuity of structures from one fragment to another indicates that the brecciation was not a consequence of explosive action; these are interpreted as intrusive breccias produced by fluidization processes, probably associated with pyroclastic explosions. These breccias were intruded upward to their present positions as part of a fluidization system. Intrusive breccia and tuff within the ring fault complex contain a eutaxitic foliation oriented nearly parallel to contacts. This feature is thought to result from inwardly directed pressures exerted by the dike walls during caldera collapse following eruption of the pyroclastic flows. The eutaxitic foliation indicates that the intrusive breccia and tuff were emplaced as a fluidized system of gas, solid particles, and probably liquid droplets. Mt. Taiheizan is located 20km northeast of Akita, NE Japan. There is the late Miocene to early Pliocene Nibetsu cauldron on Mt. Taiheizan. Recent study revealed the details of a contemporary arcute pyroclastic conduit consisting of felsic tuff. This Hirasawa felsic tuff dyke is about 5 km long and 100m wide, and it has four facies - massive facies, lithic-rich facies, fluidized network facies, and laminated marginal facies. Just outside of this arcuate pyroclastic conduit, a pyroclastic flow deposit estimated as an outflow from Hirasawa felsic tuff dyke, was found. It has the same mineral compositions and chemical compositions of glass. These tuff dyke and its outflow can correlated to the submarine pyroclastic mass flow facies. The Hirasawa arcuate pyroclastic conduit with the eruption of pyroclastic flow is considered to have been formed at the earliest Pliocene, and at this time, uplift of Mt. Taiheizan occurred together with the caldera resurgence of Nibetsu cauldron. Therefore, the formation of Hirasawa arcuate pyroclastic conduit is thought to have a close relationship with the resurgence of Nibetsu cauldron. The Motoisago caldera and the Takebayashi caldera are distributed near Sendai, NE Japan (Takahashi et al., 2006). The pyroclasitc conduits of these calderas are presumed at their margin between basements and horizontally stratified caldera-filling tuff beds. The conduits are not welded, but soft and vertically laminated with slumping structures caused by subsidence along the caldera wall. Almond (1971) has classified the pyroclastic conduits into forceful (diatreme) type and permissive injections associated with caldera-collapse. He showed no example of the permissive injections at low temperature. The pyroclastic conduits from these calderas near Sendai might be good examples of this type.

Yoshida, T.; Iwahashi, A.; Takahashi, T.; Nagahashi, Y.



Stenting an aortopulmonary conduit with peripheral cardiopulmonary bypass support. (United States)

Although surgically created aortopulmonary (AP) shunts are uncommon in the adult congenital heart disease population, they are often used in patients with pulmonary atresia. For these patients, the shunt is a vital supply of pulmonary blood flow and thus obstruction of the shunt may lead to pulmonary hypoperfusion and hypoxia thereby increasing morbidity and mortality. This report describes a safe and effective method of stenting the conduit with the hemodynamic support of peripheral cardiopulmonary bypass (PCB). Prior to the procedure, a multimodality assessment of a stenosis in a kinked AP conduit using computed tomography, angiography, intravascular ultrasound (IVUS), and pressure wire assessment (PWA) was utilized. While PCB, IVUS, and PWA have all been used to great effect in various clinical scenarios, the combined use of these techniques has not been previously been described in the setting of intervention in adult congenital heart disease. PMID:23592486

Incani, Alexander; Lee, Joseph C; Nicolae, Mugur J; Walters, Darren L



Financing climate change adaptation. (United States)

This paper examines the topic of financing adaptation in future climate change policies. A major question is whether adaptation in developing countries should be financed under the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), or whether funding should come from other sources. We present an overview of financial resources and propose the employment of a two-track approach: one track that attempts to secure climate change adaptation funding under the UNFCCC; and a second track that improves mainstreaming of climate risk management in development efforts. Developed countries would need to demonstrate much greater commitment to the funding of adaptation measures if the UNFCCC were to cover a substantial part of the costs. The mainstreaming of climate change adaptation could follow a risk management path, particularly in relation to disaster risk reduction. 'Climate-proofing' of development projects that currently do not consider climate and weather risks could improve their sustainability. PMID:16512861

Bouwer, Laurens M; Aerts, Jeroen C J H



Finance and Economic Development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Published by Palgrave MacmillanThis chapter reviews the literature on finance and economic development. It starts with a description of the roles of finance, a definition of financial efficiency, and a discussion of whether countries may have financial sectors that are ‘too large’ compared to the size of the domestic economy. Next, the author describes several indicators of financial development and reviews the literature on the relationship between financial development and economic growth. In the literature review, he discusses in detail some recent evidence indicating that the marginal contribution of financial development to gross domestic product (GDP growth becomes negative when credit to the private sector reaches 110 per cent of GDP. The chapter concludes with some policy conclusions targeted to developing countries.

Ugo Panizza



Structure of a bacterial cell surface decaheme electron conduit  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Some bacterial species are able to utilize extracellular mineral forms of iron and manganese as respiratory electron acceptors. In Shewanella oneidensis this involves decaheme cytochromes that are located on the bacterial cell surface at the termini of trans-outer-membrane electron transfer conduits. The cell surface cytochromes can potentially play multiple roles in mediating electron transfer directly to insoluble electron sinks, catalyzing electron exchange with flavin electron shuttles or...

Clarke, Thomas A.; Edwards, Marcus J.; Gates, Andrew J.; Hall, Andrea; White, Gaye F.; Bradley, Justin; Reardon, Catherine L.; Shi, Liang; Beliaev, Alexander S.; Marshall, Matthew J.; Wang, Zheming; Watmough, Nicholas J.; Fredrickson, James K.; Zachara, John M.; Butt, Julea N.



Bubble suspension rheology and implications for conduit flow.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Bubbles are ubiquitous in magma during eruption and influence the rheology of the suspension. Despite this, bubble-suspension rheology is routinely ignored in conduit-flow and eruption models, potentially impairing accuracy and resulting in the loss of important phenomenological richness. The omission is due, in part, to a historical confusion in the literature concerning the effect of bubbles on the rheology of a liquid. This confusion has now been largely resolved and recently published stu...

Llewellin, E. W.; Manga, M.



Manipulating Multistage Interconnection Networks Using Fundamental Arrangements  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Optimizing interconnection networks is a prime object in switching schemes. In this work the authors present a novel approach for obtaining a required channel arrangement in a multi-stage interconnectionnetwork, using a new concept – a fundamental arrangement. The fundamental arrangement is an initial N-1 stage switch arrangement that allows obtaining any required output channel arrangement given an input arrangement, using N/2 binary switches at each stage. The paper demonstrates how a fundamental arrangement can be achieved and how, once this is done, any required arrangement may be obtained within 2(N-1 steps.

E. Gur



Museum of American Finance (United States)

Founded by securities dealer John Herzog in 1988, the Museum of American Financial History aims to collect and preserve US historical financial artifacts that bring "the nation's financial history alive." Students, policy makers, media professionals, and the general public will enjoy selected articles from the quarterly publication Financial History in addition to online exhibits like Financing the Civil War, a historical narrative complete with images of obsolete banknote and securities issued by the North and South.


Hypertextual Finance Glossary (United States)

Wondering what is meant by the time value of money? Effective margin? Realized compound yield? Look no further than this site. Created and maintained by Duke University Professor of International Business Campbell R. Harvey, this clean and simple-to-use glossary offers over 3,600 entries, fully linked to related terms. Organized alphabetically with concise definitions, the glossary is an excellent resource for university finance courses.


Islamic Finance in Europe  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Islam all too often resonates negatively in Europe, with a great part of non-Muslim public opinion uncomfortable with Islamic culture and values. Secular and Christian opinion is at best suspicious of shariah, Islamic law, and indeed often antagonistic. The notion of wanting to apply shariah principles to banking and finance is treated with scepticism if not outright hostility, especially as there is no concept of Christian or Jewish banking, even if there are some parallels between shariah f...

Wilson, Rodney



Innovation, Trade and Finance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper provides a theory of incorporation and taxation that emphasizes the role of the corporate legal form in facilitating access to external capital and the potential advantages of limited liability. Incorporation relaxes financing constraints and makes corporations larger than comparable non-corporate firms. For the same reason, a tax on corporations imposes a smaller first-order welfare loss than a tax on non-corporate firms. We study the consequences of tax reform a...

Christian Keuschnigg; Peter Egger



Mathematical Models in Finance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Finance is the corner stone of the free enterprise system. Good financial management is therefore vitally important to the economic health of business firms, and thus the nation and the world. The field is relatively complex, and it is undergoing constant change in response to shifts in economic conditions say Brigham and Gapenski in the introduction of their Financial Management book (Brigham, Eugene F., Gapenski, Louis C 1994). As they said the field is relatively complex since most of the ...

Halim Kazan; Ahmet Ergülen



Yahoo! UK & Ireland: Finance (United States)

Yahoo! UK Finance is a site that provides the latest updates on quoted stocks, indices, foreign exchange and business news in the United Kingdom and Ireland. The site publishes share price and trading information on all London Stock Exchange stocks with a 20-minute delay. It will also provide delayed information for stocks trading on the Frankfurt and Paris stock market. Yahoo! offers real-time foreign exchange rates and the latest UK business news from the Press Association and Reuters Holdings.


Free-boundary models of a meltwater conduit (United States)

We analyse the cross-sectional evolution of an englacial meltwater conduit that contracts due to inward creep of the surrounding ice and expands due to melting. Making use of theoretical methods from free-boundary problems in Stokes flow and Hele-Shaw squeeze flow we construct an exact solution to the coupled problem of external viscous creep and internal heating, in which we adopt a Newtonian approximation for ice flow and an idealized uniform heat source in the conduit. This problem provides an interesting variant on standard free-boundary problems, coupling different internal and external problems through the kinematic condition at the interface. The boundary in the exact solution takes the form of an ellipse that may contract or expand (depending on the magnitudes of effective pressure and heating rate) around fixed focal points. Linear stability analysis reveals that without the melting this solution is unstable to perturbations in the shape. Melting can stabilize the interface unless the aspect ratio is too small; in that case, instabilities grow largest at the thin ends of the ellipse. The predictions are corroborated with numerical solutions using boundary integral techniques. Finally, a number of extensions to the idealized model are considered, showing that a contracting circular conduit is unstable to all modes of perturbation if melting occurs at a uniform rate around the boundary, or if the ice is modelled as a shear-thinning fluid.

Dallaston, Michael C.; Hewitt, Ian J.



Inferring conduit process from population studies of cinder cone craters (United States)

One of the most observable aspects of magma conduits is of course their exit to the Earth's surface: the volcanic crater. The craters resulting from small mostly-monogenetic volcanic eruptions vary in considerable in size and shape, even after accounting for variation in size. Presumably, these variations tell us something about the state of the conduit at least in the ending stages of eruption. But what? This work explores the statistical properties of crater populations in Guatemala and elsewhere and speculates on the conduit processes that may explain the complex behavior. Crater depths are strongly correlated with cone slopes even when normalized by cone diameter, which suggests the importance of the impact of the volatile content (which may influence slope through fragmentation and the resulting grain size) and the duration of eruption (which may influence whether the cone is built to its maximum slope) despite erosion acting to reduce observed crater depths (cone slopes are known to decrease with erosion but cone diameters increase).

Bemis, Karen G.



[Dilemmas of health financing]. (United States)

The economic crisis had had a profound effect on the finances of health services in Mexico. The expenditure on health has decreased, both in absolute terms and in relation to the national gross product. Funding problems have been aggravated by inequities in budget distribution: social security institutions have been favored; geographical distribution of resources is concentrated in the central areas of the country and in the more developed states, and curative health care has prevailed over preventive medicine. Administrative inefficiency hinders even more the appropriate utilization of resources. Diversification of funding sources has been proposed, through external debt, local funding, and specific health taxing. But these proposals are questionable. The high cost of the debt service has reduced international credits as a source of financing. Resource concentration at the federal level, and the different compromises related to the economic solidarity pact have also diminished the potentiality of local state financing. On the other hand, a special health tax is not viable within the current fiscal framework. The alternatives are a better budget planning, a change in the institutional and regional distribution of resources, and improvement in the administrative mechanisms of funding. PMID:2697097

Herrera Zárate, M; González Torres, R



Financing of nuclear projects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Delays in the completion of nuclear power plants aggravate the financing of such ventures because the contractual sums to be paid for interest and amortization are not generated. Moreover, economic feasibility analyses by the banks are rendered ineffective by changes in the underlying data, such as the structure of electricity rates and the supply monopoly held by utilities. The German nuclear power plants at present in operation or under construction were financed mainly through subsidiares of the participating utilities outside the balance sheets of the parent companies. The banks have developed a number of financing concepts to adapt funding to the specific needs of practice. Future nuclear power plants make-up one third of the present capacity of the participating utilities. However, they will require three to four times the previous volume of capital investments. Yet it is certain that the expansion of nuclear power in the Federal Republic of Germany will not be hampered by financial problems. The funding models developed for nuclear power plants have already proved their qualities. However, the problems of nuclear power have not become less. Attention must also be drawn to some weak spots in the financial sector. (orig.)


Monserrat uk Double taxation arrangement  

Keywords: Monserrat, uk, Double taxation arrangement ...BETWEEN THE TWO GOVERNMENTS FOR THE AVOIDANCE OF DOUBLE TAXATION AND THE PREVENTION OF FISCAL EVASION WITH RESPECT ...the Government of Montserrat for the avoidance of double taxation and the prevention of fiscal evasion with respect


Nuclear core region fastener arrangement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An improved design of fastener used for fixing the component parts of a nuclear reactor core is described. These fasteners experience high operating mechanical loads and temperatures and an arrangement to cool them by transferring the heat to the flowing reactor coolant fluid is also specified. (UK)


Aneurysmal dilatation of the Contegra bovine jugular vein conduit after reconstruction of the right ventricular outflow tract. (United States)

An aneurysm of a 14-mm Contegra bovine conduit 5 years after a total repair of tetralogy of Fallot was confirmed by echocardiography, angiography, and magnetic resonance tomography. The conduit was replaced. Histologic examination of the explanted conduit revealed an acellular homogenous material with occasional elastic fibers, fragile, diffuse and complex collagenization throughout the conduit and mild foreign body reaction. Pannus formed over the top of all commissures and on the conduit wall, with extensive mineralization. Close follow-up is seen as mandatory for early detection of the bovine vein conduit aneurysm, particularly in patients in whom small-sized conduits are implanted. PMID:17258016

Delmo-Walter, Eva Maria; Alexi-Meskishvili, Vladimir; Abdul-Khaliq, Hashim; Meyer, Rudolf; Hetzer, Roland



Internationally Recommended Best Practices in Transportation Financing Public-Private Partnerships (P3s)  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Transportation financing public-private partnerships (P3s) are a common practice in many countries. However, they represent a relatively new approach to transportation infrastructure financing for state and local governments in the United States. In a transportation financing P3 project, a private sector partner designs-builds-finances-operates- maintains (DBFOM) a transportation infrastructure asset (road, highway, bridge, tunnel, etc.) with an emphasis on financing. Under this type of arrangement, the private sector partner is primarily responsible for securing all or substantially all of the funding necessary to construct new transportation infrastructure and/or rehabilitate existing transportation infrastructure. This study reviews the international experience of national and sub-national governments with transportation financing P3s. The primary purpose of this study is to identify internationally recommended best practices in transportation financing P3s. Based upon the study findings, a checklist in then proposed that can be used by U.S. state and local governments to assess their current or proposed transportation financing P3 policies and procedures. The article makes a contribution to the literature on transportation financing P3s by bringing together for the first time internationally recommended best practices in ten major areas.

Martin, Lawrence; Lawther, Wendell



Trading arrangements and industrial development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper outlines a new approach for analysing the role of trade in promoting industrial development. It offers an explanation as to why firms are reluctant to move to economics with lower labour costs, and shows how trade liberalisation can change the incentives for firms to locate in developing countries. Unilaterally liberalising imports of manufcatures can promote industrialisation, but membership of a preferential trading arrangement is likley to create larger gains. South-South PTAs w...

Puga, Diego; Venables, Tony



Adapting Risk Management for Profit and Loss Sharing Financing of Islamic Banks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The low level of participation of the Islamic banks in profit and loss sharing (mudharabah and musharakah financing models has become one of the problems in the development of the industry. These arrangements are unique to Islamic banking and account for its superiority over conventional banking on grounds of ethics and efficiency, but the majority of Islamic banks have limited themselves to less risky trade-financing assets, that tend to be a shorter maturity. This paper intends to analyzes why Islamic banks are reluctant to indulge in mudharabah and musharakah financing. Finally, it explores the risk management concept that might solve the problems.

Irawan Febianto



Accounting & Finance; a Basic Introduction  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The book is about finance and accounting, subjects widely discussed in many other books. What sets this book apart from most others is that it discusses all the basic aspects of finance and accounting in one single textbook. Three areas of interest are discussed: Financial Management; Management Accounting; Financial Accounting. Typically, these three subjects are treated separately as individual topics. They are closely related, however, since they all deal with the many financi...

Jansen, Ewoud



Finance solidaire et régulation territoriale  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

La finance solidaire se caractérise par une relation de service qui se nourrit de proximité et de manière endogène, la renforce. A partir de la multi-dimensionnalité de la proximité, géographique, organisationnelle, institutionnelle, sociale, la compréhension de la contribution de la finance solidaire dans le développement local est enrichie. Ainsi, s'agit-il de montrer quels sont les effets directs et les effets induits de la finance solidaire pour les organisations, pour les territ...

Artis, Ame?lie



Profit taxation and finance constraints  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the absence of financing frictions, profit taxes reduce investment by their effect on the user cost of capital. With finance constraints due to moral hazard, investment becomes sensitive to cash-flow and own equity of firms. We propose a corporate finance model of investment and derive three central results: (i) Even small taxes impose first order welfare losses on financially constrained firms; (ii) ACE and cashflow tax systems, which are investment neutral in the neoclassical model, are ...

Keuschnigg, Christian; Ribi, Evelyn




Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Healthcare in Poland is mainly financed by public sector entities, among them the National Health Fund (NFZ), state budget and local government budgets. The task of the National Health Fund, as the main payer in the system, is chiefly currently financing the services. The state budget plays a complementary role in the system, and finances selected groups of services, health insurance premiums and investments in healthcare infrastructure. The basic role of the local governments is to ensure ac...

Agnieszka Bem



Household external finance and consumption  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper uses mortgage data to construct a measure of terms on which households access to external finance, and relates it to consumption at both the aggregate and cohort levels. The Household External Finance (HEF) index is based on the spread paid by risky borrowers in the mortgage market. There is evidence that the terms of access to external finance matter more for the consumption of young cohorts in UK data. Results are robust to a wide variety of specifications.

Besley, Timothy; Meads, Neil; Surico, Paolo



Promotion and financing of nuclear power programmes in developing countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear power has been introduced only to a small extent in a few developing countries. A group of senior experts conducted a study of the existing constraints on nuclear power in developing countries, the requirements to be met for successful introduction of a nuclear power programme, and mechanisms to assist developing countries in overcoming the identified constraints. Financing represents one (but not the only) major constraint to nuclear power development in developing countries. The present schemes of export credits and commercial financing are seen as not adequately meeting the needs of nuclear power financing in terms of repayment periods and profiles, or in terms of flexibility to meet delays and cost overruns. Innovative and workable arrangements to share the economic and financial risks would be helpful in obtaining financing for a nuclear power project. All possible efforts should be made by all parties involved in the development of nuclear power to reduce as far as possible the uncertainties surrounding the cost and schedule of a nuclear power project, as an essential step to improve the overall climate for financing the project. Government commitment, soundly based and thorough planning, development of qualified manpower and other key infrastructures, and good project management are important mechanisms to achieve greater predictability in project schedule and cost. Technical assistance provided by the IAEA can be very helpful in building these capabilibe very helpful in building these capabilities in developing countries. (author). 1 tab


PFI redux? Assessing a new model for financing hospitals. (United States)

There is a growing need for investments in hospital facilities to improve the efficiency and quality of health services. In recent years, publicly financed hospital organisations in many countries have utilised private finance arrangements, variously called private finance initiatives (PFIs), public-private partnerships (PPPs) or P3s, to address their capital requirements. However, such projects have become more difficult to implement since the onset of the global financial crisis, which has led to a reduction in the supply of debt capital and an increase in its price. In December 2012, the government of the United Kingdom outlined a comprehensive set of reforms to the private finance model in order to revive this important source of capital for hospital investments. This article provides a critical assessment of the 'Private Finance 2' reforms, focusing on their likely impact on the supply and cost of capital. It concludes that constraints in supply are likely to continue, in part due to regulatory constraints facing both commercial banks and institutional investors, while the cost of capital is likely to increase, at least in the short term. PMID:24138730

Hellowell, Mark



International Finance Corporation (United States)

As a part of the World Bank, the stated vision of the International Finance Corporation (IFC) is "that poor people have the opportunity to escape poverty and to improve their lives." To whit, the IFC works to promote open and competitive markets in developing countries, generate productive jobs and deliver basic services, among other things. First-time visitors will find that the layout of the site is visually stimulating and quite user-friendly. Visitors can use the embedded search engine to look for specific materials of interest.


Financing Sustainable Infrastructure  

...Innovation Centre Youth Audio/Video: Audio Clips, Video Interviews and Video Features Corporate Communications: Newsletters Reports Outreach Opinion: Commentary Display / Print Options: All Publications by Theme All Publications by Title Publications by Language: Available in French Available in Spanish Available in Chinese Get the Paper PDF Download from Prezi Hard copy not available. If you are having difficulty viewing a PDF or Flash Flip-page, please click here. Related Related publications:Trade Knowledge Network IISD Publications Centre Financing Sustainable Infrastructure » Mariana Hug Silva, IISD, 2013. Paper, copyright: IISD ...


Financing, Overhead, and Profit: An In-Depth Discussion of Costs Associated with Third-Party Financing of Residential and Commercial Photovoltaic Systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Previous work quantifying the non-hardware balance-of-system costs -- or soft costs -- associated with building a residential or commercial photovoltaic (PV) system has left a significant portion unsegmented in an 'other soft costs' category. This report attempts to better quantify the 'other soft costs' by focusing on the financing, overhead, and profit of residential and commercial PV installations for a specific business model. This report presents results from a bottom-up data-collection and analysis of the upfront costs associated with developing, constructing, and arranging third-party-financed residential and commercial PV systems. It quantifies the indirect corporate costs required to install distributed PV systems as well as the transactional costs associated with arranging third-party financing.

Feldman, D.; Friedman, B.; Margolis, R.



Pseudotachylyte formation in volcanic conduits: Montserrat vs. Mount St. Helens (United States)

Seismogenic fracture and faulting may result in non-equilibrium frictional melting of rock, which upon cooling and recrystallisation forms pseudotachylyte. In volcanic environments, the transition from endogenous to exogenous growth can be attributed to a shift in magma rheology into the brittle regime, and thus the ascent of high-viscosity magma can form discrete shear zones, comparable to tectonic faults, along conduit margins. Pseudotachylytes have, until now, rarely been noted in exogenous volcanic materials and seldom in active volcanic environments. This is despite the simultaneous occurrence of high pressures and differential stresses, which make high-viscosity magmas ideal candidates for the occurrence of frictional melting. Here, we compare the chemical, thermal, magnetic and structural properties of two candidate volcanic pseudotachylytes; one from Soufriere Hills (Montserrat) and one from Mount St. Helens (USA). Additionally, we present data from a set of high-velocity rotary shear experiments on the host materials of these natural pseudotachylytes in which melting was induced after just 10's of centimeters of slip at realistic extrusion velocities (0.4 - 1.6 ms-1) and low normal stresses (0.5-2 MPa). After 1-2 meters of slip a continuous melt layer formed, at which point friction decreased and the fault zone displayed slip-weakening behaviour. For volcanic conduits, this would facilitate temporarily elevated slip rates, or an increase in extrusion rate, and could cause transitions in dome morphology and eruption style. This study demonstrates that shear fracturing in magma or sliding along conduit margins can readily result in frictional melting. The conspicuous absence of pseudotachylytes in active volcanic environments is likely the result of exceptionally high background temperatures which precipitate near-equilibrium melting, thereby obviating one of the characteristic signatures of pseudotachylyte - glassy protomelts formed by selective melting of crystals. In addition, the high ambient temperatures force slow recrystallisation of the homogenised melt into a microgranular layer, and as such, volcanic pseudotachylytes may be mistaken for cataclasites or chilled margins.

Kendrick, J. E.; Lavallee, Y.; Petrakova, L.; Ferk, A.; Di Toro, G.; Hess, K.; Ferri, F.; Dingwell, D. B.



Study on the dynamic behavior of a current in cable-in-conduit conductors by using self magnetic field measurements  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to understand the current behavior inside a cable-in-conduit conductor (CICC), self magnetic field measurements on the CICC were conducted. A prototype NbTi CICC, the configuration of which is a racket shape, for JT-60SA EF coil was used as a short conductor sample. By using Hall sensors arranged around the short conductor sample, the variation in the self magnetic field was measured. Taking into account the measurements, the current behavior inside the CICC was analyzed by using analytical models consisting of line currents. The analytical results indicate that the current distribution in the cross-section of the CICC would be non-uniform before a normal propagation, and the current distribution would be improved after the normal propagation.

Obana, Tetsuhiro, E-mail: [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292, Gifu (Japan); Takahata, Kazuya; Hamaguchi, Shinji; Imagawa, Shinsaku; Mito, Toshiyuki [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292, Gifu (Japan); Kizu, Kaname; Murakami, Haruyuki; Yoshida, Kiyoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki (Japan)



Nuclear financing in Spain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The basic objectives of the Spanish National Energy Plan are summarized as (1) To obtain maximum guarantees for continuity of supplies, (2) Reduce the cost of energy supplies to the maximum possible degree, (3) Reduce the difference in the balance of payments due to importation of primary energy sources, (4) Pro-mote the rational use of energy with the aim of moderating the growth rates in demand without affecting economic development (5) Reduce to an economical minimum the effect on the environment of energy-producing installations, and (6) Contribute to the technological development of the country and promote research in the energy field. To fulfil these objectives, the following forecasts are made: With the Gross National Product increasing at a rate of 5% or 6%, the demand on primary energy sources in 1985 will be 173 or 194 million e.c.t. (equivalent coal tons), i.e. annual growth rates of energy consumption of 6% and 7.2% respectively, compared with growths during the last decade of 9.2%. It is projected that generation of electrical energy from nuclear sources will grow to attain in a share of approximately 60% by 1985, i.e. an installed nuclear power level of 23.8.GW. The cost of the Spanish National Energy Plan, particularly the cost and financing of the nuclear program, is reviewed. Finally, the growing need for self-financing is stressed. (B.P.)


Financing wind energy projects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Triodos Bank has more than 10 years of experience with developing and financing wind projects in the Netherlands. Over 50 Megawatt has been installed with direct involvement of the bank. The experience is both as a bank and as a venture capital fund. In this contribution the perspective will be more from a venture capital point of view than as a bank. The bank's activities in the wind energy sector started in 1986 by forming a joint venture with an engineering bureau, experienced i wind energy but not yet in developing wind projects. From 1989 onwards the joint venture started to build wind farms, both as a private company and in a joint venture with utilities. The European Investment Bank became involved with a long-term debt finance facility (15 years, fixed interest loan). The main difficulties were long-term commitments from landowners (Dike authorities) and utilities with regard to power contracts. The development got really stuck when utilities refused to pay a fair price anymore. Also, site development became more and more difficult. Even the poor technical performance improved drastically and did not frighten developers and banks too much. (author)



Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Leasing is an important additional financing technique used by many companies, enabling them to use property, plant and equipment without making large initial cash outlays. It also provides flexibility, allowing entities to address obsolescence risks. Under current accounting rules, when referring to the operating leasing in particular, there is a lack of comparability between the financial position and operating results of companies that buy assets and the financial position and operating results of those that lease similar assets. This has led critics to assert that the current accounting does not portray the economics of lease arrangements. In response to this criticism, the IASB and FASB have developed a new approach to lease accounting that would require a lessee to recognise assets and liabilities for the rights and obligations created by leases, this providing greater transparency and comparability for financial statements users. On the other hand, the proposals will affect almost every company and the impact of the proposed changes may be significant, as recognising additional assets and liabilities and finance expense will affect key performance ratios and, consequently, the ability to satisfy debt covenants.

