WorldWideScience
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Concept mapping: an effective instructional strategy for diet therapy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Concept mapping is an instructional strategy that requires learners to identify, graphically display, and link key concepts in instructional reading material. Although proven effective in numerous disciplines as a means to promote critical thinking and self-directed learning, concept mapping has not been tested in diet therapy. The objective of this study was to implement concept mapping as a small-group, cooperative learning strategy in an upper-division diet therapy course and to evaluate student attitudes about the effect of concept mapping on knowledge, self-directed learning, problem-solving, and collaborative skills. Students in the first semester (n = 27) initially learned course material by lecture (4 weeks) followed by an integrated mapping/lecture format (12 weeks); the second semester (n = 25) used an integrated mapping lecture format for the full 16 weeks. At the end of both semesters, students completed a 10-item original survey questionnaire. Responses for first (n = 25) and second (n = 21) semesters were analyzed independently. Results indicated that a majority of students thought participation in concept mapping enhanced knowledge of diet therapy principles (n = 19 of 25; 18 of 21), self-directed learning (n = 14 of 25; 18 of 21), critical thinking (n = 21 of 25; 14 of 21), problem-solving (n = 22 of 25; 16 of 21), and collaboration (n = 24 of 25; 20 of 21) skills. When noncooperation of teammates was a factor, concept mapping was viewed as more frustrating and time consuming than lecture. This study demonstrated concept mapping as an effective learning strategy for diet therapy; it improves students' ability to engage in self-directed learning, critical thinking, collaboration, and creative problem solving. Results suggest that concept mapping is most effective when accompanied with comprehensive training, coordinated lectures, instructor guidance, and long-term practice. PMID:7636083

Roberts, C M; Sucher, K; Perrin, D G; Rodriguez, S

1995-08-01

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Teaching with Concept Mapping Instructional Strategy in Nigeria Secondary Schools  

OpenAIRE

The research investigates the effects of teaching with Concept Mapping instructional strategies on learning achievement in Nigerian Secondary Schools. The study adopts the Quasi-Experimental Research design. The population consists of a sample of 168 Senior Secondary School Class-two Physics students specifically selected from Senior Secondary Schools across Ekiti State, Nigeria. The Instrument used consists of two parts: (a). a Motion Concept Map developed for the research study and; (b). pr...

Kenni, A. M.; Rotimi, C. O.; Simpson Akeju, O. O.

2011-01-01

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Effects of Concept Mapping Strategy on Learning Performance in Business and Economics Statistics  

Science.gov (United States)

A concept map (CM) is a hierarchically arranged, graphic representation of the relationships among concepts. Concept mapping (CMING) is the process of constructing a CM. This paper examines whether a CMING strategy can be useful in helping students to improve their learning performance in a business and economics statistics course. A single…

Chiou, Chei-Chang

2009-01-01

4

Effects of a Computer-Assisted Concept Mapping Learning Strategy on EFL College Students' English Reading Comprehension  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of a computer-assisted concept mapping learning strategy on EFL college learners' English reading comprehension. The research questions were: (1) what was the influence of the computer-assisted concept mapping learning strategy on different learners' English reading comprehension? (2) did…

Liu, Pei-Lin; Chen, Chiu-Jung; Chang, Yu-Ju

2010-01-01

5

Mapping Strategies  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of using two visual while-reading strategies, knowledge-mapping (KM) and underlining, on the performance of intermediate students learning English as a Foreign Language (EFL) in multiple-choice reading comprehension tests. In doing so, 60 Iranian intermediate EFL students were selected from a…

Hayati, A. Majid; Shariatifar, Sadegh

2009-01-01

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Collaborative Concept Mapping as a Pre-Writing Strategy for L2 Learning: A Korean Application  

OpenAIRE

This study aimed at examining the use of concept mapping technique in a course module for Korean language learning with U.S. college students, who were prompted to engage in collaborative writing planning. The study assumed that concept mapping enhances students’ communicative interaction to promote their L2 writing. One hundred and twenty-three participants were recruited from three different proficiency level classes (beginning, intermediate, and advanced classes). Data were collected dur...

Yongjin Lee

2013-01-01

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Comparative Effectiveness of Hierarchical, Flowchart and Spider Concept Mapping Strategies on Students’ Performance in Chemistry  

OpenAIRE

This study investigated the relative effectiveness of three types of concept maps (hierarchy, flowchart and spider) on the performance of students in Chemistry. This is with a view to find out which of the concept mapping types is more superior in enhancing students’ performance in the numerical aspect of Chemistry. The pre-test, post-test experimental design was used for the study. The population for the study comprised of all the Chemistry students in Senior Secondary School in Osun State...

Bamidele, E. F.; Oloyede, E. O.

2013-01-01

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Using progressive concept maps as a strategy for teaching and learning in teacher education in Biology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents a study carried out with Biology teachers under training, and aimed at investigating how concept maps enabled meaningful learning. The work was motivated by the fact that future teachers presented difficulties learning various concepts. In this light, maps can be a valuable instrument for the diagnosis and assessment of learning, enabling better concept learning. Thus, during our pedagogical intervention, we have strived to identify the conceptual evolution of students, through the construction of concept maps before, during and after the study of a proposed theme. The qualitative analysis of the produced maps focused on the processes of teaching, learning and assessment. At this point, the goal was to investigate whether or not students were able to relate the concepts under study, according to the principles of progressive differentiation and integrative reconcilitation. This was done while searching for evidences of meaningful learning.The pedagogical intervention lasted for 45 hours (8 meetings, during which a Zoology topic, concept Elephants was studied at a State university of Brazil. The qualitative analysis of the maps created by the learners has shown, in 58% of the cases, that there was an evolution of the learners? knowledge of the theme. Obtained results suggest that maps have an efficient functional action and help improve the professional profile under formation.

Conceição Aparecida Soares Mendonça

2013-02-01

9

Identifying Multi-Level Culturally Appropriate Smoking Cessation Strategies for Aboriginal Health Staff: A Concept Mapping Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

Aboriginal Australians, including Aboriginal Health Workers (AHWs), smoke at rates double the non-Aboriginal population. This study utilized concept mapping methodology to identify and prioritize culturally relevant strategies to promote smoking cessation in AHWs. Stakeholder participants included AHWs, other health service employees and tobacco…

Dawson, Anna P.; Cargo, Margaret; Stewart, Harold; Chong, Alwin; Daniel, Mark

2013-01-01

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Collaborative Concept Mapping as a Pre-Writing Strategy for L2 Learning: A Korean Application  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aimed at examining the use of concept mapping technique in a course module for Korean language learning with U.S. college students, who were prompted to engage in collaborative writing planning. The study assumed that concept mapping enhances students’ communicative interaction to promote their L2 writing. One hundred and twenty-three participants were recruited from three different proficiency level classes (beginning, intermediate, and advanced classes. Data were collected during three writing sessions: pretest of writing, individual planning, and collaborative planning. The MANCOVA results on the five components of composition score showed that the effect of collaborative concept mapping on L2 writing significantly differed across the three class levels. The study suggested practical implications for the use of collaborative mapping tasks in L2 writing contexts.

Yongjin Lee

2013-04-01

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The Effect of Learner Constructed, Fill in the Map Concept Map Technique, and Summarizing Strategy on Iranian Pre-university Students’ Reading Comprehension  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Concept maps (CM are powerful tools which have different uses in educational contexts; however, this study limited its extension and explored its impact on the reading comprehension skill of Iranian EFL students. To this purpose, a proficiency test was employed and 90 intermediate pre-university students were chosen and divided into three groups: learner constructed CM group, fill in the map CM group, and summarizing strategy group. The whole study was conducted within three months. At the beginning of the study, a reading comprehension test (as a pre test was administered to measure the comprehension ability of the subjects. During the five-session treatment period, the assigned strategies were taught and practiced in each group. Then, another reading comprehension test (as a post test was employed to compare the effect of treatment on the comprehension skill. The results of the study showed that despite the efficacy of all three strategies, the fill in the map version of CM was the most influencing one. It suggested that in general, CM technique might be regarded as an alternative or even as an effective replacement of the summarizing strategy for reading comprehension skill.

Hassan Soleimani

2012-07-01

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Mapping SNOMED-CT Concepts to MeSH Concepts  

OpenAIRE

In clinical and research communities there is a high demand for efficient mapping of concepts between terminology sources. We have developed and implemented a successful mapping strategy of SNOMED-CT to MeSH concepts using Apelon’s TermWorks, a mapping tool based on Microsoft Excel. This poster illustrates guidelines development and testing, project implementation, and a plan for maintenance and version control.

Jacobs, Amy K.; Quinn, Theresa A.; Nelson, Stuart J.

2006-01-01

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Mapping SNOMED-CT concepts to MeSH concepts.  

Science.gov (United States)

In clinical and research communities there is a high demand for efficient mapping of concepts between terminology sources. We have developed and implemented a successful mapping strategy of SNOMED-CT to MeSH concepts using Apelon's TermWorks, a mapping tool based on Microsoft Excel. This poster illustrates guidelines development and testing, project implementation, and a plan for maintenance and version control. PMID:17238584

Jacobs, Amy K; Quinn, Theresa A; Nelson, Stuart J

2006-01-01

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Online Exhibits & Concept Maps  

Science.gov (United States)

Presenting the complexity of geosciences to the public via the Internet poses a number of challenges. For example, utilizing various - and sometimes redundant - Web 2.0 tools can quickly devour limited time. Do you tweet? Do you write press releases? Do you create an exhibit or concept map? The presentation will provide participants with a context for utilizing Web 2.0 tools by briefly highlighting methods of online scientific communication across several dimensions. It will address issues of: * breadth and depth (e.g. from narrow topics to well-rounded views), * presentation methods (e.g. from text to multimedia, from momentary to enduring), * sources and audiences (e.g. for experts or for the public, content developed by producers to that developed by users), * content display (e.g. from linear to non-linear, from instructive to entertaining), * barriers to entry (e.g. from an incumbent advantage to neophyte accessible, from amateur to professional), * cost and reach (e.g. from cheap to expensive), and * impact (e.g. the amount learned, from anonymity to brand awareness). Against this backdrop, the presentation will provide an overview of two methods of online information dissemination, exhibits and concept maps, using the WebExhibits online museum (www.webexhibits.org) and SpicyNodes information visualization tool (www.spicynodes.org) as examples, with tips on how geoscientists can use either to communicate their science. Richly interactive online exhibits can serve to engage a large audience, appeal to visitors with multiple learning styles, prompt exploration and discovery, and present a topic’s breadth and depth. WebExhibits, which was among the first online museums, delivers interactive information, virtual experiments, and hands-on activities to the public. While large, multidisciplinary exhibits on topics like “Color Vision and Art” or “Calendars Through the Ages” require teams of scholars, user interface experts, professional writers and editors, teachers, artists, and web designers, a smaller scale collaborative effort can result in an effective mini-exhibit. Online concept maps can present a large quantity of information in bite-size chunks, demonstrating interrelationships between pieces of information without inundating visitors. SpicyNodes uses radial mapping technology to enable visitors to learn about a topic or search for information in intuitive and organic ways. This online concept mapping tool can be used as a portal to invite exploration into topics, or as a means of displaying hierarchies of information. With nodes that contain text, audio, video, and links, interactive online concept maps especially engage visual, kinesthetic, and nonlinear learners. SpicyNodes is also useful for scientists who wish to complement papers, chapters, and books with an online interface that is especially appealing to nonlinear learners. Essentially, SpicyNodes shifts the burden of discovery from the reader to the author. For example, the author may create a nodemap on climate change with hundreds of nodes, but as visitors drill through the nodemap for information (e.g. from climate change to atmospheric gases to carbon dioxide), they see only a few nodes at a time and are not overwhelmed.

Douma, M.

2009-12-01

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Integrative Literature Review: Concept Mapping--A Strategy to Support the Development of Practice, Research, and Theory within Human Resource Development  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this integrative literature review is to summarize research on concept mapping and to offer ideas on how concept mapping can facilitate practice, research, and theory development within human resource development. In this review, more than 300 articles, written in both English and Spanish, presented at two different concept mapping

Daley, Barbara J.; Conceicao, Simone C. O.; Mina, Liliana; Altman, Brian A.; Baldor, Maria; Brown, James

2010-01-01

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Question Generation from Concept Maps  

OpenAIRE

In this paper we present a question generation approach suitable for tutorial dialogues. The approach is based on previous psychological theories that hypothesize questions are generated from a knowledge representation modeled as a concept map. Our model automatically extracts concept maps from a textbook and uses them to generate questions. The purpose of the study is to generate and evaluate pedagogically-appropriate questions at varying levels of specificity across one or more sentences. T...

Olney, Andrew M. University Of Memphis; Graesser, Arthur C. University Of Memphis; Person, Natalie K. Rhodes College

2012-01-01

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Marketing Strategy: Concepts And Implication  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In today's very competitive marketplace a strategy that insures a consistent approach to offering your product or service in a way that will outsell the competition is critical. However, in concert with defining the marketing strategy you must also have a well defined methodology for the day to day process of implementing it. This research studies contemporary strategy concepts and the methods of its implementation, which is very needed in Uzbek economy.

Tohir Akramov

2013-09-01

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Los mapas conceptuales como estrategia didáctica para el aprendizaje de conceptos de biología celular en estudiantes de ciencias de la salud / Concept maps as a didactic strategy for learning of concepts of cell biology in students of health sciences  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Para los estudiantes de ciencias de la salud, el conocimiento de la biología constituye un pilar fundamental para afrontar con éxito los problemas que se les presenten relacionados con este campo del conocimiento y para interpretar los fenómenos concretos de las ciencias médicas y de la salud. Este [...] artículo muestra los resultados del uso de los mapas conceptuales para el aprendizaje significativo de conceptos de biología celular. Objetivo: Determinar la efectividad de los mapas conceptuales como estrategia didáctica en el aprendizaje de conceptos de biología celular en estudiantes de ciencias de la salud. Materiales y métodos. Se trabajó un diseño cuasiexperimental pretest postest con dos grupos intactos: un grupo experimental (usó los mapas conceptuales como estrategia de aprendizaje) y un grupo control (no usó los mapas conceptuales como estrategia de aprendizaje). Los estudiantes fueron evaluados con preguntas de selección múltiple con única respuesta, en los niveles de conocimiento, comprensión y aplicación del dominio cognitivo de la Taxonomía de Bloom. Resultados: En el postest no se hallaron diferencias significativas en el total de preguntas. Sin embargo, se encontraron diferencias significativas entre los grupos en el nivel de aplicación, y se observó mejor resultado en el grupo experimental. Conclusiones: Los mapas conceptuales proporcionaron a los estudiantes una herramienta para aprender significativamente conceptos de biología celular. Sin embargo, su uso efectivo depende de factores como: motivación por aprender, entrenamiento continuo en la elaboración de mapas, contenidos significativos de aprendizaje y tiempo de implementación. Abstract in english For students of health sciences, knowledge of biology is a cornerstone to successfully face the challenges presented to them related to this field of knowledge and to interpret specific phenomena of medical science and health. This paper shows the results of the use of the concept maps for meaningfu [...] l learning of cellular biology concepts. Objective: to determine the effectiveness of the concept maps as a didactic strategy in the learning of concepts of cellular Biology in students of Health Sciences. Material and methods: It was worked with a cuasi-experimental design of pre-test and post-test with two intact groups: an experimental group (it used the concept maps as learning strategy) and a control group (it did not use the concept maps as learning strategy). The students were evaluated using a pre-test and post-test, built with multiple-choice questions with one answer in the levels of knowledge, comprehension and analysis of the cognitive domain of Bloom's Taxonomy. Results: In the post-test found no significant differences in the total number of questions. However significant differences were found between groups in the application level, observing better results in the experimental group. Conclusions: The concept maps gave students a tool to learn concepts of cell biology significantly. However, its effective use depends on factors such as motivation for learning, continuous training in mapping, significant contents of learning and implementation time.

Danilo Lusbin, Ariza Rúa; Iván Antonio, Yaber Goenaga; Jorge Luis, Muñiz Olite; Julio Seferino, Hurtado Márquez; Roberto Enrique, Figueroa Molina.

2009-12-01

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An Annotated Bibliography of Concept Mapping  

Science.gov (United States)

A rich narrative-style bibliography of concept mapping (reviewing six articles published between 1992-2005). Articles reviewed include: (1) Cognitive mapping: A qualitative research method for social work (C. Bitoni); (2) Collaborative concept mapping: Provoking and supporting meaningful discourse (C. Boxtel, J. Linden, E. Roelofs, and G. Erkens);…

Garcia, GNA

2008-01-01

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Concept Mapping with Multimedia on the Web.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses concept maps and describes an extension to computer-based concept mapping tools that provides representational capabilities that allows students to express their knowledge more fully by incorporating dynamic media-sound, video, and animated images. Explains multimedia knowledge maps, accessibility via Web browsers, and possible future…

Alpert, Sherman R.; Gruenberg, Keith

2000-01-01

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Mapping Knowledge: Concept Maps in Early Childhood Education  

OpenAIRE

Graphic organizers such as webs, time lines, Venn diagrams, flowcharts, and concept maps are well known and widely used instructional and learning tools. They help teachers and students not only to identify and visually represent their views and knowledge but also to recognize and depict relationships among concepts. This article discusses the use of concept maps in early childhood education. In light of a theory that suggests that information is processed and stored in memory in both linguis...

Maria Birbili

2006-01-01

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A Concept Hierarchy Based Ontology Mapping Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

Ontology mapping is one of the most important tasks for ontology interoperability and its main aim is to find semantic relationships between entities (i.e. concept, attribute, and relation) of two ontologies. However, most of the current methods only consider one to one (1:1) mappings. In this paper we propose a new approach (CHM: Concept Hierarchy based Mapping approach) which can find simple (1:1) mappings and complex (m:1 or 1:m) mappings simultaneously. First, we propose a new method to represent the concept names of entities. This method is based on the hierarchical structure of an ontology such that each concept name of entity in the ontology is included in a set. The parent-child relationship in the hierarchical structure of an ontology is then extended as a set-inclusion relationship between the sets for the parent and the child. Second, we compute the similarities between entities based on the new representation of entities in ontologies. Third, after generating the mapping candidates, we select the best mapping result for each source entity. We design a new algorithm based on the Apriori algorithm for selecting the mapping results. Finally, we obtain simple (1:1) and complex (m:1 or 1:m) mappings. Our experimental results and comparisons with related work indicate that utilizing this method in dealing with ontology mapping is a promising way to improve the overall mapping results.

Wang, Ying; Liu, Weiru; Bell, David

23

Concept Mapping: Soft Science or Hard Art?  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper the scientific side of concept mapping is viewed as "soft science" and the artistic one as "hard art" to imply that the process has some qualities of both, but probably does not fall exclusively within either's domain. In the spirit of hard art, a "gallery" of final concept maps from twenty projects is presented, partly to illustrate more examples of the process when used in a variety of subject areas and for different purposes, and partly for their aesthetic value alone. In the spirit of soft science, two major issues are considered. First, the evidence for the validity and reliability of concept mapping is introduced, along with some suggestions for further research which might be undertaken to examine those characteristics. Second, the role of concept mapping is discussed, with special emphasis on its use in a pattern matching framework. This document is intended for use by novice evaluators and professional evaluators in workshops and conferences.

William Trochim

24

Strategies to Facilitate Math Concepts and Homework  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article Regina G. Richards presents several strategies to help struggling students learn new math concepts. Richards presents six strategies in which students understand word parts, make connections to the topics prior to learning the new material, use kinesthetic strategies for remembering facts and completing computations.

Regina G. Richards

2008-01-01

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Case-Based Tutoring with Concept Maps  

OpenAIRE

The goal of this thesis is to investigate methods for computerized tutoring support that is adapted to the individual student. In particular, we are concerned with providing such assistance to students solving exercises in domains where a complete or accurate problem-solving model is infeasible. We propose to do this by using concept maps as a means for students to model their own knowledge. Combined with results from earlier exercises, the concept map can form a student model that can be use...

Sørmo, Frode

2007-01-01

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A Computer Assessment Tool for Concept Mapping  

Science.gov (United States)

Current educational theories emphasize assessment as a vital part of teaching-learning process. Alternative assessment techniques aim to expose and promote the process of the learning rather than the final outcome. Concept mapping is a technique for representing conceptual knowledge and relationships between concepts in a graphical form. Requiring…

Akkaya, Recai; Karakirik, Erol; Durmus, Soner

2005-01-01

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Concept Maps: Practice Applications in Adult Education and Human Resource Development  

Science.gov (United States)

Concept maps can be used as both a cognitive and constructivist learning strategy in teaching and learning in adult education and human resource development. The maps can be used to understand course readings, analyze case studies, develop reflective thinking and enhance research skills. The creation of concept maps can also be supported by the…

Daley, Barbara J.

