WorldWideScience
1

77 FR 22480 - Conduit Financing Arrangements; Correction  

Science.gov (United States)

...2011 (76 FR 76895) providing guidance on conduit financing arrangements. The final regulations apply to multiple-party financing arrangements that are effected through disregarded entities, and are necessary in order to determine which of...

2012-04-16

2

76 FR 76895 - Conduit Financing Arrangements  

Science.gov (United States)

...contains final regulations relating to conduit financing arrangements. The final regulations apply to multiple-party financing arrangements that are effected through disregarded entities, and are necessary in order to determine which of...

2011-12-09

3

26 CFR 1.7701(l)-1 - Conduit financing arrangements.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conduit financing arrangements. 1.7701(l)-1 Section 1...TAXES General Actuarial Valuations § 1.7701(l)-1 Conduit financing arrangements. Section 7701(l)...

2010-04-01

4

26 CFR 1.881-3 - Conduit financing arrangements.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conduit financing arrangements. 1.881-3...Foreign Corporations § 1.881-3 Conduit financing arrangements. (a) General...arrangement where such entities are acting as conduit entities. For purposes of this...

2010-04-01

5

26 CFR 1.881-4 - Recordkeeping requirements concerning conduit financing arrangements.  

Science.gov (United States)

... Recordkeeping requirements concerning conduit financing arrangements. 1.881-4... Recordkeeping requirements concerning conduit financing arrangements. (a) Scope...whether that financing arrangement is a conduit financing arrangement. (2)...

2010-04-01

6

26 CFR 1.881-3 - Conduit financing arrangements.  

Science.gov (United States)

...liability on a withholding agent who fails to withhold as required under § 1.1441-3(j), but not for purposes of § 1.882-5. (B) Character of payments made by the financed entity. If the participation of a conduit financing...

2010-04-01

7

26 CFR 1.7701(l)-1 - Conduit financing arrangements.  

Science.gov (United States)

...financing arrangements. Section 7701(l) authorizes the issuance of regulations that recharacterize any multiple-party financing transaction as a transaction directly among any two or more of such parties where the Secretary determines...

2010-04-01

8

26 CFR 1.881-3 - Conduit financing arrangements.  

Science.gov (United States)

...is making or managing investments...Standard for treatment as a conduit...applying the special rules for multiple...intermediate entity need not have...short-term funding needs, DS needs long-term...efficient way of managing their...

2010-04-01

9

Seal arrangement for intersecting conduits  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A seal arrangement in which two intersecting conduits are sealed from each other is described. A sleeve insert is locked in a sealed relationship within one conduit enclosing the openings of the intersecting conduit

10

26 CFR 1.881-3 - Conduit financing arrangements.  

Science.gov (United States)

...necessary to meet those external obligations and invests any excess cash...FS enters into a currency swap with BK, an unrelated bank...transactions through its currency swap with BK. Accordingly, the...that FS reviews its currency swaps daily to determine whether...

2010-04-01

11

Financing arrangements for nuclear power projects in developing countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This reference book reviews the main features and problems or difficulties involved in the financing of nuclear power projects with special reference to developing countries. It provides basic information and advice to developing countries interested in nuclear power projects as part of their power sector planning. The book outlines the general characteristics of financing a nuclear power project and presents innovative approaches for power generation financing. It discusses the special conditions and requirements of nuclear power projects and their financing complexities. The focus is on the practical issues that need to be dealt with in order to successfully finance these power projects, as well as the constraints faced by most developing countries. Possible ways and means of dealing with these constraints are presented. 58 refs, figs and tabs

12

Summary of a reference book on financing arrangements for nuclear power projects in developing countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The IAEA has recently published a reference book entitled Financing Arrangements for Nuclear Power Projects in Developing Countries (Technical Reports Series No. 353). The book reviews comprehensively the main features and problems concerning the financing of such projects in developing countries and presents innovative approaches for power generation financing. It also discusses the special conditions and requirements of nuclear power projects and the complexities of their financing, focusing on the practical issues to be dealt with to achieve successful financing, as well as the constraints encountered by most developing countries. This booklet summarizes the important features of the financing arrangements discussed in the reference book and was prepared with the aim of widely disseminating the results

13

Financing arrangements for nuclear power projects - past and present experience and future expectations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The intent of the author of the present paper is to demonstrate, in a practical manner, the role of the past experience and the new approaches of the nuclear projects financing, especially as nuclear generation financing in developing countries involves complex issues that need to be fully understood and dealt with by all the parties involved, namely: high investment costs, generally long construction periods, a high degree of uncertainty with respect to costs and schedule and to public acceptance, particularly because of safety, waste disposal and non-proliferation issues. Moreover, as many associations whose activities consist of ensuring and facilitating at different levels the exchange of knowledge between generations, i.e.: European Nuclear Society (ENS) Young Generation, North American Young Generation in Nuclear (NA-YGN), the goal of the paper is also to outline the importance of the education in nuclear field, i.e. training a young team of specialists to be ready to take over the movement and responsibility in continuing the further development of nuclear program in Romania, mainly with view to the Financing Arrangements for Nuclear Power Projects. The first part of the paper is referring to general financing procedures, while the second part is focusing on a case study related to the: past experience the financing scheme of Cernavoda NPP Unit 1, present or actual experience ongoing financing issues for Cernavoda NPP Unit 2 and potential future shared contribution to the financing of the next Cernavoda NPP units.(author)

14

Finance  

OpenAIRE

Bisher veröffentlicht unter dem Titel: "Modern Finance" Das Buch beinhaltet ebenso einige Portraits: Die didaktische Erfahrung lehrt, dass man sich wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse und Ansätze besser merken kann, wenn eine Assoziation zu jener Person bildlich konkret wird, der wir den betreffenden Denkansatz verdanken. Aus Fragen der Finanzierung und der Investitionsentscheidungen von Unternehmen ist in der Verschmelzung mit der Analyse von Kapitalmärkten ein großes Gebiet e...

Klaus Spremann

2007-01-01

15

Flexible cryogenic conduit  

Science.gov (United States)

A flexible and relatively low cost cryogenic conduit is described. The flexible cryogenic conduit of the present invention comprises a first inner corrugated tube with single braided serving, a second outer corrugated tube with single braided serving concentric with the inner corrugated tube, and arranged outwardly about the periphery of the inner corrugated tube and between the inner and outer corrugated tubes: a superinsulation layer; a one half lap layer of polyester ribbon; a one half lap layer of copper ribbon; a spirally wound refrigeration tube; a second one half lap layer of copper ribbon; a second one half lap layer of polyester ribbon; a second superinsulation layer; a third one half lap layer of polyester ribbon; and a spirally wound stretchable and compressible filament.

Brindza, Paul Daniel (Yorktown, VA); Wines, Robin Renee (Norfolk, VA); Takacs, James Joseph (Hayes, VA)

1999-01-01

16

Automated Conduit Unloading  

Science.gov (United States)

Large, cumbersome pipes removed from trailer by one operator. Swiveltruck trailer carries conduit and unloads it. Vertical bins interconnected by web belts that elevate conduit sections for delivery by gravity to unloading point. Trailer loaded with slurry-pipe sections 6 inches (15.2 centimeters) in diameter, but bin width readily changed to hold other sizes. Simple adjustments in bin-partition and web-belt positions needed to adapt system to different conduit cross sections.

Lewis, E. V.

1986-01-01

17

Solar thermal financing guidebook  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This guidebook contains information on alternative financing methods that could be used to develop solar thermal systems. The financing arrangements discussed include several lease alternatives, joint venture financing, R and D partnerships, industrial revenue bonds, and ordinary sales. In many situations, alternative financing arrangements can significantly enhance the economic attractiveness of solar thermal investments by providing a means to efficiently allocate elements of risk, return on investment, required capital investment, and tax benefits. A net present value approach is an appropriate method that can be used to investigate the economic attractiveness of alternative financing methods. Although other methods are applicable, the net present value approach has advantages of accounting for the time value of money, yielding a single valued solution to the financial analysis, focusing attention on the opportunity cost of capital, and being a commonly understood concept that is relatively simple to apply. A personal computer model for quickly assessing the present value of investments in solar thermal plants with alternative financing methods is presented in this guidebook. General types of financing arrangements that may be desirable for an individual can be chosen based on an assessment of his goals in investing in solar thermal systems and knowledge of the individual's tax situation. Once general financing arrangements have been selected, a screening analysis can quickly determine if the solar investment is worthy of detailed study.

Williams, T.A.; Cole, R.J.; Brown, D.R.; Dirks, J.A.; Edelhertz, H.; Holmlund, I.; Malhotra, S.; Smith, S.A.; Sommers, P.; Willke, T.L.

1983-05-01

18

Gastric conduit perforation.  

Science.gov (United States)

As patients with carcinoma of the esophagus live longer, complications associated with the use of a gastric conduit are increasing. Ulcers form in the gastric conduit in 6.6% to 19.4% of patients. There are a few reports of perforation of a gastric conduit in the English literature. Almost all of these were associated with serious complications. We report a patient who developed a tension pneumothorax consequent to spontaneous perforation of an ulcer in the gastric conduit 7 years after the index surgery in a patient with carcinoma of the gastroesophageal junction. He responded well to conservative management. Complications related to a gastric conduit can be because of multiple factors. Periodic endoscopic surveillance of gastric conduits should be considered as these are at a higher risk of ulcer formation than a normal stomach. Long term treatment with proton pump inhibitors may decrease complications. There are no guidelines for the treatment of a perforated gastric conduit ulcer and the management should be individualized. PMID:25133156

Patil, Nilesh; Kaushal, Arvind; Jain, Amit; Saluja, Sundeep Singh; Mishra, Pramod Kumar

2014-08-16

19

Transverse colon conduit diversion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The versatility and other advantages of the transverse colon conduit for urinary diversion have been described and implemented in 50 patients. Because most patients considered for this procedure will be at high risk because of a history of significant pelvic irradiation, underlying malignancy, poor renal function, fistula, and so forth, the technical details of surgery and patient selection cannot be minimized. The transverse colon segment is indicated for primary supravesical diversion as well as for salvage of problems related to ileal conduits. Adenocarcinoma of the colon is an unlikely long-term complication of this form of diversion because the fecal stream is absent. Now that the transverse colon conduit has been used for more than 10 years, meaningful comparisons with ileal segments should soon be available

20

Conduit purging device and method  

Science.gov (United States)

A device for purging gas comprises a conduit assembly defining an interior volume. The conduit assembly comprises a first conduit portion having an open first end and an open second end and a second conduit portion having an open first end and a closed second end. The open second end of the first conduit portion is disposed proximate to the open first end of the second conduit portion to define a weld region. The device further comprises a supply element supplying a gas to the interior volume at a substantially constant rate and a vent element venting the gas from the interior volume at a rate that maintains the gas in the interior volume within a pressure range suitable to hold a weld bead in the weld region in equilibrium during formation of a weld to join the first conduit portion and the second conduit portion.

Wilks, Michael T. (Inventor)

2011-01-01

21

Seal between metal and ceramic conduits  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A seal between a ceramic conduit and a metal conduit of an ion transport membrane device consisting of a sealing surface of ceramic conduit, a sealing surface of ceramic conduit, a single gasket body, and a single compliant interlayer.

Underwood, Richard Paul; Tentarelli, Stephen Clyde

2015-02-03

22

Portable conduit retention apparatus for releasably retaining a conduit therein  

Science.gov (United States)

Portable conduit retention apparatus for releasably retaining a conduit therein. The apparatus releasably retains the conduit out of the way of nearby personnel and equipment. The apparatus includes a portable support frame defining a slot therein having an open mouth portion in communication with the slot for receiving the conduit through the open mouth portion and into the slot. A retention bar is pivotally connected to the support frame adjacent the mouth portion for releasably retaining the conduit in the slot. The retention bar freely pivots to a first position, so that the mouth portion is unblocked in order that the conduit is received through the mouth portion and into the slot. In addition, the retention bar freely pivots to a second position, so that the mouth portion is blocked in order that the conduit is retained in the slot. The conduit is released from the slot by pivoting the retention bar to the first position to unblock the mouth portion and thereafter manipulating the conduit from the slot and through the mouth portion. The apparatus may further include a mounting member attached to the support frame for mounting the apparatus on a vertical support surface. Another embodiment of the apparatus includes a shoe assembly of predetermined weight removably connected to the support frame for resting the apparatus on a floor in such a manner that the apparatus is substantially stationary on the floor.

Metzger, Richard H. (West Seneca, NY)

1998-01-01

23

Private Placement Debt Financing for Public Entities  

Science.gov (United States)

Private placement financing is a debt or capital lease obligation arranged between a municipality or a 501(c) (3) not-for-profit organization and a single sophisticated institutional investor. The investor can be a bank, insurance company, finance company, hedge fund, or high-net worth individual. Private placement financing is similar to…

Holman, Lance S.

2010-01-01

24

Centrifuges, centrifuge plants and flow control arrangements therefor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A gas centrifuge with flow control arrangement and a centrifuge plant are claimed. The centrifuge comprises a rotor mounted in a housing, a feed line, a line for separated product and a tails line for depleted gas. There is a flow control arrangement in one or more of these lines. The centrifuge plant comprises a plurality of separative units arranged in stages of differing enrichment of product. The flow control arrangement comprises a conduit sealable by a flap adapted to block the conduit when abnormal gas flow occurs

25

Private infrastructure finance and investment in Europe  

OpenAIRE

This study discusses the structure and development of private infrastructure finance in Europe in a global context. It examines the contribution of private capital to the financing of infrastructure investment needs. A 'big picture' is created by putting the various financing instruments and investment vehicles into a simple frame, i.e. percentages of GDP. There is scope for the development of alternative financing arrangements (such as public-private partnerships) and investment vehicles (su...

Inderst, Georg

2013-01-01

26

30 CFR 18.39 - Hose conduit.  

Science.gov (United States)

...1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hose conduit. 18.39 Section 18.39 Mineral Resources...Construction and Design Requirements § 18.39 Hose conduit. Hose conduit shall be provided for mechanical protection of...

2010-07-01

27

47 CFR 32.2441 - Conduit systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conduit systems. 32.2441 Section 32...Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2441 Conduit systems. (a) This account shall include the original cost of conduit, whether underground, in...

2010-10-01

28

CONDUIT: Control Designer's Unified Interface  

Science.gov (United States)

CONDUIT, which stands for control designer's unified interface, is a computer software package. Its purpose is to assist a human control system designer in designing control systems for aircraft. At the present time CONDUIT is being used by most of the major U. S. rotorcraft and fixed-wing aircraft manufacturers to assist in the design of stability and control augmentation systems. Work is also continuing on the development of additional features for CONDUIT, including tools for analyzing the sensitivity of solutions, and on further enhancements to the basic package. The purpose of this paper is to describe CONDUIT, its operation, and the sensitivity tools that are being developed for inclusion in the next release of the package.

Levine, William S.; Tischler, Mark B.

1999-01-01

29

Conduit for Transferring Molten Silicon  

Science.gov (United States)

Proposed three-part conduit transfers pure silicon between crucibles. Four-strip heater augments layers of insulation to prevent molten silicon from cooling and solidifying during transfer. Since melt is maintained at temperature relatively close to fusion point, to minimize quartz erosion, even relatively-minor heat losses precipitate solidification and terminate work in progress. Several crucibles may be fed through conduits from central crucible. Each would be contained in its own compartment under inert atmosphere.

Fiegl, G.; Torbet, W.

1982-01-01

30

Particle Loss in Sampling Conduits  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Loss of particles in long sampling conduits may cause serious underestimation of airborne radioactivity levels, particularly for particles under 0.01 ?m and over 1 ?m diam. The smaller particles are lost by diffusion and the larger ones by gravity settling. Losses can also occur from turbulent diffusion and impaction at high sampling rates, and from electrical effects if the conduits are made of non conductors. A single equation for loss of particles by diffusion in conduits has been developed, superseding the set of two equations which has been used since 1949, Equations giving loss due to gravity settling in tubes, developed independently by Natanson and by Thomas are shown to be identical, and experimental confirmation of the equations has been obtained. From these equations graphs were developed which permit a rapid estimation of losses as a function of particle size, flow rate, and conduit dimensions. Recommendations are made for design and operation of sampling conduits to minimize losses. A principal recommendation is that the flow rate should be 150 times the conduit diameter. (author)

31

Financing a nuclear programme  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear power plant construction projects have many characteristics in common with other types of large infrastructure investment, both within the power generation sector and elsewhere. However, nuclear power itself has special features that can make nuclear financing particularly challenging. These features include the high capital cost, the relatively long period required to recoup investments, the often controversial nature of nuclear projects. The need for clear solutions and financing schemes for radioactive waste management and decommissioning and the need for nuclear power plants to operate at high capacity factors, preferably under base load conditions. During the previous major expansion of nuclear power in the 1970 and 1980, many nuclear projects suffered very large construction delays and cost overruns. The legacy of such problems increases the risks perceived by potential investors. A recent study undertaken jointly by the Iea and the Nea showed that the competitiveness of nuclear power strongly depends on the cost of financing due to the high share of fixed capital costs in the total lifetime costs of nuclear power. A key issue in this context is the long-term predictability of carbon pricing arrangements, which, for the time being and despite positive evolutions in this respect, most notably in Europe, does not yet exist. This paper will consider how the risks can be mitigated and examine in detail various models for corporate finance and the role of gov for corporate finance and the role of government assistance in providing a suitable financial basis. (Author)

32

Bentall Operation with Valved Homograft Conduit  

OpenAIRE

Lesions of the ascending aorta associated with aortic valve disease are usually treated by implanting a prosthetic valved conduit (Bentall procedure). In this report, we present our experience in which a valved homograft conduit was used for the procedure.

Choudhary, Shiv K.; Talwar, Sachin; Kumar, A. Sampath

2000-01-01

33

The corrosion effect on the conduit systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The conduits in the buildings require a regular and permanent control, in order to avoid the risks of deterioration caused by the corrosion or the escape of water. In this work, we present a thermal nondestructive testing method of concrete structures containing water conduits, based on numerical modeling in three dimensions. The goal is to study the detectability of these conduits in different situations and to give a thermal characterization of the rust behaviour in the steel conduits. (author)

34

Ductile compaction in volcanic conduits  

Science.gov (United States)

Silicic magmas typically outgas through connected pore and crack networks with a high gas permeability without the need for decoupled movement of pores in the melt. It is the efficiency with which this process can occur which governs the pressure in the pore network. However, such a connected coupled network is generally mechanically unstable and will relax until volume equilibrium when the pores become smaller and isolated. Consequently, gas permeability can be reduced during densification. Cycles of outgassing events recorded in gas monitoring data show that permeable flow of volatiles is often transient, which is interpreted to reflect magma densification and the closing of pore-networks. Understanding the timescale over which this densification process occurs is critical to refining conduit models that seek to predict the pressure evolution in a pore-network leading to eruptions. We conduct uniaxial compaction experiments to parameterize non-linear creep and relaxation processes that occur in magmas with total pore fractions 0.2-0.85. We analyze our results by applying both viscous sintering and viscoelastic deformation theory to test the applicability of currently accepted models to flow dynamics in the uppermost conduit involving highly porous magmas. We show that purely ductile compaction can occur rapidly and that pore networks can close over timescales analogous to the inter-eruptive periods observed during classic cyclic eruptions such as those at Soufriere Hills volcano, Montserrat, in 1997. At upper-conduit axial stresses (0.1-5 MPa) and magmatic temperatures (830-900 oC), we show that magmas can evolve to porosities analogous to dome lavas erupted at the same volcano. Such dramatic densification events over relatively short timescales and in the absence of brittle deformation show that permeable flow will be inhibited at upper conduit levels. We therefore propose that outgassing is a key feature at many silicic volcanoes and should be incorporated into conduit flow models.

Wadsworth, Fabian; Vasseur, Jeremie; Lavallée, Yan; Scheu, Bettina; Dingwell, Donald

2014-05-01

35

Structuring and financing power projects in Asia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The contractual arrangements for the financing and construction of three 660 MW coal fired power plants in Hong Kong are summarized in the form of headings and a diagram. These cover the joint venture arrangement, construction and equipment supply, the operation and offtake contract, coal supply and the financial structure with respect to commercial risk. (UK)

36

Method and apparatus for inspecting conduits  

Science.gov (United States)

An apparatus and method for ultrasonic inspection of a conduit are provided. The method involves directing a first ultrasonic pulse at a particular area of the conduit at a first angle, receiving the reflected sound from the first ultrasonic pulse, substantially simultaneously or subsequently in very close time proximity directing a second ultrasonic pulse at said area of the conduit from a substantially different angle than said first angle, receiving the reflected sound from the second ultrasonic pulse, and comparing the received sounds to determine if there is a defect in that area of the conduit. The apparatus of the invention is suitable for carrying out the above-described method. The method and apparatus of the present invention provide the ability to distinguish between sounds reflected by defects in a conduit and sounds reflected by harmless deposits associated with the conduit.

Spisak, Michael J. (Venetia, PA); Nance, Roy A. (McMurray, PA)

1997-01-01

37

Peripheral nerve conduits: technology update  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available D Arslantunali,1–3,* T Dursun,1,2,* D Yucel,1,4,5 N Hasirci,1,2,6 V Hasirci,1,2,7 1BIOMATEN, Center of Excellence in Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering, Middle East Technical University (METU, Ankara, Turkey; 2Department of Biotechnology, METU, Ankara, Turkey; 3Department of Bioengineering, Gumushane University, Gumushane, Turkey; 4Faculty of Engineering, Department of Medical Engineering, Acibadem University, Istanbul, Turkey; 5School of Medicine, Department of Histology and Embryology, Acibadem University, Istanbul, Turkey; 6Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, METU, Ankara, Turkey; 7Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, METU, Ankara, Turkey *These authors have contributed equally to this work Abstract: Peripheral nerve injury is a worldwide clinical problem which could lead to loss of neuronal communication along sensory and motor nerves between the central nervous system (CNS and the peripheral organs and impairs the quality of life of a patient. The primary requirement for the treatment of complete lesions is a tension-free, end-to-end repair. When end-to-end repair is not possible, peripheral nerve grafts or nerve conduits are used. The limited availability of autografts, and drawbacks of the allografts and xenografts like immunological reactions, forced the researchers to investigate and develop alternative approaches, mainly nerve conduits. In this review, recent information on the various types of conduit materials (made of biological and synthetic polymers and designs (tubular, fibrous, and matrix type are being presented. Keywords: peripheral nerve injury, natural biomaterials, synthetic biomaterials

Arslantunali D

2014-12-01

38

Conduit to connect two fixed apparatus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The conduits between intermediate heat exchangers, secondary pumps and steam generators are subject to important thermal stresses and expansions of large amplitude. The invention concerns a pipe which connects two fixed apparatus, ensuring the circulation of a fluid of which temperature is very high or low with regard to the ambient temperature. The conduit comprises three straight sections of which lengths are nearly the same, connected end to end and mounted such as the axis of any section is orthogonal with regard to the two other axes. This conduit allows to reduce stresses at their minimal value, more particularly thermal stresses, while reducing the conduit at its minimal length

39

Micro finance  

OpenAIRE

Poor people often have just hand to mouth existence and have few reserves for major expenses such as illness, weddings, house repairs or education. They are unable to build their savings and are forced to borrow at exorbitant rates. This further adds to their burden and worsens their economic situation. Micro finance is the supply of loans, savings, and other basic financial services to the poor. The idea of micro finance was developed as a survival strategy for the poor. In India, Ela Bha...

Ramachandran, Ramakrishnan; Senthil Kumar, T. S.

2006-01-01

40

The Japanese approach to financing LNG projects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Japanese approach approach to financing LNG project has been what could be called a combined purchase and finance system which has been arranged mainly at the initiative of japan's Sogo Shosh (general trading companies) with the support of japanese governmental financial agencies and a purchase commitment from japanese utilities. In the QATARGAS project, despite it being the first greenfield LNG project in decade since North West Shelf Australia LNG project, financing for the LNG plant phase has been successfully arranged through Japanese financing. The structuring of the financial facilities for the QATARGAS project seems to have lessons for future development of the next generation of greenfield LNG projects. Discharge of the parties' liability, proper sharing of the risk burden and reconfirmation of the spirit of mutual understanding and trust among the parties concerned are key factors for the success of any new LNG project in the future. (Author)

41

Transitional cell carcinoma in an ileal conduit.  

OpenAIRE

Following cystectomy for transitional cell carcinoma a 63 year old woman developed recurrent tumours in the upper urinary tract and ileal conduit, suggesting that malignant transitional cells can auto-implant in ileal epithelium. This phenomenon has not been previously reported. We illustrate the value of retrograde urogram via an ileal conduit following cystectomy for cancer.

Curran, F. T.; Fuggle, W. J.

1986-01-01

42

Electrical Conduit Distributes Weld Gas Evenly  

Science.gov (United States)

Purge-gas distributor, made from flexible electrical conduit by drilling small holes along its length, provides even gas flow for welding. Flexible conduit adjusts to accomodate almost any shape and is used for gas coverage in other applications that previously needed formed and drilled solid tubing.

Ambrisco, D. P.

1983-01-01

43

Centrifuges, centrifuge installations and arrangements for controlling the flow within them  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This invention relates to valve arrangements and to centrifuges incorporating such valve arrangements. In a plant where isotopes of an element in a gaseous form are separated, for example where uranium 235 is separated from uranium 238, both isotopes being in the form of uranium hexafluoride, it is important that the effect of impurity gas within the plant is minimised. This is so because otherwise the plant may have to handle gases of a molecular weight which it was not designed to handle and this can have deleterious effects upon the operation of the plant and may cause breakdown of some centrifuges. An object of the present invention is to provide a valve arrangement and a centrifuge enrichment plant utilising such valve arrangements so that such deleterious effects tend to be avoided. The valve arrangement comprises a conduit containing a ball valve which is responsive to gas flowing in the conduit, the ball valve being obstructive to flow in one direction in the conduit when abnormal gas flow occurs in the conduit. Preferably, the ball valve comprises a mesh arrangement for supporting a ball, said mesh arrangement being permeable to gas. Advantageously, the ball valve comprises a rest for the ball, which rest supports the ball in such a manner as to block gas flow. In use, the ball may rest upon said mesh when the valve is open and may rest upon said rest when the valve is shut. (Auth.)

44

Financing a Transplant  

Science.gov (United States)

... Kidney Pancreas Kidney/Pancreas Liver Intestine Financing A Transplant Financing a transplant raises many questions and concerns for patients and ... combination of sources. Some patients can finance the transplant procedure through their primary insurance coverage and use ...

45

The interior coating of rectangular conduit structures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The problems associated with the interior coating of rectangular conduit structures are considered in the context of a concrete application example, viz. the interior goldplating of a rectangular, conduit-shaped antenna for 2.4 MW and 1.3 GHz used to heat plasma with radio waves. The antenna in question is the ASDEX transmitter of the Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics (IPP) in Garching near Munich. (orig.)

46

Small hydro conduit optimization with differential calculus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Differential calculus methods were used to simplify the calculation of optimizing a power plant conduit. An equation for the costs and lost benefits as a function of conduit diameter was proposed. A nine-step procedure was presented which included a method to take into account different operating modes, peaking or base loaded. Two working examples, one based on a proposed power plant in the Northwest Territories and one on a high pressure steel penstock in South America were presented. 5 refs.

Gordon, J.L.

1998-05-01

47

On Arrangements of Pseudohyperplanes  

CERN Document Server

We study arrangements of pseudohyperplanes (hyperplanes that are topologically deformed in some mild way). In general these arrangements correspond to non-realizable oriented matroids and arise as a consequence of the Folkman-Lawrence Topological Representation Theorem. We introduce a topological space naturally associated with these pseudo arrangements that has the homotopy type of the associated Salvetti complex.

Deshpande, Priyavrat

2012-01-01

48

Public Education Finances, 2009  

Science.gov (United States)

The U.S. Census Bureau conducts a Census of Government Finances and an Annual Survey of Government Finances as authorized by law under Title 13, U.S. Code, Sections 161 and 182. The Census of Government Finances has been conducted every 5 years since 1957, while the Annual Survey of Government Finances has been conducted annually since 1977 in…

US Census Bureau, 2011

2011-01-01

49

Public Education Finances: 2010  

Science.gov (United States)

The U.S. Census Bureau conducts a Census of Government Finances and an Annual Survey of Government Finances as authorized by law under Title 13, U.S. Code, Sections 161 and 182. The Census of Government Finances has been conducted every 5 years since 1957, while the Annual Survey of Government Finances has been conducted annually since 1977 in…

Dixon, Mark

2012-01-01

50

Arrangements of double pseudolines  

CERN Document Server

Define an arrangement of double pseudolines as a finite family of separating simple closed curves embedded in a real two-dimensional projective plane with the property that any two intersect in exactly four transversal intersection points and induce a cell decomposition of their underlying projective plane. We show that the dual arrangement of any finite family of pairwise disjoint convex bodies of any real two-dimensional projective geometry is an arrangement of double pseudolines and that, conversely, any arrangement of double pseudolines is isomorphic to the dual arrangement of a finite family of pairwise disjoint convex bodies of a real two-dimensional projective geometry. Furthermore we provide a simple axiomatic characterization of the class of isomorphism classes of indexed arrangements of oriented double pseudolines and we establish a one-to-one and onto correspondence between this latter class and the class of chirotopes of finite indexed families of pairwise disjoint oriented convex bodies of real t...

Habert, Luc

2011-01-01

51

A case report of complication liked jejunal conduit syndrome induced by reconstruction of ileal conduit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The patient was a 77-year-old man who underwent radical cystectomy and ileal conduit urinary diversion due to bladder cancer in 1989. A stenosis of the right uretero-ileal anastomosis occurred in 1992, and of the left uretero-ileal anastomosis in 1999. These were treated with indwelling of a ureteral stent and percutaneous nephrostomy, respectively. He was admitted to our hospital for progressive renal dysfunction due to frequent pyelonephritis. We performed a reconstruction of the ileal conduit urinary diversion and after the removal of the bilateral ureteral stent he complained of nausea and general malaise. The laboratory data showed hyponatremia, hyperkalemia and azotemia, which were diagnosed as complication liked jejunal conduit syndrome. He was treated with hydration and salt supplementation. With regard to this case, we considered that a long ileal conduit close to the jejunum and renal dysfunction caused the complication liked jejunal conduit syndrome. Careful observation and follow-up laboratory examination should be performed if the patient has renal dysfunction and a long conduit near the jejunum is used for the ileal conduit. (author)

52

Financing the Ranger uranium project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Construction of the Ranger uranium project located 230 km east of Darwin in the Northern Territory commenced in January 1979. Energy Resources of Australia Ltd was incorporated in February 1980 to acquire all the rights in the project. The total cost to ERA of these rights was $407 million. In October 1980 ERA'S cash requirements were estimated to be $553 million. Overseas participants (power utilities who had agreed to purchase uranium yellowcake under contract) arranged to take up 25% of the equity capital, Peko-Wallsend Ltd and EZ Industries Ltd were allotted 30.5% each and 14% was issued to Australian residents. The loan and equity financing arrangements required the successful resolution of many complex and interlocking factors, including technical and economic feasibility, agreement with aboriginal interests, compliance with Government policies and securing of sales contracts

53

Preventing or repairing ileal conduit herniation?  

Science.gov (United States)

We enjoyed the video vignette clearly demonstrating the benefits of a laparoscopic modified Sugarbaker repair for ileal conduit herniation (1), yet could not help but be reminded of Benjamin Franklin's (1706-1790) quote "an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure". This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID:25472743

Bosanquet, David C; Mainwaring, Anna; Rutka, Olga; Stephenson, Brian M; Carter, Adam C

2014-12-01

54

Feed-thru conduit minimizes heat pickup  

Science.gov (United States)

Insulated feed-thru conduit minimizes heat pickup by a cryogenic fluid passing through the walls of a double high-vacuum chamber, and is capable of expansion and contraction with the walls of the chamber. It uses a bellows and rigid cylinder to provide a low-loss feed-thru for the cryogenic liquid.

Yager, S. P.

1967-01-01

55

Xylem hydraulic conductivity related to conduit dimensions along chrysanthemum stems.  

OpenAIRE

The stem xylem conduit dimensions and hydraulic conductivity of chrysanthemum plants (Dendranthemaxgrandiflorum Tzvelev cv. Cassa) were analysed and quantified. Simple exponential relations describe conduit length distribution, height dependency of conduit length distribution, and height dependency of stem hydraulic conductivity. These mathematical descriptions can be used to model the xylem water transport system. Within a chrysanthemum stem of 1.0 m, the conduit half-length (the length with...

Nijsse, J.; Heijden, G. W. A. M.; Ieperen, W.; Keijzer, C. J.; Meeteren, U.

2001-01-01

56

18 CFR 358.6 - No conduit rule.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false No conduit rule. 358.6 Section 358.6...STANDARDS OF CONDUCT § 358.6 No conduit rule. (a) A transmission provider is prohibited from using anyone as a conduit for the disclosure of...

2010-04-01

57

EMP/EMI hardening of electrical conduit systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Properly designed and installed conduit systems can provide an effective EMP/EMI hardening technique for fixed facility construction. This report presents the results of a CERL study to provide design criteria and to conduct hardness assessments for such shielded systems. Leakage mechanisms are identified, and techniques for determining signal levels coupled to conductors inside conduit systems are presented. EMP shielding properties of conduit hardware items are analyzed and some experimental EMP hardened conduit hardware items evaluated. Finally, a number of 'in situ' test techniques for identifying and locating EMP-related defects in an installed conduit system are assessed.

Nielsen, P. H.

1981-09-01

58

Peak load arrangements : Assessment of Nordel guidelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two Nordic countries, Sweden and Finland, have legislation that empowers the TSO to acquire designated peak load resources to mitigate the risk for shortage situations during the winter. In Denmark, the system operator procures resources to maintain a satisfactory level of security of supply. In Norway the TSO has set up a Regulation Power Option Market (RKOM) to secure a satisfactory level of operational reserves at all times, also in winter with high load demand. Only the arrangements in Finland and Sweden fall under the heading of Peak Load Arrangements defined in Nordel Guidelines. NordREG has been invited by the Electricity Market Group (EMG) to evaluate Nordel's proposal for 'Guidelines for transitional Peak Load Arrangements'. The EMG has also financed a study made by EC Group to support NordREG in the evaluation of the proposal. The study has been taken into account in NordREG's evaluation. In parallel to the EMG task, the Swedish regulator, the Energy Markets Inspectorate, has been given the task by the Swedish government to investigate a long term solution of the peak load issue. The Swedish and Finnish TSOs have together with Nord Pool Spot worked on finding a harmonized solution for activation of the peak load reserves in the market. An agreement accepted by the relevant authorities was reached in early January 2009, and the arrangement has been implemented since 19th January 2009. NordREG views that the proposed Nordel guidelines have served as a starting point for the presently agreed procedure. However, NordREG does not see any need to further develop the Nordel guidelines for peak load arrangements. NordREG agrees with Nordel that the market should be designed to solve peak load problems through proper incentives to market players. NordREG presumes that the relevant authorities in each country will take decisions on the need for any peak load arrangement to ensure security of supply. NordREG proposes that such decisions should be taken after consultation with parties in other Nordic countries, and involving also regulators and TSOs. In NordREG's view there are basically three principles that should be guiding any decision to introduce peak load arrangements in the Nordic countries: i), the peak load arrangements should be introduced only in situations when security of supply cannot be met without these arrangements. Since the decision to introduce peak load arrangements might be of a political/legal nature, the length of such arrangement cannot be fixed. However, there should be a regular evaluation by the competent authority of any need or prolonged need for peak load arrangements and its effects of price formation in the Nordic market. ii), when peak load arrangements are introduced they should be designed to minimize the adverse effects on price formation in the Nordic market. Furthermore, if there are to be peak load arrangements, there might be a need for how to distinguish these peak load reserves from other reserves at the disposal of the TSOs. However, this issue needs further discussions and development. iii), Nordic consultation should be carried out where the views of all relevant authorities and stake holders in the market affected are invited. It is recommended that the governments consult with their Nordic counter parties before submitting legal proposals on peak load arrangements affecting Nordic price formation. These consultations should also be with regulators and TSOs who are involved in the design of the actual peak load arrangements. (Author)

2009-07-01

59

Dispersive Hydrodynamics in Viscous Fluid Conduits  

CERN Document Server

The evolution of the interface separating a conduit of light, viscous fluid rising buoyantly through a heavy, more viscous, exterior fluid at small Reynolds numbers is governed by the interplay between nonlinearity and dispersion. Previous authors have proposed an approximate model equation based on physical arguments, but a precise theoretical treatment for this two fluid system with a free boundary is lacking. Here, a derivation of the interfacial equation via a multiple scales, perturbation technique is presented. Perturbations about a state of vertically uniform, laminar conduit flow are considered in the context of the Navier-Stokes equations with appropriate boundary conditions. The ratio of interior to exterior viscosities is the small parameter used in the asymptotic analysis, which leads systematically to a maximal balance between buoyancy driven, nonlinear self-steepening and viscous, interfacial stress induced, nonlinear dispersion. This results in a scalar, nonlinear partial differential equation ...

Lowman, Nicholas K

2013-01-01

60

Acoustic signal propagation characterization of conduit networks  

Science.gov (United States)

Analysis of acoustic signal propagation in conduit networks has been an important area of research in acoustics. One major aspect of analyzing conduit networks as acoustic channels is that a propagating signal suffers frequency dependent attenuation due to thermo-viscous boundary layer effects and the presence of impedance mismatches such as side branches. The signal attenuation due to side branches is strongly influenced by their numbers and dimensions such as diameter and length. Newly developed applications for condition based monitoring of underground conduit networks involve measurement of acoustic signal attenuation through tests in the field. In many cases the exact installation layout of the field measurement location may not be accessible or actual installation may differ from the documented layout. The lack of exact knowledge of numbers and lengths of side branches, therefore, introduces uncertainty in the measurements of attenuation and contributes to the random variable error between measured results and those predicted from theoretical models. There are other random processes in and around conduit networks in the field that also affect the propagation of an acoustic signal. These random processes include but are not limited to the presence of strong temperature and humidity gradients within the conduits, blockages of variable sizes and types, effects of aging such as cracks, bends, sags and holes, ambient noise variations and presence of variable layer of water. It is reasonable to consider that the random processes contributing to the error in the measured attenuation are independent and arbitrarily distributed. The error, contributed by a large number of independent sources of arbitrary probability distributions, is best described by an approximately normal probability distribution in accordance with the central limit theorem. Using an analytical approach to model the attenuating effect of each of the random variable sources can be very complex and may be intractable. A tractable approach is to develop an empirical model of the attenuation that has a stochastic component of a finite mean and variance to account for the random variable error akin to addition of a normally distributed random variable shadowing component in the path loss models of radio frequency (RF) wireless communication channels. This approach forms the crux of the present study. To develop an empirical model, a large number of measurements in conduit networks were made in the field and in a laboratory test set up to measure the variability of attenuation with variation in four parameters. These parameters include distance of the receiver from the source, frequency, numbers and lengths of side branches. Variation in signal attenuation with distance at each transmitted frequency is predicted by using linear regression through the scatter plot of the measured data. Variations in signal attenuation due to change in frequency, number and lengths of side branches are measured in the field and laboratory tests by comparing the reference transmitted pressure with the received pressure at either the open end or at some distance away from the source along the conduit length. Residuals between measured and predicted sound pressure levels are computed and tested for normal probability distribution through a graphical method as well as a statistical goodness of fit test for quantifiable results. The findings indicate that an empirical model of signal attenuation, which includes a normally distributed random variable component to account for random variable errors in the attenuation measurements, gives a more accurate prediction of received acoustic signal strength in a conduit compared to existing theoretical models.

Khan, Muhammad Safeer

61

EMP injection on conduit entries, type Brattberg  

Science.gov (United States)

The ability of conduit entries to divert EMP currents from the cables to a shielding structure was studied. The gas tight entry has a brass plate connecting the cable sheath and cable shield with the shielding structure. The measurements were made at different values of the time derivative of the current. Results show that the diverting properties of the cable entries are satisfactory in most cases.

Borgefalk, O.; Dikvall, T.

1984-05-01

62

Secure E-Link For Jostle Conduit  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, we delineated secure e-link for jostle conduit. Also, we depicted nearness function to obtain error free original message , which is deliberately required for Internet communication. It is the model of a real-life secures e-link system for any organization. In this model a sender can send a secret message even to a unacquainted person in an anonymous way.

Meenu Sahni

2011-01-01

63

Thermal damping and retardation in karst conduits  

Science.gov (United States)

Water temperature is a non-conservative tracer in the environment. Variations in recharge temperature are damped and retarded as water moves through an aquifer due to heat exchange between water and rock. However, within karst aquifers, seasonal and short-term fluctuations in recharge temperature are often transmitted over long distances before they are fully damped. Using analytical solutions and numerical simulations, we develop relationships that describe the effect of flow path properties, flow-through time, recharge characteristics, and water and rock physical properties on the damping and retardation of thermal peaks/troughs in karst conduits. Using these relationships, one can estimate the thermal retardation and damping that would occur under given conditions with a given conduit geometry. Ultimately, these relationships can be used with thermal damping and retardation field data to estimate parameters such as conduit diameter. We also examine sets of numerical experiments where we relax some of the assumptions used to develop these relationships, testing the effects of variable diameter, variable velocity, open channels, and recharge shape on thermal damping and retardation to provide some constraints on uncertainty. Finally, we discuss a tracer experiment that provides field confirmation of our relationships. High temporal resolution water temperature data are required to obtain sufficient constraints on the magnitude and timing of thermal peaks and troughs in order to take full advantage of water temperature as a tracer.

Luhmann, A. J.; Covington, M. D.; Myre, J. M.; Perne, M.; Jones, S. W.; Alexander, E. C., Jr.; Saar, M. O.

2014-08-01

64

Thermal damping and retardation in karst conduits  

Science.gov (United States)

Water temperature is a non-conservative tracer in the environment. Variations in recharge temperature are damped and retarded as water moves through an aquifer due to heat exchange between water and rock. However, within karst aquifers, seasonal and short-term fluctuations in recharge temperature are often transmitted over long distances before they are fully damped. Using analytical solutions and numerical simulations, we develop relationships that describe the effect of flow path properties, flow-through time, recharge characteristics, and water and rock physical properties on the damping and retardation of thermal peaks/troughs in karst conduits. Using these relationships, one can estimate the thermal retardation and damping that would occur under given conditions with a given conduit geometry. Ultimately, these relationships can be used with thermal damping and retardation field data to estimate parameters such as conduit diameter. We also examine sets of numerical simulations where we relax some of the assumptions used to develop these relationships, testing the effects of variable diameter, variable velocity, open channels, and recharge shape on thermal damping and retardation to provide some constraints on uncertainty. Finally, we discuss a multitracer experiment that provides some field confirmation of our relationships. High temporal resolution water temperature data are required to obtain sufficient constraints on the magnitude and timing of thermal peaks and troughs in order to take full advantage of water temperature as a tracer.

Luhmann, A. J.; Covington, M. D.; Myre, J. M.; Perne, M.; Jones, S. W.; Alexander, E. C., Jr.; Saar, M. O.

2015-01-01

65

Thermal damping and retardation in karst conduits  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Water temperature is a non-conservative tracer in the environment. Variations in recharge temperature are damped and retarded as water moves through an aquifer due to heat exchange between water and rock. However, within karst aquifers, seasonal and short-term fluctuations in recharge temperature are often transmitted over long distances before they are fully damped. Using analytical solutions and numerical simulations, we develop relationships that describe the effect of flow path properties, flow-through time, recharge characteristics, and water and rock physical properties on the damping and retardation of thermal peaks/troughs in karst conduits. Using these relationships, one can estimate the thermal retardation and damping that would occur under given conditions with a given conduit geometry. Ultimately, these relationships can be used with thermal damping and retardation field data to estimate parameters such as conduit diameter. We also examine sets of numerical experiments where we relax some of the assumptions used to develop these relationships, testing the effects of variable diameter, variable velocity, open channels, and recharge shape on thermal damping and retardation to provide some constraints on uncertainty. Finally, we discuss a tracer experiment that provides field confirmation of our relationships. High temporal resolution water temperature data are required to obtain sufficient constraints on the magnitude and timing of thermal peaks and troughs in order to take full advantage of water temperature as a tracer.

A. J. Luhmann

2014-08-01

66

Project financing in Latin America: The search for greener pastures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper addresses the basic requisites for inducing private capital to engage in infrastructure project financing. Part 1 of this paper provides an overview of project financing considerations, such as how pricing of project outputs and the credit history of output purchasers can affect the availability of project financing, and explores the use of ''Revolving Funds'' as a stimulus for private investment. Part 2 discusses several areas in which governments can become pro-active participants in establishing a sound framework for project financing of infrastructure. Part 3 briefly addresses project structuring and the contractual risk allocation process which is central to project financing, and highlights some of the key legal arrangements found in project contracts

67

DEFORMATION OF SCORIA CONE BY CONDUIT PRESSURIZATION  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A simplified mechanical model is used to simulate the deformation of a scoria cone due to pressurization of magma in a feeder conduit. The scoria cone is modeled as consisting of a cone of stabilized scoria with an axial region of loose scoria (height h{sub 1}), all overlying a vertically oriented cylindrical conduit intruded into rhyolite tuff country rock. For our analyses, the conduit is filled with basalt magma, usually with the upper length (h{sub 2}) solidified. The style of deformation of the cone depends on both h{sub 1} and h{sub 2}. If magma is prevented from hydrofracturing out of the conduit (as, for example, might be the case if the magma is surrounded by a solidified, but plastically deformable layer acting as a gasket backed up by the brittle country rock) pressures in the magma can build to 10s of MPa. When h{sub 1} is 100 m, not unusual for a small isolated basaltic cinder cone, the magma pressure needed to destabilize the cone when molten magma extends all the way to the original ground surface (h{sub 2} = 0) is only about one-third of the pressure when the upper part of the conduit is solidified (h{sub 2} = 25m). In the former case, almost the entire upper third of the cone is at failure in tension when the configuration becomes unstable. In the latter case, small portions of the surface of the cone are failing in tension when instability occurs, but a large volume in the central core of the cone is failing in shear or compressions. These results may provide insight into the status of volcanic plumbing, either past or present, beneath scoria cones. Field observations at the Lathrop Wells volcano in southern Nevada identify structures at the outer edge just below the crater rim that appear to be inward-dipping listric normal faults. This may indicate that, near the end of its active stage, the cone was close to failing in this fashion. A companion paper suggests that such a failure could have been quite energetic had it occurred.

E.S. Gaffney; B. Damjanac; D. Krier; G. Valentine

2005-08-26

68

Control the arrangements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article focuses on the New Electricity Trading Arrangements (NETA) which came into force in the UK in the spring of 2001, and the impact of NETA on the hydroelectric power sector. The principles of NETA are outlined covering their aim to increase competition in the wholesale electricity market and their role in determining the price of surpluses and deficiencies. The increase in profitability of British Nuclear Fuel's (BNFL) Maentwrog hydroelectric power plant in Wales under the NETA arrangements is examined, and the Maentwrog remote control and monitoring SCADA system is described. The potential for NETA to discriminate against small generators is considered

69

Rotary kiln arrangements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a rotary kiln arrangement in which a reaction is to occur between counterflowing reactants and material is discharged through a hopper, an injector for at least one reactant extends into a reaction zone of the kiln, means being provided for the reaction zone to be maintained within a desired temperature range. The said means includes heating elements for adjusting the temperature of the injected reactant to a temperature within the desired range while it is in the injector. The arrangement may be used in the production of uranium oxides from uranium hexafluoride. (author)

70

Guidebook to financing CDM projects  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One of the challenges facing Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects today is their limited ability to secure financing for the underlying greenhouse gas emission reduction activities, particularly in the least developed countries. Among the key reasons for this is the fact that most financial intermediaries in the CDM host countries have limited or no knowledge of the CDM Modalities and Procedures. Moreover, approaches, tools and skills for CDM project appraisal are lacking or are asymmetrical to the skills in comparable institutions in developed countries. Consequently, developing country financial institutions are unable to properly evaluate the risks and rewards associated with investing or lending to developers undertaking CDM projects, and therefore have, by-and-large, refrained from financing these projects. In addition, some potential project proponents lack experience in structuring arrangements for financing a project. This Guidebook - commissioned by the UNEP Risoe Centre as part of the activities of the Capacity Development for CDM (CD4CDM) project (http://www.cd4cdm.org) - addresses these barriers by providing information aimed at both developing country financial institutions and at CDM project proponents. It should be noted that while the Guidebook was developed particularly with the CDM in mind, most sections will also be relevant for Joint Implementation (JI) project activities. For more detailed information on JI modalities and procedures please consult: http://ji.unfccc.int The purpose of this Guidebook is two-fold: 1) To guide project developers on obtaining financing for the implementation of activities eligible under the CDM; and 2) To demonstrate to developing country financial institutions typical approaches and methods for appraising the viability of CDM projects and for optimally integrating carbon revenue into overall project financing. The target audiences for the Guidebook are therefore, primarily: 1) CDM project proponents in developing countries, including but not limited to utilities, private and public sector entities, municipalities, and other specialised consultancies and intermediaries; and 2) Credit officers and other decision-makers within banking institutions and financial intermediaries in developing countries. (au)

Kamel, S.

2007-07-01

71

FINANCING OF INTERNATIONAL TRANSACTIONS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Financing (funding is essentially the purchase of funds necessary for a business. This can be done from internal sources (company’s own funds or external (borrowed funds. The high value of goods traded in international trade makes revenues generated from internal resources not sufficient to settle the value of the goods. Thus, it is frequent to resort to borrowed funds. In International Business Transactions, external financing is done both by classical techniques of credit (credit supplier and buyer credit and modern techniques of financing (factoring, forfeiting, leasing all trade tailored. In terms of the length of financing, accounting funding is short-term (1-12 months and long-term financing (over a year. In principle, export and import operations prevailing short-term financing techniques, while international investment and industrial cooperation actions are specific long-term funding

RADU NICOLAE B?LUN?

2013-02-01

72

Financing nuclear power  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Global energy security and climate change concerns sparked by escalating oil prices, high population growth and the rapid pace of industrialization are fueling the current interest and investments in nuclear power. Globally, a significant number policy makers and energy industry leaders have identified nuclear power as a favorable alternative energy option, and are presently evaluating either a new or an expanded role for nuclear power. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has reported that as of October 2008, 14 countries have plans to construct 38 new nuclear reactors and about 100 more nuclear power plants have been written into the development plans of governments for the next three decades. Hence as new build is expected to escalate, issues of financing will become increasingly significant. Energy supply, including nuclear power, considered as a premium by government from the socio-economic and strategic perspective has traditionally been a sector financed and owned by the government. In the case for nuclear power, the conventional methods of financing include financing by the government or energy entity (utility or oil company) providing part of the funds from its own resources with support from the government. As national financing is, as in many cases, insufficient to fully finance the nuclear power plants, additional financing is sourced from international sources of financing including, amongst others, Export Credit Agencies (ECAs) and Multilateral t Credit Agencies (ECAs) and Multilateral Development Institutions. However, arising from the changing dynamics of economics, financing and business model as well as increasing concerns regarding environmental degradation , transformations in methods of financing this energy sector has been observed. This paper aims to briefly present on financing aspects of nuclear power as well as offer some examples of the changing dynamics of financing nuclear power which is reflected by the evolution of ownership and management of nuclear power plants from Government and State-owned companies to large privatised utilities and independent developers. (Author)

73

System and method measuring fluid flow in a conduit  

Science.gov (United States)

A system for measuring fluid mass flow in a conduit in which there exists a pressure differential in the fluid between at least two spaced-apart locations in the conduit. The system includes a first pressure transducer disposed in the side of the conduit at a first location for measuring pressure of fluid at that location, a second or more pressure transducers disposed in the side of the conduit at a second location, for making multiple measurements of pressure of fluid in the conduit at that location, and a computer for computing the average pressure of the multiple measurements at the second location and for computing flow rate of fluid in the conduit from the pressure measurement by the first pressure transducer and from the average pressure calculation of the multiple measurements.

Ortiz, Marcos German (Idaho Falls, ID); Kidd, Terrel G. (Blackfoot, ID)

1999-01-01

74

Ileal conduit stomal variceal bleeding managed by endovascular embolization  

OpenAIRE

Ileal conduit stomal varices are rare, and may result in bleeding. The standard treatment modality for management of this type of hemorrhage has not been established. We present the case of a 70-year-old woman with progressive ileal conduit stomal variceal bleeding which was successfully managed by endovascular embolization via the transjugular transhepatic approach. In conclusion, transjugular transhepatic endovascular embolization is a good choice in patients with ileal conduit stomal varic...

Deng-Hua Yao; Xue-Feng Luo; Biao Zhou; Xiao Li

2013-01-01

75

Parastomal Hernia as a Risk Factor for Ileal Conduit Fistulae  

OpenAIRE

Purpose: To review potential risk factors for the development of ileal conduit fistulae. Methods: Two patients were identified who had a remote history of an ileal conduit and who formed a fistula from the conduit—one to the small bowel and one to the skin. Their presentation, management and outcomes are described. Results: Both patients had parastomal hernias as the likely cause of their fistula formation. Discussion: Parastomal herniation may contribute to fistula formation due to a stran...

Skinner, Thomas A. A.; Norman, Richard W.

2011-01-01

76

Ileal conduit stomal variceal bleeding managed by endovascular embolization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ileal conduit stomal varices are rare, and may result in bleeding. The standard treatment modality for management of this type of hemorrhage has not been established. We present the case of a 70-year-old woman with progressive ileal conduit stomal variceal bleeding which was successfully managed by endovascular embolization via the transjugular transhepatic approach. In conclusion, transjugular transhepatic endovascular embolization is a good choice in patients with ileal conduit stomal variceal bleeding who have failed conservative therapy.

Deng-Hua Yao

2013-01-01

77

Nanofibrous nerve conduit-enhanced peripheral nerve regeneration.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fibre structures represent a potential class of materials for the formation of synthetic nerve conduits due to their biomimicking architecture. Although the advantages of fibres in enhancing nerve regeneration have been demonstrated, in vivo evaluation of fibre size effect on nerve regeneration remains limited. In this study, we analyzed the effects of fibre diameter of electrospun conduits on peripheral nerve regeneration across a 15-mm critical defect gap in a rat sciatic nerve injury model. By using an electrospinning technique, fibrous conduits comprised of aligned electrospun poly (?-caprolactone) (PCL) microfibers (981?±?83 nm, Microfiber) or nanofibers (251?±?32 nm, Nanofiber) were obtained. At three months post implantation, axons regenerated across the defect gap in all animals that received fibrous conduits. In contrast, complete nerve regeneration was not observed in the control group that received empty, non-porous PCL film conduits (Film). Nanofiber conduits resulted in significantly higher total number of myelinated axons and thicker myelin sheaths compared to Microfiber and Film conduits. Retrograde labeling revealed a significant increase in number of regenerated dorsal root ganglion sensory neurons in the presence of Nanofiber conduits (1.93 ± 0.71 × 10(3) vs. 0.98 ± 0.30 × 10(3) in Microfiber, p?Nanofiber conduit group compared to the Microfiber group. This study demonstrated the impact of fibre size on peripheral nerve regeneration. These results could provide useful insights for future nerve guide designs. PMID:22700359

Jiang, Xu; Mi, Ruifa; Hoke, Ahmet; Chew, Sing Yian

2014-05-01

78

Parastomal Hernia as a Risk Factor for Ileal Conduit Fistulae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: To review potential risk factors for the development of ileal conduit fistulae. Methods: Two patients were identified who had a remote history of an ileal conduit and who formed a fistula from the conduit—one to the small bowel and one to the skin. Their presentation, management and outcomes are described. Results: Both patients had parastomal hernias as the likely cause of their fistula formation. Discussion: Parastomal herniation may contribute to fistula formation due to a strangulated ischemic pressure necrosis of the adjacent ileal conduit and/or bowel.

Thomas A. A Skinner

2011-07-01

79

Project financing in the energy sector: The Indonesian experience  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Past Indonesian experiences in arranging Project Financing or Limited Recourse Financing in the Energy Sector and the feasibility of such a structure for Nuclear Power Projects are reviewed in this paper. Many of the projects in the energy sector, including Nuclear Power Project are capital intensive projects. A single project may require an investment level of several billion dollars. Large capital investments of this nature may drastically limit the availability of funds from external sources used to finance other non-energy projects in a developing country such as Indonesia. Therefore, the financing concept of a project is becoming a paramount element in the policies adopted by the Republic of Indonesia. As an example, a non-recourse finance structure is the preference of the government for export oriented energy projects. The aim of the government financing policy for export oriented energy projects is to limit the recourse to the applicable Indonesian state enterprise (the project sponsor) by transferring to third parties as much of the project risks as possible. Most of the export oriented energy projects come close to achieving a non-recourse structure. Domestic oriented energy projects however, continue to be financed with a loan guarantee by the government or by state owned enterprises. In addition to maintaining fund availability from external sources for the non-energy sector, Indonesia's reported external debts as well as debt service ratios are other factwell as debt service ratios are other factors in considering a limited recourse financing structure for capital intensive projects. (author)

80

$k$-Parabolic Subspace Arrangements  

OpenAIRE

In this paper, we study $k$-parabolic arrangements, a generalization of $k$-equal arrangements for finite real reflection groups. When $k=2$, these arrangements correspond to the well-studied Coxeter arrangements. Brieskorn (1971) showed that the fundamental group of the complement, over $\\mathbb{C}$, of the type $W$ Coxeter arrangement is isomorphic to the pure Artin group of type $W$. Khovanov (1996) gave an algebraic description for the fundamental group of the complement...

Barcelo, He?le?ne; Severs, Christopher; White, Jacob A.

2009-01-01

81

Arrangement for computer tomography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An arrangement for computer tomography is described which consists of an X-ray source for the formation of a flat fan shaped bundle of radiation and an X-ray detector consisting of several circular arc, sequentially arranged detector elements where the X-ray detector and X-ray source which are rotatable around and across the surface of the wave beam equivalent axis of rotation and are characterised by the fact that the X-ray source has a relatively small surface for radiation, the distance of the radiation input surface of the detector elements to the rotation axis is substantially equal to the distance of the radiation surface of the source to the axis of rotation of the source and the detector has a rotational angular speed of substantially the same value on the opposite side of the rotation axis. (G.C.)

82

SQUG cable tray and conduit evaluation procedure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cable tray and conduit systems for electrical cables are a common feature and industrial facilities. They have an excellent performance history in past strong earthquake, even though they are rarely designed for earthquakes. Considerable data have been gathered on their performance in earthquakes and in shake table testing. The data have been used to develop a procedure for the verification of the seismic adequacy of cable tray and conduit systems in operating nuclear plants. The procedure is discussed in this paper. It will result in substantial savings, such as reduced engineering effort, fewer modifications of existing hardware, and simpler documentation, relative to alternate procedures like dynamic analysis of shake table testing. The procedure ensures safety-function in a unique manner since the methodology used to develop it (1) is based on a large body of historical data and (2) uses a relative approach of ensuring that nuclear plant systems will perform at least as well as systems that performed well in past earthquakes. (orig.)

83

Further Development, Support and Enhancement of CONDUIT  

Science.gov (United States)

From the first airplanes steered by handles, wheels, and pedals to today's advanced aircraft, there has been a century of revolutionary inventions, all of them contributing to flight quality. The stability and controllability of aircraft as they appear to a pilot are called flying or handling qualities. Many years after the first airplanes flew, flying qualities were identified and ranked from desirable to unsatisfactory. Later on engineers developed design methods to satisfy these practical criteria. CONDUIT, which stands for Control Designer's Unified Interface, is a modern software package that provides a methodology for optimization of flight control systems in order to improve the flying qualities. CONDUIT is dependent on an the optimization engine called CONSOL-OPTCAD (C-O). C-O performs multicriterion parametric optimization. C-O was successfully tested on a variety of control problems. The optimization-based computational system, C-O, requires a particular control system description as a MATLAB file and possesses the ability to modify the vector of design parameters in an attempt to satisfy performance objectives and constraints specified by the designer, in a C-type file. After the first optimization attempts on the UH-60A control system, an early interface system, named GIFCORCODE (Graphical Interface for CONSOL-OPTCAD for Rotorcraft Controller Design) was created.

Veronica, Moldoveanu; Levine, William S.

1999-01-01

84

Public Education Finances, 2007  

Science.gov (United States)

Every five years, the U.S. Census Bureau conducts a Census of Government Finance, as authorized by law under Title 13, U.S. Code, Section 182. The 2007 Census, similar to annual surveys and censuses of governments conducted for many years, covers the entire range of government finance activities--revenue, expenditure, debt, and assets (cash and…

US Census Bureau, 2009

2009-01-01

85

Public Education Finances, 2008  

Science.gov (United States)

The United States Census Bureau conducts an Annual Survey of Government Finances as authorized by law under Title 13, United States Code, Section 182. The 2008 survey, similar to other annual surveys and censuses of governments conducted for many years, covers the entire range of government finance activities--revenue, expenditure, debt, and…

US Census Bureau, 2010

2010-01-01

86

Public Education Finances, 2005  

Science.gov (United States)

The United States Census Bureau conducts an Annual Survey of Government Finances as authorized by law under Title 13, United States Code, Section 182. The 2005 survey, similar to other annual surveys and censuses of governments conducted for many years, covers the entire range of government finance activities--revenue, expenditure, debt, and…

US Census Bureau, 2007

2007-01-01

87

Public Education Finances, 2003  

Science.gov (United States)

The United States Census Bureau conducts an Annual Survey of Government Finances as authorized by law under Title 13, United States Code, Section 182. The 2003 survey, similar to other annual surveys and censuses of governments conducted for many years, covers the entire range of government finance activities--revenue, expenditure, debt, and…

US Department of Commerce, 2005

2005-01-01

88

Public Education Finances, 2006  

Science.gov (United States)

The United States Census Bureau conducts an Annual Survey of Government Finances as authorized by law under Title 13, United States Code, Section 182. The 2006 survey, similar to other annual surveys and censuses of governments conducted for many years, covers the entire range of government finance activities--revenue, expenditure, debt, and…

US Census Bureau, 2008

2008-01-01

89

The effect of Ti conduit on the critical current in (Nb,Ti)3Sn cable-in-conduit conductors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of titanium conduit on the critical current in (Nb,Ti)3Sn cable-in-conduit conductors was investigated to obtain a high performance conductor which would be applied to large superconducting magnets such as those for fusion machines. Titanium has equivalent thermal contraction coefficient to that of (Nb,Ti)3Sn filaments, and it is expected by using titanium as the conduit to suppress degradation of critical current due to excess thermal prestrain on (Nb,Ti)3Sn filaments. Some titanium conduit sample conductors were made, and thier critical current performance were measured together with some stainless steel (SUS316) and copper-nickel alloy (Cu-10Ni) conduit conductors. The experimental results indicated that the titanium conduit conductors had no critical current degradation due to thermal strain, whereas the stainless steel and copper-nickel alloy conduit conductors showed remarkable degradation on thier critical current performance and greater degradation was observed with smaller void conductor. In conclusion, titanium is verified to be excellent conduit material for (Nb,Ti)3Sn cable-in-conduit conductors. (author)

90

Financing Canadian international operations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A primer on financing international operations by Canadian corporations was provided. Factors affecting the availability to project finance (location, political risk), the various forms of financing (debt, equity, and combinations), the main sources of government backed financing to corporations (the International Finance Corporation) (IFC), the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), the Asian Development Bank (ADB), the Overseas Property Insurance Corporation (OPIC), government or agency guarantees, political risk coverage, the use of offshore financial centres, and the where, when and how these various organizations operate, were reviewed. Examples of all of the above, taken from the experiences of Canadian Occidental Petroleum of Calgary in the U.S., in South America, in the Middle and Far East, and in Kazakhstan, were used as illustrations. figs

91

Conduit fragmentation, cave patterns, and the localization of karst ground water basins: the Appalachians as a test case  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Because conduit systems in maturely developed karst aquifers have a low hydraulic resistance, aquifers drain easily and karst aquifers are subdivided into well-defined ground water basins. Ground water elevations are highest at basin boundaries; lowest at the spring where the ground water is discharged. Parameters that control the type of conduit development are (1 the effective hydraulic gradient, (2 the focus of the drainage basin, and (3 the karstifiability of the bedrock. Moderate to highly effective hydraulic gradients permit the runaway process that leads to single conduit caves and well ordered branchwork systems. Low hydraulic gradients allow many alternate flow paths and thus a large degree of fuzziness in the basin boundaries. Low gradient ground water basins also tend to merge due to rising water tables during periods of high discharge. Focus is provided by geological constraints that optimize discharge at specific locations that can evolve into karst springs. Karstifiability is a measure of the bulk rate at which aquifer rocks will dissolve. Fine grained, pure limestones and shaley dolomites mark the opposite ends of the range. The cave surveys of the Appalachian Highlands provide a data base that can be used to classify the lateral arrangements of conduit systems and thus determine the relative importance of the factors defined above.

White,W.B.

2003-01-01

92

Innovative M and A financing structures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The structuring and financing of mergers and acquisitions (M and A) is one of the most critical elements of a takeover process, given that Canadian securities law requires that any takeover must be 'fully financed'. It follows therefore, that in order to comply with securities laws, the financing for a takeover must be arranged in advance of making such a bid. This paper describes the structuring of an offer, outlines the sources of M and A financing, including a review of the 'full capital solution', reviews the key forces influencing the financial structuring of takeover bids, and provides examples of recent M and A transactions in the oil and gas resources sectors. Case histories of two recent mergers and acquisitions, one involving Sun Media Corporation and Rogers Communication Inc., the other John Labatt Limited and the Onex Corporation, were reviewed in detail. The importance of proper structuring of the offer for the specific target's shareholders, as well as for future business operations was stressed

93

Nuclear fuel storage arrangement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An arrangement is disclosed for the storage of nuclear reactor fuel assemblies having a section wherein fuel is present and a section wherein fuel is not present. The fuel assemblies are placed in a plurality of elongated cells which are joined together to form a cellular structure. The fuel assemblies are placed within the cells at different elevations so that the fuel-containing section of one fuel assembly is next to the non-fuel-containing sections of each fuel assembly surrounding the first fuel assembly. The vertical staggering of the fuel-containing sections achieves space reductions while maintaining the stored fuel in a subcritical assemblage. 12 claims, 10 figures

94

Steam generator arrangement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A steam flow path arrangement for covering the walls of the rear gas pass of a steam generator is disclosed. The entire flow passes down the sidewalls with a minor portion then passing up through the rear wall to a superheater inlet header at an intermediate elevation. The major portion of the flow passes up the front wall and through hanger tubes to a roof header. From there the major portion passes across the roof and down the rear wall to the superheater inlet header at the intermediate elevation

95

78 FR 63176 - Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower Facility and Soliciting...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower Facility and Soliciting Comments...notice of intent to construct a qualifying conduit hydropower facility, pursuant to section...robert.bell@ferc.gov. Qualifying Conduit Hydropower Facility Description:...

2013-10-23

96

78 FR 69847 - North Side Canal Company; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower Facility and Soliciting Comments...notice of intent to construct a qualifying conduit hydropower facility, pursuant to section...christopher.chaney@ferc.gov. Qualifying Conduit Hydropower Facility Description:...

2013-11-21

97

26 CFR 1.58-2 - General rules for conduit entities; partnerships and partners.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 true General rules for conduit entities; partnerships and partners...Regulations § 1.58-2 General rules for conduit entities; partnerships and partners. (a) General rules for conduit entities. Sections...

2010-04-01

98

78 FR 69403 - South Tahoe Public Utility District; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower Facility and Soliciting Comments...notice of intent to construct a qualifying conduit hydropower facility, pursuant to section...christopher.chaney@ferc.gov. Qualifying Conduit Hydropower Facility Description:...

2013-11-19

99

78 FR 53752 - City of Sandpoint, Idaho; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower Facility and Soliciting Comments...notice of intent to construct a qualifying conduit hydropower facility, pursuant to section...robert.bell@ferc.gov. Qualifying Conduit Hydropower Facility Description:...

2013-08-30

100

78 FR 61958 - San Juan County Historical Society; Notice of Preliminary Determination of A Qualifying Conduit...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Preliminary Determination of A Qualifying Conduit Hydropower Facility and Soliciting Comments...notice of intent to construct a qualifying conduit hydropower facility, pursuant to section...robert.bell@ferc.gov. Qualifying Conduit Hydropower Facility Description:...

2013-10-08

101

78 FR 61985 - City of Astoria, Oregon; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower Facility and Soliciting Comments...notice of intent to construct a qualifying conduit hydropower facility, pursuant to section...robert.bell@ferc.gov. Qualifying Conduit Hydropower Facility Description:...

2013-10-09

102

78 FR 61987 - Corbett Water District; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower Facility and Soliciting Comments...notice of intent to construct a qualifying conduit hydropower facility, pursuant to section...christopher.chaney@ferc.gov. Qualifying Conduit Hydropower Facility Description:...

2013-10-09

103

78 FR 62324 - Village of Oak Lawn, Illinois; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower Facility and Soliciting Comments...notice of intent to construct a qualifying conduit hydropower facility, pursuant to section...robert.bell@ferc.gov. Qualifying Conduit Hydropower Facility Description:...

2013-10-16

104

Cardiac compression secondary to a massively dilated substernal colon conduit.  

Science.gov (United States)

With the growing success of surgical repairs of congenital defects previously incompatible with life, it is expected of these patients to live longer and experience the complications of these corrective procedures. Esophageal atresia is a congenital defect that occurs in 1 out of 4000 births and is oftentimes a surgical emergency in which colonic conduits are routinely used for esophageal reconstruction. Colonic conduit redundancy and dilatation are well-recognized late complications of colon conduit surgeries for esophageal reconstructions. We report a rare case of symptomatic cardiac compression secondary to a massively dilated substernal colon conduit occurring 44 years after the initial childhood surgery in 1964 with rapid reversal of hemodynamic compromise after conduit removal. PMID:23164009

Khan, Babar A; Ionescu, Ruxandra C; Halal, Ahmed M; Kesler, Kenneth A

2012-11-01

105

Development and spatial organization of the air conduits in the lung of the domestic fowl, Gallus gallus variant domesticus.  

Science.gov (United States)

We employed macroscopic and ultrastructural techniques as well as intratracheal casting methods to investigate the pattern of development, categories, and arrangement of the air conduits in the chicken lung. The secondary bronchi included four medioventral (MVSB), 7-10 laterodorsal (LDSB), 1-3 lateroventral (LVSB), several sacobronchi, and 20-60 posterior secondary bronchi (POSB). The latter category has not been described before and is best discerned from the internal aspect of the mesobronchus. The secondary bronchi emerged directly from the mesobronchus, except for the sacobronchi, which sprouted from the air sacs. Parabronchi from the first MVSB coursed craniodorsally and inosculated their cognates from the first two LDSB. The parabronchi from the rest of the LDSB curved dorsomedially to join those from the rest of the MVSB at the dorsal border. Sprouting, migration, and anastomoses of the paleopulmonic parabronchi resulted in two groups of these air conduits; a cranial group oriented rostrocaudally and a dorsal group oriented dorsoventrally. The neopulmonic parabronchial network formed through profuse branching and anastomoses and occupied the ventrocaudal quarter of the lung. There were no differences in the number of secondary bronchi between the left and right lungs. Notably, a combination of several visualization techniques is requisite to adequately identify and enumerate all the categories of secondary bronchi present. The 3D arrangement of the air conduits ensures a sophisticated system, suitable for efficient gas exchange. Microsc. Res. Tech., 2008. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:18567014

Makanya, A N; Djonov, V

2008-09-01

106

FINANCING INNOVATION IN ROMANIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article based on an examination of empirical literature, analyses the financing of innovative enterprises in Romania and presents the characteristics of Romanian policies in this regard. It sets forth an estimation of the number of innovative enterprises in Romania based on figures from different sources. Assessing the role of financial restrictions on innovation reveals that a firm is facing obstacles to finance its innovative activities but also other difficulties to innovate which appears to be enhanced. This article also puts forward the role of different financing actors and instruments at different stages of the firm's life cycle and emphasizes the function of proximity capital in filling the gap between supply and demand of financing. Finally a framework for policy is recommended.

SORIN SERBAN

2012-05-01

107

To finance the transition  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A set of brief articles illustrates the emergence of innovating and operational financing tools aimed at supporting energy transition in France and in Europe. As far as France is concerned, different examples are evoked: raising local savings, crowd-funding for renewable energies, citizen investment, cooperation between industries, communities and citizens, a semi-public company with citizen participation, the case of the Nancy urban community, a joint experience by a local public company and an investment fund. As far as Europe is concerned, the following topics or examples are evoked: local policies as lever for European financing, the Danish example of citizen-based financing, crowd-funding in the UK, the European emergence of cooperatives. As far as banks and institutions are concerned, the following topics are addressed: tools implemented by the Caisse des Depots for energy transition, the roles of banks and of public institutions in the financing of energy transition

108

Inductive circuit arrangements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A switched coil arrangement is connected in a bridge configuration of four switches S1, S2, S3 and S4 which are each shunted by diodes D1, D2, D3 and D4 so that current can flow in either direction through a coil L depending on the setting of the switches. A capacitor C is connected across the bridge through a switch S5 to receive the inductive energy stored in coil L on breaking the current flow path through the coil. The electrostatic energy stored in capacitor C can then be used to supply current through the coil in the reverse direction either immediately or after a time delay. Coil L may be a superconductive coil. Losses in the circuit can be made up by a trickle charge of capacitor C from a separate supply V2. The device may be used in nuclear magnetic resonance imaging. (author)

109

Finance and Economic Development  

OpenAIRE

Published by Palgrave MacmillanThis chapter reviews the literature on finance and economic development. It starts with a description of the roles of finance, a definition of financial efficiency, and a discussion of whether countries may have financial sectors that are ‘too large’ compared to the size of the domestic economy. Next, the author describes several indicators of financial development and reviews the literature on the relationship between financial development and economic grow...

Ugo Panizza

2012-01-01

110

International energy financing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some of the innovative financing options being considered by developing countries and economies in transition as ways of mobilizing international energy financing are discussed. Build-Own-Operate (BOO) and Transfer (BOOT) is the most commonly adopted approach. This involves limited resource financing of a project on the basis of the associated cash flow and risks and not on the credit of the project owners. The World Bank has set up the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency to provide, on a fee basis, guarantees against certain non-commercial forms of risk in order to promote international capital flow to developing countries. In 1989, the World Bank introduced the Expanded Co-financing Operations (ECO) programme as an instrument to catalyze the flow of private finance into developing countries and to improve their access to international financial markets. Other financial instruments currently being established include: leasing of equipment or whole plants by foreign investors; private ownership or operation of generation and distribution facilities; exchange of specific export goods for energy imports; developing instruments to finance local costs; revenue bonds; tax-exempt bonds; sale of electricity futures to those seeking more stable, longer term electricity price contracts. (UK)

111

$k$-Parabolic Subspace Arrangements  

CERN Document Server

In this paper, we study $k$-parabolic arrangements, a generalization of $k$-equal arrangements for finite real reflection groups. When $k=2$, these arrangements correspond to the well-studied Coxeter arrangements. Brieskorn (1971) showed that the fundamental group of the complement, over $\\mathbb{C}$, of the type $W$ Coxeter arrangement is isomorphic to the pure Artin group of type $W$. Khovanov (1996) gave an algebraic description for the fundamental group of the complement, over $\\mathbb{R}$, of the 3-equal arrangement. We generalize Khovanov's result to obtain an algebraic description of the fundamental groups of the complements of 3-parabolic arrangements for arbitrary finite reflection groups. Our description is a real analogue to Brieskorn's description.

Barcelo, Hélène; White, Jacob A

2009-01-01

112

Arterial conduits for hepatic artery revascularisation in adult liver transplantation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Arterial complications after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT), including hepatic artery thrombosis (HAT), are important causes of early graft failure. The use of an arterial conduit is an accepted alternative to the utilisation of native recipient hepatic artery for specific indications. This study aims to determine the efficacy of arterial conduits and the outcome in OLT. We retrospectively reviewed 1,575 cadaveric adult OLTs and identified those in which an arterial conduit was used for hepatic revascularisation. Data on the primary disease, indication for using arterial conduit, type of vascular graft, operative technique and outcome were obtained. Thirty-six (2.3%) patients underwent OLT in which arterial conduits were used for hepatic artery (HA) revascularisation. Six of these were performed on the primary transplant, while the rest (n=30) were performed in patients undergoing re-transplantation, including six who had developed hepatic artery aneurysms. The incidence of arterial conduits was 0.4% (6/1,426 cases) in all primary OLTs and 20.1% (30/149 cases) in all re-transplants. Twenty-nine procedures utilised iliac artery grafts from the same donor as the liver, six used iliac artery grafts from a different donor, and a single patient underwent a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) graft. Two techniques were used: infra-renal aorto-hepatic artery conduit and interposition between the donor and recipient native HAs, or branches of the HAs. The 30-day mortality rate for operations using an arterial conduit was 30.6%. Three conduits thrombosed at 9, 25 and 155 months, respectively, but one liver graft survived without re-transplantation. The arterial conduits had 1- and 5-year patency rates of 88.5% and 80.8%. The 1- and 5-year patient survival rates were 66.7% and 44%. We can thus conclude that an arterial conduit is a viable alternative option for hepatic revascularisation in both primary and re-transplantation. Despite a lower patency rate than that of native HA in the primary OLT group, the outcomes of arterial conduit patency and patient survival rates are both acceptable at 1 and 5 years, especially in the much larger re-OLT group. PMID:15107973

Muralidharan, Vijayaragavan; Imber, Charles; Leelaudomlipi, Surasak; Gunson, Bridget K; Buckels, John A C; Mirza, Darius F; Mayer, A David; Bramhall, Simon R

2004-05-01

113

Financial Collateral Arrangements  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Increasing use of securities and collaterals in transactions brings the legal ambiguity in today’s financial markets which are trying to globalise. It should have been noted that without legal certainty an achievement can not be obtained in a complete manner. To solve this legal ambiguity in financial markets, reform movements have been started through out the world from different groups, institutions and communities involving both jurists and practitioners., The Directive on settlement finality in payment and securities settlement systems and the Directive on financial collateral arrangements were adopted. These two directives are both supplementary legislations for the Directive of the Parliament and of the Council on the reorganisation and winding up of credit institutions dated 4 April 2001. All of these directives are the circles of a chain that aim the proper functioning of the internal financial market in European Union. In this study, mainly the Collateral Directive will be taken into account. Firstly, the necessity of a harmonised collateral law and the aims of the Collateral Directive will be handled. Following, the main provisions of the directive will be analysed in details. While analysing in details, the different implementations of the directive in member states will be mentioned. Finally, the conflict of laws clause and the consequences of the directive will be explained.

Gulenay Rusen

2007-10-01

114

Reduction of hotspot temperature in cable-in-conduit conductors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The hotspot temperature is one of the most important design criteria for cable-in-conduit conductors. In general, the amount of copper, as a stabilizer, in a bundle is determined by the allowable hotspot temperature, which contradicts to have a high current density in the conductor. In this study, a conductor with a copper-clad conduit is proposed. Current sharing between the bundle and copper cladding can reduce the current in the bundle during a quench. This reduces the hotspot temperature. The effect of copper cladding is analyzed for simulated conductors using zero-dimensional heat-balance equations. The simulated conductors have a circular cross-section with a diameter of 50 mm and a 1-mm-thick copper cladding outside a stainless-steel conduit. The analyses demonstrate the possibility of reducing the hotspot temperature even though high thermal resistance exists between the bundle and conduit. (author)

115

Articulated device for guiding a band of conduits  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The device consists of a support comprising at least two articulated arms to form of a pair of compasses; when the compasses are closed, all the conduits have the same internal radius of curvature. Each arm comprises two bars connected by a holding structure between which the conduits are disposed. A bar of one arm is connected to a bar of the other arm by an articulated joint so that the two joints between the bars are on either side of the band of conduits during actuation of the arms. The device is useful for guiding electrical cables, fluid supply tubes, etc, in the core cover of a liquid metal cooled, fast neutron nuclear reactor. The device can maintain a large number of conduits without risk of tangling or rupture when the arms are closed

116

Stability of power-law cable-in-conduit superconductors  

OpenAIRE

The stability properties of cable-in-conduit superconductors with a power-law voltage-current characteristic are investigated using a previously developed model description for the take-off properties of these conductors.

Anghel, A.

2004-01-01

117

[The preparation and evaluation of tissue inducible nerve guide conduit].  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this research was to fabricate a novel tissue inducible nerve guide conduit, and to evaluate its biologic property. The microspheres were prepared with chitosan that encapsulated ligustrazine. The drug release of the chitosan microspheres was detected with application of the controlled release method in vitro. Chitosan microspheres were mixed with collagen to fabricate the tissue inducible nerve conduit, which were crosslinked with 2% genipin for 24h. Mechanical properties of the nerve guide conduit samples, including maximum load and breaking load, were measured using an Instron Series IX Automated Materials Testing System. The flexibility of the nerve guide conduit was determined with the texture evaluation instrument. Different methods, such as scanning electron microscope (SEM), light microscope (LMS) and immunofluorescence were used to analyze the spatial structure of the nerve guide conduit, the distribution of the microspheres, the state of the nerve duct combined with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and the effect of the ligustrazine that released from chitosan microsphere on MSCs differentiation into nerve cells, respectively. The results showed that the chitosan microspheres had better releasing effect. The mechanical properties resultant nerve guide conduit were determined. The maximum load and breaking load of the genipin crosslinked samples were significantly higher than that observed with the non-crosslinkers, increasing to (0.76 +/- 0.15) N and (0.69 +/- 0.17) N from (0.23 +/- 0.09) N and (0.20 +/- 0.12) N for the non-crosslinkers (P < 0.01). The degradation rates of non-crosslinked and crosslinked by genipin were(58.62 +/- 7.59) mg and (9.23 +/- 2.47) mg, respec- tively. This had a statistical significance (P < 0.01). The average linearities in dry and hygrometric state of the nerve guide conduit were (0.597 +/- 0.012) LC and (0.333 +/- 0.015) LC, respectively, which also had statistical significance (P < 0.01). The flexibility in the hygrometric state of the nerve guide conduit was better than that of the dry. SEM analysis of the samples demonstrated that the structures of the nerve guide conduit were significantly changed in crosslinking samples, the microspheres were uniformly distributed on the surface of scaffold, the ligustrazine that released from the chitosan microspheres could promote MSCs to express NSE and MAP2 that were the relevant marker molecule of nerve cells. The nerve guide conduit is combined with MSCs, which promote MSCs proliferation and NSE expression by the ligustrazine that released from the chitosan microspheres. The conduit has better biological compatibility and tissue inducible function. PMID:22616182

Zhao, Hongbin; Liu, Xingyan; Ge, Baofeng; Guo, Chao; Zhen, Ping

2012-04-01

118

Deformations of Coxeter hyperplane arrangements  

OpenAIRE

We investigate several hyperplane arrangements that can be viewed as deformations of Coxeter arrangements. In particular, we prove a conjecture of Linial and Stanley that the number of regions of the arrangement x_i - x_j = 1, 1 \\leq i

Postnikov, Alexander; Stanley, Richard P.

1997-01-01

119

Homotopy decomposition of diagonal arrangements  

OpenAIRE

Given a space $X$ and a simplicial complex $K$ with $m$-vertices, the arrangement of partially diagonal subspaces of $X^m$, called the dragonal arrangement, is defined. We decompose the suspension of the diagonal arrangement when $2(dim K + 1) < m$, which generalizes the result of Labassi. As a corollary, we calculate the Euler characteristic of the complement when $X$ is a closed connected manifold.

Kishimoto, Daisuke; Iriye, Kouyemon

2014-01-01

120

Current understanding of phase separation mechanisms in branching conduits  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents a summary of the state-of-the-art in our understanding of phase separation in branching conduits. The currently existing data base and analytical models are reviewed, and the ''lessons learned'' are summarized. It is shown that no completely satisfactory model exists for the prediction of phase separation in conduits of untested geometry and/or operating conditions. Nevertheless, based on our current understanding, an interim model is proposed. (orig.)

121

The role of geodesist in building gas conduit  

OpenAIRE

In the research project are introduced all legal and tehnical aspects of planning, projecting, building and giving gas conduit in to use. It is explained and presented the register of economic public infrastructure, how to get an information of land where the future building will be, required documentation for building permit, how to mark out the future gas conduit, the way of surveying actual situation on the ground under construction. geodetic plan of the new situation is also introduced in...

Kovac?ic?, Andrej

2006-01-01

122

Pseudomembranous colitis associated with changes in an ileal conduit.  

OpenAIRE

A case of antibiotic associated pseudomembranous colitis following total cystectomy is reported, in which there was involvement of the ileal conduit. The small bowel remaining in situ was uninvolved. Bacteriological studies revealed Clostridium difficile and the toxin in both colon and ileal conduit. Relevant publications concerning pathogenesis are discussed, in relation to the unusual site described in this case. Epidemiological evidence is reviewed which suggests that isolation of patients...

Shortland, J. R.; Spencer, R. C.; Williams, J. L.

1983-01-01

123

CONDUIT: A New Multidisciplinary Integration Environment for Flight Control Development  

Science.gov (United States)

A state-of-the-art computational facility for aircraft flight control design, evaluation, and integration called CONDUIT (Control Designer's Unified Interface) has been developed. This paper describes the CONDUIT tool and case study applications to complex rotary- and fixed-wing fly-by-wire flight control problems. Control system analysis and design optimization methods are presented, including definition of design specifications and system models within CONDUIT, and the multi-objective function optimization (CONSOL-OPTCAD) used to tune the selected design parameters. Design examples are based on flight test programs for which extensive data are available for validation. CONDUIT is used to analyze baseline control laws against pertinent military handling qualities and control system specifications. In both case studies, CONDUIT successfully exploits trade-offs between forward loop and feedback dynamics to significantly improve the expected handling, qualities and minimize the required actuator authority. The CONDUIT system provides a new environment for integrated control system analysis and design, and has potential for significantly reducing the time and cost of control system flight test optimization.

Tischler, Mark B.; Colbourne, Jason D.; Morel, Mark R.; Biezad, Daniel J.; Levine, William S.; Moldoveanu, Veronica

1997-01-01

124

Financing tourist activity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper researches which of the possible financing models (self-financing, loan, mutual fund, issuing securities and leasing is the most convenient for tourism financing on the grounds of opinions and views of student population. Taking into account that future social and economic development depends on student population, that in every society intellectual endeavor (science and art exists ever since man exists, that the overall progress of mankind is based on the great intellectual endeavor of former civilizations, as well as the fact that Western Serbia has remarkable natural and anthropogenic characteristics suitable for valorization for the purpose of tourism development, the research questions were formulated and the research was performed. The methods used were: analysis, correlation, deduction and induction. Field research has been of the primary importance and it was based on questionnaires, interviews and in-depth interview. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 46001 i br. 47007

Vujovi? Slavoljub

2014-01-01

125

Temperature limited heater with a conduit substantially electrically isolated from the formation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A system for heating a hydrocarbon containing formation is described. A conduit may be located in an opening in the formation. The conduit includes ferromagnetic material. An electrical conductor is positioned inside the conduit, and is electrically coupled to the conduit at or near an end portion of the conduit so that the electrical conductor and the conduit are electrically coupled in series. Electrical current flows in the electrical conductor in a substantially opposite direction to electrical current flow in the conduit during application of electrical current to the system. The flow of electrons is substantially confined to the inside of the conduit by the electromagnetic field generated from electrical current flow in the electrical conductor so that the outside surface of the conduit is at or near substantially zero potential at 25.degree. C. The conduit may generate heat and heat the formation during application of electrical current.

Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Sandberg, Chester Ledlie (Palo Alto, CA)

2009-07-14

126

Financing of Renewable Energy Projects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper describes the role of the Banco Centroamericano de Integracion Economica in financing renewable energy projects in Central America. Also decribes the different financing modes to the goverment and private sectors

127

Nuclear core region fastener arrangement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An arrangement is disclosed for cooling the fasteners affixing a core barrel to a core former and a core baffle to a core former in the reactor vessel internals of a nuclear reactor. The arrangement allows the flowing reactor coolant to contact the fasteners, preferably bolts with an elliptical neck, and maintains lower bolt operating temperatures than previously experienced

128

IAEA paper on institutional arrangements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At its fifth series of meetings, Working Group 3 received a background paper prepared by the IAEA which had a threefold purpose: firstly, to provide an overview on institutional arrangements under consideration by the INFCE Working Groups; secondly, to explore potential relationships between the various institutional arrangements under consideration; and thirdly, to identify areas where further analysis might be desirable

129

Private finance and public policy  

OpenAIRE

This paper articulates a logical foundation—drawn from disparate literatures—for understanding why safeguarding financial stability is an important economic policy objective. The paper also explains why private aspects of finance provide broader social economic benefits and have the characteristics of public goods. Unique aspects of finance are examined, as are the linkages between finance, money, and the real economy.

Schinasi, Garry J.

2006-01-01

130

Specialized financing techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Specific financing techniques applicable to wind energy projects in Canada are discussed. A limited partnership is the classic Canadian approach to tax-advantaged financing. For a typical wind project, the limited partners would get an internal rate of return of around 8% over 20 years as well as income tax deductions on Class 34 investments. This rate can be improved if the investors borrow some of the money; they get tax-free cash flow while having deductible loan interest, raising their rate of return after taxes to ca 9-10%. Special situation investors can get to take all of the Class 34 deduction right away, raising their return up to the 12% range. These investors include principal business corporations (such as utilities or oil companies), or companies who have sold their business. A second type of financing structure is related to inflation-indexed debt. The loan is structured like a mortgage, with the annual payments indexed to inflation but nevertheless low enough to provide an early positive cash flow from the project. Other possible financing structures are the immigrant investor fund and the provincial incentive corporations

131

Project financing renewable energy schemes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The viability of many Renewable Energy projects is critically dependent upon the ability of these projects to secure the necessary financing on acceptable terms. The principal objective of the study was to provide an overview to project developers of project financing techniques and the conditions under which project finance for Renewable Energy schemes could be raised, focussing on the potential sources of finance, the typical project financing structures that could be utilised for Renewable Energy schemes and the risk/return and security requirements of lenders, investors and other potential sources of financing. A second objective is to describe the appropriate strategy and tactics for developers to adopt in approaching the financing markets for such projects. (author)

132

Hyperplane Arrangements: Computations and Conjectures  

OpenAIRE

This paper provides an overview of selected results and open problems in the theory of hyperplane arrangements, with an emphasis on computations and examples. We give an introduction to many of the essential tools used in the area, such as Koszul and Lie algebra methods, homological techniques, and the Bernstein-Gelfand-Gelfand correspondence, all illustrated with concrete calculations. We also explore connections of arrangements to other areas, such as De Concini-Procesi wo...

Schenck, Hal

2011-01-01

133

Branched polymers and hyperplane arrangements  

OpenAIRE

We generalize the construction of connected branched polymers and the notion of the volume of the space of connected branched polymers studied by Brydges and Imbrie, and Kenyon and Winkler to any hyperplane arrangement A. The volume of the resulting configuration space of connected branched polymers associated to the hyperplane arrangement A is expressed through the value of the characteristic polynomial of A at 0. We give a more general definition of the space of branched p...

Meszaros, Karola; Postnikov, Alexander

2009-01-01

134

Determinants of flexible work arrangements  

OpenAIRE

Flexible work arrangements such as allowing employees to work at home are used in firms, especially since information and communication technologies have become so widespread. Using individual-level data from 10,884 German employees, this paper analyses the determinants of working at home as a form of flexible work arrangements. The analysis is based on descriptive analyses and a discrete choice model using a probit estimation approach. The results reveal that men have a higher...

Sarbu, Miruna

2014-01-01

135

FINANCING OF A BANK  

OpenAIRE

Since banks have emerged they have very large impact on the life of the individual and society in general. Banks with their services, enable society various businesses and transactions, which form economic part of life. Banks, as intermediaries between deficit and surplus economic cells, enable saving on the one hand and lending on the other. Thus, financing is one of the main activities and missions of the banks. However modern banks offer also other services of high importance to the econom...

Viderman, Jure

2010-01-01

136

International Finance Corporation (IFC)  

Science.gov (United States)

IFC, a member of the World Bank group, provides loans and equity financing for private sector projects, and advisory services to governments in developing countries to promote economic development. This website offers information about the products and services that IFC provides; reports on IFC projects and activities; and puts out press releases. There is also a collection of discussion and technical papers available at the site.

137

Single-friction-surface triboelectric generator with human body conduit  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a transparent single-friction-surface triboelectric generator (STEG) employing human body as the conduit, making the applications of STEG in portable electronics much more practical and leading to a significant output improvement. The STEG with micro-patterned polydimethylsiloxane surface achieved an output voltage of over 200 V with a current density of 4.7 ?A/cm2. With human body conduit, the output current increased by 39% and the amount of charge that transferred increased by 34% compared to the results with grounded electrode. A larger increment of 210% and 81% was obtained in the case of STEG with a large-size flat polyethylene terephthalate surface.

Meng, Bo; Cheng, Xiaoliang; Zhang, Xiaosheng; Han, Mengdi; Liu, Wen; Zhang, Haixia

2014-03-01

138

Single-friction-surface triboelectric generator with human body conduit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present a transparent single-friction-surface triboelectric generator (STEG) employing human body as the conduit, making the applications of STEG in portable electronics much more practical and leading to a significant output improvement. The STEG with micro-patterned polydimethylsiloxane surface achieved an output voltage of over 200 V with a current density of 4.7 ?A/cm2. With human body conduit, the output current increased by 39% and the amount of charge that transferred increased by 34% compared to the results with grounded electrode. A larger increment of 210% and 81% was obtained in the case of STEG with a large-size flat polyethylene terephthalate surface

139

Modeling Reactive Transport in Coupled Groundwater-Conduit Systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Modeling reactive transport in coupled groundwater-conduit systems requires consideration of two transport time scales in the flow and transport models. Consider for example a subsurface mine consisting of a network of highly conductive shafts, drifts or ventilation raises (i.e., conduits) within the considerably less permeable ore material (i.e., matrix). In the conduits, potential contaminants can travel much more rapidly than in the background aquifer (matrix). Since conduits cannot necessarily be regarded as a continuum, double continuum models are only of limited use for simulation of contaminant transport in such coupled groundwater-conduit systems. This study utilizes a "hybrid" flow and transport model in which contaminants can in essence be transported at a slower time scale in the matrix and at a faster time scale in the conduits. The hybrid flow model uses an approach developed by Clemens et al. (1996), which is based on the modelling of flow in a discrete pipe network, coupled to a continuum representing the low-permeability inter-conduit matrix blocks. Laminar or turbulent flow can be simulated in the different pipes depending on the flow conditions in the model domain. The three-dimensional finite-difference groundwater flow model MODFLOW (Harbaugh and McDonald, 1996) is used to simulate flow in the continuum. Contaminant transport within the matrix is simulated with a continuum approach using the three-dimensional multi-species solute transport model MT3DMS (Zheng and Wang, 1999), while that in the conduit system is simulated with a one-dimensional advective transport model. As a first step for reactive transport modeling in such systems, only equilibrium reactions among multiple species are considered by coupling the hybrid transport model to a geochemical speciation package. An idealized mine network developed by Viswanathan and Sauter (2001) is used as a test problem in this study. The numerical experiment is based on reference date collected from the Ronneburg mine located in Eastern Germany. Different scenarios are investigated to examine whether dissolved uranium and other metals could be released from the mine, and to explore the influences of various physical and chemical factors.

Spiessl, S. M.; Sauter, M.; Zheng, C.; Viswanathan, H. S.

2002-05-01

140

Sciatic nerve repair using adhesive bonding and a modified conduit  

OpenAIRE

When repairing nerves with adhesives, most researchers place glue directly on the nerve stumps, but this method does not fix the nerve ends well and allows glue to easily invade the nerve ends. In this study, we established a rat model of completely transected sciatic nerve injury and repaired it using a modified 1 cm-length conduit with inner diameter of 1.5 mm. Each end of the cylindrical conduit contains a short linear channel, while the enclosed central tube protects the nerve ends well. ...

Liang, Xiangdang; Cai, Hongfei; Hao, Yongyu; Sun, Geng; Song, Yaoyao; Chen, Wen

2014-01-01

141

PFI redux? Assessing a new model for financing hospitals.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is a growing need for investments in hospital facilities to improve the efficiency and quality of health services. In recent years, publicly financed hospital organisations in many countries have utilised private finance arrangements, variously called private finance initiatives (PFIs), public-private partnerships (PPPs) or P3s, to address their capital requirements. However, such projects have become more difficult to implement since the onset of the global financial crisis, which has led to a reduction in the supply of debt capital and an increase in its price. In December 2012, the government of the United Kingdom outlined a comprehensive set of reforms to the private finance model in order to revive this important source of capital for hospital investments. This article provides a critical assessment of the 'Private Finance 2' reforms, focusing on their likely impact on the supply and cost of capital. It concludes that constraints in supply are likely to continue, in part due to regulatory constraints facing both commercial banks and institutional investors, while the cost of capital is likely to increase, at least in the short term. PMID:24138730

Hellowell, Mark

2013-11-01

142

Financing, Overhead, and Profit: An In-Depth Discussion of Costs Associated with Third-Party Financing of Residential and Commercial Photovoltaic Systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Previous work quantifying the non-hardware balance-of-system costs -- or soft costs -- associated with building a residential or commercial photovoltaic (PV) system has left a significant portion unsegmented in an 'other soft costs' category. This report attempts to better quantify the 'other soft costs' by focusing on the financing, overhead, and profit of residential and commercial PV installations for a specific business model. This report presents results from a bottom-up data-collection and analysis of the upfront costs associated with developing, constructing, and arranging third-party-financed residential and commercial PV systems. It quantifies the indirect corporate costs required to install distributed PV systems as well as the transactional costs associated with arranging third-party financing.

Feldman, D.; Friedman, B.; Margolis, R.

2013-10-01

143

Geologic Constraints on Conduit Formation at Explosive Basaltic Volcanoes  

Science.gov (United States)

Models of explosive basaltic processes often are sensitive to shallow (Tolbachik, Kamchatka, violent strombolian basalt eruption are derived from Quaternary volcanic (0-1 km deep) and Tertiary sedimentary (1-4 km) rocks. Xenolith abundances in the lower half of fall deposits from the Cone 1 eruption stage are 0.001-0.01 vol%. This period sustained 6-10-km high eruption columns and lacked lavas. Xenolith abundances increase to 0.01-1.0 vol% in the upper half of the deposits, which correlates with lava effusion and columns 2-6-km high. The 3x105 m3 total xenolith volume represents a cylindrical conduit 15+/-2 m in diameter and 1.7+/-0.2 km deep. Eruption of Cone 1 ended with 12 hr of hydromagmatic falls containing 3x106 m3 (70 vol%) xenoliths. The conduit must have widened from 15+/-2 to 48+/-4 m to produce this xenolith volume. The subsequent Cone 2-3 eruption stage produced abundant lavas and eruption columns <4-km high. Xenolith abundances are 0.01-0.1 vol%, indicating progressive widening of the conduit to 6+/-1 m extending to 2.8+/-0.4 km depth. Simultaneous eruptions of tephra and lava suggest an annulus of degassed magma developed on conduit walls, enhancing xenolith entrainment; little entrainment occurred early at Cone 1 with an apparent droplet flow regime. Alkali basalt plugs and dikes representing 1+/-0.5 km paleodepths are exposed in the 4 Ma San Rafael volcanic field, Utah. Dike-plug complexes represent typical dimensions for basaltic volcanic eruptions and are interpreted as subvolcanic conduit systems. Mapped conduits range from 2-m wide buds along dikes with little wall-rock disruption, to 10-60-m wide cylindrical plugs having <5-m wide conduit margins with abundant xenoliths. These margins may represent typical wall-rock plucking and conduit widening during annular flow (i.e., late Cone 1 and Cone 2-3). Several larger conduits, however, have a 1-6 m xenolith-poor annulus with a 10-40 m inner core of extensive wall-rock breccia and pervasive low-temperature hydrothermal alteration. Xenoliths in the inner breccia often are derived from deeper stratigraphic units. These brecciated conduits appear analogous to late-stage hydromagmatic events at Cone 1. Models of explosive basaltic cinder cone eruptions should consider that subvolcanic conduit diameters to <2 km depth may progressively widen to order of 10-60 m. Work supported by U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (Contract NRC-02-97-009) and is an independent product of CNWRA that does not necessarily reflect NRC views or regulatory positions.

Hill, B. E.; Doubik, P.; Connor, C. B.

2001-12-01

144

26 CFR 1.6081-7 - Automatic extension of time to file Real Estate Mortgage Investment Conduit (REMIC) income tax...  

Science.gov (United States)

...to file Real Estate Mortgage Investment Conduit (REMIC) income tax return. 1.6081-7...to file Real Estate Mortgage Investment Conduit (REMIC) income tax return. (a... A Real Estate Mortgage Investment Conduit (REMIC) required to file an income...

2010-04-01

145

Implantation of neural stem cells embedded in hyaluronic acid and collagen composite conduit promotes regeneration in a rabbit facial nerve injury model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract The implantation of neural stem cells (NSCs in artificial scaffolds for peripheral nerve injuries draws much attention. NSCs were ex-vivo expanded in hyaluronic acid (HA-collagen composite with neurotrophin-3, and BrdU-labeled NSCs conduit was implanted onto the ends of the transected facial nerve of rabbits. Electromyography demonstrated a progressive decrease of current threshold and increase of voltage amplitude in de-innervated rabbits after implantation for one, four, eight and 12 weeks compared to readouts derived from animals prior to nerve transection. The most remarkable improvement, observed using Electrophysiology, was of de-innervated rabbits implanted with NSCs conduit as opposed to de-innervated counterparts with and without the implantation of HA-collagen, NSCs and HA-collagen, and HA-collagen and neurotrophin-3. Histological examination displayed no nerve fiber in tissue sections of de-innervated rabbits. The arrangement and S-100 immunoreactivity of nerve fibers in the tissue sections of normal rabbits and injured rabbits after implantation of NSCs scaffold for 12 weeks were similar, whereas disorderly arranged minifascicles of various sizes were noted in the other three arms. BrdU+ cells were detected at 12 weeks post-implantation. Data suggested that NSCs embedded in HA-collagen biomaterial could facilitate re-innervations of damaged facial nerve and the artificial conduit of NSCs might offer a potential treatment modality to peripheral nerve injuries.

Sun Chong

2008-11-01

146

42 CFR 413.241 - Pharmacy arrangements.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pharmacy arrangements. 413.241 Section...Organ Procurement Costs § 413.241 Pharmacy arrangements. Effective January 1...that enters into an arrangement with a pharmacy to furnish renal dialysis service...

2010-10-01

147

Accounting & Finance; a Basic Introduction  

OpenAIRE

The book is about finance and accounting, subjects widely discussed in many other books. What sets this book apart from most others is that it discusses all the basic aspects of finance and accounting in one single textbook. Three areas of interest are discussed: Financial Management; Management Accounting; Financial Accounting. Typically, these three subjects are treated separately as individual topics. They are closely related, however, since they all deal with the many financi...

Jansen, Ewoud

2011-01-01

148

Financial Inclusion: Islamic Finance Perspective  

OpenAIRE

Enhancing financial inclusion or access to finance can make critical contributions to the economic development. Conventional mechanisms such as micro-finance, small-medium-enterprises (SME), and micro-insurance to enhance financial inclusion have been partially successful in enhancing the access and are not without challenges. Islamic finance, based on the concept of risk-sharing offers set of financial instruments promoting risk-sharing rather than risk-transfer in the financial system. In a...

Mirakhor, Abbas; Iqbal, Zamir

2012-01-01

149

26 CFR 1.67-3 - Allocation of expenses by real estate mortgage investment conduits.  

Science.gov (United States)

... Allocation of expenses by real estate mortgage investment conduits. 1.67-3 Section 1.67-3 Internal Revenue ...Allocation of expenses by real estate mortgage investment conduits. (a) Allocation of allocable investment expenses....

2010-04-01

150

AC loss characteristics of simulated CIC-type conductors having plastic conduit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When alternating current superconducting coils having cable-in-conduit conductors are fabricated, non-metallic conduit materials are necessary to avoid eddy current losses in the conduits. Using two kinds of non-metallic tapes made of glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRPs) and Dyneema fiber reinforced plastics (DFRPs), we made the conductors with the GFRP conduits and DFRP conduits, and experimentally studied the total losses of the conductors. The measured results showed that the total loss of the conductor with the GFRP conduit was smaller than that with the DFRP conduit at the same value of the void ratio, the transport current, the external magnetic field, and so on. When the void ratios become high, the superconducting bundle cable can easily move in the conduit. Hence the measured total losses increased with the void ratios of the conductors

151

78 FR 68052 - Town of Telluride, Colorado; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower Facility and Soliciting Comments...notice of intent to construct a qualifying conduit hydropower facility, pursuant to section...gov. [[Page 68053

2013-11-13

152

Aorto-conduit fistula developing four years after esophagectomy  

OpenAIRE

A 71 year old lady was treated for a squamous cell carcinoma of the oesophagus with neo-adjuvant chemotherapy followed by a two phase Ivor-Lewis oesophagectomy with two field lymphadenectomy. She presented four years later with life threatening bleeding from a fistula between the thoracic aorta and the gastric conduit, which was treated successfully with a thoracic aortic stent.

Strong, S.; Higgs, S.; Streets, C.; Titcomb, D.; Barham, P.; Blazeby, J.; Hollowood, A.

2012-01-01

153

Evaluation of the MODFLOW-2005 Conduit Flow Process.  

Science.gov (United States)

The recent development of the Conduit Flow Process (CFP) by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provides hydrogeologic modelers with a new tool that incorporates the non-Darcian, multiporosity components of flow characteristic of karst aquifers. CFP introduces new parameters extending beyond those of traditional Darcian groundwater flow codes. We characterize a karst aquifer to collect data useful for evaluating this new tool at a test site in west-central Florida, where the spatial distribution and cross-sectional area of the conduit network are available. Specifically, we characterize: (1) the potential for Darcian/non-Darcian flow using estimates of specific discharge vs. observed hydraulic gradients, and (2) the temporal variation for the direction and magnitude of fluid exchange between the matrix and conduit network during extreme hydrologic events. We evaluate the performance of CFP Mode 1 using a site-scale dual-porosity model and compare its performance with a comparable laminar equivalent continuum model (ECM) using MODFLOW-2005. Based on our preliminary analyses, hydraulic conductivity coupled with conduit wall conductance improved the match between observed and simulated discharges by 12% to 40% over turbulent flow alone (less than 1%). PMID:20113361

Hill, Melissa E; Stewart, Mark T; Martin, Angel

2010-01-01

154

Storage arrangements for nuclear fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A storage arrangement for spent nuclear fuel either irradiated or pre-irradiated or for vitrified waste after spent fuel reprocessing, comprises a plenum chamber which has a base pierced by a plurality of openings each of which has sealed to it an open topped tube extending downwards and closed at its lower end. The plenum chamber, with the tubes, forms an air-filled enclosure associated with an exhaust system for exhausting air from the system through filters to maintain the interior of the enclosure at sub-atmospheric pressure. The tubes are arranged to accommodate the stored fuel and the arrangement includes a means for producing a flow of cooling air over the exterior of the tubes so that the latter effectively form a plurality of heat exchangers in close proximity to the fuel. The air may be caused to flow over the tube surfaces by a natural thermosyphon process. (author)

155

Sealing arrangement for radioactive material  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A sealing arrangement for hermetically sealing two mating surfaces comprises two seals arranged to lie between the surfaces. Each seal provides hermetic sealing over a respective different temperature range and lie serially along the surfaces between the regions to be isolated. A main seal integrity test arrangement is provided in the form of a port and passage. This allows for the introduction of a fluid into or the evacuation of a region between the two seals to detect a leak. The port is also provided with at least two test port seals which seal with a plug. The plug is also provided with a test port to allow the integrity of the test port seal to be tested. (UK)

156

Arranged marriages annulled by law.  

Science.gov (United States)

The arranged marriages of 210 young people in Yongle Town in Zunyi County of Guizhou Province were dissolved in 1995. The proportion of child betrothals, which generally happens among close relatives, is as high as 85% in the town. Some engagements, known as fetus betrothals or belt betrothals, are arranged before the children are born or while they are still infants strapped (belted) to their mothers. Dissemination of information from the Constitution, the Marriage Law, and the Regulations on the Registration of Marriage concerning marriage, healthier births, and good upbringing of children, and other information on reproductive health, has shown young people that they have the freedom to love and marry of their own free will, that their marriage is protected by law, and that consanguineous marriage is harmful to the health of future generations. Some convinced their parents that their arranged marriages should be annulled. PMID:12291696

Zhu, H

1996-06-01

157

Transitional arrangements for ITER started  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Negotiations by the ITER Parties on the Agreement on the Establishment of the International Fusion Energy Organization for the Joint Implementation of the ITER Project (ITER Implementation Agreement, or simply 'the Agreement') and on the site selection for construction of the ITER machine are making good progress. Therefore, the ITER Parties decided that subsequent to the ITER Co-ordinated Technical Activities (CTA), the Transitional Arrangements for ITER (ITA or 'the Arrangements') will start on 1 January 2003, conducted under the auspices of the IAEA, and will terminate upon the entry into force of the Agreement, or at such earlier date as the Participants may decide. The Parties to the ITER Engineering Design Activities and the participants in the Negotiations on the ITER Joint Implementation wishing to co-operate in the ITER Transitional Arrangements will be the ITA Participants ('the Participants'). All four current ITER Parties, namely Canada, the European Union, Japan, and the Russian Federation confirmed, before the end of 2002, in their letters to the IAEA Director General their intention to participate in the ITA. The Arrangements are also open to new Participants acceding the Negotiations. The purpose of the ITA is to prepare for an efficient start of the Agreement, if and when so decided, and to maintain the integrity of the ITER Project. The overall direction of the Arrangements, as well as the supervision of their implementation will be exercised by the ITER Preparatory Committee ('the Committee'). It will be composed of two members from each Participant to the Arrangements. In exercising its functions, the Committee shall work for a smooth transition towards the organization and structure for ITER construction being developed in the frame of the ITER Negotiations. The first meeting of the Committee is scheduled for St. Petersburg, RF, on 17 February 2003

158

Influence of spontaneously occurring bursts of muscle sympathetic nerve activity on conduit artery diameter  

OpenAIRE

Large increases in muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) can decrease the diameter of a conduit artery even in the presence of elevated blood pressure, suggesting that MSNA acts to regulate conduit artery tone. Whether this influence can be extrapolated to spontaneously occurring MSNA bursts has not been examined. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that MSNA bursts decrease conduit artery diameter on a beat-by-beat basis during rest. Conduit artery responses were assessed in the brachial ...

Fairfax, Seth T.; Padilla, Jaume; Vianna, Lauro C.; Holwerda, Seth H.; Davis, Michael J.; Fadel, Paul J.

2013-01-01

159

Hyperplane Arrangements: Computations and Conjectures  

CERN Document Server

This paper provides an overview of selected results and open problems in the theory of hyperplane arrangements, with an emphasis on computations and examples. We give an introduction to many of the essential tools used in the area, such as Koszul and Lie algebra methods, homological techniques, and the Bernstein-Gelfand-Gelfand correspondence, all illustrated with concrete calculations. We also explore connections of arrangements to other areas, such as De Concini-Procesi wonderful models, the Feichtner-Yuzvinsky algebra of an atomic lattice, fatpoints and blowups of projective space, and plane curve singularities.

Schenck, Hal

2011-01-01

160

Compact moduli of hyperplane arrangements  

OpenAIRE

The minimal model program suggests a compactification of the moduli space of hyperplane arrangements which is a moduli space of stable pairs. Here, a stable pair consists of a scheme X which is a degeneration of projective space and a divisor D=D_1+..+D_n on X which is a limit of hyperplane arrangements. For example, in the 1-dimensional case, the stable pairs are stable curves of genus 0 with n marked points. Kapranov has defined an alternative compactification using his Ch...

Hacking, Paul

2003-01-01

161

Extra cardiac conduit Fontan procedure in 41 patients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The Fontan operation is the definitive operation for palliation of complex congenital heart disease with single –ventricle physiology. The use of the extra cardiac conduit has recently been gaining popularity. The purpose of this study was to compare the outcomes of extra cardiac conduit Fontan procedure (off-pump technique and that of traditional technique (lateral tunnel technique in which cardiopulmonary bypass is routinely used. Methods: Forty one patients in different age groups underwent extra cardiac conduit Fontan procedure between April 2001 and December 2004. Data were collected from ICU sheets, files and during follow up visits. Under general anesthesia and through median sternotomy, using two temporary decompressing shunts, superior vena cava implanted on right pulmonary artery and a conduit interposed between transected inferior vena cava and main pulmonary artery. Fenestration was done in almost all patients and previous shunts were closed if there were any. Results: Of our patients, 13 were female and 28 were male. Mean age of the patients was 11.1 years (SD=7.8.In 24.4% of cases Fontan procedure was done as the first palliative surgery and in 75.6% of them there was previous history of palliative procedures. In 6 patients (14.6% we were constrained to use cardiopulmonary bypass which was predictable or necessary in 50% of cases. There was no reoperation due to post operative bleeding. Two cases suffered from prolonged plural effusion. Our in-hospital mortality was 9.8%. During 2-24 months follow up, we found two cases who were in NYHA functional class II and one case in functional class I. Conclusion: Extra cardiac conduit Fontan procedure could be used in a safe way. The results of this study were comparable and even in some cases better than that of the traditional technique.

Safarpour Gh

2007-07-01

162

Combined physical and chemical nonequilibrium transport model for solution conduits  

Science.gov (United States)

Solute transport in karst aquifers is primarily constrained to relatively complex and inaccessible solution conduits where transport is often rapid, turbulent, and at times constrictive. Breakthrough curves generated from tracer tests in solution conduits are typically positively-skewed with long tails evident. Physical nonequilibrium models to fit breakthrough curves for tracer tests in solution conduits are now routinely employed. Chemical nonequilibrium processes are likely important interactions, however. In addition to partitioning between different flow domains, there may also be equilibrium and nonequilibrium partitioning between the aqueous and solid phases. A combined physical and chemical nonequilibrium (PCNE) model was developed for an instantaneous release similar to that developed by Leij and Bradford (2009) for a pulse release. The PCNE model allows for partitioning open space in solution conduits into mobile and immobile flow regions with first-order mass transfer between the two regions to represent physical nonequilibrium in the conduit. Partitioning between the aqueous and solid phases proceeds either as an equilibrium process or as a first-order process and represents chemical nonequilibrium for both the mobile and immobile regions. Application of the model to three example breakthrough curves demonstrates the applicability of the combined physical and chemical nonequilibrium model to tracer tests conducted in karst aquifers, with exceptionally good model fits to the data. The three models, each from a different state in the United States, exhibit very different velocities, dispersions, and other transport properties with most of the transport occurring via the fraction of mobile water. Fitting the model suggests the potentially important interaction of physical and chemical nonequilibrium processes.

Field, Malcolm S.; Leij, Feike J.

2014-02-01

163

LEASE FINANCING: A NEW DUAL APPROACH  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Leasing is an important additional financing technique used by many companies, enabling them to use property, plant and equipment without making large initial cash outlays. It also provides flexibility, allowing entities to address obsolescence risks. Under current accounting rules, when referring to the operating leasing in particular, there is a lack of comparability between the financial position and operating results of companies that buy assets and the financial position and operating results of those that lease similar assets. This has led critics to assert that the current accounting does not portray the economics of lease arrangements. In response to this criticism, the IASB and FASB have developed a new approach to lease accounting that would require a lessee to recognise assets and liabilities for the rights and obligations created by leases, this providing greater transparency and comparability for financial statements users. On the other hand, the proposals will affect almost every company and the impact of the proposed changes may be significant, as recognising additional assets and liabilities and finance expense will affect key performance ratios and, consequently, the ability to satisfy debt covenants.

Cristina-Aurora, BUNEA-BONTAS

2013-12-01

164

78 FR 56872 - City of Barre, Vermont; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower Facility and Soliciting Comments...notice of intent to construct a qualifying conduit hydropower facility, pursuant to section...HREA). The Nelson Street 17 kW In-Conduit Hydroelectric Net-Metered Project...

2013-09-16

165

International Finance Corporation  

Science.gov (United States)

As a part of the World Bank, the stated vision of the International Finance Corporation (IFC) is "that poor people have the opportunity to escape poverty and to improve their lives." To whit, the IFC works to promote open and competitive markets in developing countries, generate productive jobs and deliver basic services, among other things. First-time visitors will find that the layout of the site is visually stimulating and quite user-friendly. Visitors can use the embedded search engine to look for specific materials of interest.

166

Debt relief and financing climate change action  

Science.gov (United States)

Slow progress in scaling-up climate finance has emerged as a major bottleneck in international negotiations. Debt relief for climate finance swaps could provide an alternative source for financing mitigation and adaptation action in developing countries.

Fenton, Adrian; Wright, Helena; Afionis, Stavros; Paavola, Jouni; Huq, Saleemul

2014-08-01

167

Arrangement for guiding transport cables  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This patent relates especially to x-ray equipment such as that used for computerized tomography, and in particular to an arrangement for guiding and supporting a plurality of power transmission cables and cooling hoses in a flexible manner. (U.K.)

168

Nuclear core region fastener arrangement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An improved design of fastener used for fixing the component parts of a nuclear reactor core is described. These fasteners experience high operating mechanical loads and temperatures and an arrangement to cool them by transferring the heat to the flowing reactor coolant fluid is also specified. (UK)

169

Special Issue: Flexible Work Arrangements.  

Science.gov (United States)

Section 1 contains five chapters on flexible work arrangements, self-employment, working from home, part-time professionals, job sharing, and temporary employment. Section 2 includes reviews of four books on working flexibly, concluding with a list of 23 additional readings. (SK)

Olmstead, Barney, Ed.

1996-01-01

170

Flow control arrangements for centrifuges  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a centrifuge plant for the separation of uranium isotopes, when a centrifuge machine breaks down, light gas is produced. This gas can cause adjacent machines to break down, so propagating the fault. The present invention provides flow control arrangements in gas pipes to the centrifuge, whereby sudden egress of gas from a failed machine is inhibited. (author)

171

Financing energy development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 1990s is likely to be a decade of double growth: in energy demand and environmental protection. This leads the author of this paper to ask the pertinent questions of where the money will come from, and in what form, to finance the growth in capacity to produce this energy and the technology required to produce and burn it cleanly. With a focus on Asian energy markets, this paper first illustrates the problem by describing the rapid growth of energy demand in the region. It describes the growth in Japan as well as China and the fast-growing economies of Hong Kong, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand. Energy demand growth rates of almost 5 percent in the 1980s are expected to continue to grow at that rate at least until 2005, doubling today's level of consumption and putting the energy supply system under great strain. Because of the large sums involved, this paper pints out the necessity of inventing new, innovative devices for future fund raising. This will require the participation of institutions such as insurance companies and regional banks that have little experience in the energy field. This paper suggests that these and the established players in energy finance will have recourse to two new approaches: Build-Operate-Transfer and Trustee Borrowing schemes

172

Bubble Rise and Break-Up in Volcanic Conduits  

Science.gov (United States)

The continual passive degassing occurring at open-vent mafic volcanoes is often punctuated by bursts of active degassing. The latter are generally thought to be the result of slug flow: large, conduit-filling bubbles periodically rising up the feeder conduit and bursting at the magma-air interface. Existing models of volcanic degassing systems make the simplifying assumption that the conduit is cylindrical; however, while this may be true at shallow levels, a flaring probably connects it to a dyke-like geometry at depth. The overall goal of this research is to assess the influence of conduit geometry on the speed and stability of bubbles rising in open-vent systems, and ultimately to devise a model to infer conduit shape from emerging bubbles size. In order to do that an analogue experimental approach was used. All of the experiments were two-phase (melt+volatiles); the analogue materials of choice were golden syrup-water mixtures ranging in viscosity from 10-1 to 104 Pa*s and air. Two experimental apparatuses were used: a bi-dimensional and a tri-dimensional one. The bi-dimensional set-up is a cell made of two flat transparent PVC plates (44x23cm) 10mm or 5mm apart (the front one having a hole at the bottom permitting bubble injection) containing a variety of parallelepipeds apt to outline different plumbing system geometries. The tri-dimensional one consists of a cylindrical tube (r=1,5cm; l=7cm) allowing bubble injection through the bottom rubber tap and terminating into a square tank (l=22cm). Results indicate that conduit geometry directly controls the slug rise velocity and the surrounding liquid descending speed, which in turn control the slug stability. Small enough bubbles simply deform as they go through the flaring, while bigger ones split into two daughter bubbles. A regime diagram has been constructed, illustrating the bubble break-up threshold dependence on the flare geometry and initial slug size, the two main controlling factors. The phenomenon of bubble break-up implies that there is a maximum size a system of a certain shape and size can deliver. The size of the upper daughter bubble has been measured in a variety of experiments, and it has been found to be independent of the original slug size, but related to the conduit-upper reservoir transition geometry. It has therefore been possible to establish a relation between conduit geometry and first emerging daughter bubble size. Under the reasonable assumption of a non-limiting supply of gas, this allowed to successfully design the envisaged model of conduit geometry inferral from delivered bubbles size. Data on the size of emerging bubbles, necessary to feed the model, can be obtained through infrasound techniques, as a bursting over-pressurized gas bubble produces a characteristic seismoacoustic signal, from which it is possible to infer its size.

Soldati, A.; Cashman, K. V.; Rust, A.; Rosi, M.

2013-12-01

173

Public Finance Administration. Second Edition.  

Science.gov (United States)

This book is intended for the nonexpert in finance who has a public administration background. It opens with a broad introduction to public finance administration and how this job is related to public budgeting, the practice of public-sector accounting, and the economic concepts of money and value. Issues surrounding public revenue, its sources,…

Reed, B. J.; Swain, John W.

174

EXTERNAL FINANCING FOR CONSTRUCTION ENTITIES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The external financing of the construction entities does not differ from the one of other entities within other activities, but the construction entities have also a financing source, represented by the funds for the site organization, funds which are analysed and accounted in the present paper.

ADELA BREUER

2011-01-01

175

Financing of SNR and THTR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To finance the progressed reactor lines, the Federal Cabinet emphasized its decision of 23 September 1981 to require an increased participation of the electricity industry in the total costs of the project SNR 300. Some starting points of the financing are presented. (orig./UA)

176

Studies on forced convection nanofluid flow in circular conduits  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An experimental system was developed and used to study the nanofluid flow and heat transfer in circular conduits. Experiments were performed for a variety of nanofluid flow features in the system. Results obtained from the study show that the heat transfer rate for flow of the base fluid is less than that of the nanofluid used in the study. It was also found that the observed relationship between molecular diffusivity of momentum and the molecular diffusivity of thermal energy at the macroscale may not necessarily be the same at the nanoscale. A heat transfer correlation for turbulent forced convection flow in circular pipes was developed from the results in terms of Nusselt number, Reynolds number and Prandtl number. The correlation developed was compared to related correlations in the literature. Important factors that affect nanofluid flow and heat transfer in circular conduits were also determined. This type of study is essential for heat exchanger applications.

Harikrishna Vishwanadula

2012-03-01

177

Stenting an aortopulmonary conduit with peripheral cardiopulmonary bypass support.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although surgically created aortopulmonary (AP) shunts are uncommon in the adult congenital heart disease population, they are often used in patients with pulmonary atresia. For these patients, the shunt is a vital supply of pulmonary blood flow and thus obstruction of the shunt may lead to pulmonary hypoperfusion and hypoxia thereby increasing morbidity and mortality. This report describes a safe and effective method of stenting the conduit with the hemodynamic support of peripheral cardiopulmonary bypass (PCB). Prior to the procedure, a multimodality assessment of a stenosis in a kinked AP conduit using computed tomography, angiography, intravascular ultrasound (IVUS), and pressure wire assessment (PWA) was utilized. While PCB, IVUS, and PWA have all been used to great effect in various clinical scenarios, the combined use of these techniques has not been previously been described in the setting of intervention in adult congenital heart disease. PMID:23592486

Incani, Alexander; Lee, Joseph C; Nicolae, Mugur J; Walters, Darren L

2014-01-01

178

Single-friction-surface triboelectric generator with human body conduit  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We present a transparent single-friction-surface triboelectric generator (STEG) employing human body as the conduit, making the applications of STEG in portable electronics much more practical and leading to a significant output improvement. The STEG with micro-patterned polydimethylsiloxane surface achieved an output voltage of over 200 V with a current density of 4.7 ?A/cm{sup 2}. With human body conduit, the output current increased by 39% and the amount of charge that transferred increased by 34% compared to the results with grounded electrode. A larger increment of 210% and 81% was obtained in the case of STEG with a large-size flat polyethylene terephthalate surface.

Meng, Bo; Cheng, Xiaoliang; Zhang, Xiaosheng; Han, Mengdi; Liu, Wen; Zhang, Haixia, E-mail: zhang-alice@pku.edu.cn [National Key Lab of Nano/Micro Fabrication Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

2014-03-10

179

Coarsening of capillary drops coupled by conduit networks  

Science.gov (United States)

A system of n spherical-cap drops, coupled by a network of conduits, coarsens due to surface tension forces. The total interfacial energy drives the fluid through the conduits such that, with time, the volume becomes increasingly localized into fewer large drops. The coarsening rate is predicted heuristically for drops coupled by orthogonal networks, a porous medium, and fractal networks of various dimensions. The predicted coarsening law as it depends upon the type and dimension of network, total number of drops, and initial drop volume is compared against numerical simulations of large n . Additionally, distributions of large drop volumes are obtained using a Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner (LSW) model. The predicted distributions are independent of network topology; in contrast, simulation results depend weakly on the network dimension. The heuristic coarsening rate laws are recovered using the LSW model for all but a square network topology.

van Lengerich, Henrik B.; Vogel, Michael J.; Steen, Paul H.

2010-12-01

180

Tension layer winding of cable-in-conduit conductor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A 710 mm i.d. by 440 mm long, 6 layer Cable-in-Conduit (CIC) coil was precision tension layer wound with Incoloy 908 jacketed conductor to model winding technology that will be used for the Nb3Sn outsert coils of the 45 Tesla Hybrid Magnet Project at the US National High Magnetic Field Laboratory. This paper reports on the set up of a new winding facility with unique capabilities for insulating and winding long length CIC conductor and on special procedures which were developed to wind and support layer to layer transitions and to safely form conductor into and out of the winding. Analytical methods used to predict conduit keystoning, springback and back tensioning requirements before winding are reported in comparison to results obtained during winding and actual winding build-up dimensions on a layer by layer basis in comparison to design requirements

181

Accounting for arrangements - Part 1  

OpenAIRE

Based on the substance over form principle, transactions that in substance transfer the right to use an asset for an agreed period of time, in return for a series of payments, are accounted for as a lease transaction in terms of IAS 17 (AC 105), irrespective of the legal form of the arrangement. The International Financial Reporting Interpretations Committee and the Standards Interpretation Committee have issued two documents that provide more guidance on the application of the substance over...

Venter, Elmar R.; Tomes, Tania

2006-01-01

182

Romanian SMEs Financing Options:  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the most pressing problems faced by micro, small and medium sized enterprises (henceforth SMEs in Europe is the access to sufficient funds to sustain their long term growth. Romanian SMEs make no exception. In this context the present paper focuses on analyzing the extent to which external funding sources have contributed to the value added created by the Romanian SMEs between 2007 and 2011.The investigation’s results indicate the existence of a causal link between some forms of external financing (namely bank loans, leasing, factoring, guarantee products and European funds and the value added created by the Romanian micro, small and medium sized enterprises in the aforementioned period.

Ioan E. Nistor

2013-11-01

183

Financing electricity expansion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Expansion of electricity supply is associated with economic development. The installation and enlargement of power systems in developing countries entails a huge financial burden, however. Energy consumers in such countries must pay not only for supplies but for the cost of raising the capital for expansion on the international markets. Estimates are presented for the capital expenditure for electricity supply over the period 1990 to 2020 for the major world regions, using approximations for the cost of plant and capital and for the returns earned. These data lead to the conclusion that the five regions with the lowest per capita incomes are those which will need the major part of the capital expenditure and the highest percentage of external finance. (6 tables) (UK)

184

Studies on forced convection nanofluid flow in circular conduits  

OpenAIRE

An experimental system was developed and used to study the nanofluid flow and heat transfer in circular conduits. Experiments were performed for a variety of nanofluid flow features in the system. Results obtained from the study show that the heat transfer rate for flow of the base fluid is less than that of the nanofluid used in the study. It was also found that the observed relationship between molecular diffusivity of momentum and the molecular diffusivity of thermal energy at the macrosca...

Harikrishna Vishwanadula; Nsofor, Emmanuel C.

2012-01-01

185

Methods of measuring pumpage through closed-conduit irrigation systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Methods of measuring volumes of water withdrawn from the Snake River and its tributaries and pumped through closed-conduit irrigation systems were needed for equitable management of and resolution of conflicts over water use. On the basis of evaluations and field tests by researchers from the University of Idaho, Water Resources Research Institute, Moscow, Idaho, an impeller meter was selected to monitor pumpage through closed-conduit systems. In 1988, impeller meters were installed at 20 pumping stations along the Snake River between the Upper Salmon Falls and C.J. Strike Dams. Impeller-derived pumpage data were adjusted if they differed substantially from ultrasonic flow-meter- or current-meter-derived values. Comparisons of pumpage data obtained by ultrasonic flow-meter and current-meter measurements indicated that the ultrasonic flow meter was a reliable means to check operation of impeller meters. The equipment generally performed satisfactorily, and reliable pumpage data could be obtained using impeller meters in closed-conduit irrigation systems. Many pumping stations that divert water from the Snake River for irrigation remain unmeasured; however, regression analyses indicate that total pumpage can be reasonably estimated on the basis of electrical power consumption data, an approximation of total head at a pumping station, and a derived coefficient.

Kjelstrom, L.C.

1991-01-01

186

Interactions of large amplitude solitary waves in viscous fluid conduits  

Science.gov (United States)

The free interface separating an exterior, viscous fluid from an intrusive conduit of buoyant, less viscous fluid is known to support strongly nonlinear solitary waves due to a balance between viscosity-induced dispersion and buoyancy-induced nonlinearity. The overtaking, pairwise interaction of weakly nonlinear solitary waves has been classified theoretically for the Korteweg-de Vries equation and experimentally in the context of shallow water waves, but a theoretical and experimental classification of strongly nonlinear solitary wave interactions is lacking. The interactions of large amplitude solitary waves in viscous fluid conduits, a model physical system for the study of one-dimensional, truly dissipationless, dispersive nonlinear waves, are classified. Using a combined numerical and experimental approach, three classes of nonlinear interaction behavior are identified: purely bimodal, purely unimodal, and a mixed type. The magnitude of the dispersive radiation due to solitary wave interactions is quantified numerically and observed to be beyond the sensitivity of our experiments, suggesting that conduit solitary waves behave as "physical solitons." Experimental data are shown to be in excellent agreement with numerical simulations of the reduced model. Experimental movies are available with the online version of the paper.

Lowman, Nicholas K.; Hoefer, M. A.; El, G. A.

2014-07-01

187

Free-boundary models of a meltwater conduit  

Science.gov (United States)

We analyse the cross-sectional evolution of an englacial meltwater conduit that contracts due to inward creep of the surrounding ice and expands due to melting. Making use of theoretical methods from free-boundary problems in Stokes flow and Hele-Shaw squeeze flow we construct an exact solution to the coupled problem of external viscous creep and internal heating, in which we adopt a Newtonian approximation for ice flow and an idealized uniform heat source in the conduit. This problem provides an interesting variant on standard free-boundary problems, coupling different internal and external problems through the kinematic condition at the interface. The boundary in the exact solution takes the form of an ellipse that may contract or expand (depending on the magnitudes of effective pressure and heating rate) around fixed focal points. Linear stability analysis reveals that without the melting this solution is unstable to perturbations in the shape. Melting can stabilize the interface unless the aspect ratio is too small; in that case, instabilities grow largest at the thin ends of the ellipse. The predictions are corroborated with numerical solutions using boundary integral techniques. Finally, a number of extensions to the idealized model are considered, showing that a contracting circular conduit is unstable to all modes of perturbation if melting occurs at a uniform rate around the boundary, or if the ice is modelled as a shear-thinning fluid.

Dallaston, Michael C.; Hewitt, Ian J.

2014-08-01

188

Behavioural Finance: Theory and Survey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper analyses the importance of behavioural finance theories in household decision-making process. Behavioural finance theories investigate emotional characteristics to explain subjective factors and irrational anomalies in financial markets. In this regard, behavioural theories and behavioural anomalies in the decision-making process are examined; the application opportunities in the financial market are described. The aim of investigation is to determine the basic features and slopes of behavioural finance in concordance with financial decisions of a household. The survey method was applied to ascertain financial behaviour of literate households.

Daiva Jurevi?ien?

2013-04-01

189

PUBLIC FINANCING OF HEALTHCARE SERVICES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Healthcare in Poland is mainly financed by public sector entities, among them the National Health Fund (NFZ, state budget and local government budgets. The task of the National Health Fund, as the main payer in the system, is chiefly currently financing the services. The state budget plays a complementary role in the system, and finances selected groups of services, health insurance premiums and investments in healthcare infrastructure. The basic role of the local governments is to ensure access to the services, mostly by performing ownership functions towards healthcare institutions.

Agnieszka Bem

2013-10-01

190

Third party financing of renewable energy sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

IDAE (Institute of Energy Saving and Diversification) Hosted the Third party on financing renewable energy sources. The meeting was articulated into chapters: 1.- Experiences in the renewable energy field. 2.- Third party financing of small hydro-power projects. 3.- Third party financing of biomass projects. 4.- Third party financing of wind energy projects

191

Third party financing of renewable energy sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Institut of Energy Saving and Diversification (IDAE) hosted the third party on financing Renewable Energy Sources in Spain. The main aspects were : 1) Experiences in renewable energy. 2) Financing of small hydro-power projects. 3) Third party financing of biomass projects. 4) Financing of wind energy projects

192

Public Education Finances: 2002 Census of Governments: Volume 4, Government Finances.  

Science.gov (United States)

Volume 4. Government Finances contains six parts that cover a wide range of state and local government financial activity in fiscal year 2001-02. They are: (1) Public Education Finances; (2)Finances of Special District Governments; (3) Finances of County Governments; (4) Finances of Municipal and Township Governments; (5) Compendium of Government…

US Department of Commerce, 2004

2004-01-01

193

Study on the dynamic behavior of a current in cable-in-conduit conductors by using self magnetic field measurements  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to understand the current behavior inside a cable-in-conduit conductor (CICC), self magnetic field measurements on the CICC were conducted. A prototype NbTi CICC, the configuration of which is a racket shape, for JT-60SA EF coil was used as a short conductor sample. By using Hall sensors arranged around the short conductor sample, the variation in the self magnetic field was measured. Taking into account the measurements, the current behavior inside the CICC was analyzed by using analytical models consisting of line currents. The analytical results indicate that the current distribution in the cross-section of the CICC would be non-uniform before a normal propagation, and the current distribution would be improved after the normal propagation.

Obana, Tetsuhiro, E-mail: obana.tetsuhiro@LHD.nifs.ac.jp [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292, Gifu (Japan); Takahata, Kazuya; Hamaguchi, Shinji; Imagawa, Shinsaku; Mito, Toshiyuki [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292, Gifu (Japan); Kizu, Kaname; Murakami, Haruyuki; Yoshida, Kiyoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki (Japan)

2011-10-15

194

Study on the dynamic behavior of a current in cable-in-conduit conductors by using self magnetic field measurements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to understand the current behavior inside a cable-in-conduit conductor (CICC), self magnetic field measurements on the CICC were conducted. A prototype NbTi CICC, the configuration of which is a racket shape, for JT-60SA EF coil was used as a short conductor sample. By using Hall sensors arranged around the short conductor sample, the variation in the self magnetic field was measured. Taking into account the measurements, the current behavior inside the CICC was analyzed by using analytical models consisting of line currents. The analytical results indicate that the current distribution in the cross-section of the CICC would be non-uniform before a normal propagation, and the current distribution would be improved after the normal propagation.

195

Recent Developments in Quantitative Finance: An Overview  

OpenAIRE

Quantitative finance combines mathematical finance, financial statistics, financial econometrics and empirical finance to provide a solid quantitative foundation for the analysis of financial issues. The purpose of this special issue on “Recent developments in quantitative finance” is to highlight some areas of research in which novel methods in quantitative finance have contributed significantly to the analysis of financial issues, specifically fast methods for large-scale non-elliptical...

Chang, Chia-lin; Hu, Shing-yang; Yu, Shih-ti

2014-01-01

196

Ultra high vacuum seal arrangement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Arrangement for demountably sealing two concentric metallic tubes in an ultra high vacuum system which facilitates remote actuation is claimed. A tubular seal includes integral spaced lips which circumferentially engage the metallic tubes. The lips plastically deform the metallic tubes by mechanical forces resulting from a martensite to austenite transformation of the tubular seal upon application of a predetermined temperature. The sealing force is released upon application of another temperature which causes a transformation from the stronger austenite to the weaker martensite. Use of a dual acting sealing ring and driving ring circumferentially contacting the sealing ring is particularly applicable to sealing larger diameter concentric metallic members

197

Arrangement of a nuclear reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The nuclear reactor arrangement described consists of a housing with a reactor core therein and is provided with means for the extraction of heat, which in operation is developed in the reactor core, these means including a primary liquid coolant circuit which includes at least a component within an reactor core a loop cycle which includes a pump, as well as on the outside of the reactor core a secondary liquid coolent circuit which includes at least one closed circuit, which includes a pump, wherein a loop of the primary circuit by means of a heat exchanger is coupled with a loop of the secondary circuit. (G.C.)

198

Economic implications from deficit finance  

OpenAIRE

The paper enlightens popular part of the budget policy - deficit finance. In the process of securing economic conditions to surpass the current economic crises, the governments all over the world incline towards debt deficit finance. The intention is to describe the implications such as multiplier effect, crowding out effect, correlation between budget and trade deficit. One of them are positive, they increase the aggregate demand and national income, other negative in term that they crowd ou...

Gaber, Stevan

2010-01-01

199

Women Financing and Household Economics  

OpenAIRE

This study has uniquely established that financing women though Self Help Groups has a significant role in empowering women, which is a smart economics indeed in achieving the objective of economic development of the weaker sections. The findings of this study establish using the statistical technique and robust sample size that women financing through groups has significant impacts on the food security as well as non-food expenses of the poor families. The study has evidenced significant out...

