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1

76 FR 76895 - Conduit Financing Arrangements  

Science.gov (United States)

...CFR Part 1 [TD 9562] RIN 1545-BH77 Conduit Financing Arrangements AGENCY: Internal...contains final regulations relating to conduit financing arrangements. The final regulations...arrangements should be recharacterized as a conduit financing arrangement. DATES:...

2011-12-09

2

77 FR 22480 - Conduit Financing Arrangements; Correction  

Science.gov (United States)

...CFR Part 1 [TD 9562] RIN 1545-BH77 Conduit Financing Arrangements; Correction AGENCY...76 FR 76895) providing guidance on conduit financing arrangements. The final regulations...arrangements should be recharacterized as a conduit financing arrangement. DATES: This...

2012-04-16

3

26 CFR 1.881-3 - Conduit financing arrangements.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Conduit financing arrangements. 1.881-3...Foreign Corporations § 1.881-3 Conduit financing arrangements. (a) General...arrangement where such entities are acting as conduit entities. For purposes of this...

2009-04-01

4

Seal arrangement for intersecting conduits  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A seal arrangement in which two intersecting conduits are sealed from each other. A sleeve insert is locked in a sealed relationship within one conduit enclosing the openings of the intersecting conduit.

Goedicke, Friedrich E. (Trafford, PA)

1980-01-01

5

26 CFR 1.881-3 - Conduit financing arrangements.  

Science.gov (United States)

...businesses and are located in country T, country N, and the United States. FS maintains a centralized cash management accounting system for FP and its subsidiaries in which it records all intercompany payables and receivables;...

2009-04-01

6

Financing arrangements for nuclear power projects in developing countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This reference book reviews the main features and problems or difficulties involved in the financing of nuclear power projects with special reference to developing countries. It provides basic information and advice to developing countries interested in nuclear power projects as part of their power sector planning. The book outlines the general characteristics of financing a nuclear power project and presents innovative approaches for power generation financing. It discusses the special conditions and requirements of nuclear power projects and their financing complexities. The focus is on the practical issues that need to be dealt with in order to successfully finance these power projects, as well as the constraints faced by most developing countries. Possible ways and means of dealing with these constraints are presented. 58 refs, figs and tabs

1993-01-01

7

Lease finance and tax arrangements for renewable energy projects  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Financing of renewable energy systems is a key factor in their successful transfer to the commercial sector. This report, from the Energy Technology Support Unit, gathers information on all aspects of lease finance and the effects of current taxation legislation on renewable energy (RE) projects. An overview of the United Kingdom leasing market is given, identifying various lease type and comparing them to other sources of finance. Lending institutions` attitudes to RE projects are also surveyed. The document also covers the advantages and disadvantages of lease finance for RE projects and lists recommendations to promote short and long term leasing. United Kingdom corporation tax rules affecting RE project developers and rules on taxation of project investors are outlined along with Value Added Tax provisions, and details of Uniform Business Rates on RE projects. (UK)

NONE

1995-12-31

8

Financing arrangements for nuclear power projects - past and present experience and future expectations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The intent of the author of the present paper is to demonstrate, in a practical manner, the role of the past experience and the new approaches of the nuclear projects financing, especially as nuclear generation financing in developing countries involves complex issues that need to be fully understood and dealt with by all the parties involved, namely: high investment costs, generally long construction periods, a high degree of uncertainty with respect to costs and schedule and to public acceptance, particularly because of safety, waste disposal and non-proliferation issues. Moreover, as many associations whose activities consist of ensuring and facilitating at different levels the exchange of knowledge between generations, i.e.: European Nuclear Society (ENS) Young Generation, North American Young Generation in Nuclear (NA-YGN), the goal of the paper is also to outline the importance of the education in nuclear field, i.e. training a young team of specialists to be ready to take over the movement and responsibility in continuing the further development of nuclear program in Romania, mainly with view to the Financing Arrangements for Nuclear Power Projects. The first part of the paper is referring to general financing procedures, while the second part is focusing on a case study related to the: past experience the financing scheme of Cernavoda NPP Unit 1, present or actual experience ongoing financing issues for Cernavoda NPP Unit 2 and potential future shared contribution to the financing of the next Cernavoda NPP units.(author)

2004-05-16

9

Finance.  

Science.gov (United States)

In 1988, there were two United States Supreme Court decisions regarding school finance. One decision upheld the constitutionality of a North Dakota statute regarding transportation fees, and the other decision ruled that interest from state and local government bearer bonds was subject to federal income taxation. Cases discussed in this chapter…

MacPhail-Wilcox, Bettye; Beezer, Bruce

10

Fluid Conduit.  

Science.gov (United States)

A fluid conduit for flowing electrically conductive fluids includes an electrically conductive pipe, an electrically conductive rod extending axially through the pipe and centrally thereof, a first power source in electrical communication with the pipe an...

C. W. Henoch P. J. Hendricks

1999-01-01

11

Flexible cryogenic conduit  

Science.gov (United States)

A flexible and relatively low cost cryogenic conduit is described. The flexible cryogenic conduit of the present invention comprises a first inner corrugated tube with single braided serving, a second outer corrugated tube with single braided serving concentric with the inner corrugated tube, and arranged outwardly about the periphery of the inner corrugated tube and between the inner and outer corrugated tubes: a superinsulation layer; a one half lap layer of polyester ribbon; a one half lap layer of copper ribbon; a spirally wound refrigeration tube; a second one half lap layer of copper ribbon; a second one half lap layer of polyester ribbon; a second superinsulation layer; a third one half lap layer of polyester ribbon; and a spirally wound stretchable and compressible filament.

Brindza, Paul Daniel (Yorktown, VA); Wines, Robin Renee (Norfolk, VA); Takacs, James Joseph (Hayes, VA)

1999-01-01

12

Flexible cryogenic conduit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A flexible and relatively low cost cryogenic conduit is described. The flexible cryogenic conduit of the present invention comprises a first inner corrugated tube with single braided serving, a second outer corrugated tube with single braided serving concentric with the inner corrugated tube, and arranged outwardly about the periphery of the inner corrugated tube and between the inner and outer corrugated tubes: a superinsulation layer; a one half lap layer of polyester ribbon; a one half lap layer of copper ribbon; a spirally wound refrigeration tube; a second one half lap layer of copper ribbon; a second one half lap layer of polyester ribbon; a second superinsulation layer; a third one half lap layer of polyester ribbon; and a spirally wound stretchable and compressible filament

1998-04-16

13

Contractual arrangements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Conceptually there are a number of different contract models from which a country can select the most suitable for its social, political and economic requirements. These include: 1) the traditional concession, 2) production sharing contracts, 3) service contracts, and 4) equity sharing contracts, i.e. joint ventures. The joint venture arrangement, as it is most commonly used in uranium exploration and mining, is discussed in light of national objectives; geological and technical aspects; infrastructural aspects; and economic aspects. Topics covered include: the exploration phases; the exploration license; exploration area; minimum exploration commitment; host country investor relationship; financing of exploration expenditures; minerals other than uranium; feasibility studies; taxation and levies; and termination of the agreement. During the production phase consideration must be given to such aspects as: The operating company; participation ratio; financing of the participation share; export of production; fiscal regime; imports of goods and services; training of local personnel; provision of support by the host country; assignment of rights; duration of contract; disputes and arbitration procedures; decisions making; transfer of technology; safety; environmental protection and compensation; and restoration of sites. These considerations are all discussed, particularly in regard to the joint venture agreement. The paper emphasises the need, in a successful agreement, for openness and understanding between the parties. No agreement can cover every possible subject that can become a source of disagreement. Only by a sympathetic understanding of each others position and needs can a joint project be successful. (author). 11 refs

1991-02-01

14

Solar thermal financing guidebook  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This guidebook contains information on alternative financing methods that could be used to develop solar thermal systems. The financing arrangements discussed include several lease alternatives, joint venture financing, R and D partnerships, industrial revenue bonds, and ordinary sales. In many situations, alternative financing arrangements can significantly enhance the economic attractiveness of solar thermal investments by providing a means to efficiently allocate elements of risk, return on investment, required capital investment, and tax benefits. A net present value approach is an appropriate method that can be used to investigate the economic attractiveness of alternative financing methods. Although other methods are applicable, the net present value approach has advantages of accounting for the time value of money, yielding a single valued solution to the financial analysis, focusing attention on the opportunity cost of capital, and being a commonly understood concept that is relatively simple to apply. A personal computer model for quickly assessing the present value of investments in solar thermal plants with alternative financing methods is presented in this guidebook. General types of financing arrangements that may be desirable for an individual can be chosen based on an assessment of his goals in investing in solar thermal systems and knowledge of the individual's tax situation. Once general financing arrangements have been selected, a screening analysis can quickly determine if the solar investment is worthy of detailed study.

Williams, T.A.; Cole, R.J.; Brown, D.R.; Dirks, J.A.; Edelhertz, H.; Holmlund, I.; Malhotra, S.; Smith, S.A.; Sommers, P.; Willke, T.L.

1983-05-01

15

Automated Conduit Unloading  

Science.gov (United States)

Large, cumbersome pipes removed from trailer by one operator. Swiveltruck trailer carries conduit and unloads it. Vertical bins interconnected by web belts that elevate conduit sections for delivery by gravity to unloading point. Trailer loaded with slurry-pipe sections 6 inches (15.2 centimeters) in diameter, but bin width readily changed to hold other sizes. Simple adjustments in bin-partition and web-belt positions needed to adapt system to different conduit cross sections.

Lewis, E. V.

1986-01-01

16

Leaf Arrangement  

Science.gov (United States)

This illustrated guide to leaf arrangement shows students how leaves attached at a stem node can be in alternate, opposite, or whorled arrangements. This single Web page can be easily printed for use at field sites.

17

Private Placement Debt Financing for Public Entities  

Science.gov (United States)

Private placement financing is a debt or capital lease obligation arranged between a municipality or a 501(c) (3) not-for-profit organization and a single sophisticated institutional investor. The investor can be a bank, insurance company, finance company, hedge fund, or high-net worth individual. Private placement financing is similar to…

Holman, Lance S.

2010-01-01

18

Transverse colon conduit diversion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The versatility and other advantages of the transverse colon conduit for urinary diversion have been described and implemented in 50 patients. Because most patients considered for this procedure will be at high risk because of a history of significant pelvic irradiation, underlying malignancy, poor renal function, fistula, and so forth, the technical details of surgery and patient selection cannot be minimized. The transverse colon segment is indicated for primary supravesical diversion as well as for salvage of problems related to ileal conduits. Adenocarcinoma of the colon is an unlikely long-term complication of this form of diversion because the fecal stream is absent. Now that the transverse colon conduit has been used for more than 10 years, meaningful comparisons with ileal segments should soon be available

1986-01-01

19

Financing energy efficiency projects  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Getting an energy project financed should be a shared effort between the ESCO and the customer, but the perspectives are different. It is the ESCO`s responsibility to put together a bankable project. The ESCO typically arranges the financing. Its reputation and history often add surety, which offers financiers added confidence. The customer usually incurs the debt and needs to know the financing options available. This article first addresses what constitutes a bankable project from the ESCO perspective. Then, the types of financing available to owners are explored. ESCOs, who have been in this business for a few years, remember knocking on the financial doors until their knuckles were bloody. Today, the financiers knock on the ESCO doors...if, and it`s a big IF, ESCOs can put together bankable projects.

Hansen, S.J.; Weisman, J.C. [Hansen Associates (United States)

1999-07-01

20

Conduit purging device and method  

Science.gov (United States)

A device for purging gas comprises a conduit assembly defining an interior volume. The conduit assembly comprises a first conduit portion having an open first end and an open second end and a second conduit portion having an open first end and a closed second end. The open second end of the first conduit portion is disposed proximate to the open first end of the second conduit portion to define a weld region. The device further comprises a supply element supplying a gas to the interior volume at a substantially constant rate and a vent element venting the gas from the interior volume at a rate that maintains the gas in the interior volume within a pressure range suitable to hold a weld bead in the weld region in equilibrium during formation of a weld to join the first conduit portion and the second conduit portion.

Wilks, Michael T. (Inventor)

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Centrifuges, centrifuge plants and flow control arrangements therefor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A gas centrifuge with flow control arrangement and a centrifuge plant are claimed. The centrifuge comprises a rotor mounted in a housing, a feed line, a line for separated product and a tails line for depleted gas. There is a flow control arrangement in one or more of these lines. The centrifuge plant comprises a plurality of separative units arranged in stages of differing enrichment of product. The flow control arrangement comprises a conduit sealable by a flap adapted to block the conduit when abnormal gas flow occurs

1981-07-21

22

Test arrangement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the case the pipe line is devided by a plane division wall into a double line, a test car carries the measuring instruments. It has three wheels facing the division wall and a supporting leg on the other side. The test car carries an ultrasonic testing instrument, an illumination arrangement with TV camera, and a path measuring device. (RW)

1979-01-01

23

Float arrangement  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A float is provided with at least one hoisting drum for a hoisting wire from a hoist means. On the float there is provided at least one suspension drum for a suspension wire to a submersible body, for example in the form of an air gun for seismic prospecting. The hoisting drum and the suspension drum are rotationally coupled to each other and the wires are arranged in such a way on the drums that the suspension wires are reeled in when the hoisting wires are reeled off from the hoisting drums, and vice versa. The primary field of application for such an arrangement is for floats adapted to carry a number of air guns during towing for marine seismic prospecting.

Boe, J.; Haugland, T.-A.; Selvaer, O.-K.; Kleiven, A.

1987-05-05

24

Laser arrangements  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The invention provides a laser arrangement including in its discharge circuit a switching thyratron which is capable of conduction normally in one direction and protectively in the reverse direction. The thyratron has an anode formed as a hollow body which is adapted to retain plasma generated during a pulse of forward conduction so that the anode is provided to act as a cathode permitting protective reversal of the thyratron when this is subject to reversal of voltage.

Menown, H.; Neale, Ch. V.; Newton, B. P.

1985-02-05

25

Managing complications II: conduit failure and conduit airway fistulas  

Science.gov (United States)

Conduit failure and conduit airway fistula are rare complications after esophagectomy, however they can be catastrophic resulting in high mortality. Survivors can expect a prolonged hospital course with multiple interventions and an extended period of time prior to being able to resume oral nutrition. High index of suspicion can aid in early diagnosis. Conduit failure usually requires a period of proximal esophageal diversion and staged reconstruction. Conduit airway fistulas may be amenable to endoscopic repair but this has a high failure rate and many patients will require surgical repair with closure of the fistula and interposition of vascularized tissue to minimize recurrence.

Mehta, Christopher K.

2014-01-01

26

Conduit Coating Abrasion Testing  

Science.gov (United States)

During my summer internship at NASA I have been working alongside the team members of the RESTORE project. Engineers working on the RESTORE project are creating ·a device that can go into space and service satellites that no longer work due to gas shortage or other technical difficulties. In order to complete the task of refueling the satellite a hose needs to be used and covered with a material that can withstand effects of space. The conduit coating abrasion test will help the researchers figure out what type of thermal coating to use on the hose that will be refueling the satellites. The objective of the project is to determine whether or not the conduit coating will withstand the effects of space. For the RESTORE project I will help with various aspects of the testing that needed to be done in order to determine which type of conduit should be used for refueling the satellite. During my time on the project I will be assisting with wiring a relay board that connected to the test set up by soldering, configuring wires and testing for continuity. Prior to the testing I will work on creating the testing site and help write the procedure for the test. The testing will take place over a span of two weeks and lead to an informative conclusion. Working alongside various RESTORE team members I will assist with the project's documentation and records. All in all, throughout my internship at NASA I hope to learn a number of valuable skills and be a part of a hard working team of engineers.

Sullivan, Mary K.

2013-01-01

27

Project financing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Project financing was defined (`where a lender to a specific project has recourse only to the cash flow and assets of that project for repayment and security respectively`) and its attributes were described. Project financing was said to be particularly well suited to power, pipeline, mining, telecommunications, petro-chemicals, road construction, and oil and gas projects, i.e. large infrastructure projects that are difficult to fund on-balance sheet, where the risk profile of a project does not fit the corporation`s risk appetite, or where higher leverage is required. Sources of project financing were identified. The need to analyze and mitigate risks, and being aware that lenders always take a conservative view and gravitate towards the lowest common denominator, were considered the key to success in obtaining project financing funds. TransAlta Corporation`s project financing experiences were used to illustrate the potential of this source of financing.

Cowan, A. [TransAlta Utilities Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada)

1998-06-01

28

Project financing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Project financing was defined ('where a lender to a specific project has recourse only to the cash flow and assets of that project for repayment and security respectively') and its attributes were described. Project financing was said to be particularly well suited to power, pipeline, mining, telecommunications, petro-chemicals, road construction, and oil and gas projects, i.e. large infrastructure projects that are difficult to fund on-balance sheet, where the risk profile of a project does not fit the corporation's risk appetite, or where higher leverage is required. Sources of project financing were identified. The need to analyze and mitigate risks, and being aware that lenders always take a conservative view and gravitate towards the lowest common denominator, were considered the key to success in obtaining project financing funds. TransAlta Corporation's project financing experiences were used to illustrate the potential of this source of financing

1998-03-16

29

Apartment purchase financing analysis since World War II until today  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The diploma work deals with the possibility of financing the apartment purchase since World War II until today. In the history of the financing residential economy we are trying to determine legal basis arranging financing, basic characteristics of financing, loaning and institutions which have a leading role in financing in certain periods of history. Residential politicy in Slovenia went through different periods and it always reflected the influence of economical and political systems duri...

Stanis?a, Maja

2009-01-01

30

47 CFR 32.2441 - Conduit systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conduit systems. 32.2441 Section 32...Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2441 Conduit systems. (a) This account shall include the original cost of conduit, whether underground, in...

2010-10-01

31

Conduit coupling assembly  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A conduit coupling assembly for coupling pipes with an interposed seal has a first part for receiving a pipe and is in splined engagement with a bush fixed to a pipe. A second part having radial fingers so that it can be turned by a manipulator, has a threaded engagement with the first part which is the same hand but different pitch to a threaded engagement between the second part and the bush. Pitches of 8:7 for couplings will give a mechanical advantage of 56:1 thus reducing the force needed to obtain a given axial movement of the bush and thus of the pipe and compression of the seal. (author)

1988-06-29

32

Swiss export risk insurance in project finance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The participation of the Swiss Export Risk Guarantee Agency, Geschaftsstelle fur die Exportrisikogarantie (ERG), in the recently completed financing of the integrated Sengkang gas and power project marked the first time that political and economic risk insurance arranged by ERG had been utilised in a limited recourse project financing. (UK)

Quinn, Brendan; Hartley, John

1997-05-21

33

An Exploratory Study of the Effects of Project Finance on Project Risk Management : How the Distinguishing Attributes of Project Finance affects the Prevailing Risk Factor?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Project finance is a financing arrangement for projects, and it is characterised by the creation of a legally independent project company financed with non- or limited recourse loans. It is observed that the popularity of project finance is increasing in the recent decades, despite of the impact of Asian financial crisis. Especially in emerging markets, project finance is very common among the public-private partnership projects. It is possible that project finance yields some benefits in pro...

Chan, Ka Fai

2011-01-01

34

Financing a nuclear programme  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear power plant construction projects have many characteristics in common with other types of large infrastructure investment, both within the power generation sector and elsewhere. However, nuclear power itself has special features that can make nuclear financing particularly challenging. These features include the high capital cost, the relatively long period required to recoup investments, the often controversial nature of nuclear projects. The need for clear solutions and financing schemes for radioactive waste management and decommissioning and the need for nuclear power plants to operate at high capacity factors, preferably under base load conditions. During the previous major expansion of nuclear power in the 1970 and 1980, many nuclear projects suffered very large construction delays and cost overruns. The legacy of such problems increases the risks perceived by potential investors. A recent study undertaken jointly by the Iea and the Nea showed that the competitiveness of nuclear power strongly depends on the cost of financing due to the high share of fixed capital costs in the total lifetime costs of nuclear power. A key issue in this context is the long-term predictability of carbon pricing arrangements, which, for the time being and despite positive evolutions in this respect, most notably in Europe, does not yet exist. This paper will consider how the risks can be mitigated and examine in detail various models for corporate finance and the role of government assistance in providing a suitable financial basis. (Author)

2010-10-24

35

Financing a nuclear programme  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nuclear power plant construction projects have many characteristics in common with other types of large infrastructure investment, both within the power generation sector and elsewhere. However, nuclear power itself has special features that can make nuclear financing particularly challenging. These features include the high capital cost, the relatively long period required to recoup investments, the often controversial nature of nuclear projects. The need for clear solutions and financing schemes for radioactive waste management and decommissioning and the need for nuclear power plants to operate at high capacity factors, preferably under base load conditions. During the previous major expansion of nuclear power in the 1970 and 1980, many nuclear projects suffered very large construction delays and cost overruns. The legacy of such problems increases the risks perceived by potential investors. A recent study undertaken jointly by the Iea and the Nea showed that the competitiveness of nuclear power strongly depends on the cost of financing due to the high share of fixed capital costs in the total lifetime costs of nuclear power. A key issue in this context is the long-term predictability of carbon pricing arrangements, which, for the time being and despite positive evolutions in this respect, most notably in Europe, does not yet exist. This paper will consider how the risks can be mitigated and examine in detail various models for corporate finance and the role of government assistance in providing a suitable financial basis. (Author)

NONE

2010-10-15

36

CONDUIT: Control Designer's Unified Interface  

Science.gov (United States)

CONDUIT, which stands for control designer's unified interface, is a computer software package. Its purpose is to assist a human control system designer in designing control systems for aircraft. At the present time CONDUIT is being used by most of the major U. S. rotorcraft and fixed-wing aircraft manufacturers to assist in the design of stability and control augmentation systems. Work is also continuing on the development of additional features for CONDUIT, including tools for analyzing the sensitivity of solutions, and on further enhancements to the basic package. The purpose of this paper is to describe CONDUIT, its operation, and the sensitivity tools that are being developed for inclusion in the next release of the package.

Levine, William S.; Tischler, Mark B.

1999-01-01

37

Conduit for Transferring Molten Silicon  

Science.gov (United States)

Proposed three-part conduit transfers pure silicon between crucibles. Four-strip heater augments layers of insulation to prevent molten silicon from cooling and solidifying during transfer. Since melt is maintained at temperature relatively close to fusion point, to minimize quartz erosion, even relatively-minor heat losses precipitate solidification and terminate work in progress. Several crucibles may be fed through conduits from central crucible. Each would be contained in its own compartment under inert atmosphere.

Fiegl, G.; Torbet, W.

1982-01-01

38

Bank finance versus bond finance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We present a dynamic general equilibrium model with agency costs, where heterogeneous firms choose among two alternative instruments of external finance - corporate bonds and bank loans. We characterize the financing choice of firms and the endogenous financial structure of the economy. The calibrated model is used to address questions such as: What explains differences in the financial structure of the US and the euro area? What are the implications of these differences for allocations? We f...

Fiore, Fiorella; Uhlig, Harald

2005-01-01

39

Structuring and financing power projects in Asia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The contractual arrangements for the financing and construction of three 660 MW coal fired power plants in Hong Kong are summarized in the form of headings and a diagram. These cover the joint venture arrangement, construction and equipment supply, the operation and offtake contract, coal supply and the financial structure with respect to commercial risk. (UK)

1993-05-25

40

CDM financing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Governments have tried a number of approaches to encourage investment in energy conservation and efficiency including education and awareness, grants, rebates and tax incentives. However, considerable potential still exists to reduce demand and energy use through large scale retrofits and equipment replacement. This report explored ways that the Ontario Power Authority (OPA) could accelerate the adoption of energy saving solutions across the province through the provision of innovative financing or other measures related directly to the purchase investment decision. The report provided the approach and context for the study including the electric power situation in Ontario and energy conservation market. Alternative financing options were discussed, with reference to self-financing; loans; capital lease; utility financing; and energy service of management company. Next, the report presented a preliminary assessment regarding applicability; cost of capital; source of funds; risk; program delivery; and public cost. The report also provided directions for research, recommendations and conclusions. Going forward and potential roles for the OPA were identified. It was concluded that the OPA could play a decisive role in reducing or eliminating availability and cost of financing as obstacles to investment in CDM. tabs.

Middleton, P.; Murphy, A.; Woods, C. [Conseiller Messier Middleton (Canada)

2006-02-15

 
 
 
 
41

Finance - OECD  

..., Discussions at this event focussed on enhancing transparency in public debt management, the impact of tapering and exit on public debt management, and the role of DMOs in centralised or integrated risk management. Finance - OECD Français Follow us E-mail Alerts Blogs OECD Home About Countries Topics Statistics Newsroom OECD Home › Finance › OECD Global Forum on Public Debt Management Finance Financial markets Monetary and financial issues Insurance Private ... Discussions focussed on: enhanced transparency in public debt management the impact of tapering and exit on public debt management the role of DMOs in centralised or integrated risk management About the Global Forum on Public Debt Management The OECD Global Forum on Public Debt Management is a roundtable meeting where public debt managers from the OECD area (as well regulators, central bankers, other financial policy makers and, ...

42

Finance - OECD  

...about the project (pdf) The Role of Banks, Equity Markets and Institutional Investors in Long-Term Financing for Growth and Development, 2013 (pdf) Promoting longer-term investment by institutional investors: selected issues and policies, 2011 (pdf) Contacts & nbsp Raffaele Della Croce (tel: +33 1 4524 1411 | raffaele.dellacroce@oecd.org) www.oecd.org/finance/lti zwnj;zwnj;zwnj;G20-OECD work on long-term financing Research - Access the data and ... Overview of the projectJuan Yermo and Raffaele Della Croce, OECDInfrastructure Summit, 29 May 2013       Countries list A-C D-I J-M N-R S-T U-Z Afghanistan Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon ...

43

Fantastic financing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Third-party financing, micro-utilities, and leasing are terms that are beginning to be used in the solar industry as approaches to making solar energy more affordable. The micro-utility program and leasing have a common goal: to allow consumers to use renewable energy without buying the equipment. These two concepts are discussed along with their advantages and disadvantages.

Lang, P.

1983-05-01

44

Personal Finance.  

Science.gov (United States)

This newsletter presents four articles designed to help business educators educate learners in grades K-12 about personal finance. "Now More Than Ever: The Need for Financial Literacy" examines the following topics: evidence that the United States is becoming a nation of debtors; the plummeting personal savings rate; the increasing complexity of…

Wagner, June G.

2003-01-01

45

Bentall Operation with Valved Homograft Conduit  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Lesions of the ascending aorta associated with aortic valve disease are usually treated by implanting a prosthetic valved conduit (Bentall procedure). In this report, we present our experience in which a valved homograft conduit was used for the procedure.

Choudhary, Shiv K.; Talwar, Sachin; Kumar, A. Sampath

2000-01-01

46

Household Finance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study of household finance is challenging because household behavior is difficult to measure, and households face constraints not captured by textbook models. Evidence on participation, diversification, and mortgage refinancing suggests that many households invest effectively, but a minority make significant mistakes. This minority appears to be poorer and less well educated than the majority of more successful investors. There is some evidence that households understand their own limitat...

Campbell, John

2006-01-01

47

Public finance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

"Public Finance 9/e" benefits from the combined efforts of Harvey Rosen's market-leading book and co-author Ted Gayer's research and government agency experience. This combination of experience is able to explain as clearly as possible how the tools of economics can be used to analyze government expenditure and tax policies. This new edition incorporates recent developments and along the way takes students to the frontiers of current research and policy. While the information presented is cut...

Rosen, Harvey S.; Gayer, Ted

2012-01-01

48

The corrosion effect on the conduit systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The conduits in the buildings require a regular and permanent control, in order to avoid the risks of deterioration caused by the corrosion or the escape of water. In this work, we present a thermal nondestructive testing method of concrete structures containing water conduits, based on numerical modeling in three dimensions. The goal is to study the detectability of these conduits in different situations and to give a thermal characterization of the rust behaviour in the steel conduits. (author)

2009-07-20

49

Limitations of Conduits in Peripheral Nerve Repairs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nerve conduits have emerged as alternatives to autologous nerve grafts, but their use in large-diameter nerve deficits remains untested. We report four patients who underwent repair of large-diameter nerves using absorbable nerve conduits and discuss the failed clinical outcomes. The reported cases demonstrate the importance of evaluating the length, diameter, and function of nerves undergoing conduit repair. In large-diameter nerves, the use of conduits should be carefully considered.

Moore, Amy M.; Kasukurthi, Rahul; Magill, Christina K.; Farhadi, H. Francis; Borschel, Gregory H.; Mackinnon, Susan E.

2009-01-01

50

The Japanese approach to financing LNG projects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Japanese approach approach to financing LNG project has been what could be called a combined purchase and finance system which has been arranged mainly at the initiative of japan's Sogo Shosh (general trading companies) with the support of japanese governmental financial agencies and a purchase commitment from japanese utilities. In the QATARGAS project, despite it being the first greenfield LNG project in decade since North West Shelf Australia LNG project, financing for the LNG plant phase has been successfully arranged through Japanese financing. The structuring of the financial facilities for the QATARGAS project seems to have lessons for future development of the next generation of greenfield LNG projects. Discharge of the parties' liability, proper sharing of the risk burden and reconfirmation of the spirit of mutual understanding and trust among the parties concerned are key factors for the success of any new LNG project in the future. (Author)

1995-03-13

51

Ductile compaction in volcanic conduits  

Science.gov (United States)

Silicic magmas typically outgas through connected pore and crack networks with a high gas permeability without the need for decoupled movement of pores in the melt. It is the efficiency with which this process can occur which governs the pressure in the pore network. However, such a connected coupled network is generally mechanically unstable and will relax until volume equilibrium when the pores become smaller and isolated. Consequently, gas permeability can be reduced during densification. Cycles of outgassing events recorded in gas monitoring data show that permeable flow of volatiles is often transient, which is interpreted to reflect magma densification and the closing of pore-networks. Understanding the timescale over which this densification process occurs is critical to refining conduit models that seek to predict the pressure evolution in a pore-network leading to eruptions. We conduct uniaxial compaction experiments to parameterize non-linear creep and relaxation processes that occur in magmas with total pore fractions 0.2-0.85. We analyze our results by applying both viscous sintering and viscoelastic deformation theory to test the applicability of currently accepted models to flow dynamics in the uppermost conduit involving highly porous magmas. We show that purely ductile compaction can occur rapidly and that pore networks can close over timescales analogous to the inter-eruptive periods observed during classic cyclic eruptions such as those at Soufriere Hills volcano, Montserrat, in 1997. At upper-conduit axial stresses (0.1-5 MPa) and magmatic temperatures (830-900 oC), we show that magmas can evolve to porosities analogous to dome lavas erupted at the same volcano. Such dramatic densification events over relatively short timescales and in the absence of brittle deformation show that permeable flow will be inhibited at upper conduit levels. We therefore propose that outgassing is a key feature at many silicic volcanoes and should be incorporated into conduit flow models.

Wadsworth, Fabian; Vasseur, Jeremie; Lavallée, Yan; Scheu, Bettina; Dingwell, Donald

2014-05-01

52

30 CFR 18.39 - Hose conduit.  

Science.gov (United States)

...1 2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Hose conduit. 18.39 Section 18.39 Mineral Resources...Construction and Design Requirements § 18.39 Hose conduit. Hose conduit shall be provided for mechanical protection of...

2009-07-01

53

Win-win finance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sustainable development is grossly underfinanced. It will continue to be so, because the world is relying on conventional means to finance an unconventional idea. Official development assistance fell from 60 billion dollars in 1992 to 55 billion dollars in 1995 (in constant 1994 prices). The public sector in developing countries is underinvesting in environmental sustainability because of severe budget constraints, public sector deficits and more pressing expenditure needs. So is the private sector because, under prevailing institutional arrangements, it cannot recover costs and earn a decent rate of return from providing public goods. Other means of mobilising resources must be found. Such measures may include: phasing out subsidies, demand-scale management, better capture of resource vents, improved definition and security of property rights, and environmentally based taxation. Coal and petroleum based projects are frequently effectively subsidised. For sustainability energy efficiency measures should be subsidised, and energy consumption taxed. Increased use of economic instruments should be encouraged. 2 photos.

Panayotou, T.

1997-07-01

54

Financing energy conservation projects  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Methods for financing energy conservation projects are outlined. The following topics are presented: two basic financing methods, direct leasing and direct leasing methods, project financing, direct lease example, and shared savings example.

Wainwwright, F.

1996-12-31

55

Financing a Transplant  

Science.gov (United States)

... Kidney Pancreas Kidney/Pancreas Liver Intestine Financing A Transplant Financing a transplant raises many questions and concerns for patients and ... combination of sources. Some patients can finance the transplant procedure through their primary insurance coverage and use ...

56

Photovoltaic systems financing guidebook  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This Guidebook provides the potential photovoltaic system developer with information on the economic opportunities for grid-connected photovoltaic projects designed for direct sale of electricity to an electric utility or for offsetting electricity use at an existing commercial or industrial facility. The Guidebook presents a straightforward method for evaluating the economic feasibility of photovoltaic projects. Included are guidelines for determining appropriate system size and associated space requirements, capital costs, operating and maintenance costs, and annual energy output. Included is information on how to conduct a preliminary financial analysis, as well as the basic elements for detailed financial analysis for alternative financing arrangements. Other factors, such as the proper reflection of federal, state, and local tax credits in the financial analysis, are also incorporated. A unique feature of this Guidebook is the development and use of levelized fixed charge rates for corporate and intermediary financing approaches under a range of investment conditions. The levelized fixed charge rates methodology for determining the financial characteristics of a prospective photovoltaic project investment greatly simplifies the calculational procedure; yet it provides the same results as a detailed cash flow analysis.

Bos, P.B.; Eaton, M.R.; Weingart, J.M.

1986-05-01

57

On Arrangements of Pseudohyperplanes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We study arrangements of pseudohyperplanes (hyperplanes that are topologically deformed in some mild way). In general these arrangements correspond to non-realizable oriented matroids and arise as a consequence of the Folkman-Lawrence Topological Representation Theorem. We introduce a topological space naturally associated with these pseudo arrangements that has the homotopy type of the associated Salvetti complex.

Deshpande, Priyavrat

2012-01-01

58

Method and apparatus for inspecting conduits  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An apparatus and method for ultrasonic inspection of a conduit are provided. The method involves directing a first ultrasonic pulse at a particular area of the conduit at a first angle, receiving the reflected sound from the first ultrasonic pulse, substantially simultaneously or subsequently in very close time proximity directing a second ultrasonic pulse at said area of the conduit from a substantially different angle than said first angle, receiving the reflected sound from the second ultrasonic pulse, and comparing the received sounds to determine if there is a defect in that area of the conduit. The apparatus of the invention is suitable for carrying out the above-described method. The method and apparatus of the present invention provide the ability to distinguish between sounds reflected by defects in a conduit and sounds reflected by harmless deposits associated with the conduit.

Spisak, Michael J. (Venetia, PA); Nance, Roy A. (McMurray, PA)

1997-01-01

59

Financing wind power projects : perspectives from the US market  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This presentation outlined the recent assignments, core competencies and scope of services provided by Alyra Renewable Energy Finance Advisors. Renewable energy developers seek Alyra's assistance in developing strategies to achieve the most competitive solutions in finance and strategy. Alyra has broad finance expertise in renewable energy projects, a deep knowledge of markets and a significant wind industry network. Alyra identifies emerging issues, completes financing solutions and helps with contract negotiations. This presentation outlined the notable features of wind financing, wind assessment, offtake arrangements, equity considerations, US wind debt markets, long term bank financing, and combined bank and private placement financing. It also included recent debt market activity for seven large wind farms in the United States. tabs., figs

2004-10-17

60

Conduit to connect two fixed apparatus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The conduits between intermediate heat exchangers, secondary pumps and steam generators are subject to important thermal stresses and expansions of large amplitude. The invention concerns a pipe which connects two fixed apparatus, ensuring the circulation of a fluid of which temperature is very high or low with regard to the ambient temperature. The conduit comprises three straight sections of which lengths are nearly the same, connected end to end and mounted such as the axis of any section is orthogonal with regard to the two other axes. This conduit allows to reduce stresses at their minimal value, more particularly thermal stresses, while reducing the conduit at its minimal length

1982-12-08

 
 
 
 
61

Cogeneration financing: Third parties will adopt any project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The one stumbling block to massive cogeneration development has been the difficulty in obtaining financing for these capital-intensive projects. Fortunately, another group with the talent and resources to solve this problem is also drawn to cogeneration's obvious economic assets. This group is independent investors willing to arrange and risk financing in order to share - or assume completely - a cogeneration project's benefits. Third-party financing made significant gains in 1984, according to General Electric Credit Corp (GECC). Just one type of arrangement - leasing accounts for 17% of the total privately employed capital for cogeneration.

Catalano, L.

1985-02-01

62

Electrical Conduit Distributes Weld Gas Evenly  

Science.gov (United States)

Purge-gas distributor, made from flexible electrical conduit by drilling small holes along its length, provides even gas flow for welding. Flexible conduit adjusts to accomodate almost any shape and is used for gas coverage in other applications that previously needed formed and drilled solid tubing.

Ambrisco, D. P.

1983-01-01

63

Transitional cell carcinoma in an ileal conduit.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Following cystectomy for transitional cell carcinoma a 63 year old woman developed recurrent tumours in the upper urinary tract and ileal conduit, suggesting that malignant transitional cells can auto-implant in ileal epithelium. This phenomenon has not been previously reported. We illustrate the value of retrograde urogram via an ileal conduit following cystectomy for cancer.

Curran, F. T.; Fuggle, W. J.

1986-01-01

64

Caring finance practices  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The 2008 financial crisis has demonstrated the failure of both utilitarian and deontological ethics in finance. Alternatives do not need to be created from nothing, because the crisis itself has stimulated the emergence of ethically sound finance practices from within the sector. This article presents two cases of such alternatives, which can be understood as caring finance. Caring finance is built around more personal relationships, responsibility, and risk reduction. The examples are from t...

Staveren, I. P.

2013-01-01

65

Stochastic simulation of karst conduit networks  

Science.gov (United States)

Karst aquifers have very high spatial heterogeneity. Essentially, they comprise a system of pipes (i.e., the network of conduits) superimposed on rock porosity and on a network of stratigraphic surfaces and fractures. This heterogeneity strongly influences the hydraulic behavior of the karst and it must be reproduced in any realistic numerical model of the karst system that is used as input to flow and transport modeling. However, the directly observed karst conduits are only a small part of the complete karst conduit system and knowledge of the complete conduit geometry and topology remains spatially limited and uncertain. Thus, there is a special interest in the stochastic simulation of networks of conduits that can be combined with fracture and rock porosity models to provide a realistic numerical model of the karst system. Furthermore, the simulated model may be of interest per se and other uses could be envisaged. The purpose of this paper is to present an efficient method for conditional and non-conditional stochastic simulation of karst conduit networks. The method comprises two stages: generation of conduit geometry and generation of topology. The approach adopted is a combination of a resampling method for generating conduit geometries from templates and a modified diffusion-limited aggregation method for generating the network topology. The authors show that the 3D karst conduit networks generated by the proposed method are statistically similar to observed karst conduit networks or to a hypothesized network model. The statistical similarity is in the sense of reproducing the tortuosity index of conduits, the fractal dimension of the network, the direction rose of directions, the Z-histogram and Ripley's K-function of the bifurcation points (which differs from a random allocation of those bifurcation points). The proposed method (1) is very flexible, (2) incorporates any experimental data (conditioning information) and (3) can easily be modified when implemented in a hydraulic inverse modeling procedure. Several synthetic examples are given to illustrate the methodology and real conduit network data are used to generate simulated networks that mimic real geometries and topology.

