WorldWideScience

Sample records for conduit financing arrangements

  1. 77 FR 22480 - Conduit Financing Arrangements; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    ...RIN 1545-BH77 Conduit Financing Arrangements; Correction AGENCY: Internal Revenue...providing guidance on conduit financing arrangements. The final regulations apply to multiple-party financing arrangements that are effected through...

  2. 76 FR 76895 - Conduit Financing Arrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ...RIN 1545-BH77 Conduit Financing Arrangements AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service...regulations relating to conduit financing arrangements. The final regulations apply to multiple-party financing arrangements that are effected through...

  3. Seal arrangement for intersecting conduits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A seal arrangement in which two intersecting conduits are sealed from each other is described. A sleeve insert is locked in a sealed relationship within one conduit enclosing the openings of the intersecting conduit

  4. 26 CFR 1.881-4 - Recordkeeping requirements concerning conduit financing arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...6038A. A financed entity that is a reporting corporation within...whether the financed entity is a party to...Additional documents. An entity described in paragraph...transactions; (iii) Private letter rulings;...

  5. 26 CFR 1.7701(l)-3 - Recharacterizing financing arrangements involving fast-pay stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...financing arrangements involving fast-pay stock. 1.7701(l)-3 Section 1.7701...financing arrangements involving fast-pay stock. (a) Purpose and scope...arrangement in which a corporation has fast-pay stock outstanding for any part of its...

  6. Financing arrangements for nuclear power projects in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This reference book reviews the main features and problems or difficulties involved in the financing of nuclear power projects with special reference to developing countries. It provides basic information and advice to developing countries interested in nuclear power projects as part of their power sector planning. The book outlines the general characteristics of financing a nuclear power project and presents innovative approaches for power generation financing. It discusses the special conditions and requirements of nuclear power projects and their financing complexities. The focus is on the practical issues that need to be dealt with in order to successfully finance these power projects, as well as the constraints faced by most developing countries. Possible ways and means of dealing with these constraints are presented. 58 refs, figs and tabs

  7. Summary of a reference book on financing arrangements for nuclear power projects in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA has recently published a reference book entitled Financing Arrangements for Nuclear Power Projects in Developing Countries (Technical Reports Series No. 353). The book reviews comprehensively the main features and problems concerning the financing of such projects in developing countries and presents innovative approaches for power generation financing. It also discusses the special conditions and requirements of nuclear power projects and the complexities of their financing, focusing on the practical issues to be dealt with to achieve successful financing, as well as the constraints encountered by most developing countries. This booklet summarizes the important features of the financing arrangements discussed in the reference book and was prepared with the aim of widely disseminating the results

  8. LEASING ARRANGEMENTS AS A FORM OF FINANCING BUSINESS ENTITIES IN REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DRAGICA ODZAKLIESKA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the modern conditions for working, the problems with providing appropriate sources for financing business entities are more emphasized. In fact, the access to the financing sources is one of the limiting factors for the business entities development. If the business entity is able to satisfy completely or on a higher degree its financing needs from its own sources, then it gains significant competitive advantage and possibility for growth, by decreasing the costs for financing and minimizing the risk. But, these sources most often are not sufficient for business financing. In R. Macedonia, most usually used sources for work financing are the bank loans, which is a result mainly to the nonsufficiently developed financial market, and generally, the low degree of the economic development. However, the bank loans are expensive source of financing, which is negatively reflected into the financial result of the business entities. Because of that, the business entities get down to use alternative financing sources, such as: portfolio investments, foreign direct investments, issue of shares and bonds and specific sources of financing ( factoring financing, forfeiting financing, leasing and financing by franchise. In this paper, the accent will be put on the leasing as a specific form for financing the business entities in R. Macedonia. A research for that how much the business entities are acquainted with the advantages of using this financing source, how much the leasing is present as a financing form and if there are limiting factors in its use, will be conducted. At the end, on the basis of the obtained results from the research, some measures and recommendations for higher leasing implementation in the business entities in Republic of Macedonia will be given

  9. Financing arrangements for nuclear power projects - Past and present experience, future expectations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear energy is a clean, safe, and economical industrial electricity source, with many environmental benefits. It does not emit greenhouse gases that contribute to climate change, or combustion by-products and acid gases that cause air, water resource and land pollution. Nuclear energy has also many benefits in the areas of medicine, industry, agriculture, and research. Moreover, the results are revealing. Over the past 12 years, from 1900 to 2002, the global 'energy availability factor' - representing the percentage of time that nuclear power plants worldwide were up and running - increased from 72.9% to 83.4%. At the same time, based on statistics gathered by the World Association of Nuclear Operators - WANO, the number of industrial accidents has gone down, radiation exposure has dropped sharply and the annual volume of radioactive waste produced has been reduced substantially. In other words, the safety, performance and economic competitiveness of the nuclear industry are at an all time high, reflecting a mature and vibrant enterprise. These are several reasons why a prospective host nation and other nations around the world may be attracted by nuclear power generation. Nuclear power can be and has been financed by world capital markets. The crucial question is whether host governments and interested utilities are willing to take the steps required to attract investment with reasonable assurance of success, and whether the nuclear industry is willing and able tohe nuclear industry is willing and able to become competitive in increasingly deregulated financial and electricity markets. The present paper will have the following structure: the first part will refer to general financing guidelines, and the second part will present a case study. The latter will treat the past experience as provided by the financing scheme of Cernavoda NPP Unit 1, the present experience, i.e. ongoing financing issues for Cernavoda NPP Unit 2 and potential future shared contribution to financing Cernavoda NPP Unit 3, 4 and 5. (authors)

  10. Gastric conduit perforation

    OpenAIRE

    Patil, Nilesh; Kaushal, Arvind; Jain, Amit; Saluja, Sundeep Singh; Mishra, Pramod Kumar

    2014-01-01

    As patients with carcinoma of the esophagus live longer, complications associated with the use of a gastric conduit are increasing. Ulcers form in the gastric conduit in 6.6% to 19.4% of patients. There are a few reports of perforation of a gastric conduit in the English literature. Almost all of these were associated with serious complications. We report a patient who developed a tension pneumothorax consequent to spontaneous perforation of an ulcer in the gastric conduit 7 years after the i...

  11. Gastric conduit perforation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Nilesh; Kaushal, Arvind; Jain, Amit; Saluja, Sundeep Singh; Mishra, Pramod Kumar

    2014-08-16

    As patients with carcinoma of the esophagus live longer, complications associated with the use of a gastric conduit are increasing. Ulcers form in the gastric conduit in 6.6% to 19.4% of patients. There are a few reports of perforation of a gastric conduit in the English literature. Almost all of these were associated with serious complications. We report a patient who developed a tension pneumothorax consequent to spontaneous perforation of an ulcer in the gastric conduit 7 years after the index surgery in a patient with carcinoma of the gastroesophageal junction. He responded well to conservative management. Complications related to a gastric conduit can be because of multiple factors. Periodic endoscopic surveillance of gastric conduits should be considered as these are at a higher risk of ulcer formation than a normal stomach. Long term treatment with proton pump inhibitors may decrease complications. There are no guidelines for the treatment of a perforated gastric conduit ulcer and the management should be individualized. PMID:25133156

  12. Contractual arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conceptually there are a number of different contract models from which a country can select the most suitable for its social, political and economic requirements. These include: 1) the traditional concession, 2) production sharing contracts, 3) service contracts, and 4) equity sharing contracts, i.e. joint ventures. The joint venture arrangement, as it is most commonly used in uranium exploration and mining, is discussed in light of national objectives; geological and technical aspects; infrastructural aspects; and economic aspects. Topics covered include: the exploration phases; the exploration license; exploration area; minimum exploration commitment; host country investor relationship; financing of exploration expenditures; minerals other than uranium; feasibility studies; taxation and levies; and termination of the agreement. During the production phase consideration must be given to such aspects as: The operating company; participation ratio; financing of the participation share; export of production; fiscal regime; imports of goods and services; training of local personnel; provision of support by the host country; assignment of rights; duration of contract; disputes and arbitration procedures; decisions making; transfer of technology; safety; environmental protection and compensation; and restoration of sites. These considerations are all discussed, particularly in regard to the joint venture agreement. The paper emphasises the need, in a successful agreement,sises the need, in a successful agreement, for openness and understanding between the parties. No agreement can cover every possible subject that can become a source of disagreement. Only by a sympathetic understanding of each others position and needs can a joint project be successful. (author). 11 refs

  13. Transverse colon conduit diversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The versatility and other advantages of the transverse colon conduit for urinary diversion have been described and implemented in 50 patients. Because most patients considered for this procedure will be at high risk because of a history of significant pelvic irradiation, underlying malignancy, poor renal function, fistula, and so forth, the technical details of surgery and patient selection cannot be minimized. The transverse colon segment is indicated for primary supravesical diversion as well as for salvage of problems related to ileal conduits. Adenocarcinoma of the colon is an unlikely long-term complication of this form of diversion because the fecal stream is absent. Now that the transverse colon conduit has been used for more than 10 years, meaningful comparisons with ileal segments should soon be available

  14. Seal between metal and ceramic conduits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Underwood, Richard Paul; Tentarelli, Stephen Clyde

    2015-02-03

    A seal between a ceramic conduit and a metal conduit of an ion transport membrane device consisting of a sealing surface of ceramic conduit, a sealing surface of ceramic conduit, a single gasket body, and a single compliant interlayer.

  15. Conduit Coating Abrasion Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Mary K.

    2013-01-01

    During my summer internship at NASA I have been working alongside the team members of the RESTORE project. Engineers working on the RESTORE project are creating ·a device that can go into space and service satellites that no longer work due to gas shortage or other technical difficulties. In order to complete the task of refueling the satellite a hose needs to be used and covered with a material that can withstand effects of space. The conduit coating abrasion test will help the researchers figure out what type of thermal coating to use on the hose that will be refueling the satellites. The objective of the project is to determine whether or not the conduit coating will withstand the effects of space. For the RESTORE project I will help with various aspects of the testing that needed to be done in order to determine which type of conduit should be used for refueling the satellite. During my time on the project I will be assisting with wiring a relay board that connected to the test set up by soldering, configuring wires and testing for continuity. Prior to the testing I will work on creating the testing site and help write the procedure for the test. The testing will take place over a span of two weeks and lead to an informative conclusion. Working alongside various RESTORE team members I will assist with the project's documentation and records. All in all, throughout my internship at NASA I hope to learn a number of valuable skills and be a part of a hard working team of engineers.

  16. Leaf Arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    This illustrated guide to leaf arrangement shows students how leaves attached at a stem node can be in alternate, opposite, or whorled arrangements. This single Web page can be easily printed for use at field sites.

  17. A foil shielded flexible conduit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A foil shielded flexible conduit is described that is suitable for withstanding electromagnetic interference and electromagnetic pulses and may be employed in a nuclear reactor environment. Previous attempts to manufacture such conduits have all suffered from an insufficient degree of flexibility to allow suitable installation and have been liable to breakdown in service. (U.K.)

  18. Centrifuges, centrifuge plants and flow control arrangements therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A gas centrifuge with flow control arrangement and a centrifuge plant are claimed. The centrifuge comprises a rotor mounted in a housing, a feed line, a line for separated product and a tails line for depleted gas. There is a flow control arrangement in one or more of these lines. The centrifuge plant comprises a plurality of separative units arranged in stages of differing enrichment of product. The flow control arrangement comprises a conduit sealable by a flap adapted to block the conduit when abnormal gas flow occurs

  19. Manifold arrangements

    OpenAIRE

    Ehrenborg, Richard; Readdy, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    We determine the cd-index of the induced subdivision arising from a manifold arrangement. This generalizes earlier results in several directions: (i) One can work with manifolds other than the n-sphere and n-torus, (ii) the induced subdivision is a Whitney stratification, and (iii) the submanifolds in the arrangement are no longer required to be codimension one.

  20. Private Placement Debt Financing for Public Entities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Lance S.

    2010-01-01

    Private placement financing is a debt or capital lease obligation arranged between a municipality or a 501(c) (3) not-for-profit organization and a single sophisticated institutional investor. The investor can be a bank, insurance company, finance company, hedge fund, or high-net worth individual. Private placement financing is similar to…

  1. Code de conduite du CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Department, HR

    2010-01-01

    Le Code de Conduite est un guide pratique qui nous aide, en tant que collaborateurs du CERN, à comprendre comment nous comporter, comment traiter les autres et comment nous attendre à être traités. Il est fondé autour des cinq valeurs fondamentales du CERN. Nous devrons tous nous familiariser avec ce document et l’intégrer à notre vie quotidienne au CERN.

  2. 30 CFR 18.39 - Hose conduit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Construction and Design Requirements § 18.39 Hose conduit. Hose conduit shall be...

  3. Test arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the case the pipe line is devided by a plane division wall into a double line, a test car carries the measuring instruments. It has three wheels facing the division wall and a supporting leg on the other side. The test car carries an ultrasonic testing instrument, an illumination arrangement with TV camera, and a path measuring device. (RW)

  4. Ductile compaction in volcanic conduits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, Fabian; Vasseur, Jeremie; Lavallée, Yan; Scheu, Bettina; Dingwell, Donald

    2014-05-01

    Silicic magmas typically outgas through connected pore and crack networks with a high gas permeability without the need for decoupled movement of pores in the melt. It is the efficiency with which this process can occur which governs the pressure in the pore network. However, such a connected coupled network is generally mechanically unstable and will relax until volume equilibrium when the pores become smaller and isolated. Consequently, gas permeability can be reduced during densification. Cycles of outgassing events recorded in gas monitoring data show that permeable flow of volatiles is often transient, which is interpreted to reflect magma densification and the closing of pore-networks. Understanding the timescale over which this densification process occurs is critical to refining conduit models that seek to predict the pressure evolution in a pore-network leading to eruptions. We conduct uniaxial compaction experiments to parameterize non-linear creep and relaxation processes that occur in magmas with total pore fractions 0.2-0.85. We analyze our results by applying both viscous sintering and viscoelastic deformation theory to test the applicability of currently accepted models to flow dynamics in the uppermost conduit involving highly porous magmas. We show that purely ductile compaction can occur rapidly and that pore networks can close over timescales analogous to the inter-eruptive periods observed during classic cyclic eruptions such as those at Soufriere Hills volcano, Montserrat, in 1997. At upper-conduit axial stresses (0.1-5 MPa) and magmatic temperatures (830-900 oC), we show that magmas can evolve to porosities analogous to dome lavas erupted at the same volcano. Such dramatic densification events over relatively short timescales and in the absence of brittle deformation show that permeable flow will be inhibited at upper conduit levels. We therefore propose that outgassing is a key feature at many silicic volcanoes and should be incorporated into conduit flow models.

  5. Lid arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A double lid arrangement, suitable for use in sealing irradiated fuel transport flasks, the inner and outer lids being held together by securing means. It the securing means fails, the inner and outer lids operate individually, ensuring that the flask remains sealed. On failure of the securing means internal pressure acting on the deformable central membrane of the inner lid member will push up the outer lid member until chocks prevent further upward movement. (author)

  6. Urinary conduits in gynecologic oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over an 11-year period (1971 to 1981), 212 urinary conduit surgeries were performed by the Department of Gynecology at the University of Texas, M. D. Anderson Hospital and Tumor Institute at Houston. The urinary diversions were performed as part of the pelvic exenteration operation in 154 patients, for radiation injury in 48 patients, and for palliation of disease recurrence in ten patients. Ninety-three percent had prior pelvic radiotherapy. Various segments of the gastrointestinal tract were used, including the ileum (102), sigmoid colon (99), transverse colon (four), jejunum (four), and others (three). Fifty percent of abnormal preoperative intravenous pyelograms reverted to normal after urinary diversion. Revision of the stoma was required in 6%. Other complications included infection (18%), renal loss (17%), and urinary leaks and fistulae (3%). The overall perioperative mortality was 7%, decreasing from 11% in the first five years to 3% during the last six years. Ureteral stents were routinely used. When selecting a segment of bowel for a urinary conduit, both tissue quality and mobility are important. Mortality and morbidity of urinary conduit surgery continues to decrease with experience

  7. Arranging Addends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel Scher

    2013-01-13

    This Sketchpad activity, which opens on Geometer's Sketchpad and on iOS with Sketchbook Explorer (cataloged separately), promotes logical reasoning skills and informally introduces the concept of sets. Student create Venn diagrams by arranging two or three different colored circles and placing given numbers in them to produce target sums. Sketchpad generates random challenges for the students, or they can create their own problems to share. The resource provides a movie with detailed instructions and downloadable PDFs: teacher notes and a student worksheet.

  8. Energy financing for non-profit institutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, S.J.

    1987-01-01

    Several factors suggest that energy efficiency projects will need to look to other than traditional financing sources. The author reviews an analysis of financing options for cities, school districts, a university, a community college, and a hospital in which there was a two-year lag in typical bonding procedures. She describes the cash flow potential of several alternative financing arrangements which all indicate that private sector financing will become increasingly important to energy financing in the non-profit sector. The procedures for alternative financing include tax-exempt or municipal leasing, vendor financing, shared savings, third-party or joint venture financing, tax-exempt bonds, revenue bonds, and chauffage. A self-assessment guide considers the relative risks to a specific institution of each option and a guide to identifying key risks and management strategies. 6 references, 3 figures.

  9. Peripheral nerve conduits: technology update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arslantunali D

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available D Arslantunali,1–3,* T Dursun,1,2,* D Yucel,1,4,5 N Hasirci,1,2,6 V Hasirci,1,2,7 1BIOMATEN, Center of Excellence in Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering, Middle East Technical University (METU, Ankara, Turkey; 2Department of Biotechnology, METU, Ankara, Turkey; 3Department of Bioengineering, Gumushane University, Gumushane, Turkey; 4Faculty of Engineering, Department of Medical Engineering, Acibadem University, Istanbul, Turkey; 5School of Medicine, Department of Histology and Embryology, Acibadem University, Istanbul, Turkey; 6Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, METU, Ankara, Turkey; 7Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, METU, Ankara, Turkey *These authors have contributed equally to this work Abstract: Peripheral nerve injury is a worldwide clinical problem which could lead to loss of neuronal communication along sensory and motor nerves between the central nervous system (CNS and the peripheral organs and impairs the quality of life of a patient. The primary requirement for the treatment of complete lesions is a tension-free, end-to-end repair. When end-to-end repair is not possible, peripheral nerve grafts or nerve conduits are used. The limited availability of autografts, and drawbacks of the allografts and xenografts like immunological reactions, forced the researchers to investigate and develop alternative approaches, mainly nerve conduits. In this review, recent information on the various types of conduit materials (made of biological and synthetic polymers and designs (tubular, fibrous, and matrix type are being presented. Keywords: peripheral nerve injury, natural biomaterials, synthetic biomaterials

  10. An Exploratory Study of the Effects of Project Finance on Project Risk Management : How the Distinguishing Attributes of Project Finance affects the Prevailing Risk Factor?

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Ka Fai

    2011-01-01

    Project finance is a financing arrangement for projects, and it is characterised by the creation of a legally independent project company financed with non- or limited recourse loans. It is observed that the popularity of project finance is increasing in the recent decades, despite of the impact of Asian financial crisis. Especially in emerging markets, project finance is very common among the public-private partnership projects. It is possible that project finance yields some benefits in pro...

  11. Project financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Project financing was defined ('where a lender to a specific project has recourse only to the cash flow and assets of that project for repayment and security respectively') and its attributes were described. Project financing was said to be particularly well suited to power, pipeline, mining, telecommunications, petro-chemicals, road construction, and oil and gas projects, i.e. large infrastructure projects that are difficult to fund on-balance sheet, where the risk profile of a project does not fit the corporation's risk appetite, or where higher leverage is required. Sources of project financing were identified. The need to analyze and mitigate risks, and being aware that lenders always take a conservative view and gravitate towards the lowest common denominator, were considered the key to success in obtaining project financing funds. TransAlta Corporation's project financing experiences were used to illustrate the potential of this source of financing

  12. Structuring and financing power projects in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contractual arrangements for the financing and construction of three 660 MW coal fired power plants in Hong Kong are summarized in the form of headings and a diagram. These cover the joint venture arrangement, construction and equipment supply, the operation and offtake contract, coal supply and the financial structure with respect to commercial risk. (UK)

  13. Externally stented polytetrafluoroethylene valved conduits for right heart reconstruction. An experimental comparison with Dacron valved conduits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J W; Halpin, M P; Rescorla, F J; VanNatta, B W; Fiore, A C; Shipley, G D; Bizuneh, M; Bills, R; Waller, B

    1985-12-01

    Valve-containing conduits have made possible the repair of many congenital anomalies that involve right ventricular-pulmonary arterial discontinuity. The distressing problem of neointimal peel formation with eventual conduit obstruction in patients with Dacron valved conduits has led to the need for premature replacement in many patients. Externally stented polytetrafluorethylene has demonstrated superior patency in the venous system experimentally and clinically and was believed to have potential advantages over Dacron for conduit construction. This study compares the transconduit resistance and the thickness of the neointimal peel in right ventricular-pulmonary arterial conduits constructed of externally stented polytetrafluoroethylene with those of woven Dacron. The 19 mm externally stented polytetrafluoroethylene conduits (Impra, Inc.) containing a Hancock porcine valve (Extracorporeal Inc.) were implanted in six adult mongrel dogs followed by proximal occlusion of the pulmonary artery. In six additional animals, a Dacron valved conduit of similar size and length was inserted. Cardiac output, transconduit gradient, and resistance were measured at operation and at 3 months. All conduits were subsequently explanted, opened longitudinally, and the thickness of the neointimal peel (excluding suture lines) measured. No hemodynamic differences were noted during the 3 month follow-up. However, the thickness of the neointimal peel was fourfold greater in Dacron conduits (609 +/- 144 mu) than in the conduits constructed of externally stented polytetrafluoroethylene (156 +/- 50 mu) (p less than 0.01). The thick peel in Dacron conduits extended into the outflow portion of the porcine valve cusps and prevented their full excision. The neointima in externally stented polytetrafluoroethylene conduits was thin and uniform and did not extend onto the leaflets or limit their mobility. This study demonstrated that the early hemodynamic performance of externally stented polytetrafluoroethylene conduits was comparable to that of Dacron conduits; Dacron conduits were subject to an accelerated rate of peel formation that affected leaflet mobility and may be a factor in early valve degeneration; a thin neointima formed in externally stented polytetrafluoroethylene conduits and valve leaflet motion was preserved. This study showed that externally stented polytetrafluoroethylene conduits offer advantages over Dacron valved conduits and warrant clinical application. PMID:2933562

  14. Financing strategic healthcare facilities: the growing attraction of alternative capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zismer, Daniel K; Fox, James; Torgerson, Paul

    2013-05-01

    Community health system leaders often dismiss use of alternative capital to finance strategic facilities as being too expensive and less strategically useful, preferring to follow historical precedent and use tax-exempt bonding to finance such facilities. Proposed changes in accounting rules should cause third-party-financed facility lease arrangements to be treated similarly to tax-exempt debt financings with respect to the income statement and balance sheet, increasing their appeal to community health systems. An in-depth comparison of the total costs associated with each financing approach can help inform the choice of financing approaches by illuminating their respective advantages and disadvantages. PMID:23678696

  15. Crystallographic arrangements: Weyl groupoids and simplicial arrangements

    OpenAIRE

    Cuntz, Michael

    2010-01-01

    We introduce the simple notion of a "crystallographic arrangement" and prove a one-to-one correspondence between these arrangements and the connected simply connected Cartan schemes for which the real roots are a finite root system (up to equivalence on both sides). We thus obtain a more accessible definition for this very large subclass of the class of simplicial arrangements for which a complete classification is known.

  16. Micro finance

    OpenAIRE

    Ramachandran, Ramakrishnan; Senthil Kumar, T. S.

    2006-01-01

    Poor people often have just hand to mouth existence and have few reserves for major expenses such as illness, weddings, house repairs or education. They are unable to build their savings and are forced to borrow at exorbitant rates. This further adds to their burden and worsens their economic situation. Micro finance is the supply of loans, savings, and other basic financial services to the poor. The idea of micro finance was developed as a survival strategy for the poor. In India, Ela Bha...

  17. Study Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Created and maintained by the University of Arizona, this site is designed to assist beginning finance students by offering very basic information about the study of finance. Be sure to look at the online lectures, which include RealAudio files as well as accompanying handouts and tables. Also on-site are well-written, basic overviews of topics including ratio analysis, time valuation of money, and capitol budgeting. In addition, the site contains several helpful links to outside resources about market information, careers, and publications.

  18. The Japanese approach to financing LNG projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Japanese approach approach to financing LNG project has been what could be called a combined purchase and finance system which has been arranged mainly at the initiative of japan's Sogo Shosh (general trading companies) with the support of japanese governmental financial agencies and a purchase commitment from japanese utilities. In the QATARGAS project, despite it being the first greenfield LNG project in decade since North West Shelf Australia LNG project, financing for the LNG plant phase has been successfully arranged through Japanese financing. The structuring of the financial facilities for the QATARGAS project seems to have lessons for future development of the next generation of greenfield LNG projects. Discharge of the parties' liability, proper sharing of the risk burden and reconfirmation of the spirit of mutual understanding and trust among the parties concerned are key factors for the success of any new LNG project in the future. (Author)

  19. Campaign Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    This site from the Hoover Institution at Stanford University contains a number of resources, primarily essays, articles, and op-ed pieces, related to various facets of campaign finance, its history, and reform proposals. As a whole, the site serves as a solid backgrounder to the issues and should interest a wide range of readers.

  20. Norwood-sano operation using a stentless pulmonary valved conduit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginestar, Andrés Castelló; Martinez, F Serrano; Argudo, J A Montero; Calvar, J M Caffarena

    2011-01-01

    The Sano modification of Norwood's operation has the potential to generate an excess volume load on the single right ventricle as a consequence of diastolic reversal of flow through the conduit. This article describes the use of a new, small, biological conduit with a porcine valve inside. This new conduit has been used in modified Norwood procedures. It is interposed between the right ventricle and the confluence of the pulmonary arteries. The use of a valved conduit should prevent the retrograde diastolic blood flow observed with use of nonvalved conduits and may improve postoperative hemodynamics. The use of a new stentless valved conduit in 3 recent Norwood procedures is reported herein. PMID:23804945

  1. Independent power project finance rating criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Continuing growth of project financing for non-utility generators in the US and abroad has led to growing focus on their credit strength. In general, the financings remain relatively risky and would likely be rated below investment grade, because of various factors: loose power purchase arrangements, poor match between power pricing and fuel costs, aggressive leverage, troubled operating performance. But S and P believes some projects have the credit strength to support investment grade ratings. As traditional financing markets for these projects --- bank lending and private placements with highly specialized institutional investors --- have contracted, project sponsors and developers are considering broader markets. These include institutional investors without specialized focus on power project finance. In these markets, distinctions among projects may lead to greater liquidity and efficiency in developing the pricing and terms under which projects can be financed. This paper reports that ratings are most appropriate for projects seeking permanent financing as they enter commercial operations. They also may be useful for projects which have been operating for some time and for some very strong projects which are raising construction financing. To guide both project developers and investors in project financing, S and P has developed the following approach for rating these types of financings

  2. On Arrangements of Pseudohyperplanes

    OpenAIRE

    Deshpande, Priyavrat

    2012-01-01

    We study arrangements of pseudohyperplanes (hyperplanes that are topologically deformed in some mild way). In general these arrangements correspond to non-realizable oriented matroids and arise as a consequence of the Folkman-Lawrence Topological Representation Theorem. We introduce a topological space naturally associated with these pseudo arrangements that has the homotopy type of the associated Salvetti complex.

  3. Nonresonance conditions for arrangements

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, D.; Dimca, A.; Orlik, P.

    2002-01-01

    We prove a vanishing theorem for the cohomology of the complement of a complex hyperplane arrangement with coefficients in a complex local system. This result is compared with other vanishing theorems, and used to study Milnor fibers of line arrangements, and hypersurface arrangements.

  4. Apicoaortic valved conduit without an apical connector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuyama, Katsuhiko; Narita, Yuji; Ueda, Yuichi

    2007-09-01

    An apicoaortic valved conduit was created in selected aortic stenosis patients with a porcelain aorta, previous bypass surgery, or a high-risk re-sternotomy. Although an apical connector is usually used, commercial, rigid apical connectors are expensive. We introduce a technique that does not use an apical connector. PMID:17937051

  5. Drill pipes and casings utilizing multi-conduit tubulars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curlett, H.B.

    1989-01-24

    A seal adapted for use with a multi-conduit well tubular, or the like, is described which consists of: a plate with fluid passages, each passage corresponding to an opening of a conduit of the multiconduit tubular, and a groove on the plate around each passage; and elastomer means partially embeddable into each groove for sealing each conduit of a tubular to a corresponding conduit of another similar tubular.

  6. Financing wind power projects : perspectives from the US market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, M. [Alyra Renewable Energy Finance Advisors, Ridgefield, CT (United States)

    2005-07-01

    This presentation outlined the recent assignments, core competencies and scope of services provided by Alyra Renewable Energy Finance Advisors. Renewable energy developers seek Alyra's assistance in developing strategies to achieve the most competitive solutions in finance and strategy. Alyra has broad finance expertise in renewable energy projects, a deep knowledge of markets and a significant wind industry network. Alyra identifies emerging issues, completes financing solutions and helps with contract negotiations. This presentation outlined the notable features of wind financing, wind assessment, offtake arrangements, equity considerations, US wind debt markets, long term bank financing, and combined bank and private placement financing. It also included recent debt market activity for seven large wind farms in the United States. tabs., figs.

  7. Arrangements of double pseudolines

    CERN Document Server

    Habert, Luc

    2011-01-01

    Define an arrangement of double pseudolines as a finite family of separating simple closed curves embedded in a real two-dimensional projective plane with the property that any two intersect in exactly four transversal intersection points and induce a cell decomposition of their underlying projective plane. We show that the dual arrangement of any finite family of pairwise disjoint convex bodies of any real two-dimensional projective geometry is an arrangement of double pseudolines and that, conversely, any arrangement of double pseudolines is isomorphic to the dual arrangement of a finite family of pairwise disjoint convex bodies of a real two-dimensional projective geometry. Furthermore we provide a simple axiomatic characterization of the class of isomorphism classes of indexed arrangements of oriented double pseudolines and we establish a one-to-one and onto correspondence between this latter class and the class of chirotopes of finite indexed families of pairwise disjoint oriented convex bodies of real t...

  8. Dispersive Hydrodynamics in Viscous Fluid Conduits

    CERN Document Server

    Lowman, Nicholas K

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of the interface separating a conduit of light, viscous fluid rising buoyantly through a heavy, more viscous, exterior fluid at small Reynolds numbers is governed by the interplay between nonlinearity and dispersion. Previous authors have proposed an approximate model equation based on physical arguments, but a precise theoretical treatment for this two fluid system with a free boundary is lacking. Here, a derivation of the interfacial equation via a multiple scales, perturbation technique is presented. Perturbations about a state of vertically uniform, laminar conduit flow are considered in the context of the Navier-Stokes equations with appropriate boundary conditions. The ratio of interior to exterior viscosities is the small parameter used in the asymptotic analysis, which leads systematically to a maximal balance between buoyancy driven, nonlinear self-steepening and viscous, interfacial stress induced, nonlinear dispersion. This results in a scalar, nonlinear partial differential equation ...

  9. Limits with braid arrangements

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Matthew S.; Wakefield, Max

    2012-01-01

    We define a monoid structure on the set of $k$-equal arrangements and use this structure to define limits of braid arrangements. We compute the cohomology of the associated limits of rational models of the arrangements complex complements. We collect these complexes together into one complex by creating a new differential and product on their direct sum and show that the resulting complex is exact.

  10. Phase distribution in complex geometry conduits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bubbly air/water two-phase flow data have been taken as an isosceles triangle using hot film probes. It was found that a 3-D two-fluid model was able to predict these data and those taken previously in circular conduits. It appears that mechanically-based CFD predictions of bubbly two-phase flows is possible for many cases of practical concern. (orig.)

  11. Biochemical engineering nerve conduits using peptide amphiphiles.

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, A.; Rajadas, J.; Seifalian, A. M.

    2012-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injury is a debilitating condition. The gold standard for treatment is surgery, requiring an autologous nerve graft. Grafts are harvested from another part of the body (a secondary site) to treat the affected primary area. However, autologous nerve graft harvesting is not without risks, with associated problems including injury to the secondary site. Research into biomaterials has engendered the use of bioartificial nerve conduits as an alternative to autologous nerve grafts....

  12. Thermal damping and retardation in karst conduits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhmann, A. J.; Covington, M. D.; Myre, J. M.; Perne, M.; Jones, S. W.; Alexander, E. C., Jr.; Saar, M. O.

    2015-01-01

    Water temperature is a non-conservative tracer in the environment. Variations in recharge temperature are damped and retarded as water moves through an aquifer due to heat exchange between water and rock. However, within karst aquifers, seasonal and short-term fluctuations in recharge temperature are often transmitted over long distances before they are fully damped. Using analytical solutions and numerical simulations, we develop relationships that describe the effect of flow path properties, flow-through time, recharge characteristics, and water and rock physical properties on the damping and retardation of thermal peaks/troughs in karst conduits. Using these relationships, one can estimate the thermal retardation and damping that would occur under given conditions with a given conduit geometry. Ultimately, these relationships can be used with thermal damping and retardation field data to estimate parameters such as conduit diameter. We also examine sets of numerical simulations where we relax some of the assumptions used to develop these relationships, testing the effects of variable diameter, variable velocity, open channels, and recharge shape on thermal damping and retardation to provide some constraints on uncertainty. Finally, we discuss a multitracer experiment that provides some field confirmation of our relationships. High temporal resolution water temperature data are required to obtain sufficient constraints on the magnitude and timing of thermal peaks and troughs in order to take full advantage of water temperature as a tracer.

  13. Thermal damping and retardation in karst conduits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Luhmann

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Water temperature is a non-conservative tracer in the environment. Variations in recharge temperature are damped and retarded as water moves through an aquifer due to heat exchange between water and rock. However, within karst aquifers, seasonal and short-term fluctuations in recharge temperature are often transmitted over long distances before they are fully damped. Using analytical solutions and numerical simulations, we develop relationships that describe the effect of flow path properties, flow-through time, recharge characteristics, and water and rock physical properties on the damping and retardation of thermal peaks/troughs in karst conduits. Using these relationships, one can estimate the thermal retardation and damping that would occur under given conditions with a given conduit geometry. Ultimately, these relationships can be used with thermal damping and retardation field data to estimate parameters such as conduit diameter. We also examine sets of numerical experiments where we relax some of the assumptions used to develop these relationships, testing the effects of variable diameter, variable velocity, open channels, and recharge shape on thermal damping and retardation to provide some constraints on uncertainty. Finally, we discuss a tracer experiment that provides field confirmation of our relationships. High temporal resolution water temperature data are required to obtain sufficient constraints on the magnitude and timing of thermal peaks and troughs in order to take full advantage of water temperature as a tracer.

  14. DEFORMATION OF SCORIA CONE BY CONDUIT PRESSURIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.S. Gaffney; B. Damjanac; D. Krier; G. Valentine

    2005-08-26

    A simplified mechanical model is used to simulate the deformation of a scoria cone due to pressurization of magma in a feeder conduit. The scoria cone is modeled as consisting of a cone of stabilized scoria with an axial region of loose scoria (height h{sub 1}), all overlying a vertically oriented cylindrical conduit intruded into rhyolite tuff country rock. For our analyses, the conduit is filled with basalt magma, usually with the upper length (h{sub 2}) solidified. The style of deformation of the cone depends on both h{sub 1} and h{sub 2}. If magma is prevented from hydrofracturing out of the conduit (as, for example, might be the case if the magma is surrounded by a solidified, but plastically deformable layer acting as a gasket backed up by the brittle country rock) pressures in the magma can build to 10s of MPa. When h{sub 1} is 100 m, not unusual for a small isolated basaltic cinder cone, the magma pressure needed to destabilize the cone when molten magma extends all the way to the original ground surface (h{sub 2} = 0) is only about one-third of the pressure when the upper part of the conduit is solidified (h{sub 2} = 25m). In the former case, almost the entire upper third of the cone is at failure in tension when the configuration becomes unstable. In the latter case, small portions of the surface of the cone are failing in tension when instability occurs, but a large volume in the central core of the cone is failing in shear or compressions. These results may provide insight into the status of volcanic plumbing, either past or present, beneath scoria cones. Field observations at the Lathrop Wells volcano in southern Nevada identify structures at the outer edge just below the crater rim that appear to be inward-dipping listric normal faults. This may indicate that, near the end of its active stage, the cone was close to failing in this fashion. A companion paper suggests that such a failure could have been quite energetic had it occurred.

  15. Money in finance

    OpenAIRE

    Wray, L. Randall

    2011-01-01

    This paper begins by defining, and distinguishing between, money and finance, and addresses alternative ways of financing spending. We next examine the role played by financial institutions (e.g., banks) in the provision of finance. The role of government as both regulator of private institutions and provider of finance is also discussed, and related topics such as liquidity and saving are explored. We conclude with a look at some of the new innovations in finance, and at the global financial...

  16. Budgeting and Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrs. Dale

    2006-11-30

    The following are budgeting and finance sites National Budget Simulation National Budget Simulation Money Math Money Math: Lessons for Life Reality Math "Reality Math: Fact or Fiction" Family Finances Family Finances Consumer Jungle Consumer Jungle It All Adds Up It All Adds Up Herkimer\\'s Hideaway Herkimer's Hideaway Wise Pockets World Wise Pockets World Project Finance Portal Project Finance Portal Lesson Plan on Budgeting Lesson Plan on Budgeting Personal Budget Webquest Personal Budget WebQuest ...

  17. Finance Site List

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maintained by the Journal of Finance "for those interested in understanding and teaching financial ideas," this extensive metasite links readers to institutions, publications, and people engaged in finance research. In addition to links to online finance journals, working paper collections, and research centers, the Finance Site List presents additional metasites and educational resources as well as statistical software information and the "interesting, fun and odd" among finance homepages.

  18. Financing the Ranger uranium project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Construction of the Ranger uranium project located 230 km east of Darwin in the Northern Territory commenced in January 1979. Energy Resources of Australia Ltd was incorporated in February 1980 to acquire all the rights in the project. The total cost to ERA of these rights was $407 million. In October 1980 ERA'S cash requirements were estimated to be $553 million. Overseas participants (power utilities who had agreed to purchase uranium yellowcake under contract) arranged to take up 25% of the equity capital, Peko-Wallsend Ltd and EZ Industries Ltd were allotted 30.5% each and 14% was issued to Australian residents. The loan and equity financing arrangements required the successful resolution of many complex and interlocking factors, including technical and economic feasibility, agreement with aboriginal interests, compliance with Government policies and securing of sales contracts

  19. Engineering Bi-Layer Nanofibrous Conduits for Peripheral Nerve Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Yiqian; Wang, Aijun; Patel, Shyam; Kurpinski, Kyle; Diao, Edward; Bao, Xuan; Kwong, George; Young, William L.; Li, Song

    2011-01-01

    Trauma injuries often cause peripheral nerve damage and disability. A goal in neural tissue engineering is to develop synthetic nerve conduits for peripheral nerve regeneration having therapeutic efficacy comparable to that of autografts. Nanofibrous conduits with aligned nanofibers have been shown to promote nerve regeneration, but current fabrication methods rely on rolling a fibrous sheet into the shape of a conduit, which results in a graft with inconsistent size and a discontinuous joint...

  20. Neurotrophin releasing single and multiple lumen nerve conduits

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yang; Laporte, Laura; Rives, Christopher B.; Jang, Jae-hyung; Lin, Wei-chun; Shull, Kenneth R.; Shea, Lonnie D.

    2005-01-01

    Tissue engineering strategies for nerve repair employ polymer conduits termed guidance channels and bridges to promote regeneration for peripheral nerve injury and spinal cord injury, respectively. An approach for fabrication of nerve conduits with single and multiple lumens capable of controlled release of neurotrophic factors was developed. These conduits were fabricated from a mixture of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLG) microspheres and porogen (NaCl) that was loaded into a mold and proces...

  1. Coloring complexes and arrangements

    OpenAIRE

    Hersh, Patricia; Swartz, Ed

    2007-01-01

    Steingrimsson's coloring complex and Jonsson's unipolar complex are interpreted in terms of hyperplane arrangements. This viewpoint leads to short proofs that all coloring complexes and a large class of unipolar complexes have convex ear decompositions. These convex ear decompositions impose strong new restrictions on the chromatic polynomials of all finite graphs. Similar results are obtained for characteristic polynomials of submatroids of type B_n arrangements.

  2. Peak load arrangements : Assessment of Nordel guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    Two Nordic countries, Sweden and Finland, have legislation that empowers the TSO to acquire designated peak load resources to mitigate the risk for shortage situations during the winter. In Denmark, the system operator procures resources to maintain a satisfactory level of security of supply. In Norway the TSO has set up a Regulation Power Option Market (RKOM) to secure a satisfactory level of operational reserves at all times, also in winter with high load demand. Only the arrangements in Finland and Sweden fall under the heading of Peak Load Arrangements defined in Nordel Guidelines. NordREG has been invited by the Electricity Market Group (EMG) to evaluate Nordel's proposal for 'Guidelines for transitional Peak Load Arrangements'. The EMG has also financed a study made by EC Group to support NordREG in the evaluation of the proposal. The study has been taken into account in NordREG's evaluation. In parallel to the EMG task, the Swedish regulator, the Energy Markets Inspectorate, has been given the task by the Swedish government to investigate a long term solution of the peak load issue. The Swedish and Finnish TSOs have together with Nord Pool Spot worked on finding a harmonized solution for activation of the peak load reserves in the market. An agreement accepted by the relevant authorities was reached in early January 2009, and the arrangement has been implemented since 19th January 2009. NordREG views that the proposed Nordel guidelines have served as a starting point for the presently agreed procedure. However, NordREG does not see any need to further develop the Nordel guidelines for peak load arrangements. NordREG agrees with Nordel that the market should be designed to solve peak load problems through proper incentives to market players. NordREG presumes that the relevant authorities in each country will take decisions on the need for any peak load arrangement to ensure security of supply. NordREG proposes that such decisions should be taken after consultation with parties in other Nordic countries, and involving also regulators and TSOs. In NordREG's view there are basically three principles that should be guiding any decision to introduce peak load arrangements in the Nordic countries: i), the peak load arrangements should be introduced only in situations when security of supply cannot be met without these arrangements. Since the decision to introduce peak load arrangements might be of a political/legal nature, the length of such arrangement cannot be fixed. However, there should be a regular evaluation by the competent authority of any need or prolonged need for peak load arrangements and its effects of price formation in the Nordic market. ii), when peak load arrangements are introduced they should be designed to minimize the adverse effects on price formation in the Nordic market. Furthermore, if there are to be peak load arrangements, there might be a need for how to distinguish these peak load reserves from other reserves at the disposal of the TSOs. However, this issue needs further discussions and development. iii), Nordic consultation should be carried out where the views of all relevant authorities and stake holders in the market affected are invited. It is recommended that the governments consult with their Nordic counter parties before submitting legal proposals on peak load arrangements affecting Nordic price formation. These consultations should also be with regulators and TSOs who are involved in the design of the actual peak load arrangements. (Author)

  3. The effect of Ti conduit on the critical current in (Nb,Ti)3Sn cable-in-conduit conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of titanium conduit on the critical current in (Nb,Ti)3Sn cable-in-conduit conductors was investigated to obtain a high performance conductor which would be applied to large superconducting magnets such as those for fusion machines. Titanium has equivalent thermal contraction coefficient to that of (Nb,Ti)3Sn filaments, and it is expected by using titanium as the conduit to suppress degradation of critical current due to excess thermal prestrain on (Nb,Ti)3Sn filaments. Some titanium conduit sample conductors were made, and thier critical current performance were measured together with some stainless steel (SUS316) and copper-nickel alloy (Cu-10Ni) conduit conductors. The experimental results indicated that the titanium conduit conductors had no critical current degradation due to thermal strain, whereas the stainless steel and copper-nickel alloy conduit conductors showed remarkable degradation on thier critical current performance and greater degradation was observed with smaller void conductor. In conclusion, titanium is verified to be excellent conduit material for (Nb,Ti)3Sn cable-in-conduit conductors. (author)

  4. Perspectives applicable to financing midstreamers: legal considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Systemic changes that have affected the sale, distribution and transportation of gas near the burner tip (collectively called 'midstream' activities) are reviewed, examining the causes of change, and the types of midstream asset transactions that are occurring, whether they involve structured financing arrangements or midstream companies. Also addressed are issues involved in transactions of this type, especially as they relate to gathering and processing agreements and construction, ownership and operation (CO and O) agreements. The two principal alternative structures (1) the financing party who does not assume operational control of the facility, and the (2) midstream company who build or acquire assets and operate them, the different implications for financing of each of the structural alternatives and the changing attitudes of producers towards midstream entities are explained. Closer examination of these new business structures reveals that they conflict with the terms and conditions of midstream agreements commonly used throughout the industry. It is recommended that these standard agreements be amended to permit midstream transactions to occur without undue restrictions. The kind of amendments suggested include automatic consent to a transfer of a facility to a Financing Party that meets certain reasonable financial tests; allowing the reconveyance from the Financing Party to the producer under a repurchase option; allowing the producer to act as Operator in powing the producer to act as Operator in place of its Financing Party

  5. Conduits and dike distribution analysis in San Rafael Swell, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyosugi, K.; Connor, C.; Wetmore, P. H.; Ferwerda, B. P.; Germa, A.

    2011-12-01

    Volcanic fields generally consist of scattered monogenetic volcanoes, such as cinder cones and maars. The temporal and spatial distribution of monogenetic volcanoes and probability of future activity within volcanic fields is studied with the goals of understanding the origins of these volcano groups, and forecasting potential future volcanic hazards. The subsurface magmatic plumbing systems associated with volcanic fields, however, are rarely observed or studied. Therefore, we investigated a highly eroded and exposed magmatic plumbing system on the San Rafael Swell (UT) that consists of dikes, volcano conduits and sills. San Rafael Swell is part of the Colorado Plateau and is located east of the Rocky Mountain seismic belt and the Basin and Range. The overburden thickness at the time of mafic magma intrusion (Pliocene; ca. 4 Ma) into Jurassic sandstone is estimated to be ~800 m based on paleotopographical reconstructions. Based on a geologic map by P. Delaney and colleagues, and new field research, a total of 63 conduits are mapped in this former volcanic field. The conduits each reveal features of root zone and / or lower diatremes, including rapid dike expansion, peperite and brecciated intrusive and host rocks. Recrystallized baked zone of host rock is also observed around many conduits. Most conduits are basaltic or shonkinitic with thickness of >10 m and associated with feeder dikes intruded along N-S trend joints in the host rock, whereas two conduits are syenitic and suggesting development from underlying cognate sills. Conduit distribution, which is analyzed by a kernel function method with elliptical bandwidth, illustrates a N-S elongate higher conduit density area regardless of the azimuth of closely distributed conduits alignment (nearest neighbor distance <200 m). In addition, dike density was calculated as total dike length in unit area (km/km^2). Conduit and sill distribution is concordant with the high dike density area. Especially, the distribution of conduits is not random with respect to the dike distribution with greater than 99% confidence on the basis of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. On the other hand, dike density at each conduits location also suggests that there is no threshold of dike density for conduit formation. In other words, conduits may be possible to develop from even short mapped dikes in low dike density areas. These results show effectiveness of studying volcanic vent distribution to infer the size of magmatic system below volcanic fields and highlight the uncertainty of forecasting the location of new monogenetic volcanoes in active fields, which may be associated with a single dike intrusion.