Swamy, Vighneswara; B K, Tulasimala

2013-01-01

200

‘Chrysanthemum petal’ arrangements of silver nano wires  

Science.gov (United States)

Highly ordered ‘Chrysanthemum petal’ arrangements of silver nano wires were fabricated in a biodegradable polymer of polyvinyl alcohol using a simple one-step blending method without any template. The degree of the arrangement increased with the decreasing content of polyvinyl alcohol. The mechanism for the formation of these ‘Chrysanthemum petal’ arrangements was discussed specifically. These ‘Chrysanthemum petal’ arrangements will be helpful to increase the electrical conductivity of silver nano wires films.

Cui, Hui-Wang; Jiu, Jin-Ting; Sugahara, Tohru; Nagao, Shijo; Suganuma, Katsuaki; Uchida, Hiroshi

2014-12-01

201

'Chrysanthemum petal' arrangements of silver nano wires.  

Science.gov (United States)

Highly ordered 'Chrysanthemum petal' arrangements of silver nano wires were fabricated in a biodegradable polymer of polyvinyl alcohol using a simple one-step blending method without any template. The degree of the arrangement increased with the decreasing content of polyvinyl alcohol. The mechanism for the formation of these 'Chrysanthemum petal' arrangements was discussed specifically. These 'Chrysanthemum petal' arrangements will be helpful to increase the electrical conductivity of silver nano wires films. PMID:25397618

Cui, Hui-Wang; Jiu, Jin-Ting; Sugahara, Tohru; Nagao, Shijo; Suganuma, Katsuaki; Uchida, Hiroshi

2014-12-01

202

The financing of nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Existing nuclear generating capacity plays an important role in providing secure, economic and low-carbon electricity supplies in many OECD countries. At the same time, there is increasing recognition that an expansion of nuclear power could play a valuable role in reducing future carbon dioxide emissions. However, in recent years only a handful of new nuclear power plants (NPPs) have been built in just a few OECD countries. An important reason for this is the challenges associated with financing the construction of new NPPs. The just-published NEA report entitled The Financing of Nuclear Power Plants examines these challenges. In addition, recognizing that any expansion of nuclear power programmes will require strong and sustained government support, the report highlights the role of governments in facilitating and encouraging investment in new nuclear capacity. Key actions that should be considered by governments that wish to see investment in new NPPs include: - Provide clear and sustained policy support for the development of nuclear power, by setting out the case for a nuclear component in energy supply as part of a long-term national energy strategy. - Work with electricity utilities, financial companies and other potential investors, and the nuclear industry from an early stage to address concerns that may prevent nuclear investment and to avoid mistakes in establishing the parameters for new NPPs. - Establish an efficient and effective regulatory system which ent and effective regulatory system which provides adequate opportunities for public involvement in the decision-making process, while also providing potential investors with the certainty they require to plan such a major investment. - Put arrangements in place for the management of radioactive waste and spent fuel, and show progress towards a solution for final disposal of waste. For investors in NPPs, the financial arrangements for paying their fair share of the costs must be clearly defined. - Ensure that electricity market regulation does not disadvantage NPPs. Long-term arrangements may be necessary to provide certainty for investors in NPPs, reflecting the long-term nature of nuclear power projects. Where reducing CO2 emissions is to act as an incentive for investments in nuclear power, the government may need to provide some guarantees that policy measures will keep carbon prices at sufficiently high levels. In countries where there are large utilities with the financial strength to invest directly in new NPPs, or where there are well-resourced foreign utilities willing to make such investments, fully commercial financing may be possible. However, in other cases it may prove impossible for a nuclear power plant project to go ahead without direct or indirect public sector financial support, which would reduce the investment risks to acceptable levels. Public sector financial support could involve supporting a state-owned utility in making nuclear power plant investments, providing support to private sector utilities through loan guarantees, tax credits or other measures, or establishing public-private partnerships. However, governments should ensure that, overall, investment risk remains appropriately shared with the private sector

203

Influence of irradiation sterilization on mechanical properties and biodegradability of chitosan conduits  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chitosan conduits were sterilized with 60Co ? ray irradiation at a dose of 25 kGy and their swelling properties, mechanical properties and biodegradability in lysozyme solution were measured. After ? ray irradiation, the swelling index of chitosan conduit was considerably reduced and the tensile strength and elastic modulus were markedly increased. The results from SEM and measurement of mechanical properties showed that the degradation rate of the irradiated conduits in lysozyme solution was lower than that of the nonirradiated conduits. In addition, the chitosan conduits were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), and the influence mechanism of irradiation sterilization on the properties of chitosan conduits was explored. (authors)

204

Imaging of platelets in right-sided extracardiac conduits in humans  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a connection between the systemic venous ventricle and the pulmonary artery, valved Dacron extracardiac conduits have remarkably influenced the surgical approach to many complex congenital heart defects. Obstruction of the conduit, however, can reduce the long-term effectiveness of this corrective procedure. In addition to stenosis of the porcine valve, formation of thick fibrous neointima plays a major role in the pathogenesis of conduit obstruction. The purpose of this study was to determine whether platelet deposition could be demonstrated in these conduits by external imaging with 111In-labeled autologous platelets. After injection of labeled platelets either immediately after operation or on the fifth to eighth postoperative day, imaging was performed by standard procedures. Eight of nine patients had platelet accumulation in the conduit, and treatment with aspirin and dipyridamole caused no recognizable change in platelet deposition. This study demonstrates the feasibility of imaging platelet deposition in Dacron conduits and shows that the pattern of deposition varies with time

205

Ground water flux distribution between matrix, fractures, and conduits: constraints on modeling  

OpenAIRE

Calculations are presented to show the relative contribution of the matrix, fracture, and conduit permeability to the overall flow of ground water through a karst aquifer. The conceptual model is a cross-section spanning the full width and thickness of the aquifer. A constant, but adjustable head is assumed. The rock matrix is characterized by an adjustable hydraulic conductivity. Varying proportions of fractures and conduits of adjustable fracture apertures and conduit diameters were the...

White, W. B.; White, E. L.

2005-01-01

206

Representation of water abstraction from a karst conduit with numerical discrete-continuum models  

OpenAIRE

Karst aquifers are characterized by highly conductive conduit flow paths embedded in a less conductive fissured and fractured matrix, resulting in strong permeability contrasts with structured heterogeneity and anisotropy. Groundwater storage occurs predominantly in the fissured matrix. Hence, most mathematical karst models assume quasi-steady-state flow in conduits neglecting conduit-associated drainable storage (CADS). The concept of CADS considers storage volumes, where k...

Reimann, T.; Giese, M.; Geyer, T.; Liedl, R.; Mare?chal, J. C.; Shoemaker, W. B.

2013-01-01

207

Rotational pectoral musculocutaneous flap for the repair of gastric conduit necrosis in cervical esophagogastrostomy  

OpenAIRE

We experienced a case of wide necrosis of the cervical gastric conduit during esophageal cancer surgery. We attempted to repair this defect with various methods including conservative care, stents two times, and sternocleidomastoid muscle flap without successful results. Finally, we were able to reconstruct the gastric conduit defect with rotational pectoralis major musculocutaneous (PMM) flap. PMM flap is thought to be a reconstruction method applicable to the intractable gastric conduit def...

Kim, Jae Jun; Park, Jae Kil; Hwang, Sun Jin; Moon, Seok Whan

2012-01-01

208

Totally biological composite aortic stentless valved conduit for aortic root replacement: 10-year experience  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Objectives To retrospectively analyze the clinical outcome of a totally biological composite stentless aortic valved conduit (No-React® BioConduit) implanted using the Bentall procedure over ten years in a single centre. Methods Between 27/10/99 and 19/01/08, the No-React® BioConduit composite graft was implanted in 67 patients. Data on these patients were collected from the in-hospital database, from patient notes and from quest...

Meduoye Ayo; Ferreira Ignacio; Galiñanes Manuel; Sosnowski Andrzej

2011-01-01

209

Sensing turbulent flow and heat transport in a cave conduit  

Science.gov (United States)

Cave systems provide an extreme example of complex subsurface porous media, dominated by flow through an interconnected network of conduits. Whether water or air-filled, these flow systems have been largely observed subjectively, with only a few simple quantitative measurements of flow and pressure. In the spring of 2008 a joint campaign of New Mexico Tech and the University of Nevada Reno entered the 210m deep, ~8m "diameter," keyhole shaped, subhorizontal, Left Hand Tunnel, a large air-filled conduit in Carlsbad Caverns, New Mexico, with the intent to observe fluid flow with modern thermally-based instruments. The conduit experiences countercurrent, thermally stratified flow, with mean velocities in each layer less than 0.1m/s. It is part of a geothermally forced, large-scale convection cell. Two instruments were deployed. A distributed temperature sensing (DTS) fiber optic cable was stretched over 1km of the tunnel, and partially suspended by balloons to the roof, to sense spatial and low-frequency (0.01Hz) temporal variations of temperature with a resolution approaching 0.05 degree C. The mean temperature difference between layers was on the order of 0.5 degree and the caveward (subhorizontal) temperature gradient was 1 degree/400m. Influences of connecting subvertical shafts, wet areas of the cave, human activity, and diurnal fluctuations were observed. The second instrument, a 7m tall tower with an array of eight 300Hz thermocouple temperature sensors, with a sensitivity approaching 0.005 degree, was deployed 200m into the tunnel and used to detect high- frequency temperature fluctuations associated with turbulence and the stratified flow. Turbulence structure of each layer was similar. Temperature fluctuation (and turbulence intensity?) was significantly greater near the boundary between layers and its steep vertical gradient of mean temperature. Results from this 3-day campaign, as limited as they are, suggest that there is a wealth of information and understanding to be gained by instrumenting cave conduit systems with modern sensors.

Kurtzman, D.; Lucia, F. J.; Jennings, J. W.; Wilson, J. L.; Tyler, S. W.; Jorgensen, A. M.; Dwivedi, R.; Boston, P.; Burger, P.

2008-12-01

210

Evaluation of the ITER cable in conduit conductor heat transfer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Convective heat transfer correlations in dual channel Cable In Conduit Conductor (CICC) are presented as functions of friction factor, and based on the Reynolds-Colburn analogy using the Stanton number. The developed thermohydraulic model determines helium temperatures in both channels, with the real geometrical spiral perforation. It is applied with pertinence to the Poloidal Field Full Size Joint Sample (PF-FSJS) and shows good agreement between the experimental measurements and the calculated temperatures, characterised by a 0.43 m space constant. The heat load applied in the bundle region induces density imbalance; the gravity effect in this vertical sample is evaluated and discussed. (authors)

211

Migrating quake swarm may indicate magma conduit clog  

Science.gov (United States)

On 13 January 2006, Augustine Volcano, a towering volcano offshore from the Alaska Peninsula, erupted explosively. In the days leading up to the eruption, a series of explosions and earthquake swarms had warned of the impending activity. On 12 January, 36 hours before the first magmatic explosions, a swarm of 54 earthquakes was detected across the 13-station seismic network on Augustine Island. Analyzing the seismic waves produced by the earthquakes, Buurman and West found that the earthquakes were being triggered from point sources within the magma conduit itself.

Schultz, Colin

2014-03-01

212

Modelling the transition to slug flow in horizontal conduit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A physical model for the prediction of transition to slug flow is presented. The model assumes that the slug is formed as a result of a hydraulic jump which is sufficient to just touch the top wall of the conduit. This, together with 'a breaking dam' assumption at the rear of the slug, gives necessary and sufficient conditions for the formation of a stable slug. The minimum liquid film thickness ahead of the slug, degree of aeration within the slug and slug translational velocity are predicted. The predictions agree very well with those of previous workers and with experimental data

213

Hydraulic and geological factors influencing conduit flow depth  

OpenAIRE

There has much been speculation as to whether cave formation should occur at, above, or below the water table, but a satisfactory explanation has been lacking until recently. The last 50 years has seen extensive mapping of caves both above and, more recently, below the water table. It is now becoming apparent that there are systematic differences in depth of flow between different areas and that conduit flow to depths >100m below the water table is not uncommon. Such deep flow is facilitated ...

Worthington, S. R. H.

2005-01-01

214

Heating-induced flows in cable-in-conduit conductors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hoenig et al and Miller et al have both reported high stability margins for cable-in-conduit conductors cooled by stationary supercritical helium. Miller et al proposed that strong flows induced in the helium in the early stages of recovery enhanced heat transfer and greatly increased the stability margin over what had been expected for stationary helium. In this memorandum, the flow and pressure transients induced in initially stationary helium by energy transfers typical of those associated with conductor recovery (50 to 200 mJ cm-3 in 10 to 20 msec) are calculated

215

System and method for bidirectional flow and controlling fluid flow in a conduit  

Science.gov (United States)

A system for measuring bidirectional flow, including backflow, of fluid in a conduit. The system utilizes a structural mechanism to create a pressure differential in the conduit. Pressure sensors are positioned upstream from the mechanism, at the mechanism, and downstream from the mechanism. Data from the pressure sensors are transmitted to a microprocessor or computer, and pressure differential detected between the pressure sensors is then used to calculate the backflow. Control signals may then be generated by the microprocessor or computer to shut off valves located in the conduit, upon the occurrence of backflow, or to control flow, total material dispersed, etc. in the conduit.

Ortiz, Marcos German (Idaho Falls, ID)

1999-01-01

216

The physics of custody arrangements  

CERN Document Server

Divorced individuals face complex situations when they have children with different ex-partners, or even more, when their new partners have children of their own. In such cases, and when kids spend every other weekend with each parent, a practical problem emerges: Is it possible to have such a custody arrangement that every couple has either all of the kids together or no kids at all? We show that in general, it is not possible, but that the number of couples that do can be maximized. The problem turns out to be equivalent to finding the ground state of a spin glass system, which is known to be equivalent to what is called a weighted max-cut problem in graph theory, and hence it is NP-Complete.

Gomberoff, Andrés; Romagnoli, Pierre Paul

2013-01-01

217

Fault Diagnosability of Arrangement Graphs  

CERN Document Server

The growing size of the multiprocessor system increases its vulnerability to component failures. It is crucial to locate and to replace the faulty processors to maintain a system's high reliability. The fault diagnosis is the process of identifying faulty processors in a system through testing. This paper shows that the largest connected component of the survival graph contains almost all remaining vertices in the $(n,k)$-arrangement graph $A_{n,k}$ when the number of moved faulty vertices is up to twice or three times the traditional connectivity. Based on this fault resiliency, we establishes that the conditional diagnosability of $A_{n,k}$ under the comparison model. We prove that for $k\\geq 4$, $n\\geq k+2$, the conditional diagnosability of $A_{n,k}$ is $(3k-2)(n-k)-3$; the conditional diagnosability of $A_{n,n-1}$ is $3n-7$ for $n\\geq 5$.

Zhou, Shuming

2012-01-01

218

Development of a new lacrimal drainage conduit using POSS nanocomposite.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lacrimal surgery in cases of severely obstructed or missing canalicular ducts is highly challenging. In these cases, the placement of a bypass tube is currently the only option to restore the drainage of tears into the nose and reduce the symptomatic watery eye. Different approaches to achieve functional drainage have been tried using blood vessels or artificial implants. The implantation of the rigid Lester Jones tube is, since its introduction in the late 1960s, the gold standard. The functional success is satisfactory. However, complication rates are high and remain, even with many modifications of the original design, a major problem. These complications include mainly the displacement and blockage of the tube, requiring regular checkups, as well as irritation of the surrounding tissue including the nose and the eye. The objective of this study was to develop a new lacrimal duct conduit (LDC) to restore structural and functional integrity of the lacrimal drainage system. The conduit is constructed with a novel polymer, polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane-poly(carbonate-urea)urethane (POSS-PCU), that offers biocompatibility. We exploit nanotopography to evade the problems associated with current applications. A number of extrusion techniques were investigated for this purpose: ultrasonic atomization spraying, electrohydrodynamic atomization spraying/spinning, extrusion-coagulation, and high-pressure coagulation by autoclave and casting. Finally, the coagulation and cast technique were selected to construct an LDC superior to its predecessors, and its advantages highlighted. PMID:21995539

Chaloupka, Karla; Motwani, Meghna; Seifalian, Alexander Marcus

2011-01-01

219

Conduit for high temperature transfer of molten semiconductor crystalline material  

Science.gov (United States)

A conduit for high temperature transfer of molten semiconductor crystalline material consists of a composite structure incorporating a quartz transfer tube as the innermost member, with an outer thermally insulating layer designed to serve the dual purposes of minimizing heat losses from the quartz tube and maintaining mechanical strength and rigidity of the conduit at the elevated temperatures encountered. The composite structure ensures that the molten semiconductor material only comes in contact with a material (quartz) with which it is compatible, while the outer layer structure reinforces the quartz tube, which becomes somewhat soft at molten semiconductor temperatures. To further aid in preventing cooling of the molten semiconductor, a distributed, electric resistance heater is in contact with the surface of the quartz tube over most of its length. The quartz tube has short end portions which extend through the surface of the semiconductor melt and which are lef bare of the thermal insulation. The heater is designed to provide an increased heat input per unit area in the region adjacent these end portions.

Fiegl, George (Inventor); Torbet, Walter (Inventor)

1983-01-01

220

Hydraulic and geological factors influencing conduit flow depth  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There has much been speculation as to whether cave formation should occur at, above, or below the water table, but a satisfactory explanation has been lacking until recently. The last 50 years has seen extensive mapping of caves both above and, more recently, below the water table. It is now becoming apparent that there are systematic differences in depth of flow between different areas and that conduit flow to depths >100m below the water table is not uncommon. Such deep flow is facilitated by the lower viscosity of geothermally heated water at depth. Analysis of data from caves shows that depth of flow is primarily a function of flow path length, stratal dip and fracture anisotropy. This explains why conduits form at shallow depths in platform settings such as in Kentucky, at moderate depths (10–100m in folded strata such as in England and in the Appalachian Mountains, and at depths of several hundred metres in exceptional settings where there are very long flow paths.

Worthington,S.R.H.

2005-01-01

221

Modeling blockage in unsteady slurry flow in conduits  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Developments in the modeling of the inception of blockage in granular slurry systems are discussed from phenomenological and numerical experience. In addition, pump and valve manipulation procedures developed for controlling conduit blockage during transient operation are outlined. Conduit blockage is in itself a transient event and although it is most frequently associated with system start-up or shut-down, it can originate from steady state networks as a result of density waves, instabilities of the excursive type, and/or flow regime relaxation. Blockage control during system start-up or shut-down is accomplished by way of a pump/valve stroking procedure that emphasizes a gradual control of the fluid velocity rather than a maximum permissible pressure. This is done to promote an orderly settling of solids, needed for shut-down, or resuspension of solids, as needed for start-up. Recent evaluation of friction factors at the onset of blockage obtained through laboratory measurements of the shear stresses in a plugged pipe are also presented

222

26 CFR 1.7701(l)-3 - Recharacterizing financing arrangements involving fast-pay stock.  

Science.gov (United States)

...determined under the principles of § 1.1273-1...is determined under general tax principles and depends on all the...Corporation X has the right to redeem the B Stock...requirements —(i) In general. A...

2010-04-01

223

Documentation of a Conduit Flow Process (CFP) for MODFLOW-2005  

Science.gov (United States)

This report documents the Conduit Flow Process (CFP) for the modular finite-difference ground-water flow model, MODFLOW-2005. The CFP has the ability to simulate turbulent ground-water flow conditions by: (1) coupling the traditional ground-water flow equation with formulations for a discrete network of cylindrical pipes (Mode 1), (2) inserting a high-conductivity flow layer that can switch between laminar and turbulent flow (Mode 2), or (3) simultaneously coupling a discrete pipe network while inserting a high-conductivity flow layer that can switch between laminar and turbulent flow (Mode 3). Conduit flow pipes (Mode 1) may represent dissolution or biological burrowing features in carbonate aquifers, voids in fractured rock, and (or) lava tubes in basaltic aquifers and can be fully or partially saturated under laminar or turbulent flow conditions. Preferential flow layers (Mode 2) may represent: (1) a porous media where turbulent flow is suspected to occur under the observed hydraulic gradients; (2) a single secondary porosity subsurface feature, such as a well-defined laterally extensive underground cave; or (3) a horizontal preferential flow layer consisting of many interconnected voids. In this second case, the input data are effective parameters, such as a very high hydraulic conductivity, representing multiple features. Data preparation is more complex for CFP Mode 1 (CFPM1) than for CFP Mode 2 (CFPM2). Specifically for CFPM1, conduit pipe locations, lengths, diameters, tortuosity, internal roughness, critical Reynolds numbers (NRe), and exchange conductances are required. CFPM1, however, solves the pipe network equations in a matrix that is independent of the porous media equation matrix, which may mitigate numerical instability associated with solution of dual flow components within the same matrix. CFPM2 requires less hydraulic information and knowledge about the specific location and hydraulic properties of conduits, and turbulent flow is approximated by modifying horizontal conductances assembled by the Block-Centered Flow (BCF), Layer-Property Flow (LPF), or Hydrogeologic-Unit Flow Packages (HUF) of MODFLOW-2005. For both conduit flow pipes (CFPM1) and preferential flow layers (CFPM2), critical Reynolds numbers are used to determine if flow is laminar or turbulent. Due to conservation of momentum, flow in a laminar state tends to remain laminar and flow in a turbulent state tends to remain turbulent. This delayed transition between laminar and turbulent flow is introduced in the CFP, which provides an additional benefit of facilitating convergence of the computer algorithm during iterations of transient simulations. Specifically, the user can specify a higher critical Reynolds number to determine when laminar flow within a pipe converts to turbulent flow, and a lower critical Reynolds number for determining when a pipe with turbulent flow switches to laminar flow. With CFPM1, the Hagen-Poiseuille equation is used for laminar flow conditions and the Darcy-Weisbach equation is applied to turbulent flow conditions. With CFPM2, turbulent flow is approximated by reducing the laminar hydraulic conductivity by a nonlinear function of the Reynolds number, once the critical head difference is exceeded. This adjustment approximates the reductions in mean velocity under turbulent ground-water flow conditions.

Shoemaker, W. Barclay; Kuniansky, Eve L.; Birk, Steffen; Bauer, Sebastian; Swain, Eric D.

2007-01-01

224

The Financing of Innovative Firms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To what extent are new and/or innovative firms fundamentally different from established firms, and therefore require a different form of financing? The theoretical background for this proposition is presented, and the empirical evidence on its importance is reviewed. Owing to the intangible nature of their investment, asymmetric-information and moral-hazard, these firms are more likely to be financed by equity than debt and behave in some cases as though they are cash-constrained, especially if they are small. Recognizing the role for public policy in this area, many countries have implemented specific policies to bring the cost of financing innovation more in line with the level that would prevail in the absence of market failures.

Bronwyn H. Hall

2010-04-01

225

Introduction to Micro-finance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Micro-finance appears today as the most promising tool in the struggle against poverty and banking exclusion. By providing micro-credit, collecting saving and supplying microinsurance, microfinance institutions (MFIs are renewing the banking activity by practices as innovative as the group lending method. However, the real impacts of the microfinance on target populations are to be confirmed, theirevaluation colliding with numerous difficulties. Nevertheless, the future development of micro-finance depends on its superiority over other tools in achieving its objectives. Hence, the need to develop more rigorous studies on the impacts, and mature reflection on sources of funding for MFIs in a context of growing of ethical finance and socially responsible investment.

Mariam SANGARÉ

2008-01-01

226

Financing of offshore wind farms  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One of the most prominent topics in today's wind energy industry are the prospects of offshore wind energy. Although the technical aspects of offshore wind farms have been discussed in some detail, virtually no finance deal has been done in this sector. The sector is still developing and the finance community is discovering new approaches to funding. We will start by examining the specific characteristics of offshore wind farms from a lender's point of view. The major part of this paper consists of the discussion of potential risks involved with an offshore wind power project and ways to mitigate or even eliminate them. Some hints are given to facilitate the investor's efforts to find adequate financing. We finish with a comparison of an onshore wind farm compared with an offshore wind farm. (orig.)

Boettcher, J. [LB Kiel, International Project Finance (Germany)

2000-07-01

227

48 CFR 32.105 - Uses of contract financing.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Financing 32.105 Uses of contract financing. (a) Contract financing methods covered in this part are intended...agencies shall only use the methods for financing of contractor working capital, not for the expansion of...

2010-10-01

228

Project finance for renewable energy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper is intended to provide general advice to sponsors of renewable energy projects who expect to raise project-based financing from commercial banks to fund the development of their projects. It sets out, for the benefit of such sponsors, how bankers typically approach the analysis of these undertakings and in particular the risk areas on which they concentrate. By doing so it should assist sponsors to maximize their prospects of raising bank finance. The watchword for sponsors approaching banks must be ''Be Prepared'' . (author)

229

The problem of financing innovation of enterprises  

OpenAIRE

The article examines the main issues related to financing innovation in enterprises. The author proves the problem of financing innovation as a key deterrent to the innovative development of Russian enterprises.

Alexander Ildyakov

2012-01-01

230

Education Financing of Rural Households in China  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this paper was to examine children’s education financing alternatives among households in rural China. Data on education financing was from a household survey conducted in three poverty villages in Guizhou, China. The difference in financing education by households was verified through non-parametric testing. Findings show that private savings is dominant in financing education of children in school. Formal loans are almost absent even in the highest wealth group examined. Th...

Wang, Hua-shu; Moll, Henk

2010-01-01

231

Hydraulic transients in pumping station-main conduit - Cooling tower systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper presented a method of starting up a pump with a partially filled main conduit allows to avoided filling the conduit with a low head and draining the pipeline followed by rotation of the pump in the opposite direction. This provides reduction of dynamic loads on the system elements and increases the reliability and time of the work

232

A one-dimensional heat-transport model for conduit flow in karst aquifers  

Science.gov (United States)

A one-dimensional heat-transport model for conduit flow in karst aquifers is presented as an alternative to two or three-dimensional distributed-parameter models, which are data intensive and require knowledge of conduit locations. This model can be applied for cases where water temperature in a well or spring receives all or part of its water from a phreatic conduit. Heat transport in the conduit is simulated by using a physically-based heat-transport equation that accounts for inflow of diffuse flow from smaller openings and fissures in the surrounding aquifer during periods of low recharge. Additional diffuse flow that is within the zone of influence of the well or spring but has not interacted with the conduit is accounted for with a binary mixing equation to proportion these different water sources. The estimation of this proportion through inverse modeling is useful for the assessment of contaminant vulnerability and well-head or spring protection. The model was applied to 7 months of continuous temperature data for a sinking stream that recharges a conduit and a pumped well open to the Madison aquifer in western South Dakota. The simulated conduit-flow fraction to the well ranged from 2% to 31% of total flow, and simulated conduit velocity ranged from 44 to 353 m/d.

Long, A.J.; Gilcrease, P.C.

2009-01-01

233

Numerical Modeling of the Thermal Behavior of Corrosion in Conduit in Transient Mode  

OpenAIRE

The conduits in the buildings require a regular and permanent control, in order to avoid the risks of deterioration caused by corrosion. In this paper we present a thermal nondestructive testing method of concrete structures containing a conduit system, based on the analysis by infrared thermography principle and the numerical modeling in three dimensions. The aim is to study the detectability of these pipes...

Naouar Laaidi; Sougrati Belattar

2013-01-01

234

Flexible Working Time Arrangements in Bulgaria  

OpenAIRE

The objective of this paper is to analyze the flexible working time arrangements in Bulgaria, using a life-course perspective. Two important features have to be outlined, namely: underdeveloped flexible forms of employment in the country, including working time arrangement, and lack of previous analysis on flexible working time arrangements from the angle of life-course perspective. The author describes the regulatory framework, collective agreements at national and company level as a frame w...

Beleva, Iskra

2009-01-01

235

Rural labour arrangements in West Bengal, India  

OpenAIRE

?The aim of this thesis is to explain the existence and coexistence of diverse hired labour arrangements in two contrasting localities in rural West Bengal (India). Hired labour arrangements for seasonal migrants are included in the analysis, the methods for which are drawn from a review of the contractual arrangements literature. One study locality, in Bardhaman District, was characterised by double-cropping of paddy facilitated by groundwater irrigation, ...

Rogaly, Ben

1994-01-01

236

An integrated model of magma chamber, conduit and column for the analysis of sustained explosive eruptions  

Science.gov (United States)

Explosive volcanic eruptions comprise a complex series of processes involving withdrawal from the magma chamber, magma ascent along the conduit and eruption column dynamics. Numerous studies have modeled the different sub-domains of a volcanic system, but their interplay has seldom been analyzed. To this end, we developed C3 (C-cubed, that stands for Chamber, Conduit and Column), a new integrated model that describes the dynamics of an explosive eruption as a series of steady state regimes and as a function of geometry and initial conditions of the magma reservoir. We used Global Sensitivity Analysis to quantify the role of the relevant model parameters and describe the interplay between the different volcanic sub-domains. In particular, we analyzed the evolution of a sustained explosive eruption in order to identify the conditions for buoyant, super-buoyant and collapsing columns. Input data were based on field reconstructions of Quaternary explosive eruptions in the Vulsini Volcanic District (Roman Province, central Italy). Model results show that: 1) the column regime, although affected by complex interactions among several factors, mostly depends on the conduit radius, the volatile content (i.e. supersaturation concentration at the top of the chamber) and length of the conduit, in decreasing level of importance; 2) the amount of mass erupted is independent of the conduit radius and depends mostly on volatile supersaturation, the radius of the magma chamber, the length of the conduit and the overpressure at the conduit inlet; 3) the mass flow-rate, column height and duration of the eruption are largely controlled by the conduit radius; 4) the flow pressure and density at the conduit exit are mostly controlled by the conduit inlet overpressure at the onset of the eruption, and by the length of the conduit at the end of the eruption; 5) the exit velocity from the conduit is mostly controlled by the volatile content, the length of the conduit and the inlet overpressure. In this model framework, and with specific reference to selected Plinian events of the Vulsini Volcanic District, simulation results show that column collapse is not achieved for reasonable eruption durations (order of hours) and conduit widths (tens of meters). This is consistent with field reconstructions suggesting that column collapse did not likely occur and that pyroclastic flows were therefore generated by independent mechanisms from ring fissures and/or multiple vents concomitant to caldera collapse.

Colucci, S.; de'Michieli Vitturi, M.; Neri, A.; Palladino, D. M.

2014-10-01

237

Effect of the conduit material on CICC performance under high cycling loads  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recent ITER Model Coils and CRPP tests on Nb3Sn Cable in Conduit Conductors (CICC) showed a significant and unexpected increase in the broadness of the transition to the normal state, resulting in degradation of superconducting properties. To investigate these phenomena two CICC samples were built with identical 144 strand cables but different conduit materials. One sample had titanium conduit with low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), the other had stainless steel conduit. The purpose of this experiment was to study changes in strand properties in the cable (n-value, I{sub c}, T{sub cs}), the effect of cycling and high electromagnetic load and the effect of the conduit on the CICC performance.

Martovetsky, N N; Bruzzone, P; Stepanov, B; Wesche, R; Gung, C; Minervini, J V; Takayasu, M; Goodrich, L F; Ekin, J W; Nijhuis, A

2004-09-01

238

Ground water flux distribution between matrix, fractures, and conduits: constraints on modeling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Calculations are presented to show the relative contribution of the matrix, fracture, and conduit permeability to the overall flow of ground water through a karst aquifer. The conceptual model is a cross-section spanning the full width and thickness of the aquifer. A constant, but adjustable head is assumed. The rock matrix is characterized by an adjustable hydraulic conductivity. Varying proportions of fractures and conduits of adjustable fracture apertures and conduit diameters were the calculational parameters. Calculations used Darcy’s law for matrix flow, the cube law for fracture flow, and the Darcy-Weisbach equation for conduit flow. The results show a surprising dominance of fracture flow in the early stages of aquifer development. A focusing mechanism is needed to localize the flow into a relatively small number of conduits.

White,W.B.

2005-01-01

239

Method and apparatus for reducing drag and noise associated with fluid flow in a conduit  

Science.gov (United States)

A method and apparatus for reducing drag and noise associated with fluid flow within a conduit is provided. The conduit has flexible walls that are shaped to form stationary waves having peaks and troughs and are repeated in the axial direction of the conduit. The stationary waves are moved along the axial direction of the conduit whereby a vortex is trapped in the fluid flow at each of the troughs. Each of the vortices forms part of an isolating layer between the conduit wall and the main stream of the fluid flow thereby reducing drag. Furthermore, the vortices push the dominant noise producing region toward the center of the fluid flow where sound coupling efficiency is lower.

Ng, Kam W.

1991-07-01

240

The homotopy type of toric arrangements  

CERN Document Server

A toric arrangement is a finite set of hypersurfaces in a complex torus, every hypersurface being the kernel of a character. In the present paper we build a CW-complex homotopy equivalent to the arrangement complement, with a combinatorial description similar to that of the well-known Salvetti complex. If the toric arrangement is defined by a Weyl group, we also provide an algebraic description, very handy for cohomology computations. In the last part we give a description in terms of tableaux for a toric arrangement appearing in robotics.

Moci, Luca

2010-01-01

241

Hyperplane arrangements, interval orders, and trees.  

Science.gov (United States)

A hyperplane arrangement is a finite set of hyperplanes in a real affine space. An especially important arrangement is the braid arrangement, which is the set of all hyperplanes xi - xj = 1, 1 Postnikov [Gelfand, I. M., Graev, M. I., and Postnikov, A. (1995), preprint]. Finally, a refinement is given, related to counting labeled trees by number of inversions, of a result of Shi [Shi, J.-Y. (1986), Lecture Notes in Mathematics, no. 1179, Springer-Verlag] that a certain deformation of the braid arrangement has (n + 1)n-1 regions. PMID:11607643

Stanley, R P

1996-03-19

242

Grassroots financing; Graswurzel-Finanzierung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The idea of a common financing of a photovoltaic project is not new. It is new that interested parties no longer have to meet in community centers or clubhouses, but that a virtual meeting place is sufficient. Crowd funding projects on the world-wide web bring together solar projects and investors.

Hannen, Petra

2013-05-01

243

Australian University International Student Finances  

Science.gov (United States)

The omission of international students from the Australian Vice-Chancellor's Committee (AVCC) 2007 national study on student finances is indicative of a pattern of exclusion. The exclusion is unacceptable from a humane perspective and feeds the belief that Australians perceive international students primarily as "cash cows". This study partially…

Forbes-Mewett, Helen; Marginson, Simon; Nyland, Chris; Ramia, Gaby; Sawir, Erlenawati

2009-01-01

244

Nuclear industry (Finance) Act 1981  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of the Act is to enable British Nuclear Fuels Limited to make borrowings backed by Government guarantees in order to finance its ten year investment programme. More specifically, the Act raises the financial limit applicable to British Nuclear Fuels Limited from pound 500 million to pound 1,000 million. (NEA)

245

Hot upwelling conduit beneath the Atlas Mountains, Morocco  

Science.gov (United States)

Atlas Mountains of Morocco display high topography, no deep crustal root, and regions of localized Cenozoic alkaline volcanism. Previous seismic imaging and geophysical studies have implied a hot mantle upwelling as the source of the volcanism and high elevation. However, the existence, shape, and physical properties of an associated mantle anomaly are debated. Here we use seismic waveform analysis from a broadband deployment and geodynamic modeling to define the physical properties and morphology of the anomaly. The imaged low-velocity structure extends to ~200 km beneath the Atlas and appears ~350 K hotter than the ambient mantle with possible partial melting. It includes a lateral conduit, which suggests that the Quaternary volcanism arises from the upper mantle. Moreover, the shape and temperature of the imaged anomaly indicate that the unusually high topography of the Atlas Mountains is due to active mantle support.

Sun, Daoyuan; Miller, Meghan S.; Holt, Adam F.; Becker, Thorsten W.

2014-11-01

246

Cable-in-conduit conductor optimization for fusion magnet applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Careful design of the toroidal-field (TF) and poloidal-field (PF) coils in a tokamak machine using cable-in-conduit conductors (CICC) can result in quite high overall winding-pack current densities - even with the high nuclear heat loads that may be imposed in operating a fusion reactor - and thereby help reduce the overall machine size. In our design process, we systematically examined the operational environment of a magnet, e.g., mechanical stresses, current, field, heat load, coolant temperature, and cooldown stresses, to determine the optimum amounts of copper, superconductor, helium, and sheath material for the CICC. This process is being used to design the superconducting magnet systems that comprise the Tokamak Ignition/Burn Experimental Reactor (TIBER II). 13 refs., 2 figs

247

Stability and thermal equilibrium in cable-in-conduit conductors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The stability of modern superconductors depends not only on the cooling and the amount of copper in the cross section of the strands but also on the smoothness of the transition from the superconducting into the normal state. Frequently the latter factor is much more important than the cooling and the copper content. Superconductors with a broad transition are more stable and easier to control than the superconductors with a sharp transition, although the price for better stability might be somewhat lower operating current. The paper gives thermal equilibrium equations and stability criteria against small perturbations and determines the ultimate current that could be reached by a cable-in-conduit conductors depending on operating conditions. The effects of various factors (e.g., magnetic field profile, mass flow and smoothness of the transition to normal state) on the thermal equilibrium and ultimate current are studied and discussed

248

Totally biological composite aortic stentless valved conduit for aortic root replacement: 10-year experience  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To retrospectively analyze the clinical outcome of a totally biological composite stentless aortic valved conduit (No-React® BioConduit implanted using the Bentall procedure over ten years in a single centre. Methods Between 27/10/99 and 19/01/08, the No-React® BioConduit composite graft was implanted in 67 patients. Data on these patients were collected from the in-hospital database, from patient notes and from questionnaires. A cohort of patients had 2D-echocardiogram with an average of 4.3 ± 0.45 years post-operatively to evaluate valve function, calcification, and the diameter of the conduit. Results Implantation in 67 patients represented a follow-up of 371.3 patient-year. Males were 60% of the operated population, with a mean age of 67.9 ± 1.3 years (range 34.1-83.8 years, 21 of them below the age of 65. After a mean follow-up of 7.1 ± 0.3 years (range of 2.2-10.5 years, more than 50% of the survivors were in NYHA I/II and more than 60% of the survivors were angina-free (CCS 0. The overall 10-year survival following replacement of the aortic valve and root was 51%. During this period, 88% of patients were free from valved-conduit related complications leading to mortality. Post-operative echocardiography studies showed no evidence of stenosis, dilatation, calcification or thrombosis. Importantly, during the 10-year follow-up period no failures of the valved conduit were reported, suggesting that the tissue of the conduit does not structurally change (histology of one explant showed normal cusp and conduit. Conclusions The No-React® BioConduit composite stentless aortic valved conduit provides excellent long-term clinical results for aortic root replacement with few prosthesis-related complications in the first post-operative decade.

Meduoye Ayo

2011-06-01

249

Micro finance and poverty reduction in Asia: what is the evidence?  

OpenAIRE

Despite the extensive spread of micro finance, studies on the actual impact of MFIs are often more ambivalent about its impact than is the aid community. Much has been written on the range of institutional arrangements pursued in different organizations and countries and in turn a vast number studies have attempted to assess the outreach and poverty impact of such schemes. However, amongst the academic development community there is a recognition that perhaps we know much less about the impac...

Weiss, John; Montgomery, Heather; Kurmanalieva, Elvira

2003-01-01

250

Engineering a multimodal nerve conduit for repair of injured peripheral nerve  

Science.gov (United States)

Injury to nerve tissue in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) results in long-term impairment of limb function, dysaesthesia and pain, often with associated psychological effects. Whilst minor injuries can be left to regenerate without intervention and short gaps up to 2 cm can be sutured, larger or more severe injuries commonly require autogenous nerve grafts harvested from elsewhere in the body (usually sensory nerves). Functional recovery is often suboptimal and associated with loss of sensation from the tissue innervated by the harvested nerve. The challenges that persist with nerve repair have resulted in development of nerve guides or conduits from non-neural biological tissues and various polymers to improve the prognosis for the repair of damaged nerves in the PNS. This study describes the design and fabrication of a multimodal controlled pore size nerve regeneration conduit using polylactic acid (PLA) and (PLA):poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) fibers within a neurotrophin-enriched alginate hydrogel. The nerve repair conduit design consists of two types of PLGA fibers selected specifically for promotion of axonal outgrowth and Schwann cell growth (75:25 for axons; 85:15 for Schwann cells). These aligned fibers are contained within the lumen of a knitted PLA sheath coated with electrospun PLA nanofibers to control pore size. The PLGA guidance fibers within the nerve repair conduit lumen are supported within an alginate hydrogel impregnated with neurotrophic factors (NT-3 or BDNF with LIF, SMDF and MGF-1) to provide neuroprotection, stimulation of axonal growth and Schwann cell migration. The conduit was used to promote repair of transected sciatic nerve in rats over a period of 4 weeks. Over this period, it was observed that over-grooming and self-mutilation (autotomy) of the limb implanted with the conduit was significantly reduced in rats implanted with the full-configuration conduit compared to rats implanted with conduits containing only an alginate hydrogel. This indicates return of some feeling to the limb via the fully-configured conduit. Immunohistochemical analysis of the implanted conduits removed from the rats after the four-week implantation period confirmed the presence of myelinated axons within the conduit and distal to the site of implantation, further supporting that the conduit promoted nerve repair over this period of time. This study describes the design considerations and fabrication of a novel multicomponent, multimodal bio-engineered synthetic conduit for peripheral nerve repair.

Quigley, A. F.; Bulluss, K. J.; Kyratzis, I. L. B.; Gilmore, K.; Mysore, T.; Schirmer, K. S. U.; Kennedy, E. L.; O'Shea, M.; Truong, Y. B.; Edwards, S. L.; Peeters, G.; Herwig, P.; Razal, J. M.; Campbell, T. E.; Lowes, K. N.; Higgins, M. J.; Moulton, S. E.; Murphy, M. A.; Cook, M. J.; Clark, G. M.; Wallace, G. G.; Kapsa, R. M. I.

2013-02-01

251

Toric arrangement and discrete truncated power  

OpenAIRE

In this paper, by using the Laplace transform and the theory of toric arrangement, we show that discrete truncated power is a periodic piecewise polynomial on the shifted integral lattice cone. Based on the toric reduction method in the real field, we give a toric arrangement method to compute discrete truncated power.

Renhong, Wang; Mian, Li

2010-01-01

252

Arrangement for two-projection roentgenography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Arrangement for two-projection roentgenography, being a part of roentgenodiagnostic apparatuses, is suggested. The description of the arrangement and the principle of its operation are given. The invention suggested makes it possible to decrease fogging action of scattered radiation and increase picture quality in two-projection survey

253

Linial arrangements and local binary search trees  

OpenAIRE

We study the set of NBC sets (no broken circuit sets) of the Linial arrangement and deduce a constructive bijection to the set of local binary search trees. We then generalize this construction to two families of Linial type arrangements for which the bijections are with some $k$-ary labelled trees that we introduce for this purpose.

Forge, David

2014-01-01

254

Cell Complexes for Arrangements with Group Actions  

CERN Document Server

For a real oriented hyperplane arrangement, we show that the corresponding Salvetti complex is homotopy equivalent to the complement of the complexified arrangement. This result was originally proved by M. Salvetti. Our proof follows the framework of a proof given by L. Paris and relies heavily on the notation of oriented matroids. We also show that homotopy equivalence is preserved when we quotient by the action of the corresponding reflection group. In particular, the Salvetti complex of the braid arrangement in $\\ell$ dimensions modulo the action of the symmetric group is a cell complex which is homotopy equivalent to the space of unlabelled configurations of $\\ell$ distinct points. Lastly, we describe a construction of the orbit complex from the dual complex for all finite reflection arrangements in dimension 2. This description yields an easy derivation of the so-called "braid relations" in the case of braid arrangement.

Ernst, Dana C

2000-01-01

255

The International Finance Corporation and financing of sustainable energy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The International Finance Corporation (IFC), a member of the World Bank Group, is the largest multilateral source of loan and equity financing for private sector projects in the developing world. IFC participates in an investment only when it can make a special contribution that complements the role of market operators. Since its founding 40 years ago, IFC has provided more than $18.8 billion in financing for 1,706 companies in developing countries. Its share capital is provided by its 170 member countries, which collectively determine its policies and activities. Strong shareholder support and a substantial paid-in capital base have allowed IFC to raise funds for its lending activities through its triple-A rated bond issues in international financial markets. IFC created an Infrastructure Department in 1992 in response to the growing demand for its services in this area. During fiscal 1996 IFC approved 33 projects for new investments of $715 million of which 27% were in the power sector. In recognition of the continuing demand growth for private power investments an expanded Power Department has been formed to handle IFC`s investments in electric power generation projects using renewable resources such as: run-of-the-river hydro, geothermal, biomass cogeneration, wind energy, and solar (photovoltaic, solar thermal, etc.), as well as conventional thermal generation projects, transmission and distribution projects, and energy efficiency investments.

NONE

1997-12-01

256

Degradation properties of the electrostatic assembly PDLLA/CS/CHS nerve conduit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A poly(d,l-lactic acid)/chondroitin sulfate/chitosan (PDLLA/CS/CHS) nerve conduit for repairing nerve defects was prepared by electrostatic assembly and the thermally induced phase separation technique. The hydrophilic characteristics of the PDLLA/CS/CHS assembly nerve conduits were improved markedly. The degradation behavior of the nerve conduit with various assembly layers was evaluated by a pH change, weight loss rate and molecular weight change. The pH of the solution of the nerve conduit could be effectively adjusted by varying the layer numbers and overcoming the acidity-caused auto-acceleration of PDLLA; the nerve conduit can retain its integrity in a phosphate buffer solution after being degraded for 3 months. After such a conduit was implanted in the rat for 3 months, obvious degradation occurred, but the regenerated nerve was integrated and it grew successfully from the proximal to distal nerve stump. All these results implied that the degradation rate of the prepared conduit can adapt to the regeneration of the peripheral nerve, which might be a new derivative of PDLLA-based biodegradable materials for repairing nerve injuries without acidity-caused irritations and acidity-induced auto-accelerating degradation behavior as shown by PDLLA.

257

Fluid-Rock Dynamic Interaction in Magmatic Conduits: Modelling Transients Using an Analytical Solution  

Science.gov (United States)

We compute transients fluid-rock dynamic interaction in a fluid driven axisymmetric conduit embedded in an infinite, homogeneous elastic space. Both fluid and solid are dynamically coupled fulfilling continuity of velocities and radial stresses at the conduit's wall. The calculation model considers the viscosity as a key parameter leading to non-linear scheme. A pressure transient at a point of the conduit, that perturbs a steady flow of incompressible viscous fluid, produces the interaction between the fluid and motion at the conduit's walls. The fluid motion induces the elastic response of the conduit forcing it to oscillate radially. The fluid-filled conduit dynamics is governed by three second-order, ordinary non-linear differential equations, which are solved numerically by applying a fifth-order Runge-Kutta scheme. Boundary conditions satisfy the Bernoulli's principle allowing coupling several pipe segments which may present smooth variation in fluid properties. The nature of the source involves different pressure excitations functions including those measuring during simulations of gas burst and fragmentation of volcanic rocks under controlled laboratory conditions. Far-field velocity synthetics radiated by motion of the conduit's walls and fluid flows ascending to the surface, display characteristic waveforms and frequency content that are similar to those of long-period signals and tremor observed at active volcanoes. Results suggest that transient fluid flow induced oscillations may explain long-period and tremor signals. Advantages and limitations of this approach are discussed.

Arciniega-Ceballos, Alejandra; Scheu, Bettina; Sanchez-Sesma, Francisco; Dingwell, Donald

2014-05-01

258

Modeling the closure of volcanic conduits with an application to Mount Vesuvius  

Science.gov (United States)

The eruptive activity of a volcano is controlled by the opening and closure of conduits through which magma ascends to the surface. We develop a model to study the deformation of a cylindrical conduit surrounded by a viscoelastic cylindrical region in an infinite, elastic, homogeneous space. The viscoelastic behavior of the zone around the conduit is due to heat conduction from the hot magma, which raises the temperature beyond the brittle-ductile transition point. The effect of a tectonic regional stress which favors (compressive) or acts against (tensile) conduit closure is taken into account. Conduit closure is found to be ruled essentially by the extension of the viscoelastic region and by the ratio between its rigidity and the rigidity of the surrounding elastic medium, while tectonic stress is much less important. The model is applied to the last eruptive cycle of Mount Vesuvius. We find that an open conduit condition has been possible from 1631 to 1944, while the quiescence from 1944 on implies a closed conduit state.

Quareni, Francesca; Mulargia, Francesco

1993-03-01

259

Representation of water abstraction from a karst conduit with numerical discrete-continuum models  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Karst aquifers are characterized by highly conductive conduit flow paths embedded in a less conductive fissured and fractured matrix resulting in strong permeability contrasts with structured heterogeneity and anisotropy. Groundwater storage occurs predominantly in the fissured matrix. Hence, most karst models assume quasi steady-state flow in conduits neglecting conduit associated drainable storage (CADS. The concept of CADS considers storage volumes, where karst water is not part of the active flow system but rather hydraulically connected to conduits (for example karstic voids and large fractures. The disregard of conduit storage can be inappropriate when direct water abstraction from karst conduits occurs, e.g. large scale pumping. In such cases, CADS may be relevant. Furthermore, the typical fixed head boundary condition at the karst outlet can be inadequate for water abstraction scenarios because unhampered water inflow is possible. The objective of this paper is to analyze the significance of CADS and flow-limited boundary conditions on the hydraulic behavior of karst aquifers in water abstraction scenarios. To this end, the numerical hybrid model MODFLOW-2005 Conduit Flow Process Mode 1 (CFPM1 is enhanced to account for CADS. Additionally, a fixed-head limited-flow (FHLQ boundary condition is added that limits inflow from constant head boundaries to a user-defined threshold. The affect and proper functioning of these modifications is demonstrated by simplified model studies. Both enhancements, CAD storage and the FHLQ boundary, are shown to be useful for water abstraction scenarios within karst aquifers. An idealized representation of a large-scale pumping test in a karst conduit is used to demonstrate that the enhanced CFPM1 is potentially able to adequately represent water abstraction processes in both the conduits and the matrix of real karst systems.

T. Reimann

2013-04-01

260

Derivatives in energy project finance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This chapter focuses on risk management of merchant power generation projects and describes project finance as balancing risk and reward over time. The historical background to risk management is traced, and the case for derivatives in energy project finance is put forward with the hedging of forward output, and forwards and power purchase agreements discussed. Current and prospective usage, and the implementation issues of market liquidity, margin calls, letters of credit, derivative counterparty credit risk, and accounting policy are considered. A detailed example of a gas-fired plant in the US is presented with details given of the distribution of project earnings before tax. Oil field operating cashflows are examined, with reserved flow models, leverage effects, and price hedging addressed

261

Amélioration de l'agrément de conduite via le pilotage du groupe motopropulseur  

OpenAIRE

La transmission à double embrayage a été introduite dans les véhicules afin d'améliorer le confort de conduit, l'économie de conduite et de diminuer le temps de changement de vitesses. La gestion du double embrayage joue un rôle important sur le confort de conduite. L'objectif principal de ce travail concerne alors la synthèse des lois de commande du double embrayage en phase de décollage et lors du changement de vitesses. Le mémoire est structuré de la façon suivante : le premier...

Tran, Nhu

2013-01-01

262

Introduction to Micro-finance  

OpenAIRE

Micro-finance appears today as the most promising tool in the struggle against poverty and banking exclusion. By providing micro-credit, collecting saving and supplying microinsurance, microfinance institutions (MFIs) are renewing the banking activity by practices as innovative as the group lending method. However, the real impacts of the microfinance on target populations are to be confirmed, theirevaluation colliding with numerous difficulties. Nevertheless, the future development of micro-...

Sangare?, Mariam

2008-01-01

263

Margin Call in Islamic Finance  

OpenAIRE

Murabaha, the most popular Islamic finance contract, has been subject of many studies. In its simplest form it is buying and selling with profit and has two forms: Asset based and Asset backed. Upto now, there are many studies on asset based Murabaha sale, which consist of buying a product and selling, transferring ownership, to loan seeker simultaneously in exchange of debt obligation. With this structure asset based Murabaha has been subject of much criticism. ...

Ahmet Suayb Gundogdu

2014-01-01

264

Essays in Behavioral Household Finance  

OpenAIRE

This dissertation investigates some of the factors affecting modern household finance decisions in the United States using natural experimental variation and administrative data. In Chapter 1 I estimate the effects of financial education on retirement savings decisions. Between 2007 and 2008 the U.S. Army implemented a mandatory 8 hour Personal Financial Management Course (PFMC) for new soldiers. Staggered implementation across locations and time provides quasi-experimental variation in whet...

Skimmyhorn, William

2012-01-01

265

The politics of Islamic finance.  

OpenAIRE

The following text is taken from the publisher's website: "Can the contemporary Islamic finance movement be shown to meet the requirements of modern commerce? In the wake of the terrorist attacks on America the UN Security Council passed a resolution targeting transnational sources of terrorist funds. The United States and the International Monetary Fund are encouraging the governments of the Middle East to adopt policies of economic liberalism and a new type of capitalism, based on Islam...

Clement, H.; Wilson, R.

2004-01-01

266

Financing a portfolio of projects  

OpenAIRE

This article shows that investors financing a portfolio of projects may use the depth of their financial pockets to overcome entrepreneurial incentive problems. Competition for scarce informed capital at the refinancing stage strengthens investors’ bargaining positions. And yet, entrepreneurs’ incentives may be improved, because projects funded by investors with ‘‘shallow pockets’’ must have not only a positive net present value at the refinancing stage, but one that is higher tha...

Inderst, Roman; Mueller, Holger M.; Mu?nnich, Felix

2006-01-01

267

Margin Call in Islamic Finance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Murabaha, the most popular Islamic finance contract, has been subject of many studies. In its simplest form it is buying and selling with profit and has two forms: Asset based and Asset backed. Upto now, there are many studies on asset based Murabaha sale, which consist of buying a product and selling, transferring ownership, to loan seeker simultaneously in exchange of debt obligation. With this structure asset based Murabaha has been subject of much criticism. This article introduces the concept of asset backed Murabaha sale, by which financier holds the title of product until final sale to loan seeker, from a case of sugar structured trade commodity financing. In addition to discussion of general risk issues, special focus on commodity price risk management: margin calculation and margin call methods proposed so that Islamic finance industry can manage asset backed Murabaha contract without recourse to additional security of bank guarantee, mortgages, etc. or disallowed, by Islam, derivative based commodity price hedging products.

Ahmet Suayb Gundogdu

2014-07-01

268

Diversity Of Clast Types And Their Implications For Conduit Processes  

Science.gov (United States)

Small volume, sub-plinian andesite eruptions produce a range of clasts which can be either texturally diverse but compositionally similar or vice versa. Each clast type records the particular mechanism by which it was generated and can involve either purely geochemical or physical processes or interacting physico-chemical mechanisms. To understand the genesis of clast types we investigated the texture, mineral and bulk chemical composition, as well as melt inclusion studies, from clasts in deposits of the last sub-plinian eruption of Mt. Taranaki, New Zealand. These results are used, along with data obtained from studies of other lava dome- forming eruptions, to explore processes in the shallow crustal magma storage region and the changes the magma experiences once it leaves that region. Further, shallow, intra-edifice conduit processes are identified that explain the diversity in clast types. Five basic rock types were produced during the AD 1655 Burrell Lapilli eruption of Mt. Taranaki: dense grey andesite clasts with a range in bulk composition from 57.1 to 59.5 wt. % SiO2, and four pumice types grey, brown, black and grey-brown banded clasts which are similar in bulk composition to the andesite clasts with SiO2 between 55.5-56.0 wt. %. However, the pumice types are fundamentally different in terms of vesicularity and somewhat different glass chemistry. Bulk vesicularities are highest for brown pumice with a median of 70.7 %, followed by grey pumice with 68.5 %, banded pumice with 63.8 %, and then black pumice with 49.9 %. Moreover, the permeability of the Burrell Lapilli samples is generally up to 10 times higher at given porosities (e.g. 5.3x10-11m2 at bulk vesicularity of 75.1 %) compared to literature data for dacitic and rhyolitic pumice compositions. The development of different coloured pumice types is the result of slightly differing physical magma properties (e.g. temperature, viscosity, volatile content) resulting in changes in vesicle texture and glass composition. This is directly controlled by syn-eruptive decompression and fragmentation processes rather than pre-eruptive magma evolution. These processes occur within an stratified upper conduit (including lateral variations in magma properties) and explain the generation of different pumice types and is consistent with field observations of a succession of three pyroclastic flows deposits of grey, brown and grey pumice. These three units represent eruption pulses and correspond to three levels of bubble nucleation at different growth rates. The brown pumice formation represents slower volatile exsolution and bubble growth with subsequent microlite crystallisation. This pre- mature bubble network caused slower fragmentation rates, and hence, pulsation during fragmentation.

Platz, T.; Cronin, S. J.; Cashman, K. V.; Stewart, R. B.

2006-12-01

269

A model of the demand for Islamic banks debt-based financing instrument  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a theoretical analysis of the demand for debt-based financing instruments of the Islamic banks. Debt-based financing, such as through baibithamanajil and al-murabahah, is by far the most prominent of the Islamic bank financing and yet it has been largely ignored in Islamic economics literature. Most studies instead have been focusing on equity-based financing of al-mudharabah and al-musyarakah. Islamic bank offers debt-based financing through various instruments derived under the principle of exchange (ukud al-mu'awadhat) or more specifically, the contract of deferred sale. Under such arrangement, Islamic debt is created when goods are purchased and the payments are deferred. Thus, unlike debt of the conventional bank which is a form of financial loan contract to facilitate demand for liquid assets, this Islamic debt is created in response to the demand to purchase goods by deferred payment. In this paper we set an analytical framework that is based on an infinitely lived representative agent model (ILRA model) to analyze the demand for goods to be purchased by deferred payment. The resulting demand will then be used to derive the demand for Islamic debt. We also investigate theoretically, factors that may have an impact on the demand for Islamic debt.

Jusoh, Mansor; Khalid, Norlin

2013-04-01

270

Exchange rate arrangements: From extreme to "normal"  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper studies theoretical and empirical location dispersion of exchange rate arrangements - rigid-intermediate-flexible regimes, in the context of extreme arrangements of a currency board, dollarization and monetary union moderate characteristics of intermediate arrangements (adjustable pegs crawling pegs and target zones and imperative-process "normalization" in the form of a managed or clean floating system. It is established that de iure and de facto classifications generate "fear of floating" and "fear of pegging". The "impossible trinity" under the conditions of capital liberalization and globalization creates a bipolar view or hypothesis of vanishing intermediate exchange rate regimes.

Beker Emilija

2006-01-01

271

Effectiveness of community health financing in meeting the cost of illness.  

Science.gov (United States)

How to finance and provide health care for the more than 1.3 billion rural poor and informal sector workers in low- and middle-income countries is one of the greatest challenges facing the international development community. This article presents the main findings from an extensive survey of the literature of community financing arrangements, and selected experiences from the Asia and Africa regions. Most community financing schemes have evolved in the context of severe economic constraints, political instability, and lack of good governance. Micro-level household data analysis indicates that community financing improves access by rural and informal sector workers to needed heath care and provides them with some financial protection against the cost of illness. Macro-level cross-country analysis gives empirical support to the hypothesis that risk-sharing in health financing matters in terms of its impact on both the level and distribution of health, financial fairness and responsiveness indicators. The background research done for this article points to five key policies available to governments to improve the effectiveness and sustainability of existing community financing schemes. This includes: (a) increased and well-targeted subsidies to pay for the premiums of low-income populations; (b) insurance to protect against expenditure fluctuations and re-insurance to enlarge the effective size of small risk pools; (c) effective prevention and case management techniques to limit expenditure fluctuations; (d) technical support to strengthen the management capacity of local schemes; and (e) establishment and strengthening of links with the formal financing and provider networks. PMID:11953793

Preker, Alexander S; Carrin, Guy; Dror, David; Jakab, Melitta; Hsiao, William; Arhin-Tenkorang, Dyna

2002-01-01

272

Issues to improve the prospects of financing nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A changing global environment with increasing energy consumption and a need for international energy security is influencing nuclear power projects and the means of obtaining financial backing for such projects. The development of a national nuclear infrastructure can provide significant benefits that influence financial resources. The effects of other factors - such as financing arrangements for capital intensive plants, international design acceptance, harmonization of codes and standards, and assurances of fuel cycle services - need to be considered. An improvement in international cooperation may lower investment risks and contribute to reducing costs. The effects of all these issues need to be assessed and means for supporting the application of nuclear power in the current changing social and commercial environment need to be developed. A key question addressed in this publication is whether financing is the real barrier to nuclear power development or if financing difficulties are simply a consequence of other barriers. It recognizes that there is no single solution and that circumstances in different countries, with different starting points, ambitions and drivers, inevitably affect the balance of approaches followed. The importance of credible, practical, costed and substantiated plans is emphasized. Risks have to be mitigated through an effective strategy and the allocation of risks between parties must be logical. A project has to be demonstrably viable to project has to be demonstrably viable to attract financing. There are three broad areas which must be addressed to improve prospects of investment in nuclear power reactor construction. The first area, and probably the most important, is government and utility commitment and preparedness to adopt and implement a nuclear power programme using internationally recognized standards of safety. The second area is the application of lessons learned from technological and project developments. The third area is financing itself. The conclusions detailed in this publication are presented as a series of key mechanisms for improvement in each of these areas. Improving prospects for investment in the nuclear industry is, in large part, achieved by a combination of financial and strategic planning measures, which together create sufficient confidence among investors to support projects. Also, there are a number of wider actions that can be undertaken to improve the prospects for investment in nuclear power. These mechanisms and actions are presented for future consideration of how they may be best developed or adopted

273

A conduit dilation model of methane venting from lake sediments  

Science.gov (United States)

Methane is a potent greenhouse gas, but its effects on Earth's climate remain poorly constrained, in part due to uncertainties in global methane fluxes to the atmosphere. An important source of atmospheric methane is the methane generated in organic-rich sediments underlying surface water bodies, including lakes, wetlands, and the ocean. The fraction of the methane that reaches the atmosphere depends critically on the mode and spatiotemporal characteristics of free-gas venting from the underlying sediments. Here we propose that methane transport in lake sediments is controlled by dynamic conduits, which dilate and release gas as the falling hydrostatic pressure reduces the effective stress below the tensile strength of the sediments. We test our model against a four-month record of hydrostatic load and methane flux in Upper Mystic Lake, Mass., USA, and show that it captures the complex episodicity of methane ebullition. Our quantitative conceptualization opens the door to integrated modeling of methane transport to constrain global methane release from lakes and other shallow-water, organic-rich sediment systems, and to assess its climate feedbacks.

Scandella, B.P.; Varadharajan, C.; Hemond, H.F.; Ruppel, C.; Juanes, R.

2011-01-01

274

[Experience with the use of autoarterial conduits in coronary surgery].  

Science.gov (United States)

Between September 1999 and until the present time 14 direct myocardial revascularization using arterial conduits were performed at the Department of Vascular Surgery and Surgical Treatment of CAD, V. Vakhidov Scientific Center of Surgery, RU Ministry of Public Health. The internal mammary artery was used in all the cases, right gastroomental artery in 2 cases. Revascularization of one coronary artery was accomplished in 2 patients, of two arteries in 8 and of three coronary arteries in 4 patients. In 12 cases, direct myocardial revascularization was realized on the working heart and in 2 cases, under cardiopulmonary bypass. Ischemic changes on the ECG at rest, recorded in the preoperative period, disappeared following operation. In all the patients, myocardial contractility (EF) after operation rose by 6-8% on an average as compared to the initial level. Physical exercise tolerance was measured by BEM in 6 (42.9%) patients. Angina of effort, FC II, was diagnosed only in 2 patients. All the patients were discharged in a satisfactory condition. Only patients with unstable angina were recommended to take long-acting nitrates whereas the remaining subjects were advised to take the antiaggregation doses of aspirin. PMID:15163997

Bakhritdinov, F Sh; Kamilov, Sh M; Trynkin, A V; Babadzhanov, S A

2004-01-01

275

Data Transfer via Alternative Conduits: Using Fluid Networks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Digital convergence has reshaped a gamut of industry demographics in the 21C, comprised of cloud computing, healthcare, pharmaceutical, consumer supplies, government, defense, manufacturing, entertainment, and even on-line education, among many others.   At the center of the web-convergence lies the problem of network bandwidth limitation.  Traditionally, research has focused on two major resolution strategies in parallel:  data compression to minimize the network traffic (i.e. algorithmic; software and alternative conduit for data transfer such as wireless (i.e. infrastructural; hardware.Building a network infrastructure is extremely costly.   In addition, maintenance and upgrade costs may be prohibitive, given the U.S. consumer demographics.   To this end, the emphasis is placed on seeking existing infrastructure which connects business and residential entities.The objective of this research, therefore, is to seek the possibility and feasibility of (digital data transfers via the extensive water and/or sewer network(s, while minimizing structural modifications to the existing infrastructure.   To date, sonar has been proven to be effective.   If successful, the value of this intellectual property may be immeasurable.

Charles Willow

2012-11-01

276

Structure of a Bacterial Cell Surface Decaheme Electron Conduit  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Some bacterial species are able to utilize extracellular mineral forms of iron and manganese as respiratory electron acceptors. In Shewanella oneidensis this involves deca-heme cytochromes that are located on the bacterial cell surface at the termini of trans-outermembrane (OM) electron transfer conduits. The cell surface cytochromes can potentially play multiple roles in mediating electron transfer directly to insoluble electron sinks, catalyzing electron exchange with flavin electron shuttles or participating in extracellular inter-cytochrome electron exchange along ‘nanowire’ appendages. We present a 3.2 Å crystal structure of one of these deca-heme cytochromes, MtrF, that allows the spatial organization of the ten hemes to be visualized for the first time. The hemes are organized across four domains in a unique crossed conformation, in which a staggered 65 Å octa-heme chain transects the length of the protein and is bisected by a planar 45 Å tetra-heme chain that connects two extended Greek key split ?-barrel domains. The structure provides molecular insight into how reduction of insoluble substrate (e.g. minerals), soluble substrates (e.g. flavins) and cytochrome redox partners might be possible in tandem at different termini of a trifurcated electron transport chain on the cell surface.

Clarke, Thomas A.; Edwards, Marcus; Gates, Andrew J.; Hall, Andrea; White, Gaye; Bradley, Justin; Reardon, Catherine L.; Shi, Liang; Beliaev, Alex S.; Marshall, Matthew J.; Wang, Zheming; Watmough, Nicholas; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Zachara, John M.; Butt, Julea N.; Richardson, David J.

2011-05-23

277

CFD modeling of ITER cable-in-conduit superconductors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the first paper of this series, we proposed a novel approach to help understand some of the complex processes occurring in dual-channel cable-in-conduit conductors (CICC) as used in the superconducting coils of the international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER): the constitutive relations including transport coefficients needed in input by standard global 1D tools for the analysis of thermal-hydraulic transients in ITER coils, e.g., the Mithrandir/M and M code, are derived from local 3D analysis. A first validation of the model was performed showing very good agreement with available experimental data from different applications. The same advanced computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tool, the FLUENT code, including sophisticated turbulence models, is used here to compute the pressure drop corresponding to an imposed mass flow rate in several geometries relevant for the central channel of the ITER CICC. The validation is extended to include more ITER-relevant conditions showing good accuracy with error bars on the friction factor ?±15%. We then apply the validated model to the study of the expected dependencies of the pressure drop in the central channel of an ITER CICC on the size of the gap and on the diameter of the delimiting spiral

278

A conduit dilation model of methane venting from lake sediments  

Science.gov (United States)

Methane is a potent greenhouse gas, but its effects on Earth's climate remain poorly constrained, in part due to uncertainties in global methane fluxes to the atmosphere. An important source of atmospheric methane is the methane generated in organic-rich sediments underlying surface water bodies, including lakes, wetlands, and the ocean. The fraction of the methane that reaches the atmosphere depends critically on the mode and spatiotemporal characteristics of free-gas venting from the underlying sediments. Here we propose that methane transport in lake sediments is controlled by dynamic conduits, which dilate and release gas as the falling hydrostatic pressure reduces the effective stress below the tensile strength of the sediments. We test our model against a four-month record of hydrostatic load and methane flux in Upper Mystic Lake, Mass., USA, and show that it captures the complex episodicity of methane ebullition. Our quantitative conceptualization opens the door to integrated modeling of methane transport to constrain global methane release from lakes and other shallow-water, organic-rich sediment systems, and to assess its climate feedbacks.

Scandella, Benjamin P.; Varadharajan, Charuleka; Hemond, Harold F.; Ruppel, Carolyn; Juanes, Ruben

2011-03-01

279

Injunctions against mere conduit of information protected by copyright  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper includes an in-depth analysis of EU law and Scandinavian law on injunctions against internet access providers (IAPs) performing as mere conduit of information protected by copyright. In recent Scandinavian case law, courts have granted preliminary injunctions which have caused IAPs to either shut down specific internet connections allegedly used to infringe copyright or to block access to internet content, which allegedly infringed applicable copyright rules. This paper considers some significant legal challenges, which are emerging in the wake of this case law, and which should attract attention in all European member states. Firstly, it is shown that rules on preliminary injunctions are generally unable to safeguard the significant legitimate interests of third parties, which may be harmed by such relief, and that a proper implementation of Art. 8(3) of the Infosoc Directive requires rules, which take into due consideration the special aspects related to enforcement of copyright on the internet through IAPs. Secondly, it is shown that the termination of internet connections and the blocking of access to internet content may not support the public policies behind copyright law and also may restrict the freedom of expression under European human rights law. The analysis is based on a brief account for the relevant EU Directives, the implementation of these Directives in the Scandinavian countries and the Scandinavian case law regarding use of injunctions against IAPs to enforce copyright on the internet.

Sandfeld Jakobsen, SØren; Petersen, Clement Salung

2011-01-01

280

MRI of the heart following implantation of a left ventricular apico-aortic conduit; Kernspintomografie zur umfassenden Untersuchung des Herzens nach Implantation von linksventrikulaeren apikoaortalen Conduits  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Purpose: To investigate the potential of ECG-triggered MRI for the evaluation of postoperative anatomy and function of the heart and conduit following implantation of a left-ventricular apico-aortic conduit. Materials and Methods: 5 patients (2 female, 3 male, mean age 72.5 years) were examined using a 1.5 Tesla whole-body MRI (Gyroscan Intera, Philips Medical Systems, Best, The Netherlands) following apico-aortic conduit surgery due to severe aortic valve stenosis. The reason for performing conduit implantation instead of aortic valve replacement was the risk of injuring a bypass graft from prior coronary artery bypass surgery. Cine steady-state-free-precession (SSFP) sequences were used to assess ventricular function, navigator-gated 3D-SSFP and breath-hold, time-resolved contrast-enhanced MR angiography was used to display the postoperative anatomy, and 2D-gradient echo sequences with an inversion pulse to suppress the signal of the healthy myocardium were used to evaluate potential myocardial scarring. Flow sensitive gradient echo sequences were performed to determine the blood flow in the conduit. Results: In all patients the apico-aortic conduit proved to be open with a maximum flow velocity of 126 (+ 43) cm/s. The postoperative anatomy was able to be evaluated in all patients and perioperative myocardial infarction was able to be ruled out. The mean ejection fraction of the left ventricle was 44.2 + 6.2 % with a mean volume of 80 + 20.6 ml per heart beat. (orig.)

Ruhl, K.M.; Katoh, M.; Guenther, R.W.; Krombach, G.A. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik; Langebartels, G.; Autschbach, R. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Klinik fuer Thorax-, Herz- und Gefaesschirurgie

2007-06-15

281

Valve Technology Arrangement of Cryopump: A Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A cryopump or a "cryogenic pump" is a vacuum pump that pumps the trap gases and vapours by condensing them on a cold surface. Helium gas which is very light can only be pumped by Cryopump. Cryopump cannot be used when working for continuous operation as it pumps the effluent till the saturation state is achieved. Then the absorbed gases are to be collected through other mechanical pump through regeneration process. Hence, valve technology arrangement is incorporated with the cryopump in order to achieve the continuous pumping when two cryopump are used in alternate processes (i.e. absorption and regeneration. Various design of Valve technology arrangement is proposed by different researcher all over the world. This review paper focuses on the different proposed valve technology arrangement and elaborately explains the various components of valve technology and concludes the best possible arrangement that can be used in Cryopump.

Sanjiv Y. Rajput

2014-05-01

282

Local recurrence of bladder cancer after cystectomy with orthotopic bladder substitution and ileal conduit  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To present the local recurrence rates after radical cystectomy for advanced bladder cancer and to compare them between patients with orthotopic neobladder and ileal conduit. Patients and methods: 97 patients with radical cystectomy were analyzed: 75 patients with orthotopic ileal neobladder, operated from 1985. to 2006, and 22 patients with ileal conduit, operated from 2000. to 2006. Results: Overall recurrence rate was 41.3% in the neobladder group, and 50% in the ileal conduit group. The rate of pelvic, upper urinary tract and urethral recurrence was 13.3%, 8%, and 10.6% in the neobladder group, and 9.1%, 13.6% and 9.1% in the ileal conduit group. Conclusion: Comparable recurrence rates, operative time, the complexity of the surgical technique and the results between two groups, strongly support the construction of orthotopic neobladder, as superior in functional, esthetic, and psychological point of view.

A?imovi? M.

2007-01-01

283

Efficacy of nanofibrous conduits in repair of long-segment sciatic nerve defects  

Science.gov (United States)

Our previous studies have histomorphologically confirmed that nanofibrous poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) conduit can be used to repair 30-mm-long sciatic nerve defects. However, the repair effects on rat behaviors remain poorly understood. In this study, we used nanofibrous poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) conduit and autologous sciatic nerve to bridge 30-mm-long rat sciatic nerve gaps. Within 4 months after surgery, rat sciatic nerve functional recovery was evaluated per month by behavioral analyses, including toe out angle, toe spread analysis, walking track analysis, extensor postural thrust, swimming test, open-field analysis and nociceptive function. Results showed that rat sciatic nerve functional recovery was similar after nanofibrous poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) conduit and autologous nerve grafting. These findings suggest that nanofibrous poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) conduit is suitable in use for repair of long-segment sciatic nerve defects. PMID:25206560

Biazar, Esmaeil; Keshel, Saeed Heidari; Pouya, Majid

2013-01-01

284

A Note on the Calculation of Averages in Superconducting Cable-in-Conduit Conductors  

OpenAIRE

We show that there are two different ways of calculating the average electric field of a superconducting cable in conduit conductor depending on the relation between the current transfer length and the characteristic self-field length.

Anghel, A.

2013-01-01

285

Investigation of entrance length in circular and noncircular conduits by computational fluid dynamics simulation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study estimated entrance length of circular and noncircular conduits, including circle, triangle, square and hexagon cross-sectional conduit, by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD. For simulation condition, the length of noncircular conduit was 10 m and the hydraulic diameter was 0.2 m. The laminar flow with Reynolds number of 500 and turbulent flow with Reynolds number of 50,000 were applied to investigate water flow in conduits. The governing equations were solved iteratively by using ANSYS FLUENT 14.0. For turbulent flow simulation, standard k-epsilon and RNG k-epsilon model were employed to simulate turbulence. The preliminary results were validated by comparison with theoretical data. At first, grid independency was evaluated to optimize the model. Norm* was employed to investigate the entrance length, which is related to velocity. The simulated results revealed that the entrance length for laminar flow was longer than turbulent flow.

Pimpun Tongpun

2014-08-01

286

Scientific Results of Conduit Drilling in the Unzen Scientific Drilling Project (USDP  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Directional drilling at Unzen Volcano in Japan duringmid of 2004 penetrated the magma conduit and successfullyrecovered samples of the lava dike that is believed to havefed the 1991–1995 eruption. The dike was sampled about1.3 km below the volcano’s summit vent and is intrudedinto a broader conduit zone that is 0.5 km wide. This zoneconsists of multiple older lava dikes and pyroclastic veinsand has cooled to less than 200?C. The lava dike sample wasunexpectedly altered, suggesting that circulation of hydrothermalfluids rapidly cools the conduit region of even veryactive volcanoes. It is likely that seismic signals monitoredprior to emergence of the lava dome reflected fracturing ofthe country rocks, caused by veining as volatiles escapedpredominantly upward, not outward, from the rising magma.Geophysical and geological investigation of cuttings andcore samples from the conduit and of bore-hole logging datacontinues.

Kozo Uto

2005-09-01

287

Development of bending characteristics for the TPX TF magnet coil cable-in-conduit conductor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The conductor for the toroidal field (TF) magnet coils for the Tokamak Physics experiment (TPX) is an assembly of stranded Nb3Sn superconductor sheathed by an Incoloy 908 conduit. The coil shape, when coupled with stiffness of the cable-in-conduit conductor (CICC) is such that conventional magnet winding techniques cannot be utilized. Therefore a bending and forming method will be employed in the TF coils. The cable will be reacted after bending because the reaction process hardens the conduit and also lowers the strain the cable can withstand without performance degradation. The Incoloy 908 conduit also work hardens quickly, necessitating the production of the required coil shape in one step without correction. This paper discusses the limiting processes for forming the TPX TF magnet geometry, the methods utilized in establishing the CICC bending characteristics and the methods employed to account for material springback so that a coil can be manufactured accurately and efficiently

288

In vivo visualization of microneedle conduits in human skin using laser scanning microscopy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Solid microneedles enhance the penetration of drugs into the viable skin but little is known about the geometry of the conduits in vivo. Therefore, laser scanning microscopy was used to visualize the conduits of a microneedle system with needles at a length of 300 ?m in 6 healthy subjects over a period of time. The model drug, a fluorescent dye was applied before and after piercing. Laser scanning microscopy was evaluated as being an excellent method to monitor the geometry and closure of the conduits over time. The used microneedle system was evaluated as suitable to enhance the transport of model drugs into the viable epidermis without bleeding and a short closure time of the conduits at the skin surface

289

General arrangement of diagnostics on TFTR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The TFTR final design incorporates 200 access ports arranged in sets at twenty locations (bays) between toroidal field coils. Approximately 170 of these ports are available for use by more than 80 diagnostic equipments. The diagnostic access features of TFTR and the complement of diagnostic equipment currently planned are reported. The requirements of diagnostics which effect location on the machine are detailed and the trade-offs in port assignments leading to the current arrangement are described. 5 refs

290

Intramolecular disulphide bond arrangements in nonhomologous proteins  

OpenAIRE

The presence and location of intramolecular disulphide bonds are a key determinant of the structure and function of proteins. Intramolecular disulphide bonds in proteins have previously been analyzed under the assumption that there is no clear relationship between disulphide arrangement and disulphide concentration. To investigate this, a set of sequence nonhomologous protein chains containing one or more intramolecular disulphide bonds was extracted from the Protein Data Bank, and the arrang...

Hartig, Gerald R. S.; Tran, Tran T.; Smythe, Mark L.

2005-01-01

291

Capital Markets- Utility for Micro-finance  

OpenAIRE

The Paper deals with the situation for efficient use of Capital Markets for financing Micro-finance Institutions. In order to sustain the growth in the microfinance industry, it is necessary to shifting the loan financing for MFIs from traditional lenders to capital markets. This can primarily be achieved through securitization and CDOs. Both have different advantages to offer which can be tapped separately and also customized on a case?by?case basis. Apart from the domestic commercial in...

Dash, Debasis Kumar

2010-01-01

292

Understanding financing options for PACS implementation  

OpenAIRE

The acquisition of expensive equipment such as picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) becomes increasingly difficult as capital budgets become tighter. Traditional ownership financing options in the form of direct purchase or financing (loan) have several limitations including technology obsolescence, higher fixed pricing, limited options for equipment disposal, and the need to tie up valuable capital. Alternative financing options, in the form of conventional lease and risk shari...

Reiner, Bruce; Siegel, Eliot

2000-01-01

293

Islamic Finance and Globalization: A Convergence?  

OpenAIRE

Islamic finance—understood as achieving maximum risk sharing—diversifies risk and allows it to be shared widely. Implications that follow are: (i) a close relationship between finance and real economic activities and (ii) the rate of return to finance determined by the rate of return to real economic activities rather than the reverse. This system’s full operation leads to financial stability, growth of income and employment, and, as a result, reduction in poverty. To obtain these resul...

Mirakhor, Abbas

2007-01-01

294

Ileal-conduit following cystectomy, single-institution revision of indications and outcome.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVES To revise indications, case fatality ratio, and postoperative early and late complications of ileal conduit as a method of urinary diversion. METHODS This is a retrospective study in which 200 patients underwent an ileal conduit from August 1994 to December 2000 in Mansoura Urology and Nephrology Center, Mansoura, Egypt. Preoperative criteria of patient selection, peroperative findings, and postoperative follow-up data were r...

Abol-enein, Hassan A.; Abdul-muhsin, Ausama S.; Alhallaq, Yousuf M.

2008-01-01

295

Simulations numériques de la multidiffusion acoustique en conduit, comparaison avec des modèles analytiques  

OpenAIRE

Nous nous intéressons à la caractérisation des effets de multi-diffusion dans les guides d'ondes. Nous considérons la propagation acoustique en régime harmonique dans un conduit horizontal 2D à parois rigides. Nous avons développé une approche numérique pour déterminer les propriétés effectives d'un milieu hétérogène aléatoire dans un conduit. A l'aide de simulations directes nous déterminons un champ cohérent en faisant la moyenne des champs sur de nombreuses réalisations ...

Lune?ville, Eric; Mercier, Jean-franc?ois

2010-01-01

296

Air-pocket transport in conjunction with bottom-outlet conduits for dams  

OpenAIRE

Undesired air entrainment in bottom outlet conduits of dams may cause pressure transients, leading to conduit vibrations, blowback, discharge pulsation and even cavitation, and jeopardize the operational safety. Due to design limitations or construction costs, it is impossible to create an air free environment in a pressurized pipe. Therefore, it is essential to understand the air transport in enclosed pipes in order to provide guidance in bottom outlet design and operation. The commonly used...

Liu, Ting

2011-01-01

297

Effects of dynamically variable saturation and matrix-conduit coupling of flow in karst aquifers  

Science.gov (United States)

Well-developed karst aquifers consist of highly conductive conduits and a relatively low permeability fractured and/or porous rock matrix and therefore behave as a dual-hydraulic system. Groundwater flow within highly permeable strata is rapid and transient and depends on local flow conditions, i.e., pressurized or nonpressurized flow. The characterization of karst aquifers is a necessary and challenging task because information about hydraulic and spatial conduit properties is poorly defined or unknown. To investigate karst aquifers, hydraulic stresses such as large recharge events can be simulated with hybrid (coupled discrete continuum) models. Since existing hybrid models are simplifications of the system dynamics, a new karst model (ModBraC) is presented that accounts for unsteady and nonuniform discrete flow in variably saturated conduits employing the Saint-Venant equations. Model performance tests indicate that ModBraC is able to simulate (1) unsteady and nonuniform flow in variably filled conduits, (2) draining and refilling of conduits with stable transition between free-surface and pressurized flow and correct storage representation, (3) water exchange between matrix and variably filled conduits, and (4) discharge routing through branched and intermeshed conduit networks. Subsequently, ModBraC is applied to an idealized catchment to investigate the significance of free-surface flow representation. A parameter study is conducted with two different initial conditions: (1) pressurized flow and (2) free-surface flow. If free-surface flow prevails, the systems is characterized by (1) a time lag for signal transmission, (2) a typical spring discharge pattern representing the transition from pressurized to free-surface flow, and (3) a reduced conduit-matrix interaction during free-surface flow. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

Reimann, T.; Geyer, T.; Shoemaker, W.B.; Liedl, R.; Sauter, M.

2011-01-01

298

Evolution of karst conduit networks in transition from pressurised flow to free surface flow  

OpenAIRE

We present a novel modelling approach to study the evolution of conduit networks in soluble rocks. Unlike the models presented so far, the model allows a transition from pressurised (pipe) flow to a free surface (open channel) flow in evolving discrete conduit networks. It calculates flow, solute transport and dissolutional enlargement within each time step and steps through time until a stable flow pattern establishes. The flow in each ti...

Perne, M.; Covington, M. D.; Gabrovs?ek, F.

2014-01-01

299

Ureteric catheterization via an ileal conduit: technique and retrieval of a JJ stent  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Retrograde ureteric catheterization of a patient with an ileal conduit is difficult, because guide wires and catheters coil in the conduit. A modified loopogram, using a Foley catheter as a fulcrum through which catheters can be advanced to the ureteric anastomosis, is described. This technique was used to remove a JJ stent, which had been inserted previously across a stricture in one ureter, the stent crossing from one kidney to the other

300

Fabrication and Optimization of Gelatin/ Nano Bioglass Conduits for Peripheral Nerve Regeneration  

OpenAIRE

Introduction & Objective: Peripheral nerve injury is common in trauma patients and 4.5% of all soft-tissue injuries are accompanied by defects of peripheral nerve. Peripheral nerve injuries can lead to lifetime loss of function and permanent disfigurement. Designed conduits com-prised of natural and synthetic materials are now widely used in the construction of damaged tissues. The aim of this project was to prepare nanocomposite conduits from gelatin and bioglass for damaged peripheral nerve...

Foroutan Koudehi, M.; Ghanezadeh, F.; Amiri, A.; Imani Fooladi, A. A.; Nourani, M. R.

2014-01-01

301

Fontan operation for patients with complex anatomy: the intra-atrial conduit technique.  

Science.gov (United States)

The extracardiac conduit type of total cavopulmonary connection (TCPC) is the most common variation of the modified Fontan operation in current use. For patients with some forms of complex anatomy (eg, dextrocardia in situs solitus or asplenia syndrome), we have adopted a different technique: interposition of an intra-atrial conduit between the inferior vena cava (IVC) and the superior vena cava-right pulmonary artery (SVC-RPA) connection. We report our experience with six patients. PMID:23804784

Iacona, Gabriele M; Giamberti, Alessandro; Abella, Raul F; Muñoz, Julio Agredo; Mendieta, Saul Garcia; Pomé, Giuseppe; Frigiola, Alessandro

2012-04-01

302

Evolution of karst conduit networks in transition from pressurized flow to free-surface flow  

Science.gov (United States)

Most of the existing models of speleogenesis are limited to situations where flow in all conduits is pressurized. The feedback between the distribution of hydraulic head and growth of new solution conduits determines the geometry of the resulting conduit network. We present a novel modeling approach that allows a transition from pressurized (pipe) flow to a free-surface (open-channel) flow in evolving discrete conduit networks. It calculates flow, solute transport and dissolution enlargement within each time step and steps through time until a stable flow pattern is established. The flow in each time step is calculated by calling the US Environmental Protection Agency Storm Water Management Model (US Environmental Protection Agency, 2014), which efficiently solves the 1-D Saint-Venant equations in a network of conduits. Two basic scenarios are modeled, a low-dip scenario and a high-dip scenario. In the low-dip scenario a slightly inclined plane is populated with a rectangular grid of solution conduits. The recharge is distributed to randomly selected junctions. The results for the pressurized flow regime resemble those of the existing models. When the network becomes vadose, a stable flow pathway develops along a system of conduits that occupy the lowest positions at their inlet junctions. This depends on the initial diameter and inlet position of a conduit, its total incision in a pressurized regime and its alignment relative to the dip of the plane, which plays important role during the vadose entrenchment. In the high-dip scenario a sub-vertical network with recharge on the top and outflow on the side is modeled. It is used to demonstrate the vertical development of karst due to drawdown of the water table, development of invasion vadose caves during vadose flow diversion and to demonstrate the potential importance of deeply penetrating conductive structures.

Perne, M.; Covington, M.; Gabrovšek, F.

2014-11-01

303

Financing of nuclear projects. Lessons from a recent experience  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The advantages of mandating BNP Paribas as a lead bank and arranger for NPP Belene are presented. BNPP has an excellent record and credentials in Nuclear Power Plant Projects internationally and in the local energy sector and very recent experience as a lead bank for the fifth nuclear power plant in Finland. BNPP has a proven track record as Provider of rapid and efficient ECA financing in terms of: managing in parallel the number of ECA contractual relations, so as to provide 'matching opportunities' between the ECAs and leverage to improve their terms and conditions, and to harmonize them in one set of unified legal documentation. There is no cost to the Government of Bulgaria until the signing of the Facility Documentation

304

Government experience in nuclear power plant export financing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Because the long-term funds at the disposal of the commercial banks were insufficient to make available the amounts required for the exportation of nuclear power plants, it was necessary to make available long-term funds of the mortgage banks. On account of the strict regulations governing the lending operations of such banks, it was, however, necessary to introduce a Federal guarantee which covers 100% of the contract value in each case. On balance, however, the Federal Government does not take over any additional risks, because recourse may be taken to the commercial banks, which are liable for all additional payments under the credit arrangement having arisen from the improvement of the guarantee in favour of the mortgage banks. This has resulted in a considerable improvement of the export financing system which, of course, is for benefit of other major export projects too. (HP)

305

Laboratory evaluation of Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) hardness testing concepts for electrical conduit systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Four concepts were evaluated for potential use in testing the electromagnetic shielding integrity of metal conduits: the Hall effect, standing wave coupling, microwave resonant cavity, and diffusion current-leakage current comparison. Existing technology for hardness verification and defect location was reviewed for comparison with the new methods. Because of the phenomena involved, the four concepts are mainly for use with nonburied conduits. In addition, each method has its prospective application limited by one or more drawbacks to implementation: Hall effect devices require direct access to the conduit system and are subject to geometry-dependent variables; with standing wave coupling tests, it may be difficult to maintain a transmission line configuration for the conduit system; the microwave resonant cavity method also requires direct access to the conduit and its greatest potential is for testing of specific conduit components; low frequency phase comparison only verifies hardness, so defects must be located by another test. None of the new methods can be recommended without further development and field evaluation.

Nielsen, P. H.

1984-08-01

306

Comparison of a karst groundwater model with and without discrete conduit flow  

Science.gov (United States)

Karst aquifers exhibit a dual flow system characterized by interacting conduit and matrix domains. This study evaluated the coupled continuum pipe-flow framework for modeling karst groundwater flow in the Madison aquifer of western South Dakota (USA). Coupled conduit and matrix flow was simulated within a regional finite-difference model over a 10-year transient period. An existing equivalent porous medium (EPM) model was modified to include major conduit networks whose locations were constrained by dye-tracing data and environmental tracer analysis. Model calibration data included measured hydraulic heads at observation wells and estimates of discharge at four karst springs. Relative to the EPM model, the match to observation well hydraulic heads was substantially improved with the addition of conduits. The inclusion of conduit flow allowed for a simpler hydraulic conductivity distribution in the matrix continuum. Two of the high-conductivity zones in the EPM model, which were required to indirectly simulate the effects of conduits, were eliminated from the new model. This work demonstrates the utility of the coupled continuum pipe-flow method and illustrates how karst aquifer model parameterization is dependent on the physical processes that are simulated.

Saller, Stephen P.; Ronayne, Michael J.; Long, Andrew J.

2013-01-01

307

FRACTURE TOUGHNESS MEASUREMENTS AND ASSESSMENT OF THIN WALLED CONDUIT ALLOYS IN A CICC APPLICATION  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Series-Connected Hybrid Magnets under construction at the NHMFL use Cable-in-Conduct-Conductor (CICC) technology. The 4 K mechanical properties of the conduit are extremely important to the performance and reliability of the magnets. We have measured tensile and fracture toughness of two candidate conduit alloys (Haynes 242 and modified 316LN) in various metallurgical states, with emphasis on the final state of production. To assess the material in its final production state, non-standard specimens are removed directly from the round-corner rectangular conduit and tested after exposure to a simulated Nb3Sn reaction heat treatment. Non-standard middle-tension (MT) fracture toughness specimens enable toughness evaluation of the base metal, welds and weld/base transitional region in the as-fabricated conduit with final dimensions not suitable for conventional fracture toughness specimens. Although fracture toughness tests of the thin walled conduit fail to meet ASTM test validity requirements they provide a qualitative evaluation and estimate of the fracture toughness of the conduit and the welds

308

Alternative transportation fuels: Financing issues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A multitude of alternative fuels could reduce air pollution and the impact of oil price shocks. Only a few of these fuels are readily available and inexpensive enough to merit serious consideration over the coming five years. In New York City, safety regulations narrow the field still further by eliminating propane. As a result, this study focuses on the three alternative fuels readily available in New York City: compressed natural gas, methanol, and electricity. Each has significant environmental benefits and each has different cost characteristics. With the Clean Air Act and the National Energy Strategy highlighting the country's need to improve urban air quality and move away from dependence on imported fuels, fleets may soon have little choice but to convert to altemative fuels. Given the potential for large infrastructure and vehicle costs, these fleets may have difficulty finding the capital to make that conversion. Ultimately, then, it will be the involvement of the private sector that will determine the success of alternative fuels. Whether it be utilities, fuel distributors or suppliers, private financing partners or others, it is critical that altemative fuels programs be structured and planned to attract their involvement. This report examines financing methods that do not involve government subsidies. It also explores financing methods that are specific to alternative fuels. Bond issues and other mechanisms that are used for conventional vehicles are not touched upon in this report. This report explores ways to spread the high cost of alternative fuels among a number of parties within the private sector. The emphasis is on structuring partnerships that suit methanol, electric, or natural gas vehicle fleets. Through these partnerships, alternative fuels may ultimately compete effectively against conventional vehicle fuels

309

Offsets - An opportunity of Financing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear Research Reactors sometimes need to implement projects to upgrade, revamp or convert their reactor, acquire new fuel elements, etc. However, as their activities are mainly of noncommercial nature, they sometimes lack of financial resources to implement these projects by themselves. Several solutions exist: loans, governmental budget, subsidies from international organizations (IAEA). Offsets are another source of financing. They also are free of charge for the reactor. The objective of offsets is to Identify, implement and finance projects that: directly create or sustain a local economic activity of high-added value, would not have happened without the Obligor's intervention, and are of crucial importance given the country's political background (favor employment, technology transfers, training and education, research and development, etc.). Companies worldwide are willing to finance local projects to fulfill their Offset Obligation. Local organizations or institutions are willing to invest to increase their activities but lack of financial resources. Offset regulations are an opportunity on both sides and are free for the local organization. The monetary value of an Offset obligation is calculated as a percentage of the main contract price (or as a percentage of the imported part value). That percentage depends on the Country's legislation and on the nature of the main contract (defense or civilian). This value has to be compensated by an equivalent economic value (a Project's cost is different from its value). There is two ways of assessing a value: - Political aspects: The Project is of political importance for the country (development of an export capability, technology and/or know-how transfers) and the project in line with the country's political priorities (employment, research, international presence, etc.). - Economic benefits: the project directly sustains or creates additional activities, turnover, R and D, employment, etc. It benefits directly to the local institution. The offset valuation mechanisms leads to benefits for all parties: the project is implemented and this implementation is free of charge. For the Government: the project contributes to achieve its priorities without having to be financed on public funds. For the Obligor: its Offset obligation is compensated for a monetary value depending on the direct investment cost. Offset regulations are implemented in over 100 countries worldwide and are of common use on important public procurement markets. Examples of Countries implementing Offset regulations are: Austria, Brazil, Finland, Italy, Romania and many other

310

Financing public pensions in Greece  

OpenAIRE

The Greek public pensions system is essentially unfunded and it operates on a pay-as-you-go (PAYGO) basis. Serious financial problems are expected after the year 2010, and this is mainly due to adverse demographic trends. The same problem is faced by most European countries. Reform options range between fully funded schemes that will replace PAYGO systems in the long-run, and mixed (two-tier) systems where a basic provision for old age is financed by pay-as you-go and pensions ...

??????????, ??????????

2000-01-01

311

13 CFR 107.710 - Requirement to finance smaller enterprises.  

Science.gov (United States)

...false Requirement to finance smaller enterprises. 107.710 Section 107.710 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS...Eligibility of A Small Business for Sbic Financing § 107.710 Requirement to finance smaller...

2010-01-01

312

12 CFR 905.4 - Duties of the Finance Board.  

Science.gov (United States)

... (a) Bank System. The Finance Board supervises and regulates the Banks and the Office of Finance. Specifically, its duties...and (iv) Appointing the public interest members of the boards...Banks fulfill their housing finance and community lending...

2010-01-01

313

48 CFR 32.005 - Consideration for contract financing.  

Science.gov (United States)

...less had the contract financing terms been contained...duration of the contract financing at the imputed financial costs of the equivalent working capital. (2) The estimated...interest, for contract financing. [60 FR...

2010-10-01

314

48 CFR 32.104 - Providing contract financing.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Provide Government financing only to the extent...availability of private financing and the probable impact on working capital of the predelivery...contractor's working capital; or (ii) Demonstrates...unavailability of private financing. (2) If...

2010-10-01

315

Current distribution in Cable-In-Conduit Conductors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A numerical study of the current distribution in Cable-In-Conduit Conductors (CICC's) experiencing linearly ramping transport currents and transverse magnetic fields was conducted for both infinitely long, periodic cables and finite length cables terminated in low resistance joints. The goal of the study was to gain insight into the phenomenon known as Ramp Rate Limitation, an as yet unexplained correspondence between maximum attainable current and the ramp time taken to reach that current in CICC superconducting magnets. A discrete geometric model of a 27 strand multiply twisted CICC was developed to effectively represent the flux linkages, mutual inductances, and resistive contact points between the strands of an experimentally tested cable. The results of the numerical study showed that for fully periodic cables, the current imbalances due to ramping magnetic fields and ramping transport currents are negligible in the range of experimentally explored operating conditions. For finite length, joint terminated cables, however, significant imbalances can exist. Unfortunately, quantitative results are limited by a lack of knowledge of the transverse resistance between strands in the joints. Nonetheless, general results are presented showing the dependency of the imbalance on cable length, ramp time, and joint resistance for both ramping transverse magnet fields and ramping transport currents. At the conclusion of the study, it is suggested that calculated current imbalances in a finite length cable could cause certain strands to prematurely ''quench'' -- become non-superconducting --thus leading to an instability for the entire cable. This numerically predicted ''current imbalance instability'' is compared to the experimentally observed Ramp Rate Limitation for the 27 strand CICC sample

316

Pressure drop characteristic in a cable-in-conduit conductor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A cable-in-conduit conductor (CICC) is the best candidate to satisfy requirement for a superconducting magnet to be employed in a fusion machine, such as a large operating current, high magnetic field, high breakdown voltage and so on. The present drop of the conductor is a key factor in design of a cryogenic pump to be used in a magnet system in the fusion machine. Also, pressure rise at a coil quench depends on the pressure drop characteristic of the conductor. Several workers investigated the pressure drop characteristic of CICCs. Katheder attempted to derive general correlation of the pressure drop characteristic basis on the correlation used for pebble beds. He compared his correlation with the measurements for the eight different CICCs. However, there is a large error of 75% in the maximum. It seems general formula of the pressure drop characteristic of CICC has not been provided. The authors investigate the pressure drop characteristic of 30 kA, 80 m cooling path length CICCs, whose dimension is almost same as the conductor to be employed in the fusion machine. The result indicates correlation between the Reynolds number and the friction factor of CICCs obeys the conventional formula for a smooth tube, Hagen-Poesuilli formula, in laminar flow region but does not agree with the conventional formula for a smooth tube, Blasius formula, in turbulent flow region. The experimental result is compared with Katheder's correlation. Katheder's correlation does not show good agreement with the experimental result in the turbulent flow region. The correlation that the friction factor is inversely proportional to 0.157 power of the Reynolds number and the proportional constant is 0.257 coincides better with the experimental result in this region. (author)

317

Current distribution in Cable-In-Conduit Conductors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A numerical study of the current distribution in Cable-In-Conduit Conductors (CICC`s) experiencing linearly ramping transport currents and transverse magnetic fields was conducted for both infinitely long, periodic cables and finite length cables terminated in low resistance joints. The goal of the study was to gain insight into the phenomenon known as Ramp Rate Limitation, an as yet unexplained correspondence between maximum attainable current and the ramp time taken to reach that current in CICC superconducting magnets. A discrete geometric model of a 27 strand multiply twisted CICC was developed to effectively represent the flux linkages, mutual inductances, and resistive contact points between the strands of an experimentally tested cable. The results of the numerical study showed that for fully periodic cables, the current imbalances due to ramping magnetic fields and ramping transport currents are negligible in the range of experimentally explored operating conditions. For finite length, joint terminated cables, however, significant imbalances can exist. Unfortunately, quantitative results are limited by a lack of knowledge of the transverse resistance between strands in the joints. Nonetheless, general results are presented showing the dependency of the imbalance on cable length, ramp time, and joint resistance for both ramping transverse magnet fields and ramping transport currents. At the conclusion of the study, it is suggested that calculated current imbalances in a finite length cable could cause certain strands to prematurely ``quench`` -- become non-superconducting --thus leading to an instability for the entire cable. This numerically predicted ``current imbalance instability`` is compared to the experimentally observed Ramp Rate Limitation for the 27 strand CICC sample.

Ferri, M.A.

1994-05-01

318

Geophysical Methods for Locating Karst Conduits in Cane Run Watershed, Central Kentucky  

Science.gov (United States)

Cane Run watershed in central Kentucky was listed by the Kentucky Division of Water as one of four focus watersheds for clean-up under the State’s nonpoint-source pollution program. This watershed is degraded by pathogens, nutrients, siltation, and organic enrichment. The sources of pollution include both municipal point sources and nonpoint agricultural and nonagricultural sources. The relative contribution of different parts of the watershed to the contamination is not well understood, however. The geology of Cane Run watershed consists of Ordovician thin-bedded limestone with sparse interbeds of shale. The landscape is dominated by karst features such as sinkholes and springs. Cane Run only flows during times of significant rainfall, usually in the spring of the year. The remainder of the year, most water is recharged to a karst conduit system that leads from Lexington, Ky to Royal Spring, as demonstrated by groundwater tracing. Royal Spring is the major water supply for Georgetown in Scott County, Ky. We attempted to locate the karst conduit so that groundwater flowing through the conduit could be monitored. These monitoring data are essential for assessing the effectiveness of remediation plans. In 2008, based on geology, karst features, and hydrogeology, an initial round of electrical-resistivity and spontaneous-potential geophysical surveys were conducted to help pinpoint the location of the conduit at three sites. Fifteen exploratory boreholes were drilled on the basis of the geophysical results. The boreholes confirmed the geophysical surveys had located minor mud-filled conduits that were interpreted as tributaries to the main conduit. Another round of 2D and 3D electrical resistivity surveys were conducted in 2009 to search for the main conduit. The analysis of this round of surveys resulted in one promising site that is suspected to be in close proximity to the conduit. A time-lapse 2D electrical resistivity survey in conjunction with calcium chlorite solution injection was performed to pinpoint the conduit location. Microgravity measurements were also taken at the site to check whether the gravity anomaly signals are associated with conduits. The geophysical results will be further tested by exploratory boreholes. This work is being carried out in cooperation with the University of Kentucky’s College of Agriculture and Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences.

Zhu, J.; Paylor, R.; Currens, J. C.; Dinger, J. S.

2009-12-01

319

Use new PLGL-RGD-NGF nerve conduits for promoting peripheral nerve regeneration  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Nerve conduits provide a promising strategy for peripheral nerve injury repair. However, the efficiency of nerve conduits to enhance nerve regeneration and functional recovery is often inferior to that of autografts. Nerve conduits require additional factors such as cell adhesion molecules and neurotrophic factors to provide a more conducive microenvironment for nerve regeneration. Methods In the present study, poly{(lactic acid-co-[(glycolic acid-alt-(L-lysine]} (PLGL was modified by grafting Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Gly (RGD peptide and nerve growth factor (NGF for fabricating new PLGL-RGD-NGF nerve conduits to promote nerve regeneration and functional recovery. PLGL-RGD-NGF nerve conduits were tested in the rat sciatic nerve transection model. Rat sciatic nerves were cut off to form a 10 mm defect and repaired with the nerve conduits. All of the 32 Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: group PLGL-RGD-NGF, group PLGL-RGD, group PLGL and group autograft. At 3 months after surgery, the regenerated rat sciatic nerve was evaluated by footprint analysis, electrophysiology, and histologic assessment. Experimental data were processed using the statistical software SPSS 10.0. Results The sciatic function index value of groups PLGL-RGD-NGF and autograft was significantly higher than those of groups PLGL-RGD and PLGL. The nerve conduction velocities of groups PLGL-RGD-NGF and autograft were significantly faster than those of groups PLGL-RGD and PLGL. The regenerated nerves of groups PLGL-RGD-NGF and autograft were more mature than those of groups PLGL-RGD and PLGL. There was no significant difference between groups PLGL-RGD-NGF and autograft. Conclusions PLGL-RGD-NGF nerve conduits are more effective in regenerating nerves than both PLGL-RGD nerve conduits and PLGL nerve conduits. The effect is as good as that of an autograft. This work established the platform for further development of the use of PLGL-RGD-NGF nerve conduits for clinical nerve repair.

Yan Qiongjiao

2012-07-01

320

Acoustic waveguiding by pliable conduits with axial cross sections as linear waveguides in two-dimensional sonic crystals.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pliable conduits composed of periodically arranged concentric aluminum tori in air, with their axial cross sections acting as linear waveguides in two-dimensional sonic crystals, are numerically shown to guide acoustic waves in three dimensions in a flexible manner. Waveguide band structures are obtained by exploiting axial symmetry in a super-cell approach through two-dimensional finite-element simulations under the periodic boundary conditions. One isolated band having a bandwidth of 19.66% or 10.10% is observed for each guide, whose cross section is either in square or triangular geometry, respectively. Corresponding mode profiles indicate efficient guiding, as the acoustic energy is mainly concentrated in the hollow-core region of the guides. Transmittance spectra calculated through finite-element simulations are in agreement with the computed guiding bands. Transmittance along the waveguides with square and triangular axial cross sections around mid-band frequencies of their guiding bands varies slightly from -6.05 and -6.65?dB to -5.98 and -8.86?dB, respectively, as the guide length is increased from 10 to 200 periods. Efficient guiding across the smooth bends over circular arcs up to 90?deg is also demonstrated through three-dimensional finite-element method simulations. PMID:24180772

Cicek, Ahmet; Kaya, Olgun Adem; Ulug, Bulent

2013-11-01

321

46 CFR 116.405 - General arrangement and outfitting.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 false General arrangement and outfitting. 116.405 Section 116.405 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Fire Protection § 116.405 General arrangement and outfitting....

2010-10-01

322

Financing of radioactive waste disposal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Waste disposal is modelled as a financial calculus. In this connection the particularity is not primarily the dimension to be expected of financial requirement but above all the uncertainty of financial requirement as well as the ecological, socio-economic and especially also the temporal dimension of the Nuclear Waste Disposal project (disposal of spent fuel elements from light-water reactors with and without reprocessing, decommissioning = safe containment and disposal of nuclear power plants, permanent isolation of radioactive waste from the biosphere, intermediate storage). Based on the above mentioned factors the author analyses alternative approaches of financing or financial planning. He points out the decisive significance of the perception of risks or the evaluation of risks by involved or affected persons - i.e. the social acceptance of planned and designed waste disposal concepts - for the achievement and assessment of alternative solutions. With the help of an acceptance-specific risk measure developed on the basis of a mathematical chaos theory he illustrates, in a model, the social influence on the financing of nuclear waste disposal. (orig./HP)

323

Financing of nuclear trade. The brazilian experience  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The importance of financing instruments as means for the promotion of international nuclear trade is analysed. Besides the specific characteristics of nuclear trade is examined. Furthermore the role of governmental authorities and international agencies, mainly the IAEA is discussed. Finally the presence of Brazil in the international financial market and the financing of nuclear trade in Brazil are described

324

Forthcoming Papers from The Journal of Finance  

Science.gov (United States)

The official publication of the American Finance Association (AFA), The Journal of Finance, is "devoted to the study and promotion of knowledge about financial economics," and provides full-text previews of accepted papers at the Forthcoming Papers page. Other site services include "editor's tips" for paper submission, browseable abstracts of past papers, and AFA membership information.

1998-01-01

325

State Education Finance and Governance Profile: Florida  

Science.gov (United States)

This article presents the state education finance and governance profile of Florida. The state of Florida has 67 regular school districts as well as additional special districts comprised of developmental research schools and other schools that serve special populations. In 1973, the Florida Legislature adopted the Florida Education Finance

Wright, Rebecca

2010-01-01

326

Municipal bond financing of solar energy facilities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The application of the laws of municipal bond financing to solar facilities is examined. The type of facilities under consideration are outlined. The general legal principles of municipal securities financing are discussed. The effect of recent decisions applying antitrust liability to municipal corporations is also discussed. Five specific types of municipal bonds are explained. The application of Section 103 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954, as amended, to the issuance of municipal bonds for solar facility financing is examined also. Five bond laws of five representative states are examined and whether the eight types of solar facilities under consideration could be financed under such law is discussed. The application of the general legal principle is illustrated. Three hypothetical situations are set forth and common legal issues to be confronted by city officials in proposing such financing are discussed. These issues will be raised in most financings, but the purpose is to examine the common context in which they are raised. It is concluded that if it can be shown that the purpose of the solar facilities to be financed is to benefit the public, all legal obstacles to the use of municipal financing of solar facilities can be substantially overcome.

White, S.S.

1979-12-01

327

Innovative financing techniques for nuclear power exports  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author makes general comments regarding the possible conflict between project risks, sponsors' ability to assume these risks, and the requirements and objectives of all project benficiaries: sponsors, lenders, consumers and government. To reconcile these conflicts there is an increasing use of project finance techniques to finance large capital projects

328

Java meshing tool for sphere arrangements  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A tool for meshing sphere arrangements was programmed in order to perform finite element calculations. Sphere arrangements are investigated in frame of the feasibility study of the sphere-pac nuclear fuel. One major concern of this study is the thermal conductivity of the arrangement. Further concerns are the mechanical behavior and sintering of the fuel. The thermal conductivity of the fuel was addressed with the computer code SPACON based on a unit cell approach and a radial heat flow experiment. However, a further approach using the finite element method is desirable, in order to better understanding the thermal flow through the package and to cross check with SPACON data and with experimental data. Also the mechanical behavior of the fuel could be addressed using the finite element technique. (author)

Pouchon, Manuel Alexandre [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Works

2002-04-01

329

Cooling arrangement for a superconducting coil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A superconducting device is disclosed, such as a superconducting rotor for a generator or motor. A vacuum enclosure has an interior wall surrounding a cavity containing a vacuum. A superconductive coil is placed in the cavity. A generally-annularly-arranged, thermally-conductive sheet has an inward-facing surface contacting generally the entire outward-facing surface of the superconductive coil. A generally-annularly-arranged coolant tube contains a cryogenic fluid and contacts a generally-circumferential portion of the outward-facing surface of the sheet. A generally-annularly-arranged, thermally-insulative coil overwrap generally circumferentially surrounds the sheet. The coolant tube and the inward-facing surface of the coil overwrap together contact generally the entire outward-facing surface of the sheet. 3 figs

330

Evolution of karst conduit networks in transition from pressurised flow to free surface flow  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a novel modelling approach to study the evolution of conduit networks in soluble rocks. Unlike the models presented so far, the model allows a transition from pressurised (pipe) flow to a free surface (open channel) flow in evolving discrete conduit networks. It calculates flow, solute transport and dissolutional enlargement within each time step and steps through time until a stable flow pattern establishes. The flow in each time step is calculated by calling the EPA Storm Water Management Model (EPA SWMM), which efficiently solves the 1-D Saint Venant equations in a network of conduits. We present several cases with low dip and sub-vertical networks to demonstrate mechanisms of flow pathway selection. In low dip models the inputs were randomly distributed to several junctions. The evolution of pathways progresses upstream: initially pathways linking outlets to the closest inputs evolve fastest because the gradient along these pathways is largest. When a pathway efficiently drains the available recharge, the head drop along the pathway attracts flow from the neighbouring upstream junctions and new connecting pathways evolve. The mechanism progresses from the output boundary inwards until all inputs are connected to the stable flow system. In the pressurised phase, each junction is drained by at least one conduit, but only one conduit remains active in the vadose phase. The selection depends on the initial geometry of a junction, initial distribution of diameters, the evolution in a pressurised regime, and on the dip of the conduits, which plays an important role in vadose entrenchment. In high dip networks, the vadose zone propagates downwards and inwards from the rim of the massif. When a network with randomly distributed initial diameters is supplied with concentrated recharge from the adjacent area, the sink point regresses up upstream along junctions connected to the prominent pathways. Large conductive structures provide deep penetration of high hydraulic head and give rise to high gradients and possible fast evolution of conduit systems deep within the massif.

Perne, M.; Covington, M. D.; Gabrovšek, F.

2014-06-01

331

Fabrication and Optimization of Gelatin/ Nano Bioglass Conduits for Peripheral Nerve Regeneration  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Peripheral nerve injury is common in trauma patients and 4.5% of all soft-tissue injuries are accompanied by defects of peripheral nerve. Peripheral nerve injuries can lead to lifetime loss of function and permanent disfigurement. Designed conduits com-prised of natural and synthetic materials are now widely used in the construction of damaged tissues. The aim of this project was to prepare nanocomposite conduits from gelatin and bioglass for damaged peripheral nerve reconstruction. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study,compound water solution of gelatin and nano bioglass synthesized through sol gel method, was made. After preparing the solution, special mandrels were dipped in solution several times and freeze dried in order to be emptied of wa-ter via sublimation. The conduits had the following dimensions: internal diameter: 1.6 mm, outside diameter: 2.2 mm and length about 12 mm. In order to evaluate the biocompatibility of conduits we used cytotoxicity test by Chinese ovary cells and MTT assay by Miapaca-2 (pancreatic cancer cell line. Results: The prepared nano bioglass and conduits were characterized using transmission elec-tron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Results of biocompatibility test showed no sign of cytotoxicity and cells were found to be attached to the pore walls offered by the conduits. Conclusion: According to the results, nano bioglass conduits could be a good candidate for peripheral nerve regeneration. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2014; 21 (2:152-160

M. Foroutan Koudehi

2014-07-01

332

SUIVI DE LA MIGRATION D’AVALAISON DES ANGUILLES PAR UNE CONDUITE DE DEBIT RESERVE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Le suivi de la migration catadrome de l’anguille par une conduite de débit réservé a été réalisé sur le barrage de la retenue de Bois Joli sur le Frémur (dénivelé : 13,7 m ; 3 millions de m3. Une partie des migrateurs utilise cette conduite, au début de la saison de dévalaison quand elle représente la seule voie de transit mais également plus tard, lorsque le barrage déverse et que s’ouvre ainsi une seconde voie de passage. En raison des faibles débits d’alimentation et de l’implantation de l’entrée de la conduite on peut supposer que les anguilles prospectent la retenue pour trouver une voie de transit. L’efficacité de l’équipement, qui s’établit à 12 % de la dévalaison totale, concourt donc pour une part non négligeable au transit des anguilles. La partition des débits entre les différentes voies de migration semblerait essentielle pour définir leur efficacité. Malgré l’aménagement de la conduite, on observe une mortalité de 11 % des anguilles qui l’empruntent. Elle semble essentiellement liée à l’abrasion contre les parois et le papillon de la vanne. Dans de nombreux cas, la mortalité lors du passage dans les conduites de débit réservé doit être très importante, voire totale en raison de leur configuration et de leur mode de gestion. Cette mortalité tend à réduire le nombre des géniteurs produit par le bassin versant. Les anguilles marquées qui ont franchi le barrage grâce à la conduite avant le pic de migration stoppent leur progression en aval. Elles la reprennent quelques semaines plus tard quand le barrage déverse ou l’année suivante. Ce second constat confirme les effets des retenues sur la vitesse de migration. L’utilisation des conduites de débit réservé par les anguilles d’avalaison devrait être prise en compte lors de leur conception et de leur gestion afin de réduire les risques de mortalité.

LEGAULT A.

2003-07-01

333

Evolution of karst conduit networks in transition from pressurised flow to free surface flow  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We present a novel modelling approach to study the evolution of conduit networks in soluble rocks. Unlike the models presented so far, the model allows a transition from pressurised (pipe flow to a free surface (open channel flow in evolving discrete conduit networks. It calculates flow, solute transport and dissolutional enlargement within each time step and steps through time until a stable flow pattern establishes. The flow in each time step is calculated by calling the EPA Storm Water Management Model (EPA SWMM, which efficiently solves the 1-D Saint Venant equations in a network of conduits. We present several cases with low dip and sub-vertical networks to demonstrate mechanisms of flow pathway selection. In low dip models the inputs were randomly distributed to several junctions. The evolution of pathways progresses upstream: initially pathways linking outlets to the closest inputs evolve fastest because the gradient along these pathways is largest. When a pathway efficiently drains the available recharge, the head drop along the pathway attracts flow from the neighbouring upstream junctions and new connecting pathways evolve. The mechanism progresses from the output boundary inwards until all inputs are connected to the stable flow system. In the pressurised phase, each junction is drained by at least one conduit, but only one conduit remains active in the vadose phase. The selection depends on the initial geometry of a junction, initial distribution of diameters, the evolution in a pressurised regime, and on the dip of the conduits, which plays an important role in vadose entrenchment. In high dip networks, the vadose zone propagates downwards and inwards from the rim of the massif. When a network with randomly distributed initial diameters is supplied with concentrated recharge from the adjacent area, the sink point regresses up upstream along junctions connected to the prominent pathways. Large conductive structures provide deep penetration of high hydraulic head and give rise to high gradients and possible fast evolution of conduit systems deep within the massif.

M. Perne

2014-06-01

334

Do Portuguese SMEs Follow Pecking Order Financing?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper tests for pecking order behavior in medium-sized private Portuguese firms. In contrast to the usual split between internal funds, debt, and external equity, we separate debt into four components – cheap trade credits (CTC), bank loans (BL), other loans, and expensive credits (EC). We use breakpoint tests to identify when firms switch between funding sources by examining the change in each funding source based on the financing deficit remaining after the previous pecking order funding source has been used. Our tests indicate that Portuguese companies generally move from lower cost to higher cost financing sources, but they do not exhaust each type of debt before moving on to the next funding source in the pecking order. Such behavior is consistent with a loose interpretation of pecking order financing, but not a strict interpretation of the theory. Instead, Portuguese firms may be balancing pecking order financing with a need to maintain some degree of financing flexibility.

Bartholdy, Jan; Mateus, Cesario

2012-01-01

335

Investment Timing When External Financing Is Costly  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper analyzes the investment timing of firms facing two dimensions of financing constraints: Liquidity constraints and capital market frictions inducing financing costs. We show that liquidity constraints are not sufficient to explain voluntary investment delay. However, when additionally considering financing costs, we can explain both voluntary delay and acceleration of investment. More precisely, we find that investment thresholds are U-shaped in liquid funds. For high-liquidity firms, investment thresholds are decreasing (i.e. accelerated investment takes place) in either dimension of financing constraint. In contrast, investment thresholds are increasing (i.e. investment is further delayed) in either form of financing constraint for low-liquidity firms. For intermediate levels of liquidity, investment thresholds are U-shaped in market frictions.

Hirth, Stefan; Uhrig-Homburg, Marliese

2010-01-01

336

Ad-nilpotent ideals and Shi arrangement  

CERN Document Server

Let $\\frg$ be a complex simple Lie algebra. Let $\\frb$ be a fixed Borel subalgebra of $\\frg$. Jian-Yi Shi has given a natural bijection between the set of all ad-nilpotent ideals of $\\frb$ and the set of all dominant regions of the now-called Shi arrangement. In this note, we extend this result by establishing a natural bijection between the set of all ad-nilpotent ideals of a parabolic subalgebra $\\frp_I$ of $\\frg$ and the set of all dominant regions of the $I$-deleted Shi arrangement $\\texttt{Shi}(I)$.

Dong, Chao-Ping

2012-01-01

337

Cooling arrangement for a gas turbine component  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A cooling arrangement (82) for a gas turbine engine component, the cooling arrangement (82) having a plurality of rows (92, 94, 96) of airfoils (98), wherein adjacent airfoils (98) within a row (92, 94, 96) define segments (110, 130, 140) of cooling channels (90), and wherein outlets (114, 134) of the segments (110, 130) in one row (92, 94) align aerodynamically with inlets (132, 142) of segments (130, 140) in an adjacent row (94, 96) to define continuous cooling channels (90) with non continuous walls (116, 120), each cooling channel (90) comprising a serpentine shape.

Lee, Ching-Pang; Heneveld, Benjamin E

2015-02-10

338

Arrangement in a pipe handling system; Roerhaandteringssystem  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The invention relates to an arrangement in a pipe handling system, especially for handling pipes in connection with a derrick. The arrangement comprises a tower and two preferably individually controlled operating arms. The pipe handling system operates favourably in connection with a finger board in which all fingers are pointing towards the centre of the pipe handling system and especially towards a disc-shaped locking unit mounted on the top of the tower, and in connection with a side-step retraction system designed for use with a top drive drilling system. 11 figs.

McGill, J.; Eilertsen, B.A.

1997-04-09

339

Arranged matches and mental illness: therapists' dilemmas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Traditional societies place especial value on marriage and having children, and marriages are often arranged. A series of situations and dilemmas associated with arranged matches and their consequences are described in the course of mental health work with ultra-orthodox Jewish people with severe mental illness. Issues of confidentiality may arise with parents and matchmakers; on the other hand, respectful cooperation with religious authorities, counselors in the community, and family members is important. Information on genetic counseling, contraception, medication during pregnancy, and breastfeeding are considered and interact with communal structures and practices. There is a need for close support and evaluation during the process of marriage, childbearing, and parenthood. PMID:23244012

Greenberg, David; Buchbinder, Jacob Tuvia; Witztum, Eliezer

2012-01-01

340

Shallow conduit processes of the 1991 Hekla eruption, Iceland  

Science.gov (United States)

On January 17, 1991 at 17:00 hrs, the 17th eruption of Hekla since 1104AD began. Lasting for almost two months, it produced 0.02 km3 of icelandite tephra and ~0.15km3 of icelandite lava. This eruption was the third of four eruptions since 1980 with a recurrence period of approximately 10 years, as opposed to a recurrence interval of c. 55 years for the eruptions in the period 1104AD to 1947AD. [1] The last four Hekla eruptions are typified by a 0.5-2 hour-long initial phase of subplinian intensity and discharge ranging from 2900-6700 m3/s [2]. In all 4 events the inital phase was followed by a sustained and relatively low-discharge(20,000 km2. Here we examine the first phase of the Hekla 1991 eruption with focus on vesiculation and fragmentation processes in the shallow conduit and ash production. Samples of the tephra fall were collected on snow immediately after the initial phase at multiple sites providing a representative spatial coverage within the 0.1mm isopach [3]. This set was augmented by samples collected in 2012 to provide tighter coverage of near vent region. Grain size of all samples has been measured down to 1 micron. Density measurements have been conducted on 4 near-vent pumice samples (100 clasts each) and the pumice vesicle size distribution has been determined in a selected subset of clasts. The reconstructed whole deposit grain size distribution exhibits a unimodal, log-normal distribution peaking at -3 phi, typical of dry, magmatic fragmentation. Pumice densities range from 520-880 kg/m3 and exhibit a tight unimodal and log-normal distribution indicating a mean vesicularity of 77% to 79% for the magma erupted during the initial phase. Along with preliminary results for bubble number density and vesicle size distribution this implies a single late-stage homogeneous bubble nucleation and very uniform conditions of magma fragmentation during this short-lived initial phase of the Hekla 1991 eruption. 1. Gudmundsson, A., et al., The 1991 eruption of Hekla, Iceland. Bulletin of Volcanology, 1992. 54(3): p. 238-246. 2. Höskuldsson, Á., Óskarsson, N., Pedersen, R., Grönvold, K., Vogfjörd, K. & Ólafsdóttir, R. 2007. The millennium eruption of Hekla in February 2000. Bull Volcanol, 70:169-182. 3. Larsen, G., E.G. Vilmundardóttir, and B. Thorkelsson, Heklugosid 1991: Gjóskufall og gjóskulagid frá fyrsta degi gossins. Náttúrufrædingurinn, 1992. 61(3-4): p. 159-176.

Gudnason, J.; Thordarson, T.; Houghton, B. F.

2013-12-01

341

Investigating degassing dynamics into the shallow conduit through decompression experiments  

Science.gov (United States)

The history of bubbles' growth and interaction, as well as their spatial distribution in the shallow conduit, is deeply interconnected with the style of the eruptions. According to the fundamental role played by volatiles in the eruptive process, more effort is required in determining how the key factors of volcanic systems (i.e., magma properties, decompression rate) influence the dynamics of degassing. Therefore, our aim is to provide, through the analysis of decompression experiments on analogue materials, insights on such relations. We performed several decompression experiments with a shock-tube apparatus, and using silicon oil as laboratory-analogue for the magmatic melt. The sample was placed in a transparent autoclave, saturated with Argon for an established amount of time under a fixed pressure (up to a maximum of 10 MPa). Successively it was decompressed to atmospheric conditions, by releasing gas through a control valve. The dynamics of gas exsolution processes were recorded by using pressure sensors and a high speed camera. A range of viscosity values (1, 10, 100, 1000 Pa s) was investigated, for the same decompression path. Furthermore, some experiments were carried out with the addition of glass beads, as analogue to crystals, to the pure liquid. The height of the expanding column was monitored, in conjunction with images recorded during the experiments, and the growth rate of bubbles was measured at different times and depth. Finally, bubble size distribution has been evaluated at various stages for some experiments, in order to achieve a spatial map of the ongoing degassing phenomena. Results allowed us to define different regimes occurring during the decompression, whose features and characteristics are strongly affected by fluid viscosity. Indeed, several degassing phases were observed, from bubbly fluid to the eventual buildup of a more or less "foamy" phase, which ultimately experiences periodical oscillations around an average equilibrium level. Such periodic fluctuations, whose intensity and frequency depend on the experimental conditions, are triggered by bubbles bursting at the surface and mostly promoted by coalescence. Furthermore, an order of magnitude increase in the radial expansion velocity has been observed, as the nucleation front moves downward, during the experiment.

Spina, Laura; Scheu, Bettina; Cimarelli, Corrado; Dingwell, Donald

2014-05-01

342

Delivery of chondroitinase ABC and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor from silk fibroin conduits enhances peripheral nerve regeneration.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nerve conduits are a proven strategy for guiding axon regrowth following injury. This study compares degradable silk-trehalose films containing chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) and/or glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) loaded within a silk fibroin-based nerve conduit in a rat sciatic nerve defect model. Four groups of silk conduits were prepared, with the following silk-trehalose films inserted into the conduit: (a) empty; (b) 1?µg GDNF; (3) 2 U ChABC; and (4) 1?µg GDNF/2 U ChABC. Drug release studies demonstrated 20% recovery of GDNF and ChABC at 6?weeks and 24?h, respectively. Six conduits of each type were implanted into 15?mm sciatic nerve defects in Lewis rats; conduits were explanted for histological analysis at 6?weeks. Tissues stained with Schwann cell S-100 antibody demonstrated an increased density of cells in both GDNF- and ChABC-treated groups compared to empty control conduits (p?Conduits loaded with GDNF and ChABC also demonstrated higher levels of neuron-specific PGP 9.5 protein when compared to controls (p?conduits possess favourable mechanical and degradative properties and are further enhanced when loaded with ChABC and GDNF. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25424415

Sivak, Wesley N; White, James D; Bliley, Jacqueline M; Tien, Lee W; Liao, Han Tsung; Kaplan, David L; Marra, Kacey G

2014-11-25

343

Long Term Complications Following Heal Conduit Urinary Diversion after Radical Cystectomy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To study the long term complications of ileal conduit urinary diversion in 36 patients with invasive urinary bladder cancer who lived more than 5 years after surgery. Patients and Methods: A retrospective study included 36 long term survivors (survival 5 years or greater) with invasive bladder cancer who did radical cystectomy or anterior pelvic excentration with ileal conduit urinary diversion at the National Cancer Institute, Cairo University before January 2004. Results: A total of 36 patients, 28 Males and 8 females, with median age at surgery of 62 years. Complications developed in 22 (61 %) patients and surgical re-intervention was needed, in 14 patients (39%). Stoma related complications developed in 7 (19%) patients, bowel related complications developed in 4 (11%), urinary tract infection and pyelonephritis was observed in 9 (25%) patients, conduit/ureteral anastomosis related complications developed in 5 (14%) patients, urolithiasis developed in 4 (11%) patients. Renal function deterioration (morphological and functional) was observed in 9 (25%) patients, nephrectomy was required in 2 patients, hemodialysis was required in 1 patient, and 1 patient had persistent hyperchloraemic acidosis. Conclusion: Long term follow-up for patients with ileal conduit urinary diversion shows high complication and high surgical re-intervention rates following this technique. Longer follow-up period for 20 or more years is needed for all urinary diversion techniques to prove either the ileal conduit will remain the gold standard for urinary diversion or other newly developed techniques will take its place

344

Vegetable cells in urinary samples of patients with bricker ileal conduit.  

Science.gov (United States)

During routine cytopathological evaluation of urines for malignant cells we have occasionally noticed vegetable cells that were only present in patients with Bricker ileal conduit. We wanted to identify the means and sources of contamination of urinary samples from these patients. During the period between May and November 2010, 637 urinary samples were routinely evaluated for malignant cells. Among them were 13 urinary samples from Bricker ileal conduit which we rescreened. We prepared all urinary samples by membrane filtration and stained them according to Papanicolaou. Subsequently, we prepared samples from ostomy adhesives made by Coloplast and by ConvaTec which are used to secure the ostomy bag onto urostomy. We also took samples from different constituents (hydrocolloids) of ostomy adhesives. On the cytopathological review, we found vegetable cells along with intestinal mucosa cells in urinary samples of seven patients with Bricker ileal conduit. With the light microscopic examination of the samples prepared from different ostomy adhesives, we found vegetable cells only in Coloplast adhesives. In preparations of hydrocolloids, we found vegetable cells only in guar gum. They were morphologically identical to those found in urine samples of patients with Bricker ileal conduit and in Sensura and Sensura Xpro (Coloplast) ostomy adhesives. We determined that the origin of vegetable cells in urines from Bricker ileal conduit is the ostomy adhesive. The vegetable cells differ from human intestinal epithelial cells regarding size, shape, and color so it is difficult to misinterpret them as dysplastic cells. PMID:23687081

Planinšek, Tanja; Kladnik, Aleš; Pohar-Marinšek, Ziva; Fležar, Margareta Strojan

2014-02-01

345

Midterm results of bovine jugular vein conduit for right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To evaluate the midterm results of Contegra conduit. Methods: The retrospective study comprised patient record at Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, of conduits implanted between May 2007 and June 2012. Data collection was made from the clinical notes and from serial echocardiograms by a single cardiologist. The last followup echocardiography was done at the time of data collection in June 2012. SPSS 19 was used for statistical analysis. Results: A total of 18 conduits had been implanted (16-22mm) during the study period. Median age at the time of surgery was 9 years (range: 2.5-16 years). Early mortality was seen in 3 (16.66%) patients, but none was Contegra related. Of the remaining 15 patients, 2 (13.33%) with a diagnosis of Pulmonary Atresia-Ventricular Septal Defect with hypoplastic peripheral Pulmonary Arteries (PA), developed severe distal pressure gradient (50mmHg) across Contegra over a median period of 18 months (range: 12-24 months), with resultant severe regurgitation and needed percutaneous intervention. There was no thrombosis, calcification, anuerysmal dilation or late deaths. Conclusion: At midterm followup, Contegra conduit was associated with low re-intervention rates with satisfactory haemodynamic results. However, long-term durability must be determined for this conduit, especially in patients with Pulmonary Atresia-Ventricular Septal Defect with hypoplastic peripheral Pulmonary Arteries. (author)thor)

346

Electrospun polycaprolactone/polylactic acid nanofibers as an artificial nerve conduit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Development of conduits made of biodegradable nanofibers is gaining substantial interest due to their suitability for nerve regeneration. Among all polymeric nanofibers PCL (Poly-Caprolactone) is distinctively found for mechanical stability and PLLA (Poly (L-Lactic Acid)) for relatively faster biodegradability. The aim of this study is to investigate blending compatibility between PCL and PLLA and the ability to fabricate nanofibers conduits via electro spinning. The PCL-PLLA nano-fiber tubular made from different blend ratios of PCL-PLLA were electro spun. The electro spun nanofibers were continuously deposited over high speed rotating mandrel to fabricate nanofibers conduit having inner diameter of 2mm and the wall thickness of 55-65 m. The diameters of nano-fibers were between 715-860nm. FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared) spectroscopy used to analyze chemical change in the blends of nerve conduits, which revealed that the PCL-PLLA blend nanofiber exhibit characteristic peaks of both PCL and PLLA and was composition dependent. The crystallinity of PCL-PLLA tubes were studied using WAXD (Wide Angle Xray Diffraction). The morphology of nanofibers were investigated under SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope). The mechanical properties of the conduits were also tested; the Young's modulus obtained for small diameter was 10MPa, twice as high as larger diameter. (author)

347

Response of a volcanic conduit to step-like change in magma pressure  

Science.gov (United States)

Freely damped oscillations associated with strain offsets were observed by a nearby volumetric strainmeter during the 1986 Izu-Oshima Volcano eruption, Japan. These events are interpreted as a response of the magma-filled conduit to step-like changes in magma pressure. There were dramatic changes in the characteristic frequency of oscillation and the polarity of initial motion before and after the 6-hour interval of the enormous ground deformation due presumably to magma intrusion. The frequency changed from 42.6 to 21.3 mHz and the polarity changed from contraction to expansion. We propose a conceptual conduit model to explain this polarity reversal, where magma is episodically supplied to the conduit before but is episodically drained back to the reservoir after an extensive magma escape away from the reservoir as dike intrusion. Stress caused by the dike intrusion is large enough to break the lid of the conduit, thus to change a boundary condition. This change in boundary condition reduces the frequency of oscillation by a factor of 2. In this model longitudinal wave speed of the magma fluid is 340 m/s if the conduit length is taken to be 4 km.

Fukao, Yoshio; Fujita, Eisuke; Hori, Sadaki; Kanjo, Kenji

348

The challenge of financing nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To date, more then 500 nuclear power reactors have been successfully financed and built. Experience in recent nuclear projects confirms that nuclear power will not cease to be a viable option due to a worldwide financing constraint. For financing nuclear plants there are special considerations: large investment; long lead and construction times; complex technology; regulatory risk and political risk. The principal preconditions to financing are a national policy supporting nuclear power; creditworthiness; economic competitiveness; project feasibility; assurance of adequate revenues; acceptability of risks; and no open-ended liabilities. Generally, nuclear power plants are financed conventionally through multi-sources, where a package covers the entire cost. The first source, the investor/owner/operator responsible for building and operating the plant, should cover a sizable portion of the overall investment. In addition, bond issues, domestic bank credits etc. and, in case of State-owned or controlled enterprises, donations and credits from public entities or the governmental budget, should complete the financing. A financially sound utility should be able to meet this challenge. For importing technology, bids are invited. Export credits should form the basis of foreign financing, because these have favorable terms and conditions. Suppliers from several countries may join in a consortium subdividing the scope of supply and involve several Export Credit Agencies (ECAs). There are also innovative financing approaches that could be applied to nuclear projects. Evolutionary Reactors with smaller overall investment, shorter construction times, reliance on proven technology, together with predictable regulatory regimes and reliable long-term national policies favorable to nuclear power, should make it easier to meet the future challenges of financing. (author)

349

Financing electric power in developing countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper discusses the future growth of electricity demand, the likely changes in power investment patterns, and the global investment requirements during the 10 year period 1986-95 for power generation, transmission, and distribution. The investment during the period is analysed as between foreign and local currency requirements, the likely principal sources of finance, the problems which are experienced in financing power investment, and the origin of those problems. The paper provides details of the origin, nature and finances of the World Bank Group, reviews its past lending operations and some of the broader aspects of its lending operations

350

Do SMEs follow Pecking Order Financing?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper tests for "pecking order" financing of small and medium size firms. The main sources and "pecking order" of financing for SMEs are equity (internally generated cash), trade credit paid on time, credit provided by institutions such as banks and leasing companies, other sources of debt and delayed payment on trade credit. The "pecking order" of financing is driven by the costs of asymmetric information (cost of gathering and analysing information) and financial distress costs. Empirical tests do not confirm that SMEs follow a pecking order.

Bartholdy, Jan; Mateus, Cèsario

351

Program CICC flow and heat transfer in cable-in-conduit conductors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Computer program CICC has been written for use in the thermo-fluids design of superconducting magnets for tokamak reactors, which use forced-flow, helium-cooled, cable-in-conduit conductors (CICC). In addition to background heat loads that vary with space and time, these superconductors can develop normal zones that generate electrical resistance heat. Program CICC models the transient thermodynamic and fluid-dynamic system response to background heating and normal-zone propagation in the superconductor. The computational algorithm described in this paper couples a one-dimensional, compressible pipe-flow model (including flow choking) with two-dimensional, axisymmetric heat-conduction models of the superconductor cable, the conduit, and the epoxy-conduit insulation. National Institute of Standards and Technology helium properties are used. The model is verified by comparison with measured temperature and pressure profiles from thermal expulsion experiments. 10 refs., 9 figs

352

Program CICC flow and heat transfer in cable-in-conduit conductors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Computer program CICC has been written for use in the thermo-fluids design of superconducting magnets for tokamak reactors, which use forced-flow, helium-cooled, cable-in-conduit conductors (CICC). In addition to background heat loads that vary with space and time, these superconductors can develop normal zones that generate electrical resistance heat. Program CICC models the transient thermodynamic and fluid-dynamic system response to background heating and normal-zone propagation in the superconductor. The computational algorithm described in this paper couples a one-dimensional, compressible pipe-flow model (including flow choking) with two-dimensional, axisymmetric heat-conduction models of the superconductor cable, the conduit, and the epoxy-conduit insulation. National Institute of Standards and Technology helium properties are used. The model is verified by comparison with measured temperature and pressure profiles from thermal expulsion experiments. 10 refs., 9 figs.

Wong, R.L. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA))

1989-11-20

353

Magma fracture and hybrid earthquakes in the conduit of Augustine Volcano  

Science.gov (United States)

exploit subtle but systematic shifts in seismic waveforms to examine a 2 h cluster of repeating hybrid volcanic earthquakes preceding the first magmatic explosions at Augustine Volcano in January 2006. We extract differential P wave traveltimes of <0.01 s to determine that the source locations migrated downward by approximately 35 m. Waveform characteristics, GPS observations, and visual reports of lava effusion at the summit suggest that the earthquakes were sourced by fracturing magma in the upper conduit. As the lava cooled and degassed at the surface, the conditions in the upper conduit changed causing the zone in which magma fracture could occur to move downward through the magma column. These changes may also have been the first indicators that the conduit was becoming choked, causing a buildup in pressure that resulted in the large magmatic explosions that followed 36 h later.