Cristina-Aurora, BUNEA-BONTAS



A meter used to measure losses due to scattering in fiber-optic conduits  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A meter used to measure optical losses due to scattering in fiber optic conduits is discussed. These losses can be measured only in fiber-optic conduits that do not have a protective or any other kind of casing. These measurements are conducted by drawing the conduit through a special photodetector device used for scattered radiation. This radiation is detected, amplified and filtered, after which the signals that carry the data on the scattering level pass into a two-channel automatic recorder.

Ermokhin, M.I.; Cherenkov, G.A.; Khasin, Y.S.; Shepeleva, T.V.



Representation of water abstraction from a karst conduit with numerical discrete-continuum models  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Karst aquifers are characterized by highly conductive conduit flow paths embedded in a less conductive fissured and fractured matrix resulting in strong permeability contrasts with structured heterogeneity and anisotropy. Groundwater storage occurs predominantly in the fissured matrix. Hence, most karst models assume quasi steady-state flow in conduits neglecting conduit associated drainable storage (CADS). The concept of CADS considers storage volumes, where karst water is not part of the ac...

Reimann, T.; Giese, M.; Geyer, T.; Liedl, R.; Mare?chal, J. C.; Shoemaker, W. B.



New arrangements in climate policy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Climate policy, its content and the way it is being organised, is changing, both nationally and internationally. The Kyoto Protocol and its effects form an important catalyst for this process. The focus in climate discourse is increasingly on 'differentiation' and 'flexibilisation', while the role of the industrial sectors involved has changed since 1997, among other things expressed in the increasing influence exerted by the business community and the declining power of the environmental movement. There is a transition underway, from pluralist to private policy arrangements.

Arts, B.J.M. [Department of Environmental Policy Sciences, Faculty of Policy Sciences, Nijmegen University, Nijmegen (Netherlands)



Arrangement for selectively irradiating webs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The arrangement for selectively irradiating a web includes a perforated band of a radiation impermeable substance which is guided in an endless path via a pair of guide rollers and has two juxtaposed runs in this path. A take-up roller conveys a web of material past one of the runs at a side thereof remote from the other run, the direction of movement of the web being other than parallel to that of the band and, preferably, normal thereto. An electron accelerator is provided at the far side of the run remote from the web and is effective for directing a radiation beam at the web through the perforations


The arrangement field theory (AFT)  

CERN Document Server

We introduce the concept of "non-ordered space-time" and formulate a quaternionic field theory over such generalized non-ordered space. The imposition of an order over a non-ordered space appears to spontaneously generate gravity, which is revealed as a fictitious force. The same process gives rise to gauge fields that are compatible with those of Standard Model. We suggest a common origin for gravity and gauge fields from a unique entity called "arrangement matrix" (M) and propose to quantize all fields by quantizing $M$. Finally we give a proposal for the explanation of black hole entropy and area law inside this paradigm.

Marin, Diego



New arrangements in climate policy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Climate policy, its content and the way it is being organised, is changing, both nationally and internationally. The Kyoto Protocol and its effects form an important catalyst for this process. The focus in climate discourse is increasingly on 'differentiation' and 'flexibilisation', while the role of the industrial sectors involved has changed since 1997, among other things expressed in the increasing influence exerted by the business community and the declining power of the environmental movement. There is a transition underway, from pluralist to private policy arrangements



Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The external financing of the construction entities does not differ from the one of other entities within other activities, but the construction entities have also a financing source, represented by the funds for the site organization, funds which are analysed and accounted in the present paper.




Financing of SNR and THTR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To finance the progressed reactor lines, the Federal Cabinet emphasized its decision of 23 September 1981 to require an increased participation of the electricity industry in the total costs of the project SNR 300. Some starting points of the financing are presented. (orig./UA)


The Possibilities of Strategic Finance (United States)

Strategic finance is aligning financial decisions--regarding revenues, creating and maintaining institutional assets, and using those assets--with the institution's mission and strategic plan. The concept known as "strategic finance" increasingly is being seen as a useful perspective for helping boards and presidents develop a sustainable…

Chaffee, Ellen




Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The external financing of the construction entities does not differ from the one of other entities within other activities, but the construction entities have also a financing source, represented by the funds for the site organization, funds which are analysed and accounted in the present paper.




Personal Finance. Common Curriculum Goals. (United States)

This document provides the common curriculum goals for the state of Oregon in personal finance, an area of study that relates basic economic concepts and practices to the financial concerns of consumers. These goals were designed to define what should be taught in all public school settings. The common curriculum goals in personal finance are…

Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.


The Finance of Higher Education. (United States)

A system of financing college students is needed to meet expenses that are more than parents can afford and students can earn. The gap can only be met by grants, loans, or a combination of both, such as a national system of minimal educational grants supplemented by long-term loans. Individual grants, financed by the federal government and…

Bowen, Howard R.


Environmental tracers as indicators of karst conduits in groundwater in South Dakota, USA (United States)

Environmental tracers sampled from the carbonate Madison aquifer on the eastern flank of the Black Hills, South Dakota, USA indicated the approximate locations of four major karst conduits. Contamination issues are a major concern because these conduits are characterized by direct connections to sinking streams, high groundwater velocities, and proximity to public water supplies. Objectives of the study were to estimate approximate conduit locations and assess possible anthropogenic influences associated with conduits. Anomalies of young groundwater based on chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), tritium, and electrical conductivity (EC) indicated fast moving, focused flow and thus the likely presence of conduits. ??18O was useful for determining sources of recharge for each conduit, and nitrate was a useful tracer for assessing flow paths for anthropogenic influences. Two of the four conduits terminate at or near a large spring complex. CFC apparent ages ranged from 15 years near conduits to >50 years in other areas. Nitrate-N concentrations >0.4 mg/L in groundwater were associated with each of the four conduits compared with concentrations ranging from <0.1 to 0.4 mg/L in other areas. These higher nitrate-N concentrations probably do not result from sinking streams but rather from other areas of infiltration. ?? Springer-Verlag 2007.

Long, A.J.; Sawyer, J.F.; Putnam, L.D.



Hydraulic and geological factors influencing conduit flow depth  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There has much been speculation as to whether cave formation should occur at, above, or below the water table, but a satisfactory explanation has been lacking until recently. The last 50 years has seen extensive mapping of caves both above and, more recently, below the water table. It is now becoming apparent that there are systematic differences in depth of flow between different areas and that conduit flow to depths >100m below the water table is not uncommon. Such deep flow is facilitated by the lower viscosity of geothermally heated water at depth. Analysis of data from caves shows that depth of flow is primarily a function of flow path length, stratal dip and fracture anisotropy. This explains why conduits form at shallow depths in platform settings such as in Kentucky, at moderate depths (10–100m in folded strata such as in England and in the Appalachian Mountains, and at depths of several hundred metres in exceptional settings where there are very long flow paths.




Finance and Admin Team - EEB  

...EU Policy Team Pieter DE POUS Stéphane ARDITI Piotr BARCZAK Faustine DEFOSSEZ Louise DUPREZ Sini ERÄJÄÄ Elena LYMBERIDI-SETTIMO Martina MLINARIC Blanca MORALES Tatiana SANTOS Christian SCHAIBLE Susanna WILLIAMS (ALA-KURIKKA) Finance and Admin Team Isabel DE JESUS FONSECA Nicole WAUTERS-MINDLIN Aleksandra KOLODZIEJSKA Julie VERDIER Ritalee BIRABWA Global Policies and Sustainability Team Leida RIJNHOUT Nick MEYNEN Sonia GOICOECHEA Yblin ROMAN ESCOBAR Secretary General Jeremy WATES Secretary General Team Mara SILINA Communication Team Regina SCHNEIDER ...ABRAHAMS Find Us Our Office Contacts Finance and Admin Team Executive Committee EU Policy Team Global Policies and Sustainability Team Finance and Admin Team Secretary General Secretary General Team Communication Team Find Us Isabel DE JESUS FONSECA Head of Finance, Personnel Administration Isabel is the Head of Finance, Personnel & Administration within the EEB team. She graduated from Liège and ...


Documentation of a Conduit Flow Process (CFP) for MODFLOW-2005 (United States)

This report documents the Conduit Flow Process (CFP) for the modular finite-difference ground-water flow model, MODFLOW-2005. The CFP has the ability to simulate turbulent ground-water flow conditions by: (1) coupling the traditional ground-water flow equation with formulations for a discrete network of cylindrical pipes (Mode 1), (2) inserting a high-conductivity flow layer that can switch between laminar and turbulent flow (Mode 2), or (3) simultaneously coupling a discrete pipe network while inserting a high-conductivity flow layer that can switch between laminar and turbulent flow (Mode 3). Conduit flow pipes (Mode 1) may represent dissolution or biological burrowing features in carbonate aquifers, voids in fractured rock, and (or) lava tubes in basaltic aquifers and can be fully or partially saturated under laminar or turbulent flow conditions. Preferential flow layers (Mode 2) may represent: (1) a porous media where turbulent flow is suspected to occur under the observed hydraulic gradients; (2) a single secondary porosity subsurface feature, such as a well-defined laterally extensive underground cave; or (3) a horizontal preferential flow layer consisting of many interconnected voids. In this second case, the input data are effective parameters, such as a very high hydraulic conductivity, representing multiple features. Data preparation is more complex for CFP Mode 1 (CFPM1) than for CFP Mode 2 (CFPM2). Specifically for CFPM1, conduit pipe locations, lengths, diameters, tortuosity, internal roughness, critical Reynolds numbers (NRe), and exchange conductances are required. CFPM1, however, solves the pipe network equations in a matrix that is independent of the porous media equation matrix, which may mitigate numerical instability associated with solution of dual flow components within the same matrix. CFPM2 requires less hydraulic information and knowledge about the specific location and hydraulic properties of conduits, and turbulent flow is approximated by modifying horizontal conductances assembled by the Block-Centered Flow (BCF), Layer-Property Flow (LPF), or Hydrogeologic-Unit Flow Packages (HUF) of MODFLOW-2005. For both conduit flow pipes (CFPM1) and preferential flow layers (CFPM2), critical Reynolds numbers are used to determine if flow is laminar or turbulent. Due to conservation of momentum, flow in a laminar state tends to remain laminar and flow in a turbulent state tends to remain turbulent. This delayed transition between laminar and turbulent flow is introduced in the CFP, which provides an additional benefit of facilitating convergence of the computer algorithm during iterations of transient simulations. Specifically, the user can specify a higher critical Reynolds number to determine when laminar flow within a pipe converts to turbulent flow, and a lower critical Reynolds number for determining when a pipe with turbulent flow switches to laminar flow. With CFPM1, the Hagen-Poiseuille equation is used for laminar flow conditions and the Darcy-Weisbach equation is applied to turbulent flow conditions. With CFPM2, turbulent flow is approximated by reducing the laminar hydraulic conductivity by a nonlinear function of the Reynolds number, once the critical head difference is exceeded. This adjustment approximates the reductions in mean velocity under turbulent ground-water flow conditions.

Shoemaker, W. Barclay; Kuniansky, Eve L.; Birk, Steffen; Bauer, Sebastian; Swain, Eric D.



Financing electricity expansion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Expansion of electricity supply is associated with economic development. The installation and enlargement of power systems in developing countries entails a huge financial burden, however. Energy consumers in such countries must pay not only for supplies but for the cost of raising the capital for expansion on the international markets. Estimates are presented for the capital expenditure for electricity supply over the period 1990 to 2020 for the major world regions, using approximations for the cost of plant and capital and for the returns earned. These data lead to the conclusion that the five regions with the lowest per capita incomes are those which will need the major part of the capital expenditure and the highest percentage of external finance. (6 tables) (UK)


Taxpayer Equity in School Finance Reform: The School Finance and the Public Finance Perspectives. (United States)

Elaborates on distinctions between different formulations of taxpayer equity. First, taxpayer equity is examined from the school finance perspective, then notions of taxpayer equity that are more consistent with public finance views, but that can and have been applied to education, are introduced. (Author/IRT)

Berne, Robert; Stiefel, Leanna



29 CFR 779.229 - Other arrangements. (United States)

...larger enterprise. Whether or not other arrangements have such an effect...but also for providing numerous other services such as (1) central warehousing; (2) advertising...whether a franchise, lease, or other contractual arrangement...



Yahoo! Finance: Insurance Center (United States)

Yahoo! Insurance Center provides many useful insurance resources. The site is divided into auto, life & health, and home & renters sections. The auto insurance section provides insurance quotes, an insurance coverage analyzer, and a glossary. Similarly, users can also obtain quotes on term life insurance, analyze their health plans and browse through a life insurance glossary. In the home & renters section, consumers will find estimates of quotes for homeowners and renters insurance, a guide to filing claims, and a glossary of property insurance terms. In addition, the site also contains informative articles arranged by insurance type, and links to various insurance related sites.


Free arrangements and coefficients of characteristic polynomials  

CERN Document Server

Ziegler showed that free arrangements have free restricted multiarrangements (multirestrictions). After Ziegler's work, several results concerning "reverse direction", namely characterizing freeness of an arrangement via that of multirestriction, have appeared. In this paper, we prove that the second Betti number of the arrangement plays a crucial role.

Abe, Takuro



Freeness of hyperplane arrangements and related topics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This is the expanded notes of the lecture by the author in "Arrangements in Pyrenees", June 2012. We are discussing relations of freeness and splitting problems of vector bundles, several techniques proving freeness of hyperplane arrangements, K. Saito's theory of primitive derivations for Coxeter arrangements, their application to combinatorial problems and related conjectures.

Yoshinaga, Masahiko



The physics of custody arrangements  

CERN Document Server

Divorced individuals face complex situations when they have children with different ex-partners, or even more, when their new partners have children of their own. In such cases, and when kids spend every other weekend with each parent, a practical problem emerges: Is it possible to have such a custody arrangement that every couple has either all of the kids together or no kids at all? We show that in general, it is not possible, but that the number of couples that do can be maximized. The problem turns out to be equivalent to finding the ground state of a spin glass system, which is known to be equivalent to what is called a weighted max-cut problem in graph theory, and hence it is NP-Complete.

Gomberoff, Andrés; Romagnoli, Pierre Paul



High mass isotope separation arrangement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An isotope separation arrangement for separating a preselected isotope from a mixture of chemically-identical but isotopically-different molecules by either photon-induced pure revibrational or vibronic selective excitation of the molecules containing the atoms of the isotope to be separated from a lower to a higher energy state, and a chemical reaction of the higher energy state molecules with a chemically-reactive agent to form a chemical compound containing primarily the atoms of the isotope to be separated in a physicochemical state different from the physicochemical state of the mixture of chemically-identical but isotopically-different molecules. The chemical compound containing the atoms of the isotope to be separated may be subsequently processed to obtain the isotope. The laser configuration used to generate the photon beam is fully described


Importance of Grid Center Arrangement (United States)

In Digital Elevation Modeling, grid size is accepted to be the most important parameter. Despite the point density and/or scale of the source data, it is freely decided by the user. Most of the time, arrangement of the grid centers are ignored, even most GIS packages omit the choice of grid center coordinate selection. In our study; importance of the arrangement of grid centers is investigated. Using the analogy between "Raster Grid DEM" and "Bitmap Image", importance of placement of grid centers in DEMs are measured. The study has been conducted on four different grid DEMs obtained from a half ellipsoid. These grid DEMs are obtained in such a way that they are half grid size apart from each other. Resulting grid DEMs are investigated through similarity measures. Image processing scientists use different measures to investigate the dis/similarity between the images and the amount of different information they carry. Grid DEMs are projected to a finer grid in order to co-center. Similarity measures are then applied to each grid DEM pairs. These similarity measures are adapted to DEM with band reduction and real number operation. One of the measures gives function graph and the others give measure matrices. Application of similarity measures to six grid DEM pairs shows interesting results. These four different grid DEMs are created with the same method for the same area, surprisingly; thirteen out of 14 measures state that, the half grid size apart grid DEMs are different from each other. The results indicated that although grid DEMs carry mutual information, they have also additional individual information. In other words, half grid size apart constructed grid DEMs have non-redundant information.; Joint Probability Distributions Function Graphs

Pasaogullari, O.; Usul, N.



Viscous Fluid Conduits as a Prototypical Nonlinear Dispersive Wave Platform (United States)

This thesis is devoted to the comprehensive characterization of slowly modulated, nonlinear waves in dispersive media for physically-relevant systems using a threefold approach: analytical, long-time asymptotics, careful numerical simulations, and quantitative laboratory experiments. In particular, we use this interdisciplinary approach to establish a two-fluid, interfacial fluid flow setting known as viscous fluid conduits as an ideal platform for the experimental study of truly one dimensional, unidirectional solitary waves and dispersively regularized shock waves (DSWs). Starting from the full set of fluid equations for mass and linear momentum conservation, we use a multiple-scales, perturbation approach to derive a scalar, nonlinear, dispersive wave equation for the leading order interfacial dynamics of the system. Using a generalized form of the approximate model equation, we use numerical simulations and an analytical, nonlinear wave averaging technique, Whitham-El modulation theory, to derive the key physical features of interacting large amplitude solitary waves and DSWs. We then present the results of quantitative, experimental investigations into large amplitude solitary wave interactions and DSWs. Overtaking interactions of large amplitude solitary waves are shown to exhibit nearly elastic collisions and universal interaction geometries according to the Lax categories for KdV solitons, and to be in excellent agreement with the dynamics described by the approximate asymptotic model. The dispersive shock wave experiments presented here represent the most extensive comparison to date between theory and data of the key wavetrain parameters predicted by modulation theory. We observe strong agreement. Based on the work in this thesis, viscous fluid conduits provide a well-understood, controlled, table-top environment in which to study universal properties of dispersive hydrodynamics. Motivated by the study of wave propagation in the conduit system, we identify four new admissibility criteria required for proper application of the Whitham-El DSW closure method for a general class of scalar dispersive hydrodynamic equations. Further, we explore regularization distinguishing characteristics of dissipative versus dispersive smoothing in a bidirectional system, Fermi gas at unitarity, in which the appropriate physical mechanism is unclear. It is shown that key differences in the resolution of nonlinear wave breaking allow one to design regularization determining experiments.

Lowman, Nicholas K.


Adequacy, Efficiency and Equity of Higher Education Financing: The Case of Egypt (United States)

To meet its future challenges in financing higher education, Egypt has no option but to search for alternative funding arrangements. This article considers the question of how to do so, keeping in mind the need to ensure equitable access to good quality education for those who cannot afford it. To this end, the article begins by assessing public…

Fahim, Yasmine; Sami, Noha




Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Healthcare in Poland is mainly financed by public sector entities, among them the National Health Fund (NFZ, state budget and local government budgets. The task of the National Health Fund, as the main payer in the system, is chiefly currently financing the services. The state budget plays a complementary role in the system, and finances selected groups of services, health insurance premiums and investments in healthcare infrastructure. The basic role of the local governments is to ensure access to the services, mostly by performing ownership functions towards healthcare institutions.

Agnieszka Bem



Development and manufacturing of superconducting cable in conduit conductors (United States)

The cable in conduit (CIC) technology has proved to be an extremely valid application for the fabrication of conductors used in thermocontrolled nuclear fusion in magneto hydrodynamic and for energy storage. EUROPA METALLI - LMI began developing the CIC technology in the framework of a Contract with ENEA of Frascati producing a Niobium Tin superconducting CIC cable. EUROPA METALLI - LMI has gained its industrial experience in CIC cables during the production of a Niobium Titanium superconducting cable for the National Research Council of Italy under a Finalized Project “Superconductine and Cryogenic Technologies”. The cable will be used by ANSALDO GIE for the winding of a dipole magnet for magneto hydrodynamic applications. The present paper reports the status reached at EUROPA METALLI - LMI for the fabrication and testing of conductors.

Garrè, Riccardo; Conti, Stefano; Donati, Guglielmo; Rossi, Sergio


Experimental investigations of aeration efficiency in high-head gated circular conduits. (United States)

The primary purpose of water aeration is to increase the oxygen saturation of the water. This can be achieved by using hydraulic structures because of substantial air bubble entrainment at these structures. Closed conduit aeration is a particular instance of this. While there has been a great deal of research on air-demand ratio within closed conduit, very little research has specifically addressed aeration efficiency of closed conduit. In the present work an experimental study was conducted to investigate the aeration efficiency of high-head gated circular conduits. Results showed that high-head gated circular conduits were effective for oxygen transfer. The effects of Froude number and ratio of the water cross-sectional flow area to the conduit cross-sectional area on aeration efficiency were particularly significant, whereas the effect of conduit length was only moderate. Further, a design formula for the aeration efficiency was presented relating the aeration efficiency to ratio of water cross-sectional flow area to conduit cross-sectional area and Froude number. The obtained results will be useful in future modeling processes and aid the practicing engineer in predicting aeration efficiency for design purposes. PMID:24647194

Cihat Tuna, M; Ozkan, Fahri; Baylar, Ahmet



A one-dimensional heat-transport model for conduit flow in karst aquifers (United States)

A one-dimensional heat-transport model for conduit flow in karst aquifers is presented as an alternative to two or three-dimensional distributed-parameter models, which are data intensive and require knowledge of conduit locations. This model can be applied for cases where water temperature in a well or spring receives all or part of its water from a phreatic conduit. Heat transport in the conduit is simulated by using a physically-based heat-transport equation that accounts for inflow of diffuse flow from smaller openings and fissures in the surrounding aquifer during periods of low recharge. Additional diffuse flow that is within the zone of influence of the well or spring but has not interacted with the conduit is accounted for with a binary mixing equation to proportion these different water sources. The estimation of this proportion through inverse modeling is useful for the assessment of contaminant vulnerability and well-head or spring protection. The model was applied to 7 months of continuous temperature data for a sinking stream that recharges a conduit and a pumped well open to the Madison aquifer in western South Dakota. The simulated conduit-flow fraction to the well ranged from 2% to 31% of total flow, and simulated conduit velocity ranged from 44 to 353 m/d.

Long, A.J.; Gilcrease, P.C.



An integrated model of magma chamber, conduit and column for the analysis of sustained explosive eruptions (United States)

Explosive volcanic eruptions comprise a complex series of processes involving withdrawal from the magma chamber, magma ascent along the conduit and eruption column dynamics. Numerous studies have modeled the different sub-domains of a volcanic system, but their interplay has seldom been analyzed. To this end, we developed C3 (C-cubed, that stands for Chamber, Conduit and Column), a new integrated model that describes the dynamics of an explosive eruption as a series of steady state regimes and as a function of geometry and initial conditions of the magma reservoir. We used Global Sensitivity Analysis to quantify the role of the relevant model parameters and describe the interplay between the different volcanic sub-domains. In particular, we analyzed the evolution of a sustained explosive eruption in order to identify the conditions for buoyant, super-buoyant and collapsing columns. Input data were based on field reconstructions of Quaternary explosive eruptions in the Vulsini Volcanic District (Roman Province, central Italy). Model results show that: 1) the column regime, although affected by complex interactions among several factors, mostly depends on the conduit radius, the volatile content (i.e. supersaturation concentration at the top of the chamber) and length of the conduit, in decreasing level of importance; 2) the amount of mass erupted is independent of the conduit radius and depends mostly on volatile supersaturation, the radius of the magma chamber, the length of the conduit and the overpressure at the conduit inlet; 3) the mass flow-rate, column height and duration of the eruption are largely controlled by the conduit radius; 4) the flow pressure and density at the conduit exit are mostly controlled by the conduit inlet overpressure at the onset of the eruption, and by the length of the conduit at the end of the eruption; 5) the exit velocity from the conduit is mostly controlled by the volatile content, the length of the conduit and the inlet overpressure. In this model framework, and with specific reference to selected Plinian events of the Vulsini Volcanic District, simulation results show that column collapse is not achieved for reasonable eruption durations (order of hours) and conduit widths (tens of meters). This is consistent with field reconstructions suggesting that column collapse did not likely occur and that pyroclastic flows were therefore generated by independent mechanisms from ring fissures and/or multiple vents concomitant to caldera collapse.

Colucci, S.; de'Michieli Vitturi, M.; Neri, A.; Palladino, D. M.



Computing for Finance  

CERN Document Server

The finance sector is one of the driving forces for the use of distributed or Grid computing for business purposes. The speakers will review the state-of-the-art of high performance computing in the financial sector, and provide insight into how different types of Grid computing – from local clusters to global networks - are being applied to financial applications. They will also describe the use of software and techniques from physics, such as Monte Carlo simulations, in the financial world. There will be four talks of 20min each. The talk abstracts and speaker bios are listed below. This will be followed by a Q&A panel session with the speakers. From 19:00 onwards there will be a networking cocktail for audience and speakers. This is an EGEE / CERN openlab event organized in collaboration with the regional business network A webcast of the event will be made available for subsequent viewing, along with powerpoint material presented by the speakers. Attendance is free and open to all. R...

CERN. Geneva



Ground water flux distribution between matrix, fractures, and conduits: constraints on modeling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Calculations are presented to show the relative contribution of the matrix, fracture, and conduit permeability to the overall flow of ground water through a karst aquifer. The conceptual model is a cross-section spanning the full width and thickness of the aquifer. A constant, but adjustable head is assumed. The rock matrix is characterized by an adjustable hydraulic conductivity. Varying proportions of fractures and conduits of adjustable fracture apertures and conduit diameters were the calculational parameters. Calculations used Darcy’s law for matrix flow, the cube law for fracture flow, and the Darcy-Weisbach equation for conduit flow. The results show a surprising dominance of fracture flow in the early stages of aquifer development. A focusing mechanism is needed to localize the flow into a relatively small number of conduits.




Financing Training: Issues and Options. (United States)

Economic changes and retrenchment have led to reconsideration of the role of government and the private sector in financing training. When private sector-sponsored training displays inadequacies, government intervention may be necessary. (SK)

Dougherty, Christopher; Tan, Jee-Peng



Finance and Admin Team - EEB  

...Mara SILINA Jacques BOUCHE EU-Policy Team Pieter DE POUS Sarolta TRIPOLSZKY Tatiana SANTOS Faustine DEFOSSEZ Stéphane ARDITI Louise DUPREZ Elena LYMBERIDI-SETTIMO Rachel KAMANDE Communication Team Regina SCHNEIDER Alison ABRAHAMS Finance and Admin Team Isabel DE JESUS FONSECA Nicole WAUTERS-MINDLIN Aleksandra KOLODZIEJSKA Nguyet NGUYEN THI Ritalee BIRABWA Find Us Our Office Contacts Finance and Admin Team Executive Committee Secretary General Team EU-Policy Team Communication Team Finance and Admin Team Find Us Isabel DE ...JESUS FONSECA Head of Finance, Personnel Administration Boulevard de Waterloo 34 B-1000 BRUSSELS Tel: +32 (0) 2 289 10 92 Email Nicole WAUTERS-MINDLIN Secretary Seminar Coordinator Boulevard de Waterloo 34 B-1000 BRUSSELS Tel: +32 (0) 2 790 88 18 Email Aleksandra KOLODZIEJSKA Secretary Boulevard de Waterloo 34 B-1000 BRUSSELS Tel: +32 (0) 2 289 10 90 Email ...