  6. Apicoaortic conduits: indications, complications, and imaging techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nance, John W; Barraza, J Michael; Henzler, Thomas; McMaster, William G; Kratz, John M; Schoepf, U Joseph

    2012-05-01

    Left ventricular apex to descending aorta conduits may be used as a last resort treatment of severe left ventricular outflow tract obstruction in cases in which alternative therapies are contraindicated. Although this technique is rarely used in current practice for congenital cases, its use in the elderly population is increasing, largely due to the expansion of this patient cohort and associated comorbidities precluding aortic valve replacement, the most common of which are a severely calcified "porcelain" aorta and/or previous coronary artery bypass grafts preventing aortic root manipulation. Diagnostic imaging is essential in the presurgical workup and subsequent follow-up of these patients, as complications of the procedure are potentially life threatening and are not rare. Several imaging modalities may be used, each with advantages and disadvantages. Both anatomic and functional assessments play a role in the comprehensive evaluation of both presurgical and postsurgical patients. PMID:22510854

  7. Fuel cell stack arrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothmann, Richard E. (Churchill Boro, PA); Somers, Edward V. (Murrysville, PA)

    1982-01-01

    Arrangements of stacks of fuel cells and ducts, for fuel cells operating with separate fuel, oxidant and coolant streams. An even number of stacks are arranged generally end-to-end in a loop. Ducts located at the juncture of consecutive stacks of the loop feed oxidant or fuel to or from the two consecutive stacks, each individual duct communicating with two stacks. A coolant fluid flows from outside the loop, into and through cooling channels of the stack, and is discharged into an enclosure duct formed within the loop by the stacks and seals at the junctures at the stacks.

  8. Conduit fragmentation, cave patterns, and the localization of karst ground water basins: the Appalachians as a test case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White,W.B.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Because conduit systems in maturely developed karst aquifers have a low hydraulic resistance, aquifers drain easily and karst aquifers are subdivided into well-defined ground water basins. Ground water elevations are highest at basin boundaries; lowest at the spring where the ground water is discharged. Parameters that control the type of conduit development are (1 the effective hydraulic gradient, (2 the focus of the drainage basin, and (3 the karstifiability of the bedrock. Moderate to highly effective hydraulic gradients permit the runaway process that leads to single conduit caves and well ordered branchwork systems. Low hydraulic gradients allow many alternate flow paths and thus a large degree of fuzziness in the basin boundaries. Low gradient ground water basins also tend to merge due to rising water tables during periods of high discharge. Focus is provided by geological constraints that optimize discharge at specific locations that can evolve into karst springs. Karstifiability is a measure of the bulk rate at which aquifer rocks will dissolve. Fine grained, pure limestones and shaley dolomites mark the opposite ends of the range. The cave surveys of the Appalachian Highlands provide a data base that can be used to classify the lateral arrangements of conduit systems and thus determine the relative importance of the factors defined above.

  9. Caring finance practices

    OpenAIRE

    Staveren, I. P.

    2013-01-01

    The 2008 financial crisis has demonstrated the failure of both utilitarian and deontological ethics in finance. Alternatives do not need to be created from nothing, because the crisis itself has stimulated the emergence of ethically sound finance practices from within the sector. This article presents two cases of such alternatives, which can be understood as caring finance. Caring finance is built around more personal relationships, responsibility, and risk reduction. The examples are from t...

  10. Economic rationales for the design of health care financing schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Paolucci, Francesco; Scout, Frederick T.; Ven, Wynand P. M. M.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the economic rationales for the design of health care financing arrangements. We propose a categorization of financing schemes based on a distinction between basic and supplementary services and between mandatory and voluntary coverage. We argue that the most important economic arguments for governments to enforce a system of crosssubsidies that guarantees the financial access to a predefined set of basic services to high-risk or low-income individuals are the pre...

  11. Control rod cluster arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This patent describes a nuclear reactor including nuclear core which is cooled and moderated by light water, the nuclear core comprising a plurality of parallel arranged openings therethrough and interspersed among the fuel assemblies. A control rod cluster arrangement comprises load follow control rod cluster assemblies with each load follow control rod cluster assembly being adapted to slidingly fit within each of some of the fuel assemblies in the parallel arranged openings, the load follow control rod cluster assemblies each comprising a plurality of elongated parallel arranged rods attached to a single spider, and including a first group of rods and a second group of rods, the first group of rods and the second each consisting of a plurality of absorber rods. The first group of rods consist of absorber rods taken from the group consisting of B/sub 4/C, hafnium, or silver-indium-cadmium and the second group of rods consist of absorber rods each consisting of stainless steel, the first group of rods and the second group of rods each being integrally attached at all times to the single spider, the absorber rods of the second group of rods being dispersed throughout the control rod cluster assembly. The first group of rods have a first neutron capture cross section and the second group of rods have a second neutron capture cross section different from the first cross section

  12. Teacher is Environmental Arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwuegbu, Obed I.

    1976-01-01

    Teaching must arrange environments so learners can make maximum use of these educational environments. Effective educational systems must begin with teacher training. Instructors must show mastery in the areas of subject matter, techniques of delivery and getting to know the learner. Better educational systems and testing techniques are needed.…

  13. Boundary Manifolds of Line Arrangements

    OpenAIRE

    Hironaka, Eriko

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we describe the complement of real line arrangements in the complex plane in terms of the boundary three-manifold of the line arrangement. We show that the boundary manifold of any line arrangement is a graph manifold with Seifert fibered vertex manifolds, and depends only on the incidence graph of the arrangement. When the line arrangement is defined over the real numbers, we show that the homotopy type of the complement is determined by the incidence graph to...

  14. Project financing in Latin America: The search for greener pastures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper addresses the basic requisites for inducing private capital to engage in infrastructure project financing. Part 1 of this paper provides an overview of project financing considerations, such as how pricing of project outputs and the credit history of output purchasers can affect the availability of project financing, and explores the use of ''Revolving Funds'' as a stimulus for private investment. Part 2 discusses several areas in which governments can become pro-active participants in establishing a sound framework for project financing of infrastructure. Part 3 briefly addresses project structuring and the contractual risk allocation process which is central to project financing, and highlights some of the key legal arrangements found in project contracts

  15. Proximal conduit obstruction after Sano modified Norwood procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigro, John J; Bart, Robert D; Derby, Christopher D; Sklansky, Mark S; Starnes, Vaughn A

    2005-11-01

    Sano and colleagues recently described a modification of first stage palliation for hypoplastic left heart syndrome utilizing a right ventricle to pulmonary artery conduit. Preliminary results are favorable, but experience with this technique is limited. We report a case of sudden death due to obstruction of the proximal conduit by fibrointimal hyperplasia. This case of lethal conduit obstruction presented 3 months after initial palliation. Early cardiac catheterization and second stage palliation may be necessary to minimize the risk of such adverse events after the Sano modification. PMID:16242490

  16. Atomic Arrangements in Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    WPSU

    2007-04-09

    This video/animation asks the question So if the same molecules are in the solid, liquid, and vapor forms of water, why are their properties so different? The properties of a material are affected not just by the kinds of atom in it, but also by how they are arranged, and how free they are to move around. Forms of carbon are introduced, from graphite to buckyballs.

  17. Evaluating Asian swap arrangements

    OpenAIRE

    Aizenman, Joshua; Jinjarak, Yothin; Park, Donghyun

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by the unprecedented rise of swap agreements between the central banks of developed economies and their developing economy counterparts, this paper evaluates Asian swap arrangements and their association with the build-up of foreign reserves prior to the 2008-2009 global financial crisis. The evidence suggests that there is a limited scope for swaps to substitute for reserves. Furthermore, the selectivity of the swap lines indicates that only countries with significant trade and fin...

  18. Biological conduit small gap sleeve bridging method for peripheral nerve injury: regeneration law of nerve fibers in the conduit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pei-xun; Li-ya, A; Kou, Yu-hui; Yin, Xiao-feng; Xue, Feng; Han, Na; Wang, Tian-bing; Jiang, Bao-guo

    2015-01-01

    The clinical effects of 2-mm small gap sleeve bridging of the biological conduit to repair peripheral nerve injury are better than in the traditional epineurium suture, so it is possible to replace the epineurium suture in the treatment of peripheral nerve injury. This study sought to identify the regeneration law of nerve fibers in the biological conduit. A nerve regeneration chamber was constructed in models of sciatic nerve injury using 2-mm small gap sleeve bridging of a biodegradable biological conduit. The results showed that the biological conduit had good histocompatibility. Tissue and cell apoptosis in the conduit apparently lessened, and regenerating nerve fibers were common. The degeneration regeneration law of Schwann cells and axons in the conduit was quite different from that in traditional epineurium suture. During the prime period for nerve fiber regeneration (2–8 weeks), the number of Schwann cells and nerve fibers was higher in both proximal and distal ends, and the effects of the small gap sleeve bridging method were better than those of the traditional epineurium suture. The above results provide an objective and reliable theoretical basis for the clinical application of the biological conduit small gap sleeve bridging method to repair peripheral nerve injury. PMID:25788923

  19. Financing Strategies for Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Shropshire; Sharon Chandler

    2005-12-01

    To help meet our nation’s energy needs, reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel is being considered more and more as a necessary step in a future nuclear fuel cycle, but incorporating this step into the fuel cycle will require considerable investment. This report presents an evaluation of financing scenarios for reprocessing facilities integrated into the nuclear fuel cycle. A range of options, from fully government owned to fully private owned, was evaluated using a DPL (Dynamic Programming Language) 6.0 model, which can systematically optimize outcomes based on user-defined criteria (e.g., lowest life-cycle cost, lowest unit cost). Though all business decisions follow similar logic with regard to financing, reprocessing facilities are an exception due to the range of financing options available. The evaluation concludes that lowest unit costs and lifetime costs follow a fully government-owned financing strategy, due to government forgiveness of debt as sunk costs. Other financing arrangements, however, including regulated utility ownership and a hybrid ownership scheme, led to acceptable costs, below the Nuclear Energy Agency published estimates. Overwhelmingly, uncertainty in annual capacity led to the greatest fluctuations in unit costs necessary for recovery of operating and capital expenditures; the ability to determine annual capacity will be a driving factor in setting unit costs. For private ventures, the costs of capital, especially equity interest rates, dominate the balance sheet; the annual operating costs dominate the government case. It is concluded that to finance the construction and operation of such a facility without government ownership could be feasible with measures taken to mitigate risk, and that factors besides unit costs should be considered (e.g., legal issues, social effects, proliferation concerns) before making a decision on financing strategy.

  20. Effectiveness of community health financing in meeting the cost of illness

    OpenAIRE

    Preker Alexander S.; Carrin Guy; Dror David; Jakab Melitta; Hsiao William; Arhin-Tenkorang Dyna

    2002-01-01

    How to finance and provide health care for the more than 1.3 billion rural poor and informal sector workers in low- and middle-income countries is one of the greatest challenges facing the international development community. This article presents the main findings from an extensive survey of the literature of community financing arrangements, and selected experiences from the Asia and Africa regions. Most community financing schemes have evolved in the context of severe economic constraints,...

  1. Articulated device for guiding a band of conduits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The device consists of a support comprising at least two articulated arms to form of a pair of compasses; when the compasses are closed, all the conduits have the same internal radius of curvature. Each arm comprises two bars connected by a holding structure between which the conduits are disposed. A bar of one arm is connected to a bar of the other arm by an articulated joint so that the two joints between the bars are on either side of the band of conduits during actuation of the arms. The device is useful for guiding electrical cables, fluid supply tubes, etc, in the core cover of a liquid metal cooled, fast neutron nuclear reactor. The device can maintain a large number of conduits without risk of tangling or rupture when the arms are closed

  2. Guidebook to financing CDM projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamel, S.

    2007-07-01

    One of the challenges facing Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects today is their limited ability to secure financing for the underlying greenhouse gas emission reduction activities, particularly in the least developed countries. Among the key reasons for this is the fact that most financial intermediaries in the CDM host countries have limited or no knowledge of the CDM Modalities and Procedures. Moreover, approaches, tools and skills for CDM project appraisal are lacking or are asymmetrical to the skills in comparable institutions in developed countries. Consequently, developing country financial institutions are unable to properly evaluate the risks and rewards associated with investing or lending to developers undertaking CDM projects, and therefore have, by-and-large, refrained from financing these projects. In addition, some potential project proponents lack experience in structuring arrangements for financing a project. This Guidebook - commissioned by the UNEP Risoe Centre as part of the activities of the Capacity Development for CDM (CD4CDM) project (http://www.cd4cdm.org) - addresses these barriers by providing information aimed at both developing country financial institutions and at CDM project proponents. It should be noted that while the Guidebook was developed particularly with the CDM in mind, most sections will also be relevant for Joint Implementation (JI) project activities. For more detailed information on JI modalities and procedures please consult: http://ji.unfccc.int The purpose of this Guidebook is two-fold: 1) To guide project developers on obtaining financing for the implementation of activities eligible under the CDM; and 2) To demonstrate to developing country financial institutions typical approaches and methods for appraising the viability of CDM projects and for optimally integrating carbon revenue into overall project financing. The target audiences for the Guidebook are therefore, primarily: 1) CDM project proponents in developing countries, including but not limited to utilities, private and public sector entities, municipalities, and other specialised consultancies and intermediaries; and 2) Credit officers and other decision-makers within banking institutions and financial intermediaries in developing countries. (au)

  3. Preclinical evaluations of acellular biological conduits for peripheral nerve regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Liao, I-chien; Wan, Hua; Qi, Shijie; Cui, Cunqi; Patel, Paarun; Sun, Wendell; Xu, Hui

    2013-01-01

    Various types of natural biological conduits have been investigated as alternatives to the current surgical standard approach for peripheral nerve injuries. Autologous nerve graft, the current gold standard for peripheral nerve damage, is limited by clinical challenges such as donor-site morbidity and limited availability. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of using acellular xenographic conduits (nerve, artery, and dermis) for the repair of a 1.2 cm critical size defect o...

  4. Guided regeneration with resorbable conduits in experimental peripheral nerve injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Nicoli Aldini, N.; Fini, M.; Rocca, M.; Giavaresi, G.; Giardino, R.

    2000-01-01

    Guided tissue regeneration is a new approach in the reconstructive surgery of peripheral nerves. Artificial conduits can be constructed from biodegradable polymers. Lactic/caproic acid copolymers and polyphospazenes are biocompatible materials with a slow resorption rate. Conduits made from either poly-[l-lactide-co-6-caprolatone] or poly-[bis-(ethylalanate)-phosphazene] were assessed for use as guides for nerve regeneration in experimental animals. Under general anesthesia and by using a mic...

  5. Inspection of Emergency Arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Working Group on Inspection Practices (WGIP) was tasked by the NEA CNRA to examine and evaluate the extent to which emergency arrangements are inspected and to identify areas of importance for the development of good inspection practices. WGIP members shared their approaches to the inspection of emergency arrangements by the use of questionnaires, which were developed from the requirements set out in IAEA Safety Standards. Detailed responses to the questionnaires from WGIP member countries have been compiled and are presented in the appendix to this report. The following commendable practices have been drawn from the completed questionnaires and views provided by WGIP members: - RBs and their Inspectors have sufficient knowledge and information regarding operator's arrangements for the preparedness and response to nuclear emergencies, to enable authoritative advice to be given to the national coordinating authority, where necessary. - Inspectors check that the operator's response to a nuclear emergency is adequately integrated with relevant response organisations. - Inspectors pay attention to consider the integration of the operator's response to safety and security threats. - The efficiency of international relations is checked in depth during some exercises (e.g. early warning, assistance and technical information), especially for near-border facilities that could lead to an emergency response abroad. - RB inspection programmes consider the adequacy of arrangements for emergency preparedness and response to multi-unit accidents. - RBs assess the adequacy of arrangements to respond to accidents in other countries. - The RB's role is adequately documented and communicated to all agencies taking part in the response to a nuclear or radiological emergency. - Inspectors check that threat assessments for NPPs have been undertaken in accordance with national requirements and that up-to-date assessments have been used as the basis for developing emergency plans for NPPs. - Where RBs have an influence over land use around NPPs, they use the knowledge of their local or resident inspectors to inform decisions. - Inspectors check that appropriate action levels or criteria to identify an actual or radiological emergency are clearly defined and readily available to decision makers. - When observing emergency exercises inspectors check that: an appropriate and timely declaration is made, plant operators respond in accordance with the emergency plan and emergency instructions, and an appropriate level of response is initiated on and off-site. - RBs conduct follow-up inspections after real events, to ensure that the correct emergency response has been followed. - Inspectors verify that reliable data will be used to support the evaluation of environmental impact from a nuclear or radiological emergency, to the extent that this is within the jurisdiction of the RB. - Routine inspections and emergency exercise observations include a check that lines of communication are sufficiently resilient. - When observing emergency exercises inspectors, where practicable, check that timely, accurate and consistent information is provided to the public, in accordance with the off-site emergency plan. - RBs inspect the ability of the operator to give accurate medical and radiological information about casualties, to enable the correct treatment to be given. - Additional emergency equipment that is held in reserve off-site, provided to enhance resilience (post Fukushima), is included in the RB planned inspection and/or emergency exercise programme. - Inspectors check that licensee staff are adequately trained to connect and use additional equipment provided to enhance resilience. - Inspectors utilise the NPP operator's approved on-site emergency plan when inspecting on-site emergency arrangements. - RBs include human factors staff in emergency exercise evaluation teams to consider safety culture and human performance. - RBs consider the need for exercise scenarios to be undisclosed to exercise participants. - Bilateral trans-national inspection pro

  6. Financing Distributed Generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper introduces the engineer who is undertaking distributed generation projects to a wide range of financing options. Distributed generation systems (such as internal combustion engines, small gas turbines, fuel cells and photovoltaics) all require an initial investment, which is recovered over time through revenues or savings. An understanding of the cost of capital and financing structures helps the engineer develop realistic expectations and not be offended by the common requirements of financing organizations. This paper discusses several mechanisms for financing distributed generation projects: appropriations; debt (commercial bank loan); mortgage; home equity loan; limited partnership; vendor financing; general obligation bond; revenue bond; lease; Energy Savings Performance Contract; utility programs; chauffage (end-use purchase); and grants. The paper also discusses financial strategies for businesses focusing on distributed generation: venture capital; informal investors (''business angels''); bank and debt financing; and the stock market

  7. FINANCING OF INTERNATIONAL TRANSACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADU NICOLAE B?LUN?

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Financing (funding is essentially the purchase of funds necessary for a business. This can be done from internal sources (company’s own funds or external (borrowed funds. The high value of goods traded in international trade makes revenues generated from internal resources not sufficient to settle the value of the goods. Thus, it is frequent to resort to borrowed funds. In International Business Transactions, external financing is done both by classical techniques of credit (credit supplier and buyer credit and modern techniques of financing (factoring, forfeiting, leasing all trade tailored. In terms of the length of financing, accounting funding is short-term (1-12 months and long-term financing (over a year. In principle, export and import operations prevailing short-term financing techniques, while international investment and industrial cooperation actions are specific long-term funding

  8. Significance of Conduit Flow in a Highly Heterogeneous Karst Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, R.; Zhu, J.; Shu, L.

    2011-12-01

    Two numerical models are applied to simulate the groundwater flow in a conduit network (subsurface stream) embedded in a mature karst system in Houzhai Basin, southwest China. The main difference between these two models is the treatment of the horizontal conduit network. In the first model, the Drain module in Visual MODFLOW model is used to simulate the subsurface stream based on equivalent continuum model where flows are assumed to be laminar. In the second model, the Conduit Flow Process (CFP) module based on dual-conductivity model is used where potential turbulent flows in conduit network are taken into account. The vertical conduits (sinkholes) are set as injecting wells to increase the underground runoff in both models. The high heterogeneity of karst system and the lack of observed hydrogeologic data significantly affect the performance of the numerical models. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis is conducted covering possible ranges of the most influential parameters. Modeling results suggest that the groundwater flows are highly sensitive to several parameters, such as conduit paths. The differences in hydrological processes and parameter sensitivities between the two models highlight the potential errors in the equivalent continuum model.

  9. Financing nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global energy security and climate change concerns sparked by escalating oil prices, high population growth and the rapid pace of industrialization are fueling the current interest and investments in nuclear power. Globally, a significant number policy makers and energy industry leaders have identified nuclear power as a favorable alternative energy option, and are presently evaluating either a new or an expanded role for nuclear power. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has reported that as of October 2008, 14 countries have plans to construct 38 new nuclear reactors and about 100 more nuclear power plants have been written into the development plans of governments for the next three decades. Hence as new build is expected to escalate, issues of financing will become increasingly significant. Energy supply, including nuclear power, considered as a premium by government from the socio-economic and strategic perspective has traditionally been a sector financed and owned by the government. In the case for nuclear power, the conventional methods of financing include financing by the government or energy entity (utility or oil company) providing part of the funds from its own resources with support from the government. As national financing is, as in many cases, insufficient to fully finance the nuclear power plants, additional financing is sourced from international sources of financing including, amongst others, Export Credit Agencies (ECAs) and Multilateral t Credit Agencies (ECAs) and Multilateral Development Institutions. However, arising from the changing dynamics of economics, financing and business model as well as increasing concerns regarding environmental degradation , transformations in methods of financing this energy sector has been observed. This paper aims to briefly present on financing aspects of nuclear power as well as offer some examples of the changing dynamics of financing nuclear power which is reflected by the evolution of ownership and management of nuclear power plants from Government and State-owned companies to large privatised utilities and independent developers. (Author)

  10. Comminution and frictional melting in volcanic conduits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavallee, Y.; Mitchell, T. M.; Heap, M. J.; Kendrick, J. E.; kennedy, B.; Ashwell, P. A.; Hirose, T.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2011-12-01

    Shearing and faulting at active volcanoes may differ to tectonic faulting due to their distinct temperature conditions above those of the Earth's geotherm. In particular, the ascent of high-viscosity magma/rocks in upper conduits leads to shear/fault zones, with/without gouge formation and sometimes frictional melting; yet, details of the deformation and fracture mechanisms in these magma/rocks with different crystallinities reveal a different synopsis. For instance, the extrusion of lava domes proceeds endogenously or exogenically - a distinction generally understood as a shift in magma rheology to brittle failure, without consideration of the subsequent slip process. Exogenic growth and formation of a spine follow the dynamic rupture of the lava and the dome carapace, and suffer slip along the fault surface. Here, we present experimental investigations of the ability of volcanic rocks (with different glass/crystal and vesicle ratios) to sustain friction, and in cases melt, using a high-velocity rotary apparatus. During high-velocity rotary shear test, we find that slip of along andesite and basalt rocks generate heat which leads to frictional melting at temperature of ca. 1000 C, conciding to a total slip of 10-40 m (for slip initiating at room temperature). In contrast, slip along dense obsidian rocks or porous rocks cannot sustain slip along a discrete plane. Alternatively, obsidian can be slipped against a crystalline material. The width of the slip zone decreases in the presence of crystals. The findings suggest that the comminution of crystals is a requirement to the development of a localised slip zone. In absence of crystals, obsidian (and crystal-free magma) shatter catastrophically. We discuss the implication of our findings to the cases of tectonic faults, stability of volcanic edifices and evolution of lava dome eruptions.

  11. Spacer assembly retainer arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In accordance with the principles of the invention, an arrangement is presented which restrains movement of the spacer assemblies within a fuel assembly. The spacer assemblies are composed of a grid of slotted rectangular plates arranged to intersect and interlock in an egg-crate fashion with their lengthwise edges perpendicular to the axes of the fuel elements and guide tubes. Each guide tube is provided with a number of longitudinally spaced sleeves attached by welding. Collars having machine slots designed to mechanically interlock each collar with each respective spacer assembly cell that receives a guide tube are provided and fixed with each of such cells. The sleeves contain apertures on the portions thereof extending beyond the grid plates. Thus, upon assembly, the grid plate collars generally circumscribe the sleeve portions of the guide tubes. The guide tubes are permanently fixed to the spacer assemblies into the apertures of the sleeves. Hence, the guide tubes are firmly fixed to the spacer assemblies without welding or brazing, and without otherwise distorting the guide tubes. (auth)

  12. Topology of generic line arrangements

    OpenAIRE

    Bodin, Arnaud

    2012-01-01

    Our aim is to generalize the result that two generic complex line arrangements are equivalent. In fact for a line arrangement A we associate its defining polynomial, the product of a_ix+b_iy+c_i, so that A = (f=0). We prove that the defining polynomials of two generic line arrangements are, up to a small deformation, topologically equivalent. In higher dimension the related result is that within a family of equivalent hyperplane arrangements the defining polynomials are topo...

  13. Project financing in the energy sector: The Indonesian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Past Indonesian experiences in arranging Project Financing or Limited Recourse Financing in the Energy Sector and the feasibility of such a structure for Nuclear Power Projects are reviewed in this paper. Many of the projects in the energy sector, including Nuclear Power Project are capital intensive projects. A single project may require an investment level of several billion dollars. Large capital investments of this nature may drastically limit the availability of funds from external sources used to finance other non-energy projects in a developing country such as Indonesia. Therefore, the financing concept of a project is becoming a paramount element in the policies adopted by the Republic of Indonesia. As an example, a non-recourse finance structure is the preference of the government for export oriented energy projects. The aim of the government financing policy for export oriented energy projects is to limit the recourse to the applicable Indonesian state enterprise (the project sponsor) by transferring to third parties as much of the project risks as possible. Most of the export oriented energy projects come close to achieving a non-recourse structure. Domestic oriented energy projects however, continue to be financed with a loan guarantee by the government or by state owned enterprises. In addition to maintaining fund availability from external sources for the non-energy sector, Indonesia's reported external debts as well as debt service ratios are other factwell as debt service ratios are other factors in considering a limited recourse financing structure for capital intensive projects. (author)

  14. Deformations of Coxeter hyperplane arrangements

    OpenAIRE

    Postnikov, Alexander; Stanley, Richard P.

    1997-01-01

    We investigate several hyperplane arrangements that can be viewed as deformations of Coxeter arrangements. In particular, we prove a conjecture of Linial and Stanley that the number of regions of the arrangement x_i - x_j = 1, 1 \\leq i

  15. Public School Finance in a Post-Serrano World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubb, W. Norton; Michelson, Stephan

    1973-01-01

    A refutation of an article published by the Yale Law Journal which reported a study of school finance arrangements in Connecticut and influenced the "Rodiguez" decision. Weaknesses in the statistical arguments and theoretical analysis of that piece are discussed as the need for accepting some type of "Serrano" reform is stressed, while recognizing…

  16. Development of conduits for the ITER central solenoid conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency has developed a JK2LB conduit for the Nb3Sn conductor of the ITER central solenoid (CS). Mechanical requirements for the CS conductor conduit are a 0.2% yield strength of more than 900 MPa and a fracture toughness KIC (J) of more than 130 MPa ?m after a compaction and aging heat treatment (650degC, 240 hours). In a previous work, it was shown that an aged JK2LB conduit has high strength and sufficient fracture toughness enough to satisfy the requirements. As the next step, work was performed to determine the specifications of the JK2LB conduit taking into account of cold work, including compaction and winding, and to simplify its fabrication process. To simulate the cold work effect with cold work of 10% and aging, mechanical tests were performed at 4.2 K on laboratory-scale (20-30 kg) ingot samples at 4.2 K. It was found that the sum of carbon and nitrogen content should be in the range from 0.11% to 0.18% to achieve the ITER mechanical requirements. To obtain a grain-sized of conduit as well as that of a small ingot sample, the appropriate solution heat-treatment temperature and holding time were studied. In order to simplify the billet production process, we confirmed the internal metallurgical qualities of a JK2LB-cast ingot. Since significant segregation was not observed, it was possible to exclude the electroslag remelting process. Based on the above achievements, full-size JK2LB conduits that satisfy the IT-size JK2LB conduits that satisfy the ITER mechanical requirements were fabricated. (author)

  17. Auspicious tatami mat arrangements

    CERN Document Server

    Erickson, Alejandro; Schurch, Mark; Woodcock, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    An \\emph{auspicious tatami mat arrangement} is a tiling of a rectilinear region with two types of tiles, $1 \\times 2$ tiles (dimers) and $1 \\times 1$ tiles (monomers). The tiles must cover the region and satisfy the constraint that no four corners of the tiles meet; such tilings are called \\emph{tatami tilings}. The main focus of this paper is when the rectilinear region is a rectangle. We provide a structural characterization of rectangular tatami tilings and use it to prove that the tiling is completely determined by the tiles that are on its border. We prove that the number of tatami tilings of an $n \\times n$ square with $n$ monomers is $n2^{n-1}$. We also show that, for fixed-height, the generating function for the number of tatami tilings of a rectangle is a rational function, and outline an algorithm that produces the generating function.

  18. Nuclear decommissioning: Funding arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This statement describes the United Kingdom's approach to funding civil nuclear decommissioning activities and explain proposed changes to the current arrangements. The UK has nuclear operators both in the private and public sectors and the approach to decommissioning funding differs. British Energy (BE), which operates a fleet of AGR power stations and a PWR, is in the private sector. On privatization, a segregated fund was established to cover BE's future decommissioning costs. Money paid into the fund is invested and the accumulated assets used to meet future decommissioning and cleanup costs. The precise amount of money that will be required to cover decommissioning costs is not an exact science. That is why the performance of the segregated fund is reviewed at five yearly intervals, at which stage BE's annual contribution can be adjusted as appropriate. To ensure that the fund is managed effectively and investments are made wisely, the fund is managed by independent trustees jointly appointed by the Government and the company. So far, the fund is performing as expected and it is on target to cover BE's decommissioning costs. Operators in the public sector include British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL) and the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA). BNFL operates the fleet of Magnox power stations, a number of which are in various stages of decommissioning. BNFL also operates Sellafield (reprocessing, MOX and other operations) and Springfields (fuel manufactperations) and Springfields (fuel manufacture). UKAEA is responsible for decommissioning the UK's former research reactor sites at Dounreay, Windscale (Cumbria), Harwell and Winfrith (Dorset). Under current arrangements, taxpayers meet the cost of decommissioning and cleanup at UKAEA sites; taxpayers will also meet the costs associated with the decommissioning of Magnox power stations from 2008 onwards

  19. Financing landfill gas projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problems of financing landfill gas projects in the UK in the last few years are discussed. The approach of the author in setting up a company to finance such projects in the power generation field and a separate company to design and supply turnkey packages is reported. (UK)

  20. Creative Capital Financing: Lease Purchase and Leasing Air Space (The Florida Approach).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Franklin L.

    1983-01-01

    Among recent creative financing arrangements for public sector construction in Florida are the Duval County Central Administration Building, constructed with a lease purchase arrangement, and state legislation that provides for the leasing or sale of air space by local school boards or boards of regents. (MLF)

  1. Financing Canadian international operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A primer on financing international operations by Canadian corporations was provided. Factors affecting the availability to project finance (location, political risk), the various forms of financing (debt, equity, and combinations), the main sources of government backed financing to corporations (the International Finance Corporation) (IFC), the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), the Asian Development Bank (ADB), the Overseas Property Insurance Corporation (OPIC), government or agency guarantees, political risk coverage, the use of offshore financial centres, and the where, when and how these various organizations operate, were reviewed. Examples of all of the above, taken from the experiences of Canadian Occidental Petroleum of Calgary in the U.S., in South America, in the Middle and Far East, and in Kazakhstan, were used as illustrations. figs

  2. Sciatic nerve repair using adhesive bonding and a modified conduit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiangdang; Cai, Hongfei; Hao, Yongyu; Sun, Geng; Song, Yaoyao; Chen, Wen

    2014-03-15

    When repairing nerves with adhesives, most researchers place glue directly on the nerve stumps, but this method does not fix the nerve ends well and allows glue to easily invade the nerve ends. In this study, we established a rat model of completely transected sciatic nerve injury and repaired it using a modified 1 cm-length conduit with inner diameter of 1.5 mm. Each end of the cylindrical conduit contains a short linear channel, while the enclosed central tube protects the nerve ends well. Nerves were repaired with 2-octyl-cyanoacrylate and suture, which complement the function of the modified conduit. The results demonstrated that for the same conduit, the average operation time using the adhesive method was much shorter than with the suture method. No significant differences were found between the two groups in sciatic function index, motor evoked potential latency, motor evoked potential amplitude, muscular recovery rate, number of medullated nerve fibers, axon diameter, or medullary sheath thickness. Thus, the adhesive method for repairing nerves using a modified conduit is feasible and effective, and reduces the operation time while providing an equivalent repair effect. PMID:25206861

  3. Left ventricle-aortic conduits in pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiDonato, R M; Danielson, G K; McGoon, D C; Driscoll, D J; Julsrud, P R; Edwards, W D

    1984-07-01

    From August, 1974, to January, 1982, left ventricle-aortic porcine valved conduits were inserted in three patients less than 2 years old (Group 1) and in 10 patients between 2 and 14 years of age (Group 2) for relief of severe left ventricular outflow tract obstruction. The distal anastomosis was made to the ascending aorta in seven patients and to the supraceliac abdominal aorta in six patients. In six patients, the conduit was sutured directly to the left ventricle, and in seven a stented right-angle connector was employed. The left ventricle-aortic gradients were relieved in all cases (mean residual gradient = 4.3 mm Hg). All three patients in Group 1 had associated endocardial fibroelastosis and all died. There was one early death in Group 2 (10% mortality). Reoperation was required in seven of nine survivors (78%) 2.7 to 5.2 years postoperatively for conduit valve failure (five patients), progression of mild native aortic valve insufficiency (one patient), or both (one patient). One of the seven required another reoperation for re-replacement of the conduit valve. There was one late death associated with reoperation. At follow-up 3.4 to 7.5 years postoperatively, four patients are in Functional Class I, two are in Class II, and two are convalescing from reoperation. Left ventricle-aortic conduits provide excellent relief of left ventricular outflow tract obstruction. However, the high incidence of late complications suggests better results might be anticipated with aortoventriculoplasty (Konno). PMID:6738105

  4. Innovative M and A financing structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structuring and financing of mergers and acquisitions (M and A) is one of the most critical elements of a takeover process, given that Canadian securities law requires that any takeover must be 'fully financed'. It follows therefore, that in order to comply with securities laws, the financing for a takeover must be arranged in advance of making such a bid. This paper describes the structuring of an offer, outlines the sources of M and A financing, including a review of the 'full capital solution', reviews the key forces influencing the financial structuring of takeover bids, and provides examples of recent M and A transactions in the oil and gas resources sectors. Case histories of two recent mergers and acquisitions, one involving Sun Media Corporation and Rogers Communication Inc., the other John Labatt Limited and the Onex Corporation, were reviewed in detail. The importance of proper structuring of the offer for the specific target's shareholders, as well as for future business operations was stressed

  5. Defining equations of subspace arrangements embedded in reflection arrangements

    OpenAIRE

    Sidman, Jessica

    2003-01-01

    We give explicit generators for ideals of two classes of subspace arrangements embedded in certain reflection arrangements, generalizing results of Li-Li and Kleitman-Lovasz. We also give minimal generators for the ideals of arrangements that arise in a natural way from the p-skeleton of an n-dimensional cube and discuss conditions under which the generators that we give form a Groebner basis.

  6. Financing responsibility for nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic premise for financing arrangements for the disposal of nuclear waste is that the nuclear industry - not the taxpayer - must bear the costs. Present regulations, however, are imperfect in this regard. The Inquiry therefore proposes extending the financial liability of the nuclear industry and introducing new fee-setting arrangements. It is proposed that a new law be enacted to regulate these changes. The present financing system is regulated in the 'Financing Act' 1. Under this Act, the licensed owner and operator of a nuclear reactor is required to pay an annual fee and provide guarantees to the State. Four companies are reactor owners. These companies are wholly or partly owned by other companies according to various arrangements. Each reactor owner is responsible for its own dismantling costs and for its share of allocated common costs of disposal and related measures. If there is insufficient money in the funds, the nuclear industry will still be liable. The basic premise of the Inquiry is that the financing system should be designed so as to minimise the risk that the State (and taxpayers) will need to step in and pay. Although the nuclear industry is intended to have full liability for payment, in practice it does not. This is because the formal full liability for payment in the nuclear industry rests with the reactor companies and not where the industry's long-term ability to pay is to be found. Essentially, the present arrangements mean that: - Compane present arrangements mean that: - Companies that cannot be expected to have any long-term ability to pay have unlimited liability, and - Companies that can be expected to have an ability to pay have very limited liability. The Inquiry therefore proposes that ability to pay and liability are brought into line by a formal assumption by owning companies of the sort of liability for payment that now rests solely with the reactor companies. This means that the owning company in each group that is best suited to bear the liability for payment - which in principle is likely to be the leading company in the group - will also assume liability through a payment guarantee. The extended requirement to pay fees for the period until the final disposal sites are sealed and the secondary liability for payment are central components of the proposed new design of the financing system. In other cases where the State assumes risks, risk assessments are made. This applies, for example, when the State provides guarantees in the area of export credits. In the view of the Inquiry, however, the State has not followed an appropriate course of action in managing the financial risk involved in this case. Use must be made of descriptions of risks in other projects and experience of managing financial risks of other projects. The Inquiry considers that a different system and different management is required in order to put the liability of the nuclear industry for costs into place - and so limit the financial risk borne by the State. The Inquiry considers it essential that the use of funds is followed up and audited so as to maintain confidence in the financing system. The Inquiry considers that a three-year fee period should create scope for auditing and control and proposes that the safety authority be instructed in an ordinance to draw up rules aimed at facilitating follow-up by requiring time limits, comparability, etc. It is proposed that auditing be made part of a new financially oriented line of activity at the authority. It is proposed further that the safety authority be instructed to deliver an account to the Government every three years regarding its assessment of the most important risk factors in the withdrawals process. The Inquiry proposes that the National Debt Office be instructed to review the issue of a fee for the State's financial risk three years after a new financing system has entered into force

  7. Interactions of large amplitude solitary waves in viscous fluid conduits

    CERN Document Server

    Lowman, Nicholas K; El, Gennady A

    2013-01-01

    The free interface separating an exterior, viscous fluid from an intrusive conduit of buoyant, less viscous fluid is known to support strongly nonlinear solitary waves due to a balance between viscosity-induced dispersion and buoyancy-induced nonlinearity. The overtaking, pairwise interaction of weakly nonlinear solitary waves has been classified theoretically for the Korteweg-de Vries equation and experimentally in the context of shallow water waves. We use numerical simulations and experimental observations to extend the classification scheme to the strongly nonlinear regime for viscous conduit solitary waves, where we identify three classes of nonlinear interaction behavior: purely bimodal, purely unimodal, and a mixed type. The magnitude of the dispersive radiation due to solitary wave interactions is quantified numerically and observed to be beyond the sensitivity of our experiments, suggesting that conduit solitary waves are approximately solitons. Experimental data are shown to be in excellent agreemen...

  8. Public School Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    This issue of Topic in Depth explores some of the resources available online regarding school finance. The first article from the RAND Review (1) discusses the challenges involved in meeting the ambitious goals established by the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act and the need to develop a school accountability system that can provide "the incentives and resources that the schools really need to help all students meet the state performance standards." In the second article (2), Linda Darling-Hammond, a Professor at Stanford University discusses the inequality of school funding across the US, again using California as an example. This website from CPRE (3) offers several articles that explain how school finance in the US works. The NCES Education Finance Statistics Center (4) is also a hub for information on public elementary/secondary education finance, including finance data on school districts nationwide. The Education Commission of the States (ECS) (5) offers this listing of state finance agencies for more state-specific information. Students can explore the topic further using this educational website from NCES (6). A collection of reports available through New American Schools (7) highlights one approach to the problem of school finance, namely resource reallocation. Taking yet another tactic, the author of this last article (8) proposes "a 'World Bank' for American education."

  9. Jumping numbers of hyperplane arrangements

    CERN Document Server

    Budur, Nero

    2008-01-01

    M. Saito recently proved that the jumping numbers of a hyperplane arrangement depend only on the combinatorics of the arrangement. However, a formula in terms of the combinatorial data was still missing. In this note, we give a formula and a different proof of the fact that the jumping numbers of a hyperplane arrangement depend only on the combinatorics. We also give a combinatorial formula for part of the Hodge spectrum and for the inner jumping multiplicities.

  10. [Two cases of severe variceal haemorrhage from an ileal conduit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunden, Dagmar; Poulsen, Johan; Kloster, Brian O

    2014-09-22

    Variceal haemorrhage from an ileal conduit is a rare but well-known complication to portal hypertension. Many treatments are described and a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) is the treatment of choice if possible, because this addresses the underlying portal hypertension. We report two cases of haemorrhage from an ileal conduit, which illustrates that treatment must be individualized with attention to life expectancy, co-morbidities and degree of the portosystemic pressure gradient, but TIPS treatment has to be considered even if there is no history of liver disease. PMID:25294334

  11. Financing energy projects in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Overview of financing trends in Africa; Multilateral support - Bedrock of Africa's first generation energy projects; ECA insurance and financing; Bilateral development finance; Offshore commercial bank lending; Local commercial bank finance; Capital markets; Legal ramifications ; Risk factors; Conclusions. (Author)

  12. 15 CFR 784.5 - Subsidiary arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...general subsidiary arrangement with the IAEA that governs complementary access...location-specific subsidiary arrangement with the IAEA. The purpose of such an arrangement...location-specific subsidiary arrangement with the IAEA and may observe the negotiations...

  13. To finance the transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A set of brief articles illustrates the emergence of innovating and operational financing tools aimed at supporting energy transition in France and in Europe. As far as France is concerned, different examples are evoked: raising local savings, crowd-funding for renewable energies, citizen investment, cooperation between industries, communities and citizens, a semi-public company with citizen participation, the case of the Nancy urban community, a joint experience by a local public company and an investment fund. As far as Europe is concerned, the following topics or examples are evoked: local policies as lever for European financing, the Danish example of citizen-based financing, crowd-funding in the UK, the European emergence of cooperatives. As far as banks and institutions are concerned, the following topics are addressed: tools implemented by the Caisse des Depots for energy transition, the roles of banks and of public institutions in the financing of energy transition

  14. Financing and takeovers

    OpenAIRE

    Morellec, Erwan

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes the interaction between financial leverage and takeover activity. We develop a dynamic model of takeovers in which the financing strategies of bidding firms and the timing and terms of takeovers are jointly determined. In the paper, capital structure plays the role of a commitment device, and determines the outcome of the acquisition contest. We demonstrate that there exists an asymmetric equilibrium in financing policies with endogenous leverage, bankruptcy, and takeover ...

  15. Essays in Corporate Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Leite, Tore

    2013-01-01

    This thesis contributes to the empirical literature on how firms meet exceptional financing needs in relation to “investment spikes” or years with unusually large investment activities. In the earlier part of the thesis, I show that the financing of investment during an investment spike is very different from that at other times. I have done this using data for publicly traded US firms over the period 1988 to 2007 and a filtering procedure suggested by Bond et al. (2006). Specifically, ex...

  16. Nuclear core region fastener arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An arrangement is disclosed for cooling the fasteners affixing a core barrel to a core former and a core baffle to a core former in the reactor vessel internals of a nuclear reactor. The arrangement allows the flowing reactor coolant to contact the fasteners, preferably bolts with an elliptical neck, and maintains lower bolt operating temperatures than previously experienced

  17. International energy financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some of the innovative financing options being considered by developing countries and economies in transition as ways of mobilizing international energy financing are discussed. Build-Own-Operate (BOO) and Transfer (BOOT) is the most commonly adopted approach. This involves limited resource financing of a project on the basis of the associated cash flow and risks and not on the credit of the project owners. The World Bank has set up the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency to provide, on a fee basis, guarantees against certain non-commercial forms of risk in order to promote international capital flow to developing countries. In 1989, the World Bank introduced the Expanded Co-financing Operations (ECO) programme as an instrument to catalyze the flow of private finance into developing countries and to improve their access to international financial markets. Other financial instruments currently being established include: leasing of equipment or whole plants by foreign investors; private ownership or operation of generation and distribution facilities; exchange of specific export goods for energy imports; developing instruments to finance local costs; revenue bonds; tax-exempt bonds; sale of electricity futures to those seeking more stable, longer term electricity price contracts. (UK)

  18. Numerical study of axonal outgrowth in grooved nerve conduits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jun; Coutris, Nicole; Huang, Yong

    2012-10-01

    Nerve conduits with grooved inner texture, working as a topographical guidance cue, have been experimentally proved to play a significant role in axonal alignment. How grooved conduits guide axonal outgrowth is of particular interest for studying nerve regeneration. A viscoelastic model of axonal outgrowth in a conduit with a defined grooved geometry characterized by its width in the circumferential direction and its height in the radial direction is developed in this work. In this model, the axon is considered as an elastic beam and the axonal deformation and motion, including stretching, bending and torsion, are described using a Cosserat rod theory. The friction between axon and substrate is also considered in this model as well as the tip outgrowth. It is found that the directional outgrowth of the axon can be significantly improved by the grooved texture: when the groove width decreases or the groove height increases, the axonal elongation in the longitudinal direction of the conduit can be increased, which is in good agreement with experimental observations. This work is the first numerical model to study the effect of the substrate geometry on axonal outgrowth.

  19. AC loss characteristics of simulated CIC-type conductors having plastic conduit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When alternating current superconducting coils having cable-in-conduit conductors are fabricated, non-metallic conduit materials are necessary to avoid eddy current losses in the conduits. Using two kinds of non-metallic tapes made of glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRPs) and Dyneema fiber reinforced plastics (DFRPs), we made the conductors with the GFRP conduits and DFRP conduits, and experimentally studied the total losses of the conductors. The measured results showed that the total loss of the conductor with the GFRP conduit was smaller than that with the DFRP conduit at the same value of the void ratio, the transport current, the external magnetic field, and so on. When the void ratios become high, the superconducting bundle cable can easily move in the conduit. Hence the measured total losses increased with the void ratios of the conductors

  20. AC loss characteristics of simulated CIC-type conductors having plastic conduit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojo, Y.; Sekine, N.; Tada, S.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Obama, J.; Takao, T.; Miyagi, D.; Yamanaka, A

    2003-10-15

    When alternating current superconducting coils having cable-in-conduit conductors are fabricated, non-metallic conduit materials are necessary to avoid eddy current losses in the conduits. Using two kinds of non-metallic tapes made of glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRPs) and Dyneema fiber reinforced plastics (DFRPs), we made the conductors with the GFRP conduits and DFRP conduits, and experimentally studied the total losses of the conductors. The measured results showed that the total loss of the conductor with the GFRP conduit was smaller than that with the DFRP conduit at the same value of the void ratio, the transport current, the external magnetic field, and so on. When the void ratios become high, the superconducting bundle cable can easily move in the conduit. Hence the measured total losses increased with the void ratios of the conductors.

  1. Extra cardiac conduit Fontan procedure in 41 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safarpour Gh

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Fontan operation is the definitive operation for palliation of complex congenital heart disease with single –ventricle physiology. The use of the extra cardiac conduit has recently been gaining popularity. The purpose of this study was to compare the outcomes of extra cardiac conduit Fontan procedure (off-pump technique and that of traditional technique (lateral tunnel technique in which cardiopulmonary bypass is routinely used. Methods: Forty one patients in different age groups underwent extra cardiac conduit Fontan procedure between April 2001 and December 2004. Data were collected from ICU sheets, files and during follow up visits. Under general anesthesia and through median sternotomy, using two temporary decompressing shunts, superior vena cava implanted on right pulmonary artery and a conduit interposed between transected inferior vena cava and main pulmonary artery. Fenestration was done in almost all patients and previous shunts were closed if there were any. Results: Of our patients, 13 were female and 28 were male. Mean age of the patients was 11.1 years (SD=7.8.In 24.4% of cases Fontan procedure was done as the first palliative surgery and in 75.6% of them there was previous history of palliative procedures. In 6 patients (14.6% we were constrained to use cardiopulmonary bypass which was predictable or necessary in 50% of cases. There was no reoperation due to post operative bleeding. Two cases suffered from prolonged plural effusion. Our in-hospital mortality was 9.8%. During 2-24 months follow up, we found two cases who were in NYHA functional class II and one case in functional class I. Conclusion: Extra cardiac conduit Fontan procedure could be used in a safe way. The results of this study were comparable and even in some cases better than that of the traditional technique.

