WorldWideScience

Sample records for conduit financing arrangements

  1. 77 FR 22480 - Conduit Financing Arrangements; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    ...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part...RIN 1545-BH77 Conduit Financing Arrangements; Correction AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS...providing guidance on conduit financing arrangements. The...

  2. 76 FR 76895 - Conduit Financing Arrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR...1545-BH77 Conduit Financing Arrangements AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS...section 7701(l) of the Internal Revenue Code (the conduit financing regulations)....

  3. 26 CFR 1.881-4 - Recordkeeping requirements concerning conduit financing arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01...requirements concerning conduit financing arrangements. 1...Section 1.881-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...requirements concerning conduit financing arrangements....

  4. 26 CFR 1.881-3 - Conduit financing arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...of this section. (A) Active rents or royalties. An intermediate...licenses are derived in the active conduct of a trade or business...foreign corporation . (B) Active risk management —(1 ...costs and overhead and other fixed costs. (2 ) Business...

  5. Financing arrangements for nuclear power projects in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This reference book reviews the main features and problems or difficulties involved in the financing of nuclear power projects with special reference to developing countries. It provides basic information and advice to developing countries interested in nuclear power projects as part of their power sector planning. The book outlines the general characteristics of financing a nuclear power project and presents innovative approaches for power generation financing. It discusses the special conditions and requirements of nuclear power projects and their financing complexities. The focus is on the practical issues that need to be dealt with in order to successfully finance these power projects, as well as the constraints faced by most developing countries. Possible ways and means of dealing with these constraints are presented. 58 refs, figs and tabs

  6. Summary of a reference book on financing arrangements for nuclear power projects in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA has recently published a reference book entitled Financing Arrangements for Nuclear Power Projects in Developing Countries (Technical Reports Series No. 353). The book reviews comprehensively the main features and problems concerning the financing of such projects in developing countries and presents innovative approaches for power generation financing. It also discusses the special conditions and requirements of nuclear power projects and the complexities of their financing, focusing on the practical issues to be dealt with to achieve successful financing, as well as the constraints encountered by most developing countries. This booklet summarizes the important features of the financing arrangements discussed in the reference book and was prepared with the aim of widely disseminating the results

  7. Financing arrangements for nuclear power projects - past and present experience and future expectations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The intent of the author of the present paper is to demonstrate, in a practical manner, the role of the past experience and the new approaches of the nuclear projects financing, especially as nuclear generation financing in developing countries involves complex issues that need to be fully understood and dealt with by all the parties involved, namely: high investment costs, generally long construction periods, a high degree of uncertainty with respect to costs and schedule and to public acceptance, particularly because of safety, waste disposal and non-proliferation issues. Moreover, as many associations whose activities consist of ensuring and facilitating at different levels the exchange of knowledge between generations, i.e.: European Nuclear Society (ENS) Young Generation, North American Young Generation in Nuclear (NA-YGN), the goal of the paper is also to outline the importance of the education in nuclear field, i.e. training a young team of specialists to be ready to take over the movement and responsibility in continuing the further development of nuclear program in Romania, mainly with view to the Financing Arrangements for Nuclear Power Projects. The first part of the paper is referring to general financing procedures, while the second part is focusing on a case study related to the: past experience the financing scheme of Cernavoda NPP Unit 1, present or actual experience ongoing financing issues for Cernavoda NPP Unit 2 and potential future shared contribution to the financing of the next Cernavoda NPP units.(author)

  8. LEASING ARRANGEMENTS AS A FORM OF FINANCING BUSINESS ENTITIES IN REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DRAGICA ODZAKLIESKA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the modern conditions for working, the problems with providing appropriate sources for financing business entities are more emphasized. In fact, the access to the financing sources is one of the limiting factors for the business entities development. If the business entity is able to satisfy completely or on a higher degree its financing needs from its own sources, then it gains significant competitive advantage and possibility for growth, by decreasing the costs for financing and minimizing the risk. But, these sources most often are not sufficient for business financing. In R. Macedonia, most usually used sources for work financing are the bank loans, which is a result mainly to the nonsufficiently developed financial market, and generally, the low degree of the economic development. However, the bank loans are expensive source of financing, which is negatively reflected into the financial result of the business entities. Because of that, the business entities get down to use alternative financing sources, such as: portfolio investments, foreign direct investments, issue of shares and bonds and specific sources of financing ( factoring financing, forfeiting financing, leasing and financing by franchise. In this paper, the accent will be put on the leasing as a specific form for financing the business entities in R. Macedonia. A research for that how much the business entities are acquainted with the advantages of using this financing source, how much the leasing is present as a financing form and if there are limiting factors in its use, will be conducted. At the end, on the basis of the obtained results from the research, some measures and recommendations for higher leasing implementation in the business entities in Republic of Macedonia will be given

  9. Financing arrangements for nuclear power projects - Past and present experience, future expectations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear energy is a clean, safe, and economical industrial electricity source, with many environmental benefits. It does not emit greenhouse gases that contribute to climate change, or combustion by-products and acid gases that cause air, water resource and land pollution. Nuclear energy has also many benefits in the areas of medicine, industry, agriculture, and research. Moreover, the results are revealing. Over the past 12 years, from 1900 to 2002, the global 'energy availability factor' - representing the percentage of time that nuclear power plants worldwide were up and running - increased from 72.9% to 83.4%. At the same time, based on statistics gathered by the World Association of Nuclear Operators - WANO, the number of industrial accidents has gone down, radiation exposure has dropped sharply and the annual volume of radioactive waste produced has been reduced substantially. In other words, the safety, performance and economic competitiveness of the nuclear industry are at an all time high, reflecting a mature and vibrant enterprise. These are several reasons why a prospective host nation and other nations around the world may be attracted by nuclear power generation. Nuclear power can be and has been financed by world capital markets. The crucial question is whether host governments and interested utilities are willing to take the steps required to attract investment with reasonable assurance of success, and whether the nuclear industry is willing and able tohe nuclear industry is willing and able to become competitive in increasingly deregulated financial and electricity markets. The present paper will have the following structure: the first part will refer to general financing guidelines, and the second part will present a case study. The latter will treat the past experience as provided by the financing scheme of Cernavoda NPP Unit 1, the present experience, i.e. ongoing financing issues for Cernavoda NPP Unit 2 and potential future shared contribution to financing Cernavoda NPP Unit 3, 4 and 5. (authors)

  10. Finance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Kern

    Patterns that emerged from reviewing syllabi for 12 courses on higher education finance are discussed. The prevailing purpose of the course appeared to be to provide an introduction to fiscal problems and issues in higher education. Some courses did, however, go beyond the introductory stages to analyze the economics of higher education. Most…

  11. Contractual arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conceptually there are a number of different contract models from which a country can select the most suitable for its social, political and economic requirements. These include: 1) the traditional concession, 2) production sharing contracts, 3) service contracts, and 4) equity sharing contracts, i.e. joint ventures. The joint venture arrangement, as it is most commonly used in uranium exploration and mining, is discussed in light of national objectives; geological and technical aspects; infrastructural aspects; and economic aspects. Topics covered include: the exploration phases; the exploration license; exploration area; minimum exploration commitment; host country investor relationship; financing of exploration expenditures; minerals other than uranium; feasibility studies; taxation and levies; and termination of the agreement. During the production phase consideration must be given to such aspects as: The operating company; participation ratio; financing of the participation share; export of production; fiscal regime; imports of goods and services; training of local personnel; provision of support by the host country; assignment of rights; duration of contract; disputes and arbitration procedures; decisions making; transfer of technology; safety; environmental protection and compensation; and restoration of sites. These considerations are all discussed, particularly in regard to the joint venture agreement. The paper emphasises the need, in a successful agreement,sises the need, in a successful agreement, for openness and understanding between the parties. No agreement can cover every possible subject that can become a source of disagreement. Only by a sympathetic understanding of each others position and needs can a joint project be successful. (author). 11 refs

  12. Transverse colon conduit diversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The versatility and other advantages of the transverse colon conduit for urinary diversion have been described and implemented in 50 patients. Because most patients considered for this procedure will be at high risk because of a history of significant pelvic irradiation, underlying malignancy, poor renal function, fistula, and so forth, the technical details of surgery and patient selection cannot be minimized. The transverse colon segment is indicated for primary supravesical diversion as well as for salvage of problems related to ileal conduits. Adenocarcinoma of the colon is an unlikely long-term complication of this form of diversion because the fecal stream is absent. Now that the transverse colon conduit has been used for more than 10 years, meaningful comparisons with ileal segments should soon be available

  13. Seal between metal and ceramic conduits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Underwood, Richard Paul; Tentarelli, Stephen Clyde

    2015-02-03

    A seal between a ceramic conduit and a metal conduit of an ion transport membrane device consisting of a sealing surface of ceramic conduit, a sealing surface of ceramic conduit, a single gasket body, and a single compliant interlayer.

  14. Conduit Coating Abrasion Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Mary K.

    2013-01-01

    During my summer internship at NASA I have been working alongside the team members of the RESTORE project. Engineers working on the RESTORE project are creating ·a device that can go into space and service satellites that no longer work due to gas shortage or other technical difficulties. In order to complete the task of refueling the satellite a hose needs to be used and covered with a material that can withstand effects of space. The conduit coating abrasion test will help the researchers figure out what type of thermal coating to use on the hose that will be refueling the satellites. The objective of the project is to determine whether or not the conduit coating will withstand the effects of space. For the RESTORE project I will help with various aspects of the testing that needed to be done in order to determine which type of conduit should be used for refueling the satellite. During my time on the project I will be assisting with wiring a relay board that connected to the test set up by soldering, configuring wires and testing for continuity. Prior to the testing I will work on creating the testing site and help write the procedure for the test. The testing will take place over a span of two weeks and lead to an informative conclusion. Working alongside various RESTORE team members I will assist with the project's documentation and records. All in all, throughout my internship at NASA I hope to learn a number of valuable skills and be a part of a hard working team of engineers.

  15. Leaf Arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    This illustrated guide to leaf arrangement shows students how leaves attached at a stem node can be in alternate, opposite, or whorled arrangements. This single Web page can be easily printed for use at field sites.

  16. Centrifuges, centrifuge plants and flow control arrangements therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A gas centrifuge with flow control arrangement and a centrifuge plant are claimed. The centrifuge comprises a rotor mounted in a housing, a feed line, a line for separated product and a tails line for depleted gas. There is a flow control arrangement in one or more of these lines. The centrifuge plant comprises a plurality of separative units arranged in stages of differing enrichment of product. The flow control arrangement comprises a conduit sealable by a flap adapted to block the conduit when abnormal gas flow occurs

  17. Solar thermal financing guidebook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, T.A.; Cole, R.J.; Brown, D.R.; Dirks, J.A.; Edelhertz, H.; Holmlund, I.; Malhotra, S.; Smith, S.A.; Sommers, P.; Willke, T.L.

    1983-05-01

    This guidebook contains information on alternative financing methods that could be used to develop solar thermal systems. The financing arrangements discussed include several lease alternatives, joint venture financing, R and D partnerships, industrial revenue bonds, and ordinary sales. In many situations, alternative financing arrangements can significantly enhance the economic attractiveness of solar thermal investments by providing a means to efficiently allocate elements of risk, return on investment, required capital investment, and tax benefits. A net present value approach is an appropriate method that can be used to investigate the economic attractiveness of alternative financing methods. Although other methods are applicable, the net present value approach has advantages of accounting for the time value of money, yielding a single valued solution to the financial analysis, focusing attention on the opportunity cost of capital, and being a commonly understood concept that is relatively simple to apply. A personal computer model for quickly assessing the present value of investments in solar thermal plants with alternative financing methods is presented in this guidebook. General types of financing arrangements that may be desirable for an individual can be chosen based on an assessment of his goals in investing in solar thermal systems and knowledge of the individual's tax situation. Once general financing arrangements have been selected, a screening analysis can quickly determine if the solar investment is worthy of detailed study.

  18. 26 CFR 1.1441-3 - Determination of amounts to be withheld.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...Forms 1042 and 1042-S. (g) Conduit financing arrangements —(1) Duty to withhold...withhold tax under section 1441 with respect to a financing arrangement that is a conduit financing arrangement within the meaning of §...

  19. 48 CFR 32.114 - Unusual contract financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    Any contract financing arrangement that deviates from this part is unusual contract financing. Unusual contract financing shall be authorized only after approval by the head of the agency or as provided for in agency regulations. [60 FR 49711, Sept. 26,...

  20. 48 CFR 832.202-4 - Security for Government financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Security for Government financing. An offeror's financial...Government provides contract financing. In assessing the offeror's...contract. (c) Information on financing arrangements disclosing the...other financial aspects of the business. (f) Any other...

  1. Urodynamic evaluation of ileal conduit function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, P M; Konnak, J W; McGuire, E J; Savastano, J A

    1987-05-01

    Bilateral hydroureteronephrosis following ileal conduit urinary diversion is not uncommon. It may be owing to ureteroileal stenosis, stomal stenosis or a poorly compliant ileal conduit. The standard evaluation of stoma size, conduit residual urine and a loopogram often fail to allow determination of the cause of ureteral dilatation. In addition to these standard tests, we have used conduit urodynamics to study conduit function with a triple lumen urodynamic catheter to measure simultaneously conduit pressure proximal and distal to the fascia during filling under fluoroscopy. In 4 control patients with normal upper tracts who were studied with this technique conduit leak point pressures ranged from 5 to 20 cm. water pressure. Six patients with bilateral hydroureteronephrosis were studied to evaluate conduit function. We found abnormalities in 5 patients, including functional stomal stenosis in 2, an atonic loop in 1, segmental obstruction in 1 and a high pressure noncompliant distal segment in 1. PMID:3573186

  2. The corrosion effect on the conduit systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conduits in the buildings require a regular and permanent control, in order to avoid the risks of deterioration caused by the corrosion or the escape of water. In this work, we present a thermal nondestructive testing method of concrete structures containing water conduits, based on numerical modeling in three dimensions. The goal is to study the detectability of these conduits in different situations and to give a thermal characterization of the rust behaviour in the steel conduits. (author)

  3. Private Placement Debt Financing for Public Entities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Lance S.

    2010-01-01

    Private placement financing is a debt or capital lease obligation arranged between a municipality or a 501(c) (3) not-for-profit organization and a single sophisticated institutional investor. The investor can be a bank, insurance company, finance company, hedge fund, or high-net worth individual. Private placement financing is similar to…

  4. Peripheral nerve conduits: technology update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arslantunali D

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available D Arslantunali,1–3,* T Dursun,1,2,* D Yucel,1,4,5 N Hasirci,1,2,6 V Hasirci,1,2,7 1BIOMATEN, Center of Excellence in Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering, Middle East Technical University (METU, Ankara, Turkey; 2Department of Biotechnology, METU, Ankara, Turkey; 3Department of Bioengineering, Gumushane University, Gumushane, Turkey; 4Faculty of Engineering, Department of Medical Engineering, Acibadem University, Istanbul, Turkey; 5School of Medicine, Department of Histology and Embryology, Acibadem University, Istanbul, Turkey; 6Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, METU, Ankara, Turkey; 7Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, METU, Ankara, Turkey *These authors have contributed equally to this work Abstract: Peripheral nerve injury is a worldwide clinical problem which could lead to loss of neuronal communication along sensory and motor nerves between the central nervous system (CNS and the peripheral organs and impairs the quality of life of a patient. The primary requirement for the treatment of complete lesions is a tension-free, end-to-end repair. When end-to-end repair is not possible, peripheral nerve grafts or nerve conduits are used. The limited availability of autografts, and drawbacks of the allografts and xenografts like immunological reactions, forced the researchers to investigate and develop alternative approaches, mainly nerve conduits. In this review, recent information on the various types of conduit materials (made of biological and synthetic polymers and designs (tubular, fibrous, and matrix type are being presented. Keywords: peripheral nerve injury, natural biomaterials, synthetic biomaterials

  5. Biological conduits combining bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and extracellular matrix to treat long-segment sciatic nerve defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The transplantation of polylactic glycolic acid conduits combining bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and extracellular matrix gel for the repair of sciatic nerve injury is effective in some respects, but few data comparing the biomechanical factors related to the sciatic nerve are available. In the present study, rabbit models of 10-mm sciatic nerve defects were prepared. The rabbit models were repaired with autologous nerve, a polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, or a polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells + extracellular matrix gel. After 24 weeks, mechanical testing was performed to determine the stress relaxation and creep parameters. Following sciatic nerve injury, the magnitudes of the stress decrease and strain increase at 7,200 seconds were largest in the polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells + extracellular matrix gel group, followed by the polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells group, and then the autologous nerve group. Hematoxylin-eosin staining demonstrated that compared with the polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells group and the autologous nerve group, a more complete sciatic nerve regeneration was found, including good myelination, regularly arranged nerve fibers, and a completely degraded and resorbed conduit, in the polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells + extracellular matrix gel group. These results indicate that bridging 10-mm sciatic nerve defects with a polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells + extracellular matrix gel construct increases the stress relaxation under a constant strain, reducing anastomotic tension. Large elongations under a constant physiological load can limit the anastomotic opening and shift, which is beneficial for the regeneration and functional reconstruction of sciatic nerve. Better regeneration was found with the polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells + extracellular matrix gel grafts than with the polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells grafts and the autologous nerve grafts.

  6. Biological conduits combining bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and extracellular matrix to treat long-segment sciatic nerve defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Li, Zheng-Wei; Luo, Min; Li, Ya-Jun; Zhang, Ke-Qiang

    2015-06-01

    The transplantation of polylactic glycolic acid conduits combining bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and extracellular matrix gel for the repair of sciatic nerve injury is effective in some respects, but few data comparing the biomechanical factors related to the sciatic nerve are available. In the present study, rabbit models of 10-mm sciatic nerve defects were prepared. The rabbit models were repaired with autologous nerve, a polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, or a polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells + extracellular matrix gel. After 24 weeks, mechanical testing was performed to determine the stress relaxation and creep parameters. Following sciatic nerve injury, the magnitudes of the stress decrease and strain increase at 7,200 seconds were largest in the polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells + extracellular matrix gel group, followed by the polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells group, and then the autologous nerve group. Hematoxylin-eosin staining demonstrated that compared with the polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells group and the autologous nerve group, a more complete sciatic nerve regeneration was found, including good myelination, regularly arranged nerve fibers, and a completely degraded and resorbed conduit, in the polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells + extracellular matrix gel group. These results indicate that bridging 10-mm sciatic nerve defects with a polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells + extracellular matrix gel construct increases the stress relaxation under a constant strain, reducing anastomotic tension. Large elongations under a constant physiological load can limit the anastomotic opening and shift, which is beneficial for the regeneration and functional reconstruction of sciatic nerve. Better regeneration was found with the polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells + extracellular matrix gel grafts than with the polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells grafts and the autologous nerve grafts. PMID:26199615

  7. Private infrastructure finance and investment in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Inderst, Georg

    2013-01-01

    This study discusses the structure and development of private infrastructure finance in Europe in a global context. It examines the contribution of private capital to the financing of infrastructure investment needs. A 'big picture' is created by putting the various financing instruments and investment vehicles into a simple frame, i.e. percentages of GDP. There is scope for the development of alternative financing arrangements (such as public-private partnerships) and investment vehicles (su...

  8. Apartment purchase financing analysis since World War II until today

    OpenAIRE

    Stanis?a, Maja

    2009-01-01

    The diploma work deals with the possibility of financing the apartment purchase since World War II until today. In the history of the financing residential economy we are trying to determine legal basis arranging financing, basic characteristics of financing, loaning and institutions which have a leading role in financing in certain periods of history. Residential politicy in Slovenia went through different periods and it always reflected the influence of economical and political systems duri...

  9. Finance news; Actualite finance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2005-06-01

    The results of BP France for the year 2004 are on the increase (net funded: 80 millions of Euros) indicating a new increase of the refining sector. The ESSO SAF firm has had a net result of 134 millions of Euros in 2004. Indeed, the exploitation result of the exploration/ production activity is positive: 23 millions of Euros compared to 19 millions of Euros in 2003. 2005 should be a year of financing operations for the petroleum values. (O.M.)

  10. An Exploratory Study of the Effects of Project Finance on Project Risk Management : How the Distinguishing Attributes of Project Finance affects the Prevailing Risk Factor?

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Ka Fai

    2011-01-01

    Project finance is a financing arrangement for projects, and it is characterised by the creation of a legally independent project company financed with non- or limited recourse loans. It is observed that the popularity of project finance is increasing in the recent decades, despite of the impact of Asian financial crisis. Especially in emerging markets, project finance is very common among the public-private partnership projects. It is possible that project finance yields some benefits in pro...

  11. Financing a nuclear programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power plant construction projects have many characteristics in common with other types of large infrastructure investment, both within the power generation sector and elsewhere. However, nuclear power itself has special features that can make nuclear financing particularly challenging. These features include the high capital cost, the relatively long period required to recoup investments, the often controversial nature of nuclear projects. The need for clear solutions and financing schemes for radioactive waste management and decommissioning and the need for nuclear power plants to operate at high capacity factors, preferably under base load conditions. During the previous major expansion of nuclear power in the 1970 and 1980, many nuclear projects suffered very large construction delays and cost overruns. The legacy of such problems increases the risks perceived by potential investors. A recent study undertaken jointly by the Iea and the Nea showed that the competitiveness of nuclear power strongly depends on the cost of financing due to the high share of fixed capital costs in the total lifetime costs of nuclear power. A key issue in this context is the long-term predictability of carbon pricing arrangements, which, for the time being and despite positive evolutions in this respect, most notably in Europe, does not yet exist. This paper will consider how the risks can be mitigated and examine in detail various models for corporate finance and the role of gov for corporate finance and the role of government assistance in providing a suitable financial basis. (Author)

  12. Structuring and financing power projects in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contractual arrangements for the financing and construction of three 660 MW coal fired power plants in Hong Kong are summarized in the form of headings and a diagram. These cover the joint venture arrangement, construction and equipment supply, the operation and offtake contract, coal supply and the financial structure with respect to commercial risk. (UK)

  13. Project financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Project financing was defined ('where a lender to a specific project has recourse only to the cash flow and assets of that project for repayment and security respectively') and its attributes were described. Project financing was said to be particularly well suited to power, pipeline, mining, telecommunications, petro-chemicals, road construction, and oil and gas projects, i.e. large infrastructure projects that are difficult to fund on-balance sheet, where the risk profile of a project does not fit the corporation's risk appetite, or where higher leverage is required. Sources of project financing were identified. The need to analyze and mitigate risks, and being aware that lenders always take a conservative view and gravitate towards the lowest common denominator, were considered the key to success in obtaining project financing funds. TransAlta Corporation's project financing experiences were used to illustrate the potential of this source of financing

  14. Xylem hydraulic conductivity related to conduit dimensions along chrysanthemum stems.

    OpenAIRE

    Nijsse, J.; van der Heijden, G W A M; Ieperen, W., van; Keijzer, C.J.; Meeteren, U., van

    2001-01-01

    The stem xylem conduit dimensions and hydraulic conductivity of chrysanthemum plants (Dendranthemaxgrandiflorum Tzvelev cv. Cassa) were analysed and quantified. Simple exponential relations describe conduit length distribution, height dependency of conduit length distribution, and height dependency of stem hydraulic conductivity. These mathematical descriptions can be used to model the xylem water transport system. Within a chrysanthemum stem of 1.0 m, the conduit half-length (the length with...

  15. Project financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the basic concepts and components of the project financing of large industrial facilities. Diagrams of a simple partnership structure and a simple leveraged lease structure are included. Finally, a Hypothetical Project is described with basic issues identified for discussion purposes. The topics of the paper include non-recourse financing, principal advantages and objectives, disadvantages, project financing participants and agreements, feasibility studies, organization of the project company, principal agreements in a project financing, insurance, and an examination of a hypothetical project

  16. Financing a nuclear programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-10-15

    Nuclear power plant construction projects have many characteristics in common with other types of large infrastructure investment, both within the power generation sector and elsewhere. However, nuclear power itself has special features that can make nuclear financing particularly challenging. These features include the high capital cost, the relatively long period required to recoup investments, the often controversial nature of nuclear projects. The need for clear solutions and financing schemes for radioactive waste management and decommissioning and the need for nuclear power plants to operate at high capacity factors, preferably under base load conditions. During the previous major expansion of nuclear power in the 1970 and 1980, many nuclear projects suffered very large construction delays and cost overruns. The legacy of such problems increases the risks perceived by potential investors. A recent study undertaken jointly by the Iea and the Nea showed that the competitiveness of nuclear power strongly depends on the cost of financing due to the high share of fixed capital costs in the total lifetime costs of nuclear power. A key issue in this context is the long-term predictability of carbon pricing arrangements, which, for the time being and despite positive evolutions in this respect, most notably in Europe, does not yet exist. This paper will consider how the risks can be mitigated and examine in detail various models for corporate finance and the role of government assistance in providing a suitable financial basis. (Author)

  17. Financing strategic healthcare facilities: the growing attraction of alternative capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zismer, Daniel K; Fox, James; Torgerson, Paul

    2013-05-01

    Community health system leaders often dismiss use of alternative capital to finance strategic facilities as being too expensive and less strategically useful, preferring to follow historical precedent and use tax-exempt bonding to finance such facilities. Proposed changes in accounting rules should cause third-party-financed facility lease arrangements to be treated similarly to tax-exempt debt financings with respect to the income statement and balance sheet, increasing their appeal to community health systems. An in-depth comparison of the total costs associated with each financing approach can help inform the choice of financing approaches by illuminating their respective advantages and disadvantages. PMID:23678696

  18. Secure E-Link For Jostle Conduit

    OpenAIRE

    Meenu Sahni

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we delineated secure e-link for jostle conduit. Also, we depicted nearness function to obtain error free original message , which is deliberately required for Internet communication. It is the model of a real-life secures e-link system for any organization. In this model a sender can send a secret message even to a unacquainted person in an anonymous way.

  19. Secure E-Link For Jostle Conduit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenu Sahni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we delineated secure e-link for jostle conduit. Also, we depicted nearness function to obtain error free original message , which is deliberately required for Internet communication. It is the model of a real-life secures e-link system for any organization. In this model a sender can send a secret message even to a unacquainted person in an anonymous way.

  20. Assessment of conduit artery vasomotion using photoplethysmography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanders, Karlis; Grabovskis, Andris; Marcinkevics, Zbignevs; Aivars, Juris Imants

    2013-11-01

    Vasomotion is a spontaneous oscillation of vascular tone. The phenomenon has been observed in small arterioles and capillaries as well as in the large conduit arteries. The layer of smooth muscle cells that surrounds a blood vessel can spontaneously and periodically change its tension and thereby the arterial wall stiffness also changes. As the understanding of the phenomenon is still rather obscure, researchers would benefit from a low-cost and reliable investigation technique such as photoplethysmography (PPG). PPG is an optical blood pulsation measurement technique that can offer substantial information about the arterial stiffness. The aims of this pilot study were to evaluate the usefulness of the PPG technique in the research of vasomotion and to investigate vasomotion in the relatively large conduit arteries. Continuous 15 minute long measurements of posterior tibial artery wall stiffness were taken. Artery diameter, electrocardiogram, blood pressure and respiration were also simultaneously registered. Fast Fourier Transform power spectra were calculated to identify unique stiffness oscillations that did not correspond to fluctuations in the systemic parameters and thus would indicate vasomotion. We concluded that photoplethysmography is a convenient method for the research of the vasomotion in large arteries. Local stiffness parameter b/a is more accurate to use and easier to measure than the pulse wave velocity which describes stiffness of a segment of an artery. Conduit arteries might exhibit a low amplitude high frequency vasomotion ( 9 to 27 cycles per minute). Low frequency vasomotion is problematic to distinguish from the passive oscillations imposed by the arterial pressure.

  1. Thermal damping and retardation in karst conduits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Luhmann

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Water temperature is a non-conservative tracer in the environment. Variations in recharge temperature are damped and retarded as water moves through an aquifer due to heat exchange between water and rock. However, within karst aquifers, seasonal and short-term fluctuations in recharge temperature are often transmitted over long distances before they are fully damped. Using analytical solutions and numerical simulations, we develop relationships that describe the effect of flow path properties, flow-through time, recharge characteristics, and water and rock physical properties on the damping and retardation of thermal peaks/troughs in karst conduits. Using these relationships, one can estimate the thermal retardation and damping that would occur under given conditions with a given conduit geometry. Ultimately, these relationships can be used with thermal damping and retardation field data to estimate parameters such as conduit diameter. We also examine sets of numerical experiments where we relax some of the assumptions used to develop these relationships, testing the effects of variable diameter, variable velocity, open channels, and recharge shape on thermal damping and retardation to provide some constraints on uncertainty. Finally, we discuss a tracer experiment that provides field confirmation of our relationships. High temporal resolution water temperature data are required to obtain sufficient constraints on the magnitude and timing of thermal peaks and troughs in order to take full advantage of water temperature as a tracer.

  2. Creative Financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves, Richard M.

    1984-01-01

    This article analyzes cooperative programs that reduce the risks of financing energy conservation equipment. Savings guarantees, cash flow leasing, shared savings, and cooperative savings programs are described and sources of further information noted. (MJL)

  3. Computational Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Kangro, Raul

    2011-01-01

    BeSt programmi toetusel loodud e-kursuse "Computational Finance" õppematerjalid. Kursuse sisuks on finantsoptsioonide hindu kirjeldavate võrrandite tuletamine, nende lahendamiseks erinevate numbriliste meetodite konstrueerimine ning arvutiprogrammina realiseerimine. Materjalid sisaldavad loengukonspekti, praktikumide juhendeid ning näitelahendusi programmeerimiskeeles Python.

  4. The Japanese approach to financing LNG projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Japanese approach approach to financing LNG project has been what could be called a combined purchase and finance system which has been arranged mainly at the initiative of japan's Sogo Shosh (general trading companies) with the support of japanese governmental financial agencies and a purchase commitment from japanese utilities. In the QATARGAS project, despite it being the first greenfield LNG project in decade since North West Shelf Australia LNG project, financing for the LNG plant phase has been successfully arranged through Japanese financing. The structuring of the financial facilities for the QATARGAS project seems to have lessons for future development of the next generation of greenfield LNG projects. Discharge of the parties' liability, proper sharing of the risk burden and reconfirmation of the spirit of mutual understanding and trust among the parties concerned are key factors for the success of any new LNG project in the future. (Author)

  5. The Commitment Role of Equity Financing

    OpenAIRE

    Fahn, Matthias; Merlo, Valeria; Wamser, Georg

    2014-01-01

    Existing theories of a firm?s optimal capital structure seem to fail in explaining why many healthy and profitable firms rely heavily on equity financing, even though benefits associated with debt (like tax shields) appear to be high and the bankruptcy risk low. This holds in particular for firms that show a strong commitment towards their workforce and are popular among employees. We demonstrate that such financing behavior may be driven by implicit arrangements made between a firm and its ...

  6. Peak load arrangements : Assessment of Nordel guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    Two Nordic countries, Sweden and Finland, have legislation that empowers the TSO to acquire designated peak load resources to mitigate the risk for shortage situations during the winter. In Denmark, the system operator procures resources to maintain a satisfactory level of security of supply. In Norway the TSO has set up a Regulation Power Option Market (RKOM) to secure a satisfactory level of operational reserves at all times, also in winter with high load demand. Only the arrangements in Finland and Sweden fall under the heading of Peak Load Arrangements defined in Nordel Guidelines. NordREG has been invited by the Electricity Market Group (EMG) to evaluate Nordel's proposal for 'Guidelines for transitional Peak Load Arrangements'. The EMG has also financed a study made by EC Group to support NordREG in the evaluation of the proposal. The study has been taken into account in NordREG's evaluation. In parallel to the EMG task, the Swedish regulator, the Energy Markets Inspectorate, has been given the task by the Swedish government to investigate a long term solution of the peak load issue. The Swedish and Finnish TSOs have together with Nord Pool Spot worked on finding a harmonized solution for activation of the peak load reserves in the market. An agreement accepted by the relevant authorities was reached in early January 2009, and the arrangement has been implemented since 19th January 2009. NordREG views that the proposed Nordel guidelines have served as a starting point for the presently agreed procedure. However, NordREG does not see any need to further develop the Nordel guidelines for peak load arrangements. NordREG agrees with Nordel that the market should be designed to solve peak load problems through proper incentives to market players. NordREG presumes that the relevant authorities in each country will take decisions on the need for any peak load arrangement to ensure security of supply. NordREG proposes that such decisions should be taken after consultation with parties in other Nordic countries, and involving also regulators and TSOs. In NordREG's view there are basically three principles that should be guiding any decision to introduce peak load arrangements in the Nordic countries: i), the peak load arrangements should be introduced only in situations when security of supply cannot be met without these arrangements. Since the decision to introduce peak load arrangements might be of a political/legal nature, the length of such arrangement cannot be fixed. However, there should be a regular evaluation by the competent authority of any need or prolonged need for peak load arrangements and its effects of price formation in the Nordic market. ii), when peak load arrangements are introduced they should be designed to minimize the adverse effects on price formation in the Nordic market. Furthermore, if there are to be peak load arrangements, there might be a need for how to distinguish these peak load reserves from other reserves at the disposal of the TSOs. However, this issue needs further discussions and development. iii), Nordic consultation should be carried out where the views of all relevant authorities and stake holders in the market affected are invited. It is recommended that the governments consult with their Nordic counter parties before submitting legal proposals on peak load arrangements affecting Nordic price formation. These consultations should also be with regulators and TSOs who are involved in the design of the actual peak load arrangements. (Author)

  7. Parastomal Hernia as a Risk Factor for Ileal Conduit Fistulae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas A. A Skinner

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To review potential risk factors for the development of ileal conduit fistulae. Methods: Two patients were identified who had a remote history of an ileal conduit and who formed a fistula from the conduit—one to the small bowel and one to the skin. Their presentation, management and outcomes are described. Results: Both patients had parastomal hernias as the likely cause of their fistula formation. Discussion: Parastomal herniation may contribute to fistula formation due to a strangulated ischemic pressure necrosis of the adjacent ileal conduit and/or bowel.

  8. Further Development, Support and Enhancement of CONDUIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronica, Moldoveanu; Levine, William S.

    1999-01-01

    From the first airplanes steered by handles, wheels, and pedals to today's advanced aircraft, there has been a century of revolutionary inventions, all of them contributing to flight quality. The stability and controllability of aircraft as they appear to a pilot are called flying or handling qualities. Many years after the first airplanes flew, flying qualities were identified and ranked from desirable to unsatisfactory. Later on engineers developed design methods to satisfy these practical criteria. CONDUIT, which stands for Control Designer's Unified Interface, is a modern software package that provides a methodology for optimization of flight control systems in order to improve the flying qualities. CONDUIT is dependent on an the optimization engine called CONSOL-OPTCAD (C-O). C-O performs multicriterion parametric optimization. C-O was successfully tested on a variety of control problems. The optimization-based computational system, C-O, requires a particular control system description as a MATLAB file and possesses the ability to modify the vector of design parameters in an attempt to satisfy performance objectives and constraints specified by the designer, in a C-type file. After the first optimization attempts on the UH-60A control system, an early interface system, named GIFCORCODE (Graphical Interface for CONSOL-OPTCAD for Rotorcraft Controller Design) was created.

  9. Study Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Created and maintained by the University of Arizona, this site is designed to assist beginning finance students by offering very basic information about the study of finance. Be sure to look at the online lectures, which include RealAudio files as well as accompanying handouts and tables. Also on-site are well-written, basic overviews of topics including ratio analysis, time valuation of money, and capitol budgeting. In addition, the site contains several helpful links to outside resources about market information, careers, and publications.

  10. Micro finance

    OpenAIRE

    Ramachandran, Ramakrishnan; Senthil Kumar, T. S.

    2006-01-01

    Poor people often have just hand to mouth existence and have few reserves for major expenses such as illness, weddings, house repairs or education. They are unable to build their savings and are forced to borrow at exorbitant rates. This further adds to their burden and worsens their economic situation. Micro finance is the supply of loans, savings, and other basic financial services to the poor. The idea of micro finance was developed as a survival strategy for the poor. In India, Ela Bha...

  11. Independent power project finance rating criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Continuing growth of project financing for non-utility generators in the US and abroad has led to growing focus on their credit strength. In general, the financings remain relatively risky and would likely be rated below investment grade, because of various factors: loose power purchase arrangements, poor match between power pricing and fuel costs, aggressive leverage, troubled operating performance. But S and P believes some projects have the credit strength to support investment grade ratings. As traditional financing markets for these projects --- bank lending and private placements with highly specialized institutional investors --- have contracted, project sponsors and developers are considering broader markets. These include institutional investors without specialized focus on power project finance. In these markets, distinctions among projects may lead to greater liquidity and efficiency in developing the pricing and terms under which projects can be financed. This paper reports that ratings are most appropriate for projects seeking permanent financing as they enter commercial operations. They also may be useful for projects which have been operating for some time and for some very strong projects which are raising construction financing. To guide both project developers and investors in project financing, S and P has developed the following approach for rating these types of financings

  12. Control rod cluster arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This patent describes a nuclear reactor including nuclear core which is cooled and moderated by light water, the nuclear core comprising a plurality of parallel arranged openings therethrough and interspersed among the fuel assemblies. A control rod cluster arrangement comprises load follow control rod cluster assemblies with each load follow control rod cluster assembly being adapted to slidingly fit within each of some of the fuel assemblies in the parallel arranged openings, the load follow control rod cluster assemblies each comprising a plurality of elongated parallel arranged rods attached to a single spider, and including a first group of rods and a second group of rods, the first group of rods and the second each consisting of a plurality of absorber rods. The first group of rods consist of absorber rods taken from the group consisting of B/sub 4/C, hafnium, or silver-indium-cadmium and the second group of rods consist of absorber rods each consisting of stainless steel, the first group of rods and the second group of rods each being integrally attached at all times to the single spider, the absorber rods of the second group of rods being dispersed throughout the control rod cluster assembly. The first group of rods have a first neutron capture cross section and the second group of rods have a second neutron capture cross section different from the first cross section

  13. Conduit fragmentation, cave patterns, and the localization of karst ground water basins: the Appalachians as a test case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White,W.B.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Because conduit systems in maturely developed karst aquifers have a low hydraulic resistance, aquifers drain easily and karst aquifers are subdivided into well-defined ground water basins. Ground water elevations are highest at basin boundaries; lowest at the spring where the ground water is discharged. Parameters that control the type of conduit development are (1 the effective hydraulic gradient, (2 the focus of the drainage basin, and (3 the karstifiability of the bedrock. Moderate to highly effective hydraulic gradients permit the runaway process that leads to single conduit caves and well ordered branchwork systems. Low hydraulic gradients allow many alternate flow paths and thus a large degree of fuzziness in the basin boundaries. Low gradient ground water basins also tend to merge due to rising water tables during periods of high discharge. Focus is provided by geological constraints that optimize discharge at specific locations that can evolve into karst springs. Karstifiability is a measure of the bulk rate at which aquifer rocks will dissolve. Fine grained, pure limestones and shaley dolomites mark the opposite ends of the range. The cave surveys of the Appalachian Highlands provide a data base that can be used to classify the lateral arrangements of conduit systems and thus determine the relative importance of the factors defined above.

  14. Personal Finance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, June G.

    2003-01-01

    This newsletter presents four articles designed to help business educators educate learners in grades K-12 about personal finance. "Now More Than Ever: The Need for Financial Literacy" examines the following topics: evidence that the United States is becoming a nation of debtors; the plummeting personal savings rate; the increasing complexity of…

  15. Campaign Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    This site from the Hoover Institution at Stanford University contains a number of resources, primarily essays, articles, and op-ed pieces, related to various facets of campaign finance, its history, and reform proposals. As a whole, the site serves as a solid backgrounder to the issues and should interest a wide range of readers.

  16. Tax issues in structuring gas process arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current status of various tax issues regarding ownership, operation and financing of gas processing facilities in Canada was discussed. Frequently, energy companies are not taxed because of their large pools of un-depreciated capital cost and other resource related accounts. In addition, their time horizons for taxability are being extended in line with the expansion of their businesses. However, other investors are fully taxable, hence they wish to shelter their income through the use of tax efficient investment arrangements. This paper provides a detailed description of the tax treatment of gas processing facilities, tax implications of various structures between the producer and the investor such as lease, processing fee arrangements etc., and use of 'Canadian Renewable and Conservation Expense' (CRCE) for cogeneration projects within processing plants. All these need to be considered before completing a financing transaction involving a gas processing facility, since the manner in which the transaction is completed will determine the advantages and benefits from an income tax perspective. The accounting and legal aspects must be similarly scrutinized to ensure that the intended results for all parties are achieved. 8 figs

  17. Cardiac compression secondary to a massively dilated substernal colon conduit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Babar A; Ionescu, Ruxandra C; Halal, Ahmed M; Kesler, Kenneth A

    2012-11-01

    With the growing success of surgical repairs of congenital defects previously incompatible with life, it is expected of these patients to live longer and experience the complications of these corrective procedures. Esophageal atresia is a congenital defect that occurs in 1 out of 4000 births and is oftentimes a surgical emergency in which colonic conduits are routinely used for esophageal reconstruction. Colonic conduit redundancy and dilatation are well-recognized late complications of colon conduit surgeries for esophageal reconstructions. We report a rare case of symptomatic cardiac compression secondary to a massively dilated substernal colon conduit occurring 44 years after the initial childhood surgery in 1964 with rapid reversal of hemodynamic compromise after conduit removal. PMID:23164009

  18. Spotlight on CERN : Le code de conduite

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Video Productions

    2010-01-01

    Cette année 2010, le démarrage du LHC a été le témoignage de la réussite de la collaboration scientifique au CERN, rapprochant les personnes, hommes et femmes, tous ensemble pour la plus grande des réalisations. Cette collaboration nécessite une ouverture sur la diversité basée sur des valeurs solides. Pour s’assurer que l'Organisation continue sur la voie du succès, un consensus a été atteint sur des valeurs caractérisant le CERN et celles-ci ont été regroupées dans un Code de conduite, décrivant la norme de base du comportement que nous pouvons tous espérer de nous-mêmes et de nos collègues sur notre lieu de travail. Entrevues avec Rolf Heuer, Directeur Général du CERN, Anne-Sylvie Catherin, Chef du Département des Ressources Humaines, et Vincent Vuillemin, Ombuds au CERN.

  19. Arranging Droplets for Microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priest, Craig; Surenjav, Enkhtuul; Ulmeanu, Magdalena; Herminghaus, Stephan; Seemann, Ralf

    2006-03-01

    The online generation, organization and manipulation of monodisperse droplets in confinement present new possibilities for microfluidics. Droplets make excellent compartments for handling minute quantities of chemical, biological and particulate materials. When confined, a high dispersed phase volume fraction emulsion, i.e. gel emulsion, will self-organize into well-defined arrangements. The possible arrangements are dependent on the droplet size and the length-scale of the confining geometry. In this work, we have studied the organization of monodisperse gel emulsions in microchannels for application in microfluidic processing. The high degree of spatial order exhibited by gel emulsions facilitates the precise manipulation of a droplet, or group of droplets, using geometry alone.

  20. Evaluating Asian swap arrangements

    OpenAIRE

    Aizenman, Joshua; Jinjarak, Yothin; Park, Donghyun

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by the unprecedented rise of swap agreements between the central banks of developed economies and their developing economy counterparts, this paper evaluates Asian swap arrangements and their association with the build-up of foreign reserves prior to the 2008-2009 global financial crisis. The evidence suggests that there is a limited scope for swaps to substitute for reserves. Furthermore, the selectivity of the swap lines indicates that only countries with significant trade and fin...

  1. Public finance

    OpenAIRE

    Rosen, Harvey S.; Gayer, Ted

    2012-01-01

    "Public Finance 9/e" benefits from the combined efforts of Harvey Rosen's market-leading book and co-author Ted Gayer's research and government agency experience. This combination of experience is able to explain as clearly as possible how the tools of economics can be used to analyze government expenditure and tax policies. This new edition incorporates recent developments and along the way takes students to the frontiers of current research and policy. While the information presented is cut...

  2. Household Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, John

    2006-01-01

    The study of household finance is challenging because household behavior is difficult to measure, and households face constraints not captured by textbook models. Evidence on participation, diversification, and mortgage refinancing suggests that many households invest effectively, but a minority make significant mistakes. This minority appears to be poorer and less well educated than the majority of more successful investors. There is some evidence that households understand their own limitat...

  3. Financing wind power projects : perspectives from the US market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation outlined the recent assignments, core competencies and scope of services provided by Alyra Renewable Energy Finance Advisors. Renewable energy developers seek Alyra's assistance in developing strategies to achieve the most competitive solutions in finance and strategy. Alyra has broad finance expertise in renewable energy projects, a deep knowledge of markets and a significant wind industry network. Alyra identifies emerging issues, completes financing solutions and helps with contract negotiations. This presentation outlined the notable features of wind financing, wind assessment, offtake arrangements, equity considerations, US wind debt markets, long term bank financing, and combined bank and private placement financing. It also included recent debt market activity for seven large wind farms in the United States. tabs., figs

  4. Inspection of Emergency Arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Working Group on Inspection Practices (WGIP) was tasked by the NEA CNRA to examine and evaluate the extent to which emergency arrangements are inspected and to identify areas of importance for the development of good inspection practices. WGIP members shared their approaches to the inspection of emergency arrangements by the use of questionnaires, which were developed from the requirements set out in IAEA Safety Standards. Detailed responses to the questionnaires from WGIP member countries have been compiled and are presented in the appendix to this report. The following commendable practices have been drawn from the completed questionnaires and views provided by WGIP members: - RBs and their Inspectors have sufficient knowledge and information regarding operator's arrangements for the preparedness and response to nuclear emergencies, to enable authoritative advice to be given to the national coordinating authority, where necessary. - Inspectors check that the operator's response to a nuclear emergency is adequately integrated with relevant response organisations. - Inspectors pay attention to consider the integration of the operator's response to safety and security threats. - The efficiency of international relations is checked in depth during some exercises (e.g. early warning, assistance and technical information), especially for near-border facilities that could lead to an emergency response abroad. - RB inspection programmes consider the adequacy of arrangements for emergency preparedness and response to multi-unit accidents. - RBs assess the adequacy of arrangements to respond to accidents in other countries. - The RB's role is adequately documented and communicated to all agencies taking part in the response to a nuclear or radiological emergency. - Inspectors check that threat assessments for NPPs have been undertaken in accordance with national requirements and that up-to-date assessments have been used as the basis for developing emergency plans for NPPs. - Where RBs have an influence over land use around NPPs, they use the knowledge of their local or resident inspectors to inform decisions. - Inspectors check that appropriate action levels or criteria to identify an actual or radiological emergency are clearly defined and readily available to decision makers. - When observing emergency exercises inspectors check that: an appropriate and timely declaration is made, plant operators respond in accordance with the emergency plan and emergency instructions, and an appropriate level of response is initiated on and off-site. - RBs conduct follow-up inspections after real events, to ensure that the correct emergency response has been followed. - Inspectors verify that reliable data will be used to support the evaluation of environmental impact from a nuclear or radiological emergency, to the extent that this is within the jurisdiction of the RB. - Routine inspections and emergency exercise observations include a check that lines of communication are sufficiently resilient. - When observing emergency exercises inspectors, where practicable, check that timely, accurate and consistent information is provided to the public, in accordance with the off-site emergency plan. - RBs inspect the ability of the operator to give accurate medical and radiological information about casualties, to enable the correct treatment to be given. - Additional emergency equipment that is held in reserve off-site, provided to enhance resilience (post Fukushima), is included in the RB planned inspection and/or emergency exercise programme. - Inspectors check that licensee staff are adequately trained to connect and use additional equipment provided to enhance resilience. - Inspectors utilise the NPP operator's approved on-site emergency plan when inspecting on-site emergency arrangements. - RBs include human factors staff in emergency exercise evaluation teams to consider safety culture and human performance. - RBs consider the need for exercise scenarios to be undisclosed to exercise participants. - Bilateral trans-national inspection pro

  5. Biological conduit small gap sleeve bridging method for peripheral nerve injury: regeneration law of nerve fibers in the conduit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pei-xun; Li-ya, A; Kou, Yu-hui; Yin, Xiao-feng; Xue, Feng; Han, Na; Wang, Tian-bing; Jiang, Bao-guo

    2015-01-01

    The clinical effects of 2-mm small gap sleeve bridging of the biological conduit to repair peripheral nerve injury are better than in the traditional epineurium suture, so it is possible to replace the epineurium suture in the treatment of peripheral nerve injury. This study sought to identify the regeneration law of nerve fibers in the biological conduit. A nerve regeneration chamber was constructed in models of sciatic nerve injury using 2-mm small gap sleeve bridging of a biodegradable biological conduit. The results showed that the biological conduit had good histocompatibility. Tissue and cell apoptosis in the conduit apparently lessened, and regenerating nerve fibers were common. The degeneration regeneration law of Schwann cells and axons in the conduit was quite different from that in traditional epineurium suture. During the prime period for nerve fiber regeneration (2–8 weeks), the number of Schwann cells and nerve fibers was higher in both proximal and distal ends, and the effects of the small gap sleeve bridging method were better than those of the traditional epineurium suture. The above results provide an objective and reliable theoretical basis for the clinical application of the biological conduit small gap sleeve bridging method to repair peripheral nerve injury. PMID:25788923

  6. Biological conduit small gap sleeve bridging method for peripheral nerve injury: regeneration law of nerve fibers in the conduit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-xun Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical effects of 2-mm small gap sleeve bridging of the biological conduit to repair peripheral nerve injury are better than in the traditional epineurium suture, so it is possible to replace the epineurium suture in the treatment of peripheral nerve injury. This study sought to identify the regeneration law of nerve fibers in the biological conduit. A nerve regeneration chamber was constructed in models of sciatic nerve injury using 2-mm small gap sleeve bridging of a biodegradable biological conduit. The results showed that the biological conduit had good histocompatibility. Tissue and cell apoptosis in the conduit apparently lessened, and regenerating nerve fibers were common. The degeneration regeneration law of Schwann cells and axons in the conduit was quite different from that in traditional epineurium suture. During the prime period for nerve fiber regeneration (2-8 weeks, the number of Schwann cells and nerve fibers was higher in both proximal and distal ends, and the effects of the small gap sleeve bridging method were better than those of the traditional epineurium suture. The above results provide an objective and reliable theoretical basis for the clinical application of the biological conduit small gap sleeve bridging method to repair peripheral nerve injury.

  7. Spacer assembly retainer arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In accordance with the principles of the invention, an arrangement is presented which restrains movement of the spacer assemblies within a fuel assembly. The spacer assemblies are composed of a grid of slotted rectangular plates arranged to intersect and interlock in an egg-crate fashion with their lengthwise edges perpendicular to the axes of the fuel elements and guide tubes. Each guide tube is provided with a number of longitudinally spaced sleeves attached by welding. Collars having machine slots designed to mechanically interlock each collar with each respective spacer assembly cell that receives a guide tube are provided and fixed with each of such cells. The sleeves contain apertures on the portions thereof extending beyond the grid plates. Thus, upon assembly, the grid plate collars generally circumscribe the sleeve portions of the guide tubes. The guide tubes are permanently fixed to the spacer assemblies into the apertures of the sleeves. Hence, the guide tubes are firmly fixed to the spacer assemblies without welding or brazing, and without otherwise distorting the guide tubes. (auth)

  8. Port entry arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the paper is to describe the safety scheme port authorities should establish to deal with any contingency that may result from the visit of a nuclear powered ship. The safety scheme should be devised to cover both normal operation and any accident conditions that could arise while the ship is in port. The paper is divided into three parts. The three parts being: background information, general instructions, and emergency procedures. The background information will describe the nature of the hazards a port authority has to be prepared to deal with, and the philosophical basis for a berthing policy. In the part dealing with general instructions the objective of the safety scheme will be described. Also this part will describe the composition of the Port Safety Panel, allocation of responsibilities, passage and berthing arrangements, general safety precautions, records required, and rescue arrangements. In the part dealing with emergency procedures the role of: the Ship's Master, Harbour Authorities, Local Police, and local Health Services are discussed. As an Appendix to the paper a copy of the safety scheme that has been devised for visits of nuclear merchant ships to Southampton is given

  9. Orientated Guidance of Peripheral Nerve Regeneration Using Conduits with a Microtube Array Sheet (MTAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yueming; Wang, Wenjin; Wo, Yan; Gui, Ting; Zhu, Hao; Mo, Xiumei; Chen, Chien-Chung; Li, Qingfeng; Ding, Wenlong

    2015-04-29

    Material surface topography has been shown to affect the biological behavior of cells in vitro; however, the in vivo effect on peripheral nerve regeneration has not been explored. Here, we studied the potential of a microtube array sheet (MTAS) with a unique longitudinal surface topography to promote peripheral nerve regeneration efficiency, both in vivo and in vitro. Schwann cells, spinal cord motor neurons, and dorsal root ganglion neurons were seeded on the MTAS to study the effect of the construct on the biological properties and behaviors of neural cells. The MTAS guided the oriented migration of Schwann cells without affecting other critical biological properties, such as proliferation and neurotrophin expression. In addition, the MTAS guided the directed extension of neurites from both types of neurons. Next, we tested the capability of the MTAS to facilitate peripheral nerve regeneration by bridging a 10 mm sciatic nerve defect in rats with a nerve conduit equipped with an MTAS lining. The MTAS significantly promoted peripheral nerve regeneration, as suggested by the greater fiber caliber in the midconduit and the greater abundance of fibers in nerve segment distal to the conduit. Moreover, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis suggested the orientated guidance of nerve regeneration by the MTAS, as indicated by the smaller eccentricity of the nerve fibers and the concordant arrangement of the collagen fiber in both the fibers and the matrix in the MTAS group. Our results collectively suggest that the conduits with the MTAS developed in this study have significant potential for facilitating peripheral nerve regeneration by modifying critical biological behaviors and guiding orientated nerve growth. PMID:25853547

  10. Ulnar nerve reconstruction with an expanded polytetrafluoroethylene conduit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanec, S; Stanec, Z

    1998-12-01

    The ulnar nerve of a 22-year-old woman was reconstructed by expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) conduit, 141 days after nerve transection at the distal forearm level. A 2.9 cm nerve gap was bridged by a corrugated, 3.9 cm long, 6 mm diameter ePTFE tube. At final evaluation 3 years later the patient achieved excellent motor and sensory recovery. Exploration of the tube, at that time, showed macroscopically normal nerve inside the conduit. PMID:10209470

  11. Inductive circuit arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A switched coil arrangement is connected in a bridge configuration of four switches S1, S2, S3 and S4 which are each shunted by diodes D1, D2, D3 and D4 so that current can flow in either direction through a coil L depending on the setting of the switches. A capacitor C is connected across the bridge through a switch S5 to receive the inductive energy stored in coil L on breaking the current flow path through the coil. The electrostatic energy stored in capacitor C can then be used to supply current through the coil in the reverse direction either immediately or after a time delay. Coil L may be a superconductive coil. Losses in the circuit can be made up by a trickle charge of capacitor C from a separate supply V2. The device may be used in nuclear magnetic resonance imaging. (author)

  12. Thermally actuated linkage arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A reusable thermally actuated linkage arrangement includes a first link member having a longitudinal bore therein adapted to receive at least a portion of a second link member therein, the first and second members being sized to effect an interference fit preventing relative movement therebetween at a temperature below a predetermined temperature. The link members have different coefficients of thermal expansion so that when the linkage is selectively heated to a temperature above the predetermined temperature, relative longitudinal and/or rotational movement between the first and second link members is enabled. Two embodiments of a thermally activated linkage are disclosed which find particular application as actuators for a grapple head positioning arm in a nuclear reactor fuel handling mechanism to facilitate back-up safety retraction of the grapple head independently from the primary fuel handling mechanism drive system

  13. Auspicious tatami mat arrangements

    CERN Document Server

    Erickson, Alejandro; Schurch, Mark; Woodcock, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    An \\emph{auspicious tatami mat arrangement} is a tiling of a rectilinear region with two types of tiles, $1 \\times 2$ tiles (dimers) and $1 \\times 1$ tiles (monomers). The tiles must cover the region and satisfy the constraint that no four corners of the tiles meet; such tilings are called \\emph{tatami tilings}. The main focus of this paper is when the rectilinear region is a rectangle. We provide a structural characterization of rectangular tatami tilings and use it to prove that the tiling is completely determined by the tiles that are on its border. We prove that the number of tatami tilings of an $n \\times n$ square with $n$ monomers is $n2^{n-1}$. We also show that, for fixed-height, the generating function for the number of tatami tilings of a rectangle is a rational function, and outline an algorithm that produces the generating function.

  14. Thermally actuated linkage arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A reusable thermally actuated linkage arrangement includes a first link member having a longitudinal bore therein adapted to receive at least a portion of a second link member therein, the first and second members being sized to effect an interference fit preventing relative movement there-between at a temperature below a predetermined temperature. The link members have different coefficients of thermal expansion so that when the linkage is selectively heated by heating element to a temperature above the predetermined temperature, relative longitudinal and/or rotational movement between the first and second link members is enabled. Two embodiments of a thermally activated linkage are disclosed which find particular application in actuators for a grapple head positioning arm in a nuclear reactor fuel handling mechanism to facilitate back-up safety retraction of the grapple head independently from the primary fuel handling mechanism drive system. (author)

  15. Public utility economics and finance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howe, K.M.; Rasmussen, E.F.

    1982-01-01

    Students will find this presentation of the economic and institutional arrangements that surround the area of public utilities helpful in understanding current regulations and possibly suggesting solutions for future problems. The eight sections of the text cover: (1) an introduction to the nature and types of services provided by public utilities; (2) economic characteristics; (3) legal concepts; (4) traditional issues in regulation; (5) independent regulatory commissions; (6) a critique of public-utility regulation; (7) pricing and the regulation of consumer demand; and (8) capital budgeting and finance. 490 references, 37 figures, 38 tables. (DCK)

  16. Financing the Ranger uranium project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Construction of the Ranger uranium project located 230 km east of Darwin in the Northern Territory commenced in January 1979. Energy Resources of Australia Ltd was incorporated in February 1980 to acquire all the rights in the project. The total cost to ERA of these rights was $407 million. In October 1980 ERA'S cash requirements were estimated to be $553 million. Overseas participants (power utilities who had agreed to purchase uranium yellowcake under contract) arranged to take up 25% of the equity capital, Peko-Wallsend Ltd and EZ Industries Ltd were allotted 30.5% each and 14% was issued to Australian residents. The loan and equity financing arrangements required the successful resolution of many complex and interlocking factors, including technical and economic feasibility, agreement with aboriginal interests, compliance with Government policies and securing of sales contracts

  17. Financial Collateral Arrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulenay Rusen

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Increasing use of securities and collaterals in transactions brings the legal ambiguity in today’s financial markets which are trying to globalise. It should have been noted that without legal certainty an achievement can not be obtained in a complete manner. To solve this legal ambiguity in financial markets, reform movements have been started through out the world from different groups, institutions and communities involving both jurists and practitioners., The Directive on settlement finality in payment and securities settlement systems and the Directive on financial collateral arrangements were adopted. These two directives are both supplementary legislations for the Directive of the Parliament and of the Council on the reorganisation and winding up of credit institutions dated 4 April 2001. All of these directives are the circles of a chain that aim the proper functioning of the internal financial market in European Union. In this study, mainly the Collateral Directive will be taken into account. Firstly, the necessity of a harmonised collateral law and the aims of the Collateral Directive will be handled. Following, the main provisions of the directive will be analysed in details. While analysing in details, the different implementations of the directive in member states will be mentioned. Finally, the conflict of laws clause and the consequences of the directive will be explained.

  18. Financial Collateral Arrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulenay Rusen

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasing use of securities and collaterals in transactions brings the legal ambiguity in today’s financialmarkets which are trying to globalise. It should have been noted that without legal certainty an achievement cannot be obtained in a complete manner. To solve this legal ambiguity in financial markets, reform movements havebeen started through out the world from different groups, institutions and communities involving both jurists andpractitioners., The Directive on settlement finality in payment and securities settlement systems and the Directiveon financial collateral arrangements were adopted. These two directives are both supplementary legislations for theDirective of the Parliament and of the Council on the reorganisation and winding up of credit institutions dated 4April 2001. All of these directives are the circles of a chain that aim the proper functioning of the internal financialmarket in European Union. In this study, mainly the Collateral Directive will be taken into account. Firstly, thenecessity of a harmonised collateral law and the aims of the Collateral Directive will be handled. Following, themain provisions of the directive will be analysed in details. While analysing in details, the differentimplementations of the directive in member states will be mentioned. Finally, the conflict of laws clause and theconsequences of the directive will be explained.

  19. Public Education Finances, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Census Bureau conducts a Census of Government Finances and an Annual Survey of Government Finances as authorized by law under Title 13, U.S. Code, Sections 161 and 182. The Census of Government Finances has been conducted every 5 years since 1957, while the Annual Survey of Government Finances has been conducted annually since 1977 in…

  20. Public Education Finances: 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Census Bureau conducts a Census of Government Finances and an Annual Survey of Government Finances as authorized by law under Title 13, U.S. Code, Sections 161 and 182. The Census of Government Finances has been conducted every 5 years since 1957, while the Annual Survey of Government Finances has been conducted annually since 1977 in…

  1. Antitrust analysis of tying arrangements

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Jay Pil

    2004-01-01

    Tying arrangements recently have been a major and contentious issue in many high profile antitrust cases in the US and Europe. Examples include the Microsoft case, the Visa and MasterCard case, and the proposed GE/Honeywell merger to name a few. This paper conducts a selective review of the recent developments in the analysis of tying arrangements. It also discusses relevant antitrust cases concerned with tying arrangements in light of recent theoretical advances in this area.

  2. Sciatic nerve repair using adhesive bonding and a modified conduit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiangdang; Cai, Hongfei; Hao, Yongyu; Sun, Geng; Song, Yaoyao; Chen, Wen

    2014-03-15

    When repairing nerves with adhesives, most researchers place glue directly on the nerve stumps, but this method does not fix the nerve ends well and allows glue to easily invade the nerve ends. In this study, we established a rat model of completely transected sciatic nerve injury and repaired it using a modified 1 cm-length conduit with inner diameter of 1.5 mm. Each end of the cylindrical conduit contains a short linear channel, while the enclosed central tube protects the nerve ends well. Nerves were repaired with 2-octyl-cyanoacrylate and suture, which complement the function of the modified conduit. The results demonstrated that for the same conduit, the average operation time using the adhesive method was much shorter than with the suture method. No significant differences were found between the two groups in sciatic function index, motor evoked potential latency, motor evoked potential amplitude, muscular recovery rate, number of medullated nerve fibers, axon diameter, or medullary sheath thickness. Thus, the adhesive method for repairing nerves using a modified conduit is feasible and effective, and reduces the operation time while providing an equivalent repair effect. PMID:25206861

  3. Budgeting and Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrs. Dale

    2006-11-30

    The following are budgeting and finance sites National Budget Simulation National Budget Simulation Money Math Money Math: Lessons for Life Reality Math "Reality Math: Fact or Fiction" Family Finances Family Finances Consumer Jungle Consumer Jungle It All Adds Up It All Adds Up Herkimer\\'s Hideaway Herkimer's Hideaway Wise Pockets World Wise Pockets World Project Finance Portal Project Finance Portal Lesson Plan on Budgeting Lesson Plan on Budgeting Personal Budget Webquest Personal Budget WebQuest ...

  4. Finance Site List

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maintained by the Journal of Finance "for those interested in understanding and teaching financial ideas," this extensive metasite links readers to institutions, publications, and people engaged in finance research. In addition to links to online finance journals, working paper collections, and research centers, the Finance Site List presents additional metasites and educational resources as well as statistical software information and the "interesting, fun and odd" among finance homepages.

  5. Money in finance

    OpenAIRE

    Wray, L. Randall

    2011-01-01

    This paper begins by defining, and distinguishing between, money and finance, and addresses alternative ways of financing spending. We next examine the role played by financial institutions (e.g., banks) in the provision of finance. The role of government as both regulator of private institutions and provider of finance is also discussed, and related topics such as liquidity and saving are explored. We conclude with a look at some of the new innovations in finance, and at the global financial...

  6. Perspectives applicable to financing midstreamers: legal considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Systemic changes that have affected the sale, distribution and transportation of gas near the burner tip (collectively called 'midstream' activities) are reviewed, examining the causes of change, and the types of midstream asset transactions that are occurring, whether they involve structured financing arrangements or midstream companies. Also addressed are issues involved in transactions of this type, especially as they relate to gathering and processing agreements and construction, ownership and operation (CO and O) agreements. The two principal alternative structures (1) the financing party who does not assume operational control of the facility, and the (2) midstream company who build or acquire assets and operate them, the different implications for financing of each of the structural alternatives and the changing attitudes of producers towards midstream entities are explained. Closer examination of these new business structures reveals that they conflict with the terms and conditions of midstream agreements commonly used throughout the industry. It is recommended that these standard agreements be amended to permit midstream transactions to occur without undue restrictions. The kind of amendments suggested include automatic consent to a transfer of a facility to a Financing Party that meets certain reasonable financial tests; allowing the reconveyance from the Financing Party to the producer under a repurchase option; allowing the producer to act as Operator in powing the producer to act as Operator in place of its Financing Party

  7. Interactions of large amplitude solitary waves in viscous fluid conduits

    CERN Document Server

    Lowman, Nicholas K; El, Gennady A

    2013-01-01

    The free interface separating an exterior, viscous fluid from an intrusive conduit of buoyant, less viscous fluid is known to support strongly nonlinear solitary waves due to a balance between viscosity-induced dispersion and buoyancy-induced nonlinearity. The overtaking, pairwise interaction of weakly nonlinear solitary waves has been classified theoretically for the Korteweg-de Vries equation and experimentally in the context of shallow water waves. We use numerical simulations and experimental observations to extend the classification scheme to the strongly nonlinear regime for viscous conduit solitary waves, where we identify three classes of nonlinear interaction behavior: purely bimodal, purely unimodal, and a mixed type. The magnitude of the dispersive radiation due to solitary wave interactions is quantified numerically and observed to be beyond the sensitivity of our experiments, suggesting that conduit solitary waves are approximately solitons. Experimental data are shown to be in excellent agreemen...

  8. Nuclear core region fastener arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An arrangement is disclosed for cooling the fasteners affixing a core barrel to a core former and a core baffle to a core former in the reactor vessel internals of a nuclear reactor. The arrangement allows the flowing reactor coolant to contact the fasteners, preferably bolts with an elliptical neck, and maintains lower bolt operating temperatures than previously experienced

  9. IAEA paper on institutional arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At its fifth series of meetings, Working Group 3 received a background paper prepared by the IAEA which had a threefold purpose: firstly, to provide an overview on institutional arrangements under consideration by the INFCE Working Groups; secondly, to explore potential relationships between the various institutional arrangements under consideration; and thirdly, to identify areas where further analysis might be desirable

  10. Project finance in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A dysfunctional system of commercial, legal, and financial institutions is the primary problem facing the energy sectors in Eastern Europe. Generally, a major systemic transformation is well underway in the area and is already showing signs of success. The empty promise of export credit financing exerts a significant negative influence on this reform process. The discipline of project finance provides the best, if not the only, basis for financing the modernization of the Eastern European energy sector. An example is given of the Cracow Environmental Project, a modernization project. The power plant is a combined heat and power facility with 460 MW of electric capacity and 1450 MW of thermal energy capacity. Located near the center of Cracow, the plant burns hard coal and provides more than seventy percent of the central district heat consumed in the city. The scope of proposed improvements has changed from the addition of capacity to a combination of modernization and environmental retrofit of the existing plant. The total estimated cost of the improvements program is 150 million dollars. The project consists of three major elements. First, it has proposed and is in the process of restructuring the ownership of the power plant. Second, it is engaged in a major restructuring of the commercial arrangements that govern the operation of the plant. Finally, it is in the late stages of selecting an engineering, procurement, and construction consortium with which it will costruction consortium with which it will contract to design and make major improvements to the existing plant

  11. Havery Mudd 2014-2015 Computer Science Conduit Clinic Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aspesi, G [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bai, J [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Deese, R [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Shin, L [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-05-12

    Conduit, a new open-source library developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, provides a C++ application programming interface (API) to describe and access scientific data. Conduit’s primary use is for inmemory data exchange in high performance computing (HPC) applications. Our team tested and improved Conduit to make it more appealing to potential adopters in the HPC community. We extended Conduit’s capabilities by prototyping four libraries: one for parallel communication using MPI, one for I/O functionality, one for aggregating performance data, and one for data visualization.

  12. Economic rationales for the design of health care financing schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Paolucci, Francesco; Scout, Frederick T.; Ven, Wynand P. M. M.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the economic rationales for the design of health care financing arrangements. We propose a categorization of financing schemes based on a distinction between basic and supplementary services and between mandatory and voluntary coverage. We argue that the most important economic arguments for governments to enforce a system of crosssubsidies that guarantees the financial access to a predefined set of basic services to high-risk or low-income individuals are the pre...

  13. Nuclear cooperation through institutional arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of nuclear technologies and their applications require international cooperation through educational, research, commercial and inter-governmental arrangements. These arrangements may be on bilateral, regional or international bases. With the oncoming age of globalization, it is apparent that more international cooperative efforts will be undertaken on a global scale. This presentation focused on the three major issues for international cooperation: nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear safety and nuclear waste management. It is estimated that in the context of Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Pacific Nuclear Council could provide a fruitful institutional arrangement for nuclear cooperation

  14. 26 CFR 1.67-3 - Allocation of expenses by real estate mortgage investment conduits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...estate mortgage investment conduits. 1...CONTINUED) Definition of Gross Income...estate mortgage investment conduits. ...year. (3) Returns to the Internal...an information return on Form 1099...allocation of allocable investment expenses is...

  15. AC loss characteristics of simulated CIC-type conductors having plastic conduit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When alternating current superconducting coils having cable-in-conduit conductors are fabricated, non-metallic conduit materials are necessary to avoid eddy current losses in the conduits. Using two kinds of non-metallic tapes made of glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRPs) and Dyneema fiber reinforced plastics (DFRPs), we made the conductors with the GFRP conduits and DFRP conduits, and experimentally studied the total losses of the conductors. The measured results showed that the total loss of the conductor with the GFRP conduit was smaller than that with the DFRP conduit at the same value of the void ratio, the transport current, the external magnetic field, and so on. When the void ratios become high, the superconducting bundle cable can easily move in the conduit. Hence the measured total losses increased with the void ratios of the conductors

  16. 78 FR 66355 - Pleasant Grove City, UT; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-05

    ...Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower Facility and Soliciting Comments and...intent to construct a qualifying conduit hydropower facility, pursuant to section 30 of...Act, as amended by section 4 of the Hydropower Regulatory Efficiency Act of...

  17. 78 FR 61985 - City of Astoria, Oregon; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-09

    ...Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower Facility and Soliciting Comments and...intent to construct a qualifying conduit hydropower facility, pursuant to section 30 of...Act, as amended by section 4 of the Hydropower Regulatory Efficiency Act of...

  18. 78 FR 61987 - Corbett Water District; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-09

    ...Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower Facility and Soliciting Comments and...intent to construct a qualifying conduit hydropower facility, pursuant to section 30 of...Act, as amended by section 4 of the Hydropower Regulatory Efficiency Act of...

  19. 78 FR 53752 - City of Sandpoint, Idaho; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ...Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower Facility and Soliciting Comments and...intent to construct a qualifying conduit hydropower facility, pursuant to section 30 of...Act, as amended by section 4 of the Hydropower Regulatory Efficiency Act of...

  20. 78 FR 56872 - City of Barre, Vermont; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-16

    ...Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower Facility and Soliciting Comments and...intent to construct a qualifying conduit hydropower facility, pursuant to section 30 of...Act, as amended by section 4 of the Hydropower Regulatory Efficiency Act of...

  1. 78 FR 62351 - North Side Canal Company; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-18

    ...Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower Facility and Soliciting Comments and...intent to construct a qualifying conduit hydropower facility, pursuant to section 30 of...Act, as amended by section 4 of the Hydropower Regulatory Efficiency Act of...

  2. Silk Fibroin Conduits: A Cellular and Functional Assessment of Peripheral Nerve Repair

    OpenAIRE

    Ghaznavi, Amir Mahan; Kokai, Lauren E.; Lovett, Michael L.; Kaplan, David L.; Marra, Kacey G

    2011-01-01

    Novel silk fibroin conduits were designed with appropriate porosity for peripheral nerve repair. The aim of this work was to utilize these conduits to examine cell inflammatory responses and functional recovery in a sciatic nerve defect model.

  3. Structure of a bacterial cell surface decaheme electron conduit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some bacterial species are able to utilize extracellular mineral forms of iron and manganese as respiratory electron acceptors. In Shewanella oneidensis this involves decaheme cytochromes that are located on the bacterial cell surface at the termini of trans-outer-membrane electron transfer conduits...

  4. Aorto-conduit fistula developing four years after esophagectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Strong, S.; Higgs, S.; Streets, C.; Titcomb, D.; Barham, P.; Blazeby, J.; Hollowood, A.

    2012-01-01

    A 71 year old lady was treated for a squamous cell carcinoma of the oesophagus with neo-adjuvant chemotherapy followed by a two phase Ivor-Lewis oesophagectomy with two field lymphadenectomy. She presented four years later with life threatening bleeding from a fistula between the thoracic aorta and the gastric conduit, which was treated successfully with a thoracic aortic stent.

  5. Evaluation of the MODFLOW-2005 Conduit Flow Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Melissa E; Stewart, Mark T; Martin, Angel

    2010-01-01

    The recent development of the Conduit Flow Process (CFP) by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provides hydrogeologic modelers with a new tool that incorporates the non-Darcian, multiporosity components of flow characteristic of karst aquifers. CFP introduces new parameters extending beyond those of traditional Darcian groundwater flow codes. We characterize a karst aquifer to collect data useful for evaluating this new tool at a test site in west-central Florida, where the spatial distribution and cross-sectional area of the conduit network are available. Specifically, we characterize: (1) the potential for Darcian/non-Darcian flow using estimates of specific discharge vs. observed hydraulic gradients, and (2) the temporal variation for the direction and magnitude of fluid exchange between the matrix and conduit network during extreme hydrologic events. We evaluate the performance of CFP Mode 1 using a site-scale dual-porosity model and compare its performance with a comparable laminar equivalent continuum model (ECM) using MODFLOW-2005. Based on our preliminary analyses, hydraulic conductivity coupled with conduit wall conductance improved the match between observed and simulated discharges by 12% to 40% over turbulent flow alone (less than 1%). PMID:20113361

  6. Project financing in Latin America: The search for greener pastures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper addresses the basic requisites for inducing private capital to engage in infrastructure project financing. Part 1 of this paper provides an overview of project financing considerations, such as how pricing of project outputs and the credit history of output purchasers can affect the availability of project financing, and explores the use of ''Revolving Funds'' as a stimulus for private investment. Part 2 discusses several areas in which governments can become pro-active participants in establishing a sound framework for project financing of infrastructure. Part 3 briefly addresses project structuring and the contractual risk allocation process which is central to project financing, and highlights some of the key legal arrangements found in project contracts

  7. Caring finance practices

    OpenAIRE

    Staveren, I. P.

    2013-01-01

    The 2008 financial crisis has demonstrated the failure of both utilitarian and deontological ethics in finance. Alternatives do not need to be created from nothing, because the crisis itself has stimulated the emergence of ethically sound finance practices from within the sector. This article presents two cases of such alternatives, which can be understood as caring finance. Caring finance is built around more personal relationships, responsibility, and risk reduction. The examples are from t...

  8. Orienting neurite growth in electrospun fibrous neural conduits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Li; O'Brien, Norah; Windebank, Anthony; Pandit, Abhay

    2009-08-01

    In cases where direct suture of two nerve stumps is not feasible, generally a scaffold is required to bridge the gap and guide nerve regeneration. The scaffold used in nerve tissue engineering applications requires optimal guidance effect, mechanical strength, and cellular compatibility. A number of studies suggest that fibrous scaffolds can potentially be used for nerve regeneration, as the aligned fibers can provide the guidance effect for axonal growth and the fibrous structure mimics the nerve microenvironment. A practical method to fabricate the fibrous nerve conduit with structural guidance cue for neurite growth will improve its potential application in neural tissue engineering. In this study, fibrous tubular scaffolds were fabricated using an electrospinning technique. The fibrous conduit was composed of aligned fibers in the interior layer and randomly oriented fibers in the exterior layer. In order to investigate the fiber diameter on neurite extension and directional growth, fibers with different diameter in the subcellular size range were fabricated and the neurite growth on these fibers was investigated. We observed that PC12 cells' neurites showed similar parallel growth on the aligned fibers irrespective of fiber diameter. Neurite length on aligned fibers, with fiber diameters of 3.7 +/- 0.5 microm and 5.9 +/- 0.9 microm, was significantly longer than neurite length on randomly oriented fibers. This study showed that electrospinning provides a practical solution to fabricate fibrous nerve conduit by controlling the conduit inner diameter and fiber alignment and, hence, potentially improves the application of the conduit in neural regeneration. PMID:19130615

  9. Extra cardiac conduit Fontan procedure in 41 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safarpour Gh

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Fontan operation is the definitive operation for palliation of complex congenital heart disease with single –ventricle physiology. The use of the extra cardiac conduit has recently been gaining popularity. The purpose of this study was to compare the outcomes of extra cardiac conduit Fontan procedure (off-pump technique and that of traditional technique (lateral tunnel technique in which cardiopulmonary bypass is routinely used. Methods: Forty one patients in different age groups underwent extra cardiac conduit Fontan procedure between April 2001 and December 2004. Data were collected from ICU sheets, files and during follow up visits. Under general anesthesia and through median sternotomy, using two temporary decompressing shunts, superior vena cava implanted on right pulmonary artery and a conduit interposed between transected inferior vena cava and main pulmonary artery. Fenestration was done in almost all patients and previous shunts were closed if there were any. Results: Of our patients, 13 were female and 28 were male. Mean age of the patients was 11.1 years (SD=7.8.In 24.4% of cases Fontan procedure was done as the first palliative surgery and in 75.6% of them there was previous history of palliative procedures. In 6 patients (14.6% we were constrained to use cardiopulmonary bypass which was predictable or necessary in 50% of cases. There was no reoperation due to post operative bleeding. Two cases suffered from prolonged plural effusion. Our in-hospital mortality was 9.8%. During 2-24 months follow up, we found two cases who were in NYHA functional class II and one case in functional class I. Conclusion: Extra cardiac conduit Fontan procedure could be used in a safe way. The results of this study were comparable and even in some cases better than that of the traditional technique.

  10. Combined physical and chemical nonequilibrium transport model for solution conduits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Malcolm S.; Leij, Feike J.

    2014-02-01

    Solute transport in karst aquifers is primarily constrained to relatively complex and inaccessible solution conduits where transport is often rapid, turbulent, and at times constrictive. Breakthrough curves generated from tracer tests in solution conduits are typically positively-skewed with long tails evident. Physical nonequilibrium models to fit breakthrough curves for tracer tests in solution conduits are now routinely employed. Chemical nonequilibrium processes are likely important interactions, however. In addition to partitioning between different flow domains, there may also be equilibrium and nonequilibrium partitioning between the aqueous and solid phases. A combined physical and chemical nonequilibrium (PCNE) model was developed for an instantaneous release similar to that developed by Leij and Bradford (2009) for a pulse release. The PCNE model allows for partitioning open space in solution conduits into mobile and immobile flow regions with first-order mass transfer between the two regions to represent physical nonequilibrium in the conduit. Partitioning between the aqueous and solid phases proceeds either as an equilibrium process or as a first-order process and represents chemical nonequilibrium for both the mobile and immobile regions. Application of the model to three example breakthrough curves demonstrates the applicability of the combined physical and chemical nonequilibrium model to tracer tests conducted in karst aquifers, with exceptionally good model fits to the data. The three models, each from a different state in the United States, exhibit very different velocities, dispersions, and other transport properties with most of the transport occurring via the fraction of mobile water. Fitting the model suggests the potentially important interaction of physical and chemical nonequilibrium processes.

  11. Financing petroleum agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter describes the typical type of financing agreements which are currently used to finance North Sea petroleum projects whether they are in the cause of development or have been developed and are producing. It deals with the agreements which are entered into to finance borrowings for petroleum projects on a non-resource or limited resource basis. (UK)

  12. Effectiveness of community health financing in meeting the cost of illness

    OpenAIRE

    Preker Alexander S.; Carrin Guy; Dror David; Jakab Melitta; Hsiao William; Arhin-Tenkorang Dyna

    2002-01-01

    How to finance and provide health care for the more than 1.3 billion rural poor and informal sector workers in low- and middle-income countries is one of the greatest challenges facing the international development community. This article presents the main findings from an extensive survey of the literature of community financing arrangements, and selected experiences from the Asia and Africa regions. Most community financing schemes have evolved in the context of severe economic constraints,...

  13. Financing Strategies for Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To help meet our nation's energy needs, reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel is being considered more and more as a necessary step in a future nuclear fuel cycle, but incorporating this step into the fuel cycle will require considerable investment. This report presents an evaluation of financing scenarios for reprocessing facilities integrated into the nuclear fuel cycle. A range of options, from fully government owned to fully private owned, was evaluated using a DPL (Dynamic Programming Language) 6.0 model, which can systematically optimize outcomes based on user-defined criteria (e.g., lowest life-cycle cost, lowest unit cost). Though all business decisions follow similar logic with regard to financing, reprocessing facilities are an exception due to the range of financing options available. The evaluation concludes that lowest unit costs and lifetime costs follow a fully government-owned financing strategy, due to government forgiveness of debt as sunk costs. Other financing arrangements, however, including regulated utility ownership and a hybrid ownership scheme, led to acceptable costs, below the Nuclear Energy Agency published estimates. Overwhelmingly, uncertainty in annual capacity led to the greatest fluctuations in unit costs necessary for recovery of operating and capital expenditures; the ability to determine annual capacity will be a driving factor in setting unit costs. For private ventures, the costs of capital, especially equity interest rates, dominat especially equity interest rates, dominate the balance sheet; the annual operating costs dominate the government case. It is concluded that to finance the construction and operation of such a facility without government ownership could be feasible with measures taken to mitigate risk, and that factors besides unit costs should be considered (e.g., legal issues, social effects, proliferation concerns) before making a decision on financing strategy

  14. Cryovolcanic Conduit Evolution and Eruption on Icy Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, K. L.

    2014-12-01

    In silicate volcanism, such as on Earth or Io, eruptions typically result from fracture formation caused by interaction of tectonic stresses with inflating, pressurized magma sources, leading to transport of melt through an evolving conduit. On icy satellites the paradigm may be similar, resulting from some combination of tidal stresses and expansion of freezing water within, or near the base of, an ice shell. Such a fracture will result in eruption if mass continuity can be established, with buoyancy aided by exsolution and expansion of dissolved volatiles. After onset, conduit shape evolves due to: (1) shear-stresses or frictional erosional; (2) wallrock "bursting" due to massive wall stresses; (3) wall melting or condensation of particles due to heat transfer; or (4) changes in applied stresses. Preliminary thermodynamic and fluid mechanical analysis suggests some initial cooling during ascent resulting from exsolution and expansion of volatiles, thermally buffered by freezing, Conduit contraction may occur, and so evolution towards a deep, gas-filled plume chamber is difficult to accommodate without evoking a co-incidental process. Conduit flaring occurs near the surface where velocities are greatest, enhancing erosion. Here, viscous dissipative heating exceeds adiabatic cooling, and so some boiling (a few wt%) may occur. In contrast with silicate volcanism, decompression to below the triple point will occur within conduit, vent or jet, resulting in rapid freezing and boiling of the remaining water at a 6.8:1 ratio. Subsequent isentropic or adiabatic expansion within erupting jets may result in a few percent net of condensation or sublimation. These effects combined lead to ~4:1-7:1 solid:vapor ratios in the jet for most eruption conditions. These figures are consistent with the ~6:1 inferred in Enceladus' jets, supporting the hypothesis that the Enceladus plume draws from a subsurface body of liquids through a conduit. Similar results are anticipated if cryovolcanic plumes are confirmed on Europa. However, eruption from an ocean is more challenging there, as far greater volatile contents would be required to facilitate mass continuity from an initial fracture, and hence eruption, from the higher pressure source. Shallower sources, such as proposed under chaos, are less challenging.

  15. 42 CFR 413.241 - Pharmacy arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pharmacy arrangements. 413.241 Section...Organ Procurement Costs § 413.241 Pharmacy arrangements. Effective January 1...that enters into an arrangement with a pharmacy to furnish renal dialysis service...

  16. Guidebook to financing CDM projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamel, S.

    2007-07-01

    One of the challenges facing Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects today is their limited ability to secure financing for the underlying greenhouse gas emission reduction activities, particularly in the least developed countries. Among the key reasons for this is the fact that most financial intermediaries in the CDM host countries have limited or no knowledge of the CDM Modalities and Procedures. Moreover, approaches, tools and skills for CDM project appraisal are lacking or are asymmetrical to the skills in comparable institutions in developed countries. Consequently, developing country financial institutions are unable to properly evaluate the risks and rewards associated with investing or lending to developers undertaking CDM projects, and therefore have, by-and-large, refrained from financing these projects. In addition, some potential project proponents lack experience in structuring arrangements for financing a project. This Guidebook - commissioned by the UNEP Risoe Centre as part of the activities of the Capacity Development for CDM (CD4CDM) project (http://www.cd4cdm.org) - addresses these barriers by providing information aimed at both developing country financial institutions and at CDM project proponents. It should be noted that while the Guidebook was developed particularly with the CDM in mind, most sections will also be relevant for Joint Implementation (JI) project activities. For more detailed information on JI modalities and procedures please consult: http://ji.unfccc.int The purpose of this Guidebook is two-fold: 1) To guide project developers on obtaining financing for the implementation of activities eligible under the CDM; and 2) To demonstrate to developing country financial institutions typical approaches and methods for appraising the viability of CDM projects and for optimally integrating carbon revenue into overall project financing. The target audiences for the Guidebook are therefore, primarily: 1) CDM project proponents in developing countries, including but not limited to utilities, private and public sector entities, municipalities, and other specialised consultancies and intermediaries; and 2) Credit officers and other decision-makers within banking institutions and financial intermediaries in developing countries. (au)

  17. Single-friction-surface triboelectric generator with human body conduit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Bo; Cheng, Xiaoliang; Zhang, Xiaosheng; Han, Mengdi; Liu, Wen; Zhang, Haixia, E-mail: zhang-alice@pku.edu.cn [National Key Lab of Nano/Micro Fabrication Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2014-03-10

    We present a transparent single-friction-surface triboelectric generator (STEG) employing human body as the conduit, making the applications of STEG in portable electronics much more practical and leading to a significant output improvement. The STEG with micro-patterned polydimethylsiloxane surface achieved an output voltage of over 200 V with a current density of 4.7 ?A/cm{sup 2}. With human body conduit, the output current increased by 39% and the amount of charge that transferred increased by 34% compared to the results with grounded electrode. A larger increment of 210% and 81% was obtained in the case of STEG with a large-size flat polyethylene terephthalate surface.

  18. 26 CFR 1.956-2 - Definition of United States property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...States person is a mere conduit in a financing arrangement will depend upon all the...will be considered a mere conduit in a financing arrangement in a case in which a controlled...e). (Secs. 956(c), 7805, Internal Revenue Code of 1954 (76 Stat....

  19. 26 CFR 1.1441-7 - General provisions relating to withholding agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...avoid tax liability under the Internal Revenue Code. (3) Notification...withholding provisions of the Internal Revenue Code, or the reporting...been made. (f) Conduit financing arrangements —(1) Liability...that do not know of conduit financing arrangement —(i) In...

  20. Impulsive Wave Propagation within Magmatic Conduits with Axial Symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Negri Leiva, R. S.; Arciniega-Ceballos, A.; Scheu, B.; Dingwell, D. B.; Sanchez-Sesma, F. J.

    2013-12-01

    We implemented Trefftz's method to simulate wave propagation in a fluid-solid system aimed to represent a magmatic conduit. Assuming axial symmetry, a set of multipoles is used to build a complete system of wave functions for both the solid and the fluid. These functions are solutions of the elastodynamic equations that govern the motions in the fluid and the solid, respectively. The conduit can be closed or open and the exterior elastic domain may be unlimited or with an exterior boundary. In order to find the functions coefficients, boundary conditions (null shear and continuity of pressures and normal velocities) are satisfied in the least squares sense. The impulsive nature of the source is considered using Fourier analysis. Despite the simplicity of the formulation our results display a rich variety of behaviors. In fact, for a uniform infinite cylinder we reproduced the analytical solution. Moreover, this approach allows establishing some important effects of conduit geometry, including changes of sections. Lateral effects and bump resonances are well resolved. We compared our numerical calculations with results obtained from experimental simulations of volcanic explosions in which rapid depressurization induces fragmentation of volcanic rocks. These experiments are performed within a shock-tube apparatus at room temperature and various pressures using Argon (Ar) gas, particles and pumice samples of different porosities, from Popocatepetl volcano. The mechanical system is well characterized and the dynamics of the explosive process is monitored with high precision piezoelectric sensors located at the pipe surface. The combination of analytical and experimental approaches is very useful to understand the seismic wave field of volcanic conduit dynamics.

  1. Studies on forced convection nanofluid flow in circular conduits

    OpenAIRE

    Harikrishna Vishwanadula; Emmanuel C. Nsofor

    2012-01-01

    An experimental system was developed and used to study the nanofluid flow and heat transfer in circular conduits. Experiments were performed for a variety of nanofluid flow features in the system. Results obtained from the study show that the heat transfer rate for flow of the base fluid is less than that of the nanofluid used in the study. It was also found that the observed relationship between molecular diffusivity of momentum and the molecular diffusivity of thermal energy at the macrosca...

  2. Project financing in the energy sector: The Indonesian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Past Indonesian experiences in arranging Project Financing or Limited Recourse Financing in the Energy Sector and the feasibility of such a structure for Nuclear Power Projects are reviewed in this paper. Many of the projects in the energy sector, including Nuclear Power Project are capital intensive projects. A single project may require an investment level of several billion dollars. Large capital investments of this nature may drastically limit the availability of funds from external sources used to finance other non-energy projects in a developing country such as Indonesia. Therefore, the financing concept of a project is becoming a paramount element in the policies adopted by the Republic of Indonesia. As an example, a non-recourse finance structure is the preference of the government for export oriented energy projects. The aim of the government financing policy for export oriented energy projects is to limit the recourse to the applicable Indonesian state enterprise (the project sponsor) by transferring to third parties as much of the project risks as possible. Most of the export oriented energy projects come close to achieving a non-recourse structure. Domestic oriented energy projects however, continue to be financed with a loan guarantee by the government or by state owned enterprises. In addition to maintaining fund availability from external sources for the non-energy sector, Indonesia's reported external debts as well as debt service ratios are other factwell as debt service ratios are other factors in considering a limited recourse financing structure for capital intensive projects. (author)

  3. Free-boundary models of a meltwater conduit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallaston, Michael C.; Hewitt, Ian J.

    2014-08-01

    We analyse the cross-sectional evolution of an englacial meltwater conduit that contracts due to inward creep of the surrounding ice and expands due to melting. Making use of theoretical methods from free-boundary problems in Stokes flow and Hele-Shaw squeeze flow we construct an exact solution to the coupled problem of external viscous creep and internal heating, in which we adopt a Newtonian approximation for ice flow and an idealized uniform heat source in the conduit. This problem provides an interesting variant on standard free-boundary problems, coupling different internal and external problems through the kinematic condition at the interface. The boundary in the exact solution takes the form of an ellipse that may contract or expand (depending on the magnitudes of effective pressure and heating rate) around fixed focal points. Linear stability analysis reveals that without the melting this solution is unstable to perturbations in the shape. Melting can stabilize the interface unless the aspect ratio is too small; in that case, instabilities grow largest at the thin ends of the ellipse. The predictions are corroborated with numerical solutions using boundary integral techniques. Finally, a number of extensions to the idealized model are considered, showing that a contracting circular conduit is unstable to all modes of perturbation if melting occurs at a uniform rate around the boundary, or if the ice is modelled as a shear-thinning fluid.