Pardo-Igúzquiza, Eulogio; Dowd, Peter A.; Xu, Chaoshui; Durán-Valsero, Juan José

2012-01-01

66

Phase distribution in complex geometry conduits  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Some of the most important and challenging problems in two-phase flow today have to do with the understanding and prediction of multidimensional phenomena, in particular, lateral phase distribution in both simple and complex geometry conduits. A prior review paper summarized the state-of-the-art in the understanding of phase distribution phenomena, and the ability to perform mechanistic multidimensional predictions. The purpose of this paper is to update that review, with particular emphasis on complex geometry conduit predictive capabilities.

Lahey, R.T. Jr.; Lopez de Bertodano, M.; Jones, O.C. Jr.

1992-12-31

67

Microbial colonization of human ileal conduits.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Morphological and microbiological techniques were used to locate and identify the microorganisms that colonized the human ileal conduits in 17 different patients from 5 days after surgery up to as many as 16 years of service as a urine conduit. The ecological sequence of this colonization assumes some practical importance because the ascending growth of pathogenic organisms in this essentially open, unvalved urinary tract diversion system leads to the development of life-threatening pyeloneph...

Chan, R. C.; Reid, G.; Bruce, A. W.; Costerton, J. W.

1984-01-01

68

The interior coating of rectangular conduit structures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The problems associated with the interior coating of rectangular conduit structures are considered in the context of a concrete application example, viz. the interior goldplating of a rectangular, conduit-shaped antenna for 2.4 MW and 1.3 GHz used to heat plasma with radio waves. The antenna in question is the ASDEX transmitter of the Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics (IPP) in Garching near Munich. (orig.)

1985-01-01

69

National arrangements for radiotherapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After a presentation of several letters exchanged between the French health ministry and public agencies in charge of public health or nuclear safety after a radiotherapy accident in Epinal, this report comments the evolution of needs in cancerology care and the place given to radiotherapy. It outlines the technological and organisational evolution of radiotherapy and presents the distribution of radiotherapy equipment, of radio-therapists and other radiotherapy professionals in France. Within the context of radiotherapy accidents which occurred in 2007, it presents the regulatory arrangements which aimed at improving the safety, short term and middle term arrangements which are needed to support and structure radiotherapy practice quality. It stresses the fact that the system will deeply evolve by implementing a radiotherapy vigilance arrangement and a permanent follow-on and adaptation plan based on surveys and the creation of a national committee

2007-01-01

70

Peak load arrangements : Assessment of Nordel guidelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two Nordic countries, Sweden and Finland, have legislation that empowers the TSO to acquire designated peak load resources to mitigate the risk for shortage situations during the winter. In Denmark, the system operator procures resources to maintain a satisfactory level of security of supply. In Norway the TSO has set up a Regulation Power Option Market (RKOM) to secure a satisfactory level of operational reserves at all times, also in winter with high load demand. Only the arrangements in Finland and Sweden fall under the heading of Peak Load Arrangements defined in Nordel Guidelines. NordREG has been invited by the Electricity Market Group (EMG) to evaluate Nordel's proposal for 'Guidelines for transitional Peak Load Arrangements'. The EMG has also financed a study made by EC Group to support NordREG in the evaluation of the proposal. The study has been taken into account in NordREG's evaluation. In parallel to the EMG task, the Swedish regulator, the Energy Markets Inspectorate, has been given the task by the Swedish government to investigate a long term solution of the peak load issue. The Swedish and Finnish TSOs have together with Nord Pool Spot worked on finding a harmonized solution for activation of the peak load reserves in the market. An agreement accepted by the relevant authorities was reached in early January 2009, and the arrangement has been implemented since 19th January 2009. NordREG views that the proposed Nordel guidelines have served as a starting point for the presently agreed procedure. However, NordREG does not see any need to further develop the Nordel guidelines for peak load arrangements. NordREG agrees with Nordel that the market should be designed to solve peak load problems through proper incentives to market players. NordREG presumes that the relevant authorities in each country will take decisions on the need for any peak load arrangement to ensure security of supply. NordREG proposes that such decisions should be taken after consultation with parties in other Nordic countries, and involving also regulators and TSOs. In NordREG's view there are basically three principles that should be guiding any decision to introduce peak load arrangements in the Nordic countries: i), the peak load arrangements should be introduced only in situations when security of supply cannot be met without these arrangements. Since the decision to introduce peak load arrangements might be of a political/legal nature, the length of such arrangement cannot be fixed. However, there should be a regular evaluation by the competent authority of any need or prolonged need for peak load arrangements and its effects of price formation in the Nordic market. ii), when peak load arrangements are introduced they should be designed to minimize the adverse effects on price formation in the Nordic market. Furthermore, if there are to be peak load arrangements, there might be a need for how to distinguish these peak load reserves from other reserves at the disposal of the TSOs. However, this issue needs further discussions and development. iii), Nordic consultation should be carried out where the views of all relevant authorities and stake holders in the market affected are invited. It is recommended that the governments consult with their Nordic counter parties before submitting legal proposals on peak load arrangements affecting Nordic price formation. These consultations should also be with regulators and TSOs who are involved in the design of the actual peak load arrangements. (Author)

2009-07-01

71

Tax issues in structuring gas process arrangements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The current status of various tax issues regarding ownership, operation and financing of gas processing facilities in Canada was discussed. Frequently, energy companies are not taxed because of their large pools of un-depreciated capital cost and other resource related accounts. In addition, their time horizons for taxability are being extended in line with the expansion of their businesses. However, other investors are fully taxable, hence they wish to shelter their income through the use of tax efficient investment arrangements. This paper provides a detailed description of the tax treatment of gas processing facilities, tax implications of various structures between the producer and the investor such as lease, processing fee arrangements etc., and use of 'Canadian Renewable and Conservation Expense' (CRCE) for cogeneration projects within processing plants. All these need to be considered before completing a financing transaction involving a gas processing facility, since the manner in which the transaction is completed will determine the advantages and benefits from an income tax perspective. The accounting and legal aspects must be similarly scrutinized to ensure that the intended results for all parties are achieved. 8 figs

1999-01-28

72

Fuel cell arrangement  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A fuel cell arrangement is provided wherein cylindrical cells of the solid oxide electrolyte type are arranged in planar arrays where the cells within a plane are parallel. Planes of cells are stacked with cells of adjacent planes perpendicular to one another. Air is provided to the interior of the cells through feed tubes which pass through a preheat chamber. Fuel is provided to the fuel cells through a channel in the center of the cell stack; the fuel then passes the exterior of the cells and combines with the oxygen-depleted air in the preheat chamber.

Isenberg, Arnold O. (Forest Hills Boro, PA)

1987-05-12

73

FINANCING OF INTERNATIONAL TRANSACTIONS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Financing (funding is essentially the purchase of funds necessary for a business. This can be done from internal sources (company’s own funds or external (borrowed funds. The high value of goods traded in international trade makes revenues generated from internal resources not sufficient to settle the value of the goods. Thus, it is frequent to resort to borrowed funds. In International Business Transactions, external financing is done both by classical techniques of credit (credit supplier and buyer credit and modern techniques of financing (factoring, forfeiting, leasing all trade tailored. In terms of the length of financing, accounting funding is short-term (1-12 months and long-term financing (over a year. In principle, export and import operations prevailing short-term financing techniques, while international investment and industrial cooperation actions are specific long-term funding

RADU NICOLAE B?LUN?

2013-02-01

74

Financing nuclear power  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Global energy security and climate change concerns sparked by escalating oil prices, high population growth and the rapid pace of industrialization are fueling the current interest and investments in nuclear power. Globally, a significant number policy makers and energy industry leaders have identified nuclear power as a favorable alternative energy option, and are presently evaluating either a new or an expanded role for nuclear power. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has reported that as of October 2008, 14 countries have plans to construct 38 new nuclear reactors and about 100 more nuclear power plants have been written into the development plans of governments for the next three decades. Hence as new build is expected to escalate, issues of financing will become increasingly significant. Energy supply, including nuclear power, considered as a premium by government from the socio-economic and strategic perspective has traditionally been a sector financed and owned by the government. In the case for nuclear power, the conventional methods of financing include financing by the government or energy entity (utility or oil company) providing part of the funds from its own resources with support from the government. As national financing is, as in many cases, insufficient to fully finance the nuclear power plants, additional financing is sourced from international sources of financing including, amongst others, Export Credit Agencies (ECAs) and Multilateral Development Institutions. However, arising from the changing dynamics of economics, financing and business model as well as increasing concerns regarding environmental degradation , transformations in methods of financing this energy sector has been observed. This paper aims to briefly present on financing aspects of nuclear power as well as offer some examples of the changing dynamics of financing nuclear power which is reflected by the evolution of ownership and management of nuclear power plants from Government and State-owned companies to large privatised utilities and independent developers. (Author)

2009-07-01

75

Financing a Loss  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

When companies have a net loss accompanied by negative operating cash flows, they must decide how to handle the financing deficit, or, stated differently, they must decide how to finance the loss.  By examining a large sample of firms with net losses, we document how companies respond to the financing shock that occurs with negative cash flow.  For companies with a one-year loss, current assets decrease and current liabilities increase.  While we observe that leverage ratios increase du...

David Rakowski; Eahab Elsaid

2012-01-01

76

Project financing in Latin America: The search for greener pastures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper addresses the basic requisites for inducing private capital to engage in infrastructure project financing. Part 1 of this paper provides an overview of project financing considerations, such as how pricing of project outputs and the credit history of output purchasers can affect the availability of project financing, and explores the use of ''Revolving Funds'' as a stimulus for private investment. Part 2 discusses several areas in which governments can become pro-active participants in establishing a sound framework for project financing of infrastructure. Part 3 briefly addresses project structuring and the contractual risk allocation process which is central to project financing, and highlights some of the key legal arrangements found in project contracts

1993-11-17

77

Guidebook to financing CDM projects  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One of the challenges facing Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects today is their limited ability to secure financing for the underlying greenhouse gas emission reduction activities, particularly in the least developed countries. Among the key reasons for this is the fact that most financial intermediaries in the CDM host countries have limited or no knowledge of the CDM Modalities and Procedures. Moreover, approaches, tools and skills for CDM project appraisal are lacking or are asymmetrical to the skills in comparable institutions in developed countries. Consequently, developing country financial institutions are unable to properly evaluate the risks and rewards associated with investing or lending to developers undertaking CDM projects, and therefore have, by-and-large, refrained from financing these projects. In addition, some potential project proponents lack experience in structuring arrangements for financing a project. This Guidebook - commissioned by the UNEP Risoe Centre as part of the activities of the Capacity Development for CDM (CD4CDM) project (http://www.cd4cdm.org) - addresses these barriers by providing information aimed at both developing country financial institutions and at CDM project proponents. It should be noted that while the Guidebook was developed particularly with the CDM in mind, most sections will also be relevant for Joint Implementation (JI) project activities. For more detailed information on JI modalities and procedures please consult: http://ji.unfccc.int The purpose of this Guidebook is two-fold: 1) To guide project developers on obtaining financing for the implementation of activities eligible under the CDM; and 2) To demonstrate to developing country financial institutions typical approaches and methods for appraising the viability of CDM projects and for optimally integrating carbon revenue into overall project financing. The target audiences for the Guidebook are therefore, primarily: 1) CDM project proponents in developing countries, including but not limited to utilities, private and public sector entities, municipalities, and other specialised consultancies and intermediaries; and 2) Credit officers and other decision-makers within banking institutions and financial intermediaries in developing countries. (au)

Kamel, S.

2007-07-01

78

Financing Strategies for Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To help meet our nation's energy needs, reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel is being considered more and more as a necessary step in a future nuclear fuel cycle, but incorporating this step into the fuel cycle will require considerable investment. This report presents an evaluation of financing scenarios for reprocessing facilities integrated into the nuclear fuel cycle. A range of options, from fully government owned to fully private owned, was evaluated using a DPL (Dynamic Programming Language) 6.0 model, which can systematically optimize outcomes based on user-defined criteria (e.g., lowest life-cycle cost, lowest unit cost). Though all business decisions follow similar logic with regard to financing, reprocessing facilities are an exception due to the range of financing options available. The evaluation concludes that lowest unit costs and lifetime costs follow a fully government-owned financing strategy, due to government forgiveness of debt as sunk costs. Other financing arrangements, however, including regulated utility ownership and a hybrid ownership scheme, led to acceptable costs, below the Nuclear Energy Agency published estimates. Overwhelmingly, uncertainty in annual capacity led to the greatest fluctuations in unit costs necessary for recovery of operating and capital expenditures; the ability to determine annual capacity will be a driving factor in setting unit costs. For private ventures, the costs of capital, especially equity interest rates, dominate the balance sheet; the annual operating costs dominate the government case. It is concluded that to finance the construction and operation of such a facility without government ownership could be feasible with measures taken to mitigate risk, and that factors besides unit costs should be considered (e.g., legal issues, social effects, proliferation concerns) before making a decision on financing strategy

2005-01-01

79

Arrangement for radiation detection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation detection arrangement provided with scintillation element wherein a scintillation path is developed in a wave length trajectory between short wave visible and ultra-violet irradiation and with a detector for the recording of this scintillation irradiation. Characterised in that the surface particles on the underside of the unit wherein the scintillation beam impinges are provided with a covering layer which is strongly reflective to the irradiation beam concerned. (G.C.)

1978-01-01

80

Evaluating Asian swap arrangements  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Motivated by the unprecedented rise of swap agreements between the central banks of developed economies and their developing economy counterparts, this paper evaluates Asian swap arrangements and their association with the build-up of foreign reserves prior to the 2008-2009 global financial crisis. The evidence suggests that there is a limited scope for swaps to substitute for reserves. Furthermore, the selectivity of the swap lines indicates that only countries with significant trade and fin...

Aizenman, Joshua; Jinjarak, Yothin; Park, Donghyun

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

A case report of complication liked jejunal conduit syndrome induced by reconstruction of ileal conduit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The patient was a 77-year-old man who underwent radical cystectomy and ileal conduit urinary diversion due to bladder cancer in 1989. A stenosis of the right uretero-ileal anastomosis occurred in 1992, and of the left uretero-ileal anastomosis in 1999. These were treated with indwelling of a ureteral stent and percutaneous nephrostomy, respectively. He was admitted to our hospital for progressive renal dysfunction due to frequent pyelonephritis. We performed a reconstruction of the ileal conduit urinary diversion and after the removal of the bilateral ureteral stent he complained of nausea and general malaise. The laboratory data showed hyponatremia, hyperkalemia and azotemia, which were diagnosed as complication liked jejunal conduit syndrome. He was treated with hydration and salt supplementation. With regard to this case, we considered that a long ileal conduit close to the jejunum and renal dysfunction caused the complication liked jejunal conduit syndrome. Careful observation and follow-up laboratory examination should be performed if the patient has renal dysfunction and a long conduit near the jejunum is used for the ileal conduit. (author)

2004-03-01

82

Quo Vadis Infrastructure Financing?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

1. Introduction 2. The project finance market in 2006/2007 3. Areas affected by the global financial crisis 4. Areas affected by the euro financial crisis 5. Basel III and the consequences for infrastructure financing 6. Outlook – Where do we go from here?

Brodehser, Peter

2013-01-01

83

Geothermal Financing Workbook  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report was prepared to help small firm search for financing for geothermal energy projects. There are various financial and economics formulas. Costs of some small overseas geothermal power projects are shown. There is much discussion of possible sources of financing, especially for overseas projects. (DJE-2005)

Battocletti, E.C.

1998-02-01

84

Finance Law Review  

Science.gov (United States)

Reviews recent state and federal court decisions dealing with issues relevant to educational finance. Within the area of elementary and secondary education, cases involve general school finance, state funding programs, employee negotiations, and business management. In the area of higher education, cases involve taxation, student fees,…

Forth, Douglas S.

1975-01-01

85

Public Education Finances, 2003  

Science.gov (United States)

The United States Census Bureau conducts an Annual Survey of Government Finances as authorized by law under Title 13, United States Code, Section 182. The 2003 survey, similar to other annual surveys and censuses of governments conducted for many years, covers the entire range of government finance activities--revenue, expenditure, debt, and…

US Department of Commerce, 2005

2005-01-01

86

Financing a privatised coal industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper sets out the author's views on funding after Privatisation, in particular, as it relates to Projects for Capital Schemes. The whole question of funding the large state Industries and especially their Capital Projects, is a matter that has concerned him for many years. It is something that he has felt needs major changes whether or not the Industry remains in the Public Sector. However, one of the main advantages of Privatisation is that it will require the establishment of a more normal Balance Sheet funding structure and will lead to the industry having access to the normal market sources of finance for its funding. In this paper he proposes to consider what these normal sources of Finance are and then set-out what the current arrangements are for funding British Coal. It will then be possible to see how the funding of Projects will change when the Government implements its plan to privatise the Industry. The paper will also consider the steps that will be necessary before the Industry can have this access to the markets for its funding.

Harrison, F.B.

1989-01-01

87

Financing Canadian international operations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A primer on financing international operations by Canadian corporations was provided. Factors affecting the availability to project finance (location, political risk), the various forms of financing (debt, equity, and combinations), the main sources of government backed financing to corporations (the International Finance Corporation) (IFC), the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), the Asian Development Bank (ADB), the Overseas Property Insurance Corporation (OPIC), government or agency guarantees, political risk coverage, the use of offshore financial centres, and the where, when and how these various organizations operate, were reviewed. Examples of all of the above, taken from the experiences of Canadian Occidental Petroleum of Calgary in the U.S., in South America, in the Middle and Far East, and in Kazakhstan, were used as illustrations. figs.

Beagle, G.

1996-10-01

88

Private Housing or Alternative Financing?  

Science.gov (United States)

Explores the history of privatizing university housing and some current financing options, including use of developer and private foundations. Examples of successful alternative financing methods are highlighted. (GR)

Bruno, Nick

1999-01-01

89

Project Finance : Finding the right sources of funding  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Following the wave of privatisation and deregulation during the last decades, buyers of infrastructure constructions, such as dams, roads and telecommunication, have changed from states or public authorities to private companies. Private buyers do not always have the financial strength to arrange the financing for a project and providing a financial arrangement, for example by helping customers to obtain loans, has become a means to compete on the market. Purpose: The purpose of ...

Holmgren, Bjo?rn; Lindh, Karin

2002-01-01

90

Dispersive hydrodynamics in viscous fluid conduits.  

Science.gov (United States)

The evolution of the interface separating a conduit of light, viscous fluid rising buoyantly through a heavy, more viscous, exterior fluid at small Reynolds numbers is governed by the interplay between nonlinearity and dispersion. Previous authors have proposed an approximate model equation based on physical arguments, but a precise theoretical treatment for this two-fluid system with a free boundary is lacking. Here, a derivation of the interfacial equation via a multiple scales, perturbation technique is presented. Perturbations about a state of vertically uniform, laminar conduit flow are considered in the context of the Navier-Stokes equations with appropriate boundary conditions. The ratio of interior to exterior viscosities is the small parameter used in the asymptotic analysis, which leads systematically to a maximal balance between buoyancy driven, nonlinear self-steepening and viscous, interfacial stress induced, nonlinear dispersion. This results in a scalar, nonlinear partial differential equation describing large amplitude dynamics of the cross-sectional area of the intrusive fluid conduit, in agreement with previous derivations. The leading order behavior of the two-fluid system is completely characterized in terms of the interfacial dynamics. The regime of model validity is characterized and shown to agree with previous experimental studies. Viscous fluid conduits provide a robust setting for the study of nonlinear, dispersive wave phenomena. PMID:24032933

Lowman, N K; Hoefer, M A

2013-08-01

91

Dispersive hydrodynamics in viscous fluid conduits  

Science.gov (United States)

The evolution of the interface separating a conduit of light, viscous fluid rising buoyantly through a heavy, more viscous, exterior fluid at small Reynolds numbers is governed by the interplay between nonlinearity and dispersion. Previous authors have proposed an approximate model equation based on physical arguments, but a precise theoretical treatment for this two-fluid system with a free boundary is lacking. Here, a derivation of the interfacial equation via a multiple scales, perturbation technique is presented. Perturbations about a state of vertically uniform, laminar conduit flow are considered in the context of the Navier-Stokes equations with appropriate boundary conditions. The ratio of interior to exterior viscosities is the small parameter used in the asymptotic analysis, which leads systematically to a maximal balance between buoyancy driven, nonlinear self-steepening and viscous, interfacial stress induced, nonlinear dispersion. This results in a scalar, nonlinear partial differential equation describing large amplitude dynamics of the cross-sectional area of the intrusive fluid conduit, in agreement with previous derivations. The leading order behavior of the two-fluid system is completely characterized in terms of the interfacial dynamics. The regime of model validity is characterized and shown to agree with previous experimental studies. Viscous fluid conduits provide a robust setting for the study of nonlinear, dispersive wave phenomena.

Lowman, N. K.; Hoefer, M. A.

2013-08-01

92

Feed-thru conduit minimizes heat pickup  

Science.gov (United States)

Insulated feed-thru conduit minimizes heat pickup by a cryogenic fluid passing through the walls of a double high-vacuum chamber, and is capable of expansion and contraction with the walls of the chamber. It uses a bellows and rigid cylinder to provide a low-loss feed-thru for the cryogenic liquid.

Yager, S. P.

1967-01-01

93

Project financing in the energy sector: The Indonesian experience  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Past Indonesian experiences in arranging Project Financing or Limited Recourse Financing in the Energy Sector and the feasibility of such a structure for Nuclear Power Projects are reviewed in this paper. Many of the projects in the energy sector, including Nuclear Power Project are capital intensive projects. A single project may require an investment level of several billion dollars. Large capital investments of this nature may drastically limit the availability of funds from external sources used to finance other non-energy projects in a developing country such as Indonesia. Therefore, the financing concept of a project is becoming a paramount element in the policies adopted by the Republic of Indonesia. As an example, a non-recourse finance structure is the preference of the government for export oriented energy projects. The aim of the government financing policy for export oriented energy projects is to limit the recourse to the applicable Indonesian state enterprise (the project sponsor) by transferring to third parties as much of the project risks as possible. Most of the export oriented energy projects come close to achieving a non-recourse structure. Domestic oriented energy projects however, continue to be financed with a loan guarantee by the government or by state owned enterprises. In addition to maintaining fund availability from external sources for the non-energy sector, Indonesia's reported external debts as well as debt service ratios are other factors in considering a limited recourse financing structure for capital intensive projects. (author)

1991-06-01

94

Xylem hydraulic conductivity related to conduit dimensions along chrysanthemum stems.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The stem xylem conduit dimensions and hydraulic conductivity of chrysanthemum plants (Dendranthemaxgrandiflorum Tzvelev cv. Cassa) were analysed and quantified. Simple exponential relations describe conduit length distribution, height dependency of conduit length distribution, and height dependency of stem hydraulic conductivity. These mathematical descriptions can be used to model the xylem water transport system. Within a chrysanthemum stem of 1.0 m, the conduit half-length (the length with...

Nijsse, J.; Heijden, G. W. A. M.; Ieperen, W.; Keijzer, C. J.; Meeteren, U.

2001-01-01

95

Public School Finance  

Science.gov (United States)

This issue of Topic in Depth explores some of the resources available online regarding school finance. The first article from the RAND Review (1) discusses the challenges involved in meeting the ambitious goals established by the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act and the need to develop a school accountability system that can provide "the incentives and resources that the schools really need to help all students meet the state performance standards." In the second article (2), Linda Darling-Hammond, a Professor at Stanford University discusses the inequality of school funding across the US, again using California as an example. This website from CPRE (3) offers several articles that explain how school finance in the US works. The NCES Education Finance Statistics Center (4) is also a hub for information on public elementary/secondary education finance, including finance data on school districts nationwide. The Education Commission of the States (ECS) (5) offers this listing of state finance agencies for more state-specific information. Students can explore the topic further using this educational website from NCES (6). A collection of reports available through New American Schools (7) highlights one approach to the problem of school finance, namely resource reallocation. Taking yet another tactic, the author of this last article (8) proposes "a 'World Bank' for American education."

96

Port entry arrangements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of the paper is to describe the safety scheme port authorities should establish to deal with any contingency that may result from the visit of a nuclear powered ship. The safety scheme should be devised to cover both normal operation and any accident conditions that could arise while the ship is in port. The paper is divided into three parts. The three parts being: background information, general instructions, and emergency procedures. The background information will describe the nature of the hazards a port authority has to be prepared to deal with, and the philosophical basis for a berthing policy. In the part dealing with general instructions the objective of the safety scheme will be described. Also this part will describe the composition of the Port Safety Panel, allocation of responsibilities, passage and berthing arrangements, general safety precautions, records required, and rescue arrangements. In the part dealing with emergency procedures the role of: the Ship's Master, Harbour Authorities, Local Police, and local Health Services are discussed. As an Appendix to the paper a copy of the safety scheme that has been devised for visits of nuclear merchant ships to Southampton is given

1977-12-09

97

Spacer assembly retainer arrangement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In accordance with the principles of the invention, an arrangement is presented which restrains movement of the spacer assemblies within a fuel assembly. The spacer assemblies are composed of a grid of slotted rectangular plates arranged to intersect and interlock in an egg-crate fashion with their lengthwise edges perpendicular to the axes of the fuel elements and guide tubes. Each guide tube is provided with a number of longitudinally spaced sleeves attached by welding. Collars having machine slots designed to mechanically interlock each collar with each respective spacer assembly cell that receives a guide tube are provided and fixed with each of such cells. The sleeves contain apertures on the portions thereof extending beyond the grid plates. Thus, upon assembly, the grid plate collars generally circumscribe the sleeve portions of the guide tubes. The guide tubes are permanently fixed to the spacer assemblies into the apertures of the sleeves. Hence, the guide tubes are firmly fixed to the spacer assemblies without welding or brazing, and without otherwise distorting the guide tubes. (auth)

1980-01-01

98

Auspicious tatami mat arrangements  

CERN Document Server

An \\emph{auspicious tatami mat arrangement} is a tiling of a rectilinear region with two types of tiles, $1 \\times 2$ tiles (dimers) and $1 \\times 1$ tiles (monomers). The tiles must cover the region and satisfy the constraint that no four corners of the tiles meet; such tilings are called \\emph{tatami tilings}. The main focus of this paper is when the rectilinear region is a rectangle. We provide a structural characterization of rectangular tatami tilings and use it to prove that the tiling is completely determined by the tiles that are on its border. We prove that the number of tatami tilings of an $n \\times n$ square with $n$ monomers is $n2^{n-1}$. We also show that, for fixed-height, the generating function for the number of tatami tilings of a rectangle is a rational function, and outline an algorithm that produces the generating function.

Erickson, Alejandro; Schurch, Mark; Woodcock, Jennifer

2011-01-01

99

Dual battery connector arrangement  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An arrangement is described for modifying a lithium-type battery utilized in its customary manner or as a substitute for a Leclanche battery, predetermined dimensions and having a pair of female connection sockets substantially centrally located on the top surface. The lithium battery is different predetermined dimensions than the Leclanche battery and has a pair of female connection sockets located at a predetermined off-center position on the top surface thereof, the lithium; battery also has a second pair of female connection sockets positioned on the top surface and at a location which corresponds to the location of the connection sockets of the Leclanche battery. A pair of electrical conductors are plated on the underside of the top surface of the lithium battery. The electrical conductors serve to interconnect the two pairs of female connection sockets of the lithium battery in parallel.

Christopos, J.A.

1987-07-21

100

Export development financing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The main activities of the Export Development Corporation (EDC) were described, as well as some of the changes currently being implemented. EDC is Canada`s official export credit agency, providing risk management services such as insurance, loans, guarantees, equity and leasing. EDC`s project finance initiative started in 1991, and focused mainly on the up-front process. It has established itself as a recognized leader in project financing. It has over 15 years experience in a variety of sectors and countries. Energy projects financed to date include hydro projects in India, Argentina and Pakistan, and thermal projects in Thailand, China, Indonesia and Egypt. Lending criteria used to select projects were outlined, along with the risks endemic to project financing.

Balint, J. [Export Development Corporation, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

1995-12-31

 
 
 
 
101

CHIEF OF STAFF FINANCE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The SecretariatThe fifth Chief of Staff Division, namely Finance, is the end result of seventy years development of the civilian Secretariat established in terms of the Defence Act (Act 13 of 1912.

Ashley C. Lillie

2012-02-01

102

FINANCING INNOVATION IN ROMANIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article based on an examination of empirical literature, analyses the financing of innovative enterprises in Romania and presents the characteristics of Romanian policies in this regard. It sets forth an estimation of the number of innovative enterprises in Romania based on figures from different sources. Assessing the role of financial restrictions on innovation reveals that a firm is facing obstacles to finance its innovative activities but also other difficulties to innovate which appears to be enhanced. This article also puts forward the role of different financing actors and instruments at different stages of the firm's life cycle and emphasizes the function of proximity capital in filling the gap between supply and demand of financing. Finally a framework for policy is recommended.

SORIN SERBAN

2012-05-01

103

Financing for Development  

Science.gov (United States)

A Website from the United Nations, Financing for Development offers information on the 1999 collaboration of the UN, World Bank, IMF, and WTO to find innovative solutions to finance development. These organizations are gearing up for a "high-level consultation in the first quarter of 2002," and many of the documents and much of the information on this site have to do with plans for this consultation. Brand new on the site are the summaries from sessions of the preparatory committee, including regional consultations, and reports on the Business Community and Civil Society hearings. The site also features a listing of new policy developments, and information on upcoming events in development financing. For those following the UN's participation in development work, Financing for Development collects many relevant resources all in one place.

104

Personal Finance Calculations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Contains explanations and examples of mathematical calculations for a secondary level course on personal finance. How to calculate total monetary cost of an item, monthly payments, different types of interest, annual percentage rates, and unit pricing is explained. (RM)

Argo, Mark

1982-01-01

105

Finance and Economic Development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Published by Palgrave MacmillanThis chapter reviews the literature on finance and economic development. It starts with a description of the roles of finance, a definition of financial efficiency, and a discussion of whether countries may have financial sectors that are ‘too large’ compared to the size of the domestic economy. Next, the author describes several indicators of financial development and reviews the literature on the relationship between financial development and economic grow...

Ugo Panizza

2012-01-01

106

Financing alternatives for cogeneration and small-power facilities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There are a range of alternatives for financing cogeneration and small power production facilities, with a variety of factors determining the selection of a particular method. These factors include the nature of the project, sources and costs of funds to the user and developer, the length of time for which funds are needed, the financial and tax status of the parties and specifics of contractual arrangements. The author describes and compares seven major alternatives: financing by user, shared/guaranteed savings contract, true lease, finance lease/installment purchase contract, municipal finance lease, energy services contract, and industrial development bonds. He presents the basic structure, advantages and disadvantages, and a discussion of the application of each.

Pestle, J.W.

1985-08-01

107

Dispersive Hydrodynamics in Viscous Fluid Conduits  

CERN Document Server

The evolution of the interface separating a conduit of light, viscous fluid rising buoyantly through a heavy, more viscous, exterior fluid at small Reynolds numbers is governed by the interplay between nonlinearity and dispersion. Previous authors have proposed an approximate model equation based on physical arguments, but a precise theoretical treatment for this two fluid system with a free boundary is lacking. Here, a derivation of the interfacial equation via a multiple scales, perturbation technique is presented. Perturbations about a state of vertically uniform, laminar conduit flow are considered in the context of the Navier-Stokes equations with appropriate boundary conditions. The ratio of interior to exterior viscosities is the small parameter used in the asymptotic analysis, which leads systematically to a maximal balance between buoyancy driven, nonlinear self-steepening and viscous, interfacial stress induced, nonlinear dispersion. This results in a scalar, nonlinear partial differential equation ...

Lowman, Nicholas K

2013-01-01

108

Secure E-Link For Jostle Conduit  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, we delineated secure e-link for jostle conduit. Also, we depicted nearness function to obtain error free original message , which is deliberately required for Internet communication. It is the model of a real-life secures e-link system for any organization. In this model a sender can send a secret message even to a unacquainted person in an anonymous way.

Meenu Sahni

2011-01-01

109

Designing ideal conduits for peripheral nerve repair  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nerve tubes, guides, or conduits are a promising alternative for autologous nerve graft repair. The first biodegradable empty single lumen or hollow nerve tubes are currently available for clinical use and are being used mostly in the repair of small-diameter nerves with nerve defects of < 3 cm. These nerve tubes are made of different biomaterials using various fabrication techniques. As a result these tubes also differ in physical properties. In addition, several modifications to the common ...

Ruiter, Godard C. W.; Malessy, Martijn J. A.; Yaszemski, Michael J.; Windebank, Anthony J.; Spinner, Robert J.

2009-01-01

110

Hydrostatic drive arrangement  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A hydrostatic drive arrangement is described for a vehicle which consists of: a pair of variable speed hydrostatic transmissions each having a hydraulic pump, a hydraulic motor and a closed loop hydraulic circuit interconnecting the pump and the motor for communicating fluid therebetween; synchronizing valve means interconnected between the hydraulic circuits of the transmissions normally permitting interflow of fluid through first passage means between the hydraulic circuits for synchronizing the output speeds of the transmissions when the fluid pressure in the hydraulic circuits is below a predetermined value, the synchronizing valve means being responsive to fluid pressures in the hydraulic circuits to restrict interflow therebetween through restricted second passage means when the fluid pressure in one of the hydraulic circuits exceeds the predetermined value; a hydraulic charge pump connected with the closed loop hydraulic circuits for replenishing fluid lost from the hydraulic circuits; and selector valve means disposed between the hydraulic charge pump and the synchronizing valve means for selectively communicating the synchronizing valve means normally blocking communication between the synchronizing valve means and the hydraulic charge pump and establishing communication between the synchronizing valve means and the drain thereby permitting interflow of fluid between the hydraulic circuits, and means responsive to a steering operation of the vehicle to establish communication between the synchronizing valve means and the hydraulic charge pump thereby blocking interflow of fluid between the hydraulic circuits.

Hoashi, K.; Morita, K.; Matsuda, K.

1986-04-22

111

Innovative financing demonstration project for school districts: Section 1, Innovative methods of financing energy conservation projects  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Most US school buildings were built before 1970, with very little thought given to energy efficiency. Three criteria for evaluating the innovativeness of financing methods are outside funding, positive cash flow, and accessibility. Six major financing methods are evaluated: bank financing, lease financing, tax-exempt financing, utility financing, joint venture financing, and energy services company financing. Case studies are given in Florida. (DLC)

1987-01-01

112

Financing and insurance problems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author analyses the papers presented at the Paris Conference on the maturity of nuclear energy. It is evident that financing possibilities will be a determinant factor in the rate of development of nuclear power during the years to come. After having evaluated the capital requirements necessitated for the development of nuclear programmes, the parties intervening have examined the means at the disposal of electricity manufacturers to meet these needs (self-financing, recourse to external financing, regrouping, on an international scale of the electricity manufacturers of the setting up of high capacity plants). As concerns the insurance problems, they are becoming more and more involved as nuclear applications, are further diversified and intensified. The parties intervening have discussed new tarification techniques likely to be applied and pointed out the possibilities offered by regrouping or pooling of insurers (Market Pool) which allow for a maximum of risks to be covered without exceeding the means proper to each company concerned

1975-01-01

113

Financing a Loss  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available When companies have a net loss accompanied by negative operating cash flows, they must decide how to handle the financing deficit, or, stated differently, they must decide how to finance the loss.  By examining a large sample of firms with net losses, we document how companies respond to the financing shock that occurs with negative cash flow.  For companies with a one-year loss, current assets decrease and current liabilities increase.  While we observe that leverage ratios increase during a loss year, this increase has more to do with decreasing book equity than an increase in long-term debt.  However, when the loss persists into a second year, companies make more fundamental changes, often downsizing by decreasing fixed assets and by issuing longer term debt.

David Rakowski

2012-05-01

114

Topological invariants of line arrangements  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis is the intersection point between the two facets of the study of line arrangements: combinatorics and topology. In the first part, we study the inclusion of the boundary manifold in the complement of an arrangement. We generalize the results of E. Hironaka to the case of any complex line arrangement. To get around the problems due to the case of non complexified real arrangement, we study the braided wiring diagram. We develop a Sage program to compute it from the equation of the ...

Guerville-balle?, Benoi?t; Artal-bartolo, Enrique; Florens, Vincent; Valle?s, Jean

2014-01-01

115

Multi-track financing.  

Science.gov (United States)

In today's uncertain economic environment, when seeking to finance a capital project, healthcare borrowers should adopt a multi-tracked funding strategy that permits them to change capital-funding routes quickly in response to changing circumstances. The multi-tracking process requires two stages prior to securing a commitment and beginning the closing process: due diligence and indication of interest. This process should present no material additional cost during these two stages, giving healthcare borrowers the flexibility to explore a variety of financing options. PMID:22616512

Kennedy, Steven W; Randolph, John; Taddey, Anthony J

2012-05-01

116

Financing in Asia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Opportunities to develop power projects continue to expand in Asia. Knowing who the financial players are and how they function is an important step along the project development path. The five principal international financing institutions whose mandate is either to support economic development in the developing world or to support export of goods and services from the US destined for international projects are: the World Bank; the Asian Development Bank; the International Finance Corp.; the Export-Import Bank of the US; and the Overseas Private Investment Corp.

Newendorp, T. (Taylor-DeJongh Inc., Washington, DC (United States))

1993-10-01

117

System and method measuring fluid flow in a conduit  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A system for measuring fluid mass flow in a conduit in which there exists a pressure differential in the fluid between at least two spaced-apart locations in the conduit. The system includes a first pressure transducer disposed in the side of the conduit at a first location for measuring pressure of fluid at that location, a second or more pressure transducers disposed in the side of the conduit at a second location, for making multiple measurements of pressure of fluid in the conduit at that location, and a computer for computing the average pressure of the multiple measurements at the second location and for computing flow rate of fluid in the conduit from the pressure measurement by the first pressure transducer and from the average pressure calculation of the multiple measurements.

Ortiz, Marcos German (Idaho Falls, ID); Kidd, Terrel G. (Blackfoot, ID)

1999-01-01

118

Parastomal Hernia as a Risk Factor for Ileal Conduit Fistulae  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Purpose: To review potential risk factors for the development of ileal conduit fistulae. Methods: Two patients were identified who had a remote history of an ileal conduit and who formed a fistula from the conduit—one to the small bowel and one to the skin. Their presentation, management and outcomes are described. Results: Both patients had parastomal hernias as the likely cause of their fistula formation. Discussion: Parastomal herniation may contribute to fistula formation due to a stran...

Skinner, Thomas A. A.; Norman, Richard W.

2011-01-01

119

Ileal conduit stomal variceal bleeding managed by endovascular embolization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ileal conduit stomal varices are rare, and may result in bleeding. The standard treatment modality for management of this type of hemorrhage has not been established. We present the case of a 70-year-old woman with progressive ileal conduit stomal variceal bleeding which was successfully managed by endovascular embolization via the transjugular transhepatic approach. In conclusion, transjugular transhepatic endovascular embolization is a good choice in patients with ileal conduit stomal variceal bleeding who have failed conservative therapy.