  2. Influence of spontaneously occurring bursts of muscle sympathetic nerve activity on conduit artery diameter

    OpenAIRE

    Fairfax, Seth T.; Padilla, Jaume; Vianna, Lauro C.; Holwerda, Seth H.; Davis, Michael J.; Fadel, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    Large increases in muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) can decrease the diameter of a conduit artery even in the presence of elevated blood pressure, suggesting that MSNA acts to regulate conduit artery tone. Whether this influence can be extrapolated to spontaneously occurring MSNA bursts has not been examined. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that MSNA bursts decrease conduit artery diameter on a beat-by-beat basis during rest. Conduit artery responses were assessed in the brachial ...

  3. Synergistic effects of micropatterned biodegradable conduits and Schwann cells on sciatic nerve regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowski, Gregory E.; Miller, Cheryl A.; Jeftinija, Srdija; Mallapragada, Surya K.

    2004-09-01

    This paper describes a novel biodegradable conduit that provides a combination of physical, chemical and biological cues at the cellular level to facilitate peripheral nerve regeneration. The conduit consists of a porous poly(D,L-lactic acid) (PDLLA) tubular support structure with a micropatterned inner lumen. Schwann cells were pre-seeded into the lumen to provide additional trophic support. Conduits with micropatterned inner lumens pre-seeded with Schwann cells (MS) were fabricated and compared with three types of conduits used as controls: M (conduits with micropatterned inner lumens without pre-seeded Schwann cells), NS (conduits without micropatterned inner lumens pre-seeded with Schwann cells) and N (conduits without micropatterned inner lumens, without pre-seeded Schwann cells). The conduits were implanted in rats with 1 cm sciatic nerve transections and the regeneration and functional recovery were compared in the four different cases. The number or size of regenerated axons did not vary significantly among the different conduits. The time of recovery, and the sciatic function index, however, were significantly enhanced using the MS conduits, based on qualitative observations as well as quantitative measurements using walking track analysis. This demonstrates that biodegradable micropatterned conduits pre-seeded with Schwann cells that provide a combination of physical, chemical and biological guidance cues for regenerating axons at the cellular level offer a better alternative for repairing sciatic nerve transactions than conventional biodegradable conduits.

  4. Nuclear cooperation through institutional arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of nuclear technologies and their applications require international cooperation through educational, research, commercial and inter-governmental arrangements. These arrangements may be on bilateral, regional or international bases. With the oncoming age of globalization, it is apparent that more international cooperative efforts will be undertaken on a global scale. This presentation focused on the three major issues for international cooperation: nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear safety and nuclear waste management. It is estimated that in the context of Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Pacific Nuclear Council could provide a fruitful institutional arrangement for nuclear cooperation

  5. Real world financing opportunities for energy conservation projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tramonte, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    Do you have the resources, dollars, people expertise and general know-how to do all the energy conservation measures. If you have the funds, do it yourself. Historically you would save more if you hired a private concern because that is the only job the contractor does for you. You have other hats to wear and fires to put out. Using third-party financing can be a good decision based on your specific needs. Procrastination is not the answer - the cost of delay is extensive. Financing energy conservation measures is no different from financing your automobile or home. If the benefits outweigh the negatives, the answer is obvious. Remember, in any case of using private sector financing, your are joining a partnership arrangement. The only way to succeed is to be honest with each other on the front end. There need not be any surprises. Any reputable company will gladly have your attorney evaluate all agreements, amortization schedules, and attachments. Real world financing alternatives will continue to change as the market matures. It's not too good to be true. It is no more than a vehicle to make the efforts of capital improvements streamlined. The money or financing is the catalyst to the project and makes the other areas meld.

  6. Marital Status and Living Arrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Preliminary data from the Marital Status and Living Arrangements survey is available from the Census Bureau. At the site users may also view previous annual reports, which contain limited detail tables for states and some metropolitan areas.

  7. Free Arrangements over Finite Field

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshinaga, Masahiko

    2006-01-01

    The freeness of hyperplane arrangements in a three dimensional vector space over finite field is discussed. We prove that if the number of hyperplanes is greater than some bound, then the freeness is determined by the characteristic polynomial.

  8. CODUL EUROPEAN DE BUN? CONDUIT? ADMINISTRATIV? ?I FENOMENUL ADMINISTRATIV ROMÂNESC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Nicu

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Pour vivre parmi les membres d¢une certaine collectivité humaine, il est absolument nécessaire de connaître et respecter les valeurs fondamentales de celle-ci. Il est nécessaire également de respecter et d’appliquer les lignes de conduite importées par les normes juridiques réglementant les relations sociales qui se forment dans la collectivité respective pour realiser et protéger ces valeurs. Le peuple roumain, étant impliqué dans la procedure d¢adhésion à l¢Union européenne, a le devoir de connaître le droit communautaire. Le législateur roumain a la mission d'élaborer et d'adopter des lois compatibles avec les normes juridiques communautaires. L'exécutif doit agir pour que les lois soient appliques par tous ceux qui l’exécutif vivent en Roumanie. Par couséquence, il est absolument nécessaire de réformer l'administration publique roumaine de sorte que la relation fonctionnaire public et autres agents de l'administration publique – citoyen destinataire et bénéficiaire de la décision administrative et de la prestation administrative, soit conforme aux standards de l'Union européenne. Cet ouvrage a comme but de présenter en quelle mesure les règles écrites dans le Code européen de bonne conduite administrative peuvent être un modèle pour le législateur roumain. Même si le Code européen de bonne conduite administrative est un document rédigé pour établir les principes généraux à observer dans les relations entre les institutions communautaires européennes et le public, nous considerons qu'il y a plusieurs raisons pour considérer ce Code comme un modèle digne d'être suivi dans l'activité du législateur roumain. Parmi ces raisons, se trouve la performance d'établir le contenu de la base légale pour la bonne conduite administrative utilisant seulement vingt-sept articles dans lesquels on précise les principes généraux pour ce domaine d'activité sociale. Donc, le caractère concis et pourtant explicite du texte est un modèle pour une loi roumaine concernant la bonne conduite administrative ou pour un chapitre du Code administratif, chapitre ayant comme sujet la bonne conduite administrative. Une autre raison est celle que des principes comme „légitimité”, „absence de discri­mination”, „la proportionnalité”, „absense d'abus de pouvoir”, „impartialité et indépendance”, „objectivité”, „équité”, „confiance légitime, cohérence et conseil” et „courtoisie” doivent être présents parmi les principes fondamentaux de l'administration publique, quel que soit le pays dont il s'agit.

  9. Adapting Mudarabah Financing to Contemporary Realities: A Proposed Financing Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Bacha, Obiyathulla I.

    1997-01-01

    Islamic banking in Malaysia, despite its recent start, has seen very rapid growth. This growth however has been uneven. While short-term trade financing has always been dominant and grown rapidly, Mudarabah financing by Islamic banks in Malaysia has reduced to insignificantly amounts. Yet, Mudarabah which is based on profit and loss sharing has always been considered to be at the core of Islamic financing and in tune with the shariah’s injunctions against interest based financing. Th...

  10. Hyperplane Arrangements: Computations and Conjectures

    OpenAIRE

    Schenck, Hal

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of selected results and open problems in the theory of hyperplane arrangements, with an emphasis on computations and examples. We give an introduction to many of the essential tools used in the area, such as Koszul and Lie algebra methods, homological techniques, and the Bernstein-Gelfand-Gelfand correspondence, all illustrated with concrete calculations. We also explore connections of arrangements to other areas, such as De Concini-Procesi wo...

  11. Branched Polymers and Hyperplane Arrangements

    OpenAIRE

    Meszaros, Karola; Postnikov, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    We generalize the construction of connected branched polymers and the notion of the volume of the space of connected branched polymers studied by Brydges and Imbrie (Ann Math, 158:1019–1039, 2003), and Kenyon and Winkler (Am Math Mon, 116(7):612–628, 2009) to any central hyperplane arrangement A A . The volume of the resulting configuration space of connected branched polymers associated to the hyperplane arrangement A A is expressed through the value of the characteristic polynomial of A...

  12. Determinants of flexible work arrangements

    OpenAIRE

    Sarbu, Miruna

    2014-01-01

    Flexible work arrangements such as allowing employees to work at home are used in firms, especially since information and communication technologies have become so widespread. Using individual-level data from 10,884 German employees, this paper analyses the determinants of working at home as a form of flexible work arrangements. The analysis is based on descriptive analyses and a discrete choice model using a probit estimation approach. The results reveal that men have a higher...

  13. Financing a Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Rakowski

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available When companies have a net loss accompanied by negative operating cash flows, they must decide how to handle the financing deficit, or, stated differently, they must decide how to finance the loss.  By examining a large sample of firms with net losses, we document how companies respond to the financing shock that occurs with negative cash flow.  For companies with a one-year loss, current assets decrease and current liabilities increase.  While we observe that leverage ratios increase during a loss year, this increase has more to do with decreasing book equity than an increase in long-term debt.  However, when the loss persists into a second year, companies make more fundamental changes, often downsizing by decreasing fixed assets and by issuing longer term debt.

  14. Survey: Online Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    This lengthy article from The Economist gives an excellent, far-reaching overview of the industry of online banking. "Online Finance" considers the role of online banking within the finance industry as well as examining the benefits and pitfalls of banks transferring their services to the Internet. The survey is broken into nineteen sections which explore this phenomenon from a variety of angles including banking technology, online brokerage firms, and some of the obstacles of online finance, as well as looking at banking on the Internet in Japan and Scandinavia. The article also includes related titles in The Economist archive, as well as linking to several sections of the SEC Website that were mentioned in the article.

  15. Financing tourist activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujovi? Slavoljub

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper researches which of the possible financing models (self-financing, loan, mutual fund, issuing securities and leasing is the most convenient for tourism financing on the grounds of opinions and views of student population. Taking into account that future social and economic development depends on student population, that in every society intellectual endeavor (science and art exists ever since man exists, that the overall progress of mankind is based on the great intellectual endeavor of former civilizations, as well as the fact that Western Serbia has remarkable natural and anthropogenic characteristics suitable for valorization for the purpose of tourism development, the research questions were formulated and the research was performed. The methods used were: analysis, correlation, deduction and induction. Field research has been of the primary importance and it was based on questionnaires, interviews and in-depth interview. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 46001 i br. 47007

  16. Project Finance Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esty, Benjamin.

    Benjamin Esty at the Harvard Business School (HBS) has created this all-encompassing portal intended to serve as a reference guide for project finance students, faculty, and researchers. The resources on the site are divided into two main sections. The Research and Publications list is directed at the academic community and includes bibliographies of articles, books and book chapters, and trade magazines, as well as syllabi from business and law school courses from the top schools around the world, case studies, and rating agency information. The other section, Project Finance Links, functions as a standard portal, with over 800 annotated links to related Websites. All references to books, case studies, and articles are linked to the Harvard Business School online catalog for easier access by the HBS community. For librarians and Webmasters, the Project Finance Portal will serve as a stellar model of a portal for a library community.

  17. The Campaign Finance Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    With funding from the Carnegie Corporation, The Joyce Foundation, and The Pew Charitable Trusts, The Campaign Finance Institute is a non-profit institute affiliated with The George Washington University that "conducts objective research and education, empanels task forces and makes recommendations for policy change in the field of campaign finance." Along the top of the homepage, visitors will find thematic sections that include "President", "Congress", and "Interest Groups". Each of these sections includes full reports, press releases, data tables and charts. Additionally, visitors can look for specific materials by using their embedded search engine. Also, visitors can sign up here to receive email updates on the Institute's research and programs. Overall, it's a very useful site for anyone with an interest in campaign finance from a personal or an academic perspective.

  18. Guidebook to Geothermal Finance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmon, J. P.; Meurice, J.; Wobus, N.; Stern, F.; Duaime, M.

    2011-03-01

    This guidebook is intended to facilitate further investment in conventional geothermal projects in the United States. It includes a brief primer on geothermal technology and the most relevant policies related to geothermal project development. The trends in geothermal project finance are the focus of this tool, relying heavily on interviews with leaders in the field of geothermal project finance. Using the information provided, developers and investors may innovate in new ways, developing partnerships that match investors' risk tolerance with the capital requirements of geothermal projects in this dynamic and evolving marketplace.

  19. Financing unemployment insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Vroman, Wayne; Woodbury, Stephen A.

    2014-01-01

    Following the Great Recession, most states' unemployment insurance (UI) trust funds became insolvent, requiring the states to borrow from the U.S. Treasury to finance benefit payments. This article describes the basics of UI financing and reviews the origins of the financial crisis facing the federal-state UI system. It then examines the main components of the UI payroll tax-the taxable wage base and the experience-rated payroll tax-and considers how these might be modified to avoid future wi...

  20. Virtual Finance Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Search Partners, a provider of executive financial search services, presents the Virtual Finance Library, a packed collection of links to financial sites. The main page of Virtual Finance Library contains general information including reference and dictionary sites, calculators and converters, and interesting links. The rest of the library is accessible via the table of contents on the left side of the screen. The Websites are organized by topic, geographic location, or subtopic. Each topic begins with a short introduction to the subject, several pages long, and most links are descriptively annotated.

  1. Financing renewables - wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the status of the wind energy markets world-wide, in Europe and in the UK. It outlines the main methods of financing wind energy installations and discusses why different institutional structures have led to different markets in the UK and in Germany, with some concern about the state of the UK onshore industry. The paper looks ahead to the opening up of the potentially much larger offshore wind resource, concluding that in this area, existing UK development and financing structures are well suited. (Author)

  2. Financing of Renewable Energy Projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the role of the Banco Centroamericano de Integracion Economica in financing renewable energy projects in Central America. Also decribes the different financing modes to the goverment and private sectors

  3. Coxeter and crystallographic arrangements are inductively free

    OpenAIRE

    Barakat, Mohamed; Cuntz, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Using the classification of finite Weyl groupoids we prove that crystallographic arrangements, a large subclass of the class of simplicial arrangements which was recently defined, are hereditarily inductively free. In particular, all crystallographic reflection arrangements are hereditarily inductively free, among them the arrangement of type $E_8$. With little extra work we prove that also all Coxeter arrangements are inductively free.

  4. Stenting an aortopulmonary conduit with peripheral cardiopulmonary bypass support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incani, Alexander; Lee, Joseph C; Nicolae, Mugur J; Walters, Darren L

    2014-01-01

    Although surgically created aortopulmonary (AP) shunts are uncommon in the adult congenital heart disease population, they are often used in patients with pulmonary atresia. For these patients, the shunt is a vital supply of pulmonary blood flow and thus obstruction of the shunt may lead to pulmonary hypoperfusion and hypoxia thereby increasing morbidity and mortality. This report describes a safe and effective method of stenting the conduit with the hemodynamic support of peripheral cardiopulmonary bypass (PCB). Prior to the procedure, a multimodality assessment of a stenosis in a kinked AP conduit using computed tomography, angiography, intravascular ultrasound (IVUS), and pressure wire assessment (PWA) was utilized. While PCB, IVUS, and PWA have all been used to great effect in various clinical scenarios, the combined use of these techniques has not been previously been described in the setting of intervention in adult congenital heart disease. PMID:23592486

  5. Tension layer winding of cable-in-conduit conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 710 mm i.d. by 440 mm long, 6 layer Cable-in-Conduit (CIC) coil was precision tension layer wound with Incoloy 908 jacketed conductor to model winding technology that will be used for the Nb3Sn outsert coils of the 45 Tesla Hybrid Magnet Project at the US National High Magnetic Field Laboratory. This paper reports on the set up of a new winding facility with unique capabilities for insulating and winding long length CIC conductor and on special procedures which were developed to wind and support layer to layer transitions and to safely form conductor into and out of the winding. Analytical methods used to predict conduit keystoning, springback and back tensioning requirements before winding are reported in comparison to results obtained during winding and actual winding build-up dimensions on a layer by layer basis in comparison to design requirements

  6. Histological and environmental changes in longstanding ileal conduits.

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, D. J.; Goble, N. M.; Gillatt, D. A.; Hammonds, J. C.; Smith, P. J.

    1990-01-01

    Seventeen patients with urinary diversions present for between 10 and 17 years were examined endoscopically. The region of the anastomosis was successfully biopsied in 13 cases. Biopsy specimens were examined both histologically and cytologically. Urine was aspirated from the conduits under sterile conditions and sent for qualification of bacterial flora. Histology revealed a variable degree of villous atrophy, mucosal metaplasia, crypt hyperplasia and in one case, antral type gland metaplasi...

  7. CODUL EUROPEAN DE BUN? CONDUIT? ADMINISTRATIV? ?I FENOMENUL ADMINISTRATIV ROMÂNESC

    OpenAIRE

    Alina Nicu

    2006-01-01

    Pour vivre parmi les membres d¢une certaine collectivité humaine, il est absolument nécessaire de connaître et respecter les valeurs fondamentales de celle-ci. Il est nécessaire également de respecter et d’appliquer les lignes de conduite importées par les normes juridiques réglementant les relations sociales qui se forment dans la collectivité respective pour realiser et protéger ces valeurs. Le peuple roumain, étant impliqué dans la procedure d¢adhésion à l¢Union européen...

  8. Mechanical cleaning of oil spills in seawater using circular conduits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shedid, S.; Abou Kassem, J.; Zekri, A. [United Arab Emirates Univ., Al Ain City (United Arab Emirates). Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering

    2005-10-15

    Treatment of the crude oil pollution in seawater has attracted global attention during the last two decades. This study was undertaken using circular conduits as a mechanical means to clean oil spills in seawater under different conditions of temperature, oil gravity, shaking frequency, conduit diameter, and initial thickness of oil layer. An experimental model was designed and built to achieve the study. It consists of shaking water bath (to represent sea waves) fitted with temperature controller and glass tubes of different inside diameters of 0.3 cm, 0.5 cm, and 0.7 cm. Three crude oils of different oil gravity of 35{sup o}API, 38{sup o}API, and 47{sup o}API were investigated under different shaking frequencies of 20, 40, and 60 stroke/minute with different tube diameters. The results proved that application of mechanical cleaning of oil spills using circular conduits is a practical technique. The cleaning of black oil spills is more efficient than one of volatile oil. Furthermore, the results indicated that the increase of shaking frequency and/or water temperature provide(s) faster cleaning of oil spills while temperature increase recovers the maximum oil. (Author)

  9. Inferring conduit process from population studies of cinder cone craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemis, Karen G.

    2014-05-01

    One of the most observable aspects of magma conduits is of course their exit to the Earth's surface: the volcanic crater. The craters resulting from small mostly-monogenetic volcanic eruptions vary in considerable in size and shape, even after accounting for variation in size. Presumably, these variations tell us something about the state of the conduit at least in the ending stages of eruption. But what? This work explores the statistical properties of crater populations in Guatemala and elsewhere and speculates on the conduit processes that may explain the complex behavior. Crater depths are strongly correlated with cone slopes even when normalized by cone diameter, which suggests the importance of the impact of the volatile content (which may influence slope through fragmentation and the resulting grain size) and the duration of eruption (which may influence whether the cone is built to its maximum slope) despite erosion acting to reduce observed crater depths (cone slopes are known to decrease with erosion but cone diameters increase).

  10. Free-boundary models of a meltwater conduit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallaston, Michael C.; Hewitt, Ian J.

    2014-08-01

    We analyse the cross-sectional evolution of an englacial meltwater conduit that contracts due to inward creep of the surrounding ice and expands due to melting. Making use of theoretical methods from free-boundary problems in Stokes flow and Hele-Shaw squeeze flow we construct an exact solution to the coupled problem of external viscous creep and internal heating, in which we adopt a Newtonian approximation for ice flow and an idealized uniform heat source in the conduit. This problem provides an interesting variant on standard free-boundary problems, coupling different internal and external problems through the kinematic condition at the interface. The boundary in the exact solution takes the form of an ellipse that may contract or expand (depending on the magnitudes of effective pressure and heating rate) around fixed focal points. Linear stability analysis reveals that without the melting this solution is unstable to perturbations in the shape. Melting can stabilize the interface unless the aspect ratio is too small; in that case, instabilities grow largest at the thin ends of the ellipse. The predictions are corroborated with numerical solutions using boundary integral techniques. Finally, a number of extensions to the idealized model are considered, showing that a contracting circular conduit is unstable to all modes of perturbation if melting occurs at a uniform rate around the boundary, or if the ice is modelled as a shear-thinning fluid.

  11. Mathematical Models in Finance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halim Kazan

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Finance is the corner stone of the free enterprise system. Good financial management is therefore vitally important to the economic health of business firms, and thus the nation and the world. The field is relatively complex, and it is undergoing constant change in response to shifts in economic conditions say Brigham and Gapenski in the introduction of their Financial Management book (Brigham, Eugene F., Gapenski, Louis C 1994. As they said the field is relatively complex since most of the financial decisions are involved with uncertainty and risk. This is where quantitative methods and finance meets. In financial decision making process, like most of the decision making process, final decision made by managers, not by some mathematical tools. However, those mathematical tools, used in financial decision making process, contribute to managers' decision a lot. Finance is consist of three interrelated areas which are Money and Capital Markets, dealing with securities markets and financial institutions, Investments, focusing on the decisions of individuals, financial and other institutions while they choose securities for their investment portfolios; and Financial Management, involving the actual management of non financial firms (Brigham, E. F., Gapenski, L. C;1994 In this study I tried to summarize mathematical methods that have been used in finance historically.

  12. Financing emerging energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the financing of emerging energies in Canada. Transforming energy markets will involve billions of dollars of investment from businesses and residents. Many different types of return on investment can be expected. These benefits will continue to grow over time and provide a permanent income

  13. Specialized financing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specific financing techniques applicable to wind energy projects in Canada are discussed. A limited partnership is the classic Canadian approach to tax-advantaged financing. For a typical wind project, the limited partners would get an internal rate of return of around 8% over 20 years as well as income tax deductions on Class 34 investments. This rate can be improved if the investors borrow some of the money; they get tax-free cash flow while having deductible loan interest, raising their rate of return after taxes to ca 9-10%. Special situation investors can get to take all of the Class 34 deduction right away, raising their return up to the 12% range. These investors include principal business corporations (such as utilities or oil companies), or companies who have sold their business. A second type of financing structure is related to inflation-indexed debt. The loan is structured like a mortgage, with the annual payments indexed to inflation but nevertheless low enough to provide an early positive cash flow from the project. Other possible financing structures are the immigrant investor fund and the provincial incentive corporations

  14. 42 CFR 413.241 - Pharmacy arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pharmacy arrangements. 413.241 Section...Organ Procurement Costs § 413.241 Pharmacy arrangements. Effective January 1...that enters into an arrangement with a pharmacy to furnish renal dialysis service...

  15. 45 CFR 302.34 - Cooperative arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Cooperative arrangements. 302.34 Section 302.34 Public...REQUIREMENTS § 302.34 Cooperative arrangements. The State plan shall provide...into written agreements for cooperative arrangements under § 303.107 with...

  16. Legal aspects of financing Canadian offshore oil and gas developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is presented of the significant legal considerations involved in structuring, negotiating, and documenting commercial financing of a Canadian offshore oil and gas production facility. Emphasis is placed on the Hibernia Project in the Newfoundland offshore as an example, and more specifically the $450 million bank financing completed in November 1991. The legal framework governing offshore production financing in this case was complex, due to the project's location in international waters on the continental shelf. Complex intergovernmental arrangements have been implemented between Canada and Newfoundland to govern the offshore area and regulate the project. An agreement called the Atlantic Accord allowed the Canada Newfoundland Offshore Petroleum Board (CNOPB) to grant production licenses and to regulate offshore exploration and development, with matters relating to legislation, taxation, and royalties shared between the governments. Certain other acts were enacted or extended for application to the offshore area. The CNOPB administers a registry system for transfers and security interests in offshore licenses. Security interests including property are ensured by the Hibernia Act, which makes Newfoundland's existing security interest regime applicable to the offshore. The project owners are operating Hibernia as a joint venture, and the structure of project financing and inter-creditor arrangements is examined. The competing security interest of project lendempeting security interest of project lenders and non-defaulting participants is discussed, along with assignment of priorities on the security in case of default

  17. Realization of intermediate links of line arrangements

    OpenAIRE

    Bodin, Arnaud

    2012-01-01

    We investigate several topological and combinatorial properties of line arrangements. We associate to a line arrangement a link obtained by intersecting the arrangement with some sphere. Several topics are discussed: (a) some link configurations can be realized by complex line arrangements but not by real line arrangements; (b) if we intersect the arrangements with a vertical band instead of a sphere, what link configurations can be obtained? (c) relations between link confi...

  18. Compact moduli of hyperplane arrangements

    OpenAIRE

    Hacking, Paul

    2003-01-01

    The minimal model program suggests a compactification of the moduli space of hyperplane arrangements which is a moduli space of stable pairs. Here, a stable pair consists of a scheme X which is a degeneration of projective space and a divisor D=D_1+..+D_n on X which is a limit of hyperplane arrangements. For example, in the 1-dimensional case, the stable pairs are stable curves of genus 0 with n marked points. Kapranov has defined an alternative compactification using his Ch...

  19. Hodge spectrum of hyperplane arrangements

    CERN Document Server

    Budur, Nero

    2008-01-01

    In this article there are two main results. The first result gives a formula, in terms of a log resolution, for the graded pieces of the Hodge filtration on the cohomology of a unitary local system of rank one on the complement of an arbitrary divisor in a smooth projective complex variety. The second result is an application of the first. We give a combinatorial formula for the spectrum of a hyperplane arrangement. M. Saito recently proved that the spectrum of a hyperplane arrangement depends only on combinatorics. However, a combinatorial formula was missing. The formula is achieved by a different method.

  20. Adapting Risk Management for Profit and Loss Sharing Financing of Islamic Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irawan Febianto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The low level of participation of the Islamic banks in profit and loss sharing (mudharabah and musharakah financing models has become one of the problems in the development of the industry. These arrangements are unique to Islamic banking and account for its superiority over conventional banking on grounds of ethics and efficiency, but the majority of Islamic banks have limited themselves to less risky trade-financing assets, that tend to be a shorter maturity. This paper intends to analyzes why Islamic banks are reluctant to indulge in mudharabah and musharakah financing. Finally, it explores the risk management concept that might solve the problems.

  1. Project financing renewable energy schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The viability of many Renewable Energy projects is critically dependent upon the ability of these projects to secure the necessary financing on acceptable terms. The principal objective of the study was to provide an overview to project developers of project financing techniques and the conditions under which project finance for Renewable Energy schemes could be raised, focussing on the potential sources of finance, the typical project financing structures that could be utilised for Renewable Energy schemes and the risk/return and security requirements of lenders, investors and other potential sources of financing. A second objective is to describe the appropriate strategy and tactics for developers to adopt in approaching the financing markets for such projects. (author)

  2. Study on the dynamic behavior of a current in cable-in-conduit conductors by using self magnetic field measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obana, Tetsuhiro, E-mail: obana.tetsuhiro@LHD.nifs.ac.jp [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292, Gifu (Japan); Takahata, Kazuya; Hamaguchi, Shinji; Imagawa, Shinsaku; Mito, Toshiyuki [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292, Gifu (Japan); Kizu, Kaname; Murakami, Haruyuki; Yoshida, Kiyoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2011-10-15

    In order to understand the current behavior inside a cable-in-conduit conductor (CICC), self magnetic field measurements on the CICC were conducted. A prototype NbTi CICC, the configuration of which is a racket shape, for JT-60SA EF coil was used as a short conductor sample. By using Hall sensors arranged around the short conductor sample, the variation in the self magnetic field was measured. Taking into account the measurements, the current behavior inside the CICC was analyzed by using analytical models consisting of line currents. The analytical results indicate that the current distribution in the cross-section of the CICC would be non-uniform before a normal propagation, and the current distribution would be improved after the normal propagation.

  3. Flow control arrangements for centrifuges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a centrifuge plant for the separation of uranium isotopes, when a centrifuge machine breaks down, light gas is produced. This gas can cause adjacent machines to break down, so propagating the fault. The present invention provides flow control arrangements in gas pipes to the centrifuge, whereby sudden egress of gas from a failed machine is inhibited. (author)

  4. Wonderful models for toric arrangements

    OpenAIRE

    Moci, Luca

    2009-01-01

    We build a wonderful model for toric arrangements. We develop the "toric analog" of the combinatorics of nested sets, which allows to define a family of smooth open sets covering the model. In this way we prove that the model is smooth, and we give a precise geometric and combinatorial description of the normal crossing divisor.

  5. PFI redux? Assessing a new model for financing hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellowell, Mark

    2013-11-01

    There is a growing need for investments in hospital facilities to improve the efficiency and quality of health services. In recent years, publicly financed hospital organisations in many countries have utilised private finance arrangements, variously called private finance initiatives (PFIs), public-private partnerships (PPPs) or P3s, to address their capital requirements. However, such projects have become more difficult to implement since the onset of the global financial crisis, which has led to a reduction in the supply of debt capital and an increase in its price. In December 2012, the government of the United Kingdom outlined a comprehensive set of reforms to the private finance model in order to revive this important source of capital for hospital investments. This article provides a critical assessment of the 'Private Finance 2' reforms, focusing on their likely impact on the supply and cost of capital. It concludes that constraints in supply are likely to continue, in part due to regulatory constraints facing both commercial banks and institutional investors, while the cost of capital is likely to increase, at least in the short term. PMID:24138730

  6. Financing, Overhead, and Profit: An In-Depth Discussion of Costs Associated with Third-Party Financing of Residential and Commercial Photovoltaic Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, D.; Friedman, B.; Margolis, R.

    2013-10-01

    Previous work quantifying the non-hardware balance-of-system costs -- or soft costs -- associated with building a residential or commercial photovoltaic (PV) system has left a significant portion unsegmented in an 'other soft costs' category. This report attempts to better quantify the 'other soft costs' by focusing on the financing, overhead, and profit of residential and commercial PV installations for a specific business model. This report presents results from a bottom-up data-collection and analysis of the upfront costs associated with developing, constructing, and arranging third-party-financed residential and commercial PV systems. It quantifies the indirect corporate costs required to install distributed PV systems as well as the transactional costs associated with arranging third-party financing.

  7. Hypertextual Finance Glossary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wondering what is meant by the time value of money? Effective margin? Realized compound yield? Look no further than this site. Created and maintained by Duke University Professor of International Business Campbell R. Harvey, this clean and simple-to-use glossary offers over 3,600 entries, fully linked to related terms. Organized alphabetically with concise definitions, the glossary is an excellent resource for university finance courses.

  8. Museum of American Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Founded by securities dealer John Herzog in 1988, the Museum of American Financial History aims to collect and preserve US historical financial artifacts that bring "the nation's financial history alive." Students, policy makers, media professionals, and the general public will enjoy selected articles from the quarterly publication Financial History in addition to online exhibits like Financing the Civil War, a historical narrative complete with images of obsolete banknote and securities issued by the North and South.

  9. Yahoo! UK & Ireland: Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahoo! UK Finance is a site that provides the latest updates on quoted stocks, indices, foreign exchange and business news in the United Kingdom and Ireland. The site publishes share price and trading information on all London Stock Exchange stocks with a 20-minute delay. It will also provide delayed information for stocks trading on the Frankfurt and Paris stock market. Yahoo! offers real-time foreign exchange rates and the latest UK business news from the Press Association and Reuters Holdings.

  10. Gauge theory of Finance?

    OpenAIRE

    Sornette, D.

    1998-01-01

    Some problems with the recent stimulating proposal of a ``Gauge Theory of Finance'' by Ilinski and collaborators are outlined. First, the derivation of the log-normal distribution is shown equivalent both in information and mathematical content to the simpler and well-known derivation, dating back from Bachelier and Samuelson. Similarly, the re-derivation of Black-Scholes equation is shown equivalent to the standard one because the limit of no uncertainty is equivalent to th...

  11. Probabilistic aspects of finance

    OpenAIRE

    Fo?llmer, Hans; Schied, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    In the past decades, advanced probabilistic methods have had significant impact on the field of finance, both in academia and in the financial industry. Conversely, financial questions have stimulated new research directions in probability. In this survey paper, we review some of these developments and point to some areas that might deserve further investigation. We start by reviewing the basics of arbitrage pricing theory, with special emphasis on incomplete markets and on ...

  12. International Finance Corporation (IFC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    IFC, a member of the World Bank group, provides loans and equity financing for private sector projects, and advisory services to governments in developing countries to promote economic development. This website offers information about the products and services that IFC provides; reports on IFC projects and activities; and puts out press releases. There is also a collection of discussion and technical papers available at the site.

  13. Mathematical Models in Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Halim Kazan; Ahmet Ergülen

    2005-01-01

    Finance is the corner stone of the free enterprise system. Good financial management is therefore vitally important to the economic health of business firms, and thus the nation and the world. The field is relatively complex, and it is undergoing constant change in response to shifts in economic conditions say Brigham and Gapenski in the introduction of their Financial Management book (Brigham, Eugene F., Gapenski, Louis C 1994). As they said the field is relatively complex since most of the ...

  14. Equilibrium Corporate Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Bisin, Alberto; Gottardi, Piero; Ruta, Guido

    2010-01-01

    We study a general equilibrium model with production where financial markets are incomplete. At a competitive equilibrium firms take their production and financial decisions so as to maximize their value. We show that shareholders unanimously sup- port value maximization. Furthermore, competitive equilibria are constrained Pareto efficient. Finally the Modigliani-Miller theorem typically does not hold and the firms’ corporate financing structure is determined at equilibrium. ...

  15. Migrating quake swarm may indicate magma conduit clog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Colin

    2014-03-01

    On 13 January 2006, Augustine Volcano, a towering volcano offshore from the Alaska Peninsula, erupted explosively. In the days leading up to the eruption, a series of explosions and earthquake swarms had warned of the impending activity. On 12 January, 36 hours before the first magmatic explosions, a swarm of 54 earthquakes was detected across the 13-station seismic network on Augustine Island. Analyzing the seismic waves produced by the earthquakes, Buurman and West found that the earthquakes were being triggered from point sources within the magma conduit itself.

  16. Heating-induced flows in cable-in-conduit conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoenig et al and Miller et al have both reported high stability margins for cable-in-conduit conductors cooled by stationary supercritical helium. Miller et al proposed that strong flows induced in the helium in the early stages of recovery enhanced heat transfer and greatly increased the stability margin over what had been expected for stationary helium. In this memorandum, the flow and pressure transients induced in initially stationary helium by energy transfers typical of those associated with conductor recovery (50 to 200 mJ cm-3 in 10 to 20 msec) are calculated

  17. Evaluation of the ITER cable in conduit conductor heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Convective heat transfer correlations in dual channel Cable In Conduit Conductor (CICC) are presented as functions of friction factor, and based on the Reynolds-Colburn analogy using the Stanton number. The developed thermohydraulic model determines helium temperatures in both channels, with the real geometrical spiral perforation. It is applied with pertinence to the Poloidal Field Full Size Joint Sample (PF-FSJS) and shows good agreement between the experimental measurements and the calculated temperatures, characterised by a 0.43 m space constant. The heat load applied in the bundle region induces density imbalance; the gravity effect in this vertical sample is evaluated and discussed. (authors)

  18. Séparation de la source glottique des influences du conduit vocal

    OpenAIRE

    Degottex, Gilles

    2010-01-01

    Cette étude s'intéresse au problème de l'inversion d'un modèle de production de la voix pour obtenir, à partir d'un enregistrement audio de parole, une représentation de le source sonore qui est générée au niveau de la glotte, la source glottique, ainsi qu'un représentation des résonances et anti-résonances créées par le conduit vocal. Cette séparation permet de manipuler les éléments composant la voix de façon indépendente. On trouve de nombreuses applications de ce sujet ...

  19. Use new PLGL-RGD-NGF nerve conduits for promoting peripheral nerve regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Yan Qiongjiao; Yin Yixia; Li Binbin

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Nerve conduits provide a promising strategy for peripheral nerve injury repair. However, the efficiency of nerve conduits to enhance nerve regeneration and functional recovery is often inferior to that of autografts. Nerve conduits require additional factors such as cell adhesion molecules and neurotrophic factors to provide a more conducive microenvironment for nerve regeneration. Methods In the present study, poly{(lactic acid)-co-[(glycolic acid)-alt-(L-lysine)]} (PLGL)...

  20. Combinatorial simpliciality of arrangements of hyperplanes

    OpenAIRE

    Cuntz, Michael; Geis, David

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a combinatorial characterization of simpliciality for arrangements of hyperplanes. We then give a sharp upper bound for the number of hyperplanes of such an arrangement in the projective plane over a finite field, and present some series of arrangements related to the known arrangements in characteristic zero. We further enumerate simplicial arrangements with given symmetry groups. Finally, we determine all finite complex reflection groups affording combinatoria...

  1. Branched polymers and hyperplane arrangements

    CERN Document Server

    Meszaros, Karola

    2009-01-01

    We generalize the construction of connected branched polymers and the notion of the volume of the space of connected branched polymers studied by Kenyon and Winkler to any central linear hyperplane arrangement A. The volume of the resulting configuration space of connected branched polymers associated to the central linear hyperplane arrangement A is expressed through the value of the characteristic polynomial of A at 0. We give a more general definition of a branched polymer, where we do not require connectivity, and introduce the notion of q-volume for it, which is expressed through the value of the characteristic polynomial of A at -q. Finally, we relate the volume of the space of branched polymers to broken circuits and show the cohomology ring of the space of branched polymers to be the Orlik-Solomon algebra. We conjecture the same for the space of connected branched polymers.

  2. Reduced vibration motor winding arrangement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slavik, Charles J. (Rexford, NY); Rhudy, Ralph G. (Scotia, NY); Bushman, Ralph E. (Lathem, NY)

    1997-01-01

    An individual phase winding arrangement having a sixty electrical degree phase belt width for use with a three phase motor armature includes a delta connected phase winding portion and a wye connected phase winding portion. Both the delta and wye connected phase winding portions have a thirty electrical degree phase belt width. The delta and wye connected phase winding portions are each formed from a preselected number of individual coils each formed, in turn, from an unequal number of electrical conductor turns in the approximate ratio of .sqroot.3. The individual coils of the delta and wye connected phase winding portions may either be connected in series or parallel. This arrangement provides an armature winding for a three phase motor which retains the benefits of the widely known and utilized thirty degree phase belt concept, including improved mmf waveform and fundamental distribution factor, with consequent reduced vibrations and improved efficiency.

  3. Reduced vibration motor winding arrangement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slavik, C.J.; Rhudy, R.G.; Bushman, R.E.

    1997-11-11

    An individual phase winding arrangement having a sixty electrical degree phase belt width for use with a three phase motor armature includes a delta connected phase winding portion and a wye connected phase winding portion. Both the delta and wye connected phase winding portions have a thirty electrical degree phase belt width. The delta and wye connected phase winding portions are each formed from a preselected number of individual coils each formed, in turn, from an unequal number of electrical conductor turns in the approximate ratio of {radical}3. The individual coils of the delta and wye connected phase winding portions may either be connected in series or parallel. This arrangement provides an armature winding for a three phase motor which retains the benefits of the widely known and utilized thirty degree phase belt concept, including improved mmf waveform and fundamental distribution factor, with consequent reduced vibrations and improved efficiency. 4 figs.

  4. Family control and financing decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Crocci, Ettore; Doukas, John A.; Gonenc, Halit

    2010-01-01

    Empirical studies examining the financing decisions of the firm focus exclusively on publicly held firms, not family-controlled firms despite their economic importance. This study investigates the external financing behavior of family-controlled firms, using a comprehensive sample of 777 large European firms during the period 1998 to 2008. We document that, unlike nonfamily-controlled firms, the external financing decisions of family-controlled firms are influenced by control incentives and i...

  5. Financial Inclusion: Islamic Finance Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Mirakhor, Abbas; Iqbal, Zamir

    2012-01-01

    Enhancing financial inclusion or access to finance can make critical contributions to the economic development. Conventional mechanisms such as micro-finance, small-medium-enterprises (SME), and micro-insurance to enhance financial inclusion have been partially successful in enhancing the access and are not without challenges. Islamic finance, based on the concept of risk-sharing offers set of financial instruments promoting risk-sharing rather than risk-transfer in the financial system. In a...

  6. Arrangements and Frobenius like structures

    OpenAIRE

    Varchenko, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    We consider a family of generic weighted arrangements of $n$ hyperplanes in $\\C^k$ and show that the Gauss-Manin connection for the associated hypergeometric integrals, the contravariant form on the space of singular vectors, and the algebra of functions on the critical set of the master function define a Frobenius like structure on the base of the family. As a result of this construction we show that the matrix elements of the linear operators of the Gauss-Manin connection ...

  7. Lattice sums of hyperplane arrangements

    OpenAIRE

    Komori, Yasushi; Matsumoto, Kohji; Tsumura, Hirofumi

    2014-01-01

    We introduce certain lattice sums associated with hyperplane arrangements, which are (multiple) sums running over integers, and can be regarded as generalizations of certain linear combinations of zeta-functions of root systems. We also introduce generating functions of special values of those lattice sums, and study their properties by virtue of the theory of convex polytopes. Consequently we evaluate special values of those lattice sums, especially certain special values o...

  8. New inequalities for subspace arrangements

    OpenAIRE

    Kinser, Ryan

    2009-01-01

    For each positive integer $n \\geq 4$, we give an inequality satisfied by rank functions of arrangements of $n$ subspaces. When $n=4$ we recover Ingleton's inequality; for higher $n$ the inequalities are all new. These inequalities can be thought of as a hierarchy of necessary conditions for a (poly)matroid to be realizable. Some related open questions about the "cone of realizable polymatroids" are also presented.

  9. Hodge spectrum of hyperplane arrangements

    OpenAIRE

    Budur, Nero

    2008-01-01

    In this article there are two main results. The first result gives a formula, in terms of a log resolution, for the graded pieces of the Hodge filtration on the cohomology of a unitary local system of rank one on the complement of an arbitrary divisor in a smooth projective complex variety. The second result is an application of the first. We give a combinatorial formula for the spectrum of a hyperplane arrangement. M. Saito recently proved that the spectrum of a hyperplane ...

  10. X-ray fluoroscopy arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray fluoroscopy arrangement with an X-ray source, a picture amplifier, a television picture tube and a television monitor for the retransmission of the radiation picture of an objective area characterised in that within the unit is included a second television camera for the retransmission of an easily recognisable optical picture of the object contained in the radiation field. (G.C.)

  11. Accounting for arrangements - Part 1

    OpenAIRE

    Venter, Elmar R.; Tomes, Tania

    2006-01-01

    Based on the substance over form principle, transactions that in substance transfer the right to use an asset for an agreed period of time, in return for a series of payments, are accounted for as a lease transaction in terms of IAS 17 (AC 105), irrespective of the legal form of the arrangement. The International Financial Reporting Interpretations Committee and the Standards Interpretation Committee have issued two documents that provide more guidance on the application of the substance over...

  12. Modeling blockage in unsteady slurry flow in conduits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Developments in the modeling of the inception of blockage in granular slurry systems are discussed from phenomenological and numerical experience. In addition, pump and valve manipulation procedures developed for controlling conduit blockage during transient operation are outlined. Conduit blockage is in itself a transient event and although it is most frequently associated with system start-up or shut-down, it can originate from steady state networks as a result of density waves, instabilities of the excursive type, and/or flow regime relaxation. Blockage control during system start-up or shut-down is accomplished by way of a pump/valve stroking procedure that emphasizes a gradual control of the fluid velocity rather than a maximum permissible pressure. This is done to promote an orderly settling of solids, needed for shut-down, or resuspension of solids, as needed for start-up. Recent evaluation of friction factors at the onset of blockage obtained through laboratory measurements of the shear stresses in a plugged pipe are also presented

  13. Reduced vibration motor winding arrangement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slavik, C.J.; Rhudy, R.G.; Bushman, R.E.

    1995-12-31

    The present invention relates generally to an electric motor winding and, more particularly, to a three phase motor armature winding arrangement designed to reduce motor vibration and improve efficiency. An individual phase winding arrangement having a sixty electrical degree phase belt width for use with a three phase motor armature includes a delta connected phase winding portion and a wye connected phase winding portion. Both the delta and wye connected phase winding portions have a thirty electrical degree phase belt width. The delta and wye connected phase winding portions are each formed from a preselected number of individual coils each formed, in turn, from an unequal number of electrical conductor turns in the approximate ratio of {radical}3. The individual coils of the delta and wye connected phase winding portions may either be connected in series or parallel. This arrangement provides an armature winding for a three phase motor which retains the benefits of the widely known and utilized thirty degree phase belt concept, including improved mmf waveform and fundamental distribution factor.

  14. Drill pipes and casings utilizing multi-conduit tubular; Flerkanals roerstreng

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curlett, H.B.

    1997-04-23

    The invention relates to a multi-conduit tubular having fluid conduits and electrical conduits, with associated surface fluid and electrical commutators, and downhole sensors for providing surface monitors with instantaneous formation data. Each tubular includes a plurality of uniform linear conduits there through, with a gasket seal plate interposed between joined tubular for assuring a high pressure seal between joined conduits. the seal plate includes an intermediate electrical connector for connecting electrical conduit connectors of one tubular to another. A coupling collar with uniform diameter internal coarse and fine threads joins the tubular ends having similar threads by differential thread action without respective tubular rotation. Each tubular end includes an inter-engaging index recess and index lug, and drive recesses and lugs for maintaining angular registry of the tubular string and for driving one drill tubular with another. A fluid commutator includes a rotating shaft with passages connected to the tubular conduits, and rotating in a manifold having annular grooves in communication with the shaft passages and external fluid sources. An adaptor couples each commutator shaft passage to one or more tubular conduits. Slip rings on a quill shaft and stationary brush means provide electrical continuity from the electrical conduit wires to surface equipment. A cross-over sub includes formation parameter sensors and telemetry equipment in a blocked off portion of a fluid conduit. An annular accumulator connected with the well bore annulus applies a pressure thereto in response to downhole sensors to change the effective density of the drill mud. The multi-conduit tubular is further adapted for use as a well casing to provide downhole access of a plurality of fluids and electrical parameter sensors. 28 figs.

  15. F# for quantitative finance

    CERN Document Server

    Astborg, Johan

    2013-01-01

    To develop your confidence in F#, this tutorial will first introduce you to simpler tasks such as curve fitting. You will then advance to more complex tasks such as implementing algorithms for trading semi-automation in a practical scenario-based format.If you are a data analyst or a practitioner in quantitative finance, economics, or mathematics and wish to learn how to use F# as a functional programming language, this book is for you. You should have a basic conceptual understanding of financial concepts and models. Elementary knowledge of the .NET framework would also be helpful.

  16. International Finance Corporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    As a part of the World Bank, the stated vision of the International Finance Corporation (IFC) is "that poor people have the opportunity to escape poverty and to improve their lives." To whit, the IFC works to promote open and competitive markets in developing countries, generate productive jobs and deliver basic services, among other things. First-time visitors will find that the layout of the site is visually stimulating and quite user-friendly. Visitors can use the embedded search engine to look for specific materials of interest.