CODAC systems arrangement and connectivity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: •The CODAC system is a distributed system and scattered in many buildings connected with cables. Building construction for ITER project is just started so volume reservation for different CODAC component is done based on the content of this paper. •The 2-D and 3-D diagrams have been prepared which are showing the location of different CODAC equipment and their connectivity. •The different requirements regarding raised access (false) floor, power requirements, heat load, installation, maintenance, redundancy, and segregation etc. have been considered. -- Abstract: The CODAC system is responsible for integrating all ITER plant system Instrumentation and Control systems and enabling operation of ITER machine as a single integrated facility. The different ITER plant systems and their Instrumentation and Control systems are distributed in several ITER buildings on the ITER platform. The CODAC systems have to interface with all these distributed plant system I and C systems. CODAC systems will be composed of several physical systems or components like networks, servers, workstations (terminals), large displays, PSH, storage systems etc. Several rooms in different buildings have been defined to house all above equipment. The site-wide CODAC network infrastructure will be based on a dual (redundant) star topology. The two redundant star points will house the core networking switches. These redundant core switches will be installed in different buildings. Cubicles used for network infrastructure are distributed among “hutches,” where a CODAC hutch is a room or area equipped with appropriate heating, ventilation, air conditioning and uninterruptible power which will be directly connected through two star points. The responsibility of CODAC infrastructure ends up to the plant system I and C cubicles so several passive CODAC network panels have identified in all I and C rooms of different plant buildings. This CODAC Network Panel will be the physical termination point for CODAC Network infrastructure. The CODAC Network cables running from the nearest CODAC Network hutch will terminate in these panels. Network panels are installed at strategic locations close to plant system I and C cubicles. This paper will describe more details about the physical arrangement of CODAC systems in different buildings on ITER platform for different purpose and their planned connectivity. This paper will also provide more information about the volume allocations for CODAC components, planned cabling arrangement and other infrastructure requirements like electrical and cooling etc


Alternative financing sources. ECRI. Emergency Care Research Institute. (United States)

A number of new capital sources have been developed and used by health care institutions unable to finance high-tech projects with equity or conventional tax-exempt debt instruments; these include REITs, MLPs, per-use rentals, venture capital, and banks as brokers. However, there are no magic capital acquisition solutions. Institutions with good credit will continue to find a number of doors open to them; poorer credit risks will have fewer options, and those available will carry greater risk, allow for less provider control over projects, and limit potential return on investment to some extent. It is essential to examine carefully the drawbacks inherent in each type of alternative financing source. Venture capital in particular requires specific analysis because of the wide variety of possible arrangements that exist. If you cannot find either traditional or alternative sources of funding for a proposed project, you should reexamine the project and its underlying utilization projections and reimbursement assumptions. PMID:10284126



Third party financing of renewable energy sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

IDAE (Institute of Energy Saving and Diversification) Hosted the Third party on financing renewable energy sources. The meeting was articulated into chapters: 1.- Experiences in the renewable energy field. 2.- Third party financing of small hydro-power projects. 3.- Third party financing of biomass projects. 4.- Third party financing of wind energy projects


Third party financing of renewable energy sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Institut of Energy Saving and Diversification (IDAE) hosted the third party on financing Renewable Energy Sources in Spain. The main aspects were : 1) Experiences in renewable energy. 2) Financing of small hydro-power projects. 3) Third party financing of biomass projects. 4) Financing of wind energy projects


Wind power: valuation and finance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The past 20 years of wind energy experience in Denmark has primarily been based upon three financing schemes, tailored to individually owned, guild owned and utility owned wind turbines. The merits of and problems with these schemes are discussed, as well as their relations to specific legislation regarding e.g. taxation. It is finally explored, whether new forms of organisation, valuation and financing may be needed. (author)


Corporate Finance and Comparative Advantage  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Since innovative firms are often financially constrained, access to external funds is important for the expansion of innovative industries. This paper reports four important results. First, comparative advantage is shaped by factor endowments as well as fundamental determinants of corporate finance. In particular, a larger equity ratio of firms and tough governance standards relax finance constraints and create a comparative advantage in innovative industries. Second, factor price equalizatio...

Keuschnigg, Christian; Egger, Peter



Property Rights, Finance, and Entrepreneurship  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Is investment constrained more by insecure property rights or by limited external finance? For five transition economies in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union we find that weak property rights limit the reinvestment of profits in startup ma nufacturing firms. Access to credit does not appear to explain differences in investment. At least in the early stages of post-communist reform, retained earnings appear to have been enough to finance the investments that managers wanted to make.

Johnson, Simon; Mcmillan, John; Woodruff, Christopher



Project finance for alternative energy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper is intended to provide general advice to sponsors of renewable energy projects who expect to raise project-based financing from commercial banks to fund the development of their projects. It will set out, for the benefit of such sponsors, how bankers typically approach the analysis of these undertakings and in particular the risk areas on which they concentrate. By doing so it should assist sponsors to maximise their prospects of raising bank finance. (author)


26 CFR 1.7701(l)-3 - Recharacterizing financing arrangements involving fast-pay stock. (United States)

...federal income tax return for such taxable...Passive foreign investment company. In the...of their expected cash flows. As a group, the...benefited shareholders' cash flows is $101,380...file an amended return. For taxable...



26 CFR 1.7701(l)-3 - Recharacterizing financing arrangements involving fast-pay stock. (United States)

...TAXES General Actuarial Valuations § 1.7701(l)-3...related agreements such as options or forward section 851) or a real estate investment trust...or the shareholder's option. (ii)...



Hydraulic boundary conditions as a controlling factor in karst genesis: A numerical modeling study on artesian conduit development in gypsum (United States)

A coupled continuum-pipe flow model is employed to simulate the development of karst conduits in an artesian setting, where aggressive water flows upward from an insoluble aquifer into a gypsum unit. Speleogenetic processes and controlling parameters are identified first for single conduit development. It is demonstrated that transient flow from the conduit into the surrounding fissured system of the rock enhances solutional conduit enlargement. Moreover, single conduit development is found to be highly sensitive to variations in initial diameter and hydraulic gradient. Simulating the solutional enlargement of pipe networks reveals that these two factors determine the resulting conduit pattern. Structural preferences are found to be essential for horizontal conduit development, otherwise flow paths are solely enlarged in vertical direction following the hydraulic gradient. Hydraulic gradients that increase with time can limit the extension or completely inhibit the development of horizontal caves even if lateral conduit development was structurally preferred.

Birk, Steffen; Liedl, Rudolf; Sauter, Martin; Teutsch, Georg



Issues in energy finance (United States)

As opposed to the well developed and understood equity markets, the energy markets are still in their infancy. The explosion of contracts, of both the primary and derivative types, are testament both to the existing size and the untapped growth potential of this exciting industry. However, because of its relative youth many basic issues in the energy markets remain unresolved. This thesis introduces some interesting questions and provides insights into these issues. Thematically, the chapters of this thesis are linked by an emphasis on valuation and risk management decisions. A contribution of this thesis is to show that subtle differences between the endogenous price process in our general equilibrium setting and the exogenous processes considered in earlier papers can generate significant differences in both financial and real option values. In addition to these valuation concerns there has been much debate about the corporate risk management function. Finance theory suggests that a value maximizing corporation should either be indifferent to hedging or, in the presence of certain imperfections, it should completely hedge all exposures. Both these extremes contradict empirical evidence. We show that existing corporate hedging behaviour is best explained in light of both physical market imperfections and directional predictions on future prices. While these speculative motives may arise from corporate hubris or genuine informational advantages, we argue that it would be difficult to implement private information in the absence of noise traders. Related to the risk management decision is the existence of futures risk premia. These premia have been thought to be cause by covariance with priced factors or due to the hedging demands of consumers and producers. This thesis argues that inventories serve as a signal of available quantity, which coupled with consumers fears regarding stockouts can induce a positive relationship between premia and inventories. In conclusion, we test this relationship using natural gas storage and futures price data and show empirical support for our hypothesis.

Khokher, Zeigham Islam


Engineering a multimodal nerve conduit for repair of injured peripheral nerve (United States)

Injury to nerve tissue in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) results in long-term impairment of limb function, dysaesthesia and pain, often with associated psychological effects. Whilst minor injuries can be left to regenerate without intervention and short gaps up to 2 cm can be sutured, larger or more severe injuries commonly require autogenous nerve grafts harvested from elsewhere in the body (usually sensory nerves). Functional recovery is often suboptimal and associated with loss of sensation from the tissue innervated by the harvested nerve. The challenges that persist with nerve repair have resulted in development of nerve guides or conduits from non-neural biological tissues and various polymers to improve the prognosis for the repair of damaged nerves in the PNS. This study describes the design and fabrication of a multimodal controlled pore size nerve regeneration conduit using polylactic acid (PLA) and (PLA):poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) fibers within a neurotrophin-enriched alginate hydrogel. The nerve repair conduit design consists of two types of PLGA fibers selected specifically for promotion of axonal outgrowth and Schwann cell growth (75:25 for axons; 85:15 for Schwann cells). These aligned fibers are contained within the lumen of a knitted PLA sheath coated with electrospun PLA nanofibers to control pore size. The PLGA guidance fibers within the nerve repair conduit lumen are supported within an alginate hydrogel impregnated with neurotrophic factors (NT-3 or BDNF with LIF, SMDF and MGF-1) to provide neuroprotection, stimulation of axonal growth and Schwann cell migration. The conduit was used to promote repair of transected sciatic nerve in rats over a period of 4 weeks. Over this period, it was observed that over-grooming and self-mutilation (autotomy) of the limb implanted with the conduit was significantly reduced in rats implanted with the full-configuration conduit compared to rats implanted with conduits containing only an alginate hydrogel. This indicates return of some feeling to the limb via the fully-configured conduit. Immunohistochemical analysis of the implanted conduits removed from the rats after the four-week implantation period confirmed the presence of myelinated axons within the conduit and distal to the site of implantation, further supporting that the conduit promoted nerve repair over this period of time. This study describes the design considerations and fabrication of a novel multicomponent, multimodal bio-engineered synthetic conduit for peripheral nerve repair.

Quigley, A. F.; Bulluss, K. J.; Kyratzis, I. L. B.; Gilmore, K.; Mysore, T.; Schirmer, K. S. U.; Kennedy, E. L.; O'Shea, M.; Truong, Y. B.; Edwards, S. L.; Peeters, G.; Herwig, P.; Razal, J. M.; Campbell, T. E.; Lowes, K. N.; Higgins, M. J.; Moulton, S. E.; Murphy, M. A.; Cook, M. J.; Clark, G. M.; Wallace, G. G.; Kapsa, R. M. I.



The financing of nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Existing nuclear generating capacity plays an important role in providing secure, economic and low-carbon electricity supplies in many OECD countries. At the same time, there is increasing recognition that an expansion of nuclear power could play a valuable role in reducing future carbon dioxide emissions. However, in recent years only a handful of new nuclear power plants (NPPs) have been built in just a few OECD countries. An important reason for this is the challenges associated with financing the construction of new NPPs. The just-published NEA report entitled The Financing of Nuclear Power Plants examines these challenges. In addition, recognizing that any expansion of nuclear power programmes will require strong and sustained government support, the report highlights the role of governments in facilitating and encouraging investment in new nuclear capacity. Key actions that should be considered by governments that wish to see investment in new NPPs include: - Provide clear and sustained policy support for the development of nuclear power, by setting out the case for a nuclear component in energy supply as part of a long-term national energy strategy. - Work with electricity utilities, financial companies and other potential investors, and the nuclear industry from an early stage to address concerns that may prevent nuclear investment and to avoid mistakes in establishing the parameters for new NPPs. - Establish an efficient and effective regulatory system which ent and effective regulatory system which provides adequate opportunities for public involvement in the decision-making process, while also providing potential investors with the certainty they require to plan such a major investment. - Put arrangements in place for the management of radioactive waste and spent fuel, and show progress towards a solution for final disposal of waste. For investors in NPPs, the financial arrangements for paying their fair share of the costs must be clearly defined. - Ensure that electricity market regulation does not disadvantage NPPs. Long-term arrangements may be necessary to provide certainty for investors in NPPs, reflecting the long-term nature of nuclear power projects. Where reducing CO2 emissions is to act as an incentive for investments in nuclear power, the government may need to provide some guarantees that policy measures will keep carbon prices at sufficiently high levels. In countries where there are large utilities with the financial strength to invest directly in new NPPs, or where there are well-resourced foreign utilities willing to make such investments, fully commercial financing may be possible. However, in other cases it may prove impossible for a nuclear power plant project to go ahead without direct or indirect public sector financial support, which would reduce the investment risks to acceptable levels. Public sector financial support could involve supporting a state-owned utility in making nuclear power plant investments, providing support to private sector utilities through loan guarantees, tax credits or other measures, or establishing public-private partnerships. However, governments should ensure that, overall, investment risk remains appropriately shared with the private sector


Financing energy projects: experience of the International Finance Corporation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper provides an overview of the recent trend towards private ownership and financing of power projects in the developing countries, focusing on the role played by both private and public agencies in meeting the large financing challenges. The paper draws upon the operational experience of the International Finance Corporation, which has been involved in the financing of more than 30 private power projects in the developing countries over the past three decades. Among the issues that affect implementation of private power projects is the balancing of risk and reward to equity investors and to commercial lenders. The paper discusses the principal sources of risk and the strategies used to manage them. A related issue is the competition for capital on the international markets, and the techniques that are being devised to bring more finance to the power sector. Finally, the paper considers the role of government in bringing private investors to the power sector, and the approaches being adopted to balance the needs of investors with the needs of the public. (author)


Degradation properties of the electrostatic assembly PDLLA/CS/CHS nerve conduit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A poly(d,l-lactic acid)/chondroitin sulfate/chitosan (PDLLA/CS/CHS) nerve conduit for repairing nerve defects was prepared by electrostatic assembly and the thermally induced phase separation technique. The hydrophilic characteristics of the PDLLA/CS/CHS assembly nerve conduits were improved markedly. The degradation behavior of the nerve conduit with various assembly layers was evaluated by a pH change, weight loss rate and molecular weight change. The pH of the solution of the nerve conduit could be effectively adjusted by varying the layer numbers and overcoming the acidity-caused auto-acceleration of PDLLA; the nerve conduit can retain its integrity in a phosphate buffer solution after being degraded for 3 months. After such a conduit was implanted in the rat for 3 months, obvious degradation occurred, but the regenerated nerve was integrated and it grew successfully from the proximal to distal nerve stump. All these results implied that the degradation rate of the prepared conduit can adapt to the regeneration of the peripheral nerve, which might be a new derivative of PDLLA-based biodegradable materials for repairing nerve injuries without acidity-caused irritations and acidity-induced auto-accelerating degradation behavior as shown by PDLLA.


Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduit for repair of injured sciatic nerve: A mechanical analysis (United States)

Tensile stress and tensile strain directly affect the quality of nerve regeneration after bridging nerve defects by poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduit transplantation and autogenous nerve grafting for sciatic nerve injury. This study collected the sciatic nerve from the gluteus maximus muscle from fresh human cadaver, and established 10-mm-long sciatic nerve injury models by removing the ischium, following which poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduits or autogenous nerve grafts were transplanted. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the axon and myelin sheath were torn, and the vessels of basilar membrane were obstructed in the poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduit-repaired sciatic nerve following tensile testing. There were no significant differences in tensile tests with autogenous nerve graft-repaired sciatic nerve. Following poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduit transplantation for sciatic nerve repair, tensile test results suggest that maximum tensile load, maximum stress, elastic limit load and elastic limit stress increased compared with autogenous nerve grafts, but elastic limit strain and maximum strain decreased. Moreover, the tendencies of stress-strain curves of sciatic nerves were similar after transplantation of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduits or autogenous nerve grafts. Results showed that after transplantation in vitro for sciatic nerve injury, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduits exhibited good intensity, elasticity and plasticity, indicating that poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduits are suitable for sciatic nerve injury repair.

Yu, Tao; Zhao, Changfu; Li, Peng; Liu, Guangyao; Luo, Min



Fluid-Rock Dynamic Interaction in Magmatic Conduits: Modelling Transients Using an Analytical Solution (United States)

We compute transients fluid-rock dynamic interaction in a fluid driven axisymmetric conduit embedded in an infinite, homogeneous elastic space. Both fluid and solid are dynamically coupled fulfilling continuity of velocities and radial stresses at the conduit's wall. The calculation model considers the viscosity as a key parameter leading to non-linear scheme. A pressure transient at a point of the conduit, that perturbs a steady flow of incompressible viscous fluid, produces the interaction between the fluid and motion at the conduit's walls. The fluid motion induces the elastic response of the conduit forcing it to oscillate radially. The fluid-filled conduit dynamics is governed by three second-order, ordinary non-linear differential equations, which are solved numerically by applying a fifth-order Runge-Kutta scheme. Boundary conditions satisfy the Bernoulli's principle allowing coupling several pipe segments which may present smooth variation in fluid properties. The nature of the source involves different pressure excitations functions including those measuring during simulations of gas burst and fragmentation of volcanic rocks under controlled laboratory conditions. Far-field velocity synthetics radiated by motion of the conduit's walls and fluid flows ascending to the surface, display characteristic waveforms and frequency content that are similar to those of long-period signals and tremor observed at active volcanoes. Results suggest that transient fluid flow induced oscillations may explain long-period and tremor signals. Advantages and limitations of this approach are discussed.

Arciniega-Ceballos, Alejandra; Scheu, Bettina; Sanchez-Sesma, Francisco; Dingwell, Donald



Fibrin matrix for suspension of regenerative cells in an artificial nerve conduit. (United States)

Peripheral nerve injury presents with specific problems of neuronal reconstructions, and from a clinical viewpoint a tissue engineering approach would facilitate the process of repair and regeneration. We have previously used artificial nerve conduits made from bioresorbable poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) in order to refine the ways in which peripheral nerves are repaired and reconnected to the target muscles and skin. The addition of Schwann cells (SC) or differentiated mesenchymal stem cells (dMSC) to the conduits enhances regeneration. In this study, we have used a matrix based on fibrin (Tisseel) to fill optimally the nerve-conduits with cells. In vitro analysis showed that both SC and MSC adhered significantly better to PHB in the presence of fibrin and cells continued to maintain their differentiated state. Cells were more optimally distributed throughout the conduit when seeded in fibrin than by delivery in growth medium alone. Transplantation of the nerve conduits in vivo showed that cells in combination with fibrin matrix significantly increased nerve regeneration distance (using PGP9.5 and S100 distal and proximal immunohistochemistry) when compared with empty PHB conduits. This study shows the beneficial combinatory effect of an optimised matrix, cells and conduit material as a step towards bridging nerve gaps which should ultimately lead to improved functional recovery following nerve injury. PMID:18218346

Kalbermatten, D F; Kingham, P J; Mahay, D; Mantovani, C; Pettersson, J; Raffoul, W; Balcin, H; Pierer, G; Terenghi, G



Islamic Public Infrastructure Financing: An Analysis of Alternative Financing Instruments with Application in Developing Countries. (United States)

This project examines the structure of public infrastructure financing in Indonesia and examines whether financing based on Islamic principles is a feasible alternative to current financing mechanisms. The structure of public infrastructure investment can...

S. Islam



Financing responsibility for nuclear waste disposal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

e present arrangements mean that: - Companies that cannot be expected to have any long-term ability to pay have unlimited liability, and - Companies that can be expected to have an ability to pay have very limited liability. The Inquiry therefore proposes that ability to pay and liability are brought into line by a formal assumption by owning companies of the sort of liability for payment that now rests solely with the reactor companies. This means that the owning company in each group that is best suited to bear the liability for payment - which in principle is likely to be the leading company in the group - will also assume liability through a payment guarantee. The extended requirement to pay fees for the period until the final disposal sites are sealed and the secondary liability for payment are central components of the proposed new design of the financing system. In other cases where the State assumes risks, risk assessments are made. This applies, for example, when the State provides guarantees in the area of export credits. In the view of the Inquiry, however, the State has not followed an appropriate course of action in managing the financial risk involved in this case. Use must be made of descriptions of risks in other projects and experience of managing financial risks of other projects. The Inquiry considers that a different system and different management is required in order to put the liability of the nuclear industry for costs into place - and so limit the financial risk borne by the State. The Inquiry considers it essential that the use of funds is followed up and audited so as to maintain confidence in the financing system. The Inquiry considers that a three-year fee period should create scope for auditing and control and proposes that the safety authority be instructed in an ordinance to draw up rules aimed at facilitating follow-up by requiring time limits, comparability, etc. It is proposed that auditing be made part of a new financially oriented line of activity at the authority. It is proposed further that the safety authority be instructed to deliver an account to the Government every three years regarding its assessment of the most important risk factors in the withdrawals process. The Inquiry proposes that the National Debt Office be instructed to review the issue of a fee for the State's financial risk three years after a new financing system has entered into force


Representation of water abstraction from a karst conduit with numerical discrete-continuum models  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Karst aquifers are characterized by highly conductive conduit flow paths embedded in a less conductive fissured and fractured matrix resulting in strong permeability contrasts with structured heterogeneity and anisotropy. Groundwater storage occurs predominantly in the fissured matrix. Hence, most karst models assume quasi steady-state flow in conduits neglecting conduit associated drainable storage (CADS. The concept of CADS considers storage volumes, where karst water is not part of the active flow system but rather hydraulically connected to conduits (for example karstic voids and large fractures. The disregard of conduit storage can be inappropriate when direct water abstraction from karst conduits occurs, e.g. large scale pumping. In such cases, CADS may be relevant. Furthermore, the typical fixed head boundary condition at the karst outlet can be inadequate for water abstraction scenarios because unhampered water inflow is possible. The objective of this paper is to analyze the significance of CADS and flow-limited boundary conditions on the hydraulic behavior of karst aquifers in water abstraction scenarios. To this end, the numerical hybrid model MODFLOW-2005 Conduit Flow Process Mode 1 (CFPM1 is enhanced to account for CADS. Additionally, a fixed-head limited-flow (FHLQ boundary condition is added that limits inflow from constant head boundaries to a user-defined threshold. The affect and proper functioning of these modifications is demonstrated by simplified model studies. Both enhancements, CAD storage and the FHLQ boundary, are shown to be useful for water abstraction scenarios within karst aquifers. An idealized representation of a large-scale pumping test in a karst conduit is used to demonstrate that the enhanced CFPM1 is potentially able to adequately represent water abstraction processes in both the conduits and the matrix of real karst systems.

T. Reimann



Forgotten DJ Stent with a Large Calculus at Its Distal End in an Ileal Conduit Diversion (United States)

Calculus formation in an ileal conduit following cystectomy is a known complication. Encrustation and formation of calculus may also occur over a DJ stent retained for a long period; but this is never reported in patients with conduit diversion because of close surveillance of these patients. Here we report first case of a large calculus encrusted over a forgotten DJ stent within an ileal conduit in a man who had undergone urinary diversion following radical cystectomy for carcinoma urinary bladder 8 years earlier. PMID:25215257

Puri, Anurag; Priyadarshi, Vinod; Raizada, Nivedita; Pal, Dilip Kumar



A nonlinear analysis methodology for the one hole malleable iron conduit clamp  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A generalized nonlinear finite element methodology for determining the load-deflection behavior of a malleable iron one hole conduit clamp is developed. This clamp is used to support electrical-conduit in industry and nuclear power plants. Two different types of one hole malleable iron conduit clamps are analyzed using two dimensional plane stress finite element models. The analysis used the following nonlinear options: large displacement option, interface option, plasticity option, and bilinear material stress-strain capabilities. The analytical methodology gives similar results to those measured in actual clamp tests


Study of Trailing Conduits in High Bond Number Metal-Silicate Plumes during Core Formation (United States)

Meteorite samples and isotopic studies indicate that segregation of the Earth's metallic core from silicates happened within 30 Myr of the formation of the Solar System. Core formation in other terrestrial planets is similarly rapid during the formation of the Solar System. Previous geodynamic studies hypothesized that violent impacts provided substantial energy for partial or complete melting of impactors and surrounding materials, leading to the formation of a magma ocean or reservoir. Metal ejecta of the cores of differentiated planetesimals may have formed metal drops, descended through the magma ocean and collected into metal ponds at the base of the magma ocean. Over time, the heavy liquid metallic ponds become unstable and descend through the primitive mantle, either following cracks and fractures or larger downwelling events involved in convective structures such as Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities or large diapirs. In this research, we perform experiments to study the case of large diapirs which go unstable as Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities. Once a metal pond descends through the primitive mantle, it creates a conduit behind it which fills with low density magma ocean material. Using fluid laboratory experiments, we observe the onset time of the high Bond number metal-silicate plume and its size and shape during descent. We identify three regimes during metal-silicate plume descent, 1) Conduit growth and the descent of the metal plume and conduit fluid; 2) Flow reversal ascent of conduit fluid, and conduit collapse; 3) Slow long-term collapse of remaining conduit dominated by diffusion processes. Theoretical predictions are consistent with fluid measurements for each regime and indicate these regimes may exist in the Earth with predictable time frames. We find the time for metal plume descent in Regime 1 is 8 Myr (radius (R) = 500 km) to reach the core-mantle boundary. The time for the conduit to constrict in Regime 2 is 6.5 Myr (R = 500 km). The time scale for final collapse of the residual small conduit radius is very long in Regime 3 at 3.3 x 108 Byr considering the diffusion time for silicate material to diffuse over a distance of 200 km (assuming diffusion coefficient of 10-17 m2/s for the bulk solid mantle). Thus, we suggest that Regime 3 where small conduits persist for long times following core formation may still be present in the Earth today. Conduit Evolution with 3 regimes: (1) Sinking of the metal drop; (2) Flow reversal and conduit constriction; (3) Slow long-term collapse of remaining conduit dominated by diffusion processes.

Nguyen, C. T.; Weeraratne, D. S.; Olson, P.



Injunctions against mere conduit of information protected by copyright  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper includes an in-depth analysis of EU law and Scandinavian law on injunctions against internet access providers (IAPs) performing as mere conduit of information protected by copyright. In recent Scandinavian case law, courts have granted preliminary injunctions which have caused IAPs to either shut down specific internet connections allegedly used to infringe copyright or to block access to internet content, which allegedly infringed applicable copyright rules. This paper considers some significant legal challenges, which are emerging in the wake of this case law, and which should attract attention in all European member states. Firstly, it is shown that rules on preliminary injunctions are generally unable to safeguard the significant legitimate interests of third parties, which may be harmed by such relief, and that a proper implementation of Art. 8(3) of the Infosoc Directive requires rules, which take into due consideration the special aspects related to enforcement of copyright on the internet through IAPs. Secondly, it is shown that the termination of internet connections and the blocking of access to internet content may not support the public policies behind copyright law and also may restrict the freedom of expression under European human rights law. The analysis is based on a brief account for the relevant EU Directives, the implementation of these Directives in the Scandinavian countries and the Scandinavian case law regarding use of injunctions against IAPs to enforce copyright on the internet.

Sandfeld Jakobsen, SØren; Petersen, Clement Salung



A conduit dilation model of methane venting from lake sediments (United States)

Methane is a potent greenhouse gas, but its effects on Earth's climate remain poorly constrained, in part due to uncertainties in global methane fluxes to the atmosphere. An important source of atmospheric methane is the methane generated in organic-rich sediments underlying surface water bodies, including lakes, wetlands, and the ocean. The fraction of the methane that reaches the atmosphere depends critically on the mode and spatiotemporal characteristics of free-gas venting from the underlying sediments. Here we propose that methane transport in lake sediments is controlled by dynamic conduits, which dilate and release gas as the falling hydrostatic pressure reduces the effective stress below the tensile strength of the sediments. We test our model against a four-month record of hydrostatic load and methane flux in Upper Mystic Lake, Mass., USA, and show that it captures the complex episodicity of methane ebullition. Our quantitative conceptualization opens the door to integrated modeling of methane transport to constrain global methane release from lakes and other shallow-water, organic-rich sediment systems, and to assess its climate feedbacks.

Scandella, B.P.; Varadharajan, C.; Hemond, H.F.; Ruppel, C.; Juanes, R.



Finite element modelling of cable-in-conduit conductors (United States)

The ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) cable-in-conduit conductors (CICCs) are subjected to high thermal and electromagnetic cyclic loadings, responsible for conductivity loss in the strain-sensitive Nb3Sn strands. The complex mechanical phenomena occurring at the local scale of the strands make the final performances of the CICC difficult to predict from single-strand properties. In order to assess the amplitudes of the local strains that drive the conductor electrical behaviour, a nonlinear finite element simulation code is used. The successive stages of the conductors’ service life, from the forming of the cable to its thermal cool-down and Lorentz force loading, are simulated. Each strand is individually modelled and contact-friction interactions between the strands are considered. After a description of the issues regarding the modelling of the mechanical behaviour of cables and the main features of the finite element code employed, this paper presents the simulation results for the testing of pure copper wire inclusion for the conductor strain state. The code was then used to model four different cable designs in terms of twist pitches and void fractions. The analysis of the axial strain distributions within the cable is presented here.

Bajas, Hugues; Durville, Damien; Devred, Arnaud



Structure of a Bacterial Cell Surface Decaheme Electron Conduit  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Some bacterial species are able to utilize extracellular mineral forms of iron and manganese as respiratory electron acceptors. In Shewanella oneidensis this involves deca-heme cytochromes that are located on the bacterial cell surface at the termini of trans-outermembrane (OM) electron transfer conduits. The cell surface cytochromes can potentially play multiple roles in mediating electron transfer directly to insoluble electron sinks, catalyzing electron exchange with flavin electron shuttles or participating in extracellular inter-cytochrome electron exchange along ‘nanowire’ appendages. We present a 3.2 Å crystal structure of one of these deca-heme cytochromes, MtrF, that allows the spatial organization of the ten hemes to be visualized for the first time. The hemes are organized across four domains in a unique crossed conformation, in which a staggered 65 Å octa-heme chain transects the length of the protein and is bisected by a planar 45 Å tetra-heme chain that connects two extended Greek key split ?-barrel domains. The structure provides molecular insight into how reduction of insoluble substrate (e.g. minerals), soluble substrates (e.g. flavins) and cytochrome redox partners might be possible in tandem at different termini of a trifurcated electron transport chain on the cell surface.

Clarke, Thomas A.; Edwards, Marcus; Gates, Andrew J.; Hall, Andrea; White, Gaye; Bradley, Justin; Reardon, Catherine L.; Shi, Liang; Beliaev, Alex S.; Marshall, Matthew J.; Wang, Zheming; Watmough, Nicholas; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Zachara, John M.; Butt, Julea N.; Richardson, David J.



Calculation of electrohydrodynamic flow in a circular cylindrical conduit  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The electrohydrodynamic flow of a fluid in an `ion drag` configuration in a circular cylindrical conduit is governed by a non-linear second-order ordinary differential equation. The degree of non-linearity in this equation is determined by a nondimensional parameter {alpha} and the equation can be approximated by two different linear equations for very small or very large values of {alpha} respectively. Perturbation solutions of the fluid velocities for {alpha}<<1 and {alpha}>>1 are developed. A Gauss-Newton finite-difference solver combined with the continuation method and a Runge-Kutta shooting method are used to provide numerical results for the fluid velocity over a large range of values of {alpha}. Both numerical and analytical results are compared in order to establish the range of validity for the perturbation solutions. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die elektrohydrodynamische Stroemung in einer `ion-drag`-Konfiguration in einem kreiszylindrischen Rohr wird durch eine nichtlineare gewoehnliche Differentialgleichung 2. Ordnung beschrieben. Der Grad der Nichtlinearitaet dieser Gleichung wird durch einen dimensionslosen Parameter {alpha} bestimmt, und die Gleichung kann durch zwei verschiedene lineare Gleichungen fuer sehr kleine bzw. sehr grosse Werte von {alpha} approximiert werden. Die Stoerungsloesungen der Fluidgeschwindigkeiten fuer {alpha}<<1 und {alpha}>>1 werden hergeleitet. Ein Gauss-Newton Finite-Differenz-Loesungsverfahren, kombiniert mit der Fortsetzungsmethode und einem Runge-Kutta Shooting-Verfahren werden benutzt, um numerische Resultate fuer die Stroemungsgeschwindigkeit ueber einen grossen {alpha}-Bereich herzuleiten. Die numerischen und analytischen Resultate werden verglichen, um den Gueltigkeitsbereich der Stoerungsloesungen festzustellen. (orig.)

McKee, S.; Watson, R. [Dept. of Mathematics, Strathclyde Univ., Glasgow (United Kingdom); Cuminato, J.A. [ICMSC, Univ. of Sao Paulo (Brazil); Caldwell, J.; Chen, M.S. [City Univ. of Hong Kong (Hong Kong)



Data Transfer via Alternative Conduits: Using Fluid Networks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Digital convergence has reshaped a gamut of industry demographics in the 21C, comprised of cloud computing, healthcare, pharmaceutical, consumer supplies, government, defense, manufacturing, entertainment, and even on-line education, among many others.   At the center of the web-convergence lies the problem of network bandwidth limitation.  Traditionally, research has focused on two major resolution strategies in parallel:  data compression to minimize the network traffic (i.e. algorithmic; software and alternative conduit for data transfer such as wireless (i.e. infrastructural; hardware.Building a network infrastructure is extremely costly.   In addition, maintenance and upgrade costs may be prohibitive, given the U.S. consumer demographics.   To this end, the emphasis is placed on seeking existing infrastructure which connects business and residential entities.The objective of this research, therefore, is to seek the possibility and feasibility of (digital data transfers via the extensive water and/or sewer network(s, while minimizing structural modifications to the existing infrastructure.   To date, sonar has been proven to be effective.   If successful, the value of this intellectual property may be immeasurable.

Charles Willow



Developments in School Finance 1997 (United States)

The US Department of Education's NCES has recently released Developments in School Finance 1997 (available in Adobe Acrobat [.pdf] format only), edited by William J. Fowler, which contains the fiscal proceedings from the 1997 NCES Summer Conference, eight scholarly papers on "emerging issues in educational finance." Titles include: "Does Money Matter for Minority and Disadvantaged Students? Assessing the New Empirical Evidence," by David Grissmer, et. al.; "School District Expenditures, School Resources and Student Achievement: Modeling the Production Function," by Harold Wenglinsky; and "The Development of School Finance Formulas to Guarantee the Provision of Adequate Education to Low-Income Students," by Andrew Reschovsky and Jennifer Imazeki. Users can download the entire publication or articles of their choosing.


The role of financing institutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The production, conversion, transport and use of primary energy have considerable impacts on the environment and climate. Throughout the world, the energy sectors face the problem of reducing energy-related emissions, preventing them form occurring and contributing towards the development of environmentally friendly and sustainable energy systems. This requires an integrated planning and decision-making process, in which domestic and international financing institutions also participate since they are frequently involved in the appraisal of electricity projects. To ensure that assessment procedures cover not only project risks and aspects of credit worthiness in a narrower sense but also overall environmental and efficiency aspects, the report outlines elements of a code of conduct. This code of conduct should serve as guideline for financing institutions involved in financing energy sector investments. (author). 7 refs, 1 tab


Introduction to Micro-finance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Micro-finance appears today as the most promising tool in the struggle against poverty and banking exclusion. By providing micro-credit, collecting saving and supplying microinsurance, microfinance institutions (MFIs are renewing the banking activity by practices as innovative as the group lending method. However, the real impacts of the microfinance on target populations are to be confirmed, theirevaluation colliding with numerous difficulties. Nevertheless, the future development of micro-finance depends on its superiority over other tools in achieving its objectives. Hence, the need to develop more rigorous studies on the impacts, and mature reflection on sources of funding for MFIs in a context of growing of ethical finance and socially responsible investment.




The managerial process of business financing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents some modalities and financing forces for business, getting out in the first place the entrepreneur ingenuity for finding these sources of financing necessary for the business success. Also get some contributions and proposals regarding the criteria’s of which the entrepreneur must be take care in choosing the financial sources, for preparing the finance pack and presenting the financing demands, which good documented, not only grows up the chances of one financing but also can lead to fix some relations on long time with financing source.

Solomia Andres



Freeness and multirestriction of hyperplane arrangements  

CERN Document Server

Generalizing a result of Yoshinaga in dimension 3, we show that a central hyperplane arrangement in 4-space is free exactly if its restriction with multiplicities to a fixed hyperplane of the arrangement is free and its reduced characteristic polynomial equals the characteristic polynomial of this restriction. We show that the same statement holds true in any dimension when imposing moderate tameness hypotheses.

Schulze, Mathias



Freeness and multirestriction of hyperplane arrangements  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Generalizing a result of Yoshinaga in dimension 3, we show that a central hyperplane arrangement in 4-space is free exactly if its restriction with multiplicities to a fixed hyperplane of the arrangement is free and its reduced characteristic polynomial equals the characteristic polynomial of this restriction. We show that the same statement holds true in any dimension when imposing certain tameness hypotheses.

Schulze, Mathias



Topology and combinatorics of real line arrangements  

CERN Document Server

We prove the existence of complexified real arrangements with the same combinatorics but different embeddings in the complex projective plane. Such pair of arrangements has an additional property: they admit conjugated equations on the ring of polynomials over the number field ${\\mathbb Q}(\\sqrt{5})$.

Artal, E; Cogolludo, J I; Marco, M



Encoding and Decoding Procedures for Arrangements  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article discusses an algorithm based on the encoding procedure for representing a set of arrangement elements as a single number. Also the author provides the procedure for the inverse transformation of the code into arrangement elements. In addition the Article includes recommendations on the use of the above procedures in combinatorial algorithms of optimization.

Alexander A. Babaev



Financing governmental duties by fees?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The tendency towards the financing of governmental duties by fees is unbroken. A current example is the plan of the federal environment minister to transfer the responsibility for the final storage of radioactive wastes to a public legal association. All waste producers must become a member of this association. The task of carrying out the search, exploration and establishment of a final repository should be assigned to this association. The conditions for the financing of such tasks in Germany are very restricted. The proposed model is not compliant with the legal framework. The strategic goals of such an approach should have been determined by the government. (orig.)



Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the most important aspects of an entity is, without doubt, how to finance it, this being an ongoing concern of managers, particularly seeking the cost reduction of the borrowed capital and the increase of the financial profitability instalment. Accessing irredeemable funds is a reality of the recent years. Increasingly more companies are looking to these funds to achieve some development objectives. A thorough analysis of the financing possibilities (subsidy is important for any entity, but the choice has to be made based on the recommendation of the domain specialists. No price is too high if it ensures you business continuity.




Project finance for renewable energy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper is intended to provide general advice to sponsors of renewable energy projects who expect to raise project-based financing from commercial banks to fund the development of their projects. It sets out, for the benefit of such sponsors, how bankers typically approach the analysis of these undertakings and in particular the risk areas on which they concentrate. By doing so it should assist sponsors to maximize their prospects of raising bank finance. The watchword for sponsors approaching banks must be ''Be Prepared'' . (author)

Mills, S.J. (Sceptre Management Ltd. (United Kingdom)); Taylor, M.



Cooling arrangement for a tapered turbine blade (United States)

A cooling arrangement (11) for a highly tapered gas turbine blade (10). The cooling arrangement (11) includes a pair of parallel triple-pass serpentine cooling circuits (80,82) formed in an inner radial portion (50) of the blade, and a respective pair of single radial channel cooling circuits (84,86) formed in an outer radial portion (52) of the blade (10), with each single radial channel receiving the cooling fluid discharged from a respective one of the triple-pass serpentine cooling circuit. The cooling arrangement advantageously provides a higher degree of cooling to the most highly stressed radially inner portion of the blade, while providing a lower degree of cooling to the less highly stressed radially outer portion of the blade. The cooling arrangement can be implemented with known casting techniques, thereby facilitating its use on highly tapered, highly twisted Row 4 industrial gas turbine blades that could not be cooled with prior art cooling arrangements.

Liang, George (Palm City, FL)



Effect of multiwall carbon nanotube reinforcement on coaxially extruded cellular vascular conduits. (United States)

Due to its abundant source, good biocompatibility, low price and mild crosslinking process, alginate is an ideal selection for tissue engineering applications. In this work, alginate vascular conduits were fabricated through a coaxial extrusion-based system. However, due to the inherent weak mechanical properties of alginate, the vascular conduits are not capable of biomimicking natural vascular system. In this paper, multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) were used to reinforce vascular conduits. Mechanical, dehydration, swelling and degradation tests were performed to understand influences of MWCNT reinforcement. The unique mechanical properties together with perfusion and diffusional capability are two important factors to mimic the nature. Thus, perfusion experiments were also conducted to explore the MWCNT reinforcement effect. In addition, cell viability and tissue histology were conducted to evaluate the biological performance of conduits both in short and long term for MWCNT reinforcement. PMID:24863208

Zhang, Yahui; Yu, Yin; Dolati, Farzaneh; Ozbolat, Ibrahim T



Scientific Results of Conduit Drilling in the Unzen Scientific Drilling Project (USDP  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Directional drilling at Unzen Volcano in Japan duringmid of 2004 penetrated the magma conduit and successfullyrecovered samples of the lava dike that is believed to havefed the 1991–1995 eruption. The dike was sampled about1.3 km below the volcano’s summit vent and is intrudedinto a broader conduit zone that is 0.5 km wide. This zoneconsists of multiple older lava dikes and pyroclastic veinsand has cooled to less than 200?C. The lava dike sample wasunexpectedly altered, suggesting that circulation of hydrothermalfluids rapidly cools the conduit region of even veryactive volcanoes. It is likely that seismic signals monitoredprior to emergence of the lava dome reflected fracturing ofthe country rocks, caused by veining as volatiles escapedpredominantly upward, not outward, from the rising magma.Geophysical and geological investigation of cuttings andcore samples from the conduit and of bore-hole logging datacontinues.

Kozo Uto



Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 Endocytic Trafficking Through Macrophage Bridging Conduits Facilitates Spread of Infection  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Bridging conduits (BC) sustain communication and homeostasis between distant tethered cells. These are also exploited commonly for direct cell-to-cell transfer of microbial agents. Conduits efficiently spread infection, effectively, at speeds faster than fluid phase exchange while shielding the microbe against otherwise effective humoral immunity. Our laboratory has sought to uncover the mechanism(s) for these events for human immunodeficiency virus type one (HIV-1) infection. Indeed, in our ...

Kadiu, Irena; Gendelman, Howard E.




Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article examines the main issues related to financing innovation in enterprises. The author proves the problem of financing innovation as a key deterrent to the innovative development of Russian enterprises.

Alexander Ildyakov



Finance and Accounting; a comprehensive introduction  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Finance and accounting behandelt in een boek de essentiele aspecten van drie disciplines: financieel management, management accounting en financial accounting. Dit maakt Finance and accounting tot een breed en waardevol engelstalig naslagwerk.

Jansen, Ewoud



Comparison of a karst groundwater model with and without discrete conduit flow (United States)

Karst aquifers exhibit a dual flow system characterized by interacting conduit and matrix domains. This study evaluated the coupled continuum pipe-flow framework for modeling karst groundwater flow in the Madison aquifer of western South Dakota (USA). Coupled conduit and matrix flow was simulated within a regional finite-difference model over a 10-year transient period. An existing equivalent porous medium (EPM) model was modified to include major conduit networks whose locations were constrained by dye-tracing data and environmental tracer analysis. Model calibration data included measured hydraulic heads at observation wells and estimates of discharge at four karst springs. Relative to the EPM model, the match to observation well hydraulic heads was substantially improved with the addition of conduits. The inclusion of conduit flow allowed for a simpler hydraulic conductivity distribution in the matrix continuum. Two of the high-conductivity zones in the EPM model, which were required to indirectly simulate the effects of conduits, were eliminated from the new model. This work demonstrates the utility of the coupled continuum pipe-flow method and illustrates how karst aquifer model parameterization is dependent on the physical processes that are simulated.

Saller, Stephen P.; Ronayne, Michael J.; Long, Andrew J.



Tapering of xylem conduits and hydraulic limitations in sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus) trees. (United States)

Vertical conduit tapering is proposed as an effective mechanism to almost eliminate the increase in hydraulic resistance with increased height. Despite this potential role, very little is known about its changes during ontogeny. Here, conduit tapering and stem morphology of young/small and old/tall individuals of Acer pseudoplatanus in the field, as well as 3-yr-old grafted trees from both age classes, were analysed. The distribution of hydraulic resistance along stems was also determined in a subsample of trees. Substantial conduit tapering was found in small trees (field-grown and grafted from both age classes), whereas values were lower in tall trees, indicating that tapering was a size-related, not an age-related process. Apical conduit diameters were larger in tall trees and were inversely correlated with the degree of tapering. Hydraulic resistance increased less than linearly with distance from the apex. Its scaling against distance was indistinguishable from that predicted from anatomical measurements. Conduit tapering was an effective but partial mechanism of compensation for the increase in hydraulic resistance with tree height. Size-related changes in tapering and in apical conduit diameters may be explained by the combined need to reduce the build-up of hydraulic resistance while minimizing the carbon costs of building vessel walls. PMID:18069964

Petit, Giai; Anfodillo, Tommaso; Mencuccini, Maurizio



In vitro evaluation of carbon-nanotube-reinforced bioprintable vascular conduits (United States)

Vascularization of thick engineered tissue and organ constructs like the heart, liver, pancreas or kidney remains a major challenge in tissue engineering. Vascularization is needed to supply oxygen and nutrients and remove waste in living tissues and organs through a network that should possess high perfusion ability and significant mechanical strength and elasticity. In this paper, we introduce a fabrication process to print vascular conduits directly, where conduits were reinforced with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to enhance their mechanical properties and bioprintability. In vitro evaluation of printed conduits encapsulated in human coronary artery smooth muscle cells was performed to characterize the effects of CNT reinforcement on the mechanical, perfusion and biological performance of the conduits. Perfusion and permeability, cell viability, extracellular matrix formation and tissue histology were assessed and discussed, and it was concluded that CNT-reinforced vascular conduits provided a foundation for mechanically appealing constructs where CNTs could be replaced with natural protein nanofibers for further integration of these conduits in large-scale tissue fabrication.

Dolati, Farzaneh; Yu, Yin; Zhang, Yahui; De Jesus, Aribet M.; Sander, Edward A.; Ozbolat, Ibrahim T.



Long-term follow-up of patients with extracardiac valved conduits.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Seventeen patients having extracardiac valved conduits placed between the right ventricle and pulmonary artery were followed for 7 to 87 months postoperatively (mean, 42 months, at the Heart Institute, Kenritsu Amagasaki Hospital, Japan. There were no late deaths in the study group. Three conduits have been replaced, all because of conduit stenosis. In two-dimensional echocardiographic examinations, commissural fusion and calcification of the valve were noted in 6 out of 16 xenograft valved conduits. Mechanical valve immobility was found in one patient. Neointimal peel of the dacron graft was noted in 6 out of 17 cases, and marked left ventricular deformity in the short axis view was found in 6. Late cardiac catheterization was done in 6 patients who were suspected of having valve failure and right ventricular hypertension by two-dimensional echocardiography. All 6 of these patients showed a high pressure gradient between the pulmonary artery and right ventricle and also had elevated right ventricular pressure. In conclusion, two-dimensional echocardiography is a simple, non-invasive and very accurate method for detecting conduit stenosis and valve failure. An echocardiographic series should be performed for a long-time postoperatively because obstructions of valved conduits may be progressive, and an operation may be advisable in order to prevent the development of advanced right ventricular hypertrophy and deterioration.




Nuclear industry (Finance) Act 1981  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of the Act is to enable British Nuclear Fuels Limited to make borrowings backed by Government guarantees in order to finance its ten year investment programme. More specifically, the Act raises the financial limit applicable to British Nuclear Fuels Limited from pound 500 million to pound 1,000 million. (NEA)


Alternatives in California School Finance. (United States)

There are major disparities in spending and taxation among California school districts. Available resources per pupil bear little relationship to the willingness of local communities to support education or the educational task to be performed. In addition, the State school finance system forces districts to rely on local property tax bases for…

Barro, Stephen M.


Alternative Financing of Alternative Energy. (United States)

The University of San Francisco financed conversion of three dormitories to solar heat by having private investors purchase and install equipment through a limited partnership. A public utilities rebate and eventual donation of the equipment also resulted. Available from California Higher Education, P.O. Box 26541, Sacramento, CA 95826, $2.00.…

California Higher Education, 1982



Off-Balance Sheet Financing. (United States)

Examines off-balance sheet financing, the facilities use of outsourcing for selected needs, as a means of saving operational costs and using facility assets efficiently. Examples of using outside sources for energy supply and food services, as well as partnering with business for facility expansion are provided. Concluding comments address tax…

Adams, Matthew C.



Grassroots financing; Graswurzel-Finanzierung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The idea of a common financing of a photovoltaic project is not new. It is new that interested parties no longer have to meet in community centers or clubhouses, but that a virtual meeting place is sufficient. Crowd funding projects on the world-wide web bring together solar projects and investors.

Hannen, Petra



Australian University International Student Finances (United States)

The omission of international students from the Australian Vice-Chancellor's Committee (AVCC) 2007 national study on student finances is indicative of a pattern of exclusion. The exclusion is unacceptable from a humane perspective and feeds the belief that Australians perceive international students primarily as "cash cows". This study partially…

Forbes-Mewett, Helen; Marginson, Simon; Nyland, Chris; Ramia, Gaby; Sawir, Erlenawati



Multiple-Project Financing with Informed Trading  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper presents an adverse selection-based explanation of the fact that some entrepreneurs choose to finance multiple projects together by issuing a single security and other entrepreneurs decide to finance each project separately. We consider the financing problem of an entrepreneur who has access to two investment projects and needs to raise external financing to undertake these projects in the presence of asymmetric information. The entrepreneur has private information about the quality...

Cantale, Salvatore; Lukin, Dmitry



48 CFR 632.114 - Unusual contract financing. (United States)

...2010-10-01 false Unusual contract financing. 632.114 Section 632.114 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT...FINANCING Non-Commercial Item Purchase Financing 632.114 Unusual contract financing. The Procurement...



Some characterizations of freeness of hyperplane arrangement  

CERN Document Server

We will consider some characterizations of freeness of a hyperplane arrangement, in terms of the following properties: locally freeness, factorization of characteristic polynomial and freeness of restricted multiarrangement. In the case of 3-arrangement, freeness is characterized by factorization of characteristic polynomial and coincidence of its roots with exponents of restricted multiarrangement. In the case of higher dimension, it is characterized by a kind of locally freeness and freeness of restricted multiarrangement. As an application, we prove the freeness of certain arrangements which is conjectured by Edelman and Reiner.

Yoshinaga, M



Exchange rate arrangements: From extreme to "normal"  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper studies theoretical and empirical location dispersion of exchange rate arrangements - rigid-intermediate-flexible regimes, in the context of extreme arrangements of a currency board, dollarization and monetary union moderate characteristics of intermediate arrangements (adjustable pegs crawling pegs and target zones and imperative-process "normalization" in the form of a managed or clean floating system. It is established that de iure and de facto classifications generate "fear of floating" and "fear of pegging". The "impossible trinity" under the conditions of capital liberalization and globalization creates a bipolar view or hypothesis of vanishing intermediate exchange rate regimes.

Beker Emilija



Financing low carbon energy access in Africa  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

n Africa. ? Domestic finance will be important in leveraging private finance. ? Private sector participation in modern and clean energy in Africa is still low. ? Many financing mechanisms exist for low carbon energy access in Africa. ? The right institutional frameworks are critical to achieving low carbon energy access in Africa.


Personal Finance in America's Schools Today. (United States)

Highlights from a survey of educational practices of personal finance teachers and resource materials for emerging topics are provided. Of the 6,100 secondary teachers in the United States and Canada who received questionnaires, 1,400 responded. With over 30 states having personal finance or consumer economics guidelines, personal finance courses…

Teaching Topics, 1983



Mechanisms of englacial conduit formation and their implications for subglacial recharge (United States)

Ideas about the character and evolution of englacial drainage systems have been deeply influenced by the theoretical model developed by Shreve [1972. Movement of water in glaciers. Journal of Glaciology 11(62), 205-214]. The Shreve model is based on three main assumptions: (1) englacial drainage is in steady state; (2) englacial water will flow along the steepest hydraulic gradient within the glacier; and (3) pressure head equals the pressure of the surrounding ice minus a small component due to melting of the walls. The Shreve model has been widely adopted as a fundamental component of englacial drainage theory. There is no evidence, however, that the model provides a realistic picture of actual glacial drainage systems. To evaluate Shreve's theory, we used speleological techniques to directly survey englacial conduits. We mapped a total of 8.25 km of passage in 27 distinct englacial conduits in temperate, polythermal, cold-based and debris-covered glaciers between 2005 and 2008. New information reported here is supplemented by published data on 40 other englacial conduits located worldwide and surveyed to ice depths of 176 m using speleological techniques. In all cases, englacial drainage systems consisted of a single unbranching conduit. Englacial conduit morphologies were found to be intimately linked to the orientation of a glacier's principal stresses or the presence of pre-existing lines of high hydraulic conductivity. If a sufficient supply of water is available, hydrofracturing forms vertical conduits in zones of longitudinal extension and subhorizontal conduits where longitudinal stresses are compressive. On unfractured glacier surfaces, relatively shallow subhorizontal conduits with migrating nickpoints form by cut-and-closure provided channel incision is significantly faster than surface lowering. Conduits can also form along permeable debris-filled crevasse traces that connect supraglacial lake basins of different potential. Our results suggest that Shreve-type englacial drainage systems do not exist and implies that englacial conduits can only penetrate through thick ice to recharge the bed where supraglacial water bodies either intersect, or are advected through, zones of acceleration.

Gulley, J. D.; Benn, D. I.; Screaton, E.; Martin, J.



Characterizing aperture distributions in karst aquifers by simulating the evolution of solution conduits (United States)

Karst aquifers develop where solutional enlargement of small interconnected openings such as fractures and bedding planes creates highly permeable conduits embedded in the much less permeable fissured porous rock. The hydrogeological characterization of these heterogeneous flow systems can be supported by simulating the evolution of solution conduits. In this work, both generic models representing hypothetical carbonate environments and site-related models referring to the gypsum karst settings of the Western Ukraine are used to examine how the hydrogeological environment determines the evolving aperture distributions. The generic models comprise regular networks of interconnected protoconduits with spatially uncorrelated lognormally distributed apertures of about one millimeter and less. For each model setting several realizations are performed and statistically analyzed. Different hydraulic boundary conditions are considered to account for the limited availability of flow inherent in any type of hydrogeological environment. Thus, the initial hydraulic gradient is reduced with ongoing conduit development such that the predefined maximum flow rate is not exceeded. If the maximum flow rate in the karst system is not strongly limited conduit development is found to be competitive and leads to stable bimodal aperture distributions; only a limited number of conduits continue to grow and the remaining apertures stay small. The number of large-sized conduits tends to decrease with increasing variance of the initial apertures and with decreasing maximum flow rate. However, strongly limited flow rates lead to more uniform aperture distributions. The results from the above-described generic scenarios agree with those from site-related models representing the multi-storey artesian settings of the gypsum karst terrain of the Western Ukraine (Rehrl et al., Water Resourc. Res. 44, W11425). In this type of setting, a soluble unit is sandwiched between less soluble formations and is supplied with chemically aggressive water from beneath. At the early stage, flow through the soluble unit is driven by a high vertical hydraulic gradient. Yet hydraulic gradients are diminished once a hydraulic connection between the soluble aquifers underlying and overlying the soluble unit is established due to the enlargement of solution conduits. At this late stage, the maximum flow rate is controlled by the regional boundary conditions and the permeability of the aquifers. If the permeability is sufficiently high, conduit development is found to be competitive, thus leading to bimodal aperture distributions. In a low-permeability formation, however, conduit development is found to be less selective due to the strong limitation of the maximum flow rate. Thus, multiple pathways develop and the frequency distribution of conduit apertures appears to be unimodal rather than bimodal.

Rehrl, C.; Hubinger, B.; Birk, S.



Use new PLGL-RGD-NGF nerve conduits for promoting peripheral nerve regeneration  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Nerve conduits provide a promising strategy for peripheral nerve injury repair. However, the efficiency of nerve conduits to enhance nerve regeneration and functional recovery is often inferior to that of autografts. Nerve conduits require additional factors such as cell adhesion molecules and neurotrophic factors to provide a more conducive microenvironment for nerve regeneration. Methods In the present study, poly{(lactic acid-co-[(glycolic acid-alt-(L-lysine]} (PLGL was modified by grafting Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Gly (RGD peptide and nerve growth factor (NGF for fabricating new PLGL-RGD-NGF nerve conduits to promote nerve regeneration and functional recovery. PLGL-RGD-NGF nerve conduits were tested in the rat sciatic nerve transection model. Rat sciatic nerves were cut off to form a 10 mm defect and repaired with the nerve conduits. All of the 32 Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: group PLGL-RGD-NGF, group PLGL-RGD, group PLGL and group autograft. At 3 months after surgery, the regenerated rat sciatic nerve was evaluated by footprint analysis, electrophysiology, and histologic assessment. Experimental data were processed using the statistical software SPSS 10.0. Results The sciatic function index value of groups PLGL-RGD-NGF and autograft was significantly higher than those of groups PLGL-RGD and PLGL. The nerve conduction velocities of groups PLGL-RGD-NGF and autograft were significantly faster than those of groups PLGL-RGD and PLGL. The regenerated nerves of groups PLGL-RGD-NGF and autograft were more mature than those of groups PLGL-RGD and PLGL. There was no significant difference between groups PLGL-RGD-NGF and autograft. Conclusions PLGL-RGD-NGF nerve conduits are more effective in regenerating nerves than both PLGL-RGD nerve conduits and PLGL nerve conduits. The effect is as good as that of an autograft. This work established the platform for further development of the use of PLGL-RGD-NGF nerve conduits for clinical nerve repair.

Yan Qiongjiao



12 CFR 987.2 - Law governing rights and obligations of Banks, Finance Board, Office of Finance, United States... (United States)

...Law governing rights and obligations of Banks, Finance Board, Office of Finance, United States and Federal Reserve Banks; rights of any Person against Banks, Finance Board, Office of Finance, United States and...



12 CFR 987.7 - Liability of Banks, Finance Board, Office of Finance and Federal Reserve Banks. (United States)

... 2010-01-01 false Liability of Banks, Finance Board, Office of Finance and Federal Reserve Banks. 987.7 Section 987.7 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD OFFICE OF FINANCE BOOK-ENTRY...



12 CFR 987.7 - Liability of Banks, Finance Board, Office of Finance and Federal Reserve Banks. (United States)

...Board, Office of Finance and Federal Reserve Banks. 987.7 Section 987...Board, Office of Finance and Federal Reserve Banks. The Banks, the Finance...the Office of Finance and the Federal Reserve Banks may rely on the...



Monodromy of triple point line arrangements  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We show that the monodromy operator action on the first cohomology group of the Milnor fiber is combinatorially determined for line arrangements with at most triple points and containing at most 18 lines, with one possible exception.

Dimca, Alexandru



75 FR 25150 - NVOCC Negotiated Rate Arrangements (United States)

...would recognize NVOCC negotiated rate arrangements (NRAs) and proposes defining that instrument as ``a written...must be provided with each of the NVOCC's proposed NRAs or rate quotes; NRAs must: [cir] Be agreed to by both parties;...



78 FR 72072 - Proposed Subsequent Arrangement (United States)

...the United States of America and the European Atomic Energy Community. DATES: This subsequent arrangement will take effect no Daejeon, South Korea, to the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK CEN) in Mol, Belgium. The material, which is...



Instability of finance markets. Normal liquid markets vs. finance crashes (United States)

This lecture focuses on the economic crisis in the world today, and can be seen as a continuation of my Geilo 2007 lecture where I observed that we had a Dollar crisis based on the worldwide flood of Dollars (M3) that began after 1971 [1,2]. Here, I want to focus on why we have a finance crisis, which is essentially a Dollar crisis, and what I think will need to be done to get out of it. Toward that end, the instability of normal liquid finance markets is contrasted with the worse instability of a liquidity drought, so I'll begin by explaining the former. The current liquidity drought can be compared with the Great Depression and is the covered in the second part of this paper.

McCauley, J. L.



Some characterizations of freeness of hyperplane arrangement  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We will consider some characterizations of freeness of a hyperplane arrangement, in terms of the following properties: locally freeness, factorization of characteristic polynomial and freeness of restricted multiarrangement. In the case of 3-arrangement, freeness is characterized by factorization of characteristic polynomial and coincidence of its roots with exponents of restricted multiarrangement. In the case of higher dimension, it is characterized by a kind of locally fr...

Yoshinaga, Masahiko



Milnor fibers of real line arrangements  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We study Milnor fibers of complexified real line arrangements. We give a new algorithm computing monodromy eigenspaces of the first cohomology. The algorithm is based on the description of minimal CW-complexes homotopic to the complements, and uses the real figure, that is, the adjacency relations of chambers. It enables us to generalize a vanishing result of Libgober, give new upper-bounds and characterize the $A_3$-arrangement in terms of non-triviality of Milnor monodromy.

Yoshinaga, Masahiko



Computer based modeling of ultrasonic test arrangements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It has been found, that the description of an ultrasonic test arrangement based upon a physical model as well as upon a parametric model gives good results. Both models are suited to be a basis for the optimization of the test arrangement, where the parametric model is preferable because of its better reproduction of the transfer characteristics and because of numerical advantages with regard of computer based applications. (orig.)


The arrangement field theory (AFT). Part 2  

CERN Document Server

In this work we apply the formalism developed in the previous paper ("The arrangement field theory") to describe the content of standard model plus gravity. We discover a triality between Arrangement Field Theory, String Theory and Loop Quantum Gravity which appear as different manifestations of the same theory. Finally we show as three families of fields arise naturally and we discover a new road toward unification of gravity with gauge and matter fields.

Marin, Diego



Increasing revenues for protected areas. A wealth of financing options  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper aims at giving an overview of traditional and new financing mechanisms in support of protected areas. The web of life is breaking down: our world is facing biodiversity loss at unprecedented rates. Human impacts are causing the acceleration of species loss, at rates of several hundreds up to 1000 times the natural rate of species extinction, depending on the type of organisms. Habitat degradation and loss, introduction of invasive species, pollution, and overexploitation of resources are factors that determine the process of mass extinction. Protected areas obviously play a critical role in biodiversity conservation. Article 8 of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) obliges Parties to establish a system of protected areas to-conserve biodiversity, to develop guidelines for protected areas management and to promote appropriate development adjacent to protected areas. Besides agreeing on this global mandate for protected areas, through Article 8m of the CBD Parties committed themselves to cooperate in providing financial support for protected area systems: 'Each contracting party (...) shall cooperate in providing financial and other support for in-situ conservation (...) particularly to developing countries'. Current revenues for maintaining existing protected areas and the creation of new ones are insufficient. Annually, approximately USD 7 billion is spent on the creation and maintenance of protected areas around the world (Balmford, 2003). The amoaround the world (Balmford, 2003). The amount required to adequately protect biodiversity is estimated to be about five times higher. The flow of revenues from traditional and new financing mechanisms should clearly be increased to mitigate the financing deficit for protected areas. As part of the solution, innovative financing mechanisms are being developed aimed at increasing the global revenues for protected areas, thus capturing the multiple values of ecosystem goods and services provided by protected areas to mankind. This scoping paper focuses on an overview of financing mechanisms in support of the creation and maintenance of protected areas comprising terrestrial ecosystems.The term 'protected area' refers in this paper to all IUCN protected area categories, including extractive reserves. The financing mechanisms are classified into six different categories, according to the type of institutional arrangement, and the dominant actor or group of actors


Off-balance-sheet financing can generate capital for strategic development. (United States)

To manage their real estate portfolios effectively and obtain funding for strategic development, IDSs should consider adopting off-balance-sheet financing strategies, such as sale-and-leaseback transactions, synthetic leases, and joint-venture arrangements. Under these approaches, real estate assets are moved off of the organization's balance sheet via a partial or complete transfer of ownership to a third-party entity. The organization typically retains a satisfactory degree of control over the assets as lessee in sale-and-leaseback and synthetic-lease arrangements, or limited or minority partner in a joint venture, while freeing up cash to use for other strategic purposes. PMID:11010180

Campobasso, F D



Numerical simulation of the flow in a conduit, in the presence of a confined air cushion (United States)

A rectangular conduit with a closed end has water flowing in/out at the other end. The water level at the open end has an imposed sinusoidal movement. When this level is higher than the ceiling of the conduit, a certain mass of air is trapped under the ceiling. In a previous article (T.D. Nguyen, La Houille Blanche, No. 2, 1990), it was supposed that this air is flowing out freely through the ceiling, so the relative pressure at the water surface is zero, and the water hammer at the dead end of the conduit was calculated when the conduit was thoroughly filled. In this article, it is supposed that the trapped air is compressed isothermally or adiabatically. The set of equations is resolved (water continuity and movement equations, air state equation) by supposing a regime of flow at each section (section submerged or not), a certain value for the air pressure and by using the sweep method to determine the water flow characteristics. The air volume calculated by iteration must converge, and the calculated regimes at each section (submerged or free) must agree with the supposed regimes. The simulation is performed first with a horizontal conduit then with an inclined conduit. As expected, adiabatic compression gives higher pressure than isothermal compression. The simulation shows also that when there is an air cushion, compared with the case when air is flowing out freely, the shock of the water hammer at the closed end of the conduit is significantly reduced. This method is aimed at calculating the flow with entrapped air in the inlet/outlet tunnel of a hydroelectric plant, or in sewer system pipe when a sudden discharge surge (due to turbin opening/closing or to urban storm) changes a previously free-surface flow in a mostly full-pipe flow, but with some air entrapped under the ceiling. Copyright

Nguyen, Trieu Dong



Evolution of karst conduit networks in transition from pressurised flow to free surface flow (United States)

We present a novel modelling approach to study the evolution of conduit networks in soluble rocks. Unlike the models presented so far, the model allows a transition from pressurised (pipe) flow to a free surface (open channel) flow in evolving discrete conduit networks. It calculates flow, solute transport and dissolutional enlargement within each time step and steps through time until a stable flow pattern establishes. The flow in each time step is calculated by calling the EPA Storm Water Management Model (EPA SWMM), which efficiently solves the 1-D Saint Venant equations in a network of conduits. We present several cases with low dip and sub-vertical networks to demonstrate mechanisms of flow pathway selection. In low dip models the inputs were randomly distributed to several junctions. The evolution of pathways progresses upstream: initially pathways linking outlets to the closest inputs evolve fastest because the gradient along these pathways is largest. When a pathway efficiently drains the available recharge, the head drop along the pathway attracts flow from the neighbouring upstream junctions and new connecting pathways evolve. The mechanism progresses from the output boundary inwards until all inputs are connected to the stable flow system. In the pressurised phase, each junction is drained by at least one conduit, but only one conduit remains active in the vadose phase. The selection depends on the initial geometry of a junction, initial distribution of diameters, the evolution in a pressurised regime, and on the dip of the conduits, which plays an important role in vadose entrenchment. In high dip networks, the vadose zone propagates downwards and inwards from the rim of the massif. When a network with randomly distributed initial diameters is supplied with concentrated recharge from the adjacent area, the sink point regresses up upstream along junctions connected to the prominent pathways. Large conductive structures provide deep penetration of high hydraulic head and give rise to high gradients and possible fast evolution of conduit systems deep within the massif.

Perne, M.; Covington, M. D.; Gabrovšek, F.



Derivatives in energy project finance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This chapter focuses on risk management of merchant power generation projects and describes project finance as balancing risk and reward over time. The historical background to risk management is traced, and the case for derivatives in energy project finance is put forward with the hedging of forward output, and forwards and power purchase agreements discussed. Current and prospective usage, and the implementation issues of market liquidity, margin calls, letters of credit, derivative counterparty credit risk, and accounting policy are considered. A detailed example of a gas-fired plant in the US is presented with details given of the distribution of project earnings before tax. Oil field operating cashflows are examined, with reserved flow models, leverage effects, and price hedging addressed


French public finances at risk?  

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Full Text Available Using descriptive evidence, this paper contributes to the debate on French public finances’ consolidation by examining the long-term sustainability of France’s fiscal position. We trace the historical trends of government’s tax receipts and expenditures. We illustrate that while the level of public expenditure in France is larger than in the Euro Area, its trend is comparable to its neighbours. French net debt is comparable to Eurozone’s while French net wealth remains positive. However, the French tax system is not progressive with only 6% of compulsory levies raised that way, and too complex. The paper then acknowledges the efficient debt management of French authorities. As a conclusion, we see no risk of future unsustainability linked to the nature or the level of current French public finances.

Creel Jérôme



Apparatus and methods for splicing conduits and hoses subsea  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A hose connection system comprises a body including an internal cavity and a port in fluid communication with a portion of the internal cavity. In addition, the system comprises a hose end fitting positioned in the cavity. The hose end fitting includes an inner tubular member and an outer tubular member concentrically disposed about the inner tubular member. The outer tubular member includes a plurality of circumferentially spaced axial slits. Further, the system comprises a plurality of wedge members arranged circumferentially about the outer tubular member. Still further, the system comprises an annular piston movably disposed within the internal cavity of the body. An end of the piston has an inner frustoconical surface that slidingly engages the plurality of wedge members. The piston is configured to move axially through the body and compress the wedge members and the outer tubular member radially inward.

Slocum, Alexander Henry; Gutierrez, Luis Javier



Attracting finance for hydroelectric power  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hydroelectricity will continue to be important for meeting power requirements in developing countries. Much of the funding required for hydroelectric projects must come from non-government source; hydroelectric projects will therefore need to be attractive to private investors. This note explores the risks investors face, how this can be mitigated, and how the World Bank group can offer advice (as well as finance) to member countries to facilitate investment in hydro electric projects. 3 refs., 1 fig


A novel electrospun nerve conduit enhanced by carbon nanotubes for peripheral nerve regeneration (United States)

For artificial nerve conduits, great improvements have been achieved in mimicking the structures and components of autologous nerves. However, there are still some problems in conduit construction, especially in terms of mechanical properties, biomimetic surface tomography, electrical conductivity and sustained release of neurotrophic factors or cells. In this study, we designed and fabricated a novel electrospun nerve conduit enhanced by multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) on the basis of a collagen/poly(?-caprolactone) (collagen/PCL) fibrous scaffold. Our aim was to provide further knowledge about the mechanical effects and efficacy of MWNTs on nerve conduits as well as the biocompatibility and toxicology of MWNTs when applied in vivo. The results showed that as one component, carboxyl MWNTs could greatly alter the composite scaffold’s hydrophilicity, mechanical properties and degradability. The electrospun fibers enhanced by MWNTs could support Schwann cell adhesion and elongation as a substrate in vitro. In vivo animal studies demonstrated that the MWNT-enhanced collagen/PCL conduit could effectively promote nerve regeneration of sciatic nerve defect in rats and prevent muscle atrophy without invoking body rejection or serious chronic inflammation. All of these results showed that this MWNT-enhanced scaffold possesses good biocompatibility and MWNTs might be excellent candidates as engineered nanocarriers for further neurotrophic factor delivery research.

Yu, Wenwen; Jiang, Xinquan; Cai, Ming; Zhao, Wen; Ye, Dongxia; Zhou, Yong; Zhu, Chao; Zhang, Xiuli; Lu, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Zhiyuan



Conditions for detection of ground deformation induced by conduit flow and evolution (United States)

At mature andesitic volcanoes, magma can reach the surface through the same path for several eruptions thus forming a volcanic conduit. Because of degassing, cooling, and crystallization, magma viscosity increase in the upper part of the conduit may induce the formation of a viscous plug. We conducted numerical simulations to quantify the deformation field caused by this plug emplacement and evolution. Stress continuity between Newtonian magma flow and elastic crust is considered. Plug emplacement causes a ground inflation correlated to a decrease of the magma discharge rate. A parametric study shows that surface displacements depend on three dimensionless numbers: the conduit aspect ratio (radius/length), the length ratio between the plug and the conduit, and the viscosity contrast between the plug and the magma column. Larger displacements are obtained for high-viscosity plugs emplaced in large aspect ratio conduits. We find that only tiltmeters or GPS located close to the vent (a few hundred meters) might record the plug emplacement. At immediate proximity of the vent, plug emplacement might even dominate the deformation signal over dome growth or magma reservoir pressurization effects. For given plug thicknesses and viscosity profiles, our model explains well the amplitude of tilt variations (from 1 to 25 ?rad) measured at Montserrat and Mt. St. Helens. We also demonstrate that at Montserrat, even if most of the tilt signal is due to shear stress induced by magma flow, pressurization beneath the plug accounts for 20% of the signal.

Albino, F.; Pinel, V.; Massol, H.; Collombet, M.



Arrangement plan in adjacent area and subsidy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Questions whether the three laws for developing power resources have fulfilled their function for making the agreement with inhabitants, and the direction for strengthening the measures are discussed. The first part deals with the location problem of power plants. The most important reason why inhabitants refuse the public acceptance for nuclear power plants is the fear for safety and the hitherto nuclear national policy. Therefore, the adjacent area arrangement measures must be completed. The second part deals with the three laws for developing power resources now in force and the problems thereof. The tax for promoting the development of power resources amounts to about 33,200 million yen in 1977. The subsidy granted to the adjacent area for locating a power plant is for example about 3,500 million yen for a plant of 1 million kW output. Attentions must be paid to (1) the object facilities for the granted subsidy, (2) the time and term of granting subsidy, and (3) the fundamental plan for the adjacent area arrangement. The third part deals with the features of adjacent area arrangement for locating a nuclear power plant. The fourth part deals with the author's opinion for promoting such measures of the above described fundamental plan. The fundamental plan must be composed as follows: (1) the assessment of community, (2) the arrangement plan based on the direction of developing the economical society of the area, and (3) so called physical facility arrangement plan. (Iwakiri, K.)


Evaluation of a multi-layer microbraided polylactic acid fiber-reinforced conduit for peripheral nerve regeneration. (United States)

We evaluated peripheral nerve regeneration using a biodegradable multi-layer microbraided polylactic acid (PLA) fiber-reinforced conduit. Biodegradability of the PLA conduit and its effectiveness as a guidance channel were examined as it was used to repair a 10 mm gap in the rat sciatic nerve. As a result, tube fragmentation was not obvious and successful regeneration through the gap occurred in all the conduits at 8 weeks after operation. These results indicate the superiority of the PLA materials and suggest that the multi-layer microbraided PLA fiber-reinforced conduits provide a promising tool for neuro-regeneration. PMID:19115095

Lu, Ming-Chin; Huang, Yen-Ting; Lin, Jia-Horng; Yao, Chun-Hsu; Lou, Ching-Wen; Tsai, Chin-Chuan; Chen, Yueh-Sheng



The freeness of Shi-Catalan arrangements  

CERN Document Server

Let $W$ be a finite Weyl group and $\\A$ be the corresponding Weyl arrangement. A deformation of $\\A$ is an affine arrangement which is obtained by adding to each hyperplane $H\\in\\A$ several parallel translations of $H$ by the positive root (and its integer multiples) perpendicular to $H$. We say that a deformation is $W$-equivariant if the number of parallel hyperplanes of each hyperplane $H\\in \\A$ depends only on the $W$-orbit of $H$. We prove that the conings of the $W$-equivariant deformations are free arrangements under a Shi-Catalan condition and give a formula for the number of chambers. This generalizes Yoshinaga's theorem conjectured by Edelman-Reiner.

Abe, Takuro



Teaching Bacterial Arrangements and Morphologies with Candy  

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Full Text Available Determining bacterial morphology and arrangement is a first lesson in undergraduate microbiology or in an introductory lecture to the Prokaryotes in general biology. By identifying cell arrangement and morphology, students can successfully communicate descriptives in microscopy-based labs, can take the first steps in identifying unknown organisms, and are able to understand genus and/or species names of standard laboratory bacteria. This activity is intended to help students visualize and practice naming basic bacterial morphology and arrangements, and is appropriate in either the laboratory or lecture setting of a general microbiology or introductory biology course. Students with a weak background and non-science majors will benefit most from this activity.

Lisa Ann Blankinship



Exchange rate regimes and monetary arrangements  

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Full Text Available There is a close relationship between a country’s exchange rate regime and monetary arrangement and if we are to examine monetary arrangements then exchange rate regimes must first be analysed. Within the conventional and most widely used classification of exchange rate regimes into rigid and flexible or into polar regimes (hard peg and float on one side, and intermediate regimes on the other there, is a much greater variety among intermediate regimes. A more precise and, as will be seen, more useful classification of exchange rate regimes is the first topic of the paper. The second topic is how exchange rate regimes influence or determine monetary arrangements and monetary policy or monetary policy regimes: monetary autonomy versus monetary nonautonomy and discretion in monetary policy versus commitment in monetary policy. Both topics are important for countries on their path to the EU and the euro area

Ivan Ribnikar



Overcoming short gaps in peripheral nerve repair: conduits and human acellular nerve allograft. (United States)

Nerve conduits and acellular nerve allograft offer efficient and convenient tools for overcoming unexpected gaps during nerve repair. Both techniques offer guidance for migrating Schwann cells and axonal regeneration though utilizing very different scaffolds. The substantially greater amount of animal and clinical data published on nerve conduits is marked by wide discrepancies in results that may be partly explained by a still poorly defined critical repair gap and diameter size. The available information on acellular allografts appears more consistently positive though this tool is also hampered by a longer but also limited critical length. This article reviews the current relative literature and examines pertinent parameters for application of both acellular allograft and nerve conduits in overcoming short nerve gaps. PMID:24839412

Isaacs, Jonathan; Browne, Timothy



Fluidic conduits for highly efficient purification of target species in EWOD-driven droplet microfluidics. (United States)

Due to the lack of continuous flows that would wash unwanted specifies and impurities off from a target location, droplet microfluidics commonly employs a long serial dilution process to purify target species. In this work, we achieve high-purity separation for the case of electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD) based droplet microfluidics by introducing a "fluidic conduit" between a sample droplet and a buffer droplet. The long and slender fluidic path minimizes the diffusion and fluidic mixing between the two droplets (thus eliminating non-specific transport) but provides a conduit between them for actively transported particles (thus allowing the specific transport). The conduit is purely fluidic, stabilized chemically (e.g. using surfactants) and controlled by EWOD. The effectiveness of the technique is demonstrated by eliminating approximately 97% non-magnetic beads in just one purification step, while maintaining high collection efficiency (>99%) of magnetic beads. PMID:19636474

Shah, Gaurav J; Kim, Chang-Jin Cj



Biodegradable Conduit Small Gap Tubulization for Peripheral Nerve Mutilation: A Substitute for Traditional Epineurial Neurorrhaphy  

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Full Text Available Nerve regeneration and re-innervation are usually difficult after peripheral nerve injury. Epineurium neurorrhaphy to recover the nerve continuity is the traditional choice of peripheral nerve mutilation without nerve defects, whereas the functional recovery remains quite unsatisfactory. Based on previous research in SD rats and Rhesus Monkeys, a multiple centers clinical trial about biodegradable conduit small gap tubulization for peripheral nerve mutilation to substitute traditional epineurial neurorrhaphy was carried out. Herein, the authors reviewed the literature that focused on peripheral nerve injury and possible clinical application, and confirmed the clinical possibilities of biodegradable conduit small gap tubulization to substitute traditional epineurial neurorrhaphy for peripheral nerve mutilation. The biodegradable conduit small gap tubulization to substitute traditional epineurial neurorrhaphy for peripheral nerve mutilation may be a revolutionary innovation in peripheral nerve injury and repair field.

Peixun Zhang, Na Han, Tianbing Wang, Feng Xue, Yuhui Kou, Yanhua Wang, Xiaofeng Yin, Laijin Lu, Guanglei Tian, Xu Gong, Shanlin Chen, Yu Dang, Jianping Peng, Baoguo Jiang



Modeling magma flow in volcanic conduit with non-equilibrium crystallization (United States)

Modeling magma flow in volcanic conduit including with non -equilibrium crystallization There is a set of models of magma flow in volcanic conduits which predicts oscillations in magma discharge during extrusion of lava domes. These models neglect heating of surrounding rocks and use 1D approximation of the flow in the conduit. Here magma flow is investigated with an account of heat exchange between surrounding rocks and magma and different dependences viscosity on temperature and crystal concentration. Stick-slip conditions were applied at the wall. The flow is assumed to be quasi-static and quasi 1D. Only vertical component of velocity vector is present, thus, we do not consider horizontal momentum balance. At the top of the conduit the pressure is assumed to be fixed, chamber pressure changes according with magma influx and outflux. First set of simulation was made for the viscosity that depends on cross-section average crystal concentration and parabolic velocity profile. In earlier models that account for crystal growth kinetics the temperature was allowed to change only due to the release of latent heat of crystallization. Heat transfer leads to cooling of the outer parts of the conduit leading to high crystal contents and high magma viscosities. Changes in viscosity result in changes in discharge rate. For the non-isothermal case there is no motion during most part of the cycle and a portion of magma solidifies at the top of the conduit forming a plug. During repose period chamber pressure is growing due to influx of fresh magma, and magma discharge rate starts to increase. Influx of hot magma into the conduit leads to decrease in friction resulting in a jump in discharge rate that lead to depressurization of magma chamber. Discharge rate decreases and magma solidifies again. For isothermal model with the same parameters discharge rate monotonically tends to the value of Qin. Simulation reveal that crystal content changes significantly across the conduit, and thus viscosity variations across the conduit are large. A more comprehensive model was developed to account for cross-conduit parameter distributions. It shows that velocity profile significantly differ from parabolic especially near the top of the conduit where slip condition s occurs. References 1. A.Barmin, O.Melnik, R.S.J.Sparks, Periodoc behavior in lava dome eruptions, Earth and Planetary Science Letters 199(2002) 173-184 2. P.M.Bruce, H.E.Huppert, Thermal control of basaltic fissure eruptions, 1989, Letters To Nature, VOL 342 3. I.Maeda, Nonlinaer visco-elastic volcanic model and its application to the recent eruption of Mt.Unzen, 2000, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 95, 35-47 4. J.A.Whitehead, K.R.Helfrich, Instability of flow with temperature dependent viscosity: a model of magma dynamics, 1991, Journal of Geophysical Research, VOL 96, No B3, pages 4145-4155 5. A.Costa, G.Macedonio, Nonlinear phenomena in fluids with temperature-dependent viscosity: an hysteresis model for magma flow in conduits, 2002, Geophysical Research Letters, VOL 29, No 10, 1402 6. Richard Iverson Dynamics of Seismogenic Volcanic Extrusion Re¬sisted by a Solid Surface Plug, Mount St. Helens, 2004-2005, A Volcano Rekindled: The First Year of Renewed Eruption at Mount St. Helens, 2004-2006. 7. Couch, S., C. L. Harford, R. S. J. Sparks, and M. R. Carroll (2003),Experimental constraints on the conditions of formation of highly calcic plagioclase microlites at the Soufrie`re Hills Volcano, Montserrat, J. Petrol.,44, 1455- 1475.

Yulia, Tsvetkova



Arranged matches and mental illness: therapists' dilemmas. (United States)

Traditional societies place especial value on marriage and having children, and marriages are often arranged. A series of situations and dilemmas associated with arranged matches and their consequences are described in the course of mental health work with ultra-orthodox Jewish people with severe mental illness. Issues of confidentiality may arise with parents and matchmakers; on the other hand, respectful cooperation with religious authorities, counselors in the community, and family members is important. Information on genetic counseling, contraception, medication during pregnancy, and breastfeeding are considered and interact with communal structures and practices. There is a need for close support and evaluation during the process of marriage, childbearing, and parenthood. PMID:23244012

Greenberg, David; Buchbinder, Jacob Tuvia; Witztum, Eliezer



The Monodromy Conjecture for hyperplane arrangements  

CERN Document Server

The Monodromy Conjecture asserts that if c is a pole of the local topological zeta function of a hypersurface, then exp(2\\pi c) is an eigenvalue of the monodromy on the cohomology of the Milnor fiber. A stronger version of the conjecture asserts that every pole is a root of the Bernstein-Sato polynomial of the hypersurface. In this note we prove the weak version of the conjecture for hyperplane arrangements. Furthermore, we reduce the strong version to the following conjecture: -n/d is always a root of the Bernstein-Sato polynomial of an indecomposable essential central hyperplane arrangement of d hyperplanes in the affine n-space.

Budur, Nero; Teitler, Zach



Functions of random walks on hyperplane arrangements  

CERN Document Server

Many seemingly disparate Markov chains are unified when viewed as random walks on the set of chambers of a hyperplane arrangement. These include the Tsetlin library of theoretical computer science and various shuffling schemes. If only selected features of the chains are of interest, then the mixing times may change. We study the behavior of hyperplane walks, viewed on a subarrangement of a hyperplane arrangement. These include many new examples, for instance a random walk on the set of acyclic orientations of a graph. All such walks can be treated in a uniform fashion, yielding diagonalizable matrices with known eigenvalues, stationary distribution and good rates of convergence to stationarity.

Athanasiadis, Christos A



Ad-nilpotent ideals and Shi arrangement  

CERN Document Server

Let $\\frg$ be a complex simple Lie algebra. Let $\\frb$ be a fixed Borel subalgebra of $\\frg$. Jian-Yi Shi has given a natural bijection between the set of all ad-nilpotent ideals of $\\frb$ and the set of all dominant regions of the now-called Shi arrangement. In this note, we extend this result by establishing a natural bijection between the set of all ad-nilpotent ideals of a parabolic subalgebra $\\frp_I$ of $\\frg$ and the set of all dominant regions of the $I$-deleted Shi arrangement $\\texttt{Shi}(I)$.

Dong, Chao-Ping



Living Arrangements and Lifestyle Satisfaction among the Elderly in Chinese Immigrant Families: A Preliminary Study.  

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Full Text Available Background: The aims of this preliminary study were to understand the relationshipbetween the living arrangements and lifestyle satisfaction through investigatinghow choices of living arrangements impacted upon lifestyle satisfactionof elderly Chinese immigrants in London.Methods: A qualitative research methodology with semi-structured, face-to-face andin-depth interviews was utilized with eight elderly couples of Chinese immigrantfamilies from Vietnam and Hong Kong.Results: The results indicated that the desirability of current lifestyle was associatedwith lifestyle satisfaction. Among 12 participants who desired their currentlifestyles, nine reported this having a "positive effect" on their lifestyle satisfaction,and no negative effects were reported. In comparison, the negativeeffects on lifestyle satisfaction were found among four participants who didnot desire their current independent residence from their adult children. Thereasons the participants desired or not their current lifestyles and the effectson their lifestyle satisfaction were explored qualitatively. The participantsmight consider family situations (finance, health, age, and kin network tosome extent, but not see them as key determinants in making decisions aboutliving arrangements. However, the Chinese cultural beliefs in living arrangementchoices were highly visible in their reports.Conclusion: The findings suggested that the elderly participants' desirability of their currentlifestyles was positively associated with the level of lifestyle satisfaction.The issue of the living arrangements and lifestyle satisfaction of theelderly acquires new significance at a time when the population in Taiwan isaging, and the socio-economic and cultural changes are more radical thanever.

Wei-Chiang Yeh



Diabetic dyslipidemia and exercise affect coronary tone and differential regulation of conduit and microvessel K+ current. (United States)

Spontaneous transient outward K(+) currents (STOCs) elicited by Ca(2+) sparks and steady-state K(+) currents modulate vascular reactivity, but effects of artery size, diabetic dyslipidemia, and exercise on these differentially regulated K(+) currents are unclear. We studied the conduit arteries and microvessels of male Yucatan swine assigned to one of three groups for 20 wk: control (C, n = 7), diabetic dyslipidemic (DD, n = 6), or treadmill-trained DD animals (DDX, n = 7). Circumflex artery blood flow velocity obtained with intracoronary Doppler and lumen diameters obtained by intravascular ultrasound enabled calculation of absolute coronary blood flow (CBF). Ca(2+) sparks were determined in pressurized microvessels, and perforated patch clamp assessed K(+) current in smooth muscle cells isolated from conduits and microvessels. Baseline CBF in DD was decreased versus C. In pressurized microvessels, Ca(2+) spark activity was significantly lower in DD versus C and DDX (P STOCs were pronounced in microvessel (approximately 35 STOCs/min) in sharp contrast to conduit cells ( approximately 2 STOCs/min). STOCs were decreased by 86% in DD versus C and DDX in microvessels; in contrast, there was no difference in STOCs across groups in conduit cells. Steady-state K(+) current in microvessels was decreased in DD and DDX versus C; in contrast, steady-state K(+) current in conduit cells was decreased in DDX versus DD and C. We conclude that steady-state K(+) current and STOCs are differentially regulated in conduit versus microvessels in health and diabetic dyslipidemia. Exercise prevented diabetic dyslipidemia-induced decreases in baseline CBF, possibly via STOC-regulated basal microvascular tone. PMID:15528227

Mokelke, E A; Dietz, N J; Eckman, D M; Nelson, M T; Sturek, M



Collagen (NeuraGen®) nerve conduits and stem cells for peripheral nerve gap repair. (United States)

Collagen nerve guides are used clinically for peripheral nerve defects, but their use is generally limited to lesions up to 3 cm. In this study we combined collagen conduits with cells as an alternative strategy to support nerve regeneration over longer gaps. In vitro cell adherence to collagen conduits (NeuraGen(®) nerve guides) was assessed by scanning electron microscopy. For in vivo experiments, conduits were seeded with either Schwann cells (SC), SC-like differentiated bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (dMSC), SC-like differentiated adipose-derived stem cells (dASC) or left empty (control group), conduits were used to bridge a 1cm gap in the rat sciatic nerve and after 2-weeks immunohistochemical analysis was performed to assess axonal regeneration and SC infiltration. The regenerative cells showed good adherence to the collagen walls. Primary SC showed significant improvement in distal stump sprouting. No significant differences in proximal regeneration distances were noticed among experimental groups. dMSC and dASC-loaded conduits showed a diffuse sprouting pattern, while SC-loaded showed an enhanced cone pattern and a typical sprouting along the conduits walls, suggesting an increased affinity for the collagen type I fibrillar structure. NeuraGen(®) guides showed high affinity of regenerative cells and could be used as efficient vehicle for cell delivery. However, surface modifications (e.g. with extracellular matrix molecule peptides) of NeuraGen(®) guides could be used in future tissue-engineering applications to better exploit the cell potential. PMID:24792394

di Summa, Pietro G; Kingham, Paul J; Campisi, Corrado C; Raffoul, Wassim; Kalbermatten, Daniel F



Sciatic nerve regeneration by cocultured Schwann cells and stem cells on microporous nerve conduits. (United States)

Cell transplantation is a useful therapy for treating peripheral nerve injuries. The clinical use of Schwann cells (SCs), however, is limited because of their limited availability. An emerging solution to promote nerve regeneration is to apply injured nerves with stem cells derived from various tissues. In this study, different types of allogeneic cells including SCs, adipose-derived adult stem cells (ASCs), dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), and the combination of SCs with ASCs or DPSCs were seeded on nerve conduits to test their efficacy in repairing a 15-mm-long critical gap defect of rat sciatic nerve. The regeneration capacity and functional recovery were evaluated by the histological staining, electrophysiology, walking track, and functional gait analysis after 8 weeks of implantation. An in vitro study was also performed to verify if the combination of cells led to synergistic neurotrophic effects (NGF, BDNF, and GDNF). Experimental rats receiving conduits seeded with a combination of SCs and ASCs had the greatest functional recovery, as evaluated by the walking track, functional gait, nerve conduction velocity (NCV), and histological analysis. Conduits seeded with cells were always superior to the blank conduits without cells. Regarding NCV and the number of blood vessels, conduits seeded with SCs and DPSCs exhibited better values than those seeded with DPSCs only. Results from the in vitro study confirmed the synergistic NGF production from the coculture of SCs and ASCs. It was concluded that coculture of SCs with ASCs or DPSCs in a conduit promoted peripheral nerve regeneration over a critical gap defect. PMID:23192007

Dai, Lien-Guo; Huang, Guo-Shiang; Hsu, Shan-hui



New directions in electric power financing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper argues that it is necessary to raise the eyes from the current focus on independent power projects, buttressed by guarantees, to the longer horizon of electric power financing in open markets. Transitional strategies will need to move beyond the commonly seen IPP activity that occurs without fundamental sector reform, and demand-side incentives that introduce further market distortions. These efforts will have to focus on macroeconomic stabilization, removal of price distortions, as well as sector and corporate reform. Mobilization of domestic capital will be essential for sustainable sector financing. Although guarantees to encourage power sector investment can be designed to selectively cover risks, their elimination through fundamental sector reform should be the ultimate goal. Over the longer-term traditional corporate finance should become a more common financing strategy than project finance. Innovations in performance risk management and consumer credit will be crucial to the financing of energy efficiency. (author)


The Cost of Bank Credit Financing  

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Full Text Available Although the credit is a conventional financing method used by any company, this tool is by far a very significant issue. The range ofcredits, that a bank provides, and the current policy customize this tool in order to meet the typical financing needs of the enterprises that demands it.Considering the risks, the bank takes the charge of by placing credits, the “eligibility” terms of enterprises that can get such financing being verystrict. Restrictions concerning the accepted degree of liability, the accomplished level of performance or available warranties may represent real“barriers” for many companies. Of all “barriers”, the high cost of some financing tools is a good case in point. In order to have a clearer picture ofwhat this financing source is for an enterprise, I have carried out a cost analysis of these financing tools, the medium and long term credit cost andthe short term credit cost.

Mihaela Cosmina Petre (Ni??,



The grain-size distribution of pyroclasts: Primary fragmentation, conduit sorting or abrasion? (United States)

Explosive volcanic eruptions expel a mixture of pyroclasts and lithics. Pyroclasts, fragments of the juvenile magma, record the state of the magma at fragmentation in terms of porosity and crystallinity. The grain size distribution of pyroclasts is generally considered to be a direct consequence of the conditions at magma fragmentation that is mainly driven by gas overpressure in bubbles, high shear rates, contact with external water or a combination of these factors. Stress exerted by any of these processes will lead to brittle fragmentation by overcoming the magma's relaxation timescale. As a consequence, most pyroclasts exhibit angular shapes. Upon magma fragmentation, the gas pyroclast mixture is accelerated upwards and eventually ejected from the vent. The total grain size distribution deposited is a function of fragmentation conditions and transport related sorting. Porous pyroclasts are very susceptible to abrasion by particle-particle or particle-conduit wall interaction. Accordingly, pyroclastic fall deposits with angular clasts should proof a low particle abrasion upon contact to other surfaces. In an attempt to constrain the degree of particle interaction during conduit flow, monomodal batches of washed pyroclasts have been accelerated upwards by rapid decompression and subsequently investigated for their grain size distribution. In our set-up, we used a vertical cylindrical tube without surface roughness as conduit. We varied grain size (0.125-0.25; 0.5-1; 1-2 mm), porosity (0; 10; 30 %), gas-particle ratio (10 and 40%), conduit length (10 and 28 cm) and conduit diameter (2.5 and 6 cm). All ejected particles were collected after settling at the base of a 3.3 m high tank and sieved at one sieve size below starting size (half-?). Grain size reduction showed a positive correlation with starting grain size, porosity and overpressure at the vent. Although milling in a volcanic conduit may take place, porous pyroclasts are very likely to be a primary product of magma fragmentation at or close to the fragmentation level. Given the high abrasiveness of pumice, hemispherical clasts should be observed if clast break-up followed efficient clast abrasion. As a consequence, finer grained pyroclastic fall deposits do not necessarily proof efficient secondary fragmentation in the conduit but may rather reveal the influence of conduit length on 'What size of pyroclasts can be erupted'?

Kueppers, U.; Schauroth, J.; Taddeucci, J.



[Apicoaortic valved conduit as an alternative method of surgical treatment of aortic stenosis - a case report]. (United States)

A case of a 73-year-old patient with critical aortic stenosis, porcelain aorta and occluded femoral arteries is presented. We performed apico-aortic valved conduit (A-AVC) without cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Hegar dilator inserted through the apex into the left ventricle allowed anastomosis of dacron tube to the apex. Valved conduit was anastomosed to the descending aorta. Both tubes were connected. Before the operation, maximal gradient through the valve was 95, after operation dropped to 33 mmHg. This method of apical anastomosis allowed to perform A-AVC without CPB in a patient with extremely high peri-operative risk while using CPB. PMID:19649999

Hirnle, Tomasz; Sobkowicz, Bozena; Juszczyk, Grzegorz; Janiszewski, Wawrzyniec; Jakubów, Piotr; Trzci?ski, Robert; Hirnle, Grzegorz; Dmitruk, Iwona; Lewczuk, Anna; Fiedorczuk, Kinga



The Financing of Innovation: Learning and Stopping  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper considers the financing of a research project under uncertainty about the time of completion and the probability of eventual success.The uncertainty about future success gradually diminishes with the arrival of additional funding.The entrepreneur controls the funds and can divert them.We distinguish between relationship financing, meaning that the entrepreneur's allocation of the funds is observable, and arm's length financing, where it is unobservable.We find that equilibrium fund...

Bergemann, D.; Hege, U.



Finance strategies of Finnish entrepreneurial fashion companies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The intention of this study is to describe and explain how internationally focused, Finnish entrepreneurial fashion companies are financed. Fashion industry has been recognized as a viable industry in Finland, but it seems that these businesses suffer from lack of financing. Thus, many of the firms fail to expand to international markets, which is crucial for their future survival. The objective of this study is to understand how these fashion companies are financed from start-up until today,...

Hasi, Linda



Are stock-financed takeovers opportunistic?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We find that the probability of all-stock financed takeovers increases with measures of bidder overvaluation. However, when we instrument the bidder's pricing error using aggregate mutual fund flows, the reverse happens: greater overvaluation reduces the all-stock financing propensity. Since shocks to aggregate fund flows are exogenous to the payment method choice - while directly impacting bidder pricing errors - this evidence strongly rejects the notion that all-stock financed takeovers are...

Eckbo, B. Espen; Makaew, Tanakorn; Thorburn, Karin S.



Health-financing reforms in southeast Asia: challenges in achieving universal coverage. (United States)

In this sixth paper of the Series, we review health-financing reforms in seven countries in southeast Asia that have sought to reduce dependence on out-of-pocket payments, increase pooled health finance, and expand service use as steps towards universal coverage. Laos and Cambodia, both resource-poor countries, have mostly relied on donor-supported health equity funds to reach the poor, and reliable funding and appropriate identification of the eligible poor are two major challenges for nationwide expansion. For Thailand, the Philippines, Indonesia, and Vietnam, social health insurance financed by payroll tax is commonly used for formal sector employees (excluding Malaysia), with varying outcomes in terms of financial protection. Alternative payment methods have different implications for provider behaviour and financial protection. Two alternative approaches for financial protection of the non-poor outside the formal sector have emerged-contributory arrangements and tax-financed schemes-with different abilities to achieve high population coverage rapidly. Fiscal space and mobilisation of payroll contributions are both important in accelerating financial protection. Expanding coverage of good-quality services and ensuring adequate human resources are also important to achieve universal coverage. As health-financing reform is complex, institutional capacity to generate evidence and inform policy is essential and should be strengthened. PMID:21269682

Tangcharoensathien, Viroj; Patcharanarumol, Walaiporn; Ir, Por; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed; Mukti, Ali Ghufron; Akkhavong, Kongsap; Banzon, Eduardo; Huong, Dang Boi; Thabrany, Hasbullah; Mills, Anne



A model of the demand for Islamic banks debt-based financing instrument (United States)

This paper presents a theoretical analysis of the demand for debt-based financing instruments of the Islamic banks. Debt-based financing, such as through baibithamanajil and al-murabahah, is by far the most prominent of the Islamic bank financing and yet it has been largely ignored in Islamic economics literature. Most studies instead have been focusing on equity-based financing of al-mudharabah and al-musyarakah. Islamic bank offers debt-based financing through various instruments derived under the principle of exchange (ukud al-mu'awadhat) or more specifically, the contract of deferred sale. Under such arrangement, Islamic debt is created when goods are purchased and the payments are deferred. Thus, unlike debt of the conventional bank which is a form of financial loan contract to facilitate demand for liquid assets, this Islamic debt is created in response to the demand to purchase goods by deferred payment. In this paper we set an analytical framework that is based on an infinitely lived representative agent model (ILRA model) to analyze the demand for goods to be purchased by deferred payment. The resulting demand will then be used to derive the demand for Islamic debt. We also investigate theoretically, factors that may have an impact on the demand for Islamic debt.

Jusoh, Mansor; Khalid, Norlin



Issues to improve the prospects of financing nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A changing global environment with increasing energy consumption and a need for international energy security is influencing nuclear power projects and the means of obtaining financial backing for such projects. The development of a national nuclear infrastructure can provide significant benefits that influence financial resources. The effects of other factors - such as financing arrangements for capital intensive plants, international design acceptance, harmonization of codes and standards, and assurances of fuel cycle services - need to be considered. An improvement in international cooperation may lower investment risks and contribute to reducing costs. The effects of all these issues need to be assessed and means for supporting the application of nuclear power in the current changing social and commercial environment need to be developed. A key question addressed in this publication is whether financing is the real barrier to nuclear power development or if financing difficulties are simply a consequence of other barriers. It recognizes that there is no single solution and that circumstances in different countries, with different starting points, ambitions and drivers, inevitably affect the balance of approaches followed. The importance of credible, practical, costed and substantiated plans is emphasized. Risks have to be mitigated through an effective strategy and the allocation of risks between parties must be logical. A project has to be demonstrably viable to attract financing. There are three broad areas which must be addressed to improve prospects of investment in nuclear power reactor construction. The first area, and probably the most important, is government and utility commitment and preparedness to adopt and implement a nuclear power programme using internationally recognized standards of safety. The second area is the application of lessons learned from technological and project developments. The third area is financing itself. The conclusions detailed in this publication are presented as a series of key mechanisms for improvement in each of these areas. Improving prospects for investment in the nuclear industry is, in large part, achieved by a combination of financial and strategic planning measures, which together create sufficient confidence among investors to support projects. Also, there are a number of wider actions that can be undertaken to improve the prospects for investment in nuclear power. These mechanisms and actions are presented for future consideration of how they may be best developed or adopted


Alternative transportation fuels: Financing issues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A multitude of alternative fuels could reduce air pollution and the impact of oil price shocks. Only a few of these fuels are readily available and inexpensive enough to merit serious consideration over the coming five years. In New York City, safety regulations narrow the field still further by eliminating propane. As a result, this study focuses on the three alternative fuels readily available in New York City: compressed natural gas, methanol, and electricity. Each has significant environmental benefits and each has different cost characteristics. With the Clean Air Act and the National Energy Strategy highlighting the country's need to improve urban air quality and move away from dependence on imported fuels, fleets may soon have little choice but to convert to altemative fuels. Given the potential for large infrastructure and vehicle costs, these fleets may have difficulty finding the capital to make that conversion. Ultimately, then, it will be the involvement of the private sector that will determine the success of alternative fuels. Whether it be utilities, fuel distributors or suppliers, private financing partners or others, it is critical that altemative fuels programs be structured and planned to attract their involvement. This report examines financing methods that do not involve government subsidies. It also explores financing methods that are specific to alternative fuels. Bond issues and other mechanisms that are used for conventional vehicles are not touched upon in this report. This report explores ways to spread the high cost of alternative fuels among a number of parties within the private sector. The emphasis is on structuring partnerships that suit methanol, electric, or natural gas vehicle fleets. Through these partnerships, alternative fuels may ultimately compete effectively against conventional vehicle fuels


Application of finance project for leverage of small size hydroelectric enterprising; Aplicacao do project finance para alavancagem de empreendimentos hidreletricos de pequeno porte  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the same way that the majority of the countries, project financing of substructure in Brazil, in project finance modality, depend on a skillful structure of guaranties and contracts to become possible. In the case of projects of centrals of generation of electrical energy, that financial engineering becomes still more complicated. In Brazil, due to particularities of the sectors of electricity, the arrangements of guaranties requested but creditors pass to present levels of complexity and exigency well elevated. The contractual appliances that give support to the project finance, originally projected to developed countries, request an extreme adaptation to these particularities. The development of Brazil is directly related to its capacity in expanding the offer of electric energy in the just measure of the national necessity. In this context, the small central hydroelectric (PCH's) represent, actually, an efficient and fast form to complete the offer of energy in such a way to supply the crescent demand the national market. For its characteristics, that type of undertaking can be developed by small manager, from among which are the owners of the areas in which on can find these hydraulic potentials which, however they do not dispose of capital to integral raising. These undertakings are tasks, normally, of low global cost, at the rate of US$ 1.000,00/k W, and of a smaller ambient impact, compared to the return that they give to the enterprise and to the Brazilian electric system as a whole, by having to receive special attention in the planned politics to the sector and to merit a series of incentives to become business still more attractive. By thinking in the found difficulty by small enterprises in rising undertakings of generation of electric energy of small port through the convectional mechanisms of financing is being proposed in that work a well-founded methodology in the concepts of the modality of financing project finance. (author)

Santos, Silvana dos



Financing the Air Transportation Industry (United States)

The basic characteristics of the air transportation industry are outlined and it is shown how they affect financing requirements and patterns of production. The choice of financial timing is imperative in order to get the best interest rates available and to insure a fair return to investors. The fact that the industry cannot store its products has a fairly major effect on the amount of equipment to purchase, the amount of capital investment required, and the amount of return required to offset industry depriciation.

Lloyd-Jones, D. J.



Offsets - An opportunity of Financing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear Research Reactors sometimes need to implement projects to upgrade, revamp or convert their reactor, acquire new fuel elements, etc. However, as their activities are mainly of noncommercial nature, they sometimes lack of financial resources to implement these projects by themselves. Several solutions exist: loans, governmental budget, subsidies from international organizations (IAEA). Offsets are another source of financing. They also are free of charge for the reactor. The objective of offsets is to Identify, implement and finance projects that: directly create or sustain a local economic activity of high-added value, would not have happened without the Obligor's intervention, and are of crucial importance given the country's political background (favor employment, technology transfers, training and education, research and development, etc.). Companies worldwide are willing to finance local projects to fulfill their Offset Obligation. Local organizations or institutions are willing to invest to increase their activities but lack of financial resources. Offset regulations are an opportunity on both sides and are free for the local organization. The monetary value of an Offset obligation is calculated as a percentage of the main contract price (or as a percentage of the imported part value). That percentage depends on the Country's legislation and on the nature of the main contract (defense or civilian). This value has to be compensated by an equivalent economic value (a Project's cost is different from its value). There is two ways of assessing a value: - Political aspects: The Project is of political importance for the country (development of an export capability, technology and/or know-how transfers) and the project in line with the country's political priorities (employment, research, international presence, etc.). - Economic benefits: the project directly sustains or creates additional activities, turnover, R and D, employment, etc. It benefits directly to the local institution. The offset valuation mechanisms leads to benefits for all parties: the project is implemented and this implementation is free of charge. For the Government: the project contributes to achieve its priorities without having to be financed on public funds. For the Obligor: its Offset obligation is compensated for a monetary value depending on the direct investment cost. Offset regulations are implemented in over 100 countries worldwide and are of common use on important public procurement markets. Examples of Countries implementing Offset regulations are: Austria, Brazil, Finland, Italy, Romania and many other


Homotopy groups and twisted homology of arrangements  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recent work of M. Yoshinaga shows that in some instances certain higher homotopy groups of arrangements map onto non-resonant homology. This is in contrast to the usual Hurewicz map to untwisted homology, which is always the zero homomorphism in degree greater than one. In this work we examine this dichotomy, generalizing both results.

Randell, Richard



Mortgage Finance and Security of Collateral  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Developing economies face a gigantic lack of financing for urbanization due to the absence of formal and transparent property markets. The paper discuss the interference between mortgage finance and collateral security by using the Danish mortgage financing model as an example, because of its 200 years long history, and because the system is recommended as an option in emerging markets and as a possible model for remedying failures in mature housing finance markets. It is suggested that development policies in land administration need to be revised in order to support a widening of credit markets and effectively serve pro-poor policies.

Haldrup, Karin



The financing of new mining ventures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Various options are presented for tackling the problem in mining today of the high capital costs required for a new mine combined with the front end exposure that the exploiters face. Equity finance from the producers, private investors, oil companies, consumers and governments is discussed as well as loan finance from export credit agencies, international agencies, production-related loans, leasing and commercial bank loans. The future in financing mining is outlined and it is proposed that the future will lie in smaller projects financed primarily with equity. (U.K.)


Magmatic Conduit Metallogenic System - A New Model for the Origin of Ore-deposits (United States)

Origin and emplacement processes of ore-deposits connected with intrusions remains poorly understood. Here we propose a new model 'Magmatic Conduit Metallogenic System' to explain the origin of ore-deposits. Magmatic flow (or Melt-fluid flow) bearing metals will finally settle in the conduits at later stage of magma evolved in magma metallogenic system. Magmatic flow (or Melt-fluid flow) bearing metals include many types, such as sulfide melts and iron melts bearing fluids. Conduits will form along the zones of structural weakness, such as fault zone and interface of two different types of rocks. These conduits are usually very complicated in the magmatic system, exemplified by two typical ore-deposits, detailed as follows. The Jinchuan sulfide deposit, located in Gansu Province, China, is the third largest magmatic Cu-Ni Platinum Group Elements (PGE) in the world. There are mainly four orebodies (orebody 58, 24, 1, and 2) from west to east, with Ni/Cu value at 1.24, 1.56, 1.83 and 2.06 respectively; the content of Pt+Pd ranges from 0.4 to 10.3 ppm, with the highest value occurs in the west. This suggests that the direction of the melt flow bearing sulfide is from west to east and the front of the conduit system is in the east part of the deposit. Sulfide segregation in the magmatic chamber or in the conduits might have caused ore content to change in different part of the conduit systems. Another typical example is the Xishimen iron deposit, which is located in the South of Hebei Province, China. It has been considered as a skarn-type iron deposit conventionally. However, many geological evidence suggests that Xishimen iron deposit is a magmatic iron deposit instead. Such evidence includes: 1. The boundaries between iron orebodies and country rocks are obvious, no transitional relationship; 2. Iron ore body injected into the country rocks (including genesis, diorite, and marble); 3. There are some vesicular in the iron ores; 4. Magnetite as an interstitial mineral occurs among the pyroxenes/amphiboles. The content of titanium in the iron ores changes from 0.14% to 0.20 wt. % gradually from southeast to northwest (NW), suggesting the direction of melt-fluid flow bearing iron is from SE to NW. These characteristics in the Xishimen iron deposit indicate that melt-fluid flow bearing iron controls the distribution of iron orebodies. Several key points in 'Magmatic Conduit Metallogenic System' are concluded here: 1. All melt or melt-fluid bearing metals formed in the staging chamber are finally settled in the conduits based on their differences in density; 2. We can determine the direction of the melt or melt-fluid flow according to the content and textures of ores in the conduits. We propose that 'Magmatic Conduit Metallogenic System' could serve as a new exploring model for the ore-deposits connected with intrusions.