Deng-Hua Yao

2013-01-01

120

Ileal conduit stomal variceal bleeding managed by endovascular embolization  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ileal conduit stomal varices are rare, and may result in bleeding. The standard treatment modality for management of this type of hemorrhage has not been established. We present the case of a 70-year-old woman with progressive ileal conduit stomal variceal bleeding which was successfully managed by endovascular embolization via the transjugular transhepatic approach. In conclusion, transjugular transhepatic endovascular embolization is a good choice in patients with ileal conduit stomal varic...

Deng-Hua Yao; Xue-Feng Luo; Biao Zhou; Xiao Li

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Finance and the nuclear industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The subject is discussed under the headings: the energy situation today; energy investment and capital requirements (finding the necessary funds); further possibilities; future financing (project financing); summary. (U.K.)

1982-09-03

122

Financing Mechanisms for Capital Improvements: Interchanges.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report examines the use of alternative local financing mechanisms for interchange and interchange area infrastructure improvements. The financing mechanisms covered include transportation impact fees, tax increment financing, value capture financing,...

E. Simmons J. G. Strathman

2010-01-01

123

Parastomal Hernia as a Risk Factor for Ileal Conduit Fistulae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: To review potential risk factors for the development of ileal conduit fistulae. Methods: Two patients were identified who had a remote history of an ileal conduit and who formed a fistula from the conduit—one to the small bowel and one to the skin. Their presentation, management and outcomes are described. Results: Both patients had parastomal hernias as the likely cause of their fistula formation. Discussion: Parastomal herniation may contribute to fistula formation due to a strangulated ischemic pressure necrosis of the adjacent ileal conduit and/or bowel.

Thomas A. A Skinner

2011-07-01

124

Financing solar in Arizona  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This workbook was prepared to supplement a special seminar for members of the banking and lending community and others who need information on solar-related financing. An overview of the technical aspects of solar devices and a more detailed presentation of financial considerations in making loans for solar devices are presented. (MHR)

Kiefhaber, H.R.; Guertin, J.M.; Evans, D.L.

1981-01-01

125

Mathematical Models in Finance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Finance is the corner stone of the free enterprise system. Good financial management is therefore vitally important to the economic health of business firms, and thus the nation and the world. The field is relatively complex, and it is undergoing constant change in response to shifts in economic conditions say Brigham and Gapenski in the introduction of their Financial Management book (Brigham, Eugene F., Gapenski, Louis C 1994. As they said the field is relatively complex since most of the financial decisions are involved with uncertainty and risk. This is where quantitative methods and finance meets. In financial decision making process, like most of the decision making process, final decision made by managers, not by some mathematical tools. However, those mathematical tools, used in financial decision making process, contribute to managers' decision a lot. Finance is consist of three interrelated areas which are Money and Capital Markets, dealing with securities markets and financial institutions, Investments, focusing on the decisions of individuals, financial and other institutions while they choose securities for their investment portfolios; and Financial Management, involving the actual management of non financial firms (Brigham, E. F., Gapenski, L. C;1994 In this study I tried to summarize mathematical methods that have been used in finance historically.

Halim Kazan

2005-12-01

126

Hyperplane Arrangements and Diagonal Harmonics  

CERN Document Server

In 2003, Haglund's {\\sf bounce} statistic gave the first combinatorial interpretation of the $q,t$-Catalan numbers and the Hilbert series of diagonal harmonics. In this paper we propose a new combinatorial interpretation in terms of the affine Weyl group of type $A$. In particular, we define two statistics on affine permutations; one in terms of the Shi hyperplane arrangement, and one in terms of a new arrangement - which we call the Ish arrangement. We prove that our statistics are equivalent to the {\\sf area'} and {\\sf bounce} statistics of Haglund and Loehr. In this setting, we observe that {\\sf bounce} is naturally expressed as a statistic on the root lattice. We extend our statistics in two directions: to "extended" Shi arrangements and to the bounded chambers of these arrangements. This leads to a (conjectural) combinatorial interpretation for all integral powers of the Bergeron-Garsia nabla operator applied to the elementary symmetric functions.

Armstrong, Drew

2010-01-01

127

Further Development, Support and Enhancement of CONDUIT  

Science.gov (United States)

From the first airplanes steered by handles, wheels, and pedals to today's advanced aircraft, there has been a century of revolutionary inventions, all of them contributing to flight quality. The stability and controllability of aircraft as they appear to a pilot are called flying or handling qualities. Many years after the first airplanes flew, flying qualities were identified and ranked from desirable to unsatisfactory. Later on engineers developed design methods to satisfy these practical criteria. CONDUIT, which stands for Control Designer's Unified Interface, is a modern software package that provides a methodology for optimization of flight control systems in order to improve the flying qualities. CONDUIT is dependent on an the optimization engine called CONSOL-OPTCAD (C-O). C-O performs multicriterion parametric optimization. C-O was successfully tested on a variety of control problems. The optimization-based computational system, C-O, requires a particular control system description as a MATLAB file and possesses the ability to modify the vector of design parameters in an attempt to satisfy performance objectives and constraints specified by the designer, in a C-type file. After the first optimization attempts on the UH-60A control system, an early interface system, named GIFCORCODE (Graphical Interface for CONSOL-OPTCAD for Rotorcraft Controller Design) was created.

Veronica, Moldoveanu; Levine, William S.

1999-01-01

128

Project financing renewable energy schemes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The viability of many Renewable Energy projects is critically dependent upon the ability of these projects to secure the necessary financing on acceptable terms. The principal objective of the study was to provide an overview to project developers of project financing techniques and the conditions under which project finance for Renewable Energy schemes could be raised, focussing on the potential sources of finance, the typical project financing structures that could be utilised for Renewable Energy schemes and the risk/return and security requirements of lenders, investors and other potential sources of financing. A second objective is to describe the appropriate strategy and tactics for developers to adopt in approaching the financing markets for such projects. (author)

1993-01-01

129

Project financing renewable energy schemes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The viability of many Renewable Energy projects is critically dependent upon the ability of these projects to secure the necessary financing on acceptable terms. The principal objective of the study was to provide an overview to project developers of project financing techniques and the conditions under which project finance for Renewable Energy schemes could be raised, focussing on the potential sources of finance, the typical project financing structures that could be utilised for Renewable Energy schemes and the risk/return and security requirements of lenders, investors and other potential sources of financing. A second objective is to describe the appropriate strategy and tactics for developers to adopt in approaching the financing markets for such projects. (author)

Brandler, A.

1993-12-31

130

Reflection arrangements are hereditarily free  

CERN Document Server

Suppose that W is a finite, unitary, reflection group acting on the complex vector space V. Let A = A(W) be the associated hyperplane arrangement of W. Terao has shown that each such reflection arrangement A is free. Let L(A) be the intersection lattice of A. For a subspace X in L(A) we have the restricted arrangement A^X in X by means of restricting hyperplanes from A to X. In 1992, Orlik and Terao conjectured that each such restriction is again free. In this note we settle the outstanding cases confirming the conjecture.

Hoge, Torsten

2012-01-01

131

Conduit fragmentation, cave patterns, and the localization of karst ground water basins: the Appalachians as a test case  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Because conduit systems in maturely developed karst aquifers have a low hydraulic resistance, aquifers drain easily and karst aquifers are subdivided into well-defined ground water basins. Ground water elevations are highest at basin boundaries; lowest at the spring where the ground water is discharged. Parameters that control the type of conduit development are (1 the effective hydraulic gradient, (2 the focus of the drainage basin, and (3 the karstifiability of the bedrock. Moderate to highly effective hydraulic gradients permit the runaway process that leads to single conduit caves and well ordered branchwork systems. Low hydraulic gradients allow many alternate flow paths and thus a large degree of fuzziness in the basin boundaries. Low gradient ground water basins also tend to merge due to rising water tables during periods of high discharge. Focus is provided by geological constraints that optimize discharge at specific locations that can evolve into karst springs. Karstifiability is a measure of the bulk rate at which aquifer rocks will dissolve. Fine grained, pure limestones and shaley dolomites mark the opposite ends of the range. The cave surveys of the Appalachian Highlands provide a data base that can be used to classify the lateral arrangements of conduit systems and thus determine the relative importance of the factors defined above.

White,W.B.

2003-01-01

132

Understanding Metaphors for Writing: In Defense of the Conduit Metaphor.  

Science.gov (United States)

Considers how the Conduit Metaphor of language and communication has been roundly condemned by language scholars, including scholars in rhetoric and composition. Notes that it is time to reevaluate its importance and value. Notes that the Conduit Metaphor combines with the metaphor Language Is Power to form a prudentially applied ethical measure…

Eubanks, Philip

2001-01-01

133

26 CFR 1.58-2 - General rules for conduit entities; partnerships and partners.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2009-04-01 false General rules for conduit entities; partnerships and partners...Regulations § 1.58-2 General rules for conduit entities; partnerships and partners. (a) General rules for conduit entities. Sections...

2009-04-01

134

Financing a geothermal project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The financing of geothermal projects is discussed. Geothermal projects generally require three sources of funds: equity funds, loan funds and government funds or government assisted funds. In general, sufficient equity must be available at least to obtain the leases, define the geological and geophysical features, plan tentative projects to utilize the geothermal resources, and carry the project through the next phase of funding. The federal programs aimed at assisting in financing geothermal projects are Geothermal Loan Guaranty Program (GLGP) and the new user project. Basically, there are certain criteria that must be met before the banker can consider a geothermal project bankable on a project basis. A list of these criteria would include such things as sales contracts, lease terms and an operator's experience; however, the single most important criterion is reservoir performance. (MJF)

Boren, K.L.

1980-12-01

135

Marital Status and Living Arrangements  

Science.gov (United States)

Preliminary data from the Marital Status and Living Arrangements survey is available from the Census Bureau. At the site users may also view previous annual reports, which contain limited detail tables for states and some metropolitan areas.

1998-01-01

136

Financing power facilities in the competitive bidding environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1988 the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (open-quote FERC close-quote) issued proposed rules and guidelines for the use of competitive bidding by state utility commissions to chose new power supplies. Since then, more than 20 states have implemented bidding programs to determine the price and sources of incremental generating capacity. This presentation discusses the impact of the use of competitive bidding on how landers and equity investors perceive the risks of project-supported financing arrangements and describes the actions that project developers have taken to adapt the project financing process to win bidding contests and as importantly, successfully obtain project financing in spite of the open-quotes credit crunchclose quotes market environment

1992-10-13

137

International Finance Corporation (IFC)  

Science.gov (United States)

IFC, a member of the World Bank group, provides loans and equity financing for private sector projects, and advisory services to governments in developing countries to promote economic development. This website offers information about the products and services that IFC provides; reports on IFC projects and activities; and puts out press releases. There is also a collection of discussion and technical papers available at the site.

1997-01-01

138

Self-Financing Roads  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mohring and Harwitz (1962) showed that, under certain conditions, an optimally designed and priced road would generate user toll revenues just sufficient to cover its capital costs. Several scholars subsequently explored the robustness of that finding. This paper briefly summarizes further research on the relationship between congestion-toll revenues and road costs. Despite its transparency, the self-financing theorem can lead to erroneous interpretations. The paper’s second part discusses ...

Verhoef, Erik T.; Mohring, Herbert

2007-01-01

139

Financing lifelong learning  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper describes and analyzes different financial schemes to promote lifelong learning. Positive effects of financial incentives to pupils are not restricted to high ability pupils, as low ability students also seem to benefit. The evidence regarding the effects of subsidy forms is limited. The most prominent knowledge gaps regarding the effects of various financing schemes related to lifelong learning are the effects of vouchers; financial aid schemes for students; and entitlements and i...

Oosterbeek, Hessel; Patrinos, Harry Anthony

2009-01-01

140

Spotlight on CERN : Le code de conduite  

CERN Multimedia

Cette année 2010, le démarrage du LHC a été le témoignage de la réussite de la collaboration scientifique au CERN, rapprochant les personnes, hommes et femmes, tous ensemble pour la plus grande des réalisations. Cette collaboration nécessite une ouverture sur la diversité basée sur des valeurs solides. Pour s’assurer que l'Organisation continue sur la voie du succès, un consensus a été atteint sur des valeurs caractérisant le CERN et celles-ci ont été regroupées dans un Code de conduite, décrivant la norme de base du comportement que nous pouvons tous espérer de nous-mêmes et de nos collègues sur notre lieu de travail. Entrevues avec Rolf Heuer, Directeur Général du CERN, Anne-Sylvie Catherin, Chef du Département des Ressources Humaines, et Vincent Vuillemin, Ombuds au CERN.

CERN Video Productions

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Financing of nuclear projects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Delays in the completion of nuclear power plants aggravate the financing of such ventures because the contractual sums to be paid for interest and amortization are not generated. Moreover, economic feasibility analyses by the banks are rendered ineffective by changes in the underlying data, such as the structure of electricity rates and the supply monopoly held by utilities. The German nuclear power plants at present in operation or under construction were financed mainly through subsidiares of the participating utilities outside the balance sheets of the parent companies. The banks have developed a number of financing concepts to adapt funding to the specific needs of practice. Future nuclear power plants make-up one third of the present capacity of the participating utilities. However, they will require three to four times the previous volume of capital investments. Yet it is certain that the expansion of nuclear power in the Federal Republic of Germany will not be hampered by financial problems. The funding models developed for nuclear power plants have already proved their qualities. However, the problems of nuclear power have not become less. Attention must also be drawn to some weak spots in the financial sector. (orig.)

1983-12-01

142

Effect of Ti conduit on the critical current in (Nb,Ti)(sub 3)Sn cable-in-conduit conductors.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of titanium conduit on the critical current in (Nb,Ti)(sub 3)Sn cable-in-conduit conductors was investigated to obtain a high performance conductor which would be applied to large superconducting magnets such as those for fusion machines. Titan...

Y. Wadayama T. Ando H. Nakajima M. Nishi Y. Yasukawa

1993-01-01

143

Relationship finance, market finance and endogenous business cycles  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper develops an overlapping generation model with asymmetric information in the credit market such that the interplay between relationship finance supplied by investors who monitor investment decisions ex-ante and market finance supplied by investors who relay on public information can be the source of endogenous business fluctuations. Monitoring helps reducing the inefficiency caused by moral hazard. However, the incentives of entrepreneurs to demand relationship finance to induce mon...

Deidda, Luca Gabriele; Fattouh, Bassam

2010-01-01

144

Conduits and dike distribution analysis in San Rafael Swell, Utah  

Science.gov (United States)

Volcanic fields generally consist of scattered monogenetic volcanoes, such as cinder cones and maars. The temporal and spatial distribution of monogenetic volcanoes and probability of future activity within volcanic fields is studied with the goals of understanding the origins of these volcano groups, and forecasting potential future volcanic hazards. The subsurface magmatic plumbing systems associated with volcanic fields, however, are rarely observed or studied. Therefore, we investigated a highly eroded and exposed magmatic plumbing system on the San Rafael Swell (UT) that consists of dikes, volcano conduits and sills. San Rafael Swell is part of the Colorado Plateau and is located east of the Rocky Mountain seismic belt and the Basin and Range. The overburden thickness at the time of mafic magma intrusion (Pliocene; ca. 4 Ma) into Jurassic sandstone is estimated to be ~800 m based on paleotopographical reconstructions. Based on a geologic map by P. Delaney and colleagues, and new field research, a total of 63 conduits are mapped in this former volcanic field. The conduits each reveal features of root zone and / or lower diatremes, including rapid dike expansion, peperite and brecciated intrusive and host rocks. Recrystallized baked zone of host rock is also observed around many conduits. Most conduits are basaltic or shonkinitic with thickness of >10 m and associated with feeder dikes intruded along N-S trend joints in the host rock, whereas two conduits are syenitic and suggesting development from underlying cognate sills. Conduit distribution, which is analyzed by a kernel function method with elliptical bandwidth, illustrates a N-S elongate higher conduit density area regardless of the azimuth of closely distributed conduits alignment (nearest neighbor distance concordant with the high dike density area. Especially, the distribution of conduits is not random with respect to the dike distribution with greater than 99% confidence on the basis of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. On the other hand, dike density at each conduits location also suggests that there is no threshold of dike density for conduit formation. In other words, conduits may be possible to develop from even short mapped dikes in low dike density areas. These results show effectiveness of studying volcanic vent distribution to infer the size of magmatic system below volcanic fields and highlight the uncertainty of forecasting the location of new monogenetic volcanoes in active fields, which may be associated with a single dike intrusion.

Kiyosugi, K.; Connor, C.; Wetmore, P. H.; Ferwerda, B. P.; Germa, A.

2011-12-01

145

Adapting Risk Management for Profit and Loss Sharing Financing of Islamic Banks  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The low level of participation of the Islamic banks in profit and loss sharing (mudharabah and musharakah) financing models has become one of the problems in the development of the industry. These arrangements are unique to Islamic banking and account for its superiority over conventional banking on grounds of ethics and efficiency, but the majority of Islamic banks have limited themselves to less risky trade-financing assets, that tend to be a shorter maturity. This paper intends to analyzes...

Irawan Febianto

2012-01-01

146

Health, autonomic financing and transferences  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present paper has as objective to study the whole relative problem to the autonomous communities and regional heath care expenditure financing in Spain. This article has a dual purpose. First, the financing of the current health care attendance is approached in the Spanish regions passing magazine to its possible variants and we observe that the balance of our system is clearly inclined towards the side of the integration in the general pattern of financing («Fiscal Room») with specific...

2002-01-01

147

Profit taxation and finance constraints  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the absence of financing frictions, profit taxes reduce investment by their effect on the user cost of capital. With finance constraints due to moral hazard, investment becomes sensitive to cash-flow and own equity of firms. We propose a corporate finance model of investment and derive three central results: (i) Even small taxes impose first order welfare losses on financially constrained firms; (ii) ACE and cashflow tax systems, which are investment neutral in the neoclassical model, are ...

Keuschnigg, Christian; Ribi, Evelyn

2010-01-01

148

Nanofibrous nerve conduit-enhanced peripheral nerve regeneration.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fibre structures represent a potential class of materials for the formation of synthetic nerve conduits due to their biomimicking architecture. Although the advantages of fibres in enhancing nerve regeneration have been demonstrated, in vivo evaluation of fibre size effect on nerve regeneration remains limited. In this study, we analyzed the effects of fibre diameter of electrospun conduits on peripheral nerve regeneration across a 15-mm critical defect gap in a rat sciatic nerve injury model. By using an electrospinning technique, fibrous conduits comprised of aligned electrospun poly (?-caprolactone) (PCL) microfibers (981?±?83 nm, Microfiber) or nanofibers (251?±?32 nm, Nanofiber) were obtained. At three months post implantation, axons regenerated across the defect gap in all animals that received fibrous conduits. In contrast, complete nerve regeneration was not observed in the control group that received empty, non-porous PCL film conduits (Film). Nanofiber conduits resulted in significantly higher total number of myelinated axons and thicker myelin sheaths compared to Microfiber and Film conduits. Retrograde labeling revealed a significant increase in number of regenerated dorsal root ganglion sensory neurons in the presence of Nanofiber conduits (1.93 ± 0.71 × 10(3) vs. 0.98 ± 0.30 × 10(3) in Microfiber, p?conduit group compared to the Microfiber group. This study demonstrated the impact of fibre size on peripheral nerve regeneration. These results could provide useful insights for future nerve guide designs. PMID:22700359

Jiang, Xu; Mi, Ruifa; Hoke, Ahmet; Chew, Sing Yian

2014-05-01

149

PFI redux? Assessing a new model for financing hospitals.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is a growing need for investments in hospital facilities to improve the efficiency and quality of health services. In recent years, publicly financed hospital organisations in many countries have utilised private finance arrangements, variously called private finance initiatives (PFIs), public-private partnerships (PPPs) or P3s, to address their capital requirements. However, such projects have become more difficult to implement since the onset of the global financial crisis, which has led to a reduction in the supply of debt capital and an increase in its price. In December 2012, the government of the United Kingdom outlined a comprehensive set of reforms to the private finance model in order to revive this important source of capital for hospital investments. This article provides a critical assessment of the 'Private Finance 2' reforms, focusing on their likely impact on the supply and cost of capital. It concludes that constraints in supply are likely to continue, in part due to regulatory constraints facing both commercial banks and institutional investors, while the cost of capital is likely to increase, at least in the short term. PMID:24138730

Hellowell, Mark

2013-11-01

150

Adapting Risk Management for Profit and Loss Sharing Financing of Islamic Banks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The low level of participation of the Islamic banks in profit and loss sharing (mudharabah and musharakah financing models has become one of the problems in the development of the industry. These arrangements are unique to Islamic banking and account for its superiority over conventional banking on grounds of ethics and efficiency, but the majority of Islamic banks have limited themselves to less risky trade-financing assets, that tend to be a shorter maturity. This paper intends to analyzes why Islamic banks are reluctant to indulge in mudharabah and musharakah financing. Finally, it explores the risk management concept that might solve the problems.

Irawan Febianto

2012-01-01

151

Storage arrangements for nuclear fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A storage arrangement for spent nuclear fuel either irradiated or pre-irradiated or for vitrified waste after spent fuel reprocessing, comprises a plenum chamber which has a base pierced by a plurality of openings each of which has sealed to it an open topped tube extending downwards and closed at its lower end. The plenum chamber, with the tubes, forms an air-filled enclosure associated with an exhaust system for exhausting air from the system through filters to maintain the interior of the enclosure at sub-atmospheric pressure. The tubes are arranged to accommodate the stored fuel and the arrangement includes a means for producing a flow of cooling air over the exterior of the tubes so that the latter effectively form a plurality of heat exchangers in close proximity to the fuel. The air may be caused to flow over the tube surfaces by a natural thermosyphon process. (author)

1981-03-30

152

Reactor vessel head support arrangement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A support and sealing arrangement is described for the vessel head of a nuclear reactor. The arrangement comprises a first support ring supported in the vessel cavity in which the reactor vessel is disposed, a plurality of flexible struts spaced about the circumference of the reactor vessel each of which has one end connected to the first support ring, and a second support ring which is supported by the other ends of the flexible struts to support the vessel head. The first and second support rings are each concentrically arranged with respect to the reactor vessel. Also, sealing means are provided for preventing fluid communication between the interior of the reactor vessel and the vessel cavity, and between the vessel cavity and the outside atmosphere

1975-01-01

153

Influence of the Hydrogeological Setting on Englacial Conduit Morphology  

Science.gov (United States)

Glaciological ideas about the character and evolution of englacial drainage systems have been deeply influenced by the theoretical model developed by Shreve (1972). The Shreve model is based on three main assumptions: (1) englacial drainage is in steady state; (2) englacial water will flow along the steepest hydraulic gradient within the glacier; and (3) pressure head equals the pressure of the surrounding ice minus a small component due to melting of the walls. The Shreve model has been widely adopted as a fundamental component of englacial drainage theory. There is no evidence, however, that the model provides a realistic picture of actual glacier drainage systems. To evaluate Shreve theory, we used speleological techniques to directly survey englacial conduits. We mapped a total of 8.5 km of passage in 45 distinct englacial conduits in temperate, polythermal, cold-based and debris-covered glaciers between 2005 and 2008. New information reported here is supplemented by published data on 40 other englacial conduits located worldwide and investigated to ice depths of 200 m using speleological techniques. In all cases, englacial conduits consisted of a single unbraching conduit. Englacial conduit morphologies were found to be intimately linked to the orientation of a glacier's principal stresses or the presence of pre-existing lines of high hydraulic conductivity. If a sufficient supply of water is available, hydrofracturing forms vertical conduits in zones of longitudinal extension and subhorizontal conduits where longitudinal stresses are compressive. On unfractured glacier surfaces, relatively shallow subhorizontal conduits with migrating nickpoints form by cut- and-closure provided channel incision is significantly faster than surface lowering. Conduits can also form along permeable debris-filled crevasse traces that connect supraglacial lake basins of different potential. Only conduits formed by extensional hydrofracture were found to be connected to glacier beds. Our results suggest that a Shreve-type englacial drainage system probably doesn"t exist and implies that englacial conduits can only penetrate through thick ice to recharge the bed of the Greenland Ice Sheet where supraglacial water bodies either intersect, or are advected through, zones of acceleration.

Gulley, J. D.; Benn, D. I.

2008-12-01

154

Compact moduli of hyperplane arrangements  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The minimal model program suggests a compactification of the moduli space of hyperplane arrangements which is a moduli space of stable pairs. Here, a stable pair consists of a scheme X which is a degeneration of projective space and a divisor D=D_1+..+D_n on X which is a limit of hyperplane arrangements. For example, in the 1-dimensional case, the stable pairs are stable curves of genus 0 with n marked points. Kapranov has defined an alternative compactification using his Ch...

Hacking, Paul

2003-01-01

155

Knocking arrangement for electric precipitation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A knocking arrangement for cleaning electrodes of an electric precipitator has a plurality of hammer members mounted on a rotary shaft, a plurality of anvil members arranged so that the hammer members strike against the anvil members, and connecting elements including a v-shaped holding member with a closed end portion embracing one frame member of a frame of the precipitator, and an open end portion provided with two projections, wherein a wedge member carrying the anvil member is received into the holding member between the projections and the one frame member.

Franzen, R.; Klingberg, P.

1982-10-26

156

Safety arrangement for nuclear reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The temperature-dependent, automatic scram mechanism for liquid-metal cooled reactors uses the average outlet temperature of the cooling medium as critical quantity. It is determined by the interaction between the representative values of the flow- and throughput-amounts through a flow path of the cooling medium in a safety arrangement and the produced heat of the measurement fuel rod in this flow path. The outlet temperature is measured over a closed flow medium with a high expansion coefficient; its expansion is transformed in a linear force for the operation of the release mechanism. Temperature sensor, operation mechanism and safety rod are located in the safety arrangement. (DG)

1979-01-01

157

FINANCING CAPACITY, AN INDICATOR OF SELF FINANCING FOR COMPANIES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the introduction of this paper the research objectives are presented on a case study, the research method, as well as the literature in the field and the novelty of this study. Furthermore, several aspects on the source of information for determining intermediate management balances are covered. In the third part of the study the indicator of self-financing capacity of companies is determined. The correlation between the self-financing capacity and term debts are shown in the fourth part and the fifth part of this study presents some aspects regarding global self-financing, maintaining self-financing, net self-financing, and finally the results of the study are presented.

Teodor Hada

2013-12-01

158

Nuclear financing in Spain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The basic objectives of the Spanish National Energy Plan are summarized as (1) To obtain maximum guarantees for continuity of supplies, (2) Reduce the cost of energy supplies to the maximum possible degree, (3) Reduce the difference in the balance of payments due to importation of primary energy sources, (4) Pro-mote the rational use of energy with the aim of moderating the growth rates in demand without affecting economic development (5) Reduce to an economical minimum the effect on the environment of energy-producing installations, and (6) Contribute to the technological development of the country and promote research in the energy field. To fulfil these objectives, the following forecasts are made: With the Gross National Product increasing at a rate of 5% or 6%, the demand on primary energy sources in 1985 will be 173 or 194 million e.c.t. (equivalent coal tons), i.e. annual growth rates of energy consumption of 6% and 7.2% respectively, compared with growths during the last decade of 9.2%. It is projected that generation of electrical energy from nuclear sources will grow to attain in a share of approximately 60% by 1985, i.e. an installed nuclear power level of 23.8.GW. The cost of the Spanish National Energy Plan, particularly the cost and financing of the nuclear program, is reviewed. Finally, the growing need for self-financing is stressed. (B.P.)

1975-04-15

159

Financing wind energy projects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Triodos Bank has more than 10 years of experience with developing and financing wind projects in the Netherlands. Over 50 Megawatt has been installed with direct involvement of the bank. The experience is both as a bank and as a venture capital fund. In this contribution the perspective will be more from a venture capital point of view than as a bank. The bank's activities in the wind energy sector started in 1986 by forming a joint venture with an engineering bureau, experienced i wind energy but not yet in developing wind projects. From 1989 onwards the joint venture started to build wind farms, both as a private company and in a joint venture with utilities. The European Investment Bank became involved with a long-term debt finance facility (15 years, fixed interest loan). The main difficulties were long-term commitments from landowners (Dike authorities) and utilities with regard to power contracts. The development got really stuck when utilities refused to pay a fair price anymore. Also, site development became more and more difficult. Even the poor technical performance improved drastically and did not frighten developers and banks too much. (author)

1996-05-20

160

Financing wind energy projects  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Triodos Bank has more than 10 years of experience with developing and financing wind projects in the Netherlands. Over 50 Megawatt has been installed with direct involvement of the bank. The experience is both as a bank and as a venture capital fund. In this contribution the perspective will be more from a venture capital point of view than as a bank. The bank`s activities in the wind energy sector started in 1986 by forming a joint venture with an engineering bureau, experienced i wind energy but not yet in developing wind projects. From 1989 onwards the joint venture started to build wind farms, both as a private company and in a joint venture with utilities. The European Investment Bank became involved with a long-term debt finance facility (15 years, fixed interest loan). The main difficulties were long-term commitments from landowners (Dike authorities) and utilities with regard to power contracts. The development got really stuck when utilities refused to pay a fair price anymore. Also, site development became more and more difficult. Even the poor technical performance improved drastically and did not frighten developers and banks too much. (author)

Blom, P. [Triodos Bank (Netherlands)

1996-12-31

 
 
 
 
161

Financing, Overhead, and Profit: An In-Depth Discussion of Costs Associated with Third-Party Financing of Residential and Commercial Photovoltaic Systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Previous work quantifying the non-hardware balance-of-system costs -- or soft costs -- associated with building a residential or commercial photovoltaic (PV) system has left a significant portion unsegmented in an 'other soft costs' category. This report attempts to better quantify the 'other soft costs' by focusing on the financing, overhead, and profit of residential and commercial PV installations for a specific business model. This report presents results from a bottom-up data-collection and analysis of the upfront costs associated with developing, constructing, and arranging third-party-financed residential and commercial PV systems. It quantifies the indirect corporate costs required to install distributed PV systems as well as the transactional costs associated with arranging third-party financing.

Feldman, D.; Friedman, B.; Margolis, R.

2013-10-01

162

Nuclear core region fastener arrangement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An improved design of fastener used for fixing the component parts of a nuclear reactor core is described. These fasteners experience high operating mechanical loads and temperatures and an arrangement to cool them by transferring the heat to the flowing reactor coolant fluid is also specified. (UK)

1980-01-01

163

Wonderful models for toric arrangements  

CERN Document Server

A wonderful model is built for toric arrangements. We develop the "toric analogue" of the combinatorics of nested sets, which allows to define a family of smooth open sets covering the model. In this way we prove that the model is smooth, and we give a precise geometrical and combinatorial description of the normal crossing divisor.

Moci, Luca

2009-01-01

164

Reduction of hotspot temperature in cable-in-conduit conductors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The hotspot temperature is one of the most important design criteria for cable-in-conduit conductors. In general, the amount of copper, as a stabilizer, in a bundle is determined by the allowable hotspot temperature, which contradicts to have a high current density in the conductor. In this study, a conductor with a copper-clad conduit is proposed. Current sharing between the bundle and copper cladding can reduce the current in the bundle during a quench. This reduces the hotspot temperature. The effect of copper cladding is analyzed for simulated conductors using zero-dimensional heat-balance equations. The simulated conductors have a circular cross-section with a diameter of 50 mm and a 1-mm-thick copper cladding outside a stainless-steel conduit. The analyses demonstrate the possibility of reducing the hotspot temperature even though high thermal resistance exists between the bundle and conduit. (author)

2004-04-01

165

Stability of power-law cable-in-conduit superconductors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The stability properties of cable-in-conduit superconductors with a power-law voltage-current characteristic are investigated using a previously developed model description for the take-off properties of these conductors.

Anghel, A.

2004-01-01

166

EXTERNAL FINANCING FOR CONSTRUCTION ENTITIES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The external financing of the construction entities does not differ from the one of other entities within other activities, but the construction entities have also a financing source, represented by the funds for the site organization, funds which are analysed and accounted in the present paper.

ADELA BREUER

2011-01-01

167

Financing of SNR and THTR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To finance the progressed reactor lines, the Federal Cabinet emphasized its decision of 23 September 1981 to require an increased participation of the electricity industry in the total costs of the project SNR 300. Some starting points of the financing are presented. (orig./UA)

1981-09-23

168

Personal Finance. Common Curriculum Goals.  

Science.gov (United States)

This document provides the common curriculum goals for the state of Oregon in personal finance, an area of study that relates basic economic concepts and practices to the financial concerns of consumers. These goals were designed to define what should be taught in all public school settings. The common curriculum goals in personal finance are…

Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

169

Current understanding of phase separation mechanisms in branching conduits  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents a summary of the state-of-the-art in our understanding of phase separation in branching conduits. The currently existing data base and analytical models are reviewed, and the ''lessons learned'' are summarized. It is shown that no completely satisfactory model exists for the prediction of phase separation in conduits of untested geometry and/or operating conditions. Nevertheless, based on our current understanding, an interim model is proposed. (orig.)

1986-08-01

170

Sharing of risks in Islamic finance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

For most of the people the prohibition on interest is the well known part of Islamic finance. Indeed, the concept of Islamic finance was not being discussed enough till financial crisis, after crisis it started to be seen as an alternative financial system for conventional finance. Sharing the risks is the main concept of Islamic finance and one of the main differences between conventional and Islamic finance. Depositors/savers do not bear any risk in conventional finance however Islamic fina...

Sekreter, Ahmet

2011-01-01

171

CONDUIT: A New Multidisciplinary Integration Environment for Flight Control Development  

Science.gov (United States)

A state-of-the-art computational facility for aircraft flight control design, evaluation, and integration called CONDUIT (Control Designer's Unified Interface) has been developed. This paper describes the CONDUIT tool and case study applications to complex rotary- and fixed-wing fly-by-wire flight control problems. Control system analysis and design optimization methods are presented, including definition of design specifications and system models within CONDUIT, and the multi-objective function optimization (CONSOL-OPTCAD) used to tune the selected design parameters. Design examples are based on flight test programs for which extensive data are available for validation. CONDUIT is used to analyze baseline control laws against pertinent military handling qualities and control system specifications. In both case studies, CONDUIT successfully exploits trade-offs between forward loop and feedback dynamics to significantly improve the expected handling, qualities and minimize the required actuator authority. The CONDUIT system provides a new environment for integrated control system analysis and design, and has potential for significantly reducing the time and cost of control system flight test optimization.

Tischler, Mark B.; Colbourne, Jason D.; Morel, Mark R.; Biezad, Daniel J.; Levine, William S.; Moldoveanu, Veronica

1997-01-01

172

Temperature limited heater with a conduit substantially electrically isolated from the formation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A system for heating a hydrocarbon containing formation is described. A conduit may be located in an opening in the formation. The conduit includes ferromagnetic material. An electrical conductor is positioned inside the conduit, and is electrically coupled to the conduit at or near an end portion of the conduit so that the electrical conductor and the conduit are electrically coupled in series. Electrical current flows in the electrical conductor in a substantially opposite direction to electrical current flow in the conduit during application of electrical current to the system. The flow of electrons is substantially confined to the inside of the conduit by the electromagnetic field generated from electrical current flow in the electrical conductor so that the outside surface of the conduit is at or near substantially zero potential at 25.degree. C. The conduit may generate heat and heat the formation during application of electrical current.

Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Sandberg, Chester Ledlie (Palo Alto, CA)

2009-07-14

173

Financing Sustainable Infrastructure  

... Positive effects on employee engagement—motivation, retention and recruitment. Cost efficiency/savings. New revenue sources, increased revenue from existing sources, and improved market share and pricing power. Risk reduction and management. Confirmation of a firm’s “social license to operate.” Green Financial Products for Sustainable Infrastructure Green financial products have the difficult task of attracting investment from the private sector. In order to achieve this,... Financing Sustainable InfrastructureIISD Publication Twitter Facebook StumbleUpon Digg Delicious LinkedIn Highlighted Report Collaboration and Innovation: The Future of Leadership for Sustainable Development -2012-13 IISD Annual Report » William H. Glanville, Nona Pelletier, Joel Trenaman, IISD, 2013. IISD’s 2012-2013 annual report reflects the institute's focus on building capacity to accelerate the advancement of our work to meet goals and principles for sustainable development. The ...

174

Financing electricity expansion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Expansion of electricity supply is associated with economic development. The installation and enlargement of power systems in developing countries entails a huge financial burden, however. Energy consumers in such countries must pay not only for supplies but for the cost of raising the capital for expansion on the international markets. Estimates are presented for the capital expenditure for electricity supply over the period 1990 to 2020 for the major world regions, using approximations for the cost of plant and capital and for the returns earned. These data lead to the conclusion that the five regions with the lowest per capita incomes are those which will need the major part of the capital expenditure and the highest percentage of external finance. (6 tables) (UK)

1994-07-01

175

Romanian SMEs Financing Options:  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the most pressing problems faced by micro, small and medium sized enterprises (henceforth SMEs in Europe is the access to sufficient funds to sustain their long term growth. Romanian SMEs make no exception. In this context the present paper focuses on analyzing the extent to which external funding sources have contributed to the value added created by the Romanian SMEs between 2007 and 2011.The investigation’s results indicate the existence of a causal link between some forms of external financing (namely bank loans, leasing, factoring, guarantee products and European funds and the value added created by the Romanian micro, small and medium sized enterprises in the aforementioned period.

Ioan E. Nistor

2013-11-01

176

Multifractal fluctuations in finance  

CERN Multimedia

We consider the structure functions S^(q)(T), i.e. the moments of order q of the increments X(t+T)-X(t) of the Foreign Exchange rate X(t) which give clear evidence of scaling (S^(q)(T)~T^z(q)). We demonstrate that the nonlinearity of the observed scaling exponent z(q) is incompatible with monofractal additive stochastic models usually introduced in finance: Brownian motion, Levy processes and their truncated versions. This nonlinearity corresponds to multifractal intermittency yielded by multiplicative processes. The non-analycity of z(q) corresponds to universal multifractals, which are furthermore able to produce ``hyperbolic'' pdf tails with an exponent q_D >2. We argue that it is necessary to introduce stochastic evolution equations which are compatible with this multifractal behaviour.

Schmitt, F; Lovejoy, S

2000-01-01

177

Reduced vibration motor winding arrangement  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An individual phase winding arrangement having a sixty electrical degree phase belt width for use with a three phase motor armature includes a delta connected phase winding portion and a wye connected phase winding portion. Both the delta and wye connected phase winding portions have a thirty electrical degree phase belt width. The delta and wye connected phase winding portions are each formed from a preselected number of individual coils each formed, in turn, from an unequal number of electrical conductor turns in the approximate ratio of {radical}3. The individual coils of the delta and wye connected phase winding portions may either be connected in series or parallel. This arrangement provides an armature winding for a three phase motor which retains the benefits of the widely known and utilized thirty degree phase belt concept, including improved mmf waveform and fundamental distribution factor, with consequent reduced vibrations and improved efficiency. 4 figs.

Slavik, C.J.; Rhudy, R.G.; Bushman, R.E.