Buurman, Helena; West, Michael E.

2013-12-01

354

A 6-year experience with radial artery conduit for myocardial revascularization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Excellent long-term patencies of arterial grafts are considered, superior to those of vein grafts. In this study, we present our 6 years experience in using radial artery as a conduit for myocardial revascularization. The aim of the present study was to assess the safety and early and mid term results of using radial artery in coronary artery bypass graft. Methods: The radial artery used as a conduit in 308 cases was evaluated during past 6 years, and the results obtained were processed and analyzed. Results: The operative morbidity comprised re-operation for bleeding in 3.2%, MI in 5%, with paresthesis and stitch abscess of the hand in 10% in and 3.5% respectively. Hospital mortality included 2 patients, one case being directly due to complication of harvesting radial artery.Conclusion: The results of present study were satisfactory with acceptable morbidity and mortality and favored the application of this conduit to CABG patients.

A Sadeghpour-Tabaee

2007-07-01

355

Biodegradable Conduit Small Gap Tubulization for Peripheral Nerve Mutilation: A Substitute for Traditional Epineurial Neurorrhaphy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nerve regeneration and re-innervation are usually difficult after peripheral nerve injury. Epineurium neurorrhaphy to recover the nerve continuity is the traditional choice of peripheral nerve mutilation without nerve defects, whereas the functional recovery remains quite unsatisfactory. Based on previous research in SD rats and Rhesus Monkeys, a multiple centers clinical trial about biodegradable conduit small gap tubulization for peripheral nerve mutilation to substitute traditional epineurial neurorrhaphy was carried out. Herein, the authors reviewed the literature that focused on peripheral nerve injury and possible clinical application, and confirmed the clinical possibilities of biodegradable conduit small gap tubulization to substitute traditional epineurial neurorrhaphy for peripheral nerve mutilation. The biodegradable conduit small gap tubulization to substitute traditional epineurial neurorrhaphy for peripheral nerve mutilation may be a revolutionary innovation in peripheral nerve injury and repair field.

Peixun Zhang, Na Han, Tianbing Wang, Feng Xue, Yuhui Kou, Yanhua Wang, Xiaofeng Yin, Laijin Lu, Guanglei Tian, Xu Gong, Shanlin Chen, Yu Dang, Jianping Peng, Baoguo Jiang

2013-01-01

356

Collagen (NeuraGen®) nerve conduits and stem cells for peripheral nerve gap repair.  

Science.gov (United States)

Collagen nerve guides are used clinically for peripheral nerve defects, but their use is generally limited to lesions up to 3 cm. In this study we combined collagen conduits with cells as an alternative strategy to support nerve regeneration over longer gaps. In vitro cell adherence to collagen conduits (NeuraGen(®) nerve guides) was assessed by scanning electron microscopy. For in vivo experiments, conduits were seeded with either Schwann cells (SC), SC-like differentiated bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (dMSC), SC-like differentiated adipose-derived stem cells (dASC) or left empty (control group), conduits were used to bridge a 1cm gap in the rat sciatic nerve and after 2-weeks immunohistochemical analysis was performed to assess axonal regeneration and SC infiltration. The regenerative cells showed good adherence to the collagen walls. Primary SC showed significant improvement in distal stump sprouting. No significant differences in proximal regeneration distances were noticed among experimental groups. dMSC and dASC-loaded conduits showed a diffuse sprouting pattern, while SC-loaded showed an enhanced cone pattern and a typical sprouting along the conduits walls, suggesting an increased affinity for the collagen type I fibrillar structure. NeuraGen(®) guides showed high affinity of regenerative cells and could be used as efficient vehicle for cell delivery. However, surface modifications (e.g. with extracellular matrix molecule peptides) of NeuraGen(®) guides could be used in future tissue-engineering applications to better exploit the cell potential. PMID:24792394

di Summa, Pietro G; Kingham, Paul J; Campisi, Corrado C; Raffoul, Wassim; Kalbermatten, Daniel F

2014-06-20

357

MRI of the heart following implantation of a left ventricular apico-aortic conduit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To investigate the potential of ECG-triggered MRI for the evaluation of postoperative anatomy and function of the heart and conduit following implantation of a left-ventricular apico-aortic conduit. Materials and Methods: 5 patients (2 female, 3 male, mean age 72.5 years) were examined using a 1.5 Tesla whole-body MRI (Gyroscan Intera, Philips Medical Systems, Best, The Netherlands) following apico-aortic conduit surgery due to severe aortic valve stenosis. The reason for performing conduit implantation instead of aortic valve replacement was the risk of injuring a bypass graft from prior coronary artery bypass surgery. Cine steady-state-free-precession (SSFP) sequences were used to assess ventricular function, navigator-gated 3D-SSFP and breath-hold, time-resolved contrast-enhanced MR angiography was used to display the postoperative anatomy, and 2D-gradient echo sequences with an inversion pulse to suppress the signal of the healthy myocardium were used to evaluate potential myocardial scarring. Flow sensitive gradient echo sequences were performed to determine the blood flow in the conduit. Results: In all patients the apico-aortic conduit proved to be open with a maximum flow velocity of 126 (+ 43) cm/s. The postoperative anatomy was able to be evaluated in all patients and perioperative myocardial infarction was able to be ruled out. The mean ejection fraction of the left ventricle was 44.2 + 6.2 % with a mean volume of 80 + 20.6 ml per heart beat. (origlume of 80 + 20.6 ml per heart beat. (orig.)

358

Inequality of pension arrangements among different segments of the labor force in China.  

Science.gov (United States)

Social security for older people in China today has been established institutionally. However, there are substantial problems such as coverage, affordability, fund management, and corruption. This paper aims to provide a general picture of China's social security system for older people and to argue that the inequality of pension arrangements among different segments of the labor force is one of the most conspicuous problems challenging the Chinese government. Four unequal aspects of the pension system concerning the financing resources and pension levels are examined in this paper: (1) unequal institutional arrangements among different sectors, (2) unbalanced governmental expenditure in pension provision, (3) an increasing gap in pension levels between urban and rural areas, and (4) uncovered groups such as the unemployed and self-employed. Historical, economic, and political reasons all contribute to this unequal institution under transition from socialism to a market-oriented economy. At present, it is urgent for the central government to take measures to integrate the various pension arrangements into the unified Old Age Insurance and to reduce the gaps among different regions. PMID:23570510

Wu, Ling

2013-01-01

359

Modélisation des connaissances et des systèmes pour la conception d'une aide à la conduite  

OpenAIRE

SILOE est un réacteur nucléaire de recherche du Commissariat à l'Énergie Atomique (CEA). Le Service du Réacteur SILOE (DRE/SRS) a initié la réalisation du système d'aide à la conduite ALEXIS, en vue d'améliorer la disponibilité de l'installation. ALEXIS est un système pilote prenant en compte les parties essentielles de l'installation. Il est actuellement opérationnel en salle de conduite. Le développement d'une aide à l'opérateur reste difficile car il est nécessaire de maî...

Monge, F.; Royer, Jean-claude; Ermine, Jean-louis; Baradel, C.

1997-01-01

360

Transient heat transfer from a cable in conduit configuration in subcooled he I and he II  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experimental investigations of liquid helium heat transfer from a model of a cable in conduit conductor are reported. The model consists of a 19 element stainless steel tubing bundle contained within a rectangular cross section conduit. The experiment involves resistively heating the bundle with a constant amplitude heat pulse, while recording the time variation of the temperature within the conductors and helium. Three test sections were studied each having a different spacing between the elements, delta. Results reported here are for bath temperatures 4.2, 2.5 and 1.8 K with applied pressure p = 100 kPa (1 atm)

361

Retrograde exchange of heavily encrusted ureteric stents via the ileal conduit: a technical report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We describe two cases of retrograde ureteric stent exchange of heavily encrusted ureteric stents (JJ) via tortuous ileal conduits. The blocked ureteric stents were snared from inside the conduit so they could be accessed and a wire inserted. The lumens of the stents were unblocked with a wire but the stents could not be withdrawn due to heavy encrustation of the ureteric stent in the renal pelvis. A stiff wire was inserted to provide support and a 9 French peel away sheath was used to remove the encrustations allowing the stents to be withdrawn and exchanged. This is a safe and successful technique allowing ureteric stents to be removed when heavily encrusted.

362

Scientific Results of Conduit Drilling in the Unzen Scientific Drilling Project (USDP)  

OpenAIRE

Directional drilling at Unzen Volcano in Japan during mid of 2004 penetrated the magma conduit and successfully recovered samples of the lava dike that is believed to have fed the 1991–1995 eruption. The dike was sampled about 1.3 km below the volcano’s summit vent and is intruded into a broader conduit zone that is 0.5 km wide. This zone consists of multiple older lava dikes and pyroclastic veins and has cooled to less than 200 ?C. The lava dike sample was unexpe...

Kozo Uto; Setsuya Nakada

2005-01-01

363

Other ways of financing your company.  

Science.gov (United States)

The public markets aren't what they used to be and venture capitalists are seeking investments with shorter timelines. But the good news is several new sources of financing are becoming available. PMID:18273945

Aldag, Jörn; Kessel, Mark; Ibrahim, Adrian; Hill, Ray; McCubbin, Paul

2008-02-01

364

Nuclear power plants and project finance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main characteristics of project financing are mentioned as well as different types of projects to which the techniques of financing have been applied. The issues encountered in financing medium size nuclear power plants in developing countries which distinguishes it from traditional project financing are listed and commented. As it seems difficult for commercial banks to take the risks involved in such nuclear projects the paper describes an alternative solution based on the idea that the commercial obligation be substituted by a financial obligation. An example of this is to give a concession to a private company to purchase and operate the power station in question for a given period of time and sign with this company a long term electricity purchase agreement over the same period. The merits of this set up are mentioned

365

7 CFR 1738.19 - Facilities financed.  

Science.gov (United States)

...loans to finance the construction, improvement, and acquisition of facilities...the applicant during its economic life and any associated inside wiring...designed and constructed to RUS' satisfaction. See RUS' Bulletins...

2010-01-01

366

Financing electric power in developing countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article deals with the outlook for electricity demand, the investment patterns, the efficiency improvements, the financing power expansion in developing countries, the foreign exchange requirements, the local currency requirements and the World Bank's electric power lending

367

Judging the Sustainability of Czech Public Finances  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The position of Czech public finances has been pronounced unsustainable by economists, while politicians claim more or less the opposite. Correct judgment is complicated by the purposeful use of arguments by the two groups in disagreement, by use of different methodology to collect the data and above all, by the fact that there is no precise benchmark for measuring the sustainability. My work attempts to surpass those complications. It attempts to shed more light on Czech public finances sustainability and to present further arguments, presenting Czech public finances in widest international context possible and using comparable, same-methodology based data, as well as different approaches and angles public sector can be looked upon. Despite my believe that careful reader should be allowed to arrive to his own conclusion, the analysis suggests that concerns of economists about the future development of Czech public finances are legitimate.

Jan Zápal

2007-03-01

368

MOX fuel arrangement for nuclear core  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to use up a stockpile of weapons-grade plutonium, the plutonium is converted into a mixed oxide (MOX) fuel form wherein it can be disposed in a plurality of different fuel assembly types. Depending on the equilibrium cycle that is required, a predetermined number of one or more of the fuel assembly types are selected and arranged in the core of the reactor in accordance with a selected loading schedule. Each of the fuel assemblies is designed to produce different combustion characteristics whereby the appropriate selection and disposition in the core enables the resulting equilibrium cycle to closely resemble that which is produced using urania fuel. The arrangement of the MOX rods and burnable absorber rods within each of the fuel assemblies, in combination with a selective control of the amount of plutonium which is contained in each of the MOX rods, is used to tailor the combustion characteristics of the assembly.

Kantrowitz, Mark L. (Portland, CT); Rosenstein, Richard G. (Windsor, CT)

2001-07-17

369

Child Care Arrangements Of Working Mothers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Children arrangements for infants and preschool children and the reasons for working outside the home were studied in 300 mothers of whom 100 were teachers (Group. I 100 clerks (groups II and 100 tabourers (Group III. The interview method was used. The most common (80% reason for working was financial needs, the next most frequent was utilization of specialized skills. In 58.7% of the cases, substitute childcare was provided by one of the family members, usually the grandmother. Sixty six percent of caretakers were illiterate. Most (93% of the working mothers had also to perform certain household chores. Bottle-feeding was stated at birth by 80% of these mothers: Childcare arrangements for children of working mothers must be considered in the future.

Singh H

1993-01-01

370

Study on Supplier-Led Supply Chain Finance  

OpenAIRE

This study analyzes a class of supply chain financing system that includes the small and mediumsized manufacturer, the retailer and the raw material supplier which is the core enterprise. Both the manufacturer and the retailer face cash-constraint and cannot produce/order their optimal quantity. Our study is mainly to discuss two financing methods: direct financing and supply chain finance financing, to analyze the two methods of supply chain profit distribution status and then to derive the ...

Yang Wang; Yunlu Ma; Yuhe Zhan

2012-01-01

371

Generalized Lantern Relations and Planar Line Arrangements  

CERN Document Server

In this paper we show that to each planar line arrangement defined over the real numbers, for which no two lines are parallel, one can write down a corresponding relation on Dehn twists that can be read off from the combinatorics and relative locations of intersections. This leads to an alternate proof of Wajnryb's generalized lantern relations, and of Endo, Mark and Horn-Morris' daisy relations.

Hironaka, Eriko

2011-01-01

372

Valve Technology Arrangement of Cryopump: A Review  

OpenAIRE

A cryopump or a "cryogenic pump" is a vacuum pump that pumps the trap gases and vapours by condensing them on a cold surface. Helium gas which is very light can only be pumped by Cryopump. Cryopump cannot be used when working for continuous operation as it pumps the effluent till the saturation state is achieved. Then the absorbed gases are to be collected through other mechanical pump through regeneration process. Hence, valve technology arrangement is incorporated with the c...

Rajput, Sanjiv Y.

2014-01-01

373

The living arrangements of elderly Europeans  

OpenAIRE

This paper uses data from the European Household Panel survey to chart the living arrangements of older people in 13 countries across the European Union, focusing particularly on whether older people live with a spouse, with their children, or with other adults. There are wide variations between men and women, mainly due to the fact that women are widowed at a much earlier age than men; there are large variations with age; and there are also large differences between countries. Men and women ...

Iacovou, Maria

2000-01-01

374

Optimal clearing arrangements for financial trades  

OpenAIRE

Clearinghouses support financial trades by keeping records of transactions and by providing liquidity through short-term credit that is periodically cleared by participants. We study efficient clearing arrangements for formal exchanges, where traders must clear with a clearinghouse, and for over-the-counter (OTC) markets, where trades can be cleared bilaterally. When clearing is costly, we show that it can be efficient to subsidize the clearing process for OTC transactions by charging a highe...

Koeppl, Thorsten; Monnet, Cyril; Temzelides, Ted

2009-01-01

375

Child Care Arrangements Of Working Mothers  

OpenAIRE

Children arrangements for infants and preschool children and the reasons for working outside the home were studied in 300 mothers of whom 100 were teachers (Group. I) 100 clerks (groups II) and 100 tabourers (Group III). The interview method was used. The most common (80%) reason for working was financial needs, the next most frequent was utilization of specialized skills. In 58.7% of the cases, substitute childcare was provided by one of the family members, usually the grandmot...

Singh H; Raizada N; Soni R K; Gill P.J.S

1993-01-01

376

The planar minimum linear arrangement problem is different from the minimum linear arrangement problem  

OpenAIRE

In various research papers, such as [2], one will find the claim that the minLA is optimally solvable on outerplanar graphs, with a reference to [1]. However, the problem solved in that publication, which we refer to as the planar minimum linear arrangement problem (planar minLA), is different from the minimum linear arrangement problem (minLA), as we show in this article.

Setzer, Alexander

2014-01-01

377

FISCAL SUSTAINABILITY CRITERIA OF THE PUBLIC FINANCE  

OpenAIRE

During the global economic crisis, there was a significant deterioration in the stability of public finances of Ukraine under the influence of both internal and external factors. The experience has shown that public finances of Ukraine are unbalanced and offset with the significant deficit during recent years. Resource base of public sector of financial corporations and non-financial corporations is still insufficient. This situation reflects the low level of fiscal sustainability that limits...

Tsytsyk, R.

2013-01-01

378

Finance in the Theory of Business Cycles  

OpenAIRE

Abstract The question of aggregate welfare over time makes business cycle studies important. Finance studies allocation of resources under uncertainty. Thus both these fields of study dwell on intertemporal resource allocation under uncertainty. This paper attempts to shed light on how finance can be integrated into business cycle theory to provide richer and deeper insights than the standard real business cycle theory. JEL Classification: E32, E44, G

Indrajit, Mallick

2008-01-01

379

Public Policy, Venture Capital and Entrepreneurial Finance  

OpenAIRE

Venture capital has become an important source of financing young entrepreneurial firms. Venture capital backed firms are often perceived as more innovative and as creating more value than others. Perhaps for this reason, policy makers are keen to create a good institutional framework to facilitate the development of an active venture capital industry. We explore the role of tax policy in determining the incentives of individuals to start up new firms and of venture capitalists to finance and...

Christian Keuschnigg

2010-01-01

380

Can immigrant remittances support development finance?  

OpenAIRE

Immigrant remittances are a significant source of income and finance for developing economies, representing about three times’ official development assistance and over half of foreign direct investment annually received. Major motivations to send remittances are for improving food, health, and education spending of families at home as well as for investing in entrepreneurial ventures. Economic policies to channel remittances into development finance should translate these motivations ...

Julca Alex

2013-01-01

381

Analysis of Stochastic Algorithms Applied to Finance  

OpenAIRE

This thesis is about stochastic approximation analysis and application in Finance. In the first part, a convergence result for stochastic approximation where the innovations satisfy averaging assumptions with some rate is established. It is applied to different types of innovations and illustrated on examples mainly motivated by Finance. A result on "universal" rate of convergence is then presented when the innovations are uniformly distributed and compared to those obtained in the i.i.d. fra...

Laruelle, Sophie

2011-01-01

382

Economic Policy after Global Finance Crisis  

OpenAIRE

The objective of this study is to discuss the economic policy problems after 2008 global finance crisis in OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development) countries and provide suggestions for solutions. Even when the global finance crisis and effects this crisis has bring out are put aside, many countries have come across conjuncture problems that affect financial markets and get formed based on these markets. This problem seems to keep economists busy for long. Despite it has ...

Ece Demiray Erol

2013-01-01

383

Diaspora transferts finance et développement économique  

OpenAIRE

Remittances by migrants to their countries of origin constitute the largest source of external finance for developing countries after foreign direct investment . To shed light on this important fact, in this paper we consider a model of micro-foundations of the links between remittances finance and endogenous growth. Our theoretical set up helps to show how local financial system development and the quality of institutions influence a country’s capacity to take advantage of remit...

Jellal, Mohamed

2014-01-01

384

'Show me the money': energy projects financing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the business and business model of Corpfinance International (CFI). CFI consists of three businesses: structured financing, private equity/corporate finance advisory and securitization. Furthermore, CFI is the lender of record acting on behalf of and based on strong relationship with various Life Insurance Companies, Pension Funds and International Banks. CFI has in-house expertise in support of its lending advisory and investing activities

385

Principles and Products of Islamic Finance  

OpenAIRE

The principles of Islamic finance are laid down in the sharia, Islamic law. Islamic finance, comprising financial transactions in banks and non-bank financial institutions formal and non-formal financial institutions, is based on the concept of a social order of brotherhood and solidarity. The participants in banking transactions are considered business partners who jointly bear the risks and profits. Islamic financial instruments and products are equity-oriented and based on various forms of...

Seibel, Hans Dieter; Imady, Omar

2006-01-01

386

The homology of real subspace arrangements  

CERN Document Server

Associated to any subspace arrangement is a "De Concini-Procesi model", a certain smooth compactification of its complement, which in the case of the braid arrangement produces the Deligne-Mumford compactification of the moduli space of genus 0 curves with marked points. In the present work, we calculate the integral homology of real De Concini-Procesi models, extending earlier work of Etingof, Henriques, Kamnitzer and the author on the (2-adic) integral cohomology of the real locus of the moduli space. To be precise, we show that the integral homology of a real De Concini-Procesi model is isomorphic modulo its 2-torsion with a sum of cohomology groups of subposets of the intersection lattice of the arrangement. As part of the proof, we construct a large family of natural maps between De Concini-Procesi models (generalizing the operad structure of moduli space), and determine the induced action on poset cohomology. In particular, this determines the ring structure of cohomology (modulo 2-torsion).

Rains, E M

2006-01-01

387

Predictors and outcomes of right ventricular outflow tract conduit rupture during percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation: a multicentre study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aims: Conduit rupture is a serious complication encountered during percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation (PPVI). We sought to evaluate the incidence and predictors of conduit rupture during right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) transcatheter treatment. Methods and results: All consecutive patients who underwent transcatheter RVOT treatment from May 2008 to December 2011 were prospectively studied. Baseline demographics along with incidence, predictors and outcomes of conduit rupture with various transcatheter therapies were reviewed. Conduit rupture occurred in nine out of 99 patients (9.09%). All conduit ruptures occurred during balloon dilatation. Significant risk factors included heavy calcification (pballoons, balloon diameter, and overexpansion of conduit statistically failed to show any association. All patients were managed in the cardiac catheterisation laboratory. There were no delayed complications during a mean follow-up period of 2.3±0.95 years. Conclusions: Conduit rupture is a serious complication. Heavy calcification and homograft conduit were significant predictors. Immediate diagnosis with the use of targeted interventional therapies should be attempted before proceeding with PPVI. PMID:25244126

Boudjemline, Younes; Malekzadeh-Milani, Sophie; Patel, Mehul; Thambo, Jean-Benoit; Bonnet, Damien; Iserin, Laurence; Fraisse, Alain

2014-09-22

388

Financing is next step in Brazil-Bolivia natural gas project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reviews a new four billion dollar arrangement which would start a major gas network between Brazil and Bolivia. The proposed 2,200 mile long, 28 and 14 inch pipeline network would connect Bolivian reserves with the undeserved markets of southern Brazil. The paper briefly reviews the economic involvement and impacts on both countries and the current market for natural gas in Brazil. Because most of Brazil's energy is currently from hydroelectric power or petroleum, the new distribution network will have dramatic effects on industries which need this high-grade fuel source for operation. Financing of this project will be by Petrobras and 49 percent through stock options

389

Financing Solar Thermal Power Plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The commercialization of concentrating solar power technology took a major step forward in the mid 1980s and early 1990s with the development of the SEGS plants in California. Over the years they have proven that parabolic trough power technologies are the most cost-effective approach for commercial scale solar power generation in the sunbelt countries of the world. However, the question must be asked why no additional solar power plants have been build following the bankruptcy of the developer of the SEGS projects, LUZ International Limited. Although many believe the SEGS projects were a success as a result of parabolic trough technology they employ, in truth, the SEGS projects were developed simply because they represented an attractive opportunity for investors. Simply stated, no additional projects have been developed because no one has been able to put together a similarly attractive financial package to potential investors. More than $1.2 billion in private capital was raised in debt and equity financing for the nine SEGS plants. Investors and bankers who make these investments are the real clients for solar power technologies. They are not interested in annual solar to electric efficiencies, but in risk, return on investments, and coverage ratios. This paper will take a look at solar power projects from the financier's perspective. The challenge in moving forward is to attract private investors, commercial lenders, and international development agencies and to find innovative solutions to the difficult issues that investment in the global power market poses for solar power technologies

390

Gastric conduit-preserving, radical pancreaticoduodenectomy with microvascular reconstruction for pancreatic head cancer after esophagectomy: report of a case.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pancreaticoduodenectomy is a radical treatment for pancreatic head cancer. However, it is sometimes difficult to perform pancreaticoduodenectomy, particularly in patients who have previously undergone esophagectomy with gastric conduit reconstruction. We herein describe a surgical technique for radical pancreaticoduodenectomy with microvascular reconstruction that preserves the gastric conduit. A 72-year-old male with a previous history of esophagectomy and gastric conduit reconstruction for esophageal cancer was referred to our hospital for surgical treatment of advanced pancreatic head cancer. After considering both the cancer curability and preservation of the gastric conduit, we performed a standard pancreaticoduodenectomy, and added a microvascular anastomosis of the gastroduodenal artery to the right gastroepiploic artery. In addition, we also performed reconstruction of the right gastroepiploic vein. This radical pancreaticoduodenectomy with microvascular reconstruction was safely and successfully performed, and it preserved the gastric conduit. The 6-month follow-up showed recurrence-free survival and a good quality of life. PMID:24264060

Inoue, Akira; Akita, Hirofumi; Eguchi, Hidetoshi; Hama, Naoki; Wada, Hiroshi; Kawamoto, Koichi; Kobayashi, Shogo; Mori, Masaki; Doki, Yuichiro; Nagano, Hiroaki

2014-04-01

391

Ileal-conduit following cystectomy, single-institution revision of indications and outcome.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Ileal conduit is still the best urinary diversion method in many patients who have bladder cancer with associated chronic medical disease or certain surgical factors that render other urinary diversion methods more difficult, carry more postoperative morbidity and mortality, or both.

Hassan A. Abol-Enein

2008-01-01

392

76 FR 53678 - Calleguas Municipal Water District Notice of Surrender of Exemption (Conduit)  

Science.gov (United States)

...stating that the proposed project is no longer economically practicable.\\3\\ The project would have been located...conduit exemption for Project No. 11651 on June 7, 1999. Calleguas Municipal Water District, 87 FERC...Commission's regulations states that if no...

2011-08-29

393

Coxiella burnetii infection of a bovine jugular vein conduit in a child.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report a case of an 11-year-old girl with Coxiella burnetii infection of a bovine jugular vein conduit which is an extremely rare manifestation of Q fever. The role of surgery in the management of C. burnetii endovascular infection and the use of serology are discussed. PMID:22349674

Tasher, Diana; Stein, Michal; Raucher-Sternfeld, Alona; Somekh, Eli

2012-06-01

394

Nanofibrous nerve conduits for repair of 30-mm-long sciatic nerve defects  

Science.gov (United States)

It has been confirmed that nanofibrous poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) nerve conduit can promote peripheral nerve regeneration in rats. However, its efficiency in repair of over 30-mm-long sciatic nerve defects needs to be assessed. In this study, we used a nanofibrous poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) nerve conduit to bridge a 30-mm-long gap in the rat sciatic nerve. At 4 months after nerve conduit implantation, regenerated nerves were cally observed and histologically assessed. In the nanofibrous graft, the rat sciatic nerve trunk had been reconstructed by restoration of nerve continuity and formation of myelinated nerve fiber. There were Schwann cells and glial cells in the regenerated nerves. Masson's trichrome staining showed that there were no pathological changes in the size and structure of gastrocnemius muscle cells on the operated side of rats. These findings suggest that nanofibrous poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) nerve conduit is suitable for repair of long-segment sciatic nerve defects. PMID:25206536

Biazar, Esmaeil; Keshel, Saeed Heidari; Pouya, Majid; Rad, Hadi; Nava, Melody Omrani; Azarbakhsh, Mohammad; Hooshmand, Shirin

2013-01-01

395

Effect of strand diameter on the stability of the cable-in-conduit conductor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the proto-toroidal program in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) whose purpose was the development of 30 kA-12 T scale forced-cooled superconductors for the toroidal coils of the fusion machines, many kinds of research and development work were planned and have been performed from the standpoint of engineering. As one of them, this experimental work reported here was designed and carried out to investigate the stability performance of the cable-in-conduit type conductor placing the focus on its dependency on the strand diameter. Effect of strand diameter on the stability of the cable-in-conduit type superconductor was investigated experimentally. The cable-in-conduit type conductor is widely adopted in the design of large superconducting magnets and its properties have been studied. Present experiment was planned and performed to clarify the relation between the stability and the strand diameter or cooling perimeter. As a result of a series of present experiment, it was confirmed that the recovery capacity of the cable-in-conduit type superconductor from the normal transition was in proportion to the cooling perimeter of the cable

396

Modifications to the Conduit Flow Process Mode 2 for MODFLOW-2005  

Science.gov (United States)

As a result of rock dissolution processes, karst aquifers exhibit highly conductive features such as caves and conduits. Within these structures, groundwater flow can become turbulent and therefore be described by nonlinear gradient functions. Some numerical groundwater flow models explicitly account for pipe hydraulics by coupling the continuum model with a pipe network that represents the conduit system. In contrast, the Conduit Flow Process Mode 2 (CFPM2) for MODFLOW-2005 approximates turbulent flow by reducing the hydraulic conductivity within the existing linear head gradient of the MODFLOW continuum model. This approach reduces the practical as well as numerical efforts for simulating turbulence. The original formulation was for large pore aquifers where the onset of turbulence is at low Reynolds numbers (1 to 100) and not for conduits or pipes. In addition, the existing code requires multiple time steps for convergence due to iterative adjustment of the hydraulic conductivity. Modifications to the existing CFPM2 were made by implementing a generalized power function with a user-defined exponent. This allows for matching turbulence in porous media or pipes and eliminates the time steps required for iterative adjustment of hydraulic conductivity. The modified CFPM2 successfully replicated simple benchmark test problems. ?? 2011 The Author(s). Ground Water ?? 2011, National Ground Water Association.

Reimann, T.; Birk, S.; Rehrl, C.; Shoemaker, W.B.

2012-01-01

397

Percutaneous transthoracic computed tomography-guided AICD insertion in a patient with extracardiac Fontan conduit.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Percutaneous pulmonary venous atrial puncture was performed under computed tomography guidance to successfully place an automated implantable cardiac defibrillator into a 26-year-old patient with extracardiac Fontan conduit who had presented with two out-of-hospital cardiac arrests. The procedure avoided the need for lead placement at thoracotomy.

Murphy, Darra T

2011-02-01

398

A process-based reactive hybrid transport model for coupled discrete conduit continuum systems  

Science.gov (United States)

SummaryA process-based reactive hybrid transport model, RUMT3D, was developed to quantify the fate of dissolved contaminants and their interaction with solid phases in domains where discrete conduit networks are embedded in a permeable matrix. Such hybrid systems can be found, for example, in flooded underground mines, discrete karstic and fractured systems as well as in aquifers with intersecting boreholes. RUMT3D specifically takes into account the two distinctly different transport regimes within such hybrid systems: (i) rapid transport within the network of the highly conductive conduits, shafts, drifts, ventilation raises or roadways and (ii) the low velocity regime within the considerably less permeable matrix. RUMT3D is an extension of the existing reactive transport model PHT3D. Compared to the original model, which combines the multi-species transport simulator MT3DMS with the geochemical model PHREEQC-2, RUMT3D additionally incorporates a conduit transport model. A benchmark problem simulating the principal processes occurring at contaminated sites affected by acid mine drainage (AMD) was used to evaluate the model. The results suggest that for the simulation of contaminant transport in a hybrid system the consideration of rapid transport pathways is necessary. Conduits can strongly affect groundwater hydraulics and therefore become responsible for rapid hydrochemical changes.

Spiessl, Sabine M.; Prommer, Henning; Licha, Tobias; Sauter, Martin; Zheng, Chunmiao

2007-12-01

399

Phase separation phenomena in branching conduits. Topical report Dec 78-Dec 81  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The analysis of Light Water Reactor (LWR) Loss-of-Coolant Accidents (LOCA's) requires that one be able to accurately calculate the two-phase flow splits in complex, branching conduits. The purpose of this study is to provide a general method for calculating the phase separation in a branching conduit. The degree of phase separation of a two-phase (air/water) mixture flowing through a plexiglas tee test section was measured. In addition, flow visualization, using high speed photography, was performed. The experimental design considerations, error analysis and the dependence of the observed phase separation on global parameters, such as inlet quality, mass flux and separation angle, are discussed. The pressure gradients were measured along the various conduits and the differential pressure was obtained at the tee junction by extrapolation. It was found that the degree of phase separation was quite pronounced, with the vapor phase preferentially separating into the branch. Using these data, a physically-based empirical model was developed with which to calculate the phasic distribution of a subsonic two-phase mixture in the downstream branches of a branching conduit

400

Analogue modelisation of flow through a double porosity media with discrete conduits  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study we describe a three dimensional meter scale experimental system used to investigate flow through a double porosity media that includes discrete flow conduits. This hybrid discrete-continuum approach is used to simulate water flow in karstic carbonate aquifers. A rectangular tank is filled with stacked ceramic foam blocks laterally separated with a constant aperture. The tank outlet is connected to a drilled conduit network that follows the overlying aperture scheme at the lower base of the system. Above the system, an artificial rain is set with a sprinkler. Working with an analogue model seems interesting as materials, initial and boundary conditions are fully known. Ceramic foam provides a uniform matrix material allowing different porosities and hydraulic conductivities. The modulability of the aperture pattern and size let different experiment setting possibilities. A variation in the drilled number of holes in the conduit network will change its draining capacity. And, finally the artificial rain rate and location are well characterized. The system is adequately instrumented in order to 1) observe hydraulic head distributions in both matrix and fracture medium and 2) record spring flow fluctuations. Moreover, any experience is very reproducible. This analogue modeling approach allows an observation of both fracture and matrix flow contribution to a spring with a drained double porosity media with discrete conduits. Comparison of in situ measured data with a finite element numerical model and an analytical solution are shown.

Hakoun, V.; Pistre, S.; Karst; heterogeneous media-Hydrogeology, hydraulics; transfers

2011-12-01

401

Modifications to the Conduit Flow Process Mode 2 for MODFLOW-2005.  

Science.gov (United States)

As a result of rock dissolution processes, karst aquifers exhibit highly conductive features such as caves and conduits. Within these structures, groundwater flow can become turbulent and therefore be described by nonlinear gradient functions. Some numerical groundwater flow models explicitly account for pipe hydraulics by coupling the continuum model with a pipe network that represents the conduit system. In contrast, the Conduit Flow Process Mode 2 (CFPM2) for MODFLOW-2005 approximates turbulent flow by reducing the hydraulic conductivity within the existing linear head gradient of the MODFLOW continuum model. This approach reduces the practical as well as numerical efforts for simulating turbulence. The original formulation was for large pore aquifers where the onset of turbulence is at low Reynolds numbers (1 to 100) and not for conduits or pipes. In addition, the existing code requires multiple time steps for convergence due to iterative adjustment of the hydraulic conductivity. Modifications to the existing CFPM2 were made by implementing a generalized power function with a user-defined exponent. This allows for matching turbulence in porous media or pipes and eliminates the time steps required for iterative adjustment of hydraulic conductivity. The modified CFPM2 successfully replicated simple benchmark test problems. PMID:21371024

Reimann, Thomas; Birk, Steffen; Rehrl, Christoph; Shoemaker, W Barclay

2012-01-01

402

Comparison of divided sciatic nerve growth within dermis, venous and nerve graft conduit in rat  

Science.gov (United States)

BACKGROUND: Considering the common origin of skin and peripheral nervous system, a tube of dermal layer of skin hypothetically can be an ideal conduit for nerve reconstruction. An experimental study performed to evaluate the nerve regeneration of efficacy into a dermal tube. METHODS: Sixty male Wistar rats were used. A 10 mm gap was produced in right sciatic nerves. In group A the autogenous nerve grafts were used to bridge the defects. In group B vein conduit were use to reconstruct the gaps. In group C dermal tube were used to bridge the defects. Morphologic studies were carried out after 3 month. RESULTS: The density of nerve fibers was significantly higher in autogenous nerve graft group. The efficacy of nerve growth into the dermal tube group was significantly poor in comparison to other groups. CONCLUSIONS: In the present study, dermis was used as the nerve conduit for the first time. This study indicates that the dermal tube is not a suitable conduit for nerve regeneration till further studies to resolve the problems before clinical application. PMID:21526083

Fatemi, Mohammad Javad; Foroutan, Kamal Seyed; Ashtiani, Abass Kazemi; Mansoori, Maryam Jafari; Vaghardoost, Reza; Pedram, Sepehr; Hosseinpolli, Aidin; Rajabi, Fatemeh; Mousavi, Seyed Jaber

2010-01-01

403

Impact of conduit geometry and bed porosity on flow and dispersion in noncylindrical sphere packings.  

Science.gov (United States)

The three-dimensional velocity field and corresponding hydrodynamic dispersion in pressure-driven flow through fixed beds of solid (impermeable), uniformly sized, spherical particles are studied by quantitative numerical analysis for conduits with different cross-sectional geometries. Packings with average interparticle porosities (bed porosities) of 0.40 lattice-Boltzmann (LB) method, and a random-walk particle-tracking method was employed to model advective-diffusive transport of an inert tracer in the LB velocity field. We present the morphologies and corresponding flow patterns for these packings and demonstrate that the porosity distribution and velocity profiles of noncylindrical packings deviate significantly from those of conventional cylindrical packings. This deviation becomes more pronounced at higher bed porosities. Extended regions of high local porosity in the corners of noncylindrical conduits give rise to the formation of fluid channels of advanced flow velocity. The differences in the flow velocity distributions of cylindrical and noncylindrical packings are analyzed, and their impact on the axial hydrodynamic dispersion coefficient is shown. The presented data support the conclusion that LC performance depends critically on the conduit geometry and bed porosity. Our results have particular relevance for microchip-LC, where noncylindrical conduit geometries are prevalent. PMID:17985846

Khirevich, Siarhei; Höltzel, Alexandra; Hlushkou, Dzmitry; Tallarek, Ulrich

2007-12-15

404

Percutaneous Transthoracic Computed Tomography-Guided AICD Insertion in a Patient with Extracardiac Fontan Conduit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Percutaneous pulmonary venous atrial puncture was performed under computed tomography guidance to successfully place an automated implantable cardiac defibrillator into a 26-year-old patient with extracardiac Fontan conduit who had presented with two out-of-hospital cardiac arrests. The procedure avoided the need for lead placement at thoracotomy.

405

Application de la systémique à la conception d'un modèle de conduite en mode dégradé d'une centrale nucléaire  

OpenAIRE

Cette publication présente un modèle de conduite d'une centrale nucléaire en mode dégradé fondé sur l'élaboration conjointe de trois modèles. Le premier décrit l'ensemble des phénomènes physiques pertinents pour le pilotage d'une centrale nucléaire, le second l'ensemble des activités de conduite d'un opérateur, le troisième une procédure de conduite en mode dégradé d'une centrale nucléaire. La finalité de ce modèle est d'expliquer à un opérateur cette conduite.

Millerat, Pierre; Chaillot, Mathias; Ermine, Jean-louis

1996-01-01

406

Minimum Energy Requirements in Complex Distillation Arrangements  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Distillation is the most widely used industrial separation technology and distillation units are responsible for a significant part of the total heat consumption in the world's process industry. In this work we focus on directly (fully thermally) coupled column arrangements for separation of multicomponent mixtures. These systems are also denoted Petlyuk arrangements, where a particular implementation is the dividing wall column. Energy savings in the range of 20-40% have been reported with ternary feed mixtures. In addition to energy savings, such integrated units have also a potential for reduced capital cost, making them extra attractive. However, the industrial use has been limited, and difficulties in design and control have been reported as the main reasons. Minimum energy results have only been available for ternary feed mixtures and sharp product splits. This motivates further research in this area, and this thesis will hopefully give some contributions to better understanding of complex column systems. In the first part we derive the general analytic solution for minimum energy consumption in directly coupled columns for a multicomponent feed and any number of products. To our knowledge, this is a new contribution in the field. The basic assumptions are constant relative volatility, constant pressure and constant molar flows and the derivation is based on Underwood's classical methods. An important conclusion is that the minimum energy consumption in a complex directly integrated multi-product arrangement is the same as for the most difficult split between any pair of the specified products when we consider the performance of a conventional two-product column. We also present the Vmin-diagram, which is a simple graphical tool for visualisation of minimum energy related to feed distribution. The Vmin-diagram provides a simple mean to assess the detailed flow requirements for all parts of a complex directly coupled arrangement. The main purpose in the first part of the thesis has been to present a complete theory of minimum energy in directly coupled columns, not a design procedure for engineering purposes. Thus, our focus has been on the basic theory and on verification and analysis of the new results. However, based on these results, it is straightforward to develop design procedures including rigorous computations for real feed mixtures without the idealized assumptions used to deduce the analytic results. In part 2 we focus on optimization of operation, and in particular the concept of self-optimizing control. We consider a process where we have more degrees of freedom than are consumed by the product specifications. The remaining unconstrained degrees of freedom are used to optimize the operation, given by some scalar cost criterion. In addition there will in practice always be unknown disturbances, model uncertainty and uncertainty in measurements and implementation of manipulated inputs, which makes it impossible to precalculate and implement the optimal control inputs accurately. The main idea is to achieve self-optimizing control by turning the optimization problem into a constant setpoint problem. The issue is then to find (if possible) a set of variables, which when kept at their setpoints, indirectly ensures optimal operation. We have used the ternary Petlyuk arrangement to illustrate the concept. It is a quite challenging case where the potential energy savings may easily be lost if we do not manage to keep the manipulated inputs at their optimal values, and the optimum is strongly affected by changes in feed composition and column performance. This also applies to the best control structure selection, and we believe that the reported difficulties in control are really a control structure problem (the task of selecting the best variables to control and the best variables to manipulate). In this analysis we present in detail the properties of the Petlyuk arrangement, and show how important characteristics depend on the feed properties and product purity. We have used finite stage-by-stage mod

Halvorsen, Ivar J.

2001-07-01

407

Tile drainage as karst: Conduit flow and diffuse flow in a tile-drained watershed  

Science.gov (United States)

The similarity of tiled-drained watersheds to karst drainage basins can be used to improve understanding of watershed-scale nutrient losses from subsurface tile drainage networks. In this study, short-term variations in discharge and chemistry were examined from a tile outlet collecting subsurface tile flow from a 963 ha agricultural watershed. Study objectives were to apply analytical techniques from karst springs to tile discharge to evaluate water sources and estimate the loads of agricultural pollutants discharged from the tile with conduit, intermediate and diffuse flow regimes. A two-member mixing model using nitrate, chloride and specific conductance was used to distinguish rainwater versus groundwater inputs. Results indicated that groundwater comprised 75% of the discharge for a three-day storm period and rainwater was primarily concentrated during the hydrograph peak. A contrasting pattern of solute concentrations and export loads was observed in tile flow. During base flow periods, tile flow consisted of diffuse flow from groundwater sources and contained elevated levels of nitrate, chloride and specific conductance. During storm events, suspended solids and pollutants adhered to soil surfaces (phosphorus, ammonium and organic nitrogen) were concentrated and discharged during the rapid, conduit flow portion of the hydrograph. During a three-day period, conduit flow occurred for 5.6% of the time but accounted for 16.5% of the total flow. Nitrate and chloride were delivered primarily with diffuse flow (more than 70%), whereas 80-94% of total suspended sediment, phosphorus and ammonium were exported with conduit and intermediate flow regimes. Understanding the water sources contributing to tile drainage and the manner by which pollutant discharge occurs from these systems (conduit, intermediate or diffuse flow) may be useful for designing, implementing and evaluating non-point source reduction strategies in tile-drained landscapes. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Schilling, K.E.; Helmers, M.

2008-01-01

408

Welding of pyroclastic conduit infill: A mechanism for cyclical explosive eruptions  

Science.gov (United States)

eruptions are small- to moderate-sized, singular to cyclical events commonly having volcanic explosivity indices of 1-3. They produce pyroclastic flows, disperse tephra over considerable areas, and can occur as precursors to larger (e.g., Plinian) eruptions. The fallout deposits of the 2360 B.P. eruption of Mount Meager, BC, Canada, contain bread-crusted blocks of welded breccia as accessory lithics. They display a range of compaction/welding intensity and provide a remarkable opportunity to constrain the nature and timescales of mechanical processes operating within explosive volcanic conduits during repose periods between eruptive cycles. We address the deformation and porosity/permeability reduction within natural pyroclastic deposits infilling volcanic conduits. We measure the porosity, permeability, and ultrasonic wave velocities for a suite of samples and quantify the strain recorded by pumice clasts. We explore the correlations between the physical properties and deformation fabric. Based on these correlations, we reconstruct the deformation history within the conduit, model the permeability reduction timescales, and outline the implications for the repressurization of the volcanic conduit. Our results highlight a profound directionality in the measured physical properties of these samples related to the deformation-induced fabric. Gas permeability varies drastically with increasing strain and decreasing porosity along the compaction direction of the fabric but varies little along the elongation direction of the fabric. The deformation fabric records a combination of compaction within the conduit and postcompaction stretching associated with subsequent eruption. Model timescales of these processes are in good agreement with repose periods of cyclic vulcanian eruptions.

Kolzenburg, S.; Russell, J. K.

2014-07-01

409

Melt flow in a conduit and seismic signals time evolution: a laboratory study  

Science.gov (United States)

A variety of seismic signals have been related to fracturing and magma transport in the volcanic edifice. Previous studies have provided a first experimental support to this association by reproducing fluid generation and migration while recording seismic signals in a layered sample comprising an olivine-MORB-olivine sandwich. Here, we developed a new experimental set up, consisting in a melt reservoir beneath a volcanic conduit, which allowed a much better control on the physical mechanisms taking place and the related seismic signals. Experiments up to 1373K and 300MPa confining pressure were carried out using an internally-heated Paterson gas apparatus especially designed for the measurements of physical properties of rocks. Acoustic emissions were measured during heating of cold pressed synthetic aggregate of MORB powder till complete melting. High frequency events were recorded at 750-960K, corresponding to glass transitions in the MORB glass (Giordano and Dingwell, 2003). A long lasting low frequency event took place at 1200K, corresponding to melt migration in the conduit, followed by high frequency events, related to brittle intrusive mechanisms due to the magma intrusion in the brittle medium at the top of the conduit. Experiments were also carried out on higher (î2 order of magnitudes) viscosities aggregates of Fish canyon tuffs, and varying the length of the conduit (from 3 to 15mm). Results highlight the seismic features related to the intrusion of the silicic magma in the conduit. Repeated occurrence both of swarms of high frequency events and long lasting signals at 500-1000K took place, followed from episodes of steady long lasting events at 1000-1273K. A direct relationship between seismic waveforms + spectrograms and physical phenomena can be assessed, by scaling length and frequency. These evidences provide solid and well constrained new experimental insight into magma migration in the lithosphere and the mechanism of dyke emplacement in volcanic edifices

Vinciguerra, S.; Caricchi, L.; Burlini, L.