Su, S.; Tang, Z.; Wu, G.; Deng, J.; Xiao, Q.; Luo, Z.; Cui, Y.



77 FR 102 - Turnbull Hydro LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing for Exemption for a Small Conduit... (United States)

...for a Small Conduit Hydroelectric Facility and Soliciting...Project: Mary Taylor Hydroelectric Project. f. Location...Pursuant to: Federal Power Act, 16 U.S.C...proposed small conduit hydroelectric project would consist...penstock, powerhouse and substation and will obtain...



Long-delayed gross hematuria due to portal hypertension in an alcoholic cirrhotic patient with ileal conduit urinary diversion. (United States)

Bleeding varices at the stomal site is an uncommon complication of ileal conduit urinary diversion in patients with portal hypertension. We describe a case with the longest delay reported in the literature, involving the onset of massive hematuria secondary to ectopic variceal bleeding in an alcoholic cirrhotic patient with external urinary ileal conduit. PMID:25332271

Dal Moro, Fabrizio



Health care entrepreneurship: financing innovation. (United States)

Entrepreneurship is often described as the ability to create new ventures from new or existing concepts, ideas and visions. There has been significant entrepreneurial response to the changes in the scientific and social underpinnings of health care services delivery. However, a growing portion of the economic development driving health care industry expansion is threatened further by longstanding use of financing models that are suboptimal for health care ventures. The delayed pace of entrepreneurial activity in this industry is in part a response to the general economy and markets, but also due to the lack of capital for new health care ventures. The recent dearth of entrepreneurial activities in the health services sector may also due to failure to consider new approaches to partnerships and strategic ventures, despite their mutually beneficial organizational and financing potential. As capital becomes more scarce for innovators, it is imperative that those with new and creative ideas for health and health care improvement consider techniques for capital acquisition that have been successful in other industries and at similar stages of development. The capital and added expertise can allow entrepreneurs to leverage resources, dampen business fluctuations, and strengthen long term prospects. PMID:16583848

Grazier, Kyle L; Metzler, Bridget



Non-recourse financing for a renewable energy project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper will discuss the development and financing of ARBRE Energy Limited, a joint venture company 85% owned by Yorkshire Water Projects Ltd of the United Kingdom, with minority participation by the Schelde Group of Holland and Termiska Processor AB of Sweden. The project will establish 600 hectares of short rotation coppices, some of which will be organically fertilised with digested sewage sludge, to provide 20% of the fuel requirement of a Biomass Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (BIGCC) electricity generation plant. The remaining 80% of the fuel requirements will come from forestry supplies, although in the first few years all the fuel will come from the forestry sources until the coppices are mature. The project has begun construction of a gasification plant at Eggborough, North Yorkshire, which will provide gas to a gas turbine and steam turbine generation system, producing 10MW and exporting 8MW of electricity. The project was included in the 1993 tranche of the UK's Non Fossil Fuel Obligation (NFFO) programme, and has gained financial support from the European Commission's THERMIE programme as a targeted BIGCC project. As background to the financing arrangements, the project's technical and environmental effects and benefits are described in some detail in the paper, together with the award of its planning permit and agreement on its operating license. (Author)


Jean Vigo's "Zéro De Conduite" and the Spaces of Revolt (United States)

In this article we will contribute to the contemporary theoretical debate about film by considering, from a history-of-education perspective, the film "Zéro de conduite" by Jean Vigo (1905--1934). This film is classified under the umbrella of "poetic realism": a product of "cinéma de gauche" and an avant-gardist,…

Vanobbergen, Bruno; Grosvenor, Ian; Simon, Frank



Percutaneous transthoracic computed tomography-guided AICD insertion in a patient with extracardiac Fontan conduit.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Percutaneous pulmonary venous atrial puncture was performed under computed tomography guidance to successfully place an automated implantable cardiac defibrillator into a 26-year-old patient with extracardiac Fontan conduit who had presented with two out-of-hospital cardiac arrests. The procedure avoided the need for lead placement at thoracotomy.

Murphy, Darra T



Modifications to the Conduit Flow Process Mode 2 for MODFLOW-2005. (United States)

As a result of rock dissolution processes, karst aquifers exhibit highly conductive features such as caves and conduits. Within these structures, groundwater flow can become turbulent and therefore be described by nonlinear gradient functions. Some numerical groundwater flow models explicitly account for pipe hydraulics by coupling the continuum model with a pipe network that represents the conduit system. In contrast, the Conduit Flow Process Mode 2 (CFPM2) for MODFLOW-2005 approximates turbulent flow by reducing the hydraulic conductivity within the existing linear head gradient of the MODFLOW continuum model. This approach reduces the practical as well as numerical efforts for simulating turbulence. The original formulation was for large pore aquifers where the onset of turbulence is at low Reynolds numbers (1 to 100) and not for conduits or pipes. In addition, the existing code requires multiple time steps for convergence due to iterative adjustment of the hydraulic conductivity. Modifications to the existing CFPM2 were made by implementing a generalized power function with a user-defined exponent. This allows for matching turbulence in porous media or pipes and eliminates the time steps required for iterative adjustment of hydraulic conductivity. The modified CFPM2 successfully replicated simple benchmark test problems. PMID:21371024

Reimann, Thomas; Birk, Steffen; Rehrl, Christoph; Shoemaker, W Barclay



A Simplified 1-D Model for Calculating CO2 Leakage through Conduits  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In geological CO{sub 2} storage projects, a cap rock is generally needed to prevent CO{sub 2} from leaking out of the storage formation. However, the injected CO{sub 2} may still encounter some discrete flow paths such as a conductive well or fault (here referred to as conduits) through the cap rock allowing escape of CO{sub 2} from the storage formation. As CO{sub 2} migrates upward, it may migrate into the surrounding formations. The amount of mass that is lost to the formation is called attenuation. This report describes a simplified model to calculate the CO{sub 2} mass flux at different locations of the conduit and the amount of attenuation to the surrounding formations. From the comparison among the three model results, we can conclude that the steady-state conduit model (SSCM) provides a more accurate solution than the PMC at a given discretization. When there is not a large difference between the permeability of the surrounding formation and the permeability of the conduits, and there is leak-off at the bottom formation (the formation immediately above the CO{sub 2} plume), a fine discretization is needed for an accurate solution. Based on this comparison, we propose to use the SSCM in the rapid prototype for now given it does not produce spurious oscillations, and is already in FORTRAN and therefore can be easily made into a dll for use in GoldSim.

Zhang, Y.; Oldenburg, C.M.



Retrofitting shear stability and fixing clay soil in farm conduits by geotextiles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Shear tests which conducted in the soil mechanics laboratory to determine the effects of polymer materials (geotextiles) on shear strength of reinforced clay in conduits. It was found that setting geo textile sheets in 60 degrees to the plane of failure increases shear strength to a maximum of 25% than that with an unreinforced clay. (author)


Phase separation phenomena in branching conduits. Topical report Dec 78-Dec 81  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The analysis of Light Water Reactor (LWR) Loss-of-Coolant Accidents (LOCA's) requires that one be able to accurately calculate the two-phase flow splits in complex, branching conduits. The purpose of this study is to provide a general method for calculating the phase separation in a branching conduit. The degree of phase separation of a two-phase (air/water) mixture flowing through a plexiglas tee test section was measured. In addition, flow visualization, using high speed photography, was performed. The experimental design considerations, error analysis and the dependence of the observed phase separation on global parameters, such as inlet quality, mass flux and separation angle, are discussed. The pressure gradients were measured along the various conduits and the differential pressure was obtained at the tee junction by extrapolation. It was found that the degree of phase separation was quite pronounced, with the vapor phase preferentially separating into the branch. Using these data, a physically-based empirical model was developed with which to calculate the phasic distribution of a subsonic two-phase mixture in the downstream branches of a branching conduit


Development of a new autonomous probe for in situ flow characterization in drowned subsurface conduits (United States)

Groundwater flow in karst aquifers is influenced by the presence of self-organized networks of large conduits. Existing methods which use artificial tracers or tethered robots, provide a limited amount of information on the network's geometry, and on the flow regime that occurs in the conduits. To address hydrogeological problems relative to karst aquifers, the characterization of the flow conditions in the network of conduits is needed. However this is a challenging task. We present a novel wireless probe which is developed to allow remote characterization of main flow directions and regime in subsurface environments. The relatively small (40 mm diameter) spherical autonomous probe is designed to allow transport by the water stream. During its journey in the flow, the non-expensive electronic equipment installed on board measures and records orientation data. Once the probe is retrieved, the recorded measurements can be analyzed. The encouraging preliminary laboratory results indicate that the new probe can accurately characterize different flow directions and regimes. This new autonomous probe offers a chance to help address the challenging task of characterizing flow in unknown drowned karst conduits.

Hakoun, V.; Pistre, S.; Falgayrettes, P.



[Clinical applications of xenopericardial conduits in surgery of ascending aortic aneurysms]. (United States)

At the Department of Acquired Cardiac Diseases (Head is Prof. G. I. Tsukerman), A. N. Bakulev Institute of Cardiovascular Surgery, 145 patients underwent operation for ascending aortic aneurysms, out of them the Bentalle-De Bono and the Cabrol operations were performed in 81 and 25 patients, respectively, the remaining 39 patients had palliative interventions. From February 1991 to April 1993, the clinic performed in 11 patients prosthesis of the ascending aorta with a xeno-pericardial conduit containing a bioprosthesis of the same tissue. The paper describes the technical features of bio-conduit implantation. The use of xeno-pericardial conduits facilitates the technique of applying anastomoses, lowers hemophilia and reduces the length of an operation. Hemorrhagic and thromboembolic events are expected to be reduced in late periods. At the hospital stage 1 patient died. The cause of his death was peri-coronary hematoma. Ten patients are still under observation. Repeated examinations have not detected no specific complications typical of those observed in the application of synthetic conduits. The first experience has proved to be quite promising. However, the final assessment is possible only when sufficient clinical materials are accumulated and late outcomes are studied. PMID:8148170

Malashenkov, A I; Fursov, B A; Rusanov, N I; Za?tsev, L V; Borisov, V I; Kolesnik, T F



Effect of Weight and Compensation Loads on the Deformation of a Steam Conduit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of hoop strain over the pipe perimeter and changes in the diameters of the cross section under long-term loading of the steam conduit due to the internal pressure and bending moment are considered. It is shown that the bending moment can be evaluated by measuring the residual strain of the pipe


Superficial femoral-popliteal vein as a conduit for brachiocephalic arterial reconstructions. (United States)

Revascularization of brachiocephalic arteries with prosthetic graft offers excellent patency for most reconstructions. For complex brachiocephalic reconstructions, such as redo operations or reconstructions for infection, autogenous conduit may be preferable. Occasionally saphenous vein is inadequate or absent. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the indications and intermediate-term outcomes of superficial femoral-popliteal vein (SFPV) as an alternative conduit for brachiocephalic reconstructions. Over a 6-year period, 71 patients underwent carotid, subclavian, or axillary artery bypass. In 18 (25%) of these reconstruction SFPV was used as the conduit. Ten bypasses (55%) were redo operations. Three bypasses (17%) were performed after failed prosthetic grafts. Three grafts (17%) were required in infected patients. Indications for the use of SFPV included inadequate saphenous vein (n = 13), infection (n = 3), and failed prosthetic bypass (n = 3). Thirty-day mortality was 5.5%. The neurologic event rate was 5.5%. During a mean follow-up of 26 +/- 5 months, there were no graft thromboses or graft infections. Revision-free primary patency was 92% at 48 months. Assisted primary patency was 100%. These data suggest that SFPV is a safe, durable conduit for brachiocephalic reconstructions. SFPV yielded excellent results for a disadvantaged patient population. PMID:11904799

Modrall, J Gregory; Joiner, Donald R; Seidel, Scott A; Jackson, Mark R; Valentine, R James; Clagett, G Patrick



29 CFR 780.126 - Contract arrangements for raising poultry. (United States)

... 2010-07-01 false Contract arrangements for raising poultry...Or Poultry § 780.126 Contract arrangements for raising poultry...contractual arrangements with farmers under which the latter...arrangement, the activities of the farmers and their employees in...



Municipal bond financing of solar energy facilities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The application of the laws of municipal bond financing to solar facilities is examined. The type of facilities under consideration are outlined. The general legal principles of municipal securities financing are discussed. The effect of recent decisions applying antitrust liability to municipal corporations is also discussed. Five specific types of municipal bonds are explained. The application of Section 103 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954, as amended, to the issuance of municipal bonds for solar facility financing is examined also. Five bond laws of five representative states are examined and whether the eight types of solar facilities under consideration could be financed under such law is discussed. The application of the general legal principle is illustrated. Three hypothetical situations are set forth and common legal issues to be confronted by city officials in proposing such financing are discussed. These issues will be raised in most financings, but the purpose is to examine the common context in which they are raised. It is concluded that if it can be shown that the purpose of the solar facilities to be financed is to benefit the public, all legal obstacles to the use of municipal financing of solar facilities can be substantially overcome.

White, S.S.



Forthcoming Papers from The Journal of Finance (United States)

The official publication of the American Finance Association (AFA), The Journal of Finance, is "devoted to the study and promotion of knowledge about financial economics," and provides full-text previews of accepted papers at the Forthcoming Papers page. Other site services include "editor's tips" for paper submission, browseable abstracts of past papers, and AFA membership information.



100th meeting of the Finance Committee  

CERN Multimedia

The Finance Committee is an advisory committee to the CERN Council. It has the exacting job of supervising CERN’s finances, being concerned with such things as examining budget proposals, salary structures and cost variation formulae and with approving the award of major contracts to industry.



MOX fuel arrangement for nuclear core  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to use up a stockpile of weapons-grade plutonium, the plutonium is converted into a mixed oxide (MOX) fuel form wherein it can be disposed in a plurality of different fuel assembly types. Depending on the equilibrium cycle that is required, a predetermined number of one or more of the fuel assembly types are selected and arranged in the core of the reactor in accordance with a selected loading schedule. Each of the fuel assemblies is designed to produce different combustion characteristics whereby the appropriate selection and disposition in the core enables the resulting equilibrium cycle to closely resemble that which is produced using urania fuel. The arrangement of the MOX rods and burnable absorber rods within each of the fuel assemblies, in combination with a selective control of the amount of plutonium which is contained in each of the MOX rods, is used to tailor the combustion characteristics of the assembly. 38 figs.

Kantrowitz, M.L.; Rosenstein, R.G.



Mox fuel arrangement for nuclear core  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to use up a stockpile of weapons-grade plutonium, the plutonium is converted into a mixed oxide (MOX) fuel form wherein it can be disposed in a plurality of different fuel assembly types. Depending on the equilibrium cycle that is required, a predetermined number of one or more of the fuel assembly types are selected and arranged in the core of the reactor in accordance with a selected loading schedule. Each of the fuel assemblies is designed to produce different combustion characteristics whereby the appropriate selection and disposition in the core enables the resulting equilibrium cycle to closely resemble that which is produced using urania fuel. The arrangement of the MOX rods and burnable absorber rods within each of the fuel assemblies, in combination with a selective control of the amount of plutonium which is contained in each of the MOX rods, is used to tailor the combustion. characteristics of the assembly.

Kantrowitz, Mark L. (Portland, CT); Rosenstein, Richard G. (Windsor, CT)



MOX fuel arrangement for nuclear core  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to use up a stockpile of weapons-grade plutonium, the plutonium is converted into a mixed oxide (MOX) fuel form wherein it can be disposed in a plurality of different fuel assembly types. Depending on the equilibrium cycle that is required, a predetermined number of one or more of the fuel assembly types are selected and arranged in the core of the reactor in accordance with a selected loading schedule. Each of the fuel assemblies is designed to produce different combustion characteristics whereby the appropriate selection and disposition in the core enables the resulting equilibrium cycle to closely resemble that which is produced using urania fuel. The arrangement of the MOX rods and burnable absorber rods within each of the fuel assemblies, in combination with a selective control of the amount of plutonium which is contained in each of the MOX rods, is used to tailor the combustion characteristics of the assembly. 38 figs


MOX fuel arrangement for nuclear core  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to use up a stockpile of weapons-grade plutonium, the plutonium is converted into a mixed oxide (MOX) fuel form wherein it can be disposed in a plurality of different fuel assembly types. Depending on the equilibrium cycle that is required, a predetermined number of one or more of the fuel assembly types are selected and arranged in the core of the reactor in accordance with a selected loading schedule. Each of the fuel assemblies is designed to produce different combustion characteristics whereby the appropriate selection and disposition in the core enables the resulting equilibrium cycle to closely resemble that which is produced using urania fuel. The arrangement of the MOX rods and burnable absorber rods within each of the fuel assemblies, in combination with a selective control of the amount of plutonium which is contained in each of the MOX rods, is used to tailor the combustion characteristics of the assembly.

Kantrowitz, Mark L. (Portland, CT); Rosenstein, Richard G. (Windsor, CT)



MOX fuel arrangement for nuclear core  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to use up a stockpile of weapons-grade plutonium, the plutonium is converted into a mixed oxide (MOX) fuel form wherein it can be disposed in a plurality of different fuel assembly types. Depending on the equilibrium cycle that is required, a predetermined number of one or more of the fuel assembly types are selected and arranged in the core of the reactor in accordance with a selected loading schedule. Each of the fuel assemblies is designed to produce different combustion characteristics whereby the appropriate selection and disposition in the core enables the resulting equilibrium cycle to closely resemble that which is produced using urania fuel. The arrangement of the MOX rods and burnable absorber rods within each of the fuel assemblies, in combination with a selective control of the amount of plutonium which is contained in each of the MOX rods, is used to tailor the combustion characteristics of the assembly.

Kantrowitz, Mark L. (Portland, CT); Rosenstein, Richard G. (Windsor, CT)



Child Care Arrangements Of Working Mothers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Children arrangements for infants and preschool children and the reasons for working outside the home were studied in 300 mothers of whom 100 were teachers (Group. I 100 clerks (groups II and 100 tabourers (Group III. The interview method was used. The most common (80% reason for working was financial needs, the next most frequent was utilization of specialized skills. In 58.7% of the cases, substitute childcare was provided by one of the family members, usually the grandmother. Sixty six percent of caretakers were illiterate. Most (93% of the working mothers had also to perform certain household chores. Bottle-feeding was stated at birth by 80% of these mothers: Childcare arrangements for children of working mothers must be considered in the future.

Singh H



Dominant regions in noncrystallographic hyperplane arrangements  

CERN Document Server

For a crystallographic root system, dominant regions in the Catalan hyperplane arrangement are in bijection with antichains in a partial order on the positive roots. For a noncrystallographic root system, the analogous arrangement and regions have importance in the representation theory of an associated graded Hecke algebra. Since there is also an analogous root order, it is natural to hope that a similar bijection can be used to understand these regions. We show that such a bijection does hold for type $H_3$ and for type $I_2(m)$, including arbitrary ratio of root lengths when $m$ is even, but does not hold for type $H_4$. We give a criterion that explains this failure and a list of the 16 antichains in the $H_4$ root order which correspond to empty regions.

Chen, Y; Chen, Yu; Kriloff, Cathy



Creating flexible work arrangements through idiosyncratic deals. (United States)

A survey of 887 employees in a German government agency assessed the antecedents and consequences of idiosyncratic arrangements individual workers negotiated with their supervisors. Work arrangements promoting the individualization of employment conditions, such as part-time work and telecommuting, were positively related to the negotiation of idiosyncratic deals ("i-deals"). Worker personal initiative also had a positive effect on i-deal negotiation. Two types of i-deals were studied: flexibility in hours of work and developmental opportunities. Flexibility i-deals were negatively related and developmental i-deals positively related to work-family conflict and working unpaid overtime. Developmental i-deals were also positively related to increased performance expectations and affective organizational commitment, while flexibility i-deals were unrelated to either. PMID:18457493

Hornung, Severin; Rousseau, Denise M; Glaser, Jürgen



Tile drainage as karst: Conduit flow and diffuse flow in a tile-drained watershed (United States)

The similarity of tiled-drained watersheds to karst drainage basins can be used to improve understanding of watershed-scale nutrient losses from subsurface tile drainage networks. In this study, short-term variations in discharge and chemistry were examined from a tile outlet collecting subsurface tile flow from a 963 ha agricultural watershed. Study objectives were to apply analytical techniques from karst springs to tile discharge to evaluate water sources and estimate the loads of agricultural pollutants discharged from the tile with conduit, intermediate and diffuse flow regimes. A two-member mixing model using nitrate, chloride and specific conductance was used to distinguish rainwater versus groundwater inputs. Results indicated that groundwater comprised 75% of the discharge for a three-day storm period and rainwater was primarily concentrated during the hydrograph peak. A contrasting pattern of solute concentrations and export loads was observed in tile flow. During base flow periods, tile flow consisted of diffuse flow from groundwater sources and contained elevated levels of nitrate, chloride and specific conductance. During storm events, suspended solids and pollutants adhered to soil surfaces (phosphorus, ammonium and organic nitrogen) were concentrated and discharged during the rapid, conduit flow portion of the hydrograph. During a three-day period, conduit flow occurred for 5.6% of the time but accounted for 16.5% of the total flow. Nitrate and chloride were delivered primarily with diffuse flow (more than 70%), whereas 80-94% of total suspended sediment, phosphorus and ammonium were exported with conduit and intermediate flow regimes. Understanding the water sources contributing to tile drainage and the manner by which pollutant discharge occurs from these systems (conduit, intermediate or diffuse flow) may be useful for designing, implementing and evaluating non-point source reduction strategies in tile-drained landscapes. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Schilling, K.E.; Helmers, M.



Flowmeter for determining average rate of flow of liquid in a conduit (United States)

This invention is a compact, precise, and relatively simple device for use in determining the average rate of flow of a liquid through a conduit. The liquid may be turbulent and contain bubbles of gas. In a preferred embodiment, the flowmeter includes an electrical circuit and a flow vessel which is connected as a segment of the conduit conveying the liquid. The vessel is provided with a valved outlet and is partitioned by a vertical baffle into coaxial chambers whose upper regions are vented to permit the escape of gas. The inner chamber receives turbulent downflowing liquid from the conduit and is sized to operate at a lower pressure than the conduit, thus promoting evolution of gas from the liquid. Lower zones of the two chambers are interconnected so that the downflowing liquid establishes liquid levels in both chambers. The liquid level in the outer chamber is comparatively calm, being to a large extent isolated from the turbulence in the inner chamber once the liquid in the outer chamber has risen above the liquid-introduction zone for that chamber. Lower and upper probes are provided in the outer chamber for sensing the liquid level therein at points above its liquid-introduction zone. An electrical circuit is connected to the probes to display the time required for the liquid level in the outer chamber to successively contact the lower and upper probes. The average rate of flow through the conduit can be determined from the above-mentioned time and the vessel volume filled by the liquid during that time.

Kennerly, John M. (Knoxville, TN); Lindner, Gordon M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Rowe, John C. (Oak Ridge, TN)



Petrology of Conduit Lava at Unzen Volcano; Result of Unzen Scientific Drilling Project (United States)

Lava samples were recovered from the conduit of the 1991-1995 eruption during the scientific drilling project in summer of 2004. Lava from the 1975-1997 m-depth conduit is most fresh among conduit samples and was nested in the hottest zone. The chemical composition including Sr isotopic ratio is very close to the 1991-1995 dome lava. The conduit lava is porphyritic dacite with phenocrysts of plagicolase, bioite and hornblende, though it is altered hydrothermally, such that hornblende was replaced by chlorite, carbonate and rutile, contrasting to freshness of biotite. The groundmass is composed of devitrified glass even in the chilled margins and contains small crystals of pyrite. As 3 wt % of water can be involved in the melt at the depth of 1.3 km where the conduit sample was recovered (about 40 MPa), about half of the initial water (6 wt %) should have been lost until when the magma reached this level. However, bubbles and microlites whose crystallization is induced by degassing are very scarce, compared in the groundmass of the dome lavas. Scarce amounts of microlites and bubbles indicate that degassing-induced crystallization was least in the ascending magma in this level, probably due to slow ascending (low cooling rate), and that bubbles could be escaped smoothly from the fluidal melt. As permeability of the country rocks is very low based on the logging data of the drilling, it is likely that magmatic volatiles should have escaped upward through cracks formed by ascending magma itself. Bubbles in the magma might have migrated into the tip of dyke magma where vapor-dominated tip was pressurized to form cracks. Crystallization of most of microlites commonly found in the dome lava had occurred in the shallower depth due to faster degassing (effective cooling rate).

Nakada, S.; Yoshimoto, M.; Shimano, T.; Kurokawa, M.; Nakai, S.; Sugimoto, T.; Hoshizumi, H.; Oguri, K.; Noguchi, S.; Goto, Y.



75 FR 16821 - Housing Finance Agency Risk-Sharing Program (United States)

...Docket No. FR-5376-N-21] Housing Finance Agency Risk-Sharing Program AGENCY...Sharing Program authorizes qualified Housing Finance Agencies (HFAs) to underwrite and process...information: Title of Proposal: Housing Finance Agency Risk-Sharing Program. OMB...



12 CFR 905.4 - Duties of the Finance Board. (United States)

... 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duties of the Finance Board. 905.4 Section 905.4 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD ORGANIZATION AND OPERATIONS DESCRIPTION OF...



12 CFR 908.71 - Practice before the Finance Board. (United States)

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Practice before the Finance Board. 908.71 Section 908.71 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD ORGANIZATION AND OPERATIONS RULES OF PRACTICE AND...



12 CFR 918.5 - Approval by Finance Board. (United States)

...2010-01-01 false Approval by Finance Board. 918.5 Section 918.5 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD GOVERNANCE AND MANAGEMENT...EXPENSES § 918.5 Approval by Finance Board. Payments made to...



13 CFR 107.710 - Requirement to finance smaller enterprises. (United States)

... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirement to finance smaller enterprises. 107.710 Section 107.710 Business...Business for Sbic Financing § 107.710 Requirement to finance smaller enterprises. Your Portfolio must include...



48 CFR 2832.114 - Unusual contract financing. (United States)

...2010-10-01 true Unusual contract financing. 2832.114 Section 2832.114 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT... Non-Commercial Item Purchase Financing 2832.114 Unusual contract financing. The HCA, or...



48 CFR 2432.114 - Unusual contract financing. (United States)

...2010-10-01 true Unusual contract financing. 2432.114 Section 2432.114 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT... Non-Commercial Item Purchase Financing 2432.114 Unusual contract financing. The Senior...



7 CFR 4290.830 - Minimum term of Financing. (United States)

...Eligible Enterprises-Types of Financings § 4290.830 Minimum term of Financing. (a) General rule. The minimum term of each of your Financings is one year. (b) Restrictions on mandatory redemption of...



12 CFR 614.4700 - Financing foreign trade receivables. (United States)

...2010-01-01 false Financing foreign trade receivables. 614.4700...Agricultural Credit Banks Financing International Trade § 614.4700 Financing foreign trade receivables...extent to which foreign currency exposure may be hedged...



12 CFR 614.4700 - Financing foreign trade receivables. (United States)

...false Financing foreign trade receivables. 614.4700...Agricultural Credit Banks Financing International Trade § 614.4700 Financing...b) To reduce credit, political, and other risks associated with foreign trade receivable...



Simple-root bases for Shi arrangements  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In his affirmative answer to the Edelman-Reiner conjecture, Yoshinaga proved that the logarithmic derivation modules of the cones of the extended Shi arrangements are free modules. However, all we know about the bases is their existence and degrees. In this article, we introduce two distinguished bases for the modules. More specifically, we will define and study the simple-root basis plus (SRB+) and the simple-root basis minus (SRB-) when a primitive derivation is fixed. The...

Abe, Takuro; Terao, Hiroaki



Topology of plane arrangements and their complements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper is a glossary of notions and methods related to the topological theory of affine plane arrangements, including braid groups, configuration spaces, order complexes, stratified Morse theory, simplicial resolutions, complexes of graphs, Orlik-Solomon rings, Salvetti complexes, matroids, Spanier-Whitehead duality, twisted homology groups, monodromy theory, and multidimensional hypergeometric functions. The emphasis is upon making the presentation as geometric as possible. Applications and analogies in differential topology are outlined, and some recent results of the theory are presented


Topology of plane arrangements and their complements  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper is a glossary of notions and methods related to the topological theory of affine plane arrangements, including braid groups, configuration spaces, order complexes, stratified Morse theory, simplicial resolutions, complexes of graphs, Orlik-Solomon rings, Salvetti complexes, matroids, Spanier-Whitehead duality, twisted homology groups, monodromy theory, and multidimensional hypergeometric functions. The emphasis is upon making the presentation as geometric as possible. Applications and analogies in differential topology are outlined, and some recent results of the theory are presented.

Vasiliev, V A [Steklov Mathematical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation)



Topology of plane arrangements and their complements (United States)

This paper is a glossary of notions and methods related to the topological theory of affine plane arrangements, including braid groups, configuration spaces, order complexes, stratified Morse theory, simplicial resolutions, complexes of graphs, Orlik-Solomon rings, Salvetti complexes, matroids, Spanier-Whitehead duality, twisted homology groups, monodromy theory, and multidimensional hypergeometric functions. The emphasis is upon making the presentation as geometric as possible. Applications and analogies in differential topology are outlined, and some recent results of the theory are presented.

Vasiliev, V. A.



Arrangement for wear determination with radioactive isotopes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The abrasion of radioactive labelled components of the engine is led together with the oil into a flowmeter tube that passes through a hole in a NaJ-crystal. A cooling jacket for thermal decoupling is arranged between the measuring line and the neighbouring area of the crystal. The cooling jacket is operated with water. A Pb-shielding covers the complete measuring head. (DG)


Do Portuguese SMEs Follow Pecking Order Financing?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper tests for pecking order behavior in medium-sized private Portuguese firms. In contrast to the usual split between internal funds, debt, and external equity, we separate debt into four components – cheap trade credits (CTC), bank loans (BL), other loans, and expensive credits (EC). We use breakpoint tests to identify when firms switch between funding sources by examining the change in each funding source based on the financing deficit remaining after the previous pecking order funding source has been used. Our tests indicate that Portuguese companies generally move from lower cost to higher cost financing sources, but they do not exhaust each type of debt before moving on to the next funding source in the pecking order. Such behavior is consistent with a loose interpretation of pecking order financing, but not a strict interpretation of the theory. Instead, Portuguese firms may be balancing pecking order financing with a need to maintain some degree of financing flexibility.

Bartholdy, Jan; Mateus, Cesario



Finite element modeling of self-potential signals over conduits and fractures in covered karst terrain Peter Bumpus and Sarah Kruse (United States)

A year of continuous monitoring with two grids of 12-15 electrodes each measured self-potential (SP) over two small covered-karst conduits in Tampa, Florida. Positive and negative SP anomalies episodically manifested over conduits, suggesting that conduit flow is dynamic, not static. Various SP flow regimes in the conduits are postulated: flow in the conduit is faster than through surrounding surficial sediment, flow in the conduit is slower than through surrounding sediment, and conduit flow rates match those through the surrounding sediments. It is further postulated that conduits change permeability with inflow and washing out of sediment, especially associated with rain events. Numerical simulations of the postulated flow regimes were run with 2D simulations using the Comsol finite element modeling code. Simulations show that each regime produces different SP patterns. Models simulate the Tampa field setting in which a 1-2 meter-thick high permeability sand layer overlies a low-permeability clay-rich layer. A funnel-shaped conduit breaches both layers. In the models, when the permeability of the conduit sands is equal to surrounding surficial sands, a small (several mV) negative anomaly manifests locally at the conduit. This negative anomaly can be explained as the result of the depression of the SPS surface (the first sediment surface with a change in conductance or streaming potential coefficient) in the conduit. However a permeability difference of as little as 5 to 20 percent between conduit and background can cause an SP anomaly of tens to several hundred millivolts, either positive or negative. When the permeability is higher in the conduit than the surficial sands, lateral flow into the conduit within the sand layer and through the conduit to the underlying aquifer are both high, and the SP signal over the conduit is positive. This may contradict the concept exemplified in other studies that downward flow creates a negative anomaly. In our case the positive voltage is the result of high lateral flow toward a high flux conduit. As a result, the horizontal dimension of the conduit plays a role in whether a positive or negative anomaly is observed locally near the surface, depending on the degree to which the terminus of the inward lateral flow affects voltage over the conduit center. When the conduit has lower permeability than surrounding surficial sediment, models show that the SP anomaly is negative. In this case lateral flow is small to a low-flux conduit and there is little build-up of positive SP to overcome the negative potential associated with the SPS trough.

Bumpus, P. B.; Kruse, S. E.



Mach-zehnder modulator arrangement and method for operating a mach-zehnder modulator arrangement  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The invention relates to an electro-optic Mach-Zehnder modulator arrangement, comprising - a first optical waveguide (11) forming a first arm of the Mach-Zehnder modulator (1, 100); - a second optical waveguide (12) forming a second arm of the Mach-Zehnder modulator (1, 100); - an electrode arrangement (2) comprising at least one first waveguide electrode (21, 210) output port (441, 4410) coupled to the first waveguide electrodes (21, 210)and at least one second waveguide electrode (22, 220) ...

Velthaus, Karl-otto



Financing the health care Internet. (United States)

Internet-related health care firms have accelerated through the life cycle of capital finance and organizational destiny, including venture capital funding, public stock offerings, and consolidation, in the wake of heightened competition and earnings disappointments. Venture capital flooded into the e-health sector, rising from $3 million in the first quarter of 1998 to $335 million two years later. Twenty-six e-health firms went public in eighteen months, raising $1.53 billion at initial public offering (IPO) and with post-IPO share price appreciation greater than 100 percent for eighteen firms. The technology-sector crash hit the e-health sector especially hard, driving share prices down by more than 80 percent for twenty-one firms. The industry now faces an extended period of consolidation between e-health and conventional firms. PMID:11192423

Robinson, J C



Financing U.S. exploration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper discusses the challenges of financing U.S. exploration from the perspective of an independent oil and gas producer. When Burlington Resources was split into a separate company from the Burlington Northern Railroad three years ago, the company owned extensive resources but had little production capability, and had to resolve the problem of raising development capital. According to the author of this paper, three key elements in the company's perception of the business environment drove its strategy: that the role of independent producers would be crucial in new onshore oil and gas development as the majors moved offshore; that energy prices would remain weak; and that financial market sentiment would not favor a move to leverage the company more highly than its starting-point of 19 percent debt-to-total capital ratio


Speleogenetic effects of interaction between deeply derived fracture-conduit flow and intrastratal matrix flow in hypogene karst settings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In carbonate rocks, especially in those with high primary porosity such as most Cenozoic carbonates, the interaction between deeply derived rising flow through sub-vertical fracture-controlled conduits and intrastratal matrix flow of shallower systems can invoke mixing cor- rosion and result in prominent speleogenetic effects. This paper outlines a conceptual model of such interaction and provides instructive field examples of relevant morphological effects from two different regions within the Prichernomorsky (north Black Sea basin, where karst features are developed in lower Pliocene, Eocene and Paleocene limestones. In the Crimean fore-mountain region, extensive steep to ver- tical limestone scarps formed through recent exposure of hypogenic fracture-controlled conduits provide outstanding possibilities to directly examine details of the original karstic porosity. The morphological effects of the conduit/matrix interaction, documented in both caves and exposed scarps, include lateral widening of sub-vertical conduits within the interaction intervals (formation of lateral notches and niches and the development of side bedding-parallel conduits, pockets and vuggy-spongework zones. Natural convection circulation, invoked by interaction of the two flow systems, spreads the morphological effects throughout the conduit space above the interaction interval. Where the interaction of the two flow systems is particularly strongly localized, such as along junctions of two vertical fracture sets, the resultant morphological effect can take the form of isolated chambers. The variety of speleogenetic features developed through the conduit/matrix interaction, can be broadly grouped into two categories: 1 variously shaped swells of the major fracture conduit itself (morphological fea- tures of its walls – niches and pockets, and 2 features of the vuggy-spongework halo surrounding the conduit. This halo includes clustered and stratiform cavities, spongework zones and lateral side conduits. The speleogenetic features due to conduit/matrix flow interaction, especially the halo forms, often demonstrate distinct asymmetry between opposite walls of the conduits. The prominent phenomenon of the vuggy-spongework halo around fracture-controlled conduits has important hydrogeological implications. A comparison of karst features in different regions and rock formations clearly shows that in spite of some distinctions imposed by local structural, sedimentological and paleo-hydrogeological peculiarities, hypogenic speleoforms in limestones of different age and of different degree of diagenetic maturity demonstrate remarkable similarities.

Tymokhina Elizaveta



78 FR 31535 - Assistive Technology Alternative Financing Program (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Assistive Technology Alternative Financing Program AGENCY: Office use the slate of applicants developed for the Assistive Technology (AT) Alternative Financing Program (AFP)...



The Development of the CONDUIT Advanced Control System Design and Evaluation Interface with a Case Study Application to an Advanced Fly by Wire Helicopter Design (United States)

This report details the development and use of CONDUIT (Control Designer's Unified Interface). CONDUIT is a design tool created at Ames Research Center for the purpose of evaluating and optimizing aircraft control systems against handling qualities. Three detailed design problems addressing the RASCAL UH-60A Black Hawk are included in this report to show the application of CONDUIT to helicopter control system design.

Colbourne, Jason



A Novel 'Test Arrangement for Strain Influence on Strands' (TARSIS): Mechanical and Electrical Testing of ITER Nb3Sn Strands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Knowledge on the deformation state of the strands in International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) type Cable-In-Conduit Conductors (CICC) and its impact on both the transport properties and the superconducting transition is essential for optimal cable and magnet design. To date a relatively large part of the attention is concentrated on the influence of purely axial strain on the performance of Nb3Sn strands and sub-size cables. However, local deformations such as strand-to-strand, strand to conduit contact pressure and strand bending will occur as well in multi strand CICC's experiencing an electromagnetic load. More basic experimental verification is required on strand level from virgin state towards multi-cyclic loading. Therefore a new test arrangement is developed in which the influence of various principle deformation states that occur in a CICC, i.e. local transverse deformations, transverse homogeneous loads, bending and axial load, can be studied separately or combined. Beside precise displacement and force measurements for stress-strain analysis, the voltage-current and voltage-temperature characteristics are traced. A description of TARSIS is presented and the first preliminary results on periodical strand bending are reported


Nerve conduits based on immobilization of nerve growth factor onto modified chitosan by using genipin as a crosslinking agent. (United States)

Incorporation of nerve growth factor (NGF) into a nerve conduit can improve peripheral nerve regeneration. Here, genipin, a natural and low toxic agent, was used to crosslink chitosan, a natural polysaccharide, and concurrently to immobilize NGF onto modified chitosan, followed by fabrication of chitosan (CS)-genipin (GP)-NGF nerve conduits. MTT test showed that the cell viability of Schwann cells cultured in the conduit extract was not significantly different from that in plain medium. The neurite outgrowth measurement and immunocytochemistry with anti-growth-associated protein-43 and anti-neurofilament indicated that NGF released from CS-GP-NGF nerve conduits retained the bioactivity of stimulating neuronal differentiation of PC12 cells. Fracture strength measurements and vitamin B12 release analysis confirmed that CS-GP-NGF nerve conduits possessed good mechanical properties and adequate permeability. We also investigated the in vitro release kinetics of NGF from CS-GP-NGF nerve conduits by ELISA. The continuous release profile of NGF, within a 60-day time span, consisted of an initial burst that was controlled by a concentration gradient-driven diffusion, followed by a zero-order release that was controlled by a degradation of chitosan matrix. Collectively, CS-GP-NGF nerve conduits had an integrated system for continuous release of NGF, thus holding promise for peripheral nerve repair applications. PMID:21736941

Yang, Yumin; Zhao, Weijia; He, Jianghong; Zhao, Yahong; Ding, Fei; Gu, Xiaosong



Inequality of pension arrangements among different segments of the labor force in China. (United States)

Social security for older people in China today has been established institutionally. However, there are substantial problems such as coverage, affordability, fund management, and corruption. This paper aims to provide a general picture of China's social security system for older people and to argue that the inequality of pension arrangements among different segments of the labor force is one of the most conspicuous problems challenging the Chinese government. Four unequal aspects of the pension system concerning the financing resources and pension levels are examined in this paper: (1) unequal institutional arrangements among different sectors, (2) unbalanced governmental expenditure in pension provision, (3) an increasing gap in pension levels between urban and rural areas, and (4) uncovered groups such as the unemployed and self-employed. Historical, economic, and political reasons all contribute to this unequal institution under transition from socialism to a market-oriented economy. At present, it is urgent for the central government to take measures to integrate the various pension arrangements into the unified Old Age Insurance and to reduce the gaps among different regions. PMID:23570510

Wu, Ling



Textural evolution of a conduit margin witnessing the unusual explosivity of a basaltic Plinian eruption (United States)

Basaltic Plinian eruptions are a rare phenomenon and are poorly understood. Here we investigate these unusual high-explosivity eruptions with detailed textural observations of their products. We have analysed marginal textures of a feeding conduit of the AD 1886 Tarawera fissure eruption through which a gas-ash-suspension was erupting for ~4-5 hours and examined strain markers of simple shear and evidence of heating. We quantified vesicle size distributions and vesicle orientations in the rhyolitic country rock of the Wahanga dome in contact with the mafic dyke. Shape anisotropy and density increases toward the margin, corresponding to a decrease in 2D vesicularity. Similarly, the margin-parallel deformation is manifested in cleaved and plastically deformed biotite crystals. The aspect ratio of biotite phenocrysts in the rhyolitic country rock increases toward the margin. In the undeformed country rock average aspect ratios are ~1-2, whereas in the marginal zone of 1-2 mm thickness values increase to >50. In the marginal zone an accumulation of low angles spanned by the conduit wall and the long axis of biotite phenocrysts is observed. Rotation of phenocrysts near the margin might be produced by simple shear from coupling of the erupting gas-ash-suspension. We measured major element profiles in the interstitial groundmass glass toward the conduit margin by EMPA. Proximal depletion of Na2O and enrichment of K2O suggest that the eruption was at high temperature for time sufficient for ~1 mm of concentration-gradient diffusion of mobile elements. The changes in porosity, texture and chemistry take place in a ~1-1.5 mm thick deformed zone. Lattice Boltzmann simulations of margin perpendicular fluid flow through the pore network in this zone rendered by xray computed micro tomography of this zone shows a reduction in permeability by 2 orders of magnitude from ~10-11.5 to ~10-13 m2. Textural changes of conduit walls that experienced mafic Plinian eruptions have rarely been reported and imply an unusual coupling between a gas-magma-suspension explosively bypassing a heated margin. It is possible that transient coupling events were enough to induce ductile simple shear in the margin rock. Such shear strain and resultant pore closure at elevated temperatures could be a mechanism by which permeability of conduit walls is reduced. Low permeability implies an inefficient pore-pressure release valve and thus overpressures could be maintained, exerting unusually high stresses within the basaltic melt. If these stresses could not be viscously dissipated over the timescale of degassing, then conduit wall sealing contributes to the explosivity of such large eruptions.

Schauroth, J.; Wadsworth, F.; Vasseur, J.; kennedy, B.; Schipper, C.; Kueppers, U.; Scheu, B.; Dingwell, D. B.



A method of gastric conduit elevation via the posterior mediastinal pathway in thoracoscopic subtotal esophagectomy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite efforts to improve surgical techniques, serious complications still sometimes occur. Use of a physiological posterior mediastinal pathway has increased given advances such as automated anastomotic devices and a reduction in the incidence of anastomotic sufficiency. Until now the gastric conduit created has been protected by an echo probe cover and, sown to the ventral side of polyester tape placed through the abdomen to the neck, and then blindly elevated to the neck. We report on a new method of gastric conduit elevation. Methods Two 60-cm lengths polyester tape are ligated at both ends to form a loop. An echo probe cover of 10 cm in diameter and 50 cm in length is prepared and the tip cut off, forming a cylinder. The knots in the previously looped polyester tape are inserted into the echo probe cover. The looped polyester tape and echo probe cover is ligated with silk approximately 5 cm in front of the knots on both sides. After dissection is carried out according to practice, the previously crafted polyester tape is inserted into the chest cavity. One end of polyester tape is fixed to the distal esophageal stump with the clips, with the opposite end fixed to the proximal esophageal stump. The echo probe cover that connects the proximal esophagus and distal esophagus is monitored for the presence of creases along the long axis to ensure there are no twists in the echo probe cover. We carry out a laparoscopic-assisted perigastric lymph node dissection, make a small skin incision, and guide part of the thoracic esophagus and stomach outside the body. Either one of the two lengths of polyester tape is connected to the gastric conduit. By pulling up this length of polyester tape from the neck, the gastric conduit can pass through the echo probe cover and be elevated to the neck. Results No perioperative complications such as bleeding or difficulty of the gastric conduit elevation were recognized with this method. Conclusions This method is considered to serve as a useful technique for gastric conduit elevation.

Hirahara Noriyuki



Present and future nuclear power financing schemes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The financial requirement for nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany for the period up until 1985 was estimated to run up to some DM 100 billion already in the Nuclear Energy Study published by the Dresdner Bank in 1974. This figure is not changed in any way by the reduction the nuclear power program has suffered in the meantime, because the lower requirement for investment capital is more than offset by the price increases that have occurred meanwhile. A capital requirement in the order of DM 100 billion raises major problems for the power producing industry and the banks which, however, are not going to hamper the further expansion of nuclear power, because new financing schemes have been specially developed for the nuclear field. They include financing by leasing, the use of funds from real estate credit institutions for long term financing, borrowing of long term funds in the Euro market, and financing through subsidiaries of the utilities. The new financing schemes also apply to the large financial requirement associated with the nuclear fuel cycle, waste management in particular. In this sector the utilities agree to bear the economic risk of the companies implementing the respective projects. Accordingly, financing will not entail any major difficulties. Another area of great importance is export financing. The German-Brazilian nuclear agreement is a model of this instrument. (orig.)


Minimum Energy Requirements in Complex Distillation Arrangements  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Distillation is the most widely used industrial separation technology and distillation units are responsible for a significant part of the total heat consumption in the world's process industry. In this work we focus on directly (fully thermally) coupled column arrangements for separation of multicomponent mixtures. These systems are also denoted Petlyuk arrangements, where a particular implementation is the dividing wall column. Energy savings in the range of 20-40% have been reported with ternary feed mixtures. In addition to energy savings, such integrated units have also a potential for reduced capital cost, making them extra attractive. However, the industrial use has been limited, and difficulties in design and control have been reported as the main reasons. Minimum energy results have only been available for ternary feed mixtures and sharp product splits. This motivates further research in this area, and this thesis will hopefully give some contributions to better understanding of complex column systems. In the first part we derive the general analytic solution for minimum energy consumption in directly coupled columns for a multicomponent feed and any number of products. To our knowledge, this is a new contribution in the field. The basic assumptions are constant relative volatility, constant pressure and constant molar flows and the derivation is based on Underwood's classical methods. An important conclusion is that the minimum energy consumption in a complex directly integrated multi-product arrangement is the same as for the most difficult split between any pair of the specified products when we consider the performance of a conventional two-product column. We also present the Vmin-diagram, which is a simple graphical tool for visualisation of minimum energy related to feed distribution. The Vmin-diagram provides a simple mean to assess the detailed flow requirements for all parts of a complex directly coupled arrangement. The main purpose in the first part of the thesis has been to present a complete theory of minimum energy in directly coupled columns, not a design procedure for engineering purposes. Thus, our focus has been on the basic theory and on verification and analysis of the new results. However, based on these results, it is straightforward to develop design procedures including rigorous computations for real feed mixtures without the idealized assumptions used to deduce the analytic results. In part 2 we focus on optimization of operation, and in particular the concept of self-optimizing control. We consider a process where we have more degrees of freedom than are consumed by the product specifications. The remaining unconstrained degrees of freedom are used to optimize the operation, given by some scalar cost criterion. In addition there will in practice always be unknown disturbances, model uncertainty and uncertainty in measurements and implementation of manipulated inputs, which makes it impossible to precalculate and implement the optimal control inputs accurately. The main idea is to achieve self-optimizing control by turning the optimization problem into a constant setpoint problem. The issue is then to find (if possible) a set of variables, which when kept at their setpoints, indirectly ensures optimal operation. We have used the ternary Petlyuk arrangement to illustrate the concept. It is a quite challenging case where the potential energy savings may easily be lost if we do not manage to keep the manipulated inputs at their optimal values, and the optimum is strongly affected by changes in feed composition and column performance. This also applies to the best control structure selection, and we believe that the reported difficulties in control are really a control structure problem (the task of selecting the best variables to control and the best variables to manipulate). In this analysis we present in detail the properties of the Petlyuk arrangement, and show how important characteristics depend on the feed properties and product purity. We have used finite stage-by-stage mod

Halvorsen, Ivar J.



The challenge of financing nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To date, more then 500 nuclear power reactors have been successfully financed and built. Experience in recent nuclear projects confirms that nuclear power will not cease to be a viable option due to a worldwide financing constraint. For financing nuclear plants there are special considerations: large investment; long lead and construction times; complex technology; regulatory risk and political risk. The principal preconditions to financing are a national policy supporting nuclear power; creditworthiness; economic competitiveness; project feasibility; assurance of adequate revenues; acceptability of risks; and no open-ended liabilities. Generally, nuclear power plants are financed conventionally through multi-sources, where a package covers the entire cost. The first source, the investor/owner/operator responsible for building and operating the plant, should cover a sizable portion of the overall investment. In addition, bond issues, domestic bank credits etc. and, in case of State-owned or controlled enterprises, donations and credits from public entities or the governmental budget, should complete the financing. A financially sound utility should be able to meet this challenge. For importing technology, bids are invited. Export credits should form the basis of foreign financing, because these have favorable terms and conditions. Suppliers from several countries may join in a consortium subdividing the scope of supply and involve several Export Credit Agencies (ECAs). There are also innovative financing approaches that could be applied to nuclear projects. Evolutionary Reactors with smaller overall investment, shorter construction times, reliance on proven technology, together with predictable regulatory regimes and reliable long-term national policies favorable to nuclear power, should make it easier to meet the future challenges of financing. (author)


Hyperplane arrangements and Lefschetz's hyperplane section theorem  

CERN Document Server

The Lefschetz hyperplane section theorem asserts that an affine variety is homotopy equivalent to a space obtained from its generic hyperplane section by attaching some cells. The purpose of this paper is to describe attaching maps of these cells for the complement of a complex hyperplane arrangement defined over real numbers. The cells and attaching maps are described in combinatorial terms of chambers. We also discuss the cellular chain complex with coefficients in a local system and a presentation for the fundamental group associated to the minimal CW-decomposition for the complement.

Yoshinaga, M



Jet spoiler arrangement for wind turbine (United States)

An air jet spoiler arrangement is provided for a Darrieus-type vertical axis wind-powered turbine. Air is drawn into hollow turbine blades through air inlets at the ends thereof and is ejected in the form of air jets through small holes or openings provided along the lengths of the blades. The air jets create flow separation at the surfaces of the turbine blades, thereby inducing stall conditions and reducing the output power. A feedback control unit senses the power output of the turbine and controls the amount of air drawn into the air inlets accordingly.

Cyrus, Jack D. (Corrales, NM); Kadlec, Emil G. (Albuquerque, NM); Klimas, Paul C. (Albuquerque, NM)



Arrangements of symmetric products of spaces  

CERN Document Server

Using the topological technique of diagrams of spaces, we calculate the homology of the union and the complement of finite arrangements of subspaces of the form $D + SP^{n-d}(X)$ in symmetric products $SP^n(X)$ where $Din SP^d(X)$. As an application we include a computation of the homology of the homotopy end space of the open manifold $SP^n(M_{g,k})$, where $M_{g,k}$ is a Riemann surface of genus $g$ punctured at $k$ points, a problem which was originally motivated by the study of commutative $(m+k,m)$-groups.

Blagojevic, M; Zivaljevic, R T; Blagojevic, Pavle; Grujic, Vladimir; Zivaljevic, Rade



Method of operating an electromagnet arrangement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method is described for operating an electromagnet arrangement comprising a main electromagnet and a number of correction coils for applying correction fields to the field produced by the main electromagnet to produce a resultant desired homogeneous magnetic field in a given volume. The method comprises obtaining the least squares fit values for the correction coil currents. If the required current in any coil lies outside a range of permissible values for that coil current a special procedure is described to find the selection of coil currents providing the lowest squared deviation between the desired and actual fields consistent with the permissible currents in the coils. (author)


Loops on polyhedral products and diagonal arrangements  

CERN Document Server

In this paper we establish a connection between the loop space homology of the generalization of wedge defined by a simplicial complex K (so called polyhedral product) and the homology of certain diagonal arrangements associated with K. We illustrate these results by finding the presentations of those loop homology algebras for certain K generalizing results of Panov-Ray, Papadima-Suciu, Lemaire. Finally, we show that in the case when the functor is applied to suspensions, this homology splitting comes from the stable homotopy splitting of the loop spaces.

Dobrinskaya, Natalia



Ventricular torsional relation to ventricular fiber arrangement  

CERN Document Server

Left ventricular torsion from helically oriented myofibers is a key parameter of cardiac performance. Physicians observing heart motion on echocardiograms, during cardiac catheterization, or in the operating room, are impressed by the twisting or rotary motion of the left ventricle during systole. Conceptually, the heart has been treated as a pressure chamber. The rotary or torsional deformation has been poorly understood by basic scientists and has lacked clinical relevance. The aim of this paper attempts to discuss about this question: Is ventricular twisting related to ventricular fiber arrangement? That is dependent to an assumed model of the left ventricular structure.

Ranjbar, Saeed; Meybodi, Mahmood Emami




Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Higher education plays an important part in the European society, creating knowledge applicable to society and economy, and generating the process of economic and social evolution. Higher education institutions in Europe try to modernize both at the level of the courses they offer and at the level of their acting manner; European states as well as the private agents involved try to find out new, improved means of coordinating and financing. Starting from this idea, we would like to carry out an analysis of the manner of financing European higher education out of private funds with a view to identify new financing sources.




Do SMEs follow Pecking Order Financing?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper tests for "pecking order" financing of small and medium size firms. The main sources and "pecking order" of financing for SMEs are equity (internally generated cash), trade credit paid on time, credit provided by institutions such as banks and leasing companies, other sources of debt and delayed payment on trade credit. The "pecking order" of financing is driven by the costs of asymmetric information (cost of gathering and analysing information) and financial distress costs. Empirical tests do not confirm that SMEs follow a pecking order.

Bartholdy, Jan; Mateus, Cèsario


International oil and gas finance review 1997  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This first edition covers financing projects in the developing world, mergers and acquisitions; mitigating cross-border risk; basic risk in energy markets; real-time oil and gas pricing issues; oil and gas equity; risk management; project finance. The yearbook also features more regional specific topics such as: gas transportation in the Mercosur; 25 years of growth in the UAE; natural gas in Mexico; LNG in the Far East; legal issues surrounding the Russian oil and gas industry; LNG projects in the Middle East; the North Sea; and financing the oil and gas industry of Southern and South Africa. (UK)




Financing electric power in developing countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper discusses the future growth of electricity demand, the likely changes in power investment patterns, and the global investment requirements during the 10 year period 1986-95 for power generation, transmission, and distribution. The investment during the period is analysed as between foreign and local currency requirements, the likely principal sources of finance, the problems which are experienced in financing power investment, and the origin of those problems. The paper provides