1997-11-11

178

Reduced vibration motor winding arrangement  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An individual phase winding arrangement having a sixty electrical degree phase belt width for use with a three phase motor armature includes a delta connected phase winding portion and a wye connected phase winding portion. Both the delta and wye connected phase winding portions have a thirty electrical degree phase belt width. The delta and wye connected phase winding portions are each formed from a preselected number of individual coils each formed, in turn, from an unequal number of electrical conductor turns in the approximate ratio of .sqroot.3. The individual coils of the delta and wye connected phase winding portions may either be connected in series or parallel. This arrangement provides an armature winding for a three phase motor which retains the benefits of the widely known and utilized thirty degree phase belt concept, including improved mmf waveform and fundamental distribution factor, with consequent reduced vibrations and improved efficiency.

Slavik, Charles J. (Rexford, NY); Rhudy, Ralph G. (Scotia, NY); Bushman, Ralph E. (Lathem, NY)

1997-01-01

179

Battery saving frequency synthesizer arrangement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An arrangement for reducing the amount of battery supplied power to a high frequency synthesizer. The phase-locked loop section of the synthesizer is periodically disconnected from the battery supplied power. In order to prevent substantial drift of the phase-locked loop during such power interruption, a control signal is provided for maintaining the VCO frequency. By minimizing the frequency drift, the loop can be re-locked in a short period of time following each power interruption

1985-01-01

180

X-ray tube arrangements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A technique for ensuring the rapid correction of both amplitude and offset errors in the deflectional movement of an electron beam along an X-ray emissive target is described. The movement is monitored at at least two positions during a sweep and differences, between the two movements and a desired movement, at these positions are combined in different proportions to produce a corrective servo signal. Such arrangements find application, for example, in computerised tomographic scanners. (author)

1980-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Accounting for arrangements - Part 1  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Based on the substance over form principle, transactions that in substance transfer the right to use an asset for an agreed period of time, in return for a series of payments, are accounted for as a lease transaction in terms of IAS 17 (AC 105), irrespective of the legal form of the arrangement. The International Financial Reporting Interpretations Committee and the Standards Interpretation Committee have issued two documents that provide more guidance on the application of the substance over...

Venter, Elmar R.; Tomes, Tania

2006-01-01

182

Battery saving frequency synthesizer arrangement  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An arrangement for reducing the amount of battery supplied power to a high frequency synthesizer. The phase-locked loop section of the synthesizer is periodically disconnected from the battery supplied power. In order to prevent substantial drift of the phase-locked loop during such power interruption, a control signal is provided for maintaining the VCO frequency. By minimizing the frequency drift, the loop can be re-locked in a short period of time following each power interruption.

Challen, R. F.

1985-06-04

183

Professional arrangement of trade managers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This masterwork is designed to research the peculiarity of trade manager arrangement. It consists of: preface, four parts, summary, conclusions, and literature. Preface is defined the actuality and novelty of researching problem. Also is discussion the object of research, aim, main tasks, methods, and hypothesis. The first part is analyzed theatrical foundation of trade management, discuss the main conceptions and theories of management, also management in Lithuania, and trader management. Th...

2005-01-01

184

X-ray fluoroscopy arrangement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

X-ray fluoroscopy arrangement with an X-ray source, a picture amplifier, a television picture tube and a television monitor for the retransmission of the radiation picture of an objective area characterised in that within the unit is included a second television camera for the retransmission of an easily recognisable optical picture of the object contained in the radiation field. (G.C.)

1978-01-01

185

Reduced vibration motor winding arrangement  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present invention relates generally to an electric motor winding and, more particularly, to a three phase motor armature winding arrangement designed to reduce motor vibration and improve efficiency. An individual phase winding arrangement having a sixty electrical degree phase belt width for use with a three phase motor armature includes a delta connected phase winding portion and a wye connected phase winding portion. Both the delta and wye connected phase winding portions have a thirty electrical degree phase belt width. The delta and wye connected phase winding portions are each formed from a preselected number of individual coils each formed, in turn, from an unequal number of electrical conductor turns in the approximate ratio of {radical}3. The individual coils of the delta and wye connected phase winding portions may either be connected in series or parallel. This arrangement provides an armature winding for a three phase motor which retains the benefits of the widely known and utilized thirty degree phase belt concept, including improved mmf waveform and fundamental distribution factor.

Slavik, C.J.; Rhudy, R.G.; Bushman, R.E.

1995-12-31

186

Yahoo! Finance: Insurance Center  

Science.gov (United States)

Yahoo! Insurance Center provides many useful insurance resources. The site is divided into auto, life & health, and home & renters sections. The auto insurance section provides insurance quotes, an insurance coverage analyzer, and a glossary. Similarly, users can also obtain quotes on term life insurance, analyze their health plans and browse through a life insurance glossary. In the home & renters section, consumers will find estimates of quotes for homeowners and renters insurance, a guide to filing claims, and a glossary of property insurance terms. In addition, the site also contains informative articles arranged by insurance type, and links to various insurance related sites.

187

Third party financing of renewable energy sources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

IDAE (Institute of Energy Saving and Diversification) Hosted the Third party on financing renewable energy sources. The meeting was articulated into chapters: 1.- Experiences in the renewable energy field. 2.- Third party financing of small hydro-power projects. 3.- Third party financing of biomass projects. 4.- Third party financing of wind energy projects.

1994-01-01

188

Project Finance Model for Small Contractors in USA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Construction projects do not require a large capital outlay but a large working capital to start up the project. Unfortunately, for small contractors there are very limited options available from the banks or other lending institutions to cover this large working capital requirement in the absence of sufficient collateral. The “Project Finance” method presented in this paper is recommended as the most effective method for small contractors in the United States. The problems of small and start up contractors in funding their projects have been little addressed in the literature. The current financing practices were observed through both the literature review and interviews with contractors and bankers in the western Michigan area and subsequently a system has been proposed which could help a small start-up company seeking higher growth. The growth rates that can be achieved using the project finance system in contrast to the traditional “line of credit” arrangements as illustrated in this paper show that the project finance model is beneficial.

Jawahar Nesan

2012-11-01

189

Innovative financing survey: Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report represents the current knowledge and utilization of Innovative Financing techniques of Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) subgrantees, a sample of Institutional Conservation Program (ICP) grantees, Public Service Commissions (PSC) and selected utilities broadly distributed in the country. The survey inquired essentially about their organizational use and familiarity with the following innovative financing methods: Direct Loan, Loan Interest Reduction, Lease, Lease Purchase, Shared Savings, Energy Service Contracts, Conservation Incentives and Guaranteed Cash Flow. Whatever their characteristics, urban or rural, schools or hospitals, gas and electric utilities of differing ownership types, large or small states, respondents indicated a marginal awareness and utilization of the eight major financing methods. Even though their awareness and use is uneven with respect to their characteristics, certain trends emerge which display an overall lack of application of most of these financing techniques to enhance the program use of grant funds.

Garrison, R.L.

1986-06-06

190

A New Kind of Finance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Finance has benefited from the Wolfram's NKS approach but it can and will benefit even more in the future, and the gains from the influence may actually be concentrated among practitioners who unintentionally employ those principles as a group.

Maymin, Philip Z.

2012-01-01

191

Geothermal Outreach and Project Financing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ?Geothermal Outreach and Project Financing? project substantially added to the understanding of geothermal resources, technology, and small business development by both the general public as well as those in the geothermal community.

Elizabeth Battocletti

2006-04-06

192

Health, autonomic financing and transferences  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present paper has as objective to study the whole relative problem to the autonomous communities and regional heath care expenditure financing in Spain. This article has a dual purpose. First, the financing of the current health care attendance is approached in the Spanish regions passing magazine to its possible variants and we observe that the balance of our system is clearly inclined towards the side of the integration in the general pattern of financing («Fiscal Room» with specific conditions («Mixed System». Secondly, we examine the new situation in the mark of health care and its corresponding financing in the new model approved in 2001, in terms of the effects of tax assignment on autonomous communities.

David Cantarero Prieto

2002-01-01

193

Nuclear reactor fuel assembly arrangement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A description is given of a structural arrangement for a nuclear reactor fuel assembly. Top and bottom support plates, comprising fuel assembly outlet and inlet nozzles respectively, are separated by a plurality of metal tubes. Metal grids which serve to space and support fuel rods containing nuclear fuel are spaced along the length of the metal tubes. The metal grids are structurally attached to the metal tubes by sleeves, made of the same material as the metal tubes, which are spring loaded into the metal grid and spot welded to the metal tubes passing therein

1975-01-01

194

Float arrangement. Anordning ved flytelegeme  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present invention relates to a float which is provided with at least one hoist drum for a hoisting wire from a hoist. The float is provided with at least one suspension drum for a suspension wire to a suspension body. The hoisting drum and the suspension drum are rotationally coupled to each other and the wire are arranged in such a way on the drums that the suspension wires are reeled in when the hoisting wires are reeled off the hoisting drums and vice versa. 2 drawings.

Boee, J.; Haugland, T.A.; Selvaer, O.K.; Kleiven, A.

1984-09-03

195

Vertical integration and supplier finance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We investigate the financial implications of a multinational firm's choice between outsourcing and integration from the perspective of the supplier. Using a simple model, we explore the extent to which an integrated supplier's access to finance, as well as its sources of funding, change relative to a firm supplying a multinational at arm's-length. The model predicts that integrated firms have better access to finance and cover a larger share of their costs using internal funds. Furthermore, i...

Kersting, Erasmus; Go?rg, Holger

2014-01-01

196

Corporate Finance and Comparative Advantage  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Since innovative firms are often financially constrained, access to external funds is important for the expansion of innovative industries. This paper reports four important results. First, comparative advantage is shaped by factor endowments as well as fundamental determinants of corporate finance. In particular, a larger equity ratio of firms and tough governance standards relax finance constraints and create a comparative advantage in innovative industries. Second, factor price equalizatio...

2010-01-01

197

Project finance for alternative energy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper is intended to provide general advice to sponsors of renewable energy projects who expect to raise project-based financing from commercial banks to fund the development of their projects. It will set out, for the benefit of such sponsors, how bankers typically approach the analysis of these undertakings and in particular the risk areas on which they concentrate. By doing so it should assist sponsors to maximise their prospects of raising bank finance. (author)

1993-01-01

198

Finance and Admin Team - EEB  

...is a federation of citizens' environmental organisations based in Brussels, Boulevard de Waterloo since 1974'> 'Federation, Brussels, environmental issues, Boulevard ...de Waterloo'> Finance and Admin Team - EEB EEB Search EEB Intranet Home About EEB How the ...Us Isabel DE JESUS FONSECA Head of Finance, Personnel Administration Boulevard de Waterloo 34 B-1000 BRUSSELS Tel: +32 (0) 2 ...Email Nicole WAUTERS-MINDLIN Secretary Seminar Coordinator Boulevard de Waterloo 34 B-1000 BRUSSELS Tel: +32 (0) 2 790 88 18 Email ...

199

The finance-strategy relationship.  

Science.gov (United States)

The connection between the finance function and strategy in health systems is explored through discussions with chief financial officers (CFOs). The integration of finance into strategy is explored through the use of balanced scorecards, strategic investments and the analysis of core competencies and core enterprises. Divestiture of investments in health plans, physician practices and long-term care facilities is common, while outsourcing activity is increasing. PMID:11794752

Smith, D G; Wheeler, J R

2001-01-01

200

Computing for Finance  

CERN Multimedia

The finance sector is one of the driving forces for the use of distributed or Grid computing for business purposes. The speakers will review the state-of-the-art of high performance computing in the financial sector, and provide insight into how different types of Grid computing – from local clusters to global networks - are being applied to financial applications. They will also describe the use of software and techniques from physics, such as Monte Carlo simulations, in the financial world. There will be four talks of 20min each. The talk abstracts and speaker bios are listed below. This will be followed by a Q&A panel session with the speakers. From 19:00 onwards there will be a networking cocktail for audience and speakers. This is an EGEE / CERN openlab event organized in collaboration with the regional business network rezonance.ch. A webcast of the event will be made available for subsequent viewing, along with powerpoint material presented by the speakers. Attendance is free and open to all. R...

CERN. Geneva

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

External financing during a company's life cycle  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this thesis is to give an insight into a company’s external financing tools during its life cycle. There have been wide discussions on the financing situations of businesses all around the world and the tightening economical situation has had a major impact on the financing tools. This study examines the potential financing tools through the company’s life cycle. This study reviews the current financing situation of companies in Finland.

Rautanen, Jani

2013-01-01

202

CODAC systems arrangement and connectivity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

nstalled in different buildings. Cubicles used for network infrastructure are distributed among “hutches,” where a CODAC hutch is a room or area equipped with appropriate heating, ventilation, air conditioning and uninterruptible power which will be directly connected through two star points. The responsibility of CODAC infrastructure ends up to the plant system I and C cubicles so several passive CODAC network panels have identified in all I and C rooms of different plant buildings. This CODAC Network Panel will be the physical termination point for CODAC Network infrastructure. The CODAC Network cables running from the nearest CODAC Network hutch will terminate in these panels. Network panels are installed at strategic locations close to plant system I and C cubicles. This paper will describe more details about the physical arrangement of CODAC systems in different buildings on ITER platform for different purpose and their planned connectivity. This paper will also provide more information about the volume allocations for CODAC components, planned cabling arrangement and other infrastructure requirements like electrical and cooling etc

2013-10-01

203

Interactions of large amplitude solitary waves in viscous fluid conduits  

CERN Multimedia

The free interface separating an exterior, viscous fluid from an intrusive conduit of buoyant, less viscous fluid is known to support strongly nonlinear solitary waves due to a balance between viscosity-induced dispersion and buoyancy-induced nonlinearity. The overtaking, pairwise interaction of weakly nonlinear solitary waves has been classified theoretically for the Korteweg-de Vries equation and experimentally in the context of shallow water waves. We use numerical simulations and experimental observations to extend the classification scheme to the strongly nonlinear regime for viscous conduit solitary waves, where we identify three classes of nonlinear interaction behavior: purely bimodal, purely unimodal, and a mixed type. The magnitude of the dispersive radiation due to solitary wave interactions is quantified numerically and observed to be beyond the sensitivity of our experiments, suggesting that conduit solitary waves are approximately solitons. Experimental data are shown to be in excellent agreemen...

Lowman, Nicholas K; El, Gennady A

2013-01-01

204

Development of conduits for the ITER central solenoid conductor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Japan Atomic Energy Agency has developed a JK2LB conduit for the Nb3Sn conductor of the ITER central solenoid (CS). Mechanical requirements for the CS conductor conduit are a 0.2% yield strength of more than 900 MPa and a fracture toughness KIC (J) of more than 130 MPa ?m after a compaction and aging heat treatment (650degC, 240 hours). In a previous work, it was shown that an aged JK2LB conduit has high strength and sufficient fracture toughness enough to satisfy the requirements. As the next step, work was performed to determine the specifications of the JK2LB conduit taking into account of cold work, including compaction and winding, and to simplify its fabrication process. To simulate the cold work effect with cold work of 10% and aging, mechanical tests were performed at 4.2 K on laboratory-scale (20-30 kg) ingot samples at 4.2 K. It was found that the sum of carbon and nitrogen content should be in the range from 0.11% to 0.18% to achieve the ITER mechanical requirements. To obtain a grain-sized of conduit as well as that of a small ingot sample, the appropriate solution heat-treatment temperature and holding time were studied. In order to simplify the billet production process, we confirmed the internal metallurgical qualities of a JK2LB-cast ingot. Since significant segregation was not observed, it was possible to exclude the electroslag remelting process. Based on the above achievements, full-size JK2LB conduits that satisfy the ITER mechanical requirements were fabricated. (author)

2008-06-01

205

[The preparation and evaluation of tissue inducible nerve guide conduit].  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this research was to fabricate a novel tissue inducible nerve guide conduit, and to evaluate its biologic property. The microspheres were prepared with chitosan that encapsulated ligustrazine. The drug release of the chitosan microspheres was detected with application of the controlled release method in vitro. Chitosan microspheres were mixed with collagen to fabricate the tissue inducible nerve conduit, which were crosslinked with 2% genipin for 24h. Mechanical properties of the nerve guide conduit samples, including maximum load and breaking load, were measured using an Instron Series IX Automated Materials Testing System. The flexibility of the nerve guide conduit was determined with the texture evaluation instrument. Different methods, such as scanning electron microscope (SEM), light microscope (LMS) and immunofluorescence were used to analyze the spatial structure of the nerve guide conduit, the distribution of the microspheres, the state of the nerve duct combined with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and the effect of the ligustrazine that released from chitosan microsphere on MSCs differentiation into nerve cells, respectively. The results showed that the chitosan microspheres had better releasing effect. The mechanical properties resultant nerve guide conduit were determined. The maximum load and breaking load of the genipin crosslinked samples were significantly higher than that observed with the non-crosslinkers, increasing to (0.76 +/- 0.15) N and (0.69 +/- 0.17) N from (0.23 +/- 0.09) N and (0.20 +/- 0.12) N for the non-crosslinkers (P crosslinked and crosslinked by genipin were(58.62 +/- 7.59) mg and (9.23 +/- 2.47) mg, respec- tively. This had a statistical significance (P crosslinking samples, the microspheres were uniformly distributed on the surface of scaffold, the ligustrazine that released from the chitosan microspheres could promote MSCs to express NSE and MAP2 that were the relevant marker molecule of nerve cells. The nerve guide conduit is combined with MSCs, which promote MSCs proliferation and NSE expression by the ligustrazine that released from the chitosan microspheres. The conduit has better biological compatibility and tissue inducible function. PMID:22616182

Zhao, Hongbin; Liu, Xingyan; Ge, Baofeng; Guo, Chao; Zhen, Ping

2012-04-01

206

Single-friction-surface triboelectric generator with human body conduit  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a transparent single-friction-surface triboelectric generator (STEG) employing human body as the conduit, making the applications of STEG in portable electronics much more practical and leading to a significant output improvement. The STEG with micro-patterned polydimethylsiloxane surface achieved an output voltage of over 200 V with a current density of 4.7 ?A/cm2. With human body conduit, the output current increased by 39% and the amount of charge that transferred increased by 34% compared to the results with grounded electrode. A larger increment of 210% and 81% was obtained in the case of STEG with a large-size flat polyethylene terephthalate surface.

Meng, Bo; Cheng, Xiaoliang; Zhang, Xiaosheng; Han, Mengdi; Liu, Wen; Zhang, Haixia

2014-03-01

207

Issues in energy finance  

Science.gov (United States)

As opposed to the well developed and understood equity markets, the energy markets are still in their infancy. The explosion of contracts, of both the primary and derivative types, are testament both to the existing size and the untapped growth potential of this exciting industry. However, because of its relative youth many basic issues in the energy markets remain unresolved. This thesis introduces some interesting questions and provides insights into these issues. Thematically, the chapters of this thesis are linked by an emphasis on valuation and risk management decisions. A contribution of this thesis is to show that subtle differences between the endogenous price process in our general equilibrium setting and the exogenous processes considered in earlier papers can generate significant differences in both financial and real option values. In addition to these valuation concerns there has been much debate about the corporate risk management function. Finance theory suggests that a value maximizing corporation should either be indifferent to hedging or, in the presence of certain imperfections, it should completely hedge all exposures. Both these extremes contradict empirical evidence. We show that existing corporate hedging behaviour is best explained in light of both physical market imperfections and directional predictions on future prices. While these speculative motives may arise from corporate hubris or genuine informational advantages, we argue that it would be difficult to implement private information in the absence of noise traders. Related to the risk management decision is the existence of futures risk premia. These premia have been thought to be cause by covariance with priced factors or due to the hedging demands of consumers and producers. This thesis argues that inventories serve as a signal of available quantity, which coupled with consumers fears regarding stockouts can induce a positive relationship between premia and inventories. In conclusion, we test this relationship using natural gas storage and futures price data and show empirical support for our hypothesis.

Khokher, Zeigham Islam

208

Financing energy projects: experience of the International Finance Corporation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper provides an overview of the recent trend towards private ownership and financing of power projects in the developing countries, focusing on the role played by both private and public agencies in meeting the large financing challenges. The paper draws upon the operational experience of the International Finance Corporation, which has been involved in the financing of more than 30 private power projects in the developing countries over the past three decades. Among the issues that affect implementation of private power projects is the balancing of risk and reward to equity investors and to commercial lenders. The paper discusses the principal sources of risk and the strategies used to manage them. A related issue is the competition for capital on the international markets, and the techniques that are being devised to bring more finance to the power sector. Finally, the paper considers the role of government in bringing private investors to the power sector, and the approaches being adopted to balance the needs of investors with the needs of the public. (author)

1995-11-01

209

defra recovery funding arrangements – guidance notes  

financial assistance available to local authorities to help meet recovery costs \\incurred ... These arrangements are designed to help meet some of the costs \\associated ... The Defra recovery arrangements could provide both capital and \\revenue.

210

Solar energy concentrating slat arrangement and collector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Disclosed are improved elongated, reflective slat concentrators and elongated multi-conduit/multi-fluid collectors and systems thereof. The reflective slats are generally of rectangular configuration and extending about a curve. In systems utilizing the concentrators, the collector is located above the concentrator, i.e. forwardly of the concentrator relative to the travel of solar energy to the concentrator.

Stark, V.; Genequand, P.

1985-06-04

211

Fault Diagnosability of Arrangement Graphs  

CERN Document Server

The growing size of the multiprocessor system increases its vulnerability to component failures. It is crucial to locate and to replace the faulty processors to maintain a system's high reliability. The fault diagnosis is the process of identifying faulty processors in a system through testing. This paper shows that the largest connected component of the survival graph contains almost all remaining vertices in the $(n,k)$-arrangement graph $A_{n,k}$ when the number of moved faulty vertices is up to twice or three times the traditional connectivity. Based on this fault resiliency, we establishes that the conditional diagnosability of $A_{n,k}$ under the comparison model. We prove that for $k\\geq 4$, $n\\geq k+2$, the conditional diagnosability of $A_{n,k}$ is $(3k-2)(n-k)-3$; the conditional diagnosability of $A_{n,n-1}$ is $3n-7$ for $n\\geq 5$.

Zhou, Shuming

2012-01-01

212

The physics of custody arrangements  

CERN Document Server

Divorced individuals face complex situations when they have children with different ex-partners, or even more, when their new partners have children of their own. In such cases, and when kids spend every other weekend with each parent, a practical problem emerges: Is it possible to have such a custody arrangement that every couple has either all of the kids together or no kids at all? We show that in general, it is not possible, but that the number of couples that do can be maximized. The problem turns out to be equivalent to finding the ground state of a spin glass system, which is known to be equivalent to what is called a weighted max-cut problem in graph theory, and hence it is NP-Complete.

Gomberoff, Andrés; Romagnoli, Pierre Paul

2013-01-01

213

The financing of nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Existing nuclear generating capacity plays an important role in providing secure, economic and low-carbon electricity supplies in many OECD countries. At the same time, there is increasing recognition that an expansion of nuclear power could play a valuable role in reducing future carbon dioxide emissions. However, in recent years only a handful of new nuclear power plants (NPPs) have been built in just a few OECD countries. An important reason for this is the challenges associated with financing the construction of new NPPs. The just-published NEA report entitled The Financing of Nuclear Power Plants examines these challenges. In addition, recognizing that any expansion of nuclear power programmes will require strong and sustained government support, the report highlights the role of governments in facilitating and encouraging investment in new nuclear capacity. Key actions that should be considered by governments that wish to see investment in new NPPs include: - Provide clear and sustained policy support for the development of nuclear power, by setting out the case for a nuclear component in energy supply as part of a long-term national energy strategy. - Work with electricity utilities, financial companies and other potential investors, and the nuclear industry from an early stage to address concerns that may prevent nuclear investment and to avoid mistakes in establishing the parameters for new NPPs. - Establish an efficient and effective regulatory system which provides adequate opportunities for public involvement in the decision-making process, while also providing potential investors with the certainty they require to plan such a major investment. - Put arrangements in place for the management of radioactive waste and spent fuel, and show progress towards a solution for final disposal of waste. For investors in NPPs, the financial arrangements for paying their fair share of the costs must be clearly defined. - Ensure that electricity market regulation does not disadvantage NPPs. Long-term arrangements may be necessary to provide certainty for investors in NPPs, reflecting the long-term nature of nuclear power projects. Where reducing CO2 emissions is to act as an incentive for investments in nuclear power, the government may need to provide some guarantees that policy measures will keep carbon prices at sufficiently high levels. In countries where there are large utilities with the financial strength to invest directly in new NPPs, or where there are well-resourced foreign utilities willing to make such investments, fully commercial financing may be possible. However, in other cases it may prove impossible for a nuclear power plant project to go ahead without direct or indirect public sector financial support, which would reduce the investment risks to acceptable levels. Public sector financial support could involve supporting a state-owned utility in making nuclear power plant investments, providing support to private sector utilities through loan guarantees, tax credits or other measures, or establishing public-private partnerships. However, governments should ensure that, overall, investment risk remains appropriately shared with the private sector

2009-01-01

214

The international Finance Corporation and financing of sustainable energy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The International Finance Corporation (IFC), a member of the World Bank Group, is the largest multilateral source of loan and equity financing for private sector projects in the developing world. IFC participates in an investment only when it can make a special contribution that complements the role of market operators. Since its founding 40 years ago, IFC has provided more than $18.8 billion in financing for 1,706 companies in developing countries. Its share capital is provided by its 170 member countries, which collectively determine its policies and activities. Strong shareholder support and a substantial paid-in capital base have allowed IFC to raise funds for its lending activities through its triple-A rated bond issues in international financial markets. (orig.)

1999-01-01

215

26 CFR 1.6081-7 - Automatic extension of time to file Real Estate Mortgage Investment Conduit (REMIC) income tax...  

Science.gov (United States)

...to file Real Estate Mortgage Investment Conduit (REMIC) income tax return. 1.6081-7...to file Real Estate Mortgage Investment Conduit (REMIC) income tax return. (a... A Real Estate Mortgage Investment Conduit (REMIC) required to file an income...

2010-04-01

216

77 FR 102 - Turnbull Hydro LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing for Exemption for a Small Conduit...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Accepted for Filing for Exemption for a Small Conduit Hydroelectric Facility and Soliciting...public inspection: a. Application Type: Conduit Exemption. b. Project No: 14294-000...Description of Request: The proposed small conduit hydroelectric project would consist...

2012-01-03

217

AC loss characteristics of simulated CIC-type conductors having plastic conduit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When alternating current superconducting coils having cable-in-conduit conductors are fabricated, non-metallic conduit materials are necessary to avoid eddy current losses in the conduits. Using two kinds of non-metallic tapes made of glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRPs) and Dyneema fiber reinforced plastics (DFRPs), we made the conductors with the GFRP conduits and DFRP conduits, and experimentally studied the total losses of the conductors. The measured results showed that the total loss of the conductor with the GFRP conduit was smaller than that with the DFRP conduit at the same value of the void ratio, the transport current, the external magnetic field, and so on. When the void ratios become high, the superconducting bundle cable can easily move in the conduit. Hence the measured total losses increased with the void ratios of the conductors

2003-10-01

218

EMP Testing of Buried Conduits, The Pulsed Dipole and Pulsed Transmission Line.  

Science.gov (United States)

Buried conduit systems form an integral part of the EMP shielding in large hardened missile systems such as SAFEGUARD to protect the communications, control, and power cabling from NEMP effects. To initially verify conduit system hardness and to ensure th...

E. Seijo F. J. Agee H. A. Roberts

1975-01-01

219

Silk Fibroin Conduits: A Cellular and Functional Assessment of Peripheral Nerve Repair  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Novel silk fibroin conduits were designed with appropriate porosity for peripheral nerve repair. The aim of this work was to utilize these conduits to examine cell inflammatory responses and functional recovery in a sciatic nerve defect model.

Ghaznavi, Amir Mahan; Kokai, Lauren E.; Lovett, Michael L.; Kaplan, David L.; Marra, Kacey G.

2011-01-01

220

Morphometric analysis of three-dimensional networks of karst conduits  

Science.gov (United States)

The main idiosyncrasy of a typical karst system is the presence of a three-dimensional network of conduits behaving as drains in the system and being responsible of both the quick response of karst springs to rainfall events and the complex distribution of solutes in the system. A morphometric analysis of the three-dimensional geometry of conduits provides quantitative measures that can be used in a range of applications. These morphometric parameters can be used as descriptors of the underground geomorphology, they provide information on speleogenesis processes, they can be correlated with karst denudation ratios, they can be used to control the simulation of realistic stochastic karst networks of conduits, and they can be correlated with hydrogeologic behaviour of the karst system. The main purpose of this paper is to define, describe and illustrate a range of morphometric indexes and morphometric functions that can be calculated nowadays because the availability of three-dimensional topographies provided by speleological work and the availability of the computational and graphical power provided by modern computers. Some of the morphometric parameters describe the existence of preferential directions of karstification, others describe the kartification along the vertical and the possible presence of inception horizons. Other indexes describe the shape complexity of the karstic network, whilst other indexes describe spatial variability of the conduit geometry, and other parameters give account of the connectivity of the three-dimensional network. The morphometric analysis is illustrated with a three-dimensional karstic network in Southern France.

Pardo-Iguzquiza, Eulogio; Durán-Valsero, Juan J.; Rodríguez-Galiano, Victor

2011-09-01

 
 
 
 
221

CODAC systems arrangement and connectivity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: •The CODAC system is a distributed system and scattered in many buildings connected with cables. Building construction for ITER project is just started so volume reservation for different CODAC component is done based on the content of this paper. •The 2-D and 3-D diagrams have been prepared which are showing the location of different CODAC equipment and their connectivity. •The different requirements regarding raised access (false) floor, power requirements, heat load, installation, maintenance, redundancy, and segregation etc. have been considered. -- Abstract: The CODAC system is responsible for integrating all ITER plant system Instrumentation and Control systems and enabling operation of ITER machine as a single integrated facility. The different ITER plant systems and their Instrumentation and Control systems are distributed in several ITER buildings on the ITER platform. The CODAC systems have to interface with all these distributed plant system I and C systems. CODAC systems will be composed of several physical systems or components like networks, servers, workstations (terminals), large displays, PSH, storage systems etc. Several rooms in different buildings have been defined to house all above equipment. The site-wide CODAC network infrastructure will be based on a dual (redundant) star topology. The two redundant star points will house the core networking switches. These redundant core switches will be installed in different buildings. Cubicles used for network infrastructure are distributed among “hutches,” where a CODAC hutch is a room or area equipped with appropriate heating, ventilation, air conditioning and uninterruptible power which will be directly connected through two star points. The responsibility of CODAC infrastructure ends up to the plant system I and C cubicles so several passive CODAC network panels have identified in all I and C rooms of different plant buildings. This CODAC Network Panel will be the physical termination point for CODAC Network infrastructure. The CODAC Network cables running from the nearest CODAC Network hutch will terminate in these panels. Network panels are installed at strategic locations close to plant system I and C cubicles. This paper will describe more details about the physical arrangement of CODAC systems in different buildings on ITER platform for different purpose and their planned connectivity. This paper will also provide more information about the volume allocations for CODAC components, planned cabling arrangement and other infrastructure requirements like electrical and cooling etc.

Gulati, Hitesh Kumar, E-mail: hkgulati@gmail.com; Beltran, David; Kuehn, Ingo; Kotamaki, Miikka; Makijarvi, Petri; Wallander, Anders

2013-10-15

222

Finance Committee: 134th Session  

...on Agriculture Committee on Commodity Problems REGIONAL CONFERENCES 2012 134th Session Finance Committee 134th SessionRome, 21-22 October 2010 List of Documents Download ID ...FC 134/1 Provisional Agenda K9120E Serie 134/INF Download ID FC 134/INF/1 Rev.1 Provisional Timetable K9121E Finance Committee ...World Food Programme ID FC 134/2 Policy for Disclosure of Internal Audit Reports to Member States K9282E FC 134/3 WFP Anti-Fraud and ...Anti-Corruption Policy K9283E FC 134/4 Financial Framework Review K9327E FC 134/5 Review of the Working Capital Financing Facility K9328E FC 134/...

223

Introduction to Micro-finance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Micro-finance appears today as the most promising tool in the struggle against poverty and banking exclusion. By providing micro-credit, collecting saving and supplying microinsurance, microfinance institutions (MFIs are renewing the banking activity by practices as innovative as the group lending method. However, the real impacts of the microfinance on target populations are to be confirmed, theirevaluation colliding with numerous difficulties. Nevertheless, the future development of micro-finance depends on its superiority over other tools in achieving its objectives. Hence, the need to develop more rigorous studies on the impacts, and mature reflection on sources of funding for MFIs in a context of growing of ethical finance and socially responsible investment.

Mariam SANGARÉ

2008-01-01

224

Combined physical and chemical nonequilibrium transport model for solution conduits.  

Science.gov (United States)

Solute transport in karst aquifers is primarily constrained to relatively complex and inaccessible solution conduits where transport is often rapid, turbulent, and at times constrictive. Breakthrough curves generated from tracer tests in solution conduits are typically positively-skewed with long tails evident. Physical nonequilibrium models to fit breakthrough curves for tracer tests in solution conduits are now routinely employed. Chemical nonequilibrium processes are likely important interactions, however. In addition to partitioning between different flow domains, there may also be equilibrium and nonequilibrium partitioning between the aqueous and solid phases. A combined physical and chemical nonequilibrium (PCNE) model was developed for an instantaneous release similar to that developed by Leij and Bradford (2009) for a pulse release. The PCNE model allows for partitioning open space in solution conduits into mobile and immobile flow regions with first-order mass transfer between the two regions to represent physical nonequilibrium in the conduit. Partitioning between the aqueous and solid phases proceeds either as an equilibrium process or as a first-order process and represents chemical nonequilibrium for both the mobile and immobile regions. Application of the model to three example breakthrough curves demonstrates the applicability of the combined physical and chemical nonequilibrium model to tracer tests conducted in karst aquifers, with exceptionally good model fits to the data. The three models, each from a different state in the United States, exhibit very different velocities, dispersions, and other transport properties with most of the transport occurring via the fraction of mobile water. Fitting the model suggests the potentially important interaction of physical and chemical nonequilibrium processes. PMID:24292209

Field, Malcolm S; Leij, Feike J

2014-02-01

225

Extra cardiac conduit Fontan procedure in 41 patients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The Fontan operation is the definitive operation for palliation of complex congenital heart disease with single –ventricle physiology. The use of the extra cardiac conduit has recently been gaining popularity. The purpose of this study was to compare the outcomes of extra cardiac conduit Fontan procedure (off-pump technique and that of traditional technique (lateral tunnel technique in which cardiopulmonary bypass is routinely used. Methods: Forty one patients in different age groups underwent extra cardiac conduit Fontan procedure between April 2001 and December 2004. Data were collected from ICU sheets, files and during follow up visits. Under general anesthesia and through median sternotomy, using two temporary decompressing shunts, superior vena cava implanted on right pulmonary artery and a conduit interposed between transected inferior vena cava and main pulmonary artery. Fenestration was done in almost all patients and previous shunts were closed if there were any. Results: Of our patients, 13 were female and 28 were male. Mean age of the patients was 11.1 years (SD=7.8.In 24.4% of cases Fontan procedure was done as the first palliative surgery and in 75.6% of them there was previous history of palliative procedures. In 6 patients (14.6% we were constrained to use cardiopulmonary bypass which was predictable or necessary in 50% of cases. There was no reoperation due to post operative bleeding. Two cases suffered from prolonged plural effusion. Our in-hospital mortality was 9.8%. During 2-24 months follow up, we found two cases who were in NYHA functional class II and one case in functional class I. Conclusion: Extra cardiac conduit Fontan procedure could be used in a safe way. The results of this study were comparable and even in some cases better than that of the traditional technique.

Safarpour Gh

2007-07-01

226

Combined physical and chemical nonequilibrium transport model for solution conduits  

Science.gov (United States)

Solute transport in karst aquifers is primarily constrained to relatively complex and inaccessible solution conduits where transport is often rapid, turbulent, and at times constrictive. Breakthrough curves generated from tracer tests in solution conduits are typically positively-skewed with long tails evident. Physical nonequilibrium models to fit breakthrough curves for tracer tests in solution conduits are now routinely employed. Chemical nonequilibrium processes are likely important interactions, however. In addition to partitioning between different flow domains, there may also be equilibrium and nonequilibrium partitioning between the aqueous and solid phases. A combined physical and chemical nonequilibrium (PCNE) model was developed for an instantaneous release similar to that developed by Leij and Bradford (2009) for a pulse release. The PCNE model allows for partitioning open space in solution conduits into mobile and immobile flow regions with first-order mass transfer between the two regions to represent physical nonequilibrium in the conduit. Partitioning between the aqueous and solid phases proceeds either as an equilibrium process or as a first-order process and represents chemical nonequilibrium for both the mobile and immobile regions. Application of the model to three example breakthrough curves demonstrates the applicability of the combined physical and chemical nonequilibrium model to tracer tests conducted in karst aquifers, with exceptionally good model fits to the data. The three models, each from a different state in the United States, exhibit very different velocities, dispersions, and other transport properties with most of the transport occurring via the fraction of mobile water. Fitting the model suggests the potentially important interaction of physical and chemical nonequilibrium processes.

Field, Malcolm S.; Leij, Feike J.

2014-02-01

227

IPP leveraged financing: Unfair advantage  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

IPPs normally employ project financing - in which the loans for a project are secured primarily by the assets of the project (and not by the assets of the parent or owner of the project). To support project financing, the IPP developer puts together a package that includes a site, a signed electric contract, a steam contract (if the plant is to be a qualifying facility (QF) under PURPA), a construction contract, and all the necessary environmental permits. The developer then usually attempts to borrow as much of the project's capital costs as possible - ergo the term highly leveraged financing. This is because debt is cheaper than equity (equity is a riskier investment and requires a return significantly higher than debt), and cheaper still when is preferential tax treatment is considered. For this reason, equity is typically used by IPPs only to take risks that lenders are unwilling to assume, and to assure lenders that the developer will not walk away if a project becomes, less profitable. In contrast, a utility finances construction - and all its other capital requirements - by issuing debt or selling equity from the parent company. Its capital needs are typically financed by issuing equity and debt, secured by the assets on the balance sheet, in roughly a 50:50 ratio. The cost of debt depends on the utility's bond rating - with the more risky utilities rated lower and, therefore, paying more for debt. If borrowing new capital would cause the utility to exceed its allowed debt-to-equity ratio, the utility will have to sell equity to raise part of its capital requirements. In the case of utility financing, the debt is secured by all the utility's assets - not just those of the particular construction project needing the investment.

Naill, R.F.; Dudley, W.C. (AES Corp., Arlington, VA (United States))

1992-01-15

228

Transfer arrangement for sealable enclosure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An arrangement for transferring items to or from e.g. a glovebox, in a closed moveable container. The glovebox port has a door having a non-rotatable outer portion and a rotatable inner portion. The container has a lid having a non-rotatable outer portion and a rotatable inner portion, the outer portion having a thin lip. The port has a thin lip which can be aligned with the lip of the lid. The outer portion of the door retains a peripheral sealing ring and the rim of the container retains a similar ring which can sandwich and bridge the two lips. The container is attached to the port by a rotatable locking ring. Via an externally rotatable and slidable shaft, lined at its inner end to the inner portion of the door, the latter is rotatable to disengage the door from the port, couple this inner portion to that of the lid, disengage the lid from the container, and move the coupled door and lid back and laterally away from the port, and vice versa. (author)

1988-08-01

229

Project finance for renewable energy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper is intended to provide general advice to sponsors of renewable energy projects who expect to raise project-based financing from commercial banks to fund the development of their projects. It sets out, for the benefit of such sponsors, how bankers typically approach the analysis of these undertakings and in particular the risk areas on which they concentrate. By doing so it should assist sponsors to maximize their prospects of raising bank finance. The watchword for sponsors approaching banks must be ''Be Prepared'' . (author)

Mills, S.J. (Sceptre Management Ltd. (United Kingdom)); Taylor, M.