2007-12-01

410

Financing solar thermal power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The commercialization of concentrating solar power technology took a major step forward in the mid 1980s and early 1990s with the development of the SEGS plants in California. Over the years they have proven that parabolic trough power technologies are the most cost-effective approach for commercial scale solar power generation in the sunbelt countries of the world. However, the question must be asked why no additional solar power plants have been built following the bankruptcy of the developer of the SEGS projects, LUZ International Limited. Although many believe the SEGS projects were a success as a result of parabolic trough technology they employ, in truth, the SEGS projects were developed simply because they represented an attractive opportunity for investors. Simply states, no additional projects have been developed because no one has been able to put together a similarly attractive financial package to potential investors. More than $1.2 billion in private capital was raised in debt and equity financing for the nine SEGS plants. Investors and bankers who make these investments are the real clients for solar power technologies. They are not interested in annual solar to electric efficiencies, but in risk, return on investments, and coverage ratios. This paper will take a look at solar power projects form the financier's perspective. The challenge in moving forward is to attract private investors, commercial lenders, and international development agencies and to international development agencies and to find innovative solutions to the difficult issues that investment in the global power market poses for solar power technologies

411

The Development of the CONDUIT Advanced Control System Design and Evaluation Interface with a Case Study Application to an Advanced Fly by Wire Helicopter Design  

Science.gov (United States)

This report details the development and use of CONDUIT (Control Designer's Unified Interface). CONDUIT is a design tool created at Ames Research Center for the purpose of evaluating and optimizing aircraft control systems against handling qualities. Three detailed design problems addressing the RASCAL UH-60A Black Hawk are included in this report to show the application of CONDUIT to helicopter control system design.

Colbourne, Jason

1999-01-01

412

Ventricular torsional relation to ventricular fiber arrangement  

CERN Document Server

Left ventricular torsion from helically oriented myofibers is a key parameter of cardiac performance. Physicians observing heart motion on echocardiograms, during cardiac catheterization, or in the operating room, are impressed by the twisting or rotary motion of the left ventricle during systole. Conceptually, the heart has been treated as a pressure chamber. The rotary or torsional deformation has been poorly understood by basic scientists and has lacked clinical relevance. The aim of this paper attempts to discuss about this question: Is ventricular twisting related to ventricular fiber arrangement? That is dependent to an assumed model of the left ventricular structure.

Ranjbar, Saeed; Meybodi, Mahmood Emami

2014-01-01

413

29 CFR 780.126 - Contract arrangements for raising poultry.  

Science.gov (United States)

...false Contract arrangements for raising poultry. 780.126 Section 780.126 Labor...Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.126 Contract arrangements for raising poultry. Feed dealers and...

2010-07-01

414

45 CFR 400.72 - Arrangements for employability services.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 false Arrangements for employability services. 400.72 Section...RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Requirements for Employability Services and Employment § 400.72 Arrangements for employability services. Paragraphs...

2010-10-01

415

UK nuclear terrorism insurance arrangements: an overview  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The risk of terrorism in the UK is not new, but since the New York World Trade Centre attacks in 2001, the potential scale of any terrorist attack has required a considerable reassessment. With UK foreign policy closely aligned to that of the USA, the UK security services now consider it is simply a matter of when and no longer if the UK is attacked. For insurers of any type this fact would cause concern; for insurers involved in high profile and potentially catastrophic loss targets such as nuclear power plants, any attack could have a severe impact on solvency and shareholder's funds. This paper's objective is to describe the terrorism insurance arrangements put in place in the U.K. both before and after the September 2001 attacks. These arrangements have been designed both to safeguard insurers' solvency and to ensure that the nuclear industry and general public can continue to be reassured by the availability of insurance should an attack ever occur.(author)

416

[Development and evaluation of a prosthetic valved conduit dilated by percutaneous approach: experimental study in the lamb].  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was undertaken to develop a dilated valved conduit for reconstruction of the right ventricular outflow tract in the animal. The conduits were made by sewing a valved tube (Medtronic Inc) inside a vascular stent (Numed Inc). After preparation, they were inserted surgically in five lambs. The conduits were then dilated 6 weeks and 3 months after their implantation. Before sacrificing the animals at 3 months, a 22 mm valved stent was implanted percutaneously inside the surgical conduits. One animal died suddenly due to kinking of the conduit. Balloon dilatation was performed in the surviving animals. The first dilatation only had a modest impact on valvular function but it was much aggravated after the second dilatation. A valved stent was successfully inserted percutaneously. At sacrifice, all the conduits were completely engulfed in an intense fibrosis. In conclusion, a valved biological conduit for reconstruction of the right ventricular ejection tract has been developed and can be dilated sequentially to follow growth. The new product could have an important role to play in the management of congenital malformations involving the right ventricular outflow tract. PMID:16802727

Boudjemline, Y; Laborde, F; Pineau, E; Mollet, A; Abadir, S; Bonhoeffer, P; Bonnet, D; Sidi, D

2006-05-01

417

Nerve conduits based on immobilization of nerve growth factor onto modified chitosan by using genipin as a crosslinking agent.  

Science.gov (United States)

Incorporation of nerve growth factor (NGF) into a nerve conduit can improve peripheral nerve regeneration. Here, genipin, a natural and low toxic agent, was used to crosslink chitosan, a natural polysaccharide, and concurrently to immobilize NGF onto modified chitosan, followed by fabrication of chitosan (CS)-genipin (GP)-NGF nerve conduits. MTT test showed that the cell viability of Schwann cells cultured in the conduit extract was not significantly different from that in plain medium. The neurite outgrowth measurement and immunocytochemistry with anti-growth-associated protein-43 and anti-neurofilament indicated that NGF released from CS-GP-NGF nerve conduits retained the bioactivity of stimulating neuronal differentiation of PC12 cells. Fracture strength measurements and vitamin B12 release analysis confirmed that CS-GP-NGF nerve conduits possessed good mechanical properties and adequate permeability. We also investigated the in vitro release kinetics of NGF from CS-GP-NGF nerve conduits by ELISA. The continuous release profile of NGF, within a 60-day time span, consisted of an initial burst that was controlled by a concentration gradient-driven diffusion, followed by a zero-order release that was controlled by a degradation of chitosan matrix. Collectively, CS-GP-NGF nerve conduits had an integrated system for continuous release of NGF, thus holding promise for peripheral nerve repair applications. PMID:21736941

Yang, Yumin; Zhao, Weijia; He, Jianghong; Zhao, Yahong; Ding, Fei; Gu, Xiaosong

2011-11-01

418

Analysis and perfection of the arrangement of rural development projects  

OpenAIRE

The subject of the investigation is the arrangement of rural development projects. The aim of the work is to formulate recommendations for the perfection of the arrangement of rural development projects. The tasks: — to fulfill the analysis of scientific literature and other secondary references of information and summarize the methods of design arrangement; — to identify the peculiarities of the projects of rural development; — to establish the problems of the arrangement of rural deve...

Raiz?yte?, Daiva

2005-01-01

419

Ethical issues in healthcare financing.  

Science.gov (United States)

The four goals of good healthcare are to relieve symptoms, cure disease, prolong life and improve quality of life. Access to healthcare has been a perpetual challenge to healthcare providers who must take into account important factors such as equity, efficiency and effectiveness in designing healthcare systems to meet the four goals of good healthcare. The underlying philosophy may designate health as being a basic human right, an investment, a commodity to be bought and sold, a political demand or an expenditure. The design, policies and operational arrangements will usually reflect which of the above philosophies underpin the healthcare system, and consequently, access. Mechanisms for funding include fee-for-service, cost sharing (insurance, either private or government sponsored) free-of-fee at point of delivery (payments being made through general taxes, health levies, etc) or cost-recovery. For each of these methods of financial access to healthcare services, there are ethical issues which can compromise the four principles of ethical practices in healthcare, viz beneficence, non-maleficence, autonomy and justice. In times of economic recession, providing adequate healthcare will require governments, with support from external agencies, to focus on poverty reduction strategies through provision of preventive services such as immunization and nutrition, delivered at primary care facilities. To maximize the effect of such policies, it will be necessary to integrate policies to fashion an intersectoral approach. PMID:22097685

Maharaj, S R; Paul, T J

2011-07-01

420

Bank Lending in Project Finance: The New Regulatory Capital Framework  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper aims to examine the new regulatory framework of project finance in the economics of banking firms. In particular, the paper investigates the uniqueness of the project finance, the significant importance of the project finance in bank activity, and the role of the new bank capital requirements to promote the innovative financial scheme. In the project finance business loans terms and characteristics are primarily based on the assets and quality of the project to be financed. It means that the usual bank rating models for lending business might not been implemented in the project finance lending. Quantitative estimates of credit risk could not be always possible in project finance lending. Consequently, the new regulatory capital requirements framework gives banks the option to implement a qualitative method – a supervisory slotting criteria approach – to evaluate credit risk in project finance lending business. The regulatory capital requirement recognizes project finance as specialized lending. The paper provides a summary of the treatment of the project finance in the New Basel Capital Accord. The paper is organized as follows. Section 1 provides a general description of project finance. Section 2 identifies the economic and financial uniqueness of project finance loans and credit risk assessment process. Section 3 delineates the impact of the new regulatory capital requirements framework on project finance lending. Final sections concludes.

Enzo Scannella

2012-11-01

421

Project finance of hydroelectric power plants in Brazil; 'Project finance' de usinas hidroeletricas no Brasil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of this paper is to discuss the modality of project finance of financing of enterprises, which is the main modality of structuring of hydroelectric projects in Brazil. In the discussion will be highlighted the importance of contracts EPC (Engineering, Search and Construction) in the structuring of project finances. This financing model has particular characteristics related to risk sharing and financial flexibility that enable the financing of projects with long-term capital, however, due to participation of various actors and the nature of the structure of project finance, the negotiation and drafting of contracts are always very complex.

Ribeiro Filho, Valfredo de Assis; Ramos, Maria Olivia de Souza [Universidade Salvador (UNIFACS), BA (Brazil)

2008-07-01

422

Community Wind: Once Again Pushing the Envelope of Project Finance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the United States, the 'community wind' sector - loosely defined here as consisting of relatively small utility-scale wind power projects that sell power on the wholesale market and that are developed and owned primarily by local investors - has historically served as a 'test bed' or 'proving grounds' for up-and-coming wind turbine manufacturers that are trying to break into the U.S. wind power market. For example, community wind projects - and primarily those located in the state of Minnesota - have deployed the first U.S. installations of wind turbines from Suzlon (in 2003), DeWind (2008), Americas Wind Energy (2008) and later Emergya Wind Technologies (2010), Goldwind (2009), AAER/Pioneer (2009), Nordic Windpower (2010), Unison (2010), and Alstom (2011). Thus far, one of these turbine manufacturers - Suzlon - has subsequently achieved some success in the broader U.S. wind market as well. Just as it has provided a proving grounds for new turbines, so too has the community wind sector served as a laboratory for experimentation with innovative new financing structures. For example, a variation of one of the most common financing arrangements in the U.S. wind market today - the special allocation partnership flip structure (see Figure 1 in Section 2.1) - was first developed by community wind projects in Minnesota more than a decade ago (and is therefore sometimes referred to as the 'Minnesota flip' model) before being adopted by the broader wind market. More recently, a handful of community wind projects built over the past year have been financed via new and creative structures that push the envelope of wind project finance in the U.S. - in many cases, moving beyond the now-standard partnership flip structures involving strategic tax equity investors. These include: (1) a 4.5 MW project in Maine that combines low-cost government debt with local tax equity, (2) a 25.3 MW project in Minnesota using a sale/leaseback structure, (3) a 10.5 MW project in South Dakota financed by an intrastate offering of both debt and equity, (4) a 6 MW project in Washington state that taps into New Markets Tax Credits using an 'inverted' or 'pass-through' lease structure, and (5) a 9 MW project in Oregon that combines a variety of state and federal incentives and loans with unconventional equity from high-net-worth individuals. In most cases, these are first-of-their-kind structures that could serve as useful examples for other projects - both community and commercial wind alike. This report describes each of these innovative new financing structures in some detail, using a case-study approach. The purpose is twofold: (1) to disseminate useful information on these new financial structures, most of which are widely replicable; and (2) to highlight the recent policy changes - many of them temporary unless extended - that have facilitated this innovation. Although the community wind market is currently only a small sub-sector of the U.S. wind market - as defined here, less than 2% of the overall market at the end of 2009 (Wiser and Bolinger 2010) - its small size belies its relevance to the broader market. As such, the information provided in this report has relevance beyond its direct application to the community wind sector. The next two sections of this report briefly summarize how most community wind projects in the U.S. have been financed historically (i.e., prior to this latest wave of innovation) and describe the recent federal policy changes that have enabled a new wave of financial innovation to occur, respectively. Section 4 contains brief case studies of how each of the five projects mentioned above were financed, noting the financial significance of each. Finally, Section 5 concludes by distilling a number of general observations or pertinent lessons learned from the experiences of these five projects.

bolinger, Mark A.

2011-01-18

423

Energy efficiency projects financing from private sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper deals with financing energy efficiency projects from an Energy Service Company (ESCO) point of view, within the framework of energy systems outsourcing. Energy system outsourcing represents a progressive framework for energy efficiency project financing. The ESCO provides its partner with turn-key technical and financial services in order to achieve its expected goal. The postoutsourcing energy efficiency investments should trigger a decrease of partner's overall energy costs and increase of the energy system reliability and technical level. Financial costs associated with the investment should be covered from achieved savings as well. The paper introduces the framework terms to be fulfilled for financing of energy systems upgrading following its outsourcing from current structure. (author)

424

A method of gastric conduit elevation via the posterior mediastinal pathway in thoracoscopic subtotal esophagectomy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite efforts to improve surgical techniques, serious complications still sometimes occur. Use of a physiological posterior mediastinal pathway has increased given advances such as automated anastomotic devices and a reduction in the incidence of anastomotic sufficiency. Until now the gastric conduit created has been protected by an echo probe cover and, sown to the ventral side of polyester tape placed through the abdomen to the neck, and then blindly elevated to the neck. We report on a new method of gastric conduit elevation. Methods Two 60-cm lengths polyester tape are ligated at both ends to form a loop. An echo probe cover of 10 cm in diameter and 50 cm in length is prepared and the tip cut off, forming a cylinder. The knots in the previously looped polyester tape are inserted into the echo probe cover. The looped polyester tape and echo probe cover is ligated with silk approximately 5 cm in front of the knots on both sides. After dissection is carried out according to practice, the previously crafted polyester tape is inserted into the chest cavity. One end of polyester tape is fixed to the distal esophageal stump with the clips, with the opposite end fixed to the proximal esophageal stump. The echo probe cover that connects the proximal esophagus and distal esophagus is monitored for the presence of creases along the long axis to ensure there are no twists in the echo probe cover. We carry out a laparoscopic-assisted perigastric lymph node dissection, make a small skin incision, and guide part of the thoracic esophagus and stomach outside the body. Either one of the two lengths of polyester tape is connected to the gastric conduit. By pulling up this length of polyester tape from the neck, the gastric conduit can pass through the echo probe cover and be elevated to the neck. Results No perioperative complications such as bleeding or difficulty of the gastric conduit elevation were recognized with this method. Conclusions This method is considered to serve as a useful technique for gastric conduit elevation.

Hirahara Noriyuki

2012-01-01

425

Textural evolution of a conduit margin witnessing the unusual explosivity of a basaltic Plinian eruption  

Science.gov (United States)

Basaltic Plinian eruptions are a rare phenomenon and are poorly understood. Here we investigate these unusual high-explosivity eruptions with detailed textural observations of their products. We have analysed marginal textures of a feeding conduit of the AD 1886 Tarawera fissure eruption through which a gas-ash-suspension was erupting for ~4-5 hours and examined strain markers of simple shear and evidence of heating. We quantified vesicle size distributions and vesicle orientations in the rhyolitic country rock of the Wahanga dome in contact with the mafic dyke. Shape anisotropy and density increases toward the margin, corresponding to a decrease in 2D vesicularity. Similarly, the margin-parallel deformation is manifested in cleaved and plastically deformed biotite crystals. The aspect ratio of biotite phenocrysts in the rhyolitic country rock increases toward the margin. In the undeformed country rock average aspect ratios are ~1-2, whereas in the marginal zone of 1-2 mm thickness values increase to >50. In the marginal zone an accumulation of low angles spanned by the conduit wall and the long axis of biotite phenocrysts is observed. Rotation of phenocrysts near the margin might be produced by simple shear from coupling of the erupting gas-ash-suspension. We measured major element profiles in the interstitial groundmass glass toward the conduit margin by EMPA. Proximal depletion of Na2O and enrichment of K2O suggest that the eruption was at high temperature for time sufficient for ~1 mm of concentration-gradient diffusion of mobile elements. The changes in porosity, texture and chemistry take place in a ~1-1.5 mm thick deformed zone. Lattice Boltzmann simulations of margin perpendicular fluid flow through the pore network in this zone rendered by xray computed micro tomography of this zone shows a reduction in permeability by 2 orders of magnitude from ~10-11.5 to ~10-13 m2. Textural changes of conduit walls that experienced mafic Plinian eruptions have rarely been reported and imply an unusual coupling between a gas-magma-suspension explosively bypassing a heated margin. It is possible that transient coupling events were enough to induce ductile simple shear in the margin rock. Such shear strain and resultant pore closure at elevated temperatures could be a mechanism by which permeability of conduit walls is reduced. Low permeability implies an inefficient pore-pressure release valve and thus overpressures could be maintained, exerting unusually high stresses within the basaltic melt. If these stresses could not be viscously dissipated over the timescale of degassing, then conduit wall sealing contributes to the explosivity of such large eruptions.

Schauroth, J.; Wadsworth, F.; Vasseur, J.; kennedy, B.; Schipper, C.; Kueppers, U.; Scheu, B.; Dingwell, D. B.

2013-12-01

426

Temporal instabilities in volcanic conduit flow due to internal gravity waves and non-equilibrium degassing  

Science.gov (United States)

Volcanic conduits are strongly stratified multiphase mixtures of magma, bubbles and crystals exhibiting vertical gradients in density and pressure that drive flow. We examine the behavior of perturbations to this stratification in a model of multiphase flow through a cylindrical conduit using analytic and numerical linear stability analysis. Magma is idealized as a mixture of gas and liquid phases, accounting for compressibility of both phases, viscosity of the mixture, and a finite exsolution time for mass exchange between the phases. Short time variations in conduit flow variables are characterized by three modes of wave motion. Two modes correspond to sound waves that travel up and down the conduit, while the third is an internal gravity wave arising from restoring forces due to differences in density. When perturbed downward, a fluid parcel in the stratified magma is surrounded by more dense fluid and feels an upward restoring force from buoyancy. That restoring force can be reduced by compression of the fluid parcel by the greater pressures at depth that act to increase its density. These three modes of wave motion are characterized by several competing timescales. The timescale for viscous damping ? D sets the decay time of flow perturbations and the damping of sound waves and internal gravity waves propagating through the magma. The timescale of gravity wave oscillation, ? G (inverse of buoyancy frequency N), measures adjustment of perturbations to density and pressure differences in the vertically stratified magma. Finally, a timescale for volatile diffusion ? V measures adjustment of the gas phase mass fraction to its equilibrium solubility value. We examine perturbations to a magmastatic base state and to a base state of steady flow. Initial analytic results with frozen coefficients for a magmastatic and vertically unbounded conduit suggest that when ? V > ? G and ? D > ? G, ? V, the base state is unstable to harmonic perturbations in flow pressure, flow velocity, mixture density and gas fraction occurring above the exsolution depth. It is the internal gravity wave mode that goes unstable, while the sound wave solutions remain damped. Non-equilibrium degassing (relaxation to equilibrium solubility of greater than ˜1 second) and density stratification are both necessary conditions for this instability to occur. For parameters appropriate for low viscosity basaltic magma, these unstable perturbations have periods of 10--30 sec, while unstable modes do not occur for more viscous silicic magmas unless volatile contents are low (less than ˜1 weight percent). We are currently extending these results to steady flow in finite length conduits via numerical linear stability analysis and exploring the feasibility of detecting short-time flow instabilities in long period seismic radiation.

Karlstrom, L.; Dunham, E. M.

2013-12-01

427

Methods for evaluating the effects of conduits at the surface of the sea  

Science.gov (United States)

The propagation of radio waves in the atmosphere is determined by the index of refraction which is sensitive to the pressure, temperature and moisture of the air. In the vicinity of the surface of the sea, there is a strong gradient of moisture related to the evaporation of water; it gives rise to a fast decrease of the index of the air creating a conduit of propagation in vicinity of surface. A source located in the interior of the conduit (i.e., at an altitude ranging between that of the minimum of the modified index and sea surface) sees most of its energy remaining captive inside this conduit. This has as an operational consequence - a considerable increase in the range of the radio hardware working in the vicinity of the surface of the sea. In addition, the propagation inside the conduit is characterized by the presence of multipaths related to the successive reflection of the electromagnetic wave on the surface of the sea and the boundary of the conduit. What results is a series of reinforcements and attenuations of the field being propagated in the conduit. Taking into account the practical importance of these effects it is advisable to have suitable methods of evaluation. In this talk three methods are examined: (1) parabolic equation method, (2) method of modes, and (3) method of geometrical optics. The parabolic equation method consists of making an approximation of the wave equation by supposing that the field is propagated around a primary direction. Under these conditions one reduces the equation of propagation to a partial derivative equation of parabolic type which leads to an easy algorithm to work with. The method of modes makes it possible to carry out calculations in an entirely analytical way by supposing that the profile of the index follows a simple law. This method constitutes an analytical reference with respect to the two other methods which are numerical. The method of geometric optics is an asymptotic method. It consists of considering the trajectory of the rays resulting from the source by solving the eikonal equation. The intensity of the electromagnetic field can be given in conjunction with the equation of the trajectories; the calculation of the divergence of the wave vector tangent to the ray passing by the point where the field is evaluated. One thus obtains a system of ordinary differential equations which can be solved numerically by the method of Runge-Kutta. Each one of these methods is analyzed and a comparison between them is carried out on a number of concrete examples. In each case the theoretical limits, the advantages, and the limits of use of the three methods are highlighted.

Fournier, Michel

1994-07-01

428

12 CFR 613.3020 - Financing for farm-related service businesses.  

Science.gov (United States)

...SCOPE OF FINANCING Financing Under Titles I... § 613.3020 Financing for farm-related...b) Purposes of financing. A Farm Credit...limited to necessary capital structures, equipment, and initial working capital....

2010-01-01

429

Financing low carbon energy access in Africa  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Modern energy access in Africa is critical to meeting a wide range of developmental challenges including poverty reduction and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Despite having a huge amount and variety of energy resources, modern energy access in the continent is abysmal, especially Sub-Saharan Africa. Only about 31% of the Sub-Saharan African population have access to electricity while traditional biomass energy accounts for over 80% of energy consumption in many Sub-Saharan African countries. With energy use per capita among the lowest in the world, there is no doubt that Africa will need to increase its energy consumption to drive economic growth and human development. Africa also faces a severe threat from global climate change with vulnerabilities in several key areas or sectors in the continent including agriculture, water supply, energy, etc. Low carbon development provides opportunities for African countries to improve and expand access to modern energy services while also building low-emission and climate-resilient economies. However, access to finance from different sources will be critical in achieving these objectives. This paper sets out to explore the financial instruments available for low carbon energy access in Africa including the opportunities, markets and risks in low carbon energy investments in the continent. - Highlights: ? Access to finance will be critical to achieving low carbon energy access in Africa. ? Domestic finance will be in Africa. ? Domestic finance will be important in leveraging private finance. ? Private sector participation in modern and clean energy in Africa is still low. ? Many financing mechanisms exist for low carbon energy access in Africa. ? The right institutional frameworks are critical to achieving low carbon energy access in Africa.

430

Financing renewable energy: Obstacles and solutions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The majority of renewable energy technology projects now being developed use long term project financing to raise capital. The financial community scrutinizes renewables more closely than some conventionally fueled electric generation facilities because it perceives renewables as risky and expensive. Renewables pay for this perceived risk through higher interest charges and other more restrictive loan covenants. Risks that are not eliminated in the power sales agreement or through some other means generally result in higher project costs during financing. In part, this situation is a product of the private placement market and project finance process in which renewable energy facilities must function. The project finance process attracts banks and institutional lenders as well as equity investors (often pension funds) who do not want to place their capital at great risk. Energy project finance exists on the basis of a secure revenue stream and a thorough understanding of electric generation technology. Renewables, like all energy projects, operating in uncertain regulatory environments are often difficult to finance. In the uncertain regulatory environment in which renewables now operate, investors and lenders are nervous about challenges to existing contracts between independent power producers and utilities. Challenges to existing contracts could foretell challenges to contracts in the future. Investors and lenders now look to state regulatory environments as an indicator of project risk. Renewable energy technology evolves quickly. Yet, often the information about technological evolution is not available to those who invest in the energy projects. Or, those who have invested in new renewable energy technology in the past have lost money and are nervous about doing so in the future - even though technology may have improved. Inadequate or unfavorable information is a barrier to the development of renewables.

Brown, M.H.

1994-06-01

431

Financing long term liabilities (Germany)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Germany the basis for the management of radioactive residues is the polluter-pays principle. All steps of treatment of radioactive waste arising from operation, decommissioning and dismantling including conditioning, interim storage and disposal of radioactive waste have to be financed by the waste producers. The waste producers are responsible for the harmless recycling of the residues or for their orderly management as radioactive waste. The Federal Government is responsible for establishing disposal facilities. Accordingly the waste producers are constructing and operating facilities in which the radioactive residues can be treated and stored until their disposal. As far as the radioactive waste cannot be stored by the producer, waste originating from research, medicine and industry can be stored in surface storage facilities of the federal states. Spent fuel from German NPPs is partly reprocessed in France and UK. The rest has to be disposed off directly in deep geologic formations. Until a repository for spent fuel is available in Germany spent fuel will be stored in interim storage facilities on the sites of the NPPs. The storage will take place in casks in a dry way. In exceptional cases, if the storage at a NPP site is not possible, there are two central storages at Ahaus and Gorleben which are in operation and can be made available as reserve. Radioactive waste returning from the reprocessing of German spent fuel in France and UK is stored in the Gorleben central storage. The Federal Government is aiming to establish a repository in deep geological formations about the year 2030 which shall be available for all types and quantities of radioactive waste. The necessary expenses for the planning and construction of radioactive waste disposal facilities are initially carried by the Federal Government. The Government recovers the costs by contributions or advance payments from the waste producers. The use of storage and disposal facilities is financed by charges and fees levied from the waste producers. Altogether, financial resources for decommissioning are needed for the following steps: the post-operational phase in which the facility is prepared for dismantling after its final shut-down, dismantling of the radioactive part of the facility, management, storage and disposal of the radioactive waste, restoration of the site, licensing and regulatory supervision of all these steps. Additional means are necessary for the management, storage and disposal of the spent fuel. The way in which the availability of financial resources is secured differs between public owned installations and installations of the private power utilities. In Germany, past practices has resulted in singular contaminated sites of limited extent, mainly during the first half of the 20. century. Those contaminated sites have been or are being cleaned up and redeveloped. In large areas of Saxony and Thuringia, the geological formations permitted the surface and underground mining of Uranium ore. Facilities of the former Soviet-German WISMUT Ltd. where ore was mined and processed from 1946 until the early 1990's can be found at numerous sites. In the course of the re-unification of Germany, the soviet shares of the WISMUT were taken over by the Federal Republic of Germany and the closure of the WISMUT facilities was initiated. In that phase the extent of the damages to the environment and of the necessary remediation work became clear. All mining and milling sites are now closed and are under decommissioning. A comprehensive remediation concept covers all WISMUT sites. Heaps and mill-tailing ponds are transferred into a long-term stable condition. The area of the facilities to be remediated amounts to more than 30 km2. Heaps cover a total area of ca. 15,5 km2, tailing ponds in which the tailings resulting from the Uranium production are stored as sludges cover 6,3 km2). In total, the remediation issues are very complex and without precedent. The implementation of the measures will cover a period of 15 to 20 years depending on the site. The necess

432

The political economy of health care finance  

OpenAIRE

We present a model of political competition, in a multi-dimensional policy space and with policy-oriented candidates, to analyze the problem of health care finance. In our model, health care is either financed publicly (by means of general taxation) or privately (by means of a copayment). The extent of these two components (as well as the overall tax schedule) is the outcome of the process of political competition. Our results highlight, from a political-economy perspective, the key role of t...

Moreno-ternero, Juan; Roemer, John

2007-01-01

433

Stopping Illicit Procurement: Lessons from Global Finance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Government regulators and the financial sector cooperate to combat money laundering and terrorist financing. This information-sharing relationship is built upon a strong legislative foundation and effective operational procedures. As with money-laundering and terrorist financing, halting the illicit procurement of dual-use commodities requires close coordination between government and industry. However, many of the legal and operational features present in financial threat cooperation do not exist in the export control realm. This article analyzes the applicability of financial industry cooperative measures to nonproliferation.

Hund, Gretchen; Kurzrok, Andrew J.

2014-06-19

434

Healthcare financing: how does Turkey compare?  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors provide an overview of Turkey's healthcare financing. After comparing financing data on Turkey and other Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) member countries, they examine Turkey's performance on a wide range of healthcare input and outcome indicators using descriptive data drawn from the World Health Organization, World Bank, OECD, and Turkish Statistical Institute. The data analysis shows that Turkey ranks low by a number of key healthcare indicators across the OECD countries. Empirical analysis suggests that although many factors are associated with improvements in healthcare outcomes, a significant part of changes in life expectancy at birth are associated with higher spending on healthcare. PMID:21864057

Akhmedjonov, Alisher; Güç, Yunus; Akinci, Fevzi

2011-01-01

435

Financing small scale wind energy projects in the UK  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper shows how wind energy projects in the UK have obtained finance. It attempts to list the financing options open to small scale developments and to note any likely problems which may occur. (UK)

436

Carbon finance and the carbon market in China  

Science.gov (United States)

The chinese carbon market is up and running, but private finance has not been fully utilized. Finance-friendly policies are needed to help the world's largest greenhouse-gas emitter to harness market forces for climate change mitigation.

Yu, Xiang; Lo, Alex Y.

2015-01-01

437

48 CFR 32.005 - Consideration for contract financing.  

Science.gov (United States)

...required for changes to, or the addition of, contract financing after award. (b) Amount of...which the price would have been less had the contract financing terms been contained in the initial contract. In the absence of definite...

2010-10-01

438

Abortion in the U.S.: Utilization, Financing, and Access  

Science.gov (United States)

Abortion in the U.S.: Utilization, Financing, and Access June 2008 Approximately one-fifth (19%) of the 6. ... greater risk of breast cancer.21,22,23 Abortion Financing The cost of an abortion varies depending ...

439

Requirement Analysis and Prediction of Aviation Finance in China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the development of air transportation, China’s aviation finance market is showing a strong momentum. In this study, according to the purchase ratio, airfreight, the economic situation at home and abroad, we analyze and forecast the market demand of aviation finance in China for the next 20 years. The results show that till 2030 there will be more than 7000 aircrafts added in aviation transportation market of China, of which more than 4200 planes need to rely on financing through external finance market and the demand of aviation finance will reach $4.2 billion. In order to improve the development of Chinese aviation finance market, it is of great importance to speed up the building of aviation finance market, to improve relevant laws and regulations and to provide proper tax preferences for aviation finance enterprises.

Yong Ding

2014-01-01

440

Grinding arrangement for ball nose milling cutters  

Science.gov (United States)

A grinding arrangement for spiral fluted ball nose end mills and like tools includes a tool holder for positioning the tool relative to a grinding wheel. The tool is mounted in a spindle within the tool holder for rotation about its centerline and the tool holder is pivotably mounted for angular movement about an axis which intersects that centerline. A follower arm of a cam follower secured to the spindle cooperates with a specially shaped cam to provide rotation of the tool during the angular movement of the tool holder during the grinding cycle, by an amount determined by the cam profile. In this way the surface of the cutting edge in contact with the grinding wheel is maintained at the same height on the grinding wheel throughout the angular movement of the tool holder during the grinding cycle.

Burch, C. F. (inventor)

1974-01-01

441

Cavity closure arrangement for high pressure vessels  

Science.gov (United States)

A closure arrangement for a pressure vessel such as the pressure vessel of a high temperature gas-cooled reactor wherein a liner is disposed within a cavity penetration in the reactor vessel and defines an access opening therein. A closure is adapted for sealing relation with an annular mounting flange formed on the penetration liner and has a plurality of radially movable locking blocks thereon having outer serrations adapted for releasable interlocking engagement with serrations formed internally of the upper end of the penetration liner so as to effect high strength closure hold-down. In one embodiment, ramping surfaces are formed on the locking block serrations to bias the closure into sealed relation with the mounting flange when the locking blocks are actuated to locking positions.

Amtmann, Hans H. (San Diego, CA)

1981-01-01

442

Tendons Arrangement Effects on Reinforced Concrete Frames  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available  The tendons arrangement effects on the response of reinforced concrete frame experiencing blast loads is investigated in this paper. The structure is modeled using nonlinear finite elements employing a bilinear hysteretic model. So that elements are used so that yielding of the structures could be accurately modeled and captured. The frame is analyzed using a non-linear, elastic-plastic finite element program written in code MATLAB. Six tendon architectures were investigated. A single tendon was placed between different floors and its effects investigated. From the obtained results, the ideal case which causes a reduction in the maximum displacement and the amount of permanent deflection without increase in the maximum structural shear forces greatly is obtained.

Ayad B. Bahnam

2013-05-01

443

A regional arrangement proposal for the UNASUR  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The article analyses the current process of economic integration in South America. Thus, concentrating our attention on the UNASUR regional integration process, two questions arise: First, is UNASUR the most viable institution to achieve a consistent economic integration process in South America? Se [...] cond, what model of economic integration should be adopted in the case of UNASUR, which would ensure macroeconomic stability and avoid financial and exchange rate crises in the South America? To answer these questions, the article proposes, based on the Keynes (1944/1980)'s revolutionary analysis presented in his International Clearing Union, during the Bretton Woods Conference in 1944, a regional arrangement to UNASUR.

Fernando, Ferrari-Filho.

2014-09-01

444

Arrangement Computation for Planar Algebraic Curves  

CERN Document Server

We present a new certified and complete algorithm to compute arrangements of real planar algebraic curves. Our algorithm provides a geometric-topological analysis of the decomposition of the plane induced by a finite number of algebraic curves in terms of a cylindrical algebraic decomposition of the plane. Compared to previous approaches, we improve in two main aspects: Firstly, we significantly reduce the amount of exact operations, that is, our algorithms only uses resultant and gcd as purely symbolic operations. Secondly, we introduce a new hybrid method in the lifting step of our algorithm which combines the usage of a certified numerical complex root solver and information derived from the resultant computation. Additionally, we never consider any coordinate transformation and the output is also given with respect to the initial coordinate system. We implemented our algorithm as a prototypical package of the C++-library CGAL. Our implementation exploits graphics hardware to expedite the resultant and gcd...

Berberich, Eric; Kobel, Alexander; Sagraloff, Michael

2011-01-01

445

Health financing in Malawi: Evidence from National Health Accounts  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background National health accounts provide useful information to understand the functioning of a health financing system. This article attempts to present a profile of the health system financing in Malawi using data from NHA. It specifically attempts to document the health financing situation in the country and proposes recommendations relevant for developing a comprehensive health financing policy and strategic plan. Methods Data from three rounds of...

Zawaira Felicitas; Kirigia Joses; Walker Oladapo; Zere Eyob; Magombo Francis; Kataika Edward

2010-01-01

446

Women empowerment and micro finance : Case study from Kerala  

OpenAIRE

The subject of micro-finance is considered as significant and emerging trend in the present scenario for the empowerment of women. Micro finance programmes are promoted as an important strategy for women’s empowerment. Micro finance builds mutual trust and confidence between bankers and rural poor to encourage banking in a segment of population where formal financial institutions usually find difficult to reach. The present paper examines the economic impact of micro finance beneficiaries a...

Dhanya, M. B.; Sivakumar, P.

2010-01-01

447

Early-stage financing and firm growth in new industries  

OpenAIRE

This paper shows that active investors, such as venture capitalists, can affect the speed at which new ventures grow. In the absence of product market competition, new ventures financed by active investors grow faster initially, though in the long run those financed by passive investors are able to catch up. By contrast, in a competitive product market, new ventures financed by active investors may prey on rivals that are financed by passive investors by “strategically overinvesting” earl...

Inderst, Roman; Mu?ller, Holger

2009-01-01

448

An Evaluation of Innovative Transportation Financing Techniques for Indiana  

OpenAIRE

Innovative financing techniques can complement current methods of financing highway projects in Indiana. Annual federal apportionments and Indiana state revenues are not sufficient to maintain and improve state highways, so innovative approaches in transportation project financing should be sought. There are several available innovative financing techniques associated with the use of federal funds. Although, they do not provide new sources of revenue and cannot create enough funds for all ide...

Drike, Kristine; Genetti, A. Vincent; Sinha, Kumares C.

2002-01-01

449

Solar Photovoltaic Financing: Deployment by Federal Government Agencies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The goal of this report is to examine how federal agencies can finance on-site PV projects. It explains state-level cash incentives available, the importance of solar renewable energy certificate revenues (in certain markets), existing financing structures, as well as innovative financing structures being used by federal agencies to deploy on-site PV. Specific examples from the DOD, DOE, and other federal agencies are highlighted to explain federal project financing in detail.

Cory, K.; Coggeshall, C.; Coughlin, J.; Kreycik, C.

2009-07-01

450

Residential Solar Photovoltaics: Comparison of Financing Benefits, Innovations, and Options  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report examines relatively new, innovative financing methods for residential photovoltaics (PV) and compares them to traditional self-financing. It provides policymakers with an overview of the residential PV financing mechanisms, describes relative advantages and challenges, and analyzes differences between them where data is available. Because these innovative financing mechanisms have only been implemented in a few locations, this report can inform their wider adoption.

Speer, B.

2012-10-01

451

Public Finance in China since the Late Qing Dynasty  

OpenAIRE

How is "public finance" organized in China? Is China’s public finance system different from that of other countries? Can we detect features which link today’s system to the past? Public finance refers to more than annual state budgets and constitutional procedures. It includes foreign debt, state monopolies or monetary policies, all of which played a crucial role in China’s public finance during the last hundred years. A purely legislative definition obscures the fact that changes in...

Krug, B.

2008-01-01

452

Inhibition of calpains fails to improve regeneration through a peripheral nerve conduit.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intramuscular injection of the calpain inhibitor leupeptin promotes peripheral nerve regeneration in primates (Badalamente et al., 1989 [13]), and direct positive effects of leupeptin on axon outgrowth were observed in vitro (Hausott et al., 2012 [12]). In this study, we applied leupeptin (2mg/ml) directly to collagen-filled nerve conduits in the rat sciatic nerve transection model. Analysis of myelinated axons and retrogradely labeled motoneurons as well as functional 'CatWalk' video analysis did not reveal significant differences between vehicle controls and leupeptin treated animals. Therefore, leupeptin does not improve nerve regeneration via protease inhibition in regrowing axons or in surrounding Schwann cells following a single application to a peripheral nerve conduit suggesting indirect effects on motor endplate integrity if applied systemically. PMID:24631569

Hausner, Thomas; Marvaldi, Letizia; Márton, Gábor; Pajer, Krisztián; Hopf, Rudolf; Schmidhammer, Robert; Hausott, Barbara; Redl, Heinz; Nógrádi, Antal; Klimaschewski, Lars

2014-04-30

453

Evaluation of cable tray and conduit systems using the seismic experience data base  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cable tray and conduit systems have an excellent earthquake performance record. This has been evidenced at over 70 power and industrial facilities in 14 past major earthquakes, and is reinforced by shake table test data and detailed analyses. A method is developed for utilizing this data in defensible, simple seismic qualification criteria and configuration controls. Qualitiative comparisons are used to demonstrate the applicability of the data base to the given cable tray/conduit system. Quantitative assessments are used to guarantee that the support system is as least as adequate as the data base support systems that survived without apparent damage. The results are incorporated into field evaluation guidelines and also form the basis for configuration control criteria. This method results in significant cost savings to nuclear utilities, realized at the engineering effort, plant hardware modification, and documentation levels. (orig.)

454

Development of ITER TF Cable-in-Conduit Conductors and Their Characteristics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a participant taking part in the ITER TF conductor R and D program, we developed two toroidal field conductors with variations of conduit thickness resulting in the different void fraction of the conductors. The estimated void fractions of the conductors are 31% and 33%. In this paper we present the details of the TF conductor development and performance test results of them carried out by the measurement of current sharing temperature under cyclic loading. Regarding the conductor development, the internal-Sn-processed Nb3Sn strand characteristics, strand cabling, twist pitch and characteristics of the conduit materials are presented. For the understanding of the conductor design and performance, the conductor test results are presented and the effect of the conductor design parameters such as void fraction and twist pitch is discussed based on the results.

455

Deposition of UO2 in Sampling Conduits in a Centralized Air-Monitoring System  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Investigations have been carried out to clarify to what extent a static monitoring system with centralized sampling could be used with reasonable reliability to detect uranium contamination in laboratory air. A multichannel air-monitoring system with centralized sampling, using filter-paper collection, has been the basis for experiments to examine the degree of deposition in the sampling conduit from a UO2 Pellet Production Plant to the monitoring room. The sampling point is separated from the detector unit by PM-Dura pipe, 3/4 in. diam. and 28 m long. The difference in vertical direction is about 6 m. Eleven 90° bends are incorporated in the system. The paper discusses the results obtained, and shows the loss and relative distribution of UO2 in the conduit system. (author)

456

Extracardiac Fontan with T-shape conduit in non-confluent pulmonary arteries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract A 34 months-old male patient with double inlet right ventricle with nonconfluent pulmonary arteries who underwent successful extracardiac fenestarated Fontan procedure using pre-designed T-shaped PTFE vascular graft after multi-step rehabilitation of the diminutive hilar pulmonary arteries. At first we performed 6 mm confluent pulmonary artery vascular graft implantation with 4 mm BT shunt at patient's 4 weeks old. At 9 months of patient, we upsized the confluent pulmonary arterial graft to 8 mm with bidirectional cavopulmonary connection, and, at 34 months, we performed extracardiac conduit Fontan procedure with pre-designed T-shape conduit including the confluent pulmonary arterial portion at last. Patient shows excellent functional status and development.

Bae Eun

2008-02-01

457

Effect of the thermal barrier on the stability of cable-in-conduit conductors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As the enhancement of stability margin of cable-inconduit conductors, the effect of thermal barrier provided inside the surface of strand has been investigated. First, by a simple model calculation, it is shown that the energy needed to raise the temperature of a strand as the simulation of the disturbance due to surface friction, depends strongly on the pulse duration and thermal conductivity of surface material. Next, as based on this consideration, strands with the thermal barrier inside its surface have been made and the stability test has been carried out. From the result, it was shown that the stability margin of a cable-in-conduit conductor consisting of strands with the thermal barrier can be calculated with the enthalpy of whole helium whithin the conduit even near the critical current

458

TPX superconducting cable-in-conduit 1995 design and development progress  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A unique feature of the magnet system for the Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) is that all the magnets are superconducting. With the exception of the outer poloidal coils, the magnet system uses Nb3Sn cable-in-conduit conductor; the outer poloidal coils use Nb-Ti cable-in-conduit conductor. We describe the current TPX conductor design and present a progress report on the conductor development. Our strand development contracts have resulted in demonstrating that at least two vendors can produce Nb3Sn strand which meets the TPX specification. Subcable testing gives confidence that the TPX conductor will satisfy the magnet operational requirements. Fabrication of full-size conductors is underway and tests on these will give verification that the TPX conductor meets the operational requirements. Our industrial cabling and sheathing contract to produce demonstration conductor using copper strands is exploring a production technique that differs from the conventional tube mill approach

459

Vibration analysis on the hot gas conduit in 10 MW HTR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Based on structural characteristics of the hot gas conduit for the high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTR), of which inside and outside is blown by the reverse direction two flows at same time, the authors established the theoretical model for design condition to study flow induced vibration, that is a single span cylinder contained flowing gas and surrounded by reverse direction flow, simply supported at each end. The mathematical equations and the simple method to solve it is given. The frequency as a function of flow velocity, the critical velocity at which cylinder lost stability in various flow conditions, and the stability map are obtained. The analysis results are that the design condition of hot gas conduit falls in the stability area, in other word, running at design condition, the flow induced large amplitude vibration does not exist

460

Optimization of Nb3Sn cable-in-conduit superconductor for application to pulsed tokamak coils  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cable-in-conduit conductors in pulsed tokamak applications have design requirements imposed by the tokamak operation: typically an operating temperature dependent on the AC losses and pulse time, the field by the tokamak performance and a quench discharge time by the coil voltage limits. The void fraction of helium in the cable is determined by mechanical and thermal stability considerations. It is then possible to maximize the cable space current density for a given temperature margin and strand properties, using the procedure in the companion paper ''Parametric Study of Cost Functions in Cable-in-Conduit-Conductors''. Nb3Sn strands can typically offer high Jc, high loss or low loss, low Jc. The sensitivity of the cable design to the choice of strand is discussed with reference to the quantity of strand and the achievable current density

461

Crab burrows as conduits for groundwater-surface water exchange in Bangladesh  

Science.gov (United States)

recharge affects water budgets and groundwater quality on the deltas and floodplains of South and Southeast Asia. Rain and flooding rivers recharge groundwater during the monsoon; irrigated rice fields and surface water bodies recharge aquifers during the dry season. Groundwater throughout the region is severely contaminated by arsenic, and recent research suggests that quantifying and characterizing recharge is important to understand whether recharge flushes or mobilizes arsenic from aquifers. At a field site in Bangladesh, we found that burrows of terrestrial crabs short-circuit low-permeability surface sediments, providing the primary conduit for recharge. We combine field observations along with a model that couples isotope and water balances to quantify the effect of crab burrows on aquifer recharge. Given the wide distribution of burrowing crabs and the surficial geology, we suggest that crab burrows provide widespread conduits for groundwater recharge.

Stahl, Mason O.; Tarek, M. H.; Yeo, Darren C. J.; Badruzzaman, A. B. M.; Harvey, Charles F.

2014-12-01