  17. Adequacy, Efficiency and Equity of Higher Education Financing: The Case of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahim, Yasmine; Sami, Noha

    2011-01-01

    To meet its future challenges in financing higher education, Egypt has no option but to search for alternative funding arrangements. This article considers the question of how to do so, keeping in mind the need to ensure equitable access to good quality education for those who cannot afford it. To this end, the article begins by assessing public…

  18. Sharing of risks in Islamic finance

    OpenAIRE

    Sekreter, Ahmet

    2011-01-01

    For most of the people the prohibition on interest is the well known part of Islamic finance. Indeed, the concept of Islamic finance was not being discussed enough till financial crisis, after crisis it started to be seen as an alternative financial system for conventional finance. Sharing the risks is the main concept of Islamic finance and one of the main differences between conventional and Islamic finance. Depositors/savers do not bear any risk in conventional finance however Islamic fina...

  19. Financing energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1990s is likely to be a decade of double growth: in energy demand and environmental protection. This leads the author of this paper to ask the pertinent questions of where the money will come from, and in what form, to finance the growth in capacity to produce this energy and the technology required to produce and burn it cleanly. With a focus on Asian energy markets, this paper first illustrates the problem by describing the rapid growth of energy demand in the region. It describes the growth in Japan as well as China and the fast-growing economies of Hong Kong, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand. Energy demand growth rates of almost 5 percent in the 1980s are expected to continue to grow at that rate at least until 2005, doubling today's level of consumption and putting the energy supply system under great strain. Because of the large sums involved, this paper pints out the necessity of inventing new, innovative devices for future fund raising. This will require the participation of institutions such as insurance companies and regional banks that have little experience in the energy field. This paper suggests that these and the established players in energy finance will have recourse to two new approaches: Build-Operate-Transfer and Trustee Borrowing schemes

  20. Financing wind energy projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triodos Bank has more than 10 years of experience with developing and financing wind projects in the Netherlands. Over 50 Megawatt has been installed with direct involvement of the bank. The experience is both as a bank and as a venture capital fund. In this contribution the perspective will be more from a venture capital point of view than as a bank. The bank's activities in the wind energy sector started in 1986 by forming a joint venture with an engineering bureau, experienced i wind energy but not yet in developing wind projects. From 1989 onwards the joint venture started to build wind farms, both as a private company and in a joint venture with utilities. The European Investment Bank became involved with a long-term debt finance facility (15 years, fixed interest loan). The main difficulties were long-term commitments from landowners (Dike authorities) and utilities with regard to power contracts. The development got really stuck when utilities refused to pay a fair price anymore. Also, site development became more and more difficult. Even the poor technical performance improved drastically and did not frighten developers and banks too much. (author)

  1. EXTERNAL FINANCING FOR CONSTRUCTION ENTITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADELA BREUER

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The external financing of the construction entities does not differ from the one of other entities within other activities, but the construction entities have also a financing source, represented by the funds for the site organization, funds which are analysed and accounted in the present paper.

  2. The Possibilities of Strategic Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffee, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Strategic finance is aligning financial decisions--regarding revenues, creating and maintaining institutional assets, and using those assets--with the institution's mission and strategic plan. The concept known as "strategic finance" increasingly is being seen as a useful perspective for helping boards and presidents develop a sustainable…

  3. Mastering R for quantitative finance

    CERN Document Server

    Berlinger, Edina; Badics, Milán; Banai, Ádám; Daróczi, Gergely; Dömötör, Barbara; Gabler, Gergely; Havran, Dániel; Juhász, Péter; Margitai, István; Márkus, Balázs; Medvegyev, Péter; Molnár, Julia; Szucs, Balázs Árpád; Tuza, Ágnes; Vadász, Tamás; Váradi, Kata; Vidovics-Dancs, Ágnes

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for those who want to learn how to use R's capabilities to build models in quantitative finance at a more advanced level. If you wish to perfectly take up the rhythm of the chapters, you need to be at an intermediate level in quantitative finance and you also need to have a reasonable knowledge of R.

  4. The arrangement field theory (AFT)

    CERN Document Server

    Marin, Diego

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the concept of "non-ordered space-time" and formulate a quaternionic field theory over such generalized non-ordered space. The imposition of an order over a non-ordered space appears to spontaneously generate gravity, which is revealed as a fictitious force. The same process gives rise to gauge fields that are compatible with those of Standard Model. We suggest a common origin for gravity and gauge fields from a unique entity called "arrangement matrix" (M) and propose to quantize all fields by quantizing $M$. Finally we give a proposal for the explanation of black hole entropy and area law inside this paradigm.

  5. Arrangement for selectively irradiating webs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The arrangement for selectively irradiating a web includes a perforated band of a radiation impermeable substance which is guided in an endless path via a pair of guide rollers and has two juxtaposed runs in this path. A take-up roller conveys a web of material past one of the runs at a side thereof remote from the other run, the direction of movement of the web being other than parallel to that of the band and, preferably, normal thereto. An electron accelerator is provided at the far side of the run remote from the web and is effective for directing a radiation beam at the web through the perforations

  6. Palliative urinary conduit diversion in cases of intolerable urinary discomfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyndrup, J.; Sorensen, B.L.

    1983-12-01

    Fifteen patients with incurable gynecological cancers, all primary radiation treated and all having severe urinary discomfort due to urinary tract injuries were retrospectively examined after urinary conduit diversion. All have been followed-up until termination or until all survivors had lived for 6 months after the operation. Twelve of the 15 were discharged from the hospital, 10 of whom survived the first 6 months. Of those discharged 82% of the cumulated sum of postoperative observations days was spent out of the hospital. At the end of the observation period nine patients had been supplied with a colostomy as well, thus having double stomas. All six patients still alive declared in retrospect that given the choice again, they would still be willing to undergo the operation.

  7. Hot upwelling conduit beneath the Atlas Mountains, Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Daoyuan; Miller, Meghan S.; Holt, Adam F.; Becker, Thorsten W.

    2014-11-01

    The Atlas Mountains of Morocco display high topography, no deep crustal root, and regions of localized Cenozoic alkaline volcanism. Previous seismic imaging and geophysical studies have implied a hot mantle upwelling as the source of the volcanism and high elevation. However, the existence, shape, and physical properties of an associated mantle anomaly are debated. Here we use seismic waveform analysis from a broadband deployment and geodynamic modeling to define the physical properties and morphology of the anomaly. The imaged low-velocity structure extends to ~200 km beneath the Atlas and appears ~350 K hotter than the ambient mantle with possible partial melting. It includes a lateral conduit, which suggests that the Quaternary volcanism arises from the upper mantle. Moreover, the shape and temperature of the imaged anomaly indicate that the unusually high topography of the Atlas Mountains is due to active mantle support.

  8. [A case of curatively resected, locally advanced ascending colon cancer with ileal conduit invasion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameyama, Hitoshi; Shimada, Yoshifumi; Nogami, Hitoshi; Nakano, Mae; Nakano, Masato; Sakata, Jun; Kobayashi, Takashi; Minagawa, Masahiro; Kosugi, Shinichi; Koyama, Yu; Wakai, Toshifumi

    2014-11-01

    A 71 -year-old man was referred to our hospital because of repeated bowel obstruction. He had previously undergone cystectomy with ileal conduit urinary diversion for the treatment of bladder cancer at the age of 28 years. Computed tomography revealed a mass in the ascending colon. Ileostomy was initially performed because of poor general condition that improved with postoperative nutrition management. Enema findings revealed ascending colon cancer and we therefore decided to perform curative surgery. Intraoperative findings revealed that the ascending colon cancer had invaded the ileal conduit. However, it was confirmed that the ureter-ileal conduit anastomosis and the mesentery of the ileal conduit could be preserved. We performed right colectomy and partial resection of the ileal conduit with curative intent. The pathological stage was pT4bpN0cM0, pStage II. There were no signs of recurrence 15 months after curative surgery. PMID:25731293

  9. Large-scale tests of insulated conduit for the ITER CS coil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, R. P.; Walsh, R. P.; Schutz, J. B.

    Compression-fatigue tests at 77 K were conducted on test modules of insulated Incoloy 908 conduit. To replicate the operating conditions for the ITER central solenoid (CS) full-scale coil, fatigue loads up to 3.6 MN were applied for 10 5 cycles; no mechanical breakdowns occurred. The conduits were insulated with a preimpregnated resin system, a tetraglycidyl diaminodiphenyl methane (TGDM) epoxy cured with DDS aromatic amine. The conduits were joined by vacuum-pressure impregnation with a diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-F epoxy/anhydride-cured resin system. In the 4×4 stacked-conduit test modules, the layer insulation (a high-pressure laminate of TGDM epoxy cured with DDS aromatic amine) was inserted. Periodically during the tests, breakdown voltage was measured across the conduits of both turn and layer insulation; throughout the test, breakdown voltages were at least 46 kV. The addition of a barrier increased structural and electrical reliability.

  10. Modelling conduit-matrix exchange processes in a karst aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordilla, J.; Geyer, T.; Graf, T.; Sauter, M.

    2009-04-01

    The objective of this work is to identify the relevance of gradient exchange between karst conduits and fissured matrix for interpretation of karst spring responses. The numerical control volume finite element FRAC3DVS/HydroGeoSphere model (Therrien and Sudicky 1996) is used to simulate discharge and transport signals (18O) at the karst spring Gallusquelle (Swabian Alb, South Germany) for a period of two years. The chosen double continuum approach accounts for saturated and unsaturated flow conditions in the karst system. Important model parameters were identified using sensitivity analyses. Model input was generated using a soil-moisture balance approach that accounts for evaporation, interception and snow storage (Geyer 2008). In general, karst aquifers are characterized by a dual flow system consisting of a low permeability matrix with high storage and a secondary system of highly conductive conduits with low storage. The interaction between both systems represents one of the characteristics of karst aquifers, displayed especially after recharge events, i.e. a characteristic rapid increase in discharge and slow recession. A further important indicator is the variation of isotopic spring signals, e.g. the relative abundance of 18O in spring water. During long-term recession, a systematic decrease in 18O was observed, which is interpreted as the release of isotopically lighter water, recharged during the winter period several years ago. It is believed that this behaviour can be related to: (1) gradient inversion during high recharge conditions and (2) storage in the matrix system and subsequent release of water.

  11. Simplicial arrangements with up to 27 lines

    OpenAIRE

    Cuntz, Michael

    2011-01-01

    We compute all isomorphism classes of simplicial arrangements in the real projective plane with up to 27 lines. It turns out that Gr\\"unbaums catalogue is complete up to 27 lines except for four new arrangements with 22, 23, 24, 25 lines, respectively. As a byproduct we classify simplicial arrangements of pseudolines with up to 27 lines. In particular, we disprove Gr\\"unbaums conjecture about unstretchable arrangements with at most 16 lines, and prove the conjecture that any...

  12. A class of Baker-Akhiezer arrangements

    OpenAIRE

    Feigin, Misha; Johnston, David

    2012-01-01

    We study a class of arrangements of lines with multiplicities on the plane which admit the Chalykh-Veselov Baker-Akhiezer function. These arrangements are obtained by adding multiplicity one lines in an invariant way to any dihedral arrangement with invariant multiplicities. We describe all the Baker-Akhiezer arrangements when at most one line has multiplicity higher than 1. We study associated algebras of quasi-invariants which are isomorphic to the commutative algebras of ...

  13. Financing energy conservation in municipal and non-profit institutional buildings. Technical progress report, November 1985-January 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    The project is designed to demonstrate the feasibility of using a comprehensive energy service company program to finance, install, and maintain energy conservation measures in municipal and nonprofit institutional buildings. Comprehensive energy service company programs involve the use of innovative financing arrangements wherein the recipient institution is not required to make a capital investment in the energy conservation measures, but rather agrees that the measure will be paid for from future savings generated by implementation of the measurer.

  14. Totally biological composite aortic stentless valved conduit for aortic root replacement: 10-year experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meduoye Ayo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To retrospectively analyze the clinical outcome of a totally biological composite stentless aortic valved conduit (No-React® BioConduit implanted using the Bentall procedure over ten years in a single centre. Methods Between 27/10/99 and 19/01/08, the No-React® BioConduit composite graft was implanted in 67 patients. Data on these patients were collected from the in-hospital database, from patient notes and from questionnaires. A cohort of patients had 2D-echocardiogram with an average of 4.3 ± 0.45 years post-operatively to evaluate valve function, calcification, and the diameter of the conduit. Results Implantation in 67 patients represented a follow-up of 371.3 patient-year. Males were 60% of the operated population, with a mean age of 67.9 ± 1.3 years (range 34.1-83.8 years, 21 of them below the age of 65. After a mean follow-up of 7.1 ± 0.3 years (range of 2.2-10.5 years, more than 50% of the survivors were in NYHA I/II and more than 60% of the survivors were angina-free (CCS 0. The overall 10-year survival following replacement of the aortic valve and root was 51%. During this period, 88% of patients were free from valved-conduit related complications leading to mortality. Post-operative echocardiography studies showed no evidence of stenosis, dilatation, calcification or thrombosis. Importantly, during the 10-year follow-up period no failures of the valved conduit were reported, suggesting that the tissue of the conduit does not structurally change (histology of one explant showed normal cusp and conduit. Conclusions The No-React® BioConduit composite stentless aortic valved conduit provides excellent long-term clinical results for aortic root replacement with few prosthesis-related complications in the first post-operative decade.

  15. Free arrangements and coefficients of characteristic polynomials

    OpenAIRE

    Abe, Takuro; Yoshinaga, Masahiko

    2011-01-01

    Ziegler showed that free arrangements have free restricted multiarrangements (multirestrictions). After Ziegler's work, several results concerning "reverse direction", namely characterizing freeness of an arrangement via that of multirestriction, have appeared. In this paper, we prove that the second Betti number of the arrangement plays a crucial role.

  16. On the geometry of toric arrangements

    OpenAIRE

    Concini, C.; Procesi, C.

    2005-01-01

    We introduce toric arrangements, essentially finite families of codimension 1 subtori of a torus or of their cosets, as a periodic generalization of hyperplane arrangements, compute cohomology of the complement of such an arrangement and apply the theory to give a geometric interpretation of the formulas of Brion--Szenes--Vergne counting the number of integral points in polytopes.

  17. Freeness of hyperplane arrangements and related topics

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshinaga, Masahiko

    2012-01-01

    This is the expanded notes of the lecture by the author in "Arrangements in Pyrenees", June 2012. We are discussing relations of freeness and splitting problems of vector bundles, several techniques proving freeness of hyperplane arrangements, K. Saito's theory of primitive derivations for Coxeter arrangements, their application to combinatorial problems and related conjectures.

  18. Ziegler's Multi-Reflection Arrangements are free

    OpenAIRE

    Hoge, Torsten; Roehrle, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    In 1989, Ziegler introduced the concept of a multi-arrangement. One natural example is the reflection arrangement of a unitary reflection group with multiplicity given by the number of reflections associated with each hyperplane. For all but three irreducible groups, Ziegler showed that each such multi-reflection arrangement is free. We complete Ziegler's example by confirming these outstanding cases.

  19. Does literacy improve finance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Martha; Olen, Helaine

    2015-04-01

    When economists ask questions about basic financial principles, most ordinary people answer incorrectly. Economic experts call this condition "financial illiteracy," which suggests that poor financial outcomes are due to a personal deficit of reading-related skills. The analogy to reading is compelling because it suggests that we can teach our way out of population-wide financial failure. In this comment, we explain why the idea of literacy appeals to policy makers in the advanced industrial nations. But we also show that the narrow skill set laid out by economists does not satisfy the politically inclusive definition of literacy that literacy studies fought for. We identify several channels through which people engage with ideas about finance and demonstrate that not all forms of literacy will lead people to the educational content prescribed by academic economists. We argue that truly financial literate people can defy the demands of financial theory and financial institutions. PMID:25838274

  20. Romanian SMEs Financing Options:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan E. Nistor

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the most pressing problems faced by micro, small and medium sized enterprises (henceforth SMEs in Europe is the access to sufficient funds to sustain their long term growth. Romanian SMEs make no exception. In this context the present paper focuses on analyzing the extent to which external funding sources have contributed to the value added created by the Romanian SMEs between 2007 and 2011.The investigation’s results indicate the existence of a causal link between some forms of external financing (namely bank loans, leasing, factoring, guarantee products and European funds and the value added created by the Romanian micro, small and medium sized enterprises in the aforementioned period.

  1. Financing wind projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manson, J. [GE Energy Financial Services, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    This presentation reviewed some of the partnership opportunities available from GE Energy. GE Energy's ecomagination commitment has promised to double research investment, make customers true partners and reduce greenhouse gases (GHGs). GE Energy's renewable energy team provides a broad range of financial products, and has recently funded 30 wind farms and 2 large solar projects. The company has a diverse portfolio of technology providers and wind regimes, and is increasing their investment in technology. GE Energy recognizes that the wind industry is growing rapidly and has received increased regulatory support that is backed by strong policy and public support. It is expected that Canada will have 3006 wind projects either planned or under construction by 2007. According to GE Energy, successful wind financing is dependent on the location of the site and its wind resources, as well as on the wind developer's power sales agreement. The success of a wind project is also determined by clear financing goals. Site-specific data is needed to determine the quality of wind resource, and off-site data can also be used to provide validation. Proximity to load centres will help to minimize capital costs. Power sales agreements should be based on the project's realistic net capacity factor as well as on the cost of the turbines. The economics of many wind farms is driven by the size of the turbines used. Public consultations are also needed to ensure the success of wind power projects. It was concluded that a good partner will have staying power in the wind power industry, and will understand the time-lines and needs that are peculiar to wind energy developers. refs., tabs., figs.

  2. Financing wind projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation reviewed some of the partnership opportunities available from GE Energy. GE Energy's ecomagination commitment has promised to double research investment, make customers true partners and reduce greenhouse gases (GHGs). GE Energy's renewable energy team provides a broad range of financial products, and has recently funded 30 wind farms and 2 large solar projects. The company has a diverse portfolio of technology providers and wind regimes, and is increasing their investment in technology. GE Energy recognizes that the wind industry is growing rapidly and has received increased regulatory support that is backed by strong policy and public support. It is expected that Canada will have 3006 wind projects either planned or under construction by 2007. According to GE Energy, successful wind financing is dependent on the location of the site and its wind resources, as well as on the wind developer's power sales agreement. The success of a wind project is also determined by clear financing goals. Site-specific data is needed to determine the quality of wind resource, and off-site data can also be used to provide validation. Proximity to load centres will help to minimize capital costs. Power sales agreements should be based on the project's realistic net capacity factor as well as on the cost of the turbines. The economics of many wind farms is driven by the size of the turbines used. Public consultations are also needed to ensure the success of wind power peded to ensure the success of wind power projects. It was concluded that a good partner will have staying power in the wind power industry, and will understand the time-lines and needs that are peculiar to wind energy developers. refs., tabs., figs

  3. Engineering a multimodal nerve conduit for repair of injured peripheral nerve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, A. F.; Bulluss, K. J.; Kyratzis, I. L. B.; Gilmore, K.; Mysore, T.; Schirmer, K. S. U.; Kennedy, E. L.; O'Shea, M.; Truong, Y. B.; Edwards, S. L.; Peeters, G.; Herwig, P.; Razal, J. M.; Campbell, T. E.; Lowes, K. N.; Higgins, M. J.; Moulton, S. E.; Murphy, M. A.; Cook, M. J.; Clark, G. M.; Wallace, G. G.; Kapsa, R. M. I.

    2013-02-01

    Injury to nerve tissue in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) results in long-term impairment of limb function, dysaesthesia and pain, often with associated psychological effects. Whilst minor injuries can be left to regenerate without intervention and short gaps up to 2 cm can be sutured, larger or more severe injuries commonly require autogenous nerve grafts harvested from elsewhere in the body (usually sensory nerves). Functional recovery is often suboptimal and associated with loss of sensation from the tissue innervated by the harvested nerve. The challenges that persist with nerve repair have resulted in development of nerve guides or conduits from non-neural biological tissues and various polymers to improve the prognosis for the repair of damaged nerves in the PNS. This study describes the design and fabrication of a multimodal controlled pore size nerve regeneration conduit using polylactic acid (PLA) and (PLA):poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) fibers within a neurotrophin-enriched alginate hydrogel. The nerve repair conduit design consists of two types of PLGA fibers selected specifically for promotion of axonal outgrowth and Schwann cell growth (75:25 for axons; 85:15 for Schwann cells). These aligned fibers are contained within the lumen of a knitted PLA sheath coated with electrospun PLA nanofibers to control pore size. The PLGA guidance fibers within the nerve repair conduit lumen are supported within an alginate hydrogel impregnated with neurotrophic factors (NT-3 or BDNF with LIF, SMDF and MGF-1) to provide neuroprotection, stimulation of axonal growth and Schwann cell migration. The conduit was used to promote repair of transected sciatic nerve in rats over a period of 4 weeks. Over this period, it was observed that over-grooming and self-mutilation (autotomy) of the limb implanted with the conduit was significantly reduced in rats implanted with the full-configuration conduit compared to rats implanted with conduits containing only an alginate hydrogel. This indicates return of some feeling to the limb via the fully-configured conduit. Immunohistochemical analysis of the implanted conduits removed from the rats after the four-week implantation period confirmed the presence of myelinated axons within the conduit and distal to the site of implantation, further supporting that the conduit promoted nerve repair over this period of time. This study describes the design considerations and fabrication of a novel multicomponent, multimodal bio-engineered synthetic conduit for peripheral nerve repair.

  4. The physics of custody arrangements

    CERN Document Server

    Gomberoff, Andrés; Romagnoli, Pierre Paul

    2013-01-01

    Divorced individuals face complex situations when they have children with different ex-partners, or even more, when their new partners have children of their own. In such cases, and when kids spend every other weekend with each parent, a practical problem emerges: Is it possible to have such a custody arrangement that every couple has either all of the kids together or no kids at all? We show that in general, it is not possible, but that the number of couples that do can be maximized. The problem turns out to be equivalent to finding the ground state of a spin glass system, which is known to be equivalent to what is called a weighted max-cut problem in graph theory, and hence it is NP-Complete.

  5. International arrangements against nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    International efforts to show the spread of nuclear weapons have created an international norm of nonproliferation, backed by a variety of enforcement mechanisms. Together they are often referred to as the nonproliferation regime. This regime is reviewed, starting with the 1963 Limited Test Ban Treaty. The centerpiece of the regime, the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), signed in 1968, now has 135 parties, including most of the advanced industrial nuclear countries. Results of the 1985 NPT Review Conference are briefly discussed; the 86 NPT parties that attended reaffirmed the treaty's value, pledged continued support for the IAEA safeguards system, and called upon nonsigners to renounce nuclear weapons and accept IAEA safeguards. A section is devoted to the physical protection of nuclear materials, facilities, and weapons. Finally, recommendations are presented to improve international arrangements against nuclear terrorists

  6. High mass isotope separation arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An isotope separation arrangement for separating a preselected isotope from a mixture of chemically-identical but isotopically-different molecules by either photon-induced pure revibrational or vibronic selective excitation of the molecules containing the atoms of the isotope to be separated from a lower to a higher energy state, and a chemical reaction of the higher energy state molecules with a chemically-reactive agent to form a chemical compound containing primarily the atoms of the isotope to be separated in a physicochemical state different from the physicochemical state of the mixture of chemically-identical but isotopically-different molecules. The chemical compound containing the atoms of the isotope to be separated may be subsequently processed to obtain the isotope. The laser configuration used to generate the photon beam is fully described

  7. Yahoo! Finance: Insurance Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahoo! Insurance Center provides many useful insurance resources. The site is divided into auto, life & health, and home & renters sections. The auto insurance section provides insurance quotes, an insurance coverage analyzer, and a glossary. Similarly, users can also obtain quotes on term life insurance, analyze their health plans and browse through a life insurance glossary. In the home & renters section, consumers will find estimates of quotes for homeowners and renters insurance, a guide to filing claims, and a glossary of property insurance terms. In addition, the site also contains informative articles arranged by insurance type, and links to various insurance related sites.

  8. Fluid-Rock Dynamic Interaction in Magmatic Conduits: Modelling Transients Using an Analytical Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arciniega-Ceballos, Alejandra; Scheu, Bettina; Sanchez-Sesma, Francisco; Dingwell, Donald

    2014-05-01

    We compute transients fluid-rock dynamic interaction in a fluid driven axisymmetric conduit embedded in an infinite, homogeneous elastic space. Both fluid and solid are dynamically coupled fulfilling continuity of velocities and radial stresses at the conduit's wall. The calculation model considers the viscosity as a key parameter leading to non-linear scheme. A pressure transient at a point of the conduit, that perturbs a steady flow of incompressible viscous fluid, produces the interaction between the fluid and motion at the conduit's walls. The fluid motion induces the elastic response of the conduit forcing it to oscillate radially. The fluid-filled conduit dynamics is governed by three second-order, ordinary non-linear differential equations, which are solved numerically by applying a fifth-order Runge-Kutta scheme. Boundary conditions satisfy the Bernoulli's principle allowing coupling several pipe segments which may present smooth variation in fluid properties. The nature of the source involves different pressure excitations functions including those measuring during simulations of gas burst and fragmentation of volcanic rocks under controlled laboratory conditions. Far-field velocity synthetics radiated by motion of the conduit's walls and fluid flows ascending to the surface, display characteristic waveforms and frequency content that are similar to those of long-period signals and tremor observed at active volcanoes. Results suggest that transient fluid flow induced oscillations may explain long-period and tremor signals. Advantages and limitations of this approach are discussed.

  9. PDLLA/chondroitin sulfate/chitosan/NGF conduits for peripheral nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Haixing; Yan, Yuhua; Li, Shipu

    2011-07-01

    Biodegradable PDLLA/Chondroitin sulfate/Chitosan(PDLLA/CS/CHS) nerve conduits with potentially good biocompatibility and good mechanical property feasible for surgical manipulation have been developed in our previous work. The purpose of this study was to investigate their possible application in repairing damaged nerves and the effect of nerve growth factor (NGF). The PDLLA/CS/CHS/NGF nerve conduits were prepared by immobilizing NGF onto the PDLLA/CS/CHS nerve conduits with carbodiimide. Adult Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats weighing 200-250 g were used as the animal model. The conduits were employed to bridge the 10 mm defects in the sciatic nerve of the SD rats. Nerve conduction velocities (NCVs) were clearly detected in both nerve conduits after 3 months of implantation, indicating a rapid functional recovery for the disrupted nerves. The results of histological sections showed that the internal sides of the conduits were compact enough to prevent the connective tissues from ingrowth. Combined with the strong mechanical properties, good nerve regeneration ability and non-toxicity of its degradation products, PDLLA/CS/CHS nerve conduits would be expected to be useful materials to repair nerve damage and NGF can effectively promote the regeneration of peripheral nerve defect. PMID:21397324

  10. Influence of spontaneously occurring bursts of muscle sympathetic nerve activity on conduit artery diameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairfax, Seth T; Padilla, Jaume; Vianna, Lauro C; Holwerda, Seth H; Davis, Michael J; Fadel, Paul J

    2013-09-15

    Large increases in muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) can decrease the diameter of a conduit artery even in the presence of elevated blood pressure, suggesting that MSNA acts to regulate conduit artery tone. Whether this influence can be extrapolated to spontaneously occurring MSNA bursts has not been examined. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that MSNA bursts decrease conduit artery diameter on a beat-by-beat basis during rest. Conduit artery responses were assessed in the brachial (BA), common femoral (CFA) and popliteal (PA) arteries to account for regional differences in vascular function. In 20 young men, MSNA, mean arterial pressure (MAP), conduit artery diameter, and shear rate (SR) were continuously measured during 20-min periods of supine rest. Spike-triggered averaging was used to characterize beat-by-beat changes in each variable for 15 cardiac cycles following all MSNA bursts, and a peak response was calculated. Diameter increased to a similar peak among the BA (+0.14 ± 0.02%), CFA (+0.17 ± 0.03%), and PA (+0.18 ± 0.03%) following MSNA bursts (all P bursts (P bursts were heterogeneous between arteries and did not appear to systematically alter diameter responses. Thus, in contrast to our hypothesis, spontaneously occurring MSNA bursts do not directly influence conduit arteries with local vasoconstriction or changes in shear, but rather induce a systemic pressor response that appears to passively increase conduit artery diameter. PMID:23832696

  11. Degradation properties of the electrostatic assembly PDLLA/CS/CHS nerve conduit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A poly(d,l-lactic acid)/chondroitin sulfate/chitosan (PDLLA/CS/CHS) nerve conduit for repairing nerve defects was prepared by electrostatic assembly and the thermally induced phase separation technique. The hydrophilic characteristics of the PDLLA/CS/CHS assembly nerve conduits were improved markedly. The degradation behavior of the nerve conduit with various assembly layers was evaluated by a pH change, weight loss rate and molecular weight change. The pH of the solution of the nerve conduit could be effectively adjusted by varying the layer numbers and overcoming the acidity-caused auto-acceleration of PDLLA; the nerve conduit can retain its integrity in a phosphate buffer solution after being degraded for 3 months. After such a conduit was implanted in the rat for 3 months, obvious degradation occurred, but the regenerated nerve was integrated and it grew successfully from the proximal to distal nerve stump. All these results implied that the degradation rate of the prepared conduit can adapt to the regeneration of the peripheral nerve, which might be a new derivative of PDLLA-based biodegradable materials for repairing nerve injuries without acidity-caused irritations and acidity-induced auto-accelerating degradation behavior as shown by PDLLA.

  12. Degradation properties of the electrostatic assembly PDLLA/CS/CHS nerve conduit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Haixing [School of Chemical Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Yan Yuhua; Wan Tao; Li Shipu, E-mail: yanyuhua8@126.co [Biomedical Materials and Engineering Research Center, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2009-08-15

    A poly(d,l-lactic acid)/chondroitin sulfate/chitosan (PDLLA/CS/CHS) nerve conduit for repairing nerve defects was prepared by electrostatic assembly and the thermally induced phase separation technique. The hydrophilic characteristics of the PDLLA/CS/CHS assembly nerve conduits were improved markedly. The degradation behavior of the nerve conduit with various assembly layers was evaluated by a pH change, weight loss rate and molecular weight change. The pH of the solution of the nerve conduit could be effectively adjusted by varying the layer numbers and overcoming the acidity-caused auto-acceleration of PDLLA; the nerve conduit can retain its integrity in a phosphate buffer solution after being degraded for 3 months. After such a conduit was implanted in the rat for 3 months, obvious degradation occurred, but the regenerated nerve was integrated and it grew successfully from the proximal to distal nerve stump. All these results implied that the degradation rate of the prepared conduit can adapt to the regeneration of the peripheral nerve, which might be a new derivative of PDLLA-based biodegradable materials for repairing nerve injuries without acidity-caused irritations and acidity-induced auto-accelerating degradation behavior as shown by PDLLA.

  13. Representation of water abstraction from a karst conduit with numerical discrete-continuum models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimann, T.; Giese, M.; Geyer, T.; Liedl, R.; Maréchal, J. C.; Shoemaker, W. B.

    2014-01-01

    Karst aquifers are characterized by highly conductive conduit flow paths embedded in a less conductive fissured and fractured matrix, resulting in strong permeability contrasts with structured heterogeneity and anisotropy. Groundwater storage occurs predominantly in the fissured matrix. Hence, most mathematical karst models assume quasi-steady-state flow in conduits neglecting conduit-associated drainable storage (CADS). The concept of CADS considers storage volumes, where karst water is not part of the active flow system but hydraulically connected to conduits (for example karstic voids and large fractures). The disregard of conduit storage can be inappropriate when direct water abstraction from karst conduits occurs, e.g., large-scale pumping. In such cases, CADS may be relevant. Furthermore, the typical fixed-head boundary condition at the karst outlet can be inadequate for water abstraction scenarios because unhampered water inflow is possible. The objective of this work is to analyze the significance of CADS and flow-limited boundary conditions on the hydraulic behavior of karst aquifers in water abstraction scenarios. To this end, the numerical discrete-continuum model MODFLOW-2005 Conduit Flow Process Mode 1 (CFPM1) is enhanced to account for CADS. Additionally, a fixed-head limited-flow (FHLQ) boundary condition is added that limits inflow from constant head boundaries to a user-defined threshold. The effects and the proper functioning of these modifications are demonstrated by simplified model studies. Both enhancements, CADS and FHLQ boundary, are shown to be useful for water abstraction scenarios within karst aquifers. An idealized representation of a large-scale pumping test in a karst conduit is used to demonstrate that the enhanced CFPM1 is able to adequately represent water abstraction processes in both the conduits and the matrix of real karst systems, as illustrated by its application to the Cent Fonts karst system.

  14. The freeness of ideal-Shi arrangements and free paths in affine Weyl arrangements

    OpenAIRE

    Abe, Takuro; Terao, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    Our main theorem asserts that the ideal-Shi arrangements are free central arrangements of hyperplanes. In the special case of the cones of the Shi (or Catalan) arrangements, our main theorem had been conjectured by Edelman and Reiner before it was proved by Yoshinaga. As a corollary, we prove that there exists a linear order of hyperplanes in the cone of any affine Weyl arrangement such that every initial segment makes a free arrangement satisfying the dual-partition theorem...

  15. A nonlinear analysis methodology for the one hole malleable iron conduit clamp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A generalized nonlinear finite element methodology for determining the load-deflection behavior of a malleable iron one hole conduit clamp is developed. This clamp is used to support electrical-conduit in industry and nuclear power plants. Two different types of one hole malleable iron conduit clamps are analyzed using two dimensional plane stress finite element models. The analysis used the following nonlinear options: large displacement option, interface option, plasticity option, and bilinear material stress-strain capabilities. The analytical methodology gives similar results to those measured in actual clamp tests

  16. The managerial process of business financing

    OpenAIRE

    Solomia Andres

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents some modalities and financing forces for business, getting out in the first place the entrepreneur ingenuity for finding these sources of financing necessary for the business success. Also get some contributions and proposals regarding the criteria’s of which the entrepreneur must be take care in choosing the financial sources, for preparing the finance pack and presenting the financing demands, which good documented, not only grows up the chances of one financing but al...

  17. Recent Developments in Quantitative Finance: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Chia-lin; Hu, Shing-yang; Yu, Shih-ti

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative finance combines mathematical finance, financial statistics, financial econometrics and empirical finance to provide a solid quantitative foundation for the analysis of financial issues. The purpose of this special issue on “Recent developments in quantitative finance” is to highlight some areas of research in which novel methods in quantitative finance have contributed significantly to the analysis of financial issues, specifically fast methods for large-scale non-elliptical...

  18. Financing long term liabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the '80 even if there were no precise law disposition in this specific matter, Enel has created a fund for the plants decommissioning and a fund for the irradiated fuel management. A setting aside pluri-annual plan has been defined. Cumulated funds transferred to the Sogin at the date of its constitution amount to about 1500 MLD ITL (750 M Euro). This amount was adequate to complete decommissioning activities within the Safe Store strategy. Following the separation of Sogin from Enel, a funding mechanism has been defined to provide resources for additional costs deriving from the different economic conditions (new discount rate and taxes), from the management costs for the new company, and from the change in strategy (from Safe Store to DECON). A Decree of the Ministry of the Industry, issued on 26 January 2000, states that the above mentioned extra costs for Sogin shall be financed on a levy on the price of the sold kWh. Every year Sogin shall present the program of future activities, with associated costs: on this basis, the national Authority for Electric energy and Gas (the national body which defines tariff policy) shall re-evaluate the global amount to be granted to Sogin and the levy on the price of the kWh due to Sogin for next three years. The re-evaluation will take into account economic efficiency criteria. For the period 2002- 2004 the Authority has defined a global amount of about 362 M euros to be granted to Sogin, corresponding to ?0,04 cents of Euro per kWh. The same procedure is foreseen by the Decree in order to finance Sogin for additional costs related to the dismantling of nuclear installations now property of ENEA. In this context, a Consortium between ENEA and Sogin has been established. The Authority for the period 2002-2004 has defined a global amount of about 106 M euros to be granted to the Consortium, corresponding to ?0,015 cents of Euro per kWh. (author)

  19. Women Financing and Household Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Swamy, Vighneswara; B K, Tulasimala

    2013-01-01

    This study has uniquely established that financing women though Self Help Groups has a significant role in empowering women, which is a smart economics indeed in achieving the objective of economic development of the weaker sections. The findings of this study establish using the statistical technique and robust sample size that women financing through groups has significant impacts on the food security as well as non-food expenses of the poor families. The study has evidenced significant out...

  20. The finance-strategy relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D G; Wheeler, J R

    2001-01-01

    The connection between the finance function and strategy in health systems is explored through discussions with chief financial officers (CFOs). The integration of finance into strategy is explored through the use of balanced scorecards, strategic investments and the analysis of core competencies and core enterprises. Divestiture of investments in health plans, physician practices and long-term care facilities is common, while outsourcing activity is increasing. PMID:11794752

  1. The epistemology of modern finance

    OpenAIRE

    Scheemaekere, Xavier

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates modern finance’s epistemological status with a special emphasis on its most quantitative part: Black-Scholes option pricing model and its extensions. It zeroes on the analysis of mathematical methods in financial economics and their connection to risk and uncertainty. Risk-neutral valuation, a direct consequence of Black-Scholes model, restricts the range of individual and subjective uncertainty by putting a price on replicable risk, thereby conferring to modern fina...

  2. Statistical likelihood methods in finance

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, Arnold; Tietje, Martin

    2013-01-01

    It is known from previous work of the authors that non-negative arbitrage free price processes in finance can be described in terms of filtered likelihood processes of statistical experiments and vice versa. The present paper summarizes and outlines some similarities between finance and the statistical likelihood theory of Le Cam. Options are linked to statistical tests of the underlying experiments. In particular, some price formulas for options are expressed by the power o...

  3. Project finance for alternative energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is intended to provide general advice to sponsors of renewable energy projects who expect to raise project-based financing from commercial banks to fund the development of their projects. It will set out, for the benefit of such sponsors, how bankers typically approach the analysis of these undertakings and in particular the risk areas on which they concentrate. By doing so it should assist sponsors to maximise their prospects of raising bank finance. (author)

  4. Overvalued equity and financing decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Ming; Hirshleifer, David; Teoh, Siew Hong

    2012-01-01

    We test whether and how equity overvaluation affects corporate financing decisions using an ex ante misvaluation measure that filters firm scale and growth prospects from market price. We find that equity issuance and total financing increase with equity overvaluation; but only among overvalued stocks; and that equity issuance is more sensitive than debt issuance to misvaluation. Consistent with managers catering to maintain overvaluation and with investment scale economy effects, the sensiti...

  5. CODAC systems arrangement and connectivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •The CODAC system is a distributed system and scattered in many buildings connected with cables. Building construction for ITER project is just started so volume reservation for different CODAC component is done based on the content of this paper. •The 2-D and 3-D diagrams have been prepared which are showing the location of different CODAC equipment and their connectivity. •The different requirements regarding raised access (false) floor, power requirements, heat load, installation, maintenance, redundancy, and segregation etc. have been considered. -- Abstract: The CODAC system is responsible for integrating all ITER plant system Instrumentation and Control systems and enabling operation of ITER machine as a single integrated facility. The different ITER plant systems and their Instrumentation and Control systems are distributed in several ITER buildings on the ITER platform. The CODAC systems have to interface with all these distributed plant system I and C systems. CODAC systems will be composed of several physical systems or components like networks, servers, workstations (terminals), large displays, PSH, storage systems etc. Several rooms in different buildings have been defined to house all above equipment. The site-wide CODAC network infrastructure will be based on a dual (redundant) star topology. The two redundant star points will house the core networking switches. These redundant core switches will be installed in different buildings. Cubicles used for network infrastructure are distributed among “hutches,” where a CODAC hutch is a room or area equipped with appropriate heating, ventilation, air conditioning and uninterruptible power which will be directly connected through two star points. The responsibility of CODAC infrastructure ends up to the plant system I and C cubicles so several passive CODAC network panels have identified in all I and C rooms of different plant buildings. This CODAC Network Panel will be the physical termination point for CODAC Network infrastructure. The CODAC Network cables running from the nearest CODAC Network hutch will terminate in these panels. Network panels are installed at strategic locations close to plant system I and C cubicles. This paper will describe more details about the physical arrangement of CODAC systems in different buildings on ITER platform for different purpose and their planned connectivity. This paper will also provide more information about the volume allocations for CODAC components, planned cabling arrangement and other infrastructure requirements like electrical and cooling etc

  6. CODAC systems arrangement and connectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulati, Hitesh Kumar, E-mail: hkgulati@gmail.com; Beltran, David; Kuehn, Ingo; Kotamaki, Miikka; Makijarvi, Petri; Wallander, Anders

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: •The CODAC system is a distributed system and scattered in many buildings connected with cables. Building construction for ITER project is just started so volume reservation for different CODAC component is done based on the content of this paper. •The 2-D and 3-D diagrams have been prepared which are showing the location of different CODAC equipment and their connectivity. •The different requirements regarding raised access (false) floor, power requirements, heat load, installation, maintenance, redundancy, and segregation etc. have been considered. -- Abstract: The CODAC system is responsible for integrating all ITER plant system Instrumentation and Control systems and enabling operation of ITER machine as a single integrated facility. The different ITER plant systems and their Instrumentation and Control systems are distributed in several ITER buildings on the ITER platform. The CODAC systems have to interface with all these distributed plant system I and C systems. CODAC systems will be composed of several physical systems or components like networks, servers, workstations (terminals), large displays, PSH, storage systems etc. Several rooms in different buildings have been defined to house all above equipment. The site-wide CODAC network infrastructure will be based on a dual (redundant) star topology. The two redundant star points will house the core networking switches. These redundant core switches will be installed in different buildings. Cubicles used for network infrastructure are distributed among “hutches,” where a CODAC hutch is a room or area equipped with appropriate heating, ventilation, air conditioning and uninterruptible power which will be directly connected through two star points. The responsibility of CODAC infrastructure ends up to the plant system I and C cubicles so several passive CODAC network panels have identified in all I and C rooms of different plant buildings. This CODAC Network Panel will be the physical termination point for CODAC Network infrastructure. The CODAC Network cables running from the nearest CODAC Network hutch will terminate in these panels. Network panels are installed at strategic locations close to plant system I and C cubicles. This paper will describe more details about the physical arrangement of CODAC systems in different buildings on ITER platform for different purpose and their planned connectivity. This paper will also provide more information about the volume allocations for CODAC components, planned cabling arrangement and other infrastructure requirements like electrical and cooling etc.

  7. The financing of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Existing nuclear generating capacity plays an important role in providing secure, economic and low-carbon electricity supplies in many OECD countries. At the same time, there is increasing recognition that an expansion of nuclear power could play a valuable role in reducing future carbon dioxide emissions. However, in recent years only a handful of new nuclear power plants (NPPs) have been built in just a few OECD countries. An important reason for this is the challenges associated with financing the construction of new NPPs. The just-published NEA report entitled The Financing of Nuclear Power Plants examines these challenges. In addition, recognizing that any expansion of nuclear power programmes will require strong and sustained government support, the report highlights the role of governments in facilitating and encouraging investment in new nuclear capacity. Key actions that should be considered by governments that wish to see investment in new NPPs include: - Provide clear and sustained policy support for the development of nuclear power, by setting out the case for a nuclear component in energy supply as part of a long-term national energy strategy. - Work with electricity utilities, financial companies and other potential investors, and the nuclear industry from an early stage to address concerns that may prevent nuclear investment and to avoid mistakes in establishing the parameters for new NPPs. - Establish an efficient and effective regulatory system which ent and effective regulatory system which provides adequate opportunities for public involvement in the decision-making process, while also providing potential investors with the certainty they require to plan such a major investment. - Put arrangements in place for the management of radioactive waste and spent fuel, and show progress towards a solution for final disposal of waste. For investors in NPPs, the financial arrangements for paying their fair share of the costs must be clearly defined. - Ensure that electricity market regulation does not disadvantage NPPs. Long-term arrangements may be necessary to provide certainty for investors in NPPs, reflecting the long-term nature of nuclear power projects. Where reducing CO2 emissions is to act as an incentive for investments in nuclear power, the government may need to provide some guarantees that policy measures will keep carbon prices at sufficiently high levels. In countries where there are large utilities with the financial strength to invest directly in new NPPs, or where there are well-resourced foreign utilities willing to make such investments, fully commercial financing may be possible. However, in other cases it may prove impossible for a nuclear power plant project to go ahead without direct or indirect public sector financial support, which would reduce the investment risks to acceptable levels. Public sector financial support could involve supporting a state-owned utility in making nuclear power plant investments, providing support to private sector utilities through loan guarantees, tax credits or other measures, or establishing public-private partnerships. However, governments should ensure that, overall, investment risk remains appropriately shared with the private sector

  8. 46 CFR 108.545 - Marine evacuation system launching arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... false Marine evacuation system launching arrangements. 108.545 Section 108.545 Shipping...545 Marine evacuation system launching arrangements. (a) Arrangements. Each marine evacuation system must...

  9. 46 CFR 133.145 - Marine evacuation system launching arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... false Marine evacuation system launching arrangements. 133.145 Section 133.145 Shipping...145 Marine evacuation system launching arrangements. (a) Arrangements. Each marine evacuation system must...

  10. Geometrical arrangement of ?-ray detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently as Japan Ball Collaboration, the nuclear spectroscopy experimental project using the large scale Crystal Ball in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute has been proposed. As for the project being advanced toward it, six detector of University of Tsukuba and five same detectors newly prepared by JAERI are combined to constitute the Crystal Ball, and by installing this in the beam line of the tandem booster new accelerator system in JAERI, it is aimed at to steadily carry out precise and systematic nuclear spectroscopy experiment. The sensitivity of the detectors is that of the required minimum limit for modern nuclear spectroscopy experiment. The arrangement of the detectors is shown. Angular correlation functions are discussed, and the different angular correlation functions in the case of using 12 detectors are summarized. By using the example of 107Ag + 27Al reaction by the 107Ag beam of 400 MeV, the result of the simple calculation for life measurement is reported, and the experiment by recoil distance method or Doppler shift attenuation method is assessed. The space for the target chamber is explained, and the notice for its design is given. (K.I.)

  11. Injunctions against mere conduit of information protected by copyright

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandfeld Jakobsen, SØren; Petersen, Clement Salung

    2011-01-01

    This paper includes an in-depth analysis of EU law and Scandinavian law on injunctions against internet access providers (IAPs) performing as mere conduit of information protected by copyright. In recent Scandinavian case law, courts have granted preliminary injunctions which have caused IAPs to either shut down specific internet connections allegedly used to infringe copyright or to block access to internet content, which allegedly infringed applicable copyright rules. This paper considers some significant legal challenges, which are emerging in the wake of this case law, and which should attract attention in all European member states. Firstly, it is shown that rules on preliminary injunctions are generally unable to safeguard the significant legitimate interests of third parties, which may be harmed by such relief, and that a proper implementation of Art. 8(3) of the Infosoc Directive requires rules, which take into due consideration the special aspects related to enforcement of copyright on the internet through IAPs. Secondly, it is shown that the termination of internet connections and the blocking of access to internet content may not support the public policies behind copyright law and also may restrict the freedom of expression under European human rights law. The analysis is based on a brief account for the relevant EU Directives, the implementation of these Directives in the Scandinavian countries and the Scandinavian case law regarding use of injunctions against IAPs to enforce copyright on the internet.

  12. A conduit dilation model of methane venting from lake sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scandella, B.P.; Varadharajan, C.; Hemond, Harold F.; Ruppel, C.; Juanes, R.

    2011-01-01

    Methane is a potent greenhouse gas, but its effects on Earth's climate remain poorly constrained, in part due to uncertainties in global methane fluxes to the atmosphere. An important source of atmospheric methane is the methane generated in organic-rich sediments underlying surface water bodies, including lakes, wetlands, and the ocean. The fraction of the methane that reaches the atmosphere depends critically on the mode and spatiotemporal characteristics of free-gas venting from the underlying sediments. Here we propose that methane transport in lake sediments is controlled by dynamic conduits, which dilate and release gas as the falling hydrostatic pressure reduces the effective stress below the tensile strength of the sediments. We test our model against a four-month record of hydrostatic load and methane flux in Upper Mystic Lake, Mass., USA, and show that it captures the complex episodicity of methane ebullition. Our quantitative conceptualization opens the door to integrated modeling of methane transport to constrain global methane release from lakes and other shallow-water, organic-rich sediment systems, and to assess its climate feedbacks.

  13. Data Transfer via Alternative Conduits: Using Fluid Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Willow

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Digital convergence has reshaped a gamut of industry demographics in the 21C, comprised of cloud computing, healthcare, pharmaceutical, consumer supplies, government, defense, manufacturing, entertainment, and even on-line education, among many others.   At the center of the web-convergence lies the problem of network bandwidth limitation.  Traditionally, research has focused on two major resolution strategies in parallel:  data compression to minimize the network traffic (i.e. algorithmic; software and alternative conduit for data transfer such as wireless (i.e. infrastructural; hardware.Building a network infrastructure is extremely costly.   In addition, maintenance and upgrade costs may be prohibitive, given the U.S. consumer demographics.   To this end, the emphasis is placed on seeking existing infrastructure which connects business and residential entities.The objective of this research, therefore, is to seek the possibility and feasibility of (digital data transfers via the extensive water and/or sewer network(s, while minimizing structural modifications to the existing infrastructure.   To date, sonar has been proven to be effective.   If successful, the value of this intellectual property may be immeasurable.

  14. Coronary artery reoperations using arterial conduits: immediate and early results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S; Daxini, B V; Trivedi, A; Mukherjee, K; Pinto, R; Bhattacharya, S

    1994-01-01

    This study deals with results of coronary artery reoperations in 21 males aged 54.4 +/- 6.6 years. Native vessel coronary disease at first and second operation was nearly the same (2.7 +/- 0.6 vs 2.8 +/- 0.4 vessel, p = NS). Graft attrition and deterioration in left ventricular ejection fraction (55.9 +/- 9.2 initial vs 36 +/- 15 at reoperation, p < 0.001) necessitated reoperation in majority. Recurrence of angina (71%) and left ventricular failure (23.8%) were the clinical indicators for reoperation. Procedure was successful in 20 (95%) and had to be abandoned in 1 due to severe pericardial and sternal adhesions. Arterial grafts were utilised in 90% (18 cases, Group A and B). Total arterial revascularisation (Group A) was done in 9 (45%) using Y graft 6, combination of both mammary arteries 2, and by both mammary and inferior epigastric artery in 1. Group B patients had arterial grafts (bilateral IMA 1, Y graft 1, bilateral IMA + gastroepipolic 1, RIMA 4, and LIMA 2) in addition to a venous graft. Two patients (group C, 10%) had only venous grafts. There was no in hospital mortality or morbidity and at 10 +/- 5.2 months follow up, all are asymptomatic with negative stress test at 3 months followup in 8 cases. We conclude that coronary artery reoperations using arterial conduits can be performed safely with excellent immediate and early results. PMID:7797222

  15. Prediction of the phase distribution in a triangular conduit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phase distribution in any two-phase flow system is one of the most important parameters for an accurate analysis of the momentum and heat transfer mechanisms. A multidimensional analysis of an accurate flow and void distribution can result in an accurate prediction of such important thermal-hydraulic phenomena as the local critical heat flux (CHF). However, numerous experimental and analytical studies of a two-phase flow in the past were not able to satisfactorily predict the lateral phase distribution in a wide range of conditions due to the uncertainties associated with the interfacial constitutive models and the turbulence models. There have been some numerical works to predict the phase distribution in two-phase bubbly flows. They predicted well the void peak near the wall for an up flow and the void coring for a down flow. However, there are few studies available on the void coring for an up flow. This study simulates the air/water measurements of a phase distribution in a triangular conduit which shows the void coring phenomena

  16. Prediction of the void coring phenomena in a triangular conduit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phase distribution in any two-phase flow system is one of the most important parameters for an accurate analysis of the momentum and heat transfer mechanisms. A multidimensional analysis of an accurate flow and void distribution can result in an accurate prediction of such important thermal-hydraulic phenomena as the local critical heat flux. However, numerous experimental and analytical studies of a two-phase flow in the past were not able to satisfactorily predict the lateral phase distribution in a wide range of conditions due to the uncertainties associated with the interfacial constitutive models and the turbulence models. The previous study could not predict the void coring for the upward two-phase flow observed in the experiment. Recently, Tomiyama et al. showed that there is a critical bubble diameter causing the radial void profile transition from a wall peaking to a core peaking in an air-water bubbly flow. Using the transverse lift coefficient proposed by Tomiyama et al., this study simulated the void coring phenomena of the air-water flow in a triangular conduit and compared the predicted void distributions with the measurements

  17. Computing for Finance

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    The finance sector is one of the driving forces for the use of distributed or Grid computing for business purposes. The speakers will review the state-of-the-art of high performance computing in the financial sector, and provide insight into how different types of Grid computing – from local clusters to global networks - are being applied to financial applications. They will also describe the use of software and techniques from physics, such as Monte Carlo simulations, in the financial world. There will be four talks of 20min each. The talk abstracts and speaker bios are listed below. This will be followed by a Q&A panel session with the speakers. From 19:00 onwards there will be a networking cocktail for audience and speakers. This is an EGEE / CERN openlab event organized in collaboration with the regional business network rezonance.ch. A webcast of the event will be made available for subsequent viewing, along with powerpoint material presented by the speakers. Attendance is free and open to all. R...

  18. Combinatorial polar orderings and recursively orderable arrangements

    OpenAIRE

    Delucchi, Emanuele; Settepanella, Simona

    2007-01-01

    Polar orderings arose in recent work of Salvetti and the second author on minimal CW-complexes for complexified hyperplane arrangements. We study the combinatorics of these orderings in the classical framework of oriented matroids, and reach thereby a weakening of the conditions required to actually determine such orderings. A class of arrangements for which the construction of the minimal complex is particularly easy, called {\\em recursively orderable} arrangements, can the...

  19. Arrangements with low degree logarithmic vector fields

    OpenAIRE

    Tohaneanu, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    In these notes we study hyperplane arrangements having at least one logarithmic derivation of degree one, not a constant multiple of the Euler derivation, or having at least one logarithmic derivation of degree two not a multiple of a degree one derivation. We prove that the first case is equivalent to the hyperplane arrangement being a product of smaller hyperplane arrangements. In the second case we present a computational lemma that leads to a full classification of hyper...

  20. A Tutte polynomial for toric arrangements

    OpenAIRE

    Moci, Luca

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a multiplicity Tutte polynomial M(x,y), with applications to zonotopes and toric arrangements. We prove that M(x,y) satisfies a deletion-restriction recurrence and has positive coefficients. The characteristic polynomial and the Poincare' polynomial of a toric arrangement are shown to be specializations of the associated polynomial M(x,y), likewise the corresponding polynomials for a hyperplane arrangement are specializations of the ordinary Tutte polynomial. Fu...

  1. Deletion-restriction in toric arrangements

    OpenAIRE

    Deshpande, Priyavrat; Sutar, Kavita

    2014-01-01

    Deletion-restriction is a fundamental tool in the theory of hyperplane arrangements. Various important results in this field have been proved using deletion-restriction. In this paper we use deletion-restriction to identify a class of toric arrangements for which the cohomology algebra of the complement is generated in degree $1$. We also show that for these arrangements the complement is formal in the sense of Sullivan.

  2. Flexible Working Time Arrangements in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Beleva, Iskra

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyze the flexible working time arrangements in Bulgaria, using a life-course perspective. Two important features have to be outlined, namely: underdeveloped flexible forms of employment in the country, including working time arrangement, and lack of previous analysis on flexible working time arrangements from the angle of life-course perspective. The author describes the regulatory framework, collective agreements at national and company level as a frame w...

  3. Hyperplane Arrangements with Large Average Diameter

    CERN Document Server

    Deza, Antoine

    2007-01-01

    The largest possible average diameter of a bounded cell of a simple hyperplane arrangement is conjectured to be not greater than the dimension. We prove that this conjecture holds in dimension 2, and is asymptotically tight in fixed dimension. We give the exact value of the largest possible average diameter for all simple arrangements in dimension 2, for arrangements having at most the dimension plus 2 hyperplanes, and for arrangements having 6 hyperplanes in dimension 3. In dimension 3, we give lower and upper bounds which are both asymptotically equal to the dimension.

  4. In vivo visualization of microneedle conduits in human skin using laser scanning microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solid microneedles enhance the penetration of drugs into the viable skin but little is known about the geometry of the conduits in vivo. Therefore, laser scanning microscopy was used to visualize the conduits of a microneedle system with needles at a length of 300 ?m in 6 healthy subjects over a period of time. The model drug, a fluorescent dye was applied before and after piercing. Laser scanning microscopy was evaluated as being an excellent method to monitor the geometry and closure of the conduits over time. The used microneedle system was evaluated as suitable to enhance the transport of model drugs into the viable epidermis without bleeding and a short closure time of the conduits at the skin surface

  5. Investigation of entrance length in circular and noncircular conduits by computational fluid dynamics simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pimpun Tongpun

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study estimated entrance length of circular and noncircular conduits, including circle, triangle, square and hexagon cross-sectional conduit, by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD. For simulation condition, the length of noncircular conduit was 10 m and the hydraulic diameter was 0.2 m. The laminar flow with Reynolds number of 500 and turbulent flow with Reynolds number of 50,000 were applied to investigate water flow in conduits. The governing equations were solved iteratively by using ANSYS FLUENT 14.0. For turbulent flow simulation, standard k-epsilon and RNG k-epsilon model were employed to simulate turbulence. The preliminary results were validated by comparison with theoretical data. At first, grid independency was evaluated to optimize the model. Norm* was employed to investigate the entrance length, which is related to velocity. The simulated results revealed that the entrance length for laminar flow was longer than turbulent flow.

  6. Financing energy projects: experience of the International Finance Corporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides an overview of the recent trend towards private ownership and financing of power projects in the developing countries, focusing on the role played by both private and public agencies in meeting the large financing challenges. The paper draws upon the operational experience of the International Finance Corporation, which has been involved in the financing of more than 30 private power projects in the developing countries over the past three decades. Among the issues that affect implementation of private power projects is the balancing of risk and reward to equity investors and to commercial lenders. The paper discusses the principal sources of risk and the strategies used to manage them. A related issue is the competition for capital on the international markets, and the techniques that are being devised to bring more finance to the power sector. Finally, the paper considers the role of government in bringing private investors to the power sector, and the approaches being adopted to balance the needs of investors with the needs of the public. (author)

  7. Numerical simulation of the mechanical behavior of the ITER cable-in-conduit conductors

    OpenAIRE

    Bajas, Hugues

    2011-01-01

    The ITER Cable-In-Conduit Conductors (CICC) are composed of an assembly of pure copper wires and composite superconducting strands (with embedded brittle Nb3Sn microfilaments) cabled together and inserted in a stainless steel jacket. If the current carrying capacities of individual ITER strand are clearly identified, by a dependence of the critical current on the applied strain and by a statistical quantification of possible microfilaments breakage, the characterization of cable-in-conduit is...

  8. Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell and Vein Conduit on Sciatic Nerve Repair in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyed Foroutan, Kamal; Khodarahmi, Ali; Alavi, Hootan; Pedram, Sepehr; Baghaban Eslaminejad, Mohamad Reza; Bordbar, Sima

    2015-01-01

    Background: Peripheral nerve repair with sufficient functional recovery is an important issue in reconstructive surgery. Stem cells have attracted extensive research interest in recent years. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare the vein conduit technique, with and without the addition of mesenchymal stem cells in gap-less nerve injury repair in rats. Materials and Methods: In this study, 36 Wistar rats were randomly allocated to three groups: In the first group, nerve repair was performed with simple neurorrhaphy (control group), in the second group, nerve repair was done with vein conduit over site (vein conduit group) and in the third group, bone marrow stem cells were instilled into the vein conduit (stem cell group) after nerve repair with vein conduit over site. Six weeks after the intervention, the sciatic function index, electrophysiological study and histological examination were performed. Results: All animals tolerated the surgical procedures and survived well. The sciatic function index and latency were significantly improved in the vein conduit (P = 0.04 and 0.03, respectively) and stem cell group (P = 0.02 and 0.03, respectively) compared with the control group. No significant difference was observed in sciatic function and latency between the vein conduit and stem-cell groups. Moreover, histological analysis showed no significant difference in regenerative density between these two groups. Conclusions: The results of this study showed that the meticulous microsurgical nerve repair, which was performed using the vein tubulization induced significantly better sciatic nerve regeneration. However, the addition of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell to vein conduit failed to promote any significant changes in regeneration outcome.

  9. Evolution of karst conduit networks in transition from pressurized flow to free-surface flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perne, M.; Covington, M.; Gabrovšek, F.

    2014-11-01

    Most of the existing models of speleogenesis are limited to situations where flow in all conduits is pressurized. The feedback between the distribution of hydraulic head and growth of new solution conduits determines the geometry of the resulting conduit network. We present a novel modeling approach that allows a transition from pressurized (pipe) flow to a free-surface (open-channel) flow in evolving discrete conduit networks. It calculates flow, solute transport and dissolution enlargement within each time step and steps through time until a stable flow pattern is established. The flow in each time step is calculated by calling the US Environmental Protection Agency Storm Water Management Model (US Environmental Protection Agency, 2014), which efficiently solves the 1-D Saint-Venant equations in a network of conduits. Two basic scenarios are modeled, a low-dip scenario and a high-dip scenario. In the low-dip scenario a slightly inclined plane is populated with a rectangular grid of solution conduits. The recharge is distributed to randomly selected junctions. The results for the pressurized flow regime resemble those of the existing models. When the network becomes vadose, a stable flow pathway develops along a system of conduits that occupy the lowest positions at their inlet junctions. This depends on the initial diameter and inlet position of a conduit, its total incision in a pressurized regime and its alignment relative to the dip of the plane, which plays important role during the vadose entrenchment. In the high-dip scenario a sub-vertical network with recharge on the top and outflow on the side is modeled. It is used to demonstrate the vertical development of karst due to drawdown of the water table, development of invasion vadose caves during vadose flow diversion and to demonstrate the potential importance of deeply penetrating conductive structures.

  10. A Biosynthetic Nerve Guide Conduit Based on Silk/SWNT/Fibronectin Nanocomposite for Peripheral Nerve Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Mottaghitalab, Fatemeh; Farokhi, Mehdi; Zaminy, Arash; Kokabi, Mehrdad; Soleimani, Masoud; Mirahmadi, Fereshteh; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Sadeghizadeh, Majid

    2013-01-01

    As a contribution to the functionality of nerve guide conduits (NGCs) in nerve tissue engineering, here we report a conduit processing technique through introduction and evaluation of topographical, physical and chemical cues. Porous structure of NGCs based on freeze-dried silk/single walled carbon nanotubes (SF/SWNTs) has shown a uniform chemical and physical structure with suitable electrical conductivity. Moreover, fibronectin (FN) containing nanofibers within the structure of SF/SWNT cond...

  11. Conditions for detection of ground deformation induced by conduit flow and evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Albino, F.; Pinel, Virginie; Massol, H.; Collombet, M.

    2011-01-01

    At mature andesitic volcanoes, magma can reach the surface through the same path for several eruptions thus forming a volcanic conduit. Because of degassing, cooling, and crystallization, magma viscosity increase in the upper part of the conduit may induce the formation of a viscous plug. We conducted numerical simulations to quantify the deformation field caused by this plug emplacement and evolution. Stress continuity between Newtonian magma flow and elastic crust is considered. Plug emplac...

  12. Issues in energy finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokher, Zeigham Islam

    As opposed to the well developed and understood equity markets, the energy markets are still in their infancy. The explosion of contracts, of both the primary and derivative types, are testament both to the existing size and the untapped growth potential of this exciting industry. However, because of its relative youth many basic issues in the energy markets remain unresolved. This thesis introduces some interesting questions and provides insights into these issues. Thematically, the chapters of this thesis are linked by an emphasis on valuation and risk management decisions. A contribution of this thesis is to show that subtle differences between the endogenous price process in our general equilibrium setting and the exogenous processes considered in earlier papers can generate significant differences in both financial and real option values. In addition to these valuation concerns there has been much debate about the corporate risk management function. Finance theory suggests that a value maximizing corporation should either be indifferent to hedging or, in the presence of certain imperfections, it should completely hedge all exposures. Both these extremes contradict empirical evidence. We show that existing corporate hedging behaviour is best explained in light of both physical market imperfections and directional predictions on future prices. While these speculative motives may arise from corporate hubris or genuine informational advantages, we argue that it would be difficult to implement private information in the absence of noise traders. Related to the risk management decision is the existence of futures risk premia. These premia have been thought to be cause by covariance with priced factors or due to the hedging demands of consumers and producers. This thesis argues that inventories serve as a signal of available quantity, which coupled with consumers fears regarding stockouts can induce a positive relationship between premia and inventories. In conclusion, we test this relationship using natural gas storage and futures price data and show empirical support for our hypothesis.

  13. 46 CFR 199.145 - Marine evacuation system launching arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Marine evacuation system launching arrangements. 199.145 Section 199.145...CONTINUED) LIFESAVING APPLIANCES AND ARRANGEMENTS LIFESAVING SYSTEMS FOR CERTAIN INSPECTED... Marine evacuation system launching arrangements. (a) Arrangements. Each...

  14. Comparison of a karst groundwater model with and without discrete conduit flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saller, Stephen P.; Ronayne, Michael J.; Long, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Karst aquifers exhibit a dual flow system characterized by interacting conduit and matrix domains. This study evaluated the coupled continuum pipe-flow framework for modeling karst groundwater flow in the Madison aquifer of western South Dakota (USA). Coupled conduit and matrix flow was simulated within a regional finite-difference model over a 10-year transient period. An existing equivalent porous medium (EPM) model was modified to include major conduit networks whose locations were constrained by dye-tracing data and environmental tracer analysis. Model calibration data included measured hydraulic heads at observation wells and estimates of discharge at four karst springs. Relative to the EPM model, the match to observation well hydraulic heads was substantially improved with the addition of conduits. The inclusion of conduit flow allowed for a simpler hydraulic conductivity distribution in the matrix continuum. Two of the high-conductivity zones in the EPM model, which were required to indirectly simulate the effects of conduits, were eliminated from the new model. This work demonstrates the utility of the coupled continuum pipe-flow method and illustrates how karst aquifer model parameterization is dependent on the physical processes that are simulated.

  15. In vitro evaluation of carbon-nanotube-reinforced bioprintable vascular conduits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolati, Farzaneh; Yu, Yin; Zhang, Yahui; De Jesus, Aribet M.; Sander, Edward A.; Ozbolat, Ibrahim T.

    2014-04-01

    Vascularization of thick engineered tissue and organ constructs like the heart, liver, pancreas or kidney remains a major challenge in tissue engineering. Vascularization is needed to supply oxygen and nutrients and remove waste in living tissues and organs through a network that should possess high perfusion ability and significant mechanical strength and elasticity. In this paper, we introduce a fabrication process to print vascular conduits directly, where conduits were reinforced with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to enhance their mechanical properties and bioprintability. In vitro evaluation of printed conduits encapsulated in human coronary artery smooth muscle cells was performed to characterize the effects of CNT reinforcement on the mechanical, perfusion and biological performance of the conduits. Perfusion and permeability, cell viability, extracellular matrix formation and tissue histology were assessed and discussed, and it was concluded that CNT-reinforced vascular conduits provided a foundation for mechanically appealing constructs where CNTs could be replaced with natural protein nanofibers for further integration of these conduits in large-scale tissue fabrication.

  16. MR and CT imaging of pulmonary valved conduits in children and adolescents: normal appearance and complications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenisch, Estelle V.; Alamo, Leonor T.; Gudinchet, Francois [Lausanne University Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Lausanne (Switzerland); Sekarski, Nicole [Lausanne University Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Lausanne (Switzerland); Hurni, Michel [Lausanne University Hospital, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2014-12-15

    The Contegra registered is a conduit made from the bovine jugular vein and then interposed between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery. It is used for cardiac malformations in the reconstruction of right ventricular outflow tract. To describe both normal and pathological appearances of the Contegra registered in radiological imaging, to describe imaging of complications and to define the role of CT and MRI in postoperative follow-up. Forty-three examinations of 24 patients (17 boys and 7 girls; mean age: 10.8 years old) with Contegra registered conduits were reviewed. Anatomical description and measurements of the conduits were performed. Pathological items examined included stenosis, dilatation, plicature or twist, thrombus or vegetations, calcifications and valvular regurgitation. Findings were correlated to the echographic gradient through the conduit when available. CT and MR work-up showed Contegra registered stenosis (n = 12), dilatation (n = 9) and plicature or twist (n = 7). CT displayed thrombus or vegetations in the Contegra registered in three clinically infected patients. Calcifications of the conduit were present at CT in 12 patients and valvular regurgitation in three patients. The comparison between CT and/or MR results showed a good correlation between the echographic gradient and the presence of stenosis in the Contegra registered. CT and MR bring additional information about permeability and postoperative anatomy especially when echocardiography is inconclusive. Both techniques depict the normal appearance of the conduit, and allow comparison and precise evaluation of changes in the postoperative follow-up. (orig.)

  17. Fracture Toughness Measurements and Assessment of Thin Walled Conduit Alloys in a Cicc Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, R. P.; Han, K.; Toplosky, V. J.

    2008-03-01

    The Series-Connected Hybrid Magnets under construction at the NHMFL use Cable-in-Conduct-Conductor (CICC) technology. The 4 K mechanical properties of the conduit are extremely important to the performance and reliability of the magnets. We have measured tensile and fracture toughness of two candidate conduit alloys (Haynes 242 and modified 316LN) in various metallurgical states, with emphasis on the final state of production. To assess the material in its final production state, non-standard specimens are removed directly from the round-corner rectangular conduit and tested after exposure to a simulated Nb3Sn reaction heat treatment. Non-standard middle-tension (MT) fracture toughness specimens enable toughness evaluation of the base metal, welds and weld/base transitional region in the as-fabricated conduit with final dimensions not suitable for conventional fracture toughness specimens. Although fracture toughness tests of the thin walled conduit fail to meet ASTM test validity requirements they provide a qualitative evaluation and estimate of the fracture toughness of the conduit and the welds.

  18. MR and CT imaging of pulmonary valved conduits in children and adolescents: normal appearance and complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Contegra registered is a conduit made from the bovine jugular vein and then interposed between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery. It is used for cardiac malformations in the reconstruction of right ventricular outflow tract. To describe both normal and pathological appearances of the Contegra registered in radiological imaging, to describe imaging of complications and to define the role of CT and MRI in postoperative follow-up. Forty-three examinations of 24 patients (17 boys and 7 girls; mean age: 10.8 years old) with Contegra registered conduits were reviewed. Anatomical description and measurements of the conduits were performed. Pathological items examined included stenosis, dilatation, plicature or twist, thrombus or vegetations, calcifications and valvular regurgitation. Findings were correlated to the echographic gradient through the conduit when available. CT and MR work-up showed Contegra registered stenosis (n = 12), dilatation (n = 9) and plicature or twist (n = 7). CT displayed thrombus or vegetations in the Contegra registered in three clinically infected patients. Calcifications of the conduit were present at CT in 12 patients and valvular regurgitation in three patients. The comparison between CT and/or MR results showed a good correlation between the echographic gradient and the presence of stenosis in the Contegra registered. CT and MR bring additional information about permeability and postoperative anatomy especially when echocardiography is inconclusive. Both techniques depict the normal appearance of the conduit, and allow comparison and precise evaluation of changes in the postoperative follow-up. (orig.)

  19. A biosynthetic nerve guide conduit based on silk/SWNT/fibronectin nanocomposite for peripheral nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottaghitalab, Fatemeh; Farokhi, Mehdi; Zaminy, Arash; Kokabi, Mehrdad; Soleimani, Masoud; Mirahmadi, Fereshteh; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Sadeghizadeh, Majid

    2013-01-01

    As a contribution to the functionality of nerve guide conduits (NGCs) in nerve tissue engineering, here we report a conduit processing technique through introduction and evaluation of topographical, physical and chemical cues. Porous structure of NGCs based on freeze-dried silk/single walled carbon nanotubes (SF/SWNTs) has shown a uniform chemical and physical structure with suitable electrical conductivity. Moreover, fibronectin (FN) containing nanofibers within the structure of SF/SWNT conduits produced through electrospinning process have shown aligned fashion with appropriate porosity and diameter. Moreover, fibronectin remained its bioactivity and influenced the adhesion and growth of U373 cell lines. The conduits were then implanted to 10 mm left sciatic nerve defects in rats. The histological assessment has shown that nerve regeneration has taken places in proximal region of implanted nerve after 5 weeks following surgery. Furthermore, nerve conduction velocities (NCV) and more myelinated axons were observed in SF/SWNT and SF/SWNT/FN groups after 5 weeks post implantation, indicating a functional recovery for the injured nerves. With immunohistochemistry, the higher S-100 expression of Schwann cells in SF/SWNT/FN conduits in comparison to other groups was confirmed. In conclusion, an oriented conduit of biocompatible SF/SWNT/FN has been fabricated with acceptable structure that is particularly applicable in nerve grafts. PMID:24098649

  20. The international Finance Corporation and financing of sustainable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Finance Corporation (IFC), a member of the World Bank Group, is the largest multilateral source of loan and equity financing for private sector projects in the developing world. IFC participates in an investment only when it can make a special contribution that complements the role of market operators. Since its founding 40 years ago, IFC has provided more than $18.8 billion in financing for 1,706 companies in developing countries. Its share capital is provided by its 170 member countries, which collectively determine its policies and activities. Strong shareholder support and a substantial paid-in capital base have allowed IFC to raise funds for its lending activities through its triple-A rated bond issues in international financial markets. (orig.)

  1. Current distribution in Cable-In-Conduit Conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A numerical study of the current distribution in Cable-In-Conduit Conductors (CICC's) experiencing linearly ramping transport currents and transverse magnetic fields was conducted for both infinitely long, periodic cables and finite length cables terminated in low resistance joints. The goal of the study was to gain insight into the phenomenon known as Ramp Rate Limitation, an as yet unexplained correspondence between maximum attainable current and the ramp time taken to reach that current in CICC superconducting magnets. A discrete geometric model of a 27 strand multiply twisted CICC was developed to effectively represent the flux linkages, mutual inductances, and resistive contact points between the strands of an experimentally tested cable. The results of the numerical study showed that for fully periodic cables, the current imbalances due to ramping magnetic fields and ramping transport currents are negligible in the range of experimentally explored operating conditions. For finite length, joint terminated cables, however, significant imbalances can exist. Unfortunately, quantitative results are limited by a lack of knowledge of the transverse resistance between strands in the joints. Nonetheless, general results are presented showing the dependency of the imbalance on cable length, ramp time, and joint resistance for both ramping transverse magnet fields and ramping transport currents. At the conclusion of the study, it is suggested that calculated current imbalances in a finite length cable could cause certain strands to prematurely ''quench'' -- become non-superconducting --thus leading to an instability for the entire cable. This numerically predicted ''current imbalance instability'' is compared to the experimentally observed Ramp Rate Limitation for the 27 strand CICC sample

  2. Current distribution in Cable-In-Conduit Conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferri, M.A.

    1994-05-01

    A numerical study of the current distribution in Cable-In-Conduit Conductors (CICC`s) experiencing linearly ramping transport currents and transverse magnetic fields was conducted for both infinitely long, periodic cables and finite length cables terminated in low resistance joints. The goal of the study was to gain insight into the phenomenon known as Ramp Rate Limitation, an as yet unexplained correspondence between maximum attainable current and the ramp time taken to reach that current in CICC superconducting magnets. A discrete geometric model of a 27 strand multiply twisted CICC was developed to effectively represent the flux linkages, mutual inductances, and resistive contact points between the strands of an experimentally tested cable. The results of the numerical study showed that for fully periodic cables, the current imbalances due to ramping magnetic fields and ramping transport currents are negligible in the range of experimentally explored operating conditions. For finite length, joint terminated cables, however, significant imbalances can exist. Unfortunately, quantitative results are limited by a lack of knowledge of the transverse resistance between strands in the joints. Nonetheless, general results are presented showing the dependency of the imbalance on cable length, ramp time, and joint resistance for both ramping transverse magnet fields and ramping transport currents. At the conclusion of the study, it is suggested that calculated current imbalances in a finite length cable could cause certain strands to prematurely ``quench`` -- become non-superconducting --thus leading to an instability for the entire cable. This numerically predicted ``current imbalance instability`` is compared to the experimentally observed Ramp Rate Limitation for the 27 strand CICC sample.

  3. Test Item Arrangement and Adaptation Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcikowski, Robert S.; Olsen, Henry

    1975-01-01

    Provides evidence that students perceive test items arranged in a hard-medium-easy order as being easier than the same items arranged in the reverse order, but it was also found that the students' perceptions did not influence the scores. (RB)

  4. More Combinatorial Proofs via Flagpole Arrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeTemple, Duane; Reynolds, H. David, II

    2006-01-01

    Combinatorial identities are proved by counting the number of arrangements of a flagpole and guy wires on a row of blocks that satisfy a set of conditions. An identity is proved by first deriving and then equating two expressions that each count the number of permissible arrangements. Identities for binomial coefficients and recursion relations…

  5. Arrangements, Milnor Fibers and Polar Curves

    OpenAIRE

    Dimca, A.

    2000-01-01

    We describe a new relation between the topology of hyperplane arrangements, Milnor fibers and global polar curves, via the affine Lefschetz theory developped by A. N\\'emethi. In particular, we improve some results due to Orlik and Terao (see Math. Ann. 301(1995)) and complete/clarify a proof by Randell concerning the minimality of hyperplane arrangements (see math.AT/0011101).

  6. Cooling arrangement for a tapered turbine blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, George (Palm City, FL)

    2010-07-27

    A cooling arrangement (11) for a highly tapered gas turbine blade (10). The cooling arrangement (11) includes a pair of parallel triple-pass serpentine cooling circuits (80,82) formed in an inner radial portion (50) of the blade, and a respective pair of single radial channel cooling circuits (84,86) formed in an outer radial portion (52) of the blade (10), with each single radial channel receiving the cooling fluid discharged from a respective one of the triple-pass serpentine cooling circuit. The cooling arrangement advantageously provides a higher degree of cooling to the most highly stressed radially inner portion of the blade, while providing a lower degree of cooling to the less highly stressed radially outer portion of the blade. The cooling arrangement can be implemented with known casting techniques, thereby facilitating its use on highly tapered, highly twisted Row 4 industrial gas turbine blades that could not be cooled with prior art cooling arrangements.

  7. Carbonate mineral dissolution and the impacts of flood water exchange between conduit and matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spellman, P.; Screaton, E.; Gulley, J. D.; Martin, J. B.

    2012-12-01

    Studies of flow and dissolution in karst aquifers have traditionally focused on conduits, and contributions from matrix sources have been generally ignored. This conceptual model works for limestone that has been deeply buried and had its matrix permeability obliterated by cementation (telogenetic) so that most aquifer recharge occurs by conduits. In limestone that has not been deeply buried (eogenetic), however, high matrix permeability is preserved, resulting in greater degrees of interaction between conduit and matrix porosity than occurs in telogenetic limestone. Interactions between conduit and matrix porosity, and how these interactions affect flow and dissolution within aquifers, is particularly important in karst aquifers subject to dynamic changes in head gradients between conduits and aquifers. These exchanges are particularly prevalent in transitional areas between confined and unconfined aquifer conditions. In such transitional areas, allogenic runoff from confining units can increase river stages on adjacent unconfined aquifers faster than infiltration of local rainfall can increase groundwater heads. As a result, normal hydraulic gradients between the aquifer and rivers are reversed, causing river water to flow into springs. Simultaneously, rapid increases in conduit hydraulic head will also reverse gradients between the conduit and the aquifer, driving exchange from the conduit to the matrix. Because allogenic runoff is highly undersaturated with respect to calcite after storm events, dissolution resulting from this exchange can be extensive. The magnitude of dissolution that occurs is a function of the calcite saturation state of the allogenic runoff, the surface area of the limestone in contact with the water, and the time that water remains in contact with the limestone. In eogenetic aquifers, the magnitude of dissolution that occurs during spring reversals should be higher than in telogenetic aquifers because of their elevated matrix permeabilities, which allows for both greater volumes of water exchange and greater mineral surface area. Quantitative comparisons of the dissolution in eogenetic and telogenetic karst aquifers have not hitherto been made. We present the results of modeling experiments that compare the magnitude amount of dissolution that would occur as a result of spring reversals in telogenetic and eogenetic settings. Water fluxes and residence times were calculated using MODFLOW and Conduit Flow Processes (CFP) and dissolution was estimated using PHREEQC geochemical modeling software. Maximum aquifer residence times of allogenic runoff were twice as long in telogenetic aquifers , but because most water was restricted to the conduit, dissolution was limited. Volumes of exchange and dissolution in eogenetic settings were orders of magnitude higher.

  8. Developments in School Finance 1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US Department of Education's NCES has recently released Developments in School Finance 1997 (available in Adobe Acrobat [.pdf] format only), edited by William J. Fowler, which contains the fiscal proceedings from the 1997 NCES Summer Conference, eight scholarly papers on "emerging issues in educational finance." Titles include: "Does Money Matter for Minority and Disadvantaged Students? Assessing the New Empirical Evidence," by David Grissmer, et. al.; "School District Expenditures, School Resources and Student Achievement: Modeling the Production Function," by Harold Wenglinsky; and "The Development of School Finance Formulas to Guarantee the Provision of Adequate Education to Low-Income Students," by Andrew Reschovsky and Jennifer Imazeki. Users can download the entire publication or articles of their choosing.

  9. The Financing of Innovative Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronwyn H. Hall

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available To what extent are new and/or innovative firms fundamentally different from established firms, and therefore require a different form of financing? The theoretical background for this proposition is presented, and the empirical evidence on its importance is reviewed. Owing to the intangible nature of their investment, asymmetric-information and moral-hazard, these firms are more likely to be financed by equity than debt and behave in some cases as though they are cash-constrained, especially if they are small. Recognizing the role for public policy in this area, many countries have implemented specific policies to bring the cost of financing innovation more in line with the level that would prevail in the absence of market failures.

  10. 48 CFR 32.104 - Providing contract financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Providing contract financing. 32.104 Section...GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Non-Commercial Item...Financing 32.104 Providing contract financing. (a) Prudent...

  11. 48 CFR 32.005 - Consideration for contract financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Consideration for contract financing. 32.005...REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING 32.005 Consideration for contract financing. (a) Requirement...contract, there shall be no separate consideration for the contract financing...

  12. Project finance for renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is intended to provide general advice to sponsors of renewable energy projects who expect to raise project-based financing from commercial banks to fund the development of their projects. It sets out, for the benefit of such sponsors, how bankers typically approach the analysis of these undertakings and in particular the risk areas on which they concentrate. By doing so it should assist sponsors to maximize their prospects of raising bank finance. The watchword for sponsors approaching banks must be ''Be Prepared'' . (author)

  13. Finance and Accounting; a comprehensive introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, Ewoud

    2005-01-01

    Finance and accounting behandelt in een boek de essentiele aspecten van drie disciplines: financieel management, management accounting en financial accounting. Dit maakt Finance and accounting tot een breed en waardevol engelstalig naslagwerk.

  14. Financing Your Small Business: A Workbook for Financing Small Business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Clark W.

    Designed to assist established businesspeople with the development of a loan proposal, this workbook offers information on sources of financing and step-by-step guidance on applying for a loan. After chapter I discusses borrowers' and lenders' attitudes towards money, chapter II offers suggestions for determining financial needs. Chapter III lists…

  15. Fabrication and Optimization of Gelatin/ Nano Bioglass Conduits for Peripheral Nerve Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Foroutan Koudehi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Peripheral nerve injury is common in trauma patients and 4.5% of all soft-tissue injuries are accompanied by defects of peripheral nerve. Peripheral nerve injuries can lead to lifetime loss of function and permanent disfigurement. Designed conduits com-prised of natural and synthetic materials are now widely used in the construction of damaged tissues. The aim of this project was to prepare nanocomposite conduits from gelatin and bioglass for damaged peripheral nerve reconstruction. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study,compound water solution of gelatin and nano bioglass synthesized through sol gel method, was made. After preparing the solution, special mandrels were dipped in solution several times and freeze dried in order to be emptied of wa-ter via sublimation. The conduits had the following dimensions: internal diameter: 1.6 mm, outside diameter: 2.2 mm and length about 12 mm. In order to evaluate the biocompatibility of conduits we used cytotoxicity test by Chinese ovary cells and MTT assay by Miapaca-2 (pancreatic cancer cell line. Results: The prepared nano bioglass and conduits were characterized using transmission elec-tron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Results of biocompatibility test showed no sign of cytotoxicity and cells were found to be attached to the pore walls offered by the conduits. Conclusion: According to the results, nano bioglass conduits could be a good candidate for peripheral nerve regeneration. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2014; 21 (2:152-160

  16. Evolution of karst conduit networks in transition from pressurised flow to free surface flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Perne

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel modelling approach to study the evolution of conduit networks in soluble rocks. Unlike the models presented so far, the model allows a transition from pressurised (pipe flow to a free surface (open channel flow in evolving discrete conduit networks. It calculates flow, solute transport and dissolutional enlargement within each time step and steps through time until a stable flow pattern establishes. The flow in each time step is calculated by calling the EPA Storm Water Management Model (EPA SWMM, which efficiently solves the 1-D Saint Venant equations in a network of conduits. We present several cases with low dip and sub-vertical networks to demonstrate mechanisms of flow pathway selection. In low dip models the inputs were randomly distributed to several junctions. The evolution of pathways progresses upstream: initially pathways linking outlets to the closest inputs evolve fastest because the gradient along these pathways is largest. When a pathway efficiently drains the available recharge, the head drop along the pathway attracts flow from the neighbouring upstream junctions and new connecting pathways evolve. The mechanism progresses from the output boundary inwards until all inputs are connected to the stable flow system. In the pressurised phase, each junction is drained by at least one conduit, but only one conduit remains active in the vadose phase. The selection depends on the initial geometry of a junction, initial distribution of diameters, the evolution in a pressurised regime, and on the dip of the conduits, which plays an important role in vadose entrenchment. In high dip networks, the vadose zone propagates downwards and inwards from the rim of the massif. When a network with randomly distributed initial diameters is supplied with concentrated recharge from the adjacent area, the sink point regresses up upstream along junctions connected to the prominent pathways. Large conductive structures provide deep penetration of high hydraulic head and give rise to high gradients and possible fast evolution of conduit systems deep within the massif.

  17. SUIVI DE LA MIGRATION D’AVALAISON DES ANGUILLES PAR UNE CONDUITE DE DEBIT RESERVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEGAULT A.

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Le suivi de la migration catadrome de l’anguille par une conduite de débit réservé a été réalisé sur le barrage de la retenue de Bois Joli sur le Frémur (dénivelé : 13,7 m ; 3 millions de m3. Une partie des migrateurs utilise cette conduite, au début de la saison de dévalaison quand elle représente la seule voie de transit mais également plus tard, lorsque le barrage déverse et que s’ouvre ainsi une seconde voie de passage. En raison des faibles débits d’alimentation et de l’implantation de l’entrée de la conduite on peut supposer que les anguilles prospectent la retenue pour trouver une voie de transit. L’efficacité de l’équipement, qui s’établit à 12 % de la dévalaison totale, concourt donc pour une part non négligeable au transit des anguilles. La partition des débits entre les différentes voies de migration semblerait essentielle pour définir leur efficacité. Malgré l’aménagement de la conduite, on observe une mortalité de 11 % des anguilles qui l’empruntent. Elle semble essentiellement liée à l’abrasion contre les parois et le papillon de la vanne. Dans de nombreux cas, la mortalité lors du passage dans les conduites de débit réservé doit être très importante, voire totale en raison de leur configuration et de leur mode de gestion. Cette mortalité tend à réduire le nombre des géniteurs produit par le bassin versant. Les anguilles marquées qui ont franchi le barrage grâce à la conduite avant le pic de migration stoppent leur progression en aval. Elles la reprennent quelques semaines plus tard quand le barrage déverse ou l’année suivante. Ce second constat confirme les effets des retenues sur la vitesse de migration. L’utilisation des conduites de débit réservé par les anguilles d’avalaison devrait être prise en compte lors de leur conception et de leur gestion afin de réduire les risques de mortalité.

  18. 12 CFR 987.2 - Law governing rights and obligations of Banks, Finance Board, Office of Finance, United States...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...Law governing rights and obligations of Banks, Finance Board, Office of Finance, United States and Federal Reserve Banks; rights of any Person against Banks, Finance Board, Office of Finance, United States and...

  19. 12 CFR 987.7 - Liability of Banks, Finance Board, Office of Finance and Federal Reserve Banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 false Liability of Banks, Finance Board, Office of Finance and Federal Reserve Banks. 987.7 Section 987.7 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD OFFICE OF FINANCE BOOK-ENTRY...

  20. Investigating degassing dynamics into the shallow conduit through decompression experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spina, Laura; Scheu, Bettina; Cimarelli, Corrado; Dingwell, Donald

    2014-05-01

    The history of bubbles' growth and interaction, as well as their spatial distribution in the shallow conduit, is deeply interconnected with the style of the eruptions. According to the fundamental role played by volatiles in the eruptive process, more effort is required in determining how the key factors of volcanic systems (i.e., magma properties, decompression rate) influence the dynamics of degassing. Therefore, our aim is to provide, through the analysis of decompression experiments on analogue materials, insights on such relations. We performed several decompression experiments with a shock-tube apparatus, and using silicon oil as laboratory-analogue for the magmatic melt. The sample was placed in a transparent autoclave, saturated with Argon for an established amount of time under a fixed pressure (up to a maximum of 10 MPa). Successively it was decompressed to atmospheric conditions, by releasing gas through a control valve. The dynamics of gas exsolution processes were recorded by using pressure sensors and a high speed camera. A range of viscosity values (1, 10, 100, 1000 Pa s) was investigated, for the same decompression path. Furthermore, some experiments were carried out with the addition of glass beads, as analogue to crystals, to the pure liquid. The height of the expanding column was monitored, in conjunction with images recorded during the experiments, and the growth rate of bubbles was measured at different times and depth. Finally, bubble size distribution has been evaluated at various stages for some experiments, in order to achieve a spatial map of the ongoing degassing phenomena. Results allowed us to define different regimes occurring during the decompression, whose features and characteristics are strongly affected by fluid viscosity. Indeed, several degassing phases were observed, from bubbly fluid to the eventual buildup of a more or less "foamy" phase, which ultimately experiences periodical oscillations around an average equilibrium level. Such periodic fluctuations, whose intensity and frequency depend on the experimental conditions, are triggered by bubbles bursting at the surface and mostly promoted by coalescence. Furthermore, an order of magnitude increase in the radial expansion velocity has been observed, as the nucleation front moves downward, during the experiment.

  1. Device and method for measuring multi-phase fluid flow in a conduit having an abrupt gradual bend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Marcos German (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1998-01-01

    A system for measuring fluid flow in a conduit having an abrupt bend. The system includes pressure transducers, one disposed in the conduit at the inside of the bend and one or more disposed in the conduit at the outside of the bend but spaced a distance therefrom. The pressure transducers measure the pressure of fluid in the conduit at the locations of the pressure transducers and this information is used by a computational device to calculate fluid flow rate in the conduit. For multi-phase fluid, the density of the fluid is measured by another pair of pressure transducers, one of which is located in the conduit elevationally above the other. The computation device then uses the density measurement along with the fluid pressure measurements, to calculate fluid flow.

  2. Topological Criteria for $k-$Formal Arrangements

    OpenAIRE

    Tohaneanu, Stefan Ovidiu

    2006-01-01

    We prove a criterion for $k-$formality of arrangements, using a complex constructed from vector spaces introduced in \\cite{bt}. As an application, we give a simple description of $k-$formality of graphic arrangements: Let $G$ be a connected graph with no loops or multiple edges. Let $\\Delta$ be the flag (clique) complex of $G$ and let $H_{\\bullet}(\\Delta)$ be the homology of the chain complex of $\\Delta$. If $\\mathcal A_G$ is the graphic arrangement associated to $G$, we wil...

  3. Apparatus and methods for splicing conduits and hoses subsea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slocum, Alexander Henry; Gutierrez, Luis Javier

    2014-03-11

    A hose connection system comprises a body including an internal cavity and a port in fluid communication with a portion of the internal cavity. In addition, the system comprises a hose end fitting positioned in the cavity. The hose end fitting includes an inner tubular member and an outer tubular member concentrically disposed about the inner tubular member. The outer tubular member includes a plurality of circumferentially spaced axial slits. Further, the system comprises a plurality of wedge members arranged circumferentially about the outer tubular member. Still further, the system comprises an annular piston movably disposed within the internal cavity of the body. An end of the piston has an inner frustoconical surface that slidingly engages the plurality of wedge members. The piston is configured to move axially through the body and compress the wedge members and the outer tubular member radially inward.

  4. Long Term Complications Following Heal Conduit Urinary Diversion after Radical Cystectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the long term complications of ileal conduit urinary diversion in 36 patients with invasive urinary bladder cancer who lived more than 5 years after surgery. Patients and Methods: A retrospective study included 36 long term survivors (survival 5 years or greater) with invasive bladder cancer who did radical cystectomy or anterior pelvic excentration with ileal conduit urinary diversion at the National Cancer Institute, Cairo University before January 2004. Results: A total of 36 patients, 28 Males and 8 females, with median age at surgery of 62 years. Complications developed in 22 (61 %) patients and surgical re-intervention was needed, in 14 patients (39%). Stoma related complications developed in 7 (19%) patients, bowel related complications developed in 4 (11%), urinary tract infection and pyelonephritis was observed in 9 (25%) patients, conduit/ureteral anastomosis related complications developed in 5 (14%) patients, urolithiasis developed in 4 (11%) patients. Renal function deterioration (morphological and functional) was observed in 9 (25%) patients, nephrectomy was required in 2 patients, hemodialysis was required in 1 patient, and 1 patient had persistent hyperchloraemic acidosis. Conclusion: Long term follow-up for patients with ileal conduit urinary diversion shows high complication and high surgical re-intervention rates following this technique. Longer follow-up period for 20 or more years is needed for all urinary diversion techniques to prove either the ileal conduit will remain the gold standard for urinary diversion or other newly developed techniques will take its place

  5. Electrospun polycaprolactone/polylactic acid nanofibers as an artificial nerve conduit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of conduits made of biodegradable nanofibers is gaining substantial interest due to their suitability for nerve regeneration. Among all polymeric nanofibers PCL (Poly-Caprolactone) is distinctively found for mechanical stability and PLLA (Poly (L-Lactic Acid)) for relatively faster biodegradability. The aim of this study is to investigate blending compatibility between PCL and PLLA and the ability to fabricate nanofibers conduits via electro spinning. The PCL-PLLA nano-fiber tubular made from different blend ratios of PCL-PLLA were electro spun. The electro spun nanofibers were continuously deposited over high speed rotating mandrel to fabricate nanofibers conduit having inner diameter of 2mm and the wall thickness of 55-65 m. The diameters of nano-fibers were between 715-860nm. FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared) spectroscopy used to analyze chemical change in the blends of nerve conduits, which revealed that the PCL-PLLA blend nanofiber exhibit characteristic peaks of both PCL and PLLA and was composition dependent. The crystallinity of PCL-PLLA tubes were studied using WAXD (Wide Angle Xray Diffraction). The morphology of nanofibers were investigated under SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope). The mechanical properties of the conduits were also tested; the Young's modulus obtained for small diameter was 10MPa, twice as high as larger diameter. (author)

  6. A novel electrospun nerve conduit enhanced by carbon nanotubes for peripheral nerve regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wenwen; Jiang, Xinquan; Cai, Ming; Zhao, Wen; Ye, Dongxia; Zhou, Yong; Zhu, Chao; Zhang, Xiuli; Lu, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Zhiyuan

    2014-04-01

    For artificial nerve conduits, great improvements have been achieved in mimicking the structures and components of autologous nerves. However, there are still some problems in conduit construction, especially in terms of mechanical properties, biomimetic surface tomography, electrical conductivity and sustained release of neurotrophic factors or cells. In this study, we designed and fabricated a novel electrospun nerve conduit enhanced by multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) on the basis of a collagen/poly(?-caprolactone) (collagen/PCL) fibrous scaffold. Our aim was to provide further knowledge about the mechanical effects and efficacy of MWNTs on nerve conduits as well as the biocompatibility and toxicology of MWNTs when applied in vivo. The results showed that as one component, carboxyl MWNTs could greatly alter the composite scaffold’s hydrophilicity, mechanical properties and degradability. The electrospun fibers enhanced by MWNTs could support Schwann cell adhesion and elongation as a substrate in vitro. In vivo animal studies demonstrated that the MWNT-enhanced collagen/PCL conduit could effectively promote nerve regeneration of sciatic nerve defect in rats and prevent muscle atrophy without invoking body rejection or serious chronic inflammation. All of these results showed that this MWNT-enhanced scaffold possesses good biocompatibility and MWNTs might be excellent candidates as engineered nanocarriers for further neurotrophic factor delivery research.

  7. Valve Technology Arrangement of Cryopump: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjiv Y. Rajput

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A cryopump or a "cryogenic pump" is a vacuum pump that pumps the trap gases and vapours by condensing them on a cold surface. Helium gas which is very light can only be pumped by Cryopump. Cryopump cannot be used when working for continuous operation as it pumps the effluent till the saturation state is achieved. Then the absorbed gases are to be collected through other mechanical pump through regeneration process. Hence, valve technology arrangement is incorporated with the cryopump in order to achieve the continuous pumping when two cryopump are used in alternate processes (i.e. absorption and regeneration. Various design of Valve technology arrangement is proposed by different researcher all over the world. This review paper focuses on the different proposed valve technology arrangement and elaborately explains the various components of valve technology and concludes the best possible arrangement that can be used in Cryopump.

  8. 78 FR 76600 - Proposed Subsequent Arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-18

    ...after start-up, and in which waves that breed and then burn would...Implementing Arrangement, standing wave reactors are covered by the definition of ``traveling wave reactors''. ARTICLE II 1...design, thermal hydraulics, mechanics, and chemistry analysis;...

  9. Monodromy of triple point line arrangements

    OpenAIRE

    Dimca, Alexandru

    2011-01-01

    We show that the monodromy operator action on the first cohomology group of the Milnor fiber is combinatorially determined for line arrangements with at most triple points and containing at most 18 lines, with one possible exception.

  10. Arrangements for RIS at RIKEN ring cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear-laser spectroscopy based on resonace ionization spectroscopy (RIS) is preparing at the RIKEN ring cyclotron facility. Arrangements of laser sources and an atomic-beam chamber for off-line experiments are described. (author)

  11. 60 FR 58621 - Proposed Subsequent Arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-11-28

    ...Subsequent Arrangement AGENCY: Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation Policy, Department...isotope U-235, to the Joint Research Centre of the Commission of the European Communities...and Analysis Division, Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation. [FR Doc....

  12. Economics and health: beyond financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, A

    1988-01-01

    World Bank publications have a large influence on the decisions of governments. This article analyzes the publication "Financing Health Services in Developing Countries: An Agenda for Reform" part of the World Bank Policy Studies series. This study assesses only peripheral reasons for the lack of public and private financial investments in health services. It does not include the result of economic recession, budget cutbacks, and poverty on financing systems. There has been excessive expenditure on luxury in health institutions which takes considerable finances from disease prevention and health promotion services. There is low demand for private services because of the high cost, but public health services sometimes lack tools and money necessary for adequate care. The study does not address the relationship between needs and demand and the supply of health services. It outlines "4 Policy Reforms" in which the aims are to increase to cost of curative services and to use the additional money for prevention. The World Bank favors using private sector services but does not seem to view decentralization of health care as important. Social security systems have been in place in Latin America for 63 years. These systems are funded by wage earners and do not cover lower income rural citizens. Chile was the 1st country to adopt compulsory insurance in 1924 for catastrophes and diseases. The Chilean National Health Service combines institutional and community resources to provide quality health care. Social insurance and other prepayment systems are the rational approaches for financing health care in the Americas. These systems should be based on contributions by the State, employers, and urban and rural workers. There is a need for fund redistribution from institutional curative care to community preventative care. Health care costs should reflect income proportionally. The World Bank contributes vital analysis to the problem of health service financing. Hopefully American governments will recognize the need for health care reform. PMID:3242741

  13. Exchange rate regimes and monetary arrangements

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Ribnikar

    2005-01-01

    There is a close relationship between a country’s exchange rate regime and monetary arrangement and if we are to examine monetary arrangements then exchange rate regimes must first be analysed. Within the conventional and most widely used classification of exchange rate regimes into rigid and flexible or into polar regimes (hard peg and float) on one side, and intermediate regimes on the other there, is a much greater variety among intermediate regimes. A more precise and, as will be seen, ...

  14. Duration of loan arrangement and syndicate organization

    OpenAIRE

    Godlewski, Christophe

    2008-01-01

    What is the influence of syndicate organization on the duration of loan arrangement? I answer this question using the survival analysis methodology on a sample of loans from 59 countries over the 1992-2006 period. I find that syndicate size, concentration, reputation, and national diversity clearly matters for the duration of loan arrangement and therefore for borrower satisfaction regarding the speed of obtaining the necessary funding. A syndicate organization adapted to specific agency prob...

  15. New multiple aperture arrangements for speckle photography

    OpenAIRE

    Angel-toro, Luciano; Tebaldi, Myrian; Trivi, Marcelo; Bolognini, N. Stor

    2000-01-01

    Abstract We propose a multiple exposure specklegram by using an optical system whose multiple aperture pupil changes between exposures. In particular, we analyze experimentally two arrangements and we show that it is possible to store the required information by employing a minimum number of registers if an adequate selection of the pupil is done. We study the effect of the decorrelation (among the stored speckle pattern) introduced by changing the multiple aperture pupil arrangements betw...

  16. The arrangement field theory (AFT). Part 2

    CERN Document Server

    Marin, Diego

    2012-01-01

    In this work we apply the formalism developed in the previous paper ("The arrangement field theory") to describe the content of standard model plus gravity. We discover a triality between Arrangement Field Theory, String Theory and Loop Quantum Gravity which appear as different manifestations of the same theory. Finally we show as three families of fields arise naturally and we discover a new road toward unification of gravity with gauge and matter fields.

  17. Odd Khovanov Homology for Hyperplane Arrangements

    OpenAIRE

    Dancso, Zsuzsanna; Licata, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    We define several homology theories for central hyperplane arrangements, categorifying well-known polynomial invariants including the characteristic polynomial, Poincare polynomial, and Tutte polynomial. We consider basic algebraic properties of such chain complexes, including long-exact sequences associated to deletion-restriction triples and dg-algebra structures. We also consider signed hyperplane arrangements, and generalize the odd Khovanov homology of Ozsvath-Rasmussen...

  18. The Enumerative Geometry of Hyperplane Arrangements

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Thomas; Traves, Will; Wakefield, Max

    2014-01-01

    We study enumerative questions on the moduli space $\\mathcal{M}(L)$ of hyperplane arrangements with a given intersection lattice $L$. Mn\\"ev's universality theorem suggests that these moduli spaces can be arbitrarily complicated; indeed it is even difficult to compute the dimension $D =\\dim \\mathcal{M}(L)$. Embedding $\\mathcal{M}(L)$ in a product of projective spaces, we study the degree $N=\\mathrm{deg} \\mathcal{M}(L)$, which can be interpreted as the number of arrangements ...

  19. Triples of arrangements and local systems

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Daniel C.

    2001-01-01

    For a triple of complex hyperplane arrangements, there is a well-known long exact sequence relating the cohomology of the complements. We observe that this result extends to certain local coefficient systems, and use this extension to study the characteristic varieties of arrangements. We show that the first characteristic variety may contain components that are translated by characters of any order, thereby answering a question of A. Suciu.

  20. Milnor fibers of real line arrangements

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshinaga, Masahiko

    2013-01-01

    We study Milnor fibers of complexified real line arrangements. We give a new algorithm computing monodromy eigenspaces of the first cohomology. The algorithm is based on the description of minimal CW-complexes homotopic to the complements, and uses the real figure, that is, the adjacency relations of chambers. It enables us to generalize a vanishing result of Libgober, give new upper-bounds and characterize the $A_3$-arrangement in terms of non-triviality of Milnor monodromy.

  1. On the welfare effects of credit arrangements

    OpenAIRE

    Chiu, Jonathan; Dong, Mei; Shao, Enchuan

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the welfare effects of different credit arrangements and how these effects depend on the trading mechanism and inflation. In a competitive market, a deviation from the Friedman rule is always sub-optimal. Moreover, credit arrangements can be welfare-reducing, because increased consumption by credit users will drive up the price level so that money users have to reduce consumption when facing a binding liquidity restraint. By adopting an optimal trading mechanism, however, t...

  2. Program CICC flow and heat transfer in cable-in-conduit conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computer program CICC has been written for use in the thermo-fluids design of superconducting magnets for tokamak reactors, which use forced-flow, helium-cooled, cable-in-conduit conductors (CICC). In addition to background heat loads that vary with space and time, these superconductors can develop normal zones that generate electrical resistance heat. Program CICC models the transient thermodynamic and fluid-dynamic system response to background heating and normal-zone propagation in the superconductor. The computational algorithm described in this paper couples a one-dimensional, compressible pipe-flow model (including flow choking) with two-dimensional, axisymmetric heat-conduction models of the superconductor cable, the conduit, and the epoxy-conduit insulation. National Institute of Standards and Technology helium properties are used. The model is verified by comparison with measured temperature and pressure profiles from thermal expulsion experiments. 10 refs., 9 figs

  3. Transverse colon conduit urinary diversion in patients treated with very high dose pelvic irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravi, R.; Dewan, A.K. (Cancer Inst. (WIA), Adyar, Madras (India)); Pandey, K.K. (Safdarjang Hospital, New Delhi (India))

    1994-01-01

    Urinary diversion may be required in patients receiving pelvic irradiation for gynaecological or genitourinary cancers either as part of a planned or salvage surgical procedure or for urological complications of irradiation. Records were reviewed for 30 such patients who underwent transverse colon conduit as a primary form of urinary diversion. Most of the conduits were constructed using refluxing ureterocolic anastomoses with stents. The results showed no operative mortality. Although the procedure was associated with a complication rate of 37% and a re-operation rate of 20%, there were no bowel or urinary anastomotic leaks. The operation could be safely performed on patients with renal failure, with 83% of such patients showing normal or improved serum creatinine levels post operatively. The advantages of transverse colon conduit urinary diversion are the use of non-irradiated bowel and ureters for diversion. It is recommended as a primary form of urinary diversion in these high risk cases. (Author).

  4. Investigation of a Nb-Ti cable-in-conduit conductor: experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A NbTi, Cable-in-conduit sample coil was experimentally investigated by using inductive heat inputs of durations 0.44 and 2.1 msec. Since the original goal of determining the effect of varying conductor perimeter on stability could not be achieved, the stability parameters which were studied and reported include mass flow rate, heating duration, and the presence of liquid helium outside of the conduit versus a surrounding vacuum. In addition, quench-induced pressure rises, both at zero and non-zero imposed flow rates, were measured. Results indicate that stability increases with imposed mass flow, stability increases with heating duration before the limiting current, and helium outside of the conduit has no discernible effect on transient stability. A detailed analysis of these findings will be published in the future. (author)

  5. Biodegradable Conduit Small Gap Tubulization for Peripheral Nerve Mutilation: A Substitute for Traditional Epineurial Neurorrhaphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peixun Zhang, Na Han, Tianbing Wang, Feng Xue, Yuhui Kou, Yanhua Wang, Xiaofeng Yin, Laijin Lu, Guanglei Tian, Xu Gong, Shanlin Chen, Yu Dang, Jianping Peng, Baoguo Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nerve regeneration and re-innervation are usually difficult after peripheral nerve injury. Epineurium neurorrhaphy to recover the nerve continuity is the traditional choice of peripheral nerve mutilation without nerve defects, whereas the functional recovery remains quite unsatisfactory. Based on previous research in SD rats and Rhesus Monkeys, a multiple centers clinical trial about biodegradable conduit small gap tubulization for peripheral nerve mutilation to substitute traditional epineurial neurorrhaphy was carried out. Herein, the authors reviewed the literature that focused on peripheral nerve injury and possible clinical application, and confirmed the clinical possibilities of biodegradable conduit small gap tubulization to substitute traditional epineurial neurorrhaphy for peripheral nerve mutilation. The biodegradable conduit small gap tubulization to substitute traditional epineurial neurorrhaphy for peripheral nerve mutilation may be a revolutionary innovation in peripheral nerve injury and repair field.

  6. Modeling magma flow in volcanic conduit with non-equilibrium crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulia, Tsvetkova

    2010-05-01

    Modeling magma flow in volcanic conduit including with non -equilibrium crystallization There is a set of models of magma flow in volcanic conduits which predicts oscillations in magma discharge during extrusion of lava domes. These models neglect heating of surrounding rocks and use 1D approximation of the flow in the conduit. Here magma flow is investigated with an account of heat exchange between surrounding rocks and magma and different dependences viscosity on temperature and crystal concentration. Stick-slip conditions were applied at the wall. The flow is assumed to be quasi-static and quasi 1D. Only vertical component of velocity vector is present, thus, we do not consider horizontal momentum balance. At the top of the conduit the pressure is assumed to be fixed, chamber pressure changes according with magma influx and outflux. First set of simulation was made for the viscosity that depends on cross-section average crystal concentration and parabolic velocity profile. In earlier models that account for crystal growth kinetics the temperature was allowed to change only due to the release of latent heat of crystallization. Heat transfer leads to cooling of the outer parts of the conduit leading to high crystal contents and high magma viscosities. Changes in viscosity result in changes in discharge rate. For the non-isothermal case there is no motion during most part of the cycle and a portion of magma solidifies at the top of the conduit forming a plug. During repose period chamber pressure is growing due to influx of fresh magma, and magma discharge rate starts to increase. Influx of hot magma into the conduit leads to decrease in friction resulting in a jump in discharge rate that lead to depressurization of magma chamber. Discharge rate decreases and magma solidifies again. For isothermal model with the same parameters discharge rate monotonically tends to the value of Qin. Simulation reveal that crystal content changes significantly across the conduit, and thus viscosity variations across the conduit are large. A more comprehensive model was developed to account for cross-conduit parameter distributions. It shows that velocity profile significantly differ from parabolic especially near the top of the conduit where slip condition s occurs. References 1. A.Barmin, O.Melnik, R.S.J.Sparks, Periodoc behavior in lava dome eruptions, Earth and Planetary Science Letters 199(2002) 173-184 2. P.M.Bruce, H.E.Huppert, Thermal control of basaltic fissure eruptions, 1989, Letters To Nature, VOL 342 3. I.Maeda, Nonlinaer visco-elastic volcanic model and its application to the recent eruption of Mt.Unzen, 2000, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 95, 35-47 4. J.A.Whitehead, K.R.Helfrich, Instability of flow with temperature dependent viscosity: a model of magma dynamics, 1991, Journal of Geophysical Research, VOL 96, No B3, pages 4145-4155 5. A.Costa, G.Macedonio, Nonlinear phenomena in fluids with temperature-dependent viscosity: an hysteresis model for magma flow in conduits, 2002, Geophysical Research Letters, VOL 29, No 10, 1402 6. Richard Iverson Dynamics of Seismogenic Volcanic Extrusion Re¬sisted by a Solid Surface Plug, Mount St. Helens, 2004-2005, A Volcano Rekindled: The First Year of Renewed Eruption at Mount St. Helens, 2004-2006. 7. Couch, S., C. L. Harford, R. S. J. Sparks, and M. R. Carroll (2003),Experimental constraints on the conditions of formation of highly calcic plagioclase microlites at the Soufrie`re Hills Volcano, Montserrat, J. Petrol.,44, 1455- 1475.

  7. Program CICC flow and heat transfer in cable-in-conduit conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, R.L. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA))

    1989-11-20

    Computer program CICC has been written for use in the thermo-fluids design of superconducting magnets for tokamak reactors, which use forced-flow, helium-cooled, cable-in-conduit conductors (CICC). In addition to background heat loads that vary with space and time, these superconductors can develop normal zones that generate electrical resistance heat. Program CICC models the transient thermodynamic and fluid-dynamic system response to background heating and normal-zone propagation in the superconductor. The computational algorithm described in this paper couples a one-dimensional, compressible pipe-flow model (including flow choking) with two-dimensional, axisymmetric heat-conduction models of the superconductor cable, the conduit, and the epoxy-conduit insulation. National Institute of Standards and Technology helium properties are used. The model is verified by comparison with measured temperature and pressure profiles from thermal expulsion experiments. 10 refs., 9 figs.

  8. The Consequences of Entrepreneurial Finance: Evidence from Angel Financings

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, William R.; Lerner, Josh; Schoar, Antoinette

    2011-01-01

    This article documents the fact that ventures funded by two successful angel groups experience superior outcomes to rejected ventures: They have improved survival, exits, employment, patenting, Web traffic, and financing. We use strong discontinuities in angel- funding behavior over small changes in their collective interest levels to implement a regression discontinuity approach. We confirm the positive effects for venture operations, with qualitative support for a higher likelihood of succe...

  9. MRI of the heart following implantation of a left ventricular apico-aortic conduit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate the potential of ECG-triggered MRI for the evaluation of postoperative anatomy and function of the heart and conduit following implantation of a left-ventricular apico-aortic conduit. Materials and Methods: 5 patients (2 female, 3 male, mean age 72.5 years) were examined using a 1.5 Tesla whole-body MRI (Gyroscan Intera, Philips Medical Systems, Best, The Netherlands) following apico-aortic conduit surgery due to severe aortic valve stenosis. The reason for performing conduit implantation instead of aortic valve replacement was the risk of injuring a bypass graft from prior coronary artery bypass surgery. Cine steady-state-free-precession (SSFP) sequences were used to assess ventricular function, navigator-gated 3D-SSFP and breath-hold, time-resolved contrast-enhanced MR angiography was used to display the postoperative anatomy, and 2D-gradient echo sequences with an inversion pulse to suppress the signal of the healthy myocardium were used to evaluate potential myocardial scarring. Flow sensitive gradient echo sequences were performed to determine the blood flow in the conduit. Results: In all patients the apico-aortic conduit proved to be open with a maximum flow velocity of 126 (+ 43) cm/s. The postoperative anatomy was able to be evaluated in all patients and perioperative myocardial infarction was able to be ruled out. The mean ejection fraction of the left ventricle was 44.2 + 6.2 % with a mean volume of 80 + 20.6 ml per heart beat. (origlume of 80 + 20.6 ml per heart beat. (orig.)

  10. The International Finance Corporation and financing of sustainable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The International Finance Corporation (IFC), a member of the World Bank Group, is the largest multilateral source of loan and equity financing for private sector projects in the developing world. IFC participates in an investment only when it can make a special contribution that complements the role of market operators. Since its founding 40 years ago, IFC has provided more than $18.8 billion in financing for 1,706 companies in developing countries. Its share capital is provided by its 170 member countries, which collectively determine its policies and activities. Strong shareholder support and a substantial paid-in capital base have allowed IFC to raise funds for its lending activities through its triple-A rated bond issues in international financial markets. IFC created an Infrastructure Department in 1992 in response to the growing demand for its services in this area. During fiscal 1996 IFC approved 33 projects for new investments of $715 million of which 27% were in the power sector. In recognition of the continuing demand growth for private power investments an expanded Power Department has been formed to handle IFC`s investments in electric power generation projects using renewable resources such as: run-of-the-river hydro, geothermal, biomass cogeneration, wind energy, and solar (photovoltaic, solar thermal, etc.), as well as conventional thermal generation projects, transmission and distribution projects, and energy efficiency investments.

  11. The Bentall procedure with a biological valved conduit: substitute options and techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Eusanio, Marco; Murana, Giacomo; Cefarelli, Mariano; Mazzola, Alessandro; Di Bartolomeo, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    As originally described by Bentall and De Bono, aortic root replacement with reimplantation of the coronary arteries using a composite valved conduit represents the gold standard intervention in patients with aneurysmal disease or dissection involving the aortic root. Over the last decade, the number of Bentall procedures performed using biological valved conduit has dramatically expanded mainly due to the increased incidence of aortic disease in the aging population. Here, we sought to describe the commercially available biological composite grafts and the techniques that, to the best of our knowledge, are most frequently used in this setting. PMID:24925908

  12. Small scale high resolution LiDAR measurements of a subglacial conduit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankoff, K. D.; Gulley, J.

    2012-04-01

    We present direct measurements of surface roughness in a sub-glacial conduit system underneath the Rieperbreen Glacier, Svalbard, Norway. Data was collected with a low-cost (129 USD) Microsoft Kinect video game device used as a LIDAR sensor. Surface roughness is a primary control on water flow in rivers, channels, and cave conduit systems and understanding the effects of surface roughness on water flow has been problematic due to lack of direct measurements of roughness in natural systems. We use the ice scallop dimensions to derive flow velocity and explore implications of the changing roughness parameters as the cave grows and shrinks.

  13. Retrograde exchange of heavily encrusted ureteric stents via the ileal conduit: a technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe two cases of retrograde ureteric stent exchange of heavily encrusted ureteric stents (JJ) via tortuous ileal conduits. The blocked ureteric stents were snared from inside the conduit so they could be accessed and a wire inserted. The lumens of the stents were unblocked with a wire but the stents could not be withdrawn due to heavy encrustation of the ureteric stent in the renal pelvis. A stiff wire was inserted to provide support and a 9 French peel away sheath was used to remove the encrustations allowing the stents to be withdrawn and exchanged. This is a safe and successful technique allowing ureteric stents to be removed when heavily encrusted.

  14. A model of the demand for Islamic banks debt-based financing instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusoh, Mansor; Khalid, Norlin

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents a theoretical analysis of the demand for debt-based financing instruments of the Islamic banks. Debt-based financing, such as through baibithamanajil and al-murabahah, is by far the most prominent of the Islamic bank financing and yet it has been largely ignored in Islamic economics literature. Most studies instead have been focusing on equity-based financing of al-mudharabah and al-musyarakah. Islamic bank offers debt-based financing through various instruments derived under the principle of exchange (ukud al-mu'awadhat) or more specifically, the contract of deferred sale. Under such arrangement, Islamic debt is created when goods are purchased and the payments are deferred. Thus, unlike debt of the conventional bank which is a form of financial loan contract to facilitate demand for liquid assets, this Islamic debt is created in response to the demand to purchase goods by deferred payment. In this paper we set an analytical framework that is based on an infinitely lived representative agent model (ILRA model) to analyze the demand for goods to be purchased by deferred payment. The resulting demand will then be used to derive the demand for Islamic debt. We also investigate theoretically, factors that may have an impact on the demand for Islamic debt.

  15. Wind Levelized Cost of Energy: A Comparison of Technical and Financing Input Variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cory, K.; Schwabe, P.

    2009-10-01

    The expansion of wind power capacity in the United States has increased the demand for project development capital. In response, innovative approaches to financing wind projects have emerged and are proliferating in the U.S. renewable energy marketplace. Wind power developers and financiers have become more efficient and creative in structuring their financial relationships, and often tailor them to different investor types and objectives. As a result, two similar projects may use very different cash flows and financing arrangements, which can significantly vary the economic competitiveness of wind projects. This report assesses the relative impact of numerous financing, technical, and operating variables on the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) associated with a wind project under various financing structures in the U.S. marketplace. Under this analysis, the impacts of several financial and technical variables on the cost of wind electricity generation are first examined individually to better understand the relative importance of each. Then, analysts examine a low-cost and a high-cost financing scenario, where multiple variables are modified simultaneously. Lastly, the analysis also considers the impact of a suite of financial variables versus a suite of technical variables.

  16. Health-financing reforms in southeast Asia: challenges in achieving universal coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangcharoensathien, Viroj; Patcharanarumol, Walaiporn; Ir, Por; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed; Mukti, Ali Ghufron; Akkhavong, Kongsap; Banzon, Eduardo; Huong, Dang Boi; Thabrany, Hasbullah; Mills, Anne

    2011-03-01

    In this sixth paper of the Series, we review health-financing reforms in seven countries in southeast Asia that have sought to reduce dependence on out-of-pocket payments, increase pooled health finance, and expand service use as steps towards universal coverage. Laos and Cambodia, both resource-poor countries, have mostly relied on donor-supported health equity funds to reach the poor, and reliable funding and appropriate identification of the eligible poor are two major challenges for nationwide expansion. For Thailand, the Philippines, Indonesia, and Vietnam, social health insurance financed by payroll tax is commonly used for formal sector employees (excluding Malaysia), with varying outcomes in terms of financial protection. Alternative payment methods have different implications for provider behaviour and financial protection. Two alternative approaches for financial protection of the non-poor outside the formal sector have emerged-contributory arrangements and tax-financed schemes-with different abilities to achieve high population coverage rapidly. Fiscal space and mobilisation of payroll contributions are both important in accelerating financial protection. Expanding coverage of good-quality services and ensuring adequate human resources are also important to achieve universal coverage. As health-financing reform is complex, institutional capacity to generate evidence and inform policy is essential and should be strengthened. PMID:21269682

  17. On the Construction of “Sunny Finance” Frame in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Xu

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available “Sunny finance” is an inevitable requirement of public finance. Its essence is lawful financing, scientific financing, and democratic financing. China has already gained lots of valuable experiences in the construction of “sunny finance”. However, it deserves deepening researches on how to construct the frame of “sunny finance” and make it be systematic and institutional. In this paper, the author discusses this issue.

  18. Derivatives in energy project finance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter focuses on risk management of merchant power generation projects and describes project finance as balancing risk and reward over time. The historical background to risk management is traced, and the case for derivatives in energy project finance is put forward with the hedging of forward output, and forwards and power purchase agreements discussed. Current and prospective usage, and the implementation issues of market liquidity, margin calls, letters of credit, derivative counterparty credit risk, and accounting policy are considered. A detailed example of a gas-fired plant in the US is presented with details given of the distribution of project earnings before tax. Oil field operating cashflows are examined, with reserved flow models, leverage effects, and price hedging addressed

  19. 46 CFR 199.155 - Lifeboat launching and recovery arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...false Lifeboat launching and recovery arrangements. 199.155 Section 199.155...CONTINUED) LIFESAVING APPLIANCES AND ARRANGEMENTS LIFESAVING SYSTEMS FOR CERTAIN INSPECTED...155 Lifeboat launching and recovery arrangements. Lifeboat launching and...

  20. 45 CFR 303.107 - Requirements for cooperative arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...false Requirements for cooperative arrangements. 303.107 Section 303.107...107 Requirements for cooperative arrangements. The State must ensure that all cooperative arrangements: (a) Contain a clear...

  1. 46 CFR 180.150 - Survival craft embarkation arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Survival craft embarkation arrangements. 180.150 Section 180.150 Shipping...100 GROSS TONS) LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Survival Craft Arrangements and Equipment § 180.150 Survival...

  2. 46 CFR 70.28-1 - Lifesaving appliances and arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... false Lifesaving appliances and arrangements. 70.28-1 Section 70.28-1...PROVISIONS Lifesaving Appliances and Arrangements § 70.28-1 Lifesaving appliances and arrangements. All lifesaving appliances...

  3. 39 CFR 255.7 - Special arrangements for postal services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 false Special arrangements for postal services. 255.7 Section...INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY § 255.7 Special arrangements for postal services. Members...under postal regulations for special arrangements. Some of the special...

  4. 46 CFR 195.06-1 - Lifesaving appliances and arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... false Lifesaving appliances and arrangements. 195.06-1 Section 195.06-1...EQUIPMENT Lifesaving Appliances and Arrangements § 195.06-1 Lifesaving appliances and arrangements. All lifesaving appliances...

  5. 46 CFR 188.27-1 - Lifesaving appliances and arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... false Lifesaving appliances and arrangements. 188.27-1 Section 188.27-1...PROVISIONS Lifesaving Appliances and Arrangements § 188.27-1 Lifesaving appliances and arrangements. All lifesaving appliances...

  6. 46 CFR 90.27-1 - Lifesaving appliances and arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... false Lifesaving appliances and arrangements. 90.27-1 Section 90.27-1...PROVISIONS Lifesaving Appliances and Arrangements § 90.27-1 Lifesaving appliances and arrangements. All lifesaving appliances...

  7. 27 CFR 8.23 - Third party arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Third party arrangements. 8.23 Section 8.23 Alcohol...Practices § 8.23 Third party arrangements. Industry member requirements...covered whether the agreement or other arrangement originates with the industry...

  8. Application of finance project for leverage of small size hydroelectric enterprising; Aplicacao do project finance para alavancagem de empreendimentos hidreletricos de pequeno porte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Silvana dos

    2003-07-01

    In the same way that the majority of the countries, project financing of substructure in Brazil, in project finance modality, depend on a skillful structure of guaranties and contracts to become possible. In the case of projects of centrals of generation of electrical energy, that financial engineering becomes still more complicated. In Brazil, due to particularities of the sectors of electricity, the arrangements of guaranties requested but creditors pass to present levels of complexity and exigency well elevated. The contractual appliances that give support to the project finance, originally projected to developed countries, request an extreme adaptation to these particularities. The development of Brazil is directly related to its capacity in expanding the offer of electric energy in the just measure of the national necessity. In this context, the small central hydroelectric (PCH's) represent, actually, an efficient and fast form to complete the offer of energy in such a way to supply the crescent demand the national market. For its characteristics, that type of undertaking can be developed by small manager, from among which are the owners of the areas in which on can find these hydraulic potentials which, however they do not dispose of capital to integral raising. These undertakings are tasks, normally, of low global cost, at the rate of US$ 1.000,00/k W, and of a smaller ambient impact, compared to the return that they give to the enterprise and to the Brazilian electric system as a whole, by having to receive special attention in the planned politics to the sector and to merit a series of incentives to become business still more attractive. By thinking in the found difficulty by small enterprises in rising undertakings of generation of electric energy of small port through the convectional mechanisms of financing is being proposed in that work a well-founded methodology in the concepts of the modality of financing project finance. (author)

  9. Boat electrofishing relative to anode arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, L.E.; Kratochvil, M.

    2008-01-01

    We assessed the effect of boom (i.e., anode) arrangement (a single boom and double booms spaced 1.3, 1.9, and 3.2 m apart) on the characteristics of the electric field formed ahead of an electrofishing boat as well as on fish catch. Anode arrangement affected the lengthwise and crosswise characteristics of the field. As a general rule, rearranging the anodes from a single boom located centrally to a double-boom system with broadly separated anodes shifted the strength of the field outward (away from the center) and forward (away from the boat). The highest voltage gradients occurred when the anodes had the greatest separation. Catch rates varied by boom arrangement, increasing as boom separation increased. Differences in species and length selectivity with respect to boom arrangement were minor. We suggest that the double-boom arrangement with the booms placed about 1.9 m apart (but no more than about 2.5 m) is suitable for most electrofishing applications. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  10. Effectiveness of community health financing in meeting the cost of illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preker Alexander S.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available How to finance and provide health care for the more than 1.3 billion rural poor and informal sector workers in low- and middle-income countries is one of the greatest challenges facing the international development community. This article presents the main findings from an extensive survey of the literature of community financing arrangements, and selected experiences from the Asia and Africa regions. Most community financing schemes have evolved in the context of severe economic constraints, political instability, and lack of good governance. Micro-level household data analysis indicates that community financing improves access by rural and informal sector workers to needed heath care and provides them with some financial protection against the cost of illness. Macro-level cross-country analysis gives empirical support to the hypothesis that risk-sharing in health financing matters in terms of its impact on both the level and distribution of health, financial fairness and responsiveness indicators. The background research done for this article points to five key policies available to governments to improve the effectiveness and sustainability of existing community financing schemes. This includes: (a increased and well-targeted subsidies to pay for the premiums of low-income populations; (b insurance to protect against expenditure fluctuations and re-insurance to enlarge the effective size of small risk pools; (c effective prevention and case management techniques to limit expenditure fluctuations; (d technical support to strengthen the management capacity of local schemes; and (e establishment and strengthening of links with the formal financing and provider networks.

  11. Risk Measures in Quantitative Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Mitra, Sovan

    2009-01-01

    This paper was presented and written for two seminars: a national UK University Risk Conference and a Risk Management industry workshop. The target audience is therefore a cross section of Academics and industry professionals. The current ongoing global credit crunch has highlighted the importance of risk measurement in Finance to companies and regulators alike. Despite risk measurement's central importance to risk management, few papers exist reviewing them or following t...

  12. Behavioral Finance : The Student Investor

    OpenAIRE

    Sairafi, Kamran; Selleby, Karl; Sta?hl, Thom

    2008-01-01

    Bachelor thesis within Business Administration Title: Behavioral Finance – The Student Perspective Authors: Kamran Sairafi, Karl Selleby, Thom Ståhl Tutor: Urban Österlund Date: 2008-05-30 Background: History is full of examples on how humans can create investment bubbles through speculation; from the Dutch tulip mania to the Dot Com bubble humans have proven to be capable of creating economical chaos. Classical economical theories hold the assumption that individuals act rationally regar...

  13. The Dynamics of External Financing

    OpenAIRE

    Jansson, Joakim

    2000-01-01

    A dynamic process underlying firms' discrete financial choices has previously been found, but without controlling for unobserved heterogeneity, this dependence can either be of a true nature or an effect of firm-specific characteristics that we cannot observe. This study extends previous research focusing on firms' discrete external financing decision by adapting a model by Honoré and Kyriazidou (2000), which accommodates both fixed effects and a lagged dependent variable, which makes it pos...

  14. Essays in Finance and Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Kolev, Julian

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation consists of three essays on Finance and Innovation. The ?rst essay argues that openness of research inputs can enable greater exploration of new research lines, particularly by academic researchers. We test this hypothesis by examining a natural experiment: NIH agreements that reduced the access costs imposed on academics regarding certain genetically engineered mice. We ?nd that increased openness encourages the exploration of more diverse research paths, and does not r...

  15. Margin Call in Islamic Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmet Suayb Gundogdu

    2014-01-01

    Murabaha, the most popular Islamic finance contract, has been subject of many studies. In its simplest form it is buying and selling with profit and has two forms: Asset based and Asset backed. Upto now, there are many studies on asset based Murabaha sale, which consist of buying a product and selling, transferring ownership, to loan seeker simultaneously in exchange of debt obligation. With this structure asset based Murabaha has been subject of much criticism. This article introduces the co...

  16. Factoring: Alternative model of financing

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanovic, Sasa; Baresa, Suzana; Sinisa, Bogdan

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to present factoring as an alternative funding model. This paper also tries to scientifically explore and emphasize its economic role thorough advantages and disadvantages of such financing model, and show condition in world and Croatia. Good corporate governance and professional financial management can contribute to the establishment of such business strategy (in terms of: strategy in relation to potential risks, the systems for managing risks and monitoring, investment stra...

  17. Three Essays in Pension Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Z.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the three major participants in pension finance, namely, pension funds, individuals, and sponsoring companies. In the light of the fragile financial market performance, prudential regulatory rules, including Value-at-Risk (VaR) constraints, are imposed widely all over the world. The purpose of these regulations is to reduce the risk of pension funds and protect pension fund participants. However, the regulatory horizon is usually much shorter than the institutional inve...

  18. Margin Call in Islamic Finance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Suayb Gundogdu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Murabaha, the most popular Islamic finance contract, has been subject of many studies. In its simplest form it is buying and selling with profit and has two forms: Asset based and Asset backed. Upto now, there are many studies on asset based Murabaha sale, which consist of buying a product and selling, transferring ownership, to loan seeker simultaneously in exchange of debt obligation. With this structure asset based Murabaha has been subject of much criticism. This article introduces the concept of asset backed Murabaha sale, by which financier holds the title of product until final sale to loan seeker, from a case of sugar structured trade commodity financing. In addition to discussion of general risk issues, special focus on commodity price risk management: margin calculation and margin call methods proposed so that Islamic finance industry can manage asset backed Murabaha contract without recourse to additional security of bank guarantee, mortgages, etc. or disallowed, by Islam, derivative based commodity price hedging products.

  19. Issues to improve the prospects of financing nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A changing global environment with increasing energy consumption and a need for international energy security is influencing nuclear power projects and the means of obtaining financial backing for such projects. The development of a national nuclear infrastructure can provide significant benefits that influence financial resources. The effects of other factors - such as financing arrangements for capital intensive plants, international design acceptance, harmonization of codes and standards, and assurances of fuel cycle services - need to be considered. An improvement in international cooperation may lower investment risks and contribute to reducing costs. The effects of all these issues need to be assessed and means for supporting the application of nuclear power in the current changing social and commercial environment need to be developed. A key question addressed in this publication is whether financing is the real barrier to nuclear power development or if financing difficulties are simply a consequence of other barriers. It recognizes that there is no single solution and that circumstances in different countries, with different starting points, ambitions and drivers, inevitably affect the balance of approaches followed. The importance of credible, practical, costed and substantiated plans is emphasized. Risks have to be mitigated through an effective strategy and the allocation of risks between parties must be logical. A project has to be demonstrably viable to project has to be demonstrably viable to attract financing. There are three broad areas which must be addressed to improve prospects of investment in nuclear power reactor construction. The first area, and probably the most important, is government and utility commitment and preparedness to adopt and implement a nuclear power programme using internationally recognized standards of safety. The second area is the application of lessons learned from technological and project developments. The third area is financing itself. The conclusions detailed in this publication are presented as a series of key mechanisms for improvement in each of these areas. Improving prospects for investment in the nuclear industry is, in large part, achieved by a combination of financial and strategic planning measures, which together create sufficient confidence among investors to support projects. Also, there are a number of wider actions that can be undertaken to improve the prospects for investment in nuclear power. These mechanisms and actions are presented for future consideration of how they may be best developed or adopted

  20. Exchange rate regimes and monetary arrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Ribnikar

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a close relationship between a country’s exchange rate regime and monetary arrangement and if we are to examine monetary arrangements then exchange rate regimes must first be analysed. Within the conventional and most widely used classification of exchange rate regimes into rigid and flexible or into polar regimes (hard peg and float on one side, and intermediate regimes on the other there, is a much greater variety among intermediate regimes. A more precise and, as will be seen, more useful classification of exchange rate regimes is the first topic of the paper. The second topic is how exchange rate regimes influence or determine monetary arrangements and monetary policy or monetary policy regimes: monetary autonomy versus monetary nonautonomy and discretion in monetary policy versus commitment in monetary policy. Both topics are important for countries on their path to the EU and the euro area

  1. The freeness of Shi-Catalan arrangements

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, Takuro

    2010-01-01

    Let $W$ be a finite Weyl group and $\\A$ be the corresponding Weyl arrangement. A deformation of $\\A$ is an affine arrangement which is obtained by adding to each hyperplane $H\\in\\A$ several parallel translations of $H$ by the positive root (and its integer multiples) perpendicular to $H$. We say that a deformation is $W$-equivariant if the number of parallel hyperplanes of each hyperplane $H\\in \\A$ depends only on the $W$-orbit of $H$. We prove that the conings of the $W$-equivariant deformations are free arrangements under a Shi-Catalan condition and give a formula for the number of chambers. This generalizes Yoshinaga's theorem conjectured by Edelman-Reiner.

  2. Functions of random walks on hyperplane arrangements

    CERN Document Server

    Athanasiadis, Christos A

    2009-01-01

    Many seemingly disparate Markov chains are unified when viewed as random walks on the set of chambers of a hyperplane arrangement. These include the Tsetlin library of theoretical computer science and various shuffling schemes. If only selected features of the chains are of interest, then the mixing times may change. We study the behavior of hyperplane walks, viewed on a subarrangement of a hyperplane arrangement. These include many new examples, for instance a random walk on the set of acyclic orientations of a graph. All such walks can be treated in a uniform fashion, yielding diagonalizable matrices with known eigenvalues, stationary distribution and good rates of convergence to stationarity.

  3. Partial normalizations of Coxeter arrangements and discriminants

    CERN Document Server

    Granger, Michel; Schulze, Mathias

    2011-01-01

    We study natural partial normalization spaces of Coxeter arrangements and discriminants and relate their geometry to representation theory. The underlying ring structures arise from Dubrovin's Frobenius manifold structure which is lifted (without unit) to the space of the arrangement. We also describe an independent approach to these structures via duality of maximal Cohen-Macaulay fractional ideals. In the process, we find 3rd order differential relations for the basic invariants of the Coxeter group. Finally, we show that our partial normalizations give rise to new free divisors.

  4. The Monodromy Conjecture for hyperplane arrangements

    CERN Document Server

    Budur, Nero; Teitler, Zach

    2009-01-01

    The Monodromy Conjecture asserts that if c is a pole of the local topological zeta function of a hypersurface, then exp(2\\pi c) is an eigenvalue of the monodromy on the cohomology of the Milnor fiber. A stronger version of the conjecture asserts that every pole is a root of the Bernstein-Sato polynomial of the hypersurface. In this note we prove the weak version of the conjecture for hyperplane arrangements. Furthermore, we reduce the strong version to the following conjecture: -n/d is always a root of the Bernstein-Sato polynomial of an indecomposable essential central hyperplane arrangement of d hyperplanes in the affine n-space.

  5. Dense arrangements are locally very dense I

    OpenAIRE

    Solymosi, Jozsef

    2005-01-01

    The Szemer\\'edi-Trotter theorem gives a bound on the maximum number of incidences between points and lines on the Euclidean plane. In particular it says that $n$ lines and $n$ points determine $O(n^{4/3})$ incidences. Let us suppose that an arrangement of $n$ lines and $n$ points defines $cn^{4/3}$ incidences, for a given positive $c.$ It is widely believed that such arrangements have special structure, but no results are known in this direction. Here we show that for any na...

  6. Cooling arrangement for a gas turbine component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ching-Pang; Heneveld, Benjamin E

    2015-02-10

    A cooling arrangement (82) for a gas turbine engine component, the cooling arrangement (82) having a plurality of rows (92, 94, 96) of airfoils (98), wherein adjacent airfoils (98) within a row (92, 94, 96) define segments (110, 130, 140) of cooling channels (90), and wherein outlets (114, 134) of the segments (110, 130) in one row (92, 94) align aerodynamically with inlets (132, 142) of segments (130, 140) in an adjacent row (94, 96) to define continuous cooling channels (90) with non continuous walls (116, 120), each cooling channel (90) comprising a serpentine shape.

  7. Jean Vigo's "Zéro De Conduite" and the Spaces of Revolt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanobbergen, Bruno; Grosvenor, Ian; Simon, Frank

    2014-01-01

    In this article we will contribute to the contemporary theoretical debate about film by considering, from a history-of-education perspective, the film "Zéro de conduite" by Jean Vigo (1905--1934). This film is classified under the umbrella of "poetic realism": a product of "cinéma de gauche" and an avant-gardist,…

  8. Percutaneous transthoracic computed tomography-guided AICD insertion in a patient with extracardiac Fontan conduit.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Darra T

    2011-02-01

    Percutaneous pulmonary venous atrial puncture was performed under computed tomography guidance to successfully place an automated implantable cardiac defibrillator into a 26-year-old patient with extracardiac Fontan conduit who had presented with two out-of-hospital cardiac arrests. The procedure avoided the need for lead placement at thoracotomy.

  9. Fibreoptic intubation using three airway conduits in a manikin: the effect of operator experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodzovic, I; Petterson, J; Wilkes, A R; Latto, I P

    2007-06-01

    In a randomised cross-over study, 72 anaesthetists (24 Senior House Officers, 24 Specialist Registrars and 24 Consultants) attempted to place a fibreoptic scope in the trachea of a manikin using three airway conduits: the Berman airway, the LMA Classic(trade mark) and the intubating laryngeal mask airway. The time for insertion of the airway conduit, delivery of two breaths and fibreoptic scope placement in the trachea was the primary endpoint. These overall times were significantly shorter (median [interquartile range]) using the LMA Classic (36 [28-45]) than via the intubating laryngeal mask (54 [42-79]) and the Berman airway (45 [33-80]), p < 0.0001. Senior House Officers were significantly slower than both Specialist Registrars and Consultants (p < 0.0001). The LMA Classic was considered to be the easiest conduit to use for fibreoptic scope placement by all grades of anaesthetists. We conclude that the LMA Classic is the most effective conduit for fibreoptic scope placement especially for anaesthetists with limited experience in its use. PMID:17506738

  10. The Conduit and Whirlpooling: A New Theory of Knowledge Constitution and Dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nzegwu, Azuka

    2010-01-01

    There is a new epistemological approach for exploring knowledge constitution and dispersal in a dynamic Web ecosystem. The approach has three pivots. The first presents virtual whirlpools as knowledge systems. The second introduces the creator of the system as the Conduit. The third formulates a theory of knowledge that involves the collective…

  11. 3D bioprinting of heterogeneous aortic valve conduits with alginate/gelatin hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Bin; Hockaday, Laura A; Kang, Kevin H; Butcher, Jonathan T

    2013-05-01

    Heart valve disease is a serious and growing public health problem for which prosthetic replacement is most commonly indicated. Current prosthetic devices are inadequate for younger adults and growing children. Tissue engineered living aortic valve conduits have potential for remodeling, regeneration, and growth, but fabricating natural anatomical complexity with cellular heterogeneity remain challenging. In the current study, we implement 3D bioprinting to fabricate living alginate/gelatin hydrogel valve conduits with anatomical architecture and direct incorporation of dual cell types in a regionally constrained manner. Encapsulated aortic root sinus smooth muscle cells (SMC) and aortic valve leaflet interstitial cells (VIC) were viable within alginate/gelatin hydrogel discs over 7 days in culture. Acellular 3D printed hydrogels exhibited reduced modulus, ultimate strength, and peak strain reducing slightly over 7-day culture, while the tensile biomechanics of cell-laden hydrogels were maintained. Aortic valve conduits were successfully bioprinted with direct encapsulation of SMC in the valve root and VIC in the leaflets. Both cell types were viable (81.4 ± 3.4% for SMC and 83.2 ± 4.0% for VIC) within 3D printed tissues. Encapsulated SMC expressed elevated alpha-smooth muscle actin, while VIC expressed elevated vimentin. These results demonstrate that anatomically complex, heterogeneously encapsulated aortic valve hydrogel conduits can be fabricated with 3D bioprinting. PMID:23015540

  12. New directions in electric power financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper argues that it is necessary to raise the eyes from the current focus on independent power projects, buttressed by guarantees, to the longer horizon of electric power financing in open markets. Transitional strategies will need to move beyond the commonly seen IPP activity that occurs without fundamental sector reform, and demand-side incentives that introduce further market distortions. These efforts will have to focus on macroeconomic stabilization, removal of price distortions, as well as sector and corporate reform. Mobilization of domestic capital will be essential for sustainable sector financing. Although guarantees to encourage power sector investment can be designed to selectively cover risks, their elimination through fundamental sector reform should be the ultimate goal. Over the longer-term traditional corporate finance should become a more common financing strategy than project finance. Innovations in performance risk management and consumer credit will be crucial to the financing of energy efficiency. (author)

  13. Financing of nuclear projects. Lessons from a recent experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advantages of mandating BNP Paribas as a lead bank and arranger for NPP Belene are presented. BNPP has an excellent record and credentials in Nuclear Power Plant Projects internationally and in the local energy sector and very recent experience as a lead bank for the fifth nuclear power plant in Finland. BNPP has a proven track record as Provider of rapid and efficient ECA financing in terms of: managing in parallel the number of ECA contractual relations, so as to provide 'matching opportunities' between the ECAs and leverage to improve their terms and conditions, and to harmonize them in one set of unified legal documentation. There is no cost to the Government of Bulgaria until the signing of the Facility Documentation

  14. Does too much finance harm economic growth?

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Nirvikar; Law, Siong Hook

    2013-01-01

    This study provides new evidence on the relationship between finance and economic growth using an innovative dynamic panel threshold technique. The sample consists of 87 developed and developing countries. The empirical results indicate that there is a threshold effect in the finance-growth relationship. In particular, we find that the level of financial development is beneficial to growth only up to a certain threshold; beyond the threshold level further development of finance tends to adver...

  15. Finance strategies of Finnish entrepreneurial fashion companies

    OpenAIRE

    Hasi, Linda

    2013-01-01

    The intention of this study is to describe and explain how internationally focused, Finnish entrepreneurial fashion companies are financed. Fashion industry has been recognized as a viable industry in Finland, but it seems that these businesses suffer from lack of financing. Thus, many of the firms fail to expand to international markets, which is crucial for their future survival. The objective of this study is to understand how these fashion companies are financed from start-up until today,...

  16. Islamic Finance and Globalization: A Convergence?

    OpenAIRE

    Mirakhor, Abbas

    2007-01-01

    Islamic finance—understood as achieving maximum risk sharing—diversifies risk and allows it to be shared widely. Implications that follow are: (i) a close relationship between finance and real economic activities and (ii) the rate of return to finance determined by the rate of return to real economic activities rather than the reverse. This system’s full operation leads to financial stability, growth of income and employment, and, as a result, reduction in poverty. To obtain these resul...

  17. Corporate finance in an interest free economy: An alternate approach to practiced Islamic Corporate Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Shaikh, Salman

    2009-01-01

    This paper suggests an alternate approach to corporate finance in an interest free economy by looking beyond practiced Islamic finance and suggesting alternatives for corporate finance in sourcing funds i.e. i) Ijara with embedded options, ii) limited liability partnership, iii) equity modes like Musharakah and Mudarabah iv) income bonds and v) convertible income bonds. It also suggests alternatives for corporate finance in using funds i.e. i) Islamic income funds, ii) Islamic REITs, iii) Tre...

  18. Fabrication of Off-the-Shelf Multilumen Poly(Ethylene Glycol) Nerve Guidance Conduits Using Stereolithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcaute, Karina; Mann, Brenda K; Wicker, Ryan B

    2011-01-01

    A manufacturing process for fabricating off-the-shelf multilumen poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based nerve guidance conduits (NGCs) was developed that included the use of stereolithography (SL). A rapid fabrication strategy for complex 3D scaffolds incorporated postprocessing with lyophilization and sterilization to preserve the scaffold, creating an implantable product with improved suturability. SL is easily adaptable to changes in scaffold design, is compatible with various materials and cells, and can be expanded for mass manufacture. The fabricated conduits were characterized using optical and scanning electron microscopy, and measurements of swelling ratio, dimensional swelling factor, resistance to compression, and coefficient of friction were performed. Water absorption curves showed that the conduits after lyophilization and sterilization return easily and rapidly to a swollen state when placed in an aqueous solution, successfully maintaining their original overall structure as required for implantation. Postprocessed conduits at the swollen state were less slippery and therefore easier to handle than those without postprocessing. Suture pullout experiments showed that NGCs fabricated with a higher concentration of PEG were better able to resist suture pullout. NGCs having a multilumen design demonstrated a better resistance to compression than a single-lumen design with an equivalent surface area, as well as a greater force required to collapse the design. Conduits fabricated with a higher PEG concentration were shown to have compressive resistances comparable to those of commercially available NGCs. The use of SL with PEG and the manufacturing process developed here shows promise for improving the current state of the art in peripheral nerve repair strategies. PMID:20673135

  19. Financing higher education and labor mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Demange, Gabrielle; Fenge, Robert; Uebelmesser, Silke

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes how mobility of post-graduate skilled workers and students across different countries affects the quality level of higher education and the way education is financed. We start by examining a closed economy. In the presence of imperfect credit markets the education level with pure fee-financing is lower than the optimal level. If the credit market imperfections are not too large, a mix of tax- and fee-financing is optimal. The reason for this is that with pure fee-financing...

  20. Mortgage Finance and Security of Collateral

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haldrup, Karin

    2011-01-01

    Developing economies face a gigantic lack of financing for urbanization due to the absence of formal and transparent property markets. The paper discuss the interference between mortgage finance and collateral security by using the Danish mortgage financing model as an example, because of its 200 years long history, and because the system is recommended as an option in emerging markets and as a possible model for remedying failures in mature housing finance markets. It is suggested that development policies in land administration need to be revised in order to support a widening of credit markets and effectively serve pro-poor policies.

  1. The financing of new mining ventures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various options are presented for tackling the problem in mining today of the high capital costs required for a new mine combined with the front end exposure that the exploiters face. Equity finance from the producers, private investors, oil companies, consumers and governments is discussed as well as loan finance from export credit agencies, international agencies, production-related loans, leasing and commercial bank loans. The future in financing mining is outlined and it is proposed that the future will lie in smaller projects financed primarily with equity. (U.K.)

  2. Right ventricle to pulmonary artery conduit reoperations in patients with tetralogy of fallot or pulmonary atresia associated with ventricular septal defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Kevin; Boone, Robert; Gao, Min; Carere, Ron; Webb, John; Kiess, Marla; Grewal, Jasmine

    2013-06-01

    The short lifespan of right ventricle-to-pulmonary artery (RV-PA) conduits used in repairs of complex congenital heart defects makes future surgical replacement inevitable. Percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation (PPVI) now offers an attractive alternative to surgery in some patients. The objectives of this study were to examine the pattern of conduit reoperations, the factors affecting conduit longevity, and to discuss the role of PPVI in these patients. Forty-nine patients (mean age 27 ± 8 years) with pulmonary atresia or pulmonary stenosis with tetralogy of Fallot who underwent surgery for RV-PA conduits from September 1974 to October 2011 were reviewed. A total of 106 RV-PA conduits were implanted, 57 of which were replacements. Second, third, and fourth conduits were required during the follow-up period in 39, 16, and 2 patients, respectively. Freedom from reoperation at 10 years for the first, second, and third conduits was 50%, 74%, and 86%, respectively. Significant independent predictors of shorter conduit longevity included smaller conduit and conduit type (homograft and other vs Dacron). Furthermore, a significant proportion (32 of 57 [56%]) of conduit replacements took place from ages 9 to 18 years. There were 37 adults whose current existing conduits had not yet failed, with 73% (27 of 37) potentially suitable in the future for PPVI on the basis of conduit size of 16 to 27 mm. In conclusion, multiple RV-PA conduit revisions were required in patients who survived to adulthood, with many replacements taking place during adolescence. Most conduits in this adult cohort met size criteria for PPVI, thereby offering these patients a potential alternative to surgical intervention for conduit failure. PMID:23481618

  3. q-Algebras and Arrangements of Hyperplanes

    OpenAIRE

    Fronsdal, Christian

    2001-01-01

    Varchenko's approach to quantum groups, from the theory of arrangements of hyperplanes, can be usefully applied to q-algebras in general, of which quantum groups and quantum (super) Kac-Moody algebras are special cases. New results are obtained on the classification of q-algebras, and of the Serre ideals of generalized quantum (super) Kac-Moody algebras.

  4. Homotopy groups and twisted homology of arrangements

    OpenAIRE

    Randell, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Recent work of M. Yoshinaga shows that in some instances certain higher homotopy groups of arrangements map onto non-resonant homology. This is in contrast to the usual Hurewicz map to untwisted homology, which is always the zero homomorphism in degree greater than one. In this work we examine this dichotomy, generalizing both results.

  5. Arranging a Library to Support Adolescent Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesari, Lindsay

    2014-01-01

    When designing a school library space and deciding how to arrange resources, it is important to consider multiple components of adolescent development, including social, emotional, and behavioral aspects. Acknowledging these developmental facets and their importance can provide additional justification for some of the more controversial aspects of…

  6. Metacognitive Scaffolding in an Innovative Learning Arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Inge; van Boxtel, Carla A. M.; Sleegers, Peter J. C.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effects of metacognitive scaffolds on learning outcomes of collaborating students in an innovative learning arrangement. The triads were supported by computerized scaffolds, which were dynamically integrated into the learning process and took a structuring or problematizing form. In an experimental design the two…

  7. Alternative transportation fuels: Financing issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A multitude of alternative fuels could reduce air pollution and the impact of oil price shocks. Only a few of these fuels are readily available and inexpensive enough to merit serious consideration over the coming five years. In New York City, safety regulations narrow the field still further by eliminating propane. As a result, this study focuses on the three alternative fuels readily available in New York City: compressed natural gas, methanol, and electricity. Each has significant environmental benefits and each has different cost characteristics. With the Clean Air Act and the National Energy Strategy highlighting the country's need to improve urban air quality and move away from dependence on imported fuels, fleets may soon have little choice but to convert to altemative fuels. Given the potential for large infrastructure and vehicle costs, these fleets may have difficulty finding the capital to make that conversion. Ultimately, then, it will be the involvement of the private sector that will determine the success of alternative fuels. Whether it be utilities, fuel distributors or suppliers, private financing partners or others, it is critical that altemative fuels programs be structured and planned to attract their involvement. This report examines financing methods that do not involve government subsidies. It also explores financing methods that are specific to alternative fuels. Bond issues and other mechanisms that are used for conventional vehicles are not touched upon in this report. This report explores ways to spread the high cost of alternative fuels among a number of parties within the private sector. The emphasis is on structuring partnerships that suit methanol, electric, or natural gas vehicle fleets. Through these partnerships, alternative fuels may ultimately compete effectively against conventional vehicle fuels

  8. 75 FR 16821 - Housing Finance Agency Risk-Sharing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ...Docket No. FR-5376-N-21] Housing Finance Agency Risk-Sharing Program AGENCY...Sharing Program authorizes qualified Housing Finance Agencies (HFAs) to underwrite and process...information: Title of Proposal: Housing Finance Agency Risk-Sharing Program. OMB...

  9. 12 CFR 908.71 - Practice before the Finance Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Practice before the Finance Board. 908.71 Section 908.71 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD ORGANIZATION AND OPERATIONS RULES OF PRACTICE AND...

  10. 12 CFR 918.5 - Approval by Finance Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Approval by Finance Board. 918.5 Section 918.5 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD GOVERNANCE AND MANAGEMENT...EXPENSES § 918.5 Approval by Finance Board. Payments made to...

  11. 12 CFR 907.12 - Finance Board procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD ORGANIZATION AND OPERATIONS PROCEDURES...Determinations; Review of Disputed Supervisory Determinations § 907.12 Finance Board procedures. (a) Notice of...

  12. 12 CFR 905.4 - Duties of the Finance Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Duties of the Finance Board... Functions and Responsibilities of Finance Board § 905.4 Duties of the Finance Board...Specifically, its duties are: (1) To...of the boards of directors of the...

  13. Nerve conduits based on immobilization of nerve growth factor onto modified chitosan by using genipin as a crosslinking agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yumin; Zhao, Weijia; He, Jianghong; Zhao, Yahong; Ding, Fei; Gu, Xiaosong

    2011-11-01

    Incorporation of nerve growth factor (NGF) into a nerve conduit can improve peripheral nerve regeneration. Here, genipin, a natural and low toxic agent, was used to crosslink chitosan, a natural polysaccharide, and concurrently to immobilize NGF onto modified chitosan, followed by fabrication of chitosan (CS)-genipin (GP)-NGF nerve conduits. MTT test showed that the cell viability of Schwann cells cultured in the conduit extract was not significantly different from that in plain medium. The neurite outgrowth measurement and immunocytochemistry with anti-growth-associated protein-43 and anti-neurofilament indicated that NGF released from CS-GP-NGF nerve conduits retained the bioactivity of stimulating neuronal differentiation of PC12 cells. Fracture strength measurements and vitamin B12 release analysis confirmed that CS-GP-NGF nerve conduits possessed good mechanical properties and adequate permeability. We also investigated the in vitro release kinetics of NGF from CS-GP-NGF nerve conduits by ELISA. The continuous release profile of NGF, within a 60-day time span, consisted of an initial burst that was controlled by a concentration gradient-driven diffusion, followed by a zero-order release that was controlled by a degradation of chitosan matrix. Collectively, CS-GP-NGF nerve conduits had an integrated system for continuous release of NGF, thus holding promise for peripheral nerve repair applications. PMID:21736941

  14. Preservation of systemic tricuspid valve function by pulmonary conduit banding in a patient with corrected transposition of the great arteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erek, Ersin; Abud, Burcin; Oz, Kursad; Güzeltas, Alper

    2012-01-01

    Systemic tricuspid valve regurgitation increases mortality and morbidity in patients with a corrected transposition of the great arteries. A 17-year old male with a physiologically corrected transposition after the closure of a ventricular septal defect and conduit placement between a morphological left ventricle and pulmonary artery presented with exertional dyspnoea. The transthoracic echocardiography showed a severe conduit stenosis, and cardiac catheterization revealed a pressure gradient of 114 mmHg. The patient underwent conduit re-replacement using a pulmonary heterograft. Intraoperative transoesophageal echocardiography revealed an acute severe tricuspid regurgitation after a conduit re-replacement. Pulmonary conduit banding was performed under transoesophageal echocardiography guidance, during which the left ventricular to right ventricular pressure ratio increased from 0.33 to 0.60 and the degree of tricuspid regurgitation decreased mildly. The patient was discharged uneventfully at postoperative day 16. Conduit banding might be a useful technique to preserve the systemic tricuspid valve function during conduit re-replacement in patients with a corrected transposition. PMID:22572412

  15. Public financing systems for radiology: experience in 12 European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper illustrates the evolution in public health care financing systems in 12 European countries, in terms of the financing of radiology services. The financing systems for radiology used by public health care financing agencies are described in detail. The implications of these new financing conditions for health care delivery are briefly sketched. The paper concludes with some strategies to help radiologists cope with the tightening financing conditions for medical imaging. (orig.) (orig.)

  16. Challenges of using electrical resistivity method to locate karst conduits-A field case in the Inner Bluegrass Region, Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, J.; Currens, J.C.; Dinger, J.S.

    2011-01-01

    Conduits serve as major pathways for groundwater flow in karst aquifers. Locating them from the surface, however, is one of the most challenging tasks in karst research. Geophysical methods are often deployed to help locate voids by mapping variations of physical properties of the subsurface. Conduits can cause significant contrasts of some physical properties that can be detected; other subsurface features such as water-bearing fractures often yield similar contrasts, which are difficult to distinguish from the effects of the conduits. This study used electrical resistivity method to search for an unmapped karst conduit that recharges Royal Spring in the Inner Bluegrass karst region, Kentucky, USA. Three types of resistivity techniques (surface 2D survey, quasi-3D survey, and time-lapse survey) were used to map and characterize resistivity anomalies. Some of the major anomalies were selected as drilling targets to verify the existence of the conduits. Drilling near an anomaly identified by an electrical resistivity profile resulted in successful penetration of a major water-filled conduit. The drilling results also suggest that, in this study area, low resistivity anomalies in general are associated with water-bearing features. However, differences in the anomaly signals between the water-filled conduit and other water-bearing features such as water-filled fracture zones were undistinguishable. The electrical resistivity method is useful in conduit detection by providing potential drilling targets. Knowledge of geology and hydrogeology about the site and professional judgment also played important roles in locating the major conduit. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  17. Constraints on the Geometries and Compositions of Subvolcanic Conduits from Intrusions of the San Rafael Swell, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetmore, P. H.; Connor, C.; Wilson, J.

    2010-12-01

    Conduit models incorporate varying degrees of complexity (or parsimony) and account for the transport properties of magmas, steady-state or transient behavior, and conduit geometry (e.g., 1- to 1.5 D, variable width and erodable conduit walls). Improvement of these models is important if we are to work toward deployment of eruption models at active volcanoes, link these models to geophysical observations (seismic, deformation, gravity) and eventually forecast eruption magnitude. One conclusion of a recent comparison of many conduit models (Sahagian, 2005 JVGR) is that next generation models need to better account for interaction of the erupting mixture with surrounding wall rocks (accounting for melting, solidification, and erosion) and better account for the effects of conduit shape on flows. In an effort to address these issues our research group has completed mapping of a suite of subvolcanic intrusions (dikes, sills, and conduits) from the west-central San Rafael Swell of central Utah. The results of this study demonstrate that vertical flow of melt through crust in this system of intrusion was dominated by dikes. Conduits form, in nearly all cases, as a result of localized flow along dikes. The conduits are commonly comprised of three distinct lithologic units: brecciated host rock (without any intrusive material), brecciated host rock mixed with brecciated and mechanically contaminated intrusive, and relatively clean (i.e. containing less than ~10% accidental material) intrusive. Contacts between all three of these units are typically discreet and traceable for several tens of meters. In some examples clasts within the unmixed breccia unit exhibit a strong alignment of clasts dipping into the core of the conduit. These observations suggests an evolutionary history that involves an early phase of brecciation and mixing, followed by confined flow with a fluidized mixed unit and an essentially uninvolved outer zone (i.e. the breccia). The final phase likely involves the inward collapse as fluid pressures reduce.

  18. Zariski pairs of line arrangements with twelve lines

    OpenAIRE

    Guerville-balle?, Benoi?t

    2014-01-01

    Using the invariant developed in [6], we differentiate four arrangements with the same combinatorial information but in different deformation classes. From these arrangements, we construct four other arrangements such that there is no orientation-preserving homeomorphism between them. Furthermore, some couples of arrangements among this 4-tuplet form new arithmetic Zariski pairs, i.e. a couple of arrangements with the same combinatorial information but with different embeddi...

  19. Financing of radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waste disposal is modelled as a financial calculus. In this connection the particularity is not primarily the dimension to be expected of financial requirement but above all the uncertainty of financial requirement as well as the ecological, socio-economic and especially also the temporal dimension of the Nuclear Waste Disposal project (disposal of spent fuel elements from light-water reactors with and without reprocessing, decommissioning = safe containment and disposal of nuclear power plants, permanent isolation of radioactive waste from the biosphere, intermediate storage). Based on the above mentioned factors the author analyses alternative approaches of financing or financial planning. He points out the decisive significance of the perception of risks or the evaluation of risks by involved or affected persons - i.e. the social acceptance of planned and designed waste disposal concepts - for the achievement and assessment of alternative solutions. With the help of an acceptance-specific risk measure developed on the basis of a mathematical chaos theory he illustrates, in a model, the social influence on the financing of nuclear waste disposal. (orig./HP)

  20. Health care entrepreneurship: financing innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazier, Kyle L; Metzler, Bridget

    2006-01-01

    Entrepreneurship is often described as the ability to create new ventures from new or existing concepts, ideas and visions. There has been significant entrepreneurial response to the changes in the scientific and social underpinnings of health care services delivery. However, a growing portion of the economic development driving health care industry expansion is threatened further by longstanding use of financing models that are suboptimal for health care ventures. The delayed pace of entrepreneurial activity in this industry is in part a response to the general economy and markets, but also due to the lack of capital for new health care ventures. The recent dearth of entrepreneurial activities in the health services sector may also due to failure to consider new approaches to partnerships and strategic ventures, despite their mutually beneficial organizational and financing potential. As capital becomes more scarce for innovators, it is imperative that those with new and creative ideas for health and health care improvement consider techniques for capital acquisition that have been successful in other industries and at similar stages of development. The capital and added expertise can allow entrepreneurs to leverage resources, dampen business fluctuations, and strengthen long term prospects. PMID:16583848

  1. Inequality of pension arrangements among different segments of the labor force in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ling

    2013-01-01

    Social security for older people in China today has been established institutionally. However, there are substantial problems such as coverage, affordability, fund management, and corruption. This paper aims to provide a general picture of China's social security system for older people and to argue that the inequality of pension arrangements among different segments of the labor force is one of the most conspicuous problems challenging the Chinese government. Four unequal aspects of the pension system concerning the financing resources and pension levels are examined in this paper: (1) unequal institutional arrangements among different sectors, (2) unbalanced governmental expenditure in pension provision, (3) an increasing gap in pension levels between urban and rural areas, and (4) uncovered groups such as the unemployed and self-employed. Historical, economic, and political reasons all contribute to this unequal institution under transition from socialism to a market-oriented economy. At present, it is urgent for the central government to take measures to integrate the various pension arrangements into the unified Old Age Insurance and to reduce the gaps among different regions. PMID:23570510

  2. Two Roads to School Finance Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berke, Joel S.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Research on legislative and electoral consideration of school finance reforms identifies three important elements; the art of compromise, the fiscal context, and political leadership. Adoption of new school finance formulas is far more likely through the legislative process than through a referendum. (Author/AM)

  3. Financing of nuclear trade. The brazilian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of financing instruments as means for the promotion of international nuclear trade is analysed. Besides the specific characteristics of nuclear trade is examined. Furthermore the role of governmental authorities and international agencies, mainly the IAEA is discussed. Finally the presence of Brazil in the international financial market and the financing of nuclear trade in Brazil are described

  4. Municipal bond financing of solar energy facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, S.S.

    1979-12-01

    The application of the laws of municipal bond financing to solar facilities is examined. The type of facilities under consideration are outlined. The general legal principles of municipal securities financing are discussed. The effect of recent decisions applying antitrust liability to municipal corporations is also discussed. Five specific types of municipal bonds are explained. The application of Section 103 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954, as amended, to the issuance of municipal bonds for solar facility financing is examined also. Five bond laws of five representative states are examined and whether the eight types of solar facilities under consideration could be financed under such law is discussed. The application of the general legal principle is illustrated. Three hypothetical situations are set forth and common legal issues to be confronted by city officials in proposing such financing are discussed. These issues will be raised in most financings, but the purpose is to examine the common context in which they are raised. It is concluded that if it can be shown that the purpose of the solar facilities to be financed is to benefit the public, all legal obstacles to the use of municipal financing of solar facilities can be substantially overcome.

  5. Innovative financing techniques for nuclear power exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author makes general comments regarding the possible conflict between project risks, sponsors' ability to assume these risks, and the requirements and objectives of all project benficiaries: sponsors, lenders, consumers and government. To reconcile these conflicts there is an increasing use of project finance techniques to finance large capital projects

  6. Contact the Office of Budget & Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posted: December 21, 2014 Posted: December 21, 2014 Contact the Office of Budget & Finance We welcome your budget questions or comments. Office of Budget & FinanceNational Cancer InstituteBuilding 31/ Room 11A-169000 Rockville PikeBethesda, MD 20892Phone:

  7. Forthcoming Papers from The Journal of Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    The official publication of the American Finance Association (AFA), The Journal of Finance, is "devoted to the study and promotion of knowledge about financial economics," and provides full-text previews of accepted papers at the Forthcoming Papers page. Other site services include "editor's tips" for paper submission, browseable abstracts of past papers, and AFA membership information.

  8. Moving toward a Coherent School Finance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Heather

    2013-01-01

    California's current school finance system is a tangled web of funding programs, restrictions, inequities and confusion. Building a stronger finance system to benefit from resources is an important step in strengthening California's K-12 education system and better meeting the needs of its students. Gov. Brown has recently proposed the Local…

  9. 49 CFR 663.11 - Audit financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Audit financing. 663.11...PRE-AWARD AND POST-DELIVERY AUDITS OF ROLLING STOCK PURCHASES General § 663.11 Audit financing. A recipient...funds may charge the cost of activities required by this part...

  10. Symmetry, ordering and arranging compulsive behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radomsky, A S; Rachman, S

    2004-08-01

    Compulsive ordering and arranging, and a preoccupation with symmetry are features of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) that have not been examined experimentally. Three connected studies were conducted to examine this phenomenon: a self-report measure of this behaviour was developed and validated, participants were asked to engage in tasks designed to assess preferences for order, and to assess the interference of disorderly surroundings in the completion of a stressful activity. The self-report measure has sound psychometric properties and validity. Participants with a strong preference for order were made more anxious by having to complete a difficult task in a disorganized environment. Participants without this preference did not show this effect. The results are discussed in terms of the phenomenology of compulsive ordering and arranging, and its relationships with both OCD and normal human behaviour. It is suggested that compulsive ordering and a drive for symmetry are extreme manifestations of the common preference for order and symmetry. PMID:15178465

  11. MOX fuel arrangement for nuclear core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantrowitz, Mark L. (Portland, CT); Rosenstein, Richard G. (Windsor, CT)

    2001-07-17

    In order to use up a stockpile of weapons-grade plutonium, the plutonium is converted into a mixed oxide (MOX) fuel form wherein it can be disposed in a plurality of different fuel assembly types. Depending on the equilibrium cycle that is required, a predetermined number of one or more of the fuel assembly types are selected and arranged in the core of the reactor in accordance with a selected loading schedule. Each of the fuel assemblies is designed to produce different combustion characteristics whereby the appropriate selection and disposition in the core enables the resulting equilibrium cycle to closely resemble that which is produced using urania fuel. The arrangement of the MOX rods and burnable absorber rods within each of the fuel assemblies, in combination with a selective control of the amount of plutonium which is contained in each of the MOX rods, is used to tailor the combustion characteristics of the assembly.

  12. Optimized electrode arrangement in solar air heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasayapanand, N. [School of Energy and Materials, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand); Kiatsiriroat, T. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand)

    2006-04-01

    Laminar forced convection inside the solar air heater with various wire electrode arrangements are numerically examined for heat transfer enhancement using electrohydrodynamic technique. The electric field is generated by the wire electrodes charged with DC high voltage ranging from 7.5 to 17.5kV. Reynolds number corresponding to the flow considered is between 100 and 2000. The numerical modeling of computational fluid dynamics includes the interactions among electric field, flow field, and temperature field. It is found that the enhancement of heat transfer coefficient with the presence of electric field increases in relation with the supplied voltage but decreases when the Reynolds number and the distance between electrode and channel surface are augmented. The optimized electrode arrangement, which obtains the best heat transfer enhancement is investigated incorporating with the pressure drop consideration. The heat transfer enhancement is also depended on the number of electrodes per length and the channel dimension. (author)

  13. Do Portuguese SMEs Follow Pecking Order Financing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartholdy, Jan; Mateus, Cesario

    2012-01-01

    This paper tests for pecking order behavior in medium-sized private Portuguese firms. In contrast to the usual split between internal funds, debt, and external equity, we separate debt into four components – cheap trade credits (CTC), bank loans (BL), other loans, and expensive credits (EC). We use breakpoint tests to identify when firms switch between funding sources by examining the change in each funding source based on the financing deficit remaining after the previous pecking order funding source has been used. Our tests indicate that Portuguese companies generally move from lower cost to higher cost financing sources, but they do not exhaust each type of debt before moving on to the next funding source in the pecking order. Such behavior is consistent with a loose interpretation of pecking order financing, but not a strict interpretation of the theory. Instead, Portuguese firms may be balancing pecking order financing with a need to maintain some degree of financing flexibility.

  14. Investment Timing When External Financing Is Costly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirth, Stefan; Uhrig-Homburg, Marliese

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the investment timing of firms facing two dimensions of financing constraints: Liquidity constraints and capital market frictions inducing financing costs. We show that liquidity constraints are not sufficient to explain voluntary investment delay. However, when additionally considering financing costs, we can explain both voluntary delay and acceleration of investment. More precisely, we find that investment thresholds are U-shaped in liquid funds. For high-liquidity firms, investment thresholds are decreasing (i.e. accelerated investment takes place) in either dimension of financing constraint. In contrast, investment thresholds are increasing (i.e. investment is further delayed) in either form of financing constraint for low-liquidity firms. For intermediate levels of liquidity, investment thresholds are U-shaped in market frictions.

  15. Mach-zehnder modulator arrangement and method for operating a mach-zehnder modulator arrangement

    OpenAIRE

    Velthaus, Karl-otto

    2012-01-01

    The invention relates to an electro-optic Mach-Zehnder modulator arrangement, comprising - a first optical waveguide (11) forming a first arm of the Mach-Zehnder modulator (1, 100); - a second optical waveguide (12) forming a second arm of the Mach-Zehnder modulator (1, 100); - an electrode arrangement (2) comprising at least one first waveguide electrode (21, 210) output port (441, 4410) coupled to the first waveguide electrodes (21, 210)and at least one second waveguide electrode (22, 220) ...

  16. Broken circuit complexes and hyperplane arrangements

    OpenAIRE

    Dinh, Le; Roemer, Tim

    2012-01-01

    We study Stanley-Reisner ideals of broken circuits complexes and characterize those ones admitting a linear resolution or being complete intersections. These results will then be used to characterize arrangements whose Orlik-Terao ideal has the same properties. As an application, we improve a result of Wilf on upper bounds for the coefficients of the chromatic polynomial of a maximal planar graph. We also show that for an ordered matroid with disjoint minimal broken circuits...

  17. Clustered arrangement of keratin intermediate filament genes.

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, B. C.; Cam, G. R.; Fietz, M. J.; Rogers, G. E.

    1986-01-01

    We report here that component members of the keratin intermediate filament (IF) type I and type II gene families of sheep are closely linked but apparently the two families are not. Nine genes, accounting for up to half of the keratin IF gene repertoire, were mapped in four cosmid clones and the linkage between the genes ranged from several kilobases to 20 kilobases. In one cosmid, three tandem type I genes had the same transcriptional arrangement and were regularly spaced. In another cosmid,...

  18. Arrangements of Spheres and Projective Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Deshpande, Priyavrat

    2012-01-01

    We develop the theory of arrangements of spheres. Consider a finite collection of codimension-$1$ subspheres in a positive-dimensional sphere. There are two posets associated with this collection: the poset of faces and the poset of intersections. We also associate a topological space: the complement of the union of tangent bundles of these subspheres in the tangent bundle of the ambient sphere. We call this space the tangent bundle complement. As in the case of hyperplane a...

  19. First Milnor cohomology of hyperplane arrangements

    CERN Document Server

    Budur, Nero; Saito, Morihiko

    2009-01-01

    We show a combinatorial sufficient condition for nonvanishing of the non-unipotent monodromy part of the first Milnor cohomology of a hyperplane arrangement. This gives exactly its dimension if an additional combinatorial condition is satisfied. We also prove a non-combinatorial formula for the dimension of the non-unipotent part of the first Milnor cohomology, which apparently depends on the position of the singular points. The latter generalizes a formula previously obtained by the second named author.

  20. First Milnor cohomology of hyperplane arrangements

    OpenAIRE

    Budur, Nero; Dimca, Alexandru; Saito, Morihiko

    2009-01-01

    We show a combinatorial formula for a lower bound of the dimension of the non-unipotent monodromy part of the first Milnor cohomology of a hyperplane arrangement satisfying some combinatorial conditions. This gives exactly its dimension if a stronger combinatorial condition is satisfied. We also prove a non-combinatorial formula for the dimension of the non-unipotent part of the first Milnor cohomology, which apparently depends on the position of the singular points. The lat...

  1. Electrode arrangement effect on natural convection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasayapanand, Nat [School of Energy, environment, and Materials, King Mongkut' s University of Technology, Thonburi, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

    2007-04-15

    Numerical and experimental studies of the electrohydrodynamic effect on natural convection in an enclosure are investigated. The governing equations of electric field, flow field and temperature field are also represented. It is found that the flow pattern is affected by the supplied voltage at the wire electrodes. Augmented heat transfer increases at low Rayleigh number and high number of electrodes. The uniform electrode arrangement along an enclosure provides maximum heat transfer when the number of electrodes is fixed. (author)

  2. Valve Technology Arrangement of Cryopump: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Rajput, Sanjiv Y.

    2014-01-01

    A cryopump or a "cryogenic pump" is a vacuum pump that pumps the trap gases and vapours by condensing them on a cold surface. Helium gas which is very light can only be pumped by Cryopump. Cryopump cannot be used when working for continuous operation as it pumps the effluent till the saturation state is achieved. Then the absorbed gases are to be collected through other mechanical pump through regeneration process. Hence, valve technology arrangement is incorporated with the c...

  3. Cold work study on a 316LN modified alloy for the ITER TF coil conduit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Robert; Toplosky, V. J.; McRae, D. M.; Han, K.; Martovetsky, N. N.

    2012-06-01

    In cable-in-conduit conductor (CICC) magnets, such as the ITER TF coils, the conduit is the primary structural component. This function creates requirements for 4 K strength, toughness, fatigue crack resistance, and ductility after exposure to the superconductor's reaction heat treatment. The tensile ductility of a steel is a quality factor related to fatigue and fracture resistance that can be evaluated more economically with tensile tests rather than fatigue and fracture tests. Here we subject 316LN modified base metal and welds to a range of cold work from 0% to 20% and a subsequent Nb3Sn reaction heat treatment to evaluate the effects on the tensile properties. With the addition of cold work, the 4 K yield strength increases while tensile elongation decreases in both the base metal and weld. The results are compared to previously published data on the same alloy to evaluate the use of tensile ductility parameters as a materials qualification specification in magnet design.

  4. A case of fatal septic pulmonary embolus arising from an infected Sano conduit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahar, Tara; Katzman, Philip; Alfieris, George

    2009-02-01

    A 5-month-old boy who had previously undergone a modified Norwood procedure for hypoplastic left heart syndrome presented for elective cardiac catheterization before undergoing the next stage of repair. The catheterization demonstrated mild stenosis of the right ventricle-to-pulmonary artery Sano conduit. The patient became hypoxic and febrile at the end of the procedure and died in the intensive care unit the next day. Postmortem examination demonstrated a vegetation containing Gram-positive cocci in the conduit and a right upper lobe lung abscess also containing Gram-positive cocci. The authors report the first case of Sano shunt endocarditis further complicated by septic pulmonary embolus and review similar infections in this population. Shunt infection may be an underrecognized cause of interstage mortality among patients undergoing a modified Norwood procedure. PMID:18654812

  5. Solving the flow fields in conduits and networks using energy minimization principle with simulated annealing

    CERN Document Server

    Sochi, Taha

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose and test an intuitive assumption that the pressure field in single conduits and networks of interconnected conduits adjusts itself to minimize the total energy consumption required for transporting a specific quantity of fluid. We test this assumption by using linear flow models of Newtonian fluids transported through rigid tubes and networks in conjunction with a simulated annealing (SA) protocol to minimize the total energy cost. All the results confirm our hypothesis as the SA algorithm produces very close results to those obtained from the traditional deterministic methods of identifying the flow fields by solving a set of simultaneous equations based on the conservation principles. The same results apply to electric ohmic conductors and networks of interconnected ohmic conductors. Computational experiments conducted in this regard confirm this extension. Further studies are required to test the energy minimization hypothesis for the non-linear flow systems.

  6. The OECD consensus and loan conditions on officially supported financing for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today, all OECD coutries provide official export insurance coverage and all but one offer direct export financing support by way of direct credits, refinancing, or interest rate subsidisation. The proliferation of government export financing support programmes and the increasing competition among them provoked fear that an ''export credit war'' might develop and eventually led to the formulation of the OECD ''Consensus'' in July 1976 and the adoption in February 1978 of the ''Arrangement on Guidelines for Officially Supported Export Credits''. The ''Arrangement'' stipulates a number of guidelines to which participating countries pledge to adhere. The most important rules are mentioned in this paper. A Sector Understanding on Export Credits for Nuclear Power Plants which complements the Arrangement, was adopted on 31 July 1984 and made effective as of 18th August 1984. The principle constraints on credit terms are also mentioned in this paper. The above mentioned Understanding is new and still in its ''breaking in'' phase. Some time will be needed in order to tell how well its provisions will work in practice

  7. Possible Conduit-Matrix Water Exchange Signatures Outlined at a Karst Spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrofan, Horia; Marin, Constantin; Povar?, Ioan

    2014-11-12

    During a significant flood event, reversible water exchanges may occur between a karst conduit and its adjacent porous rock (frequently designated as "matrix"): while the flood pulse rises, some conduit-derived water is forced into the matrix; then, as the flood recedes, the same water flows back into the stream passage. The present note addresses such a karst setting in the Carpathian Mountains (Romania), where in addition, a usually stable flux of chloride originating in a natural saline inflow, was being mixed with a variable flow of karst freshwater. For that particular case, with the above-mentioned process of matrix storage/release from storage assumedly taking place downstream of the mixing site, two distinct chemical signatures could be noticed during a flood event: an initial depletion in the spring flow chloride flux, subsequently followed by a comparable chloride flux enrichment (the depletion and the enrichment being outlined with respect to the essentially stable chloride flux value that had been noticed to persist at the spring over a long period of flow rate recession). Concomitantly with such flood-induced fluctuations in the spring chloride flux, the spring discharge displayed, for long periods, abnormally slow variations: the latter likely indicated that the spring supply rate actual oscillations were buffered by the reversible water exchanges which took place between the karst conduit and its adjacent matrix. On the whole, these results show that conduit-matrix water exchanges could be interpreted by simple mass balance calculations that involved fluxes of a conservative tracer (the chloride ion in that particular case). PMID:25394224

  8. Lymphatic pump-conduit duality: contraction of postnodal lymphatic vessels inhibits passive flow

    OpenAIRE

    Quick, Christopher M.; Ngo, Bruce L.; Venugopal, Arun M.; Stewart, Randolph H.

    2009-01-01

    Lymphangions, the segments of lymphatic vessels between valves, exhibit structural characteristics in common with both ventricles and arteries. Although once viewed as passive conduits like arteries, it has become well established that lymphangions can actively pump lymph against an axial pressure gradient from low-pressure tissues to the great veins of the neck. A recently reported mathematical model, based on fundamental principles, predicted that lymphangions can transition from pump to co...

  9. Simulation of 3D karst conduits with an object-distance based method integrating geological knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rongier, Guillaume; Collon-Drouaillet, Pauline; Filipponi, Marco

    2014-07-01

    Karst conduit shapes have a high influence on fluid flows. As these underground hidden systems are partially inaccessible, their stochastic simulation is an essential tool to assess the uncertainties related to these highly exploited water resources. The object-distance simulation method (ODSIM) is a hybrid dual-scale approach that has been recently proposed to model geological underground structures due to late processes such as dolomitized rocks, mineralized veins or karsts. Using a perturbed Euclidean distance field around a curve representing roughly the conduit centre and called a skeleton, the resulting shapes are globally cylindrical-like 3D envelopes. But at a drain scale, karstic conduits are elongated along weakness planes such as lithostratigraphic horizons, bedding planes, fractures or faults. In addition to those planes the influence of the water table is added. This work presents different improvements of ODSIM methodology for simulating more realistic shapes in the particular case of karst. Firstly, we propose using a custom distance field computed with a fast marching method. Considering the “velocity” field to be proportional to the permeability allows the resulting features to be elongated along the weakness planes. Secondly, to handle specific shapes due to the proximity of the water table, such as trenches or notches, we impose areas of higher velocity between the skeleton and the water table. Finally, we generate a custom random threshold with several variograms and/or distributions depending on the different features integrated in the “velocity” field. Applied on different models, it is shown that the resulting karst conduits have more realistic shapes than those obtained with the previous workflow, while the variability of structures which can be modelled with ODSIM is preserved.

  10. Large bifid ureteric calculus in a patient with an ileal conduit

    OpenAIRE

    Rajaian, Shanmugasundaram; Kekre, Nitin S.

    2012-01-01

    Urinary diversion after extirpative surgery of the bladder is done by various methods. Conduit urinary diversion is the most commonly practiced method of urinary diversion. It is relatively easy to perform and has a lower complication rate than other forms of diversion, e.g., orthotopic neobladder and continent cutaneous urinary diversion. Urolithiasis is a known and common complication of urinary diversion. Upper tract calculi in these cases often manifest symptomatically as occurs in the ge...

  11. Prion propagation in a nerve conduit model containing segments devoid of axons

    OpenAIRE

    Kratzel, Christine; Kru?ger, Dominique; Beekes, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Prions, the putative causative agents of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, are neurotropic pathogens that spread to the central nervous system via synaptically linked neural conduits upon peripheral infection. Axons and their transport processes have been suggested as mediators of nerve-associated prion dissemination. However, the exact cellular components and molecular mechanisms underlying neural spread are unknown. This study used an established hamster scrapie model to pursue a n...

  12. In vitro biocompatibility testing of some synthetic polymers used for the achievement of nervous conduits

    OpenAIRE

    Mihai, R.; Florescu, Ip; Coroiu, V.; Oancea, A.; Lungu, M.

    2011-01-01

    Biocompatible synthetic polymers are largely used in the bio–medical domain, tissue engineering and in controlled release of medicines. Polymers can be used in the achievement of cardiac and vascular devices, mammary implants, eye lenses, surgical threads, nervous conduits, adhesives, blood substitutes, etc. Our study was axed on the development of cytotoxicity tests for 3 synthetic polymers, namely polyvinyl alcohol, polyethylene glycol and polyvinyl chloride. These tests targeted to deter...

  13. Ileal-conduit following cystectomy, single-institution revision of indications and outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective was to revise indications, case fatality ratio, and postoperative early and late complications of ileal conduit as a method of urinary diversion. This is a retrospective study in which 200 patients underwent an ileal conduit from August 1994 to December 2000 in Mansoura Urology and Nephrology Center, Mansoura, Egypt. Preoperative criteria of patient selection, preoperative findings and postoperative follow-up data were reviewed. In 200 patients aged 29-75 years, with a mean age of 55.84-/+ 8.91 years, the ileal conduit was chosen as a method of urinary diversion, due to one of the following patient or surgical factors; 50 (25%) cardiopulmonary co-morbidities, 27(13.5%) liver cirrhosis, 20 (10%) impaired renal function, 18 (9%) poorly controlled diabetes mellitus and 3 (1.5%) morbid obesity. Frozen section pathological examination showed carcinoma invasion of the urethra in 26 (13%) and prostate stroma in 16 (8%) male patients. Severe adhesions and difficulty cystectomy were encountered in 25 (12.5%) patients. Tumor was found at or close to the bladder neck in 13 (6.5%) female patients and 2 (1%) patients were found to have short mesentery. The mean follow up period was 90.02 -/+ 22.63 months. Fatality rate was 2%. Twenty-three (11.5%) patients had early complications, while 36 (23.7%) patients had late complications. Ileal conduit is still the best urinary diversion method in many patients who have bladder cancer with associated chronic medical disease or ceh associated chronic medical disease or certain surgical factors that render other urinary diversion methods more difficult carry more postoperative morbidity and mortality or both. (author)

  14. CO2 outgassing in a combined fracture and conduit karst aquifer near lititz spring, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toran, L.; Roman, E.

    2006-01-01

    Lititz Spring in southeastern Pennsylvania and a nearby domestic well were sampled for 9 months. Although both locations are connected to conduits (as evidenced by a tracer test), most of the year they were saturated with respect to calcite, which is more typical of matrix flow. Geochemical modeling (PHREEQC) was used to explain this apparent paradox and to infer changes in matrix and conduit contribution to flow. The saturation index varied from 0.5 to 0 most of the year, with a few samples in springtime dropping below saturation. The log PCO2 value varied from -2.5 to -1.7. Lower log PCO2 values (closer to the atmospheric value of -3.5) were observed when the solutions were at or above saturation with respect to calcite. In contrast, samples collected in the springtime had high PCO2, low saturation indices, and high water levels. Geochemical modeling showed that when outgassing occurs from a water with initially high PCO2, the saturation index of calcite increases. In the Lititz Spring area, the recharge water travels through the soil zone, where it picks up CO2 from soil gas, and excess CO 2 subsequently is outgassed when this recharge water reaches the conduit. At times of high water level (pipe full), recharge with excess CO 2 enters the system but the outgassing does not occur. Instead the recharge causes dilution, reducing the calcite saturation index. Understanding the temporal and spatial variation in matrix and conduit flow in karst aquifers benefited here by geochemical modeling and calculation of PCO2 values. ?? 2006 Geological Society of America.

  15. Controls on the explosivity of scoria cone eruptions: Magma segregation at conduit junctions

    OpenAIRE

    Pioli, Laura; Azzopardi, B. J.; Cashman, K. V.

    2009-01-01

    Violent strombolian (transitional) eruptions are common in mafic arc settings and are characterized by simultaneous explosive activity from scoria cone vents and lava effusion from lateral vents. This dual activity requires magma from the feeder conduit to split into vertical and lateral branches somewhere near the base of the scoria cone. Additionally, if the flow is separated, gas and liquid (+ crystals) components of the magma may be partitioned unevenly between the two branches. Because f...

  16. Oesophageal Conduit – a Cause of Diffuse Mediastinal Uptake on Thyroid Scintigraphy

    OpenAIRE

    Sonoda, Luke I.; Balan, Kottekkattu K.

    2013-01-01

    99mTc-pertechnetate scintigraphy plays an essential role in the management of a variety of thyroid and parathyroid disorders. The authors report an unusual case of mediastinal tracer distribution of 99mTc-pertechnetate and 99mTc-MIBI in relation to an oesophageal conduit following oesophago-gastrectomy and reconstructive surgery on thyroid scintigraphy. This is a rare but important cause of diffuse mediastinal uptake on thyroid scintigraphy. An awareness of abnormal anatomy as well as altered...

  17. The drag coefficient for particles in aerosols flowing through a horizontal conduit

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    L., PEREIRA; W.D., MARRA JR; J.R., COURY.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The drag coefficient, CD, was experimentally determined during sedimentation of aerosol particles in air flowing horizontally in a conduit of rectangular cross section, and its relation to the Reynolds numbers for the particle, Rep, and the conduit, Rec, was found. The method used to obtain the fric [...] tional force on the particles is based on observation of the trajectories of the particles being deposited on the bottom wall of the conduit. The diameter (dp) and point of deposition of the particles were determined by examining small glass slides distributed along the floor of the apparatus at given positions. The diameter of particles adhering to these laminae can be observed by microscope, but a factor must then be applied to convert these values to the diameters in suspension (dp), since the particles are liquid and undergo flattening as they collect on the glass. Results were compared with the aerodynamic diameter of the particle, obtained independently, and the discrepancies that appeared will need to be investigated further. The velocity profiles of the air inside the apparatus were also recorded. A correlation of the form CD = f(Rep, Rec) is proposed.

  18. Analytical studies on hotspot temperature of cable-in-conduit conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes an analytical study to review the hotspot temperature design criteria of the cable-in-conduit conductors for the ITER magnet system. The ITER magnet system uses three kinds of cable-in-conduit conductors for the Toroidal Field (TF) coils, the Central Solenoid (CS) and the Poloidal Field (PF) coils. The amount of copper in the superconducting cable has been defined by using the classical hotspot temperature design criteria that is based on the adiabatic condition. In the current design, ITER superconducting cables include a large amount of pure copper strands to satisfy the classical criteria. However, temperature and stress in the conduit and insulations after quench can be simulated with the quench simulation program and stress analysis program using the latest analysis tools. This analysis shows that the strand temperature is dominated by the conduction along strands and the heat capacity of other conductor materials and coolant. The hotspot temperature depends strongly on the delay time for quench detection. This analysis provides an estimation of delay times for quench detection. The thermal and stress analysis can provide the maximum allowable temperature after quench by determination of a failure or a functional disorder condition of the jacket material and turn insulation. In conclusion, it is found that the current density of the cable space can be increased, by reducing the extra copper strand, thereby, allowing a reduction of the coil raereby, allowing a reduction of the coil radial build. (author)

  19. Analytical studies on the hotspot temperature of cable-in-conduit conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Kiyoshi; Takigami, Hiroyuki; Kubo, Hiroatsu

    2001-08-01

    This paper describes an analytical study to review the hotspot temperature design criterion of the cable-in-conduit conductors for the ITER magnet system. The ITER magnet system uses three kinds of cable-in-conduit conductors for the Toroidal Field (TF) coils, the Central Solenoid (CS) and the Poloidal Field (PF) coils. The amount of copper in the superconducting cable has been defined by using the classical hotspot temperature design criterion that is based on the adiabatic condition. In the current design, ITER superconducting cables include a large number of pure copper strands to satisfy the classical criterion. However, the temperature and stress in the conduit and insulations after quench can be simulated with the quench simulation program and stress analysis program using the latest analysis tools. This analysis shows that the strand temperature is dominated by the conduction along strands and the heat capacity of other conductor materials and coolant. The hotspot temperature depends strongly on the delay time for quench detection. This analysis provides an estimation of the delay times for quench detection. The thermal and stress analysis can provide the maximum allowable temperature after quench by determination of a failure or a functional disorder condition of the jacket material and turn insulation. In conclusion, it is found that the current density of the cable space can be increased, by reducing the extra copper strand, thereby, allowing a reduction of the coil radial build.

  20. Large bifid ureteric calculus in a patient with an ileal conduit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaian, Shanmugasundaram; Kekre, Nitin S

    2012-09-01

    Urinary diversion after extirpative surgery of the bladder is done by various methods. Conduit urinary diversion is the most commonly practiced method of urinary diversion. It is relatively easy to perform and has a lower complication rate than other forms of diversion, e.g., orthotopic neobladder and continent cutaneous urinary diversion. Urolithiasis is a known and common complication of urinary diversion. Upper tract calculi in these cases often manifest symptomatically as occurs in the general population. Stones in the conduit can have a variable clinical presentation. Asymptomatic presentation is also noted in a few cases. We report a case of a large silent bifid ureteric calculus within an ileal conduit in a woman who had undergone urinary diversion 32 years earlier. Plain X-ray of the abdomen is the only investigation necessary to rule out urinary lithiasis in those who have had urinary diversion for a long time. This simple tool can diagnose the condition well in advance and aid in planning the management of this condition. PMID:23248527

  1. Prospective clinical study on digital nerve repair with collagen nerve conduits and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmeyer, Joern Andreas; Kern, Yasmin; Schmauss, Daniel; Paprottka, Felix; Stang, Felix; Siemers, Frank; Mailaender, Peter; Machens, Hans-Guenther

    2014-05-01

    Little data are available concerning conduit repair of digital nerve lesions. We are presenting a prospective two-center cohort study on digital nerve reconstruction with collagen nerve conduits. The data are put into the context of a comprehensive review of existing literature. Over a period of 3 years, all consecutive digital nerve lesions that could not be repaired by tensionless coaptation with a gap length of less than 26?mm were reconstructed with nerve conduits made from bovine collagen I. Sensibility was assessed 1?week, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively by static and moving 2-point-discrimination (2PD) and monofilament testing. Forty-nine digital nerve lesions in 40 patients met the inclusion criteria. The mean nerve gap was 12.3 ± 2.3 mm (span 5-25 mm). Forty nerve reconstructions could be included in the 12-month follow-up. Three cases, assessed 12 months postoperatively, showed excellent sensibility (static 2PD?15?mm, but protective sensibility), and 9 achieved no sensibility. Monofilament test results were significantly better if gap length was shorter than 12 mm. Our results confirm tubulization as one possible technique in nerve reconstruction for gap lengths of 5 to 25 mm. PMID:24338485

  2. Effects of streptozotocin-induced diabetes on the pharmacology of rat conduit and resistance intrapulmonary arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howarth Frank C

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor control of blood glucose in diabetes is known to promote vascular dysfunction and hypertension. Diabetes was recently shown to be linked to an increased prevalence of pulmonary hypertension. The aim of this study was to determine how the pharmacological reactivity of intrapulmonary arteries is altered in a rat model of diabetes. Methods Diabetes was induced in rats by the ?-cell toxin, streptozotocin (STZ, 60 mg/kg, and isolated conduit and resistance intrapulmonary arteries studied 3–4 months later. Isometric tension responses to the vasoconstrictors phenylephrine, serotonin and PGF2?, and the vasodilators carbachol and glyceryl trinitrate, were compared in STZ-treated rats and age-matched controls. Results STZ-induced diabetes significantly blunted the maximum response of conduit, but not resistance pulmonary arteries to phenylephrine and serotonin, without a change in pEC50. Agonist responses were differentially reduced, with serotonin (46% smaller affected more than phenylephrine (32% smaller and responses to PGF2? unaltered. Vasoconstriction caused by K+-induced depolarisation remained normal in diabetic rats. Endothelium-dependent dilation to carbachol and endothelium-independent dilation to glyceryl trinitrate were also unaffected. Conclusion The small resistance pulmonary arteries are relatively resistant to STZ-induced diabetes. The impaired constrictor responsiveness of conduit vessels was agonist dependent, suggesting possible loss of receptor expression or function. The observed effects cannot account for pulmonary hypertension in diabetes, rather the impaired reactivity to vasoconstrictors would counteract the development of pulmonary hypertensive disease.

  3. The Norwood procedure: in favor of the RV-PA conduit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, David J

    2013-01-01

    Evolution of the Norwood procedure has culminated in there currently being three treatment strategies available for initial management: the 'classical' Norwood (utilizing a Blalock-Taussig shunt), the Norwood with right-ventricle to pulmonary artery (RV-PA) conduit, and the 'hybrid' Norwood procedure utilizing bilateral pulmonary artery banding and ductal stenting. Each variant has its potential advantages and disadvantages, and this paper looks to examine the evidence in favor of each strategy, with emphasis on the supportive data for the RV-PA conduit. The 'classical' procedure has the benefit of the greatest accumulated surgical experience and avoids any incision into the ventricle. However, the diastolic run-off of the Blalock-Taussig shunt can cause hemodynamic instability and unpredictable coronary steal phenomenon. The RV-PA conduit has the advantage of maintaining diastolic pressure with a more stable postoperative course, but at the cost of a ventriculotomy that may have detrimental long-term sequelae. The 'hybrid' procedure has the advantage of avoiding cardiopulmonary bypass, but does not always secure coronary blood flow and has a high inter-stage morbidity and reintervention rate. The evidence shows that each technique may have its place in future management, and that treatment algorithms could emerge that direct the choice of procedure for specific patient groups. PMID:23561818

  4. 75 FR 44982 - Arkansas Valley Conduit (AVC) and Long-Term Excess Capacity Master Contract, Fryingpan-Arkansas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-30

    ...of Reclamation Arkansas Valley Conduit (AVC) and Long-Term Excess Capacity Master...effects associated with construction of the AVC, a proposed feature of the Fryingpan-Arkansas...of interest. Background Information The AVC, an authorized feature of the...

  5. Nerve Guidance Conduits from Aligned Nanofibers: Improvement of Nerve Regeneration through Longitudinal Nanogrooves on a Fiber Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chen; Ouyang, Yuanming; Niu, Haitao; He, Nanfei; Ke, Qinfei; Jin, Xiangyu; Li, Dawei; Fang, Jun; Liu, Wanjun; Fan, Cunyi; Lin, Tong

    2015-04-01

    A novel fibrous conduit consisting of well-aligned nanofibers with longitudinal nanogrooves on the fiber surface was prepared by electrospinning and was subjected to an in vivo nerve regeneration study on rats using a sciatic nerve injury model. For comparison, a fibrous conduit having a similar fiber alignment structure without surface groove and an autograft were also conducted in the same test. The electrophysiological, walking track, gastrocnemius muscle, triple-immunofluorescence, and immunohistological analyses indicated that grooved fibers effectively improved sciatic nerve regeneration. This is mainly attributed to the highly ordered secondary structure formed by surface grooves and an increase in the specific surface area. Fibrous conduits made of longitudinally aligned nanofibers with longitudinal nanogrooves on the fiber surface may offer a new nerve guidance conduit for peripheral nerve repair and regeneration. PMID:25786058

  6. Financing U.S. exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the challenges of financing U.S. exploration from the perspective of an independent oil and gas producer. When Burlington Resources was split into a separate company from the Burlington Northern Railroad three years ago, the company owned extensive resources but had little production capability, and had to resolve the problem of raising development capital. According to the author of this paper, three key elements in the company's perception of the business environment drove its strategy: that the role of independent producers would be crucial in new onshore oil and gas development as the majors moved offshore; that energy prices would remain weak; and that financial market sentiment would not favor a move to leverage the company more highly than its starting-point of 19 percent debt-to-total capital ratio

  7. Catastrophe Finance: An Emerging Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsner, James B.; Burch, R. King; Jagger, Thomas H.

    2009-08-01

    While the recent disasters in the world's financial markets demonstrate that finance theory remains far from perfected, science also faces steep challenges in the quest to predict and manage the effects of natural disasters. Worldwide, as many as half a million people have died in disasters such as earthquakes, tsunamis, and tropical cyclones since the turn of the 21st century [Wirtz, 2008]. Further, natural disasters can lead to extreme financial losses, and independent financial collapses can be exacerbated by natural disasters. In financial cost, 2008 was the second most expensive year on record for such catastrophes and for financial market declines. These extreme events in the natural and financial realms push the issue of risk management to the fore, expose the deficiencies of existing knowledge and practice, and suggest that progress requires further research and training at the graduate level.

  8. Present and future nuclear power financing schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The financial requirement for nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany for the period up until 1985 was estimated to run up to some DM 100 billion already in the Nuclear Energy Study published by the Dresdner Bank in 1974. This figure is not changed in any way by the reduction the nuclear power program has suffered in the meantime, because the lower requirement for investment capital is more than offset by the price increases that have occurred meanwhile. A capital requirement in the order of DM 100 billion raises major problems for the power producing industry and the banks which, however, are not going to hamper the further expansion of nuclear power, because new financing schemes have been specially developed for the nuclear field. They include financing by leasing, the use of funds from real estate credit institutions for long term financing, borrowing of long term funds in the Euro market, and financing through subsidiaries of the utilities. The new financing schemes also apply to the large financial requirement associated with the nuclear fuel cycle, waste management in particular. In this sector the utilities agree to bear the economic risk of the companies implementing the respective projects. Accordingly, financing will not entail any major difficulties. Another area of great importance is export financing. The German-Brazilian nuclear agreement is a model of this instrument. (orig.)

  9. Sciatic nerve regeneration in rats by a promising electrospun collagen/poly(?-caprolactone) nerve conduit with tailored degradation rate

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang Xinquan; Zhou Yong; Zhang Wenjie; Ye Dongxia; Zhang Xiuli; Zhu Chao; Zhao Wen; Yu Wenwen; Zhang Zhiyuan

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background To cope with the limitations faced by autograft acquisitions particularly for multiple nerve injuries, artificial nerve conduit has been introduced by researchers as a substitute for autologous nerve graft for the easy specification and availability for mass production. In order to best mimic the structures and components of autologous nerve, great efforts have been made to improve the designation of nerve conduits either from materials or fabrication techniques. Electrosp...

  10. Preservation of systemic tricuspid valve function by pulmonary conduit banding in a patient with corrected transposition of the great arteries

    OpenAIRE

    Erek, Ersin; Abud, Burcin; Oz, Kursad; Gu?zeltas, Alper

    2012-01-01

    Systemic tricuspid valve regurgitation increases mortality and morbidity in patients with a corrected transposition of the great arteries. A 17-year old male with a physiologically corrected transposition after the closure of a ventricular septal defect and conduit placement between a morphological left ventricle and pulmonary artery presented with exertional dyspnoea. The transthoracic echocardiography showed a severe conduit stenosis, and cardiac catheterization revealed a pressure gradient...

  11. Sciatic nerve regeneration in rats by a promising electrospun collagen/poly(?-caprolactone nerve conduit with tailored degradation rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Xinquan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To cope with the limitations faced by autograft acquisitions particularly for multiple nerve injuries, artificial nerve conduit has been introduced by researchers as a substitute for autologous nerve graft for the easy specification and availability for mass production. In order to best mimic the structures and components of autologous nerve, great efforts have been made to improve the designation of nerve conduits either from materials or fabrication techniques. Electrospinning is an easy and versatile technique that has recently been used to fabricate fibrous tissue-engineered scaffolds which have great similarity to the extracellular matrix on fiber structure. Results In this study we fabricated a collagen/poly(?-caprolactone (collagen/PCL fibrous scaffold by electrospinning and explored its application as nerve guide substrate or conduit in vitro and in vivo. Material characterizations showed this electrospun composite material which was made of submicron fibers possessed good hydrophilicity and flexibility. In vitro study indicated electrospun collagen/PCL fibrous meshes promoted Schwann cell adhesion, elongation and proliferation. In vivo test showed electrospun collagen/PCL porous nerve conduits successfully supported nerve regeneration through an 8 mm sciatic nerve gap in adult rats, achieving similar electrophysiological and muscle reinnervation results as autografts. Although regenerated nerve fibers were still in a pre-mature stage 4 months postoperatively, the implanted collagen/PCL nerve conduits facilitated more axons regenerating through the conduit lumen and gradually degraded which well matched the nerve regeneration rate. Conclusions All the results demonstrated this collagen/PCL nerve conduit with tailored degradation rate fabricated by electrospinning could be an efficient alternative to autograft for peripheral nerve regeneration research. Due to its advantage of high surface area for cell attachment, it is believed that this electrospun nerve conduit could find more application in cell therapy for nerve regeneration in future, to further improve functional regeneration outcome especially for longer nerve defect restoration.

  12. Nonlinear phenomena in fluids with temperature-dependent viscosity: an hysteresis model for magma flow in conduits

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Antonio; Macedonio, Giovanni

    2003-01-01

    Magma viscosity is strongly temperature-dependent. When hot magma flows in a conduit, heat is lost through the walls and the temperature decreases along the flow causing a viscosity increase. For particular values of the controlling parameters the steady-flow regime in a conduit shows two stable solutions belonging either to the slow or to the fast branch. As a consequence, this system may show an hysteresis effect, and the transition between the two branches can occur quick...

  13. The challenge of financing nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To date, more then 500 nuclear power reactors have been successfully financed and built. Experience in recent nuclear projects confirms that nuclear power will not cease to be a viable option due to a worldwide financing constraint. For financing nuclear plants there are special considerations: large investment; long lead and construction times; complex technology; regulatory risk and political risk. The principal preconditions to financing are a national policy supporting nuclear power; creditworthiness; economic competitiveness; project feasibility; assurance of adequate revenues; acceptability of risks; and no open-ended liabilities. Generally, nuclear power plants are financed conventionally through multi-sources, where a package covers the entire cost. The first source, the investor/owner/operator responsible for building and operating the plant, should cover a sizable portion of the overall investment. In addition, bond issues, domestic bank credits etc. and, in case of State-owned or controlled enterprises, donations and credits from public entities or the governmental budget, should complete the financing. A financially sound utility should be able to meet this challenge. For importing technology, bids are invited. Export credits should form the basis of foreign financing, because these have favorable terms and conditions. Suppliers from several countries may join in a consortium subdividing the scope of supply and involve several Export Credit Agencies (ECAs). There are also innovative financing approaches that could be applied to nuclear projects. Evolutionary Reactors with smaller overall investment, shorter construction times, reliance on proven technology, together with predictable regulatory regimes and reliable long-term national policies favorable to nuclear power, should make it easier to meet the future challenges of financing. (author)

  14. Minimum Energy Requirements in Complex Distillation Arrangements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halvorsen, Ivar J.

    2001-07-01

    Distillation is the most widely used industrial separation technology and distillation units are responsible for a significant part of the total heat consumption in the world's process industry. In this work we focus on directly (fully thermally) coupled column arrangements for separation of multicomponent mixtures. These systems are also denoted Petlyuk arrangements, where a particular implementation is the dividing wall column. Energy savings in the range of 20-40% have been reported with ternary feed mixtures. In addition to energy savings, such integrated units have also a potential for reduced capital cost, making them extra attractive. However, the industrial use has been limited, and difficulties in design and control have been reported as the main reasons. Minimum energy results have only been available for ternary feed mixtures and sharp product splits. This motivates further research in this area, and this thesis will hopefully give some contributions to better understanding of complex column systems. In the first part we derive the general analytic solution for minimum energy consumption in directly coupled columns for a multicomponent feed and any number of products. To our knowledge, this is a new contribution in the field. The basic assumptions are constant relative volatility, constant pressure and constant molar flows and the derivation is based on Underwood's classical methods. An important conclusion is that the minimum energy consumption in a complex directly integrated multi-product arrangement is the same as for the most difficult split between any pair of the specified products when we consider the performance of a conventional two-product column. We also present the Vmin-diagram, which is a simple graphical tool for visualisation of minimum energy related to feed distribution. The Vmin-diagram provides a simple mean to assess the detailed flow requirements for all parts of a complex directly coupled arrangement. The main purpose in the first part of the thesis has been to present a complete theory of minimum energy in directly coupled columns, not a design procedure for engineering purposes. Thus, our focus has been on the basic theory and on verification and analysis of the new results. However, based on these results, it is straightforward to develop design procedures including rigorous computations for real feed mixtures without the idealized assumptions used to deduce the analytic results. In part 2 we focus on optimization of operation, and in particular the concept of self-optimizing control. We consider a process where we have more degrees of freedom than are consumed by the product specifications. The remaining unconstrained degrees of freedom are used to optimize the operation, given by some scalar cost criterion. In addition there will in practice always be unknown disturbances, model uncertainty and uncertainty in measurements and implementation of manipulated inputs, which makes it impossible to precalculate and implement the optimal control inputs accurately. The main idea is to achieve self-optimizing control by turning the optimization problem into a constant setpoint problem. The issue is then to find (if possible) a set of variables, which when kept at their setpoints, indirectly ensures optimal operation. We have used the ternary Petlyuk arrangement to illustrate the concept. It is a quite challenging case where the potential energy savings may easily be lost if we do not manage to keep the manipulated inputs at their optimal values, and the optimum is strongly affected by changes in feed composition and column performance. This also applies to the best control structure selection, and we believe that the reported difficulties in control are really a control structure problem (the task of selecting the best variables to control and the best variables to manipulate). In this analysis we present in detail the properties of the Petlyuk arrangement, and show how important characteristics depend on the feed properties and product purity. We have used finite stage-by-stage mod

  15. Dynamics of Conduit Flow and Fragmentation of Trachytic Versus Rhyolitic Eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papale, P.; Giordano, D.; del Seppia, D.; Romano, C.; Dingwell, D. B.

    We have performed a systematic investigation of the dynamics of ascent and fragmen- tation of trachitic magmas from Phlegrean Fields, and have compared such dynamics with those of the more common and more thoroughly investigated rhyolitic eruptions. The investigation involved experimental as well as numerical studies. Knowledge of the viscosity of trachytic magmas is crucial, since viscosity is one of the most im- portant controlling factors in magma ascent dynamics. We have performed a series of measurements of the dry and hydrous viscosity of trachytic liquids representative of the glassy portion of pumice from the Campanian Ignimbrite, Agnano Monte Spina, and Monte Nuovo eruptions of Phlegrean Fields, spanning a time interval from 36,000 BP to 1538 AD, and an intensity range of about 4 orders of magnitude. The results show that for water contents larger than 1-2 wt% trachytic viscosities are within one order of magnitude less than rhyolitic viscosities. On the contrary, the calculated sol- ubility of water in trachytic liquids is significantly higher than in rhyolitic liquids. We have simulated the steady, multiphase flow of gas and liquid magma, or pyro- clasts above fragmentation, for trachytic and rhyolitic compositions, by parameteris- ing quantities like the total water content and the conduit size. All else being equal, the higher water solubility of trachytes and substantially similar liquid viscosity with respect to rhyolites yields a lower mixture viscosity and lower pressure gradient in the deep conduit region for the former magma type. This results in the achievement of fragmentation conditions, calculated as the condition at which the strain rate in magma becomes too large to be supported by viscous flow, which are hundreds to thousands of meters higher in the conduit for trachytes than for rhyolites. The fragmentation vesic- ularity of trachytes is also systematically larger than that of rhyolites, still remaining in the 0.6 U 0.85 range which is typical of pumice from magmatic eruptions through- out the world. In spite of such large differences in the internal conduit dynamics, the conduit exit conditions are remarkably similar for the two magma types (all other conditions being equal), according to the similar large scale features of rhyolitic and trachytic explosive eruptions. Finally, despite the lower magma viscosity of trachytes with respect to rhyolites, the delayed fragmentation and longer high-viscosity bubbly flow region of the former can result in larger overall mechanical energy dissipation by viscous forces, and lower mass flow rates for trachitic than for rhyolitic eruptions.

  16. Using ballistic bombs at Pichincha volcano, Ecuador as a proxy for conduit dynamics in Vulcanian eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, H.; Rosi, M.; Cioni, R.; Cashman, K.

    2003-04-01

    Vulcanian eruptions are perhaps the most common style of eruptive activity at intermediate composition volcanoes, as they often precede and/or follow much larger Plinian events. Vulcanian eruptions occur in energetic, short-duration pulses and eject relatively small amounts of material. However, although each pulse has been inferred to represent the ejection of a shallow conduit plug, the dynamics and mechanics of vulcanian eruptions are not well understood; the character of the material that is ejected, the amount of erupted material, the pressurization conditions preceding eruption, and the maximum depth that these eruptions tap are unresolved questions. To address conditions leading to Vulcanian eruptions, we are studying ballistic bombs ejected from the 1999-2000 vulcanian eruptions at Guagua Pichincha volcano, Ecuador. Bomb types range from dense to highly vesicular, with many exhibiting the breadcrusting that is ubiquitous in Vulcanian deposits. Clast morphology varies with clast density, with slightly vesicular bombs having thick, glassy crusts with widely spaced cracks, while more vesicular bombs have thinner crusts and more closely spaced crack patterns. We suggest that the wide range of clast types may represent the stratigraphy of the uppermost conduit prior to each eruptive event, with denser blocks representing more degassed magma from near the top of the pre-eruptive conduit plug and more vesicular blocks representing deeper, less degassed levels in the conduit. Quantification of both the breadcrust crack structures (e.g. crack orientation, density of the rind, and crack spacing) and the interior porosity and permeability of each bomb type allows us to examine the thermal, vesiculation and expansion history of the erupted material. Different breadcrust types experienced variable degrees of expansion. For example, the volume expansion of the most vesicular clast is ~6% based on the relationship between crack volume and total bomb volume, whereas the volume expansion of the densest clast is over 23%. Comparison of interior and exterior vesicularities suggests that a permeable network may have formed to allow escape of volatiles from the interior of the bombs, after the initial cracks formed. Additionally, several bombs preserve different breadcrusting styles on different bomb faces. These unusual bombs may have formed an initial surface fracture set before impacting the ground, at which time they split into 2 pieces and subsequently formed a separate fracture pattern on the newly exposed surface. These different patterns suggest varied cooling histories for each phase of the eruption, supporting the inference that vesiculation continued after emplacement. These ballistic bombs thus provide an opportunity to look at the pre-eruptive stratigraphy and ejection history of conduit material in a Vulcanian eruption.

  17. A stability analysis of a conduit flow model for lava dome eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, M.; Koyaguchi, T.

    2008-11-01

    Periodic variations in magma discharge rate and ground deformation have been commonly observed during lava dome eruptions. We performed a stability analysis of a conduit flow model by Barmin et al. [Barmin, A., Melnik, O., Sparks, R.S.J., 2002. Periodic behavior in lava dome eruptions. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 199 (1-2), 173-184], in which the periodic variations in magma flow rate and chamber pressure are reproduced as a result of the temporal and spatial changes of the magma viscosity controlled by the kinetics of crystallization. The model is reduced to a dynamical system where the time derivatives of the magma flow rate ( dQ/ dt) and the chamber pressure ( dP/ dt) are functions of Q and P evaluated at a shifted time t - t *. Here, the time delay t* represents the time for the viscosity of fluid particle to increase in a conduit. The dynamical system with time delay is approximated by a simple two-dimensional dynamical system of Q and P where t* is given as a parameter. The results of our linear stability analyses for these dynamical systems indicate that the transition from steady to periodic flow depends on nonlinearities in the steady state relation between Q and P. The steady state relation shows a sigmoidal curve in Q - P phase plane; its slope has negative values at intermediate flow rates. The steady state solutions become unstable, and hence P and Q oscillate periodically, when the negative slope of the steady state relation ([ dP/ dQ] S) exceeds a critical value; that is [ dP/ dQ] S < - t*?/(2 Vch), where Vch is the chamber volume and ? is an elastic constant which is related to the rigidity of chamber wall. We also found that the period and the pattern of oscillation of the conduit flow primarily depend on a quantity defined by LVch/ r4, where L is the conduit length and r is the conduit radius.

  18. Linking conduit and surface activity at Arenal volcano using broadband seismometers and Doppler radar: do we need a new conduit model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valade, S.; Donnadieu, F. R.; Lesage, P.; Mora Fernandez, M.; Harris, A. J.; Alvarado, G. E.

    2010-12-01

    We carried out a cross-correlation of broadband seismic data and ground-based Doppler radar data obtained at Arenal (Costa Rica) in February 2005. Our aim was to gain insight into the subsurface source processes (i.e., fragmentation mechanisms operating in the shallow conduit system) and the subsequent pyroclastic emissions (i.e., plume mass loading and ascent dynamics) that characterize the transitory, mildly explosive activity at Arenal. Study of the radar and seismic waveforms revealed a non-systematic relationship between them, both exhibiting a large variety of behaviors and features, but no clear patterns could be distinguished. Pyroclastic emissions recorded by the radar also did not have a unique seismic signature: 44% of radar signals were found in association with explosion-type seismic events, 43% during episodes of tremor, and 13% during aseismic intervals. Over longer time-scales, radar event amplitudes showed no correlation with the seismic energy release rate (RSEM), nor with RSAM, nor with repose time intervals. Energy proxies obtained from coeval radar (plume energy) and seismic (explosion energy) data show significant scattering, indicating that the ratio of the seismic/radar energy was highly variable. Plume mass-loading and exit velocity thus seems only weakly correlated to the seismic energy generated by the explosion, suggesting that the seismic energy might not be a good indicator of the intensity of explosions at Arenal. The occurrence of radar echoes in different range gates indicates that several vents were active, which is consistent with the clarinet-model for tremor generation at Arenal (Lesage et al., 2006), in which fractures in the plug act as valves that control degassing, with multiple conduits explaining the occurrence of different sets of harmonic frequencies in seismic data. Fragmentation is best explained by pressure build-up below a plug obstructing the conduit. This, when a resistance threshold is overcome, fails and yields sudden decompression, allowing gas bubbles in the magma to rapidly expand and fragment the viscous host magma. Nevertheless, this model fails to explain the full spectrum of activity, recorded signals, and seismo/radar energy partitioning. Variable source depth may, though, cause variation in elastic energy radiation, and variable fragmentation mechanisms may explain varying seismic signals associated with the emissions. It is possible that non-linear, inter- and time-dependent, processes explain unstable dynamic systems such as Arenal, and are required to trigger transitions from one fragmentation mechanism to another.

  19. Do SMEs follow Pecking Order Financing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartholdy, Jan; Mateus, Cèsario

    This paper tests for "pecking order" financing of small and medium size firms. The main sources and "pecking order" of financing for SMEs are equity (internally generated cash), trade credit paid on time, credit provided by institutions such as banks and leasing companies, other sources of debt and delayed payment on trade credit. The "pecking order" of financing is driven by the costs of asymmetric information (cost of gathering and analysing information) and financial distress costs. Empirical tests do not confirm that SMEs follow a pecking order.

  20. Energy investments and ways of financing them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy investments to be financed within the framework of the Federal Republic's energy programme require a growing proportion of external financing. The lending possibilities here are, however, also bound to the general regulations of the financial system where the credit solvency of the borrower, i.e. the earnings of the electricity industry, is a major criterion. Considering the promising market situation of the electricity industry, an elevation of the present credit line and a relaxation of the demands made on the balance relations should be justifiable, as even in this case the problems of financing cannot be solved by the exclusive application of conventional methods. (orig./AK)

  1. Sealing arrangement with annular flexible disc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluid sealing arrangements including an annular shaped flexible disc having enlarged edges disposed within channel-shaped annular receptacles which are spaced from one another. The receptacles form an annular region for contacting and containing the enlarged edges of the disc, and the disc is preloaded to a conical configuration. The disc is flexibly and movably supported within the receptacles so that unevenly distributed relative motion between the components containing the receptacles is accommodated without loss of sealing contact between the edges of the disc and the walls of the receptacles

  2. The Monodromy Conjecture for hyperplane arrangements

    OpenAIRE

    Budur, Nero; Mustata, Mircea; Teitler, Zach

    2009-01-01

    The Monodromy Conjecture asserts that if c is a pole of the local topological zeta function of a hypersurface, then exp(2\\pi i c) is an eigenvalue of the monodromy on the cohomology of the Milnor fiber. A stronger version of the conjecture asserts that every pole is a root of the Bernstein-Sato polynomial of the hypersurface. In this note we prove the weak version of the conjecture for hyperplane arrangements. Furthermore, we reduce the strong version to the following conjec...

  3. Monitoring arrangement for vented nuclear fuel elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campana, Robert J. (Solana Beach, CA)

    1981-01-01

    In a nuclear fuel reactor core, fuel elements are arranged in a closely packed hexagonal configuration, each fuel element having diametrically opposed vents permitting 180.degree. rotation of the fuel elements to counteract bowing. A grid plate engages the fuel elements and forms passages for communicating sets of three, four or six individual vents with respective monitor lines in order to communicate vented radioactive gases from the fuel elements to suitable monitor means in a manner readily permitting detection of leakage in individual fuel elements.

  4. A regional arrangement proposal for the UNASUR

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fernando, Ferrari-Filho.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the current process of economic integration in South America. Thus, concentrating our attention on the UNASUR regional integration process, two questions arise: First, is UNASUR the most viable institution to achieve a consistent economic integration process in South America? Se [...] cond, what model of economic integration should be adopted in the case of UNASUR, which would ensure macroeconomic stability and avoid financial and exchange rate crises in the South America? To answer these questions, the article proposes, based on the Keynes (1944/1980)'s revolutionary analysis presented in his International Clearing Union, during the Bretton Woods Conference in 1944, a regional arrangement to UNASUR.

  5. Revised criticality emergency arrangements at UKAEA Dounreay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, G.; Rankine, A. [UKAEA, Dounreay, Thurso, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2000-05-01

    The UKAEA's Dounreay site in the North of Scotland has been in operation for over 40 years pioneering R and D in the fast reactor fuel cycle. With this programme completed the UKAEA is now undertaking a programme of work to restore the environment of the site for future generations. As the Nuclear Site Licensee, UKAEA is required to prepare and demonstrate the adequacy of the Site Emergency Arrangements. The storage and handling of fissile material on the site could give rise to a criticality if operations are inadequately controlled. As a part of our ongoing continuous improvement programme, a complete review of the plan for such an incident was instigated to ensure that it meets with best practice as we embark on our decommissioning programme. This led to a new set of arrangements based on the concept of STARBURST, which in essence requires a rapid evacuation of staff from any possible source of a criticality event. The evacuation and egress through a security fence adds an additional challenge and as does the existence of several possible sources of the initiating event. The actual routes taken were optimised to reduce dose uptake and a software package was utilised to undertake crowd modelling to ensure that the exists in the fence were appropriately placed and sized. Two buildings were carefully selected and adapted to act as Criticality Evacuation Centres having been assessed for their ability to provide adequate shelter and shielding for several hundred staff. Portable lead shield was designed and manufactured to allow for the immediate assessment of criticality lockets. The methodology of how best to process staff through the Criticality Evacuation Centres was keenly debated and tried. It proved most effective to monitor and assess staff who were close to the 'incident' building with confirmatory reassurance monitoring for other staff being undertaken when resource could be released. The need to prioritise and rank potentially exposed staff is recognised and was simplified using a nonogram. The STARBURST arrangements were successfully demonstrated to the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate in April 1999. These revised arrangements are now in line with the best practice in the industry and well suited for our future requirements. (author)

  6. Revised criticality emergency arrangements at UKAEA Dounreay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The UKAEA's Dounreay site in the North of Scotland has been in operation for over 40 years pioneering R and D in the fast reactor fuel cycle. With this programme completed the UKAEA is now undertaking a programme of work to restore the environment of the site for future generations. As the Nuclear Site Licensee, UKAEA is required to prepare and demonstrate the adequacy of the Site Emergency Arrangements. The storage and handling of fissile material on the site could give rise to a criticality if operations are inadequately controlled. As a part of our ongoing continuous improvement programme, a complete review of the plan for such an incident was instigated to ensure that it meets with best practice as we embark on our decommissioning programme. This led to a new set of arrangements based on the concept of STARBURST, which in essence requires a rapid evacuation of staff from any possible source of a criticality event. The evacuation and egress through a security fence adds an additional challenge and as does the existence of several possible sources of the initiating event. The actual routes taken were optimised to reduce dose uptake and a software package was utilised to undertake crowd modelling to ensure that the exists in the fence were appropriately placed and sized. Two buildings were carefully selected and adapted to act as Criticality Evacuation Centres having been assessed for their ability to provide adequate shelter and shielding for several hundred staff. and shielding for several hundred staff. Portable lead shield was designed and manufactured to allow for the immediate assessment of criticality lockets. The methodology of how best to process staff through the Criticality Evacuation Centres was keenly debated and tried. It proved most effective to monitor and assess staff who were close to the 'incident' building with confirmatory reassurance monitoring for other staff being undertaken when resource could be released. The need to prioritise and rank potentially exposed staff is recognised and was simplified using a nonogram. The STARBURST arrangements were successfully demonstrated to the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate in April 1999. These revised arrangements are now in line with the best practice in the industry and well suited for our future requirements. (author)

  7. Jet spoiler arrangement for wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyrus, J. D.; Kablec, E. G.; Klimas, P. C.

    1983-09-01

    An air jet spoiler arrangement is provided for a Darrieus-type vertical axis wind-powered turbine. Air is drawn into hollow turbine blades through air inlets at the end thereof and is ejected in the form of air jets through small holes or openings provided along the lengths of the blades. The air jets create flow separation at the surfaces of the turbine blades, thereby including stal conditions and reducing the output power. A feedback control unit senses the power output of the turbine and controls the amount of air drawn into the air inlets accordingly.

  8. Effectiveness, Teaching, and Assessments: Survey Evidence from Finance Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ming Ming; Kwan, Jing Hui; Kadir, Hazlina Abdul; Abdullah, Mahdhir; Yap, Voon Choong

    2010-01-01

    The present article examines the effectiveness, teaching, assessment methods, and the importance of finance concepts in three undergraduate finance courses in a private university in Malaysia. Approximately 224 undergraduates (finance majors) were surveyed and demonstrated positive attitudes toward the effectiveness of the finance subjects. The…

  9. 12 CFR 980.6 - Finance Board consent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Finance Board consent. 980.6 Section 980.6 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD NEW FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK ACTIVITIES... NEW BUSINESS ACTIVITIES § 980.6 Finance Board consent. The Finance Board...

  10. 12 CFR 995.9 - Reports to the Finance Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Reports to the Finance Board. 995.9 Section 995.9 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD NON-BANK SYSTEM ENTITIES...OPERATIONS § 995.9 Reports to the Finance Board. The Financing...

  11. 46 CFR 108.525 - Survival craft number and arrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Survival craft number and arrangement. 108.525...A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Lifesaving Equipment § 108.525 Survival craft number and arrangement. (a)...

  12. 29 CFR 780.126 - Contract arrangements for raising poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Contract arrangements for raising poultry. 780.126 Section...General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.126 Contract arrangements for raising poultry. Feed...

  13. 37 CFR 1.77 - Arrangement of application elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Arrangement of application elements. 1.77 Section 1.77... Arrangement of application elements. (a) The elements of the application, if applicable...Sequence Listing,” a table, or a computer program...

  14. 33 CFR 157.11 - Pumping, piping and discharge arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pumping, piping and discharge arrangements. 157.11 Section...BULK Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.11 Pumping, piping and discharge arrangements. (a) Each...

  15. 48 CFR 2001.104-2 - Arrangement of the regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 true Arrangement of the regulations. 2001.104-2 Section 2001.104-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System...REGULATION SYSTEM Purpose, Authority, Issuance 2001.104-2 Arrangement of the regulations....

  16. 48 CFR 2001.104-1 - Publication and code arrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 true Publication and code arrangement. 2001.104-1 Section 2001.104-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System...REGULATION SYSTEM Purpose, Authority, Issuance 2001.104-1 Publication and code arrangement....

  17. 49 CFR 215.127 - Defective draft arrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Defective draft arrangement. 215.127 Section 215.127 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...STANDARDS Freight Car Components Draft System § 215.127 Defective draft arrangement. A railroad may...

  18. UK nuclear terrorism insurance arrangements: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The risk of terrorism in the UK is not new, but since the New York World Trade Centre attacks in 2001, the potential scale of any terrorist attack has required a considerable reassessment. With UK foreign policy closely aligned to that of the USA, the UK security services now consider it is simply a matter of when and no longer if the UK is attacked. For insurers of any type this fact would cause concern; for insurers involved in high profile and potentially catastrophic loss targets such as nuclear power plants, any attack could have a severe impact on solvency and shareholder's funds. This paper's objective is to describe the terrorism insurance arrangements put in place in the U.K. both before and after the September 2001 attacks. These arrangements have been designed both to safeguard insurers' solvency and to ensure that the nuclear industry and general public can continue to be reassured by the availability of insurance should an attack ever occur.(author)

  19. Modelling skeletal muscle fibre orientation arrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y T; Zhu, H X; Richmond, S; Middleton, J

    2011-12-01

    Skeletal muscle tissues have complex geometries. In addition, the complex fibre orientation arrangement makes it quite difficult to create an accurate finite element muscle model. There are many possible ways to specify the complex fibre orientations in a finite element model, for example defining a local element coordinate system. In this paper, an alternative method using ABAQUS, which is combination of the finite element method and the non-uniform rational B-spline solid representation, is proposed to calculate the initial fibre orientations. The initial direction of each muscle fibre is specified as the tangent direction of the NURBS curve which the fibre lies on, and the directions of the deformed fibres are calculated from the initial fibre directions, the deformation gradients and the fibre stretch ratios. Several examples are presented to demonstrate the ability of the proposed method. Results show that the proposed method is able to characterise both the muscle complex fibre orientation arrangement and its complex mechanical response. PMID:20924862

  20. Roots of characteristic polynomials and intersection points of line arrangements

    OpenAIRE

    Abe, Takuro

    2013-01-01

    We study a relation between roots of characteristic polynomials and intersection points of line arrangements. Using these results, we obtain a lot of applications for line arrangements. Namely, we give (i) a generalized addition theorem for line arrangements, (ii) a generalization of Faenzi-Vall\\`{e}s' theorem over a field of arbitrary characteristic, (iii) a partial result on the conjecture of Terao of line arrangements, and (iv) a new sufficient condition for freeness over...

  1. ANALYSIS OF MECHANISMS FINANCING OF CULTURAL SPHERE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costandachi Gheorghe

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work is made analysis concern basically state structures of culture and arts activities, is describes the problems are met during the reforming process the financial mechanisms in cultural sphere. Author disclosed the ways evolve private and estate financing cultural sphere, also is disclosed why is need estate financial support. The work contains something detailed measures actions to improve financial and mechanisms financing of cultural sphere. Analyzing questions of modernization of budgetary financing of branch the author have formulated effectiveness of use of budgetary funds at all levels in cultural structures and proposed the ways of finishing of market reforms in cinematography. In the final of work is presented scheme system of financing, formation and distribution of financial resources in cinematography and is making conclusions and is offered wais of the solutions created present situation in this sphere in Moldova.

  2. Development of the Executive Personal Finance Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinella, Marcello; Yang, Bijou; Lester, David

    2007-03-01

    There is accumulating evidence that prefrontal systems play an important role in management of personal finances, based on studies using clinical populations, functional neuroimaging, and both subjective and objective neuropsychological measures. This study developed the Executive Personal Finance Scale (EPFS) as a specific self-rating measure of executive aspects of personal money management. The resulting 20-item scale had good reliability and showed four factors: impulse control, organization, planning, and motivational drive. Validity was evidenced by correlations with income, credit card debt, and investments. The EPFS also showed logical correlations with compulsive buying and money attitudes. Second-order factor analysis of the EPFS and other scales revealed two higher-order factors of personal finance: cognitive (e.g., planning, organizing) and emotional (e.g., anxiety, impulse-spending, prestige). The EPFS shows good psychometric properties, is easy to use, and will make a convenient complement to other research methodologies exploring the neural basis of personal finance management. PMID:17365116

  3. Financing strategy for Indonesian Nuclear Power Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In anticipation of the introduction in the early 2000s of a nuclear power plant, the Government of Indonesia (GOI), through the National Atomic Energy Agency (BATAN) , has formulated a Bid Invitation Specification (BIS) in parallel with the completion of the NPP Feasibility Study. This BIS formulation assumed an open international tender for the first unit of the NPP with project financing as a conventional loan. The GOI's recent policy is to minimize government financial support for power development. This paper summarizes a financing strategy for the Indonesian NPP project to make the NPP economically viable, and provides a general discussion on project financing using a conventional approach, Build--Own-Operate (BOO) and a counter-purchase approach. Innovative approaches for financing are still being pursued in order to obtain an optimum solution for investors and owners, to fulfill the Indonesian government's requirements. (author)

  4. Behavioral Finances versus Technical and Fundamental Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Stancu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the field of modern finance has progressed impressively, it is still hard to explain on a scientific basis why people behave nonrationally when dealing with money. The classic finance assumes people rationalize and optimize their financial decisions. Behavioral Finance adds the importance of what investors should do and complements the mantra of classic finance with what people actually do, in terms of economic decisions. The new field of Neuroeconomy investigates the subtle and profound interactions within the human brain when faced with uncertainties of an economic decision. The most basic psychological traits of human being (fear, anger, greed and altruism stamp an indelible mark on our decisions about money. The intellect (understanding a situation, reason (long term consequences of the contemplated action and emotion (the judge of the course of action are all intercorrelated resorts behind human decision making.

  5. Education and the Private Finance Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griggs, Clive

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the development of Private Finance Initiative schemes in the United Kingdom, and reflects on how profitable opportunities for private financiers and construction companies were created at the expense of the public sector. (Contains 72 notes.)

  6. 7 CFR 1738.19 - Facilities financed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...finance the following items: (1) Customer terminal equipment (including modems...been designed and constructed to RUS' satisfaction. See RUS' Bulletins 1738-1 and...funds under this part regardless of the definition of broadband service at the time...

  7. Other ways of financing your company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldag, Jörn; Kessel, Mark; Ibrahim, Adrian; Hill, Ray; McCubbin, Paul

    2008-02-01

    The public markets aren't what they used to be and venture capitalists are seeking investments with shorter timelines. But the good news is several new sources of financing are becoming available. PMID:18273945

  8. 20 CFR 725.705 - Arrangements for medical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arrangements for medical care. 725.705 Section...Vocational Rehabilitation § 725.705 Arrangements for medical care. (a) Operator...of such designation; (3) Make arrangements for the direct reimbursement of...

  9. 40 CFR 265.37 - Arrangements with local authorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Arrangements with local authorities. 265.37...Preparedness and Prevention § 265.37 Arrangements with local authorities. (a) The...operator must attempt to make the following arrangements, as appropriate for the type...

  10. 40 CFR 264.37 - Arrangements with local authorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Arrangements with local authorities. 264.37...Preparedness and Prevention § 264.37 Arrangements with local authorities. (a) The...operator must attempt to make the following arrangements, as appropriate for the type...

  11. 29 CFR 1630.6 - Contractual or other arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Contractual or other arrangements. 1630.6 Section 1630.6 Labor... § 1630.6 Contractual or other arrangements. (a) In general. It is unlawful...participate in a contractual or other arrangement or relationship that has the...

  12. MICRO FINANCE – AN ANTI POVERTY VACCINE FOR RURAL INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Nithya Kala, K.; Vidya Kala, K.; Poornima, S.

    2011-01-01

    Micro- finance interventions are well-recognized world over as aneffective tool for poverty alleviation and improving socioeconomic status of rural poor.In India too, micro- finance is making headway in its effort for reducing poverty andempowering rural women. The need of micro finance arises because the rural Indiarequires sources of finance for poverty alleviation, procurement of agricultural and farms inputs.Micro finance is a programme to support the poor rural people to pay its debt and...

  13. Infrastructure finance in Europe: Composition, evolution and crisis impact

    OpenAIRE

    Wagenvoort, Rien; Nicola, Carlo; Kappeler, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    This article is the first attempt to compile comprehensive data on infrastructure finance in Europe. We decompose infrastructure finance by institutional sector (i.e. public versus private) into its main components, which consist of traditionalpublic procurement, project finance and finance by the corporate sector, and analyse how the roles of the public and private sectors in financing infrastructure have evolved over time, especially during the recent economic and financial crisis. In contr...

  14. 'Show me the money': energy projects financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the business and business model of Corpfinance International (CFI). CFI consists of three businesses: structured financing, private equity/corporate finance advisory and securitization. Furthermore, CFI is the lender of record acting on behalf of and based on strong relationship with various Life Insurance Companies, Pension Funds and International Banks. CFI has in-house expertise in support of its lending advisory and investing activities

  15. Finance in the Theory of Business Cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Indrajit, Mallick

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The question of aggregate welfare over time makes business cycle studies important. Finance studies allocation of resources under uncertainty. Thus both these fields of study dwell on intertemporal resource allocation under uncertainty. This paper attempts to shed light on how finance can be integrated into business cycle theory to provide richer and deeper insights than the standard real business cycle theory. JEL Classification: E32, E44, G

  16. Development of Local Public Finance in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Friedrich, Peter; Gwiazda, Joanna; Nam, Chang Woon

    2003-01-01

    This paper investigates the development of local public finance in Germany, Switzerland, Poland and the United Kingdom. In this context important characteristics of municipal expenditures and revenues are examined in these countries. Differences in government structure (i.e. unitary or federal) do not appear to have a crucial role for municipal finance. The ways to protect local fiscal autonomy are discussed in the framework of the vertical fiscal equalisation system. In particular the applic...

  17. Financing economic activity: Schumpeter vs Keynes

    OpenAIRE

    Nasica, Eric

    2002-01-01

    In this paper I compare Schumpeter's and Keynes' views on the financing of economic activity. As will be seen, both economists share common ideas about the working and financing of market economies. In particular, both Keynes and Schumpeter reject the classical notions of the neutrality of money and the dichotomy of the real and the monetary sector, emphasising instead the role of monetary and financial variables in their respective explanations of economic fluctuations (section 1). However, ...

  18. Financing higher education in a mobile world

    OpenAIRE

    Demange, Gabrielle; Fenge, Robert; Uebelmesser, Silke

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes how integrated labor markets affect the financing of higher education. For this, we employ a general-equilibrium model with overlapping generations and individuals who differ in their abilities. At the first stage, governments can choose the quality of education and the financing system. At the second stage, individuals make their education and migration decisions given the governmental framework for higher education and the mobility assumptions. In a closed economy and in...

  19. Financing Higher Education: a contributory education scheme

    OpenAIRE

    Flacher, David; Harari-kermadec, Hugo; Moulin, Le?onard

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we study the higher education financing based on the classical contributory versus self-funded pension funding scheme. We provide a brief discussion of how a system based on student debt can be seen 'funded' and why it fails to ensure equity and efficiency and funding for the longer term. We also define a contributory financing scheme for higher education based on income tax and social security contributions, and study its strengths and weaknesses. By contributory, we mean a sc...

  20. Financing options for small hydro projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Examples and techniques used to enhance the ability to finance small hydro projects, or to finance them in non-standard ways, were discussed. It was suggested that factors that motivate investors, namely the maximization of the rate of return on capital, and minimization of risk, should be the primary concern for any would-be developer. A responsible, conservative approach to financial projections was recommended as the best to impress potential investors