1994-08-01

230

Project finance for renewable energy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper is intended to provide general advice to sponsors of renewable energy projects who expect to raise project-based financing from commercial banks to fund the development of their projects. It sets out, for the benefit of such sponsors, how bankers typically approach the analysis of these undertakings and in particular the risk areas on which they concentrate. By doing so it should assist sponsors to maximize their prospects of raising bank finance. The watchword for sponsors approaching banks must be ''Be Prepared'' . (author)

1994-08-01

231

Synergistic effects of micropatterned biodegradable conduits and Schwann cells on sciatic nerve regeneration  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes a novel biodegradable conduit that provides a combination of physical, chemical and biological cues at the cellular level to facilitate peripheral nerve regeneration. The conduit consists of a porous poly(D,L-lactic acid) (PDLLA) tubular support structure with a micropatterned inner lumen. Schwann cells were pre-seeded into the lumen to provide additional trophic support. Conduits with micropatterned inner lumens pre-seeded with Schwann cells (MS) were fabricated and compared with three types of conduits used as controls: M (conduits with micropatterned inner lumens without pre-seeded Schwann cells), NS (conduits without micropatterned inner lumens pre-seeded with Schwann cells) and N (conduits without micropatterned inner lumens, without pre-seeded Schwann cells). The conduits were implanted in rats with 1 cm sciatic nerve transections and the regeneration and functional recovery were compared in the four different cases. The number or size of regenerated axons did not vary significantly among the different conduits. The time of recovery, and the sciatic function index, however, were significantly enhanced using the MS conduits, based on qualitative observations as well as quantitative measurements using walking track analysis. This demonstrates that biodegradable micropatterned conduits pre-seeded with Schwann cells that provide a combination of physical, chemical and biological guidance cues for regenerating axons at the cellular level offer a better alternative for repairing sciatic nerve transactions than conventional biodegradable conduits.

Rutkowski, Gregory E.; Miller, Cheryl A.; Jeftinija, Srdija; Mallapragada, Surya K.

2004-09-01

232

Structural control of englacial conduits in the temperate Matanuska Glacier, Alaska, USA  

Science.gov (United States)

Fourteen englacial conduits were mapped within 2 km of the terminus of the temperate Matanuska Glacier, Alaska, USA, to ice depths of 65 m using speleological techniques. Detailed three-dimensional maps of the conduits were made over 3 years to characterize conduit relationships with glacier structural features and to track conduit evolution through time. All conduits consisted of single unbranching passages that followed fractures in the ice. All conduits were either too constricted to continue or became water-filled at their deepest explored point and were not able to be followed to the glacier bed. Conduit morphology varied systematically with the orientation of the glacier principal stresses, allowing them to be categorized into two broad classes. The first class of conduits were formed by hydrostatic crevasse penetration where a large supraglacial stream intersected longitudinal crevasses. These conduits plunged toward the glacier bed at angles of 30-40°. The second class of conduits formed where smaller streams sank into the glacier on shear crevasses. Many of these conduits changed direction dramatically where they intersected transverse crevasses at depth. These results suggest that the conduits observed in this study formed along fractures and, over their surveyed length, were not affected by gradients in ice overburden pressure.

Gulley, Jason

233

Air Demand and Conduit Pressures Stillhouse Hollow Dam, Lampasas River, Texas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tests were conducted to provide data on prototype conduit air demand during high water discharges and to determine conduit losses at high Reynolds numbers (10 to the 7th power). The latter information was used to compute the conduit roughness coefficient ...

E. D. Hart

1988-01-01

234

Instituciones Financieras de Desarrollo (Development Finance Companies).  

Science.gov (United States)

The financing of development finance companies (DFC's) has been the World Bank's major mechanism for assisting medium-scale productive enterprises in member countries. The report provides an historical perspective of DFC's, examines the current World Bank...

1976-01-01

235

Merchant plant project financings in Australia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Merchant plant project financings in Australia represent the biggest project financings completed to date and are a result of the highly successful disaggregation and privatisation of Victoria`s electricity supply industry. (UK)

Grambas, N. [Freehill Hollingdale and Page (Australia)

1997-05-21

236

THE PROBLEM OF FINANCING INNOVATION OF ENTERPRISES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article examines the main issues related to financing innovation in enterprises. The author proves the problem of financing innovation as a key deterrent to the innovative development of Russian enterprises.

Alexander Ildyakov

2012-01-01

237

Bubble Rise and Break-Up in Volcanic Conduits  

Science.gov (United States)

The continual passive degassing occurring at open-vent mafic volcanoes is often punctuated by bursts of active degassing. The latter are generally thought to be the result of slug flow: large, conduit-filling bubbles periodically rising up the feeder conduit and bursting at the magma-air interface. Existing models of volcanic degassing systems make the simplifying assumption that the conduit is cylindrical; however, while this may be true at shallow levels, a flaring probably connects it to a dyke-like geometry at depth. The overall goal of this research is to assess the influence of conduit geometry on the speed and stability of bubbles rising in open-vent systems, and ultimately to devise a model to infer conduit shape from emerging bubbles size. In order to do that an analogue experimental approach was used. All of the experiments were two-phase (melt+volatiles); the analogue materials of choice were golden syrup-water mixtures ranging in viscosity from 10-1 to 104 Pa*s and air. Two experimental apparatuses were used: a bi-dimensional and a tri-dimensional one. The bi-dimensional set-up is a cell made of two flat transparent PVC plates (44x23cm) 10mm or 5mm apart (the front one having a hole at the bottom permitting bubble injection) containing a variety of parallelepipeds apt to outline different plumbing system geometries. The tri-dimensional one consists of a cylindrical tube (r=1,5cm; l=7cm) allowing bubble injection through the bottom rubber tap and terminating into a square tank (l=22cm). Results indicate that conduit geometry directly controls the slug rise velocity and the surrounding liquid descending speed, which in turn control the slug stability. Small enough bubbles simply deform as they go through the flaring, while bigger ones split into two daughter bubbles. A regime diagram has been constructed, illustrating the bubble break-up threshold dependence on the flare geometry and initial slug size, the two main controlling factors. The phenomenon of bubble break-up implies that there is a maximum size a system of a certain shape and size can deliver. The size of the upper daughter bubble has been measured in a variety of experiments, and it has been found to be independent of the original slug size, but related to the conduit-upper reservoir transition geometry. It has therefore been possible to establish a relation between conduit geometry and first emerging daughter bubble size. Under the reasonable assumption of a non-limiting supply of gas, this allowed to successfully design the envisaged model of conduit geometry inferral from delivered bubbles size. Data on the size of emerging bubbles, necessary to feed the model, can be obtained through infrasound techniques, as a bursting over-pressurized gas bubble produces a characteristic seismoacoustic signal, from which it is possible to infer its size.

Soldati, A.; Cashman, K. V.; Rust, A.; Rosi, M.

2013-12-01

238

Does PLS financing solve asymmetric information problems?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Discussion of Islamic private equity (PE) financing modes rarely provides detailed analytical insights into their properties: there is no rigorous analysis of their features. The current paper analyzes how and when Profit Loss Sharing (PLS) financing methods can solve asymmetric information problems. I focus on Mudarabah and Musharakah financing schemes and consider agency models under moral hazard. The model shows some interesting results. First, I show that Mudarabah financing provide power...

Yousfi, Ouidad

2013-01-01

239

Financing energy conservation in developing countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report discusses traditional and innovative approaches to financing energy conservation and government roles and policy measures to encourage private-sector financing of energy conservation investments. By providing practical information on the various energy-conservation financing options that are available, the report will help private investors in AID-assisted countries identify sources of finance for energy-conservation investments and assist AID missions to design and implement successful private-sector conservation projects and programs.

1987-02-01

240

Education Financing of Rural Households in China  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this paper was to examine children’s education financing alternatives among households in rural China. Data on education financing was from a household survey conducted in three poverty villages in Guizhou, China. The difference in financing education by households was verified through non-parametric testing. Findings show that private savings is dominant in financing education of children in school. Formal loans are almost absent even in the highest wealth group examined. Th...

Wang, Hua-shu; Moll, Henk

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Australian University International Student Finances  

Science.gov (United States)

The omission of international students from the Australian Vice-Chancellor's Committee (AVCC) 2007 national study on student finances is indicative of a pattern of exclusion. The exclusion is unacceptable from a humane perspective and feeds the belief that Australians perceive international students primarily as "cash cows". This study partially…

Forbes-Mewett, Helen; Marginson, Simon; Nyland, Chris; Ramia, Gaby; Sawir, Erlenawati

2009-01-01

242

Alternatives in California School Finance.  

Science.gov (United States)

There are major disparities in spending and taxation among California school districts. Available resources per pupil bear little relationship to the willingness of local communities to support education or the educational task to be performed. In addition, the State school finance system forces districts to rely on local property tax bases for…

Barro, Stephen M.

243

CC2150 Finance Meeting jg  

…the shared costs. Any queries, please ask. Other Items: As with all EU projects, the vital date for reporting costs is the date when expenditure leaves your organisation's bank account. Coastal Division mentioned that they had received different advice from their FLC, while JTS Finance Officer backed…

244

Public financing in Croatian sport  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sport is a complex social activity that encompasses various areas. This, of course, complicates the matter of its financing since it is financed by private and public sources. This is mostly due to the fact that certain sporting activities are considered to be public goods which are then financed by public funds, i.e. the state and local budgets. This paper reports on the analysis of public sources of sports financing. The research confirmed the assumption that in the structure of public sources the local budget prevails, i.e. money coming from local budgets is higher than that coming from central government. Based on the given data concerning local budgets for sports, a trend analysis was conducted. Finally, criteria applied when distributing local funds to sports organizations and single sports were analysed. Based on the correlation analysis, this paper shows that the amount of funds coming from local budgets is correlated with sporting performance (medals won at domestic competitions.

Sanela Škori?

2012-06-01

245

CC2150 Finance Meeting jg  

Coastal Communities 2150 DRAFT Notes from Finance Meeting 13th April 2011 Present: Gower John Environment Agency Devriendt Charlotte Coastal Division Brown Duncan Environment Agency Anderson Sarah Kent County Council Gallagher Rachael Hampshire County Council Bosma Lyke JTS INTERREG IVA Maelfait Hannelore…

246

CC2150 Finance Meeting jg  

…bank account. Coastal Division mentioned that they had received different advice from their FLC, while JTS Finance Officer backed up my assertion. This is particularly relevant for personal expenses incurred while working on the project. There are two elements to ensure that it is eligible. 1) Ensure…

247

Nuclear industry (Finance) Act 1981  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of the Act is to enable British Nuclear Fuels Limited to make borrowings backed by Government guarantees in order to finance its ten year investment programme. More specifically, the Act raises the financial limit applicable to British Nuclear Fuels Limited from pound 500 million to pound 1,000 million. (NEA)

1981-01-01

248

CC2150 Finance Meeting jg  

…from Finance Meeting 13th April 2011 Present: Gower John Environment Agency Devriendt Charlotte Coastal Division Brown Duncan Environment Agency Anderson Sarah Kent County Council Gallagher Rachael Hampshire County Council Bosma Lyke JTS INTERREG IVA Maelfait Hannelore Coordination Centre, West Flanders…

249

Critical issues in recent coal project financings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Non-recourse and partial recourse coal project financings have been done and will continue to be done. A company's financing objectives are unique and each transaction must be structured accordingly. It is important to base each decision concerning exploration, mine plan and market partly on the final financing goal. The earlier this process is brought to bear the better.

Griffin, J.M.

1984-02-01

250

Capital Financing for Independent Private Schools.  

Science.gov (United States)

This document contains summary materials from a presentation by Wye River Capital, Inc. of Annapolis, Maryland, on capital financing for independent private schools. The main sections of the presentation address: (1) overview of the capital financing process; (2) tax law considerations for tax-exempt financings by private schools; and (3) key…

Quinn, Kevin G.; Doherty, Robert F.; Wienk, Christopher O.

251

Personal Finance in America's Schools Today.  

Science.gov (United States)

Highlights from a survey of educational practices of personal finance teachers and resource materials for emerging topics are provided. Of the 6,100 secondary teachers in the United States and Canada who received questionnaires, 1,400 responded. With over 30 states having personal finance or consumer economics guidelines, personal finance courses…

Teaching Topics, 1983

1983-01-01

252

Project Finance in the Energy Industry: New Debt-based Financing Models  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper aims to examine the development of new financing models for project finance to attract private investors to finance large European energy infrastructure projects. In particular, the paper investigates the uniqueness of the project finance as a rapidly growing field in finance, the financial characteristics of the project bond market as one of the vehicles for funding energy projects, and the role of the credit support provided by the European Investment Bank and the Europea...

Enzo Scannella

2012-01-01

253

The homotopy type of toric arrangements  

CERN Document Server

A toric arrangement is a finite set of hypersurfaces in a complex torus, every hypersurface being the kernel of a character. In the present paper we build a CW-complex homotopy equivalent to the arrangement complement, with a combinatorial description similar to that of the well-known Salvetti complex. If the toric arrangement is defined by a Weyl group, we also provide an algebraic description, very handy for cohomology computations. In the last part we give a description in terms of tableaux for a toric arrangement appearing in robotics.

Moci, Luca

2010-01-01

254

Stenting an aortopulmonary conduit with peripheral cardiopulmonary bypass support.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although surgically created aortopulmonary (AP) shunts are uncommon in the adult congenital heart disease population, they are often used in patients with pulmonary atresia. For these patients, the shunt is a vital supply of pulmonary blood flow and thus obstruction of the shunt may lead to pulmonary hypoperfusion and hypoxia thereby increasing morbidity and mortality. This report describes a safe and effective method of stenting the conduit with the hemodynamic support of peripheral cardiopulmonary bypass (PCB). Prior to the procedure, a multimodality assessment of a stenosis in a kinked AP conduit using computed tomography, angiography, intravascular ultrasound (IVUS), and pressure wire assessment (PWA) was utilized. While PCB, IVUS, and PWA have all been used to great effect in various clinical scenarios, the combined use of these techniques has not been previously been described in the setting of intervention in adult congenital heart disease. PMID:23592486

Incani, Alexander; Lee, Joseph C; Nicolae, Mugur J; Walters, Darren L

2014-01-01

255

Tension layer winding of cable-in-conduit conductor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A 710 mm i.d. by 440 mm long, 6 layer Cable-in-Conduit (CIC) coil was precision tension layer wound with Incoloy 908 jacketed conductor to model winding technology that will be used for the Nb3Sn outsert coils of the 45 Tesla Hybrid Magnet Project at the US National High Magnetic Field Laboratory. This paper reports on the set up of a new winding facility with unique capabilities for insulating and winding long length CIC conductor and on special procedures which were developed to wind and support layer to layer transitions and to safely form conductor into and out of the winding. Analytical methods used to predict conduit keystoning, springback and back tensioning requirements before winding are reported in comparison to results obtained during winding and actual winding build-up dimensions on a layer by layer basis in comparison to design requirements

1996-07-01

256

Evaluation of the Ministry of Finance’s Forecast History  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper evaluates the accuracy of macroeconomic economic forecasts of the Ministry of Finance of the Czech Republic using the average forecasting error, the mean absolute error and Theil’s inequality coeffi cient. The paper analyses the forecast accuracy of the main macroeconomic indicators – real GDP growth, nominal GDP growth, GDP defl ator growth, real private consumption growth, average infl ation rate, average unemployment rate and current account balance to GDP Ratio. The forecast accuracy is also assessed using the modifi ed Diebold and Mariano test, which compares the accuracy of two forecasts under the null hypothesis that assumes no diff erences in accuracy. Last but not least, the paper compares the accuracy of the forecasts of the Ministry of Finance to those of the European Commission, Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development and International Monetary Fund.

Petra Vacková

2014-06-01

257

Evolution du Systeme de Financement du Logement des Etats-Unis: Rappel Historique et Lecons Tirees pour les Marches Hypothecaires Emergents (Evolution of the U.S. Housing Finance System: A Historical Survey and Lessons for Emerging Mortgage Markets).  

Science.gov (United States)

In the past 180 years, the U.S. housing finance system (HFS) has evolved from an informal/communal institutional arrangement to one of the most well-functioning and extensive financial intermediation systems in the world. This evolution did not develop in...

2004-01-01

258

The International Finance Corporation and financing of sustainable energy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The International Finance Corporation (IFC), a member of the World Bank Group, is the largest multilateral source of loan and equity financing for private sector projects in the developing world. IFC participates in an investment only when it can make a special contribution that complements the role of market operators. Since its founding 40 years ago, IFC has provided more than $18.8 billion in financing for 1,706 companies in developing countries. Its share capital is provided by its 170 member countries, which collectively determine its policies and activities. Strong shareholder support and a substantial paid-in capital base have allowed IFC to raise funds for its lending activities through its triple-A rated bond issues in international financial markets. IFC created an Infrastructure Department in 1992 in response to the growing demand for its services in this area. During fiscal 1996 IFC approved 33 projects for new investments of $715 million of which 27% were in the power sector. In recognition of the continuing demand growth for private power investments an expanded Power Department has been formed to handle IFC`s investments in electric power generation projects using renewable resources such as: run-of-the-river hydro, geothermal, biomass cogeneration, wind energy, and solar (photovoltaic, solar thermal, etc.), as well as conventional thermal generation projects, transmission and distribution projects, and energy efficiency investments.

NONE

1997-12-01

259

Financing renewable energy projects: a guide for developers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The document is a summary of the approach recommended to developers seeking finance for renewable energy projects. The guide recognises the time-consuming and difficult nature of project financing and gives practical advice on the various financing options, explains some finance terminology and describes sources of finance available to developers. The main sections of the document are (i) possible financing routes for renewable energy schemes, (ii) the principal financing alternatives, (iii) typical financing terms, (iv) financing sources and (v) key points for a successful financing. The document contains detailed diagrams. A more detailed report is also available.

NONE

2000-02-01

260

The fundamental group of complex hyperplanes arrangements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper we suggest a new method to compute the fundamental group of the complemented of any complex hyperplanes arrangements. Our computation is based on a construction called labyrinth of an arrangement of complex lines. The method can be generalized for the case of an arbitrary affine curve. (author). 9 refs, 3 figs

1994-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Conduit drilling at Unzen volcano, Japan: core description and interpretation  

Science.gov (United States)

A 1996-m-long hole has been drilled on a slanted trajectory that passed beneath Unzen volcano, Japan. The hole penetrated central conduit region of the volcano at ~1600 m below the summit. Drill cores at 50 m intervals were recovered from the hole. The principal facies of the drill cores in the conduit region are polymictic breccia and coherent dacite. The polymictic breccia is non-stratified, poorly sorted and made up of heterolithologic, polyhedral dacite clasts 10-50 mm across, which are embedded in a cogenetic matrix. Larger clasts up to 50 cm across rarely occur. The clasts consist of non-vesicular, porphyritic dacite, which varies in color (greenish grey to grey), alteration, phenocryst size and phenocryst proportion. They show clast-rotated texture, and no jigsaw-fit texture. The edges of the clasts are commonly rounded. The matrix of the breccia is reddish grey, dense (low porosity) and composed of angular dacite fragments up to 5 mm across. The coherent dacite is grey, massive and porphyritic. It contains plagioclase and hornblende phenocrysts. The matrix of the dacite is mostly crystalline, but gradation from light grey, crystalline dacite to dark grey, glassy dacite occurs. These polymictic breccia and coherent dacite have been in places intruded by veins up to 10 mm wide. The veins vary in color (white, greenish grey and black) and components (fine-grain cray minerals, coarse rock fragments). Some veins show laminations along the vein wall. The morphological features of the polymictic breccia suggest that the breecia formed within the conduit region of the volcano in response to fragmentation of rocks due to explosions, but did not extrude from the vent and recycled within the conduit region. The coherent dacite facies is probably a dyke with chilled margins. The veins may have formed by injections of high-temperature gas and/or liquid into fractures around dykes during dyke intrusions. The descriptions of the drill core, together with composition of drill cuttings, electric conductivity of the borehole (FMS image) and seismological data during 1990-1995 eruption, suggest that the conduit region of the Unzen volcano is 300-350 m wide at ~1600 m below the summit, and consists of polymictic breccia and several, parallel, vertical dykes, intruding the breccia. Each dyke is tabular-shaped and 3-30 m thick. Thin dykes (3-8 m thick) have simple, uniformed interior and are inferred to have formed by single injection of magma. On the other hand, thick dykes (26-30 m) have several cooling units within, and probably formed by several magma injections.

Goto, Y.; Nakada, S.; Yoshimoto, M.; Shimano, T.; Kurokawa, M.; Sakuma, S.; Sugimoto, T.; Noguchi, S.; Toramaru, A.; Hoshizumi, H.; Oguri, K.; Uto, K.

2004-12-01

262

A Class of Baker-Akhiezer Arrangements  

Science.gov (United States)

We study a class of arrangements of lines with multiplicities on the plane which admit the Chalykh-Veselov Baker-Akhiezer function. These arrangements are obtained by adding multiplicity one lines in an invariant way to any dihedral arrangement with invariant multiplicities. We describe all the Baker-Akhiezer arrangements when at most one line has multiplicity higher than 1. We study associated algebras of quasi-invariants which are isomorphic to the commutative algebras of quantum integrals for the generalized Calogero-Moser operators. We compute the Hilbert series of these algebras and we conclude that the algebras are Gorenstein. We also show that there are no other arrangements with Gorenstein algebras of quasi-invariants when at most one line has multiplicity bigger than 1.

Feigin, Misha; Johnston, David

2014-06-01

263

Project Finance in the Energy Industry: New Debt-based Financing Models  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper aims to examine the development of new financing models for project finance to attract private investors to finance large European energy infrastructure projects. In particular, the paper investigates the uniqueness of the project finance as a rapidly growing field in finance, the financial characteristics of the project bond market as one of the vehicles for funding energy projects, and the role of the credit support provided by the European Investment Bank and the European Union to promote the bond-based financing schemes. The paper is organized as follows. Section 1 provides a general description of project finance. Section 2 identifies the economic reasons for using project finance and assesses the role of the project bond market to fund project finance in the energy industry. Section 3 evaluates the proposed financial support from the European Investment Bank and the European Union to boost the European project bond market. Final sections discuss policy implications and conclude.

Enzo Scannella

2012-01-01

264

Derivatives in energy project finance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This chapter focuses on risk management of merchant power generation projects and describes project finance as balancing risk and reward over time. The historical background to risk management is traced, and the case for derivatives in energy project finance is put forward with the hedging of forward output, and forwards and power purchase agreements discussed. Current and prospective usage, and the implementation issues of market liquidity, margin calls, letters of credit, derivative counterparty credit risk, and accounting policy are considered. A detailed example of a gas-fired plant in the US is presented with details given of the distribution of project earnings before tax. Oil field operating cashflows are examined, with reserved flow models, leverage effects, and price hedging addressed

1999-01-01

265

Derivatives in energy project finance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This chapter focuses on risk management of merchant power generation projects and describes project finance as balancing risk and reward over time. The historical background to risk management is traced, and the case for derivatives in energy project finance is put forward with the hedging of forward output, and forwards and power purchase agreements discussed. Current and prospective usage, and the implementation issues of market liquidity, margin calls, letters of credit, derivative counterparty credit risk, and accounting policy are considered. A detailed example of a gas-fired plant in the US is presented with details given of the distribution of project earnings before tax. Oil field operating cashflows are examined, with reserved flow models, leverage effects, and price hedging addressed.

Spencer, Lloyd [Deutsche Bank (Germany)

1999-07-01

266

French public finances at risk?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Using descriptive evidence, this paper contributes to the debate on French public finances’ consolidation by examining the long-term sustainability of France’s fiscal position. We trace the historical trends of government’s tax receipts and expenditures. We illustrate that while the level of public expenditure in France is larger than in the Euro Area, its trend is comparable to its neighbours. French net debt is comparable to Eurozone’s while French net wealth remains positive. However, the French tax system is not progressive with only 6% of compulsory levies raised that way, and too complex. The paper then acknowledges the efficient debt management of French authorities. As a conclusion, we see no risk of future unsustainability linked to the nature or the level of current French public finances.

Creel Jérôme

2014-01-01

267

FACTORING: ALTERNATIVE MODEL OF FINANCING  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper aims to present factoring as an alternative funding model. This paper also tries to scientifically explore and emphasize its economic role thorough advantages and disadvantages of such financing model, and show condition in world and Croatia. Good corporate governance and professional financial management can contribute to the establishment of such business strategy (in terms of: strategy in relation to potential risks, the systems for managing risks and monitoring, investment stra...

2011-01-01

268

Behavioral Finance : The Student Investor  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Bachelor thesis within Business Administration Title: Behavioral Finance – The Student Perspective Authors: Kamran Sairafi, Karl Selleby, Thom Ståhl Tutor: Urban Österlund Date: 2008-05-30 Background: History is full of examples on how humans can create investment bubbles through speculation; from the Dutch tulip mania to the Dot Com bubble humans have proven to be capable of creating economical chaos. Classical economical theories hold the assumption that individuals act rationally regar...

Sairafi, Kamran; Selleby, Karl; Sta?hl, Thom

2008-01-01

269

Random monitoring in financing relationships  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper examines a financier's optimal monitoring intensity in a multi-period financing relationship.We identify conditions under which the financier should sometimes misidentify the quality of an entrepreneur. Such an imperfect evaluation technology affects action choices by bad entrepreneurs. We first characterize the optimal monitoring intensity and show that it is one in which the investor monitors entrepreneurs randomly. Random monitoring in the first stage of a relationship induces b...

Sami, Hind

2009-01-01

270

Law and finance in Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper assesses how legal-origin influences financial development through regulation quality and the rule of law. It uses data collected after pioneering works on the law-finance nexus to assess hypotheses resulting there-from in the context of Africa. Distinctions are made between English, French, French sub-Saharan, Portuguese and North African countries in how their legal origins affect financial intermediary dynamics of depth, efficiency, size and activity. In terms of policy implicat...

2011-01-01

271

From International to Transnational Finance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this presentation is to trace some of the key developments of Deutsche Bank's over 130-year-long history with American markets in order to draw or reinforce some observations about 21st century financial architecture, specifically about the roles played by financial intermediaries in cross-border finance. Although it implicitly deals with transatlantic intellectual, regulatory, and financial exchanges, especially those between the United States and Germany, it is comparative ac...

Kobrak, Christopher

2008-01-01

272

Finance and Admin Team - EEB  

...is a federation of citizens' environmental organisations based in Brussels, Boulevard de Waterloo since 1974'> 'Federation, Brussels, environmental issues, Boulevard ...de Waterloo'> Finance and Admin Team - EEB EEB Search EEB Intranet Home About EEB How the ... Tel: +32 (0) 2 289 10 90 Email Julie VERDIER Bookkeeper Boulevard de Waterloo 34 B-1000 BRUSSELS Tel: +32 (0) 2 790 88 13 Email ... de Waterloo, B-1000 Brussels Tel.: +32 2 289 10 90; Fax: +32 2 289 10 99;...

273

Emotions, beliefs and illusionary finance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this thesis is to integrate behavioral finance with market microstructure and financial decision-making. Specifically, I focus on two issues concerning the integration of psycho-physiological mechanisms and the informational content of prices in financial markets: firstly, the role of emotions in financial decision making and how as an adaptive mechanism, they show to be more suitable for survival than pure rationality (in an economic sense); and secondly, the empirical and the...

2007-01-01

274

Theory of the airborne sound field generated in a resonant magma conduit  

Science.gov (United States)

Explosive sources triggered inside a magma conduit may excite the conduit into acoustic resonance. The acoustic field in the conduit can propagate into the atmosphere through an open vent and ensonify the overlying atmosphere. The character of the airborne sound field is determined by a combination of propagation and source effects: the resonance of the magmatic conduit and the diffraction of the sound field at the volcanic vent are acoustic propagation effects, whereas the explosion pressure signature and the firing rate of the explosions define the source characteristics. For wavelengths larger than the conduit radius, only the longitudinal resonances of the magmatic conduit are relevant, and the open vent radiates like a piston surrounded by an infinite baffle. In this case, the fluid particle velocities are directed along the axis of the conduit and the sound field may propagate into the surrounding bedrock through the conduit wall displacement induced by the fluid overpressure. This coupling may produce seismic signals with banded spectra, such as volcanic tremor and long-period events. The airborne pressure field retains the modal structure of the sound field in the magmatic conduit, which contains information on the conduit geometry and geo-acoustic properties of the magma. The seismic wavefield is driven by the acoustic field in the magma and also contains this information, although it may be filtered by propagation effects in the bedrock. The theoretical sound field in the magma conduit is used to interpret seismic tremor signals recorded at Mt. Spurr Volcano, Alaska. Rapid variations in the acoustic impedance of the magma conduit terminations can create systematic changes in the tremor spectra, which can be used to monitor changes in the magmatic system. The results of the modelling illustrate the difference between source effects and conduit resonance, as well as the value of seismoacoustic measurements in volcanic environments.

Garcés, Milton A.; McNutt, Stephen R.

1997-09-01

275

Twenty years' follow-up of portal vein conduits in liver transplantation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Portal vein problems remain a formidable challenge in liver transplantation. In select situations, a portal vein conduit can provide a solution. No long-term results have been reported. This study was designed to assess the impact of portal vein conduits on graft survival after liver transplantation and the safety of portal vein conduits and to establish the long-term results (up to 20 years) of portal vein conduits. Data from 2370 adult liver transplants were prospectively collected into a computerized research database and analyzed. All portal vein conduits were constructed from the donor iliac vein obtained at the liver retrieval. Portal vein conduits were required in 35 (1.5%) first transplants. The long-term (up to 20 years of follow-up) graft survival after liver transplantation using portal vein conduits was excellent and comparable to that of the control group. The graft survival was 65% with the conduit versus 66% without the conduit at 5 years of follow-up, 58% versus 51% at 10 years, and 48% versus 35% at 15 years. There was a higher rate (8.6% versus 1.4%) of portal vein thrombosis after the portal vein conduit, and the majority occurred in the first 3 months after transplantation. For the same time period, there was no statistically significant difference in graft survival or patient survival for the retransplants with and without portal vein conduits. There was no statistically significant difference in graft survival or patient survival for the transplants with portal vein conduits and with portal vein thrombendvenectomy. In conclusion, portal vein conduits can be used safely for liver transplantation with no negative impact on long-term graft survival or patient survival. Despite the higher rate of portal vein thrombosis in the immediate postoperative period, excellent long-term results can be obtained. PMID:19326411

Nikitin, Dmitriy; Jennings, Linda W; Khan, Tariq; Vasani, Sugam; Ruiz, Richard; Sanchez, Edmund Q; Chinnakotla, Srinath; Levy, Marlon F; Goldstein, Robert M; Klintmalm, Goran B

2009-04-01

276

Study on the dynamic behavior of a current in cable-in-conduit conductors by using self magnetic field measurements  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to understand the current behavior inside a cable-in-conduit conductor (CICC), self magnetic field measurements on the CICC were conducted. A prototype NbTi CICC, the configuration of which is a racket shape, for JT-60SA EF coil was used as a short conductor sample. By using Hall sensors arranged around the short conductor sample, the variation in the self magnetic field was measured. Taking into account the measurements, the current behavior inside the CICC was analyzed by using analytical models consisting of line currents. The analytical results indicate that the current distribution in the cross-section of the CICC would be non-uniform before a normal propagation, and the current distribution would be improved after the normal propagation.

Obana, Tetsuhiro, E-mail: obana.tetsuhiro@LHD.nifs.ac.jp [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292, Gifu (Japan); Takahata, Kazuya; Hamaguchi, Shinji; Imagawa, Shinsaku; Mito, Toshiyuki [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292, Gifu (Japan); Kizu, Kaname; Murakami, Haruyuki; Yoshida, Kiyoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki (Japan)

2011-10-15

277

Study on the dynamic behavior of a current in cable-in-conduit conductors by using self magnetic field measurements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to understand the current behavior inside a cable-in-conduit conductor (CICC), self magnetic field measurements on the CICC were conducted. A prototype NbTi CICC, the configuration of which is a racket shape, for JT-60SA EF coil was used as a short conductor sample. By using Hall sensors arranged around the short conductor sample, the variation in the self magnetic field was measured. Taking into account the measurements, the current behavior inside the CICC was analyzed by using analytical models consisting of line currents. The analytical results indicate that the current distribution in the cross-section of the CICC would be non-uniform before a normal propagation, and the current distribution would be improved after the normal propagation.

2011-10-01

278

Project financing for the small independent company  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the post-1982 era, alternative project financing for acreage is not attractive to either the operator nor the lender. Should the value of acreage again appreciate at a rate greater than the cost of financing, alternative financing might be considered. However, the lessons of the post-1982 era say that this should be done very cautiously. Exploratory drilling can be financed using alternative project means under certain conditions where producing properties are available to provide the necessary collateral. Financing high quality development drilling programs or completion only programs is attractive by alternative financing. The operator can retain a greater share of his net reserves with this method. Furthermore, he can significantly reduce his investment per unit of production, increase net cash flow per dollar of equity investment, and conserve his own equity capital for use in other projects. When the discounted cash flow rate of return for internal funding is reduced to the range of 25% to 30% and less, a greater return to the operator can be obtained by financing through limited partnerships. The after-tax leverage of limited partnerships provides a means of financing prospects which otherwise are not attractive to operators using either their own funds or funds available through alternative financing. An operator should consider alternate financing from institutions having different sources of funds; i.e., pension funds, foreign investors, limited partnerships, etc. Terms available to the independent can be influenced by this, and a best fit to the operator's own situation should be sought.

Ramsay, H.J.

1983-03-01

279

The homotopy type of toric arrangements  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A toric arrangement is a finite set of hypersurfaces in a complex torus, every hypersurface being the kernel of a character. In the present paper we build a CW-complex S homotopy equivalent to the arrangement complement Rx, with a combinatorial description similar to that of the well-known Salvetti complex. If the toric arrangement is defined by a Weyl group, we also provide an algebraic description, very handy for cohomology computations. In the last part we give a description in terms of ta...

Moci, Luca; Settepanella, Simona

2010-01-01

280

New directions in electric power financing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper argues that it is necessary to raise the eyes from the current focus on independent power projects, buttressed by guarantees, to the longer horizon of electric power financing in open markets. Transitional strategies will need to move beyond the commonly seen IPP activity that occurs without fundamental sector reform, and demand-side incentives that introduce further market distortions. These efforts will have to focus on macroeconomic stabilization, removal of price distortions, as well as sector and corporate reform. Mobilization of domestic capital will be essential for sustainable sector financing. Although guarantees to encourage power sector investment can be designed to selectively cover risks, their elimination through fundamental sector reform should be the ultimate goal. Over the longer-term traditional corporate finance should become a more common financing strategy than project finance. Innovations in performance risk management and consumer credit will be crucial to the financing of energy efficiency. (author)

1995-11-01

 
 
 
 
281

Pseudotachylyte formation in volcanic conduits: Montserrat vs. Mount St. Helens  

Science.gov (United States)

Seismogenic fracture and faulting may result in non-equilibrium frictional melting of rock, which upon cooling and recrystallisation forms pseudotachylyte. In volcanic environments, the transition from endogenous to exogenous growth can be attributed to a shift in magma rheology into the brittle regime, and thus the ascent of high-viscosity magma can form discrete shear zones, comparable to tectonic faults, along conduit margins. Pseudotachylytes have, until now, rarely been noted in exogenous volcanic materials and seldom in active volcanic environments. This is despite the simultaneous occurrence of high pressures and differential stresses, which make high-viscosity magmas ideal candidates for the occurrence of frictional melting. Here, we compare the chemical, thermal, magnetic and structural properties of two candidate volcanic pseudotachylytes; one from Soufriere Hills (Montserrat) and one from Mount St. Helens (USA). Additionally, we present data from a set of high-velocity rotary shear experiments on the host materials of these natural pseudotachylytes in which melting was induced after just 10's of centimeters of slip at realistic extrusion velocities (0.4 - 1.6 ms-1) and low normal stresses (0.5-2 MPa). After 1-2 meters of slip a continuous melt layer formed, at which point friction decreased and the fault zone displayed slip-weakening behaviour. For volcanic conduits, this would facilitate temporarily elevated slip rates, or an increase in extrusion rate, and could cause transitions in dome morphology and eruption style. This study demonstrates that shear fracturing in magma or sliding along conduit margins can readily result in frictional melting. The conspicuous absence of pseudotachylytes in active volcanic environments is likely the result of exceptionally high background temperatures which precipitate near-equilibrium melting, thereby obviating one of the characteristic signatures of pseudotachylyte - glassy protomelts formed by selective melting of crystals. In addition, the high ambient temperatures force slow recrystallisation of the homogenised melt into a microgranular layer, and as such, volcanic pseudotachylytes may be mistaken for cataclasites or chilled margins.

Kendrick, J. E.; Lavallee, Y.; Petrakova, L.; Ferk, A.; Di Toro, G.; Hess, K.; Ferri, F.; Dingwell, D. B.

2012-12-01

282

Book review: Behavioural economics and finance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

"Behavioural Economics and Finance. Michelle Baddeley. Routledge. 2013. --- Standard models in economics usually assume that people are rational, self-interested maximisers, effectively co-ordinated via the invisible hand of the price mechanism. Whilst these approaches produce tractable, simple models, they cannot fully capture the uncertainties and instabilities that affect our everyday choices. Behavioural Economics and Finance brings economics and finance together with psychology, neur...

Grodecka, Anna

2013-01-01

283

Finance strategies of Finnish entrepreneurial fashion companies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The intention of this study is to describe and explain how internationally focused, Finnish entrepreneurial fashion companies are financed. Fashion industry has been recognized as a viable industry in Finland, but it seems that these businesses suffer from lack of financing. Thus, many of the firms fail to expand to international markets, which is crucial for their future survival. The objective of this study is to understand how these fashion companies are financed from start-up until today,...

Hasi, Linda

2013-01-01

284

Understanding financing options for PACS implementation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The acquisition of expensive equipment such as picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) becomes increasingly difficult as capital budgets become tighter. Traditional ownership financing options in the form of direct purchase or financing (loan) have several limitations including technology obsolescence, higher fixed pricing, limited options for equipment disposal, and the need to tie up valuable capital. Alternative financing options, in the form of conventional lease and risk shari...

Reiner, Bruce; Siegel, Eliot

2000-01-01

285

The financing of healthcare in Ireland  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It is an interesting aspect of the current debate with regard to healthcare in developed countries that the discussion starts with the finance of healthcare. What makes it interesting is that, with the exception of the US, healthcare is predominantly financed by government through a combination of a social welfare contribution and general taxation. There is some private financing through private insurance, but tax benefits for insurance and the universality attaching to most public systems ef...