2010-01-01

28

Mining Concept Maps to Understand University Students' Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

Concept maps, visual representations of knowledge, are used in an educational context as a way to represent students' knowledge, and identify mental models of students; however there is a limitation of using concept mapping due to its difficulty to evaluate the concept maps. A concept map has a complex structure which is composed of concepts and…

Yoo, Jin Soung; Cho, Moon-Heum

2012-01-01

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Concept Mapping: Implementation in an EFL Classroom  

OpenAIRE

This study looks at the impact of student-generated concept mapping on the performance of 12th grade EFL students in the reading comprehension of texts. In doing so, 14 grade 12 EFL students were selected from a high school in Israel. These students were tested on three separate occasions. First, the students were given a tutorial on how to create a visual aid during the reading, more specifically, concept maps. Then the students partook in three lessons; whereby, they employed concept mappin...

Melanie Shaul

2011-01-01

30

Motivating Students' Learning Using Word Association Test and Concept Maps  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presents the effect of a free word association test, content analysis and concept mapping on students’ achievements in human biology. The free word association test was used for revealing the scientific conceptual structures of 8th grade and 12th grade students, around a stimulus word – human being – and for motivating them to study human biology. The stimulus word retrieved a cluster of associations most of which were based on science education and experience. Associations with the stimulus word were analyzed and classified according to predetermined criteria and structured by means of a concept map. The stimulus word ‘human being’ was quantitatively assessed in order to find out the balance between the associations with its different aspects. On the basis of the results some connections between biology and other sciences studying the human being, were worked out. Each new topic in human biology was studied by using content analysis of the textbook and concept mapping as study tools and thus maintaining students’ motivation. Achievements of students were assessed by means of tests, observation and concept maps evaluation. The obtained data was also valuable in clarifying the complex nature of the human being, and confirming the statement that biology cannot answer all questions, concerning human nature. Inferences were made about the word association test combined with content analysis and concept map construction as an educational strategy.

Z. Kostova

2010-06-01

31

Examination of Elementary Teachers’ Views about Concept Maps  

OpenAIRE

One of the teaching methods that are carried out to make teaching-learning process more effective is concept mapping. Learners can incorporate new knowledge into their prior knowledge framework by utilizing concept mapping. Furthermore, representation and organization of the knowledge through concept maps, helps retention and recall. Thus concept maps facilitate meaningful learning by organizing knowledge in cognitive structure and encourage creative thinking. Concept maps constructe...

Didem Kilic; Özgül Kele?; Necdet Sa?lam

2012-01-01

32

Concept mapping enhances learning of biochemistry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Teaching basic science courses is challenging in undergraduate medical education because of the ubiquitous use of didactic lectures and reward for recall of factual information during examinations. The purpose of this study is to introduce concept maps with clinical cases (the innovative program to improve learning of biochemistry course content. Methods: Participants were first year medical students (n=150 from Saveetha Medical College and Hospital (India; they were randomly divided into two groups of 75, one group attending the traditional program, the other the innovative program. Student performance was measured using three written knowledge tests (each with a maximum score of 20. The students also evaluated the relevance of the learning process using a 12-item questionnaire. Results: Students in the innovative program using concept mapping outperformed those in the traditional didactic program (means of 7.13–8.28 vs. 12.33–13.93, p<0.001. The students gave high positive ratings for the innovative course (93–100% agreement. Conclusion: The new concept-mapping program resulted in higher academic performance compared to the traditional course and was perceived favorably by the students. They especially valued the use of concept mapping as learning tools to foster the relevance of biochemistry to clinical practice, and to enhance their reasoning and learning skills, as well as their deeper understanding for biochemistry.

Krishna M. Surapaneni

2013-03-01

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Concept mapping enhances learning of biochemistry  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Teaching basic science courses is challenging in undergraduate medical education because of the ubiquitous use of didactic lectures and reward for recall of factual information during examinations. The purpose of this study is to introduce concept maps with clinical cases (the innovative program) to improve learning of biochemistry course content. Methods Participants were first year medical students (n=150) from Saveetha Medical College and Hospital (India); they were randomly divided into two groups of 75, one group attending the traditional program, the other the innovative program. Student performance was measured using three written knowledge tests (each with a maximum score of 20). The students also evaluated the relevance of the learning process using a 12-item questionnaire. Results Students in the innovative program using concept mapping outperformed those in the traditional didactic program (means of 7.13–8.28 vs. 12.33–13.93, p<0.001). The students gave high positive ratings for the innovative course (93–100% agreement). Conclusion The new concept-mapping program resulted in higher academic performance compared to the traditional course and was perceived favorably by the students. They especially valued the use of concept mapping as learning tools to foster the relevance of biochemistry to clinical practice, and to enhance their reasoning and learning skills, as well as their deeper understanding for biochemistry. PMID:23464600

Surapaneni, Krishna M.; Tekian, Ara

2013-01-01

34

Collaborative Concept Mapping on the World Wide Web  

OpenAIRE

The Collaborative Concept Mapping project is a joint research project between IMD and EPFL. The goal of the project is to create a collaborative tool that helps managers to define business strategies in the face of complex situations. Addressing complex problems requires collaboration on models in order to integrate multiple views and create shared understanding. Because of the rapidly changing nature of the business world, models have a short life expectancy. Managers cannot wait for the cre...

Regev, Gil; Xavier, Gilbert; Wegmann, Alain

2001-01-01

35

Los Mapas Conceptuales como Estrategia que Permite Mejorar el Proceso de Enseñanza Aprendizaje de la Neuroanatomía / Concept Maps as a Strategy for Improving the Teaching Learning Process in Neuroanatomy  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los mapas conceptuales son una estrategia de enseñanza aprendizaje que permite organizar los contenidos de una temática determinada facilitando su interpretación, comprensión y análisis. Su construcción en forma grupal incrementa la capacidad de los estudiantes de aprender de modo significativo debi [...] do al aumento del interés y la atención para integrar los conceptos más relevantes en forma cooperativa. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el rendimiento académico de los estudiantes que cursaron la asignatura morfofisiología II en la Universidad Industrial de Santander (UIS) al implementar el uso de los mapas conceptuales como herramienta pedagógica para la enseñanza de la anatomía funcional del sistema nervioso. Se realizó un estudio de tipo prospectivo analítico con mediciones transversales en cuatro momentos en 130 estudiantes de medicina (II semestre 2006) que cursaban la asignatura morfofisiología II a quienes durante los dos primeros cortes se les transmitió la información en forma de cátedra magistral y para el tercer corte se dividieron en grupos de trabajo que utilizaron como método activo de enseñanza los mapas conceptuales. Los resultados de sus exámenes académicos escritos se compararon utilizando la prueba de Bonferroni (p Abstract in english The present study describes the implementation of conceptual maps as a pedagogical strategy that tends to transform the passive students into an active producer.The use of concept maps in groups encourages students to meaningful learning, increasing interest and attention in relevant concepts workin [...] g in a cooperative way. The objective was to measure the improvement of academic performance of the student when implementing the strategy of conceptual maps as a pedagogical tool of students of morphophysiology II at the Universidad Industrial de Santander (UIS) for teaching the functional anatomy of the nervous system. An analytic prospective with four transversal sections study was conducted in 130 students of medicine (II semesters of 2006) Bucaramanga, Santander at 2006, who attended the course morphophysiology II.For the first and the second section the students received master classes and for the third section the group was divided and the active method of concept maps was applied. The multiple corrected comparisons were made using the Bonferroni test (p

Adriana Margarita, Flórez-Uribe; Jaime Otoniel, Ayala-Pimentel; Carlos Arturo, Conde Cotes.

2011-03-01

36

Mapping strategies: Chromosome 16 workshop  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The following topics from a workshop on chromosome 16 are briefly discussed: genetic map of chromosome 16; chromosome breakpoint map of chromosome 16; integrated physical/genetic map of chromosome 16; pulsed field map of the 16p13.2--p13.3 region (3 sheets); and a report of the HGM10 chromosome 16 committee.

1989-01-01

37

Examination of Elementary Teachers’ Views about Concept Maps  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

One of the teaching methods that are carried out to make teaching-learning process more effective is concept mapping. Learners can incorporate new knowledge into their prior knowledge framework by utilizing concept mapping. Furthermore, representation and organization of the knowledge through concept maps, helps retention and recall. Thus concept maps facilitate meaningful learning by organizing knowledge in cognitive structure and encourage creative thinking. Concept maps constructed by the teachers, enable students identify and explore the structure and the nature of knowledge. The use of concept maps can also assist teachers in evaluating the process of teaching. This study aims to investigate the elementary teachers’ views on concept maps by using an open-ended questionnaire which is carried out with 24 elementary teachers. Before conducting the questionnaire teachers have been instructed about concept maps and they constructed concept map examples. The findings indicate that elementary teachers generally perceive concept maps as a useful, effective, practical tool and they highlighted concept maps as important since they provide feedback. An important implication of this study is that there is a need for teachers to know how to teach concept map construction, to associate the concept maps into their lessons and into the evaluating process.

 

Didem Kilic

2012-02-01

38

Concept mapping enhances learning of biochemistry  

OpenAIRE

Background: Teaching basic science courses is challenging in undergraduate medical education because of the ubiquitous use of didactic lectures and reward for recall of factual information during examinations. The purpose of this study is to introduce concept maps with clinical cases (the innovative program) to improve learning of biochemistry course content. Methods: Participants were first year medical students (n=150) from Saveetha Medical College and Hospital (India); they were randomly d...

Surapaneni, Krishna M.; Ara Tekian

2013-01-01

39

Concepts Map Approach in e-Classroom  

OpenAIRE

This article is designed as an educational research study focused on e-Classroom as a medium of instruction based on assisted didactics design and teacher assisted learning in order to develop interactive applications, integrating concepts map approach. In this context, the paper proposes a specific conceptual framework applied in a theoretical model, as a base of an analytical framework used in a case study. Such a paradigm defines the classwork as the basic activity of the student which con...

Zamfir, Gabriel

2012-01-01

40

Los Mapas Conceptuales como Estrategia que Permite Mejorar el Proceso de Enseñanza Aprendizaje de la Neuroanatomía Concept Maps as a Strategy for Improving the Teaching Learning Process in Neuroanatomy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Los mapas conceptuales son una estrategia de enseñanza aprendizaje que permite organizar los contenidos de una temática determinada facilitando su interpretación, comprensión y análisis. Su construcción en forma grupal incrementa la capacidad de los estudiantes de aprender de modo significativo debido al aumento del interés y la atención para integrar los conceptos más relevantes en forma cooperativa. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el rendimiento académico de los estudiantes que cursaron la asignatura morfofisiología II en la Universidad Industrial de Santander (UIS al implementar el uso de los mapas conceptuales como herramienta pedagógica para la enseñanza de la anatomía funcional del sistema nervioso. Se realizó un estudio de tipo prospectivo analítico con mediciones transversales en cuatro momentos en 130 estudiantes de medicina (II semestre 2006 que cursaban la asignatura morfofisiología II a quienes durante los dos primeros cortes se les transmitió la información en forma de cátedra magistral y para el tercer corte se dividieron en grupos de trabajo que utilizaron como método activo de enseñanza los mapas conceptuales. Los resultados de sus exámenes académicos escritos se compararon utilizando la prueba de Bonferroni (pThe present study describes the implementation of conceptual maps as a pedagogical strategy that tends to transform the passive students into an active producer.The use of concept maps in groups encourages students to meaningful learning, increasing interest and attention in relevant concepts working in a cooperative way. The objective was to measure the improvement of academic performance of the student when implementing the strategy of conceptual maps as a pedagogical tool of students of morphophysiology II at the Universidad Industrial de Santander (UIS for teaching the functional anatomy of the nervous system. An analytic prospective with four transversal sections study was conducted in 130 students of medicine (II semesters of 2006 Bucaramanga, Santander at 2006, who attended the course morphophysiology II.For the first and the second section the students received master classes and for the third section the group was divided and the active method of concept maps was applied. The multiple corrected comparisons were made using the Bonferroni test (p< 0.05 when the ANOVA shows significant statistical differences. All student received master classes as a group. For other activities they were divided in 4 groups; A, B, C and D with 36, 40, 25 and 29 students respectively. It is important that at the third period the performance of the group was homogeneous, finding not difference between groups. An ANOVA for all students in comparison of the 4 periods showed significant differences (F3,387: 39,116, p<0,001 where the comparison with Bonferroni demonstrated that performance in the third period was significantly better than in the other periods. Using concept maps as an strategy for actively constructing knowledge by students confirms that the process of learning is active and was reflected in the improvement of their performance.

Adriana Margarita Flórez-Uribe

2011-03-01

41

Using concept maps with postgraduate teachers in a web-based environment : an exploratory study  

OpenAIRE

In this paper we report how 26 in service teachers enrolled in a post graduate education program in Curriculum Development, used Cmaptools software for class work and assessment in Research Methods in Education (RME). For one semester teachers were taught to use electronic concept maps as a constructivist learning strategy. Teachers developed electronic concept maps to reflect on the course readings, plan course projects and to compare and contrast information from course discussions. Concept...

Coutinho, Clara Pereira; Bottentuit Junior, Joa?o Batista

2008-01-01

42

Concept mapping: Impact on content and organization of technical writing in science  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to compare the relationship between concept mapping and the content and organization of technical writing of ninth grade biology students. All students in the study completed a prewriting assessment. The experimental group received concept map instruction while the control group performed alternate tasks. After instruction, both groups completed the postwriting assessment and mean differences were compared using the t statistic for independent measures. Additionally, scores on the concept map were correlated to the scores on the postwriting assessment using the Pearson correlation coefficient. Finally, attitudes toward using concept mapping as a prewriting strategy were analyzed using the t statistic for repeated measures. Concept mapping significantly improved the depth of content; however, no statistical significance was detected for organization. Students had a significantly positive change in attitude toward using concept mapping to plan a writing assessment, organize information, and think creatively. The findings indicated concept mapping had a positive effect on the students' abilities to select concepts appropriate to respond to a writing prompt, integrate facts into complete thoughts and ideas, and apply it in novel situations. Concept maps appeared to facilitate learning how to process information and transform it into expository writing. Sustained practice in designing concept maps may influence organization as well as content. Developing a systematic approach to synthesize well-organized and coherent arguments in response to a writing task is an invaluable communication skill that has implications for the learner across disciplines and prepares them for higher education and the workforce.

Conklin, Elaine

43

Conceptual maps as evaluation strategy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The following work shows the conceptual map as an evaluation tool. In this study, an opening text was used as a previous organizer, with a theme related to the students’ daily lives. The developed activity consisted in elaborating conceptual maps before and after the experimental works. The evaluation was applied to 21 students of the 1st grade and 22 of the 3rd grade of High School. The elaborated maps were scored according to hierarchy, propositions, linking words, cross linking and examples. The classification of the maps elaborated before and after the experimental activity, was obtained having as a parameter, a referential conceptual map. In this classification many differences were observed between the first and second maps of both grades and among the groups. The elaboration of conceptual maps showed great potential as evaluation resources.

Dionísio Borsato

2007-03-01

44

Map-based navigation in Mobile robots - II. A review of map-learning and path-planing strategies  

OpenAIRE

This article reviews map-learning and path-planning strategies within the context of mapbased navigation in mobile robots. Concerning map-learning, it distinguishes metric maps from topological maps and describes procedures that help maintain the coherency of these maps. Concerning path-planning, it distinguishes continuous from discretized spaces and describes procedures applicable when the execution of a plan fails. It insists on the need for an integrated conception of such procedures, tha...

Meyer, Jean-arcady; Filliat, David

2003-01-01

45

Concepts Map Approach in e-Classroom  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article is designed as an educational research study focused on e-Classroom as a medium of instruction based on assisted didactics design and teacher assisted learning in order to develop interactive applications, integrating concepts map approach. In this context, the paper proposes a specific conceptual framework applied in a theoretical model, as a base of an analytical framework used in a case study. Such a paradigm defines the classwork as the basic activity of the student which connects the fieldwork and the deskwork, and finally, it develops the basic and specific competencies of the individual according with the educational objectives.

Gabriel ZAMFIR

2012-01-01

46

Strategy and Quality Maps in Higher Education  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study is to investigate the integration of strategic management and quality assurance in higher education. The study presents how the value chain can be described in the strategy and quality maps, which are, respectively graphical representations of the strategic plan and the quality assurance system. The quality map is a new…

Kettunen, Juha

2011-01-01

47

Understanding of earth and space science concepts: Strategies for concept building in elementary teacher preparation  

Science.gov (United States)

Research on conceptual change provides strong evidence that not only children but also many adults have incorrect or incomplete understanding of science concepts. This mixed methods study was concerned with preservice and inservice teachers' understanding of six earth and space science concepts commonly taught in elementary school: reasons for seasons, phases of the moon, reasons for the wind, the rock cycle, soil formation, and earthquakes. The first part of the study determined and compared the level of conceptual understanding held by both groups on topics they will need to teach in the Georgia Performance Standards [GPS]. The second part focused on whether readings or hands-on learning stations, in some cases combined with concept mapping, improves preservice teachers' understanding of these concepts. The third part described the application of conceptual change strategies of one group of preservice teachers during their field placements. The overall sample was two cohorts of preservice teachers, one cohort of preservice teachers from an alternative initial certification program, and two masters' cohorts consisting of inservice teachers. Four data sources were: a six item open-ended survey, concept maps, the field assignments, and the researcher's field notes. Rubrics were used to score answers to each survey question. Concept map scores were calculated based on the criteria developed by Novak and Gowin (1984). The first part of the study shows that both preservice and inservice teachers have low conceptual understanding of the earth science concepts taught in elementary school. Independent samples t-tests results indicate that both groups have similar understanding about these concepts. A two way ANOVA with repeated measures analysis demonstrated that readings and learning stations are both successful in building preservice teacher's understanding and that benefits from the hands-on learning stations approached statistical significance. A paired samples t-test shows that concept mapping added to the participants' conceptual understanding whether the participants learned the concepts through readings or stations. Finally, field assignments allowed the participants to apply knowledge that they learned in their science methods course in their classroom placements. This study has implications for teacher preparation programs, staff development, and conceptual change practices in field placements.

Bulunuz, Nermin

48

Collaborative Concept Mapping Activities in a Classroom Scenario  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study is to test collaborative concept mapping activities using computers in a classroom scenario and to evaluate the possibilities that Elkar-CM offers for collaboratively learning non-technical topics. Elkar-CM is a multi-lingual and multi-media software program designed for drawing concept maps (CMs) collaboratively. Concept

Elorriaga, J. A.; Arruarte, A.; Calvo, I.; Larrañaga, M.; Rueda, U.; Herrán, E.

2013-01-01

49

Understanding maps as symbols: the development of map concepts in children.  

Science.gov (United States)

We expect that many readers encountered this article with the beliefs that maps are highly specialized devices primarily used for wayfinding; that they represent the spatial world in a single, correct form; that they are readily transparent; and that their sole contribution to psychology is their role in externalizing environmental cognition. By discussing the myriad functions and forms of maps, by highlighting their symbolic nature, and by considering some of the misconceptions about maps, we have attempted to demonstrate the value of maps for addressing a wide range of developmental questions. Our review of past research literature suggests that research conducted within individual disciplines has both strengths and limitations. Work in the psychological tradition is characterized by attention to important subject characteristics and to carefully described and implemented research designs, procedures, coding, and analyses. At the same time, this work reveals, at best, highly restricted views about maps, and at worst, fundamental misconceptions about maps. Work in the geographic and environmental traditions, in contrast, samples a broader range of map forms and functions, but it suffers from inattention to procedural details that makes the conclusions less compelling than they might otherwise be. A conventional wisdom is emerging from the work in both traditions: That children's map understanding occurs extremely early and extremely easily. The limitations of both research traditions, however, suggest the need for caution in accepting this view. Developmental and cartographic theories provide a compelling reason to reexamine the early and easy view and suggest the need for alternative conceptual and empirical approaches. We have argued that future work should integrate the traditions of psychology and geography. Illustrative data from an interdisciplinary program of research were presented. We described work demonstrating the gradual and difficult process of mastering the representational and geometric correspondences that link the map to its referent in the world. Our data suggest that there are significant achievements in map conceptualization (the understanding of the concept of a map), map identification (understanding the formal components of a map), and map utilization (the ability to use maps). Our data support the view that maps are not transparent and that children's abilities to understand, use, and create maps are linked to their developing representational and spatial skills. In concluding, we should acknowledge that we have deliberately pushed interpretations about understanding maps as symbolic representations to the extreme. The reason for this strategy is simple: We believe that work on maps--both in the public schools and in academia--is assumed to be an expendable and irrelevant luxury.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2480701

Liben, L S; Downs, R M

1989-01-01

50

Linking human factors to corporate strategy with cognitive mapping techniques.  

Science.gov (United States)

For human factors (HF) to avoid being considered of "side-car" status, it needs to be positioned within the organization in such a way that it affects business strategies and their implementation. Tools are needed to support this effort. This paper explores the feasibility of applying a technique from operational research called cognitive mapping to link HF to corporate strategy. Using a single case study, a cognitive map is drawn to reveal the complex relationships between human factors and achieving an organization's strategic goals. Analysis of the map for central concepts and reinforcing loops enhances understanding that can lead to discrete initiatives to facilitate integration of HF. It is recommended that this technique be used with senior managers to understand the organizations` strategic goals and enhance understanding of the potential for HF to contribute to the strategic goals. PMID:22317140

Village, Judy; Greig, Michael; Salustri, Filippo A; Neumann, W Patrick

2012-01-01

51

Formative Assessment of Classroom Concept Maps: The Reasonable Fallible Analyser  

Science.gov (United States)

Concept mapping is a powerful learning technique that can be enhanced by computer technology. Software tools are already available for the preparation of concept maps but as yet, few systems provide feedback on their content. The claim made by this article is that by enlisting the student as an assessment partner, computer-based feedback becomes…

Conlon, Tom

2006-01-01

52

Animated and Static Concept Maps Enhance Learning from Spoken Narration  

Science.gov (United States)

An animated concept map represents verbal information in a node-link diagram that changes over time. The goals of the experiment were to evaluate the instructional effects of presenting an animated concept map concurrently with semantically equivalent spoken narration. The study used a 2 x 2 factorial design in which an animation factor (animated…

Adesope, Olusola O.; Nesbit, John C.

2013-01-01

53

Abstraction in Concept Map and Coupled Outline Knowledge Representation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes a computer-based concept mapping tool that provides rich representational capabilities, including dynamic imagery (video, animated images, sound) and multiple levels of abstraction. The tool can automatically translate a concept map into an alternative representation-an outline-that contains all of the knowledge contained in a…

Alpert, Sherman R.

2003-01-01

54

Modeling Strategy Maps and Balanced Scorecards using iStar  

OpenAIRE

Aligning business strategy to enterprise models requires explicit models from both areas, mapped to each other. Mapping existing business strategy de?nition approaches to requirement engineering practices improves strategy dissemination towards development. In this paper we present an illustration of such a mapping using the Strategy Maps and Balanced Scorecards as a business strategy approach and iStar (i*) as a requirements engineering practice exempli?ed using a case scenario.

Giannoulis, Constantinos; Zdravkovic, Jelena

2011-01-01

55

Image inpainting strategy for Kinect depth maps  

Science.gov (United States)

The great advantage of Microsoft Kinect makes the depth acquisition real-time and inexpensive. But the depth maps directly obtained with the Microsoft Kinect device have absent regions and holes caused by optical factors. The noisy depth maps affect lots of complex tasks in computer vision. In order to improve the quality of the depth maps, this paper presents an efficient image inpainting strategy which is based on watershed segmentation and region merging framework of the corresponding color images. The primitive regions produced by watershed transform are merged into lager regions according to color similarity and edge among regions. Finally, mean filter operator to the adjacent pixels is used to fill up missing depth values and deblocking filter is applied for smoothing depth maps.

Yao, Huimin; Chen, Yan; Ge, Chenyang

2013-07-01

56

Heliophysics Concept Maps for Education and Public Outreach  

Science.gov (United States)

The NASA Science Mission Directorate Heliophysics Science Education and Public Outreach Forum team has created a set of Heliophysics Concept Maps. The concepts are based on content related to the three major questions in the NASA Heliophysics Science Roadmap: What causes the Sun to vary? How do the Earth and the heliosphere respond? What are the impacts on humanity? These maps tie into the AAAS Project 2061 Benchmarks for Scientific Literacy, a set of K-12 learning goals that are widely used by education professionals for curriculum development and program planning. The purpose of this effort was to identify key concepts related to heliophysics and map their progression to show how students' understanding of heliophysics might develop from kindergarten through higher education. This effort creates more comprehensive maps specific to heliophysics that provide content at a deeper level than what is in the existing Benchmarks. It also extends the concept maps to higher education, an audience not included in the Benchmarks.

Nichols-Yehling, M.; Ali, N. A.; Paglierani, R.; Mendez, B. J.

2014-07-01

57

Concept mapping and pupils’ learning in primary science in Singapore  

OpenAIRE

This paper reports on a quasi-experimental study which examined the effectiveness of concept mapping as a revision tool in enhancing pupils' examination performances in primary science. The research objective seeks to determine whether there are significant differences in achievement between the concept mapping and traditional method of revision groups after treatment in both primary gifted and mainstream classes. This research hopes to establish the relationship between pupils' understanding...

Ling, Yuan; Boo, Hong Kwen

2007-01-01

58

What Do Pre-Service Physics Teachers Know and Think about Concept Mapping?  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to use concept maps in physics classes effectively, teachers' knowledge and ideas about concept mapping are as important as the physics knowledge used in mapping. For this reason, we aimed to examine pre-service physics teachers' knowledge on concept mapping, their ideas about the implementation of concept mapping in physics…

Didis, Nilüfer; Özcan, Özgür; Azar, Ali

2014-01-01

59

Integrating collaborative concept mapping in case based learning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Different significance of collaborative concept mapping and collaborative argumentation in Case Based Learning are discussed and compared in the different perspectives of answering focus questions, of fostering reflective thinking skills and in managing uncertainty in problem solving in a scaffolded environment. Marked differences are pointed out between the way concepts are used in constructing concept maps and the way meanings are adopted in case based learning through guided argumentation activities. Shared concept maps should be given different scopes, as for example a as an advance organizer in preparing a background system of concepts that will undergo transformation while accompanying the inquiry activities on case studies or problems; b together with narratives, to enhance awareness of the situated epistemologies that are being entailed in choosing certain concepts during more complex case studies, and c after-learning construction of a holistic vision of the whole domain by means of the most inclusive concepts, while scaffoldedcollaborative writing of narratives and arguments in describing-treating cases could better serve as a source of situated-inspired tools to create-refine meanings for particular concepts.

Alfredo Tifi

2013-03-01

60

Academic Motivation: Concepts, Strategies, and Counseling Approaches  

Science.gov (United States)

Motivation is an important foundation of academic development in students. This article discusses academic motivation; its various component concepts in areas such as beliefs, goals, and values; and intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. It also presents major, widely studied theoretical perspectives of academic motivation and briefly illustrates…

Rowell, Lonnie; Hong, Eunsook

2013-01-01

61

Examining the Fifth Graders' Understanding of Heat and Temperature Concepts via Concept Mapping  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the effect of concept mapping over traditional instruction on students' understanding and retention of heat and temperature concepts. The sample of this study consisted of 5th grade students from two classes of a elementary school (n=75). One intact class was randomly assigned to the comparison group whereas the other one…

Cakir Olgun, Ozlem Sila

2008-01-01

62

Multimedia in Concept Maps: A Design Rationale and Web-Based Application.  

Science.gov (United States)

A concept map is a graphical representation of a person's (student's) knowledge of a domain. Concept maps have been used in educational settings for some time and many computer-based implementations of interactive concept map building tools exist. These concept mapping tools often provide for a solely prepositional, primarily textual, knowledge…

Alpert, Sherman R.; Grueneberg, Keith

63

A genealogical map of the concept of habit  

OpenAIRE

The notion of information processing has dominated the study of the mind for over six decades. However, before the advent of cognitivism, one of the most prominent theoretical ideas was that of Habit. This is a concept with a rich and complex history, which is again starting to awaken interest, following recent embodied, enactive critiques of computationalist frameworks. We offer here a very brief history of the concept of habit in the form of a genealogical network-map. This serves to provi...

Barandiaran, Xabier E.; Ezequiel Alejandro Di Paolo

2014-01-01

64

Technical strategy map to employing nuclear power plant aging management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Stated in this report are back ground of technical strategy map for nuclear power plant aging management, result of the first road map, significance of technical strategy map, introduction scenario, technology map, road map, upgrade in every year, three groups of academia, industry and government, plan of technical strategy map, upgrade system, comprehensive introduction scenario, measures of nuclear power plant aging management in Japan and the world, new inspection system, outline of 'technical strategy map 2008', preparation of technical information bases in industry, academia and government, collaboration of them, safety researches of neutron radiation damage, stress corrosion crack, fatigue, piping thinning, insulation degradation, concrete degradation, thermal aging, evaluation technologies of earthquake resistance, preparation of rules and standards, ideal maintenance, and training talent. (S.Y.)

65

The Facebook Influence Model: A Concept Mapping Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Facebook is a popular social media Web site that has been hypothesized to exert potential influence over users' attitudes, intentions, or behaviors. The purpose of this study was to develop a conceptual framework to explain influential aspects of Facebook. This mixed methods study applied concept mapping methodology, a validated five-step method to visually represent complex topics. The five steps comprise preparation, brainstorming, sort and rank, analysis, and interpretation. College student participants were identified using purposeful sampling. The 80 participants had a mean age of 20.5 years, and included 36% males. A total of 169 statements were generated during brainstorming, and sorted into between 6 and 22 groups. The final concept map included 13 clusters. Interpretation data led to grouping of clusters into four final domains, including connection, comparison, identification, and Facebook as an experience. The Facebook Influence Concept Map illustrates key constructs that contribute to influence, incorporating perspectives of older adolescent Facebook users. While Facebook provides a novel lens through which to consider behavioral influence, it can best be considered in the context of existing behavioral theory. The concept map may be used toward development of potential future intervention efforts. PMID:23621717

Kota, Rajitha; Schoohs, Shari; Whitehill, Jennifer M.

2013-01-01

66

The Facebook influence model: a concept mapping approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Facebook is a popular social media Web site that has been hypothesized to exert potential influence over users' attitudes, intentions, or behaviors. The purpose of this study was to develop a conceptual framework to explain influential aspects of Facebook. This mixed methods study applied concept mapping methodology, a validated five-step method to visually represent complex topics. The five steps comprise preparation, brainstorming, sort and rank, analysis, and interpretation. College student participants were identified using purposeful sampling. The 80 participants had a mean age of 20.5 years, and included 36% males. A total of 169 statements were generated during brainstorming, and sorted into between 6 and 22 groups. The final concept map included 13 clusters. Interpretation data led to grouping of clusters into four final domains, including connection, comparison, identification, and Facebook as an experience. The Facebook Influence Concept Map illustrates key constructs that contribute to influence, incorporating perspectives of older adolescent Facebook users. While Facebook provides a novel lens through which to consider behavioral influence, it can best be considered in the context of existing behavioral theory. The concept map may be used toward development of potential future intervention efforts. PMID:23621717

Moreno, Megan A; Kota, Rajitha; Schoohs, Shari; Whitehill, Jennifer M

2013-07-01

67

Concept Mapping Workshops: Helping Ocean Scientists Represent and Communicate Science  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Public appreciation and basic understanding of the role the ocean plays in the global environment has become more important as the urgency to make decisions on complex environmental issues has increased. Because communicating science to the public is often challenging for scientists, they can benefit from employing methods such as concept mapping, which "deconstructs" science into discrete ideas and organizes them into graphical formats. Responding to recommendations by ocean science faculty who participated in concept-mapping workshops with pre-college educators, four Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence designed, implemented, and evaluated a series of professional development workshops for graduate students. These workshops engaged 20 faculty-level ocean scientists to help 73 graduate students depict complex scientific ideas using concept maps. Evidence shows that operationally breaking down topics and reorganizing them into graphical formats benefited faculty and graduate students alike. Each workshop culminated with the graduate students delivering oral presentations to nonscientist audiences such as high school students. Graduate students were highly rated on their abilities to place topics within a broad societal context. In a follow-up survey, graduate students recognized the potential of concept mapping to enhance their professional skills and to organize their own research.

Annette deCharon

2013-03-01

68

How Concept-Mapping Perception Navigates Student Knowledge Transfer Performance  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this paper is to investigate students' perception of concept maps as a learning tool where knowledge transfer is the goal. This article includes an evaluation of the learning performance of 42 undergraduate students enrolled in a nanotech course at a university in Taiwan. Canonical correlation and MANOVA analyses were employed to…

Tseng, Kuo-Hung; Chang, Chi-Cheng; Lou, Shi-Jer; Tan, Yue; Chiu, Chien-Jung

2012-01-01

69

Urban Noise and Strategies of Sound Mapping  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

What I attempt to present here may be understood as an attempt to comply with the appeal made by Roland Barthes in "Semiology and Urbanism": to multiply not only the functional studies of the city, but also, and not the least, the readings of the city. I will pursue the hypothesis that studies of urban sound may not only be operational in leading to better sonic environments, but rather such studies could be a useful resource for planners, architects, designers, politicians etc. whishing to analyze the social dynamics of urban life. This article takes the case of Gang i København, a strategic project from the Copenhagen Munincipelity initiated in 2006, as a starting point to discuss the politics of urban sound. It points out an important challenge for the methodology of urban sonic environments: namely that sound as a senso-motoric register may be poorly evaluated through concepts of noise and harmonics, taken to express disturbance and well-being respectively. A cultural theory of urban sonic environments would focus on the sociality of sound and investigate the ways in which people interact and make meaning through sound. Arguing for the relevance of a method to register and describe auditory practices as a kind of social interaction – a method that may supplement the engineer’s quantitative sound measurements and the landscape architect’s qualitative descriptors this article outlines a few approaches to a theory of acoustic territoriality and suggests alternative ways of mapping, analyzing and planning urban sonic environments.

Kreutzfeldt, Jacob

2012-01-01

70

A Modularized Multi-strategy Fuzzy Ontology Mapping Method  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To overcome the problem that the traditional ontologies are difficult to handle uncertain knowledge, by virtue of the features of fuzzy ontology and the advantages of ontology modularization cooperated with multi-strategy ontology mapping, a Semantic Web oriented fuzzy ontology model and its corresponding modularized multi-strategy fuzzy ontology mapping method are proposed, respectively. By using the approach of iterative correction, the mapping results are merged and repaired so that the mapping results are more reliable and the efficiency and accuracy of fuzzy ontology mapping can be improved.

Rao Zhang-Min

2012-01-01

71

A Modularized Multi-strategy Fuzzy Ontology Mapping Method  

OpenAIRE

To overcome the problem that the traditional ontologies are difficult to handle uncertain knowledge, by virtue of the features of fuzzy ontology and the advantages of ontology modularization cooperated with multi-strategy ontology mapping, a Semantic Web oriented fuzzy ontology model and its corresponding modularized multi-strategy fuzzy ontology mapping method are proposed, respectively. By using the approach of iterative correction, the mapping results are merged and repaired so that the ma...

Rao Zhang-Min; Zhao Yan; Li Guan-Yu

2012-01-01

72

Strategy-oriented display concept to assist severe accident management  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Critical Function Monitoring System (CFMS) is a typical Safety Parameter Display System (SPDS) to assist the operation of Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plants during normal and emergency operation, and SPDS for severe accident is being developed in Korea. When the existing CFMS is used under a severe accident situation, some problems are expected from: (1) different design basis, i.e. prevention of core melt vs. protection of radiation release to environment, (2) different parameters for decision-making, and (3) different domain and depth of information to restore the plant. To resolve the above problems, a concept, 'Strategy-Oriented Information Display' concept, for displaying information for severe accident management is developed in this paper. Whereas the existing SPDS structure is based on the critical safety function, the developed concept is based on the severe accident management strategy. The display for each strategy includes the plant parameters to check the status of plant and component with the logical or graphical views necessary for executing the strategy. As the application of the proposed concept, KAERI is developing a display system, the prototype severe accident SPDS, Severe Accident Management Display System (SAMDIS), to assist plant personnel for executing Korean Severe Accident Management Guidelines. CFMS is developed for a general display suitable to all situations with various displays. On the contrary, SAMDIS provides all the relevant information on one screen based on the proposed concept. The SAMDIS screen shows more extensive area than CFMS and thus plant personnel can recognize the overall plant status at a glance. This concept is quite effective when used with severe accident management guidelines because of the relatively macroscopic characteristics of a severe accident management strategy. (author)

Jeong, Kwangsub; Ha, Jaejoo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Deokjin, Yusung, Taejon (Korea)

2000-07-01

73

Brand Positioning Map: A Strategy Tool for Trademark Design  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study used multidimensional scaling to build designer and consumer Brand Position Map, BPM. The research objectives are as follows: (1 Using trademark samples to build BPM, (2 comparing substantive differences between BPM built by designers and by consumers, (3 presenting a well-known trademark infringement case and using BPM to simulate a design strategy for the new trademark. The study chose 29 trademark samples of 29 boutique brands and requested 26 designers and 56 consumers to build the BPM. The investigators analyzed a classic trademark infringement case, HERMES vs. BNANE, and simulated a “New BANANE Trademark” design strategy. The investigators have found that the BPM built by designers have the trademark samples more concentrated, which suggests that designers' judgment on trademark samples are more consistent. As for consumers, their BPM has the trademark samples more dispersed, suggesting that their judgment on trademark samples is less consistent. Together, it means that experts and the general public use different standard for judging trademarks. In the HERMES vs. BANAE trademark case, BPM enables the investigators to clearly define the infringement scope of the trademark. BPM can also be used to simulate a design strategy for a new trademark. BPM provides a good brand positioning concept assisting the middle and high level company managers to implement brand positioning. BPM covers a wide range of aspects, including using BPM: (1 as a brand positioning analysis tool in the industry, (2 for design around of trademark design, and (3 for assessing the infringement scope of trademarks. Future researchers can also more thoroughly examine the application of BPM in different industries. BPM is a strategy tool for brand design. Using corporate brand positioning strategy is an approach for dealing with competitions among enterprises. BPM is a very effective ad comprehensive strategic tool for enterprises interested in more definite brand positioning.

Rain Chen

2015-01-01

74

Adolescents' Emotion Regulation Strategies, Self-Concept, and Internalizing Problems  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the relationships among adolescents' emotion regulation strategies (suppression and cognitive reappraisal), self-concept, and internalizing problems using structural equation modeling. The sample consisted of 438 early adolescents (13 to 15 years old) in Taiwan, including 215 boys and 223 girls. For both boys and girls,…

Hsieh, Manying; Stright, Anne Dopkins

2012-01-01

75

Concept mapping as an empowering method to promote learning, thinking, teaching and research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Results and underpinning of over twenty years of research and development program of concept mapping is presented. Different graphical knowledge presentation tools, especially concept mapping and mind mapping, are compared. There are two main dimensions that differentiate graphical knowledge presentation methods: The first dimension is conceptual explicitness: from mere concepts to flexibly named links and clear propositions in concept maps. The second dimension in the classification system I am suggesting is whether there are pictures or not. Åhlberg?s and his research group?s applications and developments of Novakian concept maps are compared to traditional Novakian concept maps. The main innovations include always using arrowheads to show direction of reading the concept map. Centrality of each concept is estimated from number of links to other concepts. In our empirical research over two decades, number of relevant concepts, and number of relevant propositions in students? concept maps, have been found to be the best indicators and predictors of meaningful learning. This is used in assessment of learning. Improved concept mapping is presented as a tool to analyze texts. The main innovation is numbering the links to show order of reading the concept map and to make it possible to transform concept map back to the original prose text as closely as possible. In Åhlberg and his research group?s research, concept mapping has been tested in all main phases of research, teaching and learning.

Mauri Kalervo Åhlberg

2013-01-01

76

Concept Mapping Workshops: Helping Ocean Scientists Represent and Communicate Science  

OpenAIRE

Public appreciation and basic understanding of the role the ocean plays in the global environment has become more important as the urgency to make decisions on complex environmental issues has increased. Because communicating science to the public is often challenging for scientists, they can benefit from employing methods such as concept mapping, which "deconstructs" science into discrete ideas and organizes them into graphical formats. Responding to recommendations by ocean science faculty ...

Annette deCharon; Linda Duguay; Janice McDonnell; Cheryl Peach; Carla Companion; Christen Herren; Patricia Harcourt; Theodore Repa; Carrie Ferraro; Patricia Kwon; Sage Lichtenwalner; Eric Simms; Lynn Whitley

2013-01-01

77

Mapping What They Know: Concept Maps as an Effective Tool for Assessing Students’ Systems Thinking  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In 2006 anew biology curriculum called “Human Biology: Emphasizing the Role of Homeostasis” was introduced into the Israeli high school system. Complex systems like those that make up the human body have become increasingly important as a focus of high school education. This study examines the effectiveness of the concept map as a assessment tool for students’ systems thinking, a tool that provides researchers with a detailed picture of the systems thinking development taking place within individual students. The content of the students’ concept maps was translated into information about students’ system thinking using the Systems Thinking Hierarchy (STH model, a model in which system thinking is categorized according to eight hierarchical characteristics or abilities. The goal was to use the maps to characterize Israeli high school students’ understanding of the body’s systemic nature. To do this, we identified the extent to which the students understand three central elements of systems, namely hierarchy, homeostasis, and dynamism, and then analyzed this understanding according to its place within the hierarchical stages of the STH model. The extensive qualitative data analysis of 48 concept maps made by 11th grade biology majors suggest that the strength of the concept map is in its ability to describe the first two levels of system thinking (analysis and synthesis. However, it proved less successful in eliciting evidence of the third and highest level, particularly of students’ understanding of patterns, of homeostasis and their capacity for temporal thinking.

Jaklin Tripto

2013-01-01

78

[Mind mapping: a new tool for enhancing student learning strategy].  

Science.gov (United States)

With the rapid pace of development and reform in education learners face many challenges. Learning how to acquire skills and how to think are very important issues. The application of mind mapping can help students to enhance the creative thinking and problem-solving abilities of the whole brain. In other words, mind-mapping is a visual or pictorial thinking method. This paper introduces the basic concept of mind-mapping, radiant thinking, the methods of mind-mapping, its rules of application, and examples of such application, to improve understanding and knowledge about mind-mapping. PMID:18393212

Hsu, Li-Ling; Chang, Mei-Ying; Hsieh, Suh-Ing

2008-04-01

79

Concept maps for home economics in the secondary school nursing programme  

OpenAIRE

Concept maps are an effective learning tool in teaching, learning and knowledge testing. The key principle is quality learning where new concepts and subject matter are understood and linked to the existing knowledge. The purpose of the diploma work is examining and organizing concepts; creating concept maps for topics from the subject catalogue for Home Economics in the nursing education programme; finding out if concept maps could be used as a learning tool or learning technique, and w...

Goric?ar, Metka

2012-01-01

80

The Effects of a Concept Map-Based Support Tool on Simulation-Based Inquiry Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

Students often need support to optimize their learning in inquiry learning environments. In 2 studies, we investigated the effects of adding concept-map-based support to a simulation-based inquiry environment on kinematics. The concept map displayed the main domain concepts and their relations, while dynamic color coding of the concepts displayed…

Hagemans, Mieke G.; van der Meij, Hans; de Jong, Ton

2013-01-01

81

A phenomenographic case study: Concept maps from the perspectives of middle school students  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to investigate the experiences of middle school students when concept maps were used as a learning tool. Twenty-nine students' written responses, concept maps and videotapes were analyzed. Out of 29 students, thirteen students were interviewed using a semi-structured and open-ended interview protocol. The students' initial written responses provided us with the students' initial reactions to concept maps. The videotapes captured the students' behavior, and interpersonal interactions. The interviews probed students': (1) knowledge about drawing concept maps, (2) perception of the meaning and usefulness of concept maps, and (3) attitudes towards concept maps. The results indicated that the students viewed concept maps as useful tools in learning science. They believed that concept maps organized and summarized the information, which thereby helped them understand the topic easily. They also believed that concept maps had some cognitive benefits. However, the students viewed concept maps as hard to construct because it was difficult for the students to think of related concepts. The students' initial written responses, interviews and videotapes indicated that the students seemed to see both positive and negative aspects of concept maps. Some students' had more positive and some had more negative attitudes.

Saglam, Yilmaz

82

Mapping biological ideas: Concept maps as knowledge integration tools for evolution education  

Science.gov (United States)

Many students leave school with a fragmented understanding of biology that does not allow them to connect their ideas to their everyday lives (Wandersee, 1989; Mintzes, Wandersee, & Novak, 1998; Mintzes, Wandersee, & Novak, 2000a). Understanding evolution ideas is seen as central to building an integrated knowledge of biology (Blackwell, Powell, & Dukes, 2003; Thagard & Findlay, 2010). However, the theory of evolution has been found difficult to understand as it incorporates a wide range of ideas from different areas (Bahar et al., 1999; Tsui & Treagust, 2003) and multiple interacting levels (Wilensky & Resnick, 1999; Duncan & Reiser, 2007; Hmelo-Silver et al., 2007). Research suggests that learners can hold a rich repertoire of co-existing alternative ideas of evolution (for example, Bishop & Anderson, 1990; Demastes, Good, & Peebles, 1996; Evans, 2008), especially of human evolution (for example, Nelson, 1986; Sinatra et al., 2003; Poling & Evans, 2004). Evolution ideas are difficult to understand because they often contradict existing alternative ideas (Mayr, 1982; Wolpert, 1994; Evans, 2008). Research suggests that understanding human evolution is a key to evolution education (for example, Blackwell et al., 2003; Besterman & Baggott la Velle, 2007). This dissertation research investigates how different concept mapping forms embedded in a collaborative technology-enhanced learning environment can support students' integration of evolution ideas using case studies of human evolution. Knowledge Integration (KI) (Linn et al., 2000; Linn et al., 2004) is used as the operational framework to explore concept maps as knowledge integration tools to elicit, add, critically distinguish, group, connect, and sort out alternative evolution ideas. Concept maps are a form of node-link diagram for organizing and representing connections between ideas as a semantic network (Novak & Gowin, 1984). This dissertation research describes the iterative development of a novel biology-specific form of concept map, called Knowledge Integration Map (KIM), which aims to help learners connect ideas across levels (for example, genotype and phenotype levels) towards an integrated understanding of evolution. Using a design-based research approach (Brown, 1992; Cobb et al., 2003), three iterative studies were implemented in ethically and economically diverse public high schools classrooms using the web-based inquiry science environment (WISE) (Linn et al., 2003; Linn et al., 2004). Study 1 investigates concept maps as generative assessment tools. Study 1A compares the concept map generation and critique process of biology novices and experts. Findings suggest that concept maps are sensitive to different levels of knowledge integration but require scaffolding and revision. Study 1B investigates the implementation of concept maps as summative assessment tools in a WISE evolution module. Results indicate that concept maps can reveal connections between students' alternative ideas of evolution. Study 2 introduces KIMs as embedded collaborative learning tools. After generating KIMs, student dyads revise KIMs through two different critique activities (comparison against an expert or peer generated KIM). Findings indicate that different critique activities can promote the use of different criteria for critique. Results suggest that the combination of generating and critiquing KIMs can support integrating evolution ideas but can be time-consuming. As time in biology classrooms is limited, study 3 distinguishes the learning effects from either generating or critiquing KIMs as more time efficient embedded learning tools. Findings suggest that critiquing KIMs can be more time efficient than generating KIMs. Using KIMs that include common alternative ideas for critique activities can create genuine opportunities for students to critically reflect on new and existing ideas. Critiquing KIMs can encourage knowledge integration by fostering self-monitoring of students' learning progress, identifying knowledge gaps, and

Schwendimann, Beat Adrian

83

The Spanish indoor radon mapping strategy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Indoor radon mapping still represents a valuable tool for drawing the picture of the exposure of general public due to radon and radon progeny inhalation in a residential context. The information provided by means of a map is useful not only as awareness and strategic element for authorities and policy-makers, but also as a scientific start-up point in the design of epidemiological and other specific studies on exposure to natural radiation. The requirements for a good mapping are related to harmonisation criteria coming from European recommendations, as well as to national/local characteristics and necessities. Around 12 000 indoor radon measurements have been made since the Spanish national radon programme began at the end of the 1980's. A significant proportion of them resulted from the last campaign performed from 2009 to 12. This campaign completed the first version of a map based on a grid 10 x 10 km2. In this paper, the authors present the main results of a new map together with the criteria adopted to improve the number of measurements and the statistical significance of them. (authors)

84

The Effect of Concept Mapping on Iranian Intermediate EFL Learners' Self-efficacy and Expository Writing Accuracy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the questions of whether 1 Does concept mapping knowledge have any effect on Intermediate EFL learners’ self-efficacy? 2 Does concept mapping knowledge have any effect on Intermediate EFL learners’ expository writing accuracy? The following five steps determine the delivery and the sequence of the study: 1 A TOEFL test (writing section as the pretest, 2 self-efficacy questionnaire, 3 8 sessions of instruction on concept map construction with experimental group, 4 integration of concept mapping as a pre-writing strategy in experimental group, and 5 post-test of writing and self-efficacy questionnaire with both groups. Firstly, the writing Proficiency Test along with self-efficacy questionnaire was given to 180 learners. Based on the results of TOEFL writing test and self-efficacy questionnaire, 60 intermediate homogeneous participants were selected and randomly assigned to two groups of control and experimental. In the course of 22-sessions, during regular class time 15 minutes were devoted to concept mapping. Each session the participants of both groups were given a writing task besides their course book writing section. The students in the experimental group were engaged in concept map construction after writing each task and were organized their pre-writing activities such as discussion, doing exercises, and reflective practices according to their constructed maps. A post-test of writing and an efficacy questionnaire were administered to all the participants and the pair sample t- test, and independent sample t-test were used to answer the study questions. The results showed that concept mapping had a significant effect on self- efficacy and expository writing accuracy. 

Behnaz Nobahar

2013-11-01

85

The Contribution of Conceptual Change Texts Accompanied by Concept Mapping to Eleventh-Grade Students Understanding of Cellular Respiration Concepts  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study conducted to investigate the contribution of conceptual change texts, accompanied by concept mapping instruction to eleventh-grade students' understanding of cellular respiration concepts, and their retention of this understanding. Cellular respiration concepts test was developed as a result of examination of related literature…

Al khawaldeh, Salem A.; Al Olaimat, Ali M.

2010-01-01

86

Requirements and design concept for a facility mapping system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Department of Energy (DOE) has for some time been considering the Decontamination and Dismantlement (D&D) of facilities which are no longer in use, but which are highly contaminated with radioactive wastes. One of the holdups in performing the D&D task is the accumulation of accurate facility characterizations that can enable a safe and orderly cleanup process. According to the Technical Strategic Plan for the Decontamination and Decommissioning Integrated Demonstration, {open_quotes}the cost of characterization using current baseline technologies for approximately 100 acres of gaseous diffusion plant at Oak Ridge alone is, for the most part incalculable{close_quotes}. Automated, robotic techniques will be necessary for initial characterization and continued surveillance of these types of sites. Robotic systems are being designed and constructed to accomplish these tasks. This paper describes requirements and design concepts for a system to accurately map a facility contaminated with hazardous wastes. Some of the technologies involved in the Facility Mapping System are: remote characterization with teleoperated, sensor-based systems, fusion of data sets from multiple characterization systems, and object recognition from 3D data models. This Facility Mapping System is being assembled by Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the DOE Office of Technology Development Robotics Technology Development Program.

Barry, R.E.; Burks, B.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Little, C.Q. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1995-02-01

87

Research on the Approach of Automatic Construct Concept Maps from Online Course  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Concept map is a tool for representing knowledge. They have been used in many different fields, including knowledge management, business and industrial design. Concept maps also have been used as an effective learning tool to help students integrate new concepts into their existing set of knowledge. In this study we propose a concept map construction and rule-based evaluation system that is being deployed on the web. After students learned course content to construct individual concept maps for a particular topic that was presented in a course, they can then use the rule-based evaluation system to grade their concept maps against the concept map created by the course instructor. They are also useful for evaluating student learning and helping to illuminate where learning has mastered and where invalid or incomplete ideas are held by the student.

Zhu Ke

2013-01-01

88

The concept of a national security strategy : the case of the United States and South Africa  

OpenAIRE

Discusses the concept of a national security strategy in the United States as an example of a distinctive broad national security strategy supplemented by more specific national security strategies. Presents an overview of the South African situation.

Hough, Mike

2006-01-01

89

Application of Generalizability Theory to Concept-Map Assessment Research. CSE Report 640  

Science.gov (United States)

In the first part of this paper we discuss the feasibility of using Generalizability (G) Theory to examine the dependability of concept map assessments and to design a concept map assessment for a particular practical application. In the second part, we apply G theory to compare the technical qualities of two frequently used mapping techniques:…

Yin, Yue; Shavelson, Richard J.

2004-01-01

90

The Effects of Using Concept Mapping for Improving Advanced Level Biology Students' Lower- and Higher-Order Cognitive Skills  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reports on teachers' use of concept mapping as an alternative assessment strategy in advanced level biology classes and its effects on students' cognitive skills on selected biology concepts. Using a mixed methods approach, the study employed a pre-test/post-test quasi-experimental design involving 156 students and 8 teachers…

Bramwell-Lalor, Sharon; Rainford, Marcia

2014-01-01

91

Handling knowledge via Concept Maps: a space weather use case  

Science.gov (United States)

Concept Maps (Cmaps) are powerful means for knowledge coding in graphical form. As flexible software tools exist to manipulate the knowledge embedded in Cmaps in machine-readable form, such complex entities are suitable candidates not only for the representation of ontologies and semantics in Virtual Observatory (VO) architectures, but also for knowledge handling and knowledge discovery. In this work, we present a use case relevant to space weather applications and we elaborate on its possible implementation and adavanced use in Semantic Virtual Observatories dedicated to Sun-Earth Connections. This analysis was carried out in the framework of the Electronic Geophysical Year (eGY) and represents an achievement synergized by the eGY Virtual Observatories Working Group.

Messerotti, Mauro; Fox, Peter

92

Qualidade conjugal: mapeando conceitos Marital quality: mapping out concepts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Apesar da ampla utilização do conceito de qualidade conjugal, identifica-se falta de clareza conceitual acerca das variáveis que o compõem. Esse artigo apresenta revisão da literatura na área com o objetivo de mapear o conceito de qualidade conjugal. Foram analisadas sete principais teorias sobre o tema: Troca Social, Comportamental, Apego, Teoria da Crise, Interacionismo Simbólico. Pelos postulados propostos nas diferentes teorias, podem-se identificar três grupos de variáveis fundamentais na definição da qualidade conjugal: recursos pessoais dos cônjuges, contexto de inserção do casal e processos adaptativos. Neste sentido, a qualidade conjugal é resultado do processo dinâmico e interativo do casal, razão deste caráter multidimensional.Despite the wide use of marital quality concept, it is identified a lack of variables conceptual clarity. This article presents an area literature review with the objective of mapping out the conjugal concept. Seven theories about this subject were analysed: Social Exchange Theory, Behaviourist Theory, Attachment Theory, Crisis Theory, Simbolic Interactionism Theory, Family Systems Theory, Adaptation of Vulnerability to Stress Model. It is possible to identify three groups of variables in the definition of conjugal quality: spouses personal resources, context in which the couple is inserted, adapting processes. Hence, conjugal quality is the result of couple dynamic and interactive process, consequence of a multidimensional character.

Clarisse Mosmann

2006-12-01

93

Qualidade conjugal: mapeando conceitos / Marital quality: mapping out concepts  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Apesar da ampla utilização do conceito de qualidade conjugal, identifica-se falta de clareza conceitual acerca das variáveis que o compõem. Esse artigo apresenta revisão da literatura na área com o objetivo de mapear o conceito de qualidade conjugal. Foram analisadas sete principais teorias sobre o [...] tema: Troca Social, Comportamental, Apego, Teoria da Crise, Interacionismo Simbólico. Pelos postulados propostos nas diferentes teorias, podem-se identificar três grupos de variáveis fundamentais na definição da qualidade conjugal: recursos pessoais dos cônjuges, contexto de inserção do casal e processos adaptativos. Neste sentido, a qualidade conjugal é resultado do processo dinâmico e interativo do casal, razão deste caráter multidimensional. Abstract in english Despite the wide use of marital quality concept, it is identified a lack of variables conceptual clarity. This article presents an area literature review with the objective of mapping out the conjugal concept. Seven theories about this subject were analysed: Social Exchange Theory, Behaviourist Theo [...] ry, Attachment Theory, Crisis Theory, Simbolic Interactionism Theory, Family Systems Theory, Adaptation of Vulnerability to Stress Model. It is possible to identify three groups of variables in the definition of conjugal quality: spouses personal resources, context in which the couple is inserted, adapting processes. Hence, conjugal quality is the result of couple dynamic and interactive process, consequence of a multidimensional character.

Clarisse, Mosmann; Adriana, Wagner; Terezinha, Féres-Carneiro.

2006-12-01

94

Mediated learning experience and concept maps: a pedagogical tool for achieving meaningful learning in medical physiology students  

Science.gov (United States)

Even though comprehension of human physiology is crucial in the clinical setting, students frequently learn part of this subject using rote memory and then are unable to transfer knowledge to other contexts or to solve clinical problems. This study evaluated the impact of articulating the concept map strategy with the mediated learning experience on meaningful learning during the cardiovascular module of a medical physiology course at Universidad Autónoma de Bucaramanga. This research was based on the ideas of David Ausubel (meaningful learning), Joseph Novak (concept maps), and Reuven Feuerstein (mediated learning experience). Students were randomly allocated to either an intervention group (mediated learning experience articulated with concept mapping) or a control group (traditional methodology). The intervention group constructed concept maps related to cardiovascular physiology and used them to solve problems related to this subject. The control group attended traditional discussion sessions and problem-solving sessions. All students were evaluated with two types of exams: problem-solving and multiple-choice exams. The intervention group performed significantly better on the problem-solving exams, but the difference was not significant in the multiple-choice exam. It was concluded that intervention promoted meaningful learning that allowed the students to transfer this knowledge to solve problems. The implemented strategy had a greater impact on the students who came into the study with the lowest cognitive competence, possibly because they were empowered by the intervention.

Hilda Leonor Gonzalez (Universidad Autonoma de Bucaramanga Physiology)

2008-12-01

95

A genealogical map of the concept of habit.  

Science.gov (United States)

The notion of information processing has dominated the study of the mind for over six decades. However, before the advent of cognitivism, one of the most prominent theoretical ideas was that of Habit. This is a concept with a rich and complex history, which is again starting to awaken interest, following recent embodied, enactive critiques of computationalist frameworks. We offer here a very brief history of the concept of habit in the form of a genealogical network-map. This serves to provide an overview of the richness of this notion and as a guide for further re-appraisal. We identify 77 thinkers and their influences, and group them into seven schools of thought. Two major trends can be distinguished. One is the associationist trend, starting with the work of Locke and Hume, developed by Hartley, Bain, and Mill to be later absorbed into behaviorism through pioneering animal psychologists (Morgan and Thorndike). This tradition conceived of habits atomistically and as automatisms (a conception later debunked by cognitivism). Another historical trend we have called organicism inherits the legacy of Aristotle and develops along German idealism, French spiritualism, pragmatism, and phenomenology. It feeds into the work of continental psychologists in the early 20th century, influencing important figures such as Merleau-Ponty, Piaget, and Gibson. But it has not yet been taken up by mainstream cognitive neuroscience and psychology. Habits, in this tradition, are seen as ecological, self-organizing structures that relate to a web of predispositions and plastic dependencies both in the agent and in the environment. In addition, they are not conceptualized in opposition to rational, volitional processes, but as transversing a continuum from reflective to embodied intentionality. These are properties that make habit a particularly attractive idea for embodied, enactive perspectives, which can now re-evaluate it in light of dynamical systems theory and complexity research. PMID:25100971

Barandiaran, Xabier E; Di Paolo, Ezequiel A

2014-01-01

96

A genealogical map of the concept of habit  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The notion of information processing has dominated the study of the mind for over six decades. However, before the advent of cognitivism, one of the most prominent theoretical ideas was that of Habit. This is a concept with a rich and complex history, which is again starting to awaken interest, following recent embodied, enactive critiques of computationalist frameworks. We offer here a very brief history of the concept of habit in the form of a genealogical network-map. This serves to provide an overview of the richness of this notion and as a guide for further re-appraisal. We identify 77 thinkers and their influences, and group them into seven schools of thought. Two major trends can be distinguished. One is the associationist trend, starting with the work of Locke and Hume, developed by Hartley, Bain and Mill to be later absorbed into behaviourism through pioneering animal psychologists (Morgan and Thorndike. This tradition conceived of habits atomistically and as automatisms (a conception later debunked by cognitivism. Another historical trend we have called organicism inherits the legacy of Aristotle and develops along German idealism, French spiritualism, pragmatism, and phenomenology. It feeds into the work of continental psychologists in the early 20th century, influencing important figures such as Merleau-Ponty, Piaget, and Gibson. But it has not yet been taken up by mainstream cognitive neuroscience and psychology. Habits, in this tradition, are seen as ecological, self-organizing structures that relate to a web of predispositions and plastic dependencies both in the agent and in the environment. In addition, they are not conceptualized in opposition to rational, volitional processes, but as transversing a continuum from reflective to embodied intentionality. These are properties that make habit a particularly attractive idea for embodied, enactive perspectives, which can now re-evaluate it in light of dynamical systems theory and complexity research.

Xabier E Barandiaran

2014-07-01

97

Concept Mapping as an Instrument for Evaluating an Instruction Unit on Holography (Concept Maps als Evaluierungsinstrumente einer Unterrichtseinheit zur Holographie)  

CERN Document Server

Due to its amazing three-dimensional effects, holography is a very motivating, yet very demanding subject for physics classes at the upper level in school. For this reason an instruction unit on holography that supplement holographic experiments with computer-supported work sessions and a simulation program was developed. The effects of the lessons on holography were determined by a pre-post-test design. In addition to videotaping the lessons, knowledge and motivational tests as well as student interviews, students were asked to prepare concept maps, which were used to track processes of model construction. The way this knowledge was applied largely depends on the students' understanding of models. In particular it was shown that the participating students' demonstrated capacity for distinguishing between the different models of light is of great importance. Only students with a developed capacity for distinguishing between models are able to reason in an problem-oriented manner. They recognize the limits of ...

Horn, M E; Horn, Martin Erik; Mikelskis, Helmut F.

2004-01-01

98

Cómo la estrategia de mapas mentales y conceptuales estimulan el desarrollo de la inteligencia espacial en estudiantes universitarios / How does mind and concept mapping strategy stimulate spatial intelligence development among university students / Como a estratégia de mapas mentais e Conceituais estimula o desenvolvimento da inteligência espacial em estudantes universitários  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese O presente artigo explicita os resultados do projeto de pesquisa intitulado «Como a estratégia de mapas mentais e conceituais estimula o desenvolvimento da inteligência visual-espacial em estudantes universitários?», desenvolvido de acordo com os marcos da teoria das inteligências Múltiplas de Gardn [...] er e do trabalho realizado por novak e Buzán sobre mapas conceituais e mentais. Os resultados da pesquisa evidenciam que o uso dessa estratégia constitui uma ferramenta que potencializa a inteligência visual Espacial na medida em que estimula: a criação de imagens com o fim de explicar uma idéia; o desenvolvimento da memória visual para executar e recriar percepções anteriores; o aperfeiçoamento do sentido artístico e estético; a prática para o controle motor fino; a prática da arte visual pela retenção de objetos, figuras, cores, proporção e perspectiva - entre outras habilidades centrais que caracterizam esse tipo de inteligência. Abstract in spanish El presente artículo explicita los resultados del proyecto de investigación titulado ¿Cómo la estrategia de mapas mentales y conceptuales estimulan el desarrollo de la inteligencia visual-espacial en estudiantes de la universidad? desarrollado en el marco de la teoría de las inteligencias Múltiples [...] de Gardner, así como en el trabajo realizado por novak y Buzán en torno de los mapas conceptuales y mentales. El resultado de la investigación evidencia que el uso de esta estrategia se constituye en herramienta que potencian la inteligencia visual-espacial, por cuanto estimulan: la creación de imágenes con el fin de explicar una idea; el desarrollo de la memoria visual para ejecutar y recrear percepciones anteriores; el perfeccionamiento del sentido artístico y estético; la práctica para controlar el movimiento motor fino; la práctica del arte visual, por cuanto hay retención de objetos, figuras, colores, proporción y perspectiva; entre otras habilidades centrales que caracterizan este tipo de inteligencia. Abstract in english This paper makes explicit the results of the research project entitled how does mind and concept mapping strategy stimulate visual-spatial intelligence development among university students?, which was developed in the framework of both Gardner's theory of Multiple intelligences and the work by nova [...] k and Buzán around concept and mind maps. Results of research evidence that using this strategy makes up a tool leveraging visualspatial intelligence, since it stimulates: the creation of images arranged so as to explain an idea; the development of visual memory to execute and recreate earlier perceptions; the improvement of artistic and aesthetic sense; a practice to control fine motor movement; a practice of visual art, since there is object, figure, color, proportion and perspective retention, among other central abilities characterising this intelligence.

Bertha Marlén, Velásquez Burgos; Aida Ximena, León Guatame.

2011-12-01

99

Concept, strategy and realization of lectin-based glycan profiling.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lectins are a diverse group of carbohydrate-binding proteins. Each lectin has its own specificity profile. It is believed that lectins exist in all living organisms that produce glycans. From a practical viewpoint, lectins have been used extensively in biochemical fields including proteomics due to their usefulness as detection and enrichment tools for specific glycans. Nevertheless, they have often been underestimated as probes, especially compared with antibodies, because of their low affinity and broad specificity. However, together with the concept of glycomics, such properties of lectins are now considered to be suitable for the task of 'profiling' in order to cover a wider range of ligands. Recently there has been rapid movement in the field of proteomics aimed at the investigation of glycan-related biomarkers. This is partly because of limitations of the present approach of simply following changes in protein-level expression, without paying sufficient attention to the fact and effects of glycosylation. The trend is reflected in the frequent use of lectins in the contexts of glycoprotein enrichment and glycan profiling. However, there are many aspects to be considered in using lectins, which differ considerably from antibodies. In this article, the author, as a developer of two unique methodologies, frontal affinity chromatography (FAC) and the lectin microarray, describes critical points concerning the use of lectins, together with the concept, strategy and means to achieve advances in these emerging glycan profiling technologies. PMID:18390573

Hirabayashi, Jun

2008-08-01

100

Using concept maps in a modified team-based learning exercise.  

Science.gov (United States)

Medical school education has traditionally been driven by single discipline teaching and assessment. Newer medical school curricula often implement an organ-based approach that fosters integration of basic science and clinical disciplines. Concept maps are widely used in education. Through diagrammatic depiction of a variety of concepts and their specific connections with other ideas, concept maps provide a unique perspective into learning and performance that can complement other assessment methods commonly used in medical schools. In this innovation, we describe using concepts maps as a vehicle for a modified a classic Team-Based Learning (TBL) exercise. Modifications to traditional TBL in our innovation included replacing an individual assessment using multiple-choice questions with concept maps as well as combining the group assessment and application exercise whereby teams created concept maps. These modifications were made to further assess understanding of content across the Fundamentals module (the introductory module of the preclerkship curriculum). While preliminary, student performance and feedback from faculty and students support the use of concept maps in TBL. Our findings suggest concept maps can provide a unique means of determining assessment of learning and generating feedback to students. Concept maps can also demonstrate knowledge acquisition, organization of prior and new knowledge, and synthesis of that knowledge across disciplines in a unique way providing an additional means of assessment in addition to traditional multiple-choice questions. PMID:25850129

Knollmann-Ritschel, Barbara E C; Durning, Steven J

2015-04-01

101

Inception horizon concept as a basis for sinkhole hazard mapping  

Science.gov (United States)

The office for natural hazards of the Vaud canton (Switzerland) is interested for a pragmatic approach to map sinkhole hazard in karst areas. A team was created by merging resources from a geoengineering company (CSD) and a karst specialist (SISKA). Large areas in Vaud territory are limestone karst in which the collapse hazard is essentially related to the collapse of soft-rocks covering underground cavities, rather than the collapse of limestone roofs or underground chambers. This statement is probably not valid for cases in gypsum and salt. Thus, for limestone areas, zones of highest danger are voids covered by a thin layer of soft-sediments. The spatial distributions of void and cover-thickness should therefore be used for the hazard assessment. VOID ASSESSMENT Inception features (IF) are millimetre to decimetre thick planes (mainly bedding but also fractures) showing a mineralogical, a granulometrical or a physical contrast with the surrounding formation that make them especially susceptible to karst development (FILIPPONI ET AL., 2009). The analysis of more than 1500 km of cave passage showed that karst conduits are mainly developed along such discrete layers within a limestone series. The so-called Karst-ALEA method (FILIPPONI ET AL., 2011) is based on this concept and aims at assessing the probability of karst conduit occurrences in the drilling of a tunnel. This approach requires as entries the identification of inception features (IF), the recognition of paleo-water-table (PWT), and their respective spatial distribution in a 3D geological model. We suggest the Karst-ALEA method to be adjusted in order to assess the void distribution in subsurface as a basis for sinkhole hazard mapping. Inception features (horizons or fractures) and paleo-water-tables (PWT) have to be first identified using visible caves and dolines. These features should then be introduced into a 3D geological model. Intersections of HI and PWT located close to landsurface are areas with a high probability of karst occurrence. ASSESSMENT OF THE SOFT-SEDIMENT COVER Classical geological investigations (mapping, DEM analysis, drilling, etc.) are used to establish a map of the thickness of soft-sediment on top of the limestone. This can also be included in the 3D model. The combination of the void and soft-sediment information in the 3D model makes it possible to derive the sinkhole hazard map. This is currently being developed and applied in the Vaud canton and first results will be presented. BIBLIOGRAPHY FILIPPONI, M., JEANNIN, P. & TACHER, L. (2009): Evidence of inception horizons in karst conduit networks. Geomorphology, 106, 86-99. FILIPPONI, M., SCHMASSMANN, S., JEANNIN, P. Y. & PARRIAUX, A. (2011): Karst - ALEA - Method a risk assessment method of karst for tunnel projects: Application to the Tunnel of Flims (GR, Switzerland). Proc. 9th conference on limestone hydrogeology. Besançon, France. p. 181-184.

Vouillamoz, J.; Jeannin, P.-Y.; Kopp, L.; Chantry, R.

2012-04-01

102

Incorporating Concept Maps in a Slide Presentation Tool for the Classroom Environment.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a slide presentation software that incorporates a concept map, which explicitly shows how the various slides (and other multimedia components) presented are related to each other. Furthermore, presentations are conceived as hypermedia systems, where the presenter can navigate among slides (and the concept map) instead of the…

Gopal, Kreshna; Morapakkam, Karthik

103

Concept Map Engineering: Methods and Tools Based on the Semantic Relation Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study is to develop a better understanding of technologies that use natural language as the basis for concept map construction. In particular, this study focuses on the semantic relation (SR) approach to drawing rich and authentic concept maps that reflect students' internal representations of a problem situation. The…

Kim, Minkyu

2013-01-01

104

An Innovative Concept Map Approach for Improving Students' Learning Performance with an Instant Feedback Mechanism  

Science.gov (United States)

Concept maps have been widely employed for helping students organise their knowledge as well as evaluating their knowledge structures in a wide range of subject matters. Although researchers have recognised concept maps as being an important educational tool, past experiences have also revealed the difficulty of evaluating the correctness of a…

Wu, Po-Han; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Milrad, Marcelo; Ke, Hui-Ru; Huang, Yueh-Min

2012-01-01

105

Using Concept Mapping Instruction in Mobile Phone to Learning English Vocabulary  

OpenAIRE

Mobile technologies have enabled various new learning approaches. The researcher investigated the effectiveness of using Short Message Service (SMS) with concept mapping for English as Foreign Language learners’ vocabulary learning. The results indicated that after receiving English vocabulary lessons via SMS, the concept mapping group performed significantly better than the random group on the test scores, especially on the translation part.

Chiu-Jung Chen

2014-01-01

106

Effectiveness of Concept Maps in Economics: Evidence from Australia and USA  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper evaluates the effectiveness of concept maps as a teaching and learning tool in university level Principles of Microeconomics courses in Australia and USA. Concept mapping was incorporated in the teaching material in both courses at different countries and, at the end of the semester, the students completed a survey regarding the use,…

Marangos, John; Alley, Sean

2007-01-01

107

Integrating a Digital Concept Mapping into a PPT Slide Writing Project  

Science.gov (United States)

Carried out during a semester-long EFL (English as a foreign language) drama class, this research aimed to scrutinize the effects of digital concept mapping via LMS on English majors' (N = 38) PowerPoint (PPT) slide writing skills in Taiwan. Students were instructed to follow the concept mapping agenda via university learning management…

Yen, Ai Chun; Yang, Pei Yi

2013-01-01

108

Best Practices in Educational Psychology: Using Evolving Concept Maps as Instructional and Assessment Tools  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe the implementation of evolving concept maps in two different graduate-level educational psychology courses: "The Adolescent Learner" and "Theories of Learning and Cognition." We provide an explicit description of how we used evolving concept maps as instructional and assessment tools in our respective classes, changes in the…

Buehl, Michelle M.; Fives, Helenrose

2011-01-01

109

Stakeholder analysis and mapping as targeted communication strategy.  

Science.gov (United States)

This department highlights change management strategies that may be successful in strategically planning and executing organizational change initiatives. With the goal of presenting practical approaches helpful to nurse leaders advancing organizational change, content includes evidence-based projects, tools, and resources that mobilize and sustain organizational change initiatives. In this article, the author highlights the importance of stakeholder theory and discusses how to apply the theory to conduct a stakeholder analysis. This article also provides an explanation of how to use related stakeholder mapping techniques with targeted communication strategies. PMID:22922747

Shirey, Maria R

2012-09-01

110

Using Concept Mapping to Develop a Logic Model for the Prevention Research Centers Program  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction Concept mapping is a structured conceptualization process that provides a visual representation of relationships among ideas. Concept mapping was used to develop a logic model for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Prevention Research Centers Program, which has a large and diverse group of stakeholders throughout the United States. No published studies have used concept mapping to develop a logic model for a national program. Methods Two logic models were constructed using the data from the concept mapping process and program documents: one for the national level and one for the local level. Concept mapping involved three phases: 1 developing questions to generate ideas about the program’s purpose and function, 2 gathering input from 145 national stakeholders and 135 local stakeholders and sorting ideas into themes, and 3 using multivariate statistical analyses to generate concept maps. Logic models were refined using feedback received from stakeholders at regional meetings and conferences and from a structured feedback tool. Results The national concept map consisted of 9 clusters with 88 statements; the local concept map consisted of 11 clusters with 75 statements. Clusters were categorized into three logic model components: inputs, activities, and outcomes. Based on feedback, two draft logic models were combined and finalized into one for the Prevention Research Centers Program. Conclusion Concept mapping provides a valuable data source, establishes a common view of a program, and identifies inputs, activities, and outcomes in a logic model. Our concept mapping process resulted in a logic model that is meaningful for stakeholders, incorporates input from the program’s partners, and establishes important program expectations. Our methods may be beneficial for other programs that are developing logic models for evaluation planning.

Lynda A. Anderson, PhD

2005-12-01

111

A semi-automatic semantic method for mapping SNOMED CT concepts to VCM Icons  

OpenAIRE

VCM (Visualization of Concept in Medicine) is an iconic language for representing key medical concepts by icons. However, the use of this language with reference terminologies, such as SNOMED CT, will require the mapping of its icons to the terms of these terminologies. Here, we present and evaluate a semi-automatic semantic method for the mapping of SNOMED CT concepts to VCM icons. Both SNOMED CT and VCM are compositional in nature; SNOMED CT is expressed in description log...

Lamy, Jean-baptiste; Tsopra, Rosy; Venot, Alain; Duclos, Catherine

2013-01-01

112

Using Concept Maps for Nursing Education in Iran: A Systematic Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Considering the importance, complexity, and problems in nursing education, using efficient and new methods in nursing education seems to be necessary. One of the most important of these methods which has received attention in recent years is the use of concept maps. Therefore, the aim of this study was systematic review of studies conducted in this field. Methods: Required information for this systematic review study was collected using keywords of concept map, learning, retention, nursing education, critical thinking skill, and Iran and their English synonyms in data bases of Iranmedex, Magiran, Science Direct, PubMed, Google scholar, Medlib, and SID. No time limitation was considered for searching articles. Articles published in Farsi and English have been searched. Results: Results show that concept maps have a significant effect on improving critical thinking of learners. Compared to other educational methods such as lectures; using concept maps show higher efficiency in deep and meaningful learning. Besides, concept maps have a significant effect on learning (relationship of theory and practice, improvement of clinical experiences, organizing concepts, and self-regulation. Conclusion: According to the importance of nursing education and its available problems on one hand, and the use and applicability of concept maps on the other hand (as well as ignorance about this educational method, it seems necessary to plan for the development of using concept maps in educational nursing.

Morteza Ghojazadeh

2014-05-01

113

Ontology-based concept map learning path reasoning system using SWRL rules  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Concept maps are graphical representations of knowledge. Concept mapping may reduce students' cognitive load and extend simple memory function. The purpose of this study was on the diagnosis of students' concept map learning abilities and the provision of personally constructive advice dependant on their learning path and progress. Ontology is a useful method with which to represent and store concept map information. Semantic web rule language (SWRL) rules are easy to understand and to use as specific reasoning services. This paper discussed the selection of grade 7 lakes and rivers curriculum for which to devise a concept map learning path reasoning service. The paper defined a concept map e-learning ontology and two SWRL semantic rules, and collected users' concept map learning path data to infer implicit knowledge and to recommend the next learning path for users. It was concluded that the designs devised in this study were feasible and advanced and the ontology kept the domain knowledge preserved. SWRL rules identified an abstraction model for inferred properties. Since they were separate systems, they did not interfere with each other, while ontology or SWRL rules were maintained, ensuring persistent system extensibility and robustness. 15 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs.

Chu, K.-K.; Lee, C.-I. [National Univ. of Tainan, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Computer Science and Information Learning Technology

2010-08-13

114

A new strategy for developing Vs30 maps  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite obvious limitations as a proxy for site amplification, the use of time-averaged shear-wave velocity over the top 30m (Vs30) is useful and widely practiced, most notably through its use as an explanatory variable in ground motion prediction equations (and thus hazard maps and ShakeMaps, among other applications). Local, regional, and global Vs30 maps thus have diverse and fundamental uses in earthquake and engineering seismology. As such, we are developing an improved strategy for producing Vs30 maps given the common observational constraints available in any region for various spatial scales. We investigate a hierarchical approach to mapping Vs30, where the baseline model is derived from topographic slope because it is available globally, but geological maps and Vs30 observations contribute, where available. Using the abundant measured Vs30 values in Taiwan as an example, we analyze Vs30 versus slope per geologic unit and observe minor trends that indicate potential interaction of geologic and slope terms. We then regress Vs30 for the geologic Vs30 medians, topographic-slope, and cross-term coefficients for a hybrid model. The residuals of this hybrid model still exhibit a strong spatial correlation structure, so we use the kriging-with-a-trend method (the trend is the hybrid model) to further refine the Vs30 map so as to honor the Vs30 observations. Unlike the geology or slope models alone, this strategytakes advantage of the predictive capabilities of the two models, yet effectively defaults to ordinary kriging in the vicinity of the observed data, thereby achieving consistency with the observed data.

Wald, David J.; McWhirter, Leslie; Thompson, Eric; Hering, Amanda S.

2011-01-01

115

Content Structure as a Design Strategy Variable in Concept Acquisition.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three methods of sequencing coordinate concepts (simultaneous, collective, and successive) were investigated with a Bayesian, computer-based, adaptive control system. The data analysis showed that when coordinate concepts are taught simultaneously (contextually similar concepts presented at the same time), student performance is superior to either…

Tennyson, Robert D.; Tennyson, Carol L.

116

Enriching traditional biology lectures digital concept maps and their influence on cognition and motivation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Higher education deals with complex knowledge and university teaching should focus on conceptual understanding. Adequate knowledge structures are essential and active knowledge construction should be supported for meaningful learning. But traditional lectures mostly are structured by slides which may misleadingly cause linear representations of knowledge. In this study, a framework for digital concept maps was developed to complement lectures in human biology. The course was aimed at student science teachers at the undergraduate level. The work is based on theoretical research on computer-supported learning, on knowledge structures perspectives within learning environments as well as on self-determination theory. Each session was supplemented by a digital, multimedia-enriched concept map. After each single lecture, students had free access to the concept maps to reinforce the latest topics. The objective of the study was to examine if the use of complementary concept maps (i influences achievement and (ii if motivational variables influence the use of the concept maps. In both cases, influences of computer-user self-efficacy were expected (iii. The students’ (N = 171 concept map use was logged, achievement was tested and motivational variables were surveyed (e.g. interest/ enjoyment, perceived competence, effort/ importance, value/usefulness. The logfile-data allowed distinguishing learners according to their concept map use. Results reveal the benefit of additional concept maps for achievement, positive motivational aspects and computer-user self-efficacy as mediating factors showed some influence. The emphasize of further research should be on students’ active engagement in structuring their individual learning by constructing concept maps themselves, especially in science education courses.

Steffen Schaal

2010-04-01

117

Concepts and strategies for management of nuclear wastes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Three modes of reactor strategies are chosen and discussed; (1) Once-through type light water reactor, (2) U-Pu cycle light water reactor, and (3) U-Pu cycle fast breeder reactor. The arising of wastes in each mode of nuclear fuel cycle is first estimated for unit nuclear power generation of 1 GWe.year and the amount of wastes to be managed in each year is then calculated. Assuming the 2nd and the 3rd reprocessing plants are not operative, the decrease of waste arising is also estimated, which, nevertheless, claims the need for spent fuel storage pools. In addition, the arisings of decommissioning wastes are evaluated to identify their effect on waste management. Based on above fact, a generic logic of waste management is brought about, placing major emphasis on volume reduction, barrier- and decay-effects. According to the characteristics, the wastes arisen at each stage of nuclear fuel cycle can be categorized into (1) extremely low-level waste, (2) low- and intermediate-level waste, (3) alpha-waste and (4) high-level waste, and the suitable isolation periods for the specified categories can be set by the aid of hazard index, suggesting that the disposal options may possibly be selected. The waste disposal gives environmental impacts through dispersion and migration of contained nuclides into biosphere; the dispersion and migration paths are investigated and a mathematical expression to evaluate the impacts as dose commitment is presented. A multi-barrier concept is proposed since combined artificial and natural barriers have possibility of lengthening the migration path to enable safe disposal. Finally, items of research/development in waste management are represented from the viewpoints of (1) establishment of management system, (2) safety assessment covering verification of technology and system, and (3) regulation, giving recommendations for national policy making as well as for international co-operation. (JPN)

118

Discrimination of mixed quantum states. Reversible maps and unambiguous strategies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The discrimination of two mixed quantum states is a fundamental task in quantum state estimation and quantum information theory. In quantum state discrimination a quantum system is assumed to be in one of two possible - in general mixed - non-orthogonal quantum states. The discrimination then consists of a measurement strategy that allows to decide in which state the system was before the measurement. In unambiguous state discrimination the aim is to make this decision without errors, but it is allowed to give an inconclusive answer. Especially interesting are measurement strategies that minimize the probability of an inconclusive answer. A starting point for the analysis of this optimization problem was a result by Eldar et al. [Phys. Rev. A 69, 062318 (2004)], which provides non-operational necessary and sufficient conditions for a given measurement strategy to be optimal. These conditions are reconsidered and simplified in such a way that they become operational. The simplified conditions are the basis for further central results: It is shown that the optimal measurement strategy is unique, a statement that is e.g. of importance for the complexity analysis of optimal measurement devices. The optimal measurement strategy is derived for the case, where one of the possible input states has at most rank two, which was an open problem for many years. Furthermore, using the optimality criterion it is shown that there always exists a threshold probability for each state, such that below this probability it is optimal to exclude this state from the discrimination strategy. If the two states subject to discrimination can be brought to a diagonal structure with (2 x 2)-dimensional blocks, then the unambiguous discrimination of these states can be reduced to the unambiguous discrimination of pure states. A criterion is presented that allows to identify the presence of such a structure for two self-adjoint operators. This criterion consists of the evaluation of three commutators and allows an explicit construction of the (2 x 2)-dimensional blocks. As an important application of unambiguous state discrimination, unambiguous state comparison, i.e., the question whether two states are identical or not, is generalized and optimal measurements for this problem are constructed. If for a certain family of states, a physical device maps the input state to an output state, such that a second device can be built that yields back the original input state, such a map is called reversible on this family. With respect to state discrimination, such reversible maps are particularly interesting, if the output states are pure. A complete characterization of all families that allow such a reversible and purifying map is provided. If the states are mapped to pure states, but the map itself is not reversible, upper and lower bounds are analyzed for the ''deviation from perfect faithfulness'', a quantity which measures the deviation from a reversible mapping. (orig.)

Kleinmann, Matthias

2008-06-30

119

Discrimination of mixed quantum states. Reversible maps and unambiguous strategies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The discrimination of two mixed quantum states is a fundamental task in quantum state estimation and quantum information theory. In quantum state discrimination a quantum system is assumed to be in one of two possible - in general mixed - non-orthogonal quantum states. The discrimination then consists of a measurement strategy that allows to decide in which state the system was before the measurement. In unambiguous state discrimination the aim is to make this decision without errors, but it is allowed to give an inconclusive answer. Especially interesting are measurement strategies that minimize the probability of an inconclusive answer. A starting point for the analysis of this optimization problem was a result by Eldar et al. [Phys. Rev. A 69, 062318 (2004)], which provides non-operational necessary and sufficient conditions for a given measurement strategy to be optimal. These conditions are reconsidered and simplified in such a way that they become operational. The simplified conditions are the basis for further central results: It is shown that the optimal measurement strategy is unique, a statement that is e.g. of importance for the complexity analysis of optimal measurement devices. The optimal measurement strategy is derived for the case, where one of the possible input states has at most rank two, which was an open problem for many years. Furthermore, using the optimality criterion it is shown that there always exists a threshold probability for each state, such that below this probability it is optimal to exclude this state from the discrimination strategy. If the two states subject to discrimination can be brought to a diagonal structure with (2 x 2)-dimensional blocks, then the unambiguous discrimination of these states can be reduced to the unambiguous discrimination of pure states. A criterion is presented that allows to identify the presence of such a structure for two self-adjoint operators. This criterion consists of the evaluation of three commutators and allows an explicit construction of the (2 x 2)-dimensional blocks. As an important application of unambiguous state discrimination, unambiguous state comparison, i.e., the question whether two states are identical or not, is generalized and optimal measurements for this problem are constructed. If for a certain family of states, a physical device maps the input state to an output state, such that a second device can be built that yields back the original input state, such a map is called reversible on this family. With respect to state discrimination, such reversible maps are particularly interesting, if the output states are pure. A complete characterization of all families that allow such a reversible and purifying map is provided. If the states are mapped to pure states, but the map itself is not reversible, upper and lower bounds are analyzed for the ''deviation from perfect faithfulness'', a quantity which measures the deviation from a reversible mapping. (orig.)

120

Concept Mapping as a Medium of Shared Cognition in Computer-Supported Collaborative Problem Solving.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presents an experimental study conducted at the University of Twente (Netherlands) that investigated the learning effectiveness of concept mapping for computer-supported collaborative problem solving. Highlights include group interaction; shared cognition; knowledge acquisition; learning effectiveness; retention; creativity; and distributed…

Stoyanova, Neli; Kommers, Piet

2002-01-01

121

Knowledge representation and communication with concept maps in teacher training of science and technology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper shows the development of an educational innovation that we have made in the context of initial teacher training for secondary education of science and technology. In this educational experience computing resources and concept maps are used to develop teaching skills related to knowledge representation, oral communication, teamwork and practical use of ICT in the classroom. Initial results indicate that future teachers value positively the use of concept maps and computer resources as useful tools for teacher training.

Pontes Pedrajas, Alfonso

2012-01-01

122

Using Concept Maps for Nursing Education in Iran: A Systematic Review  

OpenAIRE

Introduction: Considering the importance, complexity, and problems in nursing education, using efficient and new methods in nursing education seems to be necessary. One of the most important of these methods which has received attention in recent years is the use of concept maps. Therefore, the aim of this study was systematic review of studies conducted in this field. Methods: Required information for this systematic review study was collected using keywords of concept map, learning, retenti...

Morteza Ghojazadeh; Mir Hossein Aghaei; Mohammad Naghavi-Behzad; Reza Piri; Hakimeh Hazrati; Saber Azami-Aghdash

2014-01-01

123

The cognitive effects of verbal redundancy and animated concept maps on learning  

OpenAIRE

This dissertation seeks to contribute to the literature on the selection and combination of media to facilitate learning. Principally, this research seeks to understand the effects of learning from four different media types concurrently presented with audio narration: (a) static text, (b) animated text, (c) static concept map, and (d) animated concept map. The inclusion of audio narration in multimedia materials introduces verbal redundancy, which is the concurrent presentation of verbatim s...

Adesope, Olusola Olalekan

2010-01-01

124

Learning for School Leadership: Using Concept Mapping to Explore Learning from Everyday Experience  

Science.gov (United States)

This study explores concepts of learning used by leaders, focusing on learning for leadership through day-to-day workplace experiences. The participants were drawn from the senior management team within a school, the chair of governors of the school and the local authority school improvement advisor. Concept mapping was used as a participatory…

Pegg, Ann Elizabeth

2007-01-01

125

Joined up Thinking? Evaluating the Use of Concept-Mapping to Develop Complex System Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

In the physical and natural sciences, the complexity of natural systems and their interactions is becoming better understood. With increased emphasis on learning about complex systems, students will be encountering concepts that are dynamic, ill-structured and interconnected. Concept-mapping is a method considered particularly valuable for…

Stewart, Martyn

2012-01-01

126

Concept Maps and Annotated Drawings: A Comparative Study of Two Assessment Tools.  

Science.gov (United States)

Use of concept mapping as an assessment tool allows links to be made between concepts, and shows both scientifically correct propositions and misconceptions. Annotated drawings offer an alternative form of expression to children who may hold ideas but find it difficult to express them in words or to recognize links between them. (PVD)

Bannister, Sarah; Atkinson, Hilary

1998-01-01

127

ADDRESSING WATER FOOTPRINT CONCEPT: A DEMONSTRABLE STRATEGY FOR PAPERMAKING INDUSTRY  

OpenAIRE

Since the introduction of the water footprint concept in 2002, in the context of humankind’s ever-increasing awareness of the valuable global freshwater resources, it has received more and more attention. The application of this relatively new concept has been expected to provide ecological and environmental benefits. For the water-intensive papermaking industry, it seems that water footprint needs to be addressed. The water footprint of cellulosic paper can be divided into three components...

Jing Shen,; Xueren Qian

2012-01-01

128

Discovering Concept Mappings by Similarity Propagation among Substructures  

Science.gov (United States)

Concept matching is important when heterogeneous data sources are to be merged for the purpose of knowledge sharing. It has many useful applications in areas such as schema matching, ontology matching, scientific knowledge management, e-commerce, enterprise application integration, etc. With the desire of knowledge sharing and reuse in these fields, merging commonly occurs among different organizations where the knowledge describing the same domain is to be matched. Due to the different naming conventions, granularity and the use of concepts in different contexts, a semantic approach to this problem is preferred in comparison to syntactic approach that performs matches based upon the labels only. We propose a concept matching method that initially does not consider labels when forming candidate matches, but rather utilizes structural information to take the context into account and detect complex matches. Real world knowledge representations (schemas) are used to evaluate the method.

Pan, Qi H.; Hadzic, Fedja; Dillon, Tharam S.

129

Building reliable genetic maps: different mapping strategies may result in different maps  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available New high throughput DNA technologies resulted in a disproportion between the high number of scored markers for the mapping populations and relatively small sizes of the genotyped populations. Correspondingly, the number of markers may, by orders of magnitude, exceed the threshold of recombination resolution achievable for a given population size. Hence, only a small part of markers can be genuinely ordered in the map. The question is how to choose the most informative markers for building such a reliable “skeleton” map. We believe that our approach provides a solution to this difficult problem due to: a powerful tools of discrete optimization for multilocus ordering; b a verification procedure, which is impossible without fast and high-quality optimization, to control the map quality based on re-sampling techniques; c an interactive algorithm of marker clustering in complicated situations caused by significant deviation of recombination rates between markers of non-homologous chromosomes from the expected 50% (referred to as quasi-linkage or pseudo-linkage; and d an algorithm for detection and removing excessive markers to increase the stability of multilocus ordering.

Yefim Ronin

2010-06-01

130

The KnowledgeMap Project: Development of a Concept-Based Medical School Curriculum Database  

OpenAIRE

We developed the KnowledgeMap (KM) system as an online, concept-based database of medical school curriculum documents. It uses the KM concept indexer to map full-text documents and match search queries to concepts in the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS). In this paper, we describe the design of KM and report the first seven months of its implementation into a medical school. Despite being emphasized in only two first year courses and one fourth year course, students from all four classe...

Denny, Joshua C.; Irani, Plomarz R.; Wehbe, Firas H.; Smithers, Jeffrey D.; Spickard, Anderson

2003-01-01

131

A CONCEPT MAP FOR INTEGRATED ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT AND FUTURES MODELING  

Science.gov (United States)

Integrated assessment models are differentiated from other models by their explicit concern for results that are useful to decision makers. While the details will differ greatly for each particular integrated assessments project, there are certain concepts that will be present f...

132

A theoretical framework for the concept of 'Internet strategy'  

OpenAIRE

Organisations know that the Internet could or should play an important role in goal achievement, but are uncertain about its strategic application. It can therefore be said that the Internet remains largely 'a technology in search of a strategy'. This article explores 'Internet strategy' from the perspective of the corporate communication domain, specifically within the framework of two meta-theoretical approaches: the Excellence approach and the two-way symmetrical approach to public rel...

Steyn, Benita; Grobler, Anske F.; Cilliers, B.

2005-01-01

133

The Effect of Concept Mapping on Iranian Pre-intermediate L2 Reading Comprehension  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Teachers are always looking for innovative ways to help students improve their reading comprehension. One popular method is the use of graphic organizers such as concept maps. This study examined the use of concept maps (a meta cognitive technique to aid reading comprehension of Iranian pre- intermediate L2 learners in one of the language institutes in Shiraz. The researcher wanted to find appropriate answers to the following research questions 1 does the application of concept mapping technique have any significant effect on Iranian pre-intermediate L2 reading comprehension 2 do Iranian pre-intermediate L2learners have positive attitude toward the application of concept maps in their reading classes? For this, 30 pre-intermediate L2 learners were selected and assigned as experimental group. This experimental group received instruction on how to use concept mapping technique as a pre-reading activity. This group took part in language classes twice a week for one hour and half and reading activities covered thirty minutes of the whole class and also they completed two thirty-minutes reading comprehension tests, one as the pre-test and the other as the post-test. The results of Wilcoxon Sign Rank test showed that the participants in concept mapping group performed better in post-test than in pre-test administration. Moreover, the results of Chi-square revealed that, on the whole, L2 learners had positive attitudes toward using concept mapping technique in reading classes. This study had theoretical as well as pedagogical implication in the field of second/ foreign teaching and learning.

Omid Tabatabaei

2014-11-01

134

A Study of the Relationship between English Self-concept and Language Learning Strategies  

OpenAIRE

The present study concentrated on the relationship between self-concept and language learning strategies. Participants of the study were 157 students from one University in Shandong, China. Quantitative data was collected through two questionnaires. The first one was the revised Chinese version of self-concept scale modified by Pan (2003) from Marsh’s (1992) SQDII. Another inventory based on Oxford’ classification system of learning strategies (SILL) was used to assess learner&rsq...

Mingmei Du

2012-01-01

135

A new approach to analyze strategy map using an integrated BSC and FUZZY DEMATEL  

OpenAIRE

Today, with ever-increasing competition in global economic conditions, the necessity of effective implementation of strategy map has become an inevitable and necessary. The strategy map represents a general and structured framework for strategic objectives and plays an important role in forming competitive advantages for organizations. It is important to find important factors influencing strategy map and prioritize them based on suitable factors. In this paper, we propose an integration of B...

Seyed Abdollah Heydariyeh; Mojtaba Javidnia; Amir Mehdiabadi

2012-01-01

136

Ontology Mapping using Fuzzy Decision Tree and Formal Concept Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An ontology describes and defines the terms used to describe and represent an area of knowledge. Different people or organizations come up with their own ontology; having their own view of the domain. So, for systems to interoperate, it becomes necessary to map these heterogeneous ontologies.This paper discusses the state of the art methods and outlines a new approach with improved precision and recall. Also the system finds other than 1:1 relationships. 

Manjula Shenoy

2013-06-01

137

Functional Ontology and Concept Maps for Knowledge Navigation: An Application Example for Contest Robot  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Because the volume of web resources (web pages, images, music, video, etc. continues to increase exponentially, enabling reuse and sharing of creative knowledge in engineering domain becomes our driving force to develop the knowledge map navigation. Map navigation is a way of organizing the world's information geographically. Knowledge maps are used to visualize a set of related information. To solve problems of knowledge sharing and knowledge reusing in engineering domain, this study proposed a knowledge map navigation which is based on functional ontology and concept maps. At last, a case study on contest robot is applied to demonstrate the proposed model can promote the information searching more efficiently. In order to share the functional knowledge model anywhere on the Internet, we use CmapTools which allow users to construct, navigate, share and criticize knowledge models represented as concept to implement that. It shows some benefits from functional ontology-based applications in engineering knowledge management domain.

Shuen-Ren Yu

2011-01-01

138

Does the mind map learning strategy facilitate information retrieval and critical thinking in medical students?  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background A learning strategy underutilized in medical education is mind mapping. Mind maps are multi-sensory tools that may help medical students organize, integrate, and retain information. Recent work suggests that using mind mapping as a note-taking strategy facilitates critical thinking. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a relationship existed between mind mapping and critical thinking, as measured by the Health Sciences Reasoning Test (HSRT), and whether a r...

Olson Valerie G; Zipp Genevieve; D'Antoni Anthony V; Cahill Terrence F

2010-01-01

139

Organic plant breeding and propagation: concepts and strategies  

OpenAIRE

Key-words : crop ideotype, genetic diversity, integrity of plants, intrinsic value, isophenic line mixture varieties, organic plant breeding, organic farming, organic propagation, participatory plant breeding, variety characteristics, seed-borne diseases, seed quality, spring wheat, threshold values, variety concept, variety mixtures. The organic farming system differs fundamentally from conventional agriculture in the management of soil fertility, weeds, diseases and pests. Organic farmers ...

Lammerts Bueren, E. T.

2002-01-01

140

Strategies for Teaching Object-Oriented Concepts with Java  

Science.gov (United States)

A considerable amount of experiences in teaching object-oriented concepts using the Java language have been reported to date, some of which describe language pitfalls and concrete learning difficulties. In this paper, a number of additional issues that have been experienced as difficult for students to master, along with approaches intended to…

Sicilia, Miguel-Angel

2006-01-01

141

ADDRESSING WATER FOOTPRINT CONCEPT: A DEMONSTRABLE STRATEGY FOR PAPERMAKING INDUSTRY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since the introduction of the water footprint concept in 2002, in the context of humankind’s ever-increasing awareness of the valuable global freshwater resources, it has received more and more attention. The application of this relatively new concept has been expected to provide ecological and environmental benefits. For the water-intensive papermaking industry, it seems that water footprint needs to be addressed. The water footprint of cellulosic paper can be divided into three components, including its green water footprint, blue water footprint, and grey water footprint, which may be accounted for by considering the individual contributions of wood or non-wood materials, pulp production processes, effluent discharge to the receiving water bodies, process chemicals and additives, energy consumption, etc. In the literature, the accounting of water footprint during the whole production chain of cellulosic paper is already available, and relevant research findings can provide useful insights into the application of the concept; however, further development of the accounting methodologies is much needed, so that the quantitative and qualitative evaluation of water footprint can be internationally recognized, certified, and standardized. Although there are ongoing or upcoming debates and challenges associated with the concept, its application to papermaking industry may be expected to provide various encouraging possibilities and impacts.

Jing Shen,

2012-05-01

142

Minority Preservice Teachers' Conceptions of Teaching Science: Sources of Science Teaching Strategies  

Science.gov (United States)

This study explores five minority preservice teachers' conceptions of teaching science and identifies the sources of their strategies for helping students learn science. Perspectives from the literature on conceptions of teaching science and on the role constructs used to describe and distinguish minority preservice teachers from their mainstream…

Subramaniam, Karthigeyan

2013-01-01

143

A structured strategy of concept definition in measurement: the case of 'sensitivity'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper emphasizes the importance that fundamental concepts in measurement science are defined according to a structured strategy, which provides both a general, qualitative characterization and a specific, type-related, quantitative definition. As a significant case, the concept 'sensitivity' is discussed and a definition for it proposed

144

The Effect of Concept Map Using on Student Success in The Teaching of Biology II Subjects Presented in Science Teacher Programme  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, the effects of concept maps on meaningful learning of science 2.grade students to 8 biological topics presented in Biology II course has been comparatively investigated with classical method. For this purpose 140 students have been divided into two groups (70 control and 70 experimental and the subjects have been explained with classical method in control group and concept maps have been prepared in experimental group. Before and after the application, both groups received pre-test and post–test. The data were evaluated using by SPSS 11.5 statistical program. And success relations between samplings were determined using by t-test analyzing.According to data, it has been observed that the experimental group were more successful than control group (t=6,48, p< 0.001. It suggests that Concept maps can be used as teaching strategy in some difficult biology subjects.

Tohit GÜNE?

2006-12-01

145

Utilization of Concept Mapping Program at the Root Cause Analysis of Events  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

KHNP introduced the Corrective Action Program (CAP) as a part of the nuclear operation innovation. The Key program of the CAP is the Root Cause Analysis (RCA) program. The RCA is a technique to extract root causes and take actions to prevent a recurrence in the event that management doesn't want it to happen again. KHNP establishes a temporary team for RCA of some event. KHNP should assign some human resources to the temporary team. KNPEI introduced a RCA training program from Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station in 2005 and began training the engineers from 2006. But the RCA Program doesn't operate well at the stations because of two reasons. KNPEI performed a research project from March 2006 to September 2007 to capture experience knowledge from seniors and transfer it to juniors. As part of the research activity KNPEI introduced a Concept Mapping Program and set up a Concept Mapping server to capture experience knowledge. Originally, the Concept Mapping Program was to teach conceptual knowledge by remote. But this Concept Mapping Program has some characteristics that can be used in root causes analysis. The purpose of this report is to suggest the utilization method in root causes analysis in the Concept Mapping

146

The Contribution of Conceptual Change Texts Accompanied by Concept Mapping to Students' Understanding of the Human Circulatory System.  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigates the contribution of conceptual change texts accompanied by concept mapping instruction to 10th-grade students' understanding of the human circulatory system. Indicates that the conceptual change texts accompanied by concept mapping instruction produced a positive effect on students' understanding of concepts. Concludes that students…

Sungur, Semra; Tekkaya, Ceren; Geban, Omer

2001-01-01

147

The effect of using concept maps on advancing students conceptual understanding of Euler circuit  

OpenAIRE

This study investigated the use of concept maps on advancing students conceptual understanding of the Euler Circuit concept. The participants were students at the college of Humanities and Social Sciences with a background in Art. A pre-treatment test was given to students during the eleventh week of the semester, while a post-treatment test was given during the fourteenth week. The study reports the findings from the responses of eighty three participants who took both the ...

Serhan, Derar; Syam, Muhammed; Almdallal, Qasem

2014-01-01

148

Osteodensitometry and osteoporosis. Current concepts and strategies for the future  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The osteoporosis is a disease of universal distribution that affects millions of adults in the whole world, producing a high number of fractures, due to insufficiency that generates a significant morbidity and mortality. This condition is especially frequent in post menopause women. Some concepts about the bone structure, and the principal characteristics of the different methods to quantify the bone mass (conventional radiology, radiogrametry, photo densitometry, single photon absorbitometry, dual photon absorbitometry are reviewed. Finally, the advantages, disadvantages, levels of sensibility, precision, of the different techniques are established. An emphasis is made on the special capacity of the quantitative computed axial tomography to detect as a selective way the alterations of the spongiest bone

149

Mapping strategies: Chromosome 16 workshop. Final technical report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The following topics from a workshop on chromosome 16 are briefly discussed: genetic map of chromosome 16; chromosome breakpoint map of chromosome 16; integrated physical/genetic map of chromosome 16; pulsed field map of the 16p13.2--p13.3 region (3 sheets); and a report of the HGM10 chromosome 16 committee.

1989-12-31

150

Resizing Auditory Communities : Urban noise and strategies of sound mapping  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Heard through the ears of the Canadian composer and music teacher R. Murray Schafer the ideal auditory community had the shape of a village. Schafer’s work with the World Soundscape Project in the 70s represent an attempt to interpret contemporary environments through musical and auditory parameters highlighting harmonious and balanced qualities while criticizing the noisy and cacophonous qualities of modern urban settings. This paper present a reaffirmation of Schafer’s central methodological claim: that environments can be analyzed through their sound, but offers considerations on the role of sound as an active component in shaping urban environments. As urban conditions spreads globally, new scales, shapes and forms of communities appear and call for new distinctions and models in the study and representation of sonic environments. Particularly so, since urban environments are increasingly musicalized through electro acoustic equipment installed in shops, shopping streets, transit areas etc. Urban noiseno longer acts only as disturbance, but also structure and shape the places and spaces in which urban life enfold. Based on research done in Japanese shopping streets and in Copenhagen the paper presents some terminologies for mapping urban environments through its sonic configuration. Such probing into the practices of acoustic territorialisation may direct attention to some of the conflicting and disharmonious interests defining public inclusive domains. The paper investigates the concept of urban noise not only as a disturbing and potentially unhealthy influence, but also as a condition for interaction, creativity and inclusiveness and makes three propositions for a theory of urban sonic environments.

Kreutzfeldt, Jacob

2012-01-01

151

Allele-specific chemical genetics: concept, strategies, and applications.  

Science.gov (United States)

The relationship between DNA and protein sequences is well understood, yet because the members of a protein family/subfamily often carry out the same biochemical reaction, elucidating their individual role in cellular processes presents a challenge. Forward and reverse genetics have traditionally been employed to understand protein functions with considerable success. A fundamentally different approach that has gained widespread application is the use of small organic molecules, known as chemical genetics. However, the slow time-scale of genetics and inherent lack of specificity of small molecules used in chemical genetics have limited the applicability of these methods in deconvoluting the role of individual proteins involved in fast, dynamic biological events. Combining the advantages of both the techniques, the specificity achieved with genetics along with the reversibility and tunability of chemical genetics, has led to the development of a powerful approach to uncover protein functions in complex biological processes. This technique is known as allele-specific chemical genetics and is rapidly becoming an essential toolkit to shed light on proteins and their mechanism of action. The current review attempts to provide a comprehensive description of this approach by discussing the underlying principles, strategies, and successful case studies. Potential future implications of this technology in expanding the frontiers of modern biology are discussed. PMID:25436868

Islam, Kabirul

2015-02-20

152

Designs of Concept Maps and Their Impacts on Readers' Performance in Memory and Reasoning while Reading  

Science.gov (United States)

From the perspective of the Fuzzy Trace Theory, this study investigated the impacts of concept maps with two strategic orientations (comprehensive and thematic representations) on readers' performance of cognitive operations (such as perception, verbatim memory, gist reasoning and syntheses) while the readers were reading two history articles that…

Tzeng, Jeng-Yi

2010-01-01

153

Student Perceptions and Use of an Assessment Rubric for a Group Concept Map in Physiology  

Science.gov (United States)

We previously reported how the opinions of second-year dentistry students and faculty members can be used to construct an assessment rubric to grade group-based concept maps in physiology (14). This article describes the second phase of this study of the subsequent year's cohort. A case study approach was used to investigate how groups of students…

Moni, Roger W.; Moni, Karen B.

2008-01-01

154

An Electronic Engineering Curriculum Design Based on Concept-Mapping Techniques  

Science.gov (United States)

Curriculum design is a concern in European Universities as they face the forthcoming European Higher Education Area (EHEA). This process can be eased by the use of scientific tools such as Concept-Mapping Techniques (CMT) that extract and organize the most relevant information from experts' experience using statistics techniques, and helps a…

Toral, S. L.; Martinez-Torres, M. R.; Barrero, F.; Gallardo, S.; Duran, M. J.

2007-01-01

155

Concept Maps of Korean EFL Student Teachers' Autobiographical Reflections on Their Professional Identity Formation  

Science.gov (United States)

This study utilizes a concept mapping method to explore the underlying structure and dimensionality of Korean student teachers' autobiographical reflections on their professional identity formation. Participants consist of 90 students enrolled in bachelor's and master's degree programs in English teacher education. The study results imply core…

Lim, Hyun-Woo

2011-01-01

156

Concept Mapping Assessment of Media Assisted Learning in Interdisciplinary Science Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Acquisition of conceptual knowledge is a central aim in science education. In this study we monitored an interdisciplinary hypermedia assisted learning unit on hibernation and thermodynamics based on cooperative learning. We used concept mapping for the assessment, applying a pre-test/post-test design. In our study, 106 9th graders cooperated by…

Schaal, Steffen; Bogner, Franz X.; Girwidz, Raimund

2010-01-01

157

Differences in Concept Mapping, Hypertext Architecture, and the Analyst-Intuition Dimension of Cognitive Style  

Science.gov (United States)

There is now evidence to suggest that the degree to which hypertext or web-based instructional systems facilitate recall of information appears to be contingent on an individual's cognitive or information processing style. Concept maps also reflect the way in which individuals process information and therefore it is possible that cognitive style…

Graff, Martin

2005-01-01

158

Differences in Stakeholder Perceptions about Training Evaluation: A Concept Mapping/Pattern Matching Investigation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Used concept mapping and pattern matching in exploratory research to investigate differences in stakeholder perceptions of training results and evaluation. Group perceptions and the individual perceptions of 39 managers, product developers, and training professionals show that all stakeholder groups agreed reasonably well about the importance of…

Michalski, Greg V.; Cousins, J. Bradley

2000-01-01

159

Using Concept Mapping Techniques to Compare Stakeholder Groups' Perceptions of Tech Prep.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study was conducted to develop a conceptual framework for tech prep programs based on the perceptions of personnel involved in the planning and implementation of local tech prep programs. A structured conceptualization process called concept mapping was used to develop a pictorial representation of stakeholders' perceptions of tech prep. Using a…

Roegge, Chris A.; And Others

160

General strategy, clay based disposal concepts and integration (GSI)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This session gathers 20 articles (posters) dealing with: the assessment of backfill materials and methods for deposition tunnels; HTV-1: a semi technical scale testing of a multi-layer hydraulic shaft sealing system; the development of water content adjust method by mixing powdered-ice and chilled bentonite: application to the construction of bentonite engineered barriers by shot-clay method; repository design issues related to the thermal impact induced by heat emitting radioactive waste; pillared clays, using Romanian montmorillonite; the simulation of differential settlements of clay based engineered barrier systems in a geo-centrifuge; the critical issues regarding clay behaviour in the KBS-3H repository design; an alternative buffer material experiment; assessing the performance of a swelling clay tunnel seal and issues identified in the course of its operation; the activation of a Ca-bentonite as buffer material; a large diameter borehole type repository in the clays for radioactive waste long term storage; the erosion of backfill materials during the installation phase; the behaviour of the clay cover of a site for very low level nuclear waste: field flexion tests; the laboratory tests made on three different backfill candidates for the Swedish KBS- 3V concept; the engineering geological clay research for radioactive waste repository in Slovakia; the ESDRED project, module 1 - Design, fabrication, assembly, handling and packaging of buffer rings; the laboratory packaging of buffer rings; the laboratory experiments on the sealing ability of bentonite pellets; the screening of bentonite resources for use as an engineered barrier component in deep geologic repositories; the assessment of the radionuclide release from the near-field environment of a spent nuclear fuel geological repository; and the emplacement tests with granular bentonite

161

A Manufacturing Strategy: An Overview of Related Concepts, Principles and Techniques  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this study is to define and discuss the related concepts, tools and techniques of lean production system- a widely used manufacturing strategy. This paper basically introduces the most basic lean tools and techniques necessary to understand this management philosophy and reap its full benefits. Since the term associated with lean practice pose problems of definition and concept, it is therefore deemed necessary to outline the basic elements connected with the lean production. T...

Farhana Ferdousi; Amir Ahmed

2010-01-01

162

Concept Maps for Assessing Change in Learning: A Study of Undergraduate Business Students in First-Year Marketing in China  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper explains the application of concept mapping to help foster a learning-centred approach. It investigates how concept maps are used to measure the change in learning following a two-week intensive undergraduate Marketing Principles course delivered to 162 Chinese students undertaking a Bachelor of Business Administration programme in…

von der Heidt, Tania

2015-01-01

163

A Concept-Map Integrated Dynamic Assessment System for Improving Ecology Observation Competences in Mobile Learning Activities  

Science.gov (United States)

Observation competence plays a fundamental role in outdoor scientific investigation. The computerized concept mapping technique as a Mindtool has shown the potential for enhancing meaningful learning in science education. The purposes of the present study are to develop a concept map integrated mobile learning design for ecology observation and to…

Hung, Pi-Hsia; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Su, I-Hsiang; Lin, I-Hua

2012-01-01

164

Concept Mapping Assessment of Media Assisted Learning in Interdisciplinary Science Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Acquisition of conceptual knowledge is a central aim in science education. In this study we monitored an interdisciplinary hypermedia assisted learning unit on hibernation and thermodynamics based on cooperative learning. We used concept mapping for the assessment, applying a pre-test/post-test design. In our study, 106 9th graders cooperated by working in pairs ( n = 53) for six lessons. As an interdisciplinary learning activity in such complex knowledge domains has to combine many different aspects, we focused on long-term knowledge. Learners working cooperatively in dyads constructed computer-supported concept maps which were analysed by specific software. The data analysis encompassed structural aspects of the knowledge corresponding to a target reference map. After the learning unit, the results showed the acquisition of higher-order domain-specific knowledge structures which indicates successful interdisciplinary learning through the hypermedia learning environment. The benefit of using a computer-assisted concept mapping assessment for research in science education, and in science classrooms is considered.

Schaal, Steffen; Bogner, Franz X.; Girwidz, Raimund

2010-05-01

165

Differential-associative processing or example elaboration: Which strategy is best for learning the definitions of related and unrelated concepts?  

OpenAIRE

Definitions of related concepts (e.g., genotype–phenotype) are prevalent in introductory classes. Consequently, it is important that educators and students know which strategy(s) work best for learning them. This study showed that a new comparative elaboration strategy, called differential-associative processing, was better for learning definitions of related concepts than was an integrative elaborative strategy, called example elaboration. This outcome occurred even though example elaborat...

Hannon, Brenda

2012-01-01

166

Mapping Theory : Mapping of the theoretical territory related to a contemporary concept of Public Space  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper came about within the context of a 13-month research project, Focus Area 1 - Method and Theory, at the Center for Public Space Research at the Royal Academy of the Arts School of Architecture in Copenhagen, Denmark. This project has been funded by RealDania. The goals of the research project, Focus Area 1 - Method and Theory, which forms the framework for this working paper, are: * To provide a basis from which to discuss the concept of public space in a contemporary architectural and urban context - specifically relating to theory and method * To broaden the discussion of the concept of public space in order to include examples belonging to contemporary urban development and life. * To identify theoretical and methodological positions, and efforts, that could further qualify and develop public space research at the centre

Smith, Shelley

2009-01-01

167

Academic Self-Concept and Learning Strategies: Direction of Effect on Student Academic Achievement  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the prediction of academic self-concept (English and Mathematics) and learning strategies (deep and surface), and their direction of effect, on academic achievement (English and Mathematics) of 8,354 students from 16 secondary schools in Hong Kong. Two competing models were tested to ascertain the direction of effect: Model A…

McInerney, Dennis M.; Cheng, Rebecca Wing-yi; Mok, Magdalena Mo Ching; Lam, Amy Kwok Hap

2012-01-01

168

Mastering Leadership Concepts through Utilizing Critical Thinking Strategies within Educational Administration Courses at Kuwait University  

Science.gov (United States)

The current study aims at exploring the students' perceptions of mastering leadership concepts and critical thinking strategies implemented by faculty members in the college of education at Kuwait University, and the impact of the later on former. The data was collected using a questionnaire on a sample consisting of 411 students representing…

Alqahtani, Abdulmuhsen Ayedh; Al-Enezi, Mutlaq M.

2012-01-01

169

Strategic political postures and political market orientation : Towards an integrated concept of political marketing strategy  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Recently, the areas of strategic political marketing and political market orientation have been the subject of several conceptual articles which have provided the theoretical foundations for further empirical work. However, despite the close conceptual relatedness of the proposed concepts, these have yet to be integrated to provide a more nuanced framework which both researchers and political marketing practitioners can utilise in the development of strategies and offerings with which to achieve their organizational goals. The aim of this conceptual paper is to address this deficit by developing an integrated concept of political marketing strategy using two complementary frameworks, namely Strategic Political Postures (SPP) and Political Market Orientation (PMO). We introduce the two main concepts and derive for each of the strategic posture-specific PMO profiles as well as inter-construct relationships.

Ormrod, Robert P.; Henneberg, Stephan C.

2010-01-01

170

Methodology and applicability of a safety and demonstration concept for a HAW final repository on clays. Safety concept and verification strategy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report describes the site independent frame for a safety concept and verification strategy for a final repository for heat generating wastes in clay rock. In the safety concept planning specifications and technical measures are summarized that are supposed to allow a safe inclusion of radionuclides in the host rock. The verification strategy defines the systematic procedures for the development of fundamentals and scenarios as basis for the demonstration of the safety case and to allow the prognosis of appropriateness. The report includes the boundary conditions, the safety concept for the post-closure phase and the verification strategy for the post-closure phase.

171

Mapping Theory : Mapping of the theoretical territory related to a contemporary concept of Public Space  

OpenAIRE

This paper came about within the context of a 13-month research project, Focus Area 1 - Method and Theory, at the Center for Public Space Research at the Royal Academy of the Arts School of Architecture in Copenhagen, Denmark. This project has been funded by RealDania. The goals of the research project, Focus Area 1 - Method and Theory, which forms the framework for this working paper, are: * To provide a basis from which to discuss the concept of public space in a contemporary architectural ...

Smith, Shelley

2009-01-01

172

A new strategy for mapping the human genome.  

OpenAIRE

Recent advances in agarose gel electrophoresis of large DNA fragments raise the possibility of an entirely new approach to mapping mammalian genomes. In this article is discussed the potential of this technology for tackling problems such as construction of linkage maps, identifying chromosome translocation breakpoints, and moving from linked markers to genes causing diseases such as the muscular dystrophies and Huntington's chorea.

Shaw, D. J.

1986-01-01

173

Concept mapping One-Carbon Metabolism to model future ontologies for nutrient–gene–phenotype interactions  

OpenAIRE

Advances in the development of bioinformatic tools continue to improve investigators’ ability to interrogate, organize, and derive knowledge from large amounts of heterogeneous information. These tools often require advanced technical skills not possessed by life scientists. User-friendly, low-barrier-to-entry methods of visualizing nutrigenomics information are yet to be developed. We utilized concept mapping software from the Institute for Human and Machine Cognition to create a conceptua...

Joslin, A. C.; Green, R.; German, J. B.; Lange, M. C.

2014-01-01

174

Enriching traditional biology lectures digital concept maps and their influence on cognition and motivation  

OpenAIRE

Higher education deals with complex knowledge and university teaching should focus on conceptual understanding. Adequate knowledge structures are essential and active knowledge construction should be supported for meaningful learning. But traditional lectures mostly are structured by slides which may misleadingly cause linear representations of knowledge. In this study, a framework for digital concept maps was developed to complement lectures in human biology. The course was aimed at student ...

Steffen Schaal

2010-01-01

175

Developing Concrete Research Proposals and Facilitating Self-Directed Learning via Concept Mapping  

OpenAIRE

Self-direction in learning and writing viable research proposals are considered by higher education institutions as essential skills for graduate students to start their careers as researchers. This is an evidence-based practice study focuses on the use of concept mapping to facilitate self-directed learning and enhance research proposal writing in teacher education. An action mixed methods research design was used in this study with quantitative and qualitative data. Participants were 29 gr...

Alkahtani, Keetam D. F.

2013-01-01

176

A utilização de mapas conceituais como recurso didático para a construção e inter-relação de conceitos / Using concept maps as a teaching resource for building and interrelating concepts  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Os mapas conceituais, criados por Novak com base na teoria de Ausubel, podem constituir para os alunos uma estratégia pedagógica de grande relevância para a construção de conceitos científicos, ajudando-os a integrar e relacionar informações e atribuir significado ao que estão estudando. Este artigo [...] descreve o trabalho realizado com alunos de um curso de Medicina usando mapas conceituais, tomando por base os "temas geradores" criados na disciplina de Atenção Básica em Saúde a partir da constatação dos principais problemas de saúde da região em que está localizada a escola médica. A utilização dos mapas constituiu um recurso metodológico relevante por se alinhar a uma formação teórica adequada às necessárias intervenções na realidade estudada e por facilitar a apropriação de conceitos científicos pelos alunos. Abstract in english Concept maps, created by Novak and based on Ausubel's theory, can represent an important pedagogical strategy for students to learn about the construction of scientific concepts, helping them to integrate and correlate information, as well as assign meaning to what they are studying. In this article [...] , we describe the work carried out with medical students using concept maps drawing on "generator themes" created in the discipline of Primary Health Care, based on the main health problems found in the local area. According to our studies, the use of maps can constitute an important methodological resource, supporting the alignment of adequate theoretical training to the interventions required in real life, as well as facilitating the appropriation of scientific concepts by students.

Valter, Carabetta Júnior.

2013-09-01

177

Developing Concrete Research Proposals and Facilitating Self-Directed Learning via Concept Mapping  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Self-direction in learning and writing viable research proposals are considered by higher education institutions as essential skills for graduate students to start their careers as researchers. This is an evidence-based practice study focuses on the use of concept mapping to facilitate self-directed learning and enhance research proposal writing in teacher education. An action mixed methods research design was used in this study with quantitative and qualitative data. Participants were 29 graduate students who were enrolled in a core course aimed to provide learners with an in-depth understanding of research methods. All students, at the beginning of the course, were asked to write a research proposal and complete the Self-Directed Learning Readiness Scale (SDLRS. They then were given training in the use of concept mapping technique throughout the course to develop research proposals. Students’ scores prior to and after the intervention were compared. Results indicate that students developed significantly more concrete research proposals, and displayed higher scores at post-intervention assessment. Findings of this study value and support the use of concept mapping to provide students with a comprehensive understanding of the knowledge of their area of study as they reflect on every element of their proposals.

Keetam D. F. Alkahtani

2013-02-01

178

Systematic errors of mapping functions which are based on the VMF1 concept  

Science.gov (United States)

Precise GNSS positioning requires an accurate Mapping Function (MF) to model the tropospheric delay. To date the most accurate MF is the Vienna Mapping Function 1 (VMF1). It utilizes data from a numerical weather model which is known for high predictive skill (Integrated Forecast System of the European Centre of Medium range Weather Forecast). Still, the VMF1, or any other MF which is based on the VMF1 concept, is a parameterized mapping approach and this means that it is tuned for specific elevation angles, station and orbital altitudes. In this study we analyse the systematic errors caused by such tuning on a global scale. We find that in particular the parameterization of the station altitude dependency is a major concern regarding airborne applications. For the moment we do not provide an improved parameterized mapping approach to mitigate systematic errors but instead we propose a rapid direct and therefore error-free mapping approach; the so-called Potsdam Mapping Factors (PMFs).

Zus, Florian; Dick, Galina; Dousa, Jan; Wickert, Jens

2014-05-01

179

Distributed optimal technology networks: a concept and strategy for potable water sustainability.  

Science.gov (United States)

Viable strategies for ensuring adequate supplies of potable water are essential to long-term societal sustainability. The steadily increasing necessity for multiple reuse of water in urban societies is even now taxing our technical and financial abilities to meet ongoing needs for water suitable for human consumption. As a consequence, the current practice of treating the entire water demands of urban communities to the increasingly stringent standards required for drinking water is becoming an unsustainable practice, and thus a questionable strategy for planning and development of urban water systems. An innovative technology-based concept for implementation of a more sustainable strategy and practice for potable water is developed here. The concept is predicated on the inherent advantages of flexibility and responsiveness associated with decentralization of complex functions and operations. Specifically, it calls for strategic dispersal of flexible advanced treatment and control technologies throughout urban water transport and storage networks. This is in direct contradistinction to current strategies and practices of centralized and inflexible monolithic facilities. By integrating use-related satellite systems with critical components of existing systems and infrastructures, the concept can enable and facilitate optimal cost-effective applications of highly sophisticated advanced treatment and on-line monitoring and control technologies to in-place infrastructures in a holistic and sustainable manner. PMID:12380997

Weber, W J

2002-01-01

180

A Manufacturing Strategy: An Overview of Related Concepts, Principles and Techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to define and discuss the related concepts, tools and techniques of lean production system- a widely used manufacturing strategy. This paper basically introduces the most basic lean tools and techniques necessary to understand this management philosophy and reap its full benefits. Since the term associated with lean practice pose problems of definition and concept, it is therefore deemed necessary to outline the basic elements connected with the lean production. This study is an overview of the conceptual framework of lean. A desk study was conducted to gather relevant information in this regard.

Farhana Ferdousi

2010-05-01

181

Concept-mapping as a teaching method to facilitate critical thinking in nursing education: A review of the literature  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Nursing students are exposed to a vast amount of information and reading material that is very specific, technical, and new to the students. Unless nurse educators provide a learning environment that promotes understanding through interaction, students might only commit unassimilated information to [...] their short-term memory through rote learning, and no meaningful learning will occur. Nursing students must be able to link learned facts, concepts and principles with new knowledge in order to make sound rational decisions in practice (All & Havens 1997:1210, 1213). The aim of this paper is to describe the utilisation of concept-mapping as a teaching method to facilitate critical thinking by students in nursing education. The description of the utilisation of concept-mapping is done from the theoretical framework of concept-mapping and critical thinking to provide the epistemological basis for concept-mapping (Facione 1990:6, 13). Based on the exploration and description of the theoretical frameworks, four steps to facilitate critical thinking were formulated through concept-mapping on the basis of the educational process: the identification, interactive constructing process, formulation and evaluation steps. It is concluded that the utilisation of these steps will assist nurse educators to implement concept-mapping as a teaching method to facilitate critical thinking by student nurses in nursing education. Recommendations are made.

Mary M., Chabeli.

182

Improving information retrieval with dialogue mapping and concept mapping tools : training university teachers to use a new method and integrate information searching exercises into their own instruction  

OpenAIRE

The Library of Helsinki University of Technology (TKK) has almost 40 years' experience in teaching information retrieval, but has recently revised its training methods. During autumn 2006 the library and the Department of Computer Science and Engineering started an interesting co-operation. New software for making mind maps, concept maps and dialogue maps are being used for structuring information retrieval. This project got a warm reception because it can be adapted throughout the university...

Palmgren, Virpi; Heino, Kirsi; Nevalainen, Jouni

2007-01-01

183

Differential-Associative Processing or Example Elaboration: Which Strategy Is Best for Learning the Definitions of Related and Unrelated Concepts?  

Science.gov (United States)

Definitions of related concepts (e.g., "genotype-phenotype") are prevalent in introductory classes. Consequently, it is important that educators and students know which strategy(s) work best for learning them. This study showed that a new comparative elaboration strategy, called differential-associative processing, was better for learning…

Hannon, Brenda

2012-01-01

184

Use of concept mapping to explore the influence of food security on food buying practices.  

Science.gov (United States)

Paradoxically, individuals with food insecurity have been observed to have higher rates of obesity compared with their counterparts with food security. The factors influencing food purchasing behaviors in households with food security vs food insecurity are poorly understood. Using the mixed methods approach of concept mapping, we examined the perceptions and preferences driving the food purchasing behaviors of households with food security vs food insecurity. Twenty-six men and women with food security and 41 men and women with food insecurity from four neighborhoods in Boston, MA, completed the concept mapping process during 2010. Prevalence of overweight and obesity was greater among participants with food insecurity (80.5%) compared with those with food security (61.5%). Participants identified 163 unique factors that influenced their food purchasing behavior. Using multivariate analyses, these factors were grouped into eight unique concepts or clusters that reflected their perceptions of factors hindering healthy eating. Average cluster ratings were similar between participants with food security and food insecurity, suggesting that similar food purchasing behaviors are employed and are perceived similarly in how they hinder or promote healthy eating. The use of emergency food assistance programs may play a role in minimizing the burden of food insecurity while providing access to foods with varying degrees of nutritional quality that may be associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity observed in individuals and households with food insecurity. PMID:22709776

Walker, Renee E; Kawachi, Ichiro

2012-05-01

185

Selective mapping: a strategy for optimizing the construction of high-density linkage maps.  

OpenAIRE

Historically, linkage mapping populations have consisted of large, randomly selected samples of progeny from a given pedigree or cell lines from a panel of radiation hybrids. We demonstrate that, to construct a map with high genome-wide marker density, it is neither necessary nor desirable to genotype all markers in every individual of a large mapping population. Instead, a reduced sample of individuals bearing complementary recombinational or radiation-induced breakpoints may be selected for...

Vision, T. J.; Brown, D. G.; Shmoys, D. B.; Durrett, R. T.; Tanksley, S. D.

2000-01-01

186

Why is the sunny side always up? Explaining the spatial mapping of concepts by language use.  

Science.gov (United States)

Humans appear to rely on spatial mappings to represent and describe concepts. The conceptual cuing effect describes the tendency for participants to orient attention to a spatial location following the presentation of an unrelated cue word (e.g., orienting attention upward after reading the word sky). To date, such effects have predominately been explained within the embodied cognition framework, according to which people's attention is oriented on the basis of prior experience (e.g., sky ? up via perceptual simulation). However, this does not provide a compelling explanation for how abstract words have the same ability to orient attention. Why, for example, does dream also orient attention upward? We report on an experiment that investigated the role of language use (specifically, collocation between concept words and spatial words for up and down dimensions) and found that it predicted the cuing effect. The results suggest that language usage patterns may be instrumental in explaining conceptual cuing. PMID:24590467

Goodhew, Stephanie C; McGaw, Bethany; Kidd, Evan

2014-10-01

187

How a Qualitative Approach to Concept Map Analysis Can Be Used To Aid Learning by Illustrating Patterns of Conceptual Development.  

Science.gov (United States)

Classification of concept maps made in British science classes resulted in three patterns that indicate students' progressive levels of understanding. The classification method analyzes hierarchy, processes, complexity, conceptual development, and representation. It suggests teaching approaches based on students' existing concept structures. (SK)

Kinchin, Ian M.; Hay, David B.; Adams, Alan

2000-01-01

188

Mapas conceituais no auxílio à aprendizagem significativa de conceitos da óptica física / Concept maps as instructional aid to promote meaningful learning of optical physics concepts  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta os resultados de uma investigação que abordou as dificuldades de estudantes de graduação em física na aprendizagem de conceitos da óptica física, envolvendo concepções alternativas e a utilização de mapas conceituais como instrumento didático para facilitar a aprendizagem signi [...] ficativa desses conceitos. Abstract in english This paper presents the results of an inquiry that approached the difficulties of physics majors in the learning of optical physics concepts, involving misconceptions and the use of concept maps as didactic instrument to facilitate the meaningful learning of these concepts. [...

Voltaire de O., Almeida; Marco A., Moreira.

2008-12-01

189

Map Use and Wayfinding Strategies in a Multi-building Ensemble  

Science.gov (United States)

This experiment investigated the role of familiarity, map usage and instruction on wayfinding strategies and performance. 32 participants had to find eight goals in a multilevel building ensemble consisting of two distinctive vertical segments. Generally users who were familiar with the building ensemble outperformed first-time visitors of the setting. We tested if the standard wall-mounted floor maps found in the majority of public buildings can help navigation in a complex unknown environment. Unfamiliar users tried to make use of these plans more frequently, but were not able to compensate for spatial knowledge deficits through them. Two strategies of across-level wayfinding are compared with respect to a region-based hierarchical planning approach. Strategy selection relied largely on task and instruction characteristics. Overall, the strategy of moving horizontally into the target section of the building prior to vertical travel was shown to be more effective in this multi-building setting.

Hölscher, Christoph; Büchner, Simon J.; Meilinger, Tobias; Strube, Gerhard

190

Application of concept mapping principles to managing steam generator knowledge at CNSC  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear knowledge management (KM) initiatives have been observed in many international agencies, industries and research facilities, such as the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Canada.s own Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL). This paper presents a brief overview of the theory behind concept mapping, its origins and application potential in an organizational context. Successful applications of nuclear KM efforts by the IAEA, the Defence Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), AECL and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA) are specifically highlighted in the report for comparison and contrast. In addition, a system based on concept mapping theory is recently designed and implemented in order to efficiently manage steam generator-related knowledge at the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC). This tool aims to act as a powerful information asset for storage and retrieval of explicit and implicit knowledge, and to integrate KM practices into the CNSC workplace, all while maintaining its simplicity and ease for future modifications and fine-tuning when needed. (author)

191

Indigenous Education and Knowledge - a de-legitimised Concept in the Education for All Strategies  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper the attempt is made to emphasize the differences between indigenous education practices and concepts and the Western imposed cultural ethnocentrism in the South East Asian Region. It is my hope that the discussions in the paper will be of interest to scholars and students engaged in development processes in pluri-ethnic societies. The action plans presented in the “Education for All” conferences in 1990 and 2000 are used to illustrate the differences in the concept of education. The plans show that the Western education concept still dominates in the development discourse. These conferences are important as “Education for All” strategies seem to be the main beacon of future development within education, as well as it is significant that other concepts of education than the Western are hardly given any attention in the two declarations. The point is further made that it is not a purely academic discussion, as the West has the institutional power to impose its hegemony in theory and practice. Thisnotwithstanding, a new discourse is emerging within the research community which shows sensitivity to the problems of indigenous communities in the context of Third World development discourse.

Kanstrup-Jensen, Annette

2006-01-01

192

Experienced Teachers' Strategies for Assessing Nature of Science Conceptions in the Elementary Classroom  

Science.gov (United States)

This study explored the nature of science (NOS) assessments K-4 classroom teachers developed for measuring students’ understandings of NOS elements. We used the Views of Nature of Science Questionnaire-Form VNOS-D2 (Views of Nature of Science Elementary School Version 2) and interviews to verify that teachers’ conceptions of NOS were sufficient to enable them to teach and assess NOS. We collected copies of teachers’ action research designs, lesson plans, and assessment tools, conducted classroom observations and made field notes of their science instruction and assessments. We videotaped conversations at monthly workshops to note discussion surrounding teaching and assessing NOS in K-4 classrooms. We found that experienced teachers designed a variety of strategies for assessing NOS conceptions that differed by grade level.

Akerson, Valarie L.; Cullen, Theresa A.; Hanson, Deborah L.

2010-10-01

193

Operational concepts and implementation strategies for the design configuration management process.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes operational concepts and implementation strategies for the Design Configuration Management Process (DCMP). It presents a process-based systems engineering model for the successful configuration management of the products generated during the operation of the design organization as a business entity. The DCMP model focuses on Pro/E and associated activities and information. It can serve as the framework for interconnecting all essential aspects of the product design business. A design operation scenario offers a sense of how to do business at a time when DCMP is second nature within the design organization.

Trauth, Sharon Lee

2007-05-01

194

Supplier bidding strategy based on non-cooperative game theory concepts in single auction power pools  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In single auction power pools, only generators bid several energy price segments depending on the amount of energy supply, at individual generating companies' (GENCO) own discretion, for every trading interval. Then all selected bidders are paid a uniform Market Clearing Price (MCP). In this paper, it is realized that each GENCO has the complete information on its own payoff as well as the other parties' payoffs, corresponding to each potential combination of choices of strategies by all the players. Specifically, all the suppliers attempt to estimate the others' bids using the concept of Nash equilibrium in the general sense of profit maximization. Under some simplified assumptions, this problem can be modeled as a simultaneous-move game confronted by the bidders. Here, the system demand forecast by competitive sellers is captured for the purpose of constructing the optimal bidding strategy. Finally, a numerical example is presented demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed solution scheme. (author)

195

Mapping of diffusion in confined systems (beyond the concept of entropic potential)  

Science.gov (United States)

Typical biological structures, like pores or fibers, are quasi one-dimensional (1D). We have to solve 3+1 dimensional differential equations to describe correctly transport through them or along them, but only the transport in the longitudinal direction is interesting in general. The question is to get rid of the transverse degrees of freedom in a mathematically correct way and to arrive at a pure 1D description of the system. We study this mathematical problem in the case of diffusion in a channel of varying cross section. We start with the simplest concept of entropic potential, logarithm of the number of states at some longitudinal position x, leading to the Fick-Jacobs equation. We present a rigorous mapping technique generating systematically corrections to the spatial operator of this equation in a small parameter ?, representing the ratio of the typical transverse and longitudinal lengths of the channel. Based on the result of this mapping, we discuss a hierarchy of various approximations, which can be applied to describe diffusion in the channel as purely one-dimensional. Finally, we give an outlook of possible extension of this mapping.

Kalinay, Pavol

2010-12-01

196

Defining human ERAD networks through an integrative mapping strategy  

Science.gov (United States)

SUMMARY Proteins that fail to correctly fold or assemble into oligomeric complexes in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are degraded by a ubiquitin and proteasome dependent process known as ER-associated degradation (ERAD). Although many individual components of the ERAD system have been identified, how these proteins are organised into a functional network that coordinates recognition, ubiquitination, and dislocation of substrates across the ER membrane is not well understood. We have investigated the functional organisation of the mammalian ERAD system using a systems-level strategy that integrates proteomics, functional genomics, and the transcriptional response to ER stress. This analysis supports an adaptive organisation for the mammalian ERAD machinery and reveals a number of metazoan-specific genes not previously linked to ERAD. PMID:22119785

Christianson, John C.; Olzmann, James A.; Shaler, Thomas A.; Sowa, Mathew E.; Bennett, Eric J.; Richter, Caleb M.; Tyler, Ryan E.; Greenblatt, Ethan J.; Harper, J. Wade; Kopito, Ron R.

2011-01-01

197

Hypnosis-Induced Mental Training Programmes as a Strategy to Improve the Self-Concept of Students  

Science.gov (United States)

The creation and implementation of strategies that could improve student development is receiving new research interest. The main objective of the research was to establish whether hypnosis-induced mental training programmes as a strategy could alter the self-concept of students which in turn could improve their overall academic functioning. Two…

De Vos, H. M.; Louw, D. A.

2009-01-01

198

Prevalence of Mind Mapping as a Teaching and Learning Strategy in Physical Therapy Curricula  

Science.gov (United States)

Background and Purpose: Regardless of our discipline educators seek to create environments that actively engage students in their learning journey. One teaching and learning strategy that has emerged in higher education is mind mapping (MM). The purpose of this exploratory study was to determine the prevalence of MM usage in a health science…

Zipp, Genevieve; Maher, Catherine

2013-01-01

199

The Effect of Information Mapping Strategy on Mathematics Conceptual Knowledge of Junior High School Students  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of information mapping strategy on mathematics conceptual knowledge of junior high school students in Rokan Hulu Riau, Indonesia. The study also examined the relationship between mathematics conceptual knowledge and mathematics achievement. Using a quasi-experimental method, the study was…

Zulnaidi, Hutkemri; Zakaria, Effandi

2010-01-01

200

2009 Melbourne metropolitan sewerage strategy: a portfolio of decentralised and on-site concept designs.  

Science.gov (United States)

The bulk and retail water companies of the greater Melbourne area are developing the 2009 Metropolitan Sewerage Strategy to provide sustainable sewerage services to 2060. The objective of the strategy is to establish long term principles and near term actions to produce a robust sewage management system for Melbourne. Melbourne's existing sewerage system is largely centralised and discharges to two major treatment plants. Several small satellite treatment plants service local urban areas generally more distant from the centralised system. Decentralised and on-site wastewater systems are options for future sewage management and could play a role in local recycling. A portfolio of 18 on-site and decentralised concept designs was developed, applicable to the full range of urban development types in Melbourne. The concepts can be used in evaluation of metropolitan system configurations as part of future integrated water cycle planning. The options included secondary and tertiary treatment systems incorporating re-use of water for non potable uses, urine separation, black and greywater separation and composting toilets. On-site and cluster treatment systems were analysed. Each option is described by its indicative capital and operating costs, energy use and water and nutrient balances. This paper summarises and compares the portfolio mix of decentralized and on-site options in Melbourne's context. PMID:20705997

Brown, V; Jackson, D W; Khalifé, M

2010-01-01

201

Prior Knowledge Activation: How Different Concept Mapping Tasks Lead to Substantial Differences in Cognitive Processes, Learning Outcomes, and Perceived Self-Efficacy  

Science.gov (United States)

Two experiments investigated the effects of characteristic features of concept mapping used for prior knowledge activation. Characteristic demands of concept mapping include connecting lines representing the relationships between concepts and labeling these lines, specifying the type of the semantic relationships. In the first experiment,…

Gurlitt, Johannes; Renkl, Alexander

2010-01-01

202

Cascade Optimization Strategy Maximizes Thrust for High-Speed Civil Transport Propulsion System Concept  

Science.gov (United States)

The design of a High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) air-breathing propulsion system for multimission, variable-cycle operations was successfully optimized through a soft coupling of the engine performance analyzer NASA Engine Performance Program (NEPP) to a multidisciplinary optimization tool COMETBOARDS that was developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The design optimization of this engine was cast as a nonlinear optimization problem, with engine thrust as the merit function and the bypass ratios, r-values of fans, fuel flow, and other factors as important active design variables. Constraints were specified on factors including the maximum speed of the compressors, the positive surge margins for the compressors with specified safety factors, the discharge temperature, the pressure ratios, and the mixer extreme Mach number. Solving the problem by using the most reliable optimization algorithm available in COMETBOARDS would provide feasible optimum results only for a portion of the aircraft flight regime because of the large number of mission points (defined by altitudes, Mach numbers, flow rates, and other factors), diverse constraint types, and overall poor conditioning of the design space. Only the cascade optimization strategy of COMETBOARDS, which was devised especially for difficult multidisciplinary applications, could successfully solve a number of engine design problems for their flight regimes. Furthermore, the cascade strategy converged to the same global optimum solution even when it was initiated from different design points. Multiple optimizers in a specified sequence, pseudorandom damping, and reduction of the design space distortion via a global scaling scheme are some of the key features of the cascade strategy. HSCT engine concept, optimized solution for HSCT engine concept. A COMETBOARDS solution for an HSCT engine (Mach-2.4 mixed-flow turbofan) along with its configuration is shown. The optimum thrust is normalized with respect to NEPP results. COMETