WorldWideScience

Sample records for conduit financing arrangements

  1. 76 FR 76895 - Conduit Financing Arrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ...C) of the conduit financing regulations to treat an...determining whether a conduit financing arrangement exists. The...foreign law purposes and equity for U.S. purposes) should constitute per se ``financing transactions''...

  2. 77 FR 22480 - Conduit Financing Arrangements; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    ..., 2011 (76 FR 76895) providing guidance on conduit financing arrangements. The final regulations apply to... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BH77 Conduit Financing Arrangements; Correction AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Correcting amendment. SUMMARY: This document contains...

  3. 76 FR 76895 - Conduit Financing Arrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BH77 Conduit Financing Arrangements AGENCY: Internal... authority granted by section 7701(l) of the Internal Revenue Code (the conduit financing regulations). See TD 8611 (1995-37 IRB 20; 60 FR 40997). On December 22, 2008, the Treasury Department and the...

  4. 26 CFR 1.7701(l)-1 - Conduit financing arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conduit financing arrangements. 1.7701(l)-1 Section 1.7701(l)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES General Actuarial Valuations § 1.7701(l)-1 Conduit...

  5. 26 CFR 1.881-3 - Conduit financing arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conduit financing arrangements. 1.881-3 Section 1.881-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX... tax liability under any substantive provisions of the Internal Revenue Code. Thus, for example,...

  6. 26 CFR 1.881-4 - Recordkeeping requirements concerning conduit financing arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recordkeeping requirements concerning conduit financing arrangements. 1.881-4 Section 1.881-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... requirements concerning conduit financing arrangements. (a) Scope. This section provides rules for...

  7. 26 CFR 1.881-3 - Conduit financing arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...is product A. FS' business activity is substantial...000,000 to FS to finance FS' business operations. On January...substantial trades or businesses and are located in...centralized cash management accounting system for...

  8. Arrangement of heat conduits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two conventional heat conducting systems are combined end to end in opposition, one end of the arrangement being exposed and sensitive to the temperature of one environment or object being monitored, whilst the heat furnished at the other end is intentionally controlled. The condensation sections adjacent to the respective heat conduits combine to form a common condensation area that is in turn coupled to an appropriate thermal dissipator. The temperature of the monitored end and that of the controlled end of the heat conducting arrangement each produce a vaporisation of the working fluid resulting in a flow of the respective vaporised fluids moving in opposite directions and which meet in the end to form an interaction interface in the common condensation area. The position of this interaction interface depends on the steam pressure in the respective heat conduits. These pressures depend in turn on the respective temperatures and thermal powers of the sources at the controlled and monitored ends of the heat conducting arrangement. This arrangement of heat conduits can be employed as a heat valve or heat bridge

  9. 26 CFR 1.7701(l)-1 - Conduit financing arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES General Actuarial Valuations § 1.7701...such recharacterization is appropriate to prevent avoidance of any tax imposed by title 26 of the United States...

  10. Financing arrangements for nuclear power projects in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This reference book reviews the main features and problems or difficulties involved in the financing of nuclear power projects with special reference to developing countries. It provides basic information and advice to developing countries interested in nuclear power projects as part of their power sector planning. The book outlines the general characteristics of financing a nuclear power project and presents innovative approaches for power generation financing. It discusses the special conditions and requirements of nuclear power projects and their financing complexities. The focus is on the practical issues that need to be dealt with in order to successfully finance these power projects, as well as the constraints faced by most developing countries. Possible ways and means of dealing with these constraints are presented. 58 refs, figs and tabs

  11. Summary of a reference book on financing arrangements for nuclear power projects in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA has recently published a reference book entitled Financing Arrangements for Nuclear Power Projects in Developing Countries (Technical Reports Series No. 353). The book reviews comprehensively the main features and problems concerning the financing of such projects in developing countries and presents innovative approaches for power generation financing. It also discusses the special conditions and requirements of nuclear power projects and the complexities of their financing, focusing on the practical issues to be dealt with to achieve successful financing, as well as the constraints encountered by most developing countries. This booklet summarizes the important features of the financing arrangements discussed in the reference book and was prepared with the aim of widely disseminating the results

  12. 26 CFR 1.7701(l)-3 - Recharacterizing financing arrangements involving fast-pay stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Revenue Code) the fast-pay arrangement in accordance with its form or its economic substance. For example... involving fast-pay stock. 1.7701(l)-3 Section 1.7701(l)-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE....7701(l)-3 Recharacterizing financing arrangements involving fast-pay stock. (a) Purpose and scope....

  13. Financing arrangements for nuclear power projects - past and present experience and future expectations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The intent of the author of the present paper is to demonstrate, in a practical manner, the role of the past experience and the new approaches of the nuclear projects financing, especially as nuclear generation financing in developing countries involves complex issues that need to be fully understood and dealt with by all the parties involved, namely: high investment costs, generally long construction periods, a high degree of uncertainty with respect to costs and schedule and to public acceptance, particularly because of safety, waste disposal and non-proliferation issues. Moreover, as many associations whose activities consist of ensuring and facilitating at different levels the exchange of knowledge between generations, i.e.: European Nuclear Society (ENS) Young Generation, North American Young Generation in Nuclear (NA-YGN), the goal of the paper is also to outline the importance of the education in nuclear field, i.e. training a young team of specialists to be ready to take over the movement and responsibility in continuing the further development of nuclear program in Romania, mainly with view to the Financing Arrangements for Nuclear Power Projects. The first part of the paper is referring to general financing procedures, while the second part is focusing on a case study related to the: past experience the financing scheme of Cernavoda NPP Unit 1, present or actual experience ongoing financing issues for Cernavoda NPP Unit 2 and potential future shared contribution to the financing of the next Cernavoda NPP units.(author)

  14. LEASING ARRANGEMENTS AS A FORM OF FINANCING BUSINESS ENTITIES IN REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DRAGICA ODZAKLIESKA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the modern conditions for working, the problems with providing appropriate sources for financing business entities are more emphasized. In fact, the access to the financing sources is one of the limiting factors for the business entities development. If the business entity is able to satisfy completely or on a higher degree its financing needs from its own sources, then it gains significant competitive advantage and possibility for growth, by decreasing the costs for financing and minimizing the risk. But, these sources most often are not sufficient for business financing. In R. Macedonia, most usually used sources for work financing are the bank loans, which is a result mainly to the nonsufficiently developed financial market, and generally, the low degree of the economic development. However, the bank loans are expensive source of financing, which is negatively reflected into the financial result of the business entities. Because of that, the business entities get down to use alternative financing sources, such as: portfolio investments, foreign direct investments, issue of shares and bonds and specific sources of financing ( factoring financing, forfeiting financing, leasing and financing by franchise. In this paper, the accent will be put on the leasing as a specific form for financing the business entities in R. Macedonia. A research for that how much the business entities are acquainted with the advantages of using this financing source, how much the leasing is present as a financing form and if there are limiting factors in its use, will be conducted. At the end, on the basis of the obtained results from the research, some measures and recommendations for higher leasing implementation in the business entities in Republic of Macedonia will be given

  15. 26 CFR 1.7701(l)-3 - Recharacterizing financing arrangements involving fast-pay stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...section is intended to prevent the avoidance of tax by persons participating...fast-pay arrangement is the avoidance of any tax imposed by the Internal Revenue...for using such rules is the avoidance of any tax imposed by the Internal...

  16. Finance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Kern

    Patterns that emerged from reviewing syllabi for 12 courses on higher education finance are discussed. The prevailing purpose of the course appeared to be to provide an introduction to fiscal problems and issues in higher education. Some courses did, however, go beyond the introductory stages to analyze the economics of higher education. Most…

  17. Finance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPhail-Wilcox, Bettye; Beezer, Bruce

    In 1988, there were two United States Supreme Court decisions regarding school finance. One decision upheld the constitutionality of a North Dakota statute regarding transportation fees, and the other decision ruled that interest from state and local government bearer bonds was subject to federal income taxation. Cases discussed in this chapter…

  18. Flexible cryogenic conduit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A flexible and relatively low cost cryogenic conduit is described. The flexible cryogenic conduit of the present invention comprises a first inner corrugated tube with single braided serving, a second outer corrugated tube with single braided serving concentric with the inner corrugated tube, and arranged outwardly about the periphery of the inner corrugated tube and between the inner and outer corrugated tubes: a superinsulation layer; a one half lap layer of polyester ribbon; a one half lap layer of copper ribbon; a spirally wound refrigeration tube; a second one half lap layer of copper ribbon; a second one half lap layer of polyester ribbon; a second superinsulation layer; a third one half lap layer of polyester ribbon; and a spirally wound stretchable and compressible filament

  19. Contractual arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conceptually there are a number of different contract models from which a country can select the most suitable for its social, political and economic requirements. These include: 1) the traditional concession, 2) production sharing contracts, 3) service contracts, and 4) equity sharing contracts, i.e. joint ventures. The joint venture arrangement, as it is most commonly used in uranium exploration and mining, is discussed in light of national objectives; geological and technical aspects; infrastructural aspects; and economic aspects. Topics covered include: the exploration phases; the exploration license; exploration area; minimum exploration commitment; host country investor relationship; financing of exploration expenditures; minerals other than uranium; feasibility studies; taxation and levies; and termination of the agreement. During the production phase consideration must be given to such aspects as: The operating company; participation ratio; financing of the participation share; export of production; fiscal regime; imports of goods and services; training of local personnel; provision of support by the host country; assignment of rights; duration of contract; disputes and arbitration procedures; decisions making; transfer of technology; safety; environmental protection and compensation; and restoration of sites. These considerations are all discussed, particularly in regard to the joint venture agreement. The paper emphasises the need, in a successful agreement, for openness and understanding between the parties. No agreement can cover every possible subject that can become a source of disagreement. Only by a sympathetic understanding of each others position and needs can a joint project be successful. (author). 11 refs

  20. Transverse colon conduit diversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The versatility and other advantages of the transverse colon conduit for urinary diversion have been described and implemented in 50 patients. Because most patients considered for this procedure will be at high risk because of a history of significant pelvic irradiation, underlying malignancy, poor renal function, fistula, and so forth, the technical details of surgery and patient selection cannot be minimized. The transverse colon segment is indicated for primary supravesical diversion as well as for salvage of problems related to ileal conduits. Adenocarcinoma of the colon is an unlikely long-term complication of this form of diversion because the fecal stream is absent. Now that the transverse colon conduit has been used for more than 10 years, meaningful comparisons with ileal segments should soon be available

  1. Solar thermal financing guidebook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, T.A.; Cole, R.J.; Brown, D.R.; Dirks, J.A.; Edelhertz, H.; Holmlund, I.; Malhotra, S.; Smith, S.A.; Sommers, P.; Willke, T.L.

    1983-05-01

    This guidebook contains information on alternative financing methods that could be used to develop solar thermal systems. The financing arrangements discussed include several lease alternatives, joint venture financing, R and D partnerships, industrial revenue bonds, and ordinary sales. In many situations, alternative financing arrangements can significantly enhance the economic attractiveness of solar thermal investments by providing a means to efficiently allocate elements of risk, return on investment, required capital investment, and tax benefits. A net present value approach is an appropriate method that can be used to investigate the economic attractiveness of alternative financing methods. Although other methods are applicable, the net present value approach has advantages of accounting for the time value of money, yielding a single valued solution to the financial analysis, focusing attention on the opportunity cost of capital, and being a commonly understood concept that is relatively simple to apply. A personal computer model for quickly assessing the present value of investments in solar thermal plants with alternative financing methods is presented in this guidebook. General types of financing arrangements that may be desirable for an individual can be chosen based on an assessment of his goals in investing in solar thermal systems and knowledge of the individual's tax situation. Once general financing arrangements have been selected, a screening analysis can quickly determine if the solar investment is worthy of detailed study.

  2. Seal between metal and ceramic conduits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Richard Paul; Tentarelli, Stephen Clyde

    2015-02-03

    A seal between a ceramic conduit and a metal conduit of an ion transport membrane device consisting of a sealing surface of ceramic conduit, a sealing surface of ceramic conduit, a single gasket body, and a single compliant interlayer.

  3. Portable conduit retention apparatus for releasably retaining a conduit therein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Richard H. (West Seneca, NY)

    1998-01-01

    Portable conduit retention apparatus for releasably retaining a conduit therein. The apparatus releasably retains the conduit out of the way of nearby personnel and equipment. The apparatus includes a portable support frame defining a slot therein having an open mouth portion in communication with the slot for receiving the conduit through the open mouth portion and into the slot. A retention bar is pivotally connected to the support frame adjacent the mouth portion for releasably retaining the conduit in the slot. The retention bar freely pivots to a first position, so that the mouth portion is unblocked in order that the conduit is received through the mouth portion and into the slot. In addition, the retention bar freely pivots to a second position, so that the mouth portion is blocked in order that the conduit is retained in the slot. The conduit is released from the slot by pivoting the retention bar to the first position to unblock the mouth portion and thereafter manipulating the conduit from the slot and through the mouth portion. The apparatus may further include a mounting member attached to the support frame for mounting the apparatus on a vertical support surface. Another embodiment of the apparatus includes a shoe assembly of predetermined weight removably connected to the support frame for resting the apparatus on a floor in such a manner that the apparatus is substantially stationary on the floor.

  4. Conduit Coating Abrasion Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Mary K.

    2013-01-01

    During my summer internship at NASA I have been working alongside the team members of the RESTORE project. Engineers working on the RESTORE project are creating ·a device that can go into space and service satellites that no longer work due to gas shortage or other technical difficulties. In order to complete the task of refueling the satellite a hose needs to be used and covered with a material that can withstand effects of space. The conduit coating abrasion test will help the researchers figure out what type of thermal coating to use on the hose that will be refueling the satellites. The objective of the project is to determine whether or not the conduit coating will withstand the effects of space. For the RESTORE project I will help with various aspects of the testing that needed to be done in order to determine which type of conduit should be used for refueling the satellite. During my time on the project I will be assisting with wiring a relay board that connected to the test set up by soldering, configuring wires and testing for continuity. Prior to the testing I will work on creating the testing site and help write the procedure for the test. The testing will take place over a span of two weeks and lead to an informative conclusion. Working alongside various RESTORE team members I will assist with the project's documentation and records. All in all, throughout my internship at NASA I hope to learn a number of valuable skills and be a part of a hard working team of engineers.

  5. Conduit coupling assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A conduit coupling assembly for coupling pipes with an interposed seal has a first part for receiving a pipe and is in splined engagement with a bush fixed to a pipe. A second part having radial fingers so that it can be turned by a manipulator, has a threaded engagement with the first part which is the same hand but different pitch to a threaded engagement between the second part and the bush. Pitches of 8:7 for couplings will give a mechanical advantage of 56:1 thus reducing the force needed to obtain a given axial movement of the bush and thus of the pipe and compression of the seal. (author)

  6. A foil shielded flexible conduit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A foil shielded flexible conduit is described that is suitable for withstanding electromagnetic interference and electromagnetic pulses and may be employed in a nuclear reactor environment. Previous attempts to manufacture such conduits have all suffered from an insufficient degree of flexibility to allow suitable installation and have been liable to breakdown in service. (U.K.)

  7. Centrifuges, centrifuge plants and flow control arrangements therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A gas centrifuge with flow control arrangement and a centrifuge plant are claimed. The centrifuge comprises a rotor mounted in a housing, a feed line, a line for separated product and a tails line for depleted gas. There is a flow control arrangement in one or more of these lines. The centrifuge plant comprises a plurality of separative units arranged in stages of differing enrichment of product. The flow control arrangement comprises a conduit sealable by a flap adapted to block the conduit when abnormal gas flow occurs

  8. Equity Financing: Real Estate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Richard; Davies, Jonathan

    1987-01-01

    Many small, private colleges are examining aggressive ways of economically developing their land and other physical assets by strategies ranging from direct ownership of tangible property to joint and participating ownership arrangements consisting of leases, financing, and partnerships. In all cases, however, potential tax consequences should be…

  9. Financing Public Library Construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohlf, Robert H.; Stoffel, Lester L.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews financing options available to Illinois public libraries for construction or expansion, including general obligation bonds, mortgage funds, building reserve funds, building fund levies, lease back arrangements, sale of air or ground development rights, interest on special funds, gift funds and grants, Library Service and Construction Act…

  10. Private Placement Debt Financing for Public Entities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Lance S.

    2010-01-01

    Private placement financing is a debt or capital lease obligation arranged between a municipality or a 501(c) (3) not-for-profit organization and a single sophisticated institutional investor. The investor can be a bank, insurance company, finance company, hedge fund, or high-net worth individual. Private placement financing is similar to…

  11. Limitations of Conduits in Peripheral Nerve Repairs

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Amy M.; Kasukurthi, Rahul; Magill, Christina K.; Farhadi, H. Francis; Borschel, Gregory H; Mackinnon, Susan E.

    2009-01-01

    Nerve conduits have emerged as alternatives to autologous nerve grafts, but their use in large-diameter nerve deficits remains untested. We report four patients who underwent repair of large-diameter nerves using absorbable nerve conduits and discuss the failed clinical outcomes. The reported cases demonstrate the importance of evaluating the length, diameter, and function of nerves undergoing conduit repair. In large-diameter nerves, the use of conduits should be carefully considered.

  12. Urinary conduits in gynecologic oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over an 11-year period (1971 to 1981), 212 urinary conduit surgeries were performed by the Department of Gynecology at the University of Texas, M. D. Anderson Hospital and Tumor Institute at Houston. The urinary diversions were performed as part of the pelvic exenteration operation in 154 patients, for radiation injury in 48 patients, and for palliation of disease recurrence in ten patients. Ninety-three percent had prior pelvic radiotherapy. Various segments of the gastrointestinal tract were used, including the ileum (102), sigmoid colon (99), transverse colon (four), jejunum (four), and others (three). Fifty percent of abnormal preoperative intravenous pyelograms reverted to normal after urinary diversion. Revision of the stoma was required in 6%. Other complications included infection (18%), renal loss (17%), and urinary leaks and fistulae (3%). The overall perioperative mortality was 7%, decreasing from 11% in the first five years to 3% during the last six years. Ureteral stents were routinely used. When selecting a segment of bowel for a urinary conduit, both tissue quality and mobility are important. Mortality and morbidity of urinary conduit surgery continues to decrease with experience

  13. Project financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Project financing was defined ('where a lender to a specific project has recourse only to the cash flow and assets of that project for repayment and security respectively') and its attributes were described. Project financing was said to be particularly well suited to power, pipeline, mining, telecommunications, petro-chemicals, road construction, and oil and gas projects, i.e. large infrastructure projects that are difficult to fund on-balance sheet, where the risk profile of a project does not fit the corporation's risk appetite, or where higher leverage is required. Sources of project financing were identified. The need to analyze and mitigate risks, and being aware that lenders always take a conservative view and gravitate towards the lowest common denominator, were considered the key to success in obtaining project financing funds. TransAlta Corporation's project financing experiences were used to illustrate the potential of this source of financing

  14. Peripheral nerve conduits: technology update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arslantunali D

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available D Arslantunali,1–3,* T Dursun,1,2,* D Yucel,1,4,5 N Hasirci,1,2,6 V Hasirci,1,2,7 1BIOMATEN, Center of Excellence in Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering, Middle East Technical University (METU, Ankara, Turkey; 2Department of Biotechnology, METU, Ankara, Turkey; 3Department of Bioengineering, Gumushane University, Gumushane, Turkey; 4Faculty of Engineering, Department of Medical Engineering, Acibadem University, Istanbul, Turkey; 5School of Medicine, Department of Histology and Embryology, Acibadem University, Istanbul, Turkey; 6Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, METU, Ankara, Turkey; 7Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, METU, Ankara, Turkey *These authors have contributed equally to this work Abstract: Peripheral nerve injury is a worldwide clinical problem which could lead to loss of neuronal communication along sensory and motor nerves between the central nervous system (CNS and the peripheral organs and impairs the quality of life of a patient. The primary requirement for the treatment of complete lesions is a tension-free, end-to-end repair. When end-to-end repair is not possible, peripheral nerve grafts or nerve conduits are used. The limited availability of autografts, and drawbacks of the allografts and xenografts like immunological reactions, forced the researchers to investigate and develop alternative approaches, mainly nerve conduits. In this review, recent information on the various types of conduit materials (made of biological and synthetic polymers and designs (tubular, fibrous, and matrix type are being presented. Keywords: peripheral nerve injury, natural biomaterials, synthetic biomaterials

  15. Apartment purchase financing analysis since World War II until today

    OpenAIRE

    Staniša, Maja

    2009-01-01

    The diploma work deals with the possibility of financing the apartment purchase since World War II until today. In the history of the financing residential economy we are trying to determine legal basis arranging financing, basic characteristics of financing, loaning and institutions which have a leading role in financing in certain periods of history. Residential politicy in Slovenia went through different periods and it always reflected the influence of economical and political systems duri...

  16. Financing Investment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirth, Stefan; Flor, Christian Riis

    Intuition suggests that corporate investment should be decreasing in financing constraints. We show that even when financing is obtained using a standard debt contract and there is symmetric information between the firm and outside investors, the relation is actually U-shaped. We thus provide a new...... theoretical explanation for the recent empirical findings of Cleary et al. (2007). We split up the endogenously implied financing costs and propose a trade-off between expected liquidation costs and second-best investment costs. For rather unconstrained firms, the risk of costly liquidation dominates the cost...

  17. Financing a nuclear programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power plant construction projects have many characteristics in common with other types of large infrastructure investment, both within the power generation sector and elsewhere. However, nuclear power itself has special features that can make nuclear financing particularly challenging. These features include the high capital cost, the relatively long period required to recoup investments, the often controversial nature of nuclear projects. The need for clear solutions and financing schemes for radioactive waste management and decommissioning and the need for nuclear power plants to operate at high capacity factors, preferably under base load conditions. During the previous major expansion of nuclear power in the 1970 and 1980, many nuclear projects suffered very large construction delays and cost overruns. The legacy of such problems increases the risks perceived by potential investors. A recent study undertaken jointly by the Iea and the Nea showed that the competitiveness of nuclear power strongly depends on the cost of financing due to the high share of fixed capital costs in the total lifetime costs of nuclear power. A key issue in this context is the long-term predictability of carbon pricing arrangements, which, for the time being and despite positive evolutions in this respect, most notably in Europe, does not yet exist. This paper will consider how the risks can be mitigated and examine in detail various models for corporate finance and the role of government assistance in providing a suitable financial basis. (Author)

  18. An Exploratory Study of the Effects of Project Finance on Project Risk Management : How the Distinguishing Attributes of Project Finance affects the Prevailing Risk Factor?

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Ka Fai

    2011-01-01

    Project finance is a financing arrangement for projects, and it is characterised by the creation of a legally independent project company financed with non- or limited recourse loans. It is observed that the popularity of project finance is increasing in the recent decades, despite of the impact of Asian financial crisis. Especially in emerging markets, project finance is very common among the public-private partnership projects. It is possible that project finance yields some benefits in pro...

  19. Biological conduits combining bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and extracellular matrix to treat long-segment sciatic nerve defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The transplantation of polylactic glycolic acid conduits combining bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and extracellular matrix gel for the repair of sciatic nerve injury is effective in some respects, but few data comparing the biomechanical factors related to the sciatic nerve are available. In the present study, rabbit models of 10-mm sciatic nerve defects were prepared. The rabbit models were repaired with autologous nerve, a polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, or a polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells + extracellular matrix gel. After 24 weeks, mechanical testing was performed to determine the stress relaxation and creep parameters. Following sciatic nerve injury, the magnitudes of the stress decrease and strain increase at 7,200 seconds were largest in the polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells + extracellular matrix gel group, followed by the polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells group, and then the autologous nerve group. Hematoxylin-eosin staining demonstrated that compared with the polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells group and the autologous nerve group, a more complete sciatic nerve regeneration was found, including good myelination, regularly arranged nerve fibers, and a completely degraded and resorbed conduit, in the polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells + extracellular matrix gel group. These results indicate that bridging 10-mm sciatic nerve defects with a polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells + extracellular matrix gel construct increases the stress relaxation under a constant strain, reducing anastomotic tension. Large elongations under a constant physiological load can limit the anastomotic opening and shift, which is beneficial for the regeneration and functional reconstruction of sciatic nerve. Better regeneration was found with the polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells + extracellular matrix gel grafts than with the polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells grafts and the autologous nerve grafts.

  20. Sealing of conduits penetrating fire barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the results of a research fire test conducted to evaluate the internal sealing requirements for conduits penetrating fire barriers. The project was funded by a group of nuclear utilities in order to develop conduit sealing guidelines based on sound technical information in response to regulatory guidance. A test slab incorporating 101 conduit penetrations was exposed to the ASTM E-119 standard fire exposure for three hours. During the test, no flames propagated through the conduits and no cables were ignited on the unexposed side of the test slab. Guidelines were developed based on the test results which provide recommended sealing practices for conduits of diameters six inches or smaller which penetrate fire barriers. The test report has been submitted to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for review as a proprietary topical report. 4 refs., 3 figs

  1. Structuring and financing power projects in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contractual arrangements for the financing and construction of three 660 MW coal fired power plants in Hong Kong are summarized in the form of headings and a diagram. These cover the joint venture arrangement, construction and equipment supply, the operation and offtake contract, coal supply and the financial structure with respect to commercial risk. (UK)

  2. Crystallographic arrangements: Weyl groupoids and simplicial arrangements

    OpenAIRE

    Cuntz, Michael

    2010-01-01

    We introduce the simple notion of a "crystallographic arrangement" and prove a one-to-one correspondence between these arrangements and the connected simply connected Cartan schemes for which the real roots are a finite root system (up to equivalence on both sides). We thus obtain a more accessible definition for this very large subclass of the class of simplicial arrangements for which a complete classification is known.

  3. Micro finance

    OpenAIRE

    Ramachandran, Ramakrishnan; Senthil Kumar, T. S.

    2006-01-01

    Poor people often have just hand to mouth existence and have few reserves for major expenses such as illness, weddings, house repairs or education. They are unable to build their savings and are forced to borrow at exorbitant rates. This further adds to their burden and worsens their economic situation. Micro finance is the supply of loans, savings, and other basic financial services to the poor. The idea of micro finance was developed as a survival strategy for the poor. In India, Ela Bha...

  4. Quantum Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baaquie, Belal E.

    2007-09-01

    Foreword; Preface; Acknowledgements; 1. Synopsis; Part I. Fundamental Concepts of Finance: 2. Introduction to finance; 3. Derivative securities; Part II. Systems with Finite Number of Degrees of Freedom: 4. Hamiltonians and stock options; 5. Path integrals and stock options; 6. Stochastic interest rates' Hamiltonians and path integrals; Part III. Quantum Field Theory of Interest Rates Models: 7. Quantum field theory of forward interest rates; 8. Empirical forward interest rates and field theory models; 9. Field theory of Treasury Bonds' derivatives and hedging; 10. Field theory Hamiltonian of forward interest rates; 11. Conclusions; Appendix A: mathematical background; Brief glossary of financial terms; Brief glossary of physics terms; List of main symbols; References; Index.

  5. Pumped Storage and Potential Hydropower from Conduits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2015-02-25

    Th is Congressional Report, Pumped Storage Hydropower and Potential Hydropower from Conduits, addresses the technical flexibility that existing pumped storage facilities can provide to support intermittent renewable energy generation. This study considered potential upgrades or retrofit of these facilities, the technical potential of existing and new pumped storage facilities to provide grid reliability benefits, and the range of conduit hydropower opportunities available in the United States.

  6. Centrifuges, centrifuge installations and arrangements for controlling the flow within them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This invention relates to valve arrangements and to centrifuges incorporating such valve arrangements. In a plant where isotopes of an element in a gaseous form are separated, for example where uranium 235 is separated from uranium 238, both isotopes being in the form of uranium hexafluoride, it is important that the effect of impurity gas within the plant is minimised. This is so because otherwise the plant may have to handle gases of a molecular weight which it was not designed to handle and this can have deleterious effects upon the operation of the plant and may cause breakdown of some centrifuges. An object of the present invention is to provide a valve arrangement and a centrifuge enrichment plant utilising such valve arrangements so that such deleterious effects tend to be avoided. The valve arrangement comprises a conduit containing a ball valve which is responsive to gas flowing in the conduit, the ball valve being obstructive to flow in one direction in the conduit when abnormal gas flow occurs in the conduit. Preferably, the ball valve comprises a mesh arrangement for supporting a ball, said mesh arrangement being permeable to gas. Advantageously, the ball valve comprises a rest for the ball, which rest supports the ball in such a manner as to block gas flow. In use, the ball may rest upon said mesh when the valve is open and may rest upon said rest when the valve is shut. (Auth.)

  7. Optical Arrangement and Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    Processing of electromagnetic radiation is described, said incoming electromagnetic radiation comprising radiation in a first wavelength interval and a plurality of spatial frequencies. An arrangement comprises a focusing arrangement for focusing the incoming electromagnetic radiation, a first ca...

  8. The Japanese approach to financing LNG projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Japanese approach approach to financing LNG project has been what could be called a combined purchase and finance system which has been arranged mainly at the initiative of japan's Sogo Shosh (general trading companies) with the support of japanese governmental financial agencies and a purchase commitment from japanese utilities. In the QATARGAS project, despite it being the first greenfield LNG project in decade since North West Shelf Australia LNG project, financing for the LNG plant phase has been successfully arranged through Japanese financing. The structuring of the financial facilities for the QATARGAS project seems to have lessons for future development of the next generation of greenfield LNG projects. Discharge of the parties' liability, proper sharing of the risk burden and reconfirmation of the spirit of mutual understanding and trust among the parties concerned are key factors for the success of any new LNG project in the future. (Author)

  9. The Commitment Role of Equity Financing

    OpenAIRE

    Fahn, Matthias; Merlo, Valeria; Wamser, Georg

    2014-01-01

    Existing theories of a firm?s optimal capital structure seem to fail in explaining why many healthy and profitable firms rely heavily on equity financing, even though benefits associated with debt (like tax shields) appear to be high and the bankruptcy risk low. This holds in particular for firms that show a strong commitment towards their workforce and are popular among employees. We demonstrate that such financing behavior may be driven by implicit arrangements made between a firm and its m...

  10. Variability of permeability with diameter of conduit

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J A Adegoke; J A Olowofela

    2008-05-01

    An entry length is always observed before laminar flow is achieved in fluid flowing in a conduit. This depends on the Reynolds number of the flow and the degree of smoothness of the conduit. This work examined this region and the point where laminar flow commences in the context of flow through conduit packed with porous material like beads, of known porosity. Using some theoretical assumptions, it is demonstrated that permeability varies from zero at wall-fluid boundary to maximum at mid-stream, creating a permeability profile similar to the velocity profile. An equation was obtained to establish this. We also found that peak values of permeability increase with increasing porosity, and therefore entry length increases with increasing porosity with all other parameters kept constant. A plot of peak permeability versus porosity revealed that they are linearly related.

  11. Karst conduit sinuosity as a driver of karst hyporheic exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J. L.; Henry, K.

    2013-12-01

    It has recently been suggested by the authors that water from a flowing phreatic karst conduit can enter the surrounding permeable matrix, in an analogy to hyporheic exchange for streams. Within the matrix two consequences of this exchange are processing of conduit water chemistry and speleogenesis. Small-scale exchange to and from the conduit is promoted by hydraulic head variations created by the conduit wall topology, but there is also a larger scale exchange created by conduit sinuosity and axial conduit head gradients. Considering several types of sinuosity, we use mathematical modeling of conduit flow to drive 3D matrix flow and exchange, examining the patterns, rates, and residence times of exchange and the resulting implications for water chemistry and additional speleogenesis. Presenting results in terms of dimensionless numbers allows us to address karst conduits at different stages of development, and to assess the importance of sinuosity driven exchange in terms of diver-observable features in the larger conduits.

  12. A case report of complication liked jejunal conduit syndrome induced by reconstruction of ileal conduit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The patient was a 77-year-old man who underwent radical cystectomy and ileal conduit urinary diversion due to bladder cancer in 1989. A stenosis of the right uretero-ileal anastomosis occurred in 1992, and of the left uretero-ileal anastomosis in 1999. These were treated with indwelling of a ureteral stent and percutaneous nephrostomy, respectively. He was admitted to our hospital for progressive renal dysfunction due to frequent pyelonephritis. We performed a reconstruction of the ileal conduit urinary diversion and after the removal of the bilateral ureteral stent he complained of nausea and general malaise. The laboratory data showed hyponatremia, hyperkalemia and azotemia, which were diagnosed as complication liked jejunal conduit syndrome. He was treated with hydration and salt supplementation. With regard to this case, we considered that a long ileal conduit close to the jejunum and renal dysfunction caused the complication liked jejunal conduit syndrome. Careful observation and follow-up laboratory examination should be performed if the patient has renal dysfunction and a long conduit near the jejunum is used for the ileal conduit. (author)

  13. Independent power project finance rating criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Continuing growth of project financing for non-utility generators in the US and abroad has led to growing focus on their credit strength. In general, the financings remain relatively risky and would likely be rated below investment grade, because of various factors: loose power purchase arrangements, poor match between power pricing and fuel costs, aggressive leverage, troubled operating performance. But S and P believes some projects have the credit strength to support investment grade ratings. As traditional financing markets for these projects --- bank lending and private placements with highly specialized institutional investors --- have contracted, project sponsors and developers are considering broader markets. These include institutional investors without specialized focus on power project finance. In these markets, distinctions among projects may lead to greater liquidity and efficiency in developing the pricing and terms under which projects can be financed. This paper reports that ratings are most appropriate for projects seeking permanent financing as they enter commercial operations. They also may be useful for projects which have been operating for some time and for some very strong projects which are raising construction financing. To guide both project developers and investors in project financing, S and P has developed the following approach for rating these types of financings

  14. Norwood-sano operation using a stentless pulmonary valved conduit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginestar, Andrés Castelló; Martinez, F Serrano; Argudo, J A Montero; Calvar, J M Caffarena

    2011-01-01

    The Sano modification of Norwood's operation has the potential to generate an excess volume load on the single right ventricle as a consequence of diastolic reversal of flow through the conduit. This article describes the use of a new, small, biological conduit with a porcine valve inside. This new conduit has been used in modified Norwood procedures. It is interposed between the right ventricle and the confluence of the pulmonary arteries. The use of a valved conduit should prevent the retrograde diastolic blood flow observed with use of nonvalved conduits and may improve postoperative hemodynamics. The use of a new stentless valved conduit in 3 recent Norwood procedures is reported herein. PMID:23804945

  15. Arrangement for detecting radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improved arrangement of ionization chambers for use in particle accelerators is described in which two measuring chambers are formed between three mutually parallel walls. The arrangement is used to monitor the homogeneity of the dose output on the cone of emitted rays. (U.K.)

  16. Mitigating Commercial Risks in Project Finance

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    1996-01-01

    In project finance, risks are allocated to the parties best able to manage them. However, the risk mitigation instruments incorporated in the project's contractual and financial arrangements need not be all-encompassing to provide the security investors require. Commitments may be limited in scope, amount, and duration. This Note provides a checklist of commercial risk mitigation instrume...

  17. Biochemical engineering nerve conduits using peptide amphiphiles.

    OpenAIRE

    A Tan; Rajadas, J.; Seifalian, A M

    2012-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injury is a debilitating condition. The gold standard for treatment is surgery, requiring an autologous nerve graft. Grafts are harvested from another part of the body (a secondary site) to treat the affected primary area. However, autologous nerve graft harvesting is not without risks, with associated problems including injury to the secondary site. Research into biomaterials has engendered the use of bioartificial nerve conduits as an alternative to autologous nerve grafts....

  18. Thermal damping and retardation in karst conduits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Luhmann

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Water temperature is a non-conservative tracer in the environment. Variations in recharge temperature are damped and retarded as water moves through an aquifer due to heat exchange between water and rock. However, within karst aquifers, seasonal and short-term fluctuations in recharge temperature are often transmitted over long distances before they are fully damped. Using analytical solutions and numerical simulations, we develop relationships that describe the effect of flow path properties, flow-through time, recharge characteristics, and water and rock physical properties on the damping and retardation of thermal peaks/troughs in karst conduits. Using these relationships, one can estimate the thermal retardation and damping that would occur under given conditions with a given conduit geometry. Ultimately, these relationships can be used with thermal damping and retardation field data to estimate parameters such as conduit diameter. We also examine sets of numerical experiments where we relax some of the assumptions used to develop these relationships, testing the effects of variable diameter, variable velocity, open channels, and recharge shape on thermal damping and retardation to provide some constraints on uncertainty. Finally, we discuss a tracer experiment that provides field confirmation of our relationships. High temporal resolution water temperature data are required to obtain sufficient constraints on the magnitude and timing of thermal peaks and troughs in order to take full advantage of water temperature as a tracer.

  19. Financing wind power projects : perspectives from the US market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation outlined the recent assignments, core competencies and scope of services provided by Alyra Renewable Energy Finance Advisors. Renewable energy developers seek Alyra's assistance in developing strategies to achieve the most competitive solutions in finance and strategy. Alyra has broad finance expertise in renewable energy projects, a deep knowledge of markets and a significant wind industry network. Alyra identifies emerging issues, completes financing solutions and helps with contract negotiations. This presentation outlined the notable features of wind financing, wind assessment, offtake arrangements, equity considerations, US wind debt markets, long term bank financing, and combined bank and private placement financing. It also included recent debt market activity for seven large wind farms in the United States. tabs., figs

  20. Nuclear fuel financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuel financing is only at its beginning. A logical way of developing financing model is a step by step method starting with the financing of pre-payments. The second step will be financing of natural uranium and enrichment services to the point where the finished fuel elements are delivered to the reactor operator. The third step should be the financing of fuel elements during the time the elements are inserted in the reactor. (orig.)

  1. Financing the Ranger uranium project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Construction of the Ranger uranium project located 230 km east of Darwin in the Northern Territory commenced in January 1979. Energy Resources of Australia Ltd was incorporated in February 1980 to acquire all the rights in the project. The total cost to ERA of these rights was $407 million. In October 1980 ERA'S cash requirements were estimated to be $553 million. Overseas participants (power utilities who had agreed to purchase uranium yellowcake under contract) arranged to take up 25% of the equity capital, Peko-Wallsend Ltd and EZ Industries Ltd were allotted 30.5% each and 14% was issued to Australian residents. The loan and equity financing arrangements required the successful resolution of many complex and interlocking factors, including technical and economic feasibility, agreement with aboriginal interests, compliance with Government policies and securing of sales contracts

  2. National arrangements for radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a presentation of several letters exchanged between the French health ministry and public agencies in charge of public health or nuclear safety after a radiotherapy accident in Epinal, this report comments the evolution of needs in cancerology care and the place given to radiotherapy. It outlines the technological and organisational evolution of radiotherapy and presents the distribution of radiotherapy equipment, of radio-therapists and other radiotherapy professionals in France. Within the context of radiotherapy accidents which occurred in 2007, it presents the regulatory arrangements which aimed at improving the safety, short term and middle term arrangements which are needed to support and structure radiotherapy practice quality. It stresses the fact that the system will deeply evolve by implementing a radiotherapy vigilance arrangement and a permanent follow-on and adaptation plan based on surveys and the creation of a national committee

  3. Nuclear reactor internals arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nuclear reactor internals arrangement is disclosed which facilitates reactor refueling. A reactor vessel and a nuclear core is utilized in conjunction with an upper core support arrangement having means for storing withdrawn control rods therein. The upper core support is mounted to the underside of the reactor vessel closure head so that upon withdrawal of the control rods into the upper core support, the closure head, the upper core support and the control rods are removed as a single unit thereby directly exposing the core for purposes of refueling

  4. Peak load arrangements : Assessment of Nordel guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    Two Nordic countries, Sweden and Finland, have legislation that empowers the TSO to acquire designated peak load resources to mitigate the risk for shortage situations during the winter. In Denmark, the system operator procures resources to maintain a satisfactory level of security of supply. In Norway the TSO has set up a Regulation Power Option Market (RKOM) to secure a satisfactory level of operational reserves at all times, also in winter with high load demand. Only the arrangements in Finland and Sweden fall under the heading of Peak Load Arrangements defined in Nordel Guidelines. NordREG has been invited by the Electricity Market Group (EMG) to evaluate Nordel's proposal for 'Guidelines for transitional Peak Load Arrangements'. The EMG has also financed a study made by EC Group to support NordREG in the evaluation of the proposal. The study has been taken into account in NordREG's evaluation. In parallel to the EMG task, the Swedish regulator, the Energy Markets Inspectorate, has been given the task by the Swedish government to investigate a long term solution of the peak load issue. The Swedish and Finnish TSOs have together with Nord Pool Spot worked on finding a harmonized solution for activation of the peak load reserves in the market. An agreement accepted by the relevant authorities was reached in early January 2009, and the arrangement has been implemented since 19th January 2009. NordREG views that the proposed Nordel guidelines have served as a starting point for the presently agreed procedure. However, NordREG does not see any need to further develop the Nordel guidelines for peak load arrangements. NordREG agrees with Nordel that the market should be designed to solve peak load problems through proper incentives to market players. NordREG presumes that the relevant authorities in each country will take decisions on the need for any peak load arrangement to ensure security of supply. NordREG proposes that such decisions should be taken after consultation with parties in other Nordic countries, and involving also regulators and TSOs. In NordREG's view there are basically three principles that should be guiding any decision to introduce peak load arrangements in the Nordic countries: i), the peak load arrangements should be introduced only in situations when security of supply cannot be met without these arrangements. Since the decision to introduce peak load arrangements might be of a political/legal nature, the length of such arrangement cannot be fixed. However, there should be a regular evaluation by the competent authority of any need or prolonged need for peak load arrangements and its effects of price formation in the Nordic market. ii), when peak load arrangements are introduced they should be designed to minimize the adverse effects on price formation in the Nordic market. Furthermore, if there are to be peak load arrangements, there might be a need for how to distinguish these peak load reserves from other reserves at the disposal of the TSOs. However, this issue needs further discussions and development. iii), Nordic consultation should be carried out where the views of all relevant authorities and stake holders in the market affected are invited. It is recommended that the governments consult with their Nordic counter parties before submitting legal proposals on peak load arrangements affecting Nordic price formation. These consultations should also be with regulators and TSOs who are involved in the design of the actual peak load arrangements. (Author)

  5. Conduit Companies, Beneficial Ownership, and the Test of Substantive Business Activity in Claims for Relief under Double Tax Treaties

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Saurabh; Prebble, John; Bunting, Christina

    2014-01-01

    If interpreted in a strict legal sense, beneficial ownership rules in tax treaties would have no effect on conduit companies because companies at law own their property and income beneficially. Conversely, a company can never own anything in a substantive sense because economically a company is no more than a congeries of arrangements that represents the people behind it. Faced with these contradictory considerations, people have adopted surrogate tests that they attempt to employ in...

  6. Arranging the Informal Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Brenda S.

    With the advent of the informal or open classroom, a new area of concern has become important--classroom arrangement. In the past, classrooms were oriented toward the front, toward the teacher's desk and the blackboard. Education depended mainly on the pupil's interaction with the teacher and with printed materials. Nowadays, in informal…

  7. Statistics for Finance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindström, Erik; Madsen, Henrik; Nielsen, Jan Nygaard

    Statistics for Finance develops students’ professional skills in statistics with applications in finance. Developed from the authors’ courses at the Technical University of Denmark and Lund University, the text bridges the gap between classical, rigorous treatments of financial mathematics that...

  8. Evolution of Hydraulic Roughness During Early Stages of Conduit Growth: Effects on Conduit Enlargement Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulley, J. D.; Spellman, P.; Covington, M. D.; Martin, J. B.; Benn, D.; Catania, G. A.

    2012-12-01

    Hydraulic roughness exerts an important but poorly constrained control on the hydraulic capacity and enlargement rates of subglacial conduits. In an ideal, inviscid fluid, energy and mass are conserved along a flow line and the sum of the velocity, pressure and elevation heads equals the potential energy of the system, as described by the Bernoulli Equation. In real fluid flows, however, some of this energy is dissipated as heat due to friction and turbulence, resulting in a total head that is lower than predicted by the Bernoulli Equation. This departure from ideal is termed head loss, which is accounted for in simple hydrological models, such as the Manning or Darcy Weisbach equations, through the use of a roughness coefficient (n -s m1/3) or a friction factor (f - dimensionless), respectively. Both f and n relate hydraulic roughness to a relative roughness, or the ratio of the height that projections extend from the floor or wall of a conduit to the conduit hydraulic diameter. Such relationships, however, are empirically derived and only valid for relative roughness values that are 5% likely occur in subglacial conduits, particularly during early stages of conduit enlargement, which may limit ability to use relative roughness to calculate values of n or f. Understanding changes in roughness in the early stages of conduit enlargement is crucial for accurate modeling of glacier hydrological systems because nearly all glacier hydrological models rely on a hydraulic roughness parameterization to drive conduit melting. To address this knowledge gap, we calculated hydraulic roughness values from dye traces conducted at Rieperbreen, in Svalbard, Norway. Because conduit area and hydraulic gradients were constrained by direct mapping, and average flow velocities were obtained from dye traces, we were able to calculate f and n for each trace. Values of f and n declined from 75.01 and 0.68 s m1/3, respectively, to 0.97 and 0.04 s m1/3 over the melt season. Values of f and n calculated from dye tracing data exceeded values of f and n calculated solely from direct measurements of relative roughness by several orders of magnitude. Despite these discrepancies, values of f and n that were calculated from dye tracing data were highly correlated to measured relative roughness values using a power law, suggesting that new relationships may be developed for glacier hydrological systems. When we paramaterized a simple conduit enlargement model using our newly-discovered relationship between f, n and relative roughness, we found that the timescale required for conduits to grow from 0.5 m in diameter to a diameter where relative roughness was <5% was 4-9 times longer than enlargement times obtained using roughness parameterization schemes commonly used in glacier hydrological models.

  9. Caring finance practices

    OpenAIRE

    Staveren, I.P. van

    2013-01-01

    The 2008 financial crisis has demonstrated the failure of both utilitarian and deontological ethics in finance. Alternatives do not need to be created from nothing, because the crisis itself has stimulated the emergence of ethically sound finance practices from within the sector. This article presents two cases of such alternatives, which can be understood as caring finance. Caring finance is built around more personal relationships, responsibility, and risk reduction. The examples are from t...

  10. Delayed complication of pelvic lymphocele: Ileal conduit obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankar, Sanket S; Bakshi, Ganesh K; Prakash, Gagan; Sable, Nilesh P

    2015-01-01

    Radical cystectomy is the standard treatment for muscle invasive bladder cancer. Lymphocele is a common sequalae of pelvic lymphadenectomy. We report an unusual presentation of pelvic lymphocele developing after radical cystectomy reconstructed with an ileal conduit where the patient developed obstruction of the ileal conduit loop due to external pressure of the lymphocele. Catheter drainage of the conduit relieved the symptoms and a computerized tomography scan showed a large lymphocele causing acute angulation and resultant obstruction of the ileal conduit. The patient was treated with percutaneous drainage of the lymphocele and remains symptom-free on follow-up at 1 year. PMID:26166973

  11. Financing petroleum agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter describes the typical type of financing agreements which are currently used to finance North Sea petroleum projects whether they are in the cause of development or have been developed and are producing. It deals with the agreements which are entered into to finance borrowings for petroleum projects on a non-resource or limited resource basis. (UK)

  12. Perspectives applicable to financing midstreamers: legal considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Systemic changes that have affected the sale, distribution and transportation of gas near the burner tip (collectively called 'midstream' activities) are reviewed, examining the causes of change, and the types of midstream asset transactions that are occurring, whether they involve structured financing arrangements or midstream companies. Also addressed are issues involved in transactions of this type, especially as they relate to gathering and processing agreements and construction, ownership and operation (CO and O) agreements. The two principal alternative structures (1) the financing party who does not assume operational control of the facility, and the (2) midstream company who build or acquire assets and operate them, the different implications for financing of each of the structural alternatives and the changing attitudes of producers towards midstream entities are explained. Closer examination of these new business structures reveals that they conflict with the terms and conditions of midstream agreements commonly used throughout the industry. It is recommended that these standard agreements be amended to permit midstream transactions to occur without undue restrictions. The kind of amendments suggested include automatic consent to a transfer of a facility to a Financing Party that meets certain reasonable financial tests; allowing the reconveyance from the Financing Party to the producer under a repurchase option; allowing the producer to act as Operator in place of its Financing Party

  13. Arrangement for computer tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An arrangement for computer tomography is described which consists of an X-ray source for the formation of a flat fan shaped bundle of radiation and an X-ray detector consisting of several circular arc, sequentially arranged detector elements where the X-ray detector and X-ray source which are rotatable around and across the surface of the wave beam equivalent axis of rotation and are characterised by the fact that the X-ray source has a relatively small surface for radiation, the distance of the radiation input surface of the detector elements to the rotation axis is substantially equal to the distance of the radiation surface of the source to the axis of rotation of the source and the detector has a rotational angular speed of substantially the same value on the opposite side of the rotation axis. (G.C.)

  14. Imaging arrangement and microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pertsinidis, Alexandros; Chu, Steven

    2015-12-15

    An embodiment of the present invention is an imaging arrangement that includes imaging optics, a fiducial light source, and a control system. In operation, the imaging optics separate light into first and second tight by wavelength and project the first and second light onto first and second areas within first and second detector regions, respectively. The imaging optics separate fiducial light from the fiducial light source into first and second fiducial light and project the first and second fiducial light onto third and fourth areas within the first and second detector regions, respectively. The control system adjusts alignment of the imaging optics so that the first and second fiducial light projected onto the first and second detector regions maintain relatively constant positions within the first and second detector regions, respectively. Another embodiment of the present invention is a microscope that includes the imaging arrangement.

  15. Arrangement for temperature measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the device for temperature measurement, temperatures in a range from near 0 up to 3,000 K can be determined with high precision. The temperature is determined by means of a switching arrangement which is connected to a standard resistor and a measuring resistor. The measuring resistor consists of a material changing its electric resistance value as a function of temperature. The standard resistor is varied in such a way that the voltages resulting in both resistors and being fed to capacitors are balanced. The switching arrangement consists of two synchronously operating switches each connecting an amplifier cascade, formed by a preamplifier, a filter, and a main amplifier, with a multiplier through cables to the measuring or standard resistor. In this way the results of measurements are not influenced by the noise voltages of the cable resistances. The measuring device can therefore be applied also in high radiation fields. (DG)

  16. The effect of Ti conduit on the critical current in (Nb,Ti)3Sn cable-in-conduit conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of titanium conduit on the critical current in (Nb,Ti)3Sn cable-in-conduit conductors was investigated to obtain a high performance conductor which would be applied to large superconducting magnets such as those for fusion machines. Titanium has equivalent thermal contraction coefficient to that of (Nb,Ti)3Sn filaments, and it is expected by using titanium as the conduit to suppress degradation of critical current due to excess thermal prestrain on (Nb,Ti)3Sn filaments. Some titanium conduit sample conductors were made, and thier critical current performance were measured together with some stainless steel (SUS316) and copper-nickel alloy (Cu-10Ni) conduit conductors. The experimental results indicated that the titanium conduit conductors had no critical current degradation due to thermal strain, whereas the stainless steel and copper-nickel alloy conduit conductors showed remarkable degradation on thier critical current performance and greater degradation was observed with smaller void conductor. In conclusion, titanium is verified to be excellent conduit material for (Nb,Ti)3Sn cable-in-conduit conductors. (author)

  17. Spotlight on CERN : Le code de conduite

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Video Productions

    2010-01-01

    Cette année 2010, le démarrage du LHC a été le témoignage de la réussite de la collaboration scientifique au CERN, rapprochant les personnes, hommes et femmes, tous ensemble pour la plus grande des réalisations. Cette collaboration nécessite une ouverture sur la diversité basée sur des valeurs solides. Pour s’assurer que l'Organisation continue sur la voie du succès, un consensus a été atteint sur des valeurs caractérisant le CERN et celles-ci ont été regroupées dans un Code de conduite, décrivant la norme de base du comportement que nous pouvons tous espérer de nous-mêmes et de nos collègues sur notre lieu de travail. Entrevues avec Rolf Heuer, Directeur Général du CERN, Anne-Sylvie Catherin, Chef du Département des Ressources Humaines, et Vincent Vuillemin, Ombuds au CERN.

  18. Stability of quasi-steady flow in an englacial conduit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilder, Krzysztof; Lozowski, Edward P.

    1997-10-01

    The stability of water flow in an englacial conduit is examined with particular reference to catastrophic outbursts of water. Quasi-steady flow of water in a conduit is considered, the conduit being simultaneously enlarged by frictional heating and compressed by plastic deformation in response to the pressure difference across the tunnel wall. The conduit is fed by an ice-dammed reservoir. With the aid of simplifying assumptions, we have devised a mathematical model consisting of two time-dependent, non-linear, dimensionless ordinary differential equations, which describe the time evolution of the conduit cross-section and the water depth in the reservoir. The conditions leading to different types of time-dependent flow behaviour are examined. Regions of the parameter space where the water flow is stable and unstable have been identified. In the unstable regime, the process of emptying the reservoir has either an oscillatory or an exponential character. In the stable regime, the system's return to equilibrium, following a perturbation, also exhibits an oscillatory or exponential character. Examples of this time-dependent behaviour are presented. The model has also been used to study the influence of the glacier, conduit and reservoir geometries on the system's stability. The results show that an increase in the horizontal area of the water reservoir or an increase in the slope of the conduit enhance the likelihood of a sudden outburst. However, an increase in the glacier thickness or the conduit length stabilizes the equilibria.

  19. Apparatus for sealing the seam between two conduits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An apparatus is described for sealing the seam between first and second axially aligned conduits comprising: sealing means disposed at the seam between the first and second conduits; a spacer having means for detachable connecting to the first conduit in such a manner as to apply a generally uniform axial force to the perimeter of the first conduit and a first threaded surface; a second spacer connecting to the second conduit; at least one of the spacer means being rotatably disposed with respect to the connected conduit; and the first threaded surface and a second threaded surface cooperating to relatively axially displace the first conduit and the second conduit by applying the axial forces thereto to compress the sealing means when the first spacer means and the second spacer means are relatively rotated. This patent also describes means for this apparatus to be used in a nuclear reactor pressure vessel in combination with an instrumentation port extending through the pressure vessel and comprising a male flange secured to the pressure vessel, an instrumentation port column extending through the male flange, and generally annular sealing means between the male flange and instrumentation port column which forms a seal therebetween when the port column is axially displaced relative to the male flange

  20. Should the EPR be financed by industrialists?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a reciprocal arrangement, the industrialists should be invited to contribute to the financing of the new generation reactor EPR (European pressurized reactor) which will be built in Flamanville (Manche, France). In exchange to their financial participation, the industrialists will receive the contractual warranty of stable electricity prices during 10 to 15 years periods. This short paper presents the opposite opinion of two representative of French industries concerning this proposal. Short paper. (J.S.)

  1. Inspection of Emergency Arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Working Group on Inspection Practices (WGIP) was tasked by the NEA CNRA to examine and evaluate the extent to which emergency arrangements are inspected and to identify areas of importance for the development of good inspection practices. WGIP members shared their approaches to the inspection of emergency arrangements by the use of questionnaires, which were developed from the requirements set out in IAEA Safety Standards. Detailed responses to the questionnaires from WGIP member countries have been compiled and are presented in the appendix to this report. The following commendable practices have been drawn from the completed questionnaires and views provided by WGIP members: - RBs and their Inspectors have sufficient knowledge and information regarding operator's arrangements for the preparedness and response to nuclear emergencies, to enable authoritative advice to be given to the national coordinating authority, where necessary. - Inspectors check that the operator's response to a nuclear emergency is adequately integrated with relevant response organisations. - Inspectors pay attention to consider the integration of the operator's response to safety and security threats. - The efficiency of international relations is checked in depth during some exercises (e.g. early warning, assistance and technical information), especially for near-border facilities that could lead to an emergency response abroad. - RB inspection programmes consider the adequacy of arrangements for emergency preparedness and response to multi-unit accidents. - RBs assess the adequacy of arrangements to respond to accidents in other countries. - The RB's role is adequately documented and communicated to all agencies taking part in the response to a nuclear or radiological emergency. - Inspectors check that threat assessments for NPPs have been undertaken in accordance with national requirements and that up-to-date assessments have been used as the basis for developing emergency plans for NPPs. - Where RBs have an influence over land use around NPPs, they use the knowledge of their local or resident inspectors to inform decisions. - Inspectors check that appropriate action levels or criteria to identify an actual or radiological emergency are clearly defined and readily available to decision makers. - When observing emergency exercises inspectors check that: an appropriate and timely declaration is made, plant operators respond in accordance with the emergency plan and emergency instructions, and an appropriate level of response is initiated on and off-site. - RBs conduct follow-up inspections after real events, to ensure that the correct emergency response has been followed. - Inspectors verify that reliable data will be used to support the evaluation of environmental impact from a nuclear or radiological emergency, to the extent that this is within the jurisdiction of the RB. - Routine inspections and emergency exercise observations include a check that lines of communication are sufficiently resilient. - When observing emergency exercises inspectors, where practicable, check that timely, accurate and consistent information is provided to the public, in accordance with the off-site emergency plan. - RBs inspect the ability of the operator to give accurate medical and radiological information about casualties, to enable the correct treatment to be given. - Additional emergency equipment that is held in reserve off-site, provided to enhance resilience (post Fukushima), is included in the RB planned inspection and/or emergency exercise programme. - Inspectors check that licensee staff are adequately trained to connect and use additional equipment provided to enhance resilience. - Inspectors utilise the NPP operator's approved on-site emergency plan when inspecting on-site emergency arrangements. - RBs include human factors staff in emergency exercise evaluation teams to consider safety culture and human performance. - RBs consider the need for exercise scenarios to be undisclosed to exercise participants. - Bilateral trans-national inspection programmes between RBs on the topic of emergency preparedness should be developed and continued. (authors)

  2. Nuclear reactor core arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nuclear reactor core consists of a number of fuel elements, some of which are adapted to receive control rods for reactivity control in the core. Dependent on location in the core, the control rods have different control worths. At least one of the fuel elements receiving a control rod with the highest control worth includes mixed-oxide (plutonium-uranium) fuel while the other fuel elements have only uranium fuel. With this arrangement, increased amounts of mixed oxide fuels may be utilized with no loss in safety margin. (U.K.)

  3. Nuclear fuel storage arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An arrangement is disclosed for the storage of nuclear reactor fuel assemblies having a section wherein fuel is present and a section wherein fuel is not present. The fuel assemblies are placed in a plurality of elongated cells which are joined together to form a cellular structure. The fuel assemblies are placed within the cells at different elevations so that the fuel-containing section of one fuel assembly is next to the non-fuel-containing sections of each fuel assembly surrounding the first fuel assembly. The vertical staggering of the fuel-containing sections achieves space reductions while maintaining the stored fuel in a subcritical assemblage. 12 claims, 10 figures

  4. Advance-Purchase Financing of Projects with Few Buyers

    OpenAIRE

    Sahm, Marco

    2015-01-01

    I investigate a simple model of advance-purchase contracts as a mode of financing costly projects. The analysis can easily be reinterpreted as a model of monopolistic provision of excludable public goods under private information. An entrepreneur has to meet some capital requirement in order to start production and sell the related good to a limited number of potential buyers who are privately informed about their willingness to pay. I find that advance-purchase arrangements allow to finance ...

  5. FINANCING OF INTERNATIONAL TRANSACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADU NICOLAE BĂLUNĂ

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Financing (funding is essentially the purchase of funds necessary for a business. This can be done from internal sources (company’s own funds or external (borrowed funds. The high value of goods traded in international trade makes revenues generated from internal resources not sufficient to settle the value of the goods. Thus, it is frequent to resort to borrowed funds. In International Business Transactions, external financing is done both by classical techniques of credit (credit supplier and buyer credit and modern techniques of financing (factoring, forfeiting, leasing all trade tailored. In terms of the length of financing, accounting funding is short-term (1-12 months and long-term financing (over a year. In principle, export and import operations prevailing short-term financing techniques, while international investment and industrial cooperation actions are specific long-term funding

  6. Financing Distributed Generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper introduces the engineer who is undertaking distributed generation projects to a wide range of financing options. Distributed generation systems (such as internal combustion engines, small gas turbines, fuel cells and photovoltaics) all require an initial investment, which is recovered over time through revenues or savings. An understanding of the cost of capital and financing structures helps the engineer develop realistic expectations and not be offended by the common requirements of financing organizations. This paper discusses several mechanisms for financing distributed generation projects: appropriations; debt (commercial bank loan); mortgage; home equity loan; limited partnership; vendor financing; general obligation bond; revenue bond; lease; Energy Savings Performance Contract; utility programs; chauffage (end-use purchase); and grants. The paper also discusses financial strategies for businesses focusing on distributed generation: venture capital; informal investors (''business angels''); bank and debt financing; and the stock market

  7. Guidebook to financing CDM projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamel, S.

    2007-07-01

    One of the challenges facing Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects today is their limited ability to secure financing for the underlying greenhouse gas emission reduction activities, particularly in the least developed countries. Among the key reasons for this is the fact that most financial intermediaries in the CDM host countries have limited or no knowledge of the CDM Modalities and Procedures. Moreover, approaches, tools and skills for CDM project appraisal are lacking or are asymmetrical to the skills in comparable institutions in developed countries. Consequently, developing country financial institutions are unable to properly evaluate the risks and rewards associated with investing or lending to developers undertaking CDM projects, and therefore have, by-and-large, refrained from financing these projects. In addition, some potential project proponents lack experience in structuring arrangements for financing a project. This Guidebook - commissioned by the UNEP Risoe Centre as part of the activities of the Capacity Development for CDM (CD4CDM) project (http://www.cd4cdm.org) - addresses these barriers by providing information aimed at both developing country financial institutions and at CDM project proponents. It should be noted that while the Guidebook was developed particularly with the CDM in mind, most sections will also be relevant for Joint Implementation (JI) project activities. For more detailed information on JI modalities and procedures please consult: http://ji.unfccc.int The purpose of this Guidebook is two-fold: 1) To guide project developers on obtaining financing for the implementation of activities eligible under the CDM; and 2) To demonstrate to developing country financial institutions typical approaches and methods for appraising the viability of CDM projects and for optimally integrating carbon revenue into overall project financing. The target audiences for the Guidebook are therefore, primarily: 1) CDM project proponents in developing countries, including but not limited to utilities, private and public sector entities, municipalities, and other specialised consultancies and intermediaries; and 2) Credit officers and other decision-makers within banking institutions and financial intermediaries in developing countries. (au)

  8. Thermally actuated linkage arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A reusable thermally actuated linkage arrangement includes a first link member having a longitudinal bore therein adapted to receive at least a portion of a second link member therein, the first and second members being sized to effect an interference fit preventing relative movement there-between at a temperature below a predetermined temperature. The link members have different coefficients of thermal expansion so that when the linkage is selectively heated by heating element to a temperature above the predetermined temperature, relative longitudinal and/or rotational movement between the first and second link members is enabled. Two embodiments of a thermally activated linkage are disclosed which find particular application in actuators for a grapple head positioning arm in a nuclear reactor fuel handling mechanism to facilitate back-up safety retraction of the grapple head independently from the primary fuel handling mechanism drive system. (author)

  9. Nuclear decommissioning: Funding arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This statement describes the United Kingdom's approach to funding civil nuclear decommissioning activities and explain proposed changes to the current arrangements. The UK has nuclear operators both in the private and public sectors and the approach to decommissioning funding differs. British Energy (BE), which operates a fleet of AGR power stations and a PWR, is in the private sector. On privatization, a segregated fund was established to cover BE's future decommissioning costs. Money paid into the fund is invested and the accumulated assets used to meet future decommissioning and cleanup costs. The precise amount of money that will be required to cover decommissioning costs is not an exact science. That is why the performance of the segregated fund is reviewed at five yearly intervals, at which stage BE's annual contribution can be adjusted as appropriate. To ensure that the fund is managed effectively and investments are made wisely, the fund is managed by independent trustees jointly appointed by the Government and the company. So far, the fund is performing as expected and it is on target to cover BE's decommissioning costs. Operators in the public sector include British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL) and the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA). BNFL operates the fleet of Magnox power stations, a number of which are in various stages of decommissioning. BNFL also operates Sellafield (reprocessing, MOX and other operations) and Springfields (fuel manufacture). UKAEA is responsible for decommissioning the UK's former research reactor sites at Dounreay, Windscale (Cumbria), Harwell and Winfrith (Dorset). Under current arrangements, taxpayers meet the cost of decommissioning and cleanup at UKAEA sites; taxpayers will also meet the costs associated with the decommissioning of Magnox power stations from 2008 onwards

  10. Project financing in Latin America: The search for greener pastures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper addresses the basic requisites for inducing private capital to engage in infrastructure project financing. Part 1 of this paper provides an overview of project financing considerations, such as how pricing of project outputs and the credit history of output purchasers can affect the availability of project financing, and explores the use of ''Revolving Funds'' as a stimulus for private investment. Part 2 discusses several areas in which governments can become pro-active participants in establishing a sound framework for project financing of infrastructure. Part 3 briefly addresses project structuring and the contractual risk allocation process which is central to project financing, and highlights some of the key legal arrangements found in project contracts

  11. Financing Strategies for Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To help meet our nation's energy needs, reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel is being considered more and more as a necessary step in a future nuclear fuel cycle, but incorporating this step into the fuel cycle will require considerable investment. This report presents an evaluation of financing scenarios for reprocessing facilities integrated into the nuclear fuel cycle. A range of options, from fully government owned to fully private owned, was evaluated using a DPL (Dynamic Programming Language) 6.0 model, which can systematically optimize outcomes based on user-defined criteria (e.g., lowest life-cycle cost, lowest unit cost). Though all business decisions follow similar logic with regard to financing, reprocessing facilities are an exception due to the range of financing options available. The evaluation concludes that lowest unit costs and lifetime costs follow a fully government-owned financing strategy, due to government forgiveness of debt as sunk costs. Other financing arrangements, however, including regulated utility ownership and a hybrid ownership scheme, led to acceptable costs, below the Nuclear Energy Agency published estimates. Overwhelmingly, uncertainty in annual capacity led to the greatest fluctuations in unit costs necessary for recovery of operating and capital expenditures; the ability to determine annual capacity will be a driving factor in setting unit costs. For private ventures, the costs of capital, especially equity interest rates, dominate the balance sheet; the annual operating costs dominate the government case. It is concluded that to finance the construction and operation of such a facility without government ownership could be feasible with measures taken to mitigate risk, and that factors besides unit costs should be considered (e.g., legal issues, social effects, proliferation concerns) before making a decision on financing strategy

  12. Financing Strategies for Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Shropshire; Sharon Chandler

    2005-12-01

    To help meet our nation’s energy needs, reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel is being considered more and more as a necessary step in a future nuclear fuel cycle, but incorporating this step into the fuel cycle will require considerable investment. This report presents an evaluation of financing scenarios for reprocessing facilities integrated into the nuclear fuel cycle. A range of options, from fully government owned to fully private owned, was evaluated using a DPL (Dynamic Programming Language) 6.0 model, which can systematically optimize outcomes based on user-defined criteria (e.g., lowest life-cycle cost, lowest unit cost). Though all business decisions follow similar logic with regard to financing, reprocessing facilities are an exception due to the range of financing options available. The evaluation concludes that lowest unit costs and lifetime costs follow a fully government-owned financing strategy, due to government forgiveness of debt as sunk costs. Other financing arrangements, however, including regulated utility ownership and a hybrid ownership scheme, led to acceptable costs, below the Nuclear Energy Agency published estimates. Overwhelmingly, uncertainty in annual capacity led to the greatest fluctuations in unit costs necessary for recovery of operating and capital expenditures; the ability to determine annual capacity will be a driving factor in setting unit costs. For private ventures, the costs of capital, especially equity interest rates, dominate the balance sheet; the annual operating costs dominate the government case. It is concluded that to finance the construction and operation of such a facility without government ownership could be feasible with measures taken to mitigate risk, and that factors besides unit costs should be considered (e.g., legal issues, social effects, proliferation concerns) before making a decision on financing strategy.

  13. Internationally Recommended Best Practices in Transportation Financing Public-Private Partnerships (P3s)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, Lawrence; Lawther, Wendell; Hodge, Graeme; Greve, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    Transportation financing public-private partnerships (P3s) are a common practice in many countries. However, they represent a relatively new approach to transportation infrastructure financing for state and local governments in the United States. In a transportation financing P3 project, a private...... sector partner designs-builds-finances-operates- maintains (DBFOM) a transportation infrastructure asset (road, highway, bridge, tunnel, etc.) with an emphasis on financing. Under this type of arrangement, the private sector partner is primarily responsible for securing all or substantially all of the...

  14. Biological conduit small gap sleeve bridging method for peripheral nerve injury: regeneration law of nerve fibers in the conduit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-xun Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical effects of 2-mm small gap sleeve bridging of the biological conduit to repair peripheral nerve injury are better than in the traditional epineurium suture, so it is possible to replace the epineurium suture in the treatment of peripheral nerve injury. This study sought to identify the regeneration law of nerve fibers in the biological conduit. A nerve regeneration chamber was constructed in models of sciatic nerve injury using 2-mm small gap sleeve bridging of a biodegradable biological conduit. The results showed that the biological conduit had good histocompatibility. Tissue and cell apoptosis in the conduit apparently lessened, and regenerating nerve fibers were common. The degeneration regeneration law of Schwann cells and axons in the conduit was quite different from that in traditional epineurium suture. During the prime period for nerve fiber regeneration (2-8 weeks, the number of Schwann cells and nerve fibers was higher in both proximal and distal ends, and the effects of the small gap sleeve bridging method were better than those of the traditional epineurium suture. The above results provide an objective and reliable theoretical basis for the clinical application of the biological conduit small gap sleeve bridging method to repair peripheral nerve injury.

  15. Financing - general considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various aspects of the problems of financing a multinational regional fuel cycle centre (RFCC) are briefly discussed. Some of the points covered are: financing by participants; floating long-term loans on capital markets outside the countries of the participants; and export credits for the purchase of equipment manufactured outside the countries of the participants

  16. Quo Vadis Infrastructure Financing?

    OpenAIRE

    Brodehser, Peter

    2013-01-01

    1. Introduction 2. The project finance market in 2006/2007 3. Areas affected by the global financial crisis 4. Areas affected by the euro financial crisis 5. Basel III and the consequences for infrastructure financing 6. Outlook – Where do we go from here?

  17. Geothermal Financing Workbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battocletti, E.C.

    1998-02-01

    This report was prepared to help small firm search for financing for geothermal energy projects. There are various financial and economics formulas. Costs of some small overseas geothermal power projects are shown. There is much discussion of possible sources of financing, especially for overseas projects. (DJE-2005)

  18. Quo Vadis Infrastructure Financing?

    OpenAIRE

    Brodehser, Peter

    2013-01-01

    1. Introduction 2. The project finance market in 2006/2007 3. Areas affected by the global financial crisis 4. Areas affected by the euro financial crisis 5. Basel III and the consequences for infrastructure financing 6. Outlook – Where do we go from here?

  19. Healthcare financing in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kananatu, K

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Malaysian healthcare system and its method of financing. The development of the healthcare delivery system in Malaysia is commendable. However, the strength and weaknesses of the public healthcare system and the financing problems encountered are also discussed. Cost of healthcare and funding of both the public and private sectors were also revealed. One must optimise the advantages of operating a health financing scheme which is affordable and controllable which contribute towards cost-containment and quality assurance. Thus, there is a need for the establishment of a National Healthcare Financing, a mechanism to sustain the healthcare delivery network and operate it as a viable option. A model of the National Health Financing Scheme (NHFS) was proposed. PMID:12597514

  20. Financing Canadian international operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A primer on financing international operations by Canadian corporations was provided. Factors affecting the availability to project finance (location, political risk), the various forms of financing (debt, equity, and combinations), the main sources of government backed financing to corporations (the International Finance Corporation) (IFC), the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), the Asian Development Bank (ADB), the Overseas Property Insurance Corporation (OPIC), government or agency guarantees, political risk coverage, the use of offshore financial centres, and the where, when and how these various organizations operate, were reviewed. Examples of all of the above, taken from the experiences of Canadian Occidental Petroleum of Calgary in the U.S., in South America, in the Middle and Far East, and in Kazakhstan, were used as illustrations. figs

  1. Financial Collateral Arrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulenay Rusen

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasing use of securities and collaterals in transactions brings the legal ambiguity in today’s financialmarkets which are trying to globalise. It should have been noted that without legal certainty an achievement cannot be obtained in a complete manner. To solve this legal ambiguity in financial markets, reform movements havebeen started through out the world from different groups, institutions and communities involving both jurists andpractitioners., The Directive on settlement finality in payment and securities settlement systems and the Directiveon financial collateral arrangements were adopted. These two directives are both supplementary legislations for theDirective of the Parliament and of the Council on the reorganisation and winding up of credit institutions dated 4April 2001. All of these directives are the circles of a chain that aim the proper functioning of the internal financialmarket in European Union. In this study, mainly the Collateral Directive will be taken into account. Firstly, thenecessity of a harmonised collateral law and the aims of the Collateral Directive will be handled. Following, themain provisions of the directive will be analysed in details. While analysing in details, the differentimplementations of the directive in member states will be mentioned. Finally, the conflict of laws clause and theconsequences of the directive will be explained.

  2. Multiderivations of Coxeter arrangements

    CERN Document Server

    Terao, H

    2002-01-01

    Let $V$ be an $\\ell$-dimensional Euclidean space. Let $G \\subset O(V)$ be a finite irreducible orthogonal reflection group. Let ${\\cal A}$ be the corresponding Coxeter arrangement. Let $S$ be the algebra of polynomial functions on $V.$ For $H \\in {\\cal A}$ choose $\\alpha_H \\in V^*$ such that $H = {\\rm ker}(\\alpha_H).$ For each nonnegative integer $m$, define the derivation module $\\sD^{(m)}({\\cal A}) = \\{\\theta \\in {\\rm Der}_S | \\theta(\\alpha_H) \\in S \\alpha^m_H\\}$. The module is known to be a free $S$-module of rank $\\ell$ by K. Saito (1975) for $m=1$ and L. Solomon-H. Terao (1998) for $m=2$. The main result of this paper is that this is the case for all $m$. Moreover we explicitly construct a basis for $\\sD^{(m)} (\\cal A)$. Their degrees are all equal to $mh/2$ (when $m$ is even) or are equal to $((m-1)h/2) + m_i (1 \\leq i \\leq \\ell)$ (when $m$ is odd). Here $m_1 \\leq ... \\leq m_{\\ell}$ are the exponents of $G$ and $h= m_{\\ell} + 1$ is the Coxeter number. The construction heavily uses the primitive derivati...

  3. Articulated device for guiding a band of conduits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The device consists of a support comprising at least two articulated arms to form of a pair of compasses; when the compasses are closed, all the conduits have the same internal radius of curvature. Each arm comprises two bars connected by a holding structure between which the conduits are disposed. A bar of one arm is connected to a bar of the other arm by an articulated joint so that the two joints between the bars are on either side of the band of conduits during actuation of the arms. The device is useful for guiding electrical cables, fluid supply tubes, etc, in the core cover of a liquid metal cooled, fast neutron nuclear reactor. The device can maintain a large number of conduits without risk of tangling or rupture when the arms are closed

  4. Financing Internal Buyouts of Private Companies: SCIN Attractive If Valuation Issues Can Be Resolved

    OpenAIRE

    Crain, Terry; Hamill, James

    1995-01-01

    In planning for succession of ownership, oftentimes the owner of a private business seeks to sell the business to either family members or employees. Arranging outside financing may be difficult or costly, making internal financing attractive. Self-cancelling installment notes (SCINs) provide an opportunity to finance the transfer of ownership at a favorable interest rate and to obtain income and estate tax advantages. However, to pass muster with the Internal Revenue Service, the SCIN must i...

  5. Link complexes of subspace arrangements

    OpenAIRE

    Hultman, Axel

    2005-01-01

    Given a simplicial hyperplane arrangement H and a subspace arrangement A embedded in H, we define a simplicial complex Delta_{A,H} as the subdivision of the link of A induced by H. In particular, this generalizes Steingrimsson's coloring complex of a graph. We do the following: (1) When A is a hyperplane arrangement, Delta_{A,H} is shown to be shellable. As a special case, we answer affirmatively a question of Steingrimsson on coloring complexes. (2) For H being ...

  6. Multicriteria analysis in finance

    CERN Document Server

    Doumpos, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a concise introduction into the fundamentals and applied techniques of multiple criteria decision making in the finance sector. Based on an analysis of the nature of financial decisions and the general methods of financial modelling, risk management and financial engineering, the book introduces into portfolio management, banking management and credit scoring. Finally the book presents an overview of further applications of multi criteria analysis in finance and gives an outlook on future perspectives for the application of MCDA in finance.

  7. The Finance Curse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, John; Shaxson, Nick; Wigan, Duncan

    2016-01-01

    The Global Financial Crisis placed the utility of financial services in question. The crash, great recession, wealth transfers from public to private, austerity and growing inequality cast doubt on the idea that finance is a boon to the host economy. This article systematizes these doubts to......, economic instability, inequality, conflict, rent-seeking and corruption. The Finance Curse produces similar effects, often for similar reasons. Beyond a point, a growing financial sector can do more harm than good. Unlike the Resource Curse, these harms transcend borders. The concept of a Finance Curse...

  8. Project financing in the energy sector: The Indonesian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Past Indonesian experiences in arranging Project Financing or Limited Recourse Financing in the Energy Sector and the feasibility of such a structure for Nuclear Power Projects are reviewed in this paper. Many of the projects in the energy sector, including Nuclear Power Project are capital intensive projects. A single project may require an investment level of several billion dollars. Large capital investments of this nature may drastically limit the availability of funds from external sources used to finance other non-energy projects in a developing country such as Indonesia. Therefore, the financing concept of a project is becoming a paramount element in the policies adopted by the Republic of Indonesia. As an example, a non-recourse finance structure is the preference of the government for export oriented energy projects. The aim of the government financing policy for export oriented energy projects is to limit the recourse to the applicable Indonesian state enterprise (the project sponsor) by transferring to third parties as much of the project risks as possible. Most of the export oriented energy projects come close to achieving a non-recourse structure. Domestic oriented energy projects however, continue to be financed with a loan guarantee by the government or by state owned enterprises. In addition to maintaining fund availability from external sources for the non-energy sector, Indonesia's reported external debts as well as debt service ratios are other factors in considering a limited recourse financing structure for capital intensive projects. (author)

  9. Temperature limited heater with a conduit substantially electrically isolated from the formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Sandberg, Chester Ledlie (Palo Alto, CA)

    2009-07-14

    A system for heating a hydrocarbon containing formation is described. A conduit may be located in an opening in the formation. The conduit includes ferromagnetic material. An electrical conductor is positioned inside the conduit, and is electrically coupled to the conduit at or near an end portion of the conduit so that the electrical conductor and the conduit are electrically coupled in series. Electrical current flows in the electrical conductor in a substantially opposite direction to electrical current flow in the conduit during application of electrical current to the system. The flow of electrons is substantially confined to the inside of the conduit by the electromagnetic field generated from electrical current flow in the electrical conductor so that the outside surface of the conduit is at or near substantially zero potential at 25.degree. C. The conduit may generate heat and heat the formation during application of electrical current.

  10. FINANCING INNOVATION IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SORIN SERBAN

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This article based on an examination of empirical literature, analyses the financing of innovative enterprises in Romania and presents the characteristics of Romanian policies in this regard. It sets forth an estimation of the number of innovative enterprises in Romania based on figures from different sources. Assessing the role of financial restrictions on innovation reveals that a firm is facing obstacles to finance its innovative activities but also other difficulties to innovate which appears to be enhanced. This article also puts forward the role of different financing actors and instruments at different stages of the firm's life cycle and emphasizes the function of proximity capital in filling the gap between supply and demand of financing. Finally a framework for policy is recommended.

  11. To finance the transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A set of brief articles illustrates the emergence of innovating and operational financing tools aimed at supporting energy transition in France and in Europe. As far as France is concerned, different examples are evoked: raising local savings, crowd-funding for renewable energies, citizen investment, cooperation between industries, communities and citizens, a semi-public company with citizen participation, the case of the Nancy urban community, a joint experience by a local public company and an investment fund. As far as Europe is concerned, the following topics or examples are evoked: local policies as lever for European financing, the Danish example of citizen-based financing, crowd-funding in the UK, the European emergence of cooperatives. As far as banks and institutions are concerned, the following topics are addressed: tools implemented by the Caisse des Depots for energy transition, the roles of banks and of public institutions in the financing of energy transition

  12. Export development financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main activities of the Export Development Corporation (EDC) were described, as well as some of the changes currently being implemented. EDC is Canada's official export credit agency, providing risk management services such as insurance, loans, guarantees, equity and leasing. EDC's project finance initiative started in 1991, and focused mainly on the up-front process. It has established itself as a recognized leader in project financing. It has over 15 years experience in a variety of sectors and countries. Energy projects financed to date include hydro projects in India, Argentina and Pakistan, and thermal projects in Thailand, China, Indonesia and Egypt. Lending criteria used to select projects were outlined, along with the risks endemic to project financing

  13. Financing Public Service Broadcasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Christian Edelvold; Lund, Anker Brink

    2012-01-01

    Broadcasting (PSB) financing regimes in Europe, concluding that Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden may still be considered conventional, licence fee PSB countries, but with some interesting differences in relation to competitive and market oriented alternatives of resource provision...

  14. Innovative M and A financing structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structuring and financing of mergers and acquisitions (M and A) is one of the most critical elements of a takeover process, given that Canadian securities law requires that any takeover must be 'fully financed'. It follows therefore, that in order to comply with securities laws, the financing for a takeover must be arranged in advance of making such a bid. This paper describes the structuring of an offer, outlines the sources of M and A financing, including a review of the 'full capital solution', reviews the key forces influencing the financial structuring of takeover bids, and provides examples of recent M and A transactions in the oil and gas resources sectors. Case histories of two recent mergers and acquisitions, one involving Sun Media Corporation and Rogers Communication Inc., the other John Labatt Limited and the Onex Corporation, were reviewed in detail. The importance of proper structuring of the offer for the specific target's shareholders, as well as for future business operations was stressed

  15. Financing the German Mittelstand

    OpenAIRE

    Hommel, Ulrich; Schneider, Hilmar

    2003-01-01

    Based on a survey conducted among German Mittelstand firms and capital structure data on the Mittelstand, this paper sheds light on the current and future financing situation of the Mittelstand. The paper documents the equity shortage and dependence on bank debt typically associated with the Mittelstand. It further emphasises that - at present - fears of systematic credit rationing are difficult to substantiate (though a lack of alternative sources of finance can be expected to adversely affe...

  16. Health Financing Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Cashin, Cheryl

    2016-01-01

    This guidance note outlines the key components of the macroeconomic, fiscal, and public financial management context that need to be considered for an informed health financing discussion at the country level. The guidance note is organized around four sets of questions that are key to placing the health financing dialogue in the context of a country’s macroeconomic and fiscal context. Each section points to measures, resources, and analytical tools that are available to assist in answering...

  17. Financing asset growth

    OpenAIRE

    Brennan, Michael J.; Kraft, Holger

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we provide new evidence that corporate financing decisions are associated with managerial incentives to report high equity earnings. Managers rely most heavily on debt to finance their asset growth when their future earnings prospects are poor, when they are under pressure due to past declines in earnings, negative past stock returns, and excessively optimistic analyst earnings forecasts, and when the earnings yield is high relative to bond yields so that from an accounting pers...

  18. International energy financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some of the innovative financing options being considered by developing countries and economies in transition as ways of mobilizing international energy financing are discussed. Build-Own-Operate (BOO) and Transfer (BOOT) is the most commonly adopted approach. This involves limited resource financing of a project on the basis of the associated cash flow and risks and not on the credit of the project owners. The World Bank has set up the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency to provide, on a fee basis, guarantees against certain non-commercial forms of risk in order to promote international capital flow to developing countries. In 1989, the World Bank introduced the Expanded Co-financing Operations (ECO) programme as an instrument to catalyze the flow of private finance into developing countries and to improve their access to international financial markets. Other financial instruments currently being established include: leasing of equipment or whole plants by foreign investors; private ownership or operation of generation and distribution facilities; exchange of specific export goods for energy imports; developing instruments to finance local costs; revenue bonds; tax-exempt bonds; sale of electricity futures to those seeking more stable, longer term electricity price contracts. (UK)

  19. Nuclear core region fastener arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An arrangement is disclosed for cooling the fasteners affixing a core barrel to a core former and a core baffle to a core former in the reactor vessel internals of a nuclear reactor. The arrangement allows the flowing reactor coolant to contact the fasteners, preferably bolts with an elliptical neck, and maintains lower bolt operating temperatures than previously experienced

  20. IAEA paper on institutional arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At its fifth series of meetings, Working Group 3 received a background paper prepared by the IAEA which had a threefold purpose: firstly, to provide an overview on institutional arrangements under consideration by the INFCE Working Groups; secondly, to explore potential relationships between the various institutional arrangements under consideration; and thirdly, to identify areas where further analysis might be desirable

  1. Guide to financing of mining projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potts, D.

    1985-07-01

    The different sources and types of finance for mining projects are described and the factors that determine their costs are examined. Most mining engineers are familiar with the cash flow techniques that are used to assess the economic viability of a project, but that non-technical financial executives usually play the principal part in arranging the final financial package. The fundamental difference between debt and equity is explained to illustrate the importance of gearing. The choice of a particular financial method often depends on the accountancy system and tax rules in the country in which the project is located. New financing techniques are often developed in response to changes in accountancy and taxation rules.

  2. Financing energy projects in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Overview of financing trends in Africa; Multilateral support - Bedrock of Africa's first generation energy projects; ECA insurance and financing; Bilateral development finance; Offshore commercial bank lending; Local commercial bank finance; Capital markets; Legal ramifications ; Risk factors; Conclusions. (Author)

  3. Solution conduits as indicators of late Quaternary sea level position

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylroie, John E.; Carew, James J.

    Solution conduits or caves can provide a measure of glacio-eustatic sea level position for the Quaternary. In high latitudes, cave deposits contain artifacts, fossils and sediments that reflect surface conditions with respect to climate. Secondary calcite deposits, most notably stalagmites, record growth episodes during ice minima and non-growth during ice maxima. They provide an indirect estimate of areal ice cover at high latitudes, and are an indirect measure of sea level. In low latitudes, stable carbonate platforms contain caves that provide a direct measure of past sea level position. Solution conduits developing in a fresh water lens will record the position of the lens and therefore sea level. As sea level fluctuates, fresh water lens horizons and conduit development horizons will shift, preserving a record of past sea level position. Cave wall rock and cave deposits can produce a chronology for given conduit positions. Secondary calcite deposits, notably stalagmites, record growth periods during sea level low stands (or ice maxima) and record growth hiatuses during flooding by sea level high stands (or ice minima); the inverse of high latitude stalagmites. Lighthouse Cave, San Salvador Island, Bahamas, records a sea level high stand at +1 to +6 m for some time period between 85,000 and 70,000 years ago, based on position and timing of conduit development; and records sea level at present elevation for some time period between 49,000 and 37,000 years ago, based on a stalagmite with a marine overgrowth.

  4. Creative Capital Financing: Lease Purchase and Leasing Air Space (The Florida Approach).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Franklin L.

    1983-01-01

    Among recent creative financing arrangements for public sector construction in Florida are the Duval County Central Administration Building, constructed with a lease purchase arrangement, and state legislation that provides for the leasing or sale of air space by local school boards or boards of regents. (MLF)

  5. Nuclear cooperation through institutional arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of nuclear technologies and their applications require international cooperation through educational, research, commercial and inter-governmental arrangements. These arrangements may be on bilateral, regional or international bases. With the oncoming age of globalization, it is apparent that more international cooperative efforts will be undertaken on a global scale. This presentation focused on the three major issues for international cooperation: nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear safety and nuclear waste management. It is estimated that in the context of Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Pacific Nuclear Council could provide a fruitful institutional arrangement for nuclear cooperation

  6. Development of conduits for the ITER central solenoid conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency has developed a JK2LB conduit for the Nb3Sn conductor of the ITER central solenoid (CS). Mechanical requirements for the CS conductor conduit are a 0.2% yield strength of more than 900 MPa and a fracture toughness KIC (J) of more than 130 MPa ?m after a compaction and aging heat treatment (650degC, 240 hours). In a previous work, it was shown that an aged JK2LB conduit has high strength and sufficient fracture toughness enough to satisfy the requirements. As the next step, work was performed to determine the specifications of the JK2LB conduit taking into account of cold work, including compaction and winding, and to simplify its fabrication process. To simulate the cold work effect with cold work of 10% and aging, mechanical tests were performed at 4.2 K on laboratory-scale (20-30 kg) ingot samples at 4.2 K. It was found that the sum of carbon and nitrogen content should be in the range from 0.11% to 0.18% to achieve the ITER mechanical requirements. To obtain a grain-sized of conduit as well as that of a small ingot sample, the appropriate solution heat-treatment temperature and holding time were studied. In order to simplify the billet production process, we confirmed the internal metallurgical qualities of a JK2LB-cast ingot. Since significant segregation was not observed, it was possible to exclude the electroslag remelting process. Based on the above achievements, full-size JK2LB conduits that satisfy the ITER mechanical requirements were fabricated. (author)

  7. Financing responsibility for nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic premise for financing arrangements for the disposal of nuclear waste is that the nuclear industry - not the taxpayer - must bear the costs. Present regulations, however, are imperfect in this regard. The Inquiry therefore proposes extending the financial liability of the nuclear industry and introducing new fee-setting arrangements. It is proposed that a new law be enacted to regulate these changes. The present financing system is regulated in the 'Financing Act' 1. Under this Act, the licensed owner and operator of a nuclear reactor is required to pay an annual fee and provide guarantees to the State. Four companies are reactor owners. These companies are wholly or partly owned by other companies according to various arrangements. Each reactor owner is responsible for its own dismantling costs and for its share of allocated common costs of disposal and related measures. If there is insufficient money in the funds, the nuclear industry will still be liable. The basic premise of the Inquiry is that the financing system should be designed so as to minimise the risk that the State (and taxpayers) will need to step in and pay. Although the nuclear industry is intended to have full liability for payment, in practice it does not. This is because the formal full liability for payment in the nuclear industry rests with the reactor companies and not where the industry's long-term ability to pay is to be found. Essentially, the present arrangements mean that: - Companies that cannot be expected to have any long-term ability to pay have unlimited liability, and - Companies that can be expected to have an ability to pay have very limited liability. The Inquiry therefore proposes that ability to pay and liability are brought into line by a formal assumption by owning companies of the sort of liability for payment that now rests solely with the reactor companies. This means that the owning company in each group that is best suited to bear the liability for payment - which in principle is likely to be the leading company in the group - will also assume liability through a payment guarantee. The extended requirement to pay fees for the period until the final disposal sites are sealed and the secondary liability for payment are central components of the proposed new design of the financing system. In other cases where the State assumes risks, risk assessments are made. This applies, for example, when the State provides guarantees in the area of export credits. In the view of the Inquiry, however, the State has not followed an appropriate course of action in managing the financial risk involved in this case. Use must be made of descriptions of risks in other projects and experience of managing financial risks of other projects. The Inquiry considers that a different system and different management is required in order to put the liability of the nuclear industry for costs into place - and so limit the financial risk borne by the State. The Inquiry considers it essential that the use of funds is followed up and audited so as to maintain confidence in the financing system. The Inquiry considers that a three-year fee period should create scope for auditing and control and proposes that the safety authority be instructed in an ordinance to draw up rules aimed at facilitating follow-up by requiring time limits, comparability, etc. It is proposed that auditing be made part of a new financially oriented line of activity at the authority. It is proposed further that the safety authority be instructed to deliver an account to the Government every three years regarding its assessment of the most important risk factors in the withdrawals process. The Inquiry proposes that the National Debt Office be instructed to review the issue of a fee for the State's financial risk three years after a new financing system has entered into force

  8. Financing tourist activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujovi? Slavoljub

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper researches which of the possible financing models (self-financing, loan, mutual fund, issuing securities and leasing is the most convenient for tourism financing on the grounds of opinions and views of student population. Taking into account that future social and economic development depends on student population, that in every society intellectual endeavor (science and art exists ever since man exists, that the overall progress of mankind is based on the great intellectual endeavor of former civilizations, as well as the fact that Western Serbia has remarkable natural and anthropogenic characteristics suitable for valorization for the purpose of tourism development, the research questions were formulated and the research was performed. The methods used were: analysis, correlation, deduction and induction. Field research has been of the primary importance and it was based on questionnaires, interviews and in-depth interview. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 46001 i br. 47007

  9. Empirical techniques in finance

    CERN Document Server

    Bhar, Ramaprasad

    2006-01-01

    This book offers the opportunity to study and experience advanced empi- cal techniques in finance and in general financial economics. It is not only suitable for students with an interest in the field, it is also highly rec- mended for academic researchers as well as the researchers in the industry. The book focuses on the contemporary empirical techniques used in the analysis of financial markets and how these are implemented using actual market data. With an emphasis on Implementation, this book helps foc- ing on strategies for rigorously combing finance theory and modeling technology to ext

  10. Multi-track financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Steven W; Randolph, John; Taddey, Anthony J

    2012-05-01

    In today's uncertain economic environment, when seeking to finance a capital project, healthcare borrowers should adopt a multi-tracked funding strategy that permits them to change capital-funding routes quickly in response to changing circumstances. The multi-tracking process requires two stages prior to securing a commitment and beginning the closing process: due diligence and indication of interest. This process should present no material additional cost during these two stages, giving healthcare borrowers the flexibility to explore a variety of financing options. PMID:22616512

  11. Guidebook to Geothermal Finance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmon, J. P.; Meurice, J.; Wobus, N.; Stern, F.; Duaime, M.

    2011-03-01

    This guidebook is intended to facilitate further investment in conventional geothermal projects in the United States. It includes a brief primer on geothermal technology and the most relevant policies related to geothermal project development. The trends in geothermal project finance are the focus of this tool, relying heavily on interviews with leaders in the field of geothermal project finance. Using the information provided, developers and investors may innovate in new ways, developing partnerships that match investors' risk tolerance with the capital requirements of geothermal projects in this dynamic and evolving marketplace.

  12. Whither multilateral development finance?

    OpenAIRE

    Wihtol, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Multilateral development finance is at a critical juncture. In the past 70 years, it has developed through four distinct stages. The Bretton Woods conference established the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund in 1944 to finance post-war reconstruction and stabilize the global economy. The second stage saw the establishment of regional development banks in the 1950s and 1960s. This was followed by the emergence of subregional banks. In the fourth stage, from the mid-1970s to the 20...

  13. Adapting Mudarabah Financing to Contemporary Realities: A Proposed Financing Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Bacha, Obiyathulla I.

    1997-01-01

    Islamic banking in Malaysia, despite its recent start, has seen very rapid growth. This growth however has been uneven. While short-term trade financing has always been dominant and grown rapidly, Mudarabah financing by Islamic banks in Malaysia has reduced to insignificantly amounts. Yet, Mudarabah which is based on profit and loss sharing has always been considered to be at the core of Islamic financing and in tune with the shariah’s injunctions against interest based financing. The ...

  14. Morphometric analysis of three-dimensional networks of karst conduits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-Iguzquiza, Eulogio; Durán-Valsero, Juan J.; Rodríguez-Galiano, Victor

    2011-09-01

    The main idiosyncrasy of a typical karst system is the presence of a three-dimensional network of conduits behaving as drains in the system and being responsible of both the quick response of karst springs to rainfall events and the complex distribution of solutes in the system. A morphometric analysis of the three-dimensional geometry of conduits provides quantitative measures that can be used in a range of applications. These morphometric parameters can be used as descriptors of the underground geomorphology, they provide information on speleogenesis processes, they can be correlated with karst denudation ratios, they can be used to control the simulation of realistic stochastic karst networks of conduits, and they can be correlated with hydrogeologic behaviour of the karst system. The main purpose of this paper is to define, describe and illustrate a range of morphometric indexes and morphometric functions that can be calculated nowadays because the availability of three-dimensional topographies provided by speleological work and the availability of the computational and graphical power provided by modern computers. Some of the morphometric parameters describe the existence of preferential directions of karstification, others describe the kartification along the vertical and the possible presence of inception horizons. Other indexes describe the shape complexity of the karstic network, whilst other indexes describe spatial variability of the conduit geometry, and other parameters give account of the connectivity of the three-dimensional network. The morphometric analysis is illustrated with a three-dimensional karstic network in Southern France.

  15. Equity in Education Financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    This paper addresses concerns with equity in education financing in Alberta, Canada. It describes the major issues involved in funding education and proposes alternative ways of addressing them. The issues are the following: (1) every student should have access to an education which meets his/her needs, but the costs of this education varies…

  16. Prospects for energy financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author indicates the problems which nowadays arise in financing in the field of energy economics. In this connection he draws attention to the magnitude of the risk which is incurred in the application of energy in the future, a risk not only for the banker but also for the whole of the political economy. (orig.)

  17. The Finance Curse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, John; Shaxson, Nick; Wigan, Duncan

    2016-01-01

    The Global Financial Crisis placed the utility of financial services in question. The crash, great recession, wealth transfers from public to private, austerity and growing inequality cast doubt on the idea that finance is a boon to the host economy. This article systematizes these doubts to...

  18. Campaign Finance: Reporter Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieder, Ben

    2014-01-01

    Campaign finance might seem like the exclusive province of political reporters, but there are many good reasons why authors should be paying attention--both in races for education positions and in other key races at the local, state, and federal levels with implications for education. Basic math is a necessary skill and familiarity with a…

  19. Copulas for finance

    OpenAIRE

    Bouye, Eric; Durlleman, Valdo; Nikeghbali, Ashkan; Riboulet, Gaël; Roncalli, Thierry

    2000-01-01

    Copulas are a general tool to construct multivariate distributions and to investigate dependence structure between random variables. However, the concept of copula is not popular in Finance. In this paper, we show that copulas can be extensively used to solve many financial problems.

  20. Financing social housing.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Amann, W.; Hegedüs, J.; Lux, Martin; Springler, E.

    New York/Londýn : Routledge, 2013 - (Hegedüs, J.; Lux, M.; Teller, N.), s. 50-64 ISBN 978-0-415-89014-4 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA403/09/1915 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : Housing finance * transition countries * social housing Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography

  1. Specialized financing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specific financing techniques applicable to wind energy projects in Canada are discussed. A limited partnership is the classic Canadian approach to tax-advantaged financing. For a typical wind project, the limited partners would get an internal rate of return of around 8% over 20 years as well as income tax deductions on Class 34 investments. This rate can be improved if the investors borrow some of the money; they get tax-free cash flow while having deductible loan interest, raising their rate of return after taxes to ca 9-10%. Special situation investors can get to take all of the Class 34 deduction right away, raising their return up to the 12% range. These investors include principal business corporations (such as utilities or oil companies), or companies who have sold their business. A second type of financing structure is related to inflation-indexed debt. The loan is structured like a mortgage, with the annual payments indexed to inflation but nevertheless low enough to provide an early positive cash flow from the project. Other possible financing structures are the immigrant investor fund and the provincial incentive corporations

  2. Financing emerging energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the financing of emerging energies in Canada. Transforming energy markets will involve billions of dollars of investment from businesses and residents. Many different types of return on investment can be expected. These benefits will continue to grow over time and provide a permanent income

  3. Globalisation et finances internationales

    OpenAIRE

    Prada B., Luis M.

    2011-01-01

    Cet article énonce les principales caractéristiques de la globalisation économique, il précise également en quoi consiste la globalisation financière et met en relief le rôle des investisseurs institutionnels dans les nouvelles finances. De même, l´article conclut que la globalisation financière offre de nouvelles opportunités ; à nous la responsabilité de les profiter.

  4. Mathematical Models in Finance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halim Kazan

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Finance is the corner stone of the free enterprise system. Good financial management is therefore vitally important to the economic health of business firms, and thus the nation and the world. The field is relatively complex, and it is undergoing constant change in response to shifts in economic conditions say Brigham and Gapenski in the introduction of their Financial Management book (Brigham, Eugene F., Gapenski, Louis C 1994. As they said the field is relatively complex since most of the financial decisions are involved with uncertainty and risk. This is where quantitative methods and finance meets. In financial decision making process, like most of the decision making process, final decision made by managers, not by some mathematical tools. However, those mathematical tools, used in financial decision making process, contribute to managers' decision a lot. Finance is consist of three interrelated areas which are Money and Capital Markets, dealing with securities markets and financial institutions, Investments, focusing on the decisions of individuals, financial and other institutions while they choose securities for their investment portfolios; and Financial Management, involving the actual management of non financial firms (Brigham, E. F., Gapenski, L. C;1994 In this study I tried to summarize mathematical methods that have been used in finance historically.

  5. Finance and the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject is discussed under the headings: the energy situation today; energy investment and capital requirements (finding the necessary funds); further possibilities; future financing (project financing); summary. (U.K.)

  6. From Finance Capitalism to Financialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per H.

    2014-01-01

    In this article I interpret 150 years of financial history with a focus on shifts in the role of finance in society. I argue that over time the role of finance has shifted twice from that of servant to that of master of society, and that this process has been driven by sense making through...... narratives that legitimized and shaped these changes. When finance became a master rent seeking, cultural capture and out-of control financial innovation resulted in financial and social instability. Finance as a master was the characteristic of finance capitalism from around 1900–1931 and of...... financialization from around 1980 to today. Finance capitalism and financialization were enabled by a dominant narrative that legitimized the power of finance. The shifts in the role of finance happened when crises undermined the meaning of the existing narrative and created for a new narrative able to make sense...

  7. Financing of Renewable Energy Projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the role of the Banco Centroamericano de Integracion Economica in financing renewable energy projects in Central America. Also decribes the different financing modes to the goverment and private sectors

  8. Frictional melting and stick-slip behavior in volcanic conduits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, Jackie Evan; Lavallee, Yan; Hirose, Takehiro; di Toro, Giulio; Hornby, Adrian Jakob; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Dingwell, Donald Bruce

    2013-04-01

    Dome-building eruptions have catastrophic potential, with dome collapse leading to devastating pyroclastic flows with almost no precursory warning. During dome growth, the driving forces of the buoyant magma may be superseded by controls along conduit margins; where brittle fracture and sliding can lead to formation of lubricating cataclasite and gouge. Under extreme friction, pseudotachylyte may form at the conduit margin. Understanding the conduit margin processes is vital to understanding the continuation of an eruption and we postulate that pseudotachylyte generation could be the underlying cause of stick-slip motion and associated seismic "drumbeats", which are so commonly observed at dome-building volcanoes. This view is supported by field evidence in the form of pseudotachylytes identified in lava dome products at Soufrière Hills (Montserrat) and Mount St. Helens (USA). Both eruptions were characterised by repetitive, periodic seismicity and lava spine extrusion of highly viscous magma. High velocity rotary shear (HVR) experiments demonstrate the propensity for melting of the andesitic and dacitic material (from Soufrière Hills and Mount St. Helens respectively) at upper conduit stress conditions (pressures from ascending magma below eventually overcome resistance to produce a rapid slip event (the "slip") along the melt-bearing slip zone, which is temporarily lubricated due to velocity-weakening. New magma below experiences the same slip event more slowly (as the magma decompresses) to produce a viscous brake and the process is repeated. This allows a fixed spatial locus that explains the repetitive drumbeat seismicity and the occurrence of "families" of similar seismic events. We conclude that stick-slip motion in volcanic conduits is a self-driving, frictional-melt-regulated force common to many dome building volcanoes.

  9. AC loss characteristics of simulated CIC-type conductors having plastic conduit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When alternating current superconducting coils having cable-in-conduit conductors are fabricated, non-metallic conduit materials are necessary to avoid eddy current losses in the conduits. Using two kinds of non-metallic tapes made of glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRPs) and Dyneema fiber reinforced plastics (DFRPs), we made the conductors with the GFRP conduits and DFRP conduits, and experimentally studied the total losses of the conductors. The measured results showed that the total loss of the conductor with the GFRP conduit was smaller than that with the DFRP conduit at the same value of the void ratio, the transport current, the external magnetic field, and so on. When the void ratios become high, the superconducting bundle cable can easily move in the conduit. Hence the measured total losses increased with the void ratios of the conductors

  10. The Challenge of Islamic Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Sheng, Andrew; Singh, Ajit

    2012-01-01

    From its humble beginnings in the 1990s, Islamic finance has become a trillion US dollar industry. The market consensus is that Islamic finance has a bright future due to favourable demographics and rising incomes in the Muslim community. Moreover, despite voices sceptical of an accommodation between Islamic and global finance, leading global banks are buying Islamic bonds and forming subsidiaries specially to conduct Islamic finance business. Special laws have been passed in non-Muslim fi...

  11. Reactor vessel head support arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A support and sealing arrangement is described for the vessel head of a nuclear reactor. The arrangement comprises a first support ring supported in the vessel cavity in which the reactor vessel is disposed, a plurality of flexible struts spaced about the circumference of the reactor vessel each of which has one end connected to the first support ring, and a second support ring which is supported by the other ends of the flexible struts to support the vessel head. The first and second support rings are each concentrically arranged with respect to the reactor vessel. Also, sealing means are provided for preventing fluid communication between the interior of the reactor vessel and the vessel cavity, and between the vessel cavity and the outside atmosphere

  12. Storage arrangements for nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A storage arrangement for spent nuclear fuel either irradiated or pre-irradiated or for vitrified waste after spent fuel reprocessing, comprises a plenum chamber which has a base pierced by a plurality of openings each of which has sealed to it an open topped tube extending downwards and closed at its lower end. The plenum chamber, with the tubes, forms an air-filled enclosure associated with an exhaust system for exhausting air from the system through filters to maintain the interior of the enclosure at sub-atmospheric pressure. The tubes are arranged to accommodate the stored fuel and the arrangement includes a means for producing a flow of cooling air over the exterior of the tubes so that the latter effectively form a plurality of heat exchangers in close proximity to the fuel. The air may be caused to flow over the tube surfaces by a natural thermosyphon process. (author)

  13. Results and analysis of the hot-spot temperature experiment for a cable-in-conduit conductor with thick conduit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlak, Kamil; Bruzzone, Pierluigi

    2015-12-01

    In the design of future DEMO fusion reactor a long time constant (?23 s) is required for an emergency current dump in the toroidal field (TF) coils, e.g. in case of a quench detection. This requirement is driven mainly by imposing a limit on forces on mechanical structures, namely on the vacuum vessel. As a consequence, the superconducting cable-in-conduit conductors (CICC) of the TF coil have to withstand heat dissipation lasting tens of seconds at the section where the quench started. During that time, the heat will be partially absorbed by the (massive) steel conduit and electrical insulation, thus reducing the hot-spot temperature estimated strictly from the enthalpy of the strand bundle. A dedicated experiment has been set up at CRPP to investigate the radial heat propagation and the hot-spot temperature in a CICC with a 10 mm thick steel conduit and a 2 mm thick glass epoxy outer electrical insulation. The medium size, ? = 18 mm, NbTi CICC was powered by the operating current of up to 10 kA. The temperature profile was monitored by 10 temperature sensors. The current dump conditions, namely the decay time constant and the quench detection delay, were varied. The experimental results show that the thick conduit significantly contributes to the overall enthalpy balance, and consequently reduces the amount of copper required for the quench protection in superconducting cables for fusion reactors.

  14. Manipulating Multistage Interconnection Networks Using Fundamental Arrangements

    OpenAIRE

    E. Gur; Zalevsky, Z.

    2010-01-01

    Optimizing interconnection networks is a prime object in switching schemes. In this work the authors present a novel approach for obtaining a required channel arrangement in a multi-stage interconnection network, using a new concept - a fundamental arrangement. The fundamental arrangement is an initial N-1 stage switch arrangement that allows obtaining any required output channel arrangement given an input arrangement, using N/2 binary switches at each stage. The paper demon...

  15. Synergistic effects of micropatterned biodegradable conduits and Schwann cells on sciatic nerve regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowski, Gregory E.; Miller, Cheryl A.; Jeftinija, Srdija; Mallapragada, Surya K.

    2004-09-01

    This paper describes a novel biodegradable conduit that provides a combination of physical, chemical and biological cues at the cellular level to facilitate peripheral nerve regeneration. The conduit consists of a porous poly(D,L-lactic acid) (PDLLA) tubular support structure with a micropatterned inner lumen. Schwann cells were pre-seeded into the lumen to provide additional trophic support. Conduits with micropatterned inner lumens pre-seeded with Schwann cells (MS) were fabricated and compared with three types of conduits used as controls: M (conduits with micropatterned inner lumens without pre-seeded Schwann cells), NS (conduits without micropatterned inner lumens pre-seeded with Schwann cells) and N (conduits without micropatterned inner lumens, without pre-seeded Schwann cells). The conduits were implanted in rats with 1 cm sciatic nerve transections and the regeneration and functional recovery were compared in the four different cases. The number or size of regenerated axons did not vary significantly among the different conduits. The time of recovery, and the sciatic function index, however, were significantly enhanced using the MS conduits, based on qualitative observations as well as quantitative measurements using walking track analysis. This demonstrates that biodegradable micropatterned conduits pre-seeded with Schwann cells that provide a combination of physical, chemical and biological guidance cues for regenerating axons at the cellular level offer a better alternative for repairing sciatic nerve transactions than conventional biodegradable conduits.

  16. Real world financing opportunities for energy conservation projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tramonte, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    Do you have the resources, dollars, people expertise and general know-how to do all the energy conservation measures. If you have the funds, do it yourself. Historically you would save more if you hired a private concern because that is the only job the contractor does for you. You have other hats to wear and fires to put out. Using third-party financing can be a good decision based on your specific needs. Procrastination is not the answer - the cost of delay is extensive. Financing energy conservation measures is no different from financing your automobile or home. If the benefits outweigh the negatives, the answer is obvious. Remember, in any case of using private sector financing, your are joining a partnership arrangement. The only way to succeed is to be honest with each other on the front end. There need not be any surprises. Any reputable company will gladly have your attorney evaluate all agreements, amortization schedules, and attachments. Real world financing alternatives will continue to change as the market matures. It's not too good to be true. It is no more than a vehicle to make the efforts of capital improvements streamlined. The money or financing is the catalyst to the project and makes the other areas meld.

  17. Implantation of neural stem cells embedded in hyaluronic acid and collagen composite conduit promotes regeneration in a rabbit facial nerve injury model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Chong

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The implantation of neural stem cells (NSCs in artificial scaffolds for peripheral nerve injuries draws much attention. NSCs were ex-vivo expanded in hyaluronic acid (HA-collagen composite with neurotrophin-3, and BrdU-labeled NSCs conduit was implanted onto the ends of the transected facial nerve of rabbits. Electromyography demonstrated a progressive decrease of current threshold and increase of voltage amplitude in de-innervated rabbits after implantation for one, four, eight and 12 weeks compared to readouts derived from animals prior to nerve transection. The most remarkable improvement, observed using Electrophysiology, was of de-innervated rabbits implanted with NSCs conduit as opposed to de-innervated counterparts with and without the implantation of HA-collagen, NSCs and HA-collagen, and HA-collagen and neurotrophin-3. Histological examination displayed no nerve fiber in tissue sections of de-innervated rabbits. The arrangement and S-100 immunoreactivity of nerve fibers in the tissue sections of normal rabbits and injured rabbits after implantation of NSCs scaffold for 12 weeks were similar, whereas disorderly arranged minifascicles of various sizes were noted in the other three arms. BrdU+ cells were detected at 12 weeks post-implantation. Data suggested that NSCs embedded in HA-collagen biomaterial could facilitate re-innervations of damaged facial nerve and the artificial conduit of NSCs might offer a potential treatment modality to peripheral nerve injuries.

  18. Manipulating Multistage Interconnection Networks Using Fundamental Arrangements

    CERN Document Server

    Gur, Eran

    2010-01-01

    Optimizing interconnection networks is a prime object in switching schemes. In this work the authors present a novel approach for obtaining a required channel arrangement in a multi-stage interconnection network, using a new concept - a fundamental arrangement. The fundamental arrangement is an initial N-1 stage switch arrangement that allows obtaining any required output channel arrangement given an input arrangement, using N/2 binary switches at each stage. The paper demonstrates how a fundamental arrangement can be achieved and how, once this is done, any required arrangement may be obtained within 2(N-1) steps.

  19. Manipulating Multistage Interconnection Networks Using Fundamental Arrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Gur

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Optimizing interconnection networks is a prime object in switching schemes. In this work the authors present a novel approach for obtaining a required channel arrangement in a multi-stage interconnectionnetwork, using a new concept – a fundamental arrangement. The fundamental arrangement is an initial N-1 stage switch arrangement that allows obtaining any required output channel arrangement given an input arrangement, using N/2 binary switches at each stage. The paper demonstrates how a fundamental arrangement can be achieved and how, once this is done, any required arrangement may be obtained within 2(N-1 steps.

  20. Flow control arrangements for centrifuges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a centrifuge plant for the separation of uranium isotopes, when a centrifuge machine breaks down, light gas is produced. This gas can cause adjacent machines to break down, so propagating the fault. The present invention provides flow control arrangements in gas pipes to the centrifuge, whereby sudden egress of gas from a failed machine is inhibited. (author)

  1. Arrangement for guiding transport cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This patent relates especially to x-ray equipment such as that used for computerized tomography, and in particular to an arrangement for guiding and supporting a plurality of power transmission cables and cooling hoses in a flexible manner. (U.K.)

  2. Nuclear reactor core stabilizing arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nuclear reactor core stabilizing arrangement is described wherein a plurality of actuators, disposed in a pattern laterally surrounding a group of elongated fuel assemblies, press against respective contiguous fuel assemblies on the periphery of the group to reduce the clearance between adjacent fuel assemblies thereby forming a more compacted, vibration resistant core structure. 7 claims, 4 drawing figures

  3. Essays in corporate finance

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Na Young; Noe, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Prior research on corporations finds that there exists a large unexplained firm-specific heterogeneity in corporate behaviors stemming from the effects of managers. This research identifies managerial personalities and tests their effects on corporate behaviors both experimentally and empirically. First, the effects of managerial personalities on corporate financing decisions are tested using a laboratory experiment with managers in South Korea. The laboratory experimental market is à la Modi...

  4. Data Mining in Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Sahil Kadam; Manan Raval

    2014-01-01

    This paper is a survey on the blooming concept of Data mining and its applications in the vast field of finance. Data mining techniques provide a great aid in financial accounting and fraud detection due to their classification and prediction abilities. The aim of this paper is to show the various data mining techniques used for Ongoing Concern and Financial Distress, Fraud Management Bankruptcy Prediction, Credit Risk Estimation and Corporate Performance Prediction. This paper provides the r...

  5. Essays in finance

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Rasid, Mohamed Eskandar Shah

    2012-01-01

    This thesis which compromise of three essays focuses on the theme of valuation, value premium anomaly, financing behaviour and emerging markets. The first essay studies the value growth puzzle in the context of conflict of interest between taxable and institutional investors. We model this conflict in a rational expectations framework and demonstrate how the differences in firm's characteristics (in terms of value versus growth) and the risk profile of the investors can explain the shape of C...

  6. Essays in Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Rasid, Mohamed Eskandar Shah

    2014-01-01

    This thesis which compromise of three essays focuses on the theme of valuation, value premium anomaly, financing behaviour and emerging markets. The first essay studies the value growth puzzle in the context of conflict of interest between taxable and institutional investors. We model this conflict in a rational expectations framework and demonstrate how the differences in firm's characteristics (in terms of value versus growth) and the risk profile of the investors can explain the shape of C...

  7. Islamic Finance in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Rodney.

    2007-01-01

    Islam all too often resonates negatively in Europe, with a great part of non-Muslim public opinion uncomfortable with Islamic culture and values. Secular and Christian opinion is at best suspicious of shariah, Islamic law, and indeed often antagonistic. The notion of wanting to apply shariah principles to banking and finance is treated with scepticism if not outright hostility, especially as there is no concept of Christian or Jewish banking, even if there are some parallels between shariah f...

  8. Mathematical Models in Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Halim Kazan; Ahmet Ergülen

    2005-01-01

    Finance is the corner stone of the free enterprise system. Good financial management is therefore vitally important to the economic health of business firms, and thus the nation and the world. The field is relatively complex, and it is undergoing constant change in response to shifts in economic conditions say Brigham and Gapenski in the introduction of their Financial Management book (Brigham, Eugene F., Gapenski, Louis C 1994). As they said the field is relatively complex since most of the ...

  9. Financing of nuclear projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delays in the completion of nuclear power plants aggravate the financing of such ventures because the contractual sums to be paid for interest and amortization are not generated. Moreover, economic feasibility analyses by the banks are rendered ineffective by changes in the underlying data, such as the structure of electricity rates and the supply monopoly held by utilities. The German nuclear power plants at present in operation or under construction were financed mainly through subsidiares of the participating utilities outside the balance sheets of the parent companies. The banks have developed a number of financing concepts to adapt funding to the specific needs of practice. Future nuclear power plants make-up one third of the present capacity of the participating utilities. However, they will require three to four times the previous volume of capital investments. Yet it is certain that the expansion of nuclear power in the Federal Republic of Germany will not be hampered by financial problems. The funding models developed for nuclear power plants have already proved their qualities. However, the problems of nuclear power have not become less. Attention must also be drawn to some weak spots in the financial sector. (orig.)

  10. Project financing renewable energy schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The viability of many Renewable Energy projects is critically dependent upon the ability of these projects to secure the necessary financing on acceptable terms. The principal objective of the study was to provide an overview to project developers of project financing techniques and the conditions under which project finance for Renewable Energy schemes could be raised, focussing on the potential sources of finance, the typical project financing structures that could be utilised for Renewable Energy schemes and the risk/return and security requirements of lenders, investors and other potential sources of financing. A second objective is to describe the appropriate strategy and tactics for developers to adopt in approaching the financing markets for such projects. (author)

  11. Single-friction-surface triboelectric generator with human body conduit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Bo; Cheng, Xiaoliang; Zhang, Xiaosheng; Han, Mengdi; Liu, Wen; Zhang, Haixia, E-mail: zhang-alice@pku.edu.cn [National Key Lab of Nano/Micro Fabrication Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2014-03-10

    We present a transparent single-friction-surface triboelectric generator (STEG) employing human body as the conduit, making the applications of STEG in portable electronics much more practical and leading to a significant output improvement. The STEG with micro-patterned polydimethylsiloxane surface achieved an output voltage of over 200 V with a current density of 4.7 ?A/cm{sup 2}. With human body conduit, the output current increased by 39% and the amount of charge that transferred increased by 34% compared to the results with grounded electrode. A larger increment of 210% and 81% was obtained in the case of STEG with a large-size flat polyethylene terephthalate surface.

  12. Injunctions against mere conduit of information protected by copyright

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandfeld Jakobsen, Søren; Petersen, Clement Salung

    2011-01-01

    This paper includes an in-depth analysis of EU law and Scandinavian law on injunctions against internet access providers (IAPs) performing as mere conduit of information protected by copyright. In recent Scandinavian case law, courts have granted preliminary injunctions which have caused IAPs to either shut down specific internet connections allegedly used to infringe copyright or to block access to internet content, which allegedly infringed applicable copyright rules. This paper considers some...

  13. Peripheral nerve regeneration with conduits: use of vein tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Guerra Sabongi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of peripheral nerve injuries remains a challenge to modern medicine due to the complexity of the neurobiological nerve regenerating process. There is a greater challenge when the transected nerve ends are not amenable to primary end-to-end tensionless neurorraphy. When facing a segmental nerve defect, great effort has been made to develop an alternative to the autologous nerve graft in order to circumvent morbidity at donor site, such as neuroma formation, scarring and permanent loss of function. Tubolization techniques have been developed to bridge nerve gaps and have been extensively studied in numerous experimental and clinical trials. The use of a conduit intends to act as a vehicle for moderation and modulation of the cellular and molecular ambience for nerve regeneration. Among several conduits, vein tubes were validated for clinical application with improving outcomes over the years. This article aims to address the investigation and treatment of segmental nerve injury and draw the current panorama on the use of vein tubes as an autogenous nerve conduit.

  14. Free-boundary models of a meltwater conduit

    KAUST Repository

    Dallaston, Michael C.

    2014-08-01

    © 2014 AIP Publishing LLC. We analyse the cross-sectional evolution of an englacial meltwater conduit that contracts due to inward creep of the surrounding ice and expands due to melting. Making use of theoretical methods from free-boundary problems in Stokes flow and Hele-Shaw squeeze flow we construct an exact solution to the coupled problem of external viscous creep and internal heating, in which we adopt a Newtonian approximation for ice flow and an idealized uniform heat source in the conduit. This problem provides an interesting variant on standard free-boundary problems, coupling different internal and external problems through the kinematic condition at the interface. The boundary in the exact solution takes the form of an ellipse that may contract or expand (depending on the magnitudes of effective pressure and heating rate) around fixed focal points. Linear stability analysis reveals that without the melting this solution is unstable to perturbations in the shape. Melting can stabilize the interface unless the aspect ratio is too small; in that case, instabilities grow largest at the thin ends of the ellipse. The predictions are corroborated with numerical solutions using boundary integral techniques. Finally, a number of extensions to the idealized model are considered, showing that a contracting circular conduit is unstable to all modes of perturbation if melting occurs at a uniform rate around the boundary, or if the ice is modelled as a shear-thinning fluid.

  15. Elastic chitosan conduits with multiple channels and well defined microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jixiang; Xiong, Yi; Zeng, Chenguang; Qiang, Na; Quan, Daping; Wan, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Four kinds of chitosan conduits with longitudinal multi-channels and controlled internal microstructures were prepared using a special mold and a freeze-drying method. One of the conduits was fabricated from a chitosan solution (ab NC), while the other three groups were made from a pre-gelled chitosan solution using genipin as a chemical cross-linker (ab gNC), dibasic sodium phosphate as a physical cross-linker (ab pNC) or a combined ionic and covalent co-cross-linker (ab gpNC), respectively. The porosity of the chitosan conduits ranged from 88 to 90%. The gpNC showed highly interconnected and uniformly distributed pores compared to NC, the gNC and pNC. In contrast, the gNC and gpNC showed about 10% of the volume swelling ratio in 37°C PBS solution, although the gpNC scaffold's water uptake was the highest, at more than 17 times its original mass. Compressive tests showed that gpNC had significant elasticity and maintained its physical integrity even after compressing them down to 20% of their original height. The elastic modulus of gpNC reached 80 kPa, which was more than twice that of the other groups. Adhesion and proliferation of PC12 cells on chitosan gpNC scaffolds showed excellent properties by MTT and SEM observation, which indicated the potential of gpNC scaffolds for nerve tissue engineering applications. PMID:22561741

  16. 25 CFR 170.300 - May tribes use flexible financing to finance IRR transportation projects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May tribes use flexible financing to finance IRR... Financing § 170.300 May tribes use flexible financing to finance IRR transportation projects? Yes. Tribes may use flexible financing in the same manner as States to finance IRR transportation projects,...

  17. Legal aspects of financing Canadian offshore oil and gas developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is presented of the significant legal considerations involved in structuring, negotiating, and documenting commercial financing of a Canadian offshore oil and gas production facility. Emphasis is placed on the Hibernia Project in the Newfoundland offshore as an example, and more specifically the $450 million bank financing completed in November 1991. The legal framework governing offshore production financing in this case was complex, due to the project's location in international waters on the continental shelf. Complex intergovernmental arrangements have been implemented between Canada and Newfoundland to govern the offshore area and regulate the project. An agreement called the Atlantic Accord allowed the Canada Newfoundland Offshore Petroleum Board (CNOPB) to grant production licenses and to regulate offshore exploration and development, with matters relating to legislation, taxation, and royalties shared between the governments. Certain other acts were enacted or extended for application to the offshore area. The CNOPB administers a registry system for transfers and security interests in offshore licenses. Security interests including property are ensured by the Hibernia Act, which makes Newfoundland's existing security interest regime applicable to the offshore. The project owners are operating Hibernia as a joint venture, and the structure of project financing and inter-creditor arrangements is examined. The competing security interest of project lenders and non-defaulting participants is discussed, along with assignment of priorities on the security in case of default

  18. MUSICAL ARRANGEMENT OF MEDIA ADS

    OpenAIRE

    Chernyshov Alexander V.

    2015-01-01

    The music-compositional principles of commercial and political advertising and also the self-promotion of electronic media (radio, television, Internet) are considered in this mediatext: from the elementary beeps, symbolic functions, emblems/logos and musical brands to the sound engineering technology to underscore the product's name and the complex synthesis between music and intra movements and color-light design of frames. Simultaneously examines, how the musical arrangement of ethereal ad...

  19. Principles of Arrangement Field Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Marin, Diego

    2012-01-01

    In this paper I attempt to summarize the fundamental principles which underlie to Arrangement Field Theory. In my intention the exposition would be the most possible intelligible and self-contained. However the exposed concepts are revisited in the light of the new researches, so that they could appear slightly different than in the previous works. Much emphasis is posed here to the power of theory to predict the number of fermionic families (flavours) and space-time dimensi...

  20. F# for quantitative finance

    CERN Document Server

    Astborg, Johan

    2013-01-01

    To develop your confidence in F#, this tutorial will first introduce you to simpler tasks such as curve fitting. You will then advance to more complex tasks such as implementing algorithms for trading semi-automation in a practical scenario-based format.If you are a data analyst or a practitioner in quantitative finance, economics, or mathematics and wish to learn how to use F# as a functional programming language, this book is for you. You should have a basic conceptual understanding of financial concepts and models. Elementary knowledge of the .NET framework would also be helpful.

  1. Accounting & Finance; a Basic Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, ewoud

    2011-01-01

    The book is about finance and accounting, subjects widely discussed in many other books. What sets this book apart from most others is that it discusses all the basic aspects of finance and accounting in one single textbook. Three areas of interest are discussed: Financial Management; Management Accounting; Financial Accounting. Typically, these three subjects are treated separately as individual topics. They are closely related, however, since they all deal with the many financi...

  2. Financing Infrastructure in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Estache, Antonio; Serebrisky, Tomas; Wren-Lewis, Liam

    2015-01-01

    This article develops a theoretical framework to analyze options for financing infrastructurein developing countries. We build a basic model that gives motivations for usinga combination of public finance, private debt and private equity. The model is thenextended in a number of ways to examine a variety of factors that are important fordeveloping countries when considering financing choices. We focus in particular on keyinstitutional weaknesses that are often important for infrastructure inv...

  3. Profit taxation and finance constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Keuschnigg, Christian; Ribi, Evelyn

    2010-01-01

    In the absence of financing frictions, profit taxes reduce investment by their effect on the user cost of capital. With finance constraints due to moral hazard, investment becomes sensitive to cash-flow and own equity of firms. We propose a corporate finance model of investment and derive three central results: (i) Even small taxes impose first order welfare losses on financially constrained firms; (ii) ACE and cashflow tax systems, which are investment neutral in the neoclassical model, are ...

  4. The epistemology of modern finance

    OpenAIRE

    De Scheemaekere, Xavier

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates modern finance’s epistemological status with a special emphasis on its most quantitative part: Black-Scholes option pricing model and its extensions. It zeroes on the analysis of mathematical methods in financial economics and their connection to risk and uncertainty. Risk-neutral valuation, a direct consequence of Black-Scholes model, restricts the range of individual and subjective uncertainty by putting a price on replicable risk, thereby conferring to modern financ...

  5. Housing finance agencies in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, Michael; Chan, Eric; Gyntelberg, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the role of government-supported housing finance agencies in Asia. We estimate the size of the government subsidies received by these agencies, and their distribution among households, financial institutions and the agencies themselves. We have three main findings. The level of government support provided to housing finance agencies in Asia varies, but is generally small relative to the economy. The housing finance agencies have transferred most of the benefit of their gov...

  6. PUBLIC FINANCING OF HEALTHCARE SERVICES

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka Bem

    2013-01-01

    Healthcare in Poland is mainly financed by public sector entities, among them the National Health Fund (NFZ), state budget and local government budgets. The task of the National Health Fund, as the main payer in the system, is chiefly currently financing the services. The state budget plays a complementary role in the system, and finances selected groups of services, health insurance premiums and investments in healthcare infrastructure. The basic role of the local governments is to ensure ac...

  7. Financing wind energy projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triodos Bank has more than 10 years of experience with developing and financing wind projects in the Netherlands. Over 50 Megawatt has been installed with direct involvement of the bank. The experience is both as a bank and as a venture capital fund. In this contribution the perspective will be more from a venture capital point of view than as a bank. The bank's activities in the wind energy sector started in 1986 by forming a joint venture with an engineering bureau, experienced i wind energy but not yet in developing wind projects. From 1989 onwards the joint venture started to build wind farms, both as a private company and in a joint venture with utilities. The European Investment Bank became involved with a long-term debt finance facility (15 years, fixed interest loan). The main difficulties were long-term commitments from landowners (Dike authorities) and utilities with regard to power contracts. The development got really stuck when utilities refused to pay a fair price anymore. Also, site development became more and more difficult. Even the poor technical performance improved drastically and did not frighten developers and banks too much. (author)

  8. Statistics for Finance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindström, Erik; Madsen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Statistics for Finance develops students’ professional skills in statistics with applications in finance. Developed from the authors’ courses at the Technical University of Denmark and Lund University, the text bridges the gap between classical, rigorous treatments of financial mathematics that rarely connect concepts to data and books on econometrics and time series analysis that do not cover specific problems related to option valuation. The book discusses applications of financial derivatives pertaining to risk assessment and elimination. The authors cover various statistical and mathematical techniques, including linear and nonlinear time series analysis, stochastic calculus models, stochastic differential equations, It?’s formula, the Black–Scholes model, the generalized method-of-moments, and the Kalman filter. They explain how these tools are used to price financial derivatives, identify interest rate models, value bonds, estimate parameters, and much more. This textbook will help students understand and manage empirical research in financial engineering. It includes examples of how the statistical tools can be used to improve value-at-risk calculations and other issues. In addition, end-of-chapter exercises develop students’ financial reasoning skills.

  9. Gauge theory of Finance?

    CERN Document Server

    Sornette, D

    1998-01-01

    Some problems with the recent stimulating proposal of a ``Gauge Theory of Finance'' by Ilinski and collaborators are outlined. First, the derivation of the log-normal distribution is shown equivalent both in information and mathematical content to the simpler and well-known derivation, dating back from Bachelier and Samuelson. Similarly, the re-derivation of Black-Scholes equation is shown equivalent to the standard one because the limit of no uncertainty is equivalent to the standard risk-free replication argument. Both re-derivations of the log-normality and Black-Scholes result do not provide a test of the theory because it is degenerate in the limits where these results apply. Third, the choice of the exponential form a la Boltzmann, of the weight of a given market configuration, is a key postulate that requires justification. In addition, the ``Gauge Theory of Finance'' seems to lead to ``virtual'' arbitrage opportunities for pure Markov random walk market when there should be none. These remarks are off...

  10. Financing energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1990s is likely to be a decade of double growth: in energy demand and environmental protection. This leads the author of this paper to ask the pertinent questions of where the money will come from, and in what form, to finance the growth in capacity to produce this energy and the technology required to produce and burn it cleanly. With a focus on Asian energy markets, this paper first illustrates the problem by describing the rapid growth of energy demand in the region. It describes the growth in Japan as well as China and the fast-growing economies of Hong Kong, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand. Energy demand growth rates of almost 5 percent in the 1980s are expected to continue to grow at that rate at least until 2005, doubling today's level of consumption and putting the energy supply system under great strain. Because of the large sums involved, this paper pints out the necessity of inventing new, innovative devices for future fund raising. This will require the participation of institutions such as insurance companies and regional banks that have little experience in the energy field. This paper suggests that these and the established players in energy finance will have recourse to two new approaches: Build-Operate-Transfer and Trustee Borrowing schemes

  11. Nuclear financing in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic objectives of the Spanish National Energy Plan are summarized as (1) To obtain maximum guarantees for continuity of supplies, (2) Reduce the cost of energy supplies to the maximum possible degree, (3) Reduce the difference in the balance of payments due to importation of primary energy sources, (4) Pro-mote the rational use of energy with the aim of moderating the growth rates in demand without affecting economic development (5) Reduce to an economical minimum the effect on the environment of energy-producing installations, and (6) Contribute to the technological development of the country and promote research in the energy field. To fulfil these objectives, the following forecasts are made: With the Gross National Product increasing at a rate of 5% or 6%, the demand on primary energy sources in 1985 will be 173 or 194 million e.c.t. (equivalent coal tons), i.e. annual growth rates of energy consumption of 6% and 7.2% respectively, compared with growths during the last decade of 9.2%. It is projected that generation of electrical energy from nuclear sources will grow to attain in a share of approximately 60% by 1985, i.e. an installed nuclear power level of 23.8.GW. The cost of the Spanish National Energy Plan, particularly the cost and financing of the nuclear program, is reviewed. Finally, the growing need for self-financing is stressed. (B.P.)

  12. PFI redux? Assessing a new model for financing hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellowell, Mark

    2013-11-01

    There is a growing need for investments in hospital facilities to improve the efficiency and quality of health services. In recent years, publicly financed hospital organisations in many countries have utilised private finance arrangements, variously called private finance initiatives (PFIs), public-private partnerships (PPPs) or P3s, to address their capital requirements. However, such projects have become more difficult to implement since the onset of the global financial crisis, which has led to a reduction in the supply of debt capital and an increase in its price. In December 2012, the government of the United Kingdom outlined a comprehensive set of reforms to the private finance model in order to revive this important source of capital for hospital investments. This article provides a critical assessment of the 'Private Finance 2' reforms, focusing on their likely impact on the supply and cost of capital. It concludes that constraints in supply are likely to continue, in part due to regulatory constraints facing both commercial banks and institutional investors, while the cost of capital is likely to increase, at least in the short term. PMID:24138730

  13. Promotion and financing of nuclear power programmes in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power has been introduced only to a small extent in a few developing countries. A group of senior experts conducted a study of the existing constraints on nuclear power in developing countries, the requirements to be met for successful introduction of a nuclear power programme, and mechanisms to assist developing countries in overcoming the identified constraints. Financing represents one (but not the only) major constraint to nuclear power development in developing countries. The present schemes of export credits and commercial financing are seen as not adequately meeting the needs of nuclear power financing in terms of repayment periods and profiles, or in terms of flexibility to meet delays and cost overruns. Innovative and workable arrangements to share the economic and financial risks would be helpful in obtaining financing for a nuclear power project. All possible efforts should be made by all parties involved in the development of nuclear power to reduce as far as possible the uncertainties surrounding the cost and schedule of a nuclear power project, as an essential step to improve the overall climate for financing the project. Government commitment, soundly based and thorough planning, development of qualified manpower and other key infrastructures, and good project management are important mechanisms to achieve greater predictability in project schedule and cost. Technical assistance provided by the IAEA can be very helpful in building these capabilities in developing countries. (author). 1 tab

  14. Arrangement for selectively irradiating webs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The arrangement for selectively irradiating a web includes a perforated band of a radiation impermeable substance which is guided in an endless path via a pair of guide rollers and has two juxtaposed runs in this path. A take-up roller conveys a web of material past one of the runs at a side thereof remote from the other run, the direction of movement of the web being other than parallel to that of the band and, preferably, normal thereto. An electron accelerator is provided at the far side of the run remote from the web and is effective for directing a radiation beam at the web through the perforations

  15. Moduli of weighted hyperplane arrangements

    CERN Document Server

    Lahoz, Martí; Macrí, Emanuele; Stellari, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    This book focuses on a large class of geometric objects in moduli theory and provides explicit computations to investigate their families. Concrete examples are developed that take advantage of the intricate interplay between Algebraic Geometry and Combinatorics. Compactifications of moduli spaces play a crucial role in Number Theory, String Theory, and Quantum Field Theory – to mention just a few. In particular, the notion of compactification of moduli spaces has been crucial for solving various open problems and long-standing conjectures. Further, the book reports on compactification techniques for moduli spaces in a large class where computations are possible, namely that of weighted stable hyperplane arrangements.

  16. The arrangement field theory (AFT)

    CERN Document Server

    Marin, Diego

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the concept of "non-ordered space-time" and formulate a quaternionic field theory over such generalized non-ordered space. The imposition of an order over a non-ordered space appears to spontaneously generate gravity, which is revealed as a fictitious force. The same process gives rise to gauge fields that are compatible with those of Standard Model. We suggest a common origin for gravity and gauge fields from a unique entity called "arrangement matrix" (M) and propose to quantize all fields by quantizing $M$. Finally we give a proposal for the explanation of black hole entropy and area law inside this paradigm.

  17. Internationally Recommended Best Practices in Transportation Financing Public-Private Partnerships (P3s)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, Lawrence; Lawther, Wendell

    2013-01-01

    Transportation financing public-private partnerships (P3s) are a common practice in many countries. However, they represent a relatively new approach to transportation infrastructure financing for state and local governments in the United States. In a transportation financing P3 project, a private sector partner designs-builds-finances-operates- maintains (DBFOM) a transportation infrastructure asset (road, highway, bridge, tunnel, etc.) with an emphasis on financing. Under this type of arrangement, the private sector partner is primarily responsible for securing all or substantially all of the funding necessary to construct new transportation infrastructure and/or rehabilitate existing transportation infrastructure. This study reviews the international experience of national and sub-national governments with transportation financing P3s. The primary purpose of this study is to identify internationally recommended best practices in transportation financing P3s. Based upon the study findings, a checklist in then proposed that can be used by U.S. state and local governments to assess their current or proposed transportation financing P3 policies and procedures. The article makes a contribution to the literature on transportation financing P3s by bringing together for the first time internationally recommended best practices in ten major areas.

  18. LEASE FINANCING: A NEW DUAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina-Aurora, BUNEA-BONTAS

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Leasing is an important additional financing technique used by many companies, enabling them to use property, plant and equipment without making large initial cash outlays. It also provides flexibility, allowing entities to address obsolescence risks. Under current accounting rules, when referring to the operating leasing in particular, there is a lack of comparability between the financial position and operating results of companies that buy assets and the financial position and operating results of those that lease similar assets. This has led critics to assert that the current accounting does not portray the economics of lease arrangements. In response to this criticism, the IASB and FASB have developed a new approach to lease accounting that would require a lessee to recognise assets and liabilities for the rights and obligations created by leases, this providing greater transparency and comparability for financial statements users. On the other hand, the proposals will affect almost every company and the impact of the proposed changes may be significant, as recognising additional assets and liabilities and finance expense will affect key performance ratios and, consequently, the ability to satisfy debt covenants.

  19. Financing, Overhead, and Profit: An In-Depth Discussion of Costs Associated with Third-Party Financing of Residential and Commercial Photovoltaic Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, D.; Friedman, B.; Margolis, R.

    2013-10-01

    Previous work quantifying the non-hardware balance-of-system costs -- or soft costs -- associated with building a residential or commercial photovoltaic (PV) system has left a significant portion unsegmented in an 'other soft costs' category. This report attempts to better quantify the 'other soft costs' by focusing on the financing, overhead, and profit of residential and commercial PV installations for a specific business model. This report presents results from a bottom-up data-collection and analysis of the upfront costs associated with developing, constructing, and arranging third-party-financed residential and commercial PV systems. It quantifies the indirect corporate costs required to install distributed PV systems as well as the transactional costs associated with arranging third-party financing.

  20. Conduit speed limit promotes formation of explosive `super slugs'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellin, E. W.; Burton, M. R.; Mader, H. M.; Polacci, M.

    2014-12-01

    Strombolian activity - characterized by discrete, impulsive explosions - is common at basaltic volcanoes. The explosions are caused by the arrival, at the volcanic vent, of over-pressured `slugs' of magmatic gas, which have ascended the volcanic conduit. We present data from large-scale analogue experiments which reveal a previously-undescribed process which promotes the formation of large, highly over-pressured `super slugs'. We propose that these large slugs may drive the most violent Strombolian eruptions. Experiments were performed at the Large Analogue Volcano Apparatus at Durham University, UK, which comprises a 13m tall, 24cm diameter transparent conduit, surmounting a reservoir of analogue magma held at constant pressure. We simulate a vesiculation event deep in the sub-volcanic plumbing system by fluxing gas into the reservoir. Magma analogues with a range of viscosities are used, giving slug Reynolds numbers in the range 16 to 140,000. At moderate-to-high Reynolds number, we find that the gas rapidly self-organizes to form a conduit-filling lead slug; this slug ascends the column slowly, at a velocity limited by the flux of the falling film of liquid around it. Trailing bubbles, which ascend through the wake of the lead slug, rise much more rapidly. As they catch and coalesce with the lead slug, it grows and becomes increasingly over-pressured. This mechanism causes large slugs to form rapidly and we propose that it underpins the formation of the very large slugs that are responsible for the most explosive strombolian eruptions.

  1. Hydraulic and geological factors influencing conduit flow depth

    OpenAIRE

    Worthington, S.R.H.

    2005-01-01

    There has much been speculation as to whether cave formation should occur at, above, or below the water table, but a satisfactory explanation has been lacking until recently. The last 50 years has seen extensive mapping of caves both above and, more recently, below the water table. It is now becoming apparent that there are systematic differences in depth of flow between different areas and that conduit flow to depths >100m below the water table is not uncommon. Such deep flow is facilitated ...

  2. Detection of intra-atrial conduit leakage by transesophageal echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, T L; Lai, L P; Kuan, P

    1993-09-01

    A 19-year-old male patient who had undergone total cavo-pulmonary connection for complex congenital cyanotic heart disease with partial anomalous pulmonary venous return, was found to have persistent postoperative cyanosis. Transesophageal echocardiography disclosed leakage of the intra-atrial Gortex conduit with a right-to-left shunt. Prompt re-do operation confirmed the site of the leakage which was successfully repaired. Intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography may be indicated so as to avoid a secondary open-chest procedure for this complication. PMID:8282444

  3. Heating-induced flows in cable-in-conduit conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoenig et al and Miller et al have both reported high stability margins for cable-in-conduit conductors cooled by stationary supercritical helium. Miller et al proposed that strong flows induced in the helium in the early stages of recovery enhanced heat transfer and greatly increased the stability margin over what had been expected for stationary helium. In this memorandum, the flow and pressure transients induced in initially stationary helium by energy transfers typical of those associated with conductor recovery (50 to 200 mJ cm-3 in 10 to 20 msec) are calculated

  4. Radiation detector arrangements and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The patent describes a radiation detector arrangement. It comprises at least one detector element in the form of a temperature-sensitive resistor whose electrical resistance changes in response to radiation incident on the detector element, the resistor having a high positive temperature coefficient of electrical resistance at a transition in its electrical conductance, circuit means for applying a voltage across the resistor during operation of the detector arrangement, and temperature-regulation means for regulating the temperature of the resistor so as to operate the resistor in the transition, characterised in that the temperature-regulation means comprises the resistor and the circuit means which passes sufficient current through the resistor by resistance heating to a position in the transition at which a further increase in its temperature in response to incident radiation reduces the resistance heating by reducing the current, thereby stabilizing the temperature of the resistor at the position. The positive temperature coefficient at the position being sufficiently high that the change in the resistance heating produced by a change in the temperature of the resistor at the position is larger than a change in power of the incident radiation required to produce that same change in temperature of the resistor in the absence of any change in resistance heating

  5. Financing of SNR and THTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To finance the progressed reactor lines, the Federal Cabinet emphasized its decision of 23 September 1981 to require an increased participation of the electricity industry in the total costs of the project SNR 300. Some starting points of the financing are presented. (orig./UA)

  6. Economic Development and Islamic Finance

    OpenAIRE

    IQBAL, ZAMIR; Mirakhor, Abbas

    2013-01-01

    Islamic finance has been practiced in some form since the inception of Islam, its practice in modern financial markets became recognized only in the 1980s, and began to represent a meaningful share of global financial activity only around the beginning of this century. In recent years, significant interest in Islamic finance has emerged in the world's leading conventional financial centers...

  7. The Possibilities of Strategic Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffee, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Strategic finance is aligning financial decisions--regarding revenues, creating and maintaining institutional assets, and using those assets--with the institution's mission and strategic plan. The concept known as "strategic finance" increasingly is being seen as a useful perspective for helping boards and presidents develop a sustainable…

  8. Mastering R for quantitative finance

    CERN Document Server

    Berlinger, Edina; Badics, Milán; Banai, Ádám; Daróczi, Gergely; Dömötör, Barbara; Gabler, Gergely; Havran, Dániel; Juhász, Péter; Margitai, István; Márkus, Balázs; Medvegyev, Péter; Molnár, Julia; Szucs, Balázs Árpád; Tuza, Ágnes; Vadász, Tamás; Váradi, Kata; Vidovics-Dancs, Ágnes

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for those who want to learn how to use R's capabilities to build models in quantitative finance at a more advanced level. If you wish to perfectly take up the rhythm of the chapters, you need to be at an intermediate level in quantitative finance and you also need to have a reasonable knowledge of R.

  9. Sanitation Finance in Rural Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Andy

    2012-01-01

    This document presents the findings of a study on sanitation finance in Cambodia conducted for the Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) with support from the Asian Development Bank (ADB). The overall objective of the assignment was to consider sustainable sanitation financing options with a focus on promoting access for the poorest. This guidance note contains an introduction on sanitation f...

  10. Public Finance Administration. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, B. J.; Swain, John W.

    This book is intended for the nonexpert in finance who has a public administration background. It opens with a broad introduction to public finance administration and how this job is related to public budgeting, the practice of public-sector accounting, and the economic concepts of money and value. Issues surrounding public revenue, its sources,…

  11. Romanian SMEs Financing Options:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan E. Nistor

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the most pressing problems faced by micro, small and medium sized enterprises (henceforth SMEs in Europe is the access to sufficient funds to sustain their long term growth. Romanian SMEs make no exception. In this context the present paper focuses on analyzing the extent to which external funding sources have contributed to the value added created by the Romanian SMEs between 2007 and 2011.The investigation’s results indicate the existence of a causal link between some forms of external financing (namely bank loans, leasing, factoring, guarantee products and European funds and the value added created by the Romanian micro, small and medium sized enterprises in the aforementioned period.

  12. Financing wind projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation reviewed some of the partnership opportunities available from GE Energy. GE Energy's ecomagination commitment has promised to double research investment, make customers true partners and reduce greenhouse gases (GHGs). GE Energy's renewable energy team provides a broad range of financial products, and has recently funded 30 wind farms and 2 large solar projects. The company has a diverse portfolio of technology providers and wind regimes, and is increasing their investment in technology. GE Energy recognizes that the wind industry is growing rapidly and has received increased regulatory support that is backed by strong policy and public support. It is expected that Canada will have 3006 wind projects either planned or under construction by 2007. According to GE Energy, successful wind financing is dependent on the location of the site and its wind resources, as well as on the wind developer's power sales agreement. The success of a wind project is also determined by clear financing goals. Site-specific data is needed to determine the quality of wind resource, and off-site data can also be used to provide validation. Proximity to load centres will help to minimize capital costs. Power sales agreements should be based on the project's realistic net capacity factor as well as on the cost of the turbines. The economics of many wind farms is driven by the size of the turbines used. Public consultations are also needed to ensure the success of wind power projects. It was concluded that a good partner will have staying power in the wind power industry, and will understand the time-lines and needs that are peculiar to wind energy developers. refs., tabs., figs

  13. Imaging of platelets in right-sided extracardiac conduits in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a connection between the systemic venous ventricle and the pulmonary artery, valved Dacron extracardiac conduits have remarkably influenced the surgical approach to many complex congenital heart defects. Obstruction of the conduit, however, can reduce the long-term effectiveness of this corrective procedure. In addition to stenosis of the porcine valve, formation of thick fibrous neointima plays a major role in the pathogenesis of conduit obstruction. The purpose of this study was to determine whether platelet deposition could be demonstrated in these conduits by external imaging with 111In-labeled autologous platelets. After injection of labeled platelets either immediately after operation or on the fifth to eighth postoperative day, imaging was performed by standard procedures. Eight of nine patients had platelet accumulation in the conduit, and treatment with aspirin and dipyridamole caused no recognizable change in platelet deposition. This study demonstrates the feasibility of imaging platelet deposition in Dacron conduits and shows that the pattern of deposition varies with time

  14. Tensile and fatigue qualification testing of ITER-CS conduit alloy JK2LB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, R. P.; McRae, D. M.; Han, K.; Martovetsky, N. N.

    2015-12-01

    The ITER Central Solenoid (CS) coils utilize cable-in-conduit conductor (CICC) and the conduit alloy is JK2LB. The production grade conduit alloy (and it's welds) must meet strict requirements for strength, toughness, fatigue crack resistance, and fabricability. The conduit alloy must retain good mechanical properties after additional fabrication steps such as welding, coil winding strain and exposure to the Nb3Sn superconductor's reaction heat treatment. Here we present data from cryogenic tensile, fracture toughness, fatigue crack growth rate, and axial fatigue tests of JK2LB alloy and conduit butt welds, before and after the exposure to the reaction heat treatment. The tests of specimens removed directly from the conduit provide confirmation of the materials properties and the effect of the cold work and aging. The 4 K fatigue performance is extremely important to the reliability of the CS and is covered both by axial cyclic fatigue tests and the fatigue crack growth rate measurements.

  15. Statistics and finance an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Ruppert, David

    2004-01-01

    This textbook emphasizes the applications of statistics and probability to finance. Students are assumed to have had a prior course in statistics, but no background in finance or economics. The basics of probability and statistics are reviewed and more advanced topics in statistics, such as regression, ARMA and GARCH models, the bootstrap, and nonparametric regression using splines, are introduced as needed. The book covers the classical methods of finance such as portfolio theory, CAPM, and the Black-Scholes formula, and it introduces the somewhat newer area of behavioral finance. Applications and use of MATLAB and SAS software are stressed. The book will serve as a text in courses aimed at advanced undergraduates and masters students in statistics, engineering, and applied mathematics as well as quantitatively oriented MBA students. Those in the finance industry wishing to know more statistics could also use it for self-study. David Ruppert is the Andrew Schultz, Jr. Professor of Engineering, School of Oper...

  16. Ground water flux distribution between matrix, fractures, and conduits: constraints on modeling

    OpenAIRE

    White, W. B.; White, E.L.

    2005-01-01

    Calculations are presented to show the relative contribution of the matrix, fracture, and conduit permeability to the overall flow of ground water through a karst aquifer. The conceptual model is a cross-section spanning the full width and thickness of the aquifer. A constant, but adjustable head is assumed. The rock matrix is characterized by an adjustable hydraulic conductivity. Varying proportions of fractures and conduits of adjustable fracture apertures and conduit diameters were the...

  17. Nanofibrous nerve conduits for repair of 30-mm-long sciatic nerve defects

    OpenAIRE

    Biazar, Esmaeil; Keshel, Saeed Heidari; Pouya, Majid; Rad, Hadi; Nava, Melody Omrani; Azarbakhsh, Mohammad; Hooshmand, Shirin

    2013-01-01

    It has been confirmed that nanofibrous poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) nerve conduit can promote peripheral nerve regeneration in rats. However, its efficiency in repair of over 30-mm-long sciatic nerve defects needs to be assessed. In this study, we used a nanofibrous poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) nerve conduit to bridge a 30-mm-long gap in the rat sciatic nerve. At 4 months after nerve conduit implantation, regenerated nerves were cally observed and histologicall...

  18. ‘Chrysanthemum petal’ arrangements of silver nano wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hui-Wang; Jiu, Jin-Ting; Sugahara, Tohru; Nagao, Shijo; Suganuma, Katsuaki; Uchida, Hiroshi

    2014-12-01

    Highly ordered ‘Chrysanthemum petal’ arrangements of silver nano wires were fabricated in a biodegradable polymer of polyvinyl alcohol using a simple one-step blending method without any template. The degree of the arrangement increased with the decreasing content of polyvinyl alcohol. The mechanism for the formation of these ‘Chrysanthemum petal’ arrangements was discussed specifically. These ‘Chrysanthemum petal’ arrangements will be helpful to increase the electrical conductivity of silver nano wires films.

  19. 'Chrysanthemum petal' arrangements of silver nano wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hui-Wang; Jiu, Jin-Ting; Sugahara, Tohru; Nagao, Shijo; Suganuma, Katsuaki; Uchida, Hiroshi

    2014-12-01

    Highly ordered 'Chrysanthemum petal' arrangements of silver nano wires were fabricated in a biodegradable polymer of polyvinyl alcohol using a simple one-step blending method without any template. The degree of the arrangement increased with the decreasing content of polyvinyl alcohol. The mechanism for the formation of these 'Chrysanthemum petal' arrangements was discussed specifically. These 'Chrysanthemum petal' arrangements will be helpful to increase the electrical conductivity of silver nano wires films. PMID:25397618

  20. Two-dimensional simulations of magma ascent in volcanic conduits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, J. I.

    1999-04-01

    A two-dimensional model for magma ascent in volcanic conduits is presented. The model accounts for the magma rheology, heat flux to the surrounding country rock, planar and axisymmetric geometries, and flow in the mushy region by means of a continuum mixture formulation that does not require keeping track of the liquid-solid interfaces. Numerical experiments for Newtonian and visco-plastic Bingham rheologies of magmas are presented as functions of the volumetric flow rate at the dyke's entrance and wall heat fluxes for both round conduits and fissures. It is shown that, depending on the magma rheology, dyke geometry, volumetric flow rate and wall heat flux, the magma may solidify along the original dyke's walls, thus reducing the available cross-sectional area to the flow, or the original dyke's walls may melt. It is also shown that the dyke's wall temperature may first increase and then decrease, and that the axial velocity profile exhibits a parabolic shape in the core region and a plug zone near the dyke's walls for Bingham rheologies. Copyright

  1. Acoustic resonance in the combustion conduits of a steam locomotive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziada, S.; Oengoeren, A. [Sulzer Innotec Limited, Winterthur (Switzerland); Vogel, H.H. [Swiss Locomotive and Machine Works, Winterthur (Switzerland)

    1996-12-01

    The sound emission of a modern, oil fired steam rack locomotive increased sharply when the locomotive speed exceeded the design value of 12 km/hr. The results of pressure and noise measurements, together with an acoustical model of the combustion conduits indicated that the acoustic resonance modes of the combustion conduits are excited by the pressure pulsations generated by the exhaust from the steam cylinders at multiples of the piston frequency. Additionally, when the acoustic resonance is initiated, the resulting pulsations trigger the flame instability of the oil burners which, in turn, enhances the resonance. By means of the acoustical model, a Helmholtz resonator has been designed and optimized to reduce the acoustic response such that it does not excite the flame instability. A second set of measurements, after installing the resonator, has shown a reduction in the noise level by an amount exceeding 21 dBA. The paper focuses upon the identification of the excitation source and the implementation of the countermeasure which are of interest to other applications involving combustion oscillations.

  2. Conduit for high temperature transfer of molten semiconductor crystalline material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiegl, George (Inventor); Torbet, Walter (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A conduit for high temperature transfer of molten semiconductor crystalline material consists of a composite structure incorporating a quartz transfer tube as the innermost member, with an outer thermally insulating layer designed to serve the dual purposes of minimizing heat losses from the quartz tube and maintaining mechanical strength and rigidity of the conduit at the elevated temperatures encountered. The composite structure ensures that the molten semiconductor material only comes in contact with a material (quartz) with which it is compatible, while the outer layer structure reinforces the quartz tube, which becomes somewhat soft at molten semiconductor temperatures. To further aid in preventing cooling of the molten semiconductor, a distributed, electric resistance heater is in contact with the surface of the quartz tube over most of its length. The quartz tube has short end portions which extend through the surface of the semiconductor melt and which are lef bare of the thermal insulation. The heater is designed to provide an increased heat input per unit area in the region adjacent these end portions.

  3. 42 CFR 413.241 - Pharmacy arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pharmacy arrangements. 413.241 Section 413.241... Disease (ESRD) Services and Organ Procurement Costs § 413.241 Pharmacy arrangements. Effective January 1, 2011, an ESRD facility that enters into an arrangement with a pharmacy to furnish renal...

  4. 29 CFR 779.229 - Other arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Franchise and Other Business Arrangements § 779.229 Other arrangements. With respect to those arrangements...” establishment will be considered a part of the same “enterprise.” For example, whether a franchise, lease, or... the enterprise which grants the franchise, right, or concession. (S. Rept. 145, 87th Cong., 1st...

  5. High mass isotope separation arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An isotope separation arrangement for separating a preselected isotope from a mixture of chemically-identical but isotopically-different molecules by either photon-induced pure revibrational or vibronic selective excitation of the molecules containing the atoms of the isotope to be separated from a lower to a higher energy state, and a chemical reaction of the higher energy state molecules with a chemically-reactive agent to form a chemical compound containing primarily the atoms of the isotope to be separated in a physicochemical state different from the physicochemical state of the mixture of chemically-identical but isotopically-different molecules. The chemical compound containing the atoms of the isotope to be separated may be subsequently processed to obtain the isotope. The laser configuration used to generate the photon beam is fully described

  6. The physics of custody arrangements

    CERN Document Server

    Gomberoff, Andrés; Romagnoli, Pierre Paul

    2013-01-01

    Divorced individuals face complex situations when they have children with different ex-partners, or even more, when their new partners have children of their own. In such cases, and when kids spend every other weekend with each parent, a practical problem emerges: Is it possible to have such a custody arrangement that every couple has either all of the kids together or no kids at all? We show that in general, it is not possible, but that the number of couples that do can be maximized. The problem turns out to be equivalent to finding the ground state of a spin glass system, which is known to be equivalent to what is called a weighted max-cut problem in graph theory, and hence it is NP-Complete.

  7. MUSICAL ARRANGEMENT OF MEDIA ADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernyshov Alexander V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The music-compositional principles of commercial and political advertising and also the self-promotion of electronic media (radio, television, Internet are considered in this mediatext: from the elementary beeps, symbolic functions, emblems/logos and musical brands to the sound engineering technology to underscore the product's name and the complex synthesis between music and intra movements and color-light design of frames. Simultaneously examines, how the musical arrangement of ethereal advertising is involved in creation the emotional drama or bravado which reach the level of explicit or associative counterpoint 'music with the advertised object or subject' and which extend to expression of cultural image of all the broadcast channel. The article explores the works of the next genres like infomercial, teleshopping, film-ad, and autonomous commercials that have been produced in European countries or USA.

  8. Aft outer rim seal arrangement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ching-Pang; Tham, Kok-Mun; Schroeder, Eric; Meeroff, Jamie; Miller, Jr., Samuel R; Marra, John J; Campbell, Christian X

    2015-04-28

    An outer rim seal arrangement (10), including: an annular rim (70) centered about a longitudinal axis (30) of a rotor disc (31), extending fore and having a fore-end (72), an outward-facing surface (74), and an inward-facing surface (76); a lower angel wing (62) extending aft from a base of a turbine blade (22) and having an aft end (64) disposed radially inward of the rim inward-facing surface to define a lower angel wing seal gap (80); an upper angel wing (66) extending aft from the turbine blade base and having an aft end (68) disposed radially outward of the rim outward-facing surface to define a upper angel wing seal gap (80, 82); and guide vanes (100) disposed on the rim inward-facing surface in the lower angel wing seal gap. Pumping fins (102) may be disposed on the upper angel wing seal aft end in the upper angel wing seal gap.

  9. Causes and consequences of conduit wall permeability changes during explosive eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, Alison; Hanson, Jonathan

    2015-04-01

    Magmatic volatiles, and in some cases external water, drive explosive volcanic eruptions and so the permeability of magma and conduit wall rocks can modulate the style and intensity of eruptions. Both modelling of eruption dynamics and field studies of lithic clasts indicate that fragmentation levels during explosive silicic eruptions commonly reach depths of kilometres. An important consequence is that substantial deviations from lithostatic pressure are sustained in the conduit during eruption, which, according to finite element modelling, are sufficient to damage a substantial volume of rock around the conduit. Underpressured regions will be susceptible to conduit erosion, widening the conduit; field data provide constraints on erosion rates and erosion depths where subsurface stratigraphy is known. Damage to wall rocks will also increase the rock permeability adjacent to the conduit, which could significantly affect magmatic degassing during and between eruptions. The degree to which external water can interact with magma in the conduit will also depend on wall rock permeability and spatial and temporal variations in pressure. When a major magmatic eruption ceases, deep magma is likely to ascend to fill the lower conduit, and the upper conduit may partially collapse forming vertically extensive breccia. Subvolcanic rocks exposed by exploration and mining of porphyry copper deposits (PCDs) and associated alteration and breccias may provide further field constraints on these models. Although syn- and post-mineralization explosive eruptions likely ruin potential PCDs, earlier eruptions might make space for vertical shallow intrusions and help establish permeable regions conducive to focussing of magmatic fluids required for PCD generation.

  10. Sharing of risks in Islamic finance

    OpenAIRE

    Sekreter, Ahmet

    2011-01-01

    For most of the people the prohibition on interest is the well known part of Islamic finance. Indeed, the concept of Islamic finance was not being discussed enough till financial crisis, after crisis it started to be seen as an alternative financial system for conventional finance. Sharing the risks is the main concept of Islamic finance and one of the main differences between conventional and Islamic finance. Depositors/savers do not bear any risk in conventional finance however Islamic fina...

  11. Financing long term liabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the '80 even if there were no precise law disposition in this specific matter, Enel has created a fund for the plants decommissioning and a fund for the irradiated fuel management. A setting aside pluri-annual plan has been defined. Cumulated funds transferred to the Sogin at the date of its constitution amount to about 1500 MLD ITL (750 M Euro). This amount was adequate to complete decommissioning activities within the Safe Store strategy. Following the separation of Sogin from Enel, a funding mechanism has been defined to provide resources for additional costs deriving from the different economic conditions (new discount rate and taxes), from the management costs for the new company, and from the change in strategy (from Safe Store to DECON). A Decree of the Ministry of the Industry, issued on 26 January 2000, states that the above mentioned extra costs for Sogin shall be financed on a levy on the price of the sold kWh. Every year Sogin shall present the program of future activities, with associated costs: on this basis, the national Authority for Electric energy and Gas (the national body which defines tariff policy) shall re-evaluate the global amount to be granted to Sogin and the levy on the price of the kWh due to Sogin for next three years. The re-evaluation will take into account economic efficiency criteria. For the period 2002- 2004 the Authority has defined a global amount of about 362 M euros to be granted to Sogin, corresponding to ?0,04 cents of Euro per kWh. The same procedure is foreseen by the Decree in order to finance Sogin for additional costs related to the dismantling of nuclear installations now property of ENEA. In this context, a Consortium between ENEA and Sogin has been established. The Authority for the period 2002-2004 has defined a global amount of about 106 M euros to be granted to the Consortium, corresponding to ?0,015 cents of Euro per kWh. (author)

  12. PUBLIC FINANCING OF HEALTHCARE SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Bem

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare in Poland is mainly financed by public sector entities, among them the National Health Fund (NFZ, state budget and local government budgets. The task of the National Health Fund, as the main payer in the system, is chiefly currently financing the services. The state budget plays a complementary role in the system, and finances selected groups of services, health insurance premiums and investments in healthcare infrastructure. The basic role of the local governments is to ensure access to the services, mostly by performing ownership functions towards healthcare institutions.

  13. Algorithms for Optimally Arranging Multicore Memory Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Che Tseng

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As more processing cores are added to embedded systems processors, the relationships between cores and memories have more influence on the energy consumption of the processor. In this paper, we conduct fundamental research to explore the effects of memory sharing on energy in a multicore processor. We study the Memory Arrangement (MA Problem. We prove that the general case of MA is NP-complete. We present an optimal algorithm for solving linear MA and optimal and heuristic algorithms for solving rectangular MA. On average, we can produce arrangements that consume 49% less energy than an all shared memory arrangement and 14% less energy than an all private memory arrangement for randomly generated instances. For DSP benchmarks, we can produce arrangements that, on average, consume 20% less energy than an all shared memory arrangement and 27% less energy than an all private memory arrangement.

  14. Algorithms for Optimally Arranging Multicore Memory Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tseng Wei-Che

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract As more processing cores are added to embedded systems processors, the relationships between cores and memories have more influence on the energy consumption of the processor. In this paper, we conduct fundamental research to explore the effects of memory sharing on energy in a multicore processor. We study the Memory Arrangement (MA Problem. We prove that the general case of MA is NP-complete. We present an optimal algorithm for solving linear MA and optimal and heuristic algorithms for solving rectangular MA. On average, we can produce arrangements that consume 49% less energy than an all shared memory arrangement and 14% less energy than an all private memory arrangement for randomly generated instances. For DSP benchmarks, we can produce arrangements that, on average, consume 20% less energy than an all shared memory arrangement and 27% less energy than an all private memory arrangement.

  15. Access to Finance Thresholds and the Finance-Growth Nexus

    OpenAIRE

    Riadh BEN JELILI; Abdmoulah, Walid

    2013-01-01

    Based on Aghion et al. (2005), this article provides new insights regarding whether financial development can affect economic growth non-linearly by adopting the concept of threshold effects. The empirical approach adopted in this article allows for the finance-growth relationship to be piecewise linear with a set of indicators including access to finance acting as a regime-switching trigger. Using cross-country observations from 144 countries stretching from 1985 to 2009, strong evidence of ...

  16. Essais en finance mathématique et en épistémologie de la finance

    OpenAIRE

    De Scheemaekere, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this thesis in finance is to combine the use of advanced mathematical methods with a return to foundational economic issues. In that perspective, I study generalized rational expectations and asset pricing in Chapter 2, and a converse comparison principle for backward stochastic differential equations with jumps in Chapter 3. Since the use of stochastic methods in finance is an interesting and complex issue in itself - if only to clarify the difference between the use of mathemati...

  17. Computing for Finance

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    The finance sector is one of the driving forces for the use of distributed or Grid computing for business purposes. The speakers will review the state-of-the-art of high performance computing in the financial sector, and provide insight into how different types of Grid computing – from local clusters to global networks - are being applied to financial applications. They will also describe the use of software and techniques from physics, such as Monte Carlo simulations, in the financial world. There will be four talks of 20min each. The talk abstracts and speaker bios are listed below. This will be followed by a Q&A panel session with the speakers. From 19:00 onwards there will be a networking cocktail for audience and speakers. This is an EGEE / CERN openlab event organized in collaboration with the regional business network rezonance.ch. A webcast of the event will be made available for subsequent viewing, along with powerpoint material presented by the speakers. Attendance is free and open to all. R...

  18. Adequacy, Efficiency and Equity of Higher Education Financing: The Case of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahim, Yasmine; Sami, Noha

    2011-01-01

    To meet its future challenges in financing higher education, Egypt has no option but to search for alternative funding arrangements. This article considers the question of how to do so, keeping in mind the need to ensure equitable access to good quality education for those who cannot afford it. To this end, the article begins by assessing public…

  19. Studying and Working: A National Study of Student Finances and Student Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Marcia; James, Richard; Grigg, Gabrielle

    2008-01-01

    A key determinant of the new relationship between students and universities in Australia is the changing nature of higher education funding arrangements and the shift towards "user-pays". In 2007, the Centre for the Study of Higher Education (CSHE) completed a commissioned national study, "Australian University Student Finances 2006: Final Report…

  20. Comparison of health care financing arrangements in Egypt and Cuba: Lessons for health reform in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Christian A Gericke

    2004-01-01

    Egypt and Cuba are both lower-middle income countries with a history of socialist rule and which have embarked on economic liberalisation since the 1990s. Health status in both countries is extremely different. While life expectancy of the Cuban population in all age-groups is similar to that of many high-income industrialised countries, health status in Egypt is relatively poor compared to countries with a similar national income and compared to regional comparators. Health care systems in b...

  1. Financing the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While conventional power stations usually have fossil fuel reserves for only a few weeks, nuclear power stations, because of the relatively long time required for uranium processing from ore extraction to the delivery of the fuel elements and their prolonged in-pile time, require fuel reserves for a period of several years. Although the specific fuel costs of nuclear power stations are much lower than those of conventional power stations, this results in consistently higher financial requirements. But the problems involved in financing the nuclear fuel do not only include the aspect of financing the requirements of reactor operators, but also of financing the facilities of the nuclear fuel cycle. As far as the fuel supply is concerned, the true financial requirements greatly exceed the mere purchasing costs because the costs of financing are rather high as a consequence of the long lead times. (orig./UA)

  2. Health, autonomic financing and transferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cantarero Prieto

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper has as objective to study the whole relative problem to the autonomous communities and regional heath care expenditure financing in Spain. This article has a dual purpose. First, the financing of the current health care attendance is approached in the Spanish regions passing magazine to its possible variants and we observe that the balance of our system is clearly inclined towards the side of the integration in the general pattern of financing («Fiscal Room» with specific conditions («Mixed System». Secondly, we examine the new situation in the mark of health care and its corresponding financing in the new model approved in 2001, in terms of the effects of tax assignment on autonomous communities.

  3. Palliative urinary conduit diversion in cases of intolerable urinary discomfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyndrup, J.; Sorensen, B.L.

    1983-12-01

    Fifteen patients with incurable gynecological cancers, all primary radiation treated and all having severe urinary discomfort due to urinary tract injuries were retrospectively examined after urinary conduit diversion. All have been followed-up until termination or until all survivors had lived for 6 months after the operation. Twelve of the 15 were discharged from the hospital, 10 of whom survived the first 6 months. Of those discharged 82% of the cumulated sum of postoperative observations days was spent out of the hospital. At the end of the observation period nine patients had been supplied with a colostomy as well, thus having double stomas. All six patients still alive declared in retrospect that given the choice again, they would still be willing to undergo the operation.

  4. Palliative urinary conduit diversion in cases of intolerable urinary discomfort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifteen patients with incurable gynecological cancers, all primary radiation treated and all having severe urinary discomfort due to urinary tract injuries were retrospectively examined after urinary conduit diversion. All have been followed-up until termination or until all survivors had lived for 6 months after the operation. Twelve of the 15 were discharged from the hospital, 10 of whom survived the first 6 months. Of those discharged 82% of the cumulated sum of postoperative observations days was spent out of the hospital. At the end of the observation period nine patients had been supplied with a colostomy as well, thus having double stomas. All six patients still alive declared in retrospect that given the choice again, they would still be willing to undergo the operation

  5. Nerve conduit using fascia-wrapped fibrocollagenous tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, K; Tsukagoshi, T; Kuroda, M; Hosaka, Y

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the application of autogenous fascia as a framework of a fibrocollagen tube for a nerve conduit in Japanese white rabbits. The fascia was wrapped with a double layer around a silicone rod 3.0 mm in diameter. After the implantation of the fascia-wrapped silicone rod into a subcutaneous pocket for 2 weeks, a 3.0 x 30-mm fascia-wrapped fibrocollagen (FFC) tube was prepared. With microvascular techniques, the tube was interposed into a right sciatic nerve gap which was 25 mm long. The results of nerve regeneration in the FFC tube group, in particular, the formation of epineurium, were able to stand comparison with the results of a control group under both histologic and electron micrographic examination. PMID:11499471

  6. ACCOUNTING TREATMENTS FOR FINANCING ENTITIES

    OpenAIRE

    CRISTINA MIHAELA NAGY; VIOREL TRIF; BOGDAN COTLE?

    2010-01-01

    One of the most important aspects of an entity is, without doubt, how to finance it, this being an ongoing concern of managers, particularly seeking the cost reduction of the borrowed capital and the increase of the financial profitability instalment. Accessing irredeemable funds is a reality of the recent years. Increasingly more companies are looking to these funds to achieve some development objectives. A thorough analysis of the financing possibilities (subsidy) is important for any entit...

  7. Overvalued equity and financing decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Ming; Hirshleifer, David; Teoh, Siew Hong

    2012-01-01

    We test whether and how equity overvaluation affects corporate financing decisions using an ex ante misvaluation measure that filters firm scale and growth prospects from market price. We find that equity issuance and total financing increase with equity overvaluation; but only among overvalued stocks; and that equity issuance is more sensitive than debt issuance to misvaluation. Consistent with managers catering to maintain overvaluation and with investment scale economy effects, the sensiti...

  8. The Financing of Innovative Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Bronwyn H.

    2010-01-01

    To what extent are new and/or innovative firms fundamentally different from established firms, and therefore require a different form of financing? The theoretical background for this proposition is presented, and the empirical evidence on its importance is reviewed. Owing to the intangible nature of their investment, asymmetric-information and moral-hazard, these firms are more likely to be financed by equity than debt and behave in some cases as though they are cash-constrained, especially ...

  9. Statistical likelihood methods in finance

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, Arnold; Tietje, Martin

    2013-01-01

    It is known from previous work of the authors that non-negative arbitrage free price processes in finance can be described in terms of filtered likelihood processes of statistical experiments and vice versa. The present paper summarizes and outlines some similarities between finance and the statistical likelihood theory of Le Cam. Options are linked to statistical tests of the underlying experiments. In particular, some price formulas for options are expressed by the power o...

  10. The finance-strategy relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D G; Wheeler, J R

    2001-01-01

    The connection between the finance function and strategy in health systems is explored through discussions with chief financial officers (CFOs). The integration of finance into strategy is explored through the use of balanced scorecards, strategic investments and the analysis of core competencies and core enterprises. Divestiture of investments in health plans, physician practices and long-term care facilities is common, while outsourcing activity is increasing. PMID:11794752

  11. Project finance for alternative energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is intended to provide general advice to sponsors of renewable energy projects who expect to raise project-based financing from commercial banks to fund the development of their projects. It will set out, for the benefit of such sponsors, how bankers typically approach the analysis of these undertakings and in particular the risk areas on which they concentrate. By doing so it should assist sponsors to maximise their prospects of raising bank finance. (author)

  12. TOURIST ENTERPRISES FINANCING IN GREECE

    OpenAIRE

    Balomenou, Chryssanthi; Arsenos, Panagyiotis; Lagos, Dimitris

    2005-01-01

    The main purpose of our paper is to examine the financing framework of the Greek tourist enterprises. More specifically, in the first part of this paper we analyze the sector of the Greek tourism market in order to be able to define its operational framework. Then, we examine the structural problems of the sector and analyze the relevant Institutional financing framework. In the second part we work out a critical assessment of the tourist enterprises existing financial framework, focussing on...

  13. 78 FR 61985 - City of Astoria, Oregon; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-09

    ... Conduit Hydropower Facility and Soliciting Comments and Motions To Intervene On September 24, 2013, City of Astoria, Oregon (Astoria) filed a notice of intent to construct a qualifying conduit hydropower facility, pursuant to section 30 of the Federal Power Act, as amended by section 4 of the...

  14. 78 FR 69847 - North Side Canal Company; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-21

    ... Qualifying Conduit Hydropower Facility and Soliciting Comments and Motions To Intervene On November 5, 2013, North Side Canal Company, filed a notice of intent to construct a qualifying conduit hydropower facility, pursuant to section 30 of the Federal Power Act, as amended by section 4 of the Hydropower...

  15. 78 FR 56872 - City of Barre, Vermont; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-16

    ... Conduit Hydropower Facility and Soliciting Comments and Motions To Intervene On August 29, 2013, City of Barre, Vermont filed a notice of intent to construct a qualifying conduit hydropower facility, pursuant to section 30 of the Federal Power Act, as amended by section 4 of the Hydropower...

  16. 78 FR 62351 - North Side Canal Company; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-18

    ... Qualifying Conduit Hydropower Facility and Soliciting Comments and Motions To Intervene On October 3, 2013, North Side Canal Company, filed a notice of intent to construct a qualifying conduit hydropower facility, pursuant to section 30 of the Federal Power Act, as amended by section 4 of the Hydropower...

  17. 78 FR 66355 - Pleasant Grove City, UT; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-05

    ... Conduit Hydropower Facility and Soliciting Comments and Motions To Intervene On October 22, 2013, as... a qualifying conduit hydropower facility, pursuant to section 30 of the Federal Power Act, as amended by section 4 of the Hydropower Regulatory Efficiency Act of 2013 (HREA). The 120 kW Battle...

  18. 78 FR 53752 - City of Sandpoint, Idaho; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ... Qualifying Conduit Hydropower Facility and Soliciting Comments and Motions To Intervene On August 15, 2013, City of Sandpoint, Idaho filed a notice of intent to construct a qualifying conduit hydropower facility, pursuant to section 30 of the Federal Power Act, as amended by section 4 of the Hydropower...

  19. 78 FR 61987 - Corbett Water District; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-09

    ... Conduit Hydropower Facility and Soliciting Comments and Motions To Intervene On September 23, 2013, Corbett Water District filed a notice of intent to construct a qualifying conduit hydropower facility, pursuant to section 30 of the Federal Power Act, as amended by section 4 of the Hydropower...

  20. A one-dimensional heat-transport model for conduit flow in karst aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, A.J.; Gilcrease, P.C.

    2009-01-01

    A one-dimensional heat-transport model for conduit flow in karst aquifers is presented as an alternative to two or three-dimensional distributed-parameter models, which are data intensive and require knowledge of conduit locations. This model can be applied for cases where water temperature in a well or spring receives all or part of its water from a phreatic conduit. Heat transport in the conduit is simulated by using a physically-based heat-transport equation that accounts for inflow of diffuse flow from smaller openings and fissures in the surrounding aquifer during periods of low recharge. Additional diffuse flow that is within the zone of influence of the well or spring but has not interacted with the conduit is accounted for with a binary mixing equation to proportion these different water sources. The estimation of this proportion through inverse modeling is useful for the assessment of contaminant vulnerability and well-head or spring protection. The model was applied to 7 months of continuous temperature data for a sinking stream that recharges a conduit and a pumped well open to the Madison aquifer in western South Dakota. The simulated conduit-flow fraction to the well ranged from 2% to 31% of total flow, and simulated conduit velocity ranged from 44 to 353 m/d.

  1. Hydraulic transients in pumping station-main conduit - Cooling tower systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presented a method of starting up a pump with a partially filled main conduit allows to avoided filling the conduit with a low head and draining the pipeline followed by rotation of the pump in the opposite direction. This provides reduction of dynamic loads on the system elements and increases the reliability and time of the work

  2. In vivo studies of silk based gold nano-composite conduits for functional peripheral nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Suradip; Sharma, Manav; Saharia, Dhiren; Sarma, Kushal Konwar; Sarma, Monalisa Goswami; Borthakur, Bibhuti Bhusan; Bora, Utpal

    2015-09-01

    We report a novel silk-gold nanocomposite based nerve conduit successfully tested in a neurotmesis grade sciatic nerve injury model in rats over a period of eighteen months. The conduit was fabricated by adsorbing gold nanoparticles onto silk fibres and transforming them into a nanocomposite sheet by electrospinning which is finally given a tubular structure by rolling on a stainless steel mandrel of chosen diameter. The conduits were found to promote adhesion and proliferation of Schwann cells in vitro and did not elicit any toxic or immunogenic responses in vivo. We also report for the first time, the monitoring of muscular regeneration post nerve conduit implantation by recording motor unit potentials (MUPs) through needle electromyogram. Pre-seeding the conduits with Schwann cells enhanced myelination of the regenerated tissue. Histo-morphometric and electrophysiological studies proved that the nanocomposite based conduits pre-seeded with Schwann cells performed best in terms of structural and functional regeneration of severed sciatic nerves. The near normal values of nerve conduction velocity (50 m/sec), compound muscle action potential (29.7 mV) and motor unit potential (133 ?V) exhibited by the animals implanted with Schwann cell loaded nerve conduits in the present study are superior to those observed in previous reports with synthetic materials as well as collagen based nerve conduits. Animals in this group were also able to perform complex locomotory activities like stretching and jumping with excellent sciatic function index (SFI) and led a normal life. PMID:26026910

  3. On Security of Collateral in Danish Mortgage Finance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haldrup, Karin

    2016-01-01

    the balance principle that assigns risks and responsibility to market players in a self-disciplinary manner and protected the mortgage banks against cash flow mismatches even during deep crisis, as history attests. It is shown how property registers and effective enforcement have created transparent......Specialized mortgage intermediaries in Denmark have for over two hundred years provided owners and buyers of real property wide access to credit. The present paper sets out to explore the safeguards that nurtured development of a robust, market based financing system and a deep mortgage market....... Observations are made on the nature of collateral performance in respect to property rights, mortgage law and market development in search of general features of required institutional arrangements. The robustness of the Danish mortgage finance system is largely accredited to the securitization model based on...

  4. SABER-School Finance: Data Collection Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Elizabeth; Patrinos, Harry; Rogers, Halsey

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the SABER-school finance initiative is to collect, analyze and disseminate comparable data about education finance systems across countries. SABER-school finance assesses education finance systems along six policy goals: (i) ensuring basic conditions for learning; (ii) monitoring learning conditions and outcomes; (iii) overseeing…

  5. 12 CFR 226.4 - Finance charge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Finance charge. 226.4 Section 226.4 Banks and... LENDING (REGULATION Z) General § 226.4 Finance charge. (a) Definition. The finance charge is the cost of...) Charges by third parties. The finance charge includes fees and amounts charged by someone other than...

  6. SABER-School Finance : Data Collection Instrument

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the SABER-school finance initiative is to collect, analyze and disseminate comparable data about education finance systems across countries. SABER-school finance assesses education finance systems along six policy goals: (i) ensuring basic conditions for learning; (ii) monitoring learning conditions and outcomes; (iii) overseeing service delivery; (iv) budgeting with adequate an...

  7. The financing of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Existing nuclear generating capacity plays an important role in providing secure, economic and low-carbon electricity supplies in many OECD countries. At the same time, there is increasing recognition that an expansion of nuclear power could play a valuable role in reducing future carbon dioxide emissions. However, in recent years only a handful of new nuclear power plants (NPPs) have been built in just a few OECD countries. An important reason for this is the challenges associated with financing the construction of new NPPs. The just-published NEA report entitled The Financing of Nuclear Power Plants examines these challenges. In addition, recognizing that any expansion of nuclear power programmes will require strong and sustained government support, the report highlights the role of governments in facilitating and encouraging investment in new nuclear capacity. Key actions that should be considered by governments that wish to see investment in new NPPs include: - Provide clear and sustained policy support for the development of nuclear power, by setting out the case for a nuclear component in energy supply as part of a long-term national energy strategy. - Work with electricity utilities, financial companies and other potential investors, and the nuclear industry from an early stage to address concerns that may prevent nuclear investment and to avoid mistakes in establishing the parameters for new NPPs. - Establish an efficient and effective regulatory system which provides adequate opportunities for public involvement in the decision-making process, while also providing potential investors with the certainty they require to plan such a major investment. - Put arrangements in place for the management of radioactive waste and spent fuel, and show progress towards a solution for final disposal of waste. For investors in NPPs, the financial arrangements for paying their fair share of the costs must be clearly defined. - Ensure that electricity market regulation does not disadvantage NPPs. Long-term arrangements may be necessary to provide certainty for investors in NPPs, reflecting the long-term nature of nuclear power projects. Where reducing CO2 emissions is to act as an incentive for investments in nuclear power, the government may need to provide some guarantees that policy measures will keep carbon prices at sufficiently high levels. In countries where there are large utilities with the financial strength to invest directly in new NPPs, or where there are well-resourced foreign utilities willing to make such investments, fully commercial financing may be possible. However, in other cases it may prove impossible for a nuclear power plant project to go ahead without direct or indirect public sector financial support, which would reduce the investment risks to acceptable levels. Public sector financial support could involve supporting a state-owned utility in making nuclear power plant investments, providing support to private sector utilities through loan guarantees, tax credits or other measures, or establishing public-private partnerships. However, governments should ensure that, overall, investment risk remains appropriately shared with the private sector

  8. Bridging the finance gap for small firms. The role of information flows across large firm-based production networks in supplying finance to small firms: the case of France

    OpenAIRE

    Hancké, Bob; Cieply, Sylvie

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses finance problems of small firms. Since small firms and banks belong to different economic worlds, as a result of which information assymetries emerge, credit rationing leads to sub-optimal financing arrangements. The paper analyses institutional solutions to these information assymetries between banks andsmall firms and argues that, as a result of the political-economic development ofFrance since the Second World War, production networks around large firms have become the...

  9. Financing energy projects: experience of the International Finance Corporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides an overview of the recent trend towards private ownership and financing of power projects in the developing countries, focusing on the role played by both private and public agencies in meeting the large financing challenges. The paper draws upon the operational experience of the International Finance Corporation, which has been involved in the financing of more than 30 private power projects in the developing countries over the past three decades. Among the issues that affect implementation of private power projects is the balancing of risk and reward to equity investors and to commercial lenders. The paper discusses the principal sources of risk and the strategies used to manage them. A related issue is the competition for capital on the international markets, and the techniques that are being devised to bring more finance to the power sector. Finally, the paper considers the role of government in bringing private investors to the power sector, and the approaches being adopted to balance the needs of investors with the needs of the public. (author)

  10. The Financing Challenges of Startups in China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Chong; Luyue ZHANG

    2014-01-01

    This research aims to investigate the challenges of financing startups in China. This paper is intent to explore the main difficulties faced by startups in China, and discuss the financing resources of startups in China. In literature review, it evaluates the challenges of Chinese financing startups from three perspectives, namely financing difficulties of Chinese small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs), the plight of venture capital (VC) in China and the financing difficulties of Chinese g...

  11. Financing Asset Sales and Business Cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Puhan, Tatjana-Xenia; Arnold, Marc; Hackbarth, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the decision of firms to sell assets to fund investments (financing asset sales). For a sample of U.S. manufacturing firms during the 1971-2010 period, we document new stylized facts about financing asset sales that cannot be explained by traditional motives for selling assets, such as financial distress or financing constraints. Using a structural model of financing, investment, and macroeconomic risk, we show that financing asset sales attenuate the debt overhang problem...

  12. Recent Developments in Quantitative Finance: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Chia-lin; Hu, Shing-Yang; Yu, Shih-Ti

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative finance combines mathematical finance, financial statistics, financial econometrics and empirical finance to provide a solid quantitative foundation for the analysis of financial issues. The purpose of this special issue on “Recent developments in quantitative finance” is to highlight some areas of research in which novel methods in quantitative finance have contributed significantly to the analysis of financial issues, specifically fast methods for large-scale non-elliptical por...

  13. The managerial process of business financing

    OpenAIRE

    Solomia Andres

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents some modalities and financing forces for business, getting out in the first place the entrepreneur ingenuity for finding these sources of financing necessary for the business success. Also get some contributions and proposals regarding the criteria’s of which the entrepreneur must be take care in choosing the financial sources, for preparing the finance pack and presenting the financing demands, which good documented, not only grows up the chances of one financing but also...

  14. Engineering a multimodal nerve conduit for repair of injured peripheral nerve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, A. F.; Bulluss, K. J.; Kyratzis, I. L. B.; Gilmore, K.; Mysore, T.; Schirmer, K. S. U.; Kennedy, E. L.; O'Shea, M.; Truong, Y. B.; Edwards, S. L.; Peeters, G.; Herwig, P.; Razal, J. M.; Campbell, T. E.; Lowes, K. N.; Higgins, M. J.; Moulton, S. E.; Murphy, M. A.; Cook, M. J.; Clark, G. M.; Wallace, G. G.; Kapsa, R. M. I.

    2013-02-01

    Injury to nerve tissue in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) results in long-term impairment of limb function, dysaesthesia and pain, often with associated psychological effects. Whilst minor injuries can be left to regenerate without intervention and short gaps up to 2 cm can be sutured, larger or more severe injuries commonly require autogenous nerve grafts harvested from elsewhere in the body (usually sensory nerves). Functional recovery is often suboptimal and associated with loss of sensation from the tissue innervated by the harvested nerve. The challenges that persist with nerve repair have resulted in development of nerve guides or conduits from non-neural biological tissues and various polymers to improve the prognosis for the repair of damaged nerves in the PNS. This study describes the design and fabrication of a multimodal controlled pore size nerve regeneration conduit using polylactic acid (PLA) and (PLA):poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) fibers within a neurotrophin-enriched alginate hydrogel. The nerve repair conduit design consists of two types of PLGA fibers selected specifically for promotion of axonal outgrowth and Schwann cell growth (75:25 for axons; 85:15 for Schwann cells). These aligned fibers are contained within the lumen of a knitted PLA sheath coated with electrospun PLA nanofibers to control pore size. The PLGA guidance fibers within the nerve repair conduit lumen are supported within an alginate hydrogel impregnated with neurotrophic factors (NT-3 or BDNF with LIF, SMDF and MGF-1) to provide neuroprotection, stimulation of axonal growth and Schwann cell migration. The conduit was used to promote repair of transected sciatic nerve in rats over a period of 4 weeks. Over this period, it was observed that over-grooming and self-mutilation (autotomy) of the limb implanted with the conduit was significantly reduced in rats implanted with the full-configuration conduit compared to rats implanted with conduits containing only an alginate hydrogel. This indicates return of some feeling to the limb via the fully-configured conduit. Immunohistochemical analysis of the implanted conduits removed from the rats after the four-week implantation period confirmed the presence of myelinated axons within the conduit and distal to the site of implantation, further supporting that the conduit promoted nerve repair over this period of time. This study describes the design considerations and fabrication of a novel multicomponent, multimodal bio-engineered synthetic conduit for peripheral nerve repair.

  15. The international Finance Corporation and financing of sustainable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Finance Corporation (IFC), a member of the World Bank Group, is the largest multilateral source of loan and equity financing for private sector projects in the developing world. IFC participates in an investment only when it can make a special contribution that complements the role of market operators. Since its founding 40 years ago, IFC has provided more than $18.8 billion in financing for 1,706 companies in developing countries. Its share capital is provided by its 170 member countries, which collectively determine its policies and activities. Strong shareholder support and a substantial paid-in capital base have allowed IFC to raise funds for its lending activities through its triple-A rated bond issues in international financial markets. (orig.)

  16. Governance Arrangements for State Owned Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Vagliasindi,Maria

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to shed new light on key challenges in governance arrangements for state owned enterprises in infrastructure sectors. The paper provides guidelines on how to classify the fuzzy and sometimes conflicting development goals of infrastructure and the governance arrangements needed to reach such goals. Three policy recommendations emerge. First, some of the structures i...

  17. 78 FR 40131 - Proposed Subsequent Arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ... authority of section 131a. of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended. The Department is providing notice... the European Atomic Energy Community. DATES: This subsequent arrangement will take effect no sooner... Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, it has been determined that this subsequent arrangement...

  18. 78 FR 40132 - Proposed Subsequent Arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ... authority of section 131a. of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended. The Department is providing notice... the European Atomic Energy Community. DATES: This subsequent arrangement will take effect no sooner... Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, it has been determined that this subsequent arrangement...

  19. A novel bioactive nerve conduit for the repair of peripheral nerve injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin-bin; Yin, Yi-xia; Yan, Qiong-jiao; Wang, Xin-yu; Li, Shi-pu

    2016-01-01

    The use of a nerve conduit provides an opportunity to regulate cytokines, growth factors and neurotrophins in peripheral nerve regeneration and avoid autograft defects. We constructed a poly-D-L-lactide (PDLLA)-based nerve conduit that was modified using poly{(lactic acid)-co-[(glycolic acid)-alt-(L-lysine)]} and β-tricalcium phosphate. The effectiveness of this bioactive PDLLA-based nerve conduit was compared to that of PDLLA-only conduit in the nerve regeneration following a 10-mm sciatic nerve injury in rats. We observed the nerve morphology in the early period of regeneration, 35 days post injury, using hematoxylin-eosin and methylene blue staining. Compared with the PDLLA conduit, the nerve fibers in the PDLLA-based bioactive nerve conduit were thicker and more regular in size. Muscle fibers in the soleus muscle had greater diameters in the PDLLA bioactive group than in the PDLLA only group. The PDLLA-based bioactive nerve conduit is a promising strategy for repair after sciatic nerve injury.

  20. Relative Importance of Karst-Conduit Hyporheic Zones Co-occuring at Different Spatial Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, K.; Wilson, J. L.

    2014-12-01

    Hyporheic zones at the margin of karst conduits occur at different spatial scales, from those associated with the smallest scales (cm) of conduit-wall topography (e.g., scallops) to large-scale (100 m) conduit sinuosity, and to even larger conduit network patterns. Hyporheic flows are believed to influence the processing of nutrients and dissolved organic carbon from the conduit flow, the evolution of karst-water chemistry, the reaction and sequestration of contaminants, and speleogenesis. Multiple spatial scales of hyporheic interaction lead to a wide distribution of hyporheic flow path lengths, residence times, and opportunities for both abiotic and microbially-mediated reactions of various kinetics. Using mathematical modeling we examine hyporheic flows for a single karst conduit with two different scales of flow disturbance: wall topography at the sub-meter scale and sinuosity at the scale of 10's of meters. By varying the amplitude of each disturbance we examine changes in hyporheic flow magnitude, paths, residence times, and other metrics. We test the hypothesis that while sinuosity-driven hyporheic flow occupies the greatest volume of karst matrix rock, with the longest residence times, the much smaller volume of topographically-driven hyporheic flow is more important because it turns over far more conduit flow and does so with much shorter and possibly more important residence times.

  1. Fluid-Rock Dynamic Interaction in Magmatic Conduits: Modelling Transients Using an Analytical Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arciniega-Ceballos, Alejandra; Scheu, Bettina; Sanchez-Sesma, Francisco; Dingwell, Donald

    2014-05-01

    We compute transients fluid-rock dynamic interaction in a fluid driven axisymmetric conduit embedded in an infinite, homogeneous elastic space. Both fluid and solid are dynamically coupled fulfilling continuity of velocities and radial stresses at the conduit's wall. The calculation model considers the viscosity as a key parameter leading to non-linear scheme. A pressure transient at a point of the conduit, that perturbs a steady flow of incompressible viscous fluid, produces the interaction between the fluid and motion at the conduit's walls. The fluid motion induces the elastic response of the conduit forcing it to oscillate radially. The fluid-filled conduit dynamics is governed by three second-order, ordinary non-linear differential equations, which are solved numerically by applying a fifth-order Runge-Kutta scheme. Boundary conditions satisfy the Bernoulli's principle allowing coupling several pipe segments which may present smooth variation in fluid properties. The nature of the source involves different pressure excitations functions including those measuring during simulations of gas burst and fragmentation of volcanic rocks under controlled laboratory conditions. Far-field velocity synthetics radiated by motion of the conduit's walls and fluid flows ascending to the surface, display characteristic waveforms and frequency content that are similar to those of long-period signals and tremor observed at active volcanoes. Results suggest that transient fluid flow induced oscillations may explain long-period and tremor signals. Advantages and limitations of this approach are discussed.

  2. Cooling arrangement for a tapered turbine blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, George (Palm City, FL)

    2010-07-27

    A cooling arrangement (11) for a highly tapered gas turbine blade (10). The cooling arrangement (11) includes a pair of parallel triple-pass serpentine cooling circuits (80,82) formed in an inner radial portion (50) of the blade, and a respective pair of single radial channel cooling circuits (84,86) formed in an outer radial portion (52) of the blade (10), with each single radial channel receiving the cooling fluid discharged from a respective one of the triple-pass serpentine cooling circuit. The cooling arrangement advantageously provides a higher degree of cooling to the most highly stressed radially inner portion of the blade, while providing a lower degree of cooling to the less highly stressed radially outer portion of the blade. The cooling arrangement can be implemented with known casting techniques, thereby facilitating its use on highly tapered, highly twisted Row 4 industrial gas turbine blades that could not be cooled with prior art cooling arrangements.

  3. The Financing of Innovative Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronwyn H. Hall

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available To what extent are new and/or innovative firms fundamentally different from established firms, and therefore require a different form of financing? The theoretical background for this proposition is presented, and the empirical evidence on its importance is reviewed. Owing to the intangible nature of their investment, asymmetric-information and moral-hazard, these firms are more likely to be financed by equity than debt and behave in some cases as though they are cash-constrained, especially if they are small. Recognizing the role for public policy in this area, many countries have implemented specific policies to bring the cost of financing innovation more in line with the level that would prevail in the absence of market failures.

  4. Obstruction of an ileal urinary conduit in an incarcerated right inguinal hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, M J; Weston, P M T

    2015-04-01

    We present the case of a 72-year-old man with a history of anuria from his ileal conduit 15 months following its formation. That conduit had become incarcerated in a right-sided ingunial hernia. The patient presented with anuria and an acute kidney injury. A clincal diagnosis of an incarcerated hernia was made, and he was taken to theatre for reduction and repair of the hernia. On removal of the conduit from the hernial sac, it began to drain immediately. He made a full recovery, with normalisation of his renal function. PMID:26491738

  5. Totally biological composite aortic stentless valved conduit for aortic root replacement: 10-year experience

    OpenAIRE

    Meduoye Ayo; Ferreira Ignacio; Galiñanes Manuel; Sosnowski Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objectives To retrospectively analyze the clinical outcome of a totally biological composite stentless aortic valved conduit (No-React® BioConduit) implanted using the Bentall procedure over ten years in a single centre. Methods Between 27/10/99 and 19/01/08, the No-React® BioConduit composite graft was implanted in 67 patients. Data on these patients were collected from the in-hospital database, from patient notes and from questionnaires. A cohort of patients had 2D-echocardiogram w...

  6. A nonlinear analysis methodology for the one hole malleable iron conduit clamp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A generalized nonlinear finite element methodology for determining the load-deflection behavior of a malleable iron one hole conduit clamp is developed. This clamp is used to support electrical-conduit in industry and nuclear power plants. Two different types of one hole malleable iron conduit clamps are analyzed using two dimensional plane stress finite element models. The analysis used the following nonlinear options: large displacement option, interface option, plasticity option, and bilinear material stress-strain capabilities. The analytical methodology gives similar results to those measured in actual clamp tests

  7. Transcatheter Pulmonary Valve Replacement for Right Ventricular Outflow Tract Conduit Dysfunction After the Ross Procedure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gillespie, Matthew J; McElhinney, Doff B; Kreutzer, Jacqueline; Hellenbrand, William E; El-Said, Howaida; Ewert, Peter; Rhodes, John F; Søndergaard, Lars; Jones, Thomas K

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) conduit dysfunction is a limitation of the Ross procedure. Transcatheter pulmonary valve replacement (TPVR) could alter the impact of conduit dysfunction and the risk-benefit balance for the Ross procedure. METHODS: Retrospective review of...... databases from 3 prospective Melody TPV (Medtronic Inc, Minneapolis, MN) trials. RESULTS: Among 358 patients who were catheterized with the intent to implant a Melody TPV for RVOT conduit stenosis or regurgitation (PR) as part of 3 prospective multicenter studies, 67 (19%) had a prior Ross procedure. Of...

  8. Flambage vertical des conduites en souillées Vertical Buckling of Buried Pipes

    OpenAIRE

    Bournazel C.

    2006-01-01

    Si l'apparition d'un flambage vertical des conduites rigides enfouies dans une tranchée est un phénomène assez rare, il peut ne pas en être de même pour des conduites flexibles dont les propriétés mécaniques sont de nature différente. Une étude théorique et expérimentale, ayant pour but de proposer une méthode analytique de calcul de l'apparition du flambage et de son évolution sous l'effet de la pression interne, a été réalisée. II apparaît que les conduites flexibles actuelles sont très sen...

  9. Data Transfer via Alternative Conduits: Using Fluid Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Willow

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Digital convergence has reshaped a gamut of industry demographics in the 21C, comprised of cloud computing, healthcare, pharmaceutical, consumer supplies, government, defense, manufacturing, entertainment, and even on-line education, among many others.   At the center of the web-convergence lies the problem of network bandwidth limitation.  Traditionally, research has focused on two major resolution strategies in parallel:  data compression to minimize the network traffic (i.e. algorithmic; software and alternative conduit for data transfer such as wireless (i.e. infrastructural; hardware.Building a network infrastructure is extremely costly.   In addition, maintenance and upgrade costs may be prohibitive, given the U.S. consumer demographics.   To this end, the emphasis is placed on seeking existing infrastructure which connects business and residential entities.The objective of this research, therefore, is to seek the possibility and feasibility of (digital data transfers via the extensive water and/or sewer network(s, while minimizing structural modifications to the existing infrastructure.   To date, sonar has been proven to be effective.   If successful, the value of this intellectual property may be immeasurable.

  10. A Cable-in-Conduit Superconductor for Pulsed Accelerator Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Bottura, L; Fischer, E; Kauschke, M; Moritz, G; Vysotsky, V S; Sytnikov, V E; Wilson, M

    2005-01-01

    Superconducting magnets for future accelerators such as the SIS-100 ring of the International Accelerator Facility at GSI-Darmstadt, or a superconducting injector at the LHC, require that the magnetic field is pulsed with high repetition rate and high reliability over periods of several years. As an example the SIS-100 at the IAF is planned to be operated up to 2 T at 4 T/s for more than 100 millions cycles. Achieving these objectives requires that the superconductor has an excellent mechanical stability as well as a sufficient energy margin to tolerate foreseen and unforeseen energy inputs. In addition the cryogenic loss must be controlled at low levels, while the field errors due to coupling currents must be compatible with the beam dynamics requirements. In this paper we describe a cable-in-conduit design that is suitable for the challenging operating conditions described above, we give the expected performances and report on the on-going manufacturing demonstration and planned supporting tests.

  11. A conduit dilation model of methane venting from lake sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scandella, B.P.; Varadharajan, C.; Hemond, Harold F.; Ruppel, C.; Juanes, R.

    2011-01-01

    Methane is a potent greenhouse gas, but its effects on Earth's climate remain poorly constrained, in part due to uncertainties in global methane fluxes to the atmosphere. An important source of atmospheric methane is the methane generated in organic-rich sediments underlying surface water bodies, including lakes, wetlands, and the ocean. The fraction of the methane that reaches the atmosphere depends critically on the mode and spatiotemporal characteristics of free-gas venting from the underlying sediments. Here we propose that methane transport in lake sediments is controlled by dynamic conduits, which dilate and release gas as the falling hydrostatic pressure reduces the effective stress below the tensile strength of the sediments. We test our model against a four-month record of hydrostatic load and methane flux in Upper Mystic Lake, Mass., USA, and show that it captures the complex episodicity of methane ebullition. Our quantitative conceptualization opens the door to integrated modeling of methane transport to constrain global methane release from lakes and other shallow-water, organic-rich sediment systems, and to assess its climate feedbacks.

  12. Injunctions against mere conduit of information protected by copyright

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandfeld Jakobsen, SØren; Petersen, Clement Salung

    2011-01-01

    This paper includes an in-depth analysis of EU law and Scandinavian law on injunctions against internet access providers (IAPs) performing as mere conduit of information protected by copyright. In recent Scandinavian case law, courts have granted preliminary injunctions which have caused IAPs to either shut down specific internet connections allegedly used to infringe copyright or to block access to internet content, which allegedly infringed applicable copyright rules. This paper considers some significant legal challenges, which are emerging in the wake of this case law, and which should attract attention in all European member states. Firstly, it is shown that rules on preliminary injunctions are generally unable to safeguard the significant legitimate interests of third parties, which may be harmed by such relief, and that a proper implementation of Art. 8(3) of the Infosoc Directive requires rules, which take into due consideration the special aspects related to enforcement of copyright on the internet through IAPs. Secondly, it is shown that the termination of internet connections and the blocking of access to internet content may not support the public policies behind copyright law and also may restrict the freedom of expression under European human rights law. The analysis is based on a brief account for the relevant EU Directives, the implementation of these Directives in the Scandinavian countries and the Scandinavian case law regarding use of injunctions against IAPs to enforce copyright on the internet.

  13. CFD modeling of ITER cable-in-conduit superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the first paper of this series, we proposed a novel approach to help understand some of the complex processes occurring in dual-channel cable-in-conduit conductors (CICC) as used in the superconducting coils of the international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER): the constitutive relations including transport coefficients needed in input by standard global 1D tools for the analysis of thermal-hydraulic transients in ITER coils, e.g., the Mithrandir/M and M code, are derived from local 3D analysis. A first validation of the model was performed showing very good agreement with available experimental data from different applications. The same advanced computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tool, the FLUENT code, including sophisticated turbulence models, is used here to compute the pressure drop corresponding to an imposed mass flow rate in several geometries relevant for the central channel of the ITER CICC. The validation is extended to include more ITER-relevant conditions showing good accuracy with error bars on the friction factor ∼±15%. We then apply the validated model to the study of the expected dependencies of the pressure drop in the central channel of an ITER CICC on the size of the gap and on the diameter of the delimiting spiral

  14. Project finance for renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is intended to provide general advice to sponsors of renewable energy projects who expect to raise project-based financing from commercial banks to fund the development of their projects. It sets out, for the benefit of such sponsors, how bankers typically approach the analysis of these undertakings and in particular the risk areas on which they concentrate. By doing so it should assist sponsors to maximize their prospects of raising bank finance. The watchword for sponsors approaching banks must be ''Be Prepared'' . (author)

  15. Financing Your Small Business: A Workbook for Financing Small Business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Clark W.

    Designed to assist established businesspeople with the development of a loan proposal, this workbook offers information on sources of financing and step-by-step guidance on applying for a loan. After chapter I discusses borrowers' and lenders' attitudes towards money, chapter II offers suggestions for determining financial needs. Chapter III lists…

  16. Financing Patterns of European SMEs: An Empirical Taxonomy

    OpenAIRE

    Moritz, Alexandra; Block, Joern; Heinz, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This EIF Working Paper takes a holistic approach to investigate SME financing patterns in Europe by performing a cluster analysis including 12,726 SMEs in 28 European countries. The results reveal that SME financing in Europe is not homogenous but that different financing patterns exist. The cluster analysis identifies six distinct SME financing types: mixed-financed SMEs, state-subsidised SMEs, debt-financed SMEs, flexible-debt-financed SMEs, trade-financed SMEs and internally-financed SMEs....

  17. Financing patterns of European SMEs – an empirical taxonomy

    OpenAIRE

    Moritz, Alexandra; Block, Jörn; Heinz, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    This paper develops an empirical taxonomy of SME financing patterns in Europe by performing a cluster analysis including 12,726 SMEs in 28 European countries. The results reveal that SME financing in Europe is not homogenous but that different financing patterns exist. The cluster analysis identifies six distinct SME financing types: mixed-financed SMEs, state-subsidised SMEs, debt-financed SMEs, flexible-debt-financed SMEs, trade-financed SMEs and internally financed SMEs. These SME finan...

  18. Coil arrangement for nuclear fusion apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The patent concerns a transition-feeding structure for the coil arrangement for a nuclear fusion device. This feeding structure is designed to reduce current loops generated by transition currents, which in turn reduces the generation of error magnetic fields, and so improving the characteristics of the plasma confinement within the coil. The coil arrangement in the invention has a return conductor radially penetrating its turns at a position where each turn bends into the next. Also a supply conductor is symmetrically arranged relative to the axis of the return conductor. (U.K.)

  19. Financing of wind energy projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper looks at what banks need to know to enable them to consider a wind energy project. The major experiences of banks in financing wind energy have been in the US where governmentally inspired long term sales contracts (PURPA Contracts) have given a security to sponsors and banks not available elsewhere. (Author)

  20. Guideposts for Low Carbon Finance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author proposes four guideposts for efficient low carbon finance: remove subsidies for high-carbon technologies, improve the cost-effectiveness of low-carbon subsidies, encourage private sector innovation and maintain transparent public policy tools that support cost-benefit accounting

  1. Nuclear industry (Finance) Act 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the Act is to enable British Nuclear Fuels Limited to make borrowings backed by Government guarantees in order to finance its ten year investment programme. More specifically, the Act raises the financial limit applicable to British Nuclear Fuels Limited from pound 500 million to pound 1,000 million. (NEA)

  2. (Micro)Financing to Give

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bajde, Domen

    transaction. We turn to recent efforts of hybridizing charity and venture finance, exemplified by microfinance platforms such as Kiva.org. We combine data from an existing study of Kiva and its online community, with additional participant observation and third-party accounts detailing the evolution and...

  3. Small and Medium Enterprise Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Global Partnership for Financial Inclusion; International Finance Corporation

    2013-01-01

    This update considers new findings since the initial Stocktaking report, substantiating the contribution of the private sector, and of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in particular, for new jobs and investment. These findings further illustrate the key role access to finance plays in SMEs abilities and willingness to add jobs including the special circumstances of fast-growing SMEs, o...

  4. Effect of Multiwall Carbon Nanotube Reinforcement on Coaxially Extruded Cellular Vascular Conduits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yahui; Yu, Yin; Dolati, Farzaneh; Ozbolat, Ibrahim T

    2014-01-01

    Due to its abundant source, good biocompatibility, low price and mild crosslinking process, alginate is an ideal selection for tissue engineering applications. In this work, alginate vascular conduits were fabricated through a coaxial extrusion-based system. However, due to the inherent weak mechanical properties of alginate, the vascular conduits are not capable of biomimicking natural vascular system. In this paper, multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) were used to reinforce vascular conduits. Mechanical, dehydration, swelling and degradation tests were performed to understand influences of MWCNT reinforcement. The unique mechanical properties together with perfusion and diffusional capability are two important factors to mimic the nature. Thus, perfusion experiments were also conducted to explore the MWCNT reinforcement effect. In addition, cell viability and tissue histology were conducted to evaluate the biological performance of conduits both in short and long term for MWCNT reinforcement. PMID:24863208

  5. In vivo visualization of microneedle conduits in human skin using laser scanning microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solid microneedles enhance the penetration of drugs into the viable skin but little is known about the geometry of the conduits in vivo. Therefore, laser scanning microscopy was used to visualize the conduits of a microneedle system with needles at a length of 300 ?m in 6 healthy subjects over a period of time. The model drug, a fluorescent dye was applied before and after piercing. Laser scanning microscopy was evaluated as being an excellent method to monitor the geometry and closure of the conduits over time. The used microneedle system was evaluated as suitable to enhance the transport of model drugs into the viable epidermis without bleeding and a short closure time of the conduits at the skin surface

  6. Finance and Accounting; a comprehensive introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, ewoud

    2005-01-01

    Finance and accounting behandelt in een boek de essentiele aspecten van drie disciplines: financieel management, management accounting en financial accounting. Dit maakt Finance and accounting tot een breed en waardevol engelstalig naslagwerk.

  7. 7 CFR 3560.570 - Construction financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Construction financing. 3560.570 Section 3560.570...Housing § 3560.570 Construction financing. The requirements established in...following requirements apply. (a) Equity contributions being made by a...

  8. Conduit Magma Storage during the 800 BP Quilotoa Eruption, Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ort, M. H.; Cashman, K. V.; Di Muro, A.; Best, J. A.; Rosi, M.; Mothes, P. A.; Bustillos, J.

    2013-12-01

    The 800 BP eruption of Quilotoa produced two large ignimbrites, U1 (~5.8 km3 DRE) and U3 (~1.8 km3 DRE). These eruptions were separated by a series of much smaller eruptions over one to several weeks, as inferred from 1) the intercalation of secondary pyroclastic and debris flow deposits between U1 and U3, 2) deposits from phreatic explosions from the U1 ignimbrite surface, 3) oxidation of the upper 2 m of U1, and 4) a lack of erosion of the U1 surface. Why did the main phase of the eruption (U1) stall when eruptable magma was available? How did explosive activity stop and restart? We address these questions by examining deposits (U2) emplaced during the 'hiatus' that provide information on the conditions in the conduit and vent area between explosive episodes. The lowest sub-unit, U2a, forms a series of pumiceous surge deposits found only within 5 km of the crater rim. U2b is a vitric-poor, crystal- and lithic-rich fall deposit distributed to about 15 km from the crater. U2c is a thin gray fine ash containing 2-5-mm-diameter rhyolite lapilli that is present within 6 km of the vent. Similar lapilli also occur in the lowermost few centimeters of U3 and appear to be from a dome that exploded as the new magma arrived at the surface; their presence as small ballistic fragments ties U2c to lowermost U3 in time. U2a appears to have been emplaced by episodic surges and weak fallout plumes, whereas U2b and U2c were deposited from a series of sustained eruption columns. Moreover, the lack of U2b grain-size variation with distance suggests that the grain size was determined at the vent, not by transport. FTIR analysis of CO2 and H2O in melt inclusions (MIs) indicates that a deep magma chamber (>400 MPa; ~12 km) fed U1. U2a and U2b MIs plot along vapor isopleths, suggesting equilibration at pressures to about 300 MPa as CO2 outgassed. U2b MIs have lower CO2 than U2a, perhaps indicating continued degassing during the 'hiatus'. MIs from the lower few centimeters of U3 lie along a ~130 MPa isobar, suggesting shallow magma storage during the hiatus. Using these data, we hypothesize that the eruption of U1 ended when conduit constriction above 4 km choked the ascent of magma. Continued open-system degassing of the magma column produced the U2 MI compositions and led to milling and acid etching of the crystal-rich material, eliminating much of the glass. Periodic explosions during dome formation produced U2a. Continued magma ascent caused increased gas emissions that ejected U2b as a continuous column. As the U3 magma reached the surface, it blew out the dome prior to eruption of new deeper magma. The high pressures in MIs in plagioclase crystals in U1 and lack of any evidence for mafic magma supply imply the shallow dacitic system is fed by evolved magmas that differentiated at high pressure.

  9. Numerical simulation of explosive volcanic eruptions from the conduit flow to global atmospheric scales

    OpenAIRE

    Textor, C.; Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement, CEA-CNRS, Gif-sur-Yvette, France; Graf, H.; Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany; Longo, A.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Pisa, Pisa, Italia; Neri, A.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Centro per la Modellistica Fisica e Pericolosita` dei Processi Vulcanici; Ongaro, T. E.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Pisa, Pisa, Italia; Papale, P; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Pisa, Pisa, Italia; Timmreck, C.; Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany; Ernst, G. G. J.; Centre for Environmental and Geophysical Flows, Department of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, U.K.

    2005-01-01

    Volcanic eruptions are unsteady multiphase phenomena, which encompass many inter-related processes across the whole range of scales from molecular and microscopic to macroscopic, synoptic and global. We provide an overview of recent advances in numerical modelling of volcanic effects, from conduit and eruption column processes to those on the Earth s climate. Conduit flow models examine ascent dynamics and multiphase processes like fragmentation, chemical reactions and mass transf...

  10. Effects of dynamically variable saturation and matrix-conduit coupling of flow in karst aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimann, T.; Geyer, T.; Shoemaker, W.B.; Liedl, R.; Sauter, M.

    2011-01-01

    Well-developed karst aquifers consist of highly conductive conduits and a relatively low permeability fractured and/or porous rock matrix and therefore behave as a dual-hydraulic system. Groundwater flow within highly permeable strata is rapid and transient and depends on local flow conditions, i.e., pressurized or nonpressurized flow. The characterization of karst aquifers is a necessary and challenging task because information about hydraulic and spatial conduit properties is poorly defined or unknown. To investigate karst aquifers, hydraulic stresses such as large recharge events can be simulated with hybrid (coupled discrete continuum) models. Since existing hybrid models are simplifications of the system dynamics, a new karst model (ModBraC) is presented that accounts for unsteady and nonuniform discrete flow in variably saturated conduits employing the Saint-Venant equations. Model performance tests indicate that ModBraC is able to simulate (1) unsteady and nonuniform flow in variably filled conduits, (2) draining and refilling of conduits with stable transition between free-surface and pressurized flow and correct storage representation, (3) water exchange between matrix and variably filled conduits, and (4) discharge routing through branched and intermeshed conduit networks. Subsequently, ModBraC is applied to an idealized catchment to investigate the significance of free-surface flow representation. A parameter study is conducted with two different initial conditions: (1) pressurized flow and (2) free-surface flow. If free-surface flow prevails, the systems is characterized by (1) a time lag for signal transmission, (2) a typical spring discharge pattern representing the transition from pressurized to free-surface flow, and (3) a reduced conduit-matrix interaction during free-surface flow. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  11. Evolution of karst conduit networks in transition from pressurized flow to free-surface flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perne, M.; Covington, M.; Gabrovšek, F.

    2014-11-01

    Most of the existing models of speleogenesis are limited to situations where flow in all conduits is pressurized. The feedback between the distribution of hydraulic head and growth of new solution conduits determines the geometry of the resulting conduit network. We present a novel modeling approach that allows a transition from pressurized (pipe) flow to a free-surface (open-channel) flow in evolving discrete conduit networks. It calculates flow, solute transport and dissolution enlargement within each time step and steps through time until a stable flow pattern is established. The flow in each time step is calculated by calling the US Environmental Protection Agency Storm Water Management Model (US Environmental Protection Agency, 2014), which efficiently solves the 1-D Saint-Venant equations in a network of conduits. Two basic scenarios are modeled, a low-dip scenario and a high-dip scenario. In the low-dip scenario a slightly inclined plane is populated with a rectangular grid of solution conduits. The recharge is distributed to randomly selected junctions. The results for the pressurized flow regime resemble those of the existing models. When the network becomes vadose, a stable flow pathway develops along a system of conduits that occupy the lowest positions at their inlet junctions. This depends on the initial diameter and inlet position of a conduit, its total incision in a pressurized regime and its alignment relative to the dip of the plane, which plays important role during the vadose entrenchment. In the high-dip scenario a sub-vertical network with recharge on the top and outflow on the side is modeled. It is used to demonstrate the vertical development of karst due to drawdown of the water table, development of invasion vadose caves during vadose flow diversion and to demonstrate the potential importance of deeply penetrating conductive structures.

  12. Study on the air flow field of the drawing conduit in the spunbonding process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Li-Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The air flow field of the drawing conduit in the spunbonding process has a great effect on the polymer drawing, the filament diameter and orientation. A numerical simulation of the process is carried out, and the results are compared with the experimental data, showing good accuracy of the numerical prediction. This research lays an important foundation for the optimal design of the drawing conduit in the spunbonding process.

  13. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduit for repair of injured sciatic nerve: A mechanical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Tao YU; ZHAO, CHANGFU; Li, Peng; Liu, Guangyao; Luo, Min

    2013-01-01

    Tensile stress and tensile strain directly affect the quality of nerve regeneration after bridging nerve defects by poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduit transplantation and autogenous nerve grafting for sciatic nerve injury. This study collected the sciatic nerve from the gluteus maximus muscle from fresh human cadaver, and established 10-mm-long sciatic nerve injury models by removing the ischium, following which poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduits or autogenous nerve grafts were transpl...

  14. The Himalayas: barrier and conduit for gene flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayden, Tenzin; Perez, Annabel; Persad, Patrice J; Bukhari, Areej; Chennakrishnaiah, Shilpa; Simms, Tanya; Maloney, Trisha; Rodriguez, Kristina; Herrera, Rene J

    2013-06-01

    The Himalayan mountain range is strategically located at the crossroads of the major cultural centers in Asia, the Middle East and Europe. Although previous Y-chromosome studies indicate that the Himalayas served as a natural barrier for gene flow from the south to the Tibetan plateau, this region is believed to have played an important role as a corridor for human migrations between East and West Eurasia along the ancient Silk Road. To evaluate the effects of the Himalayan mountain range in shaping the maternal lineages of populations residing on either side of the cordillera, we analyzed mitochondrial DNA variation in 344 samples from three Nepalese collections (Newar, Kathmandu and Tamang) and a general population of Tibet. Our results revealed a predominantly East Asian-specific component in Tibet and Tamang, whereas Newar and Kathmandu are both characterized by a combination of East and South Central Asian lineages. Interestingly, Newar and Kathmandu harbor several deep-rooted Indian lineages, including M2, R5, and U2, whose coalescent times from this study (U2, >40 kya) and previous reports (M2 and R5, >50 kya) suggest that Nepal was inhabited during the initial peopling of South Central Asia. Comparisons with our previous Y-chromosome data indicate sex-biased migrations in Tamang and a founder effect and/or genetic drift in Tamang and Newar. Altogether, our results confirm that while the Himalayas acted as a geographic barrier for human movement from the Indian subcontinent to the Tibetan highland, it also served as a conduit for gene flow between Central and East Asia. PMID:23580401

  15. Pressure drop characteristic in a cable-in-conduit conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cable-in-conduit conductor (CICC) is the best candidate to satisfy requirement for a superconducting magnet to be employed in a fusion machine, such as a large operating current, high magnetic field, high breakdown voltage and so on. The present drop of the conductor is a key factor in design of a cryogenic pump to be used in a magnet system in the fusion machine. Also, pressure rise at a coil quench depends on the pressure drop characteristic of the conductor. Several workers investigated the pressure drop characteristic of CICCs. Katheder attempted to derive general correlation of the pressure drop characteristic basis on the correlation used for pebble beds. He compared his correlation with the measurements for the eight different CICCs. However, there is a large error of 75% in the maximum. It seems general formula of the pressure drop characteristic of CICC has not been provided. The authors investigate the pressure drop characteristic of 30 kA, 80 m cooling path length CICCs, whose dimension is almost same as the conductor to be employed in the fusion machine. The result indicates correlation between the Reynolds number and the friction factor of CICCs obeys the conventional formula for a smooth tube, Hagen-Poesuilli formula, in laminar flow region but does not agree with the conventional formula for a smooth tube, Blasius formula, in turbulent flow region. The experimental result is compared with Katheder's correlation. Katheder's correlation does not show good agreement with the experimental result in the turbulent flow region. The correlation that the friction factor is inversely proportional to 0.157 power of the Reynolds number and the proportional constant is 0.257 coincides better with the experimental result in this region. (author)

  16. Current distribution in Cable-In-Conduit Conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferri, M.A.

    1994-05-01

    A numerical study of the current distribution in Cable-In-Conduit Conductors (CICC`s) experiencing linearly ramping transport currents and transverse magnetic fields was conducted for both infinitely long, periodic cables and finite length cables terminated in low resistance joints. The goal of the study was to gain insight into the phenomenon known as Ramp Rate Limitation, an as yet unexplained correspondence between maximum attainable current and the ramp time taken to reach that current in CICC superconducting magnets. A discrete geometric model of a 27 strand multiply twisted CICC was developed to effectively represent the flux linkages, mutual inductances, and resistive contact points between the strands of an experimentally tested cable. The results of the numerical study showed that for fully periodic cables, the current imbalances due to ramping magnetic fields and ramping transport currents are negligible in the range of experimentally explored operating conditions. For finite length, joint terminated cables, however, significant imbalances can exist. Unfortunately, quantitative results are limited by a lack of knowledge of the transverse resistance between strands in the joints. Nonetheless, general results are presented showing the dependency of the imbalance on cable length, ramp time, and joint resistance for both ramping transverse magnet fields and ramping transport currents. At the conclusion of the study, it is suggested that calculated current imbalances in a finite length cable could cause certain strands to prematurely ``quench`` -- become non-superconducting --thus leading to an instability for the entire cable. This numerically predicted ``current imbalance instability`` is compared to the experimentally observed Ramp Rate Limitation for the 27 strand CICC sample.

  17. Current distribution in Cable-In-Conduit Conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A numerical study of the current distribution in Cable-In-Conduit Conductors (CICC's) experiencing linearly ramping transport currents and transverse magnetic fields was conducted for both infinitely long, periodic cables and finite length cables terminated in low resistance joints. The goal of the study was to gain insight into the phenomenon known as Ramp Rate Limitation, an as yet unexplained correspondence between maximum attainable current and the ramp time taken to reach that current in CICC superconducting magnets. A discrete geometric model of a 27 strand multiply twisted CICC was developed to effectively represent the flux linkages, mutual inductances, and resistive contact points between the strands of an experimentally tested cable. The results of the numerical study showed that for fully periodic cables, the current imbalances due to ramping magnetic fields and ramping transport currents are negligible in the range of experimentally explored operating conditions. For finite length, joint terminated cables, however, significant imbalances can exist. Unfortunately, quantitative results are limited by a lack of knowledge of the transverse resistance between strands in the joints. Nonetheless, general results are presented showing the dependency of the imbalance on cable length, ramp time, and joint resistance for both ramping transverse magnet fields and ramping transport currents. At the conclusion of the study, it is suggested that calculated current imbalances in a finite length cable could cause certain strands to prematurely ''quench'' -- become non-superconducting --thus leading to an instability for the entire cable. This numerically predicted ''current imbalance instability'' is compared to the experimentally observed Ramp Rate Limitation for the 27 strand CICC sample

  18. Renewable energy and Scottish trading arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarises the findings of a project involving the participation of the Scottish Renewables Forum (SRF) in the ongoing Ofgem consultation process concerning the future electricity trading arrangements in Scotland. The present administrative arrangements, the activities of the SRF, the prospects for the British Electricity Trading and Transmission Arrangements (BETTA), generator connection policy, and transmission access are discussed, and an overview of consultations relating to Scotland-England interconnection access is presented. The appendices cover the SRF responses to the Ofgem consultation, a discussion paper in advance of the SRF meeting with Ofgem in April 2001, an SRF trading update, the SRF's responses to Ofgem's Environmental Action Plan, the Scottish Embedded Generators Working Group's terms of reference and draft paper on issues, and a briefing on prices in administered arrangements

  19. Flood risk governance arrangements in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matczak, P.; Lewandowski, J.; Chory?ski, A.; Szwed, M.; Kundzewicz, Z. W.

    2015-06-01

    The STAR-FLOOD (Strengthening and Redesigning European Flood Risk Practices Towards Appropriate and Resilient Flood Risk Governance Arrangements) project, funded by the European Commission, investigates strategies for dealing with flood risk in six European countries: Belgium, the UK, France, the Netherlands, Poland and Sweden and in 18 vulnerable urban regions in these countries. The project aims to describe, analyse, explain, and evaluate the main similarities and differences between the selected EU Member States in terms of development and performance of flood risk governance arrangements. It also discusses the scientific and societal importance of these similarities and differences. Attention is paid to identification and characterization of shifts in flood risk governance arrangements and in flood risk management strategies and to determination of triggering factors and restraining factors. An assessment of a change of resilience and appropriateness (legitimacy, effectiveness, efficiency) of flood risk governance arrangements in Poland is presented and comparison with other European countries is offered.

  20. Valve Technology Arrangement of Cryopump: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjiv Y. Rajput

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A cryopump or a "cryogenic pump" is a vacuum pump that pumps the trap gases and vapours by condensing them on a cold surface. Helium gas which is very light can only be pumped by Cryopump. Cryopump cannot be used when working for continuous operation as it pumps the effluent till the saturation state is achieved. Then the absorbed gases are to be collected through other mechanical pump through regeneration process. Hence, valve technology arrangement is incorporated with the cryopump in order to achieve the continuous pumping when two cryopump are used in alternate processes (i.e. absorption and regeneration. Various design of Valve technology arrangement is proposed by different researcher all over the world. This review paper focuses on the different proposed valve technology arrangement and elaborately explains the various components of valve technology and concludes the best possible arrangement that can be used in Cryopump.

  1. Does PLS financing solve asymmetric information problems?

    OpenAIRE

    Yousfi, Ouidad

    2013-01-01

    Discussion of Islamic private equity (PE) financing modes rarely provides detailed analytical insights into their properties: there is no rigorous analysis of their features. The current paper analyzes how and when Profit Loss Sharing (PLS) financing methods can solve asymmetric information problems. I focus on Mudarabah and Musharakah financing schemes and consider agency models under moral hazard. The model shows some interesting results. First, I show that Mudarabah financing provide power...

  2. Financing power projects in emerging markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Financing for power generation projects in the developing countries of the world has been provided by the United States Export-Import Bank. The loans provided by its new Project Finance Division, totalling $8.3 billion are described. The future of project financing for the power generation industry should, it is argued, rest not with government financing agencies, but with private sector financial markets. (UK)

  3. An Introduction to International Factoring & Project Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Glinavos, Ioannis

    2002-01-01

    This work consists of two essays on law and finance in international trade. It addresses the means of raising funds for investment through receivables financing and project finance. The first essay discusses the role of receivables financing and in particular factoring in international trade. It examines the nature of factoring transactions and presents the efforts at regulation on an international level aimed at overcoming the difficulties in enforcement. The second essay discusses project f...

  4. The vanishing effect of finance on growth

    OpenAIRE

    Gründler, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the causes of the "vanishing effect of finance" detected in recent studies. The results highlight that the negative effect of the financial system on growth is mainly driven by advanced economies, whereas finance is still beneficial for income increases in developing countries. The reason is that finance and growth are associated via a nonlinear relationship, which is due to a fundamental change in the transmission mechanism of finance across different levels of econom...

  5. A nerve guidance conduit with topographical and biochemical cues: potential application using human neural stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Phillip M; Laughter, Melissa R; Lee, David J; Lee, Young M; Freed, Curt R; Park, Daewon

    2015-12-01

    Despite major advances in the pathophysiological understanding of peripheral nerve damage, the treatment of nerve injuries still remains an unmet medical need. Nerve guidance conduits present a promising treatment option by providing a growth-permissive environment that 1) promotes neuronal cell survival and axon growth and 2) directs axonal extension. To this end, we designed an electrospun nerve guidance conduit using a blend of polyurea and poly-caprolactone with both biochemical and topographical cues. Biochemical cues were integrated into the conduit by functionalizing the polyurea with RGD to improve cell attachment. Topographical cues that resemble natural nerve tissue were incorporated by introducing intraluminal microchannels aligned with nanofibers. We determined that electrospinning the polymer solution across a two electrode system with dissolvable sucrose fibers produced a polymer conduit with the appropriate biomimetic properties. Human neural stem cells were cultured on the conduit to evaluate its ability to promote neuronal growth and axonal extension. The nerve guidance conduit was shown to enhance cell survival, migration, and guide neurite extension. PMID:26071111

  6. Comparison of a karst groundwater model with and without discrete conduit flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saller, Stephen P.; Ronayne, Michael J.; Long, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Karst aquifers exhibit a dual flow system characterized by interacting conduit and matrix domains. This study evaluated the coupled continuum pipe-flow framework for modeling karst groundwater flow in the Madison aquifer of western South Dakota (USA). Coupled conduit and matrix flow was simulated within a regional finite-difference model over a 10-year transient period. An existing equivalent porous medium (EPM) model was modified to include major conduit networks whose locations were constrained by dye-tracing data and environmental tracer analysis. Model calibration data included measured hydraulic heads at observation wells and estimates of discharge at four karst springs. Relative to the EPM model, the match to observation well hydraulic heads was substantially improved with the addition of conduits. The inclusion of conduit flow allowed for a simpler hydraulic conductivity distribution in the matrix continuum. Two of the high-conductivity zones in the EPM model, which were required to indirectly simulate the effects of conduits, were eliminated from the new model. This work demonstrates the utility of the coupled continuum pipe-flow method and illustrates how karst aquifer model parameterization is dependent on the physical processes that are simulated.

  7. MR and CT imaging of pulmonary valved conduits in children and adolescents: normal appearance and complications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenisch, Estelle V.; Alamo, Leonor T.; Gudinchet, Francois [Lausanne University Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Lausanne (Switzerland); Sekarski, Nicole [Lausanne University Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Lausanne (Switzerland); Hurni, Michel [Lausanne University Hospital, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2014-12-15

    The Contegra registered is a conduit made from the bovine jugular vein and then interposed between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery. It is used for cardiac malformations in the reconstruction of right ventricular outflow tract. To describe both normal and pathological appearances of the Contegra registered in radiological imaging, to describe imaging of complications and to define the role of CT and MRI in postoperative follow-up. Forty-three examinations of 24 patients (17 boys and 7 girls; mean age: 10.8 years old) with Contegra registered conduits were reviewed. Anatomical description and measurements of the conduits were performed. Pathological items examined included stenosis, dilatation, plicature or twist, thrombus or vegetations, calcifications and valvular regurgitation. Findings were correlated to the echographic gradient through the conduit when available. CT and MR work-up showed Contegra registered stenosis (n = 12), dilatation (n = 9) and plicature or twist (n = 7). CT displayed thrombus or vegetations in the Contegra registered in three clinically infected patients. Calcifications of the conduit were present at CT in 12 patients and valvular regurgitation in three patients. The comparison between CT and/or MR results showed a good correlation between the echographic gradient and the presence of stenosis in the Contegra registered. CT and MR bring additional information about permeability and postoperative anatomy especially when echocardiography is inconclusive. Both techniques depict the normal appearance of the conduit, and allow comparison and precise evaluation of changes in the postoperative follow-up. (orig.)

  8. MR and CT imaging of pulmonary valved conduits in children and adolescents: normal appearance and complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Contegra registered is a conduit made from the bovine jugular vein and then interposed between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery. It is used for cardiac malformations in the reconstruction of right ventricular outflow tract. To describe both normal and pathological appearances of the Contegra registered in radiological imaging, to describe imaging of complications and to define the role of CT and MRI in postoperative follow-up. Forty-three examinations of 24 patients (17 boys and 7 girls; mean age: 10.8 years old) with Contegra registered conduits were reviewed. Anatomical description and measurements of the conduits were performed. Pathological items examined included stenosis, dilatation, plicature or twist, thrombus or vegetations, calcifications and valvular regurgitation. Findings were correlated to the echographic gradient through the conduit when available. CT and MR work-up showed Contegra registered stenosis (n = 12), dilatation (n = 9) and plicature or twist (n = 7). CT displayed thrombus or vegetations in the Contegra registered in three clinically infected patients. Calcifications of the conduit were present at CT in 12 patients and valvular regurgitation in three patients. The comparison between CT and/or MR results showed a good correlation between the echographic gradient and the presence of stenosis in the Contegra registered. CT and MR bring additional information about permeability and postoperative anatomy especially when echocardiography is inconclusive. Both techniques depict the normal appearance of the conduit, and allow comparison and precise evaluation of changes in the postoperative follow-up. (orig.)

  9. In vitro evaluation of carbon-nanotube-reinforced bioprintable vascular conduits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vascularization of thick engineered tissue and organ constructs like the heart, liver, pancreas or kidney remains a major challenge in tissue engineering. Vascularization is needed to supply oxygen and nutrients and remove waste in living tissues and organs through a network that should possess high perfusion ability and significant mechanical strength and elasticity. In this paper, we introduce a fabrication process to print vascular conduits directly, where conduits were reinforced with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to enhance their mechanical properties and bioprintability. In vitro evaluation of printed conduits encapsulated in human coronary artery smooth muscle cells was performed to characterize the effects of CNT reinforcement on the mechanical, perfusion and biological performance of the conduits. Perfusion and permeability, cell viability, extracellular matrix formation and tissue histology were assessed and discussed, and it was concluded that CNT-reinforced vascular conduits provided a foundation for mechanically appealing constructs where CNTs could be replaced with natural protein nanofibers for further integration of these conduits in large-scale tissue fabrication. (paper)

  10. Long-term follow-up of patients with extracardiac valved conduits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sano,Shunji

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available Seventeen patients having extracardiac valved conduits placed between the right ventricle and pulmonary artery were followed for 7 to 87 months postoperatively (mean, 42 months, at the Heart Institute, Kenritsu Amagasaki Hospital, Japan. There were no late deaths in the study group. Three conduits have been replaced, all because of conduit stenosis. In two-dimensional echocardiographic examinations, commissural fusion and calcification of the valve were noted in 6 out of 16 xenograft valved conduits. Mechanical valve immobility was found in one patient. Neointimal peel of the dacron graft was noted in 6 out of 17 cases, and marked left ventricular deformity in the short axis view was found in 6. Late cardiac catheterization was done in 6 patients who were suspected of having valve failure and right ventricular hypertension by two-dimensional echocardiography. All 6 of these patients showed a high pressure gradient between the pulmonary artery and right ventricle and also had elevated right ventricular pressure. In conclusion, two-dimensional echocardiography is a simple, non-invasive and very accurate method for detecting conduit stenosis and valve failure. An echocardiographic series should be performed for a long-time postoperatively because obstructions of valved conduits may be progressive, and an operation may be advisable in order to prevent the development of advanced right ventricular hypertrophy and deterioration.

  11. A nerve guidance conduit with topographical and biochemical cues: potential application using human neural stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Phillip M.; Laughter, Melissa R.; Lee, David J.; Lee, Young M.; Freed, Curt R.; Park, Daewon

    2015-06-01

    Despite major advances in the pathophysiological understanding of peripheral nerve damage, the treatment of nerve injuries still remains an unmet medical need. Nerve guidance conduits present a promising treatment option by providing a growth-permissive environment that 1) promotes neuronal cell survival and axon growth and 2) directs axonal extension. To this end, we designed an electrospun nerve guidance conduit using a blend of polyurea and poly-caprolactone with both biochemical and topographical cues. Biochemical cues were integrated into the conduit by functionalizing the polyurea with RGD to improve cell attachment. Topographical cues that resemble natural nerve tissue were incorporated by introducing intraluminal microchannels aligned with nanofibers. We determined that electrospinning the polymer solution across a two electrode system with dissolvable sucrose fibers produced a polymer conduit with the appropriate biomimetic properties. Human neural stem cells were cultured on the conduit to evaluate its ability to promote neuronal growth and axonal extension. The nerve guidance conduit was shown to enhance cell survival, migration, and guide neurite extension.

  12. New multiple aperture arrangements for speckle photography

    OpenAIRE

    Angel-Toro, Luciano; Tebaldi, Myrian; Trivi, Marcelo; Bolognini, Néstor

    2000-01-01

    Abstract. We propose a multiple exposure specklegram by using an optical system whose multiple aperture pupil changes between exposures. In particular, we analyze experimentally two arrangements and we show that it is possible to store the required information by employing a minimum number of registers if an adequate selection of the pupil is done. We study the effect of the decorrelation (among the stored speckle pattern) introduced by changing the multiple aperture pupil arrangements betwee...

  13. Application of arrangement theory to unfolding models

    CERN Document Server

    Kamiya, Hidehiko; Tokushige, Norihide

    2010-01-01

    Arrangement theory plays an essential role in the study of the unfolding model used in many fields. This paper describes how arrangement theory can be usefully employed in solving the problems of counting (i) the number of admissible rankings in an unfolding model and (ii) the number of ranking patterns generated by unfolding models. The paper is mostly expository but also contains some new results such as simple upper and lower bounds for the number of ranking patterns in the unidimensional case.

  14. Application of arrangement theory to unfolding models

    OpenAIRE

    Kamiya, Hidehiko; Takemura, Akimichi; Tokushige, Norihide

    2010-01-01

    Arrangement theory plays an essential role in the study of the unfolding model used in many fields. This paper describes how arrangement theory can be usefully employed in solving the problems of counting (i) the number of admissible rankings in an unfolding model and (ii) the number of ranking patterns generated by unfolding models. The paper is mostly expository but also contains some new results such as simple upper and lower bounds for the number of ranking patterns in t...

  15. Study on power plants arrangements for integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Improved performance of combined cycle power plant. • Comparative study of two options in triple cycle arrangements. • Investigation on critical operational conditions to gain the performance benefit. • Possible new cycles integrations. • Study on heat sink variations. - Abstract: The three power cycles viz. gas cycle (Brayton cycle), steam cycle (Rankine cycle) and organic Rankine cycle (ORC) are arranged in two possible methods to form a triple cycle and to increase its power generating performance. In one approach, all the three cycles are arranged in series, the heat rejection of gas cycle is supplied to steam power plant having back pressure turbine and the heat rejection of steam plant is supplied to ORC plant similar to a cascading. In second option, the two bottoming cycles i.e. steam plant and ORC plant are arranged in parallel to gas turbine exhaust. In this connection, steam cycle works with high temperature heat recovery and ORC plant with low temperature heat recovery. Thermal efficiency and specific work of two triple cycles are compared with combined cycle (CC) power plant to draw the relative merits of two choices with a focus on compressor pressure ratio and gas turbine inlet temperature (GTIT). The results showed that the parallel arrangement in triple cycle offers greater benefit over the series arrangement. Therefore the wok is focused on parallel configuration triple cycle results

  16. Access to Finance for Smallholder Farmers

    OpenAIRE

    International Finance Corporation

    2014-01-01

    The percentage of smallholders with access to finance is equally difficult to quantify. According to estimates, even promising approaches to expanding smallholder lending, such as value chain finance, are reaching fewer than 10 percent of smallholders, primarily those in well-established value chains dedicated to higher value cash crops. International Finance Corporation (IFC) has been eng...

  17. Minnesota School Finance: A Guide for Legislators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom, Tim

    Following a brief introduction discussing Minnesota's educational finance system, recent finance litigation, and public education system, this report discusses basic school finance terms and concepts. The next two sections review the state's property tax system and its general education revenue program, including aid and levy calculations.…

  18. Study on Risk Management in Financing and Operational of Grameen Bank Financing Concept in MBK Finance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobby Yulandika Putra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – Poverty is one of the most fundamental issues that still surround the life of 29.89 million people of Indonesia (National Statistical Bureau data from January 2, 2012. During this time, the pattern of poverty alleviation programs undertaken by the government is a pattern of generosity. This pattern can directly exacerbate the poor morals and behavior. Ideally, poverty alleviation efforts are made by concrete steps, which empower poor `communities themselves.In line with the theme of this research, one of the financial institutions (non-Banks who cares and has the spirit to empower people to overcome poverty is Mitra Bisnis Keluarga (MBK. This study aimed to assess the financial risks and operational risks of implementation of Grameen Bank financing concept in MBK.Methods - The method used in this research is literature review and qualitative descriptive study using actual MBK data.Results - Results from this research showed that products with the concept of Grameen Bank financing is relatively safe in the terms of the financing risk, but requires more attention on operational risk and which can be implemented for large-scale poverty alleviation program.Conclusion - The data showed that the risk of financing given to the poor (without collateral is minimal and MBK actual data shows that the Operational self-sufficiency is relatively high at> 90% Keywords : MBK, Grameen Bank, Poverty

  19. 75 FR 38158 - Korea Finance Corporation; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... COMMISSION Korea Finance Corporation; Notice of Application June 25, 2010. AGENCY: Securities and Exchange... Finance Corporation (``Applicant''). SUMMARY: Summary of Application: Applicant, a policy finance...-owned policy finance institution established by the Korean Government on October 28, 2009, pursuant...

  20. The International Finance Corporation and financing of sustainable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The International Finance Corporation (IFC), a member of the World Bank Group, is the largest multilateral source of loan and equity financing for private sector projects in the developing world. IFC participates in an investment only when it can make a special contribution that complements the role of market operators. Since its founding 40 years ago, IFC has provided more than $18.8 billion in financing for 1,706 companies in developing countries. Its share capital is provided by its 170 member countries, which collectively determine its policies and activities. Strong shareholder support and a substantial paid-in capital base have allowed IFC to raise funds for its lending activities through its triple-A rated bond issues in international financial markets. IFC created an Infrastructure Department in 1992 in response to the growing demand for its services in this area. During fiscal 1996 IFC approved 33 projects for new investments of $715 million of which 27% were in the power sector. In recognition of the continuing demand growth for private power investments an expanded Power Department has been formed to handle IFC`s investments in electric power generation projects using renewable resources such as: run-of-the-river hydro, geothermal, biomass cogeneration, wind energy, and solar (photovoltaic, solar thermal, etc.), as well as conventional thermal generation projects, transmission and distribution projects, and energy efficiency investments.

  1. Use new PLGL-RGD-NGF nerve conduits for promoting peripheral nerve regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Qiongjiao

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nerve conduits provide a promising strategy for peripheral nerve injury repair. However, the efficiency of nerve conduits to enhance nerve regeneration and functional recovery is often inferior to that of autografts. Nerve conduits require additional factors such as cell adhesion molecules and neurotrophic factors to provide a more conducive microenvironment for nerve regeneration. Methods In the present study, poly{(lactic acid-co-[(glycolic acid-alt-(L-lysine]} (PLGL was modified by grafting Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Gly (RGD peptide and nerve growth factor (NGF for fabricating new PLGL-RGD-NGF nerve conduits to promote nerve regeneration and functional recovery. PLGL-RGD-NGF nerve conduits were tested in the rat sciatic nerve transection model. Rat sciatic nerves were cut off to form a 10 mm defect and repaired with the nerve conduits. All of the 32 Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: group PLGL-RGD-NGF, group PLGL-RGD, group PLGL and group autograft. At 3 months after surgery, the regenerated rat sciatic nerve was evaluated by footprint analysis, electrophysiology, and histologic assessment. Experimental data were processed using the statistical software SPSS 10.0. Results The sciatic function index value of groups PLGL-RGD-NGF and autograft was significantly higher than those of groups PLGL-RGD and PLGL. The nerve conduction velocities of groups PLGL-RGD-NGF and autograft were significantly faster than those of groups PLGL-RGD and PLGL. The regenerated nerves of groups PLGL-RGD-NGF and autograft were more mature than those of groups PLGL-RGD and PLGL. There was no significant difference between groups PLGL-RGD-NGF and autograft. Conclusions PLGL-RGD-NGF nerve conduits are more effective in regenerating nerves than both PLGL-RGD nerve conduits and PLGL nerve conduits. The effect is as good as that of an autograft. This work established the platform for further development of the use of PLGL-RGD-NGF nerve conduits for clinical nerve repair.

  2. Project Finance in the Energy Industry: New Debt-based Financing Models

    OpenAIRE

    Enzo Scannella

    2012-01-01

    The paper aims to examine the development of new financing models for project finance to attract private investors to finance large European energy infrastructure projects. In particular, the paper investigates the uniqueness of the project finance as a rapidly growing field in finance, the financial characteristics of the project bond market as one of the vehicles for funding energy projects, and the role of the credit support provided by the European Investment Bank and the European Union t...

  3. Do Portuguese SMEs Follow Pecking Order Financing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartholdy, Jan; Mateus, Cesario; Olson, Dennis

    breakpoint tests to identify when firms switch between funding sources by examining the change in each funding source based on the financing deficit remaining after the previous pecking order funding source has been used. Our tests indicate that Portuguese companies generally move from lower cost to higher...... cost financing sources, but they do not exhaust each type of debt before moving on to the next funding source in the pecking order. Such behavior is consistent with a loose interpretation of pecking order financing, but not a strict interpretation of the theory. Instead, Portuguese firms may be...... balancing pecking order financing with a need to maintain some degree of financing flexibility....

  4. Alternative institutional arrangements for developing and commercializing breeder reactor technology. Final report 15 Nov 1975--31 Mar 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In light of large costs, potential benefits, and uncertainties surrounding breeder development, many questions need to be addressed concerning the roles of government, equipment vendors, and electric power utilities in financing, owning, and managing breeder development. The study assesses nine institutional arrangements, ranging from those with heavy private sector initiative to complete government ownership and control. These arrangements are evaluated in terms of: the degree of clearly defined centralized management control that would be afforded; the effectiveness of cost control; the strength of the vendor-utility interface; the value of information produced for subsequent commercialization; the ease of financing; the prospects for risk-sharing; and overall plausibility. Some time-slippage at this stage in order to ensure strong private sector involvement might well accelerate commercialization in the longer run. The alternative is a government-directed program that might proceed faster in the next decade but subsequently encounter more barriers to commercial adoption

  5. Nuclear power: Financing big projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the early seventies, the Dresdner Bank AG has been intensively engaged in financing nuclear power plants, e.g., the Muelheim-Kaerlich Nuclear Power Station currently down because of legal technicaltities. The bank has also been involved in other large-scale projects in the energy sector and, in addition, has conceptually accompanied the stages of the nuclear fuel cycle, such as enrichment, fuel element fabrication, and reprocessing. However, for political reasons it has not been possible to carry out these projects and finance them in the Federal Republic. With appropriate modifications, these financial models can also be transferred to international projects; after all, the enrichment sector has always been characterized by trilateral ventures. (orig.)

  6. French public finances at risk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Creel Jérôme

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Using descriptive evidence, this paper contributes to the debate on French public finances’ consolidation by examining the long-term sustainability of France’s fiscal position. We trace the historical trends of government’s tax receipts and expenditures. We illustrate that while the level of public expenditure in France is larger than in the Euro Area, its trend is comparable to its neighbours. French net debt is comparable to Eurozone’s while French net wealth remains positive. However, the French tax system is not progressive with only 6% of compulsory levies raised that way, and too complex. The paper then acknowledges the efficient debt management of French authorities. As a conclusion, we see no risk of future unsustainability linked to the nature or the level of current French public finances.

  7. Commodities, energy and environmental finance

    CERN Document Server

    Ludkovski, Michael; Sircar, Ronnie

    2015-01-01

    This volume is a collection of chapters covering the latest developments in applications of financial mathematics and statistics to topics in energy, commodity financial markets and environmental economics. The research presented is based on the presentations and discussions that took place during the Fields Institute Focus Program on Commodities, Energy and Environmental Finance in August 2013. The authors include applied mathematicians, economists and industry practitioners, providing for a multi-disciplinary spectrum of perspectives on the subject. The volume consists of four sections: Electricity Markets; Real Options; Trading in Commodity Markets; and Oligopolistic Models for Energy Production. Taken together, the chapters give a comprehensive summary of the current state of the art in quantitative analysis of commodities and energy finance. The topics covered include structural models of electricity markets, financialization of commodities, valuation of commodity real options, game-theory analysis of ...

  8. Derivatives in energy project finance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter focuses on risk management of merchant power generation projects and describes project finance as balancing risk and reward over time. The historical background to risk management is traced, and the case for derivatives in energy project finance is put forward with the hedging of forward output, and forwards and power purchase agreements discussed. Current and prospective usage, and the implementation issues of market liquidity, margin calls, letters of credit, derivative counterparty credit risk, and accounting policy are considered. A detailed example of a gas-fired plant in the US is presented with details given of the distribution of project earnings before tax. Oil field operating cashflows are examined, with reserved flow models, leverage effects, and price hedging addressed

  9. Increasing revenues for protected areas. A wealth of financing options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper aims at giving an overview of traditional and new financing mechanisms in support of protected areas. The web of life is breaking down: our world is facing biodiversity loss at unprecedented rates. Human impacts are causing the acceleration of species loss, at rates of several hundreds up to 1000 times the natural rate of species extinction, depending on the type of organisms. Habitat degradation and loss, introduction of invasive species, pollution, and overexploitation of resources are factors that determine the process of mass extinction. Protected areas obviously play a critical role in biodiversity conservation. Article 8 of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) obliges Parties to establish a system of protected areas to-conserve biodiversity, to develop guidelines for protected areas management and to promote appropriate development adjacent to protected areas. Besides agreeing on this global mandate for protected areas, through Article 8m of the CBD Parties committed themselves to cooperate in providing financial support for protected area systems: 'Each contracting party (...) shall cooperate in providing financial and other support for in-situ conservation (...) particularly to developing countries'. Current revenues for maintaining existing protected areas and the creation of new ones are insufficient. Annually, approximately USD 7 billion is spent on the creation and maintenance of protected areas around the world (Balmford, 2003). The amount required to adequately protect biodiversity is estimated to be about five times higher. The flow of revenues from traditional and new financing mechanisms should clearly be increased to mitigate the financing deficit for protected areas. As part of the solution, innovative financing mechanisms are being developed aimed at increasing the global revenues for protected areas, thus capturing the multiple values of ecosystem goods and services provided by protected areas to mankind. This scoping paper focuses on an overview of financing mechanisms in support of the creation and maintenance of protected areas comprising terrestrial ecosystems.The term 'protected area' refers in this paper to all IUCN protected area categories, including extractive reserves. The financing mechanisms are classified into six different categories, according to the type of institutional arrangement, and the dominant actor or group of actors

  10. Margin Call in Islamic Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmet Suayb Gundogdu

    2014-01-01

    Murabaha, the most popular Islamic finance contract, has been subject of many studies. In its simplest form it is buying and selling with profit and has two forms: Asset based and Asset backed. Upto now, there are many studies on asset based Murabaha sale, which consist of buying a product and selling, transferring ownership, to loan seeker simultaneously in exchange of debt obligation. With this structure asset based Murabaha has been subject of much criticism. This article introduces the co...

  11. Essays in Finance and Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Kolev, Julian

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation consists of three essays on Finance and Innovation. The ?rst essay argues that openness of research inputs can enable greater exploration of new research lines, particularly by academic researchers. We test this hypothesis by examining a natural experiment: NIH agreements that reduced the access costs imposed on academics regarding certain genetically engineered mice. We ?nd that increased openness encourages the exploration of more diverse research paths, and does not reduc...

  12. Risk Measures in Quantitative Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Mitra, Sovan

    2009-01-01

    This paper was presented and written for two seminars: a national UK University Risk Conference and a Risk Management industry workshop. The target audience is therefore a cross section of Academics and industry professionals. The current ongoing global credit crunch has highlighted the importance of risk measurement in Finance to companies and regulators alike. Despite risk measurement's central importance to risk management, few papers exist reviewing them or following t...

  13. Production and Finance in EURACE

    OpenAIRE

    Hoog, Sander van der; Deissenberg, Christophe; Dawid, Herbert

    2008-01-01

    EURACE is a major FP6 STREP project aiming at constructing anexhaustive agent-based model of the European economy, populated by avery large number of sophisticated, autonomous agents. The EURACEmodel, which has an explicit spatial structure, includes all the majormarkets considered in quantitative macroeconomic modelling (consumergoods, investment goods, labour, credit and finance). It offers aunique opportunity for studying, from a new perspective, theempirically observed but theoretically p...

  14. Factoring: Alternative model of financing

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanovic, Sasa; Baresa, Suzana; Sinisa, Bogdan

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to present factoring as an alternative funding model. This paper also tries to scientifically explore and emphasize its economic role thorough advantages and disadvantages of such financing model, and show condition in world and Croatia. Good corporate governance and professional financial management can contribute to the establishment of such business strategy (in terms of: strategy in relation to potential risks, the systems for managing risks and monitoring, investment stra...

  15. Three Essays in Pension Finance

    OpenAIRE

    SHI, Z.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the three major participants in pension finance, namely, pension funds, individuals, and sponsoring companies. In the light of the fragile financial market performance, prudential regulatory rules, including Value-at-Risk (VaR) constraints, are imposed widely all over the world. The purpose of these regulations is to reduce the risk of pension funds and protect pension fund participants. However, the regulatory horizon is usually much shorter than the institutional inve...

  16. Financing a portfolio of projects

    OpenAIRE

    Inderst, Roman; Mueller, Holger M.; Münnich, Felix

    2009-01-01

    This article shows that investors financing a portfolio of projects may use the depth of their financial pockets to overcome entrepreneurial incentive problems. Competition for scarce informed capital at the refinancing stage strengthens investors’ bargaining positions. And yet, entrepreneurs’ incentives may be improved, because projects funded by investors with ‘‘shallow pockets’’ must have not only a positive net present value at the refinancing stage, but one that is higher than that of co...

  17. Conformal symmetry in quantum finance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quantum finance symmetries are studied. In order to do this, the one dimensional free non-relativistic particle and its symmetries are revisited and the particle mass is identified as the inverse of square of the volatility. Furthermore, using financial variables, a Schrödinger algebra representation is constructed. In addition, it is shown that the operators of this last representation are not hermitian and not conserved.

  18. Attracting finance for hydroelectric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydroelectricity will continue to be important for meeting power requirements in developing countries. Much of the funding required for hydroelectric projects must come from non-government source; hydroelectric projects will therefore need to be attractive to private investors. This note explores the risks investors face, how this can be mitigated, and how the World Bank group can offer advice (as well as finance) to member countries to facilitate investment in hydro electric projects. 3 refs., 1 fig

  19. French public finances at risk?

    OpenAIRE

    Creel Jérôme; Hubert Paul; Saraceno Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Using descriptive evidence, this paper contributes to the debate on French public finances’ consolidation by examining the long-term sustainability of France’s fiscal position. We trace the historical trends of government’s tax receipts and expenditures. We illustrate that while the level of public expenditure in France is larger than in the Euro Area, its trend is comparable to its neighbours. French net debt is comparable to Eurozone’s while French net we...

  20. Essays in Behavioral Household Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Skimmyhorn, William

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation investigates some of the factors affecting modern household finance decisions in the United States using natural experimental variation and administrative data. In Chapter 1 I estimate the effects of financial education on retirement savings decisions. Between 2007 and 2008 the U.S. Army implemented a mandatory 8 hour Personal Financial Management Course (PFMC) for new soldiers. Staggered implementation across locations and time provides quasi-experimental variation in whet...

  1. Behavioral Finance : The Student Investor

    OpenAIRE

    Sairafi, Kamran; Selleby, Karl; Ståhl, Thom

    2008-01-01

    Bachelor thesis within Business Administration Title: Behavioral Finance – The Student Perspective Authors: Kamran Sairafi, Karl Selleby, Thom Ståhl Tutor: Urban Österlund Date: 2008-05-30 Background: History is full of examples on how humans can create investment bubbles through speculation; from the Dutch tulip mania to the Dot Com bubble humans have proven to be capable of creating economical chaos. Classical economical theories hold the assumption that individuals act rationally regarding...

  2. 12 CFR 985.4 - Finance Board oversight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Finance Board oversight. 985.4 Section 985.4 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD OFFICE OF FINANCE THE OFFICE OF FINANCE § 985.4 Finance Board oversight. (a) Oversight and enforcement actions. The Finance Board shall have the same...

  3. 12 CFR 908.71 - Practice before the Finance Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Practice before the Finance Board. 908.71 Section 908.71 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD ORGANIZATION... Finance Board § 908.71 Practice before the Finance Board. Practice before the Finance Board for...

  4. Evolution of karst conduit networks in transition from pressurised flow to free surface flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Perne

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel modelling approach to study the evolution of conduit networks in soluble rocks. Unlike the models presented so far, the model allows a transition from pressurised (pipe flow to a free surface (open channel flow in evolving discrete conduit networks. It calculates flow, solute transport and dissolutional enlargement within each time step and steps through time until a stable flow pattern establishes. The flow in each time step is calculated by calling the EPA Storm Water Management Model (EPA SWMM, which efficiently solves the 1-D Saint Venant equations in a network of conduits. We present several cases with low dip and sub-vertical networks to demonstrate mechanisms of flow pathway selection. In low dip models the inputs were randomly distributed to several junctions. The evolution of pathways progresses upstream: initially pathways linking outlets to the closest inputs evolve fastest because the gradient along these pathways is largest. When a pathway efficiently drains the available recharge, the head drop along the pathway attracts flow from the neighbouring upstream junctions and new connecting pathways evolve. The mechanism progresses from the output boundary inwards until all inputs are connected to the stable flow system. In the pressurised phase, each junction is drained by at least one conduit, but only one conduit remains active in the vadose phase. The selection depends on the initial geometry of a junction, initial distribution of diameters, the evolution in a pressurised regime, and on the dip of the conduits, which plays an important role in vadose entrenchment. In high dip networks, the vadose zone propagates downwards and inwards from the rim of the massif. When a network with randomly distributed initial diameters is supplied with concentrated recharge from the adjacent area, the sink point regresses up upstream along junctions connected to the prominent pathways. Large conductive structures provide deep penetration of high hydraulic head and give rise to high gradients and possible fast evolution of conduit systems deep within the massif.

  5. Arrangement of in-core neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To optimize the arrangement of neutron detectors in an intermediate power regions, to thereby improve the responsivity to the worst operation disable state and provide sensitive function as the safety protection system. Constitution: Intermediate power region monitors (IRM) are arranged as below (wherein R is the distance from the control rod at the center to the farthest control rod). (1) In the case where IRM number is less than 6, detectors are concentrated near the center of the reactor core and the adjacent IRM belong to trap systems different from each other. (2) In the case where IRM number is 8, two IRM belonging to trap systems different from each other are arranged near the center of the reactor core and the remaining detectors are arranged at an equal pitch on a same circle with a radius of about (3/2)sup(1/2) around the central control rod as the center in which trip systems A and B are alternate. (3) In the case where IRM number is greater than 10, detectors are arranged at an equal pitch on a same circle with a radius of about R cos 4 ?/M (where M is the number of IRM) around the central control rod as the center and in which trip systems A and B are alternate. (Kawakami, Y.)

  6. Hospitals, nursing homes turn to 3rd-party financing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaff, J.

    1982-07-05

    Experience is teaching the administrators of hospitals and nursing homes how to make better arrangements for third-party financing of energy-management systems. Accustomed to health-insurance reimbursement for health-care costs, hospitals have lacked incentives for conservation. Plans now used most by hospitals and health-care facilities involve third-party arrangements where: (1) an equipment vendor installs equipment and takes a share of the energy-cost savings; or (2) energy-services firms both install capital-intensive equipment and implement a variety of low-cost conservation measures, again for a percentage of the savings. Although most users think these arrangements are satisfactory, they advise a preliminary low-cost audit and participation in a basic energy-management seminar before employing an energy-services firm. Accurate baseline energy-consumption data should be developed in order to evaluate results, and assurance is needed that staff members understand the accounting formulas. Also recommended are independent audits after installation and attention to the legal clauses in contracts. (DCK)

  7. Apparatus and methods for splicing conduits and hoses subsea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocum, Alexander Henry; Gutierrez, Luis Javier

    2014-03-11

    A hose connection system comprises a body including an internal cavity and a port in fluid communication with a portion of the internal cavity. In addition, the system comprises a hose end fitting positioned in the cavity. The hose end fitting includes an inner tubular member and an outer tubular member concentrically disposed about the inner tubular member. The outer tubular member includes a plurality of circumferentially spaced axial slits. Further, the system comprises a plurality of wedge members arranged circumferentially about the outer tubular member. Still further, the system comprises an annular piston movably disposed within the internal cavity of the body. An end of the piston has an inner frustoconical surface that slidingly engages the plurality of wedge members. The piston is configured to move axially through the body and compress the wedge members and the outer tubular member radially inward.

  8. 12 CFR 987.2 - Law governing rights and obligations of Banks, Finance Board, Office of Finance, United States...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Finance Board, Office of Finance, United States and Federal Reserve Banks; rights of any Person against Banks, Finance Board, Office of Finance, United States and Federal Reserve Banks. 987.2 Section 987.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD OFFICE OF FINANCE BOOK-ENTRY PROCEDURE FOR...

  9. Java meshing tool for sphere arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A tool for meshing sphere arrangements was programmed in order to perform finite element calculations. Sphere arrangements are investigated in frame of the feasibility study of the sphere-pac nuclear fuel. One major concern of this study is the thermal conductivity of the arrangement. Further concerns are the mechanical behavior and sintering of the fuel. The thermal conductivity of the fuel was addressed with the computer code SPACON based on a unit cell approach and a radial heat flow experiment. However, a further approach using the finite element method is desirable, in order to better understanding the thermal flow through the package and to cross check with SPACON data and with experimental data. Also the mechanical behavior of the fuel could be addressed using the finite element technique. (author)

  10. The making of local hospital discharge arrangements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burau, Viola; Bro, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    Background Timely discharge is a key component of contemporary hospital governance and raises questions about how to move to more explicit discharge arrangements. Although associated organisational changes closely intersect with professional interests, there are relatively few studies in the...... literature on hospital discharge that explicitly examine the role of professional groups. Recent contributions to the literature on organisational studies of the professions help to specify how professional groups in hospitals contribute to the introduction and routinisation of discharge arrangements. This...... study builds on a view of organisational and professional projects as closely intertwined, where professionals take up organising roles and where organisations shape professionalism. Methods The analysis is based on a case study of the introduction and routinisation of explicit discharge arrangements...

  11. Exchange rate regimes and monetary arrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Ribnikar

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a close relationship between a country’s exchange rate regime and monetary arrangement and if we are to examine monetary arrangements then exchange rate regimes must first be analysed. Within the conventional and most widely used classification of exchange rate regimes into rigid and flexible or into polar regimes (hard peg and float on one side, and intermediate regimes on the other there, is a much greater variety among intermediate regimes. A more precise and, as will be seen, more useful classification of exchange rate regimes is the first topic of the paper. The second topic is how exchange rate regimes influence or determine monetary arrangements and monetary policy or monetary policy regimes: monetary autonomy versus monetary nonautonomy and discretion in monetary policy versus commitment in monetary policy. Both topics are important for countries on their path to the EU and the euro area

  12. Cooling arrangement for a gas turbine component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ching-Pang; Heneveld, Benjamin E

    2015-02-10

    A cooling arrangement (82) for a gas turbine engine component, the cooling arrangement (82) having a plurality of rows (92, 94, 96) of airfoils (98), wherein adjacent airfoils (98) within a row (92, 94, 96) define segments (110, 130, 140) of cooling channels (90), and wherein outlets (114, 134) of the segments (110, 130) in one row (92, 94) align aerodynamically with inlets (132, 142) of segments (130, 140) in an adjacent row (94, 96) to define continuous cooling channels (90) with non continuous walls (116, 120), each cooling channel (90) comprising a serpentine shape.

  13. Arrangements stable under the Coxeter groups

    OpenAIRE

    Kamiya, Hidehiko; Takemura, Akimichi; Terao, Hiroaki

    2011-01-01

    Let B be a real hyperplane arrangement which is stable under the action of a Coxeter group W. Then B acts naturally on the set of chambers of B. We assume that B is disjoint from the Coxeter arrangement A=A(W) of W. In this paper, we show that the W-orbits of the set of chambers of B are in one-to-one correspondence with the chambers of C=A\\cup B which are contained in an arbitrarily fixed chamber of A. From this fact, we find that the number of W-orbits of the set of chambe...

  14. Partial normalizations of Coxeter arrangements and discriminants

    CERN Document Server

    Granger, Michel; Schulze, Mathias

    2011-01-01

    We study natural partial normalization spaces of Coxeter arrangements and discriminants and relate their geometry to representation theory. The underlying ring structures arise from Dubrovin's Frobenius manifold structure which is lifted (without unit) to the space of the arrangement. We also describe an independent approach to these structures via duality of maximal Cohen-Macaulay fractional ideals. In the process, we find 3rd order differential relations for the basic invariants of the Coxeter group. Finally, we show that our partial normalizations give rise to new free divisors.

  15. Electrospun polycaprolactone/polylactic acid nanofibers as an artificial nerve conduit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of conduits made of biodegradable nanofibers is gaining substantial interest due to their suitability for nerve regeneration. Among all polymeric nanofibers PCL (Poly-Caprolactone) is distinctively found for mechanical stability and PLLA (Poly (L-Lactic Acid)) for relatively faster biodegradability. The aim of this study is to investigate blending compatibility between PCL and PLLA and the ability to fabricate nanofibers conduits via electro spinning. The PCL-PLLA nano-fiber tubular made from different blend ratios of PCL-PLLA were electro spun. The electro spun nanofibers were continuously deposited over high speed rotating mandrel to fabricate nanofibers conduit having inner diameter of 2mm and the wall thickness of 55-65 m. The diameters of nano-fibers were between 715-860nm. FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared) spectroscopy used to analyze chemical change in the blends of nerve conduits, which revealed that the PCL-PLLA blend nanofiber exhibit characteristic peaks of both PCL and PLLA and was composition dependent. The crystallinity of PCL-PLLA tubes were studied using WAXD (Wide Angle Xray Diffraction). The morphology of nanofibers were investigated under SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope). The mechanical properties of the conduits were also tested; the Young's modulus obtained for small diameter was 10MPa, twice as high as larger diameter. (author)

  16. Influence of Phreatic Conduit Floods on Matrix Storage in Unconfined Karst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J. L.; Koski, K.

    2009-12-01

    Conduits from cm’s to m’s in effective diameter are common features in some karst aquifers, providing most of the flow capacity, but relatively little of the storage. Unconfined karst aquifers have a water table and no caprock. Phreatic conduits are completely submerged below the water table. These conditions are found, for example, in the unconfined Floridan aquifer of the United States and on the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico. Karst conduits respond quickly to precipitation events, propagating floods that might originate with a sinking stream and eventually discharge to a spring. As the flood passes, water moves from the pressurized conduit to the surrounding rock matrix where it is stored; then, as the flood passes some of the stored flood water returns to the conduit. The amount, pattern and nature of storage is strongly influenced by the presence of an overlying water table and natural recharge. We investigate this influence using mathematical models, with implications for speleogenesis, contaminant sequestration, and aqueous geochemistry.

  17. Fabrication of patterned multi-walled poly-l-lactic acid conduits for nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianming; Shi, Riyi

    2007-09-30

    Topographical cues in the micron and nanoscale regime represent a powerful and effective method for controlling neuron and glial cell behavior. Previous studies have shown that contact guidance can facilitate axon pathfinding, accelerate neurite growth and induce glial cell alignment. In this paper, we exploit the concept of haptotaxis via implementation into three-dimensional neural based scaffolds. Polymeric poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA) conduits possessing multiple intralumenal walls and precise topography along the longitudinal axis were fabricated using solvent casting, physical imprinting and a rolling-fusing method. Measurements made on scanning electron micrographs show the conduits demonstrate a transparency factor (void to polymer ratio) of up to 87.9% and an increase in surface area of four to eight times over comparably sized hollow conduits. Intralumenal wall thickness was approximately 20 microm and physical parameters such as the number of lumens, conduit length and diameter were controllable. These results imply that the structures are conducive for cellular infiltration and proliferation. Although PLLA was used, the manufacturing techniques are highly flexible and are compatible with multiple polymer-solvent systems. Thus, the proposed conduits can be custom tailored to resorb in parallel with the healing process. Applications for these scaffolds include autograft substitutes for peripheral nerve transection or potential use in spinal cord related injuries. PMID:17644184

  18. Long Term Complications Following Heal Conduit Urinary Diversion after Radical Cystectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the long term complications of ileal conduit urinary diversion in 36 patients with invasive urinary bladder cancer who lived more than 5 years after surgery. Patients and Methods: A retrospective study included 36 long term survivors (survival 5 years or greater) with invasive bladder cancer who did radical cystectomy or anterior pelvic excentration with ileal conduit urinary diversion at the National Cancer Institute, Cairo University before January 2004. Results: A total of 36 patients, 28 Males and 8 females, with median age at surgery of 62 years. Complications developed in 22 (61 %) patients and surgical re-intervention was needed, in 14 patients (39%). Stoma related complications developed in 7 (19%) patients, bowel related complications developed in 4 (11%), urinary tract infection and pyelonephritis was observed in 9 (25%) patients, conduit/ureteral anastomosis related complications developed in 5 (14%) patients, urolithiasis developed in 4 (11%) patients. Renal function deterioration (morphological and functional) was observed in 9 (25%) patients, nephrectomy was required in 2 patients, hemodialysis was required in 1 patient, and 1 patient had persistent hyperchloraemic acidosis. Conclusion: Long term follow-up for patients with ileal conduit urinary diversion shows high complication and high surgical re-intervention rates following this technique. Longer follow-up period for 20 or more years is needed for all urinary diversion techniques to prove either the ileal conduit will remain the gold standard for urinary diversion or other newly developed techniques will take its place

  19. Nuclear power plant with loop arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pumps and intermediate heat exchangers of the primary circuit of the SNR are situated together or separately in component containers, which are arranged around the reactor pit. The connections are provided by partly elastic pipelines, which run radially in the reactor pit and tangentially to the component containers. A four loop design can be produced. (DG)

  20. Canister arrangement for storing radioactive waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, Donald K. (Knoxville, TN); Van Cleve, Jr., John E. (Kingston, TN)

    1982-01-01

    The subject invention relates to a canister arrangement for jointly storing high level radioactive chemical waste and metallic waste resulting from the reprocessing of nuclear reactor fuel elements. A cylindrical steel canister is provided with an elongated centrally disposed billet of the metallic waste and the chemical waste in vitreous form is disposed in the annulus surrounding the billet.

  1. 21 CFR 26.64 - Transitional arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transitional arrangements. 26.64 Section 26.64 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS, AND CERTAIN MEDICAL DEVICE...

  2. 78 FR 40735 - Proposed Subsequent Arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-08

    ... authority of section 131a. of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended. The Department is providing notice... the European Atomic Energy Community. DATES: This subsequent arrangement will take effect no sooner... license XSOU8798. In accordance with section 131a. of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, it...

  3. 77 FR 53876 - Proposed Subsequent Arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-04

    ... authority of section 131a. of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended. The Department is providing notice... the European Atomic Energy Community. DATES: This subsequent arrangement will take effect no sooner... section 131a. of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, it has been determined that this...

  4. Arrangements for responding to nuclear emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication describes the current arrangements for minimising the effects on the general public of a nuclear accident in the United Kingdom. It replaces an earlier version published in 1990 (Arrangements for responding to nuclear emergencies, HMSO, ISBN 0 11 885525 5) and provides updated information on the emergency plans for accidents occurring at fixed nuclear installations and associated transport activities, which might result in the release of radioactivity. These plans are prepared by the operators and organisations likely to be involved in dealing with any emergency within the general framework described in this booklet. They provide for any action which may be necessary, either on or off the nuclear site, to protect members of the public. There are regular exercises during which the plans and arrangements are tested. The main change since the publication of the earlier version is the introduction of revised arrangements for coordination and control of the off-site emergency response at sites in England and Wales operated by Nuclear Electric. In addition, the previous version has been amended to incorporate a large number of minor organisational and operational changes. (author)

  5. Alternative transportation fuels: Financing issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A multitude of alternative fuels could reduce air pollution and the impact of oil price shocks. Only a few of these fuels are readily available and inexpensive enough to merit serious consideration over the coming five years. In New York City, safety regulations narrow the field still further by eliminating propane. As a result, this study focuses on the three alternative fuels readily available in New York City: compressed natural gas, methanol, and electricity. Each has significant environmental benefits and each has different cost characteristics. With the Clean Air Act and the National Energy Strategy highlighting the country's need to improve urban air quality and move away from dependence on imported fuels, fleets may soon have little choice but to convert to altemative fuels. Given the potential for large infrastructure and vehicle costs, these fleets may have difficulty finding the capital to make that conversion. Ultimately, then, it will be the involvement of the private sector that will determine the success of alternative fuels. Whether it be utilities, fuel distributors or suppliers, private financing partners or others, it is critical that altemative fuels programs be structured and planned to attract their involvement. This report examines financing methods that do not involve government subsidies. It also explores financing methods that are specific to alternative fuels. Bond issues and other mechanisms that are used for conventional vehicles are not touched upon in this report. This report explores ways to spread the high cost of alternative fuels among a number of parties within the private sector. The emphasis is on structuring partnerships that suit methanol, electric, or natural gas vehicle fleets. Through these partnerships, alternative fuels may ultimately compete effectively against conventional vehicle fuels

  6. Hidden Markov models in finance

    CERN Document Server

    Mamon, Rogemar S

    2007-01-01

    A number of methodologies have been employed to provide decision making solutions to a whole assortment of financial problems in today's globalized markets. Hidden Markov Models in Finance by Mamon and Elliott will be the first systematic application of these methods to some special kinds of financial problems; namely, pricing options and variance swaps, valuation of life insurance policies, interest rate theory, credit risk modeling, risk management, analysis of future demand and inventory level, testing foreign exchange rate hypothesis, and early warning systems for currency crises. This boo

  7. Offsets - An opportunity of Financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear Research Reactors sometimes need to implement projects to upgrade, revamp or convert their reactor, acquire new fuel elements, etc. However, as their activities are mainly of noncommercial nature, they sometimes lack of financial resources to implement these projects by themselves. Several solutions exist: loans, governmental budget, subsidies from international organizations (IAEA). Offsets are another source of financing. They also are free of charge for the reactor. The objective of offsets is to Identify, implement and finance projects that: directly create or sustain a local economic activity of high-added value, would not have happened without the Obligor's intervention, and are of crucial importance given the country's political background (favor employment, technology transfers, training and education, research and development, etc.). Companies worldwide are willing to finance local projects to fulfill their Offset Obligation. Local organizations or institutions are willing to invest to increase their activities but lack of financial resources. Offset regulations are an opportunity on both sides and are free for the local organization. The monetary value of an Offset obligation is calculated as a percentage of the main contract price (or as a percentage of the imported part value). That percentage depends on the Country's legislation and on the nature of the main contract (defense or civilian). This value has to be compensated by an equivalent economic value (a Project's cost is different from its value). There is two ways of assessing a value: - Political aspects: The Project is of political importance for the country (development of an export capability, technology and/or know-how transfers) and the project in line with the country's political priorities (employment, research, international presence, etc.). - Economic benefits: the project directly sustains or creates additional activities, turnover, R and D, employment, etc. It benefits directly to the local institution. The offset valuation mechanisms leads to benefits for all parties: the project is implemented and this implementation is free of charge. For the Government: the project contributes to achieve its priorities without having to be financed on public funds. For the Obligor: its Offset obligation is compensated for a monetary value depending on the direct investment cost. Offset regulations are implemented in over 100 countries worldwide and are of common use on important public procurement markets. Examples of Countries implementing Offset regulations are: Austria, Brazil, Finland, Italy, Romania and many other

  8. Radiation response of optical fibers encased in a radiation resistant telecommunications conduit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the results of exposing two multimode silica core optical fibers to Co-60 gamma irradiation in a radiation shielded configuration exposure consisted of dose rates at the fibers ranging from 59.6 rad(Si)/min to 92.2 rad(Si)/min within the radiation resistant conduit (RRC) and plastic conduit respectively. In was observed that the fiber within the RRC experienced approximately 8.0 dB/km less radiation induced attenuation than the fiber within the plastic conduit with identical external radiation exposure and geometries. The measurements were performed at room temperature (T = 21.5 degrees C) using well defined, highly stable optical sources and detectors

  9. Biodegradable Conduit Small Gap Tubulization for Peripheral Nerve Mutilation: A Substitute for Traditional Epineurial Neurorrhaphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peixun Zhang, Na Han, Tianbing Wang, Feng Xue, Yuhui Kou, Yanhua Wang, Xiaofeng Yin, Laijin Lu, Guanglei Tian, Xu Gong, Shanlin Chen, Yu Dang, Jianping Peng, Baoguo Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nerve regeneration and re-innervation are usually difficult after peripheral nerve injury. Epineurium neurorrhaphy to recover the nerve continuity is the traditional choice of peripheral nerve mutilation without nerve defects, whereas the functional recovery remains quite unsatisfactory. Based on previous research in SD rats and Rhesus Monkeys, a multiple centers clinical trial about biodegradable conduit small gap tubulization for peripheral nerve mutilation to substitute traditional epineurial neurorrhaphy was carried out. Herein, the authors reviewed the literature that focused on peripheral nerve injury and possible clinical application, and confirmed the clinical possibilities of biodegradable conduit small gap tubulization to substitute traditional epineurial neurorrhaphy for peripheral nerve mutilation. The biodegradable conduit small gap tubulization to substitute traditional epineurial neurorrhaphy for peripheral nerve mutilation may be a revolutionary innovation in peripheral nerve injury and repair field.

  10. A 6-year experience with radial artery conduit for myocardial revascularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sadeghpour-Tabaee

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Excellent long-term patencies of arterial grafts are considered, superior to those of vein grafts. In this study, we present our 6 years experience in using radial artery as a conduit for myocardial revascularization. The aim of the present study was to assess the safety and early and mid term results of using radial artery in coronary artery bypass graft. Methods: The radial artery used as a conduit in 308 cases was evaluated during past 6 years, and the results obtained were processed and analyzed. Results: The operative morbidity comprised re-operation for bleeding in 3.2%, MI in 5%, with paresthesis and stitch abscess of the hand in 10% in and 3.5% respectively. Hospital mortality included 2 patients, one case being directly due to complication of harvesting radial artery.Conclusion: The results of present study were satisfactory with acceptable morbidity and mortality and favored the application of this conduit to CABG patients.

  11. New directions in electric power financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper argues that it is necessary to raise the eyes from the current focus on independent power projects, buttressed by guarantees, to the longer horizon of electric power financing in open markets. Transitional strategies will need to move beyond the commonly seen IPP activity that occurs without fundamental sector reform, and demand-side incentives that introduce further market distortions. These efforts will have to focus on macroeconomic stabilization, removal of price distortions, as well as sector and corporate reform. Mobilization of domestic capital will be essential for sustainable sector financing. Although guarantees to encourage power sector investment can be designed to selectively cover risks, their elimination through fundamental sector reform should be the ultimate goal. Over the longer-term traditional corporate finance should become a more common financing strategy than project finance. Innovations in performance risk management and consumer credit will be crucial to the financing of energy efficiency. (author)

  12. MRI of the heart following implantation of a left ventricular apico-aortic conduit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate the potential of ECG-triggered MRI for the evaluation of postoperative anatomy and function of the heart and conduit following implantation of a left-ventricular apico-aortic conduit. Materials and Methods: 5 patients (2 female, 3 male, mean age 72.5 years) were examined using a 1.5 Tesla whole-body MRI (Gyroscan Intera, Philips Medical Systems, Best, The Netherlands) following apico-aortic conduit surgery due to severe aortic valve stenosis. The reason for performing conduit implantation instead of aortic valve replacement was the risk of injuring a bypass graft from prior coronary artery bypass surgery. Cine steady-state-free-precession (SSFP) sequences were used to assess ventricular function, navigator-gated 3D-SSFP and breath-hold, time-resolved contrast-enhanced MR angiography was used to display the postoperative anatomy, and 2D-gradient echo sequences with an inversion pulse to suppress the signal of the healthy myocardium were used to evaluate potential myocardial scarring. Flow sensitive gradient echo sequences were performed to determine the blood flow in the conduit. Results: In all patients the apico-aortic conduit proved to be open with a maximum flow velocity of 126 (+ 43) cm/s. The postoperative anatomy was able to be evaluated in all patients and perioperative myocardial infarction was able to be ruled out. The mean ejection fraction of the left ventricle was 44.2 + 6.2 % with a mean volume of 80 + 20.6 ml per heart beat. (orig.)

  13. The financing of healthcare in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Durkan, Joe

    1994-01-01

    It is an interesting aspect of the current debate with regard to healthcare in developed countries that the discussion starts with the finance of healthcare. What makes it interesting is that, with the exception of the US, healthcare is predominantly financed by government through a combination of a social welfare contribution and general taxation. There is some private financing through private insurance, but tax benefits for insurance and the universality attaching to most public systems ef...

  14. Essays on banking and finance in China

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, L.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: The Chinese economy has grown at a spectacular speed during the past three decades while the financial system is not well developed in China. On the one hand, the informal financing channels, i.e. borrowing from family members, friends, moneylenders, trade credit, etc., may provide proper financing for the firms in China. On the other hand, the increasing intensity of banking competition may also enhance the access to finance in China. Chapter 1 introduces the Chinese economy; Chapt...

  15. Book review: Behavioural economics and finance

    OpenAIRE

    Grodecka, Anna

    2013-01-01

    "Behavioural Economics and Finance. Michelle Baddeley. Routledge. 2013. --- Standard models in economics usually assume that people are rational, self-interested maximisers, effectively co-ordinated via the invisible hand of the price mechanism. Whilst these approaches produce tractable, simple models, they cannot fully capture the uncertainties and instabilities that affect our everyday choices. Behavioural Economics and Finance brings economics and finance together with psychology, neur...

  16. Access to bank finance for Scottish SMEs.

    OpenAIRE

    North, David J.; Baldock, Robert; Deakins, David; Whittam, Geoff

    2008-01-01

    There is evidence that some SMEs may still face difficulties in accessing bank finance from lenders (CEEDR, 2007). This paper reports an in-depth study into demand and supply side issues relating to access to bank finance by Scottish SMEs and whether there is still market failure associated with good, bankable business cases from SMEs that do not receive finance. We argue that our study utilises innovative methodology and is relatively rare as a robust study in this area. We combine demand...

  17. Quality of public finances and growth

    OpenAIRE

    Afonso, António; Ebert, Werner; SCHUKNECHT, Ludger; Thone, Michael

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we review the linkages between the quality of public finances, that is, the level and composition of public expenditure and its financing via revenue and deficits, and economic growth. We review the various channels through which public finances affect growth and its underlying determinants (institutional framework, employment, savings and investment, innovation). The paper addresses the approaches used to assess the performance and efficiency of public spending, and surveys the...

  18. Issues to improve the prospects of financing nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A changing global environment with increasing energy consumption and a need for international energy security is influencing nuclear power projects and the means of obtaining financial backing for such projects. The development of a national nuclear infrastructure can provide significant benefits that influence financial resources. The effects of other factors - such as financing arrangements for capital intensive plants, international design acceptance, harmonization of codes and standards, and assurances of fuel cycle services - need to be considered. An improvement in international cooperation may lower investment risks and contribute to reducing costs. The effects of all these issues need to be assessed and means for supporting the application of nuclear power in the current changing social and commercial environment need to be developed. A key question addressed in this publication is whether financing is the real barrier to nuclear power development or if financing difficulties are simply a consequence of other barriers. It recognizes that there is no single solution and that circumstances in different countries, with different starting points, ambitions and drivers, inevitably affect the balance of approaches followed. The importance of credible, practical, costed and substantiated plans is emphasized. Risks have to be mitigated through an effective strategy and the allocation of risks between parties must be logical. A project has to be demonstrably viable to attract financing. There are three broad areas which must be addressed to improve prospects of investment in nuclear power reactor construction. The first area, and probably the most important, is government and utility commitment and preparedness to adopt and implement a nuclear power programme using internationally recognized standards of safety. The second area is the application of lessons learned from technological and project developments. The third area is financing itself. The conclusions detailed in this publication are presented as a series of key mechanisms for improvement in each of these areas. Improving prospects for investment in the nuclear industry is, in large part, achieved by a combination of financial and strategic planning measures, which together create sufficient confidence among investors to support projects. Also, there are a number of wider actions that can be undertaken to improve the prospects for investment in nuclear power. These mechanisms and actions are presented for future consideration of how they may be best developed or adopted

  19. Pressure distribution along the AGS vacuum chambers with new types of pump out conduits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayak, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Mapes, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Smart, L. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Weiss, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-10-28

    The AGS HEBT and ring vacuum system is monitored by the discharge current of the magnet ion pumps, which is proportional to the pressure at the inlet port of these ion pumps. The discharge current is measured and suitably calibrated to indicate the ion pump pressure. In order to calculate the vacuum chamber pressure from the ion pump pressure, a detailed analysis is essential to compute their difference in different scenarios. Such analysis has been carried out numerically in the past for the system with the older type of pump out conduits, and similar analysis using FEM in ANSYS is presented in this paper with the newer type of pump out conduit.

  20. Havery Mudd 2014-2015 Computer Science Conduit Clinic Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aspesi, G [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bai, J [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Deese, R [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Shin, L [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-05-12

    Conduit, a new open-source library developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, provides a C++ application programming interface (API) to describe and access scientific data. Conduit’s primary use is for inmemory data exchange in high performance computing (HPC) applications. Our team tested and improved Conduit to make it more appealing to potential adopters in the HPC community. We extended Conduit’s capabilities by prototyping four libraries: one for parallel communication using MPI, one for I/O functionality, one for aggregating performance data, and one for data visualization.

  1. Pressure distribution along the AGS vacuum chambers with new types of pump out conduits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The AGS HEBT and ring vacuum system is monitored by the discharge current of the magnet ion pumps, which is proportional to the pressure at the inlet port of these ion pumps. The discharge current is measured and suitably calibrated to indicate the ion pump pressure. In order to calculate the vacuum chamber pressure from the ion pump pressure, a detailed analysis is essential to compute their difference in different scenarios. Such analysis has been carried out numerically in the past for the system with the older type of pump out conduits, and similar analysis using FEM in ANSYS is presented in this paper with the newer type of pump out conduit.

  2. Chitosan conduits combined with nerve growth factor microspheres repair facial nerve defects

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, HuaWei; Wen, Weisheng; HU, MIN; Bi, Wenting; CHEN, LIJIE; Liu, Sanxia; Chen, Peng; Tan, Xinying

    2013-01-01

    Microspheres containing nerve growth factor for sustained release were prepared by a compound method, and implanted into chitosan conduits to repair 10-mm defects on the right buccal branches of the facial nerve in rabbits. In addition, chitosan conduits combined with nerve growth factor or normal saline, as well as autologous nerve, were used as controls. At 90 days post-surgery, the muscular atrophy on the right upper lip was more evident in the nerve growth factor and normal sa-line groups...

  3. Complications in financing new nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Historical Financing Approach; Recent Financing Complexities; Typical NPP Project Structure; Project Funding; Technical Developments; Financing Drivers; Conflicting Goals; Different Motivation/ Values: Public vs. Private and other financial aspects are discussed. Some suggestions for consideration are given, such as: Stronger involvement of Government. Stronger involvement of off takers as investors: – Large industrial entities – Utilities/ Distribution companies – Smaller, aggregated industrial entities. Return to corporate finance model (e.g. balance sheet based on existing operating assets), More creative BOO(T) structures, EPCM project execution structures; Better communication with outside stake holders, i.e., why nuclear is best option

  4. The financing of new mining ventures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various options are presented for tackling the problem in mining today of the high capital costs required for a new mine combined with the front end exposure that the exploiters face. Equity finance from the producers, private investors, oil companies, consumers and governments is discussed as well as loan finance from export credit agencies, international agencies, production-related loans, leasing and commercial bank loans. The future in financing mining is outlined and it is proposed that the future will lie in smaller projects financed primarily with equity. (U.K.)

  5. Mortgage Finance and Security of Collateral

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haldrup, Karin

    2011-01-01

    Developing economies face a gigantic lack of financing for urbanization due to the absence of formal and transparent property markets. The paper discuss the interference between mortgage finance and collateral security by using the Danish mortgage financing model as an example, because of its 200 years long history, and because the system is recommended as an option in emerging markets and as a possible model for remedying failures in mature housing finance markets. It is suggested that development policies in land administration need to be revised in order to support a widening of credit markets and effectively serve pro-poor policies.

  6. Reorganizing Rural Public Finance: Reforms and Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Q. Tian

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines recent reforms to restructure rural public finance in China and their impact on local-government finance. The focus is on how fiscal income and financial expenditure are managed by local-level governments, particularly at the county and township levels, and how rural public and social services are financed. The article also looks at the development of intergovernmental transfers, ongoing administrative reform, more recent initiatives to extend public finance to cover rural residents as part of the comprehensive rural reform, and a new campaign to build a new socialist rural China.

  7. External financing, growth and capital structure

    OpenAIRE

    Asimakopoulos, Ioannis; Athanasoglou, Panayiotis; Siriopoulos, Konstantinos

    2006-01-01

    The study focuses on Greek non-financial firms listed on the Athens Exchange in the period 1998-2002 and shows that only a small fraction of these firms were in a position to finance their growth by exclusively using internal resources with the findings varying depending on the firms’ size. For those firms that had to resort to external financing, short-term financing was favoured compared to long-term financing. While the need for short-term debt did not differ significantly between small an...

  8. FINANCING MECHANISMS OF AGRICULTURE IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BUMBESCU SORINA SIMONA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to highlight the importance of the agriculture financing ways, existing an interdependence relationship between the stage of agriculture development and its funding mechanisms. This article presents in a complex way, the general theoretical framework of the agriculture financing, and the practical methods of agriculture finance from bank loans to European programs and projects, the impact of EU funds on agriculture. The research leads to two important categories of tangible results; on one hand it highlights the most important and used ways to finance the Romanian agriculture, and on the other hand, there is analised the impact of EU funds on rural development, their absorption.

  9. Financing higher education and labor mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Demange, Gabrielle; Fenge, Robert; Uebelmesser, Silke

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes how mobility of post-graduate skilled workers and students across different countries affects the quality level of higher education and the way education is financed. We start by examining a closed economy. In the presence of imperfect credit markets the education level with pure fee-financing is lower than the optimal level. If the credit market imperfections are not too large, a mix of tax- and fee-financing is optimal. The reason for this is that with pure fee-financing...

  10. Health care entrepreneurship: financing innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazier, Kyle L; Metzler, Bridget

    2006-01-01

    Entrepreneurship is often described as the ability to create new ventures from new or existing concepts, ideas and visions. There has been significant entrepreneurial response to the changes in the scientific and social underpinnings of health care services delivery. However, a growing portion of the economic development driving health care industry expansion is threatened further by longstanding use of financing models that are suboptimal for health care ventures. The delayed pace of entrepreneurial activity in this industry is in part a response to the general economy and markets, but also due to the lack of capital for new health care ventures. The recent dearth of entrepreneurial activities in the health services sector may also due to failure to consider new approaches to partnerships and strategic ventures, despite their mutually beneficial organizational and financing potential. As capital becomes more scarce for innovators, it is imperative that those with new and creative ideas for health and health care improvement consider techniques for capital acquisition that have been successful in other industries and at similar stages of development. The capital and added expertise can allow entrepreneurs to leverage resources, dampen business fluctuations, and strengthen long term prospects. PMID:16583848

  11. Financing of radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waste disposal is modelled as a financial calculus. In this connection the particularity is not primarily the dimension to be expected of financial requirement but above all the uncertainty of financial requirement as well as the ecological, socio-economic and especially also the temporal dimension of the Nuclear Waste Disposal project (disposal of spent fuel elements from light-water reactors with and without reprocessing, decommissioning = safe containment and disposal of nuclear power plants, permanent isolation of radioactive waste from the biosphere, intermediate storage). Based on the above mentioned factors the author analyses alternative approaches of financing or financial planning. He points out the decisive significance of the perception of risks or the evaluation of risks by involved or affected persons - i.e. the social acceptance of planned and designed waste disposal concepts - for the achievement and assessment of alternative solutions. With the help of an acceptance-specific risk measure developed on the basis of a mathematical chaos theory he illustrates, in a model, the social influence on the financing of nuclear waste disposal. (orig./HP)

  12. Financing of nuclear projects. Lessons from a recent experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advantages of mandating BNP Paribas as a lead bank and arranger for NPP Belene are presented. BNPP has an excellent record and credentials in Nuclear Power Plant Projects internationally and in the local energy sector and very recent experience as a lead bank for the fifth nuclear power plant in Finland. BNPP has a proven track record as Provider of rapid and efficient ECA financing in terms of: managing in parallel the number of ECA contractual relations, so as to provide 'matching opportunities' between the ECAs and leverage to improve their terms and conditions, and to harmonize them in one set of unified legal documentation. There is no cost to the Government of Bulgaria until the signing of the Facility Documentation

  13. A model of the demand for Islamic banks debt-based financing instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusoh, Mansor; Khalid, Norlin

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents a theoretical analysis of the demand for debt-based financing instruments of the Islamic banks. Debt-based financing, such as through baibithamanajil and al-murabahah, is by far the most prominent of the Islamic bank financing and yet it has been largely ignored in Islamic economics literature. Most studies instead have been focusing on equity-based financing of al-mudharabah and al-musyarakah. Islamic bank offers debt-based financing through various instruments derived under the principle of exchange (ukud al-mu'awadhat) or more specifically, the contract of deferred sale. Under such arrangement, Islamic debt is created when goods are purchased and the payments are deferred. Thus, unlike debt of the conventional bank which is a form of financial loan contract to facilitate demand for liquid assets, this Islamic debt is created in response to the demand to purchase goods by deferred payment. In this paper we set an analytical framework that is based on an infinitely lived representative agent model (ILRA model) to analyze the demand for goods to be purchased by deferred payment. The resulting demand will then be used to derive the demand for Islamic debt. We also investigate theoretically, factors that may have an impact on the demand for Islamic debt.

  14. Wind Levelized Cost of Energy: A Comparison of Technical and Financing Input Variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cory, K.; Schwabe, P.

    2009-10-01

    The expansion of wind power capacity in the United States has increased the demand for project development capital. In response, innovative approaches to financing wind projects have emerged and are proliferating in the U.S. renewable energy marketplace. Wind power developers and financiers have become more efficient and creative in structuring their financial relationships, and often tailor them to different investor types and objectives. As a result, two similar projects may use very different cash flows and financing arrangements, which can significantly vary the economic competitiveness of wind projects. This report assesses the relative impact of numerous financing, technical, and operating variables on the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) associated with a wind project under various financing structures in the U.S. marketplace. Under this analysis, the impacts of several financial and technical variables on the cost of wind electricity generation are first examined individually to better understand the relative importance of each. Then, analysts examine a low-cost and a high-cost financing scenario, where multiple variables are modified simultaneously. Lastly, the analysis also considers the impact of a suite of financial variables versus a suite of technical variables.

  15. Health-financing reforms in southeast Asia: challenges in achieving universal coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangcharoensathien, Viroj; Patcharanarumol, Walaiporn; Ir, Por; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed; Mukti, Ali Ghufron; Akkhavong, Kongsap; Banzon, Eduardo; Huong, Dang Boi; Thabrany, Hasbullah; Mills, Anne

    2011-03-01

    In this sixth paper of the Series, we review health-financing reforms in seven countries in southeast Asia that have sought to reduce dependence on out-of-pocket payments, increase pooled health finance, and expand service use as steps towards universal coverage. Laos and Cambodia, both resource-poor countries, have mostly relied on donor-supported health equity funds to reach the poor, and reliable funding and appropriate identification of the eligible poor are two major challenges for nationwide expansion. For Thailand, the Philippines, Indonesia, and Vietnam, social health insurance financed by payroll tax is commonly used for formal sector employees (excluding Malaysia), with varying outcomes in terms of financial protection. Alternative payment methods have different implications for provider behaviour and financial protection. Two alternative approaches for financial protection of the non-poor outside the formal sector have emerged-contributory arrangements and tax-financed schemes-with different abilities to achieve high population coverage rapidly. Fiscal space and mobilisation of payroll contributions are both important in accelerating financial protection. Expanding coverage of good-quality services and ensuring adequate human resources are also important to achieve universal coverage. As health-financing reform is complex, institutional capacity to generate evidence and inform policy is essential and should be strengthened. PMID:21269682

  16. Corporate finance in an interest free economy: An alternate approach to practiced Islamic Corporate Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Shaikh, Salman

    2009-01-01

    This paper suggests an alternate approach to corporate finance in an interest free economy by looking beyond practiced Islamic finance and suggesting alternatives for corporate finance in sourcing funds i.e. i) Ijara with embedded options, ii) limited liability partnership, iii) equity modes like Musharakah and Mudarabah iv) income bonds and v) convertible income bonds. It also suggests alternatives for corporate finance in using funds i.e. i) Islamic income funds, ii) Islamic REITs, iii) Tre...

  17. Global Development Finance 2005 : Mobilizing Finance and Managing Vulnerability, Volume 1. Analysis and Statistical Appendix

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2005-01-01

    This report is comprised of two volumes. Global Development Finance 2005 I: Analysis and Statistical Appendix addresses two key challenges in development finance: first, how to raise resources flowing to low-income countries, which are heavily constrained in their access to market-based finance. Second, how to manage the vulnerability inherent in developing countries' access to finance -- vulnerability stemming from changes in the global macro environment, as well as from shifting donor prior...

  18. Global Development Finance 2005 : Mobilizing Finance and Managing Vulnerability, Volume 2. Summary and Country Tables

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2005-01-01

    This report is comprised of two volumes. Global Development Finance 2005 I: Analysis and Statistical Appendix addresses two key challenges in development finance: first, how to raise resources flowing to low-income countries, which are heavily constrained in their access to market-based finance. Second, how to manage the vulnerability inherent in developing countries' access to finance -- vulnerability stemming from changes in the global macro environment, as well as from shifting donor prior...

  19. Application of finance project for leverage of small size hydroelectric enterprising; Aplicacao do project finance para alavancagem de empreendimentos hidreletricos de pequeno porte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Silvana dos

    2003-07-01

    In the same way that the majority of the countries, project financing of substructure in Brazil, in project finance modality, depend on a skillful structure of guaranties and contracts to become possible. In the case of projects of centrals of generation of electrical energy, that financial engineering becomes still more complicated. In Brazil, due to particularities of the sectors of electricity, the arrangements of guaranties requested but creditors pass to present levels of complexity and exigency well elevated. The contractual appliances that give support to the project finance, originally projected to developed countries, request an extreme adaptation to these particularities. The development of Brazil is directly related to its capacity in expanding the offer of electric energy in the just measure of the national necessity. In this context, the small central hydroelectric (PCH's) represent, actually, an efficient and fast form to complete the offer of energy in such a way to supply the crescent demand the national market. For its characteristics, that type of undertaking can be developed by small manager, from among which are the owners of the areas in which on can find these hydraulic potentials which, however they do not dispose of capital to integral raising. These undertakings are tasks, normally, of low global cost, at the rate of US$ 1.000,00/k W, and of a smaller ambient impact, compared to the return that they give to the enterprise and to the Brazilian electric system as a whole, by having to receive special attention in the planned politics to the sector and to merit a series of incentives to become business still more attractive. By thinking in the found difficulty by small enterprises in rising undertakings of generation of electric energy of small port through the convectional mechanisms of financing is being proposed in that work a well-founded methodology in the concepts of the modality of financing project finance. (author)

  20. Discretely monitored tenor varying exchange arrangements

    OpenAIRE

    Tanpradist, Tanapan

    2006-01-01

    Our subject area of research is Mathematical Finance. In this thesis, we price a novel form of barrier structure which is closely related to a swaption having a continuous time log-normal model, which is the underlying dynamic of the asset, a forward par swap rate. The new feature is where the barrier is monitored before and during the swap period. It is called ”Tenor Varying Barrier Swaption”. It means that even though the exercise date of the swaption is fixed at time t0, the...

  1. Not all free arrangements are $K(\\pi,1)$

    OpenAIRE

    Edelman, Paul H.; Reiner, Victor

    1994-01-01

    We produce a one-parameter family of hyperplane arrangements that are counterexamples to the conjecture of Saito that the complexified complement of a free arrangement is $K(\\pi,1)$. These arrangements are the restriction of a one-parameter family of arrangements that arose in the study of tilings of certain centrally symmetric octagons. This other family is discussed as well.

  2. Effectiveness of community health financing in meeting the cost of illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preker Alexander S.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available How to finance and provide health care for the more than 1.3 billion rural poor and informal sector workers in low- and middle-income countries is one of the greatest challenges facing the international development community. This article presents the main findings from an extensive survey of the literature of community financing arrangements, and selected experiences from the Asia and Africa regions. Most community financing schemes have evolved in the context of severe economic constraints, political instability, and lack of good governance. Micro-level household data analysis indicates that community financing improves access by rural and informal sector workers to needed heath care and provides them with some financial protection against the cost of illness. Macro-level cross-country analysis gives empirical support to the hypothesis that risk-sharing in health financing matters in terms of its impact on both the level and distribution of health, financial fairness and responsiveness indicators. The background research done for this article points to five key policies available to governments to improve the effectiveness and sustainability of existing community financing schemes. This includes: (a increased and well-targeted subsidies to pay for the premiums of low-income populations; (b insurance to protect against expenditure fluctuations and re-insurance to enlarge the effective size of small risk pools; (c effective prevention and case management techniques to limit expenditure fluctuations; (d technical support to strengthen the management capacity of local schemes; and (e establishment and strengthening of links with the formal financing and provider networks.

  3. Co-Management Arrangements in Orthopedic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushnell, Brandon D

    2015-06-01

    A co-management arrangement (CMA) is a contractual relationship between physicians and a hospital that results in a shared-responsibility management structure for a specific service line. In orthopedic surgery, CMAs are becoming increasingly popular as stakeholders in the health care market seek increased value (ie, higher-quality care at lower costs). A CMA can significantly improve the efficiency and the outcomes of a musculoskeletal service line if it adheres to the basic principles of a focus on the patient, evidence-based decision-making, physician leadership, appropriate physician compensation, transparency, reasonable and modifiable goals, and accountability. While the specifics of each CMA will vary, all CMAs have common operational elements that include the arrangement's legal structure, legal compliance, leadership and reporting structure, facilities management, personnel management, clinical data management, financial data management, and quality and effectiveness reporting. PMID:26047000

  4. MOX fuel arrangement for nuclear core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to use up a stockpile of weapons-grade plutonium, the plutonium is converted into a mixed oxide (MOX) fuel form wherein it can be disposed in a plurality of different fuel assembly types. Depending on the equilibrium cycle that is required, a predetermined number of one or more of the fuel assembly types are selected and arranged in the core of the reactor in accordance with a selected loading schedule. Each of the fuel assemblies is designed to produce different combustion characteristics whereby the appropriate selection and disposition in the core enables the resulting equilibrium cycle to closely resemble that which is produced using urania fuel. The arrangement of the MOX rods and burnable absorber rods within each of the fuel assemblies, in combination with a selective control of the amount of plutonium which is contained in each of the MOX rods, is used to tailor the combustion characteristics of the assembly. 38 figs

  5. Non-recourse financing for a renewable energy project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper will discuss the development and financing of ARBRE Energy Limited, a joint venture company 85% owned by Yorkshire Water Projects Ltd of the United Kingdom, with minority participation by the Schelde Group of Holland and Termiska Processor AB of Sweden. The project will establish 600 hectares of short rotation coppices, some of which will be organically fertilised with digested sewage sludge, to provide 20% of the fuel requirement of a Biomass Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (BIGCC) electricity generation plant. The remaining 80% of the fuel requirements will come from forestry supplies, although in the first few years all the fuel will come from the forestry sources until the coppices are mature. The project has begun construction of a gasification plant at Eggborough, North Yorkshire, which will provide gas to a gas turbine and steam turbine generation system, producing 10MW and exporting 8MW of electricity. The project was included in the 1993 tranche of the UK's Non Fossil Fuel Obligation (NFFO) programme, and has gained financial support from the European Commission's THERMIE programme as a targeted BIGCC project. As background to the financing arrangements, the project's technical and environmental effects and benefits are described in some detail in the paper, together with the award of its planning permit and agreement on its operating license. (Author)

  6. Financing the export of nuclear power plants to developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japanese manufacturers of nuclear power plants are confident in quality and reliability of their products but so far they have played a minor role in the international market. In studying the finance for the future nuclear power projects in the developing country, the financial institutions will take into consideration such characteristics of the nuclear power project as: (1) Public acceptance and safety; (2) Commitments by host government and its involvement which are internationally required; (3) Huge amount of capital requirements over a long term for commissioning, operation and maintenance; (4) inability of the domestic market oriented project to generate foreign currency earnings; (5) Long lasting project life; (6) Creditworthiness of both the project owner and the host government and the debt problem of the country; (7) Priority; (8) Feasibility; (9) Available engineers and their level of technology, etc. Under the present circumstances, because of the inherent nature of the project and the creditworthiness, the owner of the project who imports the nuclear power plant and the host government will find it very difficult to receive enough funds for the project from the financial institutions, including the export credit agencies, and the manufacturers (exporters). On condition that the owner of the project and the host government make every effort and necessary arrangement to materialize the project, one of the measurers for the creditors to share such burdens and risks will be to form an international consortia among manufacturers and to organize co-finance among ECAs, private financial institutions and Multilateral Development Banks. (author)

  7. Biobank Finances: A Socio-Economic Analysis and Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Sally; Oliver, Rob; Corfield, Julie; Georghiou, Luke; Yuille, Martin

    2015-12-01

    This socio-economic study is based on the widely held view that there is an inadequate supply of human biological samples that is hampering biomedical research development and innovation (RDI). The potential value of samples and the associated data are thus not being realized. We aimed to examine whether the financing of biobanks contributes to this problem and then to propose a national solution. We combined three methods: a qualitative case study; literature analysis; and informal consultations with experts. The case study enabled an examination of the complex institutional arrangements for biobanks, with a particular focus on cost models. For the purposes of comparison, a typology for biobanks was developed using the three methods. We found that it is not possible to apply a standard cost model across the diversity of biobanks, and there is a deficit in coordination and sustainability and an excess of complexity. We propose that coordination across this diversity requires dedicated resources for a national biobanking distributed research infrastructure. A coordination center would establish and improve standards and support a national portal for access. This should be financed centrally by public funds, possibly supplemented by industrial funding. We propose that: a) sample acquisition continues to be costed into projects and project proposals to ensure biobanking is driven by research needs; b) core biobanking activities and facilities be supported by central public funds distributed directly to host public institutions; and c) marginal costs for access be paid for by the user. PMID:26697914

  8. 12 CFR 995.9 - Reports to the Finance Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reports to the Finance Board. 995.9 Section 995.9 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD NON-BANK SYSTEM ENTITIES FINANCING CORPORATION OPERATIONS § 995.9 Reports to the Finance Board. The Financing Corporation shall file such reports as...

  9. Algorithms for Optimally Arranging Multicore Memory Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Tseng Wei-Che; Hu Jingtong; Zhuge Qingfeng; He Yi; Sha EdwinH-M

    2010-01-01

    Abstract As more processing cores are added to embedded systems processors, the relationships between cores and memories have more influence on the energy consumption of the processor. In this paper, we conduct fundamental research to explore the effects of memory sharing on energy in a multicore processor. We study the Memory Arrangement (MA) Problem. We prove that the general case of MA is NP-complete. We present an optimal algorithm for solving linear MA and optimal and heuristic algorithm...

  10. Multinational arrangements for the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper contains the findings of a study intended to identify and assess politically realistic means of adapting or developing multinational arrangements for the ownership, control or management of nuclear fuel cycle facilities, in a manner calculated to reflect generally acceptable global standards while addressing specific national and regional circumstances, with the aim of reducing or restricting both the probability and the fear of nuclear proliferation arising from the civil exploitation of nuclear energy. (author)

  11. Sleeping Arrangements in Families with Twins

    OpenAIRE

    Damato, Elizabeth G.; Brubaker, Jennifer A.; Burant, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes home sleeping arrangements used by parents of twins and investigates whether room sharing (twins in the same room as parents) or cobedding (crib-sharing between twins) influences parental night time sleep duration or sleep quality. A secondary analysis of data obtained from a longitudinal study of sleep in 104 families with twins was undertaken. Over 65% of twins were cobedded at 4 weeks; this decreased to approximately 42% by 13 weeks of age. Approximately 64% of familie...

  12. Arrangement for wear determination with radioactive isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The abrasion of radioactive labelled components of the engine is led together with the oil into a flowmeter tube that passes through a hole in a NaJ-crystal. A cooling jacket for thermal decoupling is arranged between the measuring line and the neighbouring area of the crystal. The cooling jacket is operated with water. A Pb-shielding covers the complete measuring head. (DG)

  13. 78 FR 72072 - Proposed Subsequent Arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ...This notice is being issued under the authority of section 131a. of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended. The Department is providing notice of a proposed subsequent arrangement under Article X paragraph 3 of the Agreement for Cooperation Between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of the Republic of Korea Concerning Civil Uses of Atomic Energy and the......

  14. Regional currency arrangements in North America

    OpenAIRE

    Arndt, Sven W.

    2006-01-01

    Choosing an exchange-rate regime is largely a matter of choosing the variables that will bear the brunt of adjustment to shocks and disturbances. Floating rates, supported by inflation-targeting regimes of varying degrees of transparency, have dominated currency arrangements in North America, especially after the peso crisis of 1994. Although the member countries have pursued their policy goals without formal coordination, their objectives have been very similar. Meanwhile, de facto integrati...

  15. Valve Technology Arrangement of Cryopump: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjiv Y. Rajput

    2014-01-01

    A cryopump or a "cryogenic pump" is a vacuum pump that pumps the trap gases and vapours by condensing them on a cold surface. Helium gas which is very light can only be pumped by Cryopump. Cryopump cannot be used when working for continuous operation as it pumps the effluent till the saturation state is achieved. Then the absorbed gases are to be collected through other mechanical pump through regeneration process. Hence, valve technology arrangement is incorporated with the c...

  16. Frequency Arrangement For 700 MHz Band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ancans G.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The 694-790 MHz (700 MHz band was allocated by the 2012 World Radiocommunication Conference (WRC-12 in ITU Region 1 (Europe included, to the mobile service on a co-primary basis with other services to which this band was allocated on the primary basis and identified for the International Mobile Telecommunications (IMT. At the same time, the countries of Region 1 will be able also to continue using these frequencies for their broadcasting services if necessary. This allocation will be effective immediately after 2015 World Radiocommunication Conference (WRC-15. In order to make the best possible use of this frequency band for mobile service, a worldwide harmonized frequency arrangement is to be prepared to allow for large economies of scale and international roaming as well as utilizing the available spectrum in the best possible way, minimizing possible interference between services, facilitating deployment and cross-border coordination. The authors analyze different possible frequency arrangements and conclude on the frequency arrangement most suitable for Europe.

  17. Recurring part arrangements in shape collections

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Youyi

    2014-05-01

    Extracting semantically related parts across models remains challenging, especially without supervision. The common approach is to co-analyze a model collection, while assuming the existence of descriptive geometric features that can directly identify related parts. In the presence of large shape variations, common geometric features, however, are no longer sufficiently descriptive. In this paper, we explore an indirect top-down approach, where instead of part geometry, part arrangements extracted from each model are compared. The key observation is that while a direct comparison of part geometry can be ambiguous, part arrangements, being higher level structures, remain consistent, and hence can be used to discover latent commonalities among semantically related shapes. We show that our indirect analysis leads to the detection of recurring arrangements of parts, which are otherwise difficult to discover in a direct unsupervised setting. We evaluate our algorithm on ground truth datasets and report advantages over geometric similarity-based bottom-up co-segmentation algorithms. © 2014 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2014 The Eurographics Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. US Food and Drug Administration /Conformit Europe- approved absorbable nerve conduits for clinical repair of peripheral and cranial nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, M F; Coert, J H

    2008-04-01

    Several absorbable nerve conduits are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Conformit Europe (CE) for clinical repair of peripheral and cranial nerves . Surgeons are often not aware of the different(bio) materials of these conduits when performing nerve repair. An overview of these FDA- and CE-approved absorbable nerve conduits for clinical use is presented . PubMed, MEDLINE, and the companies selling the conduits were consulted . The available FDA and CE absorbable nerve conduits for peripheral and cranial nerve repair are 2 collagen- and 2 synthetic- polyester based conduits. The available clinical data, the price, the length, and the composition of the tube show significant differences. Based on the available data in this paper at this moment, we favor the PGA (Neurotube) nerve conduit for repair of peripheral and cranial nerve defects because of its advantages in length, price, and availability of clinical data. However, no prospective studies comparing the available nerve conduits have been published. PMID:18437784

  19. A novel balloon assisted two-stents telescoping technique for repositioning an embolized stent in the pulmonary conduit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Daisuke; Gowda, Srinath T; Forbes, Thomas J

    2014-08-01

    A 9-year-old male, with history of pulmonary atresia and ventricular septal defect, status post complete repair with a 16 mm pulmonary homograft in the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) underwent 3110 Palmaz stent placement for conduit stenosis. Following deployment the stent embolized proximally into the right ventricle (RV). We undertook the choice of repositioning the embolized stent into the conduit with a transcatheter approach. Using a second venous access, the embolized stent was carefully maneuvered into the proximal part of conduit with an inflated Tyshak balloon catheter. A second Palmaz 4010 stent was deployed in the distal conduit telescoping through the embolized stent. The Tyshak balloon catheter was kept inflated in the RV to stabilize the embolized stent in the proximal conduit until it was successfully latched up against the conduit with the deployment of the overlapping second stent. One year later, he underwent Melody valve implantation in the pre-stented conduit relieving conduit insufficiency. This novel balloon assisted two-stents telescoping technique is a feasible transcatheter option to secure an embolized stent from the RV to the RVOT. PMID:24402732

  20. The characteristic quasi-polynomials of the arrangements of root systems and mid-hyperplane arrangements

    OpenAIRE

    Kamiya, Hidehiko; Takemura, Akimichi; Terao, Hiroaki

    2007-01-01

    Let $q$ be a positive integer. In our recent paper, we proved that the cardinality of the complement of an integral arrangement, after the modulo $q$ reduction, is a quasi-polynomial of $q$, which we call the characteristic quasi-polynomial. In this paper, we study general properties of the characteristic quasi-polynomial as well as discuss two important examples: the arrangements of reflecting hyperplanes arising from irreducible root systems and the mid-hyperplane arrangem...

  1. The fundamental group of the complement of complexified real arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Let V be a finite dimensional vector space over the real or complex numbers. An arrangement in V is a finite collection of affine hyperplanes of V. Given a real arrangement A in a real vector space V. Then its complexification, AC, is a complex arrangement in the complex vector space VC, and will be called a complexified real arrangement. In this paper, we shall prove a presentation for the fundamental group of the complement of a complexified real arrangement. (author). 7 refs

  2. Educational Finance Issues in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, J. R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper provides a concise overview and critique of the proceedings of the 1992 annual conference of the American Education Finance. Issues addressed include new finance mechanisms for educational provision, spatial inequities, the funding of special needs education and the impact of expenditures on pupil performance. (Author)

  3. Municipal bond financing of solar energy facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, S.S.

    1979-12-01

    The application of the laws of municipal bond financing to solar facilities is examined. The type of facilities under consideration are outlined. The general legal principles of municipal securities financing are discussed. The effect of recent decisions applying antitrust liability to municipal corporations is also discussed. Five specific types of municipal bonds are explained. The application of Section 103 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954, as amended, to the issuance of municipal bonds for solar facility financing is examined also. Five bond laws of five representative states are examined and whether the eight types of solar facilities under consideration could be financed under such law is discussed. The application of the general legal principle is illustrated. Three hypothetical situations are set forth and common legal issues to be confronted by city officials in proposing such financing are discussed. These issues will be raised in most financings, but the purpose is to examine the common context in which they are raised. It is concluded that if it can be shown that the purpose of the solar facilities to be financed is to benefit the public, all legal obstacles to the use of municipal financing of solar facilities can be substantially overcome.

  4. Investments and financing in the energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In two brief articles aspects of investment and financing in the energy market are highlighted. In the first article the complexity of financing energy projects is discussed, while in the second article the opinion of a representative of the public utility E.On Benelux on newcomers in the energy market is reflected

  5. Innovative financing techniques for nuclear power exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author makes general comments regarding the possible conflict between project risks, sponsors' ability to assume these risks, and the requirements and objectives of all project benficiaries: sponsors, lenders, consumers and government. To reconcile these conflicts there is an increasing use of project finance techniques to finance large capital projects

  6. Moving toward a Coherent School Finance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Heather

    2013-01-01

    California's current school finance system is a tangled web of funding programs, restrictions, inequities and confusion. Building a stronger finance system to benefit from resources is an important step in strengthening California's K-12 education system and better meeting the needs of its students. Gov. Brown has recently proposed the Local…

  7. Research on University Library Finance in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Navalani

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Education and libraries play a significant role in bringing about qualitative improvements in human resources. Finance plays a vital rde in growth and development of libraries. This article presents statistical data about finances of university libraries of seven states taken from Ph.D theses of library & information science scholars.

  8. Financing of nuclear trade. The brazilian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of financing instruments as means for the promotion of international nuclear trade is analysed. Besides the specific characteristics of nuclear trade is examined. Furthermore the role of governmental authorities and international agencies, mainly the IAEA is discussed. Finally the presence of Brazil in the international financial market and the financing of nuclear trade in Brazil are described

  9. Threshold Concepts in Finance: Conceptualizing the Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoadley, Susan; Tickle, Leonie; Wood, Leigh N.; Kyng, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Graduates with well-developed capabilities in finance are invaluable to our society and in increasing demand. Universities face the challenge of designing finance programmes to develop these capabilities and the essential knowledge that underpins them. Our research responds to this challenge by identifying threshold concepts that are central to…

  10. Alternatives for Financing School Energy Savings Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves, Rich

    1983-01-01

    This report compares shared-savings programs with financing through the use of internal funds, loans, leases, and lease purchase plans for financing energy conservation in nonprofit buildings. The shared savings option was found to offer the greatest benefits to the customer. (MLF)

  11. 24 CFR 883.307 - Financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... section 103 of the Internal Revenue Code (26 U.S.C. 103), 24 CFR part 811 or other Federal Law. (b) HUD... CFR 811.107(a). (2) When an Agency which has received HUD approval of its financing documents proposes... of Treasury or HUD regulations (24 CFR part 811) regarding tax-exempt financing. (c) Pledge...

  12. Brazil - Financing Municipal Investment : Issues and Options

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2001-01-01

    This report explores alternative ways to finance municipal capital expenditures while maintaining macroeconomic stability and fiscal discipline. It tries to estimate the financing effort that municipalities will need to make in order to meet the demand for infrastructure services over the next five to 10 years, taking into account the municipalities' expected resources from local taxes, us...

  13. 78 FR 63176 - Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower Facility and Soliciting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower... hydropower facility, pursuant to section 30 of the Federal Power Act, as amended by section 4 of the Hydropower Regulatory Efficiency Act of 2013 (HREA). The 22 kW Orchard City Water Treatment...

  14. Percutaneous transthoracic computed tomography-guided AICD insertion in a patient with extracardiac Fontan conduit.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Darra T

    2011-02-01

    Percutaneous pulmonary venous atrial puncture was performed under computed tomography guidance to successfully place an automated implantable cardiac defibrillator into a 26-year-old patient with extracardiac Fontan conduit who had presented with two out-of-hospital cardiac arrests. The procedure avoided the need for lead placement at thoracotomy.

  15. Development of high strength austenitic stainless steel for conduit of Nb3Al conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) started developing new austenitic stainless steel for a conduit (1 - 2 mm) of a Nb3Al conductor in collaboration with Nippon Steel Corporation (NSC). A high strength austenitic stainless steel is required for a conduit of a Nb3Al conductor to make the best use of superconducting properties of a Nb3Al conductor. JAERI and NSC successfully developed the high strength austenitic stainless steel, JN1 (YS ? 1,300 MPa, KIc ? 200 MPa?m at 4K) for magnet structures having thick section. However, JN1 is not suitable for a conduit material because elongation of JN1 decreases to less than 10 % due to sensitization during reaction heat treatment for Nb3Al. Therefore, modification of JN1 was performed as a first step to develop a new conduit material which withstands Nb3Al reaction heating. Small trial lots heat-treated at 973 - 1173 K for 2 - 200 hours were prepared and evaluated by Charpy impact test and tensile test at 77 K and 4K. A material having yield strength of 1,390 MPa and elongation of 34 % after aging at 973 K x 200 h are developed up to now. This paper describes requirements on the mechanical properties and status of the development work. In addition, empirical equations to predict 4K yield strength, elongation, and Charpy absorbed energy from 77K data are proposed in this paper

  16. Percutaneous Transthoracic Computed Tomography-Guided AICD Insertion in a Patient with Extracardiac Fontan Conduit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percutaneous pulmonary venous atrial puncture was performed under computed tomography guidance to successfully place an automated implantable cardiac defibrillator into a 26-year-old patient with extracardiac Fontan conduit who had presented with two out-of-hospital cardiac arrests. The procedure avoided the need for lead placement at thoracotomy.

  17. Support and positioning conduit for measuring instruments in a nuclear reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The external tubular casing of the measure conduit has many tubular sections machined to receive probes. These tubular sections are connected by flexible sections. An open final flexible section with apertures in its lateral wall put the casing in equipression with the primary water

  18. A Simplified 1-D Model for Calculating CO2 Leakage through Conduits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y.; Oldenburg, C.M.

    2011-02-15

    In geological CO{sub 2} storage projects, a cap rock is generally needed to prevent CO{sub 2} from leaking out of the storage formation. However, the injected CO{sub 2} may still encounter some discrete flow paths such as a conductive well or fault (here referred to as conduits) through the cap rock allowing escape of CO{sub 2} from the storage formation. As CO{sub 2} migrates upward, it may migrate into the surrounding formations. The amount of mass that is lost to the formation is called attenuation. This report describes a simplified model to calculate the CO{sub 2} mass flux at different locations of the conduit and the amount of attenuation to the surrounding formations. From the comparison among the three model results, we can conclude that the steady-state conduit model (SSCM) provides a more accurate solution than the PMC at a given discretization. When there is not a large difference between the permeability of the surrounding formation and the permeability of the conduits, and there is leak-off at the bottom formation (the formation immediately above the CO{sub 2} plume), a fine discretization is needed for an accurate solution. Based on this comparison, we propose to use the SSCM in the rapid prototype for now given it does not produce spurious oscillations, and is already in FORTRAN and therefore can be easily made into a dll for use in GoldSim.

  19. Transient and asymptotic dispersion in confined sphere packings with cylindrical and non-cylindrical conduit geometries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khirevich, Siarhei; Höltzel, Alexandra; Tallarek, Ulrich

    2011-06-28

    We study the time and length scales of hydrodynamic dispersion in confined monodisperse sphere packings as a function of the conduit geometry. By a modified Jodrey-Tory algorithm, we generated packings at a bed porosity (interstitial void fraction) of ?=0.40 in conduits with circular, rectangular, or semicircular cross section of area 100?d(p)(2) (where d(p) is the sphere diameter) and dimensions of about 20d(p) (cylinder diameter) by 6553.6d(p) (length), 25d(p) by 12.5d(p) (rectangle sides) by 8192d(p) or 14.1d(p) (radius of semicircle) by 8192d(p), respectively. The fluid-flow velocity field in the generated packings was calculated by the lattice Boltzmann method for Péclet numbers of up to 500, and convective-diffusive mass transport of 4×10(6) inert tracers was modelled with a random-walk particle-tracking technique. We present lateral porosity and velocity distributions for all packings and monitor the time evolution of longitudinal dispersion up to the asymptotic (long-time) limit. The characteristic length scales for asymptotic behaviour are explained from the symmetry of each conduit's velocity field. Finally, we quantify the influence of the confinement and of a specific conduit geometry on the velocity dependence of the asymptotic dispersion coefficients. PMID:21576163

  20. Financing U.S. exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the challenges of financing U.S. exploration from the perspective of an independent oil and gas producer. When Burlington Resources was split into a separate company from the Burlington Northern Railroad three years ago, the company owned extensive resources but had little production capability, and had to resolve the problem of raising development capital. According to the author of this paper, three key elements in the company's perception of the business environment drove its strategy: that the role of independent producers would be crucial in new onshore oil and gas development as the majors moved offshore; that energy prices would remain weak; and that financial market sentiment would not favor a move to leverage the company more highly than its starting-point of 19 percent debt-to-total capital ratio

  1. Finance salaries. Account the cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robling, Andy

    2003-02-01

    Post-qualification salaries have increased by 4-7 per cent, a slowdown on last year's figures when increases were often more than 10 per cent. The highest increases this year tended to be in medium-sized trusts where newly qualified accountants' salaries rose 8.2 per cent. Directors of finance in large trusts earn about 20 per cent more than in medium trusts and about 40 per cent more than in small ones. Newly qualified accountants in large trusts earn 5 per cent more than in medium-sized trusts and 13 per cent more than in small ones. The survey is based on an analysis of salaries from Hays' jobs database, and salaries of registered candidates. PMID:12596492

  2. Catastrophe Finance: An Emerging Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsner, James B.; Burch, R. King; Jagger, Thomas H.

    2009-08-01

    While the recent disasters in the world's financial markets demonstrate that finance theory remains far from perfected, science also faces steep challenges in the quest to predict and manage the effects of natural disasters. Worldwide, as many as half a million people have died in disasters such as earthquakes, tsunamis, and tropical cyclones since the turn of the 21st century [Wirtz, 2008]. Further, natural disasters can lead to extreme financial losses, and independent financial collapses can be exacerbated by natural disasters. In financial cost, 2008 was the second most expensive year on record for such catastrophes and for financial market declines. These extreme events in the natural and financial realms push the issue of risk management to the fore, expose the deficiencies of existing knowledge and practice, and suggest that progress requires further research and training at the graduate level.

  3. Do Portuguese SMEs Follow Pecking Order Financing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartholdy, Jan; Mateus, Cesario

    2012-01-01

    This paper tests for pecking order behavior in medium-sized private Portuguese firms. In contrast to the usual split between internal funds, debt, and external equity, we separate debt into four components – cheap trade credits (CTC), bank loans (BL), other loans, and expensive credits (EC). We use breakpoint tests to identify when firms switch between funding sources by examining the change in each funding source based on the financing deficit remaining after the previous pecking order funding source has been used. Our tests indicate that Portuguese companies generally move from lower cost to higher cost financing sources, but they do not exhaust each type of debt before moving on to the next funding source in the pecking order. Such behavior is consistent with a loose interpretation of pecking order financing, but not a strict interpretation of the theory. Instead, Portuguese firms may be balancing pecking order financing with a need to maintain some degree of financing flexibility.

  4. Investment Timing When External Financing Is Costly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirth, Stefan; Uhrig-Homburg, Marliese

    This paper analyzes the investment timing of firms facing two dimensions of financing constraints: Liquidity constraints and capital market frictions inducing financing costs. We show that liquidity constraints are not sufficient to explain voluntary investment delay. However, when additionally...... considering financing costs, we can explain both voluntary delay and acceleration of investment. More precisely, we find that investment thresholds are U-shaped in liquid funds. For high-liquidity firms, investment thresholds are decreasing (i.e. accelerated investment takes place) in either dimension of...... financing constraint. In contrast, investment thresholds are increasing (i.e. investment is further delayed) in either form of financing constraint for low-liquidity firms. For intermediate levels of liquidity, investment thresholds are U-shaped in market frictions....

  5. Numerical investigation of temporal changes in volcanic deformation caused by a gas slug ascent in the conduit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Ryohei; Nishimura, Takeshi

    2015-09-01

    Strombolian type eruptions are considered to be generated by a sudden release of a large gas slug that migrates upward in the conduit filled with a low viscous basaltic magma. We examine volcano deformations caused by such a gas slug to understand the Strombolian eruption mechanism from geodetic observation data. We model spatio-temporal pressure changes in the conduit by using a gas slug ascent model presented by James et al. (2008). As a gas slug ascends in the conduit, its volume expands because of depressurization. Hence, the magma head lifts up in the conduit and the upper part of the conduit wall is stressed. In the conduit, magma pressure increases with depth according to the bulk density of magma: the gas slug part with a low density is characterized by a small pressure gradient, while the other parts, consisting of melt, are characterized by a large pressure gradient. We numerically calculate volcano deformations caused by the spatio-temporal changes of magma pressure predicted from the basic equations representing gas slug locations in the conduit. Simulation results show that the radial and vertical displacements and tilt changes indicate volcano deformations that represent the inflation originating from the stress increase at the upper part of conduit. As the gas slug reaches the shallow part of conduit, the rate of inflation observed in the radial displacement decreases, the vertical displacement starts to move downward, and the tilt turns to show down toward the crater. These deflation signals are caused by a moving deflation source in the conduit that is formed beneath the gas slug. Since these predicted features are not observed in the tilt records associated with explosions at Stromboli volcano (Genco and Ripepe, 2010), it is necessary to modify the gas slug ascent model or to introduce other mechanisms to better understand the magma dynamics of Strombolian eruption.

  6. Fabrication of Off-the-Shelf Multilumen Poly(Ethylene Glycol) Nerve Guidance Conduits Using Stereolithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcaute, Karina; Mann, Brenda K; Wicker, Ryan B

    2011-01-01

    A manufacturing process for fabricating off-the-shelf multilumen poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based nerve guidance conduits (NGCs) was developed that included the use of stereolithography (SL). A rapid fabrication strategy for complex 3D scaffolds incorporated postprocessing with lyophilization and sterilization to preserve the scaffold, creating an implantable product with improved suturability. SL is easily adaptable to changes in scaffold design, is compatible with various materials and cells, and can be expanded for mass manufacture. The fabricated conduits were characterized using optical and scanning electron microscopy, and measurements of swelling ratio, dimensional swelling factor, resistance to compression, and coefficient of friction were performed. Water absorption curves showed that the conduits after lyophilization and sterilization return easily and rapidly to a swollen state when placed in an aqueous solution, successfully maintaining their original overall structure as required for implantation. Postprocessed conduits at the swollen state were less slippery and therefore easier to handle than those without postprocessing. Suture pullout experiments showed that NGCs fabricated with a higher concentration of PEG were better able to resist suture pullout. NGCs having a multilumen design demonstrated a better resistance to compression than a single-lumen design with an equivalent surface area, as well as a greater force required to collapse the design. Conduits fabricated with a higher PEG concentration were shown to have compressive resistances comparable to those of commercially available NGCs. The use of SL with PEG and the manufacturing process developed here shows promise for improving the current state of the art in peripheral nerve repair strategies. PMID:20673135

  7. Flowmeter for determining average rate of flow of liquid in a conduit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennerly, John M. (Knoxville, TN); Lindner, Gordon M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Rowe, John C. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1982-01-01

    This invention is a compact, precise, and relatively simple device for use in determining the average rate of flow of a liquid through a conduit. The liquid may be turbulent and contain bubbles of gas. In a preferred embodiment, the flowmeter includes an electrical circuit and a flow vessel which is connected as a segment of the conduit conveying the liquid. The vessel is provided with a valved outlet and is partitioned by a vertical baffle into coaxial chambers whose upper regions are vented to permit the escape of gas. The inner chamber receives turbulent downflowing liquid from the conduit and is sized to operate at a lower pressure than the conduit, thus promoting evolution of gas from the liquid. Lower zones of the two chambers are interconnected so that the downflowing liquid establishes liquid levels in both chambers. The liquid level in the outer chamber is comparatively calm, being to a large extent isolated from the turbulence in the inner chamber once the liquid in the outer chamber has risen above the liquid-introduction zone for that chamber. Lower and upper probes are provided in the outer chamber for sensing the liquid level therein at points above its liquid-introduction zone. An electrical circuit is connected to the probes to display the time required for the liquid level in the outer chamber to successively contact the lower and upper probes. The average rate of flow through the conduit can be determined from the above-mentioned time and the vessel volume filled by the liquid during that time.

  8. 7 CFR 4290.830 - Minimum term of Financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...Eligible Enterprises-Types of Financings § 4290.830 Minimum term of Financing. (a) General rule...minimum term of each of your Financings is one year. (b) Restrictions...on mandatory redemption of Equity Securities. If you...

  9. 26 CFR 1.465-27 - Qualified nonrecourse financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...qualified nonrecourse financing must be secured only...the property securing the financing. (ii) Look-through...chain of partnerships) an equity interest. (3) Personal...repayment of a portion of a financing, the portion of the...

  10. 75 FR 16821 - Housing Finance Agency Risk-Sharing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ...Docket No. FR-5376-N-21] Housing Finance Agency Risk-Sharing Program AGENCY...Sharing Program authorizes qualified Housing Finance Agencies (HFAs) to underwrite and process...information: Title of Proposal: Housing Finance Agency Risk-Sharing Program. OMB...

  11. Public financing systems for radiology: experience in 12 European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper illustrates the evolution in public health care financing systems in 12 European countries, in terms of the financing of radiology services. The financing systems for radiology used by public health care financing agencies are described in detail. The implications of these new financing conditions for health care delivery are briefly sketched. The paper concludes with some strategies to help radiologists cope with the tightening financing conditions for medical imaging. (orig.) (orig.)

  12. The Impact of the Business Environment on Young Firm Financing

    OpenAIRE

    Chavis, Larry W.; Klapper, Leora F.; Love, Inessa

    2010-01-01

    A unique dataset of over 70,000 firms, most of which are small, in over 100 countries, is utilized to systematically study the use of different financing sources for new and young firms. Consistent age-related patterns emerge. Across all countries younger firms rely less on bank financing and more on informal financing. There is a clear substitution effect: as firms mature, more firms switch out of informal finance toward bank finance, while the total proportion of firms using external financ...

  13. Minimum Energy Requirements in Complex Distillation Arrangements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halvorsen, Ivar J.

    2001-07-01

    Distillation is the most widely used industrial separation technology and distillation units are responsible for a significant part of the total heat consumption in the world's process industry. In this work we focus on directly (fully thermally) coupled column arrangements for separation of multicomponent mixtures. These systems are also denoted Petlyuk arrangements, where a particular implementation is the dividing wall column. Energy savings in the range of 20-40% have been reported with ternary feed mixtures. In addition to energy savings, such integrated units have also a potential for reduced capital cost, making them extra attractive. However, the industrial use has been limited, and difficulties in design and control have been reported as the main reasons. Minimum energy results have only been available for ternary feed mixtures and sharp product splits. This motivates further research in this area, and this thesis will hopefully give some contributions to better understanding of complex column systems. In the first part we derive the general analytic solution for minimum energy consumption in directly coupled columns for a multicomponent feed and any number of products. To our knowledge, this is a new contribution in the field. The basic assumptions are constant relative volatility, constant pressure and constant molar flows and the derivation is based on Underwood's classical methods. An important conclusion is that the minimum energy consumption in a complex directly integrated multi-product arrangement is the same as for the most difficult split between any pair of the specified products when we consider the performance of a conventional two-product column. We also present the Vmin-diagram, which is a simple graphical tool for visualisation of minimum energy related to feed distribution. The Vmin-diagram provides a simple mean to assess the detailed flow requirements for all parts of a complex directly coupled arrangement. The main purpose in the first part of the thesis has been to present a complete theory of minimum energy in directly coupled columns, not a design procedure for engineering purposes. Thus, our focus has been on the basic theory and on verification and analysis of the new results. However, based on these results, it is straightforward to develop design procedures including rigorous computations for real feed mixtures without the idealized assumptions used to deduce the analytic results. In part 2 we focus on optimization of operation, and in particular the concept of self-optimizing control. We consider a process where we have more degrees of freedom than are consumed by the product specifications. The remaining unconstrained degrees of freedom are used to optimize the operation, given by some scalar cost criterion. In addition there will in practice always be unknown disturbances, model uncertainty and uncertainty in measurements and implementation of manipulated inputs, which makes it impossible to precalculate and implement the optimal control inputs accurately. The main idea is to achieve self-optimizing control by turning the optimization problem into a constant setpoint problem. The issue is then to find (if possible) a set of variables, which when kept at their setpoints, indirectly ensures optimal operation. We have used the ternary Petlyuk arrangement to illustrate the concept. It is a quite challenging case where the potential energy savings may easily be lost if we do not manage to keep the manipulated inputs at their optimal values, and the optimum is strongly affected by changes in feed composition and column performance. This also applies to the best control structure selection, and we believe that the reported difficulties in control are really a control structure problem (the task of selecting the best variables to control and the best variables to manipulate). In this analysis we present in detail the properties of the Petlyuk arrangement, and show how important characteristics depend on the feed properties and product purity. We have used finite stage-by-stage mod

  14. A Novel 'Test Arrangement for Strain Influence on Strands' (TARSIS): Mechanical and Electrical Testing of ITER Nb3Sn Strands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowledge on the deformation state of the strands in International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) type Cable-In-Conduit Conductors (CICC) and its impact on both the transport properties and the superconducting transition is essential for optimal cable and magnet design. To date a relatively large part of the attention is concentrated on the influence of purely axial strain on the performance of Nb3Sn strands and sub-size cables. However, local deformations such as strand-to-strand, strand to conduit contact pressure and strand bending will occur as well in multi strand CICC's experiencing an electromagnetic load. More basic experimental verification is required on strand level from virgin state towards multi-cyclic loading. Therefore a new test arrangement is developed in which the influence of various principle deformation states that occur in a CICC, i.e. local transverse deformations, transverse homogeneous loads, bending and axial load, can be studied separately or combined. Beside precise displacement and force measurements for stress-strain analysis, the voltage-current and voltage-temperature characteristics are traced. A description of TARSIS is presented and the first preliminary results on periodical strand bending are reported

  15. Speleogenetic effects of interaction between deeply derived fracture-conduit flow and intrastratal matrix flow in hypogene karst settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tymokhina Elizaveta

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In carbonate rocks, especially in those with high primary porosity such as most Cenozoic carbonates, the interaction between deeply derived rising flow through sub-vertical fracture-controlled conduits and intrastratal matrix flow of shallower systems can invoke mixing cor- rosion and result in prominent speleogenetic effects. This paper outlines a conceptual model of such interaction and provides instructive field examples of relevant morphological effects from two different regions within the Prichernomorsky (north Black Sea basin, where karst features are developed in lower Pliocene, Eocene and Paleocene limestones. In the Crimean fore-mountain region, extensive steep to ver- tical limestone scarps formed through recent exposure of hypogenic fracture-controlled conduits provide outstanding possibilities to directly examine details of the original karstic porosity. The morphological effects of the conduit/matrix interaction, documented in both caves and exposed scarps, include lateral widening of sub-vertical conduits within the interaction intervals (formation of lateral notches and niches and the development of side bedding-parallel conduits, pockets and vuggy-spongework zones. Natural convection circulation, invoked by interaction of the two flow systems, spreads the morphological effects throughout the conduit space above the interaction interval. Where the interaction of the two flow systems is particularly strongly localized, such as along junctions of two vertical fracture sets, the resultant morphological effect can take the form of isolated chambers. The variety of speleogenetic features developed through the conduit/matrix interaction, can be broadly grouped into two categories: 1 variously shaped swells of the major fracture conduit itself (morphological fea- tures of its walls – niches and pockets, and 2 features of the vuggy-spongework halo surrounding the conduit. This halo includes clustered and stratiform cavities, spongework zones and lateral side conduits. The speleogenetic features due to conduit/matrix flow interaction, especially the halo forms, often demonstrate distinct asymmetry between opposite walls of the conduits. The prominent phenomenon of the vuggy-spongework halo around fracture-controlled conduits has important hydrogeological implications. A comparison of karst features in different regions and rock formations clearly shows that in spite of some distinctions imposed by local structural, sedimentological and paleo-hydrogeological peculiarities, hypogenic speleoforms in limestones of different age and of different degree of diagenetic maturity demonstrate remarkable similarities.

  16. Jet spoiler arrangement for wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyrus, Jack D. (Corrales, NM); Kadlec, Emil G. (Albuquerque, NM); Klimas, Paul C. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1985-01-01

    An air jet spoiler arrangement is provided for a Darrieus-type vertical axis wind-powered turbine. Air is drawn into hollow turbine blades through air inlets at the ends thereof and is ejected in the form of air jets through small holes or openings provided along the lengths of the blades. The air jets create flow separation at the surfaces of the turbine blades, thereby inducing stall conditions and reducing the output power. A feedback control unit senses the power output of the turbine and controls the amount of air drawn into the air inlets accordingly.

  17. Chromosomal arrangement of leghemoglobin genes in soybean.

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, J.S.; Brown, G G; Verma, D P

    1983-01-01

    A cluster of four different leghemoglobin (Lb) genes was isolated from AluI-HaeIII and EcoRI genomic libraries of soybean in a set of overlapping clones which together include 45 kilobases (kb) of contiguous DNA. These four genes, including a pseudogene, are present in the same orientation and are arranged in the order: 5'-Lba-Lbc1-Lb psi-Lbc3-3'. The intergenic regions average 2.5 kb. In addition to this main Lb locus, there are other Lb genes which do not appear to be contiguous to this loc...

  18. Revised criticality emergency arrangements at UKAEA Dounreay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The UKAEA's Dounreay site in the North of Scotland has been in operation for over 40 years pioneering R and D in the fast reactor fuel cycle. With this programme completed the UKAEA is now undertaking a programme of work to restore the environment of the site for future generations. As the Nuclear Site Licensee, UKAEA is required to prepare and demonstrate the adequacy of the Site Emergency Arrangements. The storage and handling of fissile material on the site could give rise to a criticality if operations are inadequately controlled. As a part of our ongoing continuous improvement programme, a complete review of the plan for such an incident was instigated to ensure that it meets with best practice as we embark on our decommissioning programme. This led to a new set of arrangements based on the concept of STARBURST, which in essence requires a rapid evacuation of staff from any possible source of a criticality event. The evacuation and egress through a security fence adds an additional challenge and as does the existence of several possible sources of the initiating event. The actual routes taken were optimised to reduce dose uptake and a software package was utilised to undertake crowd modelling to ensure that the exists in the fence were appropriately placed and sized. Two buildings were carefully selected and adapted to act as Criticality Evacuation Centres having been assessed for their ability to provide adequate shelter and shielding for several hundred staff. Portable lead shield was designed and manufactured to allow for the immediate assessment of criticality lockets. The methodology of how best to process staff through the Criticality Evacuation Centres was keenly debated and tried. It proved most effective to monitor and assess staff who were close to the 'incident' building with confirmatory reassurance monitoring for other staff being undertaken when resource could be released. The need to prioritise and rank potentially exposed staff is recognised and was simplified using a nonogram. The STARBURST arrangements were successfully demonstrated to the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate in April 1999. These revised arrangements are now in line with the best practice in the industry and well suited for our future requirements. (author)

  19. Independent contractor arrangements and IRS audits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelfrey, S; Theisen, B A

    1995-01-01

    As government auditors begin their challenges, nurse executives need to review their operations to remove any potential audit risks. Although a common practice for many institutions, the use of independent contractor arrangements may be ruled inappropriate. As a result, many individuals may be reclassified as employees, leading to Internal Revenue Service (IRS) assessments of penalties and back payroll taxes. It always is prudent to anticipate IRS actions and shore up any areas that may lead to tax assessments before they are imposed on the institution. PMID:7636578

  20. Rational homotopy type of subspace arrangements

    OpenAIRE

    Debongnie, Géry

    2008-01-01

    Un arrangement central A est un ensemble fini de sous-espaces vectoriels dans un espace vectoriel complexe V de dimension finie. L'espace topologique complémentaire M(A) est l'ensemble des points de V qui n'appartiennent à aucun des sous-espaces de A. Dans ce travail, nous étudions la topologie de l'espace M(A) du point de vue de l'homotopie rationnelle. L'outil clé qui a servi de départ à cette thèse est un modèle rationnel de M(A) qui s'avère relativement simple à manipuler. À l'aide de ce ...

  1. A regional arrangement proposal for the UNASUR

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fernando, Ferrari-Filho.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the current process of economic integration in South America. Thus, concentrating our attention on the UNASUR regional integration process, two questions arise: First, is UNASUR the most viable institution to achieve a consistent economic integration process in South America? Se [...] cond, what model of economic integration should be adopted in the case of UNASUR, which would ensure macroeconomic stability and avoid financial and exchange rate crises in the South America? To answer these questions, the article proposes, based on the Keynes (1944/1980)'s revolutionary analysis presented in his International Clearing Union, during the Bretton Woods Conference in 1944, a regional arrangement to UNASUR.

  2. Le traitement fiscal du financement des sociétés dans les relations intragroupes en droit comparé français, allemand et camerounais.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jules Alain Petengoue Tassi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Un des problèmes les plus fréquents auxquels les entreprises se confrontent est sans doute celui relatif à la dotation des moyens financiers. Le problème de financement des entreprises est plus qu’actuel au regard du scandale des subprimes aux USA en 2007 ayant conduit au crash boursier de septembre 2008 mieux encore, l’affaire Maldoff. Ce phénomène financier qui touche sans exception toute la vie économique n’a pas pour autant épargné les groupes de sociétés. En fait, les groupes constituent...

  3. Inequality of pension arrangements among different segments of the labor force in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ling

    2013-01-01

    Social security for older people in China today has been established institutionally. However, there are substantial problems such as coverage, affordability, fund management, and corruption. This paper aims to provide a general picture of China's social security system for older people and to argue that the inequality of pension arrangements among different segments of the labor force is one of the most conspicuous problems challenging the Chinese government. Four unequal aspects of the pension system concerning the financing resources and pension levels are examined in this paper: (1) unequal institutional arrangements among different sectors, (2) unbalanced governmental expenditure in pension provision, (3) an increasing gap in pension levels between urban and rural areas, and (4) uncovered groups such as the unemployed and self-employed. Historical, economic, and political reasons all contribute to this unequal institution under transition from socialism to a market-oriented economy. At present, it is urgent for the central government to take measures to integrate the various pension arrangements into the unified Old Age Insurance and to reduce the gaps among different regions. PMID:23570510

  4. Party Finance Regulation: Causes, Instruments and Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravko PETAK

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Money has a symbolic and practical value in political competition and just because the money is important in politics, it can threaten democracy if its role is not adequately regulated. The basic features of party finance regulation will be shown in this paper: causes, instruments and impact. The regulation of party finances began in 1960s and the causes of the party finance regulation were different: in addition to the prevention of corruption scandals related to political parties and party finance, regulation of party finance has also been introduced to strengthen fair political competition, empower voters and strengthen political parties as effective democratic actors. To achieve this whole range of policy instruments was developed, whose scope extends from ways of regulating the possibility of buying votes, to limit election campaigns expenditure costs. However, impact of party finance regulation is not unambiguous since, due to the regulatory traditions and cultural attitudes, similar instruments of party finance regulation produce different results in different political systems.

  5. Present and future nuclear power financing schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The financial requirement for nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany for the period up until 1985 was estimated to run up to some DM 100 billion already in the Nuclear Energy Study published by the Dresdner Bank in 1974. This figure is not changed in any way by the reduction the nuclear power program has suffered in the meantime, because the lower requirement for investment capital is more than offset by the price increases that have occurred meanwhile. A capital requirement in the order of DM 100 billion raises major problems for the power producing industry and the banks which, however, are not going to hamper the further expansion of nuclear power, because new financing schemes have been specially developed for the nuclear field. They include financing by leasing, the use of funds from real estate credit institutions for long term financing, borrowing of long term funds in the Euro market, and financing through subsidiaries of the utilities. The new financing schemes also apply to the large financial requirement associated with the nuclear fuel cycle, waste management in particular. In this sector the utilities agree to bear the economic risk of the companies implementing the respective projects. Accordingly, financing will not entail any major difficulties. Another area of great importance is export financing. The German-Brazilian nuclear agreement is a model of this instrument. (orig.)

  6. The Development of the CONDUIT Advanced Control System Design and Evaluation Interface with a Case Study Application to an Advanced Fly by Wire Helicopter Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbourne, Jason

    1999-01-01

    This report details the development and use of CONDUIT (Control Designer's Unified Interface). CONDUIT is a design tool created at Ames Research Center for the purpose of evaluating and optimizing aircraft control systems against handling qualities. Three detailed design problems addressing the RASCAL UH-60A Black Hawk are included in this report to show the application of CONDUIT to helicopter control system design.

  7. The challenge of financing nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To date, more then 500 nuclear power reactors have been successfully financed and built. Experience in recent nuclear projects confirms that nuclear power will not cease to be a viable option due to a worldwide financing constraint. For financing nuclear plants there are special considerations: large investment; long lead and construction times; complex technology; regulatory risk and political risk. The principal preconditions to financing are a national policy supporting nuclear power; creditworthiness; economic competitiveness; project feasibility; assurance of adequate revenues; acceptability of risks; and no open-ended liabilities. Generally, nuclear power plants are financed conventionally through multi-sources, where a package covers the entire cost. The first source, the investor/owner/operator responsible for building and operating the plant, should cover a sizable portion of the overall investment. In addition, bond issues, domestic bank credits etc. and, in case of State-owned or controlled enterprises, donations and credits from public entities or the governmental budget, should complete the financing. A financially sound utility should be able to meet this challenge. For importing technology, bids are invited. Export credits should form the basis of foreign financing, because these have favorable terms and conditions. Suppliers from several countries may join in a consortium subdividing the scope of supply and involve several Export Credit Agencies (ECAs). There are also innovative financing approaches that could be applied to nuclear projects. Evolutionary Reactors with smaller overall investment, shorter construction times, reliance on proven technology, together with predictable regulatory regimes and reliable long-term national policies favorable to nuclear power, should make it easier to meet the future challenges of financing. (author)

  8. Modeling and assessing international climate financing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing; Tang, Lichun; Mohamed, Rayman; Zhu, Qianting; Wang, Zheng

    2015-07-01

    Climate financing is a key issue in current negotiations on climate protection. This study establishes a climate financing model based on a mechanism in which donor countries set up funds for climate financing and recipient countries use the funds exclusively for carbon emission reduction. The burden-sharing principles are based on GDP, historical emissions, and consumptionbased emissions. Using this model, we develop and analyze a series of scenario simulations, including a financing program negotiated at the Cancun Climate Change Conference (2010) and several subsequent programs. Results show that sustained climate financing can help to combat global climate change. However, the Cancun Agreements are projected to result in a reduction of only 0.01°C in global warming by 2100 compared to the scenario without climate financing. Longer-term climate financing programs should be established to achieve more significant benefits. Our model and simulations also show that climate financing has economic benefits for developing countries. Developed countries will suffer a slight GDP loss in the early stages of climate financing, but the longterm economic growth and the eventual benefits of climate mitigation will compensate for this slight loss. Different burden-sharing principles have very similar effects on global temperature change and economic growth of recipient countries, but they do result in differences in GDP changes for Japan and the FSU. The GDP-based principle results in a larger share of financial burden for Japan, while the historical emissions-based principle results in a larger share of financial burden for the FSU. A larger burden share leads to a greater GDP loss.

  9. ITER technical work during the transitional arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the scope defined in the Terms of Reference of the ITER Transitional Arrangements (ITA) agreed at the 5th Negotiators Meeting, the work programme for the ITA should include Joint technical preparations directed at maintaining the coherence and integrity of the ITER design and at preparing for an efficient start of ITER construction. Although many aspects of the future detailed arrangements for ITER are the subject of ongoing negotiations, considerable technical work can be done to turn the design, described in detail by the Final Design Report documentation produced by the ITER Project in July 2001, into tight specifications that can be used to control the quality of ITER hardware manufacture and assembly. Together with these technical developments of specifications, technical project management systems can be investigated and deployed to a limited extent to support the organization culture that will be needed for efficient construction following ratification of the JIA. While negotiations advance slowly to their goal at present, once they are completed there will be immense pressure to get on with the technical work. The current International Team, with the Participant Teams, are preparing as best they can, given limited resources, for that moment

  10. UK nuclear terrorism insurance arrangements: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The risk of terrorism in the UK is not new, but since the New York World Trade Centre attacks in 2001, the potential scale of any terrorist attack has required a considerable reassessment. With UK foreign policy closely aligned to that of the USA, the UK security services now consider it is simply a matter of when and no longer if the UK is attacked. For insurers of any type this fact would cause concern; for insurers involved in high profile and potentially catastrophic loss targets such as nuclear power plants, any attack could have a severe impact on solvency and shareholder's funds. This paper's objective is to describe the terrorism insurance arrangements put in place in the U.K. both before and after the September 2001 attacks. These arrangements have been designed both to safeguard insurers' solvency and to ensure that the nuclear industry and general public can continue to be reassured by the availability of insurance should an attack ever occur.(author)

  11. Arrangements stable under the Coxeter groups

    CERN Document Server

    Kamiya, Hidehiko; Terao, Hiroaki

    2011-01-01

    Let B be a real hyperplane arrangement which is stable under the action of a Coxeter group W. Then B acts naturally on the set of chambers of B. We assume that B is disjoint from the Coxeter arrangement A=A(W) of W. In this paper, we show that the W-orbits of the set of chambers of B are in one-to-one correspondence with the chambers of C=A\\cup B which are contained in an arbitrarily fixed chamber of A. From this fact, we find that the number of W-orbits of the set of chambers of B is given by the number of chambers of C divided by the order of W. We will also study the set of chambers of C which are contained in a chamber b of B. We prove that the cardinality of this set is equal to the order of the isotropy subgroup W_b of b. We illustrate these results with some examples, and solve an open problem in Kamiya, Takemura and Terao [Ranking patterns of unfolding models of codimension one, Adv. in Appl. Math. (2010)] by using our results.

  12. Strategic Information Systems Arrangement: (Business Strategy of IS/IT Arrangement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhraddinmaroofi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is Strategic Information Systems Arrangement using information systems requires an understanding of the organization, management and the technology forming the systems. As the technology is developing extremely so are the opportunities to prepare the organization in the competitive advantage environment. In order to manage the IS/IT based systems; it is important to have a suitable strategy that defines the systems and provide to manage them. Strategic Information Systems Arrangement (SISA is an effective method of developing and protection the IS/IT systems that support the business functioning. Arrangement of the IS/IT plans and the business plans is essential for improved business discharges, this research looks at the essential element of SISA in the changing business circumstances in Iran.

  13. Regulating Finance After the Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moschella, Manuela; Tsingou, Eleni

    2013-01-01

    It is now widely recognized that regulatory failures contributed to the onset of the global financial crisis. Redressing such failures has, thus, been a key policy priority in the post-crisis reform agenda at both the domestic and international levels. This special issue investigates the process of...... post-crisis financial regulatory reform in a number of crucial issue areas, including the rules and arrangements that govern financial supervision, offshore financial centers and shadow banking, the financial industry's involvement in global regulatory processes, and macroeconomic modeling. In so doing......, the main purpose of this special issue is to shed light on an often understudied aspect in regulation literature: the variation in the dynamics of regulatory change. Contributors examine the different dynamics of regulatory change observed post-crisis and explain variations by accounting for the...

  14. Finance leadership imperatives in clinicl redesign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, John; Holm, Craig E; Inniger, Meredith C

    2015-03-01

    As physicians embrace their roles in managing healthcare costs and quality, finance leaders should seize the opportunity to engage physicians in clinical care redesign to ensure both high-quality performance and efficient resource use. Finance leaders should strike a balance between risk and reward to achieve a portfolio of clinical initiatives that is organizationally sustainable and responsive to current external drivers of payment changes. Because these initiatives should be driven by physicians, the new skill set of finance leaders should include an emphasis on relationship building to achieve consensus and drive change across an organization. PMID:26492760

  15. Do SMEs follow Pecking Order Financing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartholdy, Jan; Mateus, Cèsario

    This paper tests for "pecking order" financing of small and medium size firms. The main sources and "pecking order" of financing for SMEs are equity (internally generated cash), trade credit paid on time, credit provided by institutions such as banks and leasing companies, other sources of debt and delayed payment on trade credit. The "pecking order" of financing is driven by the costs of asymmetric information (cost of gathering and analysing information) and financial distress costs. Empirical tests do not confirm that SMEs follow a pecking order.

  16. International oil and gas finance review 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This first edition covers financing projects in the developing world, mergers and acquisitions; mitigating cross-border risk; basic risk in energy markets; real-time oil and gas pricing issues; oil and gas equity; risk management; project finance. The yearbook also features more regional specific topics such as: gas transportation in the Mercosur; 25 years of growth in the UAE; natural gas in Mexico; LNG in the Far East; legal issues surrounding the Russian oil and gas industry; LNG projects in the Middle East; the North Sea; and financing the oil and gas industry of Southern and South Africa. (UK)

  17. Financing electric power in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper discusses the future growth of electricity demand, the likely changes in power investment patterns, and the global investment requirements during the 10 year period 1986-95 for power generation, transmission, and distribution. The investment during the period is analysed as between foreign and local currency requirements, the likely principal sources of finance, the problems which are experienced in financing power investment, and the origin of those problems. The paper provides details of the origin, nature and finances of the World Bank Group, reviews its past lending operations and some of the broader aspects of its lending operations

  18. The Philosophy of Islamic Banking and Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Jarhi, Mabid

    2004-01-01

    Islamic banking and finance can be described as a system through which finance is provided in the form of money in return for either equity or rights to share in future business profits, or in the form of goods and services delivered in return for a commitment to repay their value at a future date. By now, a good deal of intellectual effort has been undertaken by a number of specialists in Islamic economics to explore different aspects of Islamic banking and finance. Even some conventio...

  19. Islamic Finance: An Equitable and Efficient Option

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Jarhi, Mabid

    2004-01-01

    Islamic finance starts from one basic concept that is to avoid trading directly present for future money. Finance is provided in the form of money in return for either equity or rights to share proportionately in future business profits. It is also provided in the form of goods and services delivered in return for commitment to repay their value at a future date. This is an obvious option in addition to the conventional practices of interest-based finance. This paper addresses itself to fo...

  20. Do SMEs follow Pecking Order Financing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartholdy, Jan; Mateus, Cèsario; Olson, Dennis

    This paper tests for "pecking order" financing of small and medium size firms. The main sources and "pecking order" of financing for SMEs are equity (internally generated cash), trade credit paid on time, credit provided by institutions such as banks and leasing companies, other sources of debt and...... delayed payment on trade credit. The "pecking order" of financing is driven by the costs of asymmetric information (cost of gathering and analysing information) and financial distress costs. Empirical tests do not confirm that SMEs follow a pecking order....