Durkan, Joe

1994-01-01

286

78 FR 52170 - Proposed Subsequent Arrangement  

Science.gov (United States)

...the Government of Japan Concerning Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy, and the Agreement for Cooperation Between the Government...Republic of Kazakhstan Concerning Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy. DATES: This subsequent arrangement will take...

2013-08-22

287

Renewable energy and Scottish trading arrangements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report summarises the findings of a project involving the participation of the Scottish Renewables Forum (SRF) in the ongoing Ofgem consultation process concerning the future electricity trading arrangements in Scotland. The present administrative arrangements, the activities of the SRF, the prospects for the British Electricity Trading and Transmission Arrangements (BETTA), generator connection policy, and transmission access are discussed, and an overview of consultations relating to Scotland-England interconnection access is presented. The appendices cover the SRF responses to the Ofgem consultation, a discussion paper in advance of the SRF meeting with Ofgem in April 2001, an SRF trading update, the SRF's responses to Ofgem's Environmental Action Plan, the Scottish Embedded Generators Working Group's terms of reference and draft paper on issues, and a briefing on prices in administered arrangements

2001-04-00

288

Rotational pectoral musculocutaneous flap for the repair of gastric conduit necrosis in cervical esophagogastrostomy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We experienced a case of wide necrosis of the cervical gastric conduit during esophageal cancer surgery. We attempted to repair this defect with various methods including conservative care, stents two times, and sternocleidomastoid muscle flap without successful results. Finally, we were able to reconstruct the gastric conduit defect with rotational pectoralis major musculocutaneous (PMM) flap. PMM flap is thought to be a reconstruction method applicable to the intractable gastric conduit def...

Kim, Jae Jun; Park, Jae Kil; Hwang, Sun Jin; Moon, Seok Whan

2012-01-01

289

Long-term follow-up of patients with extracardiac valved conduits.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Seventeen patients having extracardiac valved conduits placed between the right ventricle and pulmonary artery were followed for 7 to 87 months postoperatively (mean, 42 months), at the Heart Institute, Kenritsu Amagasaki Hospital, Japan. There were no late deaths in the study group. Three conduits have been replaced, all because of conduit stenosis. In two-dimensional echocardiographic examinations, commissural fusion and calcification of the valve were noted in 6 out of 16 xenograft valv...

Sano, Shunji; Yokota, Yoshio; Makino, Seiichiro

1989-01-01

290

Totally biological composite aortic stentless valved conduit for aortic root replacement: 10-year experience  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Objectives To retrospectively analyze the clinical outcome of a totally biological composite stentless aortic valved conduit (No-React® BioConduit) implanted using the Bentall procedure over ten years in a single centre. Methods Between 27/10/99 and 19/01/08, the No-React® BioConduit composite graft was implanted in 67 patients. Data on these patients were collected from the in-hospital database, from patient notes and from quest...

Galiñanes Manuel; Meduoye Ayo; Ferreira Ignacio; Sosnowski Andrzej

2011-01-01

291

Local recurrence of bladder cancer after cystectomy with orthotopic bladder substitution and ileal conduit  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: To present the local recurrence rates after radical cystectomy for advanced bladder cancer and to compare them between patients with orthotopic neobladder and ileal conduit. Patients and methods: 97 patients with radical cystectomy were analyzed: 75 patients with orthotopic ileal neobladder, operated from 1985. to 2006, and 22 patients with ileal conduit, operated from 2000. to 2006. Results: Overall recurrence rate was 41.3% in the neobladder group, and 50% in the ileal conduit gr...

Pej?i? T.; Hadži-?oki? J.; A?imovi? M.; Markovi? B.B.; Maksimovi? H.M.; Milkovi? B.; Kajmakovi? B.

2007-01-01

292

Geometry and Hydraulics of Englacial Conduits, Storglaciaren, Sweden  

Science.gov (United States)

Englacial conduits are the primary structure responsible for transporting surface water to the base of a glacier, where it supplies the subglacial hydraulic system and, in turn, affects glacier movement. Despite the well-known theoretical descriptions of englacial conduits, little direct evidence exists about their geometry and hydraulics. In July 2001, we initiated a field effort on Storglaciären, Sweden, to intersect englacial conduits by drilling into the glacier using a hot water drill. A companion project (Jacobel et al., this session) attempted to detect the englacial conduits using ground-penetrating radar. In a typical borehole, the water level remained at the surface while drilling through the impermeable ice. Once a connection was made, the water level dropped roughly 10 m and remained low despite continued water pumping. A small video camera was lowered, with attachments, to measure the geometry of the opening, and water flow speed. The water level in the hole provided a piezometric measure of the pressure. We drilled 22 holes at 3 separate locations and 17 (77%) connected englacially, the remaining 5 reached the bed without englacial connection, of which 2 drained at the bed. The geometry of the connections was highly irregular in cross-section with 1-2 cm openings, reminiscent of crevasse-like features rather than circular cross-sections as anticipated from the theoretical literature. Flow behavior was observed by tracking particle motion. The flow was complicated, in part by the inferred tangential intersection between the borehole and structure, and by the observed surging behavior. Flow speeds were low, on the order of 1 cm sec-1. Water level records from 3 different holes over several days exhibited highly correlated variations and large diurnal excursions. In contrast, records from holes drilled to the bed showed little variation. Based on these measurements, our conceptual picture of the englacial system is that of a sluggish flow system composed of many passages with hydraulically inefficient cross-sections. In general, correlation between the radar images and directly measured connections was inconclusive. However, in one case we believe we drilled to a very clear linear subsurface structure imaged by the radar.

Fountain, A. G.; Schlichting, R.; Frodin, S.; Jacobel, R. W.

2001-12-01

293

Séparation de la source glottique des influences du conduit vocal  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cette étude s'intéresse au problème de l'inversion d'un modèle de production de la voix pour obtenir, à partir d'un enregistrement audio de parole, une représentation de le source sonore qui est générée au niveau de la glotte, la source glottique, ainsi qu'un représentation des résonances et anti-résonances créées par le conduit vocal. Cette séparation permet de manipuler les éléments composant la voix de façon indépendente. On trouve de nombreuses applications de ce sujet ...

Degottex, Gilles

2010-01-01

294

Optimization and stability of a cable-in-conduit superconductor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The optimization process for strand number and diameter, cable void fraction, and Cu/NbTi-ratio of the cable-in-conduit conductor for the superconducting magnet system of the planned stellarator fusion experiment Wendelstein 7-X is presented. Main optimization criteria are stability and cable cooling requirements, taking into account transient disturbances and losses. A simple stability criterion regarding transient disturbances is used which is derived from cable compression experiments. The resulting data for the 16 kA, 6 T cable are: cable and strand diameter ?11.5 mm and ?0.57 mm, respectively, strand number ?250, void ?36%, and Cu/sc-ratio ?2.7

1996-07-01

295

keyboard arrangement in the nineteenth century  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Keyboard arrangement was central to both the performing and the listening habits of the nineteenth-century non-professional musician. Not only did it respond to the desperate need for a cheap technology of musical circulation, but its immense popularity helped create a commercial musical publishing industry of an unprecedented scale. This thesis reconstructs for the first time the many faces of the keyboard arrangement by analysing it simultaneously as a musical work, an economic commodity an...

2012-01-01

296

Optimal Linear Arrangement of Interval Graphs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We study the optimal linear arrangement (OLA) problem on interval graphs. Several linear layout problems that are NP-hard on general graphs are solvable in polynomial time on interval graphs.We prove that, quite surprisingly, optimal linear arrangement of interval graphs is NP-hard. The same result holds for permutation graphs. We present a lower bound and a simple and fast 2-approximation algorithm based on any interval model of the input graph.

2006-01-01

297

Minimum Energy Requirements in Complex Distillation Arrangements  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Distillation is the most widely used industrial separation technology and distillation units are responsible for a significant part of the total heat consumption in the world’s process industry. In this work we focus on directly (fully thermally) coupled column arrangements for separation of multicomponent mixtures. These systems are also denoted Petlyuk arrangements, where a particular implementation is the dividing wall column. Energy savings in the range of 20-40% have been reported with...

Halvorsen, Ivar Johan

2001-01-01

298

Exchange rate regimes and monetary arrangements  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There is a close relationship between a country’s exchange rate regime and monetary arrangement and if we are to examine monetary arrangements then exchange rate regimes must first be analysed. Within the conventional and most widely used classification of exchange rate regimes into rigid and flexible or into polar regimes (hard peg and float) on one side, and intermediate regimes on the other there, is a much greater variety among intermediate regimes. A more precise and, as will be seen, ...

2005-01-01

299

Wind Levelized Cost of Energy: A Comparison of Technical and Financing Input Variables  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The expansion of wind power capacity in the United States has increased the demand for project development capital. In response, innovative approaches to financing wind projects have emerged and are proliferating in the U.S. renewable energy marketplace. Wind power developers and financiers have become more efficient and creative in structuring their financial relationships, and often tailor them to different investor types and objectives. As a result, two similar projects may use very different cash flows and financing arrangements, which can significantly vary the economic competitiveness of wind projects. This report assesses the relative impact of numerous financing, technical, and operating variables on the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) associated with a wind project under various financing structures in the U.S. marketplace. Under this analysis, the impacts of several financial and technical variables on the cost of wind electricity generation are first examined individually to better understand the relative importance of each. Then, analysts examine a low-cost and a high-cost financing scenario, where multiple variables are modified simultaneously. Lastly, the analysis also considers the impact of a suite of financial variables versus a suite of technical variables.

Cory, K.; Schwabe, P.

2009-10-01

300

The financing of new mining ventures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Various options are presented for tackling the problem in mining today of the high capital costs required for a new mine combined with the front end exposure that the exploiters face. Equity finance from the producers, private investors, oil companies, consumers and governments is discussed as well as loan finance from export credit agencies, international agencies, production-related loans, leasing and commercial bank loans. The future in financing mining is outlined and it is proposed that the future will lie in smaller projects financed primarily with equity. (U.K.)

1983-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Financing with Receivables: Factoring, Securitization and Collateral  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Short term financing is vital for the financial survival of any company, because very often they are facing deficits of cash during their activity. Therefore a company has to identify the optimal solutions in order to cover those (temporary deficits. A good solution to this problem is the financing with receivables using factoring, securitization and collateral. In this paper we try to analyze how this types of financing works and which are their advantages and costs. Also, we developed a reasoning pattern in order to evaluate the best receivables financing alternative for the Romanian companies.

Ioana Benea

2013-11-01

302

Financing hazardous-waste risks in Wisconsin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Presently, there is a variety of systems for financing hazardous-waste risks in Wisconsin. These remedies include (1) federal law and regulation, (2) state statutory remedies, and (3) tort-law theories of liability. The unique characteristics of hazardous-waste risks pose special problems in financing the consequences of these risk under present systems. Furthermore, the recent collapse of pollution-liability insurance market and huge transaction costs associated with current legal systems raise the need to reevaluate the present systems for financing hazardous-waste risks. This thesis identifies the major problems of the present systems for financing the risks and presents a description of the financing and regulatory systems for hazardous-waste risks. The objectives are to evaluate present systems for financing hazardous-waste risks and suggest improved financing systems for hazardous-waste risks in Wisconsin. For these purposes, a set of criteria is developed. Once the analytical criteria have been developed, each of the present financing systems is analyzed in terms of how well it meets the developed criteria. The effects of these financing systems on the pollution-liability insurance market are also examined. Finally, conclusions and suggestions for an improved system are offered based on the evaluation of the existing systems.

Lee, J.H.

1987-01-01

303

Hyporheic exchange in a karst conduit and sediment system - A laboratory analog study  

Science.gov (United States)

Karst conduits are often partly filled by clastic sediments. Flow through such sediments can have a strong impact on the fate of sediment-entrapped contaminants. In contrast to stream bed sediments, hyporheic flow in karst sediments has received little attention so far. For karst sediments, conduit bends could induce hyporheic flow, in addition to bedforms or obstacles. The main aim of this study was to investigate flow processes in a conduit-sediment system using a laboratory model resembling a siphon and numerical modeling. In the laboratory system, zones with forward and reserve flow occurred in the sediment due to the conduit bends. As demonstrated with sediment-source tracer test, entrapped solutes were generally flushed out more rapidly at a higher flow rate and steeper conduit angle. Numerical modeling assuming pressure continuity across the conduit-sediment interface reproduced the flow patterns and breakthrough curves (BTCs) well. Based on the model, the magnitude of hyporheic exchange is expected to increase linearly with the flow rate and was higher for a steeper conduit angle. However, the increase in flushing intensity was not evenly distributed throughout the sediments but occurred mainly adjacent to the conduit bends consistent with observations from tracer tests. This study confirms that conduit bends could have a strong influence on hyporheic flow in karst sediments.

Wu, Yuexia; Hunkeler, Daniel

2013-09-01

304

Chronic dissection and aneurysmal dilatation of a BioValsalva conduit.  

Science.gov (United States)

The BioValsalva (Vascutek Terumo, Renfrewshire, Scotland, UK) conduit is the first commercially available prefabricated bioprosthetic aortic valved conduit. We present a case of chronic dissection of a BioValsalva valved conduit presenting as a 7.5-cm aortic root aneurysm 1 year after a Bentall operation. Intraoperatively, the conduit was found to have dissected from the annulus upward, and the coronary buttons were avulsed from the inner layers while remaining attached to the outer layer. Both the outer layer and the coronary buttons were grossly dilatated. PMID:23816079

Yigzaw, Yikuno A; Lau, Kelvin K W; Baig, Kamran; Uppal, Rakesh

2013-07-01

305

System and method for bidirectional flow and controlling fluid flow in a conduit  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A system for measuring bidirectional flow, including backflow, of fluid in a conduit. The system utilizes a structural mechanism to create a pressure differential in the conduit. Pressure sensors are positioned upstream from the mechanism, at the mechanism, and downstream from the mechanism. Data from the pressure sensors are transmitted to a microprocessor or computer, and pressure differential detected between the pressure sensors is then used to calculate the backflow. Control signals may then be generated by the microprocessor or computer to shut off valves located in the conduit, upon the occurrence of backflow, or to control flow, total material dispersed, etc. in the conduit.

Ortiz, Marcos German (Idaho Falls, ID)

1999-01-01

306

Experimental rigidity evaluation of conduit pack for forced-flow superconducting coil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The compressive rigidity tests of the conduit pack were carried out in liquid helium for evaluating the coil rigidity, and the rigidity of the conduit was investigated by FEM analysis of the plane strain problem. Also, the conventional method for the estimation of the coil rigidity was proposed on the basis of the curved-beam theory, and the apparent rigidity of the conduit pack was calculated. By comparing these results, it is recognized the outer radius of the conduit has a strong effect on the coil rigidity and the proposed conventional method gives good results with the experimental ones

1993-07-12

307

Changing project finance climate; Project finance wo meguru kankyo henka  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Development of conditions under which project financing (PF) functions is described. PF, a method with which funds are procured for a project on the security of the assets of and the cash flow involving the project, established its position as a popular financial means. Into the 1990, however, PF underwent a complete change, when it came to be actively employed as a means for the procurement of money for what is called `infrastructure building project for invigorating the private sector` in the developing countries. PF has now come to be utilized for the financing of projects in various fields besides the field of resources exploitation. In particular, PF is now utilized in schemes such as BOT (build, operate, transfer) in public enterprises, for instance, electric power utilities in developing countries. The gravest problem found in the private sector invigorating type PF is that the sponsor, operator, exporter, and lender on their respective levels are experiencing rising risks because of intensified competition in the presence of a great number of projects. Such risks involve the exchange rate, the completion of work, and the relations between the borrower and operator. 2 figs.

Madono, S. [The Export-Import Bank of Japan, Tokyo (Japan)

1998-03-01

308

Application of finance project for leverage of small size hydroelectric enterprising; Aplicacao do project finance para alavancagem de empreendimentos hidreletricos de pequeno porte  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the same way that the majority of the countries, project financing of substructure in Brazil, in project finance modality, depend on a skillful structure of guaranties and contracts to become possible. In the case of projects of centrals of generation of electrical energy, that financial engineering becomes still more complicated. In Brazil, due to particularities of the sectors of electricity, the arrangements of guaranties requested but creditors pass to present levels of complexity and exigency well elevated. The contractual appliances that give support to the project finance, originally projected to developed countries, request an extreme adaptation to these particularities. The development of Brazil is directly related to its capacity in expanding the offer of electric energy in the just measure of the national necessity. In this context, the small central hydroelectric (PCH's) represent, actually, an efficient and fast form to complete the offer of energy in such a way to supply the crescent demand the national market. For its characteristics, that type of undertaking can be developed by small manager, from among which are the owners of the areas in which on can find these hydraulic potentials which, however they do not dispose of capital to integral raising. These undertakings are tasks, normally, of low global cost, at the rate of US$ 1.000,00/k W, and of a smaller ambient impact, compared to the return that they give to the enterprise and to the Brazilian electric system as a whole, by having to receive special attention in the planned politics to the sector and to merit a series of incentives to become business still more attractive. By thinking in the found difficulty by small enterprises in rising undertakings of generation of electric energy of small port through the convectional mechanisms of financing is being proposed in that work a well-founded methodology in the concepts of the modality of financing project finance. (author)

Santos, Silvana dos

2003-07-01

309

Alternative transportation fuels: Financing issues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A multitude of alternative fuels could reduce air pollution and the impact of oil price shocks. Only a few of these fuels are readily available and inexpensive enough to merit serious consideration over the coming five years. In New York City, safety regulations narrow the field still further by eliminating propane. As a result, this study focuses on the three alternative fuels readily available in New York City: compressed natural gas, methanol, and electricity. Each has significant environmental benefits and each has different cost characteristics. With the Clean Air Act and the National Energy Strategy highlighting the country's need to improve urban air quality and move away from dependence on imported fuels, fleets may soon have little choice but to convert to altemative fuels. Given the potential for large infrastructure and vehicle costs, these fleets may have difficulty finding the capital to make that conversion. Ultimately, then, it will be the involvement of the private sector that will determine the success of alternative fuels. Whether it be utilities, fuel distributors or suppliers, private financing partners or others, it is critical that altemative fuels programs be structured and planned to attract their involvement. This report examines financing methods that do not involve government subsidies. It also explores financing methods that are specific to alternative fuels. Bond issues and other mechanisms that are used for conventional vehicles are not touched upon in this report. This report explores ways to spread the high cost of alternative fuels among a number of parties within the private sector. The emphasis is on structuring partnerships that suit methanol, electric, or natural gas vehicle fleets. Through these partnerships, alternative fuels may ultimately compete effectively against conventional vehicle fuels

1992-01-01

310

Hydro financing: is it possible?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article focuses on the 'limited recourse' and 'project financing' of hydroelectric power plants involving the active participation of lending companies without leaving developers' companies or other participants with the entire risk of the project. The structure of the project which is funded by company shareholders and the lenders is discussed. Contractural relationships are considered, and lenders' concerns are voiced including the minimisation of risks, and the assurance that there is a political support for the project. A schema of a project company at the heart of a project structure is presented. (UK)

Coker, M.; Rowey, K.; Jurgenson, S. [Freshfields Global Project Finance Group, London (United Kingdom)

1999-08-01

311

Offsets - An opportunity of Financing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear Research Reactors sometimes need to implement projects to upgrade, revamp or convert their reactor, acquire new fuel elements, etc. However, as their activities are mainly of noncommercial nature, they sometimes lack of financial resources to implement these projects by themselves. Several solutions exist: loans, governmental budget, subsidies from international organizations (IAEA). Offsets are another source of financing. They also are free of charge for the reactor. The objective of offsets is to Identify, implement and finance projects that: directly create or sustain a local economic activity of high-added value, would not have happened without the Obligor's intervention, and are of crucial importance given the country's political background (favor employment, technology transfers, training and education, research and development, etc.). Companies worldwide are willing to finance local projects to fulfill their Offset Obligation. Local organizations or institutions are willing to invest to increase their activities but lack of financial resources. Offset regulations are an opportunity on both sides and are free for the local organization. The monetary value of an Offset obligation is calculated as a percentage of the main contract price (or as a percentage of the imported part value). That percentage depends on the Country's legislation and on the nature of the main contract (defense or civilian). This value has to be compensated by an equivalent economic value (a Project's cost is different from its value). There is two ways of assessing a value: - Political aspects: The Project is of political importance for the country (development of an export capability, technology and/or know-how transfers) and the project in line with the country's political priorities (employment, research, international presence, etc.). - Economic benefits: the project directly sustains or creates additional activities, turnover, R and D, employment, etc. It benefits directly to the local institution. The offset valuation mechanisms leads to benefits for all parties: the project is implemented and this implementation is free of charge. For the Government: the project contributes to achieve its priorities without having to be financed on public funds. For the Obligor: its Offset obligation is compensated for a monetary value depending on the direct investment cost. Offset regulations are implemented in over 100 countries worldwide and are of common use on important public procurement markets. Examples of Countries implementing Offset regulations are: Austria, Brazil, Finland, Italy, Romania and many other

2008-10-29

312

Financing the air transportation industry  

Science.gov (United States)

The basic characteristics of the air transportation industry are outlined and it is shown how they affect financing requirements and patterns of production. The choice of financial timing is imperative in order to get the best interest rates available and to insure a fair return to investors. The fact that the industry cannot store its products has a fairly major effect on the amount of equipment to purchase, the amount of capital investment required, and the amount of return required to offset industry depriciation.

Lloyd-Jones, D. J.

1972-01-01

313

Finance Committee: 135th Session  

...on Agriculture Committee on Commodity Problems REGIONAL CONFERENCES 2012 135th Session Finance Committee 135th SessionRome, 25 - 29 October 2010 Documents will be posted ...as soon as available List of Documents Download ID FC 135/1 Rev.2 Provisional Agenda K8947E FC 135/2 Financial Highlights and Status ...of Current Assessments and Arrears K9210E FC 135/4 Annual Report on the Special Fund for Emergency and Rehabilitation Activities K9090E FC 135/5 ...Annual Report on Support Costs Expenditure and Recoveries K8910E FC 135/6 Adjustments to the Programme of Work arising from Further Efficiency Gains, ...

314

Modeling blockage in unsteady slurry flow in conduits  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Developments in the modeling of the inception of blockage in granular slurry systems are discussed from phenomenological and numerical experience. In addition, pump and valve manipulation procedures developed for controlling conduit blockage during transient operation are outlined. Conduit blockage is in itself a transient event and although it is most frequently associated with system start-up or shut-down, it can originate from steady state networks as a result of density waves, instabilities of the excursive type, and/or flow regime relaxation. Blockage control during system start-up or shut-down is accomplished by way of a pump/valve stroking procedure that emphasizes a gradual control of the fluid velocity rather than a maximum permissible pressure. This is done to promote an orderly settling of solids, needed for shut-down, or resuspension of solids, as needed for start-up. Recent evaluation of friction factors at the onset of blockage obtained through laboratory measurements of the shear stresses in a plugged pipe are also presented

1985-01-01

315

Conduit for high temperature transfer of molten semiconductor crystalline material  

Science.gov (United States)

A conduit for high temperature transfer of molten semiconductor crystalline material consists of a composite structure incorporating a quartz transfer tube as the innermost member, with an outer thermally insulating layer designed to serve the dual purposes of minimizing heat losses from the quartz tube and maintaining mechanical strength and rigidity of the conduit at the elevated temperatures encountered. The composite structure ensures that the molten semiconductor material only comes in contact with a material (quartz) with which it is compatible, while the outer layer structure reinforces the quartz tube, which becomes somewhat soft at molten semiconductor temperatures. To further aid in preventing cooling of the molten semiconductor, a distributed, electric resistance heater is in contact with the surface of the quartz tube over most of its length. The quartz tube has short end portions which extend through the surface of the semiconductor melt and which are lef bare of the thermal insulation. The heater is designed to provide an increased heat input per unit area in the region adjacent these end portions.

Fiegl, George (Inventor); Torbet, Walter (Inventor)

1983-01-01

316

Hydraulic and geological factors influencing conduit flow depth  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There has much been speculation as to whether cave formation should occur at, above, or below the water table, but a satisfactory explanation has been lacking until recently. The last 50 years has seen extensive mapping of caves both above and, more recently, below the water table. It is now becoming apparent that there are systematic differences in depth of flow between different areas and that conduit flow to depths >100m below the water table is not uncommon. Such deep flow is facilitated by the lower viscosity of geothermally heated water at depth. Analysis of data from caves shows that depth of flow is primarily a function of flow path length, stratal dip and fracture anisotropy. This explains why conduits form at shallow depths in platform settings such as in Kentucky, at moderate depths (10–100m in folded strata such as in England and in the Appalachian Mountains, and at depths of several hundred metres in exceptional settings where there are very long flow paths.

Worthington,S.R.H.

2005-01-01

317

Documentation of a Conduit Flow Process (CFP) for MODFLOW-2005  

Science.gov (United States)

This report documents the Conduit Flow Process (CFP) for the modular finite-difference ground-water flow model, MODFLOW-2005. The CFP has the ability to simulate turbulent ground-water flow conditions by: (1) coupling the traditional ground-water flow equation with formulations for a discrete network of cylindrical pipes (Mode 1), (2) inserting a high-conductivity flow layer that can switch between laminar and turbulent flow (Mode 2), or (3) simultaneously coupling a discrete pipe network while inserting a high-conductivity flow layer that can switch between laminar and turbulent flow (Mode 3). Conduit flow pipes (Mode 1) may represent dissolution or biological burrowing features in carbonate aquifers, voids in fractured rock, and (or) lava tubes in basaltic aquifers and can be fully or partially saturated under laminar or turbulent flow conditions. Preferential flow layers (Mode 2) may represent: (1) a porous media where turbulent flow is suspected to occur under the observed hydraulic gradients; (2) a single secondary porosity subsurface feature, such as a well-defined laterally extensive underground cave; or (3) a horizontal preferential flow layer consisting of many interconnected voids. In this second case, the input data are effective parameters, such as a very high hydraulic conductivity, representing multiple features. Data preparation is more complex for CFP Mode 1 (CFPM1) than for CFP Mode 2 (CFPM2). Specifically for CFPM1, conduit pipe locations, lengths, diameters, tortuosity, internal roughness, critical Reynolds numbers (NRe), and exchange conductances are required. CFPM1, however, solves the pipe network equations in a matrix that is independent of the porous media equation matrix, which may mitigate numerical instability associated with solution of dual flow components within the same matrix. CFPM2 requires less hydraulic information and knowledge about the specific location and hydraulic properties of conduits, and turbulent flow is approximated by modifying horizontal conductances assembled by the Block-Centered Flow (BCF), Layer-Property Flow (LPF), or Hydrogeologic-Unit Flow Packages (HUF) of MODFLOW-2005. For both conduit flow pipes (CFPM1) and preferential flow layers (CFPM2), critical Reynolds numbers are used to determine if flow is laminar or turbulent. Due to conservation of momentum, flow in a laminar state tends to remain laminar and flow in a turbulent state tends to remain turbulent. This delayed transition between laminar and turbulent flow is introduced in the CFP, which provides an additional benefit of facilitating convergence of the computer algorithm during iterations of transient simulations. Specifically, the user can specify a higher critical Reynolds number to determine when laminar flow within a pipe converts to turbulent flow, and a lower critical Reynolds number for determining when a pipe with turbulent flow switches to laminar flow. With CFPM1, the Hagen-Poiseuille equation is used for laminar flow conditions and the Darcy-Weisbach equation is applied to turbulent flow conditions. With CFPM2, turbulent flow is approximated by reducing the laminar hydraulic conductivity by a nonlinear function of the Reynolds number, once the critical head difference is exceeded. This adjustment approximates the reductions in mean velocity under turbulent ground-water flow conditions.

Shoemaker, W. Barclay; Kuniansky, Eve L.; Birk, Steffen; Bauer, Sebastian; Swain, Eric D.

2007-01-01

318

Finance organizations, decisions and emotions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Analyses of global financial markets are dominated by atomized models of decision-making and behavioural psychology ('exuberance' or 'panic'). In contrast, this paper argues that overwhelmingly, finance organizations rather than 'individuals' make decisions, and routinely use emotions in formulating expectations. Keynes introduced emotion (business confidence and animal spirits) but in economics, emotion remains individualistic and irrational. Luhmann's system theory lies at the other extreme, where emotions like trust and confidence are central variables, functional in the reduction of complexity in sub-systems like the economy. The gap between irrational emotions aggregated to 'herd' behaviour in economics, and 'system trust' applied to finance and money as a 'medium of communication' in sociology, remains largely unfilled. This paper argues that while organizations cannot be said to 'think' or 'feel', they are rational and emotional, because impersonal trust, confidence and their contrary emotions are unavoidable in decision-making due to fundamental uncertainty. These future-oriented emotions are prevalent within and between organizations in the financial sector, primarily in generating expectations. The dynamic of corporate activities of tense and ruthless struggle is a more plausible level of analysis than either financial 'manias' in aggregate or 'system trust'. PMID:11958678

Pixley, Jocelyn

2002-03-01

319

Health care entrepreneurship: financing innovation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Entrepreneurship is often described as the ability to create new ventures from new or existing concepts, ideas and visions. There has been significant entrepreneurial response to the changes in the scientific and social underpinnings of health care services delivery. However, a growing portion of the economic development driving health care industry expansion is threatened further by longstanding use of financing models that are suboptimal for health care ventures. The delayed pace of entrepreneurial activity in this industry is in part a response to the general economy and markets, but also due to the lack of capital for new health care ventures. The recent dearth of entrepreneurial activities in the health services sector may also due to failure to consider new approaches to partnerships and strategic ventures, despite their mutually beneficial organizational and financing potential. As capital becomes more scarce for innovators, it is imperative that those with new and creative ideas for health and health care improvement consider techniques for capital acquisition that have been successful in other industries and at similar stages of development. The capital and added expertise can allow entrepreneurs to leverage resources, dampen business fluctuations, and strengthen long term prospects. PMID:16583848

Grazier, Kyle L; Metzler, Bridget

2006-01-01

320

Financing of nuclear projects. Lessons from a recent experience  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The advantages of mandating BNP Paribas as a lead bank and arranger for NPP Belene are presented. BNPP has an excellent record and credentials in Nuclear Power Plant Projects internationally and in the local energy sector and very recent experience as a lead bank for the fifth nuclear power plant in Finland. BNPP has a proven track record as Provider of rapid and efficient ECA financing in terms of: managing in parallel the number of ECA contractual relations, so as to provide 'matching opportunities' between the ECAs and leverage to improve their terms and conditions, and to harmonize them in one set of unified legal documentation. There is no cost to the Government of Bulgaria until the signing of the Facility Documentation

2004-09-23

 
 
 
 
321

Government experience in nuclear power plant export financing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Because the long-term funds at the disposal of the commercial banks were insufficient to make available the amounts required for the exportation of nuclear power plants, it was necessary to make available long-term funds of the mortgage banks. On account of the strict regulations governing the lending operations of such banks, it was, however, necessary to introduce a Federal guarantee which covers 100% of the contract value in each case. On balance, however, the Federal Government does not take over any additional risks, because recourse may be taken to the commercial banks, which are liable for all additional payments under the credit arrangement having arisen from the improvement of the guarantee in favour of the mortgage banks. This has resulted in a considerable improvement of the export financing system which, of course, is for benefit of other major export projects too. (HP)

1976-11-30

322

48 CFR 32.202-4 - Security for Government financing.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2009-10-01 false Security for Government financing. 32.202-4 Section 32.202-4 ...GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Commercial Item Purchase Financing 32.202-4 Security for Government...

2009-10-01

323

75 FR 29547 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Contract Financing  

Science.gov (United States)

...Regulation; Information Collection; Contract Financing AGENCIES: Department of Defense (DoD...collection requirement concerning contract financing. Public comments are particularly invited...statutory authorities for Government financing of contracts. Sections 2001(f)...

2010-05-26

324

48 CFR 32.104 - Providing contract financing.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 false Providing contract financing. 32.104 Section 32.104 Federal...GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Non-Commercial Item Purchase Financing 32.104 Providing contract...

2010-10-01

325

Arrangement of in-core neutron detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To optimize the arrangement of neutron detectors in an intermediate power regions, to thereby improve the responsivity to the worst operation disable state and provide sensitive function as the safety protection system. Constitution: Intermediate power region monitors (IRM) are arranged as below (wherein R is the distance from the control rod at the center to the farthest control rod). (1) In the case where IRM number is less than 6, detectors are concentrated near the center of the reactor core and the adjacent IRM belong to trap systems different from each other. (2) In the case where IRM number is 8, two IRM belonging to trap systems different from each other are arranged near the center of the reactor core and the remaining detectors are arranged at an equal pitch on a same circle with a radius of about (3/2)sup(1/2) around the central control rod as the center in which trip systems A and B are alternate. (3) In the case where IRM number is greater than 10, detectors are arranged at an equal pitch on a same circle with a radius of about R cos 4 ?/M (where M is the number of IRM) around the central control rod as the center and in which trip systems A and B are alternate. (Kawakami, Y.)

1981-01-01

326

Boat electrofishing relative to anode arrangement  

Science.gov (United States)

We assessed the effect of boom (i.e., anode) arrangement (a single boom and double booms spaced 1.3, 1.9, and 3.2 m apart) on the characteristics of the electric field formed ahead of an electrofishing boat as well as on fish catch. Anode arrangement affected the lengthwise and crosswise characteristics of the field. As a general rule, rearranging the anodes from a single boom located centrally to a double-boom system with broadly separated anodes shifted the strength of the field outward (away from the center) and forward (away from the boat). The highest voltage gradients occurred when the anodes had the greatest separation. Catch rates varied by boom arrangement, increasing as boom separation increased. Differences in species and length selectivity with respect to boom arrangement were minor. We suggest that the double-boom arrangement with the booms placed about 1.9 m apart (but no more than about 2.5 m) is suitable for most electrofishing applications. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

Miranda, L. E.; Kratochvil, M.

2008-01-01

327

Alternatives for Financing Higher Education Facilities.  

Science.gov (United States)

How state governments should finance public college and university facilities is discussed. A framework for analyzing the capital financing alternatives available to state governments is described. Several alternatives in Arizona--including state appropriations, leasing, and revenue bonding--are considered as an illustration. (Author/MLW)

Leslie, Larry L.; Felix, Frank J.

1980-01-01

328

The Financing of Education: Level and Mechanisms  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper explores the different economic reform models and mechanisms for financing education in Russia. Several financial innovations were used in governmental conceptions of the reform in education. However, the question of mechanisms for financing education has been brought to the forefront in highly industrialized countries that have…

Smolin, Oleg

2005-01-01

329

Thinking Broadly: Financing Strategies for Youth Programs  

Science.gov (United States)

This publication is part of a series of tools and resources on financing and sustaining youth programming. These tools and resources are intended to help policymakers, program developers, and community leaders develop innovative strategies for implementing, financing, and sustaining effective programs and policies. This strategy brief presents a…

Deich, Sharon G.; Hayes, Cheryl D.

2007-01-01

330

Capital Financing For Private & Independent Schools  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper is a primer for school boards and management. It provides a basic overview of the key issues, considerations and options associated with the use of debt by private schools to address facility financing needs. In addition, for a school which has decided to pursue debt financing, it provides basic guidelines for the choice of debt…

Online Submission, 2005

2005-01-01

331

100th meeting of the Finance Committee  

CERN Document Server

The Finance Committee is an advisory committee to the CERN Council. It has the exacting job of supervising CERN’s finances, being concerned with such things as examining budget proposals, salary structures and cost variation formulae and with approving the award of major contracts to industry.

1969-01-01

332

Teaching School Finance Online: Promise or Problems?  

Science.gov (United States)

Uses course evaluations and email messages between students and instructors to investigate opinions of online school-finance courses compared with other online courses in a principal-preparation program. Recommends more opportunity for student discussion in future online school-finance courses. (PKP)

DeLuca, Barbara M.; Wiesenauer, Kathy; Hinshaw, Steven

2002-01-01

333

Financing the export of nuclear power plants to developing countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Japanese manufacturers of nuclear power plants are confident in quality and reliability of their products but so far they have played a minor role in the international market. In studying the finance for the future nuclear power projects in the developing country, the financial institutions will take into consideration such characteristics of the nuclear power project as: (1) Public acceptance and safety; (2) Commitments by host government and its involvement which are internationally required; (3) Huge amount of capital requirements over a long term for commissioning, operation and maintenance; (4) inability of the domestic market oriented project to generate foreign currency earnings; (5) Long lasting project life; (6) Creditworthiness of both the project owner and the host government and the debt problem of the country; (7) Priority; (8) Feasibility; (9) Available engineers and their level of technology, etc. Under the present circumstances, because of the inherent nature of the project and the creditworthiness, the owner of the project who imports the nuclear power plant and the host government will find it very difficult to receive enough funds for the project from the financial institutions, including the export credit agencies, and the manufacturers (exporters). On condition that the owner of the project and the host government make every effort and necessary arrangement to materialize the project, one of the measurers for the creditors to share such burdens and risks will be to form an international consortia among manufacturers and to organize co-finance among ECAs, private financial institutions and Multilateral Development Banks. (author)

1991-06-01

334

Investment Timing When External Financing Is Costly  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper analyzes the investment timing of firms facing two dimensions of financing constraints: Liquidity constraints and capital market frictions inducing financing costs. We show that liquidity constraints are not sufficient to explain voluntary investment delay. However, when additionally considering financing costs, we can explain both voluntary delay and acceleration of investment. More precisely, we find that investment thresholds are U-shaped in liquid funds. For high-liquidity firms, investment thresholds are decreasing (i.e. accelerated investment takes place) in either dimension of financing constraint. In contrast, investment thresholds are increasing (i.e. investment is further delayed) in either form of financing constraint for low-liquidity firms. For intermediate levels of liquidity, investment thresholds are U-shaped in market frictions.

Hirth, Stefan; Uhrig-Homburg, Marliese

2010-01-01

335

Do Portuguese SMEs Follow Pecking Order Financing?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper tests for pecking order behavior in medium-sized private Portuguese firms. In contrast to the usual split between internal funds, debt, and external equity, we separate debt into four components â?? cheap trade credits (CTC), bank loans (BL), other loans, and expensive credits (EC). We use breakpoint tests to identify when firms switch between funding sources by examining the change in each funding source based on the financing deficit remaining after the previous pecking order funding source has been used. Our tests indicate that Portuguese companies generally move from lower cost to higher cost financing sources, but they do not exhaust each type of debt before moving on to the next funding source in the pecking order. Such behavior is consistent with a loose interpretation of pecking order financing, but not a strict interpretation of the theory. Instead, Portuguese firms may be balancing pecking order financing with a need to maintain some degree of financing flexibility.

Bartholdy, Jan; Mateus, Cesario

2012-01-01

336

ALTERNATIVE MODELS OF FINANCING REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Public financing of infrastructure proved under performing at uneconomic prices, and because of political interference in the management of funds, understanding the problem leading to the adoption of private funding variant, an effective way of private funding being the financing of the project. Project financing is a concept that assessed by means of financing a specific technique. In this context, those granting funds usually through loans typically are only interested in cash flows and project profit, which are a source of funds for repayment of loans; they are less interested in the creditworthiness of those employed in the project (organizations, governments, communities and so on. This approach has led to the emergence of new ways of financing projects, new types of projects, such as regional and rural development.

Cristina, GRADEA

2013-12-01

337

Cooling arrangement for a superconducting coil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A superconducting device, such as a superconducting rotor for a generator or motor. A vacuum enclosure has an interior wall surrounding a cavity containing a vacuum. A superconductive coil is placed in the cavity. A generally-annularly-arranged, thermally-conductive sheet has an inward-facing surface contacting generally the entire outward-facing surface of the superconductive coil. A generally-annularly-arranged coolant tube contains a cryogenic fluid and contacts a generally-circumferential portion of the outward-facing surface of the sheet. A generally-annularly-arranged, thermally-insulative coil overwrap generally circumferentially surrounds the sheet. The coolant tube and the inward-facing surface of the coil overwrap together contact generally the entire outward-facing surface of the sheet.

Herd, Kenneth Gordon (Niskayuna, NY); Laskaris, Evangelos Trifon (Schenectady, NY)

1998-06-30

338

Cooling arrangement for a superconducting coil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A superconducting device is disclosed, such as a superconducting rotor for a generator or motor. A vacuum enclosure has an interior wall surrounding a cavity containing a vacuum. A superconductive coil is placed in the cavity. A generally-annularly-arranged, thermally-conductive sheet has an inward-facing surface contacting generally the entire outward-facing surface of the superconductive coil. A generally-annularly-arranged coolant tube contains a cryogenic fluid and contacts a generally-circumferential portion of the outward-facing surface of the sheet. A generally-annularly-arranged, thermally-insulative coil overwrap generally circumferentially surrounds the sheet. The coolant tube and the inward-facing surface of the coil overwrap together contact generally the entire outward-facing surface of the sheet. 3 figs

1996-08-23

339

BASES OF STATE SUPERIOR EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM FINANCING FROM ROMANIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study concerning state superior educational system financing comes to emphasize the main state superior educational system financing forms from Romania, looking forward to find new future state superior educational system financing forms. Romanian educational system reduced financing imposes a special attention for educational process, concerning both quality and, especially, an appropriate financing level endowment. For the future of academic education, it is vital to be found new financing sources, because a composite, diversified financing leads to the raise of total amount of resources at the service of universities, to their freedom degree, too, making them capable to undertake the constraint imposed by the dependence of a solely financing source.

Schneider Suzana

2011-12-01

340

A novel use of human acellular dermis for conduit salvage after esophagectomy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Postesophagectomy anastomotic leaks cause significant morbidity and mortality. Esophageal diversion is often required when extensive tissue loss precludes primary repair. We describe a technique in which human acellular dermis (AlloDerm) is used to repair the conduit, and report a series of 3 patients with significant anastomotic dehiscence whose conduits were salvaged using this technique. PMID:24694437

Thomas, Mathew; Allen, Mark S; Shen, K Robert; Wigle, Dennis A

2014-04-01

 
 
 
 
341

A one-dimensional heat-transport model for conduit flow in karst aquifers  

Science.gov (United States)

A one-dimensional heat-transport model for conduit flow in karst aquifers is presented as an alternative to two or three-dimensional distributed-parameter models, which are data intensive and require knowledge of conduit locations. This model can be applied for cases where water temperature in a well or spring receives all or part of its water from a phreatic conduit. Heat transport in the conduit is simulated by using a physically-based heat-transport equation that accounts for inflow of diffuse flow from smaller openings and fissures in the surrounding aquifer during periods of low recharge. Additional diffuse flow that is within the zone of influence of the well or spring but has not interacted with the conduit is accounted for with a binary mixing equation to proportion these different water sources. The estimation of this proportion through inverse modeling is useful for the assessment of contaminant vulnerability and well-head or spring protection. The model was applied to 7 months of continuous temperature data for a sinking stream that recharges a conduit and a pumped well open to the Madison aquifer in western South Dakota. The simulated conduit-flow fraction to the well ranged from 2% to 31% of total flow, and simulated conduit velocity ranged from 44 to 353 m/d.

Long, A. J.; Gilcrease, P. C.

2009-01-01

342

Twenty years of cable-in-conduit conductors: 1975-1995  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reviews our progress during the last two decades in understanding cable-in-conduit conductors. The emphasis is on the physical principles governing the behavior of cable-in-conduit conductors, and no detailed mathematics is presented. The paper is constructed as a historical narrative

1995-03-01

343

76 FR 53678 - Calleguas Municipal Water District Notice of Surrender of Exemption (Conduit)  

Science.gov (United States)

...Municipal Water District Notice of Surrender of Exemption (Conduit) Pursuant to section 4.95(a) of the Commission's regulations...18 CFR 4.95(a) (2011). \\2\\ The Commission issued a conduit exemption for Project No. 11651 on June 7, 1999....

2011-08-29

344

Finance in conflict and reconstruction  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The relationship between an economy's financial sector and the occurrence and resolution of conflict may at first sight appear tenuous. Banking systems, financial regulation and currency arrangements do not appear to be relevant in understanding why nations collapse or why people kill each other. However, the linkages between the financial sector and issues of conflict are closer than one might expect. Narrow development—development that fails to reduce poverty and which exacerbates initial...

Addison, Tony; Lebillon, Philippe; Murshed, S. Mansoob

2001-01-01

345

Regular arrangement of periodates bound to lysozyme  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The structure of tetragonal hen egg-white lysozyme soaked in a periodate solution has been determined to a resolution of 1.8 A. Four high-occupancy periodate positions have been identified on the basis of the anomalous signal of the I atoms. The four periodates exhibit a regular rectangular arrangement on the surface of the lysozyme molecule. No similar regular arrangement was found either in lysozyme crystals soaked in other heavy-atom anions or in other structures from the Protein Data Bank. Depending on their position on the surface of the protein, the periodate ions deviate to a varying extent from ideal octahedral geometry.

Ondrácek, Jan; Weiss, Manfred S

2005-01-01

346

Ground water flux distribution between matrix, fractures, and conduits: constraints on modeling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Calculations are presented to show the relative contribution of the matrix, fracture, and conduit permeability to the overall flow of ground water through a karst aquifer. The conceptual model is a cross-section spanning the full width and thickness of the aquifer. A constant, but adjustable head is assumed. The rock matrix is characterized by an adjustable hydraulic conductivity. Varying proportions of fractures and conduits of adjustable fracture apertures and conduit diameters were the calculational parameters. Calculations used Darcy’s law for matrix flow, the cube law for fracture flow, and the Darcy-Weisbach equation for conduit flow. The results show a surprising dominance of fracture flow in the early stages of aquifer development. A focusing mechanism is needed to localize the flow into a relatively small number of conduits.

White,W.B.

2005-01-01

347

Board game of international finance  

Science.gov (United States)

A board game of international finance simulates travel and financial exchanges between participants in two or more nations. The game includes travel about a playing path generally along the periphery of the board and the simulated purchase by the players of various properties or cities in each nation. The owners of the properties or cities may collect taxes from other players who land on the owners' properties. Numerically uneven currency exchange rates enter into the play of the game and are randomly variable, according to the draw of cards during the game. In one embodiment, two nations are represented, and in another more advanced embodiment, four nations are represented, as well as additional features such as stocks and bonds. The game provides a somewhat realistic simulation of current international financial dealings.

1995-02-14

348

Financing waste to energy plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Waste-to-energy projects are going ahead in the U.K., they are being project financed and they will make a valuable contribution to environmentally acceptable waste disposal and clean energy within the U.K. Starting from the premise that project sponsors must compete for funds therefore behoves the project sponsor to adapt his proposal to the needs of the investor rather than the other way around. Some of the major potential suppliers of funds are briefly surveyed. It is concluded that waste-to-energy projects do not fit easily into the business plans of venture capital companies, pension funds and banks. Projects must be reworked so that a more favourable opportunity can be offered to potential funders. Ways of achieving this through improved economics and reductions in risk and uncertainty are examined. (author)

1991-10-09

349

Nerve conduit using fascia-wrapped fibrocollagenous tube.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the application of autogenous fascia as a framework of a fibrocollagen tube for a nerve conduit in Japanese white rabbits. The fascia was wrapped with a double layer around a silicone rod 3.0 mm in diameter. After the implantation of the fascia-wrapped silicone rod into a subcutaneous pocket for 2 weeks, a 3.0 x 30-mm fascia-wrapped fibrocollagen (FFC) tube was prepared. With microvascular techniques, the tube was interposed into a right sciatic nerve gap which was 25 mm long. The results of nerve regeneration in the FFC tube group, in particular, the formation of epineurium, were able to stand comparison with the results of a control group under both histologic and electron micrographic examination. PMID:11499471

Watanabe, K; Tsukagoshi, T; Kuroda, M; Hosaka, Y

2001-07-01

350

Development and manufacturing of superconducting cable in conduit conductors  

Science.gov (United States)

The cable in conduit (CIC) technology has proved to be an extremely valid application for the fabrication of conductors used in thermocontrolled nuclear fusion in magneto hydrodynamic and for energy storage. EUROPA METALLI - LMI began developing the CIC technology in the framework of a Contract with ENEA of Frascati producing a Niobium Tin superconducting CIC cable. EUROPA METALLI - LMI has gained its industrial experience in CIC cables during the production of a Niobium Titanium superconducting cable for the National Research Council of Italy under a Finalized Project “Superconductine and Cryogenic Technologies”. The cable will be used by ANSALDO GIE for the winding of a dipole magnet for magneto hydrodynamic applications. The present paper reports the status reached at EUROPA METALLI - LMI for the fabrication and testing of conductors.

Garrè, Riccardo; Conti, Stefano; Donati, Guglielmo; Rossi, Sergio

351

Optimum thermohydraulic operation regime for cable in conduit superconductors (CICS)  

Science.gov (United States)

For large superconducting coils e.g. in tokamaks, stellarators or high energy experimentaldevices it is advantageous to use cable in conduit superconductors (CICS). Successful development of such conductors has been going on for several years. For the design of a cryogenic cooling system it is of much importance to know the operating parameters e.g. inlet pressure, pressure drop, massflow and inlet temperature, where, with the least amount of massflow, the maximum heat can be extracted from the conductor. The paper will deal with the thermodynamic behaviour of helium flowing in channels and the possible heat input in a CICS. Using a set of typical conductor data a method will be shown to find the optimum operating parameters.

Katheder, H.

352

Stability and thermal equilibrium in cable-in-conduit conductors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The stability of modern superconductors depends not only on the cooling and the amount of copper in the cross section of the strands but also on the smoothness of the transition from the superconducting into the normal state. Frequently the latter factor is much more important than the cooling and the copper content. Superconductors with a broad transition are more stable and easier to control than the superconductors with a sharp transition, although the price for better stability might be somewhat lower operating current. The paper gives thermal equilibrium equations and stability criteria against small perturbations and determines the ultimate current that could be reached by a cable-in-conduit conductors depending on operating conditions. The effects of various factors (e.g., magnetic field profile, mass flow and smoothness of the transition to normal state) on the thermal equilibrium and ultimate current are studied and discussed

2004-01-15

353

Hydraulic boundary conditions as a controlling factor in karst genesis: A numerical modeling study on artesian conduit development in gypsum  

Science.gov (United States)

A coupled continuum-pipe flow model is employed to simulate the development of karst conduits in an artesian setting, where aggressive water flows upward from an insoluble aquifer into a gypsum unit. Speleogenetic processes and controlling parameters are identified first for single conduit development. It is demonstrated that transient flow from the conduit into the surrounding fissured system of the rock enhances solutional conduit enlargement. Moreover, single conduit development is found to be highly sensitive to variations in initial diameter and hydraulic gradient. Simulating the solutional enlargement of pipe networks reveals that these two factors determine the resulting conduit pattern. Structural preferences are found to be essential for horizontal conduit development, otherwise flow paths are solely enlarged in vertical direction following the hydraulic gradient. Hydraulic gradients that increase with time can limit the extension or completely inhibit the development of horizontal caves even if lateral conduit development was structurally preferred.

Birk, Steffen; Liedl, Rudolf; Sauter, Martin; Teutsch, Georg

2003-01-01

354

Totally biological composite aortic stentless valved conduit for aortic root replacement: 10-year experience  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To retrospectively analyze the clinical outcome of a totally biological composite stentless aortic valved conduit (No-React® BioConduit implanted using the Bentall procedure over ten years in a single centre. Methods Between 27/10/99 and 19/01/08, the No-React® BioConduit composite graft was implanted in 67 patients. Data on these patients were collected from the in-hospital database, from patient notes and from questionnaires. A cohort of patients had 2D-echocardiogram with an average of 4.3 ± 0.45 years post-operatively to evaluate valve function, calcification, and the diameter of the conduit. Results Implantation in 67 patients represented a follow-up of 371.3 patient-year. Males were 60% of the operated population, with a mean age of 67.9 ± 1.3 years (range 34.1-83.8 years, 21 of them below the age of 65. After a mean follow-up of 7.1 ± 0.3 years (range of 2.2-10.5 years, more than 50% of the survivors were in NYHA I/II and more than 60% of the survivors were angina-free (CCS 0. The overall 10-year survival following replacement of the aortic valve and root was 51%. During this period, 88% of patients were free from valved-conduit related complications leading to mortality. Post-operative echocardiography studies showed no evidence of stenosis, dilatation, calcification or thrombosis. Importantly, during the 10-year follow-up period no failures of the valved conduit were reported, suggesting that the tissue of the conduit does not structurally change (histology of one explant showed normal cusp and conduit. Conclusions The No-React® BioConduit composite stentless aortic valved conduit provides excellent long-term clinical results for aortic root replacement with few prosthesis-related complications in the first post-operative decade.

Meduoye Ayo

2011-06-01

355

Seismological analysis of conduit dynamics in fragmentation experiments  

Science.gov (United States)

simulate gas-burst and volcanic explosions under controlled laboratory conditions inducing fragmentation of volcanic rocks by rapid depressurization. A series of experiments were performed in a shock-tube apparatus at room temperature and a pressure range of 4 to 20 MPa using Argon (Ar) gas and, particles or pumice samples of different porosities. The instrumentation of this system with high-precision piezoelectric sensors enabled us to capture elastic waves and to recognize their characteristic signatures. By relating these signals to physical processes in the wave field, we have been able to characterize the conduit mechanism and the source dynamics. We compare and discuss conspicuous features of the waveforms and frequency spectra of these experimental signals with those of volcanic origin. Despite the fact that these signals are different in amplitude (resulting from different scale conditions); our observations indicate that the physical processes that occur during simulated explosions and those that occur during volcanic eruptions yield comparable signatures in their respective records. The effects of the source-receiver configuration and resonance also have significant implications. All this suggests that the physical processes (e.g. pressurization and depressurization of a system) involve a system response that causes similar distinctive effects independent of the system size, reflecting its intrinsic dynamics. These similarities imply that powerful constraints on the source mechanisms of volcanic seismicity can emerge from seismic investigations of experimental simulations of volumetric sources. Such constraints may yield significant advances in the understanding of volcanic conduit dynamics and in the interpretation of seismic unrest at volcanic centers.

Arciniega-Ceballos, A.; Alatorre-Ibargüengoitia, M.; Scheu, B.; Dingwell, D. B.; Delgado-Granados, H.

2014-03-01

356

Partnership Arrangements: Governmental Rhetoric or Governance Scheme?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It has become popular to advocate partnership arrangements. Such partnerships may be seen as new forms of governance, which fit in with the imminent network society. However, the idea of partnership is often introduced without much reflection on the need to reorganize policy-making

Teisman, G. R.; Klijn, E. H.

2002-01-01

357

Simple-root bases for Shi arrangements  

CERN Multimedia

We introduce the concept of simple-root basis for the logarithmic derivation modules of the cones of the (extended) Shi arrangements. For each irreducible root system and a set of simple roots, we prove that a simple-root basis exists uniquely up to nonzero multiples. We also introduce and study the dual simple-root basis.

Abe, Takuro

2011-01-01

358

Nuclear power plant with loop arrangement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The pumps and intermediate heat exchangers of the primary circuit of the SNR are situated together or separately in component containers, which are arranged around the reactor pit. The connections are provided by partly elastic pipelines, which run radially in the reactor pit and tangentially to the component containers. A four loop design can be produced. (DG)

1979-01-01

359

Tropical hyperplane arrangements and oriented matroids  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We study the combinatorial properties of a tropical hyperplane arrangement. We define tropical oriented matroids, and prove that they share many of the properties of ordinary oriented matroids. We show that a tropical oriented matroid determines a subdivision of a product of two simplices, and conjecture that this correspondence is a bijection.

Ardila, Federico; Develin, Mike

2007-01-01

360

Piston sealing arrangement for a cryogenic refrigerator  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A sealing arrangement for a rectilinear reciprocable piston within a cryogenic refrigerator comprising a buffer defined by dual O-rings disposed around the circumference of the piston and containing pressurized gas of the same type as the refrigeration gas. The buffer limits or prevents both the entrance of contaminants and also the escape of the refrigeration gas.

Green, G.F.; Humphrey, J.C.

1984-02-21

 
 
 
 
361

Towing buoy arrangement. Anordning ved slepeboeye  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The invention concerns a towing buoy arrangement comprising a mast supporting a radar scope or the like being connected to a float unit. The float unit consists of a number of two parallel-spaced floats connected to each other by means of crosswise designed stays. 3 figs.

Carlsen, O.

1987-08-03

362

Present and future nuclear power financing schemes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The financial requirement for nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany for the period up until 1985 was estimated to run up to some DM 100 billion already in the Nuclear Energy Study published by the Dresdner Bank in 1974. This figure is not changed in any way by the reduction the nuclear power program has suffered in the meantime, because the lower requirement for investment capital is more than offset by the price increases that have occurred meanwhile. A capital requirement in the order of DM 100 billion raises major problems for the power producing industry and the banks which, however, are not going to hamper the further expansion of nuclear power, because new financing schemes have been specially developed for the nuclear field. They include financing by leasing, the use of funds from real estate credit institutions for long term financing, borrowing of long term funds in the Euro market, and financing through subsidiaries of the utilities. The new financing schemes also apply to the large financial requirement associated with the nuclear fuel cycle, waste management in particular. In this sector the utilities agree to bear the economic risk of the companies implementing the respective projects. Accordingly, financing will not entail any major difficulties. Another area of great importance is export financing. The German-Brazilian nuclear agreement is a model of this instrument. (orig.)

1977-12-01

363

The challenge of financing nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To date, more then 500 nuclear power reactors have been successfully financed and built. Experience in recent nuclear projects confirms that nuclear power will not cease to be a viable option due to a worldwide financing constraint. For financing nuclear plants there are special considerations: large investment; long lead and construction times; complex technology; regulatory risk and political risk. The principal preconditions to financing are a national policy supporting nuclear power; creditworthiness; economic competitiveness; project feasibility; assurance of adequate revenues; acceptability of risks; and no open-ended liabilities. Generally, nuclear power plants are financed conventionally through multi-sources, where a package covers the entire cost. The first source, the investor/owner/operator responsible for building and operating the plant, should cover a sizable portion of the overall investment. In addition, bond issues, domestic bank credits etc. and, in case of State-owned or controlled enterprises, donations and credits from public entities or the governmental budget, should complete the financing. A financially sound utility should be able to meet this challenge. For importing technology, bids are invited. Export credits should form the basis of foreign financing, because these have favorable terms and conditions. Suppliers from several countries may join in a consortium subdividing the scope of supply and involve several Export Credit Agencies (ECAs). There are also innovative financing approaches that could be applied to nuclear projects. Evolutionary Reactors with smaller overall investment, shorter construction times, reliance on proven technology, together with predictable regulatory regimes and reliable long-term national policies favorable to nuclear power, should make it easier to meet the future challenges of financing. (author)

1999-12-01

364

Engineering a multimodal nerve conduit for repair of injured peripheral nerve  

Science.gov (United States)

Injury to nerve tissue in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) results in long-term impairment of limb function, dysaesthesia and pain, often with associated psychological effects. Whilst minor injuries can be left to regenerate without intervention and short gaps up to 2 cm can be sutured, larger or more severe injuries commonly require autogenous nerve grafts harvested from elsewhere in the body (usually sensory nerves). Functional recovery is often suboptimal and associated with loss of sensation from the tissue innervated by the harvested nerve. The challenges that persist with nerve repair have resulted in development of nerve guides or conduits from non-neural biological tissues and various polymers to improve the prognosis for the repair of damaged nerves in the PNS. This study describes the design and fabrication of a multimodal controlled pore size nerve regeneration conduit using polylactic acid (PLA) and (PLA):poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) fibers within a neurotrophin-enriched alginate hydrogel. The nerve repair conduit design consists of two types of PLGA fibers selected specifically for promotion of axonal outgrowth and Schwann cell growth (75:25 for axons; 85:15 for Schwann cells). These aligned fibers are contained within the lumen of a knitted PLA sheath coated with electrospun PLA nanofibers to control pore size. The PLGA guidance fibers within the nerve repair conduit lumen are supported within an alginate hydrogel impregnated with neurotrophic factors (NT-3 or BDNF with LIF, SMDF and MGF-1) to provide neuroprotection, stimulation of axonal growth and Schwann cell migration. The conduit was used to promote repair of transected sciatic nerve in rats over a period of 4 weeks. Over this period, it was observed that over-grooming and self-mutilation (autotomy) of the limb implanted with the conduit was significantly reduced in rats implanted with the full-configuration conduit compared to rats implanted with conduits containing only an alginate hydrogel. This indicates return of some feeling to the limb via the fully-configured conduit. Immunohistochemical analysis of the implanted conduits removed from the rats after the four-week implantation period confirmed the presence of myelinated axons within the conduit and distal to the site of implantation, further supporting that the conduit promoted nerve repair over this period of time. This study describes the design considerations and fabrication of a novel multicomponent, multimodal bio-engineered synthetic conduit for peripheral nerve repair.

Quigley, A. F.; Bulluss, K. J.; Kyratzis, I. L. B.; Gilmore, K.; Mysore, T.; Schirmer, K. S. U.; Kennedy, E. L.; O'Shea, M.; Truong, Y. B.; Edwards, S. L.; Peeters, G.; Herwig, P.; Razal, J. M.; Campbell, T. E.; Lowes, K. N.; Higgins, M. J.; Moulton, S. E.; Murphy, M. A.; Cook, M. J.; Clark, G. M.; Wallace, G. G.; Kapsa, R. M. I.

2013-02-01

365

Financing of energy performance contracts : the role of savings insurance policies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The concept of energy performance contracting is becoming increasingly popular among energy service companies (ESCOs) that offer advice to institutions regarding design, construction and retrofit ideas for new and existing buildings. ESCOs provide or arrange the financing for projects in three possible ways: (1) the ESCO can borrow the required funds from a bank, without any credit support from its customer who agrees to pay the agreed-upon savings realized under the performance contract, (2) the ESCO can secure its debt by arranging a loan with a lender in which case the owner, the lender and the ESCO sign a tri-party agreement in which the owner agrees to make savings payments to the lender equivalent to the actual savings each month, and (3) an ESCO can be hired under a performance contract to do the work, but to provide their own financing. Details of each of these contract financing options were reviewed and advantages and disadvantages to the owner were identified.

Brett, J.T. [Johnston and Buchan, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

1998-08-01

366

The Profitability – Risk Relationship and Financing Decision  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The enterprise financial decision is a rational process for option to the optimal variant related to financing and investments. For the capital investment to be justified, the profitability of the invested money must be at least equal with the profitability of the alternative investment opportunities with the same risk on market. The choosing of a way for financing is determined on the one side by their cost and on the other side by the existent capital structure. In this paper I tried to analyse the profitability – risk relationship in the financing decision for the “NIKOS” Ltd.

Nicoleta BARBUTA-MISU

2007-01-01

367

Financing electric power in developing countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper discusses the future growth of electricity demand, the likely changes in power investment patterns, and the global investment requirements during the 10 year period 1986-95 for power generation, transmission, and distribution. The investment during the period is analysed as between foreign and local currency requirements, the likely principal sources of finance, the problems which are experienced in financing power investment, and the origin of those problems. The paper provides details of the origin, nature and finances of the World Bank Group, reviews its past lending operations and some of the broader aspects of its lending operations

1986-07-01

368

PRIVATE FUNDS FINANCING OF EUROPEAN HIGHER EDUCATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Higher education plays an important part in the European society, creating knowledge applicable to society and economy, and generating the process of economic and social evolution. Higher education institutions in Europe try to modernize both at the level of the courses they offer and at the level of their acting manner; European states as well as the private agents involved try to find out new, improved means of coordinating and financing. Starting from this idea, we would like to carry out an analysis of the manner of financing European higher education out of private funds with a view to identify new financing sources.

MARIA M?CRI?

2010-01-01

369

Do SMEs follow Pecking Order Financing?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper tests for "pecking order" financing of small and medium size firms. The main sources and "pecking order" of financing for SMEs are equity (internally generated cash), trade credit paid on time, credit provided by institutions such as banks and leasing companies, other sources of debt and delayed payment on trade credit. The "pecking order" of financing is driven by the costs of asymmetric information (cost of gathering and analysing information) and financial distress costs. Empirical tests do not confirm that SMEs follow a pecking order.

Bartholdy, Jan; Mateus, Cèsario

370

Degradation properties of the electrostatic assembly PDLLA/CS/CHS nerve conduit  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A poly(d,l-lactic acid)/chondroitin sulfate/chitosan (PDLLA/CS/CHS) nerve conduit for repairing nerve defects was prepared by electrostatic assembly and the thermally induced phase separation technique. The hydrophilic characteristics of the PDLLA/CS/CHS assembly nerve conduits were improved markedly. The degradation behavior of the nerve conduit with various assembly layers was evaluated by a pH change, weight loss rate and molecular weight change. The pH of the solution of the nerve conduit could be effectively adjusted by varying the layer numbers and overcoming the acidity-caused auto-acceleration of PDLLA; the nerve conduit can retain its integrity in a phosphate buffer solution after being degraded for 3 months. After such a conduit was implanted in the rat for 3 months, obvious degradation occurred, but the regenerated nerve was integrated and it grew successfully from the proximal to distal nerve stump. All these results implied that the degradation rate of the prepared conduit can adapt to the regeneration of the peripheral nerve, which might be a new derivative of PDLLA-based biodegradable materials for repairing nerve injuries without acidity-caused irritations and acidity-induced auto-accelerating degradation behavior as shown by PDLLA.

Xu Haixing [School of Chemical Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Yan Yuhua; Wan Tao; Li Shipu, E-mail: yanyuhua8@126.co [Biomedical Materials and Engineering Research Center, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China)

2009-08-15

371

Degradation properties of the electrostatic assembly PDLLA/CS/CHS nerve conduit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A poly(d,l-lactic acid)/chondroitin sulfate/chitosan (PDLLA/CS/CHS) nerve conduit for repairing nerve defects was prepared by electrostatic assembly and the thermally induced phase separation technique. The hydrophilic characteristics of the PDLLA/CS/CHS assembly nerve conduits were improved markedly. The degradation behavior of the nerve conduit with various assembly layers was evaluated by a pH change, weight loss rate and molecular weight change. The pH of the solution of the nerve conduit could be effectively adjusted by varying the layer numbers and overcoming the acidity-caused auto-acceleration of PDLLA; the nerve conduit can retain its integrity in a phosphate buffer solution after being degraded for 3 months. After such a conduit was implanted in the rat for 3 months, obvious degradation occurred, but the regenerated nerve was integrated and it grew successfully from the proximal to distal nerve stump. All these results implied that the degradation rate of the prepared conduit can adapt to the regeneration of the peripheral nerve, which might be a new derivative of PDLLA-based biodegradable materials for repairing nerve injuries without acidity-caused irritations and acidity-induced auto-accelerating degradation behavior as shown by PDLLA.

2009-08-01

372

Innovative financing for energy-efficiency improvements. Phase I report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of utility-assisted financing, tax-exempt financing, bank financing, leasing, and joint venture financing to promote energy efficiency investments for each of three different categories of buildings (multifamily, commercial, and industrial) is discussed in separate chapters. (MCW)

Klepper, M.; Schwartz, H.K.; Feder, J.M.; Smith, D.C.; Green, R.H.; Williams, J.; Sherman, J.L.; Carroll, M.

1982-01-01

373

Financing of small scale hydroelectric projects (second edition). Volume I  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This second edition to the first volume is largely prompted by significant changes in the federal tax laws. It is divided into the following sections: overview of the development process, definition of the financing problem, risk considerations in hydroelectric financing, financing sources, and bridging the gap between financing options and project development. (DLC)

1985-09-01

374

Financing the Early Childhood Education System: NAEYC Policy Brief.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses the view of the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) regarding financing a system of early childhood education (ECE) in every state and community. Considers how to create a system, why financing is so important, the need to finance ECE programs and infrastructure, and various financing mechanisms. Concludes…

Young Children, 2001

2001-01-01

375

Simulating the Development of Solution Conduits in Dualistic Karst Flow Systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Karst aquifers consist of highly permeable solution conduits embedded in the considerably less permeable fissured system of the adjacent rock. Hydrogeologic characterisation of these heterogeneous, dualistic flow systems requires a sound understanding of the processes involved in karstification. During the last decade numerical simulations of conduit development were frequently employed to accomplish this aim. Yet, in many of the earlier simulations the dualistic nature of the flow system and the feedback of conduit development on the hydraulic boundary conditions of the conduit system had been ignored. In this study, the dual flow system is adequately represented by a coupled continuum-pipe flow model. In order to simulate conduit development, the flow model is coupled to a module calculating dissolution rates and the corresponding widening of conduits depending on flow conditions. It is a major advantage of this modelling approach that the hydraulic boundary conditions for the conduit system do not need to be set a priori but can be obtained by a coupling to the continuum flow model representing the regional hydraulic system. This is illustrated using the example of an artesian setting, in which an unit of soluble rock is supplied with solutionally aggressive water from an aquifer below. It is demonstrated that the flow field changes both locally and at the regional scale due to solutional conduit development. These changes have to be taken into account, in order to gain adequate understanding of how the interaction of flow and dissolution processes determines the structure of the karst conduit system developing in this type of setting.

Birk, S.; Liedl, R.; Sauter, M.; Teutsch, G.

2002-12-01

376

Representation of water abstraction from a karst conduit with numerical discrete-continuum models  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Karst aquifers are characterized by highly conductive conduit flow paths embedded in a less conductive fissured and fractured matrix resulting in strong permeability contrasts with structured heterogeneity and anisotropy. Groundwater storage occurs predominantly in the fissured matrix. Hence, most karst models assume quasi steady-state flow in conduits neglecting conduit associated drainable storage (CADS. The concept of CADS considers storage volumes, where karst water is not part of the active flow system but rather hydraulically connected to conduits (for example karstic voids and large fractures. The disregard of conduit storage can be inappropriate when direct water abstraction from karst conduits occurs, e.g. large scale pumping. In such cases, CADS may be relevant. Furthermore, the typical fixed head boundary condition at the karst outlet can be inadequate for water abstraction scenarios because unhampered water inflow is possible. The objective of this paper is to analyze the significance of CADS and flow-limited boundary conditions on the hydraulic behavior of karst aquifers in water abstraction scenarios. To this end, the numerical hybrid model MODFLOW-2005 Conduit Flow Process Mode 1 (CFPM1 is enhanced to account for CADS. Additionally, a fixed-head limited-flow (FHLQ boundary condition is added that limits inflow from constant head boundaries to a user-defined threshold. The affect and proper functioning of these modifications is demonstrated by simplified model studies. Both enhancements, CAD storage and the FHLQ boundary, are shown to be useful for water abstraction scenarios within karst aquifers. An idealized representation of a large-scale pumping test in a karst conduit is used to demonstrate that the enhanced CFPM1 is potentially able to adequately represent water abstraction processes in both the conduits and the matrix of real karst systems.

T. Reimann

2013-04-01

377

Representation of water abstraction from a karst conduit with numerical discrete-continuum models  

Science.gov (United States)

Karst aquifers are characterized by highly conductive conduit flow paths embedded in a less conductive fissured and fractured matrix, resulting in strong permeability contrasts with structured heterogeneity and anisotropy. Groundwater storage occurs predominantly in the fissured matrix. Hence, most mathematical karst models assume quasi-steady-state flow in conduits neglecting conduit-associated drainable storage (CADS). The concept of CADS considers storage volumes, where karst water is not part of the active flow system but hydraulically connected to conduits (for example karstic voids and large fractures). The disregard of conduit storage can be inappropriate when direct water abstraction from karst conduits occurs, e.g., large-scale pumping. In such cases, CADS may be relevant. Furthermore, the typical fixed-head boundary condition at the karst outlet can be inadequate for water abstraction scenarios because unhampered water inflow is possible. The objective of this work is to analyze the significance of CADS and flow-limited boundary conditions on the hydraulic behavior of karst aquifers in water abstraction scenarios. To this end, the numerical discrete-continuum model MODFLOW-2005 Conduit Flow Process Mode 1 (CFPM1) is enhanced to account for CADS. Additionally, a fixed-head limited-flow (FHLQ) boundary condition is added that limits inflow from constant head boundaries to a user-defined threshold. The effects and the proper functioning of these modifications are demonstrated by simplified model studies. Both enhancements, CADS and FHLQ boundary, are shown to be useful for water abstraction scenarios within karst aquifers. An idealized representation of a large-scale pumping test in a karst conduit is used to demonstrate that the enhanced CFPM1 is able to adequately represent water abstraction processes in both the conduits and the matrix of real karst systems, as illustrated by its application to the Cent Fonts karst system.

Reimann, T.; Giese, M.; Geyer, T.; Liedl, R.; Maréchal, J. C.; Shoemaker, W. B.

2014-01-01

378

Judging the Sustainability of Czech Public Finances  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The position of Czech public finances has been pronounced unsustainable by economists, while politicians claim more or less the opposite. Correct judgment is complicated by the purposeful use of arguments by the two groups in disagreement, by use of different methodology to collect the data and above all, by the fact that there is no precise benchmark for measuring the sustainability. My work attempts to surpass those complications. It attempts to shed more light on Czech public finances sustainability and to present further arguments, presenting Czech public finances in widest international context possible and using comparable, same-methodology based data, as well as different approaches and angles public sector can be looked upon. Despite my believe that careful reader should be allowed to arrive to his own conclusion, the analysis suggests that concerns of economists about the future development of Czech public finances are legitimate.

Jan Zápal

2007-03-01

379

Financing electric power in developing countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article deals with the outlook for electricity demand, the investment patterns, the efficiency improvements, the financing power expansion in developing countries, the foreign exchange requirements, the local currency requirements and the World Bank's electric power lending

1985-01-01

380

Nuclear power plants and project finance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main characteristics of project financing are mentioned as well as different types of projects to which the techniques of financing have been applied. The issues encountered in financing medium size nuclear power plants in developing countries which distinguishes it from traditional project financing are listed and commented. As it seems difficult for commercial banks to take the risks involved in such nuclear projects the paper describes an alternative solution based on the idea that the commercial obligation be substituted by a financial obligation. An example of this is to give a concession to a private company to purchase and operate the power station in question for a given period of time and sign with this company a long term electricity purchase agreement over the same period. The merits of this set up are mentioned

1986-07-01

 
 
 
 
381

Financing Strategies for Nuclear Power Plant Decommissioning.  

Science.gov (United States)

The report analyzes several alternatives for financing the decommissioning of nuclear power plants from the point of view of assurance, cost, equity, and other criteria. Sensitivity analyses are performed on several important variables and possible impact...

1980-01-01

382

Structuring project finance in a deregulated market  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In view of the recent changes in Ontario`s energy market, the main topics of this presentation were the restructuring of municipal electric utilities (MEUs) focusing on financing considerations and the determination of project risks. The various restructuring options such as public/private ownership, privatization, and aggregation, were reviewed. Regardless of the option chosen, financial considerations must include the cost of restructuring, the cost of upgrading transmission wires, the cost of installing metering and billing systems, and the cost of co-generation projects. Sources of capital, credit implications, the feasibility of project financing (i.e. financing of assets based on cash flows generated by the assets), project risks and mitigants should also receive consideration. The pros and cons of Merchant Power Plants as a method of financing should also be examined.

Thomson, W.A.; Piazza, G. [Newcourt Capital, New York, NY (United States)

1998-09-01

383

ANALYSIS OF MECHANISMS FINANCING OF CULTURAL SPHERE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this work is made analysis concern basically state structures of culture and arts activities, is describes the problems are met during the reforming process the financial mechanisms in cultural sphere. Author disclosed the ways evolve private and estate financing cultural sphere, also is disclosed why is need estate financial support. The work contains something detailed measures actions to improve financial and mechanisms financing of cultural sphere. Analyzing questions of modernization of budgetary financing of branch the author have formulated effectiveness of use of budgetary funds at all levels in cultural structures and proposed the ways of finishing of market reforms in cinematography. In the final of work is presented scheme system of financing, formation and distribution of financial resources in cinematography and is making conclusions and is offered wais of the solutions created present situation in this sphere in Moldova.

Costandachi Gheorghe

2008-01-01

384

Personal Finance and Communication: A Natural Duo.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes a personal finance course which uses special assignments designed to improve oral and written communication skills. Discusses assignments such as journal writing, letter writing, discussions with guest speakers, researching major household purchases, and managing a personal investment portfolio. (RS)

Harmon, Gary P.

1990-01-01

385

Development of the Executive Personal Finance Scale.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is accumulating evidence that prefrontal systems play an important role in management of personal finances, based on studies using clinical populations, functional neuroimaging, and both subjective and objective neuropsychological measures. This study developed the Executive Personal Finance Scale (EPFS) as a specific self-rating measure of executive aspects of personal money management. The resulting 20-item scale had good reliability and showed four factors: impulse control, organization, planning, and motivational drive. Validity was evidenced by correlations with income, credit card debt, and investments. The EPFS also showed logical correlations with compulsive buying and money attitudes. Second-order factor analysis of the EPFS and other scales revealed two higher-order factors of personal finance: cognitive (e.g., planning, organizing) and emotional (e.g., anxiety, impulse-spending, prestige). The EPFS shows good psychometric properties, is easy to use, and will make a convenient complement to other research methodologies exploring the neural basis of personal finance management. PMID:17365116

Spinella, Marcello; Yang, Bijou; Lester, David

2007-03-01

386

Financing strategy for Indonesian Nuclear Power Project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In anticipation of the introduction in the early 2000s of a nuclear power plant, the Government of Indonesia (GOI), through the National Atomic Energy Agency (BATAN) , has formulated a Bid Invitation Specification (BIS) in parallel with the completion of the NPP Feasibility Study. This BIS formulation assumed an open international tender for the first unit of the NPP with project financing as a conventional loan. The GOI's recent policy is to minimize government financial support for power development. This paper summarizes a financing strategy for the Indonesian NPP project to make the NPP economically viable, and provides a general discussion on project financing using a conventional approach, Build--Own-Operate (BOO) and a counter-purchase approach. Innovative approaches for financing are still being pursued in order to obtain an optimum solution for investors and owners, to fulfill the Indonesian government's requirements. (author)

1998-05-03

387

Transportation Pricing and Finance Options for California.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this research project was to conduct research on the merits, costs and application potential of various transportation pricing approaches, to better inform decision makers and the public about transportation financing/pricing option in Ca...

A. Evans B. McCullough B. D. Taylor E. Morris M. Gougherty M. Smirti M. Wachs P. Sorenson

2006-01-01

388

Innovative financing in state energy policy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Difficulty in acquiring project financing is generally recognized as the key institutional barrier impeding widespread utilization of energy conservation and renewable energy technologies. A number of states have implemented energy policy initiatives over the last few years that address this fundamental issue by attempting to facilitate the flow of financial resources into cogeneration, small power production, and other energy efficient applications. In the first generation of state financing initiatives of the early 1980s, funds were generally obtained from public sources and were disbursed in relatively conventional manners such as through grants and loans. In the second generation of financing programs currently in vogue, private sources of funds are being tapped through performance-based transactions such as shared savings contracts and energy service agreements. A third generation of financing initiatives can now be envisioned in which state institutions are created to marshall managerial and financial resources for public purposes through public/private cooperative ventures. 16 references.

Wolcott, D.R.

1986-03-01

389

Innovative financing for transportation: practical solutions and experiences. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report describes the proceedings of a National Symposium on Innovative Financing for Transportation, held in Frederickburg, Virginia, on December 11-13, 1985. The Conference Proceedings Report includes papers or presentations delivered at four plenary sessions and three invited overview papers. Session papers cover a variety of subjects dealing with transportation financing including: New Approaches to User Charges; Recent Experiences with Benefit Assessment Financing; Development Financing and other innovative approaches and integrating financing techniques; and, Raising private capital. Overview papers focus on the variety of innovative financing options currently available and discussed financing issues from the perspective of urban and statewide transportation.

Hoel, L.A.

1986-04-01

390

Child Care Arrangements Of Working Mothers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Children arrangements for infants and preschool children and the reasons for working outside the home were studied in 300 mothers of whom 100 were teachers (Group. I 100 clerks (groups II and 100 tabourers (Group III. The interview method was used. The most common (80% reason for working was financial needs, the next most frequent was utilization of specialized skills. In 58.7% of the cases, substitute childcare was provided by one of the family members, usually the grandmother. Sixty six percent of caretakers were illiterate. Most (93% of the working mothers had also to perform certain household chores. Bottle-feeding was stated at birth by 80% of these mothers: Childcare arrangements for children of working mothers must be considered in the future.

Singh H

1993-01-01

391

Arrangement for wear determination with radioactive isotopes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The abrasion of radioactive labelled components of the engine is led together with the oil into a flowmeter tube that passes through a hole in a NaJ-crystal. A cooling jacket for thermal decoupling is arranged between the measuring line and the neighbouring area of the crystal. The cooling jacket is operated with water. A Pb-shielding covers the complete measuring head. (DG)

1979-01-01

392

Jurisdictional Arrangements and International Criminal Procedure  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As preparation for a chapter in a book on international criminal procedural law, this working paper analyses the jurisdictional arrangements between international criminal tribunals and domestic courts. Since ‘exclusive’, ‘concurrent’, ‘primary’ and ‘complementary’ jurisdiction do not exist in the abstract, it reviews the relevant provisions and the case law of the Nuremberg and Tokyo tribunals, tribunals for the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda, the International Criminal Court a...

Lewis, Dustin Andrew

2011-01-01

393

Child Care Arrangements Of Working Mothers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Children arrangements for infants and preschool children and the reasons for working outside the home were studied in 300 mothers of whom 100 were teachers (Group. I) 100 clerks (groups II) and 100 tabourers (Group III). The interview method was used. The most common (80%) reason for working was financial needs, the next most frequent was utilization of specialized skills. In 58.7% of the cases, substitute childcare was provided by one of the family members, usually the grandmot...

1993-01-01

394

Generalized Lantern Relations and Planar Line Arrangements  

CERN Document Server

In this paper we show that to each planar line arrangement defined over the real numbers, for which no two lines are parallel, one can write down a corresponding relation on Dehn twists that can be read off from the combinatorics and relative locations of intersections. This leads to an alternate proof of Wajnryb's generalized lantern relations, and of Endo, Mark and Horn-Morris' daisy relations.

Hironaka, Eriko

2011-01-01

395

Partnership Arrangements: Governmental Rhetoric or Governance Scheme?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It has become popular to advocate partnership arrangements. Such partnerships may be seen as new forms of governance, which fit in with the imminent network society. However, the idea of partnership is often introduced without much reflection on the need to reorganize policy-making processes and to adjust existing institutional structures. In this contribution, we discuss the ambiguity of partnerships. An empirical basis is provided by means of an analysis of the policy making on the expan...

Teisman, G. R.; Klijn, E. H.

2002-01-01

396

Loops on polyhedral products and diagonal arrangements  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we establish a connection between the loop space homology of the generalization of wedge defined by a simplicial complex K (so called polyhedral product) and the homology of certain diagonal arrangements associated with K. We illustrate these results by finding the presentations of those loop homology algebras for certain K generalizing results of Panov-Ray, Papadima-Suciu, Lemaire. Finally, we show that in the case when the functor is applied to suspensions, t...

Dobrinskaya, Natalia

2009-01-01

397

Applied Computational Intelligence for finance and economics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article introduces some relevant research works on computational intelligence applied to finance and economics. The objective is to offer an appropriate context and a starting point for those who are new to computational intelligence in finance and economics and to give an overview of the most recent works. A classification with five different main areas is presented. Those areas are related with different applications of the most modern computational intelligence techniques showing a ne...

2007-01-01

398

Applications of Entropy in Finance: A Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although the concept of entropy is originated from thermodynamics, its concepts and relevant principles, especially the principles of maximum entropy and minimum cross-entropy, have been extensively applied in finance. In this paper, we review the concepts and principles of entropy, as well as their applications in the field of finance, especially in portfolio selection and asset pricing. Furthermore, we review the effects of the applications of entropy and compare them with other traditional and new methods.

Guanqun Tong

2013-11-01

399

Applications of Entropy in Finance: A Review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Although the concept of entropy is originated from thermodynamics, its concepts and relevant principles, especially the principles of maximum entropy and minimum cross-entropy, have been extensively applied in finance. In this paper, we review the concepts and principles of entropy, as well as their applications in the field of finance, especially in portfolio selection and asset pricing. Furthermore, we review the effects of the applications of entropy and compare them with other traditional...

Rongxi Zhou; Ru Cai; Guanqun Tong

2013-01-01

400

Infrastructure finance in developing countries: An overview  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study analyzes the main approaches to infrastructure financing in developing countries and their evolution. It places the discussion in the context of the importance of infrastructure investment and maintenance needs to achieve growth and broader social objectives. It summarizes the evidence on the efficiency, equity and fiscal consequences of the main public and private financing options commonly used to achieve these goals in these countries. It shows the limits of the role of the priv...

Estache, Antonio

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
401

Corporate Social Responsibility and Access to Finance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, we investigate whether superior performance on corporate social responsibility (CSR) strategies leads to better access to finance. We hypothesize that better access to finance can be attributed to a) reduced agency costs due to enhanced stakeholder engagement and b) reduced informational asymmetry due to increased transparency. Using a large cross-section of firms, we find that firms with better CSR performance face significantly lower capital constraints. Moreover, we provide ...

Cheng, Beiting; Ioannou, Ioannis; Serafeim, Georgios

2012-01-01

402

Financing of innovative development: realities and prospects  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of the article. The purpose of the article is to analyze the theoretical and practical basis for financing national economy innovative development, and ways of financing innovation with international experience.The results of the analysis. It should be noted that Ukraine's transition to an innovative model of national economy development is the only way to improve the quality of economic growth. Some aspects of innovative development are shown in several regulatory documents. However,...

Khovrak, I. V.

2013-01-01

403

Modeling bond yields in finance and macroeconomics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

From a macroeconomic perspective, the short-term interest rate is a policy instrument under the direct control of the central bank. From a finance perspective, long rates are risk-adjusted averages of expected future short rates. Thus, as illustrated by much recent research, a joint macro-finance modeling strategy will provide the most comprehensive understanding of the term structure of interest rates. We discuss various questions that arise in this research, and we also present a new examin...

2005-01-01

404

Modeling Bond yields in finance and macroeconomics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

From a macroeconomic perspective, the short-term interest rate is a policy instrument under the direct control of the central bank. From a finance perspective, long rates are risk-adjusted averages of expected future short rates. Thus, as illustrated by much recent research, a joint macro-finance modeling strategy will provide the most comprehensive understanding of the term structure of interest rates. We discuss various questions that arise in this research, and we also present a new examin...

2005-01-01

405

'Show me the money': energy projects financing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the business and business model of Corpfinance International (CFI). CFI consists of three businesses: structured financing, private equity/corporate finance advisory and securitization. Furthermore, CFI is the lender of record acting on behalf of and based on strong relationship with various Life Insurance Companies, Pension Funds and International Banks. CFI has in-house expertise in support of its lending advisory and investing activities

2007-05-28

406

Financing Higher Education: a contributory education scheme  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, we study the higher education financing based on the classical contributory versus self-funded pension funding scheme. We provide a brief discussion of how a system based on student debt can be seen 'funded' and why it fails to ensure equity and efficiency and funding for the longer term. We also define a contributory financing scheme for higher education based on income tax and social security contributions, and study its strengths and weaknesses. By contributory, we mean a sc...

Flacher, David; Harari-kermadec, Hugo; Moulin, Le?onard

2013-01-01

407

Principles and Products of Islamic Finance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The principles of Islamic finance are laid down in the sharia, Islamic law. Islamic finance, comprising financial transactions in banks and non-bank financial institutions formal and non-formal financial institutions, is based on the concept of a social order of brotherhood and solidarity. The participants in banking transactions are considered business partners who jointly bear the risks and profits. Islamic financial instruments and products are equity-oriented and based on various forms of...

Seibel, Hans Dieter; Imady, Omar

2006-01-01

408

Three essays in dynamic corporate finance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The three essays constituting this thesis focus on financing and cash management policy. The first essay aims to shed light on why firms issue debt so conservatively. In particular, it examines the effects of shareholder and creditor protection on capital structure choices. It starts by building a contingent claims model where financing policy results from a trade-off between tax benefits, contracting costs and agency costs. In this setup, controlling shareholders can divert part of the firms...

Nikolov, Boris; Morellec, Erwan

2008-01-01

409

Business Taxation, Corporate Finance and Economic Performance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This survey of recent research in corporate finance discusses how business taxes, subsidies as well as a country's institutional development affect several important decision margins of heterogeneous firms. We argue that innovative firms, as a result of agency problems between insiders and outside investors, are most frequently finance constrained. We discuss how profit taxes reduce investment of constrained firms by their effect on cash-flow, and of unconstrained firms by their effect o...

Christian Keuschnigg; Evelyn Ribi

2010-01-01

410

Governance and Financing of Chinese Higher Education  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

With an introduction to the overall underdevelopment of higher education in China compared with the American counterpart, this article briefly examines the main trends of over two decades of development of the governance and financing systems of China's higher education sector. This article analyzes the resource allocation from governments and revenue generation in institutions under the reform policies of administrative decentralization and financing diversification. The new "Great Leap Forw...

Chengzhi Wang

2000-01-01

411

SMES' SECTOR ACCESS TO FINANCE: AN OVERVIEW  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Through their contribution to the creation of added value and new jobs, the small and medium enterprises (SMEs) have a significant role in the economic and social development of a country. However, these enterprises are facing numerous obstacles that limit their performance, growth and development. Among the difficulties faced by SMEs, the access to finance is often reported as a major obstacle to the deployment and expansion of their activity. The access to finance is crucial for efficient a...

Roman Angela

2011-01-01

412

Financing solar thermal power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The commercialization of concentrating solar power technology took a major step forward in the mid 1980s and early 1990s with the development of the SEGS plants in California. Over the years they have proven that parabolic trough power technologies are the most cost-effective approach for commercial scale solar power generation in the sunbelt countries of the world. However, the question must be asked why no additional solar power plants have been built following the bankruptcy of the developer of the SEGS projects, LUZ International Limited. Although many believe the SEGS projects were a success as a result of parabolic trough technology they employ, in truth, the SEGS projects were developed simply because they represented an attractive opportunity for investors. Simply states, no additional projects have been developed because no one has been able to put together a similarly attractive financial package to potential investors. More than $1.2 billion in private capital was raised in debt and equity financing for the nine SEGS plants. Investors and bankers who make these investments are the real clients for solar power technologies. They are not interested in annual solar to electric efficiencies, but in risk, return on investments, and coverage ratios. This paper will take a look at solar power projects form the financier's perspective. The challenge in moving forward is to attract private investors, commercial lenders, and international development agencies and to find innovative solutions to the difficult issues that investment in the global power market poses for solar power technologies

1999-04-11

413

Financing Solar Thermal Power Plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The commercialization of concentrating solar power technology took a major step forward in the mid 1980s and early 1990s with the development of the SEGS plants in California. Over the years they have proven that parabolic trough power technologies are the most cost-effective approach for commercial scale solar power generation in the sunbelt countries of the world. However, the question must be asked why no additional solar power plants have been build following the bankruptcy of the developer of the SEGS projects, LUZ International Limited. Although many believe the SEGS projects were a success as a result of parabolic trough technology they employ, in truth, the SEGS projects were developed simply because they represented an attractive opportunity for investors. Simply stated, no additional projects have been developed because no one has been able to put together a similarly attractive financial package to potential investors. More than $1.2 billion in private capital was raised in debt and equity financing for the nine SEGS plants. Investors and bankers who make these investments are the real clients for solar power technologies. They are not interested in annual solar to electric efficiencies, but in risk, return on investments, and coverage ratios. This paper will take a look at solar power projects from the financier's perspective. The challenge in moving forward is to attract private investors, commercial lenders, and international development agencies and to find innovative solutions to the difficult issues that investment in the global power market poses for solar power technologies

1999-04-11

414

Laparoscopic management of obstructed gastric conduit after minimally invasive esophagectomy.  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe a novel, minimally invasive method of managing an obstructed gastric conduit after minimally invasive esophagectomy. In addition, we briefly review the management of obstructed gastric conduit in patients status-post minimally invasive esophagectomy. On literature review, it was noted that gastrojejunostomy after esophagectomy was exceptionally rare. Only one other reported case of gastrojejunostomy after esophagectomy was found in the literature. This is the first reported case to our knowledge of laparoscopic gastrojejunostomy after minimally invasive esophagectomy (MIE). Laparoscopic gastrojejunostomy after minimally invasive esophagectomy for obstructed gastric conduit is technically feasible, and it effectively managed the obstruction in our patient. PMID:24792304

Friedman, Garrett; Copeland, Hannah; Astudillo, Juan Andres; Michelotti, Marcos; Wallen, Jason

2014-05-01

415

Core arrangement in BWR type reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To decrease the number of fuel assemblies whose locations are to be changed upon fuel exchange, as well as unify the power distribution in the core by arranging, in a chess board configuration, a plurality pattern of unit reactor lattices each containing fuel assemblies of different burnup degrees in orthogonal positions to each other. Constitution: A first pattern of unit reactor lattice is formed by disposing fuel assemblies of burnup degree 1 and fuel assemblies of burnup degree 3 at orthogonal positions to each other. A second pattern of unit reactor lattice is formed by disposing fuel assemblies of burnup degree 2 and fuel assemblies of burnup degree 1 at orthogonal positions to each other. The unit lattices each in such a dispositions are arranged in a chess board arrangement. Since, the fuel assemblies of the burnup degree 1 in the first pattern unit lattices proceed to the burnup degree 2 and the fuel assemblies of the burnup degree 2 in the second pattern unit lattices proceed to the burnup degree 3 up to the fuel exchange stage, fuel exchange and movement have only to be made, not for those fuel assemblies, but for another half of the fuel assemblies. (Kawakami, Y.)

1981-01-01

416

RF coil arrangement for nuclear magnetic resonance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A coil arrangement is described for use in generating and detecting nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in a body, e.g. an NMR imaging apparatus, comprising a conductor arrangement which can be used both as an RF field generating coil and an orthogonally polarised RF field detecting coil. The arrangement comprises a plurality of non-magnetic electrically conductive paths extending generally parallel to the axis of a cylindrical volume, and means such as a segmented ring interconnecting the paths at each of their ends. An input signal applied to diametrically opposite paths causes currents to flow in loops formed by the paths and interconnections so as to produce a field directed perpendicular to the axis of the volume. An output for application to a detector is derived from diametrically opposite paths which are orthogonal to the paths to which the input signal is applied so that zero current is induced in them by the field produced by the input signal. In a second embodiment the conductive paths are formed by four arcuate copper sheets subtending an angle of 900 at the cylinder axis, and mechanically joined only at one end, the other ends being capacitatively coupled (enabling tuning) to a common copper ring. Inductive coupling of the conductive path is also possible. (author)

1984-02-27

417

Not all free arrangements are $K(\\pi,1)$  

CERN Document Server

We produce a one-parameter family of hyperplane arrangements that are counterexamples to the conjecture of Saito that the complexified complement of a free arrangement is $K(\\pi,1)$. These arrangements are the restriction of a one-parameter family of arrangements that arose in the study of tilings of certain centrally symmetric octagons. This other family is discussed as well.

Edelman, P H; Edelman, Paul H.; Reiner, Victor

1995-01-01

418

BASES OF STATE SUPERIOR EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM FINANCING FROM ROMANIA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study concerning state superior educational system financing comes to emphasize the main state superior educational system financing forms from Romania, looking forward to find new future state superior educational system financing forms. Romanian educational system reduced financing imposes a special attention for educational process, concerning both quality and, especially, an appropriate financing level endowment. For the future of academic education, it is vital to be found new finan...

Schneider Suzana; Cosma Dorin; Bene Gheorghe Florin

2011-01-01

419

Infrastructure finance in Europe: Composition, evolution and crisis impact  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article is the first attempt to compile comprehensive data on infrastructure finance in Europe. We decompose infrastructure finance by institutional sector (i.e. public versus private) into its main components, which consist of traditionalpublic procurement, project finance and finance by the corporate sector, and analyse how the roles of the public and private sectors in financing infrastructure have evolved over time, especially during the recent economic and financial crisis. In contr...

Wagenvoort, Rien; Nicola, Carlo; Kappeler, Andreas

2010-01-01

420

The OECD consensus and loan conditions on officially supported financing for nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Today, all OECD coutries provide official export insurance coverage and all but one offer direct export financing support by way of direct credits, refinancing, or interest rate subsidisation. The proliferation of government export financing support programmes and the increasing competition among them provoked fear that an ''export credit war'' might develop and eventually led to the formulation of the OECD ''Consensus'' in July 1976 and the adoption in February 1978 of the ''Arrangement on Guidelines for Officially Supported Export Credits''. The ''Arrangement'' stipulates a number of guidelines to which participating countries pledge to adhere. The most important rules are mentioned in this paper. A Sector Understanding on Export Credits for Nuclear Power Plants which complements the Arrangement, was adopted on 31 July 1984 and made effective as of 18th August 1984. The principle constraints on credit terms are also mentioned in this paper. The above mentioned Understanding is new and still in its ''breaking in'' phase. Some time will be needed in order to tell how well its provisions will work in practice

1986-07-01

 
 
 
 
421

Investment and financial analysis--2. coal prep financing and revenue estimation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A discussion of various methods used to finance coal preparation plants covers the conventional carve-out arrangement that allows a charitable organization to make an investment and receive tax-sheltered income; leasing to accumulate the benefits of depreciation or investment tax credits in the hands of a lessor better able to use them than the mining company; financing packages structured as tax-sheltered investments for groups of sophisticated investors; risks associated with such investments due to later changes in the energy markets, prices, taxes, etc.; and the importance and often uncertain character of transportation costs, with one graph showing 1970 transportation costs for trainload quantities (8000 tons) vs. distance, and a second graph giving the price index for total railroad freight for the period 1969-1977.

Schenck, G.H.K.

1978-07-01

422

An analysis of documentation utilized in a structured financing of midstream assets  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A look at alternative sources of funds to finance ongoing natural gas processing operations is presented. Among the alternatives discussed was re-evaluation of the benefits of ownership of midstream processing assets, including the retention of such assets upon the acquisition of packages of petroleum and natural gas properties. This presentation describes what are considered typical problems that might arise when contemplating an off balance sheet financing of a gas processing facility, and the numerous issues that arise under the Construction, Ownership and Operating Agreement. The discussion includes the sales agreement, the construction of facilities, gas transportation and processing agreements, contract facility operating/management agreements, lender arrangements, and restructuring the construction, ownership and operating agreement.

Stickland, K.S.; Polson, R.G. [Burnet, Duckworth and Palmer, Calgary, AB (Canada)

1999-04-01

423

The efficiency of states and cities: Is there a case for public land leasing and sales to finance India's cities?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study an attempt has been made to assess the potential of land as a municipal financing tool in four Indian cities, to enable better public service delivery and attainment of the MDGs. The institutional arrangements for land use are fragmented in India's cities between the urban development authorities, which are state agencies, and the cities. To determine whether or not transfer of revenues from land to cities from the para-statal entities is justified, stochastic frontier analysis ...

Sridhar, Kala Seetharam

2011-01-01

424

Data Transfer via Alternative Conduits: Using Fluid Networks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Digital convergence has reshaped a gamut of industry demographics in the 21C, comprised of cloud computing, healthcare, pharmaceutical, consumer supplies, government, defense, manufacturing, entertainment, and even on-line education, among many others.   At the center of the web-convergence lies the problem of network bandwidth limitation.  Traditionally, research has focused on two major resolution strategies in parallel:  data compression to minimize the network traffic (i.e. algorithmic; software and alternative conduit for data transfer such as wireless (i.e. infrastructural; hardware.Building a network infrastructure is extremely costly.   In addition, maintenance and upgrade costs may be prohibitive, given the U.S. consumer demographics.   To this end, the emphasis is placed on seeking existing infrastructure which connects business and residential entities.The objective of this research, therefore, is to seek the possibility and feasibility of (digital data transfers via the extensive water and/or sewer network(s, while minimizing structural modifications to the existing infrastructure.   To date, sonar has been proven to be effective.   If successful, the value of this intellectual property may be immeasurable.

Charles Willow

2012-11-01

425

Structure of a Bacterial Cell Surface Decaheme Electron Conduit  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Some bacterial species are able to utilize extracellular mineral forms of iron and manganese as respiratory electron acceptors. In Shewanella oneidensis this involves deca-heme cytochromes that are located on the bacterial cell surface at the termini of trans-outermembrane (OM) electron transfer conduits. The cell surface cytochromes can potentially play multiple roles in mediating electron transfer directly to insoluble electron sinks, catalyzing electron exchange with flavin electron shuttles or participating in extracellular inter-cytochrome electron exchange along ‘nanowire’ appendages. We present a 3.2 Å crystal structure of one of these deca-heme cytochromes, MtrF, that allows the spatial organization of the ten hemes to be visualized for the first time. The hemes are organized across four domains in a unique crossed conformation, in which a staggered 65 Å octa-heme chain transects the length of the protein and is bisected by a planar 45 Å tetra-heme chain that connects two extended Greek key split ?-barrel domains. The structure provides molecular insight into how reduction of insoluble substrate (e.g. minerals), soluble substrates (e.g. flavins) and cytochrome redox partners might be possible in tandem at different termini of a trifurcated electron transport chain on the cell surface.

Clarke, Thomas A.; Edwards, Marcus; Gates, Andrew J.; Hall, Andrea; White, Gaye; Bradley, Justin; Reardon, Catherine L.; Shi, Liang; Beliaev, Alex S.; Marshall, Matthew J.; Wang, Zheming; Watmough, Nicholas; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Zachara, John M.; Butt, Julea N.; Richardson, David J.

2011-05-23

426

Impact of cyclic stretch on induced elastogenesis within collagenous conduits.  

Science.gov (United States)

In vitro tissue engineering of vascular conduits requires a synergy between several external factors, including biochemical supplementation and mechanotranductive stimulation. The goal of this study was to improve adult human vascular smooth muscle cell orientation and elastic matrix synthesis within 3D tubular collagen gel constructs. We used a combination of elastogenic factors (EFs) previously tested in our lab, along with cyclic circumferential strains at low amplitude (2.5%) delivered at a range of frequencies (0.5, 1.5, and 3?Hz). After 21 days of culture, the constructs were analyzed for elastic matrix outcomes, activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)-2 and -9, cell densities and phenotype, and mechanical properties of constructs. While cell densities remained unaffected by the addition of stretch, contractile phenotypic markers were elevated in all stretched constructs relative to control. Constructs cultured with EFs stretched at 1.5?Hz exhibited the maximum elastin mRNA expression and total matrix elastin (over sixfold vs. the static EFs control). MMP-2 content was comparable in all treatment conditions, but MMP-9 levels were elevated at the higher frequencies (1.5 and 3?Hz). Minimal circumferential orientation was achieved and the mechanical properties remained comparable among the treatment conditions. Overall, constructs treated with EFs and stretched at 1.5?Hz exhibited the most elastogenic outcomes. PMID:24313750

Venkataraman, Lavanya; Bashur, Chris A; Ramamurthi, Anand

2014-05-01

427

Prediction of the phase distribution in a triangular conduit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The phase distribution in any two-phase flow system is one of the most important parameters for an accurate analysis of the momentum and heat transfer mechanisms. A multidimensional analysis of an accurate flow and void distribution can result in an accurate prediction of such important thermal-hydraulic phenomena as the local critical heat flux (CHF). However, numerous experimental and analytical studies of a two-phase flow in the past were not able to satisfactorily predict the lateral phase distribution in a wide range of conditions due to the uncertainties associated with the interfacial constitutive models and the turbulence models. There have been some numerical works to predict the phase distribution in two-phase bubbly flows. They predicted well the void peak near the wall for an up flow and the void coring for a down flow. However, there are few studies available on the void coring for an up flow. This study simulates the air/water measurements of a phase distribution in a triangular conduit which shows the void coring phenomena

2004-10-28

428

Finite element modelling of cable-in-conduit conductors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) cable-in-conduit conductors (CICCs) are subjected to high thermal and electromagnetic cyclic loadings, responsible for conductivity loss in the strain-sensitive Nb3Sn strands. The complex mechanical phenomena occurring at the local scale of the strands make the final performances of the CICC difficult to predict from single-strand properties. In order to assess the amplitudes of the local strains that drive the conductor electrical behaviour, a nonlinear finite element simulation code is used. The successive stages of the conductors’ service life, from the forming of the cable to its thermal cool-down and Lorentz force loading, are simulated. Each strand is individually modelled and contact–friction interactions between the strands are considered. After a description of the issues regarding the modelling of the mechanical behaviour of cables and the main features of the finite element code employed, this paper presents the simulation results for the testing of pure copper wire inclusion for the conductor strain state. The code was then used to model four different cable designs in terms of twist pitches and void fractions. The analysis of the axial strain distributions within the cable is presented here. (paper)

2012-05-01

429

Prediction of the void coring phenomena in a triangular conduit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The phase distribution in any two-phase flow system is one of the most important parameters for an accurate analysis of the momentum and heat transfer mechanisms. A multidimensional analysis of an accurate flow and void distribution can result in an accurate prediction of such important thermal-hydraulic phenomena as the local critical heat flux. However, numerous experimental and analytical studies of a two-phase flow in the past were not able to satisfactorily predict the lateral phase distribution in a wide range of conditions due to the uncertainties associated with the interfacial constitutive models and the turbulence models. The previous study could not predict the void coring for the upward two-phase flow observed in the experiment. Recently, Tomiyama et al. showed that there is a critical bubble diameter causing the radial void profile transition from a wall peaking to a core peaking in an air-water bubbly flow. Using the transverse lift coefficient proposed by Tomiyama et al., this study simulated the void coring phenomena of the air-water flow in a triangular conduit and compared the predicted void distributions with the measurements

2005-05-26

430

SMES' SECTOR ACCESS TO FINANCE: AN OVERVIEW  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Through their contribution to the creation of added value and new jobs, the small and medium enterprises (SMEs have a significant role in the economic and social development of a country. However, these enterprises are facing numerous obstacles that limit their performance, growth and development. Among the difficulties faced by SMEs, the access to finance is often reported as a major obstacle to the deployment and expansion of their activity. The access to finance is crucial for efficient allocation of financial resources and entrepreneurial development, which explains the major interest given to this subject both by the academic literature and the policy makers. The paper aims to highlight the difficulties faced by SMEs in securing financing resources, emphasizing the differences between countries and also between SMEs and large enterprises. Knowing the difficulties in SMEs financing is essential for policy makers in order to design and implement appropriate measures, which will help to improve the access to financing for these enterprises. Thus, another issue addressed, synthetically, in this paper aims the measures taken by public authorities in order to support the access to financing for SMEs. The research methodology used in this paper starts with a literature review in order to highlight the importance of the subject addressed in our research. The analysis conducted in this paper is based on data and statistics provided mainly by the World Bank surveys, by certain empirical studies and by the National Council of Small and Medium Sized Private Enterprises in Romania. Based on the methodology used, the paper indicates the difficulties in SMEs financing and the crucial importance of enhancing the public authorities concerns regarding their alleviation, especially by adopting measures focused on increasing financial development, which would ensure greater availability of financing for businesses and thus economic growth. The limited availability and even lack of statistical data regarding the SMEs financing situation from various countries, including Romania, impose certain limits to the researches in the field, which can be overcome as policy makers realize the vital importance of developing and monitoring specific indicators regarding the financing of this type of enterprises, such as the share of loans granted to SMEs, based on their size, experience and sectors of activity, that would be useful for public authorities, creditors and investors.

Roman Angela

2011-07-01

431

Financing Solar Thermal Power Plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The commercialization of concentrating solar power technology took a major step forward in the mid 1980s and early 1990s with the development of the SEGS plants in California. Over the years they have proven that parabolic trough power technologies are the most cost-effective approach for commercial scale solar power generation in the sunbelt countries of the world. However, the question must be asked why no additional solar power plants have been build following the bankruptcy of the developer of the SEGS projects, LUZ International Limited. Although many believe the SEGS projects were a success as a result of parabolic trough technology they employ, in truth, the SEGS projects were developed simply because they represented an attractive opportunity for investors. Simply stated, no additional projects have been developed because no one has been able to put together a similarly attractive financial package to potential investors. More than $1.2 billion in private capital was raised i n debt and equity financing for the nine SEGS plants. Investors and bankers who make these investments are the real clients for solar power technologies. They are not interested in annual solar to electric efficiencies, but in risk, return on investments, and coverage ratios. This paper will take a look at solar power projects from the financier's perspective. The challenge in moving forward is to attract private investors, commercial lenders, and international development agencies and to find innovative solutions to the difficult issues that investment in the global power market poses for solar power technologies.

Price, H. W.; Kistner, R.

1999-11-01

432

Method of creating a cold water conduit to be used in ocean thermal energy conversion systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method is disclosed of creating a cold water conduit for use with an ocean thermal energy conversion plant by drilling and blasting at least one passageway completely through an underwater land formation.

Green, W.; Calkins, D.; Gray, D.; Landers, E. Jr.

1983-08-09

433

78 FR 61958 - San Juan County Historical Society; Notice of Preliminary Determination of A Qualifying Conduit...  

Science.gov (United States)

...eight-inch diameter discharge pipeline leading to an existing 300-foot...six-inch diameter discharge pipeline that returns water to the Animas...conduit the facility uses is a tunnel, canal, Y pipeline, aqueduct, flume,...

2013-10-08

434

78 FR 61985 - City of Astoria, Oregon; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower...  

Science.gov (United States)

...generating unit; (3) a new, small pipeline discharging water into an existing 21-inch pipeline; and (4) appurtenant facilities...The conduit the facility uses is a tunnel, canal, Y pipeline, aqueduct, flume, ditch, or...

2013-10-09

435

78 FR 62351 - North Side Canal Company; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower...  

Science.gov (United States)

...FPA 30(a)(3)(A), as amended by The conduit the facility Y HREA. uses is a tunnel, canal, pipeline, aqueduct, flume, ditch, or similar manmade water conveyance that is operated for the distribution of...

2013-10-18

436

78 FR 69847 - North Side Canal Company; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower...  

Science.gov (United States)

...FPA 30(a)(3)(A), as amended by The conduit the Y HREA. facility uses is a tunnel, canal, pipeline, aqueduct, flume, ditch, or similar manmade water conveyance that is operated for the distribution of...

2013-11-21

437

78 FR 69403 - South Tahoe Public Utility District; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit...  

Science.gov (United States)

...the existing C-Line export pipeline in South Tahoe Public Utility...18-inch-diameter Diamond Valley Ranch Loop pipeline; (2) an approximately 22-foot-wide...conduit the facility uses is a tunnel, canal, Y pipeline, aqueduct, flume,...

2013-11-19

438

78 FR 53752 - City of Sandpoint, Idaho; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower...  

Science.gov (United States)

...the 18-inch diameter water supply pipeline, (3) a 200-foot-long 18-inch diameter discharge pipeline leading to the water treatment plant...The conduit the facility uses is a tunnel, canal, pipeline, Y aqueduct, flume, ditch,...

2013-08-30

439

78 FR 61987 - Corbett Water District; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower...  

Science.gov (United States)

...eight-inch diameter intake pipeline receiving water flows from an...diameter filter pond diversion pipeline; (2) a new fiberglass shelter...conduit the facility uses is a tunnel, canal, Y pipeline, aqueduct, flume,...

2013-10-09

440

78 FR 68052 - Town of Telluride, Colorado; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit...  

Science.gov (United States)

...FPA 30(a)(3)(A), as amended by The conduit the Y HREA. facility uses is a tunnel, canal, pipeline, aqueduct, flume, ditch, or similar manmade water conveyance that is operated for the distribution of...

2013-11-13

 
 
 
 
441

78 FR 62324 - Village of Oak Lawn, Illinois; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit...  

Science.gov (United States)

...generating unit; (3) a new, small pipeline discharging water into an existing 36-inch pipeline; and (4) appurtenant facilities...conduit the facility Y HREA. uses is a tunnel, canal, pipeline, aqueduct, flume, ditch, or...

2013-10-16

442

Local recurrence of bladder cancer after cystectomy with orthotopic bladder substitution and ileal conduit  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To present the local recurrence rates after radical cystectomy for advanced bladder cancer and to compare them between patients with orthotopic neobladder and ileal conduit. Patients and methods: 97 patients with radical cystectomy were analyzed: 75 patients with orthotopic ileal neobladder, operated from 1985. to 2006, and 22 patients with ileal conduit, operated from 2000. to 2006. Results: Overall recurrence rate was 41.3% in the neobladder group, and 50% in the ileal conduit group. The rate of pelvic, upper urinary tract and urethral recurrence was 13.3%, 8%, and 10.6% in the neobladder group, and 9.1%, 13.6% and 9.1% in the ileal conduit group. Conclusion: Comparable recurrence rates, operative time, the complexity of the surgical technique and the results between two groups, strongly support the construction of orthotopic neobladder, as superior in functional, esthetic, and psychological point of view.

A?imovi? M.

2007-01-01

443

Development of bending characteristics for the TPX TF magnet coil cable-in-conduit conductor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The conductor for the toroidal field (TF) magnet coils for the Tokamak Physics experiment (TPX) is an assembly of stranded Nb3Sn superconductor sheathed by an Incoloy 908 conduit. The coil shape, when coupled with stiffness of the cable-in-conduit conductor (CICC) is such that conventional magnet winding techniques cannot be utilized. Therefore a bending and forming method will be employed in the TF coils. The cable will be reacted after bending because the reaction process hardens the conduit and also lowers the strain the cable can withstand without performance degradation. The Incoloy 908 conduit also work hardens quickly, necessitating the production of the required coil shape in one step without correction. This paper discusses the limiting processes for forming the TPX TF magnet geometry, the methods utilized in establishing the CICC bending characteristics and the methods employed to account for material springback so that a coil can be manufactured accurately and efficiently

1995-07-17

444

A Note on the Calculation of Averages in Superconducting Cable-in-Conduit Conductors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We show that there are two different ways of calculating the average electric field of a superconducting cable in conduit conductor depending on the relation between the current transfer length and the characteristic self-field length.

Anghel, A.

2013-01-01

445

Ureteric catheterization via an ileal conduit: technique and retrieval of a JJ stent  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Retrograde ureteric catheterization of a patient with an ileal conduit is difficult, because guide wires and catheters coil in the conduit. A modified loopogram, using a Foley catheter as a fulcrum through which catheters can be advanced to the ureteric anastomosis, is described. This technique was used to remove a JJ stent, which had been inserted previously across a stricture in one ureter, the stent crossing from one kidney to the other.

Wah, T.M.; Kellett, M.J. E-mail: mjkellett@bigwig.net

2004-11-01

446

Nerve gap repair by the use of artificial conduits and cultured cells  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Peripheral nerve injuries are often associated with loss of nerve tissue and require autologous nerve grafts to provide a physical substrate for axonal growth. This thesis investigates the use of fibrin as both a tubular conduit to guide nerve regeneration and also as a matrix material to suspend various regenerative cell types within/on poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) nerve conduits. Adipose derived stem cells (ASC) are found in abundant quantities. In this thesis the ability of rat ASC to diff...

Kalbermatten, Daniel

2010-01-01

447

Bail out use of the Gore Excluder following pulmonary conduit rupture during transcatheter pulmonary valve replacement.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report describes the use of the Gore Excluder self-expanding stent to successfully exclude a contained right ventricle to pulmonary artery conduit rupture during transcatheter pulmonary valve replacement (tPVR). This stent was designed for percutaneous abdominal aortic aneurysm exclusion; however, its use in this setting allowed progression to tPVR following conduit rupture without the need for emergent surgery. PMID:22744905

Sosnowski, Cyndi R; Kenny, Damien; Hijazi, Ziyad M

2013-02-01

448

Absorption of glucose from urinary conduits in diabetics and non-diabetics.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The ability of urinary conduits to absorb glucose was investigated. A solution containing 1% glucose and the inert marker phenol red was put into conduits in diabetic and non-diabetic patients. Samples were withdrawn at intervals for analysis and the fall in concentrations plotted against time. The loops in the patients without diabetes did not absorb glucose, but glucose was absorbed in one of the three diabetics. Ileal loops in patients with diabetes may absorb urinary glucose. This should ...

Sridhar, K. N.; Samuell, C. T.; Woodhouse, C. R.

1983-01-01

449

Novel use of biodegradable casein conduits for guided peripheral nerve regeneration  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recent advances in nerve repair technology have focused on finding more biocompatible, non-toxic materials to imitate natural peripheral nerve components. In this study, casein protein cross-linked with naturally occurring genipin (genipin-cross-linked casein (GCC)) was used for the first time to make a biodegradable conduit for peripheral nerve repair. The GCC conduit was dark blue in appearance with a concentric and round lumen. Water uptake, contact angle and mechanical tests indicated tha...

Hsiang, Shih-wei; Tsai, Chin-chuan; Tsai, Fuu-jen; Ho, Tin-yun; Yao, Chun-hsu; Chen, Yueh-sheng

2011-01-01

450

Effects of dynamically variable saturation and matrix-conduit coupling of flow in karst aquifers  

Science.gov (United States)

Well-developed karst aquifers consist of highly conductive conduits and a relatively low permeability fractured and/or porous rock matrix and therefore behave as a dual-hydraulic system. Groundwater flow within highly permeable strata is rapid and transient and depends on local flow conditions, i.e., pressurized or nonpressurized flow. The characterization of karst aquifers is a necessary and challenging task because information about hydraulic and spatial conduit properties is poorly defined or unknown. To investigate karst aquifers, hydraulic stresses such as large recharge events can be simulated with hybrid (coupled discrete continuum) models. Since existing hybrid models are simplifications of the system dynamics, a new karst model