  4. Financing Distributed Generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper introduces the engineer who is undertaking distributed generation projects to a wide range of financing options. Distributed generation systems (such as internal combustion engines, small gas turbines, fuel cells and photovoltaics) all require an initial investment, which is recovered over time through revenues or savings. An understanding of the cost of capital and financing structures helps the engineer develop realistic expectations and not be offended by the common requirements of financing organizations. This paper discusses several mechanisms for financing distributed generation projects: appropriations; debt (commercial bank loan); mortgage; home equity loan; limited partnership; vendor financing; general obligation bond; revenue bond; lease; Energy Savings Performance Contract; utility programs; chauffage (end-use purchase); and grants. The paper also discusses financial strategies for businesses focusing on distributed generation: venture capital; informal investors (''business angels''); bank and debt financing; and the stock market

  5. FINANCING OF INTERNATIONAL TRANSACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADU NICOLAE B?LUN?

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Financing (funding is essentially the purchase of funds necessary for a business. This can be done from internal sources (company’s own funds or external (borrowed funds. The high value of goods traded in international trade makes revenues generated from internal resources not sufficient to settle the value of the goods. Thus, it is frequent to resort to borrowed funds. In International Business Transactions, external financing is done both by classical techniques of credit (credit supplier and buyer credit and modern techniques of financing (factoring, forfeiting, leasing all trade tailored. In terms of the length of financing, accounting funding is short-term (1-12 months and long-term financing (over a year. In principle, export and import operations prevailing short-term financing techniques, while international investment and industrial cooperation actions are specific long-term funding

  6. 77 FR 61829 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Information Collection Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ...R. Joseph Durbala, Internal Revenue Service, room...to recharacterize a financing arrangement as a conduit...that are part of the financing arrangement. This regulation...engage in multi-party financing arrangements. Current...107-276, amended Internal Revenue Code...

  7. Financing nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global energy security and climate change concerns sparked by escalating oil prices, high population growth and the rapid pace of industrialization are fueling the current interest and investments in nuclear power. Globally, a significant number policy makers and energy industry leaders have identified nuclear power as a favorable alternative energy option, and are presently evaluating either a new or an expanded role for nuclear power. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has reported that as of October 2008, 14 countries have plans to construct 38 new nuclear reactors and about 100 more nuclear power plants have been written into the development plans of governments for the next three decades. Hence as new build is expected to escalate, issues of financing will become increasingly significant. Energy supply, including nuclear power, considered as a premium by government from the socio-economic and strategic perspective has traditionally been a sector financed and owned by the government. In the case for nuclear power, the conventional methods of financing include financing by the government or energy entity (utility or oil company) providing part of the funds from its own resources with support from the government. As national financing is, as in many cases, insufficient to fully finance the nuclear power plants, additional financing is sourced from international sources of financing including, amongst others, Export Credit Agencies (ECAs) and Multilateral t Credit Agencies (ECAs) and Multilateral Development Institutions. However, arising from the changing dynamics of economics, financing and business model as well as increasing concerns regarding environmental degradation , transformations in methods of financing this energy sector has been observed. This paper aims to briefly present on financing aspects of nuclear power as well as offer some examples of the changing dynamics of financing nuclear power which is reflected by the evolution of ownership and management of nuclear power plants from Government and State-owned companies to large privatised utilities and independent developers. (Author)

  8. Financing a Loss

    OpenAIRE

    David Rakowski; Eahab Elsaid

    2012-01-01

    When companies have a net loss accompanied by negative operating cash flows, they must decide how to handle the financing deficit, or, stated differently, they must decide how to finance the loss.  By examining a large sample of firms with net losses, we document how companies respond to the financing shock that occurs with negative cash flow.  For companies with a one-year loss, current assets decrease and current liabilities increase.  While we observe that leverage ratios increase durin...

  9. Frictional melting and stick-slip behavior in volcanic conduits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, Jackie Evan; Lavallee, Yan; Hirose, Takehiro; di Toro, Giulio; Hornby, Adrian Jakob; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Dingwell, Donald Bruce

    2013-04-01

    Dome-building eruptions have catastrophic potential, with dome collapse leading to devastating pyroclastic flows with almost no precursory warning. During dome growth, the driving forces of the buoyant magma may be superseded by controls along conduit margins; where brittle fracture and sliding can lead to formation of lubricating cataclasite and gouge. Under extreme friction, pseudotachylyte may form at the conduit margin. Understanding the conduit margin processes is vital to understanding the continuation of an eruption and we postulate that pseudotachylyte generation could be the underlying cause of stick-slip motion and associated seismic "drumbeats", which are so commonly observed at dome-building volcanoes. This view is supported by field evidence in the form of pseudotachylytes identified in lava dome products at Soufrière Hills (Montserrat) and Mount St. Helens (USA). Both eruptions were characterised by repetitive, periodic seismicity and lava spine extrusion of highly viscous magma. High velocity rotary shear (HVR) experiments demonstrate the propensity for melting of the andesitic and dacitic material (from Soufrière Hills and Mount St. Helens respectively) at upper conduit stress conditions (speed that is achievable during stick-slip motion). At lower velocities melting occurs comparatively later due to dissipation of heat from the slip zone (e.g. 8-15 m at 0.1 m/s). Hence, given the ease with which melting is achieved in volcanic rocks, and considering the high ambient temperatures in volcanic conduits, frictional melting may thus be an inevitable consequence of viscous magma ascent. The shear resistance of the slip zone during the experiment is also monitored. Frictional melting induces a higher resistance to sliding than rock on rock, and viscous processes control the slip zone properties. Variable-rate HVR experiments which mimic rapid velocity fluctuations in stick-slip behavior demonstrate velocity-weakening behavior of melt, with a tendency for unstable slip. During ascent, magma may slip and undergo melting along the conduit margin. In the process the shear resistance of the slip zone is increased, acting as a viscous brake halting slip (the "stick" of stick-slip motion). Sufficient buoyancy-driven pressures from ascending magma below eventually overcome resistance to produce a rapid slip event (the "slip") along the melt-bearing slip zone, which is temporarily lubricated due to velocity-weakening. New magma below experiences the same slip event more slowly (as the magma decompresses) to produce a viscous brake and the process is repeated. This allows a fixed spatial locus that explains the repetitive drumbeat seismicity and the occurrence of "families" of similar seismic events. We conclude that stick-slip motion in volcanic conduits is a self-driving, frictional-melt-regulated force common to many dome building volcanoes.

  10. Putting finances together

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLeese, R. [Access Capital Corp., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Some of the financial issues facing small power generators and cogeneration in Ontario's energy market were discussed, including risks, access to risk capital, and project development. Lenders invest in creditworthy companies with firm off-take agreements. The key to success is the strength of the contract. The paper describes financing issues regarding feasibility studies, secure sites, fuel supply agreements, transmission inputs, regulations and construction. Options and terms for agreements and contract negotiations were reviewed. Financing cogeneration projects in a deregulated market involves a thorough understanding of project finance issues such as construction risks, operation risks and financing issues related to risk. 5 figs.

  11. Innovative M and A financing structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structuring and financing of mergers and acquisitions (M and A) is one of the most critical elements of a takeover process, given that Canadian securities law requires that any takeover must be 'fully financed'. It follows therefore, that in order to comply with securities laws, the financing for a takeover must be arranged in advance of making such a bid. This paper describes the structuring of an offer, outlines the sources of M and A financing, including a review of the 'full capital solution', reviews the key forces influencing the financial structuring of takeover bids, and provides examples of recent M and A transactions in the oil and gas resources sectors. Case histories of two recent mergers and acquisitions, one involving Sun Media Corporation and Rogers Communication Inc., the other John Labatt Limited and the Onex Corporation, were reviewed in detail. The importance of proper structuring of the offer for the specific target's shareholders, as well as for future business operations was stressed

  12. Financing responsibility for nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic premise for financing arrangements for the disposal of nuclear waste is that the nuclear industry - not the taxpayer - must bear the costs. Present regulations, however, are imperfect in this regard. The Inquiry therefore proposes extending the financial liability of the nuclear industry and introducing new fee-setting arrangements. It is proposed that a new law be enacted to regulate these changes. The present financing system is regulated in the 'Financing Act' 1. Under this Act, the licensed owner and operator of a nuclear reactor is required to pay an annual fee and provide guarantees to the State. Four companies are reactor owners. These companies are wholly or partly owned by other companies according to various arrangements. Each reactor owner is responsible for its own dismantling costs and for its share of allocated common costs of disposal and related measures. If there is insufficient money in the funds, the nuclear industry will still be liable. The basic premise of the Inquiry is that the financing system should be designed so as to minimise the risk that the State (and taxpayers) will need to step in and pay. Although the nuclear industry is intended to have full liability for payment, in practice it does not. This is because the formal full liability for payment in the nuclear industry rests with the reactor companies and not where the industry's long-term ability to pay is to be found. Essentially, the present arrangements mean that: - Compane present arrangements mean that: - Companies that cannot be expected to have any long-term ability to pay have unlimited liability, and - Companies that can be expected to have an ability to pay have very limited liability. The Inquiry therefore proposes that ability to pay and liability are brought into line by a formal assumption by owning companies of the sort of liability for payment that now rests solely with the reactor companies. This means that the owning company in each group that is best suited to bear the liability for payment - which in principle is likely to be the leading company in the group - will also assume liability through a payment guarantee. The extended requirement to pay fees for the period until the final disposal sites are sealed and the secondary liability for payment are central components of the proposed new design of the financing system. In other cases where the State assumes risks, risk assessments are made. This applies, for example, when the State provides guarantees in the area of export credits. In the view of the Inquiry, however, the State has not followed an appropriate course of action in managing the financial risk involved in this case. Use must be made of descriptions of risks in other projects and experience of managing financial risks of other projects. The Inquiry considers that a different system and different management is required in order to put the liability of the nuclear industry for costs into place - and so limit the financial risk borne by the State. The Inquiry considers it essential that the use of funds is followed up and audited so as to maintain confidence in the financing system. The Inquiry considers that a three-year fee period should create scope for auditing and control and proposes that the safety authority be instructed in an ordinance to draw up rules aimed at facilitating follow-up by requiring time limits, comparability, etc. It is proposed that auditing be made part of a new financially oriented line of activity at the authority. It is proposed further that the safety authority be instructed to deliver an account to the Government every three years regarding its assessment of the most important risk factors in the withdrawals process. The Inquiry proposes that the National Debt Office be instructed to review the issue of a fee for the State's financial risk three years after a new financing system has entered into force

  13. Accounting for arrangements - Part 1

    OpenAIRE

    Venter, Elmar R.; Tomes, Tania

    2006-01-01

    Based on the substance over form principle, transactions that in substance transfer the right to use an asset for an agreed period of time, in return for a series of payments, are accounted for as a lease transaction in terms of IAS 17 (AC 105), irrespective of the legal form of the arrangement. The International Financial Reporting Interpretations Committee and the Standards Interpretation Committee have issued two documents that provide more guidance on the application of the substance over...

  14. X-ray tube arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technique for ensuring the rapid correction of both amplitude and offset errors in the deflectional movement of an electron beam along an X-ray emissive target is described. The movement is monitored at at least two positions during a sweep and differences, between the two movements and a desired movement, at these positions are combined in different proportions to produce a corrective servo signal. Such arrangements find application, for example, in computerised tomographic scanners. (author)

  15. Structure for arranging fuel spacers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To improve the performance and the vibration resistance of fuel assemblies in a water cooled reactor by varying the distance of the supporting contacts for each of the fuel rods in the spacer arrangement. Constitution: Spacer arrangement is adapted such that they support at a plane with an appropriate direction relative to the plane normal to the longitudinal direction of a fuel rod. That is, by properly combining the slanting angle or direction for each of the spacers and the distance between the spacers, vibration characteristics becomes inherent to each of the spacers. Then, considering the resonance due to fluid vibrations of coolants or seismic vibrations, etc., there is no possibility that the resonance modes of fuel rods should be matched. Further, since the spacers are slanted relative to the flowing channel, it is advantageous over the conventional perpendicular structure also in view of the fluid pressure loss. The arrangement and the combination of the spacers are quite optional and can be determined depending on the vibration characteristics or physical properties of fluids thereby making the performance and the strength excellent. (Kamimura, M.)

  16. Influence of irradiation sterilization on mechanical properties and biodegradability of chitosan conduits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitosan conduits were sterilized with 60Co ? ray irradiation at a dose of 25 kGy and their swelling properties, mechanical properties and biodegradability in lysozyme solution were measured. After ? ray irradiation, the swelling index of chitosan conduit was considerably reduced and the tensile strength and elastic modulus were markedly increased. The results from SEM and measurement of mechanical properties showed that the degradation rate of the irradiated conduits in lysozyme solution was lower than that of the nonirradiated conduits. In addition, the chitosan conduits were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), and the influence mechanism of irradiation sterilization on the properties of chitosan conduits was explored. (authors)

  17. Imaging of platelets in right-sided extracardiac conduits in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a connection between the systemic venous ventricle and the pulmonary artery, valved Dacron extracardiac conduits have remarkably influenced the surgical approach to many complex congenital heart defects. Obstruction of the conduit, however, can reduce the long-term effectiveness of this corrective procedure. In addition to stenosis of the porcine valve, formation of thick fibrous neointima plays a major role in the pathogenesis of conduit obstruction. The purpose of this study was to determine whether platelet deposition could be demonstrated in these conduits by external imaging with 111In-labeled autologous platelets. After injection of labeled platelets either immediately after operation or on the fifth to eighth postoperative day, imaging was performed by standard procedures. Eight of nine patients had platelet accumulation in the conduit, and treatment with aspirin and dipyridamole caused no recognizable change in platelet deposition. This study demonstrates the feasibility of imaging platelet deposition in Dacron conduits and shows that the pattern of deposition varies with time

  18. Public Education Finances, 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Commerce, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The United States Census Bureau conducts an Annual Survey of Government Finances as authorized by law under Title 13, United States Code, Section 182. The 2003 survey, similar to other annual surveys and censuses of governments conducted for many years, covers the entire range of government finance activities--revenue, expenditure, debt, and…

  19. Quo Vadis Infrastructure Financing?

    OpenAIRE

    Brodehser, Peter

    2013-01-01

    1. Introduction 2. The project finance market in 2006/2007 3. Areas affected by the global financial crisis 4. Areas affected by the euro financial crisis 5. Basel III and the consequences for infrastructure financing 6. Outlook – Where do we go from here?

  20. Geothermal Financing Workbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battocletti, E.C.

    1998-02-01

    This report was prepared to help small firm search for financing for geothermal energy projects. There are various financial and economics formulas. Costs of some small overseas geothermal power projects are shown. There is much discussion of possible sources of financing, especially for overseas projects. (DJE-2005)

  1. Financing - general considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various aspects of the problems of financing a multinational regional fuel cycle centre (RFCC) are briefly discussed. Some of the points covered are: financing by participants; floating long-term loans on capital markets outside the countries of the participants; and export credits for the purchase of equipment manufactured outside the countries of the participants

  2. Essays in International Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Wenxin

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation consists of three essays in international finance. The first two essays study emerging market sovereign risk with a focus on local currency denominated sovereign bonds. The third essay examines econometric tools for robust inference in the presence of missing observations, an issue frequently encountered by researchers in international finance.

  3. Public Education Finances, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Every five years, the U.S. Census Bureau conducts a Census of Government Finance, as authorized by law under Title 13, U.S. Code, Section 182. The 2007 Census, similar to annual surveys and censuses of governments conducted for many years, covers the entire range of government finance activities--revenue, expenditure, debt, and assets (cash and…

  4. Public Education Finances, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The United States Census Bureau conducts an Annual Survey of Government Finances as authorized by law under Title 13, United States Code, Section 182. The 2006 survey, similar to other annual surveys and censuses of governments conducted for many years, covers the entire range of government finance activities--revenue, expenditure, debt, and…

  5. Public Education Finances, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The United States Census Bureau conducts an Annual Survey of Government Finances as authorized by law under Title 13, United States Code, Section 182. The 2005 survey, similar to other annual surveys and censuses of governments conducted for many years, covers the entire range of government finance activities--revenue, expenditure, debt, and…

  6. Public Education Finances, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The United States Census Bureau conducts an Annual Survey of Government Finances as authorized by law under Title 13, United States Code, Section 182. The 2008 survey, similar to other annual surveys and censuses of governments conducted for many years, covers the entire range of government finance activities--revenue, expenditure, debt, and…

  7. 25 CFR 170.300 - May tribes use flexible financing to finance IRR transportation projects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... May tribes use flexible financing to finance IRR transportation projects? 170... May tribes use flexible financing to finance IRR transportation projects? Yes...financing in the same manner as States to finance IRR transportation projects, unless...

  8. Financing Canadian international operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A primer on financing international operations by Canadian corporations was provided. Factors affecting the availability to project finance (location, political risk), the various forms of financing (debt, equity, and combinations), the main sources of government backed financing to corporations (the International Finance Corporation) (IFC), the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), the Asian Development Bank (ADB), the Overseas Property Insurance Corporation (OPIC), government or agency guarantees, political risk coverage, the use of offshore financial centres, and the where, when and how these various organizations operate, were reviewed. Examples of all of the above, taken from the experiences of Canadian Occidental Petroleum of Calgary in the U.S., in South America, in the Middle and Far East, and in Kazakhstan, were used as illustrations. figs

  9. Evaluation of the ITER cable in conduit conductor heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Convective heat transfer correlations in dual channel Cable In Conduit Conductor (CICC) are presented as functions of friction factor, and based on the Reynolds-Colburn analogy using the Stanton number. The developed thermohydraulic model determines helium temperatures in both channels, with the real geometrical spiral perforation. It is applied with pertinence to the Poloidal Field Full Size Joint Sample (PF-FSJS) and shows good agreement between the experimental measurements and the calculated temperatures, characterised by a 0.43 m space constant. The heat load applied in the bundle region induces density imbalance; the gravity effect in this vertical sample is evaluated and discussed. (authors)

  10. Heating-induced flows in cable-in-conduit conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoenig et al and Miller et al have both reported high stability margins for cable-in-conduit conductors cooled by stationary supercritical helium. Miller et al proposed that strong flows induced in the helium in the early stages of recovery enhanced heat transfer and greatly increased the stability margin over what had been expected for stationary helium. In this memorandum, the flow and pressure transients induced in initially stationary helium by energy transfers typical of those associated with conductor recovery (50 to 200 mJ cm-3 in 10 to 20 msec) are calculated

  11. Modeling flow in phreatic and epiphreatic Karst conduits in the Hölloch Cave (Muotatal, Switzerland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeannin, Pierre-Yves

    2001-02-01

    The Hölloch cave is a site where the hydrodynamic behavior of a karst conduit network can be observed with a high degree of precision. Observed heads, discharge rates, conduit sizes, and conduit lengths have been compiled into a simple hydrodynamic model in order to check their consistency. It was possible to calibrate and satisfactorily fit the observed data. Model results show the following: (1) Flow models which are able to simulate turbulent flow in variably saturated conduit networks can adequately model conduit flow-dominated karst systems. (2) Karst systems may be strongly nonlinear, especially because of the presence of epiphreatic conduits. (3) Under certain circumstances, storage in the epiphreatic conduits and in the fissured limestone matrix can be neglected. (4) The typical effective hydraulic conductivity of karst conduits ranges between 1 and 10 m s-1, and the Louis formula is adequate to calculate head losses in those conduits. (5) Indirect measurements of flow velocity using scallop size indicate values of ˜30-40% of the maximal annual discharge, and velocity derived from pebble size indicates values of ˜150% of the maximal annual discharge.

  12. Public School Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    This issue of Topic in Depth explores some of the resources available online regarding school finance. The first article from the RAND Review (1) discusses the challenges involved in meeting the ambitious goals established by the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act and the need to develop a school accountability system that can provide "the incentives and resources that the schools really need to help all students meet the state performance standards." In the second article (2), Linda Darling-Hammond, a Professor at Stanford University discusses the inequality of school funding across the US, again using California as an example. This website from CPRE (3) offers several articles that explain how school finance in the US works. The NCES Education Finance Statistics Center (4) is also a hub for information on public elementary/secondary education finance, including finance data on school districts nationwide. The Education Commission of the States (ECS) (5) offers this listing of state finance agencies for more state-specific information. Students can explore the topic further using this educational website from NCES (6). A collection of reports available through New American Schools (7) highlights one approach to the problem of school finance, namely resource reallocation. Taking yet another tactic, the author of this last article (8) proposes "a 'World Bank' for American education."

  13. Arrangement for selectively irradiating webs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The arrangement for selectively irradiating a web includes a perforated band of a radiation impermeable substance which is guided in an endless path via a pair of guide rollers and has two juxtaposed runs in this path. A take-up roller conveys a web of material past one of the runs at a side thereof remote from the other run, the direction of movement of the web being other than parallel to that of the band and, preferably, normal thereto. An electron accelerator is provided at the far side of the run remote from the web and is effective for directing a radiation beam at the web through the perforations

  14. Moduli of weighted hyperplane arrangements

    CERN Document Server

    Lahoz, Martí; Macrí, Emanuele; Stellari, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    This book focuses on a large class of geometric objects in moduli theory and provides explicit computations to investigate their families. Concrete examples are developed that take advantage of the intricate interplay between Algebraic Geometry and Combinatorics. Compactifications of moduli spaces play a crucial role in Number Theory, String Theory, and Quantum Field Theory – to mention just a few. In particular, the notion of compactification of moduli spaces has been crucial for solving various open problems and long-standing conjectures. Further, the book reports on compactification techniques for moduli spaces in a large class where computations are possible, namely that of weighted stable hyperplane arrangements.

  15. Ultra high vacuum seal arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrangement for demountably sealing two concentric metallic tubes in an ultra high vacuum system which facilitates remote actuation is claimed. A tubular seal includes integral spaced lips which circumferentially engage the metallic tubes. The lips plastically deform the metallic tubes by mechanical forces resulting from a martensite to austenite transformation of the tubular seal upon application of a predetermined temperature. The sealing force is released upon application of another temperature which causes a transformation from the stronger austenite to the weaker martensite. Use of a dual acting sealing ring and driving ring circumferentially contacting the sealing ring is particularly applicable to sealing larger diameter concentric metallic members

  16. Ultra high vacuum seal arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaherty, Robert (Mt. Lebanon, PA)

    1981-01-01

    Arrangement for demountably sealing two concentric metallic tubes in an ultra high vacuum system which facilitates remote actuation. A tubular seal includes integral spaced lips which circumferentially engage the metallic tubes. The lips plastically deform the metallic tubes by mechanical forces resulting from a martensite to austenite transformation of the tubular seal upon application of a predetermined temperature. The sealing force is released upon application of another temperature which causes a transformation from the stronger austenite to the weaker martensite. Use of a dual acting sealing ring and driving ring circumferentially contacting the sealing ring is particularly applicable to sealing larger diameter concentric metallic members.

  17. Documentation of a Conduit Flow Process (CFP) for MODFLOW-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, W. Barclay; Kuniansky, Eve L.; Birk, Steffen; Bauer, Sebastian; Swain, Eric D.

    2007-01-01

    This report documents the Conduit Flow Process (CFP) for the modular finite-difference ground-water flow model, MODFLOW-2005. The CFP has the ability to simulate turbulent ground-water flow conditions by: (1) coupling the traditional ground-water flow equation with formulations for a discrete network of cylindrical pipes (Mode 1), (2) inserting a high-conductivity flow layer that can switch between laminar and turbulent flow (Mode 2), or (3) simultaneously coupling a discrete pipe network while inserting a high-conductivity flow layer that can switch between laminar and turbulent flow (Mode 3). Conduit flow pipes (Mode 1) may represent dissolution or biological burrowing features in carbonate aquifers, voids in fractured rock, and (or) lava tubes in basaltic aquifers and can be fully or partially saturated under laminar or turbulent flow conditions. Preferential flow layers (Mode 2) may represent: (1) a porous media where turbulent flow is suspected to occur under the observed hydraulic gradients; (2) a single secondary porosity subsurface feature, such as a well-defined laterally extensive underground cave; or (3) a horizontal preferential flow layer consisting of many interconnected voids. In this second case, the input data are effective parameters, such as a very high hydraulic conductivity, representing multiple features. Data preparation is more complex for CFP Mode 1 (CFPM1) than for CFP Mode 2 (CFPM2). Specifically for CFPM1, conduit pipe locations, lengths, diameters, tortuosity, internal roughness, critical Reynolds numbers (NRe), and exchange conductances are required. CFPM1, however, solves the pipe network equations in a matrix that is independent of the porous media equation matrix, which may mitigate numerical instability associated with solution of dual flow components within the same matrix. CFPM2 requires less hydraulic information and knowledge about the specific location and hydraulic properties of conduits, and turbulent flow is approximated by modifying horizontal conductances assembled by the Block-Centered Flow (BCF), Layer-Property Flow (LPF), or Hydrogeologic-Unit Flow Packages (HUF) of MODFLOW-2005. For both conduit flow pipes (CFPM1) and preferential flow layers (CFPM2), critical Reynolds numbers are used to determine if flow is laminar or turbulent. Due to conservation of momentum, flow in a laminar state tends to remain laminar and flow in a turbulent state tends to remain turbulent. This delayed transition between laminar and turbulent flow is introduced in the CFP, which provides an additional benefit of facilitating convergence of the computer algorithm during iterations of transient simulations. Specifically, the user can specify a higher critical Reynolds number to determine when laminar flow within a pipe converts to turbulent flow, and a lower critical Reynolds number for determining when a pipe with turbulent flow switches to laminar flow. With CFPM1, the Hagen-Poiseuille equation is used for laminar flow conditions and the Darcy-Weisbach equation is applied to turbulent flow conditions. With CFPM2, turbulent flow is approximated by reducing the laminar hydraulic conductivity by a nonlinear function of the Reynolds number, once the critical head difference is exceeded. This adjustment approximates the reductions in mean velocity under turbulent ground-water flow conditions.

  18. 7 CFR 28.906 - Sampling arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sampling arrangements. 28.906 ...REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Cotton Classification...News Service for Producers Sampling § 28.906 Sampling arrangements. (a)...

  19. Financing Bologna Students’ Mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Ge?rard, Marcel; International Conference on Education Economics

    2010-01-01

    The current system for financing cross-border students, based on the host country, is neither sustainable nor efficient: it produces too little cross-border education. On that background, and motivate as well by a recent decision of the European Court of Justice, we explore two alternative solutions. The first one substitutes to the financing by the host country, a financing by the country of origin, through vouchers that the student may use at home or abroad provided it is in a recognized in...

  20. Manufacture of porous biodegradable polymer conduits by an extrusion process for guided tissue regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmer, M. S.; Gupta, P. K.; Lu, L.; Meszlenyi, R. K.; Evans, G. R.; Brandt, K.; Savel, T.; Gurlek, A.; Patrick, C. W. Jr; Mikos, A. G.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    We have fabricated porous, biodegradable tubular conduits for guided tissue regeneration using a combined solvent casting and extrusion technique. The biodegradable polymers used in this study were poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA). A polymer/salt composite was first prepared by a solvent casting process. After drying, the composite was extruded to form a tubular construct. The salt particles in the construct were then leached out leaving a conduit with an open-pore structure. PLGA was studied as a model polymer to analyze the effects of salt weight fraction, salt particle size, and processing temperature on porosity and pore size of the extruded conduits. The porosity and pore size were found to increase with increasing salt weight fraction. Increasing the salt particle size increased the pore diameter but did not affect the porosity. High extrusion temperatures decreased the pore diameter without altering the porosity. Greater decrease in molecular weight was observed for conduits manufactured at higher temperatures. The mechanical properties of both PLGA and PLLA conduits were tested after degradation in vitro for up to 8 weeks. The modulus and failure strength of PLLA conduits were approximately 10 times higher than those of PLGA conduits. Failure strain was similar for both conduits. After degradation for 8 weeks, the molecular weights of the PLGA and PLLA conduits decreased to 38% and 43% of the initial values, respectively. However, both conduits maintained their shape and did not collapse. The PLGA also remained amorphous throughout the time course, while the crystallinity of PLLA increased from 5.2% to 11.5%. The potential of seeding the conduits with cells for transplantation or with biodegradable polymer microparticles for drug delivery was also tested with dyed microspheres. These porous tubular structures hold great promise for the regeneration of tissues which require tubular scaffolds such as peripheral nerve, long bone, intestine, or blood vessel.

  1. Financing energy projects in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Overview of financing trends in Africa; Multilateral support - Bedrock of Africa's first generation energy projects; ECA insurance and financing; Bilateral development finance; Offshore commercial bank lending; Local commercial bank finance; Capital markets; Legal ramifications ; Risk factors; Conclusions. (Author)

  2. PUBLIC FINANCE FUNCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VEZURE OANA SABINA

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of public finances is due to objective causes needs and determined their main function being to obtain the financial resources it needs for the State to exercise its powers and on the way to intervene in the economy and society general. Public finances are necessary, subjectively and objectively, as it contributes to accomplishing the tasks and functions of the state, which could not be realized without financial leverage. Public finances are inextricably linked to the existence of the state, and public sector's role in the economy. Thus, they express "social relations, economic arising in the establishment and use of public funds between the state, on the one hand, and members of society on the other hand, to meet the needs of general interest of society" [1]. Thus, the role of public finance is to meet the needs of general interest or collective needs.

  3. FINANCING INNOVATION IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SORIN SERBAN

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This article based on an examination of empirical literature, analyses the financing of innovative enterprises in Romania and presents the characteristics of Romanian policies in this regard. It sets forth an estimation of the number of innovative enterprises in Romania based on figures from different sources. Assessing the role of financial restrictions on innovation reveals that a firm is facing obstacles to finance its innovative activities but also other difficulties to innovate which appears to be enhanced. This article also puts forward the role of different financing actors and instruments at different stages of the firm's life cycle and emphasizes the function of proximity capital in filling the gap between supply and demand of financing. Finally a framework for policy is recommended.

  4. Personal Finance Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argo, Mark

    1982-01-01

    Contains explanations and examples of mathematical calculations for a secondary level course on personal finance. How to calculate total monetary cost of an item, monthly payments, different types of interest, annual percentage rates, and unit pricing is explained. (RM)

  5. Financing for Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Website from the United Nations, Financing for Development offers information on the 1999 collaboration of the UN, World Bank, IMF, and WTO to find innovative solutions to finance development. These organizations are gearing up for a "high-level consultation in the first quarter of 2002," and many of the documents and much of the information on this site have to do with plans for this consultation. Brand new on the site are the summaries from sessions of the preparatory committee, including regional consultations, and reports on the Business Community and Civil Society hearings. The site also features a listing of new policy developments, and information on upcoming events in development financing. For those following the UN's participation in development work, Financing for Development collects many relevant resources all in one place.

  6. To finance the transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A set of brief articles illustrates the emergence of innovating and operational financing tools aimed at supporting energy transition in France and in Europe. As far as France is concerned, different examples are evoked: raising local savings, crowd-funding for renewable energies, citizen investment, cooperation between industries, communities and citizens, a semi-public company with citizen participation, the case of the Nancy urban community, a joint experience by a local public company and an investment fund. As far as Europe is concerned, the following topics or examples are evoked: local policies as lever for European financing, the Danish example of citizen-based financing, crowd-funding in the UK, the European emergence of cooperatives. As far as banks and institutions are concerned, the following topics are addressed: tools implemented by the Caisse des Depots for energy transition, the roles of banks and of public institutions in the financing of energy transition

  7. Export development financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main activities of the Export Development Corporation (EDC) were described, as well as some of the changes currently being implemented. EDC is Canada's official export credit agency, providing risk management services such as insurance, loans, guarantees, equity and leasing. EDC's project finance initiative started in 1991, and focused mainly on the up-front process. It has established itself as a recognized leader in project financing. It has over 15 years experience in a variety of sectors and countries. Energy projects financed to date include hydro projects in India, Argentina and Pakistan, and thermal projects in Thailand, China, Indonesia and Egypt. Lending criteria used to select projects were outlined, along with the risks endemic to project financing

  8. Twenty years of cable-in-conduit conductors: 1975-1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews our progress during the last two decades in understanding cable-in-conduit conductors. The emphasis is on the physical principles governing the behavior of cable-in-conduit conductors, and no detailed mathematics is presented. The paper is constructed as a historical narrative

  9. Staghorn calculus due to migration of foreign body: unusual complication of ileal conduit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampel, N; Kursh, E D; Persky, L

    1978-07-01

    An unusual late complication of ileal conduit diversion is described. To our knowledge this is the first case reported in which a foreign body apparently migrated from an ileal conduit to the renal pelvis and served as a nidus for stone formation. PMID:356392

  10. A one-dimensional heat-transport model for conduit flow in karst aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, A.J.; Gilcrease, P.C.

    2009-01-01

    A one-dimensional heat-transport model for conduit flow in karst aquifers is presented as an alternative to two or three-dimensional distributed-parameter models, which are data intensive and require knowledge of conduit locations. This model can be applied for cases where water temperature in a well or spring receives all or part of its water from a phreatic conduit. Heat transport in the conduit is simulated by using a physically-based heat-transport equation that accounts for inflow of diffuse flow from smaller openings and fissures in the surrounding aquifer during periods of low recharge. Additional diffuse flow that is within the zone of influence of the well or spring but has not interacted with the conduit is accounted for with a binary mixing equation to proportion these different water sources. The estimation of this proportion through inverse modeling is useful for the assessment of contaminant vulnerability and well-head or spring protection. The model was applied to 7 months of continuous temperature data for a sinking stream that recharges a conduit and a pumped well open to the Madison aquifer in western South Dakota. The simulated conduit-flow fraction to the well ranged from 2% to 31% of total flow, and simulated conduit velocity ranged from 44 to 353 m/d.

  11. Financing asset growth

    OpenAIRE

    Brennan, Michael J.; Kraft, Holger

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we provide new evidence that corporate financing decisions are associated with managerial incentives to report high equity earnings. Managers rely most heavily on debt to finance their asset growth when their future earnings prospects are poor, when they are under pressure due to past declines in earnings, negative past stock returns, and excessively optimistic analyst earnings forecasts, and when the earnings yield is high relative to bond yields so that from an accounting pers...

  12. Financing and takeovers

    OpenAIRE

    Morellec, Erwan

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes the interaction between financial leverage and takeover activity. We develop a dynamic model of takeovers in which the financing strategies of bidding firms and the timing and terms of takeovers are jointly determined. In the paper, capital structure plays the role of a commitment device, and determines the outcome of the acquisition contest. We demonstrate that there exists an asymmetric equilibrium in financing policies with endogenous leverage, bankruptcy, and takeover ...

  13. Financing the German Mittelstand

    OpenAIRE

    Hommel, Ulrich; Schneider, Hilmar

    2003-01-01

    Based on a survey conducted among German Mittelstand firms and capital structure data on the Mittelstand, this paper sheds light on the current and future financing situation of the Mittelstand. The paper documents the equity shortage and dependence on bank debt typically associated with the Mittelstand. It further emphasises that - at present - fears of systematic credit rationing are difficult to substantiate (though a lack of alternative sources of finance can be expected to adversely affe...

  14. Hawkes processes in finance

    OpenAIRE

    Bacry, Emmanuel; Mastromatteo, Iacopo; Muzy, Jean-franc?ois

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we propose an overview of the recent academic literature devoted to the applications of Hawkes processes in finance. Hawkes processes constitute a particular class of multivariate point processes that has become very popular in empirical high frequency finance this last decade. After a reminder of the main definitions and properties that characterize Hawkes processes, we review their main empirical applications to address many different problems in high frequen...

  15. Essays in corporate finance

    OpenAIRE

    Leite, Tore

    2012-01-01

    This thesis contributes to the empirical literature on how firms meet exceptional financing needs in relation to “investment spikes” or years with unusually large investment activities. In the earlier part of the thesis, I show that the financing of investment during an investment spike is very different from that at other times. I have done this using data for publicly traded US firms over the period 1988 to 2007 and a filtering procedure suggested by Bond et al. (2006). Specifically, ex...

  16. Semigroup methods in finance

    OpenAIRE

    Einemann, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to highlight the role of semigroup theory in mathematical finance and to provide a class of useful methods. Apart from this special task, several new results concerning invariant subsets of strongly continuous semigroups and regular perturbations of sesquilinear forms (related to the classical Kato class) are given. A major step in finance was the pioneering work of Black and Scholes. They showed that prices of financial derivatives can be obtained as solutions of...

  17. FINANCING INNOVATION IN ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    SORIN SERBAN

    2012-01-01

    This article based on an examination of empirical literature, analyses the financing of innovative enterprises in Romania and presents the characteristics of Romanian policies in this regard. It sets forth an estimation of the number of innovative enterprises in Romania based on figures from different sources. Assessing the role of financial restrictions on innovation reveals that a firm is facing obstacles to finance its innovative activities but also other difficulties to innovate which app...

  18. Essays in corporate finance

    OpenAIRE

    Im, Hyun Joong; Sussman, Oren; Bond, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    This thesis contributes to the empirical literature on how firms meet exceptional financing needs in relation to “investment spikes” or years with unusually large investment activities. In the earlier part of the thesis, I show that the financing of investment during an investment spike is very different from that at other times. I have done this using data for publicly traded US firms over the period 1988 to 2007 and a filtering procedure suggested by Bond et al. (2006). Specifically, extern...

  19. International energy financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some of the innovative financing options being considered by developing countries and economies in transition as ways of mobilizing international energy financing are discussed. Build-Own-Operate (BOO) and Transfer (BOOT) is the most commonly adopted approach. This involves limited resource financing of a project on the basis of the associated cash flow and risks and not on the credit of the project owners. The World Bank has set up the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency to provide, on a fee basis, guarantees against certain non-commercial forms of risk in order to promote international capital flow to developing countries. In 1989, the World Bank introduced the Expanded Co-financing Operations (ECO) programme as an instrument to catalyze the flow of private finance into developing countries and to improve their access to international financial markets. Other financial instruments currently being established include: leasing of equipment or whole plants by foreign investors; private ownership or operation of generation and distribution facilities; exchange of specific export goods for energy imports; developing instruments to finance local costs; revenue bonds; tax-exempt bonds; sale of electricity futures to those seeking more stable, longer term electricity price contracts. (UK)

  20. Stochastic Processes in Finance and Behavioral Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Steinbacher, Matjaz

    2008-01-01

    In the paper, we put some foundations for studying asset pricing and finance as a stochastic and behavioral process. In such process, preferences and psychology of agents represent the most important factor in the decision-making of people. Individuals have their own ways of acquiring the information they need, how to deal with them and how to make predictions and decisions. People usually also do not behave consistent in time, but learn. Therefore, in order to understand the behavior on the ...

  1. Fault Diagnosability of Arrangement Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Shuming

    2012-01-01

    The growing size of the multiprocessor system increases its vulnerability to component failures. It is crucial to locate and to replace the faulty processors to maintain a system's high reliability. The fault diagnosis is the process of identifying faulty processors in a system through testing. This paper shows that the largest connected component of the survival graph contains almost all remaining vertices in the $(n,k)$-arrangement graph $A_{n,k}$ when the number of moved faulty vertices is up to twice or three times the traditional connectivity. Based on this fault resiliency, we establishes that the conditional diagnosability of $A_{n,k}$ under the comparison model. We prove that for $k\\geq 4$, $n\\geq k+2$, the conditional diagnosability of $A_{n,k}$ is $(3k-2)(n-k)-3$; the conditional diagnosability of $A_{n,n-1}$ is $3n-7$ for $n\\geq 5$.

  2. MUSICAL ARRANGEMENT OF MEDIA ADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernyshov Alexander V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The music-compositional principles of commercial and political advertising and also the self-promotion of electronic media (radio, television, Internet are considered in this mediatext: from the elementary beeps, symbolic functions, emblems/logos and musical brands to the sound engineering technology to underscore the product's name and the complex synthesis between music and intra movements and color-light design of frames. Simultaneously examines, how the musical arrangement of ethereal advertising is involved in creation the emotional drama or bravado which reach the level of explicit or associative counterpoint 'music with the advertised object or subject' and which extend to expression of cultural image of all the broadcast channel. The article explores the works of the next genres like infomercial, teleshopping, film-ad, and autonomous commercials that have been produced in European countries or USA.

  3. High mass isotope separation arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An isotope separation arrangement for separating a preselected isotope from a mixture of chemically-identical but isotopically-different molecules by either photon-induced pure revibrational or vibronic selective excitation of the molecules containing the atoms of the isotope to be separated from a lower to a higher energy state, and a chemical reaction of the higher energy state molecules with a chemically-reactive agent to form a chemical compound containing primarily the atoms of the isotope to be separated in a physicochemical state different from the physicochemical state of the mixture of chemically-identical but isotopically-different molecules. The chemical compound containing the atoms of the isotope to be separated may be subsequently processed to obtain the isotope. The laser configuration used to generate the photon beam is fully described

  4. International arrangements against nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    International efforts to show the spread of nuclear weapons have created an international norm of nonproliferation, backed by a variety of enforcement mechanisms. Together they are often referred to as the nonproliferation regime. This regime is reviewed, starting with the 1963 Limited Test Ban Treaty. The centerpiece of the regime, the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), signed in 1968, now has 135 parties, including most of the advanced industrial nuclear countries. Results of the 1985 NPT Review Conference are briefly discussed; the 86 NPT parties that attended reaffirmed the treaty's value, pledged continued support for the IAEA safeguards system, and called upon nonsigners to renounce nuclear weapons and accept IAEA safeguards. A section is devoted to the physical protection of nuclear materials, facilities, and weapons. Finally, recommendations are presented to improve international arrangements against nuclear terrorists

  5. Aft outer rim seal arrangement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ching-Pang; Tham, Kok-Mun; Schroeder, Eric; Meeroff, Jamie; Miller, Jr., Samuel R; Marra, John J; Campbell, Christian X

    2015-04-28

    An outer rim seal arrangement (10), including: an annular rim (70) centered about a longitudinal axis (30) of a rotor disc (31), extending fore and having a fore-end (72), an outward-facing surface (74), and an inward-facing surface (76); a lower angel wing (62) extending aft from a base of a turbine blade (22) and having an aft end (64) disposed radially inward of the rim inward-facing surface to define a lower angel wing seal gap (80); an upper angel wing (66) extending aft from the turbine blade base and having an aft end (68) disposed radially outward of the rim outward-facing surface to define a upper angel wing seal gap (80, 82); and guide vanes (100) disposed on the rim inward-facing surface in the lower angel wing seal gap. Pumping fins (102) may be disposed on the upper angel wing seal aft end in the upper angel wing seal gap.

  6. The physics of custody arrangements

    CERN Document Server

    Gomberoff, Andrés; Romagnoli, Pierre Paul

    2013-01-01

    Divorced individuals face complex situations when they have children with different ex-partners, or even more, when their new partners have children of their own. In such cases, and when kids spend every other weekend with each parent, a practical problem emerges: Is it possible to have such a custody arrangement that every couple has either all of the kids together or no kids at all? We show that in general, it is not possible, but that the number of couples that do can be maximized. The problem turns out to be equivalent to finding the ground state of a spin glass system, which is known to be equivalent to what is called a weighted max-cut problem in graph theory, and hence it is NP-Complete.

  7. Laser beam welding of advanced superconducting cable conduits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work describes the experience gained with the laser beam welding of various types of stainless steel used in different conduit designs for advanced superconducting cables in fusion technology. The aim of this work is to show the continuous laser beam welding of long units on an assembly line, which is essential for an industrial cable production. Preliminary investigations and test results of weld performance obtained with different multikilowatt power CO2 type laser work stations are encouraging for a near term use of the laser weld processing in this particular aspect. The analysis confirms that laser beam welding has prospects which makes it feasible for industrial manufacturing process combined with good economics

  8. Hot upwelling conduit beneath the Atlas Mountains, Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Daoyuan; Miller, Meghan S.; Holt, Adam F.; Becker, Thorsten W.

    2014-11-01

    The Atlas Mountains of Morocco display high topography, no deep crustal root, and regions of localized Cenozoic alkaline volcanism. Previous seismic imaging and geophysical studies have implied a hot mantle upwelling as the source of the volcanism and high elevation. However, the existence, shape, and physical properties of an associated mantle anomaly are debated. Here we use seismic waveform analysis from a broadband deployment and geodynamic modeling to define the physical properties and morphology of the anomaly. The imaged low-velocity structure extends to ~200 km beneath the Atlas and appears ~350 K hotter than the ambient mantle with possible partial melting. It includes a lateral conduit, which suggests that the Quaternary volcanism arises from the upper mantle. Moreover, the shape and temperature of the imaged anomaly indicate that the unusually high topography of the Atlas Mountains is due to active mantle support.

  9. Extrinsic airway compression secondary to pulmonary arterial conduits: MR findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abnormal enlargement or malposition of any vascular structure or mass adjacent to the airway can cause extrinsic airway compression. In children with previous surgery for congenitial heart disease, mass effect from prosthetic devices or alteration in the anatomic position of normal structures can lead to extrinsic airway compression. Because many children have complex medical problems after cardiac surgery, wheezing may be attributed to cardiac causes and airway compression may not be investigated. Furthermore, the distal airway compression seen in these children often is not visualized on chest radiographys. MR imaging can be useful in evaluating extrinsic airway compression in these patients. We present the MR imaging of two patients with symptomatic extrinsic airway compression secondary to pulmonary arterial conduits. (orig.)

  10. 26 CFR 1.67-3T - Allocation of expenses by real estate mortgage investment conduits (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...real estate mortgage investment conduits (temporary...TAXES (CONTINUED) Definition of Gross Income, Adjusted...real estate mortgage investment conduits (temporary...make an information return on Form 1099 for each...allocation of allocable investment expenses is...

  11. 26 CFR 1.6081-7 - Automatic extension of time to file Real Estate Mortgage Investment Conduit (REMIC) income tax...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...Real Estate Mortgage Investment Conduit (REMIC...file an income tax return on Form 1066, “U...Real Estate Mortgage Investment Conduit Income Tax Return,” or Form 8831...guidance regarding the definition of last known...

  12. Adapting Risk Management for Profit and Loss Sharing Financing of Islamic Banks

    OpenAIRE

    Irawan Febianto

    2012-01-01

    The low level of participation of the Islamic banks in profit and loss sharing (mudharabah and musharakah) financing models has become one of the problems in the development of the industry. These arrangements are unique to Islamic banking and account for its superiority over conventional banking on grounds of ethics and efficiency, but the majority of Islamic banks have limited themselves to less risky trade-financing assets, that tend to be a shorter maturity. This paper intends to analyzes...

  13. Discussion on the Integrated Financing Mode of EMC and Carbon Trading

    OpenAIRE

    Ying Qin; Hongchun Wang; Kai Wang; Zeyu Li

    2014-01-01

    EMC (energy management contract) is a recognized energy-saving innovation pattern of technology, financing and management. But because of the consciousness problems, legal issues and policy oriented issues, EMC project has a series of problems. The financing difficulty is one of the main problems, which has seriously affected the sustainable development of energy service industry. Carbon trading is an arrangement of new carbon emission reduction system. If the EMC project is...

  14. Engineering a multimodal nerve conduit for repair of injured peripheral nerve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, A. F.; Bulluss, K. J.; Kyratzis, I. L. B.; Gilmore, K.; Mysore, T.; Schirmer, K. S. U.; Kennedy, E. L.; O'Shea, M.; Truong, Y. B.; Edwards, S. L.; Peeters, G.; Herwig, P.; Razal, J. M.; Campbell, T. E.; Lowes, K. N.; Higgins, M. J.; Moulton, S. E.; Murphy, M. A.; Cook, M. J.; Clark, G. M.; Wallace, G. G.; Kapsa, R. M. I.

    2013-02-01

    Injury to nerve tissue in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) results in long-term impairment of limb function, dysaesthesia and pain, often with associated psychological effects. Whilst minor injuries can be left to regenerate without intervention and short gaps up to 2 cm can be sutured, larger or more severe injuries commonly require autogenous nerve grafts harvested from elsewhere in the body (usually sensory nerves). Functional recovery is often suboptimal and associated with loss of sensation from the tissue innervated by the harvested nerve. The challenges that persist with nerve repair have resulted in development of nerve guides or conduits from non-neural biological tissues and various polymers to improve the prognosis for the repair of damaged nerves in the PNS. This study describes the design and fabrication of a multimodal controlled pore size nerve regeneration conduit using polylactic acid (PLA) and (PLA):poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) fibers within a neurotrophin-enriched alginate hydrogel. The nerve repair conduit design consists of two types of PLGA fibers selected specifically for promotion of axonal outgrowth and Schwann cell growth (75:25 for axons; 85:15 for Schwann cells). These aligned fibers are contained within the lumen of a knitted PLA sheath coated with electrospun PLA nanofibers to control pore size. The PLGA guidance fibers within the nerve repair conduit lumen are supported within an alginate hydrogel impregnated with neurotrophic factors (NT-3 or BDNF with LIF, SMDF and MGF-1) to provide neuroprotection, stimulation of axonal growth and Schwann cell migration. The conduit was used to promote repair of transected sciatic nerve in rats over a period of 4 weeks. Over this period, it was observed that over-grooming and self-mutilation (autotomy) of the limb implanted with the conduit was significantly reduced in rats implanted with the full-configuration conduit compared to rats implanted with conduits containing only an alginate hydrogel. This indicates return of some feeling to the limb via the fully-configured conduit. Immunohistochemical analysis of the implanted conduits removed from the rats after the four-week implantation period confirmed the presence of myelinated axons within the conduit and distal to the site of implantation, further supporting that the conduit promoted nerve repair over this period of time. This study describes the design considerations and fabrication of a novel multicomponent, multimodal bio-engineered synthetic conduit for peripheral nerve repair.

  15. Legal aspects of financing Canadian offshore oil and gas developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is presented of the significant legal considerations involved in structuring, negotiating, and documenting commercial financing of a Canadian offshore oil and gas production facility. Emphasis is placed on the Hibernia Project in the Newfoundland offshore as an example, and more specifically the $450 million bank financing completed in November 1991. The legal framework governing offshore production financing in this case was complex, due to the project's location in international waters on the continental shelf. Complex intergovernmental arrangements have been implemented between Canada and Newfoundland to govern the offshore area and regulate the project. An agreement called the Atlantic Accord allowed the Canada Newfoundland Offshore Petroleum Board (CNOPB) to grant production licenses and to regulate offshore exploration and development, with matters relating to legislation, taxation, and royalties shared between the governments. Certain other acts were enacted or extended for application to the offshore area. The CNOPB administers a registry system for transfers and security interests in offshore licenses. Security interests including property are ensured by the Hibernia Act, which makes Newfoundland's existing security interest regime applicable to the offshore. The project owners are operating Hibernia as a joint venture, and the structure of project financing and inter-creditor arrangements is examined. The competing security interest of project lendempeting security interest of project lenders and non-defaulting participants is discussed, along with assignment of priorities on the security in case of default

  16. Influence of conduit network geometry on solute transport in karst aquifers with a permeable matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronayne, Michael J.

    2013-06-01

    In karst aquifers with significant matrix permeability, water and solutes are exchanged between the conduits and carbonate matrix. Transport through the matrix increases the spread of solutes and increases travel times. This study numerically evaluates advective solute transport in synthetic karst systems that contain 3D branching conduit networks. Particle tracking is performed to analyze the spatial and temporal transport history of solute that arrives at the conduit outlet. Three measures of transport connectivity are used to quantify the solute migration behavior: the skewness of the particle arrival time distribution, the normalized fifth percentile of arrival times, and the fraction of the total travel time that occurs within conduits. All three of these metrics capture the influence of conduit network geometry on solute transport. A more tortuous network leads to enhanced conduit-matrix mixing, which reduces the transport connectivity and yields a broader distribution of solute arrival times. These results demonstrate that the conduit network geometry is an important control on solute transport in karst systems with a permeable matrix.

  17. Adapting Mudarabah Financing to Contemporary Realities: A Proposed Financing Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Bacha, Obiyathulla I.

    1997-01-01

    Islamic banking in Malaysia, despite its recent start, has seen very rapid growth. This growth however has been uneven. While short-term trade financing has always been dominant and grown rapidly, Mudarabah financing by Islamic banks in Malaysia has reduced to insignificantly amounts. Yet, Mudarabah which is based on profit and loss sharing has always been considered to be at the core of Islamic financing and in tune with the shariah’s injunctions against interest based financing. Th...

  18. Financing tourist activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujovi? Slavoljub

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper researches which of the possible financing models (self-financing, loan, mutual fund, issuing securities and leasing is the most convenient for tourism financing on the grounds of opinions and views of student population. Taking into account that future social and economic development depends on student population, that in every society intellectual endeavor (science and art exists ever since man exists, that the overall progress of mankind is based on the great intellectual endeavor of former civilizations, as well as the fact that Western Serbia has remarkable natural and anthropogenic characteristics suitable for valorization for the purpose of tourism development, the research questions were formulated and the research was performed. The methods used were: analysis, correlation, deduction and induction. Field research has been of the primary importance and it was based on questionnaires, interviews and in-depth interview. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 46001 i br. 47007

  19. Financing and insurance problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author analyses the papers presented at the Paris Conference on the maturity of nuclear energy. It is evident that financing possibilities will be a determinant factor in the rate of development of nuclear power during the years to come. After having evaluated the capital requirements necessitated for the development of nuclear programmes, the parties intervening have examined the means at the disposal of electricity manufacturers to meet these needs (self-financing, recourse to external financing, regrouping, on an international scale of the electricity manufacturers of the setting up of high capacity plants). As concerns the insurance problems, they are becoming more and more involved as nuclear applications, are further diversified and intensified. The parties intervening have discussed new tarification techniques likely to be applied and pointed out the possibilities offered by regrouping or pooling of insurers (Market Pool) which allow for a maximum of risks to be covered without exceeding the means proper to each company concerned

  20. The Campaign Finance Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    With funding from the Carnegie Corporation, The Joyce Foundation, and The Pew Charitable Trusts, The Campaign Finance Institute is a non-profit institute affiliated with The George Washington University that "conducts objective research and education, empanels task forces and makes recommendations for policy change in the field of campaign finance." Along the top of the homepage, visitors will find thematic sections that include "President", "Congress", and "Interest Groups". Each of these sections includes full reports, press releases, data tables and charts. Additionally, visitors can look for specific materials by using their embedded search engine. Also, visitors can sign up here to receive email updates on the Institute's research and programs. Overall, it's a very useful site for anyone with an interest in campaign finance from a personal or an academic perspective.

  1. Survey: Online Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    This lengthy article from The Economist gives an excellent, far-reaching overview of the industry of online banking. "Online Finance" considers the role of online banking within the finance industry as well as examining the benefits and pitfalls of banks transferring their services to the Internet. The survey is broken into nineteen sections which explore this phenomenon from a variety of angles including banking technology, online brokerage firms, and some of the obstacles of online finance, as well as looking at banking on the Internet in Japan and Scandinavia. The article also includes related titles in The Economist archive, as well as linking to several sections of the SEC Website that were mentioned in the article.

  2. Project Finance Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esty, Benjamin.

    Benjamin Esty at the Harvard Business School (HBS) has created this all-encompassing portal intended to serve as a reference guide for project finance students, faculty, and researchers. The resources on the site are divided into two main sections. The Research and Publications list is directed at the academic community and includes bibliographies of articles, books and book chapters, and trade magazines, as well as syllabi from business and law school courses from the top schools around the world, case studies, and rating agency information. The other section, Project Finance Links, functions as a standard portal, with over 800 annotated links to related Websites. All references to books, case studies, and articles are linked to the Harvard Business School online catalog for easier access by the HBS community. For librarians and Webmasters, the Project Finance Portal will serve as a stellar model of a portal for a library community.

  3. Financing a Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Rakowski

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available When companies have a net loss accompanied by negative operating cash flows, they must decide how to handle the financing deficit, or, stated differently, they must decide how to finance the loss.  By examining a large sample of firms with net losses, we document how companies respond to the financing shock that occurs with negative cash flow.  For companies with a one-year loss, current assets decrease and current liabilities increase.  While we observe that leverage ratios increase during a loss year, this increase has more to do with decreasing book equity than an increase in long-term debt.  However, when the loss persists into a second year, companies make more fundamental changes, often downsizing by decreasing fixed assets and by issuing longer term debt.

  4. Campaign Finance Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Nie, Michael Willem.

    1997-01-01

    The 1996 US election, which took in more than $260 million in soft money alone, was the most expensive in the nation's history. Long time advocates of campaign finance reform have rallied behind the revised McCain-Feingold proposal which, among other reforms, would ban soft money. However, recent Senate hearings have revealed that the bill does not have the necessary support to pass. The majority of Republican Senators, led by Mitch McConnell, who has pledged to filibuster if necessary, oppose the McCain-Feingold proposal. Recent comments by the Republican leadership in the House reveal that campaign finance reform, as it is currently envisaged, is unlikely to make progress in that chamber either. These sites provide a large number of informative and analytical pieces on campaign finance reform, written from viewpoints across the political spectrum.

  5. [1971 Annual Credit and Financing Report. Financing Indian Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    The Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) 1971 Annual Credit and Financing Report describes the financing available for economic advancement of American Indians. The 3 main financing sources cited in this report are (1) customary leaders, both private and Government; (2) tribes and other Indian organizations with funds of their own; and (3) the revolving…

  6. Adapting Risk Management for Profit and Loss Sharing Financing of Islamic Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irawan Febianto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The low level of participation of the Islamic banks in profit and loss sharing (mudharabah and musharakah financing models has become one of the problems in the development of the industry. These arrangements are unique to Islamic banking and account for its superiority over conventional banking on grounds of ethics and efficiency, but the majority of Islamic banks have limited themselves to less risky trade-financing assets, that tend to be a shorter maturity. This paper intends to analyzes why Islamic banks are reluctant to indulge in mudharabah and musharakah financing. Finally, it explores the risk management concept that might solve the problems.

  7. Financing renewables - wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the status of the wind energy markets world-wide, in Europe and in the UK. It outlines the main methods of financing wind energy installations and discusses why different institutional structures have led to different markets in the UK and in Germany, with some concern about the state of the UK onshore industry. The paper looks ahead to the opening up of the potentially much larger offshore wind resource, concluding that in this area, existing UK development and financing structures are well suited. (Author)

  8. Guidebook to Geothermal Finance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmon, J. P.; Meurice, J.; Wobus, N.; Stern, F.; Duaime, M.

    2011-03-01

    This guidebook is intended to facilitate further investment in conventional geothermal projects in the United States. It includes a brief primer on geothermal technology and the most relevant policies related to geothermal project development. The trends in geothermal project finance are the focus of this tool, relying heavily on interviews with leaders in the field of geothermal project finance. Using the information provided, developers and investors may innovate in new ways, developing partnerships that match investors' risk tolerance with the capital requirements of geothermal projects in this dynamic and evolving marketplace.

  9. Virtual Finance Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Search Partners, a provider of executive financial search services, presents the Virtual Finance Library, a packed collection of links to financial sites. The main page of Virtual Finance Library contains general information including reference and dictionary sites, calculators and converters, and interesting links. The rest of the library is accessible via the table of contents on the left side of the screen. The Websites are organized by topic, geographic location, or subtopic. Each topic begins with a short introduction to the subject, several pages long, and most links are descriptively annotated.

  10. IFAD Rural Finance Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Seibel, Hans Dieter

    2000-01-01

    Two thirds of the Fund?s current projects have a rural finance component; about 21% of the Fund?s resources are dedicated to rural finance.2 Most of IFAD?s target group are small producers engaged in agric ultural and non-agricultural activities in areas of widely varying potential. Direct access to financial services affects the small producers? productivity, asset formation, income and food security. This policy paper is designed to provide an overall framework for the Fund?s work in rural ...

  11. Financing unemployment insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Vroman, Wayne; Woodbury, Stephen A.

    2014-01-01

    Following the Great Recession, most states' unemployment insurance (UI) trust funds became insolvent, requiring the states to borrow from the U.S. Treasury to finance benefit payments. This article describes the basics of UI financing and reviews the origins of the financial crisis facing the federal-state UI system. It then examines the main components of the UI payroll tax-the taxable wage base and the experience-rated payroll tax-and considers how these might be modified to avoid future wi...

  12. Finance and Development [electronic resource].

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Features the current edition of the online business journal "Finance and Development," published by the International Monetary Fund. Offers articles on economics and finance, subscription information, access to back issues, and editorial staff

  13. Finance and the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject is discussed under the headings: the energy situation today; energy investment and capital requirements (finding the necessary funds); further possibilities; future financing (project financing); summary. (U.K.)

  14. Financing, Overhead, and Profit: An In-Depth Discussion of Costs Associated with Third-Party Financing of Residential and Commercial Photovoltaic Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, D.; Friedman, B.; Margolis, R.

    2013-10-01

    Previous work quantifying the non-hardware balance-of-system costs -- or soft costs -- associated with building a residential or commercial photovoltaic (PV) system has left a significant portion unsegmented in an 'other soft costs' category. This report attempts to better quantify the 'other soft costs' by focusing on the financing, overhead, and profit of residential and commercial PV installations for a specific business model. This report presents results from a bottom-up data-collection and analysis of the upfront costs associated with developing, constructing, and arranging third-party-financed residential and commercial PV systems. It quantifies the indirect corporate costs required to install distributed PV systems as well as the transactional costs associated with arranging third-party financing.

  15. The Challenge of Islamic Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Sheng, Andrew; Singh, Ajit

    2012-01-01

    From its humble beginnings in the 1990s, Islamic finance has become a trillion US dollar industry. The market consensus is that Islamic finance has a bright future due to favourable demographics and rising incomes in the Muslim community. Moreover, despite voices sceptical of an accommodation between Islamic and global finance, leading global banks are buying Islamic bonds and forming subsidiaries specially to conduct Islamic finance business. Special laws have been passed in non-Muslim fi...

  16. Internationally Recommended Best Practices in Transportation Financing Public-Private Partnerships (P3s)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, Lawrence; Lawther, Wendell

    2013-01-01

    Transportation financing public-private partnerships (P3s) are a common practice in many countries. However, they represent a relatively new approach to transportation infrastructure financing for state and local governments in the United States. In a transportation financing P3 project, a private sector partner designs-builds-finances-operates- maintains (DBFOM) a transportation infrastructure asset (road, highway, bridge, tunnel, etc.) with an emphasis on financing. Under this type of arrangement, the private sector partner is primarily responsible for securing all or substantially all of the funding necessary to construct new transportation infrastructure and/or rehabilitate existing transportation infrastructure. This study reviews the international experience of national and sub-national governments with transportation financing P3s. The primary purpose of this study is to identify internationally recommended best practices in transportation financing P3s. Based upon the study findings, a checklist in then proposed that can be used by U.S. state and local governments to assess their current or proposed transportation financing P3 policies and procedures. The article makes a contribution to the literature on transportation financing P3s by bringing together for the first time internationally recommended best practices in ten major areas.

  17. Private finance and public policy

    OpenAIRE

    Schinasi, Garry J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper articulates a logical foundation—drawn from disparate literatures—for understanding why safeguarding financial stability is an important economic policy objective. The paper also explains why private aspects of finance provide broader social economic benefits and have the characteristics of public goods. Unique aspects of finance are examined, as are the linkages between finance, money, and the real economy.

  18. TVA's nuclear-fuel sale and leaseback arrangement needs further analysis and Congressional oversight. Report to Senator James Sasser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-03-18

    To defer rate increases resulting from interest payments on growing nuclear fuel inventories, TVA entered into, without adequate analysis, a nuclear fuel sale and leaseback agreement. The arrangement while technically correct and similar to that used by other utilities has been questioned by the Office of Management and Budget and others because of its impact on Federal borrowings and interest rates and the Federal Financing Bank's role in financing the transaction. GAO recommends that TVA's ongoing analysis determine the full costs of this arrangement to TVA and ratepayers over its 30-year life. Additionally, GAO recommends the Congress provide more oversight before similar transactions are made.

  19. Data Transfer via Alternative Conduits: Using Fluid Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Willow

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Digital convergence has reshaped a gamut of industry demographics in the 21C, comprised of cloud computing, healthcare, pharmaceutical, consumer supplies, government, defense, manufacturing, entertainment, and even on-line education, among many others.   At the center of the web-convergence lies the problem of network bandwidth limitation.  Traditionally, research has focused on two major resolution strategies in parallel:  data compression to minimize the network traffic (i.e. algorithmic; software and alternative conduit for data transfer such as wireless (i.e. infrastructural; hardware.Building a network infrastructure is extremely costly.   In addition, maintenance and upgrade costs may be prohibitive, given the U.S. consumer demographics.   To this end, the emphasis is placed on seeking existing infrastructure which connects business and residential entities.The objective of this research, therefore, is to seek the possibility and feasibility of (digital data transfers via the extensive water and/or sewer network(s, while minimizing structural modifications to the existing infrastructure.   To date, sonar has been proven to be effective.   If successful, the value of this intellectual property may be immeasurable.

  20. Injunctions against mere conduit of information protected by copyright

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandfeld Jakobsen, SØren; Petersen, Clement Salung

    2011-01-01

    This paper includes an in-depth analysis of EU law and Scandinavian law on injunctions against internet access providers (IAPs) performing as mere conduit of information protected by copyright. In recent Scandinavian case law, courts have granted preliminary injunctions which have caused IAPs to either shut down specific internet connections allegedly used to infringe copyright or to block access to internet content, which allegedly infringed applicable copyright rules. This paper considers some significant legal challenges, which are emerging in the wake of this case law, and which should attract attention in all European member states. Firstly, it is shown that rules on preliminary injunctions are generally unable to safeguard the significant legitimate interests of third parties, which may be harmed by such relief, and that a proper implementation of Art. 8(3) of the Infosoc Directive requires rules, which take into due consideration the special aspects related to enforcement of copyright on the internet through IAPs. Secondly, it is shown that the termination of internet connections and the blocking of access to internet content may not support the public policies behind copyright law and also may restrict the freedom of expression under European human rights law. The analysis is based on a brief account for the relevant EU Directives, the implementation of these Directives in the Scandinavian countries and the Scandinavian case law regarding use of injunctions against IAPs to enforce copyright on the internet.

  1. A conduit dilation model of methane venting from lake sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scandella, B.P.; Varadharajan, C.; Hemond, Harold F.; Ruppel, C.; Juanes, R.

    2011-01-01

    Methane is a potent greenhouse gas, but its effects on Earth's climate remain poorly constrained, in part due to uncertainties in global methane fluxes to the atmosphere. An important source of atmospheric methane is the methane generated in organic-rich sediments underlying surface water bodies, including lakes, wetlands, and the ocean. The fraction of the methane that reaches the atmosphere depends critically on the mode and spatiotemporal characteristics of free-gas venting from the underlying sediments. Here we propose that methane transport in lake sediments is controlled by dynamic conduits, which dilate and release gas as the falling hydrostatic pressure reduces the effective stress below the tensile strength of the sediments. We test our model against a four-month record of hydrostatic load and methane flux in Upper Mystic Lake, Mass., USA, and show that it captures the complex episodicity of methane ebullition. Our quantitative conceptualization opens the door to integrated modeling of methane transport to constrain global methane release from lakes and other shallow-water, organic-rich sediment systems, and to assess its climate feedbacks.

  2. Specialized financing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specific financing techniques applicable to wind energy projects in Canada are discussed. A limited partnership is the classic Canadian approach to tax-advantaged financing. For a typical wind project, the limited partners would get an internal rate of return of around 8% over 20 years as well as income tax deductions on Class 34 investments. This rate can be improved if the investors borrow some of the money; they get tax-free cash flow while having deductible loan interest, raising their rate of return after taxes to ca 9-10%. Special situation investors can get to take all of the Class 34 deduction right away, raising their return up to the 12% range. These investors include principal business corporations (such as utilities or oil companies), or companies who have sold their business. A second type of financing structure is related to inflation-indexed debt. The loan is structured like a mortgage, with the annual payments indexed to inflation but nevertheless low enough to provide an early positive cash flow from the project. Other possible financing structures are the immigrant investor fund and the provincial incentive corporations

  3. Prospects for energy financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author indicates the problems which nowadays arise in financing in the field of energy economics. In this connection he draws attention to the magnitude of the risk which is incurred in the application of energy in the future, a risk not only for the banker but also for the whole of the political economy. (orig.)

  4. Financing social housing.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Amann, W.; Hegedüs, J.; Lux, Martin; Springler, E.

    New York/Londýn : Routledge, 2013 - (Hegedüs, J.; Lux, M.; Teller, N.), s. 50-64 ISBN 978-0-415-89014-4 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA403/09/1915 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : Housing finance * transition countries * social housing Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography

  5. Copulas for finance

    OpenAIRE

    Bouye, Eric; Durlleman, Valdo; Nikeghbali, Ashkan; Riboulet, Gae?l; Roncalli, Thierry

    2000-01-01

    Copulas are a general tool to construct multivariate distributions and to investigate dependence structure between random variables. However, the concept of copula is not popular in Finance. In this paper, we show that copulas can be extensively used to solve many financial problems.

  6. Mathematicalising behavioural finance

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Xy

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the recent development on mathematical treatment of behavioural finance, primarily in the setting of continuous-time portfolio choice under the cumulative prospect theory. Financial motivations and mathematical challenges of the problem are highlighted. It is demonstrated that the solutions to the problem have in turn led to new financial and mathematical problems and machineries.

  7. Mathematical Models in Finance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halim Kazan

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Finance is the corner stone of the free enterprise system. Good financial management is therefore vitally important to the economic health of business firms, and thus the nation and the world. The field is relatively complex, and it is undergoing constant change in response to shifts in economic conditions say Brigham and Gapenski in the introduction of their Financial Management book (Brigham, Eugene F., Gapenski, Louis C 1994. As they said the field is relatively complex since most of the financial decisions are involved with uncertainty and risk. This is where quantitative methods and finance meets. In financial decision making process, like most of the decision making process, final decision made by managers, not by some mathematical tools. However, those mathematical tools, used in financial decision making process, contribute to managers' decision a lot. Finance is consist of three interrelated areas which are Money and Capital Markets, dealing with securities markets and financial institutions, Investments, focusing on the decisions of individuals, financial and other institutions while they choose securities for their investment portfolios; and Financial Management, involving the actual management of non financial firms (Brigham, E. F., Gapenski, L. C;1994 In this study I tried to summarize mathematical methods that have been used in finance historically.

  8. PFI redux? Assessing a new model for financing hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellowell, Mark

    2013-11-01

    There is a growing need for investments in hospital facilities to improve the efficiency and quality of health services. In recent years, publicly financed hospital organisations in many countries have utilised private finance arrangements, variously called private finance initiatives (PFIs), public-private partnerships (PPPs) or P3s, to address their capital requirements. However, such projects have become more difficult to implement since the onset of the global financial crisis, which has led to a reduction in the supply of debt capital and an increase in its price. In December 2012, the government of the United Kingdom outlined a comprehensive set of reforms to the private finance model in order to revive this important source of capital for hospital investments. This article provides a critical assessment of the 'Private Finance 2' reforms, focusing on their likely impact on the supply and cost of capital. It concludes that constraints in supply are likely to continue, in part due to regulatory constraints facing both commercial banks and institutional investors, while the cost of capital is likely to increase, at least in the short term. PMID:24138730

  9. Promotion and financing of nuclear power programmes in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power has been introduced only to a small extent in a few developing countries. A group of senior experts conducted a study of the existing constraints on nuclear power in developing countries, the requirements to be met for successful introduction of a nuclear power programme, and mechanisms to assist developing countries in overcoming the identified constraints. Financing represents one (but not the only) major constraint to nuclear power development in developing countries. The present schemes of export credits and commercial financing are seen as not adequately meeting the needs of nuclear power financing in terms of repayment periods and profiles, or in terms of flexibility to meet delays and cost overruns. Innovative and workable arrangements to share the economic and financial risks would be helpful in obtaining financing for a nuclear power project. All possible efforts should be made by all parties involved in the development of nuclear power to reduce as far as possible the uncertainties surrounding the cost and schedule of a nuclear power project, as an essential step to improve the overall climate for financing the project. Government commitment, soundly based and thorough planning, development of qualified manpower and other key infrastructures, and good project management are important mechanisms to achieve greater predictability in project schedule and cost. Technical assistance provided by the IAEA can be very helpful in building these capabilibe very helpful in building these capabilities in developing countries. (author). 1 tab

  10. Investigation of entrance length in circular and noncircular conduits by computational fluid dynamics simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pimpun Tongpun

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study estimated entrance length of circular and noncircular conduits, including circle, triangle, square and hexagon cross-sectional conduit, by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD. For simulation condition, the length of noncircular conduit was 10 m and the hydraulic diameter was 0.2 m. The laminar flow with Reynolds number of 500 and turbulent flow with Reynolds number of 50,000 were applied to investigate water flow in conduits. The governing equations were solved iteratively by using ANSYS FLUENT 14.0. For turbulent flow simulation, standard k-epsilon and RNG k-epsilon model were employed to simulate turbulence. The preliminary results were validated by comparison with theoretical data. At first, grid independency was evaluated to optimize the model. Norm* was employed to investigate the entrance length, which is related to velocity. The simulated results revealed that the entrance length for laminar flow was longer than turbulent flow.

  11. In vivo visualization of microneedle conduits in human skin using laser scanning microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solid microneedles enhance the penetration of drugs into the viable skin but little is known about the geometry of the conduits in vivo. Therefore, laser scanning microscopy was used to visualize the conduits of a microneedle system with needles at a length of 300 ?m in 6 healthy subjects over a period of time. The model drug, a fluorescent dye was applied before and after piercing. Laser scanning microscopy was evaluated as being an excellent method to monitor the geometry and closure of the conduits over time. The used microneedle system was evaluated as suitable to enhance the transport of model drugs into the viable epidermis without bleeding and a short closure time of the conduits at the skin surface

  12. Local recurrence of bladder cancer after cystectomy with orthotopic bladder substitution and ileal conduit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A?imovi? M.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To present the local recurrence rates after radical cystectomy for advanced bladder cancer and to compare them between patients with orthotopic neobladder and ileal conduit. Patients and methods: 97 patients with radical cystectomy were analyzed: 75 patients with orthotopic ileal neobladder, operated from 1985. to 2006, and 22 patients with ileal conduit, operated from 2000. to 2006. Results: Overall recurrence rate was 41.3% in the neobladder group, and 50% in the ileal conduit group. The rate of pelvic, upper urinary tract and urethral recurrence was 13.3%, 8%, and 10.6% in the neobladder group, and 9.1%, 13.6% and 9.1% in the ileal conduit group. Conclusion: Comparable recurrence rates, operative time, the complexity of the surgical technique and the results between two groups, strongly support the construction of orthotopic neobladder, as superior in functional, esthetic, and psychological point of view.

  13. Cooling arrangement for a tapered turbine blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, George (Palm City, FL)

    2010-07-27

    A cooling arrangement (11) for a highly tapered gas turbine blade (10). The cooling arrangement (11) includes a pair of parallel triple-pass serpentine cooling circuits (80,82) formed in an inner radial portion (50) of the blade, and a respective pair of single radial channel cooling circuits (84,86) formed in an outer radial portion (52) of the blade (10), with each single radial channel receiving the cooling fluid discharged from a respective one of the triple-pass serpentine cooling circuit. The cooling arrangement advantageously provides a higher degree of cooling to the most highly stressed radially inner portion of the blade, while providing a lower degree of cooling to the less highly stressed radially outer portion of the blade. The cooling arrangement can be implemented with known casting techniques, thereby facilitating its use on highly tapered, highly twisted Row 4 industrial gas turbine blades that could not be cooled with prior art cooling arrangements.

  14. Convection of magma in volcanic conduits as a degassing mechanism at active volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witter, Jeffrey Bruce

    Convection of magma in the volcanic conduit is a hypothesis that has been proposed to explain long-term, continuous, high rates of gas emission and heat loss at non-explosive, passively degassing volcanoes. I investigate this hypothesis using a geochemical and fluid dynamic approach focusing research at two passively degassing volcanoes, Popocatepetl (Mexico) and Villarrica (Chile) where conduit convection is thought to be the dominant degassing mechanism. Popocatepetl has been the site of voluminous passive degassing accompanied by minor eruptive activity from late-1994 until the time of writing. Villarrica has been characterized by continuous, open-vent, passive degassing from a summit lava lake, with negligible eruption of magmatic material, for the past 17 years. I present a detailed analysis of the chemistry and magnitude of volcanic gas emissions as well as the major and volatile element chemistry of the magma at the two volcanoes. These analyses provide constraints on (1) the magmatic contribution to the emitted volatiles and (2) the physical parameters (i.e. density and viscosity of the magma) that control convection. These data on the physical parameters of the Popocatepetl and Villarrica magmas combined with analytical fluid dynamic equations for convection of magma in volcanic conduits show that magma convection is a feasible mechanism to provide the observed magnitude of gas emissions considering reasonable conduit sizes and magma ascent velocities at both volcanoes. Further calculations of the Reynolds number and convective velocity scale are presented for magmas having a wide range of viscosity, buoyancy flux, and conduit size, including both cylindrical and dike-shaped conduits. Results indicate that convection of magma in the conduit is likely at Villarrica for conduit radii r = 1 to 5 m. In addition, convection of magma in the conduit is plausible at Popocatepetl for conduit radii r = 2 to 10 m and magma with or without a separate, pre-existing volatile phase. Convection of magma in the volcanic conduit can explain long-term, non-explosive degassing behavior at Popocatepetl, Villarrica, and probably many other volcanoes for which gas emissions far exceed the quantity of gas that could be derived from erupted magma.

  15. Numerical Modeling of the Thermal Behavior of Corrosion in Conduit in Transient Mode

    OpenAIRE

    Naouar Laaidi; Sougrati Belattar

    2013-01-01

    The conduits in the buildings require a regular and permanent control, in order to avoid the risks of deterioration caused by corrosion. In this paper we present a thermal nondestructive testing method of concrete structures containing a conduit system, based on the analysis by infrared thermography principle and the numerical modeling in three dimensions. The aim is to study the detectability of these pipes in different situations versus time and to give a thermal char...

  16. Increased muscle sympathetic nerve activity acutely alters conduit artery shear rate patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Padilla, Jaume; Young, Colin N.; Simmons, Grant H.; Deo, Shekhar H.; Newcomer, Sean C; Sullivan, John P; Laughlin, M. Harold; Fadel, Paul J.

    2010-01-01

    Escalating evidence indicates that disturbed flow patterns, characterized by the presence of retrograde and oscillatory shear stress, induce a proatherogenic endothelial cell phenotype; however, the mechanisms underlying oscillatory shear profiles in peripheral conduit arteries are not fully understood. We tested the hypothesis that acute elevations in muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) are accompanied by increases in conduit artery retrograde and oscillatory shear. Fourteen healthy men...

  17. Air-pocket transport in conjunction with bottom-outlet conduits for dams

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Ting

    2011-01-01

    Undesired air entrainment in bottom outlet conduits of dams may cause pressure transients, leading to conduit vibrations, blowback, discharge pulsation and even cavitation, and jeopardize the operational safety. Due to design limitations or construction costs, it is impossible to create an air free environment in a pressurized pipe. Therefore, it is essential to understand the air transport in enclosed pipes in order to provide guidance in bottom outlet design and operation. The commonly used...

  18. Evolution of karst conduit networks in transition from pressurized flow to free-surface flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perne, M.; Covington, M.; Gabrovšek, F.

    2014-11-01

    Most of the existing models of speleogenesis are limited to situations where flow in all conduits is pressurized. The feedback between the distribution of hydraulic head and growth of new solution conduits determines the geometry of the resulting conduit network. We present a novel modeling approach that allows a transition from pressurized (pipe) flow to a free-surface (open-channel) flow in evolving discrete conduit networks. It calculates flow, solute transport and dissolution enlargement within each time step and steps through time until a stable flow pattern is established. The flow in each time step is calculated by calling the US Environmental Protection Agency Storm Water Management Model (US Environmental Protection Agency, 2014), which efficiently solves the 1-D Saint-Venant equations in a network of conduits. Two basic scenarios are modeled, a low-dip scenario and a high-dip scenario. In the low-dip scenario a slightly inclined plane is populated with a rectangular grid of solution conduits. The recharge is distributed to randomly selected junctions. The results for the pressurized flow regime resemble those of the existing models. When the network becomes vadose, a stable flow pathway develops along a system of conduits that occupy the lowest positions at their inlet junctions. This depends on the initial diameter and inlet position of a conduit, its total incision in a pressurized regime and its alignment relative to the dip of the plane, which plays important role during the vadose entrenchment. In the high-dip scenario a sub-vertical network with recharge on the top and outflow on the side is modeled. It is used to demonstrate the vertical development of karst due to drawdown of the water table, development of invasion vadose caves during vadose flow diversion and to demonstrate the potential importance of deeply penetrating conductive structures.

  19. Project financing renewable energy schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The viability of many Renewable Energy projects is critically dependent upon the ability of these projects to secure the necessary financing on acceptable terms. The principal objective of the study was to provide an overview to project developers of project financing techniques and the conditions under which project finance for Renewable Energy schemes could be raised, focussing on the potential sources of finance, the typical project financing structures that could be utilised for Renewable Energy schemes and the risk/return and security requirements of lenders, investors and other potential sources of financing. A second objective is to describe the appropriate strategy and tactics for developers to adopt in approaching the financing markets for such projects. (author)

  20. Fracture Toughness Measurements and Assessment of Thin Walled Conduit Alloys in a Cicc Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, R. P.; Han, K.; Toplosky, V. J.

    2008-03-01

    The Series-Connected Hybrid Magnets under construction at the NHMFL use Cable-in-Conduct-Conductor (CICC) technology. The 4 K mechanical properties of the conduit are extremely important to the performance and reliability of the magnets. We have measured tensile and fracture toughness of two candidate conduit alloys (Haynes 242 and modified 316LN) in various metallurgical states, with emphasis on the final state of production. To assess the material in its final production state, non-standard specimens are removed directly from the round-corner rectangular conduit and tested after exposure to a simulated Nb3Sn reaction heat treatment. Non-standard middle-tension (MT) fracture toughness specimens enable toughness evaluation of the base metal, welds and weld/base transitional region in the as-fabricated conduit with final dimensions not suitable for conventional fracture toughness specimens. Although fracture toughness tests of the thin walled conduit fail to meet ASTM test validity requirements they provide a qualitative evaluation and estimate of the fracture toughness of the conduit and the welds.

  1. MR and CT imaging of pulmonary valved conduits in children and adolescents: normal appearance and complications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenisch, Estelle V.; Alamo, Leonor T.; Gudinchet, Francois [Lausanne University Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Lausanne (Switzerland); Sekarski, Nicole [Lausanne University Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Lausanne (Switzerland); Hurni, Michel [Lausanne University Hospital, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2014-12-15

    The Contegra registered is a conduit made from the bovine jugular vein and then interposed between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery. It is used for cardiac malformations in the reconstruction of right ventricular outflow tract. To describe both normal and pathological appearances of the Contegra registered in radiological imaging, to describe imaging of complications and to define the role of CT and MRI in postoperative follow-up. Forty-three examinations of 24 patients (17 boys and 7 girls; mean age: 10.8 years old) with Contegra registered conduits were reviewed. Anatomical description and measurements of the conduits were performed. Pathological items examined included stenosis, dilatation, plicature or twist, thrombus or vegetations, calcifications and valvular regurgitation. Findings were correlated to the echographic gradient through the conduit when available. CT and MR work-up showed Contegra registered stenosis (n = 12), dilatation (n = 9) and plicature or twist (n = 7). CT displayed thrombus or vegetations in the Contegra registered in three clinically infected patients. Calcifications of the conduit were present at CT in 12 patients and valvular regurgitation in three patients. The comparison between CT and/or MR results showed a good correlation between the echographic gradient and the presence of stenosis in the Contegra registered. CT and MR bring additional information about permeability and postoperative anatomy especially when echocardiography is inconclusive. Both techniques depict the normal appearance of the conduit, and allow comparison and precise evaluation of changes in the postoperative follow-up. (orig.)

  2. Comparison of a karst groundwater model with and without discrete conduit flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saller, Stephen P.; Ronayne, Michael J.; Long, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Karst aquifers exhibit a dual flow system characterized by interacting conduit and matrix domains. This study evaluated the coupled continuum pipe-flow framework for modeling karst groundwater flow in the Madison aquifer of western South Dakota (USA). Coupled conduit and matrix flow was simulated within a regional finite-difference model over a 10-year transient period. An existing equivalent porous medium (EPM) model was modified to include major conduit networks whose locations were constrained by dye-tracing data and environmental tracer analysis. Model calibration data included measured hydraulic heads at observation wells and estimates of discharge at four karst springs. Relative to the EPM model, the match to observation well hydraulic heads was substantially improved with the addition of conduits. The inclusion of conduit flow allowed for a simpler hydraulic conductivity distribution in the matrix continuum. Two of the high-conductivity zones in the EPM model, which were required to indirectly simulate the effects of conduits, were eliminated from the new model. This work demonstrates the utility of the coupled continuum pipe-flow method and illustrates how karst aquifer model parameterization is dependent on the physical processes that are simulated.

  3. In Vitro Evaluation of Carbon-Nanotube-Reinforced Bioprintable Vascular Conduits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolati, Farzaneh; Yu, Yin; Zhang, Yahui; De Jesus, Aribet M; Sander, Edward A.; Ozbolat, Ibrahim T.

    2014-01-01

    Vascularization of thick engineered tissue and organ constructs like the heart, liver, pancreas or kidney remains a major challenge in tissue engineering. Vascularization is needed to supply oxygen and nutrients and remove waste in living tissues and organs through a network that should possess high perfusion ability and significant mechanical strength and elasticity. In this paper, we introduce a fabrication process to print vascular conduits directly, where conduits were reinforced with carbon-nanotubes (CNTs) to enhance their mechanical properties and bioprintability. In vitro evaluation of printed conduits encapsulated in human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (HCASMCs) was performed to characterize the effects of CNT reinforcement on the mechanical, perfusion and biological performance of the conduits. Perfusion and permeability, cell viability, extracellular matrix formation and tissue histology were assessed and discussed, and it was concluded that CNT-reinforced vascular conduits provided a foundation for mechanically appealing constructs where CNTs could be replaced with natural protein nanofibers for further integration of these conduits in large-scale tissue fabrication. PMID:24632802

  4. A nerve guidance conduit with topographical and biochemical cues: potential application using human neural stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Phillip M.; Laughter, Melissa R.; Lee, David J.; Lee, Young M.; Freed, Curt R.; Park, Daewon

    2015-06-01

    Despite major advances in the pathophysiological understanding of peripheral nerve damage, the treatment of nerve injuries still remains an unmet medical need. Nerve guidance conduits present a promising treatment option by providing a growth-permissive environment that 1) promotes neuronal cell survival and axon growth and 2) directs axonal extension. To this end, we designed an electrospun nerve guidance conduit using a blend of polyurea and poly-caprolactone with both biochemical and topographical cues. Biochemical cues were integrated into the conduit by functionalizing the polyurea with RGD to improve cell attachment. Topographical cues that resemble natural nerve tissue were incorporated by introducing intraluminal microchannels aligned with nanofibers. We determined that electrospinning the polymer solution across a two electrode system with dissolvable sucrose fibers produced a polymer conduit with the appropriate biomimetic properties. Human neural stem cells were cultured on the conduit to evaluate its ability to promote neuronal growth and axonal extension. The nerve guidance conduit was shown to enhance cell survival, migration, and guide neurite extension.

  5. Conduit network structural controls on groundwater flow and solute breakthrough in karst aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronayne, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    The structure of the conduit network is a key factor that governs flow and transport behavior in karst aquifers. The network inlet (recharge) and outlet (karst spring) locations may be known, but direct measurements of the conduit network and associated structural properties (volume fraction, sinuosity) are generally limited for the aquifer interior. This study considers the information content of indirect solute tracer data for inferring structural properties of the network. Observations from selected karst aquifers in the USA provide motivation for a numerical investigation that utilizes synthetic models characterized by a branching conduit network surrounded by permeable matrix material, with focused discharge at a single karst spring. The permeable matrix allows for solute exchange between the conduits and diffuse flow domain. Results from physics-based flow and transport simulations demonstrate how variations in conduit network geometry influence solute breakthrough at the outlet. Solute particle arrival time distributions, generated from synthetic tracer tests, are described by the mean, variance, skewness, and early (5th percentile) breakthrough times. The results indicate a clear relationship between these statistical moments and structural properties of the network, highlighting the potential signature of conduit network structure on hydrologic response and solute transport in karst aquifers.

  6. A nerve guidance conduit with topographical and biochemical cues: potential application using human neural stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Phillip M; Laughter, Melissa R; Lee, David J; Lee, Young M; Freed, Curt R; Park, Daewon

    2015-12-01

    Despite major advances in the pathophysiological understanding of peripheral nerve damage, the treatment of nerve injuries still remains an unmet medical need. Nerve guidance conduits present a promising treatment option by providing a growth-permissive environment that 1) promotes neuronal cell survival and axon growth and 2) directs axonal extension. To this end, we designed an electrospun nerve guidance conduit using a blend of polyurea and poly-caprolactone with both biochemical and topographical cues. Biochemical cues were integrated into the conduit by functionalizing the polyurea with RGD to improve cell attachment. Topographical cues that resemble natural nerve tissue were incorporated by introducing intraluminal microchannels aligned with nanofibers. We determined that electrospinning the polymer solution across a two electrode system with dissolvable sucrose fibers produced a polymer conduit with the appropriate biomimetic properties. Human neural stem cells were cultured on the conduit to evaluate its ability to promote neuronal growth and axonal extension. The nerve guidance conduit was shown to enhance cell survival, migration, and guide neurite extension. PMID:26071111

  7. Adequacy, Efficiency and Equity of Higher Education Financing: The Case of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahim, Yasmine; Sami, Noha

    2011-01-01

    To meet its future challenges in financing higher education, Egypt has no option but to search for alternative funding arrangements. This article considers the question of how to do so, keeping in mind the need to ensure equitable access to good quality education for those who cannot afford it. To this end, the article begins by assessing public…

  8. Current distribution in Cable-In-Conduit Conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A numerical study of the current distribution in Cable-In-Conduit Conductors (CICC's) experiencing linearly ramping transport currents and transverse magnetic fields was conducted for both infinitely long, periodic cables and finite length cables terminated in low resistance joints. The goal of the study was to gain insight into the phenomenon known as Ramp Rate Limitation, an as yet unexplained correspondence between maximum attainable current and the ramp time taken to reach that current in CICC superconducting magnets. A discrete geometric model of a 27 strand multiply twisted CICC was developed to effectively represent the flux linkages, mutual inductances, and resistive contact points between the strands of an experimentally tested cable. The results of the numerical study showed that for fully periodic cables, the current imbalances due to ramping magnetic fields and ramping transport currents are negligible in the range of experimentally explored operating conditions. For finite length, joint terminated cables, however, significant imbalances can exist. Unfortunately, quantitative results are limited by a lack of knowledge of the transverse resistance between strands in the joints. Nonetheless, general results are presented showing the dependency of the imbalance on cable length, ramp time, and joint resistance for both ramping transverse magnet fields and ramping transport currents. At the conclusion of the study, it is suggested that calculated current imbalances in a finite length cable could cause certain strands to prematurely ''quench'' -- become non-superconducting --thus leading to an instability for the entire cable. This numerically predicted ''current imbalance instability'' is compared to the experimentally observed Ramp Rate Limitation for the 27 strand CICC sample

  9. Finance and Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugo Panizza

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Published by Palgrave MacmillanThis chapter reviews the literature on finance and economic development. It starts with a description of the roles of finance, a definition of financial efficiency, and a discussion of whether countries may have financial sectors that are ‘too large’ compared to the size of the domestic economy. Next, the author describes several indicators of financial development and reviews the literature on the relationship between financial development and economic growth. In the literature review, he discusses in detail some recent evidence indicating that the marginal contribution of financial development to gross domestic product (GDP growth becomes negative when credit to the private sector reaches 110 per cent of GDP. The chapter concludes with some policy conclusions targeted to developing countries.

  10. 48 CFR 1332.003 - Simplified acquisition procedures financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...false Simplified acquisition procedures financing. 1332.003 Section 1332.003...GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING 1332.003 Simplified acquisition procedures financing. Contract financing may be...

  11. Islamic Finance in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Rodney

    2007-01-01

    Islam all too often resonates negatively in Europe, with a great part of non-Muslim public opinion uncomfortable with Islamic culture and values. Secular and Christian opinion is at best suspicious of shariah, Islamic law, and indeed often antagonistic. The notion of wanting to apply shariah principles to banking and finance is treated with scepticism if not outright hostility, especially as there is no concept of Christian or Jewish banking, even if there are some parallels between shariah f...

  12. Museum of American Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Founded by securities dealer John Herzog in 1988, the Museum of American Financial History aims to collect and preserve US historical financial artifacts that bring "the nation's financial history alive." Students, policy makers, media professionals, and the general public will enjoy selected articles from the quarterly publication Financial History in addition to online exhibits like Financing the Civil War, a historical narrative complete with images of obsolete banknote and securities issued by the North and South.

  13. Hypertextual Finance Glossary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wondering what is meant by the time value of money? Effective margin? Realized compound yield? Look no further than this site. Created and maintained by Duke University Professor of International Business Campbell R. Harvey, this clean and simple-to-use glossary offers over 3,600 entries, fully linked to related terms. Organized alphabetically with concise definitions, the glossary is an excellent resource for university finance courses.

  14. Gauge theory of Finance?

    OpenAIRE

    Sornette, D.

    1998-01-01

    Some problems with the recent stimulating proposal of a ``Gauge Theory of Finance'' by Ilinski and collaborators are outlined. First, the derivation of the log-normal distribution is shown equivalent both in information and mathematical content to the simpler and well-known derivation, dating back from Bachelier and Samuelson. Similarly, the re-derivation of Black-Scholes equation is shown equivalent to the standard one because the limit of no uncertainty is equivalent to th...

  15. International Finance Corporation (IFC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    IFC, a member of the World Bank group, provides loans and equity financing for private sector projects, and advisory services to governments in developing countries to promote economic development. This website offers information about the products and services that IFC provides; reports on IFC projects and activities; and puts out press releases. There is also a collection of discussion and technical papers available at the site.

  16. Probabilistic aspects of finance

    OpenAIRE

    Fo?llmer, Hans; Schied, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    In the past decades, advanced probabilistic methods have had significant impact on the field of finance, both in academia and in the financial industry. Conversely, financial questions have stimulated new research directions in probability. In this survey paper, we review some of these developments and point to some areas that might deserve further investigation. We start by reviewing the basics of arbitrage pricing theory, with special emphasis on incomplete markets and on ...

  17. Yahoo! UK & Ireland: Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahoo! UK Finance is a site that provides the latest updates on quoted stocks, indices, foreign exchange and business news in the United Kingdom and Ireland. The site publishes share price and trading information on all London Stock Exchange stocks with a 20-minute delay. It will also provide delayed information for stocks trading on the Frankfurt and Paris stock market. Yahoo! offers real-time foreign exchange rates and the latest UK business news from the Press Association and Reuters Holdings.

  18. Essays in Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Rasid, Mohamed Eskandar Shah

    2014-01-01

    This thesis which compromise of three essays focuses on the theme of valuation, value premium anomaly, financing behaviour and emerging markets. The first essay studies the value growth puzzle in the context of conflict of interest between taxable and institutional investors. We model this conflict in a rational expectations framework and demonstrate how the differences in firm's characteristics (in terms of value versus growth) and the risk profile of the investors can explain the shape of C...

  19. Financing Creative Destruction

    OpenAIRE

    Samaniego, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    This paper uncovers evidence of s potentially important channel linking financial development to growth: the financing of innovations introduced by entrepreneurs. Using internationally comparable data on European countries, entry and exit in research-intensive industries are found to be disproportionately sensitive to the level of financial development. Furthermore, financial development is related to increased R&D spending. The results are robust to several different measures of financial de...

  20. Environmental Finance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency provides wastewater POTW guidance information on financing sources. The EPA seeks to lower costs, increase investment, and build capacity by creating partnerships with state & local governments and the private sector to fund environmental research and protection. The site's environmental and financial tools, publications, and database provide an easy way for students of this topic to learn more about the cost behind protecting the environment and those willing to provide funding opportunities.

  1. Equilibrium Corporate Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Bisin, Alberto; Gottardi, Piero; Ruta, Guido

    2010-01-01

    We study a general equilibrium model with production where financial markets are incomplete. At a competitive equilibrium firms take their production and financial decisions so as to maximize their value. We show that shareholders unanimously sup- port value maximization. Furthermore, competitive equilibria are constrained Pareto efficient. Finally the Modigliani-Miller theorem typically does not hold and the firms’ corporate financing structure is determined at equilibrium. ...

  2. Financing lifelong learning

    OpenAIRE

    Oosterbeek, Hessel; Patrinos, Harry Anthony

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes and analyzes different financial schemes to promote lifelong learning. Positive effects of financial incentives to pupils are not restricted to high ability pupils, as low ability students also seem to benefit. The evidence regarding the effects of subsidy forms is limited. The most prominent knowledge gaps regarding the effects of various financing schemes related to lifelong learning are the effects of vouchers; financial aid schemes for students; and entitlements and i...

  3. Self-Financing Roads

    OpenAIRE

    Verhoef, Erik T.; Mohring, Herbert

    2007-01-01

    Mohring and Harwitz (1962) showed that, under certain conditions, an optimally designed and priced road would generate user toll revenues just sufficient to cover its capital costs. Several scholars subsequently explored the robustness of that finding. This paper briefly summarizes further research on the relationship between congestion-toll revenues and road costs. Despite its transparency, the self-financing theorem can lead to erroneous interpretations. The paper’s second part discusses ...

  4. Innovation, Trade and Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Egger, Peter; Keuschnigg, Christian

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a model where heterogeneous firms choose whether to undertake R&D or not. Innovative firms are more productive, have larger investment opportunities and lower own funds for necessary tangible continuation investments than non-innovating firms. As a result, they are financially constrained while standard firms are not. The efficiency of the financial sector and a country's institutional quality relating to corporate finance determine the share of R&D intensive firms and the...

  5. Mathematical Models in Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Halim Kazan; Ahmet Ergülen

    2005-01-01

    Finance is the corner stone of the free enterprise system. Good financial management is therefore vitally important to the economic health of business firms, and thus the nation and the world. The field is relatively complex, and it is undergoing constant change in response to shifts in economic conditions say Brigham and Gapenski in the introduction of their Financial Management book (Brigham, Eugene F., Gapenski, Louis C 1994). As they said the field is relatively complex since most of the ...

  6. LEASE FINANCING: A NEW DUAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina-Aurora, BUNEA-BONTAS

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Leasing is an important additional financing technique used by many companies, enabling them to use property, plant and equipment without making large initial cash outlays. It also provides flexibility, allowing entities to address obsolescence risks. Under current accounting rules, when referring to the operating leasing in particular, there is a lack of comparability between the financial position and operating results of companies that buy assets and the financial position and operating results of those that lease similar assets. This has led critics to assert that the current accounting does not portray the economics of lease arrangements. In response to this criticism, the IASB and FASB have developed a new approach to lease accounting that would require a lessee to recognise assets and liabilities for the rights and obligations created by leases, this providing greater transparency and comparability for financial statements users. On the other hand, the proposals will affect almost every company and the impact of the proposed changes may be significant, as recognising additional assets and liabilities and finance expense will affect key performance ratios and, consequently, the ability to satisfy debt covenants.

  7. Social security financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-01

    After nearly 2 years of study, the 1979 Advisory Council on Social Security submitted its findings and recommendations in December. In February the Bulletin published the Executive Summary of the Council's report. Because of the continuing wide public interest in the future of social security financing, the Council's detailed findings and recommendations on that subject are published below. The Council unanimously reports that all current and future beneficiaries can count on receiving the payments to which they are entitled. Among the recommendations it calls for are partial financing with nonpayroll-tax revenues. Suggested changes include hospital insurance (HI) financed through portins of personal and corporate income taxes and a part of the HI insurance payroll tax diverted to cash benefits with the balance of this tax repealed. The Council also recommends that the social security cash benefits program be brought into long-run actuarial balance--with a payroll-tax rate increase in the year 2005. It rejects the idea of a value-added tax as being inflationary. Parenthetical remarks represent additional views of the Council members cited. PMID:7423348

  8. Gauge Theory of Finance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sornette, Didier

    The recent stimulating proposal of a "Gauge Theory of Finance" by Ilinsky et al. is connected here with traditional approaches. First, the derivation of the log-normal distribution is shown to be equivalent both in information and mathematical content to the simpler and well-known derivation, dating back from Bachelier and Samuelson. Similarly, the re-derivation of Black-Scholes equation is shown equivalent to the standard one because the limit of no uncertainty is equivalent to the standard risk-free replication argument. Both re-derivations of the log-normality and Black-Scholes result do not provide a test of the theory because it is not uniquely specified in the limits where these results apply. Third, the choice of the exponential form a la Boltzmann, of the weight of a given market configuration, is a key postulate that requires justification. In addition, the "Gauge Theory of Finance" seems to lead to "virtual" arbitrage opportunities for a pure Markov random walk market when there should be none. These remarks are offered in the hope to improve the formulation of the "Gauge Theory of Finance" into a coherent and useful framework.

  9. Financing of nuclear projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delays in the completion of nuclear power plants aggravate the financing of such ventures because the contractual sums to be paid for interest and amortization are not generated. Moreover, economic feasibility analyses by the banks are rendered ineffective by changes in the underlying data, such as the structure of electricity rates and the supply monopoly held by utilities. The German nuclear power plants at present in operation or under construction were financed mainly through subsidiares of the participating utilities outside the balance sheets of the parent companies. The banks have developed a number of financing concepts to adapt funding to the specific needs of practice. Future nuclear power plants make-up one third of the present capacity of the participating utilities. However, they will require three to four times the previous volume of capital investments. Yet it is certain that the expansion of nuclear power in the Federal Republic of Germany will not be hampered by financial problems. The funding models developed for nuclear power plants have already proved their qualities. However, the problems of nuclear power have not become less. Attention must also be drawn to some weak spots in the financial sector. (orig.)

  10. Relationship finance, market finance and endogenous business cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Deidda, Luca Gabriele; Fattouh, Bassam

    2010-01-01

    This paper develops an overlapping generation model with asymmetric information in the credit market such that the interplay between relationship finance supplied by investors who monitor investment decisions ex-ante and market finance supplied by investors who relay on public information can be the source of endogenous business fluctuations. Monitoring helps reducing the inefficiency caused by moral hazard. However, the incentives of entrepreneurs to demand relationship finance to induce mon...

  11. Forfaiting : an alternative financing model to project finance for PPPs?

    OpenAIRE

    Busse, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Project finance which is primarily used to finance public private partnerships (PPPs) has faced deteriorating credit conditions during the financial crisis. This has ultimately decreased the competitiveness of PPPs compared to traditional public procurement. This study aims to find out in how far and under which conditions the forfaiting model which is predominantly used in Germany can be an alternative financing model for PPPs. For this purpose both models were compared to identi...

  12. Renewable energy and Scottish trading arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarises the findings of a project involving the participation of the Scottish Renewables Forum (SRF) in the ongoing Ofgem consultation process concerning the future electricity trading arrangements in Scotland. The present administrative arrangements, the activities of the SRF, the prospects for the British Electricity Trading and Transmission Arrangements (BETTA), generator connection policy, and transmission access are discussed, and an overview of consultations relating to Scotland-England interconnection access is presented. The appendices cover the SRF responses to the Ofgem consultation, a discussion paper in advance of the SRF meeting with Ofgem in April 2001, an SRF trading update, the SRF's responses to Ofgem's Environmental Action Plan, the Scottish Embedded Generators Working Group's terms of reference and draft paper on issues, and a briefing on prices in administered arrangements

  13. Valve Technology Arrangement of Cryopump: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjiv Y. Rajput

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A cryopump or a "cryogenic pump" is a vacuum pump that pumps the trap gases and vapours by condensing them on a cold surface. Helium gas which is very light can only be pumped by Cryopump. Cryopump cannot be used when working for continuous operation as it pumps the effluent till the saturation state is achieved. Then the absorbed gases are to be collected through other mechanical pump through regeneration process. Hence, valve technology arrangement is incorporated with the cryopump in order to achieve the continuous pumping when two cryopump are used in alternate processes (i.e. absorption and regeneration. Various design of Valve technology arrangement is proposed by different researcher all over the world. This review paper focuses on the different proposed valve technology arrangement and elaborately explains the various components of valve technology and concludes the best possible arrangement that can be used in Cryopump.

  14. 78 FR 76600 - Proposed Subsequent Arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-18

    ...cooperation on development and deployment of TWR technology under this Implementing Arrangement shall include: A) TWR reactor neutronics analysis and experimentation, including but not limited to reactor, plant shielding, nuclear data, software (source...

  15. Flood risk governance arrangements in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matczak, P.; Lewandowski, J.; Chory?ski, A.; Szwed, M.; Kundzewicz, Z. W.

    2015-06-01

    The STAR-FLOOD (Strengthening and Redesigning European Flood Risk Practices Towards Appropriate and Resilient Flood Risk Governance Arrangements) project, funded by the European Commission, investigates strategies for dealing with flood risk in six European countries: Belgium, the UK, France, the Netherlands, Poland and Sweden and in 18 vulnerable urban regions in these countries. The project aims to describe, analyse, explain, and evaluate the main similarities and differences between the selected EU Member States in terms of development and performance of flood risk governance arrangements. It also discusses the scientific and societal importance of these similarities and differences. Attention is paid to identification and characterization of shifts in flood risk governance arrangements and in flood risk management strategies and to determination of triggering factors and restraining factors. An assessment of a change of resilience and appropriateness (legitimacy, effectiveness, efficiency) of flood risk governance arrangements in Poland is presented and comparison with other European countries is offered.

  16. Optimal Linear Arrangement of Interval Graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Johanne; Fomin, Fedor; Heggernes, Pinar; Kratsch, Dieter; Kucherov, Gregory

    2006-01-01

    We study the optimal linear arrangement (OLA) problem on interval graphs. Several linear layout problems that are NP-hard on general graphs are solvable in polynomial time on interval graphs.We prove that, quite surprisingly, optimal linear arrangement of interval graphs is NP-hard. The same result holds for permutation graphs. We present a lower bound and a simple and fast 2-approximation algorithm based on any interval model of the input graph.

  17. Minimum Energy Requirements in Complex Distillation Arrangements

    OpenAIRE

    Halvorsen, Ivar Johan

    2001-01-01

    Distillation is the most widely used industrial separation technology and distillation units are responsible for a significant part of the total heat consumption in the world’s process industry. In this work we focus on directly (fully thermally) coupled column arrangements for separation of multicomponent mixtures. These systems are also denoted Petlyuk arrangements, where a particular implementation is the dividing wall column. Energy savings in the range of 20-40% have been reported with...

  18. Evolution of karst conduit networks in transition from pressurised flow to free surface flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Perne

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel modelling approach to study the evolution of conduit networks in soluble rocks. Unlike the models presented so far, the model allows a transition from pressurised (pipe flow to a free surface (open channel flow in evolving discrete conduit networks. It calculates flow, solute transport and dissolutional enlargement within each time step and steps through time until a stable flow pattern establishes. The flow in each time step is calculated by calling the EPA Storm Water Management Model (EPA SWMM, which efficiently solves the 1-D Saint Venant equations in a network of conduits. We present several cases with low dip and sub-vertical networks to demonstrate mechanisms of flow pathway selection. In low dip models the inputs were randomly distributed to several junctions. The evolution of pathways progresses upstream: initially pathways linking outlets to the closest inputs evolve fastest because the gradient along these pathways is largest. When a pathway efficiently drains the available recharge, the head drop along the pathway attracts flow from the neighbouring upstream junctions and new connecting pathways evolve. The mechanism progresses from the output boundary inwards until all inputs are connected to the stable flow system. In the pressurised phase, each junction is drained by at least one conduit, but only one conduit remains active in the vadose phase. The selection depends on the initial geometry of a junction, initial distribution of diameters, the evolution in a pressurised regime, and on the dip of the conduits, which plays an important role in vadose entrenchment. In high dip networks, the vadose zone propagates downwards and inwards from the rim of the massif. When a network with randomly distributed initial diameters is supplied with concentrated recharge from the adjacent area, the sink point regresses up upstream along junctions connected to the prominent pathways. Large conductive structures provide deep penetration of high hydraulic head and give rise to high gradients and possible fast evolution of conduit systems deep within the massif.

  19. SUIVI DE LA MIGRATION D’AVALAISON DES ANGUILLES PAR UNE CONDUITE DE DEBIT RESERVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEGAULT A.

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Le suivi de la migration catadrome de l’anguille par une conduite de débit réservé a été réalisé sur le barrage de la retenue de Bois Joli sur le Frémur (dénivelé : 13,7 m ; 3 millions de m3. Une partie des migrateurs utilise cette conduite, au début de la saison de dévalaison quand elle représente la seule voie de transit mais également plus tard, lorsque le barrage déverse et que s’ouvre ainsi une seconde voie de passage. En raison des faibles débits d’alimentation et de l’implantation de l’entrée de la conduite on peut supposer que les anguilles prospectent la retenue pour trouver une voie de transit. L’efficacité de l’équipement, qui s’établit à 12 % de la dévalaison totale, concourt donc pour une part non négligeable au transit des anguilles. La partition des débits entre les différentes voies de migration semblerait essentielle pour définir leur efficacité. Malgré l’aménagement de la conduite, on observe une mortalité de 11 % des anguilles qui l’empruntent. Elle semble essentiellement liée à l’abrasion contre les parois et le papillon de la vanne. Dans de nombreux cas, la mortalité lors du passage dans les conduites de débit réservé doit être très importante, voire totale en raison de leur configuration et de leur mode de gestion. Cette mortalité tend à réduire le nombre des géniteurs produit par le bassin versant. Les anguilles marquées qui ont franchi le barrage grâce à la conduite avant le pic de migration stoppent leur progression en aval. Elles la reprennent quelques semaines plus tard quand le barrage déverse ou l’année suivante. Ce second constat confirme les effets des retenues sur la vitesse de migration. L’utilisation des conduites de débit réservé par les anguilles d’avalaison devrait être prise en compte lors de leur conception et de leur gestion afin de réduire les risques de mortalité.

  20. Fabrication and Optimization of Gelatin/ Nano Bioglass Conduits for Peripheral Nerve Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Foroutan Koudehi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Peripheral nerve injury is common in trauma patients and 4.5% of all soft-tissue injuries are accompanied by defects of peripheral nerve. Peripheral nerve injuries can lead to lifetime loss of function and permanent disfigurement. Designed conduits com-prised of natural and synthetic materials are now widely used in the construction of damaged tissues. The aim of this project was to prepare nanocomposite conduits from gelatin and bioglass for damaged peripheral nerve reconstruction. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study,compound water solution of gelatin and nano bioglass synthesized through sol gel method, was made. After preparing the solution, special mandrels were dipped in solution several times and freeze dried in order to be emptied of wa-ter via sublimation. The conduits had the following dimensions: internal diameter: 1.6 mm, outside diameter: 2.2 mm and length about 12 mm. In order to evaluate the biocompatibility of conduits we used cytotoxicity test by Chinese ovary cells and MTT assay by Miapaca-2 (pancreatic cancer cell line. Results: The prepared nano bioglass and conduits were characterized using transmission elec-tron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Results of biocompatibility test showed no sign of cytotoxicity and cells were found to be attached to the pore walls offered by the conduits. Conclusion: According to the results, nano bioglass conduits could be a good candidate for peripheral nerve regeneration. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2014; 21 (2:152-160

  1. Numerical simulation of the flow in a conduit, in the presence of a confined air cushion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trieu Dong

    1999-02-01

    A rectangular conduit with a closed end has water flowing in/out at the other end. The water level at the open end has an imposed sinusoidal movement. When this level is higher than the ceiling of the conduit, a certain mass of air is trapped under the ceiling. In a previous article (T.D. Nguyen, La Houille Blanche, No. 2, 1990), it was supposed that this air is flowing out freely through the ceiling, so the relative pressure at the water surface is zero, and the water hammer at the dead end of the conduit was calculated when the conduit was thoroughly filled. In this article, it is supposed that the trapped air is compressed isothermally or adiabatically. The set of equations is resolved (water continuity and movement equations, air state equation) by supposing a regime of flow at each section (section submerged or not), a certain value for the air pressure and by using the sweep method to determine the water flow characteristics. The air volume calculated by iteration must converge, and the calculated regimes at each section (submerged or free) must agree with the supposed regimes. The simulation is performed first with a horizontal conduit then with an inclined conduit. As expected, adiabatic compression gives higher pressure than isothermal compression. The simulation shows also that when there is an air cushion, compared with the case when air is flowing out freely, the shock of the water hammer at the closed end of the conduit is significantly reduced. This method is aimed at calculating the flow with entrapped air in the inlet/outlet tunnel of a hydroelectric plant, or in sewer system pipe when a sudden discharge surge (due to turbin opening/closing or to urban storm) changes a previously free-surface flow in a mostly full-pipe flow, but with some air entrapped under the ceiling. Copyright

  2. Bridging the finance gap for small firms. The role of information flows across large firm-based production networks in supplying finance to small firms: the case of France

    OpenAIRE

    Hancké, Bob; Cieply, Sylvie

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses finance problems of small firms. Since small firms and banks belong to different economic worlds, as a result of which information assymetries emerge, credit rationing leads to sub-optimal financing arrangements. The paper analyses institutional solutions to these information assymetries between banks andsmall firms and argues that, as a result of the political-economic development ofFrance since the Second World War, production networks around large firms have become the...

  3. Arrangement plan in adjacent area and subsidy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Questions whether the three laws for developing power resources have fulfilled their function for making the agreement with inhabitants, and the direction for strengthening the measures are discussed. The first part deals with the location problem of power plants. The most important reason why inhabitants refuse the public acceptance for nuclear power plants is the fear for safety and the hitherto nuclear national policy. Therefore, the adjacent area arrangement measures must be completed. The second part deals with the three laws for developing power resources now in force and the problems thereof. The tax for promoting the development of power resources amounts to about 33,200 million yen in 1977. The subsidy granted to the adjacent area for locating a power plant is for example about 3,500 million yen for a plant of 1 million kW output. Attentions must be paid to (1) the object facilities for the granted subsidy, (2) the time and term of granting subsidy, and (3) the fundamental plan for the adjacent area arrangement. The third part deals with the features of adjacent area arrangement for locating a nuclear power plant. The fourth part deals with the author's opinion for promoting such measures of the above described fundamental plan. The fundamental plan must be composed as follows: (1) the assessment of community, (2) the arrangement plan based on the direction of developing the economical society of the area, and (3) so called physical facility arrangement plan.called physical facility arrangement plan. (Iwakiri, K.)

  4. Visualization of conduit-matrix conductivity differences in a karst aquifer using time-lapse electrical resistivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerhoff, Steven B.; Karaoulis, Marios; Fiebig, Florian; Maxwell, Reed M.; Revil, André; Martin, Jonathan B.; Graham, Wendy D.

    2012-12-01

    In the karstic upper Floridan aquifer, surface water flows into conduits of the groundwater system and may exchange with water in the aquifer matrix. This exchange has been hypothesized to occur based on differences in discharge at the Santa Fe River Sink-Rise system, north central Florida, but has yet to be visualized using any geophysical techniques. Using electrical resistivity tomography, we conducted a time-lapse study at two locations with mapped conduits connecting the Santa Fe River Sink to the Santa Fe River Rise to study changes of electrical conductivity during times of varying discharge over a six-week period. Our results show conductivity differences between matrix, conduit changes in resistivity occurring through time at the locations of mapped karst conduits, and changes in electrical conductivity during rainfall infiltration. These observations provide insight into time scales and matrix conduit conductivity differences, illustrating how surface water flow recharged to conduits may flow in a groundwater system in a karst aquifer.

  5. Magma compaction, gas exsolution and decompression in volcanic conduits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaut, Chloé; Ricard, Yanick; Bercovici, David

    2010-05-01

    Gas content, exsolution and segregation from magma strongly influences the dynamics of a volcanic eruption. Recently, magma compaction has been shown to exert a control on gas content and segregation in viscous silicic magmas (Michaut et al, 2009). Dynamics of magma and gas mixtures in volcanic conduit are often studied using homogeneous models, where both phases move at the same velocity, or two-phase flow models, where both phases are at the same pressure, hence where no compaction occurs. We extend the two-phase flow theory of Bercovici and Ricard (2003) to take into account gas exsolution from magma matrix as well as gas compressibility. Gas solubility is considered to be a function of gas pressure only. The gas is considered perfect and is in the form of bubbles; the drag between phases follows Stoke's law, assuming a constant number of bubbles. We identify two dimensionless numbers: the first one characterizes the viscous resistance to flow and compaction; the second one characterizes the drag between phases. We compare the results of steady-state two-phase flow models with two limiting cases: homogeneous flow and single-pressure two-phase flow. Starting with negligible amount of gas in magma, gas exsolution and decompression occur over a characteristic distance that increases with the viscous resistance parameter. The compaction term is maximum at the beginning, and, as gas exsolves, it is rapidly expelled by compaction, resulting in a smaller increase in gas content with height in comparison with a single-pressure flow. The difference becomes negligible as viscosity and velocity decrease and initial gas pressure increases. As the amplitude of the inter-phase drag decreases, gas also expels more rapidly at first, but gas decompression and exsolution are more rapid and the characteristic distance over which they occur decreases. At steady-state and for a given surface pressure, taking into account both compaction and inter-phase drag favors gas escape and leads to less gas content at the exit than in the homogeneous or single-pressure models, and thus requires a larger original volatile content for explosive eruptions.

  6. Profit Taxes and Financing Constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Keuschnigg; Evelyn Ribi

    2012-01-01

    Without financing frictions, profit taxes reduce investment by their effect on the user cost of capital. With financing constraints, investment becomes sensitive to cash-flow. In this situation, even small taxes impose first order welfare losses, and ACE and cash-flow tax systems are no longer neutral. When banks become active and provide monitoring services in addition to finance, an ACE tax yields larger investment and welfare than an equal yield cash-flow tax.

  7. Financial Inclusion: Islamic Finance Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Mirakhor, Abbas; Iqbal, Zamir

    2012-01-01

    Enhancing financial inclusion or access to finance can make critical contributions to the economic development. Conventional mechanisms such as micro-finance, small-medium-enterprises (SME), and micro-insurance to enhance financial inclusion have been partially successful in enhancing the access and are not without challenges. Islamic finance, based on the concept of risk-sharing offers set of financial instruments promoting risk-sharing rather than risk-transfer in the financial system. In a...

  8. Accounting & Finance; a Basic Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, Ewoud

    2011-01-01

    The book is about finance and accounting, subjects widely discussed in many other books. What sets this book apart from most others is that it discusses all the basic aspects of finance and accounting in one single textbook. Three areas of interest are discussed: Financial Management; Management Accounting; Financial Accounting. Typically, these three subjects are treated separately as individual topics. They are closely related, however, since they all deal with the many financi...

  9. The role of lease financing

    OpenAIRE

    Mendes, Rodrigo de Pinto

    2015-01-01

    Leasing has become, throughout recent years, an increasingly important financing source for companies’ operational activities and has deserved some attention in the corporate finance literature. Understanding the leasing decision, through a comparison with other external financing options and an evaluation of its overall fit with firms’ specific characteristics has been the focus of existing investigations and it is the goal of this study. Our analysis is focused on the relationship betwe...

  10. Financing Infrastructure in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Estache, Antonio; Serebrisky, Tomas; Wren-lewis, Liam

    2015-01-01

    This article develops a theoretical framework to analyze options for financing infrastructurein developing countries. We build a basic model that gives motivations for usinga combination of public finance, private debt and private equity. The model is thenextended in a number of ways to examine a variety of factors that are important fordeveloping countries when considering financing choices. We focus in particular on keyinstitutional weaknesses that are often important for infrastructure inv...

  11. Family control and financing decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Crocci, Ettore; Doukas, John A.; Gonenc, Halit

    2010-01-01

    Empirical studies examining the financing decisions of the firm focus exclusively on publicly held firms, not family-controlled firms despite their economic importance. This study investigates the external financing behavior of family-controlled firms, using a comprehensive sample of 777 large European firms during the period 1998 to 2008. We document that, unlike nonfamily-controlled firms, the external financing decisions of family-controlled firms are influenced by control incentives and i...

  12. PUBLIC FINANCING OF HEALTHCARE SERVICES

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka Bem

    2013-01-01

    Healthcare in Poland is mainly financed by public sector entities, among them the National Health Fund (NFZ), state budget and local government budgets. The task of the National Health Fund, as the main payer in the system, is chiefly currently financing the services. The state budget plays a complementary role in the system, and finances selected groups of services, health insurance premiums and investments in healthcare infrastructure. The basic role of the local governments is to ensure ac...

  13. 26 CFR 1.7701(l)-3 - Recharacterizing financing arrangements involving fast-pay stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...discount to the accrued interest on the benefited shareholders' portion of the note...held by the fast-pay shareholders, plus the interest accrued on the debt...other benefited shareholders Total interest expense...

  14. Electrospun polycaprolactone/polylactic acid nanofibers as an artificial nerve conduit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of conduits made of biodegradable nanofibers is gaining substantial interest due to their suitability for nerve regeneration. Among all polymeric nanofibers PCL (Poly-Caprolactone) is distinctively found for mechanical stability and PLLA (Poly (L-Lactic Acid)) for relatively faster biodegradability. The aim of this study is to investigate blending compatibility between PCL and PLLA and the ability to fabricate nanofibers conduits via electro spinning. The PCL-PLLA nano-fiber tubular made from different blend ratios of PCL-PLLA were electro spun. The electro spun nanofibers were continuously deposited over high speed rotating mandrel to fabricate nanofibers conduit having inner diameter of 2mm and the wall thickness of 55-65 m. The diameters of nano-fibers were between 715-860nm. FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared) spectroscopy used to analyze chemical change in the blends of nerve conduits, which revealed that the PCL-PLLA blend nanofiber exhibit characteristic peaks of both PCL and PLLA and was composition dependent. The crystallinity of PCL-PLLA tubes were studied using WAXD (Wide Angle Xray Diffraction). The morphology of nanofibers were investigated under SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope). The mechanical properties of the conduits were also tested; the Young's modulus obtained for small diameter was 10MPa, twice as high as larger diameter. (author)

  15. 7 CFR 3560.71 - Construction financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Construction financing. 3560.71 Section 3560.71 Agriculture...Grant Origination § 3560.71 Construction financing. (a) Construction financing plan. Prior to loan approval,...

  16. 7 CFR 1710.110 - Supplemental financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Supplemental financing. 1710.110 Section 1710.110...Policies § 1710.110 Supplemental financing. (a) Except in the case...lender. RUS does not require supplemental financing in conjunction with an RUS...

  17. 7 CFR 1735.75 - Interim financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Interim financing. 1735.75 Section 1735...Loan Funds § 1735.75 Interim financing. (a) A borrower may submit...request for RUS approval of interim financing if it is necessary to...

  18. 7 CFR 1717.852 - Financing purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Financing purposes. 1717.852 Section 1717.852...Accommodations and Subordinations for 100 Percent Private Financing § 1717.852 Financing purposes. (a) Purposes eligible....

  19. Debt relief and financing climate change action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Adrian; Wright, Helena; Afionis, Stavros; Paavola, Jouni; Huq, Saleemul

    2014-08-01

    Slow progress in scaling-up climate finance has emerged as a major bottleneck in international negotiations. Debt relief for climate finance swaps could provide an alternative source for financing mitigation and adaptation action in developing countries.

  20. 13 CFR 120.476 - Prohibited financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Prohibited financing. 120.476...Section 120.476 Business Credit and Assistance...Lenders Small Business Lending Companies... Prohibited financing. An SBLC...loan to a small business that has received financing (or a...

  1. F# for quantitative finance

    CERN Document Server

    Astborg, Johan

    2013-01-01

    To develop your confidence in F#, this tutorial will first introduce you to simpler tasks such as curve fitting. You will then advance to more complex tasks such as implementing algorithms for trading semi-automation in a practical scenario-based format.If you are a data analyst or a practitioner in quantitative finance, economics, or mathematics and wish to learn how to use F# as a functional programming language, this book is for you. You should have a basic conceptual understanding of financial concepts and models. Elementary knowledge of the .NET framework would also be helpful.

  2. International Finance Corporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    As a part of the World Bank, the stated vision of the International Finance Corporation (IFC) is "that poor people have the opportunity to escape poverty and to improve their lives." To whit, the IFC works to promote open and competitive markets in developing countries, generate productive jobs and deliver basic services, among other things. First-time visitors will find that the layout of the site is visually stimulating and quite user-friendly. Visitors can use the embedded search engine to look for specific materials of interest.

  3. Multifractal fluctuations in finance

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitt, F.; Schertzer, D.; Lovejoy, S.

    2001-01-01

    We consider the structure functions S^(q)(T), i.e. the moments of order q of the increments X(t+T)-X(t) of the Foreign Exchange rate X(t) which give clear evidence of scaling (S^(q)(T)~T^z(q)). We demonstrate that the nonlinearity of the observed scaling exponent z(q) is incompatible with monofractal additive stochastic models usually introduced in finance: Brownian motion, Levy processes and their truncated versions. This nonlinearity corresponds to multifractal intermitten...

  4. Project Finance Model for Small Contractors in USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawahar Nesan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Construction projects do not require a large capital outlay but a large working capital to start up the project. Unfortunately, for small contractors there are very limited options available from the banks or other lending institutions to cover this large working capital requirement in the absence of sufficient collateral. The “Project Finance” method presented in this paper is recommended as the most effective method for small contractors in the United States. The problems of small and start up contractors in funding their projects have been little addressed in the literature. The current financing practices were observed through both the literature review and interviews with contractors and bankers in the western Michigan area and subsequently a system has been proposed which could help a small start-up company seeking higher growth. The growth rates that can be achieved using the project finance system in contrast to the traditional “line of credit” arrangements as illustrated in this paper show that the project finance model is beneficial.

  5. Arrangement of in-core neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To optimize the arrangement of neutron detectors in an intermediate power regions, to thereby improve the responsivity to the worst operation disable state and provide sensitive function as the safety protection system. Constitution: Intermediate power region monitors (IRM) are arranged as below (wherein R is the distance from the control rod at the center to the farthest control rod). (1) In the case where IRM number is less than 6, detectors are concentrated near the center of the reactor core and the adjacent IRM belong to trap systems different from each other. (2) In the case where IRM number is 8, two IRM belonging to trap systems different from each other are arranged near the center of the reactor core and the remaining detectors are arranged at an equal pitch on a same circle with a radius of about (3/2)sup(1/2) around the central control rod as the center in which trip systems A and B are alternate. (3) In the case where IRM number is greater than 10, detectors are arranged at an equal pitch on a same circle with a radius of about R cos 4 ?/M (where M is the number of IRM) around the central control rod as the center and in which trip systems A and B are alternate. (Kawakami, Y.)

  6. The Role of Capital Structure in Company’s Financing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta BARBUTA-MISU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The changes in capital structure and in financial components of a company have a particular importance in choosing optimal financing decision, in determining the impact of changes in capital structure and of elements within balance sheet. To quantify such an impact in the literature have been considered many factors as debt-equity ratio, profitability, self financing capacity and the ability to earn profit. Using the comparative method over a period of three years to five companies acting in the metallurgical sector in this paper has been analyzed the evolution of debt capacity ratio, return on equity ratio, financial long term debt ratio, interest coverage ratio and long-term financial autonomy ratio. Based on these findings it was concluded that the variation of capital structure and performance of the companies affects and influences funding arrangements considered by the companies’ managers.

  7. Sharing of risks in Islamic finance

    OpenAIRE

    Sekreter, Ahmet

    2011-01-01

    For most of the people the prohibition on interest is the well known part of Islamic finance. Indeed, the concept of Islamic finance was not being discussed enough till financial crisis, after crisis it started to be seen as an alternative financial system for conventional finance. Sharing the risks is the main concept of Islamic finance and one of the main differences between conventional and Islamic finance. Depositors/savers do not bear any risk in conventional finance however Islamic fina...

  8. Biodegradable Conduit Small Gap Tubulization for Peripheral Nerve Mutilation: A Substitute for Traditional Epineurial Neurorrhaphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peixun Zhang, Na Han, Tianbing Wang, Feng Xue, Yuhui Kou, Yanhua Wang, Xiaofeng Yin, Laijin Lu, Guanglei Tian, Xu Gong, Shanlin Chen, Yu Dang, Jianping Peng, Baoguo Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nerve regeneration and re-innervation are usually difficult after peripheral nerve injury. Epineurium neurorrhaphy to recover the nerve continuity is the traditional choice of peripheral nerve mutilation without nerve defects, whereas the functional recovery remains quite unsatisfactory. Based on previous research in SD rats and Rhesus Monkeys, a multiple centers clinical trial about biodegradable conduit small gap tubulization for peripheral nerve mutilation to substitute traditional epineurial neurorrhaphy was carried out. Herein, the authors reviewed the literature that focused on peripheral nerve injury and possible clinical application, and confirmed the clinical possibilities of biodegradable conduit small gap tubulization to substitute traditional epineurial neurorrhaphy for peripheral nerve mutilation. The biodegradable conduit small gap tubulization to substitute traditional epineurial neurorrhaphy for peripheral nerve mutilation may be a revolutionary innovation in peripheral nerve injury and repair field.

  9. Descent of low-Bond-number liquid-metal diapirs with trailing conduits during core formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rains, C.; Weeraratne, D. S.

    2012-12-01

    Formation of the early Earth involved violent impacts and meteorite bombardment which partially or fully melted surface materials, facilitating separation of iron metal from silicates. Geochemical constraints on core formation times indicate that this liquid metal must have been transported to the center of the Earth within 30 Ma. Among the mechanisms that have been proposed, metal-silicate plumes resulting from Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities of a liquid-metal pond at the bottom of a magma ocean provide the fastest rates of delivery to the core. Recent studies have shown that these rapidly descending plumes develop trailing conduits that fill with the overlying melted silicate material. However, while large plumes descend quickly, they do not provide enough time or surface area for metal-silicate equilibration to be achieved throughout the mantle. Instead, small metal drops descending in the wake of larger diapirs or in conduits of their own making may have been crucial in the equilibration process that resulted in the excess siderophile mantle abundance. We investigate the instability and descent of liquid-metal drops through a highly viscous layer using three-component laboratory fluid experiments representing the Earth's proto-mantle (layer 2) covered by a magma ocean (layer 1), and a liquid iron pond (layer 3) initially resting at their interface. Silicate materials are represented by dehydrated (layer 2), or diluted (layer 1) glucose and salt solutions. Liquid gallium represents the iron metal phase. We scale our experiments to the Earth's mantle through the use of Bond numbers to characterize drops and diapirs, and a non-dimensional length scale ?, which we define as the ratio of radius to height, to characterize conduits. Previous laboratory work using liquid gallium has investigated high-Bond-number diapirs (B = 13 - 66) and conduits of ? ~ 0.2, analogous to large plumes in the Earth. Here, we focus on low Bond numbers (B ~ 4), and small ? ~ .05 to consider small metal drops followed by long, thin conduits. We describe the density and viscosity conditions under which trailing conduits open behind metal drops, and the resulting conduit geometry and drop shapes. We find that the descent times of metal drops, morphology of plumes, and relaxation times of conduits in tri-fluid systems depend strongly on the density ratio between the overlying magma ocean and the mantle material as well as the viscosity of the mantle. Only under conditions of high density ratios and high mantle viscosity will long conduits form behind sinking metal drops. These conduits entrain magma-ocean material to the base of the mantle, with return flow occurring via solitons that travel upward along the original conduit path. We also find that the presence of an intermediate diffusion layer between fluids 1 and 2, analogous to a crystal mush on the bottom of a partially-solidified magma ocean, significantly decreases onset times of the R-T instability. Thus, in the case of large mantle viscosities and sufficiently high buoyancy ratios, trailing conduits entrained by sinking metal drops provide a valid mechanism for metal-silicate equilibration in the deep mantle while rapidly delivering iron to the core.

  10. Radiation response of optical fibers encased in a radiation resistant telecommunications conduit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of exposing two multimode silica core optical fibers to Co-60 gamma irradiation in a radiation shielded configuration is presented. The fibers were operated at a wavelength of 850 nm during the irradiations. The radiation exposure consisted of dose rates at the fibers ranging from 59.6 rad(Si)/min to 92.2 rad(Si)/min within the radiation resistant conduit (RRC) and plastic conduit, respectively. It was observed that the fiber within the RRC experienced approximately 8.0 dB/km less radiation induced attenuation than the fiber within the plastic conduit with identical external radiation exposure and geometries. The measurements were performed at room temperature (T = 21.5 C) using well defined, highly stable optical sources and detectors. 9 refs

  11. Investigation of a Nb-Ti cable-in-conduit conductor: experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A NbTi, Cable-in-conduit sample coil was experimentally investigated by using inductive heat inputs of durations 0.44 and 2.1 msec. Since the original goal of determining the effect of varying conductor perimeter on stability could not be achieved, the stability parameters which were studied and reported include mass flow rate, heating duration, and the presence of liquid helium outside of the conduit versus a surrounding vacuum. In addition, quench-induced pressure rises, both at zero and non-zero imposed flow rates, were measured. Results indicate that stability increases with imposed mass flow, stability increases with heating duration before the limiting current, and helium outside of the conduit has no discernible effect on transient stability. A detailed analysis of these findings will be published in the future. (author)

  12. MRI of the heart following implantation of a left ventricular apico-aortic conduit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate the potential of ECG-triggered MRI for the evaluation of postoperative anatomy and function of the heart and conduit following implantation of a left-ventricular apico-aortic conduit. Materials and Methods: 5 patients (2 female, 3 male, mean age 72.5 years) were examined using a 1.5 Tesla whole-body MRI (Gyroscan Intera, Philips Medical Systems, Best, The Netherlands) following apico-aortic conduit surgery due to severe aortic valve stenosis. The reason for performing conduit implantation instead of aortic valve replacement was the risk of injuring a bypass graft from prior coronary artery bypass surgery. Cine steady-state-free-precession (SSFP) sequences were used to assess ventricular function, navigator-gated 3D-SSFP and breath-hold, time-resolved contrast-enhanced MR angiography was used to display the postoperative anatomy, and 2D-gradient echo sequences with an inversion pulse to suppress the signal of the healthy myocardium were used to evaluate potential myocardial scarring. Flow sensitive gradient echo sequences were performed to determine the blood flow in the conduit. Results: In all patients the apico-aortic conduit proved to be open with a maximum flow velocity of 126 (+ 43) cm/s. The postoperative anatomy was able to be evaluated in all patients and perioperative myocardial infarction was able to be ruled out. The mean ejection fraction of the left ventricle was 44.2 + 6.2 % with a mean volume of 80 + 20.6 ml per heart beat. (origlume of 80 + 20.6 ml per heart beat. (orig.)

  13. Java meshing tool for sphere arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A tool for meshing sphere arrangements was programmed in order to perform finite element calculations. Sphere arrangements are investigated in frame of the feasibility study of the sphere-pac nuclear fuel. One major concern of this study is the thermal conductivity of the arrangement. Further concerns are the mechanical behavior and sintering of the fuel. The thermal conductivity of the fuel was addressed with the computer code SPACON based on a unit cell approach and a radial heat flow experiment. However, a further approach using the finite element method is desirable, in order to better understanding the thermal flow through the package and to cross check with SPACON data and with experimental data. Also the mechanical behavior of the fuel could be addressed using the finite element technique. (author)

  14. Cooling arrangement for a superconducting coil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herd, Kenneth Gordon (Niskayuna, NY); Laskaris, Evangelos Trifon (Schenectady, NY)

    1998-06-30

    A superconducting device, such as a superconducting rotor for a generator or motor. A vacuum enclosure has an interior wall surrounding a cavity containing a vacuum. A superconductive coil is placed in the cavity. A generally-annularly-arranged, thermally-conductive sheet has an inward-facing surface contacting generally the entire outward-facing surface of the superconductive coil. A generally-annularly-arranged coolant tube contains a cryogenic fluid and contacts a generally-circumferential portion of the outward-facing surface of the sheet. A generally-annularly-arranged, thermally-insulative coil overwrap generally circumferentially surrounds the sheet. The coolant tube and the inward-facing surface of the coil overwrap together contact generally the entire outward-facing surface of the sheet.

  15. Gauge theory of Finance?

    CERN Document Server

    Sornette, D

    1998-01-01

    Some problems with the recent stimulating proposal of a ``Gauge Theory of Finance'' by Ilinski and collaborators are outlined. First, the derivation of the log-normal distribution is shown equivalent both in information and mathematical content to the simpler and well-known derivation, dating back from Bachelier and Samuelson. Similarly, the re-derivation of Black-Scholes equation is shown equivalent to the standard one because the limit of no uncertainty is equivalent to the standard risk-free replication argument. Both re-derivations of the log-normality and Black-Scholes result do not provide a test of the theory because it is degenerate in the limits where these results apply. Third, the choice of the exponential form a la Boltzmann, of the weight of a given market configuration, is a key postulate that requires justification. In addition, the ``Gauge Theory of Finance'' seems to lead to ``virtual'' arbitrage opportunities for pure Markov random walk market when there should be none. These remarks are off...

  16. Financing wind energy projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triodos Bank has more than 10 years of experience with developing and financing wind projects in the Netherlands. Over 50 Megawatt has been installed with direct involvement of the bank. The experience is both as a bank and as a venture capital fund. In this contribution the perspective will be more from a venture capital point of view than as a bank. The bank's activities in the wind energy sector started in 1986 by forming a joint venture with an engineering bureau, experienced i wind energy but not yet in developing wind projects. From 1989 onwards the joint venture started to build wind farms, both as a private company and in a joint venture with utilities. The European Investment Bank became involved with a long-term debt finance facility (15 years, fixed interest loan). The main difficulties were long-term commitments from landowners (Dike authorities) and utilities with regard to power contracts. The development got really stuck when utilities refused to pay a fair price anymore. Also, site development became more and more difficult. Even the poor technical performance improved drastically and did not frighten developers and banks too much. (author)

  17. Financing energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1990s is likely to be a decade of double growth: in energy demand and environmental protection. This leads the author of this paper to ask the pertinent questions of where the money will come from, and in what form, to finance the growth in capacity to produce this energy and the technology required to produce and burn it cleanly. With a focus on Asian energy markets, this paper first illustrates the problem by describing the rapid growth of energy demand in the region. It describes the growth in Japan as well as China and the fast-growing economies of Hong Kong, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand. Energy demand growth rates of almost 5 percent in the 1980s are expected to continue to grow at that rate at least until 2005, doubling today's level of consumption and putting the energy supply system under great strain. Because of the large sums involved, this paper pints out the necessity of inventing new, innovative devices for future fund raising. This will require the participation of institutions such as insurance companies and regional banks that have little experience in the energy field. This paper suggests that these and the established players in energy finance will have recourse to two new approaches: Build-Operate-Transfer and Trustee Borrowing schemes

  18. Public Finance Administration. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, B. J.; Swain, John W.

    This book is intended for the nonexpert in finance who has a public administration background. It opens with a broad introduction to public finance administration and how this job is related to public budgeting, the practice of public-sector accounting, and the economic concepts of money and value. Issues surrounding public revenue, its sources,…

  19. Financing of SNR and THTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To finance the progressed reactor lines, the Federal Cabinet emphasized its decision of 23 September 1981 to require an increased participation of the electricity industry in the total costs of the project SNR 300. Some starting points of the financing are presented. (orig./UA)

  20. Personal Finance. Common Curriculum Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    This document provides the common curriculum goals for the state of Oregon in personal finance, an area of study that relates basic economic concepts and practices to the financial concerns of consumers. These goals were designed to define what should be taught in all public school settings. The common curriculum goals in personal finance are…

  1. EXTERNAL FINANCING FOR CONSTRUCTION ENTITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADELA BREUER

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The external financing of the construction entities does not differ from the one of other entities within other activities, but the construction entities have also a financing source, represented by the funds for the site organization, funds which are analysed and accounted in the present paper.

  2. Mastering R for quantitative finance

    CERN Document Server

    Berlinger, Edina; Badics, Milán; Banai, Ádám; Daróczi, Gergely; Dömötör, Barbara; Gabler, Gergely; Havran, Dániel; Juhász, Péter; Margitai, István; Márkus, Balázs; Medvegyev, Péter; Molnár, Julia; Szucs, Balázs Árpád; Tuza, Ágnes; Vadász, Tamás; Váradi, Kata; Vidovics-Dancs, Ágnes

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for those who want to learn how to use R's capabilities to build models in quantitative finance at a more advanced level. If you wish to perfectly take up the rhythm of the chapters, you need to be at an intermediate level in quantitative finance and you also need to have a reasonable knowledge of R.

  3. Clean air and project financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article examines how environmental requirements are challenging the developers ability to secure financing for independent energy projects. The topics addressed in the article include a review of the US Environmental Protection Agency auction rules for acid rain emission allowances, short term and long term market demand, project financing issues, credit value and matching interests

  4. The Possibilities of Strategic Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffee, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Strategic finance is aligning financial decisions--regarding revenues, creating and maintaining institutional assets, and using those assets--with the institution's mission and strategic plan. The concept known as "strategic finance" increasingly is being seen as a useful perspective for helping boards and presidents develop a sustainable…

  5. EXTERNAL FINANCING FOR CONSTRUCTION ENTITIES

    OpenAIRE

    ADELA BREUER; MIHAELA LESCONI FRUMU?ANU; BEATRIX LIGHEZAN BREUER; DOREL JURCHESCU

    2011-01-01

    The external financing of the construction entities does not differ from the one of other entities within other activities, but the construction entities have also a financing source, represented by the funds for the site organization, funds which are analysed and accounted in the present paper.

  6. Local financing through capital markets

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandru, Ciprian Antoniade

    2007-01-01

    In this paper are presented results of research conducted to identify sources of financing alternatives for local community. The study includes an analysis of the present situation on the financing of investments by local municipal bonds. The paper ends with the presentation of the benefits of municipal bonds and proposals on the development of this market.

  7. Wave Propagation in Axi-Symmetrical Magmatic Conduits Due to an Internal Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Negri, R. S.; Sanchez-Sesma, F. J.; Arciniega-Ceballos, A.

    2014-12-01

    The classical Trefftz's method is implemented to simulate wave propagation in and around axi-symmetrical magmatic conduits. In this fluid-solid system the fluid (magma) is confined by an elastic unbounded medium that represents the surrounding rock. Our aim is to associate wave behavior with mechanical and geometrical conduit characteristics. The source is assumed to be at a point along the conduit centered axis medium are constructed in both cases as linear combinations of particular solutions.Within the fluid such solutions are spherical standing waves that are smooth at the origins. In the elastic solid region the field is constructed with monopoles and dipoles for the P waves and spheroidal dipoles for SV waves. The particular solutions satisfy the elastodynamic equations that govern the wave motion at those media and are associated to origins (selected points) distributed along the conduit axis. For the surrounding rock the solutions are sources that satisfy Sommerfeld's radiation condition. These sets of solutions are assumed to be complete. This conjecture is exact in 2D acoustic problems. The conduit can be closed or open at the ends and the surrounding elastic domain is unbounded. In order to find the coefficients of Trefftz's wave expansions, boundary conditions at the fluid-solid interface (null shear and continuity of pressures and normal velocities) are satisfied in the least squares sense. The solution is obtained in the frequency domain and the source time function can be introduced using Fourier analysis.Regardless the low order of the formulation our results display a rich variety of behaviors. For a uniform infinite cylinder we reproduced the exact analytical solution. In addition, this approach allows identifying some important effects of the conduit geometry, including changes of sections. Lateral and longitudinal resonances of irregular axi-symmetric conduits are well resolved. The stiffness of the solid domain with respect to the fluid compressibility is explored regarding the effects of changing fluid and solid properties. Our analytical approach can be useful to understand volcanic conduit dynamics from the interpretation of the observed seismic wave field.

  8. Small scale high resolution LiDAR measurements of a subglacial conduit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankoff, K. D.; Gulley, J.

    2012-04-01

    We present direct measurements of surface roughness in a sub-glacial conduit system underneath the Rieperbreen Glacier, Svalbard, Norway. Data was collected with a low-cost (129 USD) Microsoft Kinect video game device used as a LIDAR sensor. Surface roughness is a primary control on water flow in rivers, channels, and cave conduit systems and understanding the effects of surface roughness on water flow has been problematic due to lack of direct measurements of roughness in natural systems. We use the ice scallop dimensions to derive flow velocity and explore implications of the changing roughness parameters as the cave grows and shrinks.

  9. Statistics and finance an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Ruppert, David

    2004-01-01

    This textbook emphasizes the applications of statistics and probability to finance. Students are assumed to have had a prior course in statistics, but no background in finance or economics. The basics of probability and statistics are reviewed and more advanced topics in statistics, such as regression, ARMA and GARCH models, the bootstrap, and nonparametric regression using splines, are introduced as needed. The book covers the classical methods of finance such as portfolio theory, CAPM, and the Black-Scholes formula, and it introduces the somewhat newer area of behavioral finance. Applications and use of MATLAB and SAS software are stressed. The book will serve as a text in courses aimed at advanced undergraduates and masters students in statistics, engineering, and applied mathematics as well as quantitatively oriented MBA students. Those in the finance industry wishing to know more statistics could also use it for self-study. David Ruppert is the Andrew Schultz, Jr. Professor of Engineering, School of Oper...

  10. Cooling arrangement for a gas turbine component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ching-Pang; Heneveld, Benjamin E

    2015-02-10

    A cooling arrangement (82) for a gas turbine engine component, the cooling arrangement (82) having a plurality of rows (92, 94, 96) of airfoils (98), wherein adjacent airfoils (98) within a row (92, 94, 96) define segments (110, 130, 140) of cooling channels (90), and wherein outlets (114, 134) of the segments (110, 130) in one row (92, 94) align aerodynamically with inlets (132, 142) of segments (130, 140) in an adjacent row (94, 96) to define continuous cooling channels (90) with non continuous walls (116, 120), each cooling channel (90) comprising a serpentine shape.

  11. Pump arrangement Comprising a Savety Valve

    OpenAIRE

    Richter, M; Kruckow, J.

    2009-01-01

    A pump arrangement comprises a pump (20) having a pump inlet (22) and a pump outlet (24), which are designed to pump a fluid from the pump inlet to the pump outlet, and it further comprises a safety valve (40), which is disposed between the pump outlet (24) and an outlet (48) of the pump arrangement and comprises a valve set (42) and a valve cover (44). The valve seat, the pump outlet, and the pump inlet are structured in a first surface of a first single-piece part (14) of the pump arrangeme...

  12. Yahoo! Finance: Insurance Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahoo! Insurance Center provides many useful insurance resources. The site is divided into auto, life & health, and home & renters sections. The auto insurance section provides insurance quotes, an insurance coverage analyzer, and a glossary. Similarly, users can also obtain quotes on term life insurance, analyze their health plans and browse through a life insurance glossary. In the home & renters section, consumers will find estimates of quotes for homeowners and renters insurance, a guide to filing claims, and a glossary of property insurance terms. In addition, the site also contains informative articles arranged by insurance type, and links to various insurance related sites.

  13. In vivo studies of silk based gold nano-composite conduits for functional peripheral nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Suradip; Sharma, Manav; Saharia, Dhiren; Sarma, Kushal Konwar; Sarma, Monalisa Goswami; Borthakur, Bibhuti Bhusan; Bora, Utpal

    2015-09-01

    We report a novel silk-gold nanocomposite based nerve conduit successfully tested in a neurotmesis grade sciatic nerve injury model in rats over a period of eighteen months. The conduit was fabricated by adsorbing gold nanoparticles onto silk fibres and transforming them into a nanocomposite sheet by electrospinning which is finally given a tubular structure by rolling on a stainless steel mandrel of chosen diameter. The conduits were found to promote adhesion and proliferation of Schwann cells in vitro and did not elicit any toxic or immunogenic responses in vivo. We also report for the first time, the monitoring of muscular regeneration post nerve conduit implantation by recording motor unit potentials (MUPs) through needle electromyogram. Pre-seeding the conduits with Schwann cells enhanced myelination of the regenerated tissue. Histo-morphometric and electrophysiological studies proved that the nanocomposite based conduits pre-seeded with Schwann cells performed best in terms of structural and functional regeneration of severed sciatic nerves. The near normal values of nerve conduction velocity (50 m/sec), compound muscle action potential (29.7 mV) and motor unit potential (133 ?V) exhibited by the animals implanted with Schwann cell loaded nerve conduits in the present study are superior to those observed in previous reports with synthetic materials as well as collagen based nerve conduits. Animals in this group were also able to perform complex locomotory activities like stretching and jumping with excellent sciatic function index (SFI) and led a normal life. PMID:26026910

  14. Inference of the structure of karst conduits using quantitative tracer tests and geological information: example of the Swiss Jura

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Jérôme; Luetscher, Marc

    2008-08-01

    Karst aquifers are known for being particularly heterogeneous with highly transmissive conduits embedded in low permeability volumes of rock matrix. Artificial tracer experiments have been carried out in a complex karst aquifer of the folded Jura Mountains in Switzerland with the aim of deciphering the conduit organisation. It is shown that tracer experiments with multiple injection points under different flow conditions can lead to useful information on the conduits’ structure. This information has been combined with data from structural geology, spring hydrology, and speleological observations. A conceptual model of the conduit network shows that a detailed inference of the conduit organisation can be reached: geology controls conduit location and orientation; spring hydrology, including temporary springs, constrains conduit elevations and relative hydraulic heads in the aquifer subsystems; and tracer tests identify major flow paths and outlets of the system and dilution caused by non-traced tributaries, as well as the presence of secondary flow routes. This understanding of the Aubonne aquifer structure has important implications for the future management of the groundwater resource. Similar approaches coupling geological information, spring hydrology, and multi-tracer tests under various flow conditions may help to characterise the structure of the conduit network in karst aquifers.

  15. Welfare Reform and Children's Living Arrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitler, Marianne P.; Gelbach, Jonah B.; Hoynes, Hilary W.

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about welfare reform's effects on family structure and children's living arrangements, an important focus for reformers. Using March CPS data, the authors find that state welfare waivers are associated with children being less likely to live with unmarried parents, more likely to live with married parents, and more likely to live…

  16. Is your leasing arrangement paying off?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Curtis

    2006-08-01

    Lease rates for healthcare equipment should not exceed fair market value for comparable leases in the market. Valuators usually analyze lease arrangements under a cost approach and a market approach to determine the fair market value lease rate. Healthcare financial executives need to perform significant research to support the lease rate. PMID:16927494

  17. 76 FR 30326 - Proposed Subsequent Arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-25

    ...Plutonium Fuel Fabrication Facility, and then will be temporarily...Tokai Plutonium Fuel Production Facility. The downblended HEU is planned...form of the HEU will start in Japanese fiscal year 2012 and will continue...arrangement concerning the storage or disposition of...

  18. Arrangements for responding to nuclear emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication describes the current arrangements for minimising the effects on the general public of a nuclear accident in the United Kingdom. It replaces an earlier version published in 1990 (Arrangements for responding to nuclear emergencies, HMSO, ISBN 0 11 885525 5) and provides updated information on the emergency plans for accidents occurring at fixed nuclear installations and associated transport activities, which might result in the release of radioactivity. These plans are prepared by the operators and organisations likely to be involved in dealing with any emergency within the general framework described in this booklet. They provide for any action which may be necessary, either on or off the nuclear site, to protect members of the public. There are regular exercises during which the plans and arrangements are tested. The main change since the publication of the earlier version is the introduction of revised arrangements for coordination and control of the off-site emergency response at sites in England and Wales operated by Nuclear Electric. In addition, the previous version has been amended to incorporate a large number of minor organisational and operational changes. (author)

  19. Le traitement fiscal du financement des sociétés dans les relations intragroupes en droit comparé français, allemand et camerounais.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jules Alain Petengoue Tassi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Un des problèmes les plus fréquents auxquels les entreprises se confrontent est sans doute celui relatif à la dotation des moyens financiers. Le problème de financement des entreprises est plus qu’actuel au regard du scandale des subprimes aux USA en 2007 ayant conduit au crash boursier de septembre 2008 mieux encore, l’affaire Maldoff. Ce phénomène financier qui touche sans exception toute la vie économique n’a pas pour autant épargné les groupes de sociétés. En fait, les groupes constituent...

  20. Does literacy improve finance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Martha; Olen, Helaine

    2015-04-01

    When economists ask questions about basic financial principles, most ordinary people answer incorrectly. Economic experts call this condition "financial illiteracy," which suggests that poor financial outcomes are due to a personal deficit of reading-related skills. The analogy to reading is compelling because it suggests that we can teach our way out of population-wide financial failure. In this comment, we explain why the idea of literacy appeals to policy makers in the advanced industrial nations. But we also show that the narrow skill set laid out by economists does not satisfy the politically inclusive definition of literacy that literacy studies fought for. We identify several channels through which people engage with ideas about finance and demonstrate that not all forms of literacy will lead people to the educational content prescribed by academic economists. We argue that truly financial literate people can defy the demands of financial theory and financial institutions. PMID:25838274

  1. Multifractal fluctuations in finance

    CERN Document Server

    Schmitt, F; Lovejoy, S

    2000-01-01

    We consider the structure functions S^(q)(T), i.e. the moments of order q of the increments X(t+T)-X(t) of the Foreign Exchange rate X(t) which give clear evidence of scaling (S^(q)(T)~T^z(q)). We demonstrate that the nonlinearity of the observed scaling exponent z(q) is incompatible with monofractal additive stochastic models usually introduced in finance: Brownian motion, Levy processes and their truncated versions. This nonlinearity corresponds to multifractal intermittency yielded by multiplicative processes. The non-analycity of z(q) corresponds to universal multifractals, which are furthermore able to produce ``hyperbolic'' pdf tails with an exponent q_D >2. We argue that it is necessary to introduce stochastic evolution equations which are compatible with this multifractal behaviour.

  2. Financing electricity expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Expansion of electricity supply is associated with economic development. The installation and enlargement of power systems in developing countries entails a huge financial burden, however. Energy consumers in such countries must pay not only for supplies but for the cost of raising the capital for expansion on the international markets. Estimates are presented for the capital expenditure for electricity supply over the period 1990 to 2020 for the major world regions, using approximations for the cost of plant and capital and for the returns earned. These data lead to the conclusion that the five regions with the lowest per capita incomes are those which will need the major part of the capital expenditure and the highest percentage of external finance. (6 tables) (UK)

  3. Romanian SMEs Financing Options:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan E. Nistor

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the most pressing problems faced by micro, small and medium sized enterprises (henceforth SMEs in Europe is the access to sufficient funds to sustain their long term growth. Romanian SMEs make no exception. In this context the present paper focuses on analyzing the extent to which external funding sources have contributed to the value added created by the Romanian SMEs between 2007 and 2011.The investigation’s results indicate the existence of a causal link between some forms of external financing (namely bank loans, leasing, factoring, guarantee products and European funds and the value added created by the Romanian micro, small and medium sized enterprises in the aforementioned period.

  4. Financing wind projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation reviewed some of the partnership opportunities available from GE Energy. GE Energy's ecomagination commitment has promised to double research investment, make customers true partners and reduce greenhouse gases (GHGs). GE Energy's renewable energy team provides a broad range of financial products, and has recently funded 30 wind farms and 2 large solar projects. The company has a diverse portfolio of technology providers and wind regimes, and is increasing their investment in technology. GE Energy recognizes that the wind industry is growing rapidly and has received increased regulatory support that is backed by strong policy and public support. It is expected that Canada will have 3006 wind projects either planned or under construction by 2007. According to GE Energy, successful wind financing is dependent on the location of the site and its wind resources, as well as on the wind developer's power sales agreement. The success of a wind project is also determined by clear financing goals. Site-specific data is needed to determine the quality of wind resource, and off-site data can also be used to provide validation. Proximity to load centres will help to minimize capital costs. Power sales agreements should be based on the project's realistic net capacity factor as well as on the cost of the turbines. The economics of many wind farms is driven by the size of the turbines used. Public consultations are also needed to ensure the success of wind power peded to ensure the success of wind power projects. It was concluded that a good partner will have staying power in the wind power industry, and will understand the time-lines and needs that are peculiar to wind energy developers. refs., tabs., figs

  5. Financing wind projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manson, J. [GE Energy Financial Services, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    This presentation reviewed some of the partnership opportunities available from GE Energy. GE Energy's ecomagination commitment has promised to double research investment, make customers true partners and reduce greenhouse gases (GHGs). GE Energy's renewable energy team provides a broad range of financial products, and has recently funded 30 wind farms and 2 large solar projects. The company has a diverse portfolio of technology providers and wind regimes, and is increasing their investment in technology. GE Energy recognizes that the wind industry is growing rapidly and has received increased regulatory support that is backed by strong policy and public support. It is expected that Canada will have 3006 wind projects either planned or under construction by 2007. According to GE Energy, successful wind financing is dependent on the location of the site and its wind resources, as well as on the wind developer's power sales agreement. The success of a wind project is also determined by clear financing goals. Site-specific data is needed to determine the quality of wind resource, and off-site data can also be used to provide validation. Proximity to load centres will help to minimize capital costs. Power sales agreements should be based on the project's realistic net capacity factor as well as on the cost of the turbines. The economics of many wind farms is driven by the size of the turbines used. Public consultations are also needed to ensure the success of wind power projects. It was concluded that a good partner will have staying power in the wind power industry, and will understand the time-lines and needs that are peculiar to wind energy developers. refs., tabs., figs.

  6. The financing of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Existing nuclear generating capacity plays an important role in providing secure, economic and low-carbon electricity supplies in many OECD countries. At the same time, there is increasing recognition that an expansion of nuclear power could play a valuable role in reducing future carbon dioxide emissions. However, in recent years only a handful of new nuclear power plants (NPPs) have been built in just a few OECD countries. An important reason for this is the challenges associated with financing the construction of new NPPs. The just-published NEA report entitled The Financing of Nuclear Power Plants examines these challenges. In addition, recognizing that any expansion of nuclear power programmes will require strong and sustained government support, the report highlights the role of governments in facilitating and encouraging investment in new nuclear capacity. Key actions that should be considered by governments that wish to see investment in new NPPs include: - Provide clear and sustained policy support for the development of nuclear power, by setting out the case for a nuclear component in energy supply as part of a long-term national energy strategy. - Work with electricity utilities, financial companies and other potential investors, and the nuclear industry from an early stage to address concerns that may prevent nuclear investment and to avoid mistakes in establishing the parameters for new NPPs. - Establish an efficient and effective regulatory system which ent and effective regulatory system which provides adequate opportunities for public involvement in the decision-making process, while also providing potential investors with the certainty they require to plan such a major investment. - Put arrangements in place for the management of radioactive waste and spent fuel, and show progress towards a solution for final disposal of waste. For investors in NPPs, the financial arrangements for paying their fair share of the costs must be clearly defined. - Ensure that electricity market regulation does not disadvantage NPPs. Long-term arrangements may be necessary to provide certainty for investors in NPPs, reflecting the long-term nature of nuclear power projects. Where reducing CO2 emissions is to act as an incentive for investments in nuclear power, the government may need to provide some guarantees that policy measures will keep carbon prices at sufficiently high levels. In countries where there are large utilities with the financial strength to invest directly in new NPPs, or where there are well-resourced foreign utilities willing to make such investments, fully commercial financing may be possible. However, in other cases it may prove impossible for a nuclear power plant project to go ahead without direct or indirect public sector financial support, which would reduce the investment risks to acceptable levels. Public sector financial support could involve supporting a state-owned utility in making nuclear power plant investments, providing support to private sector utilities through loan guarantees, tax credits or other measures, or establishing public-private partnerships. However, governments should ensure that, overall, investment risk remains appropriately shared with the private sector

  7. Not all free arrangements are $K(\\pi,1)$

    OpenAIRE

    Edelman, Paul H.; Reiner, Victor

    1994-01-01

    We produce a one-parameter family of hyperplane arrangements that are counterexamples to the conjecture of Saito that the complexified complement of a free arrangement is $K(\\pi,1)$. These arrangements are the restriction of a one-parameter family of arrangements that arose in the study of tilings of certain centrally symmetric octagons. This other family is discussed as well.

  8. Jean Vigo's "Zéro De Conduite" and the Spaces of Revolt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanobbergen, Bruno; Grosvenor, Ian; Simon, Frank

    2014-01-01

    In this article we will contribute to the contemporary theoretical debate about film by considering, from a history-of-education perspective, the film "Zéro de conduite" by Jean Vigo (1905--1934). This film is classified under the umbrella of "poetic realism": a product of "cinéma de gauche" and an avant-gardist,…

  9. Fast evolving conduits in clay-bonded sandstone: Characterization, erosion processes.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bruthans, J.; Svetlik, D.; Soukup, J.; Schweigstillová, Jana; Válek, Jan; Sedlá?ková, M.; Mayo, A.L.

    2012-01-01

    Ro?. 177, December (2012), s. 178-193. ISSN 0169-555X R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IAA300130806 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 ; RVO:68378297 Keywords : sandstone * erosion * piping * tensile strength * conduit * landform Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology Impact factor: 2.552, year: 2012

  10. The formation of boundary waves in closed conduits with sediment transported

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiratsuka, Tomofumi; Izumi, Norihiro

    There have been a large number of studies on bed waves in rivers. It has been known that bed waves are strongly related to the Froude number. Meanwhile, there are only few studies on waves formed at the boundary between flowing water and erodible beds in closed conduits without free water surfaces. In order to predict the flow resistance of closed conduits such as sediment bypass tunnels and ice-covered rivers, it is important to obtain detailed information on the formation of boundary waves. Seki and Izumi2) have proposed a linear stability analysis to explain the formation of small scale boundary waves in closed conduits. They have also reproduced small scale boundary waves in flume experiments, and compared with their analysis. According to their analysis, the Shields and Euler numbers are the dominant parameters, and the flat bed becomes unstable when the Euler number becomes larger than the critical Euler number, which increases with the Shields number. However, the agreement between the prediction and their observation is not sufficiently good. In this study, we introduce the ratio of the shear velocities between the lower and upper walls as a new parameter, and improve the agreement. In addition, we perform a weakly nonlinear stability analysis to obtain more detailed information on behavior of boundary waves in the vicinity of the critical Euler number. We find that the transition between flat bed and boundary wave regimes in closed conduits is characterized by subcritical bifurcation.

  11. Percutaneous transthoracic computed tomography-guided AICD insertion in a patient with extracardiac Fontan conduit.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Darra T

    2011-02-01

    Percutaneous pulmonary venous atrial puncture was performed under computed tomography guidance to successfully place an automated implantable cardiac defibrillator into a 26-year-old patient with extracardiac Fontan conduit who had presented with two out-of-hospital cardiac arrests. The procedure avoided the need for lead placement at thoracotomy.

  12. Retrofitting shear stability and fixing clay soil in farm conduits by geotextiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shear tests which conducted in the soil mechanics laboratory to determine the effects of polymer materials (geotextiles) on shear strength of reinforced clay in conduits. It was found that setting geo textile sheets in 60 degrees to the plane of failure increases shear strength to a maximum of 25% than that with an unreinforced clay. (author)

  13. Development of a new autonomous probe for in situ flow characterization in drowned subsurface conduits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakoun, V.; Pistre, S.; Falgayrettes, P.

    2013-12-01

    Groundwater flow in karst aquifers is influenced by the presence of self-organized networks of large conduits. Existing methods which use artificial tracers or tethered robots, provide a limited amount of information on the network's geometry, and on the flow regime that occurs in the conduits. To address hydrogeological problems relative to karst aquifers, the characterization of the flow conditions in the network of conduits is needed. However this is a challenging task. We present a novel wireless probe which is developed to allow remote characterization of main flow directions and regime in subsurface environments. The relatively small (40 mm diameter) spherical autonomous probe is designed to allow transport by the water stream. During its journey in the flow, the non-expensive electronic equipment installed on board measures and records orientation data. Once the probe is retrieved, the recorded measurements can be analyzed. The encouraging preliminary laboratory results indicate that the new probe can accurately characterize different flow directions and regimes. This new autonomous probe offers a chance to help address the challenging task of characterizing flow in unknown drowned karst conduits.

  14. Modifications to the Conduit Flow Process Mode 2 for MODFLOW-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimann, Thomas; Birk, Steffen; Rehrl, Christoph; Shoemaker, W Barclay

    2012-01-01

    As a result of rock dissolution processes, karst aquifers exhibit highly conductive features such as caves and conduits. Within these structures, groundwater flow can become turbulent and therefore be described by nonlinear gradient functions. Some numerical groundwater flow models explicitly account for pipe hydraulics by coupling the continuum model with a pipe network that represents the conduit system. In contrast, the Conduit Flow Process Mode 2 (CFPM2) for MODFLOW-2005 approximates turbulent flow by reducing the hydraulic conductivity within the existing linear head gradient of the MODFLOW continuum model. This approach reduces the practical as well as numerical efforts for simulating turbulence. The original formulation was for large pore aquifers where the onset of turbulence is at low Reynolds numbers (1 to 100) and not for conduits or pipes. In addition, the existing code requires multiple time steps for convergence due to iterative adjustment of the hydraulic conductivity. Modifications to the existing CFPM2 were made by implementing a generalized power function with a user-defined exponent. This allows for matching turbulence in porous media or pipes and eliminates the time steps required for iterative adjustment of hydraulic conductivity. The modified CFPM2 successfully replicated simple benchmark test problems. PMID:21371024

  15. Behavioural Finance: Theory and Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiva Jurevi?ien?

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the importance of behavioural finance theories in household decision-making process. Behavioural finance theories investigate emotional characteristics to explain subjective factors and irrational anomalies in financial markets. In this regard, behavioural theories and behavioural anomalies in the decision-making process are examined; the application opportunities in the financial market are described. The aim of investigation is to determine the basic features and slopes of behavioural finance in concordance with financial decisions of a household. The survey method was applied to ascertain financial behaviour of literate households.

  16. PUBLIC FINANCING OF HEALTHCARE SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Bem

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare in Poland is mainly financed by public sector entities, among them the National Health Fund (NFZ, state budget and local government budgets. The task of the National Health Fund, as the main payer in the system, is chiefly currently financing the services. The state budget plays a complementary role in the system, and finances selected groups of services, health insurance premiums and investments in healthcare infrastructure. The basic role of the local governments is to ensure access to the services, mostly by performing ownership functions towards healthcare institutions.

  17. SABER-School Finance: Data Collection Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Elizabeth; Patrinos, Harry; Rogers, Halsey

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the SABER-school finance initiative is to collect, analyze and disseminate comparable data about education finance systems across countries. SABER-school finance assesses education finance systems along six policy goals: (i) ensuring basic conditions for learning; (ii) monitoring learning conditions and outcomes; (iii) overseeing…

  18. 24 CFR 883.307 - Financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...Financing. (a) Types of financing. A State Agency that used...part must provide permanent financing for any new construction...tax-exempt under section 103 of the Internal Revenue Code (26 U.S...relating to the method of financing Section 8 projects to...

  19. Access to Finance Thresholds and the Finance-Growth Nexus

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Jelili, Riadh; Abdmoulah, Walid

    2013-01-01

    Based on Aghion et al. (2005), this article provides new insights regarding whether financial development can affect economic growth non-linearly by adopting the concept of threshold effects. The empirical approach adopted in this article allows for the finance-growth relationship to be piecewise linear with a set of indicators including access to finance acting as a regime-switching trigger. Using cross-country observations from 144 countries stretching from 1985 to 2009, strong evidence of ...

  20. FINANCING CAPACITY, AN INDICATOR OF SELF FINANCING FOR COMPANIES

    OpenAIRE

    Teodor Hada

    2013-01-01

    In the introduction of this paper the research objectives are presented on a case study, the research method, as well as the literature in the field and the novelty of this study. Furthermore, several aspects on the source of information for determining intermediate management balances are covered. In the third part of the study the indicator of self-financing capacity of companies is determined. The correlation between the self-financing capacity and term debts are shown in the fourth part a...

  1. Public Education Finances: 2002 Census of Governments: Volume 4, Government Finances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Commerce, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Volume 4. Government Finances contains six parts that cover a wide range of state and local government financial activity in fiscal year 2001-02. They are: (1) Public Education Finances; (2)Finances of Special District Governments; (3) Finances of County Governments; (4) Finances of Municipal and Township Governments; (5) Compendium of Government…

  2. The fundamental group of the complement of complexified real arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Let V be a finite dimensional vector space over the real or complex numbers. An arrangement in V is a finite collection of affine hyperplanes of V. Given a real arrangement A in a real vector space V. Then its complexification, AC, is a complex arrangement in the complex vector space VC, and will be called a complexified real arrangement. In this paper, we shall prove a presentation for the fundamental group of the complement of a complexified real arrangement. (author). 7 refs

  3. Welding of pyroclastic conduit infill: A mechanism for cyclical explosive eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolzenburg, S.; Russell, J. K.

    2014-07-01

    Vulcanian-style eruptions are small- to moderate-sized, singular to cyclical events commonly having volcanic explosivity indices of 1-3. They produce pyroclastic flows, disperse tephra over considerable areas, and can occur as precursors to larger (e.g., Plinian) eruptions. The fallout deposits of the 2360 B.P. eruption of Mount Meager, BC, Canada, contain bread-crusted blocks of welded breccia as accessory lithics. They display a range of compaction/welding intensity and provide a remarkable opportunity to constrain the nature and timescales of mechanical processes operating within explosive volcanic conduits during repose periods between eruptive cycles. We address the deformation and porosity/permeability reduction within natural pyroclastic deposits infilling volcanic conduits. We measure the porosity, permeability, and ultrasonic wave velocities for a suite of samples and quantify the strain recorded by pumice clasts. We explore the correlations between the physical properties and deformation fabric. Based on these correlations, we reconstruct the deformation history within the conduit, model the permeability reduction timescales, and outline the implications for the repressurization of the volcanic conduit. Our results highlight a profound directionality in the measured physical properties of these samples related to the deformation-induced fabric. Gas permeability varies drastically with increasing strain and decreasing porosity along the compaction direction of the fabric but varies little along the elongation direction of the fabric. The deformation fabric records a combination of compaction within the conduit and postcompaction stretching associated with subsequent eruption. Model timescales of these processes are in good agreement with repose periods of cyclic vulcanian eruptions.

  4. The Development of the CONDUIT Advanced Control System Design and Evaluation Interface with a Case Study Application to an Advanced Fly by Wire Helicopter Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbourne, Jason

    1999-01-01

    This report details the development and use of CONDUIT (Control Designer's Unified Interface). CONDUIT is a design tool created at Ames Research Center for the purpose of evaluating and optimizing aircraft control systems against handling qualities. Three detailed design problems addressing the RASCAL UH-60A Black Hawk are included in this report to show the application of CONDUIT to helicopter control system design.

  5. Health, autonomic financing and transferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cantarero Prieto

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper has as objective to study the whole relative problem to the autonomous communities and regional heath care expenditure financing in Spain. This article has a dual purpose. First, the financing of the current health care attendance is approached in the Spanish regions passing magazine to its possible variants and we observe that the balance of our system is clearly inclined towards the side of the integration in the general pattern of financing («Fiscal Room» with specific conditions («Mixed System». Secondly, we examine the new situation in the mark of health care and its corresponding financing in the new model approved in 2001, in terms of the effects of tax assignment on autonomous communities.

  6. Financing asset sales and business cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Puhan, Tatjana-xenia; Arnold, Marc; Hackbarth, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the decision of firms to sell assets to fund investments (financing asset sales). For a sample of U.S. manufacturing firms during the 1971-2010 period, we document new stylized facts about financing asset sales that cannot be explained by traditional motives for selling assets, such as financial distress or financing constraints. Using a structural model of financing, investment, and macroeconomic risk, we show that financing asset sales attenuate the debt overhang problem...

  7. The managerial process of business financing

    OpenAIRE

    Solomia Andres

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents some modalities and financing forces for business, getting out in the first place the entrepreneur ingenuity for finding these sources of financing necessary for the business success. Also get some contributions and proposals regarding the criteria’s of which the entrepreneur must be take care in choosing the financial sources, for preparing the finance pack and presenting the financing demands, which good documented, not only grows up the chances of one financing but al...

  8. External financing during a company's life cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Rautanen, Jani

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to give an insight into a company’s external financing tools during its life cycle. There have been wide discussions on the financing situations of businesses all around the world and the tightening economical situation has had a major impact on the financing tools. This study examines the potential financing tools through the company’s life cycle. This study reviews the current financing situation of companies in Finland. The theoretical segment focuses...

  9. Mathematical structure of arrangement channel quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A non-Hermitian matrix Hamiltonian H appears in the wavefunction form of a variety of many-body scattering theories. This operator acts on an arrangement channel Banach or Hilbert space C = direct-sum/sub ?/H where H is the N-particle Hilbert space and ? are certain arrangement channels. Various aspects of the spectral and semigroup theory for H are considered. The normalizable and weak (wavelike) eigenvectors of H are naturally characterized as either physical or spurious. Typically H is scalar spectral and ''equivalent'' to H on an H-invariant subspace of physical solutions. If the eigenvectors form a basis, by constructing a suitable biorthogonal system, we show that H is scalar spectral on C. Other concepts including the channel space observables, trace class and trace, density matrix and Moeller operators are developed. The sense in which the theory provides a ''representation'' of N-particle quantum mechanics and its equivalence to the usual Hilbert space theory is clarified

  10. Co-Management Arrangements in Orthopedic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushnell, Brandon D

    2015-06-01

    A co-management arrangement (CMA) is a contractual relationship between physicians and a hospital that results in a shared-responsibility management structure for a specific service line. In orthopedic surgery, CMAs are becoming increasingly popular as stakeholders in the health care market seek increased value (ie, higher-quality care at lower costs). A CMA can significantly improve the efficiency and the outcomes of a musculoskeletal service line if it adheres to the basic principles of a focus on the patient, evidence-based decision-making, physician leadership, appropriate physician compensation, transparency, reasonable and modifiable goals, and accountability. While the specifics of each CMA will vary, all CMAs have common operational elements that include the arrangement's legal structure, legal compliance, leadership and reporting structure, facilities management, personnel management, clinical data management, financial data management, and quality and effectiveness reporting. PMID:26047000

  11. Financing long term liabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the '80 even if there were no precise law disposition in this specific matter, Enel has created a fund for the plants decommissioning and a fund for the irradiated fuel management. A setting aside pluri-annual plan has been defined. Cumulated funds transferred to the Sogin at the date of its constitution amount to about 1500 MLD ITL (750 M Euro). This amount was adequate to complete decommissioning activities within the Safe Store strategy. Following the separation of Sogin from Enel, a funding mechanism has been defined to provide resources for additional costs deriving from the different economic conditions (new discount rate and taxes), from the management costs for the new company, and from the change in strategy (from Safe Store to DECON). A Decree of the Ministry of the Industry, issued on 26 January 2000, states that the above mentioned extra costs for Sogin shall be financed on a levy on the price of the sold kWh. Every year Sogin shall present the program of future activities, with associated costs: on this basis, the national Authority for Electric energy and Gas (the national body which defines tariff policy) shall re-evaluate the global amount to be granted to Sogin and the levy on the price of the kWh due to Sogin for next three years. The re-evaluation will take into account economic efficiency criteria. For the period 2002- 2004 the Authority has defined a global amount of about 362 M euros to be granted to Sogin, corresponding to ?0,04 cents of Euro per kWh. The same procedure is foreseen by the Decree in order to finance Sogin for additional costs related to the dismantling of nuclear installations now property of ENEA. In this context, a Consortium between ENEA and Sogin has been established. The Authority for the period 2002-2004 has defined a global amount of about 106 M euros to be granted to the Consortium, corresponding to ?0,015 cents of Euro per kWh. (author)

  12. Project finance for alternative energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is intended to provide general advice to sponsors of renewable energy projects who expect to raise project-based financing from commercial banks to fund the development of their projects. It will set out, for the benefit of such sponsors, how bankers typically approach the analysis of these undertakings and in particular the risk areas on which they concentrate. By doing so it should assist sponsors to maximise their prospects of raising bank finance. (author)

  13. Corporate Finance and Comparative Advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Keuschnigg, Christian; Egger, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Since innovative firms are often financially constrained, access to external funds is important for the expansion of innovative industries. This paper reports four important results. First, comparative advantage is shaped by factor endowments as well as fundamental determinants of corporate finance. In particular, a larger equity ratio of firms and tough governance standards relax finance constraints and create a comparative advantage in innovative industries. Second, factor price equalizatio...

  14. Economic implications from deficit finance

    OpenAIRE

    Gaber, Stevan

    2010-01-01

    The paper enlightens popular part of the budget policy - deficit finance. In the process of securing economic conditions to surpass the current economic crises, the governments all over the world incline towards debt deficit finance. The intention is to describe the implications such as multiplier effect, crowding out effect, correlation between budget and trade deficit. One of them are positive, they increase the aggregate demand and national income, other negative in term that they crowd ou...

  15. Vertical Integration and Supplier Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Kersting, Erasmus; Go?rg, Holger

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the financial implications of a multinational firm's choice between outsourcing and integration from the perspective of the supplier. Using a simple model, we explore the extent to which an integrated supplier's access to finance, as well as its sources of funding, change relative to a firm supplying a multinational at arm's-length. The model predicts that integrated firms have better access to finance and cover a larger share of their costs using internal funds. Furthermore, i...

  16. Statistical likelihood methods in finance

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, Arnold; Tietje, Martin

    2013-01-01

    It is known from previous work of the authors that non-negative arbitrage free price processes in finance can be described in terms of filtered likelihood processes of statistical experiments and vice versa. The present paper summarizes and outlines some similarities between finance and the statistical likelihood theory of Le Cam. Options are linked to statistical tests of the underlying experiments. In particular, some price formulas for options are expressed by the power o...

  17. The epistemology of modern finance

    OpenAIRE

    Scheemaekere, Xavier

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates modern finance’s epistemological status with a special emphasis on its most quantitative part: Black-Scholes option pricing model and its extensions. It zeroes on the analysis of mathematical methods in financial economics and their connection to risk and uncertainty. Risk-neutral valuation, a direct consequence of Black-Scholes model, restricts the range of individual and subjective uncertainty by putting a price on replicable risk, thereby conferring to modern fina...

  18. ACCOUNTING TREATMENTS FOR FINANCING ENTITIES

    OpenAIRE

    CRISTINA MIHAELA NAGY; VIOREL TRIF; BOGDAN COTLE?

    2010-01-01

    One of the most important aspects of an entity is, without doubt, how to finance it, this being an ongoing concern of managers, particularly seeking the cost reduction of the borrowed capital and the increase of the financial profitability instalment. Accessing irredeemable funds is a reality of the recent years. Increasingly more companies are looking to these funds to achieve some development objectives. A thorough analysis of the financing possibilities (subsidy) is important for any entit...

  19. Overvalued equity and financing decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Ming; Hirshleifer, David; Teoh, Siew Hong

    2012-01-01

    We test whether and how equity overvaluation affects corporate financing decisions using an ex ante misvaluation measure that filters firm scale and growth prospects from market price. We find that equity issuance and total financing increase with equity overvaluation; but only among overvalued stocks; and that equity issuance is more sensitive than debt issuance to misvaluation. Consistent with managers catering to maintain overvaluation and with investment scale economy effects, the sensiti...

  20. Women Financing and Household Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Swamy, Vighneswara; B K, Tulasimala

    2013-01-01

    This study has uniquely established that financing women though Self Help Groups has a significant role in empowering women, which is a smart economics indeed in achieving the objective of economic development of the weaker sections. The findings of this study establish using the statistical technique and robust sample size that women financing through groups has significant impacts on the food security as well as non-food expenses of the poor families. The study has evidenced significant out...

  1. The Financing of Innovative Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Bronwyn H.

    2010-01-01

    To what extent are new and/or innovative firms fundamentally different from established firms, and therefore require a different form of financing? The theoretical background for this proposition is presented, and the empirical evidence on its importance is reviewed. Owing to the intangible nature of their investment, asymmetric-information and moral-hazard, these firms are more likely to be financed by equity than debt and behave in some cases as though they are cash-constrained, especially ...

  2. Financing from Family and Friends

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Samuel; Persson, Petra

    2012-01-01

    The constraint on informal finance is commonly taken to be high costs and limited supply. But the majority of informal investors ? family and friends ? is often willing to supply funds at negative returns, and yet many borrowers tap family and friends only as a last resort. We explain this paradox with a theory based on altruistic ties between the entrepreneur and his family and friends, and propose an alternative explanation of the limits of informal finance: Altruistic ties reduce agency ...

  3. Property Rights, Finance, and Entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Simon; Mcmillan, John; Woodruff, Christopher

    1999-01-01

    Is investment constrained more by insecure property rights or by limited external finance? For five transition economies in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union we find that weak property rights limit the reinvestment of profits in startup ma nufacturing firms. Access to credit does not appear to explain differences in investment. At least in the early stages of post-communist reform, retained earnings appear to have been enough to finance the investments that managers wanted to make.

  4. Valve Technology Arrangement of Cryopump: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjiv Y. Rajput

    2014-01-01

    A cryopump or a "cryogenic pump" is a vacuum pump that pumps the trap gases and vapours by condensing them on a cold surface. Helium gas which is very light can only be pumped by Cryopump. Cryopump cannot be used when working for continuous operation as it pumps the effluent till the saturation state is achieved. Then the absorbed gases are to be collected through other mechanical pump through regeneration process. Hence, valve technology arrangement is incorporated with the c...

  5. On the Construction of “Sunny Finance” Frame in China

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaohui Xu; Guangyu Wang

    2009-01-01

    “Sunny finance” is an inevitable requirement of public finance. Its essence is lawful financing, scientific financing, and democratic financing. China has already gained lots of valuable experiences in the construction of “sunny finance”. However, it deserves deepening researches on how to construct the frame of “sunny finance” and make it be systematic and institutional. In this paper, the author discusses this issue.

  6. Frequency Arrangement For 700 MHz Band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ancans G.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The 694-790 MHz (700 MHz band was allocated by the 2012 World Radiocommunication Conference (WRC-12 in ITU Region 1 (Europe included, to the mobile service on a co-primary basis with other services to which this band was allocated on the primary basis and identified for the International Mobile Telecommunications (IMT. At the same time, the countries of Region 1 will be able also to continue using these frequencies for their broadcasting services if necessary. This allocation will be effective immediately after 2015 World Radiocommunication Conference (WRC-15. In order to make the best possible use of this frequency band for mobile service, a worldwide harmonized frequency arrangement is to be prepared to allow for large economies of scale and international roaming as well as utilizing the available spectrum in the best possible way, minimizing possible interference between services, facilitating deployment and cross-border coordination. The authors analyze different possible frequency arrangements and conclude on the frequency arrangement most suitable for Europe.

  7. Cooperation arrangements between the IAEA and ABACC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From the inception of the implementation of the Quadripartite Agreement (INFCIRC/435) the IAEA and ABACC took note of the need to coordinate arrangements for technical matters related to the safeguards inspections and set about devising and then agreeing to coordination arrangements, taking into account the specific characteristics of the organizations and of the State Parties involved. In implementing the cooperation arrangements, the IAEA and ABACC were guided by the principle of each being able to reach its own independent conclusions, whilst concurrently, avoiding unnecessary duplication of effort. This paper describes the present situation in the context of coordination, including in the areas of Inspection Effort; Planning, Procedures and Facility Attachments Negotiations; Mission Meetings; Exchange of Sample Analysis Results; Technical Cooperation and Training. Additionally, a brief description is given of the contents of the 'Guidelines for Coordination of Routine and Ad-Hoc Inspection Activities between the Agency and ABACC' and the needs for the future. A sound relationship has developed between ABACC and the IAEA. It stems from good will on the part of each organization; each showing a willingness to understand the professional constraints of the other and pitching meetings between the two organizations at the appropriate levels. (author)

  8. Discretely monitored tenor varying exchange arrangements

    OpenAIRE

    Tanpradist, Tanapan

    2006-01-01

    Our subject area of research is Mathematical Finance. In this thesis, we price a novel form of barrier structure which is closely related to a swaption having a continuous time log-normal model, which is the underlying dynamic of the asset, a forward par swap rate. The new feature is where the barrier is monitored before and during the swap period. It is called ”Tenor Varying Barrier Swaption”. It means that even though the exercise date of the swaption is fixed at time t0,...

  9. Computing for Finance

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    The finance sector is one of the driving forces for the use of distributed or Grid computing for business purposes. The speakers will review the state-of-the-art of high performance computing in the financial sector, and provide insight into how different types of Grid computing – from local clusters to global networks - are being applied to financial applications. They will also describe the use of software and techniques from physics, such as Monte Carlo simulations, in the financial world. There will be four talks of 20min each. The talk abstracts and speaker bios are listed below. This will be followed by a Q&A panel session with the speakers. From 19:00 onwards there will be a networking cocktail for audience and speakers. This is an EGEE / CERN openlab event organized in collaboration with the regional business network rezonance.ch. A webcast of the event will be made available for subsequent viewing, along with powerpoint material presented by the speakers. Attendance is free and open to all. R...

  10. 48 CFR 1532.003 - Simplified acquisition procedures financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...true Simplified acquisition procedures financing. 1532.003 Section 1532.003...GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING 1532.003 Simplified acquisition procedures financing. (a) Scope. This...

  11. 13 CFR 107.840 - Maximum term of Financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES Financing of Small Businesses by Licensees Structuring Licensee's Financing of An Eligible Small Business: Terms and Conditions of Financing §...

  12. Temporal instabilities in volcanic conduit flow due to internal gravity waves and non-equilibrium degassing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlstrom, L.; Dunham, E. M.

    2013-12-01

    Volcanic conduits are strongly stratified multiphase mixtures of magma, bubbles and crystals exhibiting vertical gradients in density and pressure that drive flow. We examine the behavior of perturbations to this stratification in a model of multiphase flow through a cylindrical conduit using analytic and numerical linear stability analysis. Magma is idealized as a mixture of gas and liquid phases, accounting for compressibility of both phases, viscosity of the mixture, and a finite exsolution time for mass exchange between the phases. Short time variations in conduit flow variables are characterized by three modes of wave motion. Two modes correspond to sound waves that travel up and down the conduit, while the third is an internal gravity wave arising from restoring forces due to differences in density. When perturbed downward, a fluid parcel in the stratified magma is surrounded by more dense fluid and feels an upward restoring force from buoyancy. That restoring force can be reduced by compression of the fluid parcel by the greater pressures at depth that act to increase its density. These three modes of wave motion are characterized by several competing timescales. The timescale for viscous damping ? D sets the decay time of flow perturbations and the damping of sound waves and internal gravity waves propagating through the magma. The timescale of gravity wave oscillation, ? G (inverse of buoyancy frequency N), measures adjustment of perturbations to density and pressure differences in the vertically stratified magma. Finally, a timescale for volatile diffusion ? V measures adjustment of the gas phase mass fraction to its equilibrium solubility value. We examine perturbations to a magmastatic base state and to a base state of steady flow. Initial analytic results with frozen coefficients for a magmastatic and vertically unbounded conduit suggest that when ? V > ? G and ? D > ? G, ? V, the base state is unstable to harmonic perturbations in flow pressure, flow velocity, mixture density and gas fraction occurring above the exsolution depth. It is the internal gravity wave mode that goes unstable, while the sound wave solutions remain damped. Non-equilibrium degassing (relaxation to equilibrium solubility of greater than ˜1 second) and density stratification are both necessary conditions for this instability to occur. For parameters appropriate for low viscosity basaltic magma, these unstable perturbations have periods of 10--30 sec, while unstable modes do not occur for more viscous silicic magmas unless volatile contents are low (less than ˜1 weight percent). We are currently extending these results to steady flow in finite length conduits via numerical linear stability analysis and exploring the feasibility of detecting short-time flow instabilities in long period seismic radiation.

  13. A method of gastric conduit elevation via the posterior mediastinal pathway in thoracoscopic subtotal esophagectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirahara Noriyuki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite efforts to improve surgical techniques, serious complications still sometimes occur. Use of a physiological posterior mediastinal pathway has increased given advances such as automated anastomotic devices and a reduction in the incidence of anastomotic sufficiency. Until now the gastric conduit created has been protected by an echo probe cover and, sown to the ventral side of polyester tape placed through the abdomen to the neck, and then blindly elevated to the neck. We report on a new method of gastric conduit elevation. Methods Two 60-cm lengths polyester tape are ligated at both ends to form a loop. An echo probe cover of 10 cm in diameter and 50 cm in length is prepared and the tip cut off, forming a cylinder. The knots in the previously looped polyester tape are inserted into the echo probe cover. The looped polyester tape and echo probe cover is ligated with silk approximately 5 cm in front of the knots on both sides. After dissection is carried out according to practice, the previously crafted polyester tape is inserted into the chest cavity. One end of polyester tape is fixed to the distal esophageal stump with the clips, with the opposite end fixed to the proximal esophageal stump. The echo probe cover that connects the proximal esophagus and distal esophagus is monitored for the presence of creases along the long axis to ensure there are no twists in the echo probe cover. We carry out a laparoscopic-assisted perigastric lymph node dissection, make a small skin incision, and guide part of the thoracic esophagus and stomach outside the body. Either one of the two lengths of polyester tape is connected to the gastric conduit. By pulling up this length of polyester tape from the neck, the gastric conduit can pass through the echo probe cover and be elevated to the neck. Results No perioperative complications such as bleeding or difficulty of the gastric conduit elevation were recognized with this method. Conclusions This method is considered to serve as a useful technique for gastric conduit elevation.

  14. Financing energy projects: experience of the International Finance Corporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides an overview of the recent trend towards private ownership and financing of power projects in the developing countries, focusing on the role played by both private and public agencies in meeting the large financing challenges. The paper draws upon the operational experience of the International Finance Corporation, which has been involved in the financing of more than 30 private power projects in the developing countries over the past three decades. Among the issues that affect implementation of private power projects is the balancing of risk and reward to equity investors and to commercial lenders. The paper discusses the principal sources of risk and the strategies used to manage them. A related issue is the competition for capital on the international markets, and the techniques that are being devised to bring more finance to the power sector. Finally, the paper considers the role of government in bringing private investors to the power sector, and the approaches being adopted to balance the needs of investors with the needs of the public. (author)

  15. Issues in energy finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokher, Zeigham Islam

    As opposed to the well developed and understood equity markets, the energy markets are still in their infancy. The explosion of contracts, of both the primary and derivative types, are testament both to the existing size and the untapped growth potential of this exciting industry. However, because of its relative youth many basic issues in the energy markets remain unresolved. This thesis introduces some interesting questions and provides insights into these issues. Thematically, the chapters of this thesis are linked by an emphasis on valuation and risk management decisions. A contribution of this thesis is to show that subtle differences between the endogenous price process in our general equilibrium setting and the exogenous processes considered in earlier papers can generate significant differences in both financial and real option values. In addition to these valuation concerns there has been much debate about the corporate risk management function. Finance theory suggests that a value maximizing corporation should either be indifferent to hedging or, in the presence of certain imperfections, it should completely hedge all exposures. Both these extremes contradict empirical evidence. We show that existing corporate hedging behaviour is best explained in light of both physical market imperfections and directional predictions on future prices. While these speculative motives may arise from corporate hubris or genuine informational advantages, we argue that it would be difficult to implement private information in the absence of noise traders. Related to the risk management decision is the existence of futures risk premia. These premia have been thought to be cause by covariance with priced factors or due to the hedging demands of consumers and producers. This thesis argues that inventories serve as a signal of available quantity, which coupled with consumers fears regarding stockouts can induce a positive relationship between premia and inventories. In conclusion, we test this relationship using natural gas storage and futures price data and show empirical support for our hypothesis.

  16. Minimum Energy Requirements in Complex Distillation Arrangements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halvorsen, Ivar J.

    2001-07-01

    Distillation is the most widely used industrial separation technology and distillation units are responsible for a significant part of the total heat consumption in the world's process industry. In this work we focus on directly (fully thermally) coupled column arrangements for separation of multicomponent mixtures. These systems are also denoted Petlyuk arrangements, where a particular implementation is the dividing wall column. Energy savings in the range of 20-40% have been reported with ternary feed mixtures. In addition to energy savings, such integrated units have also a potential for reduced capital cost, making them extra attractive. However, the industrial use has been limited, and difficulties in design and control have been reported as the main reasons. Minimum energy results have only been available for ternary feed mixtures and sharp product splits. This motivates further research in this area, and this thesis will hopefully give some contributions to better understanding of complex column systems. In the first part we derive the general analytic solution for minimum energy consumption in directly coupled columns for a multicomponent feed and any number of products. To our knowledge, this is a new contribution in the field. The basic assumptions are constant relative volatility, constant pressure and constant molar flows and the derivation is based on Underwood's classical methods. An important conclusion is that the minimum energy consumption in a complex directly integrated multi-product arrangement is the same as for the most difficult split between any pair of the specified products when we consider the performance of a conventional two-product column. We also present the Vmin-diagram, which is a simple graphical tool for visualisation of minimum energy related to feed distribution. The Vmin-diagram provides a simple mean to assess the detailed flow requirements for all parts of a complex directly coupled arrangement. The main purpose in the first part of the thesis has been to present a complete theory of minimum energy in directly coupled columns, not a design procedure for engineering purposes. Thus, our focus has been on the basic theory and on verification and analysis of the new results. However, based on these results, it is straightforward to develop design procedures including rigorous computations for real feed mixtures without the idealized assumptions used to deduce the analytic results. In part 2 we focus on optimization of operation, and in particular the concept of self-optimizing control. We consider a process where we have more degrees of freedom than are consumed by the product specifications. The remaining unconstrained degrees of freedom are used to optimize the operation, given by some scalar cost criterion. In addition there will in practice always be unknown disturbances, model uncertainty and uncertainty in measurements and implementation of manipulated inputs, which makes it impossible to precalculate and implement the optimal control inputs accurately. The main idea is to achieve self-optimizing control by turning the optimization problem into a constant setpoint problem. The issue is then to find (if possible) a set of variables, which when kept at their setpoints, indirectly ensures optimal operation. We have used the ternary Petlyuk arrangement to illustrate the concept. It is a quite challenging case where the potential energy savings may easily be lost if we do not manage to keep the manipulated inputs at their optimal values, and the optimum is strongly affected by changes in feed composition and column performance. This also applies to the best control structure selection, and we believe that the reported difficulties in control are really a control structure problem (the task of selecting the best variables to control and the best variables to manipulate). In this analysis we present in detail the properties of the Petlyuk arrangement, and show how important characteristics depend on the feed properties and product purity. We have used finite stage-by-stage mod

  17. The international Finance Corporation and financing of sustainable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Finance Corporation (IFC), a member of the World Bank Group, is the largest multilateral source of loan and equity financing for private sector projects in the developing world. IFC participates in an investment only when it can make a special contribution that complements the role of market operators. Since its founding 40 years ago, IFC has provided more than $18.8 billion in financing for 1,706 companies in developing countries. Its share capital is provided by its 170 member countries, which collectively determine its policies and activities. Strong shareholder support and a substantial paid-in capital base have allowed IFC to raise funds for its lending activities through its triple-A rated bond issues in international financial markets. (orig.)

  18. Understanding financing options for PACS implementation. Picture archiving and communication systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, B; Siegel, E

    2000-05-01

    The acquisition of expensive equipment such as picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) becomes increasingly difficult as capital budgets become tighter. Traditional ownership financing options in the form of direct purchase or financing (loan) have several limitations including technology obsolescence, higher fixed pricing, limited options for equipment disposal, and the need to tie up valuable capital. Alternative financing options, in the form of conventional lease and risk sharing arrangements, offer several theoretical advantages including technology obsolescence protection in the form of built-in upgrades, preservation of borrowing power, multiple end-of-term options, and payment flexibility (which can be directly tied to realized productivity and operational efficiency gains). These options are discussed, with emphasis on the acquisition of PACS. PMID:10843249

  19. The managerial process of business financing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomia Andres

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some modalities and financing forces for business, getting out in the first place the entrepreneur ingenuity for finding these sources of financing necessary for the business success. Also get some contributions and proposals regarding the criteria’s of which the entrepreneur must be take care in choosing the financial sources, for preparing the finance pack and presenting the financing demands, which good documented, not only grows up the chances of one financing but also can lead to fix some relations on long time with financing source.

  20. Cold work study on a 316LN modified alloy for the ITER TF coil conduit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Robert; Toplosky, V. J.; McRae, D. M.; Han, K.; Martovetsky, N. N.

    2012-06-01

    In cable-in-conduit conductor (CICC) magnets, such as the ITER TF coils, the conduit is the primary structural component. This function creates requirements for 4 K strength, toughness, fatigue crack resistance, and ductility after exposure to the superconductor's reaction heat treatment. The tensile ductility of a steel is a quality factor related to fatigue and fracture resistance that can be evaluated more economically with tensile tests rather than fatigue and fracture tests. Here we subject 316LN modified base metal and welds to a range of cold work from 0% to 20% and a subsequent Nb3Sn reaction heat treatment to evaluate the effects on the tensile properties. With the addition of cold work, the 4 K yield strength increases while tensile elongation decreases in both the base metal and weld. The results are compared to previously published data on the same alloy to evaluate the use of tensile ductility parameters as a materials qualification specification in magnet design.

  1. Crab burrows as conduits for groundwater-surface water exchange in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Mason O.; Tarek, M. H.; Yeo, Darren C. J.; Badruzzaman, A. B. M.; Harvey, Charles F.

    2014-12-01

    Groundwater recharge affects water budgets and groundwater quality on the deltas and floodplains of South and Southeast Asia. Rain and flooding rivers recharge groundwater during the monsoon; irrigated rice fields and surface water bodies recharge aquifers during the dry season. Groundwater throughout the region is severely contaminated by arsenic, and recent research suggests that quantifying and characterizing recharge is important to understand whether recharge flushes or mobilizes arsenic from aquifers. At a field site in Bangladesh, we found that burrows of terrestrial crabs short-circuit low-permeability surface sediments, providing the primary conduit for recharge. We combine field observations along with a model that couples isotope and water balances to quantify the effect of crab burrows on aquifer recharge. Given the wide distribution of burrowing crabs and the surficial geology, we suggest that crab burrows provide widespread conduits for groundwater recharge.

  2. Solving the flow fields in conduits and networks using energy minimization principle with simulated annealing

    CERN Document Server

    Sochi, Taha

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose and test an intuitive assumption that the pressure field in single conduits and networks of interconnected conduits adjusts itself to minimize the total energy consumption required for transporting a specific quantity of fluid. We test this assumption by using linear flow models of Newtonian fluids transported through rigid tubes and networks in conjunction with a simulated annealing (SA) protocol to minimize the total energy cost. All the results confirm our hypothesis as the SA algorithm produces very close results to those obtained from the traditional deterministic methods of identifying the flow fields by solving a set of simultaneous equations based on the conservation principles. The same results apply to electric ohmic conductors and networks of interconnected ohmic conductors. Computational experiments conducted in this regard confirm this extension. Further studies are required to test the energy minimization hypothesis for the non-linear flow systems.

  3. A regional arrangement proposal for the UNASUR

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fernando, Ferrari-Filho.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the current process of economic integration in South America. Thus, concentrating our attention on the UNASUR regional integration process, two questions arise: First, is UNASUR the most viable institution to achieve a consistent economic integration process in South America? Se [...] cond, what model of economic integration should be adopted in the case of UNASUR, which would ensure macroeconomic stability and avoid financial and exchange rate crises in the South America? To answer these questions, the article proposes, based on the Keynes (1944/1980)'s revolutionary analysis presented in his International Clearing Union, during the Bretton Woods Conference in 1944, a regional arrangement to UNASUR.

  4. Jet spoiler arrangement for wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyrus, Jack D. (Corrales, NM); Kadlec, Emil G. (Albuquerque, NM); Klimas, Paul C. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1985-01-01

    An air jet spoiler arrangement is provided for a Darrieus-type vertical axis wind-powered turbine. Air is drawn into hollow turbine blades through air inlets at the ends thereof and is ejected in the form of air jets through small holes or openings provided along the lengths of the blades. The air jets create flow separation at the surfaces of the turbine blades, thereby inducing stall conditions and reducing the output power. A feedback control unit senses the power output of the turbine and controls the amount of air drawn into the air inlets accordingly.

  5. Ventricular torsional relation to ventricular fiber arrangement

    CERN Document Server

    Ranjbar, Saeed; Meybodi, Mahmood Emami

    2014-01-01

    Left ventricular torsion from helically oriented myofibers is a key parameter of cardiac performance. Physicians observing heart motion on echocardiograms, during cardiac catheterization, or in the operating room, are impressed by the twisting or rotary motion of the left ventricle during systole. Conceptually, the heart has been treated as a pressure chamber. The rotary or torsional deformation has been poorly understood by basic scientists and has lacked clinical relevance. The aim of this paper attempts to discuss about this question: Is ventricular twisting related to ventricular fiber arrangement? That is dependent to an assumed model of the left ventricular structure.

  6. An in vivo study of tricalcium phosphate and glutaraldehyde crosslinking gelatin conduits in peripheral nerve repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming-Hong; Chen, Pei-Ru; Chen, Mei-Hsiu; Hsieh, Sung-Tsang; Huang, Jing-Shan; Lin, Feng-Huei

    2006-04-01

    In order to modulate the mechanical properties of gelatin, we previously developed a biodegradable composite composed by tricalcium phosphate and glutaraldehyde crosslinking gelatin (GTG) feasible for surgical manipulation. In this study, we evaluated the in vivo applications of GTG conduit for peripheral nerve repair. The effect of sciatic nerve reconstruction was compared between resorbable permeable GTG conduits and durable impermeable silicone tubes. Traditional methods of assessing nerve recovery following peripheral nerve repair including histomorphometric and electrophysiologic features were conducted in our study. In addition, autotomy score and sciatic function index (SFI) in walking tract analysis were used as additional parameters for assessing the return of nerve function. Twenty-four weeks after sciatic nerve repair, the GTG conduits were harvested. Microscopically, regeneration of nerves was observed in the cross-section at the mid portion of all implanted GTG conduits. The cross-sectional area of regenerated nerve of the GTG group was significant larger than that of the silicone group. In the compound muscle action potentials (CMAP), the mean recovery index of CMAP amplitude was 0.24 +/- 0.02 for the silicone group, 0.41 +/- 0.07 for the GTG group. The mean SFI increased with time in the GTG group during the evaluation period until 24 weeks. Walking tract analysis showed a higher SFI score in the GTG group at both 12 and 24 weeks. The difference reached a significant level at 24 weeks. Thus, the histomorphometric, electrophysiologic, and functional assessments demonstrate that GTG can be a candidate for peripheral nerve repair. PMID:16211569

  7. Role of lymphatic vessels in tumor immunity: passive conduits or active participants?

    OpenAIRE

    Lund, Amanda W.; Swartz, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    Research in lymphatic biology and cancer immunology may soon intersect as emerging evidence implicates the lymphatics in the progression of chronic inflammation and autoimmunity as well as in tumor metastasis and immune escape. Like the blood vasculature, the lymphatic system comprises a highly dynamic conduit system that regulates fluid homeostasis, antigen transport and immune cell trafficking, which all play important roles in the progression and resolution of inflammation, autoimmune dise...

  8. Possible conduit-matrix water exchange signatures outlined at a karst spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrofan, Horia; Marin, Constantin; Povar?, Ioan

    2015-04-01

    During a significant flood event, reversible water exchanges may occur between a karst conduit and its adjacent porous rock (frequently designated as "matrix"): while the flood pulse rises, some conduit-derived water is forced into the matrix; then, as the flood recedes, the same water flows back into the stream passage. The present note addresses such a karst setting in the Carpathian Mountains (Romania), where in addition, a usually stable flux of chloride originating in a natural saline inflow, was being mixed with a variable flow of karst freshwater. For that particular case, with the above-mentioned process of matrix storage/release from storage assumedly taking place downstream of the mixing site, two distinct chemical signatures could be noticed during a flood event: an initial depletion in the spring flow chloride flux, subsequently followed by a comparable chloride flux enrichment (the depletion and the enrichment being outlined with respect to the essentially stable chloride flux value that had been noticed to persist at the spring over a long period of flow rate recession). Concomitantly with such flood-induced fluctuations in the spring chloride flux, the spring discharge displayed, for long periods, abnormally slow variations: the latter likely indicated that the spring supply rate actual oscillations were buffered by the reversible water exchanges which took place between the karst conduit and its adjacent matrix. On the whole, these results show that conduit-matrix water exchanges could be interpreted by simple mass balance calculations that involved fluxes of a conservative tracer (the chloride ion in that particular case). PMID:25394224

  9. Preliminary Experience with GORE-TEX® Grafting for Right Ventricle-Pulmonary Artery Conduits

    OpenAIRE

    Molina, J. Ernesto

    1986-01-01

    A consecutive series of 12 patients between the ages of 6½ and 37 years underwent implantation of venous ventricle-pulmonary artery conduits. GORE-TEX material without prosthetic valves was used. Four patients had L-transposition of the great vessels with ventricular septal defect (VSD) and pulmonary stenosis; four had tetralogy of Fallot with pulmonary atresia; and one had double outlet right ventricle, pulmonary stenosis, and a complete form of A-V canal. Two patients had D-transposition o...

  10. Ileal-conduit following cystectomy, single-institution revision of indications and outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective was to revise indications, case fatality ratio, and postoperative early and late complications of ileal conduit as a method of urinary diversion. This is a retrospective study in which 200 patients underwent an ileal conduit from August 1994 to December 2000 in Mansoura Urology and Nephrology Center, Mansoura, Egypt. Preoperative criteria of patient selection, preoperative findings and postoperative follow-up data were reviewed. In 200 patients aged 29-75 years, with a mean age of 55.84-/+ 8.91 years, the ileal conduit was chosen as a method of urinary diversion, due to one of the following patient or surgical factors; 50 (25%) cardiopulmonary co-morbidities, 27(13.5%) liver cirrhosis, 20 (10%) impaired renal function, 18 (9%) poorly controlled diabetes mellitus and 3 (1.5%) morbid obesity. Frozen section pathological examination showed carcinoma invasion of the urethra in 26 (13%) and prostate stroma in 16 (8%) male patients. Severe adhesions and difficulty cystectomy were encountered in 25 (12.5%) patients. Tumor was found at or close to the bladder neck in 13 (6.5%) female patients and 2 (1%) patients were found to have short mesentery. The mean follow up period was 90.02 -/+ 22.63 months. Fatality rate was 2%. Twenty-three (11.5%) patients had early complications, while 36 (23.7%) patients had late complications. Ileal conduit is still the best urinary diversion method in many patients who have bladder cancer with associated chronic medical disease or ceh associated chronic medical disease or certain surgical factors that render other urinary diversion methods more difficult carry more postoperative morbidity and mortality or both. (author)

  11. In vitro biocompatibility testing of some synthetic polymers used for the achievement of nervous conduits

    OpenAIRE

    Mihai, R; Florescu, IP; Coroiu, V; A. Oancea; Lungu, M.

    2011-01-01

    Biocompatible synthetic polymers are largely used in the bio–medical domain, tissue engineering and in controlled release of medicines. Polymers can be used in the achievement of cardiac and vascular devices, mammary implants, eye lenses, surgical threads, nervous conduits, adhesives, blood substitutes, etc. Our study was axed on the development of cytotoxicity tests for 3 synthetic polymers, namely polyvinyl alcohol, polyethylene glycol and polyvinyl chloride. These tests targeted to determi...

  12. Fontan Operation: Modification of the Valve Position in Conduit with Brief Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Sabbagh, Adib H.; Riveros, Macario; Fritz, James M.; Fernandez, Jose

    1983-01-01

    A Fontan operation was performed on a 10-year-old child for correction of tricuspid atresia. A xenograft, valved conduit was used to establish continuity between the right atrium and the small right ventricle. Atrial and ventricular septal defects were repaired with Dacron patches. Two hours postoperatively, the patient suffered a cardiac arrest secondary to hypoxia and was successfully resuscitated. Partial recurrence of a right-to-left shunt at the atrial level necessitated the patient's re...

  13. Reconstruction of upper-extremity peripheral-nerve injuries with ePTFE conduits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanec, S; Stanec, Z

    1998-05-01

    This reported investigation was designed to determine the role of a new synthetic conduit-expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) tube--in clinical repair of median and ulnar nerves in the upper extremities. The main goals of this study were: to determine the effectiveness of the ePTFE conduit in clinical nerve reconstruction; to evaluate the potential of this technique in reconstruction of various nerve gaps (1.5 to 6 cm); and to analyze the results of repair with the ePTFE tube regarding different mechanisms of injury. Forty-three patients were evaluated. They had upper-extremity peripheral-nerve injuries (21 injuries to the median nerve, and 22 ulnar nerve injuries) located at the various levels of the upper extremities. All surgical procedures described in the study were secondary reconstructions, and the average delay from injury to repair was 4.2 months. With regard to the nerve-gap lengths, patients were categorized in two groups. Group 1 (gaps from 1.5 to 4 cm) included 28 patients (17 median nerve injuries and 11 ulnar nerve injuries), and Group 2 (gaps from 4.1 to 6 cm) comprised 15 patients (4 median nerve injuries and 11 ulnar nerve injuries). Results showed that 78.6 percent of patients from Group 1 demonstrated functional motor and sensory recovery, while reconstruction of only 13.3 percent of peripheral nerves from Group 2 resulted in useful reinnervation. According to published results, ePTFE conduit is a reliable and successful surgical procedure for nerve repair in reconstruction of nerve gaps up to 4 cm between the ends of median and ulnar nerves in various levels of the upper extremity. Because of its properties, ePTFE conduit has the advantages of promoting better nerve regeneration, compared to other synthetic tubes, especially in reconstruction of proximal nerve injuries, larger nerve gaps, and in cases with unfavorable mechanisms of nerve injury. PMID:9618088

  14. A method of gastric conduit elevation via the posterior mediastinal pathway in thoracoscopic subtotal esophagectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Hirahara Noriyuki; Yamamoto Tetsu; Tanaka Tsuneo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Despite efforts to improve surgical techniques, serious complications still sometimes occur. Use of a physiological posterior mediastinal pathway has increased given advances such as automated anastomotic devices and a reduction in the incidence of anastomotic sufficiency. Until now the gastric conduit created has been protected by an echo probe cover and, sown to the ventral side of polyester tape placed through the abdomen to the neck, and then blindly elevated to the ne...

  15. Ross operation using a bovine bioprosthetic valve with autologous pericardial conduit in the pulmonary position.

    OpenAIRE

    Urrea, M. S.; Herrera, V.; Rey, A.; Vargas, J.

    1993-01-01

    Between 1 February 1992 and 1 March 1993, we performed Ross's aortic replacement in 7 men and 4 women with rheumatic heart disease. The patients' ages ranged from 22 to 60 years (mean, 41 years). All 11 patients had aortic valve disease; 2 also had mitral valve disease. In all patients, the right ventricular outflow tract was reconstructed using an autologous pericardial conduit containing a bovine cardiac valve bioprosthesis manufactured at our institution. The 2 patients who had mitral valv...

  16. The quench experiment on long length cable-in-conduit conductor (QUELL) in SULTAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A description of the QUELL experiment at the SULTAN facility, its objectives and plan is given. After reviewing the quench properties of the Cable in Conduit Conductors and a short review of the theoretical background foreseen for the interpretation of the experimental results, information are given concerning the QUELL sample layout, quench sensors, cryogenic system, power supplies, current bus, current leads and data acquisition system. A detailed test plan and information on the experiment time schedule are also presented

  17. 3D multi-channel bi-functionalized silk electrospun conduits for peripheral nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinis, T M; Elia, R; Vidal, G; Dermigny, Q; Denoeud, C; Kaplan, D L; Egles, C; Marin, F

    2015-01-01

    Despite technological advances over the past 25 years, a complete recovery from peripheral nerve injuries remains unsatisfactory today. The autograft is still considered the "gold standard" in clinical practice; however, postoperative complications and limited availability of nerve tissue have motivated the development of alternative approaches. Among them, the development of biomimetic nerve graft substitutes is one of the most promising strategies. In this study, multichanneled silk electrospun conduits bi-functionalized with Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) and Ciliary Neurotropic Factor (CNTF) were fabricated to enhance peripheral nerve regeneration. These bioactive guides consisting of longitudinally oriented channels and aligned nanofibers were designed in order to mimic the fascicular architecture and fibrous extracellular matrix found in native nerve. The simple use of the electrospinning technique followed by a manual manipulation to manufacture these conduits provides tailoring of channel number and diameter size to create perineurium-like structures. Functionalization of the silk fibroin nanofiber did not affect its secondary structure and chemical property. ELISA assays showed the absence of growth factors passive release from the functionalized fibers avoiding the topical accumulation of proteins. In addition, our biomimetic multichanneled functionalized nerve guides displayed a mechanical behavior comparable to that of rat sciatic nerve with an ultimate peak stress of 4.0 ± 0.6 MPa and a corresponding elongation at failure of 156.8 ± 46.7%. Taken together, our results demonstrate for the first time our ability to design and characterize a bi-functionalized nerve conduit consisting of electrospun nanofibers with multichannel oriented and nanofibers aligned for peripheral regeneration. Our bioactive silk tubes thus represent a new and promising technique towards the creation of a biocompatible nerve guidance conduit. PMID:25460402

  18. Disintegration and Devolatilisation of Sandstone Xenolith in Magmatic Conduits: an Experimental Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Sylvia

    2010-01-01

    Xenoliths preserve evidence of magma-crust interactions in magmatic reservoirs and conduits. They reveal processes of partial melting of country rock, and disintegration into magma. Widespread evidence for frothy xenoliths in volcanic deposits exists, and these evidently indicate processes of gas liberation, bubble nucleation and bubble growth. This report focuses on textural analysis of frothy sandstone xenoliths from Krakatau in Indonesia, Cerro Negro in Nicaragua, Cerro Quemado in El Salva...

  19. Robotic Intracorporeal Ileal Conduit Formation: Initial Experience from a Single UK Centre

    OpenAIRE

    Bishop, Conrad V.; Nikhil Vasdev; Gregory Boustead; Adshead, James M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To describe our technique of robotic intracorporeal ileal conduit formation (RICIC) during robotic-assisted radical cystectomy (RARC). To report our initial results of this new procedure. Patients and Methods. Seven male and one female patients underwent RARC with RICIC over a six-month period. Demographic, operative, and outcome data was collected prospectively. Median patient age was 75 years (range 62–78 years). Median followup was 9 months (range 7–14 months). Results. RAR...

  20. 48 CFR 228.304 - Risk-pooling arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Risk-pooling arrangements. 228.304 Section 228.304 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE...REQUIREMENTS BONDS AND INSURANCE Insurance 228.304 Risk-pooling arrangements. DoD has...

  1. 29 CFR 780.126 - Contract arrangements for raising poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...false Contract arrangements for raising poultry. 780.126 Section 780.126 Labor...Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.126 Contract arrangements for raising poultry. Feed dealers and...

  2. Flambage vertical des conduites en souillées Vertical Buckling of Buried Pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bournazel C.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Si l'apparition d'un flambage vertical des conduites rigides enfouies dans une tranchée est un phénomène assez rare, il peut ne pas en être de même pour des conduites flexibles dont les propriétés mécaniques sont de nature différente. Une étude théorique et expérimentale, ayant pour but de proposer une méthode analytique de calcul de l'apparition du flambage et de son évolution sous l'effet de la pression interne, a été réalisée. II apparaît que les conduites flexibles actuelles sont très sensibles à ce phénomène et qu'il serait nécessaire, pour l'éliminer à coup sûr, de réexaminer la structure des flexibles ou d'imaginer des artifices dans la procédure d'ensouillage Whereas the appearance of vertical buckling in rigid pipes buried in a trench is a relatively rare phenomenon, the same cannot be said for flexible pipes which have mechanical properties of a different nature. A theoretical and experimental study has been made with the aim of proposing an analytical method for computing the appearance of buckling and its evolution under the effect of outside pressure. Current flexible pipes appear to be very sensitive to this phenomenon, and to be certain of eliminating it the structure of flexible pipes should be reexamined or stratagems in the burying procedure should be devised.

  3. Cardiovascular effects of right ventricle-pulmonary artery valved conduit implantation in experimental pulmonic stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Right ventricle (RV)-pulmonary artery (PA) valved conduit (RPVC) implantation decreases RV systolic pressure in pulmonic stenosis (PS) by forming a bypass route between the RV and the PA. The present study evaluates valved conduits derived from canine aortae in a canine model of PS produced by pulmonary artery banding (PAB). Pulmonary stenosis was elicited using PAB in 10 conditioned beagles aged 8 months. Twelve weeks after PAB, the dogs were assigned to one group that did not undergo surgical intervention and another that underwent RPVC using denacol-treated canine aortic valved grafts (PAB+RPVC). Twelve weeks later, the rate of change in the RV-PA systolic pressure gradient was significantly decreased in the PAB+RPVC, compared with the PAB group (60.5+-16.7% vs. 108.9+-22.9%; p0.01). In addition, the end-diastolic RV free wall thickness (RVFWd) was significantly reduced in the PAB+RPVC, compared with the PAB group (8.2+-0.2 vs. 9.4+-0.7 mm; p0.05). Thereafter, regurgitation was not evident beyond the conduit valve and the decrease in RV pressure overload induced by RPVC was confirmed. The present results indicate that RPVC can be performed under a beating heart without cardiopulmonary bypass and adapted to dogs with various types of PS, including 'supra valvular' PS or PS accompanied by dysplasia of the pulmonary valve. Therefore, we consider that this method is useful for treating PS in small animals

  4. The drag coefficient for particles in aerosols flowing through a horizontal conduit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. PEREIRA

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The drag coefficient, CD, was experimentally determined during sedimentation of aerosol particles in air flowing horizontally in a conduit of rectangular cross section, and its relation to the Reynolds numbers for the particle, Rep, and the conduit, Rec, was found. The method used to obtain the frictional force on the particles is based on observation of the trajectories of the particles being deposited on the bottom wall of the conduit. The diameter (dp and point of deposition of the particles were determined by examining small glass slides distributed along the floor of the apparatus at given positions. The diameter of particles adhering to these laminae can be observed by microscope, but a factor must then be applied to convert these values to the diameters in suspension (dp, since the particles are liquid and undergo flattening as they collect on the glass. Results were compared with the aerodynamic diameter of the particle, obtained independently, and the discrepancies that appeared will need to be investigated further. The velocity profiles of the air inside the apparatus were also recorded. A correlation of the form CD = f(Rep, Rec is proposed.

  5. PRGD/PDLLA conduit potentiates rat sciatic nerve regeneration and the underlying molecular mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Binbin; Qiu, Tong; Iyer, K Swaminathan; Yan, Qiongjiao; Yin, Yixia; Xie, Lijuan; Wang, Xinyu; Li, Shipu

    2015-07-01

    Peripheral nerve injury requires optimal conditions in both macro-environment and micro-environment for reestablishment. Though various strategies have been carried out to improve the macro-environment, the underlying molecular mechanism of axon regeneration in the micro-environment provided by nerve conduit remains unclear. In this study, the rat sciatic nerve of 10 mm defect was made and bridged by PRGD/PDLLA nerve conduit. We investigated the process of nerve regeneration using histological, functional and real time PCR analyses after implantation from 7 to 35 days. Our data demonstrated that the ciliary neurotrophic factor highly expressed and up-regulated the downstream signaling pathways, in the case of activated signals, the expressions of axon sprout relative proteins, such as tubulin and growth-associated protein-43, were strongly augmented. Taken together, these data suggest a possible mechanism of axon regeneration promoted by PRGD/PDLLA conduit, which created a micro-environment for enhancement of diffusion of neurotrophic factors secreted by the injured nerve stumps, and activation of molecular signal transduction involved in growth cone, to potentiate the nerve recovery. PMID:25934451

  6. [Urinary diversion in patients treated with pelvic irradiation: transverse colon conduit revisited].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Yoshiyuki; Kanematsu, Akihiro; Negoro, Hiromitsu; Kobayashi, Takashi; Terada, Naoki; Sugino, Yoshio; Yamasaki, Toshinari; Inoue, Takahiro; Kamba, Tomomi; Yoshimura, Koji; Ogawa, Osamu

    2014-08-01

    In patients receiving pelvic irradiation for gynecological or genitourinary malignancies, urinary diversion is sometimes required for complete resection of malignancies or treatment of urological complications by irradiation. We report our attempts to promote healing and prevent complications by urinary diversion using a transverse colon conduit in cases in which urinary reconstruction was performed with irradiated lower abdominal organs such as small intestine or distal ureters. Between 2008 and 2012, 9 patients with pelvic irradiation received transverse colon conduit urinary diversion. Six patients received diversion for genitourinary complications, while 3 patients received complete resection of pelvic malignancies. Colostomy formation and lithotripsy of vesical stones were simultaneously performed in 4 cases. Wallace method was adopted for ureterointestinal anastomosis. There was no operative mortality. Although acute pyelonephritis, ileus, wound dehiscence and pelvic abscess formation were seen as postoperative complications, all but two improved without any additional procedure. Cases of pelvic abscess or wound dehiscence were treated by abscess drainage. In observation periods, no patients required urinary stent placement and none suffered from defecation problems. We think that transverse colon conduit can be a viable option for patients with pelvic irradiation history, affording them reasonable quality of life postoperatively. PMID:25179985

  7. UK nuclear terrorism insurance arrangements: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The risk of terrorism in the UK is not new, but since the New York World Trade Centre attacks in 2001, the potential scale of any terrorist attack has required a considerable reassessment. With UK foreign policy closely aligned to that of the USA, the UK security services now consider it is simply a matter of when and no longer if the UK is attacked. For insurers of any type this fact would cause concern; for insurers involved in high profile and potentially catastrophic loss targets such as nuclear power plants, any attack could have a severe impact on solvency and shareholder's funds. This paper's objective is to describe the terrorism insurance arrangements put in place in the U.K. both before and after the September 2001 attacks. These arrangements have been designed both to safeguard insurers' solvency and to ensure that the nuclear industry and general public can continue to be reassured by the availability of insurance should an attack ever occur.(author)

  8. 48 CFR 3032.003 - Simplified acquisition procedures financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Simplified acquisition procedures financing. 3032.003 Section 3032.003...CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Scope of Part 3032.003 Simplified acquisition procedures financing. Contract financing may be...

  9. Sciatic nerve regeneration in rats by a promising electrospun collagen/poly(?-caprolactone nerve conduit with tailored degradation rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Xinquan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To cope with the limitations faced by autograft acquisitions particularly for multiple nerve injuries, artificial nerve conduit has been introduced by researchers as a substitute for autologous nerve graft for the easy specification and availability for mass production. In order to best mimic the structures and components of autologous nerve, great efforts have been made to improve the designation of nerve conduits either from materials or fabrication techniques. Electrospinning is an easy and versatile technique that has recently been used to fabricate fibrous tissue-engineered scaffolds which have great similarity to the extracellular matrix on fiber structure. Results In this study we fabricated a collagen/poly(?-caprolactone (collagen/PCL fibrous scaffold by electrospinning and explored its application as nerve guide substrate or conduit in vitro and in vivo. Material characterizations showed this electrospun composite material which was made of submicron fibers possessed good hydrophilicity and flexibility. In vitro study indicated electrospun collagen/PCL fibrous meshes promoted Schwann cell adhesion, elongation and proliferation. In vivo test showed electrospun collagen/PCL porous nerve conduits successfully supported nerve regeneration through an 8 mm sciatic nerve gap in adult rats, achieving similar electrophysiological and muscle reinnervation results as autografts. Although regenerated nerve fibers were still in a pre-mature stage 4 months postoperatively, the implanted collagen/PCL nerve conduits facilitated more axons regenerating through the conduit lumen and gradually degraded which well matched the nerve regeneration rate. Conclusions All the results demonstrated this collagen/PCL nerve conduit with tailored degradation rate fabricated by electrospinning could be an efficient alternative to autograft for peripheral nerve regeneration research. Due to its advantage of high surface area for cell attachment, it is believed that this electrospun nerve conduit could find more application in cell therapy for nerve regeneration in future, to further improve functional regeneration outcome especially for longer nerve defect restoration.

  10. Delayed cervical esophagogastrostomy: a surgical alternative for patients with ischemia of the gastric conduit at time of esophagectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzarini, Enrique; Ramón, José M; Grande, Luis; Pera, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Ischemia of the gastric conduit after esophagectomy represents a setback that increases the risk of anastomotic leak. In order to prevent this severe complication, a surgical alternative has been proposed which consists in delaying the reconstruction until gastric perfusion improves. By adopting this strategy we can avoid two other surgical options that may significantly increase the risk of complications: 1) performing an esophagogastrostomy with a poorly perfused gastric tube and 2) resecting the gastric conduit followed by a complex reconstruction. PMID:24631236

  11. The Financing of Innovative Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronwyn H. Hall

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available To what extent are new and/or innovative firms fundamentally different from established firms, and therefore require a different form of financing? The theoretical background for this proposition is presented, and the empirical evidence on its importance is reviewed. Owing to the intangible nature of their investment, asymmetric-information and moral-hazard, these firms are more likely to be financed by equity than debt and behave in some cases as though they are cash-constrained, especially if they are small. Recognizing the role for public policy in this area, many countries have implemented specific policies to bring the cost of financing innovation more in line with the level that would prevail in the absence of market failures.

  12. The role of financing institutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production, conversion, transport and use of primary energy have considerable impacts on the environment and climate. Throughout the world, the energy sectors face the problem of reducing energy-related emissions, preventing them form occurring and contributing towards the development of environmentally friendly and sustainable energy systems. This requires an integrated planning and decision-making process, in which domestic and international financing institutions also participate since they are frequently involved in the appraisal of electricity projects. To ensure that assessment procedures cover not only project risks and aspects of credit worthiness in a narrower sense but also overall environmental and efficiency aspects, the report outlines elements of a code of conduct. This code of conduct should serve as guideline for financing institutions involved in financing energy sector investments. (author). 7 refs, 1 tab

  13. Developments in School Finance 1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US Department of Education's NCES has recently released Developments in School Finance 1997 (available in Adobe Acrobat [.pdf] format only), edited by William J. Fowler, which contains the fiscal proceedings from the 1997 NCES Summer Conference, eight scholarly papers on "emerging issues in educational finance." Titles include: "Does Money Matter for Minority and Disadvantaged Students? Assessing the New Empirical Evidence," by David Grissmer, et. al.; "School District Expenditures, School Resources and Student Achievement: Modeling the Production Function," by Harold Wenglinsky; and "The Development of School Finance Formulas to Guarantee the Provision of Adequate Education to Low-Income Students," by Andrew Reschovsky and Jennifer Imazeki. Users can download the entire publication or articles of their choosing.

  14. Medicare financing and beneficiary income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, K

    1987-01-01

    With Medicare outlays expected to continue their upward spiral and with the growing proportion of elderly among the population, Medicare financing is likely to be closely scrutinized in the coming years. In this paper I examine the economic, demographic, and health trends likely to affect Medicare solvency in the years ahead. I then review the current debate over adding catastrophic coverage to Medicare, with special attention to the proposed financing mechanisms. I conclude with an analysis of alternative revenue sources for Medicare in the future. I propose that a fundamental reform of Medicare financing be undertaken that would merge the health insurance (HI) and supplementary medical insurance (SMI) components of the program. Funding would come from currently scheduled HI payroll taxes, general revenues projected to meet SMI expenditures, alcohol and cigarette taxes, and a new Medicare premium related to beneficiary income. PMID:2961693

  15. 47 CFR 1.9020 - Spectrum manager leasing arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Spectrum manager leasing arrangements. 1.9020 Section...and Procedures § 1.9020 Spectrum manager leasing arrangements. (a) Overview...spectrum lessee may enter into a spectrum manager leasing arrangement, without the...

  16. Increasing revenues for protected areas. A wealth of financing options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper aims at giving an overview of traditional and new financing mechanisms in support of protected areas. The web of life is breaking down: our world is facing biodiversity loss at unprecedented rates. Human impacts are causing the acceleration of species loss, at rates of several hundreds up to 1000 times the natural rate of species extinction, depending on the type of organisms. Habitat degradation and loss, introduction of invasive species, pollution, and overexploitation of resources are factors that determine the process of mass extinction. Protected areas obviously play a critical role in biodiversity conservation. Article 8 of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) obliges Parties to establish a system of protected areas to-conserve biodiversity, to develop guidelines for protected areas management and to promote appropriate development adjacent to protected areas. Besides agreeing on this global mandate for protected areas, through Article 8m of the CBD Parties committed themselves to cooperate in providing financial support for protected area systems: 'Each contracting party (...) shall cooperate in providing financial and other support for in-situ conservation (...) particularly to developing countries'. Current revenues for maintaining existing protected areas and the creation of new ones are insufficient. Annually, approximately USD 7 billion is spent on the creation and maintenance of protected areas around the world (Balmford, 2003). The amoaround the world (Balmford, 2003). The amount required to adequately protect biodiversity is estimated to be about five times higher. The flow of revenues from traditional and new financing mechanisms should clearly be increased to mitigate the financing deficit for protected areas. As part of the solution, innovative financing mechanisms are being developed aimed at increasing the global revenues for protected areas, thus capturing the multiple values of ecosystem goods and services provided by protected areas to mankind. This scoping paper focuses on an overview of financing mechanisms in support of the creation and maintenance of protected areas comprising terrestrial ecosystems.The term 'protected area' refers in this paper to all IUCN protected area categories, including extractive reserves. The financing mechanisms are classified into six different categories, according to the type of institutional arrangement, and the dominant actor or group of actors

  17. ACCOUNTING TREATMENTS FOR FINANCING ENTITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTINA MIHAELA NAGY

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important aspects of an entity is, without doubt, how to finance it, this being an ongoing concern of managers, particularly seeking the cost reduction of the borrowed capital and the increase of the financial profitability instalment. Accessing irredeemable funds is a reality of the recent years. Increasingly more companies are looking to these funds to achieve some development objectives. A thorough analysis of the financing possibilities (subsidy is important for any entity, but the choice has to be made based on the recommendation of the domain specialists. No price is too high if it ensures you business continuity.

  18. Project finance for renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is intended to provide general advice to sponsors of renewable energy projects who expect to raise project-based financing from commercial banks to fund the development of their projects. It sets out, for the benefit of such sponsors, how bankers typically approach the analysis of these undertakings and in particular the risk areas on which they concentrate. By doing so it should assist sponsors to maximize their prospects of raising bank finance. The watchword for sponsors approaching banks must be ''Be Prepared'' . (author)

  19. The Marginal Source of Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Lindhe, Tobias

    2002-01-01

    This paper addresses the ongoingdebate on which view of equity, traditional or new, that best describes firm behavior. According to the traditional view, the marginal source of finance is new equity, whereas under to the new view, marginal financing comes from retained earnings. In the theoretical part, we set up a model where the firm faces a cost of adjusting the dividend level because of an aggravated free cash flow problem. The existence of such a cost - which has been used in arguing the...

  20. Financing Higher Education after Tax Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Richard E.; Meyerson, Joel W.

    1987-01-01

    Capital finance, once limited to financing physical plant, today includes all assets and aspects of institutional life. It now encompasses a wide range of approaches and techniques including pooled debt, capital leases, futures contracts, equity investments, and research partnerships. (MLW)

  1. THE PROBLEM OF FINANCING INNOVATION OF ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Ildyakov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the main issues related to financing innovation in enterprises. The author proves the problem of financing innovation as a key deterrent to the innovative development of Russian enterprises.

  2. 48 CFR 32.109 - Termination financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    48 ? Federal Acquisition Regulations System ? 1 ? 2010-10-01 ? 2010-10-01 ? false ? Termination financing. ? 32.109 ? Section 32.109 ? Federal Acquisition Regulations System ? FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION ? GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS ? CONTRACT FINANCING ? Non-Commercial Item...

  3. 24 CFR 884.114 - Financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROJECTS Applicability...Policies § 884.114 Financing. (a) Types. Eligible projects under this program...connection with a project constructed pursuant...the terms of the financing or any...

  4. Finance and Accounting; a comprehensive introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, Ewoud

    2005-01-01

    Finance and accounting behandelt in een boek de essentiele aspecten van drie disciplines: financieel management, management accounting en financial accounting. Dit maakt Finance and accounting tot een breed en waardevol engelstalig naslagwerk.

  5. Linking conduit and surface activity at Arenal volcano using broadband seismometers and Doppler radar: do we need a new conduit model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valade, S.; Donnadieu, F. R.; Lesage, P.; Mora Fernandez, M.; Harris, A. J.; Alvarado, G. E.

    2010-12-01

    We carried out a cross-correlation of broadband seismic data and ground-based Doppler radar data obtained at Arenal (Costa Rica) in February 2005. Our aim was to gain insight into the subsurface source processes (i.e., fragmentation mechanisms operating in the shallow conduit system) and the subsequent pyroclastic emissions (i.e., plume mass loading and ascent dynamics) that characterize the transitory, mildly explosive activity at Arenal. Study of the radar and seismic waveforms revealed a non-systematic relationship between them, both exhibiting a large variety of behaviors and features, but no clear patterns could be distinguished. Pyroclastic emissions recorded by the radar also did not have a unique seismic signature: 44% of radar signals were found in association with explosion-type seismic events, 43% during episodes of tremor, and 13% during aseismic intervals. Over longer time-scales, radar event amplitudes showed no correlation with the seismic energy release rate (RSEM), nor with RSAM, nor with repose time intervals. Energy proxies obtained from coeval radar (plume energy) and seismic (explosion energy) data show significant scattering, indicating that the ratio of the seismic/radar energy was highly variable. Plume mass-loading and exit velocity thus seems only weakly correlated to the seismic energy generated by the explosion, suggesting that the seismic energy might not be a good indicator of the intensity of explosions at Arenal. The occurrence of radar echoes in different range gates indicates that several vents were active, which is consistent with the clarinet-model for tremor generation at Arenal (Lesage et al., 2006), in which fractures in the plug act as valves that control degassing, with multiple conduits explaining the occurrence of different sets of harmonic frequencies in seismic data. Fragmentation is best explained by pressure build-up below a plug obstructing the conduit. This, when a resistance threshold is overcome, fails and yields sudden decompression, allowing gas bubbles in the magma to rapidly expand and fragment the viscous host magma. Nevertheless, this model fails to explain the full spectrum of activity, recorded signals, and seismo/radar energy partitioning. Variable source depth may, though, cause variation in elastic energy radiation, and variable fragmentation mechanisms may explain varying seismic signals associated with the emissions. It is possible that non-linear, inter- and time-dependent, processes explain unstable dynamic systems such as Arenal, and are required to trigger transitions from one fragmentation mechanism to another.

  6. Financing Your Small Business: A Workbook for Financing Small Business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Clark W.

    Designed to assist established businesspeople with the development of a loan proposal, this workbook offers information on sources of financing and step-by-step guidance on applying for a loan. After chapter I discusses borrowers' and lenders' attitudes towards money, chapter II offers suggestions for determining financial needs. Chapter III lists…

  7. 12 CFR 987.7 - Liability of Banks, Finance Board, Office of Finance and Federal Reserve Banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 false Liability of Banks, Finance Board, Office of Finance and Federal Reserve Banks. 987.7 Section 987.7 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD OFFICE OF FINANCE BOOK-ENTRY...

  8. Reorganizing Rural Public Finance: Reforms and Consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, John Q.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines recent reforms to restructure rural public finance in China and their impact on local-government finance. The focus is on how fiscal income and financial expenditure are managed by local-level governments, particularly at the county and township levels, and how rural public and social services are financed. The article also looks at the development of intergovernmental transfers, ongoing administrative reform, more recent initiatives to extend public finance to cover rur...

  9. An Introduction to International Factoring & Project Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Glinavos, Ioannis

    2002-01-01

    This work consists of two essays on law and finance in international trade. It addresses the means of raising funds for investment through receivables financing and project finance. The first essay discusses the role of receivables financing and in particular factoring in international trade. It examines the nature of factoring transactions and presents the efforts at regulation on an international level aimed at overcoming the difficulties in enforcement. The second essay discusses project f...

  10. Multiple-Project Financing with Informed Trading

    OpenAIRE

    Cantale, Salvatore; Lukin, Dmitry

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents an adverse selection-based explanation of the fact that some entrepreneurs choose to finance multiple projects together by issuing a single security and other entrepreneurs decide to finance each project separately. We consider the financing problem of an entrepreneur who has access to two investment projects and needs to raise external financing to undertake these projects in the presence of asymmetric information. The entrepreneur has private information about the quality...

  11. Mortgage Finance and Security of Collateral

    OpenAIRE

    Haldrup, Karin

    2011-01-01

    Developing economies face a gigantic lack of financing for urbanization due to the absence of formal and transparent property markets. The paper discuss the interference between mortgage finance and collateral security by using the Danish mortgage financing model as an example, because of its 200 years long history, and because the system is recommended as an option in emerging markets and as a possible model for remedying failures in mature housing finance markets. It is suggested that devel...

  12. Financing power projects in emerging markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Financing for power generation projects in the developing countries of the world has been provided by the United States Export-Import Bank. The loans provided by its new Project Finance Division, totalling $8.3 billion are described. The future of project financing for the power generation industry should, it is argued, rest not with government financing agencies, but with private sector financial markets. (UK)

  13. Financing Patterns: Measurement Concepts and Empirical Results

    OpenAIRE

    Hackethal, Andreas; Schmidt, Reinhard H.

    2000-01-01

    A widely recognized paper by Colin Mayer (1988) has led to a profound revision of academic thinking about financing patterns of corporations in different countries. Using flow-of-funds data instead of balance sheet data, Mayer and others who followed his lead found that internal financing is the dominant mode of financing in all countries, that financing patterns do not differ very much between countries and that those differences which still seem to exist are not at all consistent with the c...

  14. Financing patterns : measurement concepts and empirical results

    OpenAIRE

    Hackethal, Andreas; Schmidt, Reinhard H.

    2004-01-01

    A widely recognized paper by Colin Mayer (1988) has led to a profound revision of academic thinking about financing patterns of corporations in different countries. Using flow-of-funds data instead of balance sheet data, Mayer and others who followed his lead found that internal financing is the dominant mode of financing in all countries, that financing patterns do not differ very much between countries and that those differences which still seem to exist are not at all consistent with the c...

  15. ALTERNATIVE MODELS OF FINANCING REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina, GRADEA

    2013-01-01

    Public financing of infrastructure proved under performing at uneconomic prices, and because of political interference in the management of funds, understanding the problem leading to the adoption of private funding variant, an effective way of private funding being the financing of the project. Project financing is a concept that assessed by means of financing a specific technique. In this context, those granting funds usually through loans typically are only interested in cash flows and ...

  16. Does PLS financing solve asymmetric information problems?

    OpenAIRE

    Yousfi, Ouidad

    2013-01-01

    Discussion of Islamic private equity (PE) financing modes rarely provides detailed analytical insights into their properties: there is no rigorous analysis of their features. The current paper analyzes how and when Profit Loss Sharing (PLS) financing methods can solve asymmetric information problems. I focus on Mudarabah and Musharakah financing schemes and consider agency models under moral hazard. The model shows some interesting results. First, I show that Mudarabah financing provide power...

  17. Personal Finance in America's Schools Today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teaching Topics, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Highlights from a survey of educational practices of personal finance teachers and resource materials for emerging topics are provided. Of the 6,100 secondary teachers in the United States and Canada who received questionnaires, 1,400 responded. With over 30 states having personal finance or consumer economics guidelines, personal finance courses…

  18. Capital Financing for Independent Private Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Kevin G.; Doherty, Robert F.; Wienk, Christopher O.

    This document contains summary materials from a presentation by Wye River Capital, Inc. of Annapolis, Maryland, on capital financing for independent private schools. The main sections of the presentation address: (1) overview of the capital financing process; (2) tax law considerations for tax-exempt financings by private schools; and (3) key…

  19. High mass isotope separation process and arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An isotope separation arrangement for separating a preselected isotope from a mixture of chemically identical but isotopically different molecules by either photon-induced pure rovibrational or vibronic selective excitation of the molecules containing the atoms of the isotope to be separated from a lower to a higher energy state, and a chemical reaction of the higher energy state molecules with a chemically reactive agent to form a chemical compound containing primarily the atoms of isotope to be separated in a physicochemical state different from the physicochemical state of the mixture of chemically identical but isotopically different molecules. The chemical compound containing the atoms of the isotope to be separated may be subsequently processed to obtain the isotope

  20. Tendons Arrangement Effects on Reinforced Concrete Frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayad B. Bahnam

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available  The tendons arrangement effects on the response of reinforced concrete frame experiencing blast loads is investigated in this paper. The structure is modeled using nonlinear finite elements employing a bilinear hysteretic model. So that elements are used so that yielding of the structures could be accurately modeled and captured. The frame is analyzed using a non-linear, elastic-plastic finite element program written in code MATLAB. Six tendon architectures were investigated. A single tendon was placed between different floors and its effects investigated. From the obtained results, the ideal case which causes a reduction in the maximum displacement and the amount of permanent deflection without increase in the maximum structural shear forces greatly is obtained.

  1. Project Finance in the Energy Industry: New Debt-based Financing Models

    OpenAIRE

    Enzo Scannella

    2012-01-01

    The paper aims to examine the development of new financing models for project finance to attract private investors to finance large European energy infrastructure projects. In particular, the paper investigates the uniqueness of the project finance as a rapidly growing field in finance, the financial characteristics of the project bond market as one of the vehicles for funding energy projects, and the role of the credit support provided by the European Investment Bank and the European Union t...

  2. The Relation Between Reporting Quality and Financing and Investment: Evidence from Changes in Financing Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Balakrishnan, Karthik; Core, John E.; Verdi, Rodrigo

    2011-01-01

    We use changes in the value of a firm's real estate assets as an exogenous change in a firm's financing capacity to examine (1) the relation between reporting quality and financing and investment conditional on this change, and (2) firms’ reporting quality responses to the change in financing capacity. We find that financing and investment by firms with higher reporting quality is less affected by changes in real estate values than are financing and investment by firms with lower reporting ...

  3. Numerical analysis of hydraulic characteristics of fracture intersected with karst conduit based on navier-stokes equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, X.; Zhao, J.; Zhao, Z.; Li, Y.; Qiu, L.

    2013-12-01

    The flow in karstic geometry is an important problem in groundwater researches and engineering applications. However, the mechanism controlling the flow status in these areas is still not clear. In this study, we investigated the hydraulic characteristics with numerical models considering a single fracture intersected with a karst conduit. The numerical model used here is a FVM model based on Navier-Stokes equation which was successfully verified with the test result taken from literature. Five factors and four levels were considered in this study, including the length of the karst conduit, aperture of the fracture, diameter of the conduit, hydraulic condition and the cross angle and sixteen cases were designed according to orthogonal design. A non-dimensional number ? (the ratio of the fracture aperture to diameter of the conduit) was defined in analysis of the combined effect of the two factors on flow characters. The most important impacting factors and the stability levels were obtained in order to improve the accuracy of the results in numerical simulations. A mathematical model was built for the relationship between discharge of the conduit and the impacting factors with consideration of the combined effects based on dimension analysis and changeable structure genetic algorithm. The converting permeability coefficient was estimated in order to solve the stream wise head loss considering the combined effects of the flow in karst conduit and fractures with Darcy's law. The results show that the most important impacting factor for flux might be the fracture aperture or the diameter of the conduit which is determined by the non-dimensional number ?. The conduit has more influence on the whole pressure field with larger diameter and smaller length. The head loss has a non-linear relationship with the velocity because of the local head loss near the karst conduit. Thus, the local cubic's law is no longer applicable to characterize the flow in the fracture near the conduit. In this situation, the flow can be simulated by the general Darcy's law form with the converting permeability coefficient.

  4. Financing Community Education. A Primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Philip H.

    This manual is divided into three modules designed for use in a self-teaching situation. The first module presents a philosophical discussion of financing community education. The traditional model, requiring subordination of community education goals to the goals of the funding agency, is contrasted with an alternative model that establishes…

  5. European windpower: project financing examined

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In part two of an examination of funding mechanisms for wind-generated electricity, the financing of wind projects in the major producers - Denmark, the Netherlands, Germany and the UK is examined. Part one examined the tariff and subsidy mechanisms available for wind generation in the same countries. (author)

  6. Financing Higher Education in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokgwathi, G. M. G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the current system of university finance in Botswana and considers alternative options, including the introduction of student loans. A Presidential Commission in 1990 recommended that the present Bursary system be reorganized into a grant/loan system, but this proposal has not yet been implemented. (DB)

  7. Nuclear industry (Finance) Act 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the Act is to enable British Nuclear Fuels Limited to make borrowings backed by Government guarantees in order to finance its ten year investment programme. More specifically, the Act raises the financial limit applicable to British Nuclear Fuels Limited from pound 500 million to pound 1,000 million. (NEA)

  8. Grassroots financing; Graswurzel-Finanzierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannen, Petra

    2013-05-01

    The idea of a common financing of a photovoltaic project is not new. It is new that interested parties no longer have to meet in community centers or clubhouses, but that a virtual meeting place is sufficient. Crowd funding projects on the world-wide web bring together solar projects and investors.

  9. Financing After-School Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Robert; Deich, Sharon; Cohen, Carol

    The growing demands for afterschool programming for children is accompanied by an increasing understanding of the importance of quality care and activities to children's healthy development. Among the many challenges faced by the growing number of out-of-school time initiatives are developing financing plans and finding funding that will support…

  10. Book review: understanding terrorist finance

    OpenAIRE

    Datu, Kerwin

    2011-01-01

    Timothy Wittig describes how terrorists interact with the everyday economy and lays to rest the myths on how some of the world’s most notorious terrorist organisations themselves, reviewed by Kerwin Datu. Understanding Terrorist Finance. Timothy Wittig. Palgrave MacMillan. July 2011.

  11. Public financing in Croatian sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanela Škori?

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Sport is a complex social activity that encompasses various areas. This, of course, complicates the matter of its financing since it is financed by private and public sources. This is mostly due to the fact that certain sporting activities are considered to be public goods which are then financed by public funds, i.e. the state and local budgets. This paper reports on the analysis of public sources of sports financing. The research confirmed the assumption that in the structure of public sources the local budget prevails, i.e. money coming from local budgets is higher than that coming from central government. Based on the given data concerning local budgets for sports, a trend analysis was conducted. Finally, criteria applied when distributing local funds to sports organizations and single sports were analysed. Based on the correlation analysis, this paper shows that the amount of funds coming from local budgets is correlated with sporting performance (medals won at domestic competitions.

  12. Fairness through regulation? Reflections on a cosmopolitan approach to global finance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Božina Beroš

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In the aftermath of the last financial crisis a strong message prevails that ‘something’ has to be changed in the manner global finance is governed. What exactly this ‘something’ entails and what could constitute the ‘common ground’ of anticipated change is more difficult to determine. Many envisage future improvements of global financial governance by evoking deliberative democracy, political equality and cosmopolitanism. As financial regulation is the main instrument through which global finance is shaped and governed nowadays, these principles should then be transmitted to regulatory arrangements. This paper focuses on a new conceptual approach to regulatory and governance issues in global finance, by employing the philosophical idea of cosmopolitanism. It argues that although as a concept, cosmopolitanism cannot mitigate all the flaws attributed to contemporary finance, its development and extension to international financial regulation that is promulgated by institutions of the global financial system, would represent a worthwhile endeavour in making global finance more accountable and just in the eyes of many.

  13. Wind Levelized Cost of Energy: A Comparison of Technical and Financing Input Variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cory, K.; Schwabe, P.

    2009-10-01

    The expansion of wind power capacity in the United States has increased the demand for project development capital. In response, innovative approaches to financing wind projects have emerged and are proliferating in the U.S. renewable energy marketplace. Wind power developers and financiers have become more efficient and creative in structuring their financial relationships, and often tailor them to different investor types and objectives. As a result, two similar projects may use very different cash flows and financing arrangements, which can significantly vary the economic competitiveness of wind projects. This report assesses the relative impact of numerous financing, technical, and operating variables on the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) associated with a wind project under various financing structures in the U.S. marketplace. Under this analysis, the impacts of several financial and technical variables on the cost of wind electricity generation are first examined individually to better understand the relative importance of each. Then, analysts examine a low-cost and a high-cost financing scenario, where multiple variables are modified simultaneously. Lastly, the analysis also considers the impact of a suite of financial variables versus a suite of technical variables.

  14. Health-financing reforms in southeast Asia: challenges in achieving universal coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangcharoensathien, Viroj; Patcharanarumol, Walaiporn; Ir, Por; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed; Mukti, Ali Ghufron; Akkhavong, Kongsap; Banzon, Eduardo; Huong, Dang Boi; Thabrany, Hasbullah; Mills, Anne

    2011-03-01

    In this sixth paper of the Series, we review health-financing reforms in seven countries in southeast Asia that have sought to reduce dependence on out-of-pocket payments, increase pooled health finance, and expand service use as steps towards universal coverage. Laos and Cambodia, both resource-poor countries, have mostly relied on donor-supported health equity funds to reach the poor, and reliable funding and appropriate identification of the eligible poor are two major challenges for nationwide expansion. For Thailand, the Philippines, Indonesia, and Vietnam, social health insurance financed by payroll tax is commonly used for formal sector employees (excluding Malaysia), with varying outcomes in terms of financial protection. Alternative payment methods have different implications for provider behaviour and financial protection. Two alternative approaches for financial protection of the non-poor outside the formal sector have emerged-contributory arrangements and tax-financed schemes-with different abilities to achieve high population coverage rapidly. Fiscal space and mobilisation of payroll contributions are both important in accelerating financial protection. Expanding coverage of good-quality services and ensuring adequate human resources are also important to achieve universal coverage. As health-financing reform is complex, institutional capacity to generate evidence and inform policy is essential and should be strengthened. PMID:21269682

  15. A model of the demand for Islamic banks debt-based financing instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusoh, Mansor; Khalid, Norlin

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents a theoretical analysis of the demand for debt-based financing instruments of the Islamic banks. Debt-based financing, such as through baibithamanajil and al-murabahah, is by far the most prominent of the Islamic bank financing and yet it has been largely ignored in Islamic economics literature. Most studies instead have been focusing on equity-based financing of al-mudharabah and al-musyarakah. Islamic bank offers debt-based financing through various instruments derived under the principle of exchange (ukud al-mu'awadhat) or more specifically, the contract of deferred sale. Under such arrangement, Islamic debt is created when goods are purchased and the payments are deferred. Thus, unlike debt of the conventional bank which is a form of financial loan contract to facilitate demand for liquid assets, this Islamic debt is created in response to the demand to purchase goods by deferred payment. In this paper we set an analytical framework that is based on an infinitely lived representative agent model (ILRA model) to analyze the demand for goods to be purchased by deferred payment. The resulting demand will then be used to derive the demand for Islamic debt. We also investigate theoretically, factors that may have an impact on the demand for Islamic debt.

  16. Capital financing demands new, innovative practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruton, P; Waterman, J

    1985-04-01

    Hospitals are facing challenges in the financing of capital expenditures. Credit ratings have shifted to a lower rating category. Interest rates for long-term debt have risen, and the use of short-term variable rate debt has increased. Also, the elimination of tax-exempt financing is being considered. Clearly, capital financing is in a state of flux. With a need for low cost capital, hospital financing is in a state of flux. With a need for low cost capital, hospital financial managers should study the changing credit market and consider innovative practices in healthcare financing. PMID:10270192

  17. Impact of pacing modality and biventricular pacing on cardiac output and coronary conduit flow in the post-cardiotomy patient.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Healy, David G

    2012-02-03

    We have previously demonstrated the role of univentricular pacing modalities in influencing coronary conduit flow in the immediate post-operative period in the cardiac surgery patient. We wanted to determine the mechanism of this improved coronary conduit and, in addition, to explore the possible benefits with biventricular pacing. Sixteen patients undergoing first time elective coronary artery bypass grafting who required pacing following surgery were recruited. Comparison of cardiac output and coronary conduit flow was performed between VVI and DDD pacing with a single right ventricular lead and biventricular pacing lead placement. Cardiac output was measured using arterial pulse waveform analysis while conduit flow was measured using ultrasonic transit time methodology. Cardiac output was greatest with DDD pacing using right ventricular lead placement only [DDD-univentricular 5.42 l (0.7), DDD-biventricular 5.33 l (0.8), VVI-univentricular 4.71 l (0.8), VVI-biventricular 4.68 l (0.6)]. DDD-univentricular pacing was significantly better than VVI-univentricular (P=0.023) and VVI-biventricular pacing (P=0.001) but there was no significant advantage to DDD-biventricular pacing (P=0.45). In relation to coronary conduit flow, DDD pacing again had the highest flow [DDD-univentricular 55 ml\\/min (24), DDD-biventricular 52 ml\\/min (25), VVI-univentricular 47 ml\\/min (23), VVI-biventricular 50 ml\\/min (26)]. DDD-univentricular pacing was significantly better than VVI-univentricular (P=0.006) pacing but not significantly different to VVI-biventricular pacing (P=0.109) or DDD-biventricular pacing (P=0.171). Pacing with a DDD modality offers the optimal coronary conduit flow by maximising cardiac output. Biventricular lead placement offered no significant benefit to coronary conduit flow or cardiac output.

  18. Laboratory analog and numerical study of groundwater flow and solute transport in a karst aquifer with conduit and matrix domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Jonathan; Hu, Bill X; Kish, Stephen; Hua, Fei

    2009-11-01

    New mathematical and laboratory methods have been developed for simulating groundwater flow and solute transport in karst aquifers having conduits imbedded in a porous medium, such as limestone. The Stokes equations are used to model the flow in the conduits and the Darcy equation is used for the flow in the matrix. The Beavers-Joseph interface boundary conditions are adopted to describe the flow exchange at the interface boundary between the two domains. A laboratory analog is used to simulate the conduit and matrix domains of a karst aquifer. The conduit domain is located at the bottom of the transparent plexiglas laboratory analog and glass beads occupy the remaining space to represent the matrix domain. Water flows into and out of the two domains separately and each has its own supply and outflow reservoirs. Water and solute are exchanged through an interface between the two domains. Pressure transducers located within the matrix and conduit domains of the analog provide data that is processed and stored in digital format. Dye tracing experiments are recorded using time-lapse imaging. The data and images produced are analyzed by a spatial analysis program. The experiments provide not only hydraulic head distribution but also capture solute front images and mass exchange measurements between the conduit and matrix domains. In the experiment, we measure and record pressures, and quantify flow rates and solute transport. The results present a plausible argument that laboratory analogs can characterize groundwater water flow, solute transport, and mass exchange between the conduit and matrix domains in a karst aquifer. The analog validates the predictions of a numerical model and demonstrates the need of laboratory analogs to provide verification of proposed theories and the calibration of mathematical models. PMID:19767123

  19. Effectiveness of community health financing in meeting the cost of illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preker Alexander S.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available How to finance and provide health care for the more than 1.3 billion rural poor and informal sector workers in low- and middle-income countries is one of the greatest challenges facing the international development community. This article presents the main findings from an extensive survey of the literature of community financing arrangements, and selected experiences from the Asia and Africa regions. Most community financing schemes have evolved in the context of severe economic constraints, political instability, and lack of good governance. Micro-level household data analysis indicates that community financing improves access by rural and informal sector workers to needed heath care and provides them with some financial protection against the cost of illness. Macro-level cross-country analysis gives empirical support to the hypothesis that risk-sharing in health financing matters in terms of its impact on both the level and distribution of health, financial fairness and responsiveness indicators. The background research done for this article points to five key policies available to governments to improve the effectiveness and sustainability of existing community financing schemes. This includes: (a increased and well-targeted subsidies to pay for the premiums of low-income populations; (b insurance to protect against expenditure fluctuations and re-insurance to enlarge the effective size of small risk pools; (c effective prevention and case management techniques to limit expenditure fluctuations; (d technical support to strengthen the management capacity of local schemes; and (e establishment and strengthening of links with the formal financing and provider networks.

  20. Application of finance project for leverage of small size hydroelectric enterprising; Aplicacao do project finance para alavancagem de empreendimentos hidreletricos de pequeno porte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Silvana dos

    2003-07-01

    In the same way that the majority of the countries, project financing of substructure in Brazil, in project finance modality, depend on a skillful structure of guaranties and contracts to become possible. In the case of projects of centrals of generation of electrical energy, that financial engineering becomes still more complicated. In Brazil, due to particularities of the sectors of electricity, the arrangements of guaranties requested but creditors pass to present levels of complexity and exigency well elevated. The contractual appliances that give support to the project finance, originally projected to developed countries, request an extreme adaptation to these particularities. The development of Brazil is directly related to its capacity in expanding the offer of electric energy in the just measure of the national necessity. In this context, the small central hydroelectric (PCH's) represent, actually, an efficient and fast form to complete the offer of energy in such a way to supply the crescent demand the national market. For its characteristics, that type of undertaking can be developed by small manager, from among which are the owners of the areas in which on can find these hydraulic potentials which, however they do not dispose of capital to integral raising. These undertakings are tasks, normally, of low global cost, at the rate of US$ 1.000,00/k W, and of a smaller ambient impact, compared to the return that they give to the enterprise and to the Brazilian electric system as a whole, by having to receive special attention in the planned politics to the sector and to merit a series of incentives to become business still more attractive. By thinking in the found difficulty by small enterprises in rising undertakings of generation of electric energy of small port through the convectional mechanisms of financing is being proposed in that work a well-founded methodology in the concepts of the modality of financing project finance. (author)

  1. How children arrange social communities across contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    HØjholt, Charlotte

    The purpose of the CHACDOC section is among other things to create a forum for uniting developmental psychology and childhood research. This raises the question: How can studies of children anchored in historical time and settings contribute to discussions of what development is about? In this paper it will be argued that we may discuss the question in a concrete way related to particular societal practices as well as children’s personal engagements, perspectives and ways of taking part in activities of their everyday life. The empirical background for the paper is different research projects observing and interviewing children in their different developmental settings as their family, kindergartens, schools, institutions for children’s leisure time and special help arrangements. In the observations the children seem deeply occupied with the common aspects of organising a child life across different life contexts, contradictory demands and social conflicts. One point in the paper will be to illustrate that they are doing this together. Children’s developmental contexts are societal and historical structured and in the same time the children themselves are involved in organising, negotiating and contributing to different activities of their life. Following children in their everyday life across contexts has highlighted a theme about how children ‘arrange’ their social communities and their personal participation in varying and shifting activities. In this way the paper will emphasize the active efforts of the children themselves in relation to the question of development. The everyday life of children in Nordic countries constitute a situation were children live a great part of their life together with children of the same age and across societal institutions were professionals have different kinds of responsibility, tasks and perspectives on the children and their development. The children cooperate with each other and they also have conflicts about belonging in their different communities and influencing their common activities. They are in one and the same time assembled in institution communities (as for instance a school class) and continuously differentiated into different kinds of categories (as for instance the good pupils, the ones who receive special help, the ones who do not know how to behave etc). In relation to general concepts about the development of children we confront the challenge to analyse how children deal with these conditions of their life – to analyse ‘the practice of the children’. And in relation to that we are in need of knowledge about how schools and institutions are experienced from the positions of children. In this way questions of the children’s perspectives seems closely connected to analysis of the social practices where children are taking part.

  2. Comment faire parler les images aux rayons X du conduit vocal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laprie Yves

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Cet article présente la méthodologie de construction, de dépouillement et d’exploitation d’une base de données cinéradiographiques. L’élaboration du contenu du corpus est un aspect essentiel puisqu’il doit prendre en compte les contraintes inhérentes à la technologie d’acquisition et l’objectif phonétique. Dans le cas de la cinéradiographie on privilégie des phrases courtes formées de mots et non de logatomes. Une base de données cinéradiographique est formée d’un très grand nombre d’images. Le dépouillement consiste à tracer le contour des articulateurs de la parole et ce travail doit être automatisé afin de pouvoir traiter un volume de données suffisant pour assurer une exploitation ultérieure pertinente. Des algorithmes de suivi semi-automatique ou automatique, ainsi qu’une interface très conviviale ont donc été développés pour atteindre cet objectif. Dans ce travail l’exploitation des corpus a consisté à développer et valider des modèles articulatoires en étudiant deux aspects : (1 l’utilisation d’un modèle construit sur un locuteur pour approcher la forme du conduit vocal d’un autre locuteur, (2 l’approximation précise du conduit vocal au voisinage de la constriction parce qu’elle a un impact important sur l’acoustique de la parole. Ces modèles, et plus généralement une représentation géométrique du conduit vocal, peuvent être utilisés en synthèse articulatoire afin d’étudier le lien entre les domaines articulatoire et acoustique. Nous montrons en particulier qu’il est possible de resynthétiser de la parole de bonne qualité à partir des contours extraits des films.

  3. Optimization of JK2LB chemical composition for ITER Central Solenoid conduit material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Kazuya; Nakajima, Hideo; Kawano, Katsumi; Takano, Katsutoshi; Tsutsumi, Fumiaki; Okuno, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Tomio; Fujitsuna, Nobuyuki

    2007-03-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has developed a cryogenic structural steel to be used in large superconducting magnets for a fusion machine, and the results of this development will be utilized in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Low carbon and low boron JK2 (JK2LB), which has high strength and fracture toughness at 4 K and thermal contraction from room temperature to 4 K which is lower than that of conventional 316LN steel has been developed as the conduit material for the ITER Central Solenoid (CS) conductor. In order to achieve the ITER requirements (0.2% yield strength ? 1000 MPa, fracture toughness KIC (J) ? 130 MPa ?{m}) for CS conduit material, chemical components such as carbon, nitrogen and boron, were optimized. In addition, since the CS is to undergo 6 × 10 4 load cycles during its lifetime with a maximum principal stress of 490 MPa, fatigue crack growth assessment of the CS conduit was performed. As the result, JK2LB containing nitrogen of 0.2%, boron 15-40 ppm, and low carbon was found to achieve the strength and fracture toughness requirements. For the welding of JK2LB, a filler wire of JK2LB with a low nitrogen content of 0.13% was developed and fracture toughness of more than 130 MPa ?{m} was confirmed in the weld metal. Measured fatigue crack growth rates of the base and weld metal at 4 K are low enough to achieve the required CS coil operation cycle lifetime.

  4. Financing of nuclear projects. Lessons from a recent experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advantages of mandating BNP Paribas as a lead bank and arranger for NPP Belene are presented. BNPP has an excellent record and credentials in Nuclear Power Plant Projects internationally and in the local energy sector and very recent experience as a lead bank for the fifth nuclear power plant in Finland. BNPP has a proven track record as Provider of rapid and efficient ECA financing in terms of: managing in parallel the number of ECA contractual relations, so as to provide 'matching opportunities' between the ECAs and leverage to improve their terms and conditions, and to harmonize them in one set of unified legal documentation. There is no cost to the Government of Bulgaria until the signing of the Facility Documentation

  5. Government experience in nuclear power plant export financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because the long-term funds at the disposal of the commercial banks were insufficient to make available the amounts required for the exportation of nuclear power plants, it was necessary to make available long-term funds of the mortgage banks. On account of the strict regulations governing the lending operations of such banks, it was, however, necessary to introduce a Federal guarantee which covers 100% of the contract value in each case. On balance, however, the Federal Government does not take over any additional risks, because recourse may be taken to the commercial banks, which are liable for all additional payments under the credit arrangement having arisen from the improvement of the guarantee in favour of the mortgage banks. This has resulted in a considerable improvement of the export financing system which, of course, is for benefit of other major export projects too. (HP)

  6. Pressure drop measurements of prototype NET and CEA cable-in-conduit conductors (CICCs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pressure drop of two prototype cable-in-conduit conductors (CICCs) were measured. The NET conductor is a conventional type CICC, while the CEA conductor has a central flow channel to reduce hydraulic impedance. The pressure drop measurements were conducted with helium at temperatures ranging from 2K to 4.7K, and pressure from the saturated vapor pressure to in excess of 3 bar. Computer image analysis was used to estimate the flow cross sectional area and wetted perimeter of the conductors. The data are expressed in terms of a classical friction factor, and compared with precious experimental results

  7. Systems and methods for coating conduit interior surfaces utilizing a thermal spray gun with extension arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Karen A.; Zatorski, Raymond A.

    2005-07-12

    Systems and methods for applying a coating to an interior surface of a conduit. In one embodiment, a spray gun configured to apply a coating is attached to an extension arm which may be inserted into the bore of a pipe. The spray gun may be a thermal spray gun adapted to apply a powder coating. An evacuation system may be used to provide a volume area of reduced air pressure for drawing overspray out of the pipe interior during coating. The extension arm as well as the spray gun may be cooled to maintain a consistent temperature in the system, allowing for more consistent coating.

  8. Methods for coating conduit interior surfaces utilizing a thermal spray gun with extension arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Karen A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Zatorski, Raymond A. (East Hampton, CT)

    2007-10-02

    Systems and methods for applying a coating to an interior surface of a conduit. In one embodiment, a spray gun configured to apply a coating is attached to an extension arm which may be inserted into the bore of a pipe. The spray gun may be a thermal spray gun adapted to apply a powder coating. An evacuation system may be used to provide a volume area of reduced air pressure for drawing overspray out of the pipe interior during coating. The extension arm as well as the spray gun may be cooled to maintain a consistent temperature in the system, allowing for more consistent coating.

  9. The International Finance Corporation and financing of sustainable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The International Finance Corporation (IFC), a member of the World Bank Group, is the largest multilateral source of loan and equity financing for private sector projects in the developing world. IFC participates in an investment only when it can make a special contribution that complements the role of market operators. Since its founding 40 years ago, IFC has provided more than $18.8 billion in financing for 1,706 companies in developing countries. Its share capital is provided by its 170 member countries, which collectively determine its policies and activities. Strong shareholder support and a substantial paid-in capital base have allowed IFC to raise funds for its lending activities through its triple-A rated bond issues in international financial markets. IFC created an Infrastructure Department in 1992 in response to the growing demand for its services in this area. During fiscal 1996 IFC approved 33 projects for new investments of $715 million of which 27% were in the power sector. In recognition of the continuing demand growth for private power investments an expanded Power Department has been formed to handle IFC`s investments in electric power generation projects using renewable resources such as: run-of-the-river hydro, geothermal, biomass cogeneration, wind energy, and solar (photovoltaic, solar thermal, etc.), as well as conventional thermal generation projects, transmission and distribution projects, and energy efficiency investments.

  10. US wind finance : is there a special case for finance?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pospisil, R.

    2006-03-15

    The issues exercising the US wind finance sector were discussed at two recent high-level financing and investment events in New York. The financial community still tends to be cautious about wind projects; more sophisticated forecasting of wind availability is reducing the complications posed by wind's variability but as much wind data as possible is vital. Projects involve large areas of land with multiple owners, long distances of buried cable and often difficult terrain. Some commentators believe that, as oil and gas prices rise, utilities will start to choose wind for its inherent benefits rather than to meet state Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) and to take advantage of generous national tax credits. However, few utilities are currently prepared to sign contracts lasting more than a year or two. Transmission and connection to the national grid remain problem areas, as are the threat posed by imbalance penalties imposed by some utilities when a project's output deviates from that scheduled. Utilities are also imposing tougher performance standards on wind projects. The periodic expiry and need for renewal by Congress of the Production Tax Credit (PTC) is seen as the biggest 'wild card' in US wind financing, as its volatility unsettles many bankers. Some wind developers would prefer a national RPS rather than the PTC to provide greater stability.

  11. Issues to improve the prospects of financing nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A changing global environment with increasing energy consumption and a need for international energy security is influencing nuclear power projects and the means of obtaining financial backing for such projects. The development of a national nuclear infrastructure can provide significant benefits that influence financial resources. The effects of other factors - such as financing arrangements for capital intensive plants, international design acceptance, harmonization of codes and standards, and assurances of fuel cycle services - need to be considered. An improvement in international cooperation may lower investment risks and contribute to reducing costs. The effects of all these issues need to be assessed and means for supporting the application of nuclear power in the current changing social and commercial environment need to be developed. A key question addressed in this publication is whether financing is the real barrier to nuclear power development or if financing difficulties are simply a consequence of other barriers. It recognizes that there is no single solution and that circumstances in different countries, with different starting points, ambitions and drivers, inevitably affect the balance of approaches followed. The importance of credible, practical, costed and substantiated plans is emphasized. Risks have to be mitigated through an effective strategy and the allocation of risks between parties must be logical. A project has to be demonstrably viable to project has to be demonstrably viable to attract financing. There are three broad areas which must be addressed to improve prospects of investment in nuclear power reactor construction. The first area, and probably the most important, is government and utility commitment and preparedness to adopt and implement a nuclear power programme using internationally recognized standards of safety. The second area is the application of lessons learned from technological and project developments. The third area is financing itself. The conclusions detailed in this publication are presented as a series of key mechanisms for improvement in each of these areas. Improving prospects for investment in the nuclear industry is, in large part, achieved by a combination of financial and strategic planning measures, which together create sufficient confidence among investors to support projects. Also, there are a number of wider actions that can be undertaken to improve the prospects for investment in nuclear power. These mechanisms and actions are presented for future consideration of how they may be best developed or adopted

  12. Bands and chromosome arrangement in interphase nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chromosomes from the vole mouse Akodon dolores and from laboratory mouse showed the presence of G-bands after 3 minutes digestion with trypsin and Giemsa stain. Simultaneously, 30- to 40% of the interphase nuclei exhibited a dark ring parallel to the nuclear contour and a radial array of the chromatin in the internal and external regions of the ring. The origin and meaning of this ring image was analyzed by combining progressive trypsinizations with other methods such as C-banding procedures, autoradiography with 3HTdR, staining with quinacrine mustard and 33258 Hoechst fluorochromes. Moreover, the presence of the dark ring was also investigated in cells treated with actinomycin and in control cells not subjected to any treatment. The results obtained allowed to assume that in interphase nuclei the chromosomes have chromatin bridges which connect the dark G-bands and that these bridges are probably involved in maintaining an ordered architecture of the nucleus with fixed chromosome positions in regard to the nuclear envelope and in regard to other chromosomes. Trypsinization produces a disruption of the interphase chromatin arrangement and the subsequent appearance of a dark ring formed by the combination of constitutive heterochromatin and dark G-bands. (auth.)

  13. Flexible working time arrangements in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena ZAMFIR

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is the analysis of women-related issues focusing on labour market policies and work flexibility in Romania. The active internal dynamics regarding gender issues are strongly influenced by the national and international political processes, especially those incorporating the necessary changes of European and international labour regulations. Anti-discriminatory strategies need to be promoted at every level of society. Sources of information are: literature in the field, official EU Commission documents, and reports of Romanian public institutions: National Institute of Statistics, Research Institute of the Quality of Life ( ICCV, as well as, research and reports of international organisations in Romania .Also analysed is information about the regulatory framework of labour flexibility at the national level, collective agreements, company level; working time organisation and its impact on private and family life, innovative working time arrangements. In Romania, especially in the last two years, there is an evident social stress generated by lower income, the increasing rate of unemployment and a lack of job security; and the risk involved in the new economic system yielding an increased level of corruption. Finally, an analysis of the current Romanian society shows the need to introduce efficient social policy for the labour market for supporting women in their work and private life.

  14. Contractual arrangements for uranium exploration and mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium exploration in WOCA, stabilized since 1985 at a level of annual expenditures of US $120-150 million. About half of this amount is funded by mining companies based in the uranium consumer countries such as the Federal Republic of Germany, France, the Republic of Korea, Japan, United Kingdom etc. and expended outside their home countries, mainly in Australia, Canada and USA, but also in a number of African countries. As WOCA's uranium production is concentrated in a few countries, in 1986, Australia, Canada, South Africa and USA had a combined share of nearly 70% of the total, a stronger diversification of uranium supplies may be desirable in the future. This expected trend may result in the planning or uranium exploration projects by international uranium companies in countries in Africa, Asia and South America. To provide information which can be helpful for both parties in the negotiations of cooperation agreement is the scope of this document. It contains a brief introductory part including an overview of the development of the different forms of international cooperation, a case history provided by Zambia, a report listing the essential subjects to be included in an uranium agreement as well as an example of a structure of contractual arrangements. This part is followed by an extensive annex with three ''no-names-no numbers'' contract texts, which were concluded in the later part of the 1970s and beginning of the 1980s

  15. Electricity generation sectors under purchase obligation: support arrangement analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report aims at assessing the operation of the support arrangement by which currently benefit some electricity production sectors in France (renewable energies, co-generation) with respect to the evolution of the energy mix within the frame of energy transition. Other support arrangements presently adopted in Europe are also addressed as lessons to be learned. Criteria are established for any support arrangement. The report presents the French and European context regarding such support arrangement with purchasing obligation, and addresses the future evolutions of the European Commission. It highlights challenges for the electric system and for the energy market (impact on investments, optimization of market operation), describes and assesses the French purchasing obligation arrangement, and describes and assesses other existing support arrangements

  16. Concepts for institutional arrangements for the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper focuses on the role of institutional arrangements in developing a consensus in international nuclear cooperation. Institutional arrangements are defined as undertakings and activities by governments or private entities to facilitate the efficient and secure functioning of the nuclear fuel cycle. The first two sections of the paper explore the historical role of cooperative arrangements, suggest criteria for evaluating the usefulness of institutional arrangements, and review the status of the discussion of institutional arrangements in INFCE Working Groups as of December 1978. The final section of the paper, explores potential relationships between various institutional arrangements and suggests that certain areas such as, the standardization of nuclear practices, joint commercial and development undertakings, nuclear supply assurances, and the settlement of disputes may have broad application for several stages of the fuel cycle and merit further study

  17. Use of a newly developed artificial nerve conduit to assist peripheral nerve regeneration across a long gap in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, K; Ohnishi, K; Sekine, T; Ueda, H; Yamamoto, Y; Kiyotani, T; Nakamura, T; Endo, K; Shimizu, Y

    2000-01-01

    There is now considerable evidence that peripheral nerves have the potential to regenerate if an appropriate microenvironment is provided. However, there are only a few reports of the successful use of artificial nerve conduits to repair major nerve defects more than 30 mm in length. In this study, we examined nerve regeneration across a long gap in the dog peroneal nerve using a novel artificial nerve conduit developed by our group. The conduit consists of a polyglycolic acid (PGA) collagen tube filled with laminin coated collagen fibers. In 12 dogs, the nerve conduit was implanted across an 80 mm gap in the left peroneal nerve. Three months after surgery, compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) and somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) were detected. Evaluation of locomotor function revealed obvious limping for up to 3 months, but no marked difficulty in walking by 6 months. Microscopic observation of the regenerated nerve segment at 12 months showed numerous myelinated nerve fibers, which were smaller in diameter and enclosed in a thinner myelin sheath than normal axons. These results suggest that our artificial nerve conduit has potential usefulness in enhancing peripheral nerve regeneration, even across large gaps. PMID:10926137

  18. The use of the ex vivo Chandler Loop Apparatus to assess the biocompatibility of modified polymeric blood conduits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slee, Joshua B; Alferiev, Ivan S; Levy, Robert J; Stachelek, Stanley J

    2014-01-01

    The foreign body reaction occurs when a synthetic surface is introduced to the body. It is characterized by adsorption of blood proteins and the subsequent attachment and activation of platelets, monocyte/macrophage adhesion, and inflammatory cell signaling events, leading to post-procedural complications. The Chandler Loop Apparatus is an experimental system that allows researchers to study the molecular and cellular interactions that occur when large volumes of blood are perfused over polymeric conduits. To that end, this apparatus has been used as an ex vivo model allowing the assessment of the anti-inflammatory properties of various polymer surface modifications. Our laboratory has shown that blood conduits, covalently modified via photoactivation chemistry with recombinant CD47, can confer biocompatibility to polymeric surfaces. Appending CD47 to polymeric surfaces could be an effective means to promote the efficacy of polymeric blood conduits. Herein is the methodology detailing the photoactivation chemistry used to append recombinant CD47 to clinically relevant polymeric blood conduits and the use of the Chandler Loop as an ex vivo experimental model to examine blood interactions with the CD47 modified and control conduits. PMID:25178087

  19. Baffle-former arrangement for nuclear reactor vessel internals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A baffle-former arrangement for the reactor vessel internals of a nuclear reactor is described. The arrangement includes positioning of formers at the same elevations as the fuel assembly grids, and positioning flow holes in the baffle plates directly beneath selected former grid elevations. The arrangement reduces detrimental cross flows, maintains proper core barrel and baffle temperatures, and alleviates the potential of overpressurization within the baffle-former assembly under assumed major accident conditions

  20. Baffle-former arrangement for nuclear reactor vessel internals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A baffle-former arrangement for the reactor vessel internals of a nuclear reactor. The arrangement includes positioning of formers at the same elevations as the fuel assembly grids, and positioning flow holes in the baffle plates directly beneath selected former/ grid elevations. The arrangement reduces detrimental cross flows, maintains proper core barrel and baffle temperatures, and alleviates the potential of overpressurization within the baffle-former assembly under assumed major accident conditions. (auth)