WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Seal arrangement for intersecting conduits  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A seal arrangement in which two intersecting conduits are sealed from each other is described. A sleeve insert is locked in a sealed relationship within one conduit enclosing the openings of the intersecting conduit

1980-01-01

2

Seal arrangement for intersecting conduits  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A seal arrangement in which two intersecting conduits are sealed from each other. A sleeve insert is locked in a sealed relationship within one conduit enclosing the openings of the intersecting conduit.

Goedicke, Friedrich E. (Trafford, PA)

1980-01-01

3

Accounting for product financing arrangements by oil and gas producers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) has developed the Statement of Financial2 Accounting Standards (SFAS) Nos. 47 and 49 to help practitioners in accounting for and disclosing product financing arrangements in the oil and gas industry. SFAS No. 47 is a disclosure document only, while SFAS No. 49 specifies the accounting treatment for certain arrangements. The authors describe and give examples to show how practitioners can implement the substantive provisions of the documents.

Munter, P.; Ratcliffe, T.A.

1983-03-01

4

Summary of a reference book on financing arrangements for nuclear power projects in developing countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The IAEA has recently published a reference book entitled Financing Arrangements for Nuclear Power Projects in Developing Countries (Technical Reports Series No. 353). The book reviews comprehensively the main features and problems concerning the financing of such projects in developing countries and presents innovative approaches for power generation financing. It also discusses the special conditions and requirements of nuclear power projects and the complexities of their financing, focusing on the practical issues to be dealt with to achieve successful financing, as well as the constraints encountered by most developing countries. This booklet summarizes the important features of the financing arrangements discussed in the reference book and was prepared with the aim of widely disseminating the results.

1993-01-01

5

Financing arrangements for nuclear power projects - past and present experience and future expectations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The intent of the author of the present paper is to demonstrate, in a practical manner, the role of the past experience and the new approaches of the nuclear projects financing, especially as nuclear generation financing in developing countries involves complex issues that need to be fully understood and dealt with by all the parties involved, namely: high investment costs, generally long construction periods, a high degree of uncertainty with respect to costs and schedule and to public acceptance, particularly because of safety, waste disposal and non-proliferation issues. Moreover, as many associations whose activities consist of ensuring and facilitating at different levels the exchange of knowledge between generations, i.e.: European Nuclear Society (ENS) Young Generation, North American Young Generation in Nuclear (NA-YGN), the goal of the paper is also to outline the importance of the education in nuclear field, i.e. training a young team of specialists to be ready to take over the movement and responsibility in continuing the further development of nuclear program in Romania, mainly with view to the Financing Arrangements for Nuclear Power Projects. The first part of the paper is referring to general financing procedures, while the second part is focusing on a case study related to the: past experience the financing scheme of Cernavoda NPP Unit 1, present or actual experience ongoing financing issues for Cernavoda NPP Unit 2 and potential future shared contribution to the financing of the next Cernavoda NPP units.(author).

2004-01-01

6

Information technology financing options.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Healthcare executives facing the challenges of delivering quality care and controlling costs must consider the role information technology systems can play in meeting those challenges. To make the best use of information system expenditures, organizations must carefully plan how to finance system acquisitions. Some options that should be considered are paying cash, financing, financing "soft" costs, leasing, credit warehousing and early acceptance financing, and tax-exempt and conduit financing.

Rai D

1996-01-01

7

Flexible cryogenic conduit  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A flexible and relatively low cost cryogenic conduit is described. The flexible cryogenic conduit of the present invention comprises a first inner corrugated tube with single braided serving, a second outer corrugated tube with single braided serving concentric with the inner corrugated tube, and arranged outwardly about the periphery of the inner corrugated tube and between the inner and outer corrugated tubes: a superinsulation layer; a one half lap layer of polyester ribbon; a one half lap layer of copper ribbon; a spirally wound refrigeration tube; a second one half lap layer of copper ribbon; a second one half lap layer of polyester ribbon; a second superinsulation layer; a third one half lap layer of polyester ribbon; and a spirally wound stretchable and compressible filament.

Brindza, P.D.; Wines, R.R.; Takacs, J.J.

1999-12-21

8

Flexible cryogenic conduit  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A flexible and relatively low cost cryogenic conduit is described. The flexible cryogenic conduit of the present invention comprises a first inner corrugated tube with single braided serving, a second outer corrugated tube with single braided serving concentric with the inner corrugated tube, and arranged outwardly about the periphery of the inner corrugated tube and between the inner and outer corrugated tubes: a superinsulation layer; a one half lap layer of polyester ribbon; a one half lap layer of copper ribbon; a spirally wound refrigeration tube; a second one half lap layer of copper ribbon; a second one half lap layer of polyester ribbon; a second superinsulation layer; a third one half lap layer of polyester ribbon; and a spirally wound stretchable and compressible filament.

Brindza, Paul Daniel (Yorktown, VA); Wines, Robin Renee (Norfolk, VA); Takacs, James Joseph (Hayes, VA)

1999-01-01

9

Esophageal conduit necrosis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A cumulative review of the prevalence of esophageal conduit necrosis is summarized in Table 4. The spectrum of conduit ischemia is broad and includes cases in which there is anastomotic leak or stricture as well as cases in which there is frank graft necrosis. Many of the studies that the authors reviewed do not specify the exact nature of postoperative ischemic complications or how they are defined. Therefore, postoperative conduit ischemia is reported globally. Based on the authors' review, average rates of ischemic complications for stomach, colon, and jejunum are 3.2%, 5.1%, and 4.2%, respectively. Results for colon and jejunum include results for both long- and short-segment grafting. Most reports that compare outcomes using different esophageal conduits demonstrate findings similar to the authors'. Davis and colleagues compared results with colon versus gastric conduit esophageal reconstruction. They found that operative mortality, anastomotic leaks, and conduit ischemia rates were all lower for the stomach than for the colon. Specifically, ischemia of the stomach conduit was 0.5%, compared with 2.4% for the colon conduit. Moorehead and Wong, in a large series of 760 esophagectomy patients in whom the stomach, colon, or jejunum was used for reconstruction, demonstrated that the stomach had the lowest incidence of conduit ischemia (1%), followed by jejunum (11.3%), then colon (13.3%). Some of the factors they identified as correlating with the risk of ischemia include length of conduit, technique of stomach graft preparation, whether anastomosis is in the neck or chest, and route of passage of the conduit. Mansour and colleagues compared their results using bowel interposition (either colon or jejunum) to reconstruct the resected esophagus. The authors report an overall mortality of 5.9%, and 3% conduit ischemia. All ischemia was noted in the colon conduits harvested from the left side. No ischemic complications were noted from jejunal segments. Briel and colleagues compared stomach versus colon conduit use after esophagectomy. They note an overall incidence of ischemia of 9.2%. In their series, the incidence of ischemia for stomach and colon was 10.4% and 7.4%, respectively. Anastomotic leak and stricture rates, both thought to be sequelae of ischemia, also were lower for colon conduit use than for stomach conduit. Multivariate analysis identified patient comorbidities as the only independent risk factor for conduit ischemia. The authors use their findings to support the preferential use of colon conduits rather than stomach conduits. The incidence of colon conduit ischemia (7.4%) is directly in line with all other published results, including the cumulative review by the authors of this article, whereas the rate of stomach conduit ischemia (10.4%) is considerable higher than in most other studies. Esophageal conduit necrosis is an uncommon but disastrous complication of esophageal surgery. Careful selection of patients for surgery, preoperative evaluation of the proposed conduit, and meticulous operative technique are the best defenses against conduit ischemia. Postoperatively, surgeons should have a high index of suspicion for this complication. Unexplained tachycardia, respiratory failure, leukocytosis, or any evidence for graft or anastomotic leak should prompt a search for conduit ischemia. The diagnosis is made by contrast esophagography, endoscopy, or direct operative inspection. There is no documented salvage technique once ischemia is identified. Treatment for mild cases may be supportive, with or without management of anastomotic leak. More severe cases of necrosis require débridement and conduit take-down with proximal esophageal diversion and placement of enteral feeding tubes. Reconstruction can be planned for later if possible. The majority of the data demonstrates that risk of ischemia is related to conduit type, length of conduit, comorbidities, and operative technique. The stomach has the lowest reported incidence of conduit ischemia, followed by the jejunum, and colon. In the future, methods to p

Wormuth JK; Heitmiller RF

2006-02-01

10

Solar thermal financing guidebook  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This guidebook contains information on alternative financing methods that could be used to develop solar thermal systems. The financing arrangements discussed include several lease alternatives, joint venture financing, R and D partnerships, industrial revenue bonds, and ordinary sales. In many situations, alternative financing arrangements can significantly enhance the economic attractiveness of solar thermal investments by providing a means to efficiently allocate elements of risk, return on investment, required capital investment, and tax benefits. A net present value approach is an appropriate method that can be used to investigate the economic attractiveness of alternative financing methods. Although other methods are applicable, the net present value approach has advantages of accounting for the time value of money, yielding a single valued solution to the financial analysis, focusing attention on the opportunity cost of capital, and being a commonly understood concept that is relatively simple to apply. A personal computer model for quickly assessing the present value of investments in solar thermal plants with alternative financing methods is presented in this guidebook. General types of financing arrangements that may be desirable for an individual can be chosen based on an assessment of his goals in investing in solar thermal systems and knowledge of the individual's tax situation. Once general financing arrangements have been selected, a screening analysis can quickly determine if the solar investment is worthy of detailed study.

Williams, T.A.; Cole, R.J.; Brown, D.R.; Dirks, J.A.; Edelhertz, H.; Holmlund, I.; Malhotra, S.; Smith, S.A.; Sommers, P.; Willke, T.L.

1983-05-01

11

Household`s choices of efficiency levels for appliances: Using stated- and revealed-preference data to identify the importance of rebates and financing arrangements  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We examine customers` choice between standard and high-efficiency equipment, and the impact of utility incentives such as rebates and loans on this decision. Using data from interviews with 400 households, we identify the factors that customers consider in their choice of efficiency level for appliances and the relative importance of these factors. We build a model that describes customers` choices and can be used to predict choices in future situations under changes in the attributes of appliances and in the utility`s DSM and as part of the appliance-choice component of utilities` end-use forecasting systems. As examples, the model is used to predict the impacts of: doubling the size of rebates, replacing rebates with financing programs, and offering loans and rebates as alternative options for customers.

Train, K. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Atherton, T. [Cambridge Systematics, Inc., MA (United States)

1994-11-01

12

Connector for breathing conduits  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention relates to the connections between respiratory humidifiers and/or other such devices and heated breathing conduits used to couple a patient to the humidifier. In particular, the invention is a connector to couple a gases supply means and a conduit, such that the connector causes there to be an electrical and pneumatic, that is, sealed connection between a conduit including an electrical wire extending within, throughout or about it and a gases supply device, such as a humidifier, blower or the like. The connector may be of a single port type or a dual port type. The dual port type connector is suitable for ventilator apparatus that have a dry line (dry breathing conduit) extending from a ventilator or blower that carries dry gas to a humidifier and an inspiratory limb that extends from the humidifier to the patient and carries humidified gases to the patient.

EDIRISURIYA DESHITHA AIRAWANA; LAURENT KRISTOPHER POH MING

13

Financing energy conservation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A collection of case studies describing the use of performance contracting (shared savings) to finance energy conservation retrofits to buildings. An introductory section provides a primer to the field. Eleven case studies by experts in the field describe their performance contracting arrangements with state and local governments and utilities. Four concluding articles address emerging issues in public and utility performance contracting, including industry credibility, legal issues, and planning for risks in project financing.

Weedall, M.; Weisenmiller, R.; Shepard, M.

1986-01-01

14

Superconducting cable-in-conduit low resistance splice  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A low resistance splice connects two cable-in-conduit superconductors to each other. Dividing collars for arranging sub-cable units from each conduit are provided, along with clamping collars for mating each sub-cable wire assembly to form mated assemblies. The mated assemblies ideally can be accomplished by way of splicing collar. The mated assemblies are cooled by way of a flow of coolant, preferably helium. A method for implementing such a splicing is also described.

Artman, Thomas A. (Forest, VA)

2003-06-24

15

Sensor arrangement  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sensor arrangement for measuring anesthesia parameters from the head of a patient the sensor arrangement comprising a base element (9) and an array of electrodes and an optical sensor (7) for monitoring substances in tissues. In the sensor arrangement all electrodes and sensors are connected to a single connector (10) or a series of connectors attached to the base element (9) for connecting the sensor arrangement to a patient monitor.

Hoskonen Terho Ilmajoenkuja 12; Kamppari Lasse Raisiontie 5 A 12; Kymäläinen Minna Messeniuksenkatu 7 B 26; Kall Magnus Kuunsäde 6 C 53; Pesu Leena Suolakivenkatu 20 A 1

16

Sensor arrangement  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sensor arrangement for measuring anesthesia parameters from the head of a patient the sensor arrangement comprising a base element and an array of electrodes and an optical sensor for monitoring substances in tissues. In the sensor arrangement all electrodes and sensors are connected to a single connector or a series of connectors attached to the base element for connecting the sensor arrangement to a patient monitor.

HOSKONEN TERHO; KAMPPARI LASSE; KYMALAINEN MINNA; KALL MAGNUS; PESU LEENA; KYMAELAEINEN MINNA; KAALL MAGNUS

17

Financing energy efficiency projects  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Getting an energy project financed should be a shared effort between the ESCO and the customer, but the perspectives are different. It is the ESCO`s responsibility to put together a bankable project. The ESCO typically arranges the financing. Its reputation and history often add surety, which offers financiers added confidence. The customer usually incurs the debt and needs to know the financing options available. This article first addresses what constitutes a bankable project from the ESCO perspective. Then, the types of financing available to owners are explored. ESCOs, who have been in this business for a few years, remember knocking on the financial doors until their knuckles were bloody. Today, the financiers knock on the ESCO doors...if, and it`s a big IF, ESCOs can put together bankable projects.

Hansen, S.J.; Weisman, J.C. [Hansen Associates (United States)

1999-07-01

18

Packer arrangement  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This patent describes a packer arrangement including a packer for lowering into a well bore casing on an operating string to expand the packer into sealing position in the well bore. This patent describes a method of positioning a packer arrangement with a packer thereon in a well bore casing on an operating string to sealably engage the packer in the well bore casing.

Braddick, B.O.

1990-11-27

19

The financing of mining projects  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper takes an overall look at the financing of mining projects and more particularly coal mining operations; takes stock of the Official Credit Establishments and various other incentive arrangements, such as official credit and foreign exchange credit in Spain; and goes on to provide data on International Credit Agencies and leasing-type financial arrangements.

Diez Viejobueno, C.

1981-03-01

20

Portable conduit retention apparatus for releasably retaining a conduit therein  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Portable conduit retention apparatus is described for releasably retaining a conduit therein. The apparatus releasably retains the conduit out of the way of nearby personnel and equipment. The apparatus includes a portable support frame defining a slot therein having an open mouth portion in communication with the slot for receiving the conduit through the open mouth portion and into the slot. A retention bar is pivotally connected to the support frame adjacent the mouth portion for releasably retaining the conduit in the slot. The retention bar freely pivots to a first position, so that the mouth portion is unblocked in order that the conduit is received through the mouth portion and into the slot. In addition, the retention bar freely pivots to a second position, so that the mouth portion is blocked in order that the conduit is retained in the slot. The conduit is released from the slot by pivoting the retention bar to the first position to unblock the mouth portion and thereafter manipulating the conduit from the slot and through the mouth portion. The apparatus may further include a mounting member attached to the support frame for mounting the apparatus on a vertical support surface. Another embodiment of the apparatus includes a shoe assembly of predetermined weight removably connected to the support frame for resting the apparatus on a floor in such a manner that the apparatus is substantially stationary on the floor. 6 figs.

Metzger, R.H.

1998-07-07

 
 
 
 
21

Portable conduit retention apparatus for releasably retaining a conduit therein  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Portable conduit retention apparatus for releasably retaining a conduit therein. The apparatus releasably retains the conduit out of the way of nearby personnel and equipment. The apparatus includes a portable support frame defining a slot therein having an open mouth portion in communication with the slot for receiving the conduit through the open mouth portion and into the slot. A retention bar is pivotally connected to the support frame adjacent the mouth portion for releasably retaining the conduit in the slot. The retention bar freely pivots to a first position, so that the mouth portion is unblocked in order that the conduit is received through the mouth portion and into the slot. In addition, the retention bar freely pivots to a second position, so that the mouth portion is blocked in order that the conduit is retained in the slot. The conduit is released from the slot by pivoting the retention bar to the first position to unblock the mouth portion and thereafter manipulating the conduit from the slot and through the mouth portion. The apparatus may further include a mounting member attached to the support frame for mounting the apparatus on a vertical support surface. Another embodiment of the apparatus includes a shoe assembly of predetermined weight removably connected to the support frame for resting the apparatus on a floor in such a manner that the apparatus is substantially stationary on the floor.

Metzger, Richard H. (West Seneca, NY)

1998-01-01

22

Toll Financing.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study of toll road financing examines tool roads both as an alternative in highway finance and as a means of achieving social ends, such as the reduction of traffic congestion and improvement of air quality in urban areas.

L. Merewitz

1978-01-01

23

Test arrangement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the case the pipe line is devided by a plane division wall into a double line, a test car carries the measuring instruments. It has three wheels facing the division wall and a supporting leg on the other side. The test car carries an ultrasonic testing instrument, an illumination arrangement with TV camera, and a path measuring device. (RW).

1979-01-01

24

Project financing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Project financing was defined (`where a lender to a specific project has recourse only to the cash flow and assets of that project for repayment and security respectively`) and its attributes were described. Project financing was said to be particularly well suited to power, pipeline, mining, telecommunications, petro-chemicals, road construction, and oil and gas projects, i.e. large infrastructure projects that are difficult to fund on-balance sheet, where the risk profile of a project does not fit the corporation`s risk appetite, or where higher leverage is required. Sources of project financing were identified. The need to analyze and mitigate risks, and being aware that lenders always take a conservative view and gravitate towards the lowest common denominator, were considered the key to success in obtaining project financing funds. TransAlta Corporation`s project financing experiences were used to illustrate the potential of this source of financing.

Cowan, A. [TransAlta Utilities Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada)

1998-06-01

25

Project financing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Project financing was defined ('where a lender to a specific project has recourse only to the cash flow and assets of that project for repayment and security respectively') and its attributes were described. Project financing was said to be particularly well suited to power, pipeline, mining, telecommunications, petro-chemicals, road construction, and oil and gas projects, i.e. large infrastructure projects that are difficult to fund on-balance sheet, where the risk profile of a project does not fit the corporation's risk appetite, or where higher leverage is required. Sources of project financing were identified. The need to analyze and mitigate risks, and being aware that lenders always take a conservative view and gravitate towards the lowest common denominator, were considered the key to success in obtaining project financing funds. TransAlta Corporation's project financing experiences were used to illustrate the potential of this source of financing

1998-01-01

26

Float arrangement  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A float is provided with at least one hoisting drum for a hoisting wire from a hoist means. On the float there is provided at least one suspension drum for a suspension wire to a submersible body, for example in the form of an air gun for seismic prospecting. The hoisting drum and the suspension drum are rotationally coupled to each other and the wires are arranged in such a way on the drums that the suspension wires are reeled in when the hoisting wires are reeled off from the hoisting drums, and vice versa. The primary field of application for such an arrangement is for floats adapted to carry a number of air guns during towing for marine seismic prospecting.

Boe, J.; Haugland, T.-A.; Selvaer, O.-K.; Kleiven, A.

1987-05-05

27

Laser arrangements  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The invention provides a laser arrangement including in its discharge circuit a switching thyratron which is capable of conduction normally in one direction and protectively in the reverse direction. The thyratron has an anode formed as a hollow body which is adapted to retain plasma generated during a pulse of forward conduction so that the anode is provided to act as a cathode permitting protective reversal of the thyratron when this is subject to reversal of voltage.

Menown, H.; Neale, Ch. V.; Newton, B. P.

1985-02-05

28

Seal arrangement  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A seal arrangement is provided for preventing gas leakage along a reciprocating piston rod or other reciprocating member passing through a wall which separates a high pressure gas chmber and a low pressure gas chamber. Liquid lubricant is applied to the lower pressure side of a sealing gland surrounding the piston rod to prevent the escape of gas between the rod and the gland. The sealing gland is radially forced against the piston rod by action of a plurality of axially stacked O-rings influenced by an axially acting spring as well as pressure from the gas.

Lundholm, Gunnar (Lund, SE)

1987-01-01

29

Swiss export risk insurance in project finance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The participation of the Swiss Export Risk Guarantee Agency, Geschaftsstelle fur die Exportrisikogarantie (ERG), in the recently completed financing of the integrated Sengkang gas and power project marked the first time that political and economic risk insurance arranged by ERG had been utilised in a limited recourse project financing. (UK)

Quinn, Brendan; Hartley, John

1997-05-21

30

World financing trends  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Despite the varied and evolving nature of the private power market in developing countries, a careful look at recent financing reveals some common elements. The biggest stumbling block to projects reaching financial closure has been securing debt financing. But as the number of closings for IPPs indicate, developers and their financiers have been able to overcome this problem, although sometimes in different ways. Developers are also overcoming the difficulties of risk mitigation through contractual arrangements, which are beginning to take in similar characteristics, in terms of risk allocation, among project participants and the roles of the central government. To analyze these developments, several IPPS were examined in Asia and Latin America, in widely different country risk and power regulatory environments. The projects were analyzed in a comparative manner to identify the similarities in financing structures and risk sharing among participants as well as the levels of government support required given project circumstances. Three areas stand out: linkages to country and sector context; financing structures and sources; and risk sharing between public and private sectors.

Baughman, D. [World Bank, Washington, DC (United States); Buresch, M. [RCG/Hagler Bailly, Arlington, VA (United States)

1995-10-01

31

Financing a nuclear programme  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nuclear power plant construction projects have many characteristics in common with other types of large infrastructure investment, both within the power generation sector and elsewhere. However, nuclear power itself has special features that can make nuclear financing particularly challenging. These features include the high capital cost, the relatively long period required to recoup investments, the often controversial nature of nuclear projects. The need for clear solutions and financing schemes for radioactive waste management and decommissioning and the need for nuclear power plants to operate at high capacity factors, preferably under base load conditions. During the previous major expansion of nuclear power in the 1970 and 1980, many nuclear projects suffered very large construction delays and cost overruns. The legacy of such problems increases the risks perceived by potential investors. A recent study undertaken jointly by the Iea and the Nea showed that the competitiveness of nuclear power strongly depends on the cost of financing due to the high share of fixed capital costs in the total lifetime costs of nuclear power. A key issue in this context is the long-term predictability of carbon pricing arrangements, which, for the time being and despite positive evolutions in this respect, most notably in Europe, does not yet exist. This paper will consider how the risks can be mitigated and examine in detail various models for corporate finance and the role of government assistance in providing a suitable financial basis. (Author)

NONE

2010-10-15

32

Household Finance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study of household finance is challenging because household behavior is difficult to measure, and households face constraints not captured by textbook models. Evidence on participation, diversification, and mortgage refinancing suggests that many households invest effectively, but a minority mak...

Campbell, John

33

An Exploratory Study of the Effects of Project Finance on Project Risk Management : How the Distinguishing Attributes of Project Finance affects the Prevailing Risk Factor?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Project finance is a financing arrangement for projects, and it is characterised by the creation of a legally independent project company financed with non- or limited recourse loans. It is observed that the popularity of project finance is increasing in the recent decades, despite of the impact of ...

Chan, Ka Fai

34

CABLE CONDUIT FOR HOSPITAL BED  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A patient-support apparatus has a frame including a pair of laterally spaced apart first and second rails and a set of cross members interconnecting the first and second rails. The first and second rails each terminate near a head end and a foot end of the patient-support apparatus. A patient support platform includes at least one pivotable deck section and is carried by the frame. A cable conduit is coupled to the set of cross members and extends parallel with the first and second rails. The cable conduit supports a plurality of electrical cables that extend between the head end and foot end of the patient-support apparatus.

HORNBACH DAVID W; METZ DARRELL L; STRATMAN TERRY J

35

Structuring and financing power projects in Asia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The contractual arrangements for the financing and construction of three 660 MW coal fired power plants in Hong Kong are summarized in the form of headings and a diagram. These cover the joint venture arrangement, construction and equipment supply, the operation and offtake contract, coal supply and the financial structure with respect to commercial risk. (UK).

1993-01-01

36

CDM financing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Governments have tried a number of approaches to encourage investment in energy conservation and efficiency including education and awareness, grants, rebates and tax incentives. However, considerable potential still exists to reduce demand and energy use through large scale retrofits and equipment replacement. This report explored ways that the Ontario Power Authority (OPA) could accelerate the adoption of energy saving solutions across the province through the provision of innovative financing or other measures related directly to the purchase investment decision. The report provided the approach and context for the study including the electric power situation in Ontario and energy conservation market. Alternative financing options were discussed, with reference to self-financing; loans; capital lease; utility financing; and energy service of management company. Next, the report presented a preliminary assessment regarding applicability; cost of capital; source of funds; risk; program delivery; and public cost. The report also provided directions for research, recommendations and conclusions. Going forward and potential roles for the OPA were identified. It was concluded that the OPA could play a decisive role in reducing or eliminating availability and cost of financing as obstacles to investment in CDM. tabs.

Middleton, P.; Murphy, A.; Woods, C. [Conseiller Messier Middleton (Canada)

2006-02-15

37

Financing strategic healthcare facilities: the growing attraction of alternative capital.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Community health system leaders often dismiss use of alternative capital to finance strategic facilities as being too expensive and less strategically useful, preferring to follow historical precedent and use tax-exempt bonding to finance such facilities. Proposed changes in accounting rules should cause third-party-financed facility lease arrangements to be treated similarly to tax-exempt debt financings with respect to the income statement and balance sheet, increasing their appeal to community health systems. An in-depth comparison of the total costs associated with each financing approach can help inform the choice of financing approaches by illuminating their respective advantages and disadvantages.

Zismer DK; Fox J; Torgerson P

2013-05-01

38

Urodynamic evaluation of ileal conduit function.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bilateral hydroureteronephrosis following ileal conduit urinary diversion is not uncommon. It may be owing to ureteroileal stenosis, stomal stenosis or a poorly compliant ileal conduit. The standard evaluation of stoma size, conduit residual urine and a loopogram often fail to allow determination of the cause of ureteral dilatation. In addition to these standard tests, we have used conduit urodynamics to study conduit function with a triple lumen urodynamic catheter to measure simultaneously conduit pressure proximal and distal to the fascia during filling under fluoroscopy. In 4 control patients with normal upper tracts who were studied with this technique conduit leak point pressures ranged from 5 to 20 cm. water pressure. Six patients with bilateral hydroureteronephrosis were studied to evaluate conduit function. We found abnormalities in 5 patients, including functional stomal stenosis in 2, an atonic loop in 1, segmental obstruction in 1 and a high pressure noncompliant distal segment in 1. PMID:3573186

Knapp, P M; Konnak, J W; McGuire, E J; Savastano, J A

1987-05-01

39

Urodynamic evaluation of ileal conduit function.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Bilateral hydroureteronephrosis following ileal conduit urinary diversion is not uncommon. It may be owing to ureteroileal stenosis, stomal stenosis or a poorly compliant ileal conduit. The standard evaluation of stoma size, conduit residual urine and a loopogram often fail to allow determination of the cause of ureteral dilatation. In addition to these standard tests, we have used conduit urodynamics to study conduit function with a triple lumen urodynamic catheter to measure simultaneously conduit pressure proximal and distal to the fascia during filling under fluoroscopy. In 4 control patients with normal upper tracts who were studied with this technique conduit leak point pressures ranged from 5 to 20 cm. water pressure. Six patients with bilateral hydroureteronephrosis were studied to evaluate conduit function. We found abnormalities in 5 patients, including functional stomal stenosis in 2, an atonic loop in 1, segmental obstruction in 1 and a high pressure noncompliant distal segment in 1.

Knapp PM Jr; Konnak JW; McGuire EJ; Savastano JA

1987-05-01

40

Fantastic financing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Third-party financing, micro-utilities, and leasing are terms that are beginning to be used in the solar industry as approaches to making solar energy more affordable. The micro-utility program and leasing have a common goal: to allow consumers to use renewable energy without buying the equipment. These two concepts are discussed along with their advantages and disadvantages.

Lang, P.

1983-05-01

 
 
 
 
41

Public finance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

"Public Finance 9/e" benefits from the combined efforts of Harvey Rosen's market-leading book and co-author Ted Gayer's research and government agency experience. This combination of experience is able to explain as clearly as possible how the tools of economics can be used to analyze government exp...

Rosen, Harvey S.; Gayer, Ted

42

Urinary conduits in gynecologic oncology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Over an 11-year period (1971 to 1981), 212 urinary conduit surgeries were performed by the Department of Gynecology at the University of Texas, M. D. Anderson Hospital and Tumor Institute at Houston. The urinary diversions were performed as part of the pelvic exenteration operation in 154 patients, for radiation injury in 48 patients, and for palliation of disease recurrence in ten patients. Ninety-three percent had prior pelvic radiotherapy. Various segments of the gastrointestinal tract were used, including the ileum (102), sigmoid colon (99), transverse colon (four), jejunum (four), and others (three). Fifty percent of abnormal preoperative intravenous pyelograms reverted to normal after urinary diversion. Revision of the stoma was required in 6%. Other complications included infection (18%), renal loss (17%), and urinary leaks and fistulae (3%). The overall perioperative mortality was 7%, decreasing from 11% in the first five years to 3% during the last six years. Ureteral stents were routinely used. When selecting a segment of bowel for a urinary conduit, both tissue quality and mobility are important. Mortality and morbidity of urinary conduit surgery continues to decrease with experience.

Hancock, K.C.; Copeland, L.J.; Gershenson, D.M.; Saul, P.B.; Wharton, J.T.; Rutledge, F.N.

1986-05-01

43

Urinary conduits in gynecologic oncology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Over an 11-year period (1971 to 1981), 212 urinary conduit surgeries were performed by the Department of Gynecology at the University of Texas, M. D. Anderson Hospital and Tumor Institute at Houston. The urinary diversions were performed as part of the pelvic exenteration operation in 154 patients, for radiation injury in 48 patients, and for palliation of disease recurrence in ten patients. Ninety-three percent had prior pelvic radiotherapy. Various segments of the gastrointestinal tract were used, including the ileum (102), sigmoid colon (99), transverse colon (four), jejunum (four), and others (three). Fifty percent of abnormal preoperative intravenous pyelograms reverted to normal after urinary diversion. Revision of the stoma was required in 6%. Other complications included infection (18%), renal loss (17%), and urinary leaks and fistulae (3%). The overall perioperative mortality was 7%, decreasing from 11% in the first five years to 3% during the last six years. Ureteral stents were routinely used. When selecting a segment of bowel for a urinary conduit, both tissue quality and mobility are important. Mortality and morbidity of urinary conduit surgery continues to decrease with experience

1986-01-01

44

Financing energy conservation projects  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Methods for financing energy conservation projects are outlined. The following topics are presented: two basic financing methods, direct leasing and direct leasing methods, project financing, direct lease example, and shared savings example.

Wainwwright, F.

1996-12-31

45

Photovoltaic systems financing guidebook  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This Guidebook provides the potential photovoltaic system developer with information on the economic opportunities for grid-connected photovoltaic projects designed for direct sale of electricity to an electric utility or for offsetting electricity use at an existing commercial or industrial facility. The Guidebook presents a straightforward method for evaluating the economic feasibility of photovoltaic projects. Included are guidelines for determining appropriate system size and associated space requirements, capital costs, operating and maintenance costs, and annual energy output. Included is information on how to conduct a preliminary financial analysis, as well as the basic elements for detailed financial analysis for alternative financing arrangements. Other factors, such as the proper reflection of federal, state, and local tax credits in the financial analysis, are also incorporated. A unique feature of this Guidebook is the development and use of levelized fixed charge rates for corporate and intermediary financing approaches under a range of investment conditions. The levelized fixed charge rates methodology for determining the financial characteristics of a prospective photovoltaic project investment greatly simplifies the calculational procedure; yet it provides the same results as a detailed cash flow analysis.

Bos, P.B.; Eaton, M.R.; Weingart, J.M.

1986-05-01

46

Innovative approaches to financing energy-conservation investments in developing countries. Technical report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Contents include: Innovative financing methods for energy conservation (Shared savings, Arrangement structure, Example of a shared-savings financing arrangement, Joint-venture arrangement between an energy user and an external investor, Arrangement structure, Example of a joint venture, Energy service agreement, Arrangement structure, Example of an energy service agreement); Variable-payment loan (Arrangement structure, Example of a variable-payment loan, Limited-term, guaranteed-payback loan, Arrangement structure, Example of a limited-term, Guaranteed-payback loan); Potential roles for the public sector.

1984-09-10

47

Centrifuges, centrifuge installations and arrangements for controlling the flow within them  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This invention relates to valve arrangements and to centrifuges incorporating such valve arrangements. In a plant where isotopes of an element in a gaseous form are separated, for example where uranium 235 is separated from uranium 238, both isotopes being in the form of uranium hexafluoride, it is important that the effect of impurity gas within the plant is minimised. This is so because otherwise the plant may have to handle gases of a molecular weight which it was not designed to handle and this can have deleterious effects upon the operation of the plant and may cause breakdown of some centrifuges. An object of the present invention is to provide a valve arrangement and a centrifuge enrichment plant utilising such valve arrangements so that such deleterious effects tend to be avoided. The valve arrangement comprises a conduit containing a ball valve which is responsive to gas flowing in the conduit, the ball valve being obstructive to flow in one direction in the conduit when abnormal gas flow occurs in the conduit. Preferably, the ball valve comprises a mesh arrangement for supporting a ball, said mesh arrangement being permeable to gas. Advantageously, the ball valve comprises a rest for the ball, which rest supports the ball in such a manner as to block gas flow. In use, the ball may rest upon said mesh when the valve is open and may rest upon said rest when the valve is shut. (Auth.)

1981-07-21

48

Finance Site List  

Science.gov (United States)

Maintained by the Journal of Finance "for those interested in understanding and teaching financial ideas," this extensive metasite links readers to institutions, publications, and people engaged in finance research. In addition to links to online finance journals, working paper collections, and research centers, the Finance Site List presents additional metasites and educational resources as well as statistical software information and the "interesting, fun and odd" among finance homepages.

49

Financing cogeneration projects  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Financing a cogeneration project is like financing any capital-intensive project. The revenues from the sale of products from the cogeneration project (or the cost reduction resulting from the use of these products) must be sufficient to provide for the operating expenses and produce sufficient returns for the investments made in the project by the financing sources. A number of depreciation and tax benefits for cogeneration projects provide many different financing options and, in the past several years, innovative financing schemes which have been developed to implement cogeneration projects further expand the options available. This article discusses the major considerations in financing a cogeneration project, and provides an overview of financing sources and types of financing, major financing risks, and methods to minimize or contain such risks.

Limaye, D.R.

1986-05-01

50

A conduit to amplify innate immunity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this issue of Immunity, Py et al. (2013) report that upon bacterial infection, a fragment of the matrix protein cochlin is released from the conduits of B cell follicles to trigger protective cytokines in the periphery.

Moussion C; Sixt M

2013-05-01

51

Small hydro conduit optimization with differential calculus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Differential calculus methods were used to simplify the calculation of optimizing a power plant conduit. An equation for the costs and lost benefits as a function of conduit diameter was proposed. A nine-step procedure was presented which included a method to take into account different operating modes, peaking or base loaded. Two working examples, one based on a proposed power plant in the Northwest Territories and one on a high pressure steel penstock in South America were presented. 5 refs.

Gordon, J.L.

1998-05-01

52

Cleaner coal technologies - financing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This brochure was prepared by ETSU for the UK Department of Trade and Industry on behalf of the IEA Working Party on Fossil Fuels under the auspices of the IEA committee on Energy Research and Technology. It reviews current financing mechanisms for power generation cleaner coal technologies. After providing an introduction to basic finance and types of funds it focuses on the two main finance mechanisms: project finance and 'on balance sheet' finance. Some of the many sources of funds and their application to the stages of project development are reviewed. Some case studies of successfully financed projects are also presented.

NONE

1999-07-01

53

Injection control device for subterranean well conduit  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This patent describes a valving mechanism for a well conduit communicating with a downhole tool comprising: a hollow valve housing connected in series relationship with the well conduit; a slip joint connected in series relationship with the well conduit intermediate the hollow valve housing and the downhole tool; whereby the hollow valve housing may be shifted axially by the well conduit moving the downhole tool; a first annular valve element sealingly mounted within the bore of the hollow valve housing and axially shiftable with the valve housing, a support rod insertable within the bore of the hollow valve housing to define an annular fluid passage therebetween. A second annular valve element is sealingly mounted on the exterior of the support rod, whereby axial movement of the valve housing in one direction moves the first and second valve elements into axially abutting engagement to close the annular fluid passage, thereby preventing fluid flow through the conduit to the downhole tool. Axial movement of the valve housing in the opposite direction axially separates the first and second valving elements and permits fluid flow from the conduit to the downhole tool.

Ross, R.J.; Klumpyan, J.N.

1987-03-10

54

Arrangements of double pseudolines  

CERN Multimedia

Define an arrangement of double pseudolines as a finite family of separating simple closed curves embedded in a real two-dimensional projective plane with the property that any two intersect in exactly four transversal intersection points and induce a cell decomposition of their underlying projective plane. We show that the dual arrangement of any finite family of pairwise disjoint convex bodies of any real two-dimensional projective geometry is an arrangement of double pseudolines and that, conversely, any arrangement of double pseudolines is isomorphic to the dual arrangement of a finite family of pairwise disjoint convex bodies of a real two-dimensional projective geometry. Furthermore we provide a simple axiomatic characterization of the class of isomorphism classes of indexed arrangements of oriented double pseudolines and we establish a one-to-one and onto correspondence between this latter class and the class of chirotopes of finite indexed families of pairwise disjoint oriented convex bodies of real t...

Habert, Luc

2011-01-01

55

Financing petroleum agreements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This chapter describes the typical type of financing agreements which are currently used to finance North Sea petroleum projects whether they are in the cause of development or have been developed and are producing. It deals with the agreements which are entered into to finance borrowings for petroleum projects on a non-resource or limited resource basis. (UK).

1994-01-01

56

FEED CONTROL ARRANGEMENT  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A feed control arrangement for controlling the infeed of materials into a machine such as a wood chipper is provided. The feed control arrangement includes a control lever and an emergency stop bar. The control lever and emergency stop bar can be selectively activated to effectively control the infeed of material into the machine.

O'HALLORAN JAMES L; GALLOWAY EDWIN N; BRADLEY JEFFREY D; BRAND IVAN

57

The conduit system of the lymph node.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The lymphoid compartment of lymph nodes is impermeable to many molecules that are delivered via afferent lymphatic vessels. In the lymphoid compartment, fibroblast reticular cells form an interconnected network-the conduit system. This network has a structural function supporting tightly packed lymphocytes and antigen-presenting cells; however, it also has an important function as a molecular sieve, since it contains tubules that are the only entry point for fluid and allow only small molecules and particles (including antigens) to flow along the network. This size exclusion may prevent pathogens entering the blood from lymph. Dendritic cells can sample antigens from the conduit system and present them to nearby lymphocytes; this may be particularly important in initiating immune responses. The importance of larger antigen transport via macrophages or other cells is unclear. Lymphocytes and antigen-presenting dendritic cells actively move and interact along the conduit system, perhaps in response to chemokines or cytokines transported by the conduit system; these molecules may also be transported to high endothelial venules and regulate the attraction of blood leukocytes to the lymph nodes. The conduit system is also important for fluid distribution between afferent lymphatics and blood, but the mechanisms are not yet established.

Roozendaal R; Mebius RE; Kraal G

2008-12-01

58

The conduit system of the lymph node.  

Science.gov (United States)

The lymphoid compartment of lymph nodes is impermeable to many molecules that are delivered via afferent lymphatic vessels. In the lymphoid compartment, fibroblast reticular cells form an interconnected network-the conduit system. This network has a structural function supporting tightly packed lymphocytes and antigen-presenting cells; however, it also has an important function as a molecular sieve, since it contains tubules that are the only entry point for fluid and allow only small molecules and particles (including antigens) to flow along the network. This size exclusion may prevent pathogens entering the blood from lymph. Dendritic cells can sample antigens from the conduit system and present them to nearby lymphocytes; this may be particularly important in initiating immune responses. The importance of larger antigen transport via macrophages or other cells is unclear. Lymphocytes and antigen-presenting dendritic cells actively move and interact along the conduit system, perhaps in response to chemokines or cytokines transported by the conduit system; these molecules may also be transported to high endothelial venules and regulate the attraction of blood leukocytes to the lymph nodes. The conduit system is also important for fluid distribution between afferent lymphatics and blood, but the mechanisms are not yet established. PMID:18824503

Roozendaal, Ramon; Mebius, Reina E; Kraal, Georg

2008-09-29

59

Institutional arrangements for nuclear fuel cycle services  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Institutional arrangements include a range of undertakings by governments and private entities to facilitate the efficient and secure functioning of the nuclear fuel cycle. They encompass trade options, commercial contracts, supply assurances, technical assistance programs, and nonproliferation agreements. The purpose of institutional arrangements is to support, improve, and strengthen the existing mechanisms of cooperation in the peaceful use of nuclear energy and nonproliferation. The INFCE study assessed the need to make nuclear energy widely available to all countries, consistent with nonproliferation, and examined systematically what institutional arrangements and common approaches would be available for suppliers and consumers. This paper reviews the INFCE study, then examines the movement toward setting up new institutional mechanisms since INFCE. As with all institutional or multinational arrangements, decisions would be required on sensitive questions such as membership, financing, status of the host government, and the like. However, if acceptable arrangements can be worked out in time, new schemes for international storage of plutonium and multinational management of spent fuel can be introduced that could give better assurance of nonproliferation and supply. (author)

1984-01-01

60

Financing clean coal technologies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The commercial deployment and market penetration of clean coal technologies (CCTs) are held back by a range of barriers in addition to the technology development. Of these non-technical barriers, financing is generally considered to be the most significant. This paper reviews the two main financing mechanisms that are used for the commercial deployment of CCTs: project finance and `on-balance-sheet` finance. It describes the major risks associated with CCTs and their markets, and the tools available for the management of these risks. An example is given of the project financing of an advanced CCT, the Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Project at Puertollano in Spain. 7 refs., 3 figs.

Maunder, D.; Dixon, T. [ETSU, Harwell (United Kingdom). Clean Energy Dept.

1997-12-31

 
 
 
 
61

Financing renewable energy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article focuses on the financing of renewable energy and initiatives to bridge the gap between renewable energy and financing. Details are given of the discussions held at the Photovoltaic Finance Forum which highlighted the poor awareness of the financial institutions for potential opportunities in the photovoltaic industry; the discussions at the Wind Finance Forum supported by the EU's ALTENER programme on investment incentives; and the discussions at the Financing Solar Energy's international symposium held in India into the problems due to commercial bank's lack of interest in the small size of loans required for renewable energy schemes.

Cameron, M.; Stierstorfer, J. [WIP, Muenchen (Germany); Chiaramonti, D. [ETA, Firenze (Italy)

1999-09-01

62

Alternative windpower ownership structures: Financing terms and project costs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Most utility-scale renewable energy projects in the United States are developed and financed by private renewable energy companies. Electric output is then sold to investor-owned and public utilities under long-term contracts. Limited partnerships, sale/leaseback arrangements, and project-financing have historically been the dominant forms of finance in the windpower industry, with project-finance taking the lead more recently. Although private ownership using project-finance is still the most popular form of windpower development, alternative approaches to ownership and financing are becoming more prevalent. U.S. public and investor-owned electric utilities (IOUs) have begun to participate directly in windpower projects by owning and financing their own facilities rather than purchasing windpower from independent non-utility generators (NUGs) through power purchase agreements (PPAs). In these utility-ownership arrangements, the wind turbine equipment vendor/developer typically designs and constructs a project under a turnkey contract for the eventual project owner (the utility). The utility will also frequently sign an operations and maintenance (O&M) contract with the project developer/equipment vendor. There appear to be a number of reasons for utility involvement in recent and planned U.S. wind projects. One important claim is that utility ownership and self-finance provides substantial cost savings compared to contracting with private NUGs to supply wind-generated power. In this report, we examine that assertion.

Wiser, R.; Kahn, E.

1996-05-01

63

A case report of complication liked jejunal conduit syndrome induced by reconstruction of ileal conduit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The patient was a 77-year-old man who underwent radical cystectomy and ileal conduit urinary diversion due to bladder cancer in 1989. A stenosis of the right uretero-ileal anastomosis occurred in 1992, and of the left uretero-ileal anastomosis in 1999. These were treated with indwelling of a ureteral stent and percutaneous nephrostomy, respectively. He was admitted to our hospital for progressive renal dysfunction due to frequent pyelonephritis. We performed a reconstruction of the ileal conduit urinary diversion and after the removal of the bilateral ureteral stent he complained of nausea and general malaise. The laboratory data showed hyponatremia, hyperkalemia and azotemia, which were diagnosed as complication liked jejunal conduit syndrome. He was treated with hydration and salt supplementation. With regard to this case, we considered that a long ileal conduit close to the jejunum and renal dysfunction caused the complication liked jejunal conduit syndrome. Careful observation and follow-up laboratory examination should be performed if the patient has renal dysfunction and a long conduit near the jejunum is used for the ileal conduit. (author)

2004-01-01

64

Needleless injection port arrangement  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A needleless injection port arrangement (10) for intravenous fluid systems wherein the arrangement (10) includes a valving unit (12) disposed in a valve housing unit (11) having a dual port upper valve housing member (13): wherein, the valving unit (12) includes a valve head member (50) mounted on a resilient biasing member (40) to control the introduction of medicant fluids through a medicant fluid port (18) formed in the upper valve housing member (13).

SIVERT GEORGE A

65

Should the EPR be financed by industrialists?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a reciprocal arrangement, the industrialists should be invited to contribute to the financing of the new generation reactor EPR (European pressurized reactor) which will be built in Flamanville (Manche, France). In exchange to their financial participation, the industrialists will receive the contractual warranty of stable electricity prices during 10 to 15 years periods. This short paper presents the opposite opinion of two representative of French industries concerning this proposal. Short paper. (J.S.)

2005-01-01

66

Financing Distributed Generation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper introduces the engineer who is undertaking distributed generation projects to a wide range of financing options. Distributed generation systems (such as internal combustion engines, small gas turbines, fuel cells and photovoltaics) all require an initial investment, which is recovered over time through revenues or savings. An understanding of the cost of capital and financing structures helps the engineer develop realistic expectations and not be offended by the common requirements of financing organizations. This paper discusses several mechanisms for financing distributed generation projects: appropriations; debt (commercial bank loan); mortgage; home equity loan; limited partnership; vendor financing; general obligation bond; revenue bond; lease; Energy Savings Performance Contract; utility programs; chauffage (end-use purchase); and grants. The paper also discusses financial strategies for businesses focusing on distributed generation: venture capital; informal investors (''business angels''); bank and debt financing; and the stock market

2001-01-01

67

Financing nuclear power  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Global energy security and climate change concerns sparked by escalating oil prices, high population growth and the rapid pace of industrialization are fueling the current interest and investments in nuclear power. Globally, a significant number policy makers and energy industry leaders have identified nuclear power as a favorable alternative energy option, and are presently evaluating either a new or an expanded role for nuclear power. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has reported that as of October 2008, 14 countries have plans to construct 38 new nuclear reactors and about 100 more nuclear power plants have been written into the development plans of governments for the next three decades. Hence as new build is expected to escalate, issues of financing will become increasingly significant. Energy supply, including nuclear power, considered as a premium by government from the socio-economic and strategic perspective has traditionally been a sector financed and owned by the government. In the case for nuclear power, the conventional methods of financing include financing by the government or energy entity (utility or oil company) providing part of the funds from its own resources with support from the government. As national financing is, as in many cases, insufficient to fully finance the nuclear power plants, additional financing is sourced from international sources of financing including, amongst others, Export Credit Agencies (ECAs) and Multilateral Development Institutions. However, arising from the changing dynamics of economics, financing and business model as well as increasing concerns regarding environmental degradation , transformations in methods of financing this energy sector has been observed. This paper aims to briefly present on financing aspects of nuclear power as well as offer some examples of the changing dynamics of financing nuclear power which is reflected by the evolution of ownership and management of nuclear power plants from Government and State-owned companies to large privatised utilities and independent developers. (Author)

2009-07-01

68

Optical Arrangement and Method  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Processing of electromagnetic radiation is described, said incoming electromagnetic radiation comprising radiation in a first wavelength interval and a plurality of spatial frequencies. An arrangement comprises a focusing arrangement for focusing the incoming electromagnetic radiation, a first cavity configured to comprise an intra cavity laser beam, a nonlinear crystal arranged in the first cavity such that it is capable of receiving the focused electromagnetic radiation and, in dependence on the spatial overlap between the focused electromagnetic radiation and the intra-cavity laser beam, by interaction with the intra-cavity laser beam provide processed electromagnetic radiation, said processed electromagnetic radiation comprising radiation in a second wavelength interval and at least a subset of said plurality of spatial frequencies. In other words, such an arrangement is capable of enabling imaging, e.g. by utilizing a detector that is sensitive in the second wavelength interval, a source of radiation that emits in a first wavelength interval and comprising several spatial frequencies. Furthermore, such arrangement is capable of improving the spatial quality of the incoming radiation.

Karamehmedovic, Emir Technical University of Denmark,

69

Putting finances together  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Some of the financial issues facing small power generators and cogeneration in Ontario's energy market were discussed, including risks, access to risk capital, and project development. Lenders invest in creditworthy companies with firm off-take agreements. The key to success is the strength of the contract. The paper describes financing issues regarding feasibility studies, secure sites, fuel supply agreements, transmission inputs, regulations and construction. Options and terms for agreements and contract negotiations were reviewed. Financing cogeneration projects in a deregulated market involves a thorough understanding of project finance issues such as construction risks, operation risks and financing issues related to risk. 5 figs.

McLeese, R. [Access Capital Corp., Toronto, ON (Canada)

2004-07-01

70

Trends in project financing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The growing use of project finance which does not increase book liabilities of refining companies is reported, and different forms of financing and the off- and on-balance sheet deals are compared. The short history of project finance is traced, and the form of lending to an expansion, the risks posed to project finance by environmental rules, and the concept of completion risk management are examined. Trends in contracting are considered, and a case study of the Hovensa Corporation approach to the lending market is presented.

Jenkins, John [Pace Consultants Inc. (United States)

2000-03-01

71

Project finance for construction and infrastructure principles and case studies  

CERN Multimedia

This is a self-contained text on the logic and institutions of project finance, supplemented by a series of project finance case studies illustrating applications in different economic environments, across different jurisdictions and at different stages of development.It will introduce an analytical framework drawing on applied institutional economics that includes and concentrates primarily on an analysis of the institutional logic behind generic project finance arrangements.The application of the institutional framework will be demonstrated with project cases from Hong Kong,

Pretorius, Frederik; McInnes, Arthur; Lejot, Paul; Arner, Douglas

2008-01-01

72

Guidebook to financing CDM projects  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One of the challenges facing Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects today is their limited ability to secure financing for the underlying greenhouse gas emission reduction activities, particularly in the least developed countries. Among the key reasons for this is the fact that most financial intermediaries in the CDM host countries have limited or no knowledge of the CDM Modalities and Procedures. Moreover, approaches, tools and skills for CDM project appraisal are lacking or are asymmetrical to the skills in comparable institutions in developed countries. Consequently, developing country financial institutions are unable to properly evaluate the risks and rewards associated with investing or lending to developers undertaking CDM projects, and therefore have, by-and-large, refrained from financing these projects. In addition, some potential project proponents lack experience in structuring arrangements for financing a project. This Guidebook - commissioned by the UNEP Risoe Centre as part of the activities of the Capacity Development for CDM (CD4CDM) project (http://www.cd4cdm.org) - addresses these barriers by providing information aimed at both developing country financial institutions and at CDM project proponents. It should be noted that while the Guidebook was developed particularly with the CDM in mind, most sections will also be relevant for Joint Implementation (JI) project activities. For more detailed information on JI modalities and procedures please consult: http://ji.unfccc.int The purpose of this Guidebook is two-fold: 1) To guide project developers on obtaining financing for the implementation of activities eligible under the CDM; and 2) To demonstrate to developing country financial institutions typical approaches and methods for appraising the viability of CDM projects and for optimally integrating carbon revenue into overall project financing. The target audiences for the Guidebook are therefore, primarily: 1) CDM project proponents in developing countries, including but not limited to utilities, private and public sector entities, municipalities, and other specialised consultancies and intermediaries; and 2) Credit officers and other decision-makers within banking institutions and financial intermediaries in developing countries. (au)

Kamel, S.

2007-07-01

73

Financing Strategies for Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facility  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To help meet our nation’s energy needs, reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel is being considered more and more as a necessary step in a future nuclear fuel cycle, but incorporating this step into the fuel cycle will require considerable investment. This report presents an evaluation of financing scenarios for reprocessing facilities integrated into the nuclear fuel cycle. A range of options, from fully government owned to fully private owned, was evaluated using a DPL (Dynamic Programming Language) 6.0 model, which can systematically optimize outcomes based on user-defined criteria (e.g., lowest life-cycle cost, lowest unit cost). Though all business decisions follow similar logic with regard to financing, reprocessing facilities are an exception due to the range of financing options available. The evaluation concludes that lowest unit costs and lifetime costs follow a fully government-owned financing strategy, due to government forgiveness of debt as sunk costs. Other financing arrangements, however, including regulated utility ownership and a hybrid ownership scheme, led to acceptable costs, below the Nuclear Energy Agency published estimates. Overwhelmingly, uncertainty in annual capacity led to the greatest fluctuations in unit costs necessary for recovery of operating and capital expenditures; the ability to determine annual capacity will be a driving factor in setting unit costs. For private ventures, the costs of capital, especially equity interest rates, dominate the balance sheet; the annual operating costs dominate the government case. It is concluded that to finance the construction and operation of such a facility without government ownership could be feasible with measures taken to mitigate risk, and that factors besides unit costs should be considered (e.g., legal issues, social effects, proliferation concerns) before making a decision on financing strategy.

David Shropshire; Sharon Chandler

2005-12-01

74

Breast immobilisation arrangement  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Breast immobilisation apparatus for use in breast imaging to allow medical intervention. Suitable for use with MRI scanning, X-rays or ultrasound. The apparatus comprises a body support platform for supporting the body of a patient in a prone position, the body support platform having a hole through which the breast of a patient is allowed to pendulantly project in use and a breast cup arranged below the hole for receiving a breast of the patient and comprising means for uniformly compressing the breast to immobilise it without substantially deforming the breast, and an aperture arrangement to allow access to a substantial portion of the surface of the breast for medical intervention. The cup includes a flange 5 which engages the cup with the patient support platform, a rigid structure 1 and a resilient pneumatic urging arrangement 3.

ALI AKGA N

75

National arrangements for radiotherapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After a presentation of several letters exchanged between the French health ministry and public agencies in charge of public health or nuclear safety after a radiotherapy accident in Epinal, this report comments the evolution of needs in cancerology care and the place given to radiotherapy. It outlines the technological and organisational evolution of radiotherapy and presents the distribution of radiotherapy equipment, of radio-therapists and other radiotherapy professionals in France. Within the context of radiotherapy accidents which occurred in 2007, it presents the regulatory arrangements which aimed at improving the safety, short term and middle term arrangements which are needed to support and structure radiotherapy practice quality. It stresses the fact that the system will deeply evolve by implementing a radiotherapy vigilance arrangement and a permanent follow-on and adaptation plan based on surveys and the creation of a national committee

2007-01-01

76

Nuclear fuel storage arrangement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A compact nuclear fuel storage arrangement is described and diagrams with explanatory notes and dimensions given. The object of the invention is to provide an arrangement wherein the storage space for spent fuel assemblies is efficiently utilized without accumulation of a critical mass. Elongated nuclear reactor fuel assemblies each with an active and an inactive section along its longitudinal axis are stored. The arrangement comprises a frame structure forming a plurality of elongated cells, one for each fuel assembly, these being positioned radially adjacent to each other without spaces between. The fuel assemblies are axially positioned in staggered relation along the longitudinal axis of the cells so that the active section of each fuel assembly is adjacent to the inactive section of each radially adjacent fuel assembly. This allows a reduction in the storage space required but the radial distance between the closest active sections is at least one cell diameter. (UK)

1977-01-01

77

Fuel cell stack arrangements  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Arrangements of stacks of fuel cells and ducts, for fuel cells operating with separate fuel, oxidant and coolant streams. An even number of stacks are arranged generally end-to-end in a loop. Ducts located at the juncture of consecutive stacks of the loop feed oxidant or fuel to or from the two consecutive stacks, each individual duct communicating with two stacks. A coolant fluid flows from outside the loop, into and through cooling channels of the stack, and is discharged into an enclosure duct formed within the loop by the stacks and seals at the junctures at the stacks.

Kothmann, Richard E. (Churchill Boro, PA); Somers, Edward V. (Murrysville, PA)

1982-01-01

78

Fuel cell arrangement  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A fuel cell arrangement is provided wherein cylindrical cells of the solid oxide electrolyte type are arranged in planar arrays where the cells within a plane are parallel. Planes of cells are stacked with cells of adjacent planes perpendicular to one another. Air is provided to the interior of the cells through feed tubes which pass through a preheat chamber. Fuel is provided to the fuel cells through a channel in the center of the cell stack; the fuel then passes the exterior of the cells and combines with the oxygen-depleted air in the preheat chamber.

Isenberg, Arnold O. (Forest Hills Boro, PA)

1987-05-12

79

Heat engine arrangement. Waermekraftmaschinenanordnung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The invention concerns a heat engine arrangement provided with at least one closed process which runs in both a cold and in a hot room, whereby these two rooms are each connected by means of a regenerator and where each closed process (power process) running in these rooms are each driven by an open process combustion process. In this type of organization of a heat engine arrangement, both the waste (lost) heat and the exhaust heat can be used of the closed and open process, resp.

Pelka, B.

1990-02-08

80

[Employees without pension arrangements  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Old age pensions in modern western industrial countries rest on three pillars: public, collective and individual-private arrangements. The flat-rate public system and the collective systems, domain of industrial relations, prevail in Holland. Since the early seventies the public old age pension (AOW) has been raised to the net minimum wage level. In the meantime the importance of the collective systems has been increasing. The pension levels of these systems are, however, not prescribed by law. In order to measure the present state of the collective systems the Dutch Chamber of Pensions has started a research project to investigate how many workers lack such an arrangement and why they lack it. The results of the project have recently been reported: in 1985 18% (650,000) of the workers (25-65 years) lacked an arrangement. The vast majority of them (87%) was found in the sector of services, especially the commercial services. A second research project has been started to find out the quality of the existing pension arrangements. The results of the two projects together are meant to answer the question whether or not some sort of collective pensions must be enforced by law. The improvement of collective pension schemes, however, should not lead automatically to decreasing public schemes. For most people the public pension system is the most important source of income.

Scholtz HA

1989-02-01

 
 
 
 
81

Complex hyperplane arrangements  

CERN Document Server

This is a slightly revised version (with references added in) of a survey article which appeared in the Spring 2005 edition of the MSRI newsletter, the Emissary. The article describes some of the themes from the Fall 2004 MSRI program on Hyperplane Arrangements and Applications.

Falk, M; Falk, Michael; Suciu, Alexander I

2005-01-01

82

World Bank financing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The financing tools offered to the private and public sector by the World Bank, i.e. the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) and the International Development Association (IDA) were presented. Public sector financing comprises loans to national governments to finance projects in agriculture, transportation, infrastructure, etc. From 1992 to 1994, Canadian power companies obtained about $500 million worth of business via bank-financed projects, whereas energy companies got only about $26 million. The IBRD raises its money in the capital markets, basically on the strength of the shareholders in the bank. The International Finance Corporation (IFC), unlike the World Bank proper, works strictly with the private sector, financing investments in the developing countries.Private sector financing was said to have increased dramatically in the last five years. The amount of financing coming from pension funds, banks, and from foreign direct investment has grown by over 400% during that period. The IFC provides equity investment in private companies and joint ventures; it also plays a major role in loan syndication. In the energy field IFC projects typically involve field development, refining, pipelining, and distribution. The Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA) is the fourth component of the World Bank. It provides insurance for equity, against non-commercial risks.

Good, L. [World Bank, Washington, DC (United States)

1995-12-31

83

Financing landfill gas projects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The problems of financing landfill gas projects in the UK in the last few years are discussed. The approach of the author in setting up a company to finance such projects in the power generation field and a separate company to design and supply turnkey packages is reported. (UK)

1991-11-13

84

Geothermal Financing Workbook  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report was prepared to help small firm search for financing for geothermal energy projects. There are various financial and economics formulas. Costs of some small overseas geothermal power projects are shown. There is much discussion of possible sources of financing, especially for overseas projects. (DJE-2005)

Battocletti, E.C.

1998-02-01

85

Phase distribution in complex geometry conduits  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bubbly air/water two-phase flow data have been taken as an isosceles triangle using hot film probes. It was found that a 3-D two-fluid model was able to predict these data and those taken previously in circular conduits. It appears that mechanically-based CFD predictions of bubbly two-phase flows is possible for many cases of practical concern. (orig.)

1993-01-01

86

Arterial conduits for distal upper extremity bypass.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Vascular bypass is an accepted surgical procedure for treatment of hand and digital ischemia that is the result of identifiable arterial disease. Although vein grafts have traditionally been used as vascular conduits for reconstruction, arterial grafts present a better alternative, physiologically, for reconstruction and may result in superior outcomes. Arteries suitable for grafts are not abundant and, therefore, upper extremity surgeons must be informed about possible donor sites and techniques for harvest.

Masden DL; McClinton MA

2013-03-01

87

High temperature lined conduits, elbows and tees  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A high temperature lined conduit comprising, a liner, a flexible insulating refractory blanket around and in contact with the liner, a pipe member around the blanket and spaced therefrom, and castable rigid refractory material between the pipe member and the blanket. Anchors are connected to the inside diameter of the pipe and extend into the castable material. The liner includes male and female slip joint ends for permitting thermal expansion of the liner with respect to the castable material and the pipe member. Elbows and tees of the lined conduit comprise an elbow liner wrapped with insulating refractory blanket material around which is disposed a spaced elbow pipe member with castable refractory material between the blanket material and the elbow pipe member. A reinforcing band is connected to the elbow liner at an intermediate location thereon from which extend a plurality of hollow tubes or pins which extend into the castable material to anchor the lined elbow and permit thermal expansion. A method of fabricating the high temperature lined conduit, elbows and tees is also disclosed which utilizes a polyethylene layer over the refractory blanket after it has been compressed to maintain the refractory blanket in a compressed condition until the castable material is in place. Hot gases are then directed through the interior of the liner for evaporating the polyethylene and setting the castable material which permits the compressed blanket to come into close contact with the castable material.

De Feo, Angelo (Passaic, NJ); Drewniany, Edward (Bergen, NJ)

1982-01-01

88

Cable support arrangements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A cable support arrangement extending from a refuelling level floor of a nuclear reactor to the inner shield of a double rotatable shield comprises a linearly extensible cable support and disciplining boom, reaching from the floor to the main shield, and a circumferentially extensible cable support and disciplining means running from the end of the boom to a fixed end on the inner shield. (author)

1981-09-03

89

Organic waste processing arrangements  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The utility model discloses organic waste treatment equipment which comprises a vacuum seal tank body and a stirring device, wherein, the vacuum seal tank body is provided with a feed opening and a discharge opening a reaction chamber and a heating chamber are arranged inside the vacuum seal tank body the reaction chamber is used for containing mixture which is made from paste formed through the size degradation of the organic waste, microbial ferment and material compounding the stirring device is arranged in the reaction chamber circulating heat conduction liquid is arranged in the interior of the heating chamber the mixture enters into the reaction chamber, is stirred by the stirring device and is heated by the heat conduction liquid, so that thermal cracking nitrosation reaction is performed on the mixture and meanwhile, drying and sterilization are performed in a mode of vacuum compression and exhaustion, so that the mixture forms a solid fertilization stack-free organic fertilizer product which is discharged from the discharge opening. Therefore, the treatment time for organic waste is effectively shortened, and the working space is reduced.

WENFU LI

90

Financing energy projects in Africa  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Overview of financing trends in Africa; Multilateral support - Bedrock of Africa's first generation energy projects; ECA insurance and financing; Bilateral development finance; Offshore commercial bank lending; Local commercial bank finance; Capital markets; Legal ramifications ; Risk factors; Conclusions. (Author)

Godier, Kevin; Marks, Jon

1999-12-01

91

Innovative M and A financing structures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The structuring and financing of mergers and acquisitions (M and A) is one of the most critical elements of a takeover process, given that Canadian securities law requires that any takeover must be `fully financed`. It follows therefore, that in order to comply with securities laws, the financing for a takeover must be arranged in advance of making such a bid. This paper describes the structuring of an offer, outlines the sources of M and A financing, including a review of the `full capital solution`, reviews the key forces influencing the financial structuring of takeover bids, and provides examples of recent M and A transactions in the oil and gas resources sectors. Case histories of two recent mergers and acquisitions, one involving Sun Media Corporation and Rogers Communication Inc., the other John Labatt Limited and the Onex Corporation, were reviewed in detail. The importance of proper structuring of the offer for the specific target`s shareholders, as well as for future business operations was stressed.

Korpach, A. N.; de la Carle, M. [CIBC Wood Gundy Securities, Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

1998-06-01

92

CHIEF OF STAFF FINANCE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The SecretariatThe fifth Chief of Staff Division, namely Finance, is the end result of seventy years development of the civilian Secretariat established in terms of the Defence Act (Act 13) of 1912.

Ashley C. Lillie

2012-01-01

93

Combustion pressure sensor arrangement  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A combustion pressure sensor arrangement in an internal combustion engine having a cylinder head, comprising: a plug seating formed in the cylinder head; an annular pressure sensor; an ignition plug screwed into the cylinder head in such a manner that the pressure sensor is clamped between the ignition plug and the plug seating; an ignition plug accommodation hole formed in the cylinder head for accommodating therein the ignition plug; and a guide sleeve joined at one end thereof to the outer periphery of the pressure sensor and fitted in the ignition plug accommodation hole, wherein the one end of the guide sleeve is fitted on the outer periphery of the pressure sensor.

Sawamoto, K.; Nagaishi, H.; Takeuchi, K.

1986-07-29

94

International energy financing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Some of the innovative financing options being considered by developing countries and economies in transition as ways of mobilizing international energy financing are discussed. Build-Own-Operate (BOO) and Transfer (BOOT) is the most commonly adopted approach. This involves limited resource financing of a project on the basis of the associated cash flow and risks and not on the credit of the project owners. The World Bank has set up the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency to provide, on a fee basis, guarantees against certain non-commercial forms of risk in order to promote international capital flow to developing countries. In 1989, the World Bank introduced the Expanded Co-financing Operations (ECO) programme as an instrument to catalyze the flow of private finance into developing countries and to improve their access to international financial markets. Other financial instruments currently being established include: leasing of equipment or whole plants by foreign investors; private ownership or operation of generation and distribution facilities; exchange of specific export goods for energy imports; developing instruments to finance local costs; revenue bonds; tax-exempt bonds; sale of electricity futures to those seeking more stable, longer term electricity price contracts. (UK)

Vedavalli, Rangaswamy (World Bank, Washington, DC (United States). Industry and Energy Dept.)

1994-07-01

95

International energy financing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some of the innovative financing options being considered by developing countries and economies in transition as ways of mobilizing international energy financing are discussed. Build-Own-Operate (BOO) and Transfer (BOOT) is the most commonly adopted approach. This involves limited resource financing of a project on the basis of the associated cash flow and risks and not on the credit of the project owners. The World Bank has set up the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency to provide, on a fee basis, guarantees against certain non-commercial forms of risk in order to promote international capital flow to developing countries. In 1989, the World Bank introduced the Expanded Co-financing Operations (ECO) programme as an instrument to catalyze the flow of private finance into developing countries and to improve their access to international financial markets. Other financial instruments currently being established include: leasing of equipment or whole plants by foreign investors; private ownership or operation of generation and distribution facilities; exchange of specific export goods for energy imports; developing instruments to finance local costs; revenue bonds; tax-exempt bonds; sale of electricity futures to those seeking more stable, longer term electricity price contracts. (UK).

1994-01-01

96

System and method measuring fluid flow in a conduit  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A system for measuring fluid mass flow in a conduit in which there exists a pressure differential in the fluid between at least two spaced-apart locations in the conduit. The system includes a first pressure transducer disposed in the side of the conduit at a first location for measuring pressure of fluid at that location, a second or more pressure transducers disposed in the side of the conduit at a second location, for making multiple measurements of pressure of fluid in the conduit at that location, and a computer for computing the average pressure of the multiple measurements at the second location and for computing flow rate of fluid in the conduit from the pressure measurement by the first pressure transducer and from the average pressure calculation of the multiple measurements.

Ortiz, Marcos German (Idaho Falls, ID); Kidd, Terrel G. (Blackfoot, ID)

1999-01-01

97

Financing alternatives for cogeneration and small-power facilities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There are a range of alternatives for financing cogeneration and small power production facilities, with a variety of factors determining the selection of a particular method. These factors include the nature of the project, sources and costs of funds to the user and developer, the length of time for which funds are needed, the financial and tax status of the parties and specifics of contractual arrangements. The author describes and compares seven major alternatives: financing by user, shared/guaranteed savings contract, true lease, finance lease/installment purchase contract, municipal finance lease, energy services contract, and industrial development bonds. He presents the basic structure, advantages and disadvantages, and a discussion of the application of each.

Pestle, J.W.

1985-08-01

98

Camshaft bearing arrangement  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A bearing arrangement is described for the camshaft of an internal combustion engine or the like which camshaft is formed along its length in axial order with a first bearing surface, a first cam lobe, a second bearing surface, a second cam lobe, a third bearing surface, a third cam lobe and a fourth bearing surface, the improvement comprising first bearing means extending around substantially the full circumference of the first bearing surface and journaling the first bearing surface, second bearing means extending around substantially less than the circumference of the second bearing surface and journaling the second bearing surface, third bearing means extending around substantially less than the circumference of the third bearing surface and journaling the third bearing surface, and fourth bearing means extending around substantially the full circumference of the fourth bearing surface and journaling the first bearing surface.

Aoi, K.; Ozawa, T.

1986-06-10

99

Auspicious tatami mat arrangements  

CERN Document Server

An \\emph{auspicious tatami mat arrangement} is a tiling of a rectilinear region with two types of tiles, $1 \\times 2$ tiles (dimers) and $1 \\times 1$ tiles (monomers). The tiles must cover the region and satisfy the constraint that no four corners of the tiles meet; such tilings are called \\emph{tatami tilings}. The main focus of this paper is when the rectilinear region is a rectangle. We provide a structural characterization of rectangular tatami tilings and use it to prove that the tiling is completely determined by the tiles that are on its border. We prove that the number of tatami tilings of an $n \\times n$ square with $n$ monomers is $n2^{n-1}$. We also show that, for fixed-height, the generating function for the number of tatami tilings of a rectangle is a rational function, and outline an algorithm that produces the generating function.

Erickson, Alejandro; Schurch, Mark; Woodcock, Jennifer

2011-01-01

100

Releasable engine coupling arrangement  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An arrangement for releasably coupling an engine to a driven device is described comprising the combination of: an engine having a drive shaft and an ignition circuit having an electrical lead; a driven device having a driven shaft; means for releasably coupling the engine to the driven device so that the drive shaft is coupled to the driven shaft; a pressure-responsive electrical switch mounted on the engine and coupled to the electrical lead, the electrical switch being operative to ground the electrical lead except when held open; and a switch-engaging element mounted on the driven device and being operative to engage and hold open the pressure-responsive electrical switch when the engine is properly releasably coupled to the driven device, thereby permitting the engine to operate only when the engine is properly releasably coupled to the driven device.

Ellegard, S.W.

1988-07-19

 
 
 
 
101

Thermally actuated linkage arrangement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A reusable thermally actuated linkage arrangement includes a first link member having a longitudinal bore therein adapted to receive at least a portion of a second link member therein, the first and second members being sized to effect an interference fit preventing relative movement there-between at a temperature below a predetermined temperature. The link members have different coefficients of thermal expansion so that when the linkage is selectively heated by heating element to a temperature above the predetermined temperature, relative longitudinal and/or rotational movement between the first and second link members is enabled. Two embodiments of a thermally activated linkage are disclosed which find particular application in actuators for a grapple head positioning arm in a nuclear reactor fuel handling mechanism to facilitate back-up safety retraction of the grapple head independently from the primary fuel handling mechanism drive system. (author)

1981-01-01

102

Solar cell arrangement  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A solar cell arrangement comprises a first plate or disc of light transmissive material, one side of the first plate or disc having a structure of light transmissive elevations tapering parabolically and cut off parallel to the surface of the plate or disc at the level of their focal points or lines, the structure having a layer of at least partially light transmissive electrically conductive material on the surface of the elevations and a second plate or disc of semiconductor or metallically conducting material, the plate or discs being assembled together to provide photo voltaic and electical contacts between the said cut off surfaces, of one plate or disc and the surface of the other plate or disc such that light passing through the first plate is concentrated at the contacts.

Dahlberg, R.

1981-09-22

103

ELECTRONIC BIOSENSOR ARRANGEMENT  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Electronic biosensor arrangement (1) comprising a receptacle region (2) f or biological material, to which is assigned a sensor electrode arrangement (3) with sensor electrodes (3a, 3b) intermeshing in comblike fashion, to whi ch can be connected a measuring circuit (5) for measuring an electrical meas urement quantity influenced by biological material at the sensor electrodes (3a, 3b), wherein the sensor electrodes (3a, 3b) form a multiplicity of sens or capacitors (Csensor,1 to Csensor,N) which are assigned electronic switchi ng means (S2,1 to S2,N) - driven by a control logic (8) - for connection to earth or to a voltage source carrying a measurement voltage (Vdrive), compri sing a reference capacitor (Cref), which is likewise assigned a switching me ans (S1) - driven by the control logic (8) - for optional connection to eart h or to the measurement voltage (Vdrive), wherein the capacitors (Cref, Csen sor,1 - Csensor,N) are on the other hand combined at a node (A), which is co nnected to an input (-) of a differential amplifier (10) and to which are fu rthermore connected measuring capacitors (C0 to C5) having binary weighted c apacitances (Cmin to 32Cmin) for forming an SAR comparison unit, which, on t he other hand, via switching means (S3,0 to S3,5) driven by the control logi c (8), are able to be connected selectively toa voltage source (Varray) or t o earth for the purpose of charge difference formation for the SAR conversio n.

VELLEKOOP MICHAEL JOHANNES; VAN VROONHOVEN CASPAR; NOEHAMMER CHRISTA; WIESE MENESES ROCHA DANIEL PAULO

104

Project Finance Portal  

Science.gov (United States)

Benjamin Esty at the Harvard Business School (HBS) has created this all-encompassing portal intended to serve as a reference guide for project finance students, faculty, and researchers. The resources on the site are divided into two main sections. The Research and Publications list is directed at the academic community and includes bibliographies of articles, books and book chapters, and trade magazines, as well as syllabi from business and law school courses from the top schools around the world, case studies, and rating agency information. The other section, Project Finance Links, functions as a standard portal, with over 800 annotated links to related Websites. All references to books, case studies, and articles are linked to the Harvard Business School online catalog for easier access by the HBS community. For librarians and Webmasters, the Project Finance Portal will serve as a stellar model of a portal for a library community.

Esty, Benjamin.

2005-11-16

105

Guidebook to Geothermal Finance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This guidebook is intended to facilitate further investment in conventional geothermal projects in the United States. It includes a brief primer on geothermal technology and the most relevant policies related to geothermal project development. The trends in geothermal project finance are the focus of this tool, relying heavily on interviews with leaders in the field of geothermal project finance. Using the information provided, developers and investors may innovate in new ways, developing partnerships that match investors' risk tolerance with the capital requirements of geothermal projects in this dynamic and evolving marketplace.

Salmon, J. P.; Meurice, J.; Wobus, N.; Stern, F.; Duaime, M.

2011-03-01

106

Hydrostatic drive arrangement  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A hydrostatic drive arrangement is described for a vehicle which consists of: a pair of variable speed hydrostatic transmissions each having a hydraulic pump, a hydraulic motor and a closed loop hydraulic circuit interconnecting the pump and the motor for communicating fluid therebetween; synchronizing valve means interconnected between the hydraulic circuits of the transmissions normally permitting interflow of fluid through first passage means between the hydraulic circuits for synchronizing the output speeds of the transmissions when the fluid pressure in the hydraulic circuits is below a predetermined value, the synchronizing valve means being responsive to fluid pressures in the hydraulic circuits to restrict interflow therebetween through restricted second passage means when the fluid pressure in one of the hydraulic circuits exceeds the predetermined value; a hydraulic charge pump connected with the closed loop hydraulic circuits for replenishing fluid lost from the hydraulic circuits; and selector valve means disposed between the hydraulic charge pump and the synchronizing valve means for selectively communicating the synchronizing valve means normally blocking communication between the synchronizing valve means and the hydraulic charge pump and establishing communication between the synchronizing valve means and the drain thereby permitting interflow of fluid between the hydraulic circuits, and means responsive to a steering operation of the vehicle to establish communication between the synchronizing valve means and the hydraulic charge pump thereby blocking interflow of fluid between the hydraulic circuits.

Hoashi, K.; Morita, K.; Matsuda, K.

1986-04-22

107

Financial Collateral Arrangements  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Increasing use of securities and collaterals in transactions brings the legal ambiguity in today’s financial markets which are trying to globalise. It should have been noted that without legal certainty an achievement can not be obtained in a complete manner. To solve this legal ambiguity in financial markets, reform movements have been started through out the world from different groups, institutions and communities involving both jurists and practitioners., The Directive on settlement finality in payment and securities settlement systems and the Directive on financial collateral arrangements were adopted. These two directives are both supplementary legislations for the Directive of the Parliament and of the Council on the reorganisation and winding up of credit institutions dated 4 April 2001. All of these directives are the circles of a chain that aim the proper functioning of the internal financial market in European Union. In this study, mainly the Collateral Directive will be taken into account. Firstly, the necessity of a harmonised collateral law and the aims of the Collateral Directive will be handled. Following, the main provisions of the directive will be analysed in details. While analysing in details, the different implementations of the directive in member states will be mentioned. Finally, the conflict of laws clause and the consequences of the directive will be explained.

Gulenay Rusen

2007-01-01

108

Seat belt arrangements  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

For use with a vehicle seat belt system having a shoulder or diagonal belt, an auxiliary strap (22, 40) is positioned to extend generally upright on the front of the back portion (4) of the seat and a connector (28, 50) for the belt is movable to a selected position along the strap to determine the effective position from which the upper end of the belt extends. The auxiliary strap can be an extension (40) of the lap portion of the seat belt (12), being isolated therefrom by a snubber device (30) or a separate element (22) with a length adjustment means. It can be secured to one or more of the anchorages (10, 16) of the seat belt system or can be looped around the seat back. In a modification the auxiliary strap (72) extends upright on a door pillar adjacent the seat. In another modification, the upper edge of the seat back is clamped between the limbs (81, 82) of a U-shaped member the forward limb of which can carry a guide loop (90) for the belt at a selected one of several positions. A turn buckle arrangement (87, 88) ensures effective clamping of the seat back. Where the system includes a running loop (114, 134) for guiding the belt from a retractor, one end of the auxiliary strap can be connected to a second loop secured to the running loop or both loops can be mounted for swivelling independently.

109

Conduit fragmentation, cave patterns, and the localization of karst ground water basins: the Appalachians as a test case  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Because conduit systems in maturely developed karst aquifers have a low hydraulic resistance, aquifers drain easily and karst aquifers are subdivided into well-defined ground water basins. Ground water elevations are highest at basin boundaries; lowest at the spring where the ground water is discharged. Parameters that control the type of conduit development are (1) the effective hydraulic gradient, (2) the focus of the drainage basin, and (3) the karstifiability of the bedrock. Moderate to highly effective hydraulic gradients permit the runaway process that leads to single conduit caves and well ordered branchwork systems. Low hydraulic gradients allow many alternate flow paths and thus a large degree of fuzziness in the basin boundaries. Low gradient ground water basins also tend to merge due to rising water tables during periods of high discharge. Focus is provided by geological constraints that optimize discharge at specific locations that can evolve into karst springs. Karstifiability is a measure of the bulk rate at which aquifer rocks will dissolve. Fine grained, pure limestones and shaley dolomites mark the opposite ends of the range. The cave surveys of the Appalachian Highlands provide a data base that can be used to classify the lateral arrangements of conduit systems and thus determine the relative importance of the factors defined above.

White,W.B.; White,E.L.

2003-01-01

110

How to quantify conduits in wood?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Vessels and tracheids represent the most important xylem cells with respect to long distance water transport in plants. Wood anatomical studies frequently provide several quantitative details of these cells, such as vessel diameter, vessel density, vessel element length, and tracheid length, while important information on the three dimensional structure of the hydraulic network is not considered. This paper aims to provide an overview of various techniques, although there is no standard protocol to quantify conduits due to high anatomical variation and a wide range of techniques available. Despite recent progress in image analysis programs and automated methods for measuring cell dimensions, density, and spatial distribution, various characters remain time-consuming and tedious. Quantification of vessels and tracheids is not only important to better understand functional adaptations of tracheary elements to environment parameters, but will also be essential for linking wood anatomy with other fields such as wood development, xylem physiology, palaeobotany, and dendrochronology.

Scholz A; Klepsch M; Karimi Z; Jansen S

2013-01-01

111

How to quantify conduits in wood?  

Science.gov (United States)

Vessels and tracheids represent the most important xylem cells with respect to long distance water transport in plants. Wood anatomical studies frequently provide several quantitative details of these cells, such as vessel diameter, vessel density, vessel element length, and tracheid length, while important information on the three dimensional structure of the hydraulic network is not considered. This paper aims to provide an overview of various techniques, although there is no standard protocol to quantify conduits due to high anatomical variation and a wide range of techniques available. Despite recent progress in image analysis programs and automated methods for measuring cell dimensions, density, and spatial distribution, various characters remain time-consuming and tedious. Quantification of vessels and tracheids is not only important to better understand functional adaptations of tracheary elements to environment parameters, but will also be essential for linking wood anatomy with other fields such as wood development, xylem physiology, palaeobotany, and dendrochronology. PMID:23507674

Scholz, Alexander; Klepsch, Matthias; Karimi, Zohreh; Jansen, Steven

2013-03-18

112

Laparoscopic cystectomy and ileal conduit: case report.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A completely new combined laparoscopic cystectomy and ileal conduit technique for removal of an infiltrating bladder cancer was carried out on a 64-year-old woman. The bladder was dissected free and extracted whole through the right flank. The right ureter and a loop of intestine were withdrawn through the same incision. An ileal segment was isolated and intestinal continuity restored. The right ureter was anastomosed to one extreme of the segment that was then reintroduced into the abdomen, taken across to the left side, withdrawn with the left ureter, anastomosed extracorporeally, and reintroduced. The stoma was constructed in the left flank at the patient's request. Recuperation was unusually fast and painless, and little postoperative analgesia was required. Further experience and a two-team approach could reduce the operation time to 3 or 4 hours. We are now convinced that combining the two procedures was better for the patient, even though it prolonged the time in the operating room.

Sánchez de Badajoz E; Gallego Perales JL; Reche Rosado A; Gutierrez de la Cruz JM; Jimenez Garrido A

1995-02-01

113

[Radical cystectomy and laparoscopic ileal conduit  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Herein we describe for the first time a laparoscopic cystectomy procedure and an ileal conduit that were performed in a single session in a patient with a tumor infiltrating the right wall. The procedure starts by releasing the ureters from the iliac junction up to a point close to the bladder. The peritoneum is incised superiorly at the level of the urachus and we proceed until the space of Retzius and the lateral walls are released. The vesicouterine plica is then incised and the bladder wings are dissected with the Endo-GIA. With a straight dissector, the urethra is released and cut until the bladder is completely free within the abdominal cavity. The trocar is removed from the right flank, the incision is extended up to about 4 cms and the bladder is removed. The right ureter and an ileal loop are then brought out through the incision on the right flank. A segment of intestine is isolated and intestinal continuity is reestablished using mechanical sutures. Then the ureter is implanted at one end of the isolated intestinal segment. The other end of the segment of intestine is taken to the left flank and anastomosed extracorporeally in a similar manner to the ureter of that side. The ileal conduit is positioned transversely so it is unnecessary to take the ureter to the opposite side. Finally, a stoma is created, which the patient desired done in the left side, and the procedure is completed. Although the operating time is long, the surgical insult is minimal because the McBurney type flank incisions cause little injury to the abdominal wall.

Sánchez de Badajoz E; Gallego Perales JL; Reche Rosado A; Gutiérrez de la Cruz JM; Jiménez Garrido A

1993-09-01

114

Transmission gearing arrangement  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A gearing arrangement is described for an automotive power transmission comprising: an input shaft and an output shaft; first, second, and third simple planetary gear sets. Each has a sun gear, a ring gear, and a planet gears meshing with the sun and the ring gears and rotatably supported on a planet carrier; means rigidly interconnecting the ring gear of the third gear set and the carrier of the second gear set; means rigidly interconnecting the ring gear of the second gear set and the carrier of the first gear set; means rigidly connecting the output shaft and the carrier of the third gear set; a first intermediate shaft rigidly interconnecting the sun gears of the second and the third gear sets for unitary rotation; a second intermediate shaft rigidly connected to the carrier of the second gear set; a third intermediate shaft continuously connected to the input shaft and to the sun gear of the first gear set; first, second, and third brake means operative to selectively brake rotation of the ring gears of the first, the second, and the third gear sets, respectively; a first rotating clutch selectively operable to connect the input shaft and the first intermediate shaft for unitary rotation; a second rotating clutch selectively operable to connect the input shaft and the second intermediate shaft for unitary rotation; a fourth simple planetary gear set including a sun gear and a ring gear and planet gears meshing with the sun and the ring gears and rotatably supported on a planet carrier; means rigidly connecting the sun gear of the fourth gear set to the third intermediate shaft; means rigidly connecting the ring gear of the fourth gear set to the carrier of the first gear set; and a fourth brake means selectively operable to brake the carrier of the fourth gear set. The nine forward ratios are obtainable while preserving a single transition shifting over the entire nine forward ratios.

Klemen, D.

1987-08-04

115

Specialized financing techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Specific financing techniques applicable to wind energy projects in Canada are discussed. A limited partnership is the classic Canadian approach to tax-advantaged financing. For a typical wind project, the limited partners would get an internal rate of return of around 8% over 20 years as well as income tax deductions on Class 34 investments. This rate can be improved if the investors borrow some of the money; they get tax-free cash flow while having deductible loan interest, raising their rate of return after taxes to ca 9-10%. Special situation investors can get to take all of the Class 34 deduction right away, raising their return up to the 12% range. These investors include principal business corporations (such as utilities or oil companies), or companies who have sold their business. A second type of financing structure is related to inflation-indexed debt. The loan is structured like a mortgage, with the annual payments indexed to inflation but nevertheless low enough to provide an early positive cash flow from the project. Other possible financing structures are the immigrant investor fund and the provincial incentive corporations.

1992-01-01

116

Beyond project finance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In financing the potential demand for electric power, project finance is a very limited tool, not a universal solution. Governments and developers can make the process less costly by focusing on ways to reduce major risks, and on developing local capital markets. And prospectors should not ignore the overlooked area of electricity distribution. If projects are to attract substantial debt capital, equity will have to increase to at least 50 percent. In a market dominated by large developers, non-recourse or project financing will have a much reduced role. The electric power sector is in a good position to provide these quality financial instruments to developing country financial markets. By undertaking market-making roles, investors in the electric power business can begin to tap into local capital markets and set the stage for successful exit strategies. Increasingly, financing of power plants is possible without long-term agreements, because creditors are becoming more comfortable with the ability of the firm to take market risk.

Churchill, A.A.

1995-06-01

117

Semigroup methods in finance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this thesis is to highlight the role of semigroup theory in mathematical finance and to provide a class of useful methods. Apart from this special task, several new results concerning invariant subsets of strongly continuous semigroups and regular perturbations of sesquilinear forms (rela...

Einemann, Michael

118

Mathematical Models in Finance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Finance is the corner stone of the free enterprise system. Good financial management is therefore vitally important to the economic health of business firms, and thus the nation and the world. The field is relatively complex, and it is undergoing constant change in response to shifts in economic conditions say Brigham and Gapenski in the introduction of their Financial Management book (Brigham, Eugene F., Gapenski, Louis C 1994). As they said the field is relatively complex since most of the financial decisions are involved with uncertainty and risk. This is where quantitative methods and finance meets. In financial decision making process, like most of the decision making process, final decision made by managers, not by some mathematical tools. However, those mathematical tools, used in financial decision making process, contribute to managers' decision a lot. Finance is consist of three interrelated areas which are Money and Capital Markets, dealing with securities markets and financial institutions, Investments, focusing on the decisions of individuals, financial and other institutions while they choose securities for their investment portfolios; and Financial Management, involving the actual management of non financial firms (Brigham, E. F., Gapenski, L. C;1994) In this study I tried to summarize mathematical methods that have been used in finance historically.

Halim Kazan; Ahmet Ergülen

2005-01-01

119

Financing and insurance problems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The author analyses the papers presented at the Paris Conference on the maturity of nuclear energy. It is evident that financing possibilities will be a determinant factor in the rate of development of nuclear power during the years to come. After having evaluated the capital requirements necessitated for the development of nuclear programmes, the parties intervening have examined the means at the disposal of electricity manufacturers to meet these needs (self-financing, recourse to external financing, regrouping, on an international scale of the electricity manufacturers of the setting up of high capacity plants). As concerns the insurance problems, they are becoming more and more involved as nuclear applications, are further diversified and intensified. The parties intervening have discussed new tarification techniques likely to be applied and pointed out the possibilities offered by regrouping or pooling of insurers (Market Pool) which allow for a maximum of risks to be covered without exceeding the means proper to each company concerned[fr] Les possibilites de financement constitueront a l'evidence un facteur determinant du taux de croissance de la puissance nucleaire dans les annees futures. Apres avoir evalue les besoins en capitaux necessites par le developpement des programmes nucleaires, les intervenants ont examine les moyens dont disposent les producteurs d'electricite pour y faire face (autofinancement; recours au financement exterieur; regroupement, a l'echelle internationale, des producteurs d'electricite pour la mise en oeuvre des installations de grande puissance). Quant aux problemes d'assurance, ils se compliquent a mesure que les applications nucleaires se diversifient et s'intensifient. Les intervenants ont discute des nouvelles techniques de tarification susceptibles d'etre appliquees et fait valoir les possibilites ouvertes par les regroupements d'assureurs (''Market Pool'') qui permettent la couverture du maximum de risques sans exceder les moyens propres de chaque compagnie interessee

1975-01-01

120

Nuclear cooperation through institutional arrangements  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The development of nuclear technologies and their applications require international cooperation through educational, research, commercial and intergovernmental arrangements. These arrangements may be on bilateral, regional or international bases. With the oncoming age of globalization, it is apparent that more international cooperative efforts will be undertaken on a global scale. There are three major issues for international cooperation: nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear safety and nuclear waste management. These issues can be better handled through effective international cooperative arrangements. In the context of Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Pacific Nuclear Council could provide a fruitful institutional arrangement for nuclear cooperation.

Chung, K. [Institute for Advanced Engineering, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1994-12-31

 
 
 
 
121

Mitrofanoff continent catheterizable conduits: top down or bottom up?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: During augmentation and Mitrofanoff procedures, conduits are usually implanted into the posterior bladder wall. Anatomical considerations may necessitate an anterior conduit. To compare the relative drainage efficiency in patients with posterior and anterior conduits, we studied their rates of bladder stone formation and urinary tract infection (UTI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective chart review identified exstrophy patients who underwent augmentation and Mitrofanoff between 1991 and 2003. Patients with 3 years or greater follow-up were included. Fifty-four patients fit this criterion, with a conduit implanted anteriorly (33) or posteriorly (21). We compared rates of bladder stone formation and UTI. Stomal revisions and the status of the bladder neck were also noted. RESULTS: Stone formation and UTI rates were higher in the anterior conduits, although only UTI showed a statistically significant difference. Patient demographics were similar between the two groups, including age and sex. The rates of stomal complications and the bladder neck status were also similar. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with anterior conduits had an increased risk of UTI and bladder stone formation compared to those with posterior conduits, although this was not significant in the case of bladder stone rate. This may indicate sub-optimal bladder drainage and should be addressed with careful preoperative counseling and close follow-up.

Berkowitz J; North AC; Tripp R; Gearhart JP; Lakshmanan Y

2009-04-01

122

Project financing renewable energy schemes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The viability of many Renewable Energy projects is critically dependent upon the ability of these projects to secure the necessary financing on acceptable terms. The principal objective of the study was to provide an overview to project developers of project financing techniques and the conditions under which project finance for Renewable Energy schemes could be raised, focussing on the potential sources of finance, the typical project financing structures that could be utilised for Renewable Energy schemes and the risk/return and security requirements of lenders, investors and other potential sources of financing. A second objective is to describe the appropriate strategy and tactics for developers to adopt in approaching the financing markets for such projects. (author)

1993-01-01

123

IAEA paper on institutional arrangements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At its fifth series of meetings, Working Group 3 received a background paper prepared by the IAEA which had a threefold purpose: firstly, to provide an overview on institutional arrangements under consideration by the INFCE Working Groups; secondly, to explore potential relationships between the various institutional arrangements under consideration; and thirdly, to identify areas where further analysis might be desirable

1979-01-01

124

Nuclear core region fastener arrangement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An arrangement is disclosed for cooling the fasteners affixing a core barrel to a core former and a core baffle to a core former in the reactor vessel internals of a nuclear reactor. The arrangement allows the flowing reactor coolant to contact the fasteners, preferably bolts with an elliptical neck, and maintains lower bolt operating temperatures than previously experienced

1978-01-01

125

Hyperplane Arrangements and Diagonal Harmonics  

CERN Document Server

In 2003, Haglund's {\\sf bounce} statistic gave the first combinatorial interpretation of the $q,t$-Catalan numbers and the Hilbert series of diagonal harmonics. In this paper we propose a new combinatorial interpretation in terms of the affine Weyl group of type $A$. In particular, we define two statistics on affine permutations; one in terms of the Shi hyperplane arrangement, and one in terms of a new arrangement - which we call the Ish arrangement. We prove that our statistics are equivalent to the {\\sf area'} and {\\sf bounce} statistics of Haglund and Loehr. In this setting, we observe that {\\sf bounce} is naturally expressed as a statistic on the root lattice. We extend our statistics in two directions: to "extended" Shi arrangements and to the bounded chambers of these arrangements. This leads to a (conjectural) combinatorial interpretation for all integral powers of the Bergeron-Garsia nabla operator applied to the elementary symmetric functions.

Armstrong, Drew

2010-01-01

126

Financing residential energy improvements  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Current sources of financing for installation of conservation and solar measures, especially those at below market rates are explored. How money is loaned and how interest rates are set are explained in three parts. The first examines the process of lending, that is, how money is loaned and how interest rates are set. The second section discusses the institutions which are involved, while the third reports on current programs available for the financing of residential energy improvements. The current state of the lending market for commercial and non-commercial lending institutions is discussed. Information on the amount of interest which can be charged for loans in the MASEC states as of July 15, 1981 is tabulated. A sampling of some of the loan programs offered in the MASEC states is included. (MCW)

1981-08-01

127

Finance and Economic Development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Published by Palgrave MacmillanThis chapter reviews the literature on finance and economic development. It starts with a description of the roles of finance, a definition of financial efficiency, and a discussion of whether countries may have financial sectors that are ‘too large’ compared to the size of the domestic economy. Next, the author describes several indicators of financial development and reviews the literature on the relationship between financial development and economic growth. In the literature review, he discusses in detail some recent evidence indicating that the marginal contribution of financial development to gross domestic product (GDP) growth becomes negative when credit to the private sector reaches 110 per cent of GDP. The chapter concludes with some policy conclusions targeted to developing countries.

Ugo Panizza

2012-01-01

128

Computation of Uniform and Nonuniform Flow in Prismatic Conduits.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tables of geometric and hydraulic factors are presented for closed conduit shapes commonly encountered in water conveyance engineering. The tables provide for different degrees of resistance to flow resulting from different materials used in construction....

P. N. Zelensky

1972-01-01

129

[The preparation and evaluation of tissue inducible nerve guide conduit].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective of this research was to fabricate a novel tissue inducible nerve guide conduit, and to evaluate its biologic property. The microspheres were prepared with chitosan that encapsulated ligustrazine. The drug release of the chitosan microspheres was detected with application of the controlled release method in vitro. Chitosan microspheres were mixed with collagen to fabricate the tissue inducible nerve conduit, which were crosslinked with 2% genipin for 24h. Mechanical properties of the nerve guide conduit samples, including maximum load and breaking load, were measured using an Instron Series IX Automated Materials Testing System. The flexibility of the nerve guide conduit was determined with the texture evaluation instrument. Different methods, such as scanning electron microscope (SEM), light microscope (LMS) and immunofluorescence were used to analyze the spatial structure of the nerve guide conduit, the distribution of the microspheres, the state of the nerve duct combined with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and the effect of the ligustrazine that released from chitosan microsphere on MSCs differentiation into nerve cells, respectively. The results showed that the chitosan microspheres had better releasing effect. The mechanical properties resultant nerve guide conduit were determined. The maximum load and breaking load of the genipin crosslinked samples were significantly higher than that observed with the non-crosslinkers, increasing to (0.76 +/- 0.15) N and (0.69 +/- 0.17) N from (0.23 +/- 0.09) N and (0.20 +/- 0.12) N for the non-crosslinkers (P < 0.01). The degradation rates of non-crosslinked and crosslinked by genipin were(58.62 +/- 7.59) mg and (9.23 +/- 2.47) mg, respec- tively. This had a statistical significance (P < 0.01). The average linearities in dry and hygrometric state of the nerve guide conduit were (0.597 +/- 0.012) LC and (0.333 +/- 0.015) LC, respectively, which also had statistical significance (P < 0.01). The flexibility in the hygrometric state of the nerve guide conduit was better than that of the dry. SEM analysis of the samples demonstrated that the structures of the nerve guide conduit were significantly changed in crosslinking samples, the microspheres were uniformly distributed on the surface of scaffold, the ligustrazine that released from the chitosan microspheres could promote MSCs to express NSE and MAP2 that were the relevant marker molecule of nerve cells. The nerve guide conduit is combined with MSCs, which promote MSCs proliferation and NSE expression by the ligustrazine that released from the chitosan microspheres. The conduit has better biological compatibility and tissue inducible function.

Zhao H; Liu X; Ge B; Guo C; Zhen P

2012-04-01

130

Device for laying underground or digging up subsea conduits  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A self-propelling device for burying and digging up subsea conduits laid on beds of an incoherent material. The device has: disintegrating members using high pressure water jets to create a slurry of material, digging members having suction members which draw the suspension prepared by the disintegrating members, thus leaving a trench behind, and displacement members for moving the device on the seabed astride the conduit.

Berti, A.; Ilari, A.

1984-10-30

131

Totally free arrangements of hyperplanes  

CERN Document Server

A central arrangement $\\A$ of hyperplanes in an $\\ell$-dimensional vector space $V$ is said to be {\\it totally free} if a multiarrangement $(\\A, m)$ is free for any multiplicity $ m : \\A\\to \\Z_{> 0}$. It has been known that $\\A$ is totally free whenever $\\ell \\le 2$. In this article, we will prove that there does not exist any totally free arrangement other than the obvious ones, that is, a product of one-dimensional arrangements and two-dimensional ones.

Abe, Takuro; Yoshinaga, Masahiko

2008-01-01

132

Neurotrophin releasing single and multiple lumen nerve conduits.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Tissue engineering strategies for nerve repair employ polymer conduits termed guidance channels and bridges to promote regeneration for peripheral nerve injury and spinal cord injury, respectively. An approach for fabrication of nerve conduits with single and multiple lumens capable of controlled release of neurotrophic factors was developed. These conduits were fabricated from a mixture of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLG) microspheres and porogen (NaCl) that was loaded into a mold and processed by gas foaming. The porosity and mechanical properties of the constructs were regulated by the ratio of porogen to polymer microsphere. The neurotrophin, nerve growth factor (NGF), was incorporated into the conduit by either mixing the protein with microspheres or encapsulating the protein within microspheres prior to gas foaming. A sustained release was observed for at least 42 days, with the release rate controlled by method of incorporation and polymer molecular weight. Released NGF retained its bioactivity, as demonstrated by its ability to stimulate neurite outgrowth from primary dorsal root ganglion (DRG). In vivo results indicate that conduits retain their original architecture, and allow for cellular infiltration into the channels. Polymer conduits with controllable lumen diameters and protein release may enhance nerve regeneration by guiding and stimulating neurite outgrowth.

Yang Y; De Laporte L; Rives CB; Jang JH; Lin WC; Shull KR; Shea LD

2005-06-01

133

Neurotrophin releasing single and multiple lumen nerve conduits.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tissue engineering strategies for nerve repair employ polymer conduits termed guidance channels and bridges to promote regeneration for peripheral nerve injury and spinal cord injury, respectively. An approach for fabrication of nerve conduits with single and multiple lumens capable of controlled release of neurotrophic factors was developed. These conduits were fabricated from a mixture of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLG) microspheres and porogen (NaCl) that was loaded into a mold and processed by gas foaming. The porosity and mechanical properties of the constructs were regulated by the ratio of porogen to polymer microsphere. The neurotrophin, nerve growth factor (NGF), was incorporated into the conduit by either mixing the protein with microspheres or encapsulating the protein within microspheres prior to gas foaming. A sustained release was observed for at least 42 days, with the release rate controlled by method of incorporation and polymer molecular weight. Released NGF retained its bioactivity, as demonstrated by its ability to stimulate neurite outgrowth from primary dorsal root ganglion (DRG). In vivo results indicate that conduits retain their original architecture, and allow for cellular infiltration into the channels. Polymer conduits with controllable lumen diameters and protein release may enhance nerve regeneration by guiding and stimulating neurite outgrowth. PMID:15911044

Yang, Yang; De Laporte, Laura; Rives, Christopher B; Jang, Jae-Hyung; Lin, Wei-Chun; Shull, Kenneth R; Shea, Lonnie D

2005-06-01

134

Comminution and frictional melting in volcanic conduits  

Science.gov (United States)

Shearing and faulting at active volcanoes may differ to tectonic faulting due to their distinct temperature conditions above those of the Earth's geotherm. In particular, the ascent of high-viscosity magma/rocks in upper conduits leads to shear/fault zones, with/without gouge formation and sometimes frictional melting; yet, details of the deformation and fracture mechanisms in these magma/rocks with different crystallinities reveal a different synopsis. For instance, the extrusion of lava domes proceeds endogenously or exogenically - a distinction generally understood as a shift in magma rheology to brittle failure, without consideration of the subsequent slip process. Exogenic growth and formation of a spine follow the dynamic rupture of the lava and the dome carapace, and suffer slip along the fault surface. Here, we present experimental investigations of the ability of volcanic rocks (with different glass/crystal and vesicle ratios) to sustain friction, and in cases melt, using a high-velocity rotary apparatus. During high-velocity rotary shear test, we find that slip of along andesite and basalt rocks generate heat which leads to frictional melting at temperature of ca. 1000 C, conciding to a total slip of 10-40 m (for slip initiating at room temperature). In contrast, slip along dense obsidian rocks or porous rocks cannot sustain slip along a discrete plane. Alternatively, obsidian can be slipped against a crystalline material. The width of the slip zone decreases in the presence of crystals. The findings suggest that the comminution of crystals is a requirement to the development of a localised slip zone. In absence of crystals, obsidian (and crystal-free magma) shatter catastrophically. We discuss the implication of our findings to the cases of tectonic faults, stability of volcanic edifices and evolution of lava dome eruptions.

Lavallee, Y.; Mitchell, T. M.; Heap, M. J.; Kendrick, J. E.; kennedy, B.; Ashwell, P. A.; Hirose, T.; Dingwell, D. B.

2011-12-01

135

Temperature limited heater with a conduit substantially electrically isolated from the formation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A system for heating a hydrocarbon containing formation is described. A conduit may be located in an opening in the formation. The conduit includes ferromagnetic material. An electrical conductor is positioned inside the conduit, and is electrically coupled to the conduit at or near an end portion of the conduit so that the electrical conductor and the conduit are electrically coupled in series. Electrical current flows in the electrical conductor in a substantially opposite direction to electrical current flow in the conduit during application of electrical current to the system. The flow of electrons is substantially confined to the inside of the conduit by the electromagnetic field generated from electrical current flow in the electrical conductor so that the outside surface of the conduit is at or near substantially zero potential at 25.degree. C. The conduit may generate heat and heat the formation during application of electrical current.

Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Sandberg, Chester Ledlie (Palo Alto, CA)

2009-07-14

136

Free Arrangements over Finite Field  

CERN Multimedia

The freeness of hyperplane arrangements in a three dimensional vector space over finite field is discussed. We prove that if the number of hyperplanes is greater than some bound, then the freeness is determined by the characteristic polynomial.

Yoshinaga, M

2006-01-01

137

"Fraud alert": joint venture arrangements.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Office of Inspector General of the Department of Health and Human Services recently issued a special "Fraud Alert" identifying those characteristics of joint venture arrangements that it views as indicators of potentially unlawful activity. As discussed in this article, participants in joint ventures should examine their arrangements to see if one or more of the questionable features are present, and, if so, should take steps to eliminate them, to the extent possible.

Vipperman RM

1989-01-01

138

PFI redux? Assessing a new model for financing hospitals.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

There is a growing need for investments in hospital facilities to improve the efficiency and quality of health services. In recent years, publicly financed hospital organisations in many countries have utilised private finance arrangements, variously called private finance initiatives (PFIs), public-private partnerships (PPPs) or P3s, to address their capital requirements. However, such projects have become more difficult to implement since the onset of the global financial crisis, which has led to a reduction in the supply of debt capital and an increase in its price. In December 2012, the government of the United Kingdom outlined a comprehensive set of reforms to the private finance model in order to revive this important source of capital for hospital investments. This article provides a critical assessment of the 'Private Finance 2' reforms, focusing on their likely impact on the supply and cost of capital. It concludes that constraints in supply are likely to continue, in part due to regulatory constraints facing both commercial banks and institutional investors, while the cost of capital is likely to increase, at least in the short term.

Hellowell M

2013-09-01

139

Adapting Risk Management for Profit and Loss Sharing Financing of Islamic Banks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The low level of participation of the Islamic banks in profit and loss sharing (mudharabah and musharakah) financing models has become one of the problems in the development of the industry. These arrangements are unique to Islamic banking and account for its superiority over conventional banking on grounds of ethics and efficiency, but the majority of Islamic banks have limited themselves to less risky trade-financing assets, that tend to be a shorter maturity. This paper intends to analyzes why Islamic banks are reluctant to indulge in mudharabah and musharakah financing. Finally, it explores the risk management concept that might solve the problems.

Irawan Febianto

2012-01-01

140

Financing wind energy projects  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Triodos Bank has more than 10 years of experience with developing and financing wind projects in the Netherlands. Over 50 Megawatt has been installed with direct involvement of the bank. The experience is both as a bank and as a venture capital fund. In this contribution the perspective will be more from a venture capital point of view than as a bank. The bank`s activities in the wind energy sector started in 1986 by forming a joint venture with an engineering bureau, experienced i wind energy but not yet in developing wind projects. From 1989 onwards the joint venture started to build wind farms, both as a private company and in a joint venture with utilities. The European Investment Bank became involved with a long-term debt finance facility (15 years, fixed interest loan). The main difficulties were long-term commitments from landowners (Dike authorities) and utilities with regard to power contracts. The development got really stuck when utilities refused to pay a fair price anymore. Also, site development became more and more difficult. Even the poor technical performance improved drastically and did not frighten developers and banks too much. (author)

Blom, P. [Triodos Bank (Netherlands)

1996-12-31

 
 
 
 
141

Nuclear financing in Spain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The basic objectives of the Spanish National Energy Plan are summarized as (1) To obtain maximum guarantees for continuity of supplies, (2) Reduce the cost of energy supplies to the maximum possible degree, (3) Reduce the difference in the balance of payments due to importation of primary energy sources, (4) Pro-mote the rational use of energy with the aim of moderating the growth rates in demand without affecting economic development (5) Reduce to an economical minimum the effect on the environment of energy-producing installations, and (6) Contribute to the technological development of the country and promote research in the energy field. To fulfil these objectives, the following forecasts are made: With the Gross National Product increasing at a rate of 5% or 6%, the demand on primary energy sources in 1985 will be 173 or 194 million e.c.t. (equivalent coal tons), i.e. annual growth rates of energy consumption of 6% and 7.2% respectively, compared with growths during the last decade of 9.2%. It is projected that generation of electrical energy from nuclear sources will grow to attain in a share of approximately 60% by 1985, i.e. an installed nuclear power level of 23.8.GW. The cost of the Spanish National Energy Plan, particularly the cost and financing of the nuclear program, is reviewed. Finally, the growing need for self-financing is stressed. (B.P.)

1975-04-15

142

Financing wind energy projects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Triodos Bank has more than 10 years of experience with developing and financing wind projects in the Netherlands. Over 50 Megawatt has been installed with direct involvement of the bank. The experience is both as a bank and as a venture capital fund. In this contribution the perspective will be more from a venture capital point of view than as a bank. The bank's activities in the wind energy sector started in 1986 by forming a joint venture with an engineering bureau, experienced i wind energy but not yet in developing wind projects. From 1989 onwards the joint venture started to build wind farms, both as a private company and in a joint venture with utilities. The European Investment Bank became involved with a long-term debt finance facility (15 years, fixed interest loan). The main difficulties were long-term commitments from landowners (Dike authorities) and utilities with regard to power contracts. The development got really stuck when utilities refused to pay a fair price anymore. Also, site development became more and more difficult. Even the poor technical performance improved drastically and did not frighten developers and banks too much. (author)

1996-01-01

143

Thermomechanical milling of accessory lithics in volcanic conduits  

Science.gov (United States)

Accessory lithic clasts recovered from pyroclastic deposits commonly result from the failure of conduit wall rocks, and represent an underutilized resource for constraining conduit processes during explosive volcanic eruptions. The morphological features of lithic clasts provide distinctive 'textural fingerprints' of processes that have reshaped them during transport in the conduit. Here, we present the first study focused on accessory lithic clast morphology and show how the shapes and surfaces of these accessory pyroclasts can inform on conduit processes. We use two main types of accessory lithic clasts from pyroclastic fallout deposits of the 2360 B.P. subplinian eruption of Mount Meager, British Columbia, as a case study: (i) rough and subangular dacite clasts, and (ii) variably rounded and smoothed monzogranite clasts. The quantitative morphological data collected on these lithics include: mass, volume, density, 2-D image analysis of convexity (C), and 3-D laser scans for sphericity (?) and smoothness (S). Shaping and comminution (i.e. milling) of clasts within the conduit are ascribed to three processes: (1) disruptive fragmentation due to high-energy impacts between clasts or between clasts and conduit walls, (2) ash-blasting of clasts suspended within the volcanic flux, and (3) thermal effects. We use a simplified conduit eruption model to predict ash-blasting velocities and lithic residence times as a function of clast size and source depth, thereby constraining the lithic milling processes. The extent of shape and surface modification (i.e. rounding and honing) is directly proportional to clast residence times within the conduit prior to evacuation. We postulate that the shallow-seated dacite clasts remain subangular and rough due to short (<2 min) residence times, whereas monzogranite clasts are much more rounded and smoothed due to deeper source depths and consequently longer residence times (up to ˜1 h). Larger monzogranite clasts are smoother than smaller clasts due to longer residence times and to greater differential velocities within the ash-laden jet. Lastly, our model residence times and mass loss estimates for rounded clasts are used to estimate minimum attrition rates due to volcanic ash-blasting within the conduit (e.g., 12 cm3?s?1 for 25 cm clasts, sourced at 2500 m depth).

Campbell, Michelle E.; Russell, James K.; Porritt, Lucy A.

2013-09-01

144

Today's trends in capital financing.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A health system's approach to capital access in the coming year should include an in-depth analysis of different financing options, including: Tax-exempt fixed rate bonds. Tax-exempt variable rate bonds. Taxable bonds. Direct purchases. New financing products.

Means GA; Olarte ML

2013-05-01

145

EXTERNAL FINANCING FOR CONSTRUCTION ENTITIES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The external financing of the construction entities does not differ from the one of other entities within other activities, but the construction entities have also a financing source, represented by the funds for the site organization, funds which are analysed and accounted in the present paper.

ADELA BREUER; MIHAELA LESCONI FRUMU?ANU; BEATRIX LIGHEZAN BREUER; DOREL JURCHESCU

2011-01-01

146

The Possibilities of Strategic Finance  

Science.gov (United States)

|Strategic finance is aligning financial decisions--regarding revenues, creating and maintaining institutional assets, and using those assets--with the institution's mission and strategic plan. The concept known as "strategic finance" increasingly is being seen as a useful perspective for helping boards and presidents develop a sustainable…

Chaffee, Ellen

2010-01-01

147

Public Finance Administration. Second Edition.  

Science.gov (United States)

|This book is intended for the nonexpert in finance who has a public administration background. It opens with a broad introduction to public finance administration and how this job is related to public budgeting, the practice of public-sector accounting, and the economic concepts of money and value. Issues surrounding public revenue, its sources,…

Reed, B. J.; Swain, John W.

148

ARRANGEMENT FOR HANDLING RECOVERED WASTE  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A recovered waste processing arrangement is fitted in an independently movable power tool for maintaining the environment. The power tool includes at least one processing unit provided with a processing device. The processing unit is connected to the frame of the power tool. The arrangement includes: a chamber connected to the processing unit for receiving recovered waste from the processing device a discharge aperture connected to the chamber a transport duct, the first end of which is connected to a discharge aperture a collecting tank connected to the power tool frame and to the second end of the transport duct a first blower arranged between the processing unit chamber and the collecting tank, via which air and recovered waste carried along with air are sucked through the transport duct from the processing unit and blown into the collecting tank and a second blower connected to the chamber by an air duct.

KESKI-LUOPA MAUNO

149

The Jacobian ideal of a hyperplane arrangement  

CERN Document Server

The Jacobian ideal of a hyperplane arrangement is an ideal in the polynomial ring whose generators are the partial derivatives of the arrangements defining polynomial. In this article, we prove that an arrangement can be reconstructed from its Jacobian ideal.

Wakefield, Max

2007-01-01

150

Effects of PVC conduits on sampling results of aerosol  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This paper presents the effects of PVC conduits on sampling results of aerosol. The MMAD of aerosol experimentally adopted is 7.1 ?m. Through 15 m PVC conduits with diameter of 30 mm and 50 mm, the concentration of aerosol decreased to 14.5% and 6.4% of the primary concentration respectively under laminar flow conditions, and to 21.3% and 15.4% under turbulence conditions. The aerosol size also changed, the mass fraction of particles of 4 ?m increases about 5 times. The method for determining the fraction of wall deposition is briefly introduced. The selection of sampling conduits and relevant aspects in application are also discussed

1988-01-01

151

Finance, Investment and Growth  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper examines the relation between the institutional structures of advanced OECD countries and the comparative growth and investment of 27 industries in those countries over the period 1970 to 1995. The paper reports a strong relation between the structure of countries' financial systems, the characteristics of industries and the growth and investment of industries in different countries. There is a particularly strong relation between the structures of countries' financial systems and the growth of industries that are dependent on external equity and skilled labour. As predicted by theory, relations with industries that are dependent on bank finance are more in evidence in countries at earlier stages of development. The relations with investment are much more pronounced for R&D than for fixed capital, suggesting that financial systems in developed economies are primarily associated with patterns of R&D rather than fixed investment.

Wendy Carlin; Colin Mayer; John Cable; Jeremy Edwards; Gnter Franke; Andrew Glyn; Jan Mahrt-smith; Giovanna Nicodano; Vicen Salas; Andrei Shleifer; Oren Sussman; David Ulph; Sigurt Vitols; We Andrew; Costas Meghir; Christopher Nobes

152

Financing renewables - report from 4th Annual RE Finance Forum  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper is based on the 4th Annual Renewable Energy Finance Forum of September 2002 and discusses the attitude of potential investors and bankers towards the funding of renewable energy projects. It is suggested that: (i) renewables are now a sound place for investment and (ii) the United Kingdom is perhaps the most exciting place in Europe for such investment. Figures are given for projected cumulative investment in renewables by 2020. Six specific questions which potential investors in wind power ask are listed. Points made by some leading speakers are quoted. A new angle on financing renewables using 'carbon finance' was explained.

Smith, D.C.

2002-12-01

153

Stirling engines - simplified sealing arrangements  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In conventional Stirling engines the sliding seals which isolate the engine from the surroundings are expensive and also require replacement. The present paper suggests two designs, the first design enables the displacer piston seals to be replaced by much simpler seal arrangements and the second design suggests a method by which the power piston seals might be eliminated. (author)

Dunn, P.D. [Reading Univ. (United Kingdom)

1996-08-01

154

Accounting for arrangements - Part 1  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Based on the substance over form principle, transactions that in substance transfer the right to use an asset for an agreed period of time, in return for a series of payments, are accounted for as a lease transaction in terms of IAS 17 (AC 105), irrespective of the legal form of the arrangement. The...

Venter, Elmar R.; Tomes, Tania

155

PUBLIC FINANCING OF HEALTHCARE SERVICES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Healthcare in Poland is mainly financed by public sector entities, among them the National Health Fund (NFZ), state budget and local government budgets. The task of the National Health Fund, as the main payer in the system, is chiefly currently financing the services. The state budget plays a complementary role in the system, and finances selected groups of services, health insurance premiums and investments in healthcare infrastructure. The basic role of the local governments is to ensure access to the services, mostly by performing ownership functions towards healthcare institutions.

Agnieszka Bem

2013-01-01

156

Financing options for renewable energy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The availability of appropriate finance is widely regarded as one of the major barriers to the uptake of renewable energy technologies. There are many different options available, but the choice of the most appropriate option is highly project-specific. This paper identifies several of these options, and explains how they have been used successfully to finance actual projects. The paper also highlights some of the key points that developers need to bear in mind when seeking project finance, and particularly the crucial issue of `risk management` within the project. (Author)

Butson, J. [ECOTEC Research and Consulting Limited, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

1998-12-31

157

Adequacy, Efficiency and Equity of Higher Education Financing: The Case of Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

To meet its future challenges in financing higher education, Egypt has no option but to search for alternative funding arrangements. This article considers the question of how to do so, keeping in mind the need to ensure equitable access to good quality education for those who cannot afford it. To this end, the article begins by assessing public…

Fahim, Yasmine; Sami, Noha

2011-01-01

158

Growth of normal zones in cable-in-conduit superconductors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A picture is proposed in which the growth of normal zones in cable-in-conduit superconductors is caused by the expansion of hot helium along the length of the conductor. Quantitative results suitable for experimental testing have been obtained by dimensional and similarity arguments. The results indicate non-uniform propagation at velocities of tens of meters per second.

Dresner, L.

1983-01-01

159

Evaluation of the MODFLOW-2005 Conduit Flow Process.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The recent development of the Conduit Flow Process (CFP) by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provides hydrogeologic modelers with a new tool that incorporates the non-Darcian, multiporosity components of flow characteristic of karst aquifers. CFP introduces new parameters extending beyond those of traditional Darcian groundwater flow codes. We characterize a karst aquifer to collect data useful for evaluating this new tool at a test site in west-central Florida, where the spatial distribution and cross-sectional area of the conduit network are available. Specifically, we characterize: (1) the potential for Darcian/non-Darcian flow using estimates of specific discharge vs. observed hydraulic gradients, and (2) the temporal variation for the direction and magnitude of fluid exchange between the matrix and conduit network during extreme hydrologic events. We evaluate the performance of CFP Mode 1 using a site-scale dual-porosity model and compare its performance with a comparable laminar equivalent continuum model (ECM) using MODFLOW-2005. Based on our preliminary analyses, hydraulic conductivity coupled with conduit wall conductance improved the match between observed and simulated discharges by 12% to 40% over turbulent flow alone (less than 1%).

Hill ME; Stewart MT; Martin A

2010-07-01

160

Evaluation of the MODFLOW-2005 Conduit Flow Process.  

Science.gov (United States)

The recent development of the Conduit Flow Process (CFP) by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provides hydrogeologic modelers with a new tool that incorporates the non-Darcian, multiporosity components of flow characteristic of karst aquifers. CFP introduces new parameters extending beyond those of traditional Darcian groundwater flow codes. We characterize a karst aquifer to collect data useful for evaluating this new tool at a test site in west-central Florida, where the spatial distribution and cross-sectional area of the conduit network are available. Specifically, we characterize: (1) the potential for Darcian/non-Darcian flow using estimates of specific discharge vs. observed hydraulic gradients, and (2) the temporal variation for the direction and magnitude of fluid exchange between the matrix and conduit network during extreme hydrologic events. We evaluate the performance of CFP Mode 1 using a site-scale dual-porosity model and compare its performance with a comparable laminar equivalent continuum model (ECM) using MODFLOW-2005. Based on our preliminary analyses, hydraulic conductivity coupled with conduit wall conductance improved the match between observed and simulated discharges by 12% to 40% over turbulent flow alone (less than 1%). PMID:20113361

Hill, Melissa E; Stewart, Mark T; Martin, Angel

2010-01-22

 
 
 
 
161

Growth of normal zones in cable-in-conduit superconductors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A picture is proposed in which the growth of normal zones in cable-in-conduit superconductors is caused by the expansion of hot helium along the length of the conductor. Quantitative results suitable for experimental testing have been obtained by dimensional and similarity arguments. The results indicate non-uniform propagation at velocities of tens of meters per second

1983-01-01

162

Modified Bentall operation with a novel biologic valved conduit.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: The optimal conduit for a modified Bentall operation remains unknown. The current study tested hemodynamics and early clinical results of the newly developed valved conduit composed of the 3f Aortic Bioprosthesis (ATS Medical, Minneapolis, MN) and the Vascutek Gelweave Valsalva Aortic Root Graft (Terumo Cardiovascular Systems, Ann Arbor, MI). DESCRIPTION: Between December 1, 2008, and April 6, 2009, 20 patients underwent a modified Bentall operation with this valved conduit and their clinical records were retrospectively reviewed. EVALUATION: The indication for aortic root replacement in the 20 patients was aortic root aneurysm in 14, acute type A dissection in 5, and structural deterioration of an aortic root homograft in 1. Four patients had had previous cardiac operations, and 8 patients required concomitant procedures. Mean cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic cross-clamp times were 146 +/- 110 minutes and 110 +/- 32 minutes, respectively. There were no perioperative deaths. The average mean pressure gradient across the bioprosthesis assessed with intraoperative transesophageal echocardiogram was 4.0 +/- 1.7 mm Hg. CONCLUSIONS: Our initial experience with our new valved conduit showed favorable results. Further accumulation of cases and longer follow-up are warranted.

Stewart AS; Takayama H; Smith CR

2010-03-01

163

Ileal conduit post radical cystectomy: modifications of the technique.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Ileal conduit, post radical cystectomy, is currently the most practiced type of urinary diversion. The aim of our study was to modify the ileal conduit technique in order to retain acceptable outcomes while decreasing the rate of postoperative urine leak and ureteroileal stricture. METHODS: Forty consecutive patients were included in our study, from January to June 2011. Radical cystectomy and ileal conduit using our modifications were done for all the cases. Follow-up was done for one year. One patient with right pelvic kidney was added to the studied group and was managed by extra modification to our technique. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 63 years. No significant leak and no stricture were observed within the modest duration of follow-up. When a left upper urinary tract retrograde study was attempted in one patient, the left ureteric orifice could not be reached due to a redundant elongated ileum. CONCLUSIONS: Modified Bricker techniques are safe, avoid early postoperative urine leak, and lower the incidence of ureteroileal anastomotic stricture. Using our modifications, retrograde access of the left ureter may not be possible. The 'Z' ileal conduit is a feasible technique that can allow tension-free healthy ureteroileal anastomosis for cases with pelvic right kidney and, probably, post renal transplantation.

Kotb AF

2013-01-01

164

Ileal conduit post radical cystectomy: modifications of the technique  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction: Ileal conduit, post radical cystectomy, is currently the most practiced type of urinary diversion. The aim of our study was to modify the ileal conduit technique in order to retain acceptable outcomes while decreasing the rate of postoperative urine leak and ureteroileal stricture. Methods: Forty consecutive patients were included in our study, from January to June 2011. Radical cystectomy and ileal conduit using our modifications were done for all the cases. Follow-up was done for one year. One patient with right pelvic kidney was added to the studied group and was managed by extra modification to our technique. Results: The mean age of the patients was 63 years. No significant leak and no stricture were observed within the modest duration of follow-up. When a left upper urinary tract retrograde study was attempted in one patient, the left ureteric orifice could not be reached due to a redundant elongated ileum. Conclusions: Modified Bricker techniques are safe, avoid early postoperative urine leak, and lower the incidence of ureteroileal anastomotic stricture. Using our modifications, retrograde access of the left ureter may not be possible. The ‘Z’ ileal conduit is a feasible technique that can allow tension-free healthy ureteroileal anastomosis for cases with pelvic right kidney and, probably, post renal transplantation.

Kotb, Ahmed Fouad

2013-01-01

165

Reduced vibration motor winding arrangement  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An individual phase winding arrangement having a sixty electrical degree phase belt width for use with a three phase motor armature includes a delta connected phase winding portion and a wye connected phase winding portion. Both the delta and wye connected phase winding portions have a thirty electrical degree phase belt width. The delta and wye connected phase winding portions are each formed from a preselected number of individual coils each formed, in turn, from an unequal number of electrical conductor turns in the approximate ratio of {radical}3. The individual coils of the delta and wye connected phase winding portions may either be connected in series or parallel. This arrangement provides an armature winding for a three phase motor which retains the benefits of the widely known and utilized thirty degree phase belt concept, including improved mmf waveform and fundamental distribution factor, with consequent reduced vibrations and improved efficiency. 4 figs.

Slavik, C.J.; Rhudy, R.G.; Bushman, R.E.

1997-11-11

166

Reduced vibration motor winding arrangement  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An individual phase winding arrangement having a sixty electrical degree phase belt width for use with a three phase motor armature includes a delta connected phase winding portion and a wye connected phase winding portion. Both the delta and wye connected phase winding portions have a thirty electrical degree phase belt width. The delta and wye connected phase winding portions are each formed from a preselected number of individual coils each formed, in turn, from an unequal number of electrical conductor turns in the approximate ratio of .sqroot.3. The individual coils of the delta and wye connected phase winding portions may either be connected in series or parallel. This arrangement provides an armature winding for a three phase motor which retains the benefits of the widely known and utilized thirty degree phase belt concept, including improved mmf waveform and fundamental distribution factor, with consequent reduced vibrations and improved efficiency.

Slavik, Charles J. (Rexford, NY); Rhudy, Ralph G. (Scotia, NY); Bushman, Ralph E. (Lathem, NY)

1997-01-01

167

Branched polymers and hyperplane arrangements  

CERN Multimedia

We generalize the construction of connected branched polymers and the notion of the volume of the space of connected branched polymers studied by Kenyon and Winkler to any central linear hyperplane arrangement A. The volume of the resulting configuration space of connected branched polymers associated to the central linear hyperplane arrangement A is expressed through the value of the characteristic polynomial of A at 0. We give a more general definition of a branched polymer, where we do not require connectivity, and introduce the notion of q-volume for it, which is expressed through the value of the characteristic polynomial of A at -q. Finally, we relate the volume of the space of branched polymers to broken circuits and show the cohomology ring of the space of branched polymers to be the Orlik-Solomon algebra. We conjecture the same for the space of connected branched polymers.

Meszaros, Karola

2009-01-01

168

AC loss characteristics of simulated CIC-type conductors having plastic conduit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] When alternating current superconducting coils having cable-in-conduit conductors are fabricated, non-metallic conduit materials are necessary to avoid eddy current losses in the conduits. Using two kinds of non-metallic tapes made of glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRPs) and Dyneema fiber reinforced plastics (DFRPs), we made the conductors with the GFRP conduits and DFRP conduits, and experimentally studied the total losses of the conductors. The measured results showed that the total loss of the conductor with the GFRP conduit was smaller than that with the DFRP conduit at the same value of the void ratio, the transport current, the external magnetic field, and so on. When the void ratios become high, the superconducting bundle cable can easily move in the conduit. Hence the measured total losses increased with the void ratios of the conductors

2003-01-01

169

AC loss characteristics of simulated CIC-type conductors having plastic conduit  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

When alternating current superconducting coils having cable-in-conduit conductors are fabricated, non-metallic conduit materials are necessary to avoid eddy current losses in the conduits. Using two kinds of non-metallic tapes made of glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRPs) and Dyneema fiber reinforced plastics (DFRPs), we made the conductors with the GFRP conduits and DFRP conduits, and experimentally studied the total losses of the conductors. The measured results showed that the total loss of the conductor with the GFRP conduit was smaller than that with the DFRP conduit at the same value of the void ratio, the transport current, the external magnetic field, and so on. When the void ratios become high, the superconducting bundle cable can easily move in the conduit. Hence the measured total losses increased with the void ratios of the conductors.

Kojo, Y.; Sekine, N.; Tada, S.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Obama, J.; Takao, T.; Miyagi, D.; Yamanaka, A

2003-10-15

170

Successful implantation of Thoratec assist device: wrapping of outflow conduit in Hemashield graft.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Persistent oozing and bleeding through the wall of the built-in outflow conduit in mechanical circulatory assist devices is a troublesome problem. Wrapping the outflow conduit of Thoratec in a Hemashield graft without preclotting completely prevents oozing and bleeding.

Minami K; Arusoglu L; Koyanagi T; el-Banayosy A; Körner MM; Körfer R

1997-09-01

171

Method and apparatus for removing the inner conduit from a dual passage drill string  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method is described for removing the inner conduit from a dual conduit drill string used in drilling holes for geothermal, oil, and gas wells, and the like, to permit use of emergency or salvage procedures. It consists of: a. providing a standard drill pipe section; b. modifying the standard drill pipe section to form an interior support; c. engaging an inner conduit section with the interior support; d. joining the modified drill pipe sections at joints to form a drill pipe string; e. joining a plurality of the inner conduit sections at lockable joints to form an inner conduit string; f. locking the lockable inner conduit joints; and g. exerting an upward force on the inner conduit to remove the entire inner conduit string from the drill pipe string.

Reichman, J.M.; Mc Donald, M.C.; O' Brien, T.B.

1987-09-08

172

Finance Applications of Game Theory  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

: Traditional finance theory based on the assumptions of symmetric information and perfect and competitive markets has provided many important insights. These include the Modigliani and Miller Theorems, the CAPM, the Efficient Markets Hypothesis and continuous time finance. However, many empirical phenomena are difficult to reconcile with this traditional framework. Game theoretic techniques have allowed insights into a number of these. Many puzzles remain. This paper argues that recent advances in game theory concerned with higher order beliefs, informational cascades and heterogeneous prior beliefs have the potential to provide insights into some of these remaining puzzles. 1 1. Introduction Finance is concerned with how the savings of investors are allocated through financial markets and intermediaries to firms, which use them to fund their activities. Finance can be broadly divided into two fields. The first is asset pricing, which is concerned with the decisions of investors. ...

Franklin Allen; Stephen Morris; Anthony M. Santomero

173

Alternatives to conventional pipeline financing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The natural gas pipeline sector has recently experienced changes in regulations, ownership, competition and tolling methodology. As the Canadian oil and gas industry is becoming more competitive, new opportunities for financial creativity are opening up in the pipeline sector. Income trusts are a type of financial structure that have emerged in Canada recently and appear to be very well suited to financing pipelines. Incentive cost recovery and revenue sharing agreements are also developments which will impact on Canadian pipeline financing. Income trusts have several advantages over traditional debt and equity financing. Characteristics of income trusts that support this argument were reviewed. It was this author`s view that many liquid or natural gas pipelines, with long estimated useful lives and predictable cash flows, make excellent assets for an income trust vehicle. To illustrate, several recent examples of existing oil and gas pipelines were cited that are being restructured as an income trust, or other similar financing vehicle.

Potter, D.A. [Scotia Capital Markets, Oil and Gas Group, Calgary, AB (Canada)

1997-12-31

174

Battery saving frequency synthesizer arrangement  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An arrangement for reducing the amount of battery supplied power to a high frequency synthesizer. The phase-locked loop section of the synthesizer is periodically disconnected from the battery supplied power. In order to prevent substantial drift of the phase-locked loop during such power interruption, a control signal is provided for maintaining the VCO frequency. By minimizing the frequency drift, the loop can be re-locked in a short period of time following each power interruption.

Challen, R. F.

1985-06-04

175

Air-powered filter arrangement  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A filter including a filter housing having a spillway and a pneumatic intake assembly that draws water from an aquarium into the filter housing. The filter housing being configured to internally mount to the aquarium. The filter housing having first and second chamber oriented in a side-by-side arrangement such that water flows in a generally horizontal direction through a filter cartridge positioned between the first and second chambers.

CARLEY JOSEPH C; AGRESTA MARK G

176

Structure for arranging fuel spacers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To improve the performance and the vibration resistance of fuel assemblies in a water cooled reactor by varying the distance of the supporting contacts for each of the fuel rods in the spacer arrangement. Constitution: Spacer arrangement is adapted such that they support at a plane with an appropriate direction relative to the plane normal to the longitudinal direction of a fuel rod. That is, by properly combining the slanting angle or direction for each of the spacers and the distance between the spacers, vibration characteristics becomes inherent to each of the spacers. Then, considering the resonance due to fluid vibrations of coolants or seismic vibrations, etc., there is no possibility that the resonance modes of fuel rods should be matched. Further, since the spacers are slanted relative to the flowing channel, it is advantageous over the conventional perpendicular structure also in view of the fluid pressure loss. The arrangement and the combination of the spacers are quite optional and can be determined depending on the vibration characteristics or physical properties of fluids thereby making the performance and the strength excellent. (Kamimura, M.).

1985-04-08

177

Reduced vibration motor winding arrangement  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present invention relates generally to an electric motor winding and, more particularly, to a three phase motor armature winding arrangement designed to reduce motor vibration and improve efficiency. An individual phase winding arrangement having a sixty electrical degree phase belt width for use with a three phase motor armature includes a delta connected phase winding portion and a wye connected phase winding portion. Both the delta and wye connected phase winding portions have a thirty electrical degree phase belt width. The delta and wye connected phase winding portions are each formed from a preselected number of individual coils each formed, in turn, from an unequal number of electrical conductor turns in the approximate ratio of {radical}3. The individual coils of the delta and wye connected phase winding portions may either be connected in series or parallel. This arrangement provides an armature winding for a three phase motor which retains the benefits of the widely known and utilized thirty degree phase belt concept, including improved mmf waveform and fundamental distribution factor.

Slavik, C.J.; Rhudy, R.G.; Bushman, R.E.

1995-12-31

178

The financing of nuclear industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Having first recalled the usual financing rules related to the economic activities, the author analyses the applying of those rules in the nuclear field, taking into account the specific characteristics of this industrial branch[fr] Apres avoir rappele les regles de financement classiques auxquelles sont soumises toutes les entreprises, l'auteur analyse l'application de ces regles dans le domaine nucleaire, en fonction des particularites de ce secteur industriel

1978-01-01

179

Wind power: valuation and finance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The past 20 years of wind energy experience in Denmark has primarily been based upon three financing schemes, tailored to individually owned, guild owned and utility owned wind turbines. The merits of and problems with these schemes are discussed, as well as their relations to specific legislation regarding e.g. taxation. It is finally explored, whether new forms of organisation, valuation and financing may be needed. (author)

Aastrand, C.; Mose, O.; Sorensen, B. [Roskilde University (Denmark)

1996-12-31

180

The finance-strategy relationship.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The connection between the finance function and strategy in health systems is explored through discussions with chief financial officers (CFOs). The integration of finance into strategy is explored through the use of balanced scorecards, strategic investments and the analysis of core competencies and core enterprises. Divestiture of investments in health plans, physician practices and long-term care facilities is common, while outsourcing activity is increasing.

Smith DG; Wheeler JR

2001-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

The finance-strategy relationship.  

Science.gov (United States)

The connection between the finance function and strategy in health systems is explored through discussions with chief financial officers (CFOs). The integration of finance into strategy is explored through the use of balanced scorecards, strategic investments and the analysis of core competencies and core enterprises. Divestiture of investments in health plans, physician practices and long-term care facilities is common, while outsourcing activity is increasing. PMID:11794752

Smith, D G; Wheeler, J R

2001-01-01

182

Computing for Finance  

CERN Multimedia

The finance sector is one of the driving forces for the use of distributed or Grid computing for business purposes. The speakers will review the state-of-the-art of high performance computing in the financial sector, and provide insight into how different types of Grid computing – from local clusters to global networks - are being applied to financial applications. They will also describe the use of software and techniques from physics, such as Monte Carlo simulations, in the financial world. There will be four talks of 20min each. The talk abstracts and speaker bios are listed below. This will be followed by a Q&A panel session with the speakers. From 19:00 onwards there will be a networking cocktail for audience and speakers. This is an EGEE / CERN openlab event organized in collaboration with the regional business network rezonance.ch. A webcast of the event will be made available for subsequent viewing, along with powerpoint material presented by the speakers. Attendance is free and open to all. R...

CERN. Geneva

2007-01-01

183

Hyporheic exchange in a karst conduit and sediment system - A laboratory analog study  

Science.gov (United States)

Hyporheic flow in sediment filled karst conduits was studied using a laboratory analog model.Hyporheic flow is induced by conduits bends even for flat sediment surfaces.Zones of forwards and reserve flow occur in the sediments.Flow patterns can be reproduced by a dual domain model assuming pressure continuity.The exchange flux increases with increasing conduit flow rate and steepness of the conduit angle.

Wu, Yuexia; Hunkeler, Daniel

2013-09-01

184

A new simplified technique for making tricuspid expanded polytetrafluoroethylene valved conduit for right ventricular outflow reconstruction.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Several methods of making expanded polytetrafluoroethylene valved conduit have been reported, but these techniques are complicated and less reproducible. We have developed a new simplified technique for making a tricuspid expanded polytetrafluoroethylene valved conduit for right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction and have been using this conduit for approximately 3 years with excellent results. Our technique is straightforward and reproducible, and the cusps in the conduit are durable due to the use of a specialized suturing technique.

Kim H; Sung SC; Chang YH; Lee HD; Park JA

2013-05-01

185

Implantation of neural stem cells embedded in hyaluronic acid and collagen composite conduit promotes regeneration in a rabbit facial nerve injury model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract The implantation of neural stem cells (NSCs) in artificial scaffolds for peripheral nerve injuries draws much attention. NSCs were ex-vivo expanded in hyaluronic acid (HA)-collagen composite with neurotrophin-3, and BrdU-labeled NSCs conduit was implanted onto the ends of the transected facial nerve of rabbits. Electromyography demonstrated a progressive decrease of current threshold and increase of voltage amplitude in de-innervated rabbits after implantation for one, four, eight and 12 weeks compared to readouts derived from animals prior to nerve transection. The most remarkable improvement, observed using Electrophysiology, was of de-innervated rabbits implanted with NSCs conduit as opposed to de-innervated counterparts with and without the implantation of HA-collagen, NSCs and HA-collagen, and HA-collagen and neurotrophin-3. Histological examination displayed no nerve fiber in tissue sections of de-innervated rabbits. The arrangement and S-100 immunoreactivity of nerve fibers in the tissue sections of normal rabbits and injured rabbits after implantation of NSCs scaffold for 12 weeks were similar, whereas disorderly arranged minifascicles of various sizes were noted in the other three arms. BrdU+ cells were detected at 12 weeks post-implantation. Data suggested that NSCs embedded in HA-collagen biomaterial could facilitate re-innervations of damaged facial nerve and the artificial conduit of NSCs might offer a potential treatment modality to peripheral nerve injuries.

Zhang Han; Wei Yue; Tsang Kam; Sun Chong; Li Jin; Huang Hua; Cui Fu; An Yi

2008-01-01

186

Islamic Public Infrastructure Financing: An Analysis of Alternative Financing Instruments with Application in Developing Countries.  

Science.gov (United States)

This project examines the structure of public infrastructure financing in Indonesia and examines whether financing based on Islamic principles is a feasible alternative to current financing mechanisms. The structure of public infrastructure investment can...

S. Islam

2004-01-01

187

Assessment of the relationship between Contegra conduit size and early valvar insufficiency.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Contegra bovine jugular vein (BJV) conduit results vary widely, and little attention has been directed at assessment of early conduit insufficiency. Conduit insufficiency is graded subjectively, and criteria vary. Several studies have used branch pulmonary artery flow reversal (BPAFR) to define severe conduit insufficiency. BJV valves are larger than human pulmonary valves of similar diameter. We hypothesize that anatomic differences between BJV and human pulmonary valves limit the use of BPAFR in the evaluation of BJV competence. Our purposes were to (1) assess the prevalence of early and 6-month BJV conduit insufficiency in our patients, (2) determine if conduit size affects BJV competence, and (3) determine if BPAFR is a specific discriminator of severe conduit insufficiency. METHODS: We reviewed 135 BJV conduits. One cardiologist blinded to original reports reviewed postoperative and 6-month echocardiograms. Conduits were grouped by size: group 1, 12 to 14 mm (n=51), and group 2, 16 to 22 mm (n=84). Moderate or greater insufficiency was considered clinically significant. RESULTS: Early conduit insufficiency was common in group 1 (37%) and rare in group 2 (5%, p<0.0001). After excluding conduits with significant insufficiency, BPAFR occurred in 18% (group 1, 27%; group 2, 13%; p=0.02). At follow-up, insufficiency worsened in group 1 but was stable in group 2. CONCLUSIONS: Early conduit insufficiency is common and worsens with follow-up in small BJVs. Conduit insufficiency is limited in larger sizes and remains stable. BJV exhibits BPAFR commonly in the absence of significant conduit insufficiency. BPAFR should not be used as a primary criterion for grading insufficiency in BJV conduits.

Gist KM; Mitchell MB; Jaggers J; Campbell DN; Yu JA; Landeck BF 2nd

2012-03-01

188

The arrangement field theory (AFT)  

CERN Document Server

We introduce the concept of "non-ordered space-time" and formulate a quaternionic field theory over such generalized non-ordered space. The imposition of an order over a non-ordered space appears to spontaneously generate gravity, which is revealed as a fictitious force. The same process gives rise to gauge fields that are compatible with those of Standard Model. We suggest a common origin for gravity and gauge fields from a unique entity called "arrangement matrix" (M) and propose to quantize all fields by quantizing $M$. Finally we give a proposal for the explanation of black hole entropy and area law inside this paradigm.

Marin, Diego

2012-01-01

189

A SUBMERSIBLE MARINE MARKER ARRANGEMENT  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A submersible marine marker arrangement. It includes a buoy, an item to be marked by the buoy, to be sunk to the bottom of a body of water and that is tethered to the buoy in a manner to be able to assume two tethered conditions. A first tethered condition defines a maximum distance of separation between the buoy and the item. The second tethered condition temporarily constrains the distance of separation from reaching the maximum. A timer controlled release mechanism can hold the buoy and the item in the second tethered condition for a predetermined time after which it is released to send the buoy to the surface.

TRASS SARAH ASHLEIGH

190

Arrangement of a nuclear reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The nuclear reactor arrangement described consists of a housing with a reactor core therein and is provided with means for the extraction of heat, which in operation is developed in the reactor core, these means including a primary liquid coolant circuit which includes at least a component within an reactor core a loop cycle which includes a pump, as well as on the outside of the reactor core a secondary liquid coolent circuit which includes at least one closed circuit, which includes a pump, wherein a loop of the primary circuit by means of a heat exchanger is coupled with a loop of the secondary circuit. (G.C.)

1977-01-01

191

Arrangement for selectively irradiating webs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The arrangement for selectively irradiating a web includes a perforated band of a radiation impermeable substance which is guided in an endless path via a pair of guide rollers and has two juxtaposed runs in this path. A take-up roller conveys a web of material past one of the runs at a side thereof remote from the other run, the direction of movement of the web being other than parallel to that of the band and, preferably, normal thereto. An electron accelerator is provided at the far side of the run remote from the web and is effective for directing a radiation beam at the web through the perforations.

1975-01-01

192

Nuclear reactor fuel assembly arrangement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A description is given of a structural arrangement for a nuclear reactor fuel assembly. Top and bottom support plates, comprising fuel assembly outlet and inlet nozzles respectively, are separated by a plurality of metal tubes. Metal grids which serve to space and support fuel rods containing nuclear fuel are spaced along the length of the metal tubes. The metal grids are structurally attached to the metal tubes by sleeves, made of the same material as the metal tubes, which are spring loaded into the metal grid and spot welded to the metal tubes passing therein

1975-01-01

193

CODUL EUROPEAN DE BUN? CONDUIT? ADMINISTRATIV? ?I FENOMENUL ADMINISTRATIV ROMÂNESC  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pour vivre parmi les membres d¢une certaine collectivité humaine, il est absolument nécessaire de connaître et respecter les valeurs fondamentales de celle-ci. Il est nécessaire également de respecter et d’appliquer les lignes de conduite importées par les normes juridiques réglementant les relations sociales qui se forment dans la collectivité respective pour realiser et protéger ces valeurs. Le peuple roumain, étant impliqué dans la procedure d¢adhésion à l¢Union européenne, a le devoir de connaître le droit communautaire. Le législateur roumain a la mission d'élaborer et d'adopter des lois compatibles avec les normes juridiques communautaires. L'exécutif doit agir pour que les lois soient appliques par tous ceux qui l’exécutif vivent en Roumanie. Par couséquence, il est absolument nécessaire de réformer l'administration publique roumaine de sorte que la relation fonctionnaire public et autres agents de l'administration publique – citoyen destinataire et bénéficiaire de la décision administrative et de la prestation administrative, soit conforme aux standards de l'Union européenne. Cet ouvrage a comme but de présenter en quelle mesure les règles écrites dans le Code européen de bonne conduite administrative peuvent être un modèle pour le législateur roumain. Même si le Code européen de bonne conduite administrative est un document rédigé pour établir les principes généraux à observer dans les relations entre les institutions communautaires européennes et le public, nous considerons qu'il y a plusieurs raisons pour considérer ce Code comme un modèle digne d'être suivi dans l'activité du législateur roumain. Parmi ces raisons, se trouve la performance d'établir le contenu de la base légale pour la bonne conduite administrative utilisant seulement vingt-sept articles dans lesquels on précise les principes généraux pour ce domaine d'activité sociale. Donc, le caractère concis et pourtant explicite du texte est un modèle pour une loi roumaine concernant la bonne conduite administrative ou pour un chapitre du Code administratif, chapitre ayant comme sujet la bonne conduite administrative. Une autre raison est celle que des principes comme „légitimité”, „absence de discri­mination”, „la proportionnalité”, „absense d'abus de pouvoir”, „impartialité et indépendance”, „objectivité”, „équité”, „confiance légitime, cohérence et conseil” et „courtoisie” doivent être présents parmi les principes fondamentaux de l'administration publique, quel que soit le pays dont il s'agit.

Alina Nicu

2006-01-01

194

The financing of nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Existing nuclear generating capacity plays an important role in providing secure, economic and low-carbon electricity supplies in many OECD countries. At the same time, there is increasing recognition that an expansion of nuclear power could play a valuable role in reducing future carbon dioxide emissions. However, in recent years only a handful of new nuclear power plants (NPPs) have been built in just a few OECD countries. An important reason for this is the challenges associated with financing the construction of new NPPs. The just-published NEA report entitled The Financing of Nuclear Power Plants examines these challenges. In addition, recognizing that any expansion of nuclear power programmes will require strong and sustained government support, the report highlights the role of governments in facilitating and encouraging investment in new nuclear capacity. Key actions that should be considered by governments that wish to see investment in new NPPs include: - Provide clear and sustained policy support for the development of nuclear power, by setting out the case for a nuclear component in energy supply as part of a long-term national energy strategy. - Work with electricity utilities, financial companies and other potential investors, and the nuclear industry from an early stage to address concerns that may prevent nuclear investment and to avoid mistakes in establishing the parameters for new NPPs. - Establish an efficient and effective regulatory system which provides adequate opportunities for public involvement in the decision-making process, while also providing potential investors with the certainty they require to plan such a major investment. - Put arrangements in place for the management of radioactive waste and spent fuel, and show progress towards a solution for final disposal of waste. For investors in NPPs, the financial arrangements for paying their fair share of the costs must be clearly defined. - Ensure that electricity market regulation does not disadvantage NPPs. Long-term arrangements may be necessary to provide certainty for investors in NPPs, reflecting the long-term nature of nuclear power projects. Where reducing CO2 emissions is to act as an incentive for investments in nuclear power, the government may need to provide some guarantees that policy measures will keep carbon prices at sufficiently high levels. In countries where there are large utilities with the financial strength to invest directly in new NPPs, or where there are well-resourced foreign utilities willing to make such investments, fully commercial financing may be possible. However, in other cases it may prove impossible for a nuclear power plant project to go ahead without direct or indirect public sector financial support, which would reduce the investment risks to acceptable levels. Public sector financial support could involve supporting a state-owned utility in making nuclear power plant investments, providing support to private sector utilities through loan guarantees, tax credits or other measures, or establishing public-private partnerships. However, governments should ensure that, overall, investment risk remains appropriately shared with the private sector

2009-01-01

195

The international Finance Corporation and financing of sustainable energy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The International Finance Corporation (IFC), a member of the World Bank Group, is the largest multilateral source of loan and equity financing for private sector projects in the developing world. IFC participates in an investment only when it can make a special contribution that complements the role of market operators. Since its founding 40 years ago, IFC has provided more than $18.8 billion in financing for 1,706 companies in developing countries. Its share capital is provided by its 170 member countries, which collectively determine its policies and activities. Strong shareholder support and a substantial paid-in capital base have allowed IFC to raise funds for its lending activities through its triple-A rated bond issues in international financial markets. (orig.)

Younger, D.R. [International Finance Corporation IFC, Washington, DC (United States)

1999-07-01

196

The international Finance Corporation and financing of sustainable energy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The International Finance Corporation (IFC), a member of the World Bank Group, is the largest multilateral source of loan and equity financing for private sector projects in the developing world. IFC participates in an investment only when it can make a special contribution that complements the role of market operators. Since its founding 40 years ago, IFC has provided more than $18.8 billion in financing for 1,706 companies in developing countries. Its share capital is provided by its 170 member countries, which collectively determine its policies and activities. Strong shareholder support and a substantial paid-in capital base have allowed IFC to raise funds for its lending activities through its triple-A rated bond issues in international financial markets. (orig.)

1999-01-01

197

HANDLE ARRANGEMENT FOR A POWER TOOL  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A handle arrangement (112) for a power driven hand tool (100). The power driven hand tool (100) includes a main housing (102) arranged at a first end of a guide tube (104). The power driven hand tool (100) also includes a working member arranged at a second end of the guide tube (104). The handle arrangement (112) includes a grip member (114) for user control of the power driven hand tool (100). The handle arrangement (112) is rotatably arranged to the guide tube (104) for rotation in relation to the main housing (102) and to the guide tube (104).

HALLENDORFF JOHAN

198

Radiation detector arrangements and methods  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The patent describes a radiation detector arrangement. It comprises at least one detector element in the form of a temperature-sensitive resistor whose electrical resistance changes in response to radiation incident on the detector element, the resistor having a high positive temperature coefficient of electrical resistance at a transition in its electrical conductance, circuit means for applying a voltage across the resistor during operation of the detector arrangement, and temperature-regulation means for regulating the temperature of the resistor so as to operate the resistor in the transition, characterised in that the temperature-regulation means comprises the resistor and the circuit means which passes sufficient current through the resistor by resistance heating to a position in the transition at which a further increase in its temperature in response to incident radiation reduces the resistance heating by reducing the current, thereby stabilizing the temperature of the resistor at the position. The positive temperature coefficient at the position being sufficiently high that the change in the resistance heating produced by a change in the temperature of the resistor at the position is larger than a change in power of the incident radiation required to produce that same change in temperature of the resistor in the absence of any change in resistance heating

1988-07-26

199

Studies on forced convection nanofluid flow in circular conduits  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An experimental system was developed and used to study the nanofluid flow and heat transfer in circular conduits. Experiments were performed for a variety of nanofluid flow features in the system. Results obtained from the study show that the heat transfer rate for flow of the base fluid is less than that of the nanofluid used in the study. It was also found that the observed relationship between molecular diffusivity of momentum and the molecular diffusivity of thermal energy at the macroscale may not necessarily be the same at the nanoscale. A heat transfer correlation for turbulent forced convection flow in circular pipes was developed from the results in terms of Nusselt number, Reynolds number and Prandtl number. The correlation developed was compared to related correlations in the literature. Important factors that affect nanofluid flow and heat transfer in circular conduits were also determined. This type of study is essential for heat exchanger applications.

Harikrishna Vishwanadula; Emmanuel C. Nsofor

2012-01-01

200

Investment and finance to national and joint oil storage companies and examination thereon; Kokubi kyobi kaisha ni taisuru shutsuyushi oyobi doshinsa ni tsuite  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes the flows of investment and finance to national and joint oil storage companies including the examination thereon. Investment and finance to the national oil storage companies are regulated by the oil public corporation law. Investment to national companies is subject to regulations on the invested company, investment ratio, capital size, execution of investment, and monthly fund outlay report. Finance to national companies is regulated in the same manner as in the investment, but the method is an indenture loan with the maximum term of 30 years. For damages from liability breach and the like, an amount equivalent to 14.5% of the loan amount is levied annually. Arrangements are made on collaterals, sureties, execution of finance, and monthly fund outlay report. Investment to joint oil storage companies is subject to regulations on the invested company, object, investment ratio, and execution of investment. Finance to joint companies is regulated in the same manner as in the investment, whereas arrangements are made on the financed company, interest collection, interest aiding fund, indemnity levied at 14.5% annually, loan period, collaterals, sureties, execution of finance, and monthly fund outlay report. The current amount of investment and finance is about 1,230 billion yen for national companies and about 139 billion yen for joint companies. One each of national and joint companies under incorporation are also the object of finance. 2 tabs.

NONE

1993-10-01

 
 
 
 
201

Early experience with crimped bovine pericardial conduit for arterial reconstruction.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A bovine pericardial conduit was developed in the laboratory incorporating the principle of crimping used for synthetic vascular prostheses. The pericardium was processed in glutaraldehyde and the tube was crimped by a technique which preserves the integrity of collagen fibres. This vascular substitute presents a non-thrombogenic and non-porous inner surface which does not require preclotting and does not leak. The material is very soft, easy to handle and suture, coapts nicely to suture lines resulting in a hemostatic anastomosis. The crimping design provides longitudinal elasticity and resistance to collapsing, retains its shape with bending and avoids kinking. Crimping provides a circular tube which makes the construction of the anastomosis easier. Experimental studies in dogs demonstrated absence of thromboembolism with the conduit implanted in the abdominal aorta. Fibrin accumulation was not noted in the convexities of the crimps. This conduit was designed for aortic and pulmonary reconstruction and available in different sizes with or without a biological valve. Initial clinical experience included its use in 10 patients with aortic dissections or aortic aneurysms from August 1989 to March 1990. A reconstruction of the abdominal aorta was performed in 2 patients, the descending thoracic aorta in 2, the ascending aorta in 2 and the ascending aorta including the aortic valve and reimplantation of coronary arteries in 4. For the latter 4, composite crimped pericardial tubes containing a porcine bioprosthesis were used. An additional patient with a single ventricle underwent a Fontan type operation also employing a valved crimped pericardial conduit.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Salles CA; Puig LB; Casagrande IS; Vieira GL; Kalil RA; Souza LS; Andrade MA Jr

1991-01-01

202

Early experience with crimped bovine pericardial conduit for arterial reconstruction.  

Science.gov (United States)

A bovine pericardial conduit was developed in the laboratory incorporating the principle of crimping used for synthetic vascular prostheses. The pericardium was processed in glutaraldehyde and the tube was crimped by a technique which preserves the integrity of collagen fibres. This vascular substitute presents a non-thrombogenic and non-porous inner surface which does not require preclotting and does not leak. The material is very soft, easy to handle and suture, coapts nicely to suture lines resulting in a hemostatic anastomosis. The crimping design provides longitudinal elasticity and resistance to collapsing, retains its shape with bending and avoids kinking. Crimping provides a circular tube which makes the construction of the anastomosis easier. Experimental studies in dogs demonstrated absence of thromboembolism with the conduit implanted in the abdominal aorta. Fibrin accumulation was not noted in the convexities of the crimps. This conduit was designed for aortic and pulmonary reconstruction and available in different sizes with or without a biological valve. Initial clinical experience included its use in 10 patients with aortic dissections or aortic aneurysms from August 1989 to March 1990. A reconstruction of the abdominal aorta was performed in 2 patients, the descending thoracic aorta in 2, the ascending aorta in 2 and the ascending aorta including the aortic valve and reimplantation of coronary arteries in 4. For the latter 4, composite crimped pericardial tubes containing a porcine bioprosthesis were used. An additional patient with a single ventricle underwent a Fontan type operation also employing a valved crimped pericardial conduit.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1859668

Salles, C A; Puig, L B; Casagrande, I S; Vieira, G L; Kalil, R A; Souza, L S; Andrade, M A

1991-01-01

203

The role of financing institutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The production, conversion, transport and use of primary energy have considerable impacts on the environment and climate. Throughout the world, the energy sectors face the problem of reducing energy-related emissions, preventing them form occurring and contributing towards the development of environmentally friendly and sustainable energy systems. This requires an integrated planning and decision-making process, in which domestic and international financing institutions also participate since they are frequently involved in the appraisal of electricity projects. To ensure that assessment procedures cover not only project risks and aspects of credit worthiness in a narrower sense but also overall environmental and efficiency aspects, the report outlines elements of a code of conduct. This code of conduct should serve as guideline for financing institutions involved in financing energy sector investments. (author). 7 refs, 1 tab

1991-01-01

204

[The Chilean health system financing].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To explore the Chilean health system financing based on the most recent available data. Material and METHODS: Using the WHO World Health Report 2000 framework, this paper analyzes the Chilean health system financing, with special emphasis on insurance schemes. RESULTS: The analysis shows that a great proportion of people is covered by the existing health insurance schemes (about 88%). However, there is a tendency towards segmentation of the population in terms of risk and income.Additionally, efforts have been made, especially by FONASA (National Health Fund), to perform a strategic purchasing of healthcare. CONCLUSIONS: There still is a need for improving the Chilean health system financing in terms of pooling and strategic purchasing.

Vergara-Iturriaga M; Martínez-Gutiérrez MS

2006-11-01

205

The Financing of Innovative Firms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To what extent are new and/or innovative firms fundamentally different from established firms, and therefore require a different form of financing? The theoretical background for this proposition is presented, and the empirical evidence on its importance is reviewed. Owing to the intangible nature of their investment, asymmetric-information and moral-hazard, these firms are more likely to be financed by equity than debt and behave in some cases as though they are cash-constrained, especially if they are small. Recognizing the role for public policy in this area, many countries have implemented specific policies to bring the cost of financing innovation more in line with the level that would prevail in the absence of market failures.

Bronwyn H. Hall

2010-01-01

206

Introduction to Micro-finance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Micro-finance appears today as the most promising tool in the struggle against poverty and banking exclusion. By providing micro-credit, collecting saving and supplying microinsurance, microfinance institutions (MFIs) are renewing the banking activity by practices as innovative as the group lending method. However, the real impacts of the microfinance on target populations are to be confirmed, theirevaluation colliding with numerous difficulties. Nevertheless, the future development of micro-finance depends on its superiority over other tools in achieving its objectives. Hence, the need to develop more rigorous studies on the impacts, and mature reflection on sources of funding for MFIs in a context of growing of ethical finance and socially responsible investment.

Mariam SANGARÉ

2008-01-01

207

Mechanical cleaning of oil spills in seawater using circular conduits  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Treatment of the crude oil pollution in seawater has attracted global attention during the last two decades. This study was undertaken using circular conduits as a mechanical means to clean oil spills in seawater under different conditions of temperature, oil gravity, shaking frequency, conduit diameter, and initial thickness of oil layer. An experimental model was designed and built to achieve the study. It consists of shaking water bath (to represent sea waves) fitted with temperature controller and glass tubes of different inside diameters of 0.3 cm, 0.5 cm, and 0.7 cm. Three crude oils of different oil gravity of 35{sup o}API, 38{sup o}API, and 47{sup o}API were investigated under different shaking frequencies of 20, 40, and 60 stroke/minute with different tube diameters. The results proved that application of mechanical cleaning of oil spills using circular conduits is a practical technique. The cleaning of black oil spills is more efficient than one of volatile oil. Furthermore, the results indicated that the increase of shaking frequency and/or water temperature provide(s) faster cleaning of oil spills while temperature increase recovers the maximum oil. (Author)

Shedid, S.; Abou Kassem, J.; Zekri, A. [United Arab Emirates Univ., Al Ain City (United Arab Emirates). Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering

2005-10-15

208

Association of Pulmonary Conduit Type and Size With Durability in Infants and Young Children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Treatment of congenital heart disease may include placement of a right ventricle to pulmonary artery conduit that requires future surgical replacement. We sought to identify surgeon-modifiable factors associated with durability (defined as freedom from surgical replacement or explantation) of the initial conduit in children less than 2 years of age at initial insertion. METHODS: Since 2002, 429 infants were discharged from 24 Congenital Heart Surgeons' Society member institutions after initial conduit insertion. Parametric hazard analysis identified factors associated with conduit durability while adjusting for patient characteristics, the institution where the conduit was inserted, and time-dependent interval procedures performed after conduit insertion but before replacement/explantation. RESULTS: In all, 138 conduit replacements (32%) and 3 explantations (1%) were performed. Conduit durability at a median follow-up of 6.0 years (range, 0.1 to 11.7) was 63%. After adjusting for interval procedures and institution, placement of a conduit with smaller z-score was associated with earlier replacement/explantation (p = 0.002). Moreover, conduit durability was substantially reduced with aortic allografts (p = 0.002) and pulmonary allografts (p = 0.03) compared with bovine jugular venous valved conduits (JVVC). The JVVC were 12 mm to 22 mm in diameter at insertion (compared with 6 mm to 20 mm for allografts); therefore, a parametric propensity-adjusted analysis of patients with aortic or pulmonary allografts versus JVVC with diameter of 12 mm or greater was performed, which verified the superior durability of JVVC. CONCLUSIONS: Pulmonary conduit type and z-score are associated with late conduit durability independent of the effects of institution and subsequent interval procedures. Surgeons can improve long-term conduit durability by judiciously oversizing, and by selecting a JVVC.

Poynter JA; Eghtesady P; McCrindle BW; Walters HL 3rd; Kirshbom PM; Blackstone EH; Husain SA; Overman DM; Austin EH; Karamlou T; Lodge AJ; St Louis JD; Gruber PJ; Ziemer G; Davies RR; Jacobs JP; Brown JW; Williams WG; Tchervenkov CI; Jacobs ML; Caldarone CA

2013-08-01

209

The physics of custody arrangements  

CERN Document Server

Divorced individuals face complex situations when they have children with different ex-partners, or even more, when their new partners have children of their own. In such cases, and when kids spend every other weekend with each parent, a practical problem emerges: Is it possible to have such a custody arrangement that every couple has either all of the kids together or no kids at all? We show that in general, it is not possible, but that the number of couples that do can be maximized. The problem turns out to be equivalent to finding the ground state of a spin glass system, which is known to be equivalent to what is called a weighted max-cut problem in graph theory, and hence it is NP-Complete.

Gomberoff, Andrés; Romagnoli, Pierre Paul

2013-01-01

210

Arrangement for concentrating sea waves  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An arrangement for concentrating sea waves, includes a grid-like structure of stopping and/or delaying elements adapted to influence the amplitude and/or phase of the waves and located in such positions in the water that the elements in interaction with the incident sea waves form an interference pattern which gives a concentration of the wave energy in a limited area (Concentration area). When the wave energy is to be utilized for power production, the grid-like element structure is designed to give a concentration of the wave energy in a concentration area located in the short-range field of the element structure. Preferably the elements in the structure are mainly situated in front of the concentration area with respect to the dominant wave incident directions. Moreover, the element structure may have an extension (Aperture) which is substantially larger than the wave length of the dominant waves at the location.

Mehlum, E.

1981-03-10

211

Solid state radiation detector arrangement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The measuring arrangement for X-ray flow is suitable for computer controlled transaxial tomography systems, for example. Using it, fast pseudo-real time pictures can be obtained of moving organs, such as the human heart. It consists, mainly, of a) a solid state detector made of cadmium selenide dosed with sodium, b) a light emitting diode, whose light is partly directed at the solid state detector, c) a photo electric diode for accepting another part of the light from the light emitting diode and d) a stabilising circuit. Negative feedback is used in order to show the amount of additional optical flow in the solid state detector. The electrical conductivity induced in the solid state detector by charged particles and photons is thus kept at a constant value. (DG) 891 HP

1978-01-01

212

Financing governmental duties by fees?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The tendency towards the financing of governmental duties by fees is unbroken. A current example is the plan of the federal environment minister to transfer the responsibility for the final storage of radioactive wastes to a public legal association. All waste producers must become a member of this association. The task of carrying out the search, exploration and establishment of a final repository should be assigned to this association. The conditions for the financing of such tasks in Germany are very restricted. The proposed model is not compliant with the legal framework. The strategic goals of such an approach should have been determined by the government. (orig.)

2004-01-01

213

Free arrangements and coefficients of characteristic polynomials  

CERN Multimedia

Ziegler showed that free arrangements have free restricted multiarrangements (multirestrictions). After Ziegler's work, several results concerning "reverse direction", namely characterizing freeness of an arrangement via that of multirestriction, have appeared. In this paper, we prove that the second Betti number of the arrangement plays a crucial role.

Abe, Takuro

2011-01-01

214

Finance and Accounting; a comprehensive introduction  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Finance and accounting behandelt in een boek de essentiele aspecten van drie disciplines: financieel management, management accounting en financial accounting. Dit maakt Finance and accounting tot een breed en waardevol engelstalig naslagwerk.

Jansen, Ewoud

215

THE PROBLEM OF FINANCING INNOVATION OF ENTERPRISES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article examines the main issues related to financing innovation in enterprises. The author proves the problem of financing innovation as a key deterrent to the innovative development of Russian enterprises.

Alexander Ildyakov

2012-01-01

216

Cogenerators stretch the capital markets. [Electricity finance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Independent power generation projects are being planned worldwide. But to finance them, the developers are starting to look increasingly for non-bank sources of funds. Key cogeneration finance deals are discussed in this article. (Author)

Robinson, Danielle

1993-06-01

217

Financing power projects in emerging markets  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Financing for power generation projects in the developing countries of the world has been provided by the United States Export-Import Bank. The loans provided by its new Project Finance Division, totalling $8.3 billion are described. The future of project financing for the power generation industry should, it is argued, rest not with government financing agencies, but with private sector financial markets. (UK)

Matsumoto, G.T. [Export-Import Bank (United States)

1996-04-01

218

Financing power projects in emerging markets  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Financing for power generation projects in the developing countries of the world has been provided by the United States Export-Import Bank. The loans provided by its new Project Finance Division, totalling $8.3 billion are described. The future of project financing for the power generation industry should, it is argued, rest not with government financing agencies, but with private sector financial markets. (UK).

1996-01-01

219

Real-World Quantitative Finance  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the language of financial theory resembles the language of physics, there are actually very few reliable and accurate principles on which to base a theory of quantitative finance. This talk provides a short guide to the principles and techniques used to build theories of quantitative value in the trading world.

Derman, Emanuel

2002-03-01

220

Financing of wind energy projects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper looks at what banks need to know to enable them to consider a wind energy project. The major experiences of banks in financing wind energy have been in the US where governmentally inspired long term sales contracts (PURPA Contracts) have given a security to sponsors and banks not available elsewhere. (Author).

1991-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Public financing in Croatian sport  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sport is a complex social activity that encompasses various areas. This, of course, complicates the matter of its financing since it is financed by private and public sources. This is mostly due to the fact that certain sporting activities are considered to be public goods which are then financed by public funds, i.e. the state and local budgets. This paper reports on the analysis of public sources of sports financing. The research confirmed the assumption that in the structure of public sources the local budget prevails, i.e. money coming from local budgets is higher than that coming from central government. Based on the given data concerning local budgets for sports, a trend analysis was conducted. Finally, criteria applied when distributing local funds to sports organizations and single sports were analysed. Based on the correlation analysis, this paper shows that the amount of funds coming from local budgets is correlated with sporting performance (medals won at domestic competitions).

Sanela Škori?; Mato Bartoluci; Zrinko ?ustonja

2012-01-01

222

School Finance Reform. At Issue  

Science.gov (United States)

|Californians are very concerned about funding for their K-12 public schools. They consistently say that K-12 education should be protected from spending cuts over and above any other area of the state budget. California's system of school finance is in trouble. Many studies have found it to be inequitable, with wide variation in per-pupil…

Weston, Margaret

2010-01-01

223

Mortgage Finance and Security of Collateral  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Developing economies face a gigantic lack of financing for urbanization due to the absence of formal and transparent property markets. The paper discuss the interference between mortgage finance and collateral security by using the Danish mortgage financing model as an example, because of its 200 ye...

Haldrup, Karin

224

12 CFR 987.2 - Law governing rights and obligations of Banks, Finance Board, Office of Finance, United States...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Law governing rights and obligations of Banks, Finance Board, Office of Finance, United States and Federal Reserve Banks; rights of any Person against Banks, Finance Board, Office of Finance, United States and...

2009-01-01

225

Imaging of platelets in right-sided extracardiac conduits in humans  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a connection between the systemic venous ventricle and the pulmonary artery, valved Dacron extracardiac conduits have remarkably influenced the surgical approach to many complex congenital heart defects. Obstruction of the conduit, however, can reduce the long-term effectiveness of this corrective procedure. In addition to stenosis of the porcine valve, formation of thick fibrous neointima plays a major role in the pathogenesis of conduit obstruction. The purpose of this study was to determine whether platelet deposition could be demonstrated in these conduits by external imaging with 111In-labeled autologous platelets. After injection of labeled platelets either immediately after operation or on the fifth to eighth postoperative day, imaging was performed by standard procedures. Eight of nine patients had platelet accumulation in the conduit, and treatment with aspirin and dipyridamole caused no recognizable change in platelet deposition. This study demonstrates the feasibility of imaging platelet deposition in Dacron conduits and shows that the pattern of deposition varies with time

1982-01-01

226

Device and method for measuring fluid flow in a conduit having a gradual bend  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A system for measuring fluid flow in a conduit having a gradual bend or arc, and a straight section. The system includes pressure transducers, one or more disposed in the conduit on the outside of the arc, and one disposed in the conduit in a straight section thereof. The pressure transducers measure the pressure of fluid in the conduit at the locations of the pressure transducers and this information is used by a computational device to calculate fluid flow rate in the conduit. For multi-phase fluid, the density of the fluid is measured by another pair of pressure transducers, one of which is located in the conduit elevationally above the other. The computation device then uses the density measurement along with the fluid pressure measurements, to calculate fluid flow.

Ortiz, Marcos German (Idaho Falls, ID); Boucher, Timothy J (Helena, MT)

1998-01-01

227

Instability of finance markets. Normal liquid markets vs. finance crashes  

Science.gov (United States)

This lecture focuses on the economic crisis in the world today, and can be seen as a continuation of my Geilo 2007 lecture where I observed that we had a Dollar crisis based on the worldwide flood of Dollars (M3) that began after 1971 [1,2]. Here, I want to focus on why we have a finance crisis, which is essentially a Dollar crisis, and what I think will need to be done to get out of it. Toward that end, the instability of normal liquid finance markets is contrasted with the worse instability of a liquidity drought, so I'll begin by explaining the former. The current liquidity drought can be compared with the Great Depression and is the covered in the second part of this paper.

McCauley, J. L.

2009-11-01

228

Evaluation of the ITER cable in conduit conductor heat transfer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Convective heat transfer correlations in dual channel Cable In Conduit Conductor (CICC) are presented as functions of friction factor, and based on the Reynolds-Colburn analogy using the Stanton number. The developed thermohydraulic model determines helium temperatures in both channels, with the real geometrical spiral perforation. It is applied with pertinence to the Poloidal Field Full Size Joint Sample (PF-FSJS) and shows good agreement between the experimental measurements and the calculated temperatures, characterised by a 0.43 m space constant. The heat load applied in the bundle region induces density imbalance; the gravity effect in this vertical sample is evaluated and discussed. (authors)

Nicollet, S.; Ciazynski, D.; Duchateau, J.L.; Lacroix, B.; Renard, B

2004-07-01

229

Evaluation of the ITER cable in conduit conductor heat transfer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Convective heat transfer correlations in dual channel Cable In Conduit Conductor (CICC) are presented as functions of friction factor, and based on the Reynolds-Colburn analogy using the Stanton number. The developed thermohydraulic model determines helium temperatures in both channels, with the real geometrical spiral perforation. It is applied with pertinence to the Poloidal Field Full Size Joint Sample (PF-FSJS) and shows good agreement between the experimental measurements and the calculated temperatures, characterised by a 0.43 m space constant. The heat load applied in the bundle region induces density imbalance; the gravity effect in this vertical sample is evaluated and discussed. (authors)

2004-01-01

230

Railway locomotive fuel saving arrangement  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This invention discloses a method and device for reducing fuel consumption by a locomotive system comprised of a plurality of tandem diesel locomotives electrically interconnected so that one of the units is a lead unit and the remaining units are trailing units. In particular, the fuel saver arrangement of the present invention is capable of selectively placing one or more of the locomotives in the system in a ''throttle one'' power position without causing any significant reduction in the operating efficiency of the system's safety equipment. The locomotive is placed in the throttle one power position by means of switching relays that are operable to override the normal throttle control circuit of the locomotive. These relays respond to a fuel save signal that is generated in the control box located on the lead unit. The control box includes a fuel save switch operable to initiate and terminate the fuel save operation and a unit selector switch operable to select the locomotive to be reduced in power. Each locomotive within the system is also provided with a fuel saver set-up switch which electrically interconnects all of the diesel units of the system. The unit selector switch and the fuel saver set-up switches are multiple position gang switches which operate in conjunction with each other to provide the fuel save signal to the proper locomotive to be reduced in power by means of the unused train line wires and jumper cables present in a normal locomotive system.

Spigarelli, R.D.

1981-03-03

231

Evolution du Systeme de Financement du Logement des Etats-Unis: Rappel Historique et Lecons Tirees pour les Marches Hypothecaires Emergents (Evolution of the U.S. Housing Finance System: A Historical Survey and Lessons for Emerging Mortgage Markets).  

Science.gov (United States)

In the past 180 years, the U.S. housing finance system (HFS) has evolved from an informal/communal institutional arrangement to one of the most well-functioning and extensive financial intermediation systems in the world. This evolution did not develop in...

2004-01-01

232

Bare metal stenting for obstructed small diameter homograft conduits in the right ventricular outflow tract.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to assess acute hemodynamic changes with stent insertion, outcomes, and factors associated with increased longevity of stented small diameter homograft conduits. BACKGROUND: Right ventricle-to-pulmonary artery (RV-PA) homograft conduits are commonly used to palliate RV outflow tract obstruction. Bare metal stenting (BMS) and transcatheter pulmonary valve implantation have been shown to relieve obstructed larger diameter conduits and may delay surgical conduit reintervention. Less is known about BMS of small conduits. METHODS AND RESULTS: From 1992 to 2009, BMS was performed to relieve obstruction in 106 homograft conduits that were ?12 mm at implant. The peak RV-PA gradient fell from 54.3 ± 17.4 mm Hg at baseline to 46.1 ± 15.2 mm Hg after balloon dilation alone and to 25.1 ± 11.4 mm Hg with stenting (all P < 0.001). Higher pre-BMS gradient and RV pressure were the only factors associated with higher post-BMS RV-PA gradient (?30 mm Hg; both P < 0.001). There were no procedural deaths, two patients required surgical removal of embolized stents. At a median follow-up of 1.6 years, 83 conduits were replaced; freedom from conduit reoperation after BMS was 66% ± 5% at 1 year and 28% ± 5% at 3 years. Factors associated with shorter freedom from reoperation included implanted conduit diameter <10 mm (P = 0.009), higher post-stent RV-PA gradient (P = 0.026), and higher post-stent RV pressure (P < 0.01); only post-stent RV pressure remained significant on multivariable analysis (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: BMS was acutely effective for the treatment of obstructed small diameter homograft conduits, with low morbidity. Prolongation of small diameter homograft conduit longevity with BMS may be useful in the lifetime management of conduit dysfunction in this patient population.

Carr M; Bergersen L; Marshall AC; Keane JF; Lock JE; Emani SM; McElhinney DB

2013-01-01

233

How I choose conduits and configure grafts for my patients-rationales and practices.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) continues to be an effective therapy for many patients with lasting long-term durability and consistent outcomes, despite the development of percutaneous revascularization. The long-term outcome for surgical revascularization depends on multiple variables, including the choice of conduits. However, the choice of coronary conduits has been studied and debated for decades now. In this review article, we examined the current evidences and described our choice on coronary conduits and grafting strategies at our medical center.

Cheng A; Slaughter MS

2013-07-01

234

Treatment of right ventricle to pulmonary artery conduit stenosis in infants with hypoplastic left heart syndrome.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence of right ventricle-to-pulmonary artery (RV-PA) conduit stenosis after the Norwood I operation in patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS), and to determine whether the treatment strategy of RV-PA conduit stenosis has an influence on interstage and overall survival. METHODS: Ninety-six patients had a Norwood operation with RV-PA conduit between 2002 and 2011. Details of reoperations/interventions due to conduit obstruction prior to bidirectional superior cavopulmonary anastomosis (BSCPA) were collected. RESULTS: Overall pre-BSCPA mortality was 17%, early mortality after Norwood, 6%. Early angiography was performed in 34 patients due to desaturation at a median of 8 days after the Norwood operation. Fifteen patients (16%) were diagnosed with RV-PA conduit stenosis that required treatment. The location of the conduit stenosis was significantly different in the patients with non-ringed (proximal) and the patients with ring-enforced conduit (distal), P = 0.004. In 6 patients, a surgical revision of the conduit was performed; 3 of them died prior to BSCPA. Another 6 patients had a stent implantation and 3 were treated with balloon dilatation followed by a BSCPA in the subsequent 2 weeks. All patients who were treated interventionally for RV-PA conduit obstruction had a successful BSCPA. Patients who received a surgical RV-PA conduit revision had a significantly higher interstage (P = 0.044) and overall mortality (P = 0.011) than those who received a stent or balloon dilatation of the stenosis followed by an early BSCPA. CONCLUSIONS: RV-PA conduit obstruction after Norwood I procedure in patients with HLHS can be safely and effectively treated by stent implantation, balloon dilatation and early BSCPA. Surgical revision of the RV-PA conduit can be reserved for patients in whom an interventional approach fails, and an early BSCPA is not an option.

Münsterer A; Kasnar-Samprec J; Hörer J; Cleuziou J; Eicken A; Malcic I; Lange R; Schreiber C

2013-09-01

235

Increasing revenues for protected areas. A wealth of financing options  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This paper aims at giving an overview of traditional and new financing mechanisms in support of protected areas. The web of life is breaking down: our world is facing biodiversity loss at unprecedented rates. Human impacts are causing the acceleration of species loss, at rates of several hundreds up to 1000 times the natural rate of species extinction, depending on the type of organisms. Habitat degradation and loss, introduction of invasive species, pollution, and overexploitation of resources are factors that determine the process of mass extinction. Protected areas obviously play a critical role in biodiversity conservation. Article 8 of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) obliges Parties to establish a system of protected areas to-conserve biodiversity, to develop guidelines for protected areas management and to promote appropriate development adjacent to protected areas. Besides agreeing on this global mandate for protected areas, through Article 8m of the CBD Parties committed themselves to cooperate in providing financial support for protected area systems: 'Each contracting party (...) shall cooperate in providing financial and other support for in-situ conservation (...) particularly to developing countries'. Current revenues for maintaining existing protected areas and the creation of new ones are insufficient. Annually, approximately USD 7 billion is spent on the creation and maintenance of protected areas around the world (Balmford, 2003). The amount required to adequately protect biodiversity is estimated to be about five times higher. The flow of revenues from traditional and new financing mechanisms should clearly be increased to mitigate the financing deficit for protected areas. As part of the solution, innovative financing mechanisms are being developed aimed at increasing the global revenues for protected areas, thus capturing the multiple values of ecosystem goods and services provided by protected areas to mankind. This scoping paper focuses on an overview of financing mechanisms in support of the creation and maintenance of protected areas comprising terrestrial ecosystems.The term 'protected area' refers in this paper to all IUCN protected area categories, including extractive reserves. The financing mechanisms are classified into six different categories, according to the type of institutional arrangement, and the dominant actor or group of actors

2004-01-01

236

Le traitement fiscal du financement des sociétés dans les relations intragroupes en droit comparé français, allemand et camerounais.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Un des problèmes les plus fréquents auxquels les entreprises se confrontent est sans doute celui relatif à la dotation des moyens financiers. Le problème de financement des entreprises est plus qu’actuel au regard du scandale des subprimes aux USA en 2007 ayant conduit au crash boursier de septembre 2008 mieux encore, l’affaire Maldoff. Ce phénomène financier qui touche sans exception toute la vie économique n’a pas pour autant épargné les groupes de sociétés. En fait, les groupes constituent...

Jules Alain Petengoue Tassi

2009-01-01

237

Financing renewable energy projects: a guide for developers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The document is a summary of the approach recommended to developers seeking finance for renewable energy projects. The guide recognises the time-consuming and difficult nature of project financing and gives practical advice on the various financing options, explains some finance terminology and describes sources of finance available to developers. The main sections of the document are (i) possible financing routes for renewable energy schemes, (ii) the principal financing alternatives, (iii) typical financing terms, (iv) financing sources and (v) key points for a successful financing. The document contains detailed diagrams. A more detailed report is also available.

NONE

2000-02-01

238

System and method for bidirectional flow and controlling fluid flow in a conduit  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A system for measuring bidirectional flow, including backflow, of fluid in a conduit. The system utilizes a structural mechanism to create a pressure differential in the conduit. Pressure sensors are positioned upstream from the mechanism, at the mechanism, and downstream from the mechanism. Data from the pressure sensors are transmitted to a microprocessor or computer, and pressure differential detected between the pressure sensors is then used to calculate the backflow. Control signals may then be generated by the microprocessor or computer to shut off valves located in the conduit, upon the occurrence of backflow, or to control flow, total material dispersed, etc. in the conduit.

Ortiz, Marcos German (Idaho Falls, ID)

1999-01-01

239

Chronic dissection and aneurysmal dilatation of a BioValsalva conduit.  

Science.gov (United States)

The BioValsalva (Vascutek Terumo, Renfrewshire, Scotland, UK) conduit is the first commercially available prefabricated bioprosthetic aortic valved conduit. We present a case of chronic dissection of a BioValsalva valved conduit presenting as a 7.5-cm aortic root aneurysm 1 year after a Bentall operation. Intraoperatively, the conduit was found to have dissected from the annulus upward, and the coronary buttons were avulsed from the inner layers while remaining attached to the outer layer. Both the outer layer and the coronary buttons were grossly dilatated. PMID:23816079

Yigzaw, Yikuno A; Lau, Kelvin K W; Baig, Kamran; Uppal, Rakesh

2013-07-01

240

Chronic dissection and aneurysmal dilatation of a BioValsalva conduit.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The BioValsalva (Vascutek Terumo, Renfrewshire, Scotland, UK) conduit is the first commercially available prefabricated bioprosthetic aortic valved conduit. We present a case of chronic dissection of a BioValsalva valved conduit presenting as a 7.5-cm aortic root aneurysm 1 year after a Bentall operation. Intraoperatively, the conduit was found to have dissected from the annulus upward, and the coronary buttons were avulsed from the inner layers while remaining attached to the outer layer. Both the outer layer and the coronary buttons were grossly dilatated.

Yigzaw YA; Lau KK; Baig K; Uppal R

2013-07-01

 
 
 
 
241

CALIBRATION ARRANGEMENT FOR BREATH TESTING EQUIPMENT  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A calibration arrangement for breathalyzers wherein a heightened degree of control and management is applied. Broadly contemplated are arrangements whereby jars or containers of new solution to be used in the calibration arrangement are subject to automatic verification. Also contemplated is the close monitoring of the running of calibration tests and safeguards to ensure that extensively used or old solution is not put into use.

CRESPO PIERRE M; RADER MICHAEL

242

Project Finance in the Energy Industry: New Debt-based Financing Models  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper aims to examine the development of new financing models for project finance to attract private investors to finance large European energy infrastructure projects. In particular, the paper investigates the uniqueness of the project finance as a rapidly growing field in finance, the financial characteristics of the project bond market as one of the vehicles for funding energy projects, and the role of the credit support provided by the European Investment Bank and the European Union to promote the bond-based financing schemes. The paper is organized as follows. Section 1 provides a general description of project finance. Section 2 identifies the economic reasons for using project finance and assesses the role of the project bond market to fund project finance in the energy industry. Section 3 evaluates the proposed financial support from the European Investment Bank and the European Union to boost the European project bond market. Final sections discuss policy implications and conclude.

Enzo Scannella

2012-01-01

243

Nuclear power: Financing big projects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since the early seventies, the Dresdner Bank AG has been intensively engaged in financing nuclear power plants, e.g., the Muelheim-Kaerlich Nuclear Power Station currently down because of legal technicaltities. The bank has also been involved in other large-scale projects in the energy sector and, in addition, has conceptually accompanied the stages of the nuclear fuel cycle, such as enrichment, fuel element fabrication, and reprocessing. However, for political reasons it has not been possible to carry out these projects and finance them in the Federal Republic. With appropriate modifications, these financial models can also be transferred to international projects; after all, the enrichment sector has always been characterized by trilateral ventures. (orig.).

1992-01-01

244

Derivatives in energy project finance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This chapter focuses on risk management of merchant power generation projects and describes project finance as balancing risk and reward over time. The historical background to risk management is traced, and the case for derivatives in energy project finance is put forward with the hedging of forward output, and forwards and power purchase agreements discussed. Current and prospective usage, and the implementation issues of market liquidity, margin calls, letters of credit, derivative counterparty credit risk, and accounting policy are considered. A detailed example of a gas-fired plant in the US is presented with details given of the distribution of project earnings before tax. Oil field operating cashflows are examined, with reserved flow models, leverage effects, and price hedging addressed.

Spencer, Lloyd [Deutsche Bank (Germany)

1999-07-01

245

Dental handpiece and drive arrangement therefor  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A dental handpiece having a drive arrangement which provides for different speeds to be imparted to a dental tool. The drive arrangement comprises a planetary gear arrangement and a transmission member adapted for intercoupling to provide the different speeds at an output drive shaft for the dental tool. Interengagement means comprising axial slots are provided on the planetary gear arrangement, and a counter-engagement means including balls having segments which protrude from the transmission are provided to engage the interengagement axial slots to transmit the different speeds from a drive motor to the dental tool.

STROHMAIER ERNST

246

Attracting finance for hydroelectric power  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hydroelectricity will continue to be important for meeting power requirements in developing countries. Much of the funding required for hydroelectric projects must come from non-government source; hydroelectric projects will therefore need to be attractive to private investors. This note explores the risks investors face, how this can be mitigated, and how the World Bank group can offer advice (as well as finance) to member countries to facilitate investment in hydro electric projects. 3 refs., 1 fig.

1996-01-01

247

Hydraulic and geological factors influencing conduit flow depth  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There has much been speculation as to whether cave formation should occur at, above, or below the water table, but a satisfactory explanation has been lacking until recently. The last 50 years has seen extensive mapping of caves both above and, more recently, below the water table. It is now becoming apparent that there are systematic differences in depth of flow between different areas and that conduit flow to depths >100m below the water table is not uncommon. Such deep flow is facilitated by the lower viscosity of geothermally heated water at depth. Analysis of data from caves shows that depth of flow is primarily a function of flow path length, stratal dip and fracture anisotropy. This explains why conduits form at shallow depths in platform settings such as in Kentucky, at moderate depths (10–100m) in folded strata such as in England and in the Appalachian Mountains, and at depths of several hundred metres in exceptional settings where there are very long flow paths.

Worthington,S.R.H.

2005-01-01

248

Documentation of a Conduit Flow Process (CFP) for MODFLOW-2005  

Science.gov (United States)

This report documents the Conduit Flow Process (CFP) for the modular finite-difference ground-water flow model, MODFLOW-2005. The CFP has the ability to simulate turbulent ground-water flow conditions by: (1) coupling the traditional ground-water flow equation with formulations for a discrete network of cylindrical pipes (Mode 1), (2) inserting a high-conductivity flow layer that can switch between laminar and turbulent flow (Mode 2), or (3) simultaneously coupling a discrete pipe network while inserting a high-conductivity flow layer that can switch between laminar and turbulent flow (Mode 3). Conduit flow pipes (Mode 1) may represent dissolution or biological burrowing features in carbonate aquifers, voids in fractured rock, and (or) lava tubes in basaltic aquifers and can be fully or partially saturated under laminar or turbulent flow conditions. Preferential flow layers (Mode 2) may represent: (1) a porous media where turbulent flow is suspected to occur under the observed hydraulic gradients; (2) a single secondary porosity subsurface feature, such as a well-defined laterally extensive underground cave; or (3) a horizontal preferential flow layer consisting of many interconnected voids. In this second case, the input data are effective parameters, such as a very high hydraulic conductivity, representing multiple features. Data preparation is more complex for CFP Mode 1 (CFPM1) than for CFP Mode 2 (CFPM2). Specifically for CFPM1, conduit pipe locations, lengths, diameters, tortuosity, internal roughness, critical Reynolds numbers (NRe), and exchange conductances are required. CFPM1, however, solves the pipe network equations in a matrix that is independent of the porous media equation matrix, which may mitigate numerical instability associated with solution of dual flow components within the same matrix. CFPM2 requires less hydraulic information and knowledge about the specific location and hydraulic properties of conduits, and turbulent flow is approximated by modifying horizontal conductances assembled by the Block-Centered Flow (BCF), Layer-Property Flow (LPF), or Hydrogeologic-Unit Flow Packages (HUF) of MODFLOW-2005. For both conduit flow pipes (CFPM1) and preferential flow layers (CFPM2), critical Reynolds numbers are used to determine if flow is laminar or turbulent. Due to conservation of momentum, flow in a laminar state tends to remain laminar and flow in a turbulent state tends to remain turbulent. This delayed transition between laminar and turbulent flow is introduced in the CFP, which provides an additional benefit of facilitating convergence of the computer algorithm during iterations of transient simulations. Specifically, the user can specify a higher critical Reynolds number to determine when laminar flow within a pipe converts to turbulent flow, and a lower critical Reynolds number for determining when a pipe with turbulent flow switches to laminar flow. With CFPM1, the Hagen-Poiseuille equation is used for laminar flow conditions and the Darcy-Weisbach equation is applied to turbulent flow conditions. With CFPM2, turbulent flow is approximated by reducing the laminar hydraulic conductivity by a nonlinear function of the Reynolds number, once the critical head difference is exceeded. This adjustment approximates the reductions in mean velocity under turbulent ground-water flow conditions.

Shoemaker, W. Barclay; Kuniansky, Eve L.; Birk, Steffen; Bauer, Sebastian; Swain, Eric D.

2007-01-01

249

Off-balance-sheet financing can generate capital for strategic development.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To manage their real estate portfolios effectively and obtain funding for strategic development, IDSs should consider adopting off-balance-sheet financing strategies, such as sale-and-leaseback transactions, synthetic leases, and joint-venture arrangements. Under these approaches, real estate assets are moved off of the organization's balance sheet via a partial or complete transfer of ownership to a third-party entity. The organization typically retains a satisfactory degree of control over the assets as lessee in sale-and-leaseback and synthetic-lease arrangements, or limited or minority partner in a joint venture, while freeing up cash to use for other strategic purposes.

Campobasso FD

2000-06-01

250

Freeness and multirestriction of hyperplane arrangements  

CERN Multimedia

Generalizing a result of Yoshinaga in dimension 3, we show that a central hyperplane arrangement in 4-space is free exactly if its restriction with multiplicities to a fixed hyperplane of the arrangement is free and its reduced characteristic polynomial equals the characteristic polynomial of this restriction. We show that the same statement holds true in any dimension when imposing moderate tameness hypotheses.

Schulze, Mathias

2010-01-01

251

Arrangement for two-projection roentgenography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Arrangement for two-projection roentgenography, being a part of roentgenodiagnostic apparatuses, is suggested. The description of the arrangement and the principle of its operation are given. The invention suggested makes it possible to decrease fogging action of scattered radiation and increase picture quality in two-projection survey.

1982-01-01

252

Cooling arrangement for a tapered turbine blade  

Science.gov (United States)

A cooling arrangement (11) for a highly tapered gas turbine blade (10). The cooling arrangement (11) includes a pair of parallel triple-pass serpentine cooling circuits (80,82) formed in an inner radial portion (50) of the blade, and a respective pair of single radial channel cooling circuits (84,86) formed in an outer radial portion (52) of the blade (10), with each single radial channel receiving the cooling fluid discharged from a respective one of the triple-pass serpentine cooling circuit. The cooling arrangement advantageously provides a higher degree of cooling to the most highly stressed radially inner portion of the blade, while providing a lower degree of cooling to the less highly stressed radially outer portion of the blade. The cooling arrangement can be implemented with known casting techniques, thereby facilitating its use on highly tapered, highly twisted Row 4 industrial gas turbine blades that could not be cooled with prior art cooling arrangements.

Liang, George (Palm City, FL)

2010-07-27

253

Hospitals, nursing homes turn to 3rd-party financing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Experience is teaching the administrators of hospitals and nursing homes how to make better arrangements for third-party financing of energy-management systems. Accustomed to health-insurance reimbursement for health-care costs, hospitals have lacked incentives for conservation. Plans now used most by hospitals and health-care facilities involve third-party arrangements where: (1) an equipment vendor installs equipment and takes a share of the energy-cost savings; or (2) energy-services firms both install capital-intensive equipment and implement a variety of low-cost conservation measures, again for a percentage of the savings. Although most users think these arrangements are satisfactory, they advise a preliminary low-cost audit and participation in a basic energy-management seminar before employing an energy-services firm. Accurate baseline energy-consumption data should be developed in order to evaluate results, and assurance is needed that staff members understand the accounting formulas. Also recommended are independent audits after installation and attention to the legal clauses in contracts. (DCK)

Slaff, J.

1982-07-05

254

New directions in electric power financing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper argues that it is necessary to raise the eyes from the current focus on independent power projects, buttressed by guarantees, to the longer horizon of electric power financing in open markets. Transitional strategies will need to move beyond the commonly seen IPP activity that occurs without fundamental sector reform, and demand-side incentives that introduce further market distortions. These efforts will have to focus on macroeconomic stabilization, removal of price distortions, as well as sector and corporate reform. Mobilization of domestic capital will be essential for sustainable sector financing. Although guarantees to encourage power sector investment can be designed to selectively cover risks, their elimination through fundamental sector reform should be the ultimate goal. Over the longer-term traditional corporate finance should become a more common financing strategy than project finance. Innovations in performance risk management and consumer credit will be crucial to the financing of energy efficiency. (author)

Jechoutek, K.G.; Lamech, Ranjit [World Bank, Washington, DC (United States). Industry and Energy Dept.

1995-11-01

255

New directions in electric power financing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper argues that it is necessary to raise the eyes from the current focus on independent power projects, buttressed by guarantees, to the longer horizon of electric power financing in open markets. Transitional strategies will need to move beyond the commonly seen IPP activity that occurs without fundamental sector reform, and demand-side incentives that introduce further market distortions. These efforts will have to focus on macroeconomic stabilization, removal of price distortions, as well as sector and corporate reform. Mobilization of domestic capital will be essential for sustainable sector financing. Although guarantees to encourage power sector investment can be designed to selectively cover risks, their elimination through fundamental sector reform should be the ultimate goal. Over the longer-term traditional corporate finance should become a more common financing strategy than project finance. Innovations in performance risk management and consumer credit will be crucial to the financing of energy efficiency. (author).

1995-01-01

256

The Cost of Bank Credit Financing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although the credit is a conventional financing method used by any company, this tool is by far a very significant issue. The range ofcredits, that a bank provides, and the current policy customize this tool in order to meet the typical financing needs of the enterprises that demands it.Considering the risks, the bank takes the charge of by placing credits, the “eligibility” terms of enterprises that can get such financing being verystrict. Restrictions concerning the accepted degree of liability, the accomplished level of performance or available warranties may represent real“barriers” for many companies. Of all “barriers”, the high cost of some financing tools is a good case in point. In order to have a clearer picture ofwhat this financing source is for an enterprise, I have carried out a cost analysis of these financing tools, the medium and long term credit cost andthe short term credit cost.

Mihaela Cosmina Petre (Ni??),

2007-01-01

257

Bail out use of the Gore Excluder following pulmonary conduit rupture during transcatheter pulmonary valve replacement.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This report describes the use of the Gore Excluder self-expanding stent to successfully exclude a contained right ventricle to pulmonary artery conduit rupture during transcatheter pulmonary valve replacement (tPVR). This stent was designed for percutaneous abdominal aortic aneurysm exclusion; however, its use in this setting allowed progression to tPVR following conduit rupture without the need for emergent surgery.

Sosnowski CR; Kenny D; Hijazi ZM

2013-02-01

258

Successful implantation of Thoratec assist device: wrapping of outflow conduit in Hemashield graft.  

Science.gov (United States)

Persistent oozing and bleeding through the wall of the built-in outflow conduit in mechanical circulatory assist devices is a troublesome problem. Wrapping the outflow conduit of Thoratec in a Hemashield graft without preclotting completely prevents oozing and bleeding. PMID:9307498

Minami, K; Arusoglu, L; Koyanagi, T; el-Banayosy, A; Körner, M M; Körfer, R

1997-09-01

259

Recent advances in artificial nerve conduit design: strategies for the delivery of luminal fillers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Artificial nerve conduits offer an attractive alternative to nerve autografts for the repair of peripheral nerve injuries and several commercially-available conduits are currently on the market. However, at present, utilization of these conduits is limited to the repair of nerve gaps less than 3 cm in length. Thus, current research is focused on how best to design artificial conduits with improved nerve regeneration potential over longer distances. Successful nerve regeneration necessitates that the cells, extracellular matrix components, and growth factors involved interact in a highly specific manner that is tightly coordinated. Combinatorial approaches that take into account these interactions and conduits that utilize supportive factors, such as neurotrophins and stem cells, may be key components of the next generation of artificial conduits. Additionally, design strategies that combine physical cues for contact guidance and biochemical signals to enhance cellular function have shown promise. This review highlights recent advances in artificial nerve conduit design, focusing on the use of luminal fillers, with special focus on the various techniques for accessory cell and/or growth factor delivery into artificial nerve conduits.

Pabari A; Yang SY; Mosahebi A; Seifalian AM

2011-11-01

260

Replacement of a stented biologic prosthesis within an aortic valved conduit.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A 68-year-old man was referred for severe aortic regurgitation 10 years after aortic root replacement with a valved conduit containing a stented bioprosthesis that had been sutured inside of the vascular tube graft, rather than at its extremity. Because of this simple modification of the Bentall concept, replacing the prosthetic valve within the aortic conduit was easy and uneventful.

Gatti G; Moncada A; Minati A; Pappalardo A

2012-03-01

 
 
 
 
261

Replacement of a stented biologic prosthesis within an aortic valved conduit.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 68-year-old man was referred for severe aortic regurgitation 10 years after aortic root replacement with a valved conduit containing a stented bioprosthesis that had been sutured inside of the vascular tube graft, rather than at its extremity. Because of this simple modification of the Bentall concept, replacing the prosthetic valve within the aortic conduit was easy and uneventful. PMID:22365015

Gatti, Giuseppe; Moncada, Alessandro; Minati, Alessandro; Pappalardo, Aniello

2012-03-01

262

Hybrid conducting polymer-hydrogel conduits for axonal growth and neural tissue engineering.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Successfully and efficiently bridging peripheral nerve gaps without the use of autografts is a substantial clinical advance for peripheral nerve reconstructions. Novel templating methods for the fabrication of conductive hydrogel guidance channels for axonal regeneration are designed and developed. PEDOT is electrodeposited inside the lumen to create fully coated-PEDOT agarose conduits and partially coated-PEDOT agarose conduits.

Abidian MR; Daneshvar ED; Egeland BM; Kipke DR; Cederna PS; Urbanchek MG

2012-11-01

263

Exploring the private finance initiative as a route to finance for renewable energy projects  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report reviews the private financing of public sector Renewable Energy projects through the Private Finance Initiative (PFI), and the relevance of such a technique to the renewables industry generally. (author)

NONE

2000-07-01

264

A new nerve guide conduit material composed of a biodegradable poly(phosphoester).  

Science.gov (United States)

There is a resurgence of interest in the development of degradable and biocompatible polymers for fabrication of nerve guide conduits (NGCs) in recent years. Poly(phosphoester) (PPE) polymers are among the attractive candidates in this context, in view of their high biocompatibility, adjustable biodegradability, flexibility in coupling fragile biomolecules under physiological conditions and a wide variety of physicochemical properties. The feasibility of using a biodegradable PPE, P(BHET-EOP/TC), as a novel NGC material was investigated. Two types of conduits were fabricated by using two batches of P(BHET-EOP/TC) with different weight-average molecular weights (Mw) and polydispersity indexes (PI). The polymers as well as conduits were non-toxic to all six types of cells tested, including primary neurones and neuronally differentiated PC12 cells. After in situ implantation in the sciatic nerve of the rat, two types of conduits triggered a similar tissue response, inducing the formation of a thin tissue capsule composed of approximately eight layers of fibroblasts surrounding the conduits at 3 months. Biological performances of the conduits were examined in the rat sciatic nerve model with a 10 mm gap. Although tube fragmentation, even tube breakage, was observed within less than 5 days post-implantation, successful regeneration through the gap occurred in both types of conduits, with four out of 10 in the Type I conduits (Mw 14,900 and PI 2.57) and 11 out of 12 in the Type II conduits (Mw 18,900 and PI 1.72). The degradation of conduits was further evidenced by increased roughness on the tube surface in vivo under scanning electron microscope and a mass decrease in a time-dependent manner in vitro. The Mw of the polymers dropped 33 and 24% in the Type I and II conduits, respectively, in vitro within 3 months. Among their advantages over other biodegradable NGCs, the PPE conduits showed negligible swelling and no crystallisation after implantation. Thus, these PPE conduits can be effective aids for nerve regeneration with potential to be further developed into more sophisticated NGCs that have better control of the conduit micro-environment for improved nerve regeneration. PMID:11352095

Wang, S; Wan, A C; Xu, X; Gao, S; Mao, H Q; Leong, K W; Yu, H

2001-05-01

265

A new nerve guide conduit material composed of a biodegradable poly(phosphoester).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

There is a resurgence of interest in the development of degradable and biocompatible polymers for fabrication of nerve guide conduits (NGCs) in recent years. Poly(phosphoester) (PPE) polymers are among the attractive candidates in this context, in view of their high biocompatibility, adjustable biodegradability, flexibility in coupling fragile biomolecules under physiological conditions and a wide variety of physicochemical properties. The feasibility of using a biodegradable PPE, P(BHET-EOP/TC), as a novel NGC material was investigated. Two types of conduits were fabricated by using two batches of P(BHET-EOP/TC) with different weight-average molecular weights (Mw) and polydispersity indexes (PI). The polymers as well as conduits were non-toxic to all six types of cells tested, including primary neurones and neuronally differentiated PC12 cells. After in situ implantation in the sciatic nerve of the rat, two types of conduits triggered a similar tissue response, inducing the formation of a thin tissue capsule composed of approximately eight layers of fibroblasts surrounding the conduits at 3 months. Biological performances of the conduits were examined in the rat sciatic nerve model with a 10 mm gap. Although tube fragmentation, even tube breakage, was observed within less than 5 days post-implantation, successful regeneration through the gap occurred in both types of conduits, with four out of 10 in the Type I conduits (Mw 14,900 and PI 2.57) and 11 out of 12 in the Type II conduits (Mw 18,900 and PI 1.72). The degradation of conduits was further evidenced by increased roughness on the tube surface in vivo under scanning electron microscope and a mass decrease in a time-dependent manner in vitro. The Mw of the polymers dropped 33 and 24% in the Type I and II conduits, respectively, in vitro within 3 months. Among their advantages over other biodegradable NGCs, the PPE conduits showed negligible swelling and no crystallisation after implantation. Thus, these PPE conduits can be effective aids for nerve regeneration with potential to be further developed into more sophisticated NGCs that have better control of the conduit micro-environment for improved nerve regeneration.

Wang S; Wan AC; Xu X; Gao S; Mao HQ; Leong KW; Yu H

2001-05-01

266

In vitro evaluation of right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction with bicuspid valved polytetrafluoroethylene conduit.  

Science.gov (United States)

Conduits available for right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) reconstruction eventually become stenotic and/or insufficient due to calcification. In order to reduce the incidence of reoperations we have developed and used a bicuspid valved polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) conduit for the RVOT reconstruction. The purpose of this study is to investigate the hemodynamic performance of the new design using a pediatric in vitro right heart mock loop. PTFE conduit has been used for the complete biventricular repair of 20 patients (age 1.7±6 years) with cyanotic congenital defects. To account for the large variability of conduit sizes, 14, 16, 22, and 24-mm conduit sizes were evaluated using an in vitro flow loop comprised of a pulsatile pump with cardiac output (CO) of 1.2-3.2L/min, bicuspid valved RVOT conduit, pulmonary artery, venous compartments, and the flow visualization setup. We recorded the diastolic valve leakage and pre- and post-conduit pressures in static and pulsatile settings. In vitro valve function and overall hemodynamic performance was evaluated using high-speed cameras and ultrasonic flow probes. Three-dimensional flow fields for different in vivo conduit curvatures and inflow regimes were calculated by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis to further aid the conduit design process. The average pressure drop over the valved conduits was 0.8±1.7mm Hg for the CO range tested. Typical values for regurgitant fraction, peak-to-peak pressure gradient, and effective office area were 23±2.1%, 13±2.4mm Hg, and 1.56±0.2 cm(2) , respectively. High-speed videos captured the intact valve motion with asymmetrical valve opening during the systole. CFD simulations demonstrated the flow skewness toward the major curvature of the conduit based on the pulmonic curvature. In vitro evaluation of the bicuspid valved PTFE conduit coincides well with acceptable early clinical performance (mild insufficiency), with relatively low pressure drop, and intact valve motion independent from the conduit curvature, orientation or valve location, but at the expense of increased diastolic flow regurgitation. These findings benchmark the baseline performance of the bicuspid valved conduit and will be used for future designs to improve valve competency. PMID:21092044

Dur, Onur; Yoshida, Masahiro; Manor, Philip; Mayfield, Alice; Wearden, Peter D; Morell, Victor O; Pekkan, Kerem

2010-11-01

267

In vitro evaluation of right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction with bicuspid valved polytetrafluoroethylene conduit.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Conduits available for right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) reconstruction eventually become stenotic and/or insufficient due to calcification. In order to reduce the incidence of reoperations we have developed and used a bicuspid valved polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) conduit for the RVOT reconstruction. The purpose of this study is to investigate the hemodynamic performance of the new design using a pediatric in vitro right heart mock loop. PTFE conduit has been used for the complete biventricular repair of 20 patients (age 1.7±6 years) with cyanotic congenital defects. To account for the large variability of conduit sizes, 14, 16, 22, and 24-mm conduit sizes were evaluated using an in vitro flow loop comprised of a pulsatile pump with cardiac output (CO) of 1.2-3.2L/min, bicuspid valved RVOT conduit, pulmonary artery, venous compartments, and the flow visualization setup. We recorded the diastolic valve leakage and pre- and post-conduit pressures in static and pulsatile settings. In vitro valve function and overall hemodynamic performance was evaluated using high-speed cameras and ultrasonic flow probes. Three-dimensional flow fields for different in vivo conduit curvatures and inflow regimes were calculated by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis to further aid the conduit design process. The average pressure drop over the valved conduits was 0.8±1.7mm Hg for the CO range tested. Typical values for regurgitant fraction, peak-to-peak pressure gradient, and effective office area were 23±2.1%, 13±2.4mm Hg, and 1.56±0.2 cm(2) , respectively. High-speed videos captured the intact valve motion with asymmetrical valve opening during the systole. CFD simulations demonstrated the flow skewness toward the major curvature of the conduit based on the pulmonic curvature. In vitro evaluation of the bicuspid valved PTFE conduit coincides well with acceptable early clinical performance (mild insufficiency), with relatively low pressure drop, and intact valve motion independent from the conduit curvature, orientation or valve location, but at the expense of increased diastolic flow regurgitation. These findings benchmark the baseline performance of the bicuspid valved conduit and will be used for future designs to improve valve competency.

Dur O; Yoshida M; Manor P; Mayfield A; Wearden PD; Morell VO; Pekkan K

2010-11-01

268

The French nuclear program and its financing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The main characteristics of the French nuclear power plant program are described together with the sources and means for financing this program. The influence of the financing on the construction and operation costs of power plants are considered[fr] Les principales caracteristiques du programme francais de centrales nucleaires sont decrits ainsi que les sources et les moyens de financement de ce programme. Les questions relatives a l'influence du financement sur le cout de construction et d'exploitation des centrales sont abordees

1976-01-01

269

Mortgage Finance and Security of Collateral  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Developing economies face a gigantic lack of financing for urbanization due to the absence of formal and transparent property markets. The paper discuss the interference between mortgage finance and collateral security by using the Danish mortgage financing model as an example, because of its 200 years long history, and because the system is recommended as an option in emerging markets and as a possible model for remedying failures in mature housing finance markets. It is suggested that development policies in land administration need to be revised in order to support a widening of credit markets and effectively serve pro-poor policies.

Haldrup, Karin

2011-01-01

270

Reorganizing Rural Public Finance: Reforms and Consequences  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article examines recent reforms to restructure rural public finance in China and their impact on local-government finance. The focus is on how fiscal income and financial expenditure are managed by local-level governments, particularly at the county and township levels, and how rural public and social services are financed. The article also looks at the development of intergovernmental transfers, ongoing administrative reform, more recent initiatives to extend public finance to cover rural residents as part of the comprehensive rural reform, and a new campaign to build a new socialist rural China.

John Q. Tian

2009-01-01

271

The financing of new mining ventures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Various options are presented for tackling the problem in mining today of the high capital costs required for a new mine combined with the front end exposure that the exploiters face. Equity finance from the producers, private investors, oil companies, consumers and governments is discussed as well as loan finance from export credit agencies, international agencies, production-related loans, leasing and commercial bank loans. The future in financing mining is outlined and it is proposed that the future will lie in smaller projects financed primarily with equity. (U.K.)

1983-01-01

272

A model of the demand for Islamic banks debt-based financing instrument  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a theoretical analysis of the demand for debt-based financing instruments of the Islamic banks. Debt-based financing, such as through baibithamanajil and al-murabahah, is by far the most prominent of the Islamic bank financing and yet it has been largely ignored in Islamic economics literature. Most studies instead have been focusing on equity-based financing of al-mudharabah and al-musyarakah. Islamic bank offers debt-based financing through various instruments derived under the principle of exchange (ukud al-mu'awadhat) or more specifically, the contract of deferred sale. Under such arrangement, Islamic debt is created when goods are purchased and the payments are deferred. Thus, unlike debt of the conventional bank which is a form of financial loan contract to facilitate demand for liquid assets, this Islamic debt is created in response to the demand to purchase goods by deferred payment. In this paper we set an analytical framework that is based on an infinitely lived representative agent model (ILRA model) to analyze the demand for goods to be purchased by deferred payment. The resulting demand will then be used to derive the demand for Islamic debt. We also investigate theoretically, factors that may have an impact on the demand for Islamic debt.

Jusoh, Mansor; Khalid, Norlin

2013-04-01

273

Wind Levelized Cost of Energy: A Comparison of Technical and Financing Input Variables  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The expansion of wind power capacity in the United States has increased the demand for project development capital. In response, innovative approaches to financing wind projects have emerged and are proliferating in the U.S. renewable energy marketplace. Wind power developers and financiers have become more efficient and creative in structuring their financial relationships, and often tailor them to different investor types and objectives. As a result, two similar projects may use very different cash flows and financing arrangements, which can significantly vary the economic competitiveness of wind projects. This report assesses the relative impact of numerous financing, technical, and operating variables on the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) associated with a wind project under various financing structures in the U.S. marketplace. Under this analysis, the impacts of several financial and technical variables on the cost of wind electricity generation are first examined individually to better understand the relative importance of each. Then, analysts examine a low-cost and a high-cost financing scenario, where multiple variables are modified simultaneously. Lastly, the analysis also considers the impact of a suite of financial variables versus a suite of technical variables.

Cory, K.; Schwabe, P.

2009-10-01

274

Ground water flux distribution between matrix, fractures, and conduits: constraints on modeling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Calculations are presented to show the relative contribution of the matrix, fracture, and conduit permeability to the overall flow of ground water through a karst aquifer. The conceptual model is a cross-section spanning the full width and thickness of the aquifer. A constant, but adjustable head is assumed. The rock matrix is characterized by an adjustable hydraulic conductivity. Varying proportions of fractures and conduits of adjustable fracture apertures and conduit diameters were the calculational parameters. Calculations used Darcy’s law for matrix flow, the cube law for fracture flow, and the Darcy-Weisbach equation for conduit flow. The results show a surprising dominance of fracture flow in the early stages of aquifer development. A focusing mechanism is needed to localize the flow into a relatively small number of conduits.

White,W.B.; White,E.L.

2005-01-01

275

Effect of the conduit material on CICC performance under high cycling loads  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recent ITER Model Coils and CRPP tests on Nb3Sn Cable in Conduit Conductors (CICC) showed a significant and unexpected increase in the broadness of the transition to the normal state, resulting in degradation of superconducting properties. To investigate these phenomena two CICC samples were built with identical 144 strand cables but different conduit materials. One sample had titanium conduit with low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), the other had stainless steel conduit. The purpose of this experiment was to study changes in strand properties in the cable (n-value, I{sub c}, T{sub cs}), the effect of cycling and high electromagnetic load and the effect of the conduit on the CICC performance.

Martovetsky, N N; Bruzzone, P; Stepanov, B; Wesche, R; Gung, C; Minervini, J V; Takayasu, M; Goodrich, L F; Ekin, J W; Nijhuis, A

2004-09-01

276

Palliative urinary conduit diversion in cases of intolerable urinary discomfort  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fifteen patients with incurable gynecological cancers, all primary radiation treated and all having severe urinary discomfort due to urinary tract injuries were retrospectively examined after urinary conduit diversion. All have been followed-up until termination or until all survivors had lived for 6 months after the operation. Twelve of the 15 were discharged from the hospital, 10 of whom survived the first 6 months. Of those discharged 82% of the cumulated sum of postoperative observations days was spent out of the hospital. At the end of the observation period nine patients had been supplied with a colostomy as well, thus having double stomas. All six patients still alive declared in retrospect that given the choice again, they would still be willing to undergo the operation.

Lyndrup, J.; Sorensen, B.L.

1983-12-01

277

Application of finance project for leverage of small size hydroelectric enterprising; Aplicacao do project finance para alavancagem de empreendimentos hidreletricos de pequeno porte  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the same way that the majority of the countries, project financing of substructure in Brazil, in project finance modality, depend on a skillful structure of guaranties and contracts to become possible. In the case of projects of centrals of generation of electrical energy, that financial engineering becomes still more complicated. In Brazil, due to particularities of the sectors of electricity, the arrangements of guaranties requested but creditors pass to present levels of complexity and exigency well elevated. The contractual appliances that give support to the project finance, originally projected to developed countries, request an extreme adaptation to these particularities. The development of Brazil is directly related to its capacity in expanding the offer of electric energy in the just measure of the national necessity. In this context, the small central hydroelectric (PCH's) represent, actually, an efficient and fast form to complete the offer of energy in such a way to supply the crescent demand the national market. For its characteristics, that type of undertaking can be developed by small manager, from among which are the owners of the areas in which on can find these hydraulic potentials which, however they do not dispose of capital to integral raising. These undertakings are tasks, normally, of low global cost, at the rate of US$ 1.000,00/k W, and of a smaller ambient impact, compared to the return that they give to the enterprise and to the Brazilian electric system as a whole, by having to receive special attention in the planned politics to the sector and to merit a series of incentives to become business still more attractive. By thinking in the found difficulty by small enterprises in rising undertakings of generation of electric energy of small port through the convectional mechanisms of financing is being proposed in that work a well-founded methodology in the concepts of the modality of financing project finance. (author)

Santos, Silvana dos

2003-07-01

278

Alternative transportation fuels: Financing issues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A multitude of alternative fuels could reduce air pollution and the impact of oil price shocks. Only a few of these fuels are readily available and inexpensive enough to merit serious consideration over the coming five years. In New York City, safety regulations narrow the field still further by eliminating propane. As a result, this study focuses on the three alternative fuels readily available in New York City: compressed natural gas, methanol, and electricity. Each has significant environmental benefits and each has different cost characteristics. With the Clean Air Act and the National Energy Strategy highlighting the country's need to improve urban air quality and move away from dependence on imported fuels, fleets may soon have little choice but to convert to altemative fuels. Given the potential for large infrastructure and vehicle costs, these fleets may have difficulty finding the capital to make that conversion. Ultimately, then, it will be the involvement of the private sector that will determine the success of alternative fuels. Whether it be utilities, fuel distributors or suppliers, private financing partners or others, it is critical that altemative fuels programs be structured and planned to attract their involvement. This report examines financing methods that do not involve government subsidies. It also explores financing methods that are specific to alternative fuels. Bond issues and other mechanisms that are used for conventional vehicles are not touched upon in this report. This report explores ways to spread the high cost of alternative fuels among a number of parties within the private sector. The emphasis is on structuring partnerships that suit methanol, electric, or natural gas vehicle fleets. Through these partnerships, alternative fuels may ultimately compete effectively against conventional vehicle fuels

1992-01-01

279

Effect of SR manipulation on conduit artery dilation in humans.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The impact of manipulating shear stress on conduit artery vasodilation has not been comprehensively described in vivo. We hypothesized that manipulation of SR through the brachial and radial arteries would be associated with corresponding changes in diameter. We performed a series of studies involving the following: (1) leg cycle exercise at increasing intensities (?70 and 85% maximum heart rate [HRmax]) with simultaneous bilateral measurement of SR in the radial arteries; (2) leg cycle exercise for 30 minutes at 80% HRmax with simultaneous bilateral measurement of velocity and diameter in the brachial arteries; and (3) bilateral forearm heating for 30 minutes with simultaneous bilateral measurement of brachial artery diameter and blood velocity. Cycling and forearm heating interventions were performed in the presence of unilateral cuff inflation throughout the experiment, or starting during the intervention (15 minutes), to manipulate SR responses. Cuff placement was associated with lower radial artery SR responses (cuffed versus uncuffed, 248±49 versus 349±105 L/s 85% HRmax; P<0.01), and diameter responses were similarly attenuated (2.45±0.30 versus 2.78±0.20 mm 85% HRmax; P<0.05). Exercise performed at 80% HRmax in the presence of unilateral cuff inflation also reduced brachial artery SR (cuffed versus uncuffed; 258±107 versus 454±157 L/s; P<0.01) and diameter (3.96±0.39 versus 4.20±0.45 mm). Finally, cuff inflation decreased the impact of forearm heating on brachial SR (cuffed versus uncuffed; 262±97 versus 440±106 L/s; P<0.01) and diameter (4.35±0.54 versus 4.87±0.47 mm; P<0.05). Similar significant differences between the cuffed and uncuffed limbs in SR and diameter were observed when cuff inflation occurred during exercise or heating. Our findings strongly implicate SR as an important stimulus to increase conduit artery diameter in humans.

Carter HH; Dawson EA; Birk GK; Spence AL; Naylor LH; Cable NT; Thijssen DH; Green DJ

2013-01-01

280

Annual Review of Football Finance  

Science.gov (United States)

From the London offices of Deloitte and Touche, this report looks at the economy surrounding the English Professional Football Clubs. A synopsis of the report is immediately available, but interested users must complete a free registration form before viewing the full report, which may be downloaded in .pdf format. The report includes a synopsis of highlights, a review of football finances, and supplemental articles including "Football in the City: The Impact of Flotation," "The 'Gap': Premier League/Football League Divides," and "European Leagues."

1999-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

ACF 601 Advanced Corporate Finance  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Contents-1 ACF601: Advanced Corporate Finance 7-1.1 Course Objective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1.2 Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1.3 Course Administration & Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1.4 Weekly Outline of Course . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Review of flrm valuation & CAPM 90.1 Book value balance sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90.2 Ofi Balance Sheet" items . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90.3 Market values; Cash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100.4 Debtors & Creditors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100.5 Other assets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110.6 Debts and Loans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110.6.1 Zero coupon bond . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110.6.2 Perpetuity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120.6.3 Annu

282

Finance and control for construction  

CERN Multimedia

Drawing on a wealth of practical experience, both in the construction industry and teaching students, Chris March presents this study of construction management and the major aspects of controlling the building process.Covering the stages from the client's initiation, to the final handover of the building, March includes evidence from those currently working in the industry, and covers the key industry requirements: knowing that in today's market place, those entering the field must be aware of how projects are financed and controlled, and to financially run and maintain a bui

March, Chris

2012-01-01

283

Problems in financing energy projects  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Financing Energy Projects, throughout the world, has become more complex and risky over the last decades, but the banking structures and financial markets have already adapted themselves and will continue to do so. In the free world the amount of investment needed can roughly be estimated at 2000 to 3000 billions US dollars, until year 2000, or, on an annual basis, an amount of say 100 to 150 billions, of which 2/3 are for oil and gas, 1/3 for other types of energy. Resources from the Financial Market are available to meet such a need, subject to a satisfactory return and feasibility of the various projects.

Gabriel, J.

1988-04-01

284

Including School Finance in Systemic Reform Strategies: A Commentary. CPRE Finance Briefs.  

Science.gov (United States)

School finance is once again a hot topic across the country. Despite the current turmoil in education finance, reform remains a priority at both the state and federal levels. This report examines the school finance issue and proposes that education funding be tied more closely to systemic reform initiatives. It next describes past trends in school…

Odden, Allan

285

Exchange rate arrangements: From extreme to "normal"  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper studies theoretical and empirical location dispersion of exchange rate arrangements - rigid-intermediate-flexible regimes, in the context of extreme arrangements of a currency board, dollarization and monetary union moderate characteristics of intermediate arrangements (adjustable pegs crawling pegs and target zones) and imperative-process "normalization" in the form of a managed or clean floating system. It is established that de iure and de facto classifications generate "fear of floating" and "fear of pegging". The "impossible trinity" under the conditions of capital liberalization and globalization creates a bipolar view or hypothesis of vanishing intermediate exchange rate regimes.

Beker Emilija

2006-01-01

286

Some characterizations of freeness of hyperplane arrangement  

CERN Document Server

We will consider some characterizations of freeness of a hyperplane arrangement, in terms of the following properties: locally freeness, factorization of characteristic polynomial and freeness of restricted multiarrangement. In the case of 3-arrangement, freeness is characterized by factorization of characteristic polynomial and coincidence of its roots with exponents of restricted multiarrangement. In the case of higher dimension, it is characterized by a kind of locally freeness and freeness of restricted multiarrangement. As an application, we prove the freeness of certain arrangements which is conjectured by Edelman and Reiner.

Yoshinaga, M

2003-01-01

287

Procedure for obtaining a urine sample from a urostomy, ileal conduit, and colon conduit: a best practice guideline for clinicians.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of this document was to define the correct technique for obtaining a urine sample from a urostomy, ileal, or colon conduit. While healthcare providers do not commonly encounter patients with a urostomy, knowledge of the correct procedure to obtain a urine specimen is essential. Urine samples obtained incorrectly from a urostomy can lead to inaccurate cultures, resulting in an improper diagnosis and treatment, which can endanger the life of a patient. This column presents patient preparation, the procedure to obtain a specimen with and without a catheter, and aftercare of the patient and specimen. This best practice guideline has been developed by a panel of certified ostomy nurses serving on the Wound, Ostomy and Continence Nurses (WOCN) Society's Clinical Practice Ostomy Committee. The guideline has undergone content validation through a consensus-building process by the WOCN Society, which was managed by the Center for Clinical Investigation.

Mahoney M; Baxter K; Burgess J; Bauer C; Downey C; Mantel J; Perkins J; Rice M; Salvadalena G; Schafer V; Sheppard S

2013-05-01

288

Engineering a multimodal nerve conduit for repair of injured peripheral nerve  

Science.gov (United States)

Injury to nerve tissue in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) results in long-term impairment of limb function, dysaesthesia and pain, often with associated psychological effects. Whilst minor injuries can be left to regenerate without intervention and short gaps up to 2 cm can be sutured, larger or more severe injuries commonly require autogenous nerve grafts harvested from elsewhere in the body (usually sensory nerves). Functional recovery is often suboptimal and associated with loss of sensation from the tissue innervated by the harvested nerve. The challenges that persist with nerve repair have resulted in development of nerve guides or conduits from non-neural biological tissues and various polymers to improve the prognosis for the repair of damaged nerves in the PNS. This study describes the design and fabrication of a multimodal controlled pore size nerve regeneration conduit using polylactic acid (PLA) and (PLA):poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) fibers within a neurotrophin-enriched alginate hydrogel. The nerve repair conduit design consists of two types of PLGA fibers selected specifically for promotion of axonal outgrowth and Schwann cell growth (75:25 for axons; 85:15 for Schwann cells). These aligned fibers are contained within the lumen of a knitted PLA sheath coated with electrospun PLA nanofibers to control pore size. The PLGA guidance fibers within the nerve repair conduit lumen are supported within an alginate hydrogel impregnated with neurotrophic factors (NT-3 or BDNF with LIF, SMDF and MGF-1) to provide neuroprotection, stimulation of axonal growth and Schwann cell migration. The conduit was used to promote repair of transected sciatic nerve in rats over a period of 4 weeks. Over this period, it was observed that over-grooming and self-mutilation (autotomy) of the limb implanted with the conduit was significantly reduced in rats implanted with the full-configuration conduit compared to rats implanted with conduits containing only an alginate hydrogel. This indicates return of some feeling to the limb via the fully-configured conduit. Immunohistochemical analysis of the implanted conduits removed from the rats after the four-week implantation period confirmed the presence of myelinated axons within the conduit and distal to the site of implantation, further supporting that the conduit promoted nerve repair over this period of time. This study describes the design considerations and fabrication of a novel multicomponent, multimodal bio-engineered synthetic conduit for peripheral nerve repair.

Quigley, A. F.; Bulluss, K. J.; Kyratzis, I. L. B.; Gilmore, K.; Mysore, T.; Schirmer, K. S. U.; Kennedy, E. L.; O'Shea, M.; Truong, Y. B.; Edwards, S. L.; Peeters, G.; Herwig, P.; Razal, J. M.; Campbell, T. E.; Lowes, K. N.; Higgins, M. J.; Moulton, S. E.; Murphy, M. A.; Cook, M. J.; Clark, G. M.; Wallace, G. G.; Kapsa, R. M. I.

2013-02-01

289

Engineering a multimodal nerve conduit for repair of injured peripheral nerve.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Injury to nerve tissue in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) results in long-term impairment of limb function, dysaesthesia and pain, often with associated psychological effects. Whilst minor injuries can be left to regenerate without intervention and short gaps up to 2 cm can be sutured, larger or more severe injuries commonly require autogenous nerve grafts harvested from elsewhere in the body (usually sensory nerves). Functional recovery is often suboptimal and associated with loss of sensation from the tissue innervated by the harvested nerve. The challenges that persist with nerve repair have resulted in development of nerve guides or conduits from non-neural biological tissues and various polymers to improve the prognosis for the repair of damaged nerves in the PNS. This study describes the design and fabrication of a multimodal controlled pore size nerve regeneration conduit using polylactic acid (PLA) and (PLA):poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) fibers within a neurotrophin-enriched alginate hydrogel. The nerve repair conduit design consists of two types of PLGA fibers selected specifically for promotion of axonal outgrowth and Schwann cell growth (75:25 for axons; 85:15 for Schwann cells). These aligned fibers are contained within the lumen of a knitted PLA sheath coated with electrospun PLA nanofibers to control pore size. The PLGA guidance fibers within the nerve repair conduit lumen are supported within an alginate hydrogel impregnated with neurotrophic factors (NT-3 or BDNF with LIF, SMDF and MGF-1) to provide neuroprotection, stimulation of axonal growth and Schwann cell migration. The conduit was used to promote repair of transected sciatic nerve in rats over a period of 4 weeks. Over this period, it was observed that over-grooming and self-mutilation (autotomy) of the limb implanted with the conduit was significantly reduced in rats implanted with the full-configuration conduit compared to rats implanted with conduits containing only an alginate hydrogel. This indicates return of some feeling to the limb via the fully-configured conduit. Immunohistochemical analysis of the implanted conduits removed from the rats after the four-week implantation period confirmed the presence of myelinated axons within the conduit and distal to the site of implantation, further supporting that the conduit promoted nerve repair over this period of time. This study describes the design considerations and fabrication of a novel multicomponent, multimodal bio-engineered synthetic conduit for peripheral nerve repair.

Quigley AF; Bulluss KJ; Kyratzis IL; Gilmore K; Mysore T; Schirmer KS; Kennedy EL; O'Shea M; Truong YB; Edwards SL; Peeters G; Herwig P; Razal JM; Campbell TE; Lowes KN; Higgins MJ; Moulton SE; Murphy MA; Cook MJ; Clark GM; Wallace GG; Kapsa RM

2013-02-01

290

78 FR 52170 - Proposed Subsequent Arrangement  

Science.gov (United States)

...the Government of Japan Concerning Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy, and the Agreement for Cooperation Between the Government...Republic of Kazakhstan Concerning Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy. DATES: This subsequent arrangement will take...

2013-08-22

291

Numerical Stability of Algorithms for Line Arrangements  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We analyze the behavior of two line arrangement algorithms,a sweepline algorithm and an incremental algorithm, in approximatearithmetic. The algorithms have running timesO(n2log n) and O(n2) respectively. We show that each ofthese algorithms can be implemented to have O(nffl) relativeerror. This means that each algorithm produces anarrangement realized by a set of pseudolines so that eachpseudoline differs from the corresponding line relatively byat most O(nffl). We also show that there is a line arrangementalgorithm with O(n2log n) running time and O(ffl) relativeerror.1 IntroductionWe analyze the behavior of line arrangement algorithms inapproximate arithmetic. Approximate arithmetic is a setof arithmetic operations defined on the real numbers thatmake relative error ffl; this models floating point arithmetic.The input to a line arrangement algorithm is a set of nlines specified by real number coefficients. The output isa "combinatorial arrangement", ...

Steven Fortune; Victor Milenkovic

292

76 FR 17407 - Proposed Subsequent Arrangement  

Science.gov (United States)

...Korea Concerning Civil Uses of Atomic Energy and the Agreement for Cooperation Between the United States of America and the Argentine Republic Concerning Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy. DATES: This subsequent arrangement will take effect no sooner...

2011-03-29

293

Parallel connections and bundles of arrangements  

CERN Document Server

Let \\A be a complex hyperplane arrangement, and let $X$ be a modular elementof arbitrary rank in the intersection lattice of \\A. We show that projectionalong $X$ restricts to a fiber bundle projection of the complement of \\A to thecomplement of the localization $\\A_X$ of \\A at $X$. The fiber is the decone ofa realization of the complete principal truncation of the underlying matroid of\\A along the flat corresponding to $X$. This result gives a topologicalrealization of results of Stanley, Brylawsky, and Terao on modularfactorization. We show that (generalized) parallel connection of matroidscorresponds to pullback of fiber bundles, clarifying the notion that allexamples of diffeomorphisms of complements of inequivalent arrangements resultfrom the triviality of the restriction of the Hopf bundle to the complement ofa hyperplane. The modular fibration result also yields a new method foridentifying $K(\\pi,1)$ arrangements of rank greater than three. We identify anew families of $K(\\pi,1)$ arrangements, providing...

Falk, M J; Falk, Michael J.; Proudfoot, Nicholas J.

2000-01-01

294

Renewable energy and Scottish trading arrangements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report summarises the findings of a project involving the participation of the Scottish Renewables Forum (SRF) in the ongoing Ofgem consultation process concerning the future electricity trading arrangements in Scotland. The present administrative arrangements, the activities of the SRF, the prospects for the British Electricity Trading and Transmission Arrangements (BETTA), generator connection policy, and transmission access are discussed, and an overview of consultations relating to Scotland-England interconnection access is presented. The appendices cover the SRF responses to the Ofgem consultation, a discussion paper in advance of the SRF meeting with Ofgem in April 2001, an SRF trading update, the SRF's responses to Ofgem's Environmental Action Plan, the Scottish Embedded Generators Working Group's terms of reference and draft paper on issues, and a briefing on prices in administered arrangements.

2001-04-00

295

Financing of nuclear projects. Lessons from a recent experience  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The advantages of mandating BNP Paribas as a lead bank and arranger for NPP Belene are presented. BNPP has an excellent record and credentials in Nuclear Power Plant Projects internationally and in the local energy sector and very recent experience as a lead bank for the fifth nuclear power plant in Finland. BNPP has a proven track record as Provider of rapid and efficient ECA financing in terms of: managing in parallel the number of ECA contractual relations, so as to provide 'matching opportunities' between the ECAs and leverage to improve their terms and conditions, and to harmonize them in one set of unified legal documentation. There is no cost to the Government of Bulgaria until the signing of the Facility Documentation.

2004-01-01

296

12 CFR 614.4700 - Financing foreign trade receivables.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-01-01 false Financing foreign trade receivables. 614.4700 Section 614.4700...614.4700 Financing foreign trade receivables. (a) Banks for cooperatives...are authorized to finance foreign trade receivables on behalf of eligible cooperatives...

2010-01-01

297

12 CFR 908.71 - Practice before the Finance Board.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Practice before the Finance Board. 908.71 Section 908.71 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD ORGANIZATION AND OPERATIONS RULES OF PRACTICE AND...

2009-01-01

298

Compare benefits before entering receivables financing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Financing accounts receivables is becoming a popular strategy in the healthcare industry. Factoring and securitization are two financing methods available to hospitals. Patient accounts managers who understand the programs' structures, incentives, and costs will be able to achieve the maximum benefit for their hospitals when choosing one of these transactions. PMID:10109699

Ferconio, S; Lane, M R

1991-02-01

299

Copenhagen's climate finance promise: six key questions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

One of the promises emerging from the confusion of the Copenhagen climate talks focused on climate finance. Ramping up to US$100 billion a year starting in 2020, the promised finance would support developing countries in adapting to climate impacts and adopting low-carbon pathways. This briefing exp...

Roberts, T J; Stadelmann, M; Huq, S

300

Corporate Social Responsibility and Access to Finance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, we investigate whether superior performance on corporate social responsibility (CSR) strategies leads to better access to finance. We hypothesize that better access to finance can be attributed to a) reduced agency costs due to enhanced stakeholder engagement and b) reduced informatio...

Cheng, Beiting; Ioannou, Ioannis; Serafeim, Georgios

 
 
 
 
301

Principles and Products of Islamic Finance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The principles of Islamic finance are laid down in the sharia, Islamic law. Islamic finance, comprising financial transactions in banks and non-bank financial institutions formal and non-formal financial institutions, is based on the concept of a social order of brotherhood and solidarity. The parti...

Seibel, Hans Dieter; Imady, Omar

302

Compare benefits before entering receivables financing.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Financing accounts receivables is becoming a popular strategy in the healthcare industry. Factoring and securitization are two financing methods available to hospitals. Patient accounts managers who understand the programs' structures, incentives, and costs will be able to achieve the maximum benefit for their hospitals when choosing one of these transactions.

Ferconio S; Lane MR

1991-02-01

303

Financing of nuclear trade. The brazilian experience  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The importance of financing instruments as means for the promotion of international nuclear trade is analysed. Besides the specific characteristics of nuclear trade is examined. Furthermore the role of governmental authorities and international agencies, mainly the IAEA is discussed. Finally the presence of Brazil in the international financial market and the financing of nuclear trade in Brazil are described.

1990-01-01

304

[The research project: financing and management  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Basic and clinical research is accomplished by projects. The design of a project is not only based on the scientific content but also on its financing and management. This article wants to illustrate the correct modalities for project financing and project management in a scientific project.

Schena FP

2003-09-01

305

100th meeting of the Finance Committee  

CERN Multimedia

The Finance Committee is an advisory committee to the CERN Council. It has the exacting job of supervising CERN’s finances, being concerned with such things as examining budget proposals, salary structures and cost variation formulae and with approving the award of major contracts to industry.

1969-01-01

306

Moving toward a Coherent School Finance System  

Science.gov (United States)

|California's current school finance system is a tangled web of funding programs, restrictions, inequities and confusion. Building a stronger finance system to benefit from resources is an important step in strengthening California's K-12 education system and better meeting the needs of its students. Gov. Brown has recently proposed the Local…

Rose, Heather

2013-01-01

307

Chinese public finance framework: A critical analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper explores the complexities of government financial management in China and examines the nature of the recent Public Finance Framework reform in that country. We argue that this Public Finance Framework reform is not just the latest idea in a centrally dominated reform agenda (and a logical...

Scapens, Robert; Yang, ChunLei

308

Europeans lead first project finance power survey  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

European developers have emerged top of the first Project Finance International global survey of independent power developers. The survey includes deals financed since January 1996. UK utilities PowerGen and National Power appear to be the hungriest for international assets, with both developing a global spread of projects. (UK)

Anon.

1997-05-21

309

Innovative financing techniques for nuclear power exports  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The author makes general comments regarding the possible conflict between project risks, sponsors' ability to assume these risks, and the requirements and objectives of all project benficiaries: sponsors, lenders, consumers and government. To reconcile these conflicts there is an increasing use of project finance techniques to finance large capital projects

1983-01-01

310

Public financing systems for radiology: experience in 12 European countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper illustrates the evolution in public health care financing systems in 12 European countries, in terms of the financing of radiology services. The financing systems for radiology used by public health care financing agencies are described in detail. The implications of these new financing conditions for health care delivery are briefly sketched. The paper concludes with some strategies to help radiologists cope with the tightening financing conditions for medical imaging. (orig.) (orig.) With 2 tabs., 21 refs.

Kesteloot, K. [Dept. of Applied Economics, Univ. of Leuven (Belgium)

1999-02-01

311

Influence of conduit network geometry on solute transport in karst aquifers with a permeable matrix  

Science.gov (United States)

In karst aquifers with significant matrix permeability, water and solutes are exchanged between the conduits and carbonate matrix. Transport through the matrix increases the spread of solutes and increases travel times. This study numerically evaluates advective solute transport in synthetic karst systems that contain 3D branching conduit networks. Particle tracking is performed to analyze the spatial and temporal transport history of solute that arrives at the conduit outlet. Three measures of transport connectivity are used to quantify the solute migration behavior: the skewness of the particle arrival time distribution, the normalized fifth percentile of arrival times, and the fraction of the total travel time that occurs within conduits. All three of these metrics capture the influence of conduit network geometry on solute transport. A more tortuous network leads to enhanced conduit-matrix mixing, which reduces the transport connectivity and yields a broader distribution of solute arrival times. These results demonstrate that the conduit network geometry is an important control on solute transport in karst systems with a permeable matrix.

Ronayne, Michael J.

2013-06-01

312

Degradation properties of the electrostatic assembly PDLLA/CS/CHS nerve conduit  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A poly(d,l-lactic acid)/chondroitin sulfate/chitosan (PDLLA/CS/CHS) nerve conduit for repairing nerve defects was prepared by electrostatic assembly and the thermally induced phase separation technique. The hydrophilic characteristics of the PDLLA/CS/CHS assembly nerve conduits were improved markedly. The degradation behavior of the nerve conduit with various assembly layers was evaluated by a pH change, weight loss rate and molecular weight change. The pH of the solution of the nerve conduit could be effectively adjusted by varying the layer numbers and overcoming the acidity-caused auto-acceleration of PDLLA; the nerve conduit can retain its integrity in a phosphate buffer solution after being degraded for 3 months. After such a conduit was implanted in the rat for 3 months, obvious degradation occurred, but the regenerated nerve was integrated and it grew successfully from the proximal to distal nerve stump. All these results implied that the degradation rate of the prepared conduit can adapt to the regeneration of the peripheral nerve, which might be a new derivative of PDLLA-based biodegradable materials for repairing nerve injuries without acidity-caused irritations and acidity-induced auto-accelerating degradation behavior as shown by PDLLA.

Xu Haixing [School of Chemical Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Yan Yuhua; Wan Tao; Li Shipu, E-mail: yanyuhua8@126.co [Biomedical Materials and Engineering Research Center, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China)

2009-08-15

313

The Contegra conduit: Late outcomes in right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: To report the clinical outcomes (early death, late death, and rate of reintervention) and performance of the Contegra conduit as a right ventricle outflow tract implant and to determine the risk factors for early reintervention. METHODS: Forty-nine Contegra conduits were implanted between January 2002 and June 2009. Data collection was retrospective. The mean age and follow-up duration of Contegra recipients was 3.5 ± 4.6 years and 4.2 ± 2.0 years, respectively. RESULTS: There were three deaths (two early, one late), giving a survival rate of 93.9%. The rate of conduit-related reintervention was 19.6% and was most often due to distal conduit stenosis. Age at implantation of <3 months, receipt of a conduit of 12-16 mm diameter, and a diagnosis of truncus arteriosus were each significant contributors to the rate of reintervention. CONCLUSION: The Contegra is a cost-effective and readily available solution. However, there is a limited range of larger calibers, which means that the homograft conduit (>22 mm) remains the first choice of implant in older children. The rates of reintervention are significantly higher with a diagnosis of truncus arteriosus, age at implantation of <3 months, and implantation of conduits sized 12-16 mm.

Holmes AA; Co S; Human DG; Leblanc JG; Campbell AI

2012-01-01

314

Investment Timing When External Financing Is Costly  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper analyzes the investment timing of firms facing two dimensions of financing constraints: Liquidity constraints and capital market frictions inducing financing costs. We show that liquidity constraints are not sufficient to explain voluntary investment delay. However, when additionally considering financing costs, we can explain both voluntary delay and acceleration of investment. More precisely, we find that investment thresholds are U-shaped in liquid funds. For high-liquidity firms, investment thresholds are decreasing (i.e. accelerated investment takes place) in either dimension of financing constraint. In contrast, investment thresholds are increasing (i.e. investment is further delayed) in either form of financing constraint for low-liquidity firms. For intermediate levels of liquidity, investment thresholds are U-shaped in market frictions.

Hirth, Stefan; Uhrig-Homburg, Marliese

2010-01-01

315

Representation of water abstraction from a karst conduit with numerical discrete-continuum models  

Science.gov (United States)

Karst aquifers are characterized by highly conductive conduit flow paths embedded in a less conductive fissured and fractured matrix resulting in strong permeability contrasts with structured heterogeneity and anisotropy. Groundwater storage occurs predominantly in the fissured matrix. Hence, most karst models assume quasi steady-state flow in conduits neglecting conduit associated drainable storage (CADS). The concept of CADS considers storage volumes, where karst water is not part of the active flow system but rather hydraulically connected to conduits (for example karstic voids and large fractures). The disregard of conduit storage can be inappropriate when direct water abstraction from karst conduits occurs, e.g. large scale pumping. In such cases, CADS may be relevant. Furthermore, the typical fixed head boundary condition at the karst outlet can be inadequate for water abstraction scenarios because unhampered water inflow is possible. The objective of this paper is to analyze the significance of CADS and flow-limited boundary conditions on the hydraulic behavior of karst aquifers in water abstraction scenarios. To this end, the numerical hybrid model MODFLOW-2005 Conduit Flow Process Mode 1 (CFPM1) is enhanced to account for CADS. Additionally, a fixed-head limited-flow (FHLQ) boundary condition is added that limits inflow from constant head boundaries to a user-defined threshold. The affect and proper functioning of these modifications is demonstrated by simplified model studies. Both enhancements, CAD storage and the FHLQ boundary, are shown to be useful for water abstraction scenarios within karst aquifers. An idealized representation of a large-scale pumping test in a karst conduit is used to demonstrate that the enhanced CFPM1 is potentially able to adequately represent water abstraction processes in both the conduits and the matrix of real karst systems.

Reimann, T.; Giese, M.; Geyer, T.; Liedl, R.; Maréchal, J. C.; Shoemaker, W. B.

2013-04-01

316

Representation of water abstraction from a karst conduit with numerical discrete-continuum models  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Karst aquifers are characterized by highly conductive conduit flow paths embedded in a less conductive fissured and fractured matrix resulting in strong permeability contrasts with structured heterogeneity and anisotropy. Groundwater storage occurs predominantly in the fissured matrix. Hence, most karst models assume quasi steady-state flow in conduits neglecting conduit associated drainable storage (CADS). The concept of CADS considers storage volumes, where karst water is not part of the active flow system but rather hydraulically connected to conduits (for example karstic voids and large fractures). The disregard of conduit storage can be inappropriate when direct water abstraction from karst conduits occurs, e.g. large scale pumping. In such cases, CADS may be relevant. Furthermore, the typical fixed head boundary condition at the karst outlet can be inadequate for water abstraction scenarios because unhampered water inflow is possible. The objective of this paper is to analyze the significance of CADS and flow-limited boundary conditions on the hydraulic behavior of karst aquifers in water abstraction scenarios. To this end, the numerical hybrid model MODFLOW-2005 Conduit Flow Process Mode 1 (CFPM1) is enhanced to account for CADS. Additionally, a fixed-head limited-flow (FHLQ) boundary condition is added that limits inflow from constant head boundaries to a user-defined threshold. The affect and proper functioning of these modifications is demonstrated by simplified model studies. Both enhancements, CAD storage and the FHLQ boundary, are shown to be useful for water abstraction scenarios within karst aquifers. An idealized representation of a large-scale pumping test in a karst conduit is used to demonstrate that the enhanced CFPM1 is potentially able to adequately represent water abstraction processes in both the conduits and the matrix of real karst systems.

T. Reimann; M. Giese; T. Geyer; R. Liedl; J. C. Maréchal; W. B. Shoemaker

2013-01-01

317

78 FR 31535 - Assistive Technology Alternative Financing Program  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Assistive Technology Alternative Financing Program AGENCY: Office of...to use the slate of applicants developed for the Assistive Technology (AT) Alternative Financing Program (AFP)...

2013-05-24

318

Diversity Of Clast Types And Their Implications For Conduit Processes  

Science.gov (United States)

Small volume, sub-plinian andesite eruptions produce a range of clasts which can be either texturally diverse but compositionally similar or vice versa. Each clast type records the particular mechanism by which it was generated and can involve either purely geochemical or physical processes or interacting physico-chemical mechanisms. To understand the genesis of clast types we investigated the texture, mineral and bulk chemical composition, as well as melt inclusion studies, from clasts in deposits of the last sub-plinian eruption of Mt. Taranaki, New Zealand. These results are used, along with data obtained from studies of other lava dome- forming eruptions, to explore processes in the shallow crustal magma storage region and the changes the magma experiences once it leaves that region. Further, shallow, intra-edifice conduit processes are identified that explain the diversity in clast types. Five basic rock types were produced during the AD 1655 Burrell Lapilli eruption of Mt. Taranaki: dense grey andesite clasts with a range in bulk composition from 57.1 to 59.5 wt. % SiO2, and four pumice types grey, brown, black and grey-brown banded clasts which are similar in bulk composition to the andesite clasts with SiO2 between 55.5-56.0 wt. %. However, the pumice types are fundamentally different in terms of vesicularity and somewhat different glass chemistry. Bulk vesicularities are highest for brown pumice with a median of 70.7 %, followed by grey pumice with 68.5 %, banded pumice with 63.8 %, and then black pumice with 49.9 %. Moreover, the permeability of the Burrell Lapilli samples is generally up to 10 times higher at given porosities (e.g. 5.3x10-11m2 at bulk vesicularity of 75.1 %) compared to literature data for dacitic and rhyolitic pumice compositions. The development of different coloured pumice types is the result of slightly differing physical magma properties (e.g. temperature, viscosity, volatile content) resulting in changes in vesicle texture and glass composition. This is directly controlled by syn-eruptive decompression and fragmentation processes rather than pre-eruptive magma evolution. These processes occur within an stratified upper conduit (including lateral variations in magma properties) and explain the generation of different pumice types and is consistent with field observations of a succession of three pyroclastic flows deposits of grey, brown and grey pumice. These three units represent eruption pulses and correspond to three levels of bubble nucleation at different growth rates. The brown pumice formation represents slower volatile exsolution and bubble growth with subsequent microlite crystallisation. This pre- mature bubble network caused slower fragmentation rates, and hence, pulsation during fragmentation.

Platz, T.; Cronin, S. J.; Cashman, K. V.; Stewart, R. B.

2006-12-01

319

Financing waste to energy plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Waste-to-energy projects are going ahead in the U.K., they are being project financed and they will make a valuable contribution to environmentally acceptable waste disposal and clean energy within the U.K. Starting from the premise that project sponsors must compete for funds therefore behoves the project sponsor to adapt his proposal to the needs of the investor rather than the other way around. Some of the major potential suppliers of funds are briefly surveyed. It is concluded that waste-to-energy projects do not fit easily into the business plans of venture capital companies, pension funds and banks. Projects must be reworked so that a more favourable opportunity can be offered to potential funders. Ways of achieving this through improved economics and reductions in risk and uncertainty are examined. (author)

1991-10-09

320

Financing U.S. exploration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper discusses the challenges of financing U.S. exploration from the perspective of an independent oil and gas producer. When Burlington Resources was split into a separate company from the Burlington Northern Railroad three years ago, the company owned extensive resources but had little production capability, and had to resolve the problem of raising development capital. According to the author of this paper, three key elements in the company's perception of the business environment drove its strategy: that the role of independent producers would be crucial in new onshore oil and gas development as the majors moved offshore; that energy prices would remain weak; and that financial market sentiment would not favor a move to leverage the company more highly than its starting-point of 19 percent debt-to-total capital ratio.

1990-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Finance salaries. Account the cost.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Post-qualification salaries have increased by 4-7 per cent, a slowdown on last year's figures when increases were often more than 10 per cent. The highest increases this year tended to be in medium-sized trusts where newly qualified accountants' salaries rose 8.2 per cent. Directors of finance in large trusts earn about 20 per cent more than in medium trusts and about 40 per cent more than in small ones. Newly qualified accountants in large trusts earn 5 per cent more than in medium-sized trusts and 13 per cent more than in small ones. The survey is based on an analysis of salaries from Hays' jobs database, and salaries of registered candidates.

Robling A

2003-02-01

322

FACTORING: ALTERNATIVE MODEL OF FINANCING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper aims to present factoring as an alternative funding model. This paper also tries to scientifically explore and emphasize its economic role thorough advantages and disadvantages of such financing model, and show condition in world and Croatia. Good corporate governance and professional financial management can contribute to the establishment of such business strategy (in terms of: strategy in relation to potential risks, the systems for managing risks and monitoring, investment strategies, interventions, etc.) that will make the company resistant to unexpected and unpredictable changes in both their environment and the global marketplace and timely actions to contribute to faster recover from the effects of the crisis and business damages reduced to a minimum recovery.

Ivanovic Sasa; Suzana Baresa; Sinisa Bogdan

2011-01-01

323

Market turbulence creates financing opportunity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The flight to high-quality assets resulting from Standard & Poor's downgrade of the U.S. government's credit rating has dropped the yield on U.S. Treasury securities as investors have sought refuge amid uncertain market conditions. Consequently, hospitals can now obtain mortgage insurance from the U.S. government to finance expansions and refinance their debt with GNMA securities at taxable interest rates that are often more favorable than tax-exempt bond fixed rates. Because GNMA certificates can be sold in a forward purchase transaction that locks in a fixed interest rate while avoiding payment of interest until construction funds are disbursed, they can help avoid the effects of negative arbitrage.

Cooper JH Jr

2012-03-01

324

Living Arrangements and Lifestyle Satisfaction among the Elderly in Chinese Immigrant Families: A Preliminary Study.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The aims of this preliminary study were to understand the relationshipbetween the living arrangements and lifestyle satisfaction through investigatinghow choices of living arrangements impacted upon lifestyle satisfactionof elderly Chinese immigrants in London.Methods: A qualitative research methodology with semi-structured, face-to-face andin-depth interviews was utilized with eight elderly couples of Chinese immigrantfamilies from Vietnam and Hong Kong.Results: The results indicated that the desirability of current lifestyle was associatedwith lifestyle satisfaction. Among 12 participants who desired their currentlifestyles, nine reported this having a "positive effect" on their lifestyle satisfaction,and no negative effects were reported. In comparison, the negativeeffects on lifestyle satisfaction were found among four participants who didnot desire their current independent residence from their adult children. Thereasons the participants desired or not their current lifestyles and the effectson their lifestyle satisfaction were explored qualitatively. The participantsmight consider family situations (finance, health, age, and kin network) tosome extent, but not see them as key determinants in making decisions aboutliving arrangements. However, the Chinese cultural beliefs in living arrangementchoices were highly visible in their reports.Conclusion: The findings suggested that the elderly participants' desirability of their currentlifestyles was positively associated with the level of lifestyle satisfaction.The issue of the living arrangements and lifestyle satisfaction of theelderly acquires new significance at a time when the population in Taiwan isaging, and the socio-economic and cultural changes are more radical thanever.

Wei-Chiang Yeh

2003-01-01

325

Engineering of a synthetic electron conduit in living cells  

Science.gov (United States)

Engineering efficient, directional electronic communication between living and nonliving systems has the potential to combine the unique characteristics of both materials for advanced biotechnological applications. However, the cell membrane is designed by nature to be an insulator, restricting the flow of charged species; therefore, introducing a biocompatible pathway for transferring electrons across the membrane without disrupting the cell is a significant challenge. Here we describe a genetic strategy to move intracellular electrons to an inorganic extracellular acceptor along a molecularly defined route. To do so, we reconstitute a portion of the extracellular electron transfer chain of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 into the model microbe Escherichia coli. This engineered E. coli can reduce metal ions and solid metal oxides ?8× and ?4× faster than its parental strain. We also find that metal oxide reduction is more efficient when the extracellular electron acceptor has nanoscale dimensions. This work demonstrates that a genetic cassette can create a conduit for electronic communication from living cells to inorganic materials, and it highlights the importance of matching the size scale of the protein donors to inorganic acceptors.

Jensen, Heather M.; Albers, Aaron E.; Malley, Konstantin R.; Londer, Yuri Y.; Cohen, Bruce E.; Helms, Brett A.; Weigele, Peter; Groves, Jay T.; Ajo-Franklin, Caroline M.

2010-01-01

326

A Cable-in-Conduit Superconductor for Pulsed Accelerator Magnets  

CERN Document Server

Superconducting magnets for future accelerators such as the SIS-100 ring of the International Accelerator Facility at GSI-Darmstadt, or a superconducting injector at the LHC, require that the magnetic field is pulsed with high repetition rate and high reliability over periods of several years. As an example the SIS-100 at the IAF is planned to be operated up to 2 T at 4 T/s for more than 100 millions cycles. Achieving these objectives requires that the superconductor has an excellent mechanical stability as well as a sufficient energy margin to tolerate foreseen and unforeseen energy inputs. In addition the cryogenic loss must be controlled at low levels, while the field errors due to coupling currents must be compatible with the beam dynamics requirements. In this paper we describe a cable-in-conduit design that is suitable for the challenging operating conditions described above, we give the expected performances and report on the on-going manufacturing demonstration and planned supporting tests.

Bottura, L; Fischer, E; Kauschke, M; Moritz, G; Vysotsky, V S; Sytnikov, V E; Wilson, M

2005-01-01

327

Limitations of nerve repair of segmental defects using acellular conduits.  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors present the case of a 20-year-old man who, 3 months after his initial injury, underwent repair of a 1.7-cm defect of the ulnar nerve at the wrist; repair was performed with an acellular nerve allograft. Given the absence of clinical or electrophysiological recovery at 8 months postrepair, the patient underwent reexploration, excision of the "regenerated cable," and rerepair of the ulnar nerve with sural nerve autografts. Histology of the cable demonstrated minimal axonal regeneration at the midpoint of the repair. At the 6- and 12-month follow-ups of the sural nerve graft repair, clinical and electrophysiological evidence of both sensory and motor reinnervation of the ulnar nerve and associated hand muscles was demonstrated. In this report, the authors describe a single case of failed acellular nerve allograft and correlate the results with basic science and human studies reporting length and diameter limitations in human nerve repair utilizing grafts or conduits devoid of viable Schwann cells. PMID:23746100

Berrocal, Yerko A; Almeida, Vania W; Levi, Allan D

2013-06-07

328

A conduit dilation model of methane venting from lake sediments  

Science.gov (United States)

Methane is a potent greenhouse gas, but its effects on Earth's climate remain poorly constrained, in part due to uncertainties in global methane fluxes to the atmosphere. An important source of atmospheric methane is the methane generated in organic-rich sediments underlying surface water bodies, including lakes, wetlands, and the ocean. The fraction of the methane that reaches the atmosphere depends critically on the mode and spatiotemporal characteristics of free-gas venting from the underlying sediments. Here we propose that methane transport in lake sediments is controlled by dynamic conduits, which dilate and release gas as the falling hydrostatic pressure reduces the effective stress below the tensile strength of the sediments. We test our model against a four-month record of hydrostatic load and methane flux in Upper Mystic Lake, Mass., USA, and show that it captures the complex episodicity of methane ebullition. Our quantitative conceptualization opens the door to integrated modeling of methane transport to constrain global methane release from lakes and other shallow-water, organic-rich sediment systems, and to assess its climate feedbacks.

Scandella, Benjamin P.; Varadharajan, Charuleka; Hemond, Harold F.; Ruppel, Carolyn; Juanes, Ruben

2011-03-01

329

Relaxation of microparticles exposed to hydrodynamic forces in microfluidic conduits.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The behavior of microparticles exposed to gravitational and lift forces and to the velocity gradient in flow velocity profile formed in microfluidic conduits is studied from the viewpoint of the transient period (the relaxation) between the moment at which a particle starts to be transported by the hydrodynamic flow and the time at which it reaches an equilibrium position, characterized by a balance of all active forces. The theoretical model allowing the calculation of the relaxation time is proposed. The numerical calculus based on the proposed model is compared with the experimental data obtained under different experimental conditions, namely, for different lengths of microfluidic channels, different average linear velocities of the carrier liquid, and different sizes and densities of the particles used in the study. The results are important for the optimization of microfluidic separation units such as microthermal field-flow fractionation channels in which the separation or manipulation of the microparticles of various origin, synthetic, natural, biological, etc., is performed under similar experimental conditions but by applying an additional thermodynamic force.

Jan?a J; Halabalová V; Polášek V; Vašina M; Menshikova AY

2011-02-01

330

Nerve conduit scaffolds for discrete delivery of two neurotrophic factors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Axonal repair and regeneration remain critical due to lack of appropriate delivery systems for efficient release of neurotrophic factors (NTFs). Recently, we have demonstrated the synergistic activity of nerve growth factor (NGF) and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) on axonal regeneration. Combined delivery of GDNF and NGF with individually controlled release kinetics may be crucial for exploiting their synergistic action on axonal elongation in animals. For engineering discrete NTF release kinetics, we have developed several nerve conduits (NCs) using collagen (Col) and silk fibroin (SF); the NC were made of Col or SF alone, or of Col and SF layers, or of Col/SF blends, all loaded with GDNF and NGF. All NC types provided sustained combined release of NGF and GDNF over 28days. NC made of combinations of Col and SF showed reduced burst and more sustained dual release of GDNF and NGF. SF/Col-based NC scaffolds provide an adaptable delivery system for growth factors and hold potential for nerve regeneration and possibly for other tissue engineering applications.

Catrina S; Gander B; Madduri S

2013-09-01

331

Granulomatous conduit for intrathecal infusion of morphine and bupivacaine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Intrathecal drug delivery systems (IT-DDSs) have gained more widespread use in patients with non-cancer-related pain, notably failed back surgery syndrome and spinal arachnoiditis. Secondary to the longer life spans of these patients, more complications have been discovered with IT-DDSs. With an estimated incidence of 1% to 3%, an uncommon but serious complication is that of granuloma formation. CASE REPORT: We describe a case of a 38-year-old woman with a malfunctioning IT-DDS containing morphine and bupivacaine. The device had stopped providing relief for several months because of presumed leakage from the connection site between the pump and the proximal catheter. The IT-DDS spontaneously resumed functioning. The IT-DDS was explanted for low battery life, upon which we discovered that the leakage site had been encapsulated by drug concretion and granuloma formation, thus providing a sealed conduit that reestablished drug flow between the pump and the catheter. CONCLUSIONS: This case report reinforces the view that the infusate is the causal agent of this lesion.

Webb DM; Schneider JR; Lober RM; Vender JR

2011-03-01

332

Injunctions against mere conduit of information protected by copyright  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper includes an in-depth analysis of EU law and Scandinavian law on injunctions against internet access providers (IAPs) performing as mere conduit of information protected by copyright. In recent Scandinavian case law, courts have granted preliminary injunctions which have caused IAPs to either shut down specific internet connections allegedly used to infringe copyright or to block access to internet content, which allegedly infringed applicable copyright rules. This paper considers some significant legal challenges, which are emerging in the wake of this case law, and which should attract attention in all European member states. Firstly, it is shown that rules on preliminary injunctions are generally unable to safeguard the significant legitimate interests of third parties, which may be harmed by such relief, and that a proper implementation of Art. 8(3) of the Infosoc Directive requires rules, which take into due consideration the special aspects related to enforcement of copyright on the internet through IAPs. Secondly, it is shown that the termination of internet connections and the blocking of access to internet content may not support the public policies behind copyright law and also may restrict the freedom of expression under European human rights law. The analysis is based on a brief account for the relevant EU Directives, the implementation of these Directives in the Scandinavian countries and the Scandinavian case law regarding use of injunctions against IAPs to enforce copyright on the internet.

Sandfeld Jakobsen, SØren; Petersen, Clement Salung

2011-01-01

333

Structure of a Bacterial Cell Surface Decaheme Electron Conduit  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Some bacterial species are able to utilize extracellular mineral forms of iron and manganese as respiratory electron acceptors. In Shewanella oneidensis this involves deca-heme cytochromes that are located on the bacterial cell surface at the termini of trans-outermembrane (OM) electron transfer conduits. The cell surface cytochromes can potentially play multiple roles in mediating electron transfer directly to insoluble electron sinks, catalyzing electron exchange with flavin electron shuttles or participating in extracellular inter-cytochrome electron exchange along ‘nanowire’ appendages. We present a 3.2 Å crystal structure of one of these deca-heme cytochromes, MtrF, that allows the spatial organization of the ten hemes to be visualized for the first time. The hemes are organized across four domains in a unique crossed conformation, in which a staggered 65 Å octa-heme chain transects the length of the protein and is bisected by a planar 45 Å tetra-heme chain that connects two extended Greek key split ?-barrel domains. The structure provides molecular insight into how reduction of insoluble substrate (e.g. minerals), soluble substrates (e.g. flavins) and cytochrome redox partners might be possible in tandem at different termini of a trifurcated electron transport chain on the cell surface.

Clarke, Thomas A.; Edwards, Marcus; Gates, Andrew J.; Hall, Andrea; White, Gaye; Bradley, Justin; Reardon, Catherine L.; Shi, Liang; Beliaev, Alex S.; Marshall, Matthew J.; Wang, Zheming; Watmough, Nicholas; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Zachara, John M.; Butt, Julea N.; Richardson, David J.

2011-05-23

334

Financing occupational health services in Poland.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: Financing occupational health services (OHS) at the regional and basic level is an important issue in view of the transformation process going on in OHS in Poland. The Occupational Health Services Act from 1997, The Public Finance Act from 1999 and The Labour Code Act with amendment have been regulated by the new principles of financing. The organizational structures and the financial system have been changed since 1 January 1998. The process is still being continued. The gaps between information systems of past and present financial data enforced the examination of the current situation in regard to the structure of financing and internal allocation of financial means. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The studies of OHS funding were carried out by the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine in Lodz. The data were collected and analysed for the period 1998-2000. They included full accessible statistics on OHS funding in Poland. The information on the financing system was collected by a questionnaire mailed to directors of OHS centres, and was supplemented by direct contact with directors. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Sources of OHS financing in Poland are as follows: local government, state budget, companies, social health insurance institutions (since 1 January 1999 a social health insurance system has been implemented), OHS providers (as primary units), other sources. Analyses of their structures in a given period were conducted. The role of companies and social health insurance institutions in financing Regional Occupational Health Services Centres (ROHSCs) was considered in relation to the existing law regulation.

Rydlewska-Liszkowska I

2002-10-01

335

MRI of the heart following implantation of a left ventricular apico-aortic conduit; Kernspintomografie zur umfassenden Untersuchung des Herzens nach Implantation von linksventrikulaeren apikoaortalen Conduits  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Purpose: To investigate the potential of ECG-triggered MRI for the evaluation of postoperative anatomy and function of the heart and conduit following implantation of a left-ventricular apico-aortic conduit. Materials and Methods: 5 patients (2 female, 3 male, mean age 72.5 years) were examined using a 1.5 Tesla whole-body MRI (Gyroscan Intera, Philips Medical Systems, Best, The Netherlands) following apico-aortic conduit surgery due to severe aortic valve stenosis. The reason for performing conduit implantation instead of aortic valve replacement was the risk of injuring a bypass graft from prior coronary artery bypass surgery. Cine steady-state-free-precession (SSFP) sequences were used to assess ventricular function, navigator-gated 3D-SSFP and breath-hold, time-resolved contrast-enhanced MR angiography was used to display the postoperative anatomy, and 2D-gradient echo sequences with an inversion pulse to suppress the signal of the healthy myocardium were used to evaluate potential myocardial scarring. Flow sensitive gradient echo sequences were performed to determine the blood flow in the conduit. Results: In all patients the apico-aortic conduit proved to be open with a maximum flow velocity of 126 (+ 43) cm/s. The postoperative anatomy was able to be evaluated in all patients and perioperative myocardial infarction was able to be ruled out. The mean ejection fraction of the left ventricle was 44.2 + 6.2 % with a mean volume of 80 + 20.6 ml per heart beat. (orig.)

Ruhl, K.M.; Katoh, M.; Guenther, R.W.; Krombach, G.A. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik; Langebartels, G.; Autschbach, R. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Klinik fuer Thorax-, Herz- und Gefaesschirurgie

2007-06-15

336

The challenge of financing nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To date, more then 500 nuclear power reactors have been successfully financed and built. Experience in recent nuclear projects confirms that nuclear power will not cease to be a viable option due to a worldwide financing constraint. For financing nuclear plants there are special considerations: large investment; long lead and construction times; complex technology; regulatory risk and political risk. The principal preconditions to financing are a national policy supporting nuclear power; creditworthiness; economic competitiveness; project feasibility; assurance of adequate revenues; acceptability of risks; and no open-ended liabilities. Generally, nuclear power plants are financed conventionally through multi-sources, where a package covers the entire cost. The first source, the investor/owner/operator responsible for building and operating the plant, should cover a sizable portion of the overall investment. In addition, bond issues, domestic bank credits etc. and, in case of State-owned or controlled enterprises, donations and credits from public entities or the governmental budget, should complete the financing. A financially sound utility should be able to meet this challenge. For importing technology, bids are invited. Export credits should form the basis of foreign financing, because these have favorable terms and conditions. Suppliers from several countries may join in a consortium subdividing the scope of supply and involve several Export Credit Agencies (ECAs). There are also innovative financing approaches that could be applied to nuclear projects. Evolutionary Reactors with smaller overall investment, shorter construction times, reliance on proven technology, together with predictable regulatory regimes and reliable long-term national policies favorable to nuclear power, should make it easier to meet the future challenges of financing. (author)

1998-12-04

337

The freeness of Shi-Catalan arrangements  

CERN Document Server

Let $W$ be a finite Weyl group and $\\A$ be the corresponding Weyl arrangement. A deformation of $\\A$ is an affine arrangement which is obtained by adding to each hyperplane $H\\in\\A$ several parallel translations of $H$ by the positive root (and its integer multiples) perpendicular to $H$. We say that a deformation is $W$-equivariant if the number of parallel hyperplanes of each hyperplane $H\\in \\A$ depends only on the $W$-orbit of $H$. We prove that the conings of the $W$-equivariant deformations are free arrangements under a Shi-Catalan condition and give a formula for the number of chambers. This generalizes Yoshinaga's theorem conjectured by Edelman-Reiner.

Abe, Takuro

2010-01-01

338

Exchange rate regimes and monetary arrangements  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is a close relationship between a country’s exchange rate regime and monetary arrangement and if we are to examine monetary arrangements then exchange rate regimes must first be analysed. Within the conventional and most widely used classification of exchange rate regimes into rigid and flexible or into polar regimes (hard peg and float) on one side, and intermediate regimes on the other there, is a much greater variety among intermediate regimes. A more precise and, as will be seen, more useful classification of exchange rate regimes is the first topic of the paper. The second topic is how exchange rate regimes influence or determine monetary arrangements and monetary policy or monetary policy regimes: monetary autonomy versus monetary nonautonomy and discretion in monetary policy versus commitment in monetary policy. Both topics are important for countries on their path to the EU and the euro area

Ivan Ribnikar

2005-01-01

339

Scientific Results of Conduit Drilling in the Unzen Scientific Drilling Project (USDP)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Directional drilling at Unzen Volcano in Japan duringmid of 2004 penetrated the magma conduit and successfullyrecovered samples of the lava dike that is believed to havefed the 1991–1995 eruption. The dike was sampled about1.3 km below the volcano’s summit vent and is intrudedinto a broader conduit zone that is 0.5 km wide. This zoneconsists of multiple older lava dikes and pyroclastic veinsand has cooled to less than 200?C. The lava dike sample wasunexpectedly altered, suggesting that circulation of hydrothermalfluids rapidly cools the conduit region of even veryactive volcanoes. It is likely that seismic signals monitoredprior to emergence of the lava dome reflected fracturing ofthe country rocks, caused by veining as volatiles escapedpredominantly upward, not outward, from the rising magma.Geophysical and geological investigation of cuttings andcore samples from the conduit and of bore-hole logging datacontinues.

Setsuya Nakada; Kozo Uto

2005-01-01

340

Local recurrence of bladder cancer after cystectomy with orthotopic bladder substitution and ileal conduit  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To present the local recurrence rates after radical cystectomy for advanced bladder cancer and to compare them between patients with orthotopic neobladder and ileal conduit. Patients and methods: 97 patients with radical cystectomy were analyzed: 75 patients with orthotopic ileal neobladder, operated from 1985. to 2006, and 22 patients with ileal conduit, operated from 2000. to 2006. Results: Overall recurrence rate was 41.3% in the neobladder group, and 50% in the ileal conduit group. The rate of pelvic, upper urinary tract and urethral recurrence was 13.3%, 8%, and 10.6% in the neobladder group, and 9.1%, 13.6% and 9.1% in the ileal conduit group. Conclusion: Comparable recurrence rates, operative time, the complexity of the surgical technique and the results between two groups, strongly support the construction of orthotopic neobladder, as superior in functional, esthetic, and psychological point of view.

Pej?i? T.; Hadži-?oki? J.; A?imovi? M.; Markovi? B.B.; Maksimovi? H.M.; Milkovi? B.; Kajmakovi? B.

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Connector for the pneumatical and electrical coupling between a gases supply means and a gas conduit  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention relates to the connections between respiratory humidifiers and/or other such devices and heated breathing conduits used to couple a patient to the humidifier. In particular, the invention is a connector to couple a gases supply means and a conduit, such that the connector causes there to be an electrical and pneumatic, that is, scaled connection between a conduit including an electrical wire extending within, throughout or about it and a gases supply device, such as a humidifier, blower or the like. The connector may be of a single port type or a dual port type. The dual port type connector is suitable for ventilator apparatus that have a dry line (dry breathing conduit) extending from a ventilator or blower that carries dry gas to a humidifier and an inspiratory limb that extends from the humidifier to the patient and carries humidified gases to the patient.

Deshita Airawana Edirisuriya; Poh Ming Laurent Kristopher

342

Device for mooring and connecting a submarine conduit, and method employing the said device  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An assembly for mooring a submarine conduit to a pipeline or a fixed structure such as a storage tank is described. The assembly comprises a mooring head, a fixed mooring frame and a movable mooring arm. The mooring head is fixed to the end of the conduit to be connected. The mooring arm is mounted on the fixed mooring frame and is effective to receive the mooring head. The mooring arm is displaceable in a horizontal plane on the mooring frame. An end of the pipeline to which the conduit is to be connected is located on the rotational axis of the mooring arm. A junction pipe connects the end of the conduit to the end of the fixed pipeline. A cable attached to the mooring head passes through the mooring arm and is attached to a winch on the surface for drawing the mooring head into engagement with the mooring arm.

Patinet, J.

1981-03-10

343

The effect of asphalt resinous substances on the intensity of paraffin overgrowth of oil conduits  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effect of asphalt resinous substances on the periodicity of cleaning oil conduits is shown. A classification table is cited whose use makes it possible to evaluate the periodicity of throughput of cleaning devices based on their content.

Gallyamov, A.K.; Mastobayev, B.N.; Yukin, A.F.

1983-01-01

344

PRIVATE FUNDS FINANCING OF EUROPEAN HIGHER EDUCATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Higher education plays an important part in the European society, creating knowledge applicable to society and economy, and generating the process of economic and social evolution. Higher education institutions in Europe try to modernize both at the level of the courses they offer and at the level of their acting manner; European states as well as the private agents involved try to find out new, improved means of coordinating and financing. Starting from this idea, we would like to carry out an analysis of the manner of financing European higher education out of private funds with a view to identify new financing sources.

MARIA M?CRI?; ADRIAN M?CRI?

2010-01-01

345

The Profitability – Risk Relationship and Financing Decision  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The enterprise financial decision is a rational process for option to the optimal variant related to financing and investments. For the capital investment to be justified, the profitability of the invested money must be at least equal with the profitability of the alternative investment opportunities with the same risk on market. The choosing of a way for financing is determined on the one side by their cost and on the other side by the existent capital structure. In this paper I tried to analyse the profitability – risk relationship in the financing decision for the “NIKOS” Ltd.

Nicoleta BARBUTA-MISU

2007-01-01

346

Do SMEs follow Pecking Order Financing?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper tests for "pecking order" financing of small and medium size firms. The main sources and "pecking order" of financing for SMEs are equity (internally generated cash), trade credit paid on time, credit provided by institutions such as banks and leasing companies, other sources of debt and delayed payment on trade credit. The "pecking order" of financing is driven by the costs of asymmetric information (cost of gathering and analysing information) and financial distress costs. Empirical tests do not confirm that SMEs follow a pecking order.

Bartholdy, Jan; Mateus, Cèsario

347

Fontan operation for patients with complex anatomy: the intra-atrial conduit technique.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The extracardiac conduit type of total cavopulmonary connection (TCPC) is the most common variation of the modified Fontan operation in current use. For patients with some forms of complex anatomy (eg, dextrocardia in situs solitus or asplenia syndrome), we have adopted a different technique: interposition of an intra-atrial conduit between the inferior vena cava (IVC) and the superior vena cava-right pulmonary artery (SVC-RPA) connection. We report our experience with six patients.

Iacona GM; Giamberti A; Abella RF; Muñoz JA; Mendieta SG; Pomé G; Frigiola A

2012-04-01

348

Fontan operation for patients with complex anatomy: the intra-atrial conduit technique.  

Science.gov (United States)

The extracardiac conduit type of total cavopulmonary connection (TCPC) is the most common variation of the modified Fontan operation in current use. For patients with some forms of complex anatomy (eg, dextrocardia in situs solitus or asplenia syndrome), we have adopted a different technique: interposition of an intra-atrial conduit between the inferior vena cava (IVC) and the superior vena cava-right pulmonary artery (SVC-RPA) connection. We report our experience with six patients. PMID:23804784

Iacona, Gabriele M; Giamberti, Alessandro; Abella, Raul F; Muñoz, Julio Agredo; Mendieta, Saul Garcia; Pomé, Giuseppe; Frigiola, Alessandro

2012-04-01

349

The Contegra valved bovine conduit: a biomaterial for the surgical treatment of congenital heart defects.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Contegra, a bovine jugular vein graft, has been widely used as a preferable biomaterial in the surgical treatment of congenital heart defects, especially as a conduit for the right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction. This article aims to make a comprehensive review on the clinical outcomes of Contegra. Reports of Contegra published since 2002 were comprehensively retrieved, collected and analyzed. There were 1718 Contegra, applied in 1705 patients. The sizes of the conduits were 8-22 mm. The patients aged from newborn to 74.5 years, prevailed by pediatrics. The primary diagnosis was congenital heart defects in all cases, with Tetralogy of Fallot, truncus arteriosus and pulmonary atresia being the first three diagnoses, representing 25.6%, 16.7%, and 13.1%, respectively. Contegra was used as a tube graft in the pulmonary position in 1635 (95.9%) patients, as a monocuspid patch in 12 (0.7%), as a graft in the position of the pulmonary valve or a monocusps in 40 (2.3%), and as an inferior vena cava-pulmonary artery conduit in the Fontan procedure in 18 (1.1%) patients, respectively. Conduit reimplantation was performed in 141 (8.3%) patients 33.8 ± 37 (8.6-106.8) months after the initial conduit insertion. Conduit plasty was necessary in 6 (0.4%), and reintervention in 83 (4.9%) patients. Indications for conduit reimplantation included severe stenosis of the distal anastomosis, pseudoaneurysm of the proximal anastomosis and severe conduit regurgitation. As for the good performance, availability and longevity, Contegra is a biomaterial suitable for the right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction and for patch repair for ventricular septal defect, but not apt for Fontan procedure.

Yuan SM

2012-12-01

350

The Contegra valved bovine conduit: a biomaterial for the surgical treatment of congenital heart defects.  

Science.gov (United States)

Contegra, a bovine jugular vein graft, has been widely used as a preferable biomaterial in the surgical treatment of congenital heart defects, especially as a conduit for the right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction. This article aims to make a comprehensive review on the clinical outcomes of Contegra. Reports of Contegra published since 2002 were comprehensively retrieved, collected and analyzed. There were 1718 Contegra, applied in 1705 patients. The sizes of the conduits were 8-22 mm. The patients aged from newborn to 74.5 years, prevailed by pediatrics. The primary diagnosis was congenital heart defects in all cases, with Tetralogy of Fallot, truncus arteriosus and pulmonary atresia being the first three diagnoses, representing 25.6%, 16.7%, and 13.1%, respectively. Contegra was used as a tube graft in the pulmonary position in 1635 (95.9%) patients, as a monocuspid patch in 12 (0.7%), as a graft in the position of the pulmonary valve or a monocusps in 40 (2.3%), and as an inferior vena cava-pulmonary artery conduit in the Fontan procedure in 18 (1.1%) patients, respectively. Conduit reimplantation was performed in 141 (8.3%) patients 33.8 ± 37 (8.6-106.8) months after the initial conduit insertion. Conduit plasty was necessary in 6 (0.4%), and reintervention in 83 (4.9%) patients. Indications for conduit reimplantation included severe stenosis of the distal anastomosis, pseudoaneurysm of the proximal anastomosis and severe conduit regurgitation. As for the good performance, availability and longevity, Contegra is a biomaterial suitable for the right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction and for patch repair for ventricular septal defect, but not apt for Fontan procedure. PMID:23152287

Yuan, Shi-Min

2012-11-16

351

What influences the acidity in the gastric conduit in patients who underwent cervical esophagogastrostomy for cancer?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this study was to determine the factors influencing acidity in the gastric conduit after esophagectomy for cancer. Acidity and bile reflux in the stomach and in the gastric conduit were examined by 24-h pH monitoring and bilimetry in 40 patients who underwent transthoracic subtotal esophagectomy followed by esophageal reconstruction using a gastric conduit, which was pulled up to the neck through a posterior mediastinal route in 17 patients, through a retrosternal route in 10 patients, and through a subcutaneous route in 13 patients. They were examined at 1 week before surgery, at 1 month after surgery, and at 1 year after surgery. Helicobacter pylori infection was examined pathologically and using the (13) C-urea breath test. The factors influencing acidity of the gastric conduit were analyzed using the stepwise regression model. Gastric acidity assessed by percentage (%) time of pH < 4 was reduced after surgery and was significantly less in patients with H. pylori infection compared with those without H. pylori infection throughout the period from 1 week before surgery to 1 year after surgery. Duodenogastric reflux (DGR) assessed by % time absorbance > 0.14 into the lower portion of the gastric conduit was significantly increased after surgery throughout the period from 1 month after surgery to 1 year after surgery. Multivariate analysis showed that the acidity in the gastric conduit was influenced by H. pylori infection and DGR at 1 month after surgery, and by H. pylori infection and the route for esophageal reconstruction at 1 year after surgery. Acidity in the gastric conduit was significantly decreased after surgery. Acidity in the gastric conduit for esophageal substitutes is influenced by H. pylori infection and surgery. DGR influences the gastric acidity in the short-term after surgery, but not in the long-term after surgery.

Tsubuku T; Fujita H; Tanaka T; Matono S; Nishimura K; Murata K; Sueyoshi S; Shirouzu K; Aoyama Y; Yanagawa T

2011-11-01

352

What influences the acidity in the gastric conduit in patients who underwent cervical esophagogastrostomy for cancer?  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to determine the factors influencing acidity in the gastric conduit after esophagectomy for cancer. Acidity and bile reflux in the stomach and in the gastric conduit were examined by 24-h pH monitoring and bilimetry in 40 patients who underwent transthoracic subtotal esophagectomy followed by esophageal reconstruction using a gastric conduit, which was pulled up to the neck through a posterior mediastinal route in 17 patients, through a retrosternal route in 10 patients, and through a subcutaneous route in 13 patients. They were examined at 1 week before surgery, at 1 month after surgery, and at 1 year after surgery. Helicobacter pylori infection was examined pathologically and using the (13) C-urea breath test. The factors influencing acidity of the gastric conduit were analyzed using the stepwise regression model. Gastric acidity assessed by percentage (%) time of pH 0.14 into the lower portion of the gastric conduit was significantly increased after surgery throughout the period from 1 month after surgery to 1 year after surgery. Multivariate analysis showed that the acidity in the gastric conduit was influenced by H. pylori infection and DGR at 1 month after surgery, and by H. pylori infection and the route for esophageal reconstruction at 1 year after surgery. Acidity in the gastric conduit was significantly decreased after surgery. Acidity in the gastric conduit for esophageal substitutes is influenced by H. pylori infection and surgery. DGR influences the gastric acidity in the short-term after surgery, but not in the long-term after surgery. PMID:21489042

Tsubuku, T; Fujita, H; Tanaka, T; Matono, S; Nishimura, K; Murata, K; Sueyoshi, S; Shirouzu, K; Aoyama, Y; Yanagawa, T

2011-04-13

353

Long term peripheral nerve regeneration using a novel PCL nerve conduit.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The gold standard in surgical management of a peripheral nerve gap is currently autologous nerve grafting. This confers patient morbidity and increases surgical time therefore innovative experimental strategies towards engineering a synthetic nerve conduit are welcome. We have developed a novel synthetic conduit made of poly ?-caprolactone (PCL) that has demonstrated promising peripheral nerve regeneration in short-term studies. This material has been engineered to permit translation into clinical practice and here we demonstrate that histological outcomes in a long-term in vivo experiment are comparable with that of autologous nerve grafting. A 1cm nerve gap in a rat sciatic nerve injury model was repaired with a PCL nerve conduit or an autologous nerve graft. At 18 weeks post surgical repair, there was a similar volume of regenerating axons within the nerve autograft and PCL conduit repair groups, and similar numbers of myelinated axons in the distal stump of both groups. Furthermore, there was evidence of comparable re-innervation of end organ muscle and skin with the only significant difference the lower wet weight of the muscle from the PCL conduit nerve repair group. This study stimulates further work on the potential use of this synthetic biodegradable PCL nerve conduit in a clinical setting.

Reid AJ; de Luca AC; Faroni A; Downes S; Sun M; Terenghi G; Kingham PJ

2013-06-01

354

Comparison of a karst groundwater model with and without discrete conduit flow  

Science.gov (United States)

Karst aquifers exhibit a dual flow system characterized by interacting conduit and matrix domains. This study evaluated the coupled continuum pipe-flow framework for modeling karst groundwater flow in the Madison aquifer of western South Dakota (USA). Coupled conduit and matrix flow was simulated within a regional finite-difference model over a 10-year transient period. An existing equivalent porous medium (EPM) model was modified to include major conduit networks whose locations were constrained by dye-tracing data and environmental tracer analysis. Model calibration data included measured hydraulic heads at observation wells and estimates of discharge at four karst springs. Relative to the EPM model, the match to observation well hydraulic heads was substantially improved with the addition of conduits. The inclusion of conduit flow allowed for a simpler hydraulic conductivity distribution in the matrix continuum. Two of the high-conductivity zones in the EPM model, which were required to indirectly simulate the effects of conduits, were eliminated from the new model. This work demonstrates the utility of the coupled continuum pipe-flow method and illustrates how karst aquifer model parameterization is dependent on the physical processes that are simulated.

Saller, Stephen P.; Ronayne, Michael J.; Long, Andrew J.

2013-09-01

355

A Biosynthetic Nerve Guide Conduit Based on Silk/SWNT/Fibronectin Nanocomposite for Peripheral Nerve Regeneration  

Science.gov (United States)

As a contribution to the functionality of nerve guide conduits (NGCs) in nerve tissue engineering, here we report a conduit processing technique through introduction and evaluation of topographical, physical and chemical cues. Porous structure of NGCs based on freeze-dried silk/single walled carbon nanotubes (SF/SWNTs) has shown a uniform chemical and physical structure with suitable electrical conductivity. Moreover, fibronectin (FN) containing nanofibers within the structure of SF/SWNT conduits produced through electrospinning process have shown aligned fashion with appropriate porosity and diameter. Moreover, fibronectin remained its bioactivity and influenced the adhesion and growth of U373 cell lines. The conduits were then implanted to 10 mm left sciatic nerve defects in rats. The histological assessment has shown that nerve regeneration has taken places in proximal region of implanted nerve after 5 weeks following surgery. Furthermore, nerve conduction velocities (NCV) and more myelinated axons were observed in SF/SWNT and SF/SWNT/FN groups after 5 weeks post implantation, indicating a functional recovery for the injured nerves. With immunohistochemistry, the higher S-100 expression of Schwann cells in SF/SWNT/FN conduits in comparison to other groups was confirmed. In conclusion, an oriented conduit of biocompatible SF/SWNT/FN has been fabricated with acceptable structure that is particularly applicable in nerve grafts.

Mottaghitalab, Fatemeh; Farokhi, Mehdi; Zaminy, Arash; Kokabi, Mehrdad; Soleimani, Masoud; Mirahmadi, Fereshteh

2013-01-01

356

Innovative financing for energy-efficiency improvements. Phase I report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of utility-assisted financing, tax-exempt financing, bank financing, leasing, and joint venture financing to promote energy efficiency investments for each of three different categories of buildings (multifamily, commercial, and industrial) is discussed in separate chapters. (MCW)

Klepper, M.; Schwartz, H.K.; Feder, J.M.; Smith, D.C.; Green, R.H.; Williams, J.; Sherman, J.L.; Carroll, M.

1982-01-01

357

Innovations in Trade Financing Process of Commercial Bank  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available From the point of view of bank process reengineering theory, the paper focuses its discussion on definition and features of international trade financing based on the principles and requirements of financial innovation. Through the clarification for international trade financing process and comparison for ways of international trade financing under traditional trade settlement methods, trade financing process innovation has been fulfilled.

Yijun Yuan; Xiaowei Dong; Xiaoqing Lv

2009-01-01

358

Effectiveness, Teaching, and Assessments: Survey Evidence from Finance Courses  

Science.gov (United States)

|The present article examines the effectiveness, teaching, assessment methods, and the importance of finance concepts in three undergraduate finance courses in a private university in Malaysia. Approximately 224 undergraduates (finance majors) were surveyed and demonstrated positive attitudes toward the effectiveness of the finance subjects. The…

Lai, Ming Ming; Kwan, Jing Hui; Kadir, Hazlina Abdul; Abdullah, Mahdhir; Yap, Voon Choong

2010-01-01

359

Political economy of hospital financing.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this paper we tried to explain the recent reform in the law of financing German hospitals. We first described five basic types of hospital payment systems which were available as alternatives to the decision on the reform in the early 1980s. In the next step we identified five concerned interest groups whose actions certainly had a great influence on the legislative process. We proposed a simple theoretical model to examine how these groups of actors evaluated the different payment systems. After deriving a preference ranking for each actor, we confronted these rankings with the respective revealed preferences, which could be inferred from their official statements towards the reform. It could also be shown that quite often the actual statements deviated strongly from the theoretically expected preferences because all groups were engaged in a highly interactive lobbying game. In the last step we compared these preferences to the actual outcome of the legislation and found that all groups have at least partly realized their targets. So in contrast to the typical results of interest group theory, the differences in bargaining power do to appear to have led to a solution which unambiguously benefits some groups of actors at the expense of others. It has to be repeated that the empirical analysis was limited to statements from the interest groups in the pre-legislative stage of the whole process. From this point the most promising procedure would appear to be the step-by-step analysis of the statements of the groups during the legislative process as well. This would give the researcher a chance to evaluate whether or not the theoretical hypotheses can be confirmed, whether or not our simple theoretical model is an appropriate way to understand the behavior of the affected groups and what was finally responsible for the outcome of the legislation. Therefore this paper should be seen as a first attempt to apply the framework of public choice theory to the field of health care financing and to demonstrate that much more research is needed.

Breyer F; Schneider F

1992-01-01

360

Financing healthcare in Gulf Cooperation Council countries: a focus on Saudi Arabia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: This paper presents an analysis of the main characteristics of the Gulf Cooperation Council's (GCC) health financing systems and draws similarities and differences between GCC countries and other high-income and low-income countries, in order to provide recommendations for healthcare policy makers. The paper also illustrates some financial implications of the recent implementation of the Compulsory Employment-based Health Insurance (CEBHI) system in Saudi Arabia. METHODS: Employing a descriptive framework for the country-level analysis of healthcare financing arrangements, we compared expenditure data on healthcare from GCC and other developing and developed countries, mostly using secondary data from the World Health Organization health expenditure database. The analysis was supported by a review of related literature. RESULTS: There are three significant characteristics affecting healthcare financing in GCC countries: (i) large expatriate populations relative to the national population, which leads GCC countries to use different strategies to control expatriate healthcare expenditure; (ii) substantial government revenue, with correspondingly high government expenditure on healthcare services in GCC countries; and (iii) underdeveloped healthcare systems, with some GCC countries' healthcare indicators falling below those of upper-middle-income countries. CONCLUSION: Reforming the mode of health financing is vital to achieving equitable and efficient healthcare services. Such reform could assist GCC countries in improving their healthcare indicators and bring about a reduction in out-of-pocket payments for healthcare. © 2013 The Authors. International Journal of Health Planning and Management published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Alkhamis A; Hassan A; Cosgrove P

2013-08-01

 
 
 
 
361

Arrangements for responding to nuclear emergencies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This publication describes the current arrangements for minimising the effects on the general public of a nuclear accident in the United Kingdom. It replaces an earlier version published in 1990 (Arrangements for responding to nuclear emergencies, HMSO, ISBN 0 11 885525 5) and provides updated information on the emergency plans for accidents occurring at fixed nuclear installations and associated transport activities, which might result in the release of radioactivity. These plans are prepared by the operators and organisations likely to be involved in dealing with any emergency within the general framework described in this booklet. They provide for any action which may be necessary, either on or off the nuclear site, to protect members of the public. There are regular exercises during which the plans and arrangements are tested. The main change since the publication of the earlier version is the introduction of revised arrangements for coordination and control of the off-site emergency response at sites in England and Wales operated by Nuclear Electric. In addition, the previous version has been amended to incorporate a large number of minor organisational and operational changes. (author)

1994-01-01

362

Is your leasing arrangement paying off?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Lease rates for healthcare equipment should not exceed fair market value for comparable leases in the market. Valuators usually analyze lease arrangements under a cost approach and a market approach to determine the fair market value lease rate. Healthcare financial executives need to perform significant research to support the lease rate.

Bernstein C

2006-08-01

363

Child care arrangement and preschool development.  

Science.gov (United States)

Baseline data from the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth were used to evaluate the associations between child care arrangement and poor developmental attainment (PDA). A weighted total of 521,800 children aged 2 to 3 years were studied (N = 2,709). PDA was assessed by age-standardized motor and social development score. Children were grouped by the predominant type of arrangement: care by someone in the child's own home, in another home (family child care), at a child care centre, or none (child care exclusive to parents). Controlling for socioeconomic status, biological factors and maternal immigration, family dysfunction, hostile parenting and low neighbourhood safety were correlated with PDA and positive parent-child interaction decreased the odds of PDA. Whereas centre child care arrangements were beneficial to development overall (OR = 0.41, 99% CI = 0.18, 0.93), an interaction existed between type of child care and maternal depression; among children with depressed mothers, centre child care was associated with increased odds of PDA. Findings suggest that the associations between child care arrangement and child development involve interactions of factors that influence a child's home environment. Future child development studies exploring these interactions are warranted. PMID:11200730

To, T; Cadarette, S M; Liu, Y

364

Child care arrangement and preschool development.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Baseline data from the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth were used to evaluate the associations between child care arrangement and poor developmental attainment (PDA). A weighted total of 521,800 children aged 2 to 3 years were studied (N = 2,709). PDA was assessed by age-standardized motor and social development score. Children were grouped by the predominant type of arrangement: care by someone in the child's own home, in another home (family child care), at a child care centre, or none (child care exclusive to parents). Controlling for socioeconomic status, biological factors and maternal immigration, family dysfunction, hostile parenting and low neighbourhood safety were correlated with PDA and positive parent-child interaction decreased the odds of PDA. Whereas centre child care arrangements were beneficial to development overall (OR = 0.41, 99% CI = 0.18, 0.93), an interaction existed between type of child care and maternal depression; among children with depressed mothers, centre child care was associated with increased odds of PDA. Findings suggest that the associations between child care arrangement and child development involve interactions of factors that influence a child's home environment. Future child development studies exploring these interactions are warranted.

To T; Cadarette SM; Liu Y

2000-11-01

365

Homotopy groups and twisted homology of arrangements  

CERN Document Server

Recent work of M. Yoshinaga shows that in some instances certain higher homotopy groups of arrangements map onto non-resonant homology. This is in contrast to the usual Hurewicz map to untwisted homology, which is always the zero homomorphism in degree greater than one. In this work we examine this dichotomy, generalizing both results.

Randell, Richard

2008-01-01

366

Simple-root bases for Shi arrangements  

CERN Multimedia

We introduce the concept of simple-root basis for the logarithmic derivation modules of the cones of the (extended) Shi arrangements. For each irreducible root system and a set of simple roots, we prove that a simple-root basis exists uniquely up to nonzero multiples. We also introduce and study the dual simple-root basis.

Abe, Takuro

2011-01-01

367

The Himalayas: barrier and conduit for gene flow.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Himalayan mountain range is strategically located at the crossroads of the major cultural centers in Asia, the Middle East and Europe. Although previous Y-chromosome studies indicate that the Himalayas served as a natural barrier for gene flow from the south to the Tibetan plateau, this region is believed to have played an important role as a corridor for human migrations between East and West Eurasia along the ancient Silk Road. To evaluate the effects of the Himalayan mountain range in shaping the maternal lineages of populations residing on either side of the cordillera, we analyzed mitochondrial DNA variation in 344 samples from three Nepalese collections (Newar, Kathmandu and Tamang) and a general population of Tibet. Our results revealed a predominantly East Asian-specific component in Tibet and Tamang, whereas Newar and Kathmandu are both characterized by a combination of East and South Central Asian lineages. Interestingly, Newar and Kathmandu harbor several deep-rooted Indian lineages, including M2, R5, and U2, whose coalescent times from this study (U2, >40 kya) and previous reports (M2 and R5, >50 kya) suggest that Nepal was inhabited during the initial peopling of South Central Asia. Comparisons with our previous Y-chromosome data indicate sex-biased migrations in Tamang and a founder effect and/or genetic drift in Tamang and Newar. Altogether, our results confirm that while the Himalayas acted as a geographic barrier for human movement from the Indian subcontinent to the Tibetan highland, it also served as a conduit for gene flow between Central and East Asia. PMID:23580401

Gayden, Tenzin; Perez, Annabel; Persad, Patrice J; Bukhari, Areej; Chennakrishnaiah, Shilpa; Simms, Tanya; Maloney, Trisha; Rodriguez, Kristina; Herrera, Rene J

2013-04-12

368

Current distribution in Cable-In-Conduit Conductors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A numerical study of the current distribution in Cable-In-Conduit Conductors (CICC`s) experiencing linearly ramping transport currents and transverse magnetic fields was conducted for both infinitely long, periodic cables and finite length cables terminated in low resistance joints. The goal of the study was to gain insight into the phenomenon known as Ramp Rate Limitation, an as yet unexplained correspondence between maximum attainable current and the ramp time taken to reach that current in CICC superconducting magnets. A discrete geometric model of a 27 strand multiply twisted CICC was developed to effectively represent the flux linkages, mutual inductances, and resistive contact points between the strands of an experimentally tested cable. The results of the numerical study showed that for fully periodic cables, the current imbalances due to ramping magnetic fields and ramping transport currents are negligible in the range of experimentally explored operating conditions. For finite length, joint terminated cables, however, significant imbalances can exist. Unfortunately, quantitative results are limited by a lack of knowledge of the transverse resistance between strands in the joints. Nonetheless, general results are presented showing the dependency of the imbalance on cable length, ramp time, and joint resistance for both ramping transverse magnet fields and ramping transport currents. At the conclusion of the study, it is suggested that calculated current imbalances in a finite length cable could cause certain strands to prematurely ``quench`` -- become non-superconducting --thus leading to an instability for the entire cable. This numerically predicted ``current imbalance instability`` is compared to the experimentally observed Ramp Rate Limitation for the 27 strand CICC sample.

Ferri, M.A.

1994-05-01

369

Current distribution in Cable-In-Conduit Conductors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A numerical study of the current distribution in Cable-In-Conduit Conductors (CICC's) experiencing linearly ramping transport currents and transverse magnetic fields was conducted for both infinitely long, periodic cables and finite length cables terminated in low resistance joints. The goal of the study was to gain insight into the phenomenon known as Ramp Rate Limitation, an as yet unexplained correspondence between maximum attainable current and the ramp time taken to reach that current in CICC superconducting magnets. A discrete geometric model of a 27 strand multiply twisted CICC was developed to effectively represent the flux linkages, mutual inductances, and resistive contact points between the strands of an experimentally tested cable. The results of the numerical study showed that for fully periodic cables, the current imbalances due to ramping magnetic fields and ramping transport currents are negligible in the range of experimentally explored operating conditions. For finite length, joint terminated cables, however, significant imbalances can exist. Unfortunately, quantitative results are limited by a lack of knowledge of the transverse resistance between strands in the joints. Nonetheless, general results are presented showing the dependency of the imbalance on cable length, ramp time, and joint resistance for both ramping transverse magnet fields and ramping transport currents. At the conclusion of the study, it is suggested that calculated current imbalances in a finite length cable could cause certain strands to prematurely ''quench'' -- become non-superconducting --thus leading to an instability for the entire cable. This numerically predicted ''current imbalance instability'' is compared to the experimentally observed Ramp Rate Limitation for the 27 strand CICC sample.

1994-01-01

370

Pressure drop characteristic in a cable-in-conduit conductor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A cable-in-conduit conductor (CICC) is the best candidate to satisfy requirement for a superconducting magnet to be employed in a fusion machine, such as a large operating current, high magnetic field, high breakdown voltage and so on. The present drop of the conductor is a key factor in design of a cryogenic pump to be used in a magnet system in the fusion machine. Also, pressure rise at a coil quench depends on the pressure drop characteristic of the conductor. Several workers investigated the pressure drop characteristic of CICCs. Katheder attempted to derive general correlation of the pressure drop characteristic basis on the correlation used for pebble beds. He compared his correlation with the measurements for the eight different CICCs. However, there is a large error of 75% in the maximum. It seems general formula of the pressure drop characteristic of CICC has not been provided. The authors investigate the pressure drop characteristic of 30 kA, 80 m cooling path length CICCs, whose dimension is almost same as the conductor to be employed in the fusion machine. The result indicates correlation between the Reynolds number and the friction factor of CICCs obeys the conventional formula for a smooth tube, Hagen-Poesuilli formula, in laminar flow region but does not agree with the conventional formula for a smooth tube, Blasius formula, in turbulent flow region. The experimental result is compared with Katheder's correlation. Katheder's correlation does not show good agreement with the experimental result in the turbulent flow region. The correlation that the friction factor is inversely proportional to 0.157 power of the Reynolds number and the proportional constant is 0.257 coincides better with the experimental result in this region. (author)

1995-01-01

371

IEA CCS finance meeting in New York  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The IEA Clean Coal Centre, World Coal Institute and the IEA Greenhouse Gas R & D Programme with sponsorship from Chevron held an Expert Meeting on Financing Carbon Capture and Storage Projects in New York on 28-29 May 2008.

NONE

2008-09-15

372

The Quiet Revolution in School Finance  

Science.gov (United States)

Notes that today school finance reform encompasses a broad range of issues, from extra needs of expensive items, difficulty to educate pupils, to equitable aid programs to restructuring of state and local tax systems. (Author/AM)

Odden, Allan

1976-01-01

373

Export financing of nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Brief general survey of the various forms and possibilities of export financing throughout the Western World. (orig./RW)[de] Kurzer allgemeiner Ueberblick ueber die verschiedenen Arten und Moeglichkeiten der Exportfinanzierung in der westlichen Welt. (orig./RW)

1975-09-08

374

Transportation Pricing and Finance Options for California.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this research project was to conduct research on the merits, costs and application potential of various transportation pricing approaches, to better inform decision makers and the public about transportation financing/pricing option in Ca...

A. Evans B. McCullough B. D. Taylor E. Morris M. Gougherty M. Smirti M. Wachs P. Sorenson

2006-01-01

375

Financing of energy-related projects  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A discussion is presented of types of previously used and recently developed financing techniques in conjunction with the variety of new funding sources available to companies concerned in these energy-related development projects. 5 refs.

Blackwell, W.A.

1981-10-01

376

Federal Tax Policy and Infrastructure Financing.  

Science.gov (United States)

The report examines the impact of federal government actions on the financing of state and local infrastructure construction. Composed of four sections, the report essentially has three conclusions. Federal assistance programs can positively promote state...

D. W. Graham P. L. Shinn

1989-01-01

377

Bank financing of secondary recovery projects  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Investment requirements of the average independent oil operator desiring to develop a secondary recovery project usually are sought from a lending institution. The criteria by which The Chase Manhattan Bank judges such an application are discussed: managerial competence of the operator, the engineering information and program, and an economic analysis of the project and proposed financing. The application of these principles to the case of a successful waterflood in the Mid-Continent area is presented. Some problems are presented to illustrate the importance of the bank's standards in considering the financing of a secondary recovery project. Good management and competent, continuing engineering guidance are considered essential to a financeable secondary recovery project. The quality of the properties must be proven by comparison of laboratory data and engineering studies with pilot flood performance. The amount of financing the bank will be willing to undertake is determined by an economic analysis and valuation method as described.

Brown, C.L.

1982-01-01

378

Judging the Sustainability of Czech Public Finances  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The position of Czech public finances has been pronounced unsustainable by economists, while politicians claim more or less the opposite. Correct judgment is complicated by the purposeful use of arguments by the two groups in disagreement, by use of different methodology to collect the data and above all, by the fact that there is no precise benchmark for measuring the sustainability. My work attempts to surpass those complications. It attempts to shed more light on Czech public finances sustainability and to present further arguments, presenting Czech public finances in widest international context possible and using comparable, same-methodology based data, as well as different approaches and angles public sector can be looked upon. Despite my believe that careful reader should be allowed to arrive to his own conclusion, the analysis suggests that concerns of economists about the future development of Czech public finances are legitimate.

Jan Zápal

2007-01-01

379

Behavioral Finances versus Technical and Fundamental Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although the field of modern finance has progressed impressively, it is still hard to explain on a scientific basis why people behave nonrationally when dealing with money. The classic finance assumes people rationalize and optimize their financial decisions. Behavioral Finance adds the importance of what investors should do and complements the mantra of classic finance with what people actually do, in terms of economic decisions. The new field of Neuroeconomy investigates the subtle and profound interactions within the human brain when faced with uncertainties of an economic decision. The most basic psychological traits of human being (fear, anger, greed and altruism) stamp an indelible mark on our decisions about money. The intellect (understanding a situation), reason (long term consequences of the contemplated action) and emotion (the judge of the course of action) are all intercorrelated resorts behind human decision making.

Adrian Mitroi; Ion Stancu

2007-01-01

380

Education and the Private Finance Initiative  

Science.gov (United States)

|This article reviews the development of Private Finance Initiative schemes in the United Kingdom, and reflects on how profitable opportunities for private financiers and construction companies were created at the expense of the public sector. (Contains 72 notes.)|

Griggs, Clive

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Urban Public Finance in Developing Countries.  

Science.gov (United States)

Contents: Foreword; Acknowledgments; Data Sources and Definitions; Introduction: Why Study Urban Public Finance; Part I A Framework for Analysis; Part II Local Government Taxes; Part III User Charges for Urban Services; Part IV Intergovernmental Fiscal Re...

R. W. Bahl J. F. Linn

1992-01-01

382

Education Financing of Rural Households in China.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of this paper was to examine children's education financing alternatives among households in rural China. Data on education financing was from a household survey conducted in three poverty villages in Guizhou, China. The difference in financing education by households was verified through non-parametric testing. Findings show that private savings is dominant in financing education of children in school. Formal loans are almost absent even in the highest wealth group examined. The findings implied that the extension of financial services to children's education could motivate parents to send their children for more education, increase disposable income of rural households by reducing precautionary savings, and provide better-educated labors in rural China.

Wang HS; Moll H

2010-09-01

383

Study on Supplier-Led Supply Chain Finance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study analyzes a class of supply chain financing system that includes the small and mediumsized manufacturer, the retailer and the raw material supplier which is the core enterprise. Both the manufacturer and the retailer face cash-constraint and cannot produce/order their optimal quantity. Our study is mainly to discuss two financing methods: direct financing and supply chain finance financing, to analyze the two methods of supply chain profit distribution status and then to derive the model of mechanism about the distribution of profits. According to the profit function, it indicates that choosing the supply chain finance financing is more beneficial for the supply chain.

Yang Wang; Yunlu Ma; Yuhe Zhan

2012-01-01

384

'Show me the money': energy projects financing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the business and business model of Corpfinance International (CFI). CFI consists of three businesses: structured financing, private equity/corporate finance advisory and securitization. Furthermore, CFI is the lender of record acting on behalf of and based on strong relationship with various Life Insurance Companies, Pension Funds and International Banks. CFI has in-house expertise in support of its lending advisory and investing activities

2006-01-01

385

Dental practice financing--understanding the options.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article provides insights into the process of financing a dental practice. It provides information on the different options, points out key considerations and potential pitfalls that can lead to a less-than-ideal experience. Astute buyers know, or quickly learn, that there is more to a well-structured financing package than simply the interest rate. Thorough preparation, lender selection, and offer analysis are the critical components of a smooth buying experience and well-structured loan.

Eimers J

2008-06-01

386

Dental practice financing--understanding the options.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article provides insights into the process of financing a dental practice. It provides information on the different options, points out key considerations and potential pitfalls that can lead to a less-than-ideal experience. Astute buyers know, or quickly learn, that there is more to a well-structured financing package than simply the interest rate. Thorough preparation, lender selection, and offer analysis are the critical components of a smooth buying experience and well-structured loan. PMID:18661793

Eimers, Jeramie

2008-06-01

387

Adoption of alternative financing strategies to increase the diffusion of picture archiving and communication systems into the radiology marketplace.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective of the study was to evaluate current marketplace conditions and strategies employed by major picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) vendors in the creation of alternative financing strategies, to enhance the diffusion of filmless imaging. Data were collected from the major PACS vendors in the forms of survey questionnaires and review of existing leases. Topics evaluated in the survey included current financing options available, foreseeable changes in PACS financing, role of third-party financiers, and creation of risk-sharing arrangements. Generic leases were also reviewed evaluating the presence or absence of several key variables including technology obsolescence protection, hardware/software upgrades, end-of-term options, determination of fair market value, functionality/acceptance testing, uptime guarantees, and workflow management consulting. Eight of the 10 PACS vendors surveyed participated in the data collection. The vast majority of current PACS implementations (60% to 90%) occur through direct purchase, with conventional leasing (operating or capital) accounting for only 5% to 30% of PACS installations. The majority of respondents view fee-for-lease arrangements and other forms of risk sharing as increasing importance for future PACS financing. The specific targets for such risk-sharing arrangements consist of small hospital and privately owned imaging centers. Leases currently offered range in duration from 3 to 5 years and frequently offer technology obsolescence protection with upgrades, multiple end-of-term options, and some form of acceptance testing. A number of important variables frequently omitted from leases include uptime guarantees, flexibility in changing financing or vendors, and incorporation of expected productivity/operational efficiency gains. As vendors strive to increase the penetration of PACS into the radiology marketplace, there will be a shift from conventional financing (loan or purchase) to leasing. Fee-for-use leasing and other forms of risk sharing have the greatest potential in smaller hospitals, which do not have the financial resources to pursue conventional financing options. Potential PACS customers must be cautious when entering into these alternative financing strategies, to ensure that appropriate safeguards are incorporated, in order to minimize downside risk.

Reiner B; Siegel E; McKay P

2000-05-01

388

Financing solar thermal power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The commercialization of concentrating solar power technology took a major step forward in the mid 1980s and early 1990s with the development of the SEGS plants in California. Over the years they have proven that parabolic trough power technologies are the most cost-effective approach for commercial scale solar power generation in the sunbelt countries of the world. However, the question must be asked why no additional solar power plants have been built following the bankruptcy of the developer of the SEGS projects, LUZ International Limited. Although many believe the SEGS projects were a success as a result of parabolic trough technology they employ, in truth, the SEGS projects were developed simply because they represented an attractive opportunity for investors. Simply states, no additional projects have been developed because no one has been able to put together a similarly attractive financial package to potential investors. More than $1.2 billion in private capital was raised in debt and equity financing for the nine SEGS plants. Investors and bankers who make these investments are the real clients for solar power technologies. They are not interested in annual solar to electric efficiencies, but in risk, return on investments, and coverage ratios. This paper will take a look at solar power projects form the financier's perspective. The challenge in moving forward is to attract private investors, commercial lenders, and international development agencies and to find innovative solutions to the difficult issues that investment in the global power market poses for solar power technologies.

1999-01-01

389

Financing Solar Thermal Power Plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The commercialization of concentrating solar power technology took a major step forward in the mid 1980s and early 1990s with the development of the SEGS plants in California. Over the years they have proven that parabolic trough power technologies are the most cost-effective approach for commercial scale solar power generation in the sunbelt countries of the world. However, the question must be asked why no additional solar power plants have been build following the bankruptcy of the developer of the SEGS projects, LUZ International Limited. Although many believe the SEGS projects were a success as a result of parabolic trough technology they employ, in truth, the SEGS projects were developed simply because they represented an attractive opportunity for investors. Simply stated, no additional projects have been developed because no one has been able to put together a similarly attractive financial package to potential investors. More than $1.2 billion in private capital was raised in debt and equity financing for the nine SEGS plants. Investors and bankers who make these investments are the real clients for solar power technologies. They are not interested in annual solar to electric efficiencies, but in risk, return on investments, and coverage ratios. This paper will take a look at solar power projects from the financier's perspective. The challenge in moving forward is to attract private investors, commercial lenders, and international development agencies and to find innovative solutions to the difficult issues that investment in the global power market poses for solar power technologies

1999-01-01

390

Financing resource development after Campbell  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper deals briefly with the basic nature of financial activity and markets and of the intermediaries, including banks, within these markets. It is argued that efforts by the authorities to affect monetary policy through controls on bank lending (quantitative and interest rates) are inefficient and only lead to circumvention. To the degree that prices (interest rates) are kept down in one area, they will be higher in another, and supply of credit reduced from one source will encourage a greater supply from another. The Campbell Committee's recommendations, if implemented, are likely to result in freer financial markets and to improve the resource development sector's access to finance. Clear examples would be the removal of foreign exchange restrictions and the setting up of a market-oriented exchange rate system. However, in one sense this access may be narrowed as the extension of bank-type prudential controls to bank subsidiaries and to all 'deposit-taking institutions' may impede the free functioning of financial markets as well as further entrenching the 'safeguarded deposit' concept over the community's savings.

Gloster, G.A.

1982-05-01

391

Use new PLGL-RGD-NGF nerve conduits for promoting peripheral nerve regeneration  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Nerve conduits provide a promising strategy for peripheral nerve injury repair. However, the efficiency of nerve conduits to enhance nerve regeneration and functional recovery is often inferior to that of autografts. Nerve conduits require additional factors such as cell adhesion molecules and neurotrophic factors to provide a more conducive microenvironment for nerve regeneration. Methods In the present study, poly{(lactic acid)-co-[(glycolic acid)-alt-(L-lysine)]} (PLGL) was modified by grafting Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Gly (RGD peptide) and nerve growth factor (NGF) for fabricating new PLGL-RGD-NGF nerve conduits to promote nerve regeneration and functional recovery. PLGL-RGD-NGF nerve conduits were tested in the rat sciatic nerve transection model. Rat sciatic nerves were cut off to form a 10 mm defect and repaired with the nerve conduits. All of the 32 Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: group PLGL-RGD-NGF, group PLGL-RGD, group PLGL and group autograft. At 3 months after surgery, the regenerated rat sciatic nerve was evaluated by footprint analysis, electrophysiology, and histologic assessment. Experimental data were processed using the statistical software SPSS 10.0. Results The sciatic function index value of groups PLGL-RGD-NGF and autograft was significantly higher than those of groups PLGL-RGD and PLGL. The nerve conduction velocities of groups PLGL-RGD-NGF and autograft were significantly faster than those of groups PLGL-RGD and PLGL. The regenerated nerves of groups PLGL-RGD-NGF and autograft were more mature than those of groups PLGL-RGD and PLGL. There was no significant difference between groups PLGL-RGD-NGF and autograft. Conclusions PLGL-RGD-NGF nerve conduits are more effective in regenerating nerves than both PLGL-RGD nerve conduits and PLGL nerve conduits. The effect is as good as that of an autograft. This work established the platform for further development of the use of PLGL-RGD-NGF nerve conduits for clinical nerve repair.

Yan Qiongjiao; Yin Yixia; Li Binbin

2012-01-01

392

An analysis of documentation utilized in a structured financing of midstream assets  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A look at alternative sources of funds to finance ongoing natural gas processing operations is presented. Among the alternatives discussed was re-evaluation of the benefits of ownership of midstream processing assets, including the retention of such assets upon the acquisition of packages of petroleum and natural gas properties. This presentation describes what are considered typical problems that might arise when contemplating an off balance sheet financing of a gas processing facility, and the numerous issues that arise under the Construction, Ownership and Operating Agreement. The discussion includes the sales agreement, the construction of facilities, gas transportation and processing agreements, contract facility operating/management agreements, lender arrangements, and restructuring the construction, ownership and operating agreement

1999-01-01

393

An analysis of documentation utilized in a structured financing of midstream assets  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A look at alternative sources of funds to finance ongoing natural gas processing operations is presented. Among the alternatives discussed was re-evaluation of the benefits of ownership of midstream processing assets, including the retention of such assets upon the acquisition of packages of petroleum and natural gas properties. This presentation describes what are considered typical problems that might arise when contemplating an off balance sheet financing of a gas processing facility, and the numerous issues that arise under the Construction, Ownership and Operating Agreement. The discussion includes the sales agreement, the construction of facilities, gas transportation and processing agreements, contract facility operating/management agreements, lender arrangements, and restructuring the construction, ownership and operating agreement.

Stickland, K.S.; Polson, R.G. [Burnet, Duckworth and Palmer, Calgary, AB (Canada)

1999-04-01

394

SMES' SECTOR ACCESS TO FINANCE: AN OVERVIEW  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Through their contribution to the creation of added value and new jobs, the small and medium enterprises (SMEs) have a significant role in the economic and social development of a country. However, these enterprises are facing numerous obstacles that limit their performance, growth and development. Among the difficulties faced by SMEs, the access to finance is often reported as a major obstacle to the deployment and expansion of their activity. The access to finance is crucial for efficient allocation of financial resources and entrepreneurial development, which explains the major interest given to this subject both by the academic literature and the policy makers. The paper aims to highlight the difficulties faced by SMEs in securing financing resources, emphasizing the differences between countries and also between SMEs and large enterprises. Knowing the difficulties in SMEs financing is essential for policy makers in order to design and implement appropriate measures, which will help to improve the access to financing for these enterprises. Thus, another issue addressed, synthetically, in this paper aims the measures taken by public authorities in order to support the access to financing for SMEs. The research methodology used in this paper starts with a literature review in order to highlight the importance of the subject addressed in our research. The analysis conducted in this paper is based on data and statistics provided mainly by the World Bank surveys, by certain empirical studies and by the National Council of Small and Medium Sized Private Enterprises in Romania. Based on the methodology used, the paper indicates the difficulties in SMEs financing and the crucial importance of enhancing the public authorities concerns regarding their alleviation, especially by adopting measures focused on increasing financial development, which would ensure greater availability of financing for businesses and thus economic growth. The limited availability and even lack of statistical data regarding the SMEs financing situation from various countries, including Romania, impose certain limits to the researches in the field, which can be overcome as policy makers realize the vital importance of developing and monitoring specific indicators regarding the financing of this type of enterprises, such as the share of loans granted to SMEs, based on their size, experience and sectors of activity, that would be useful for public authorities, creditors and investors.

Roman Angela

2011-01-01

395

Numerical simulation of the flow in a conduit, in the presence of a confined air cushion  

Science.gov (United States)

A rectangular conduit with a closed end has water flowing in/out at the other end. The water level at the open end has an imposed sinusoidal movement. When this level is higher than the ceiling of the conduit, a certain mass of air is trapped under the ceiling. In a previous article (T.D. Nguyen, La Houille Blanche, No. 2, 1990), it was supposed that this air is flowing out freely through the ceiling, so the relative pressure at the water surface is zero, and the water hammer at the dead end of the conduit was calculated when the conduit was thoroughly filled. In this article, it is supposed that the trapped air is compressed isothermally or adiabatically. The set of equations is resolved (water continuity and movement equations, air state equation) by supposing a regime of flow at each section (section submerged or not), a certain value for the air pressure and by using the sweep method to determine the water flow characteristics. The air volume calculated by iteration must converge, and the calculated regimes at each section (submerged or free) must agree with the supposed regimes. The simulation is performed first with a horizontal conduit then with an inclined conduit. As expected, adiabatic compression gives higher pressure than isothermal compression. The simulation shows also that when there is an air cushion, compared with the case when air is flowing out freely, the shock of the water hammer at the closed end of the conduit is significantly reduced. This method is aimed at calculating the flow with entrapped air in the inlet/outlet tunnel of a hydroelectric plant, or in sewer system pipe when a sudden discharge surge (due to turbin opening/closing or to urban storm) changes a previously free-surface flow in a mostly full-pipe flow, but with some air entrapped under the ceiling. Copyright

Nguyen, Trieu Dong

1999-02-01

396

A new aortic Dacron conduit for surgical treatment of aortic root pathology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: This article describes a new aortic Dacron conduit that has been designed for use in all types of surgery of the aortic root. Its use is aimed at facilitating the surgical procedure and obtaining a natural anatomical configuration of the aortic root. METHODS: The modified Dacron conduit is obtained by adding a smaller piece of Dacron tube that is resilient in the horizontal plane to one end of a standard Dacron conduit. Upon implantation, this small piece of Dacron conduit will stretch in the horizontal plane creating pseudosinuses and a new sinotubular junction. This modified conduit has been used in 4 cases for a Bentall operation in association with a mechanical or a biological valve, in 4 cases in a Yacoub type of valve sparing procedure and in 1 case in a David type I of valve sparing procedure. All patients had aortic root aneurysm with severe aortic regurgitation. There were 6 males and 3 females with a mean age of 61 +/- 16 years. In most cases a 28 mm Dacron conduit was used. RESULTS: All surgery was carried out without mortality or morbidity. The creation of pseudosinuses was confirmed intraoperatively by visual inspection. Transesophageal echocardiography in patients who had undergone the Bentall operation showed a normally functioning valve prosthesis with a suitably shaped aortic root. In patients who had undergone the valve sparing procedures it showed a competent aortic valve, the creation of pseudosinuses of normal shape and depth, and the presence of a well defined sinotubular junction. Angiography confirmed that the prosthetic aortic root perfectly resembled the normal root anatomy. CONCLUSIONS: This modified new aortic root conduit appears to perfectly reproduce a normal root anatomy without the need of modifying the original techniques.

De Paulis R; De Matteis GM; Nardi P; Scaffa R; Colella DF; Chiarello L

2000-07-01

397

Financing solar thermal power plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The commercialization of concentrating solar power technology took a major step forward in the mid 1980s and early 1990s with the development of the SEGS plants in California. Over the years they have proven that parabolic trough power technologies are the most cost-effective approach for commercial scale solar power generation in the sunbelt countries of the world. However, the question must be asked why no additional solar power plants have been built following the bankruptcy of the developer of the SEGS projects, LUZ International Limited. Although many believe the SEGS projects were a success as a result of parabolic trough technology they employ, in truth, the SEGS projects were developed simply because they represented an attractive opportunity for investors. Simply states, no additional projects have been developed because no one has been able to put together a similarly attractive financial package to potential investors. More than $1.2 billion in private capital was raised in debt and equity financing for the nine SEGS plants. Investors and bankers who make these investments are the real clients for solar power technologies. They are not interested in annual solar to electric efficiencies, but in risk, return on investments, and coverage ratios. This paper will take a look at solar power projects form the financier's perspective. The challenge in moving forward is to attract private investors, commercial lenders, and international development agencies and to find innovative solutions to the difficult issues that investment in the global power market poses for solar power technologies.

Kistner, R.; Price, H.

1999-07-01

398

Financing Solar Thermal Power Plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The commercialization of concentrating solar power technology took a major step forward in the mid 1980s and early 1990s with the development of the SEGS plants in California. Over the years they have proven that parabolic trough power technologies are the most cost-effective approach for commercial scale solar power generation in the sunbelt countries of the world. However, the question must be asked why no additional solar power plants have been build following the bankruptcy of the developer of the SEGS projects, LUZ International Limited. Although many believe the SEGS projects were a success as a result of parabolic trough technology they employ, in truth, the SEGS projects were developed simply because they represented an attractive opportunity for investors. Simply stated, no additional projects have been developed because no one has been able to put together a similarly attractive financial package to potential investors. More than $1.2 billion in private capital was raised i n debt and equity financing for the nine SEGS plants. Investors and bankers who make these investments are the real clients for solar power technologies. They are not interested in annual solar to electric efficiencies, but in risk, return on investments, and coverage ratios. This paper will take a look at solar power projects from the financier's perspective. The challenge in moving forward is to attract private investors, commercial lenders, and international development agencies and to find innovative solutions to the difficult issues that investment in the global power market poses for solar power technologies.

Price, H. W.; Kistner, R.

1999-11-01

399

Device and method for measuring multi-phase fluid flow in a conduit having an abrupt gradual bend  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A system for measuring fluid flow in a conduit having an abrupt bend. The system includes pressure transducers, one disposed in the conduit at the inside of the bend and one or more disposed in the conduit at the outside of the bend but spaced a distance therefrom. The pressure transducers measure the pressure of fluid in the conduit at the locations of the pressure transducers and this information is used by a computational device to calculate fluid flow rate in the conduit. For multi-phase fluid, the density of the fluid is measured by another pair of pressure transducers, one of which is located in the conduit elevationally above the other. The computation device then uses the density measurement along with the fluid pressure measurements, to calculate fluid flow.

Ortiz, Marcos German (Idaho Falls, ID)

1998-01-01

400

Circuit arrangement for controlling ventilation (respiratory) gases  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a circuit arrangement for controlling ventilation gases, having U/p converters for converting binary DC voltage signals into pneumatic-binary signals. The aim and object is to lower the demand for electrical power of the U/p converters in the activated phase by more than half after the respective switching operation without influencing the pneumatic switching functions in the process. This is achieved according to the invention when there is connected in series with the induction coil of each U/p converter, whose control pressure, applied to its pilot chamber, is 0.2 MPa, an RC parallel circuit which is arranged together with the induction coil in the collector circuit of a control transistor.

HOFFMANN JUERGEN DIPL ING; STIEGLER FRANK DIPL ING

 
 
 
 
401

MOX fuel arrangement for nuclear core  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to use up a stockpile of weapons-grade plutonium, the plutonium is converted into a mixed oxide (MOX) fuel form wherein it can be disposed in a plurality of different fuel assembly types. Depending on the equilibrium cycle that is required, a predetermined number of one or more of the fuel assembly types are selected and arranged in the core of the reactor in accordance with a selected loading schedule. Each of the fuel assemblies is designed to produce different combustion characteristics whereby the appropriate selection and disposition in the core enables the resulting equilibrium cycle to closely resemble that which is produced using urania fuel. The arrangement of the MOX rods and burnable absorber rods within each of the fuel assemblies, in combination with a selective control of the amount of plutonium which is contained in each of the MOX rods, is used to tailor the combustion characteristics of the assembly.

Kantrowitz, Mark L. (Portland, CT); Rosenstein, Richard G. (Windsor, CT)

1998-01-01

402

Child Care Arrangements Of Working Mothers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Children arrangements for infants and preschool children and the reasons for working outside the home were studied in 300 mothers of whom 100 were teachers (Group. I) 100 clerks (groups II) and 100 tabourers (Group III). The interview method was used. The most common (80%) reason for working was financial needs, the next most frequent was utilization of specialized skills. In 58.7% of the cases, substitute childcare was provided by one of the family members, usually the grandmother. Sixty six percent of caretakers were illiterate. Most (93%) of the working mothers had also to perform certain household chores. Bottle-feeding was stated at birth by 80% of these mothers: Childcare arrangements for children of working mothers must be considered in the future.

Singh H; Raizada N; Soni R K; Gill P J S

1993-01-01

403

Arrangement for sensing remote binary inputs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This patent describes an improved switch input arrangement for a system that remotely controls distributed electrical loads. The switch input arrangement is part of a transceiver decoder that receives commands from central controller for controlling the state of latching relays for controlling the power circuits of the loads. The improvements include monitoring the state of contact closure inputs to the transceiver decoder selectively enabling/disabling specific contact closures to control the masking of switch inputs inclusion of an accumulated switch buffer to store the last actuation state of all relays, an answerback to insure that action occurs responsive to a switch input, a shifting threshold and multiplexing techniques for more accurate reading of contact closure switch inputs and the inclusion of a power-up reset message annunicated to the central controller to alert it that certain commands may have to be issued in order to reestablish the desired states of the transceiver.

Beatty, R.M.; Miller, E.B.; Huber, P.G.

1988-03-01

404

Mox fuel arrangement for nuclear core  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to use up a stockpile of weapons-grade plutonium, the plutonium is converted into a mixed oxide (MOX) fuel form wherein it can be disposed in a plurality of different fuel assembly types. Depending on the equilibrium cycle that is required, a predetermined number of one or more of the fuel assembly types are selected and arranged in the core of the reactor in accordance with a selected loading schedule. Each of the fuel assemblies is designed to produce different combustion characteristics whereby the appropriate selection and disposition in the core enables the resulting equilibrium cycle to closely resemble that which is produced using urania fuel. The arrangement of the MOX rods and burnable absorber rods within each of the fuel assemblies, in combination with a selective control of the amount of plutonium which is contained in each of the MOX rods, is used to tailor the combustion. characteristics of the assembly.

Kantrowitz, Mark L. (Portland, CT); Rosenstein, Richard G. (Windsor, CT)

2001-05-15

405

MOX fuel arrangement for nuclear core  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to use up a stockpile of weapons-grade plutonium, the plutonium is converted into a mixed oxide (MOX) fuel form wherein it can be disposed in a plurality of different fuel assembly types. Depending on the equilibrium cycle that is required, a predetermined number of one or more of the fuel assembly types are selected and arranged in the core of the reactor in accordance with a selected loading schedule. Each of the fuel assemblies is designed to produce different combustion characteristics whereby the appropriate selection and disposition in the core enables the resulting equilibrium cycle to closely resemble that which is produced using urania fuel. The arrangement of the MOX rods and burnable absorber rods within each of the fuel assemblies, in combination with a selective control of the amount of plutonium which is contained in each of the MOX rods, is used to tailor the combustion characteristics of the assembly.

Kantrowitz, Mark L. (Portland, CT); Rosenstein, Richard G. (Windsor, CT)

2001-07-17

406

Bank finance versus bond finance: what explains the differences between US and Europe?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We present a dynamic general equilibrium model with agency costs, where heterogenous firms choose among two alternative instruments of external finance - coporate bonds and bank loans. We characterize the financing choice of firms and the endogeous financial structure of the economy. The calibrated ...

De Fiore, Fiorella; Uhlig, Harald

407

Bank finance versus bond finance what explains the differences between US and Europe?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We present a dynamic general equilibrium model with agency costs, where heterogeneous firms choose among two alternative instruments of external finance - corporate bonds and bank loans. We characterize the financing choice of firms and the endogenous financial structure of the economy. The cali...

De Fiore, Fiorella; Uhlig, Harald

408

Simple Euclidean arrangements with one (>=5)-gon  

CERN Document Server

Let L be a simple Euclidean arrangement of n pseudolines. It is shown that if L has exactly one (>=5)=gon P, and k is the number of edges of P that are adjacent to an unbounded cell of the subarrangement of L induced by the pseudolines in P, then L has exactly n-k triangles and k+n(n-5)/2 quadrilaterals. We also prove that if each pseudoline of L is adjacent to P then L is stretchable.

Leaños, Jesus; Rivera-Martinez, Luis Manuel

2010-01-01

409

Electrically insulating encapsulation composition for semiconductor arrangements  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Electrically insulating encapsulating composition for semiconductor arrangements, consisting of a mixture of a resin and an inorganic filler, characterized by the feature that the filler is a silicon compound prepared from at least one highly volatile silicon halogenide compound, selected from the group of silicon oxides, silicon oxide hydrates and silicon nitrides. The filler may be aluminum oxide or aluminum hydroxide prepared from a volatile aluminum halogenide compound.

Pammer, E.

1984-04-03

410

Living arrangements after divorce: cohabitation versus remarriage.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

"The purpose of this paper is to examine the characteristics of all [U.S.] couple households in which one or both partners were previously married. In this examination, we will consider not only households maintained by married couples...; we will also consider households formed by cohabiting couples. In addition, we will examine the living arrangements of children in these households, with particular attention to whether children are from the current union or a previous union."

Wineberg H; Mccarthy J

1998-01-01

411

Wind turbine arrangement. [Magnus effect]. Vindturbinanordning  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this turbine arrangement is the so called Magnus-effect utilized. To a point hub are a number of rotable light bodies fitted. When each of this bodies is brought to rotate by means of an electric motor a pressure difference is created when simultaneously a wind blows against the bodies. The pressure difference give the turbine shaft a turning movement which may be utilized in a known manner. (L.F.).

Svegner, B.

1990-11-05

412

Percutaneous balloon dilation of Carpentier-Edwards porcine-valved right ventricle-to-pulmonary artery conduits.  

Science.gov (United States)

Right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) conduit stenosis remains a significant problem for patients with right ventricle-to-pulmonary artery (RV-to-PA) conduits placed as palliation for congenital heart disease. Previous reports on balloon dilation of RVOT conduits all describe small series with varying levels of success during limited follow-up evaluation. This study reviewed all patients with RV-to-PA conduits who underwent percutaneous balloon dilation for conduit stenosis at the authors' institution from 2000 to 2011. Patients with Carpentier-Edwards (CE) model 4300 porcine-valved conduits (Edwards Lifesciences Corp., Irvine, CA) (n = 19) were compared with patients who had all other types of conduits (n = 19). Successful balloon angioplasty was defined as a 20 % decrease in the RV-to-PA gradient, a 20 % decrease in the ratio of the RV systolic-to-aortic systolic pressure, or both. Balloon dilation was successful for 57.9 % of the patients with CE conduits and for 31.6 % of patients with other types of conduits (p = 0.10, Chi square test). Logistic regression analysis showed that balloon dilation was significantly more likely to be successful with CE valves than with other types (odds ratio [OR], 6.59; 95 % confidence interval [CI], 1.22-35.49). In a continuous series of patients with stenotic RV-to-PA conduits, the CE porcine-valved conduit was more amenable to percutaneous balloon dilation than other types of RV-to-PA conduits at the midterm follow-up evaluation. This has important ramifications in terms of valve selection for patients with congenital heart disease who will require surgical reintervention for RVOT stenosis. PMID:23229291

Hall, Amanda C; Miga, Daniel E; Leonard, Glenn T; Wang, Hongyue; Kavey, Rae-Ellen; Alfieris, George M

2012-12-11

413

Percutaneous balloon dilation of Carpentier-Edwards porcine-valved right ventricle-to-pulmonary artery conduits.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) conduit stenosis remains a significant problem for patients with right ventricle-to-pulmonary artery (RV-to-PA) conduits placed as palliation for congenital heart disease. Previous reports on balloon dilation of RVOT conduits all describe small series with varying levels of success during limited follow-up evaluation. This study reviewed all patients with RV-to-PA conduits who underwent percutaneous balloon dilation for conduit stenosis at the authors' institution from 2000 to 2011. Patients with Carpentier-Edwards (CE) model 4300 porcine-valved conduits (Edwards Lifesciences Corp., Irvine, CA) (n = 19) were compared with patients who had all other types of conduits (n = 19). Successful balloon angioplasty was defined as a 20 % decrease in the RV-to-PA gradient, a 20 % decrease in the ratio of the RV systolic-to-aortic systolic pressure, or both. Balloon dilation was successful for 57.9 % of the patients with CE conduits and for 31.6 % of patients with other types of conduits (p = 0.10, Chi square test). Logistic regression analysis showed that balloon dilation was significantly more likely to be successful with CE valves than with other types (odds ratio [OR], 6.59; 95 % confidence interval [CI], 1.22-35.49). In a continuous series of patients with stenotic RV-to-PA conduits, the CE porcine-valved conduit was more amenable to percutaneous balloon dilation than other types of RV-to-PA conduits at the midterm follow-up evaluation. This has important ramifications in terms of valve selection for patients with congenital heart disease who will require surgical reintervention for RVOT stenosis.

Hall AC; Miga DE; Leonard GT; Wang H; Kavey RE; Alfieris GM

2013-04-01

414

Inequality of pension arrangements among different segments of the labor force in China.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Social security for older people in China today has been established institutionally. However, there are substantial problems such as coverage, affordability, fund management, and corruption. This paper aims to provide a general picture of China's social security system for older people and to argue that the inequality of pension arrangements among different segments of the labor force is one of the most conspicuous problems challenging the Chinese government. Four unequal aspects of the pension system concerning the financing resources and pension levels are examined in this paper: (1) unequal institutional arrangements among different sectors, (2) unbalanced governmental expenditure in pension provision, (3) an increasing gap in pension levels between urban and rural areas, and (4) uncovered groups such as the unemployed and self-employed. Historical, economic, and political reasons all contribute to this unequal institution under transition from socialism to a market-oriented economy. At present, it is urgent for the central government to take measures to integrate the various pension arrangements into the unified Old Age Insurance and to reduce the gaps among different regions.

Wu L

2013-04-01

415

Principles of Finance Control as the Basis of Finance Control Theory  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The principles of finance control from the point of view of their propriety and necessity are defined and grounded.Author’s vision of definition of the term "principles of finance control" is given. Scientists’ points of view on defining the principles of financial control are generalized. Critical analysis of above-mentioned principles concerning their suitability and necessity of being followed in current conditions is made. Appropriate conclusions are made and grounded.The most suitable and necessary principles of finance control, which are divided into three groups, are defined and author’s vision of the term "finance control", that is the scientific novelty of the present research, is given.At the same time as an area of further research the necessity of considering and specifying other components of finance control methodology should be mentioned.The practical value of the received results is that they can be used in practice of national controlling units.

L. Dikan

2010-01-01

416

Project Finance - A stimulating instrument to bioenergy implementation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Successful bioenergy implementation depends very much on appropriate financing means. Classical financing routes like on balance sheet finance often fail, since bioenergy plant projects may exceed the financial capacities and the know how of small and medium sized investors. An excellent financing answer for the challenges of bioenergy plant projects is limited recourse project finance. While traditional on balance sheet financing focuses on corporate assets as security for the loan as well as other related external collateral with limited recourse project financing, the project borrows on a stand-alone basis. While some guarantees may be required, the lender's repayments are secured primarily by the project's assets and cash flows with limited recourse to the developer. So, project finance enables small and medium sized investors to get access to the bioenergy business segment. Moreover, it encourages participation and cooperation of different parties in bioenergy projects. Project finance helps to gain support for a new energy paradigm.

Schmidt, Claus-Henning [UmweltBank AG, Nuernberg (Germany)

2006-07-15

417

The fundamental group of the complement of complexified real arrangements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Let V be a finite dimensional vector space over the real or complex numbers. An arrangement in V is a finite collection of affine hyperplanes of V. Given a real arrangement A in a real vector space V. Then its complexification, AC, is a complex arrangement in the complex vector space VC, and will be called a complexified real arrangement. In this paper, we shall prove a presentation for the fundamental group of the complement of a complexified real arrangement. (author). 7 refs

1992-01-01

418

A conduit system distributes chemokines and small blood-borne molecules through the splenic white pulp.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Access to the splenic white pulp is restricted to lymphocytes and dendritic cells. Here we show that movement of molecules from the blood into these confined areas is also limited. Large molecules, such as bovine serum albumin (68 kD), immunoglobulin G (150 kD), and 500 kD dextran are unable to enter the white pulp, whereas smaller blood-borne molecules can directly permeate this compartment. The distribution is restricted to a stromal network that we refer to as the splenic conduit system. The small lumen of the conduit contains collagen fibers and is surrounded in the T cell areas by reticular fibroblasts that express ER-TR7. It also contains the chemokine CCL21. Conversely, in B cell follicles the B cell-attracting chemokine CXCL13 was found to be associated with the conduit and absence of ER-TR7+ fibroblasts. These results show heterogeneity of reticular fibroblasts that enfold the conduit system and suggest that locally produced chemokines are transported through and presented on this reticular network. Therefore, the conduit plays a role in distribution of both blood-borne and locally produced molecules and provides a framework for directing lymphocyte migration and organization of the splenic white pulp.

Nolte MA; Beliën JA; Schadee-Eestermans I; Jansen W; Unger WW; van Rooijen N; Kraal G; Mebius RE

2003-08-01

419

A conduit system distributes chemokines and small blood-borne molecules through the splenic white pulp.  

Science.gov (United States)

Access to the splenic white pulp is restricted to lymphocytes and dendritic cells. Here we show that movement of molecules from the blood into these confined areas is also limited. Large molecules, such as bovine serum albumin (68 kD), immunoglobulin G (150 kD), and 500 kD dextran are unable to enter the white pulp, whereas smaller blood-borne molecules can directly permeate this compartment. The distribution is restricted to a stromal network that we refer to as the splenic conduit system. The small lumen of the conduit contains collagen fibers and is surrounded in the T cell areas by reticular fibroblasts that express ER-TR7. It also contains the chemokine CCL21. Conversely, in B cell follicles the B cell-attracting chemokine CXCL13 was found to be associated with the conduit and absence of ER-TR7+ fibroblasts. These results show heterogeneity of reticular fibroblasts that enfold the conduit system and suggest that locally produced chemokines are transported through and presented on this reticular network. Therefore, the conduit plays a role in distribution of both blood-borne and locally produced molecules and provides a framework for directing lymphocyte migration and organization of the splenic white pulp. PMID:12900524

Nolte, Martijn A; Beliën, Jeroen A M; Schadee-Eestermans, Inge; Jansen, Wendy; Unger, Wendy W J; van Rooijen, Nico; Kraal, Georg; Mebius, Reina E

2003-08-01

420

Financing is next step in Brazil-Bolivia natural gas project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This paper reviews a new four billion dollar arrangement which would start a major gas network between Brazil and Bolivia. The proposed 2,200 mile long, 28 and 14 inch pipeline network would connect Bolivian reserves with the undeserved markets of southern Brazil. The paper briefly reviews the economic involvement and impacts on both countries and the current market for natural gas in Brazil. Because most of Brazil's energy is currently from hydroelectric power or petroleum, the new distribution network will have dramatic effects on industries which need this high-grade fuel source for operation. Financing of this project will be by Petrobras and 49 percent through stock options

1993-01-01

 
 
 
 
421

Evaluation of a multi-layer microbraided polylactic acid fiber-reinforced conduit for peripheral nerve regeneration.  

Science.gov (United States)

We evaluated peripheral nerve regeneration using a biodegradable multi-layer microbraided polylactic acid (PLA) fiber-reinforced conduit. Biodegradability of the PLA conduit and its effectiveness as a guidance channel were examined as it was used to repair a 10 mm gap in the rat sciatic nerve. As a result, tube fragmentation was not obvious and successful regeneration through the gap occurred in all the conduits at 8 weeks after operation. These results indicate the superiority of the PLA materials and suggest that the multi-layer microbraided PLA fiber-reinforced conduits provide a promising tool for neuro-regeneration. PMID:19115095

Lu, Ming-Chin; Huang, Yen-Ting; Lin, Jia-Horng; Yao, Chun-Hsu; Lou, Ching-Wen; Tsai, Chin-Chuan; Chen, Yueh-Sheng

2008-12-30

422

Evaluation of a multi-layer microbraided polylactic acid fiber-reinforced conduit for peripheral nerve regeneration.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We evaluated peripheral nerve regeneration using a biodegradable multi-layer microbraided polylactic acid (PLA) fiber-reinforced conduit. Biodegradability of the PLA conduit and its effectiveness as a guidance channel were examined as it was used to repair a 10 mm gap in the rat sciatic nerve. As a result, tube fragmentation was not obvious and successful regeneration through the gap occurred in all the conduits at 8 weeks after operation. These results indicate the superiority of the PLA materials and suggest that the multi-layer microbraided PLA fiber-reinforced conduits provide a promising tool for neuro-regeneration.

Lu MC; Huang YT; Lin JH; Yao CH; Lou CW; Tsai CC; Chen YS

2009-05-01

423

Conceptual Framework and Recent Trends in Project Financing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Project financing is a non-recourse financing which provides leverage, contractual structure, creates a special purpose vehicle and considers the revenue generated by the project not the general assets of the business at the time of financing. Project financingtechnique is prominently used for mines, toll road, pipeline, power station, hospital and other infrastructure projects. Past studies show that the Public-Private-Partnership, Take-out Finance, BondFinance, Securitisation, Viability Gap Funding, and Infrastructure SPV are the prominent project finance structures being used now a day. The foremost advantage of project financing is that it is a nonrecourse financing which results in high leverage for the firms. It also helps in distributing the risk and provides efficient returns in comparison to conventional financing techniques. The shortcoming of project financing is that it is a time consumingprocess which is relatively expensive. Also, the transactions of project financing are very complex in comparison to traditional corporate financing. With the impact of privatization, deregulation and spread of globalisation project finance has emerged as a keyfinancing technique throughout the world. A year wise analysis of the project finance investment shows that in the year 2004 project finance investment rose by 466.59% over 1994. Region-wise analysis ofproject financing in the world shows that Western Europe and North America contributed nearly 53% of the total investments in the year 2000 but it was reduced to 36% only by the year 2004. Sector-wiseanalysis shows that Power sector accounted for maximum project finance followed by Infrastructure, Oil & Gas, Petrochemicals and Telecom etc. The study further reveals that project finance is catching up steadily in India because of emphasis given toinfrastructure given to infrastructure by the government. At present nearly 300 PPP projects are going on in the country.

Dr. Sunil Kumar

2012-01-01

424

Suction line flow stream separator for parallel compressor arrangements  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A multiple compressor refrigeration system is described comprising: a first low-side compressor having a shell which defines an oil sump; a second low-side compressor having a shell which defines an oil sump; an oil level equalization conduit connecting the oil sumps of the first and the second compressors for flow; an evaporator; suction line conduit means connected to the evaporator for conducting a suction gas flow stream from the evaporator; and means for unequally apportioning the gas stream to the shells of the first and second compressors by causing the gas stream to diverge.

Johnsen, C.N.

1988-03-08

425

A 6-year experience with radial artery conduit for myocardial revascularization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Excellent long-term patencies of arterial grafts are considered, superior to those of vein grafts. In this study, we present our 6 years experience in using radial artery as a conduit for myocardial revascularization. The aim of the present study was to assess the safety and early and mid term results of using radial artery in coronary artery bypass graft. Methods: The radial artery used as a conduit in 308 cases was evaluated during past 6 years, and the results obtained were processed and analyzed. Results: The operative morbidity comprised re-operation for bleeding in 3.2%, MI in 5%, with paresthesis and stitch abscess of the hand in 10% in and 3.5% respectively. Hospital mortality included 2 patients, one case being directly due to complication of harvesting radial artery.Conclusion: The results of present study were satisfactory with acceptable morbidity and mortality and favored the application of this conduit to CABG patients.

A Sadeghpour-Tabaee; A Rostami; S Arefi

2007-01-01

426

Conduits Mediate Transport of Low Molecular Weight Antigen to Lymph Node Follicles  

Science.gov (United States)

Summary Recent studies report that B cells acquire large lymph-borne antigens and immune complexes directly from subcapsular sinus macrophages while small antigens appear to diffuse directly into the B cell follicles. To directly compare entrance of large and small Ags into the follicles, we used multiphoton intravital microscopy to track drainage of Ag into the peripheral lymph nodes and subsequent encounter by B cells and follicular dendritic cells in the underlying follicles. We find that a system of conduits extends into the follicles and mediates delivery of small antigens to cognate B cells and follicular dendritic cells. The follicular conduits provide an efficient and rapid mechanism for delivery of small antigens to B cells, which directly contact the CXCL13 chemokine-enriched conduits. By contrast, large antigens were bound by subcapsular sinus macrophages and subsequently transferred to follicular B cells as previously reported.

Roozendaal, Ramon; Mempel, Thorsten R.; Pitcher, Lisa A.; Gonzalez, Santiago F.; Verschoor, Admar; Mebius, Reina E.; von Andrian, Ulrich H.; Carroll, Michael C.

2009-01-01

427

Conduits mediate transport of low-molecular-weight antigen to lymph node follicles.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To track drainage of lymph-borne small and large antigens (Ags) into the peripheral lymph nodes and subsequent encounter by B cells and follicular dendritic cells, we used the approach of multiphoton intravital microscopy. We find a system of conduits that extend into the follicles and mediate delivery of small antigens to cognate B cells and follicular dendritic cells. The follicular conduits provide an efficient and rapid mechanism for delivery of small antigens and chemokines such as CXCL13 to B cells that directly contact the conduits. By contrast, large antigens were bound by subcapsular sinus macrophages and subsequently transferred to follicular B cells as previously reported. In summary, the findings identify a unique pathway for the channeling of small lymph-borne antigens and chemoattractants from the subcapsular sinus directly to the B cell follicles. This pathway could be used for enhancing delivery of vaccines or small molecules for improvement of humoral immunity.

Roozendaal R; Mempel TR; Pitcher LA; Gonzalez SF; Verschoor A; Mebius RE; von Andrian UH; Carroll MC

2009-02-01

428

Conduits mediate transport of low-molecular-weight antigen to lymph node follicles.  

Science.gov (United States)

To track drainage of lymph-borne small and large antigens (Ags) into the peripheral lymph nodes and subsequent encounter by B cells and follicular dendritic cells, we used the approach of multiphoton intravital microscopy. We find a system of conduits that extend into the follicles and mediate delivery of small antigens to cognate B cells and follicular dendritic cells. The follicular conduits provide an efficient and rapid mechanism for delivery of small antigens and chemokines such as CXCL13 to B cells that directly contact the conduits. By contrast, large antigens were bound by subcapsular sinus macrophages and subsequently transferred to follicular B cells as previously reported. In summary, the findings identify a unique pathway for the channeling of small lymph-borne antigens and chemoattractants from the subcapsular sinus directly to the B cell follicles. This pathway could be used for enhancing delivery of vaccines or small molecules for improvement of humoral immunity. PMID:19185517

Roozendaal, Ramon; Mempel, Thorsten R; Pitcher, Lisa A; Gonzalez, Santiago F; Verschoor, Admar; Mebius, Reina E; von Andrian, Ulrich H; Carroll, Michael C

2009-01-29

429

Biodegradable conduit small gap tubulization for peripheral nerve mutilation: a substitute for traditional epineurial neurorrhaphy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Nerve regeneration and re-innervation are usually difficult after peripheral nerve injury. Epineurium neurorrhaphy to recover the nerve continuity is the traditional choice of peripheral nerve mutilation without nerve defects, whereas the functional recovery remains quite unsatisfactory. Based on previous research in SD rats and Rhesus Monkeys, a multiple centers clinical trial about biodegradable conduit small gap tubulization for peripheral nerve mutilation to substitute traditional epineurial neurorrhaphy was carried out. Herein, the authors reviewed the literature that focused on peripheral nerve injury and possible clinical application, and confirmed the clinical possibilities of biodegradable conduit small gap tubulization to substitute traditional epineurial neurorrhaphy for peripheral nerve mutilation. The biodegradable conduit small gap tubulization to substitute traditional epineurial neurorrhaphy for peripheral nerve mutilation may be a revolutionary innovation in peripheral nerve injury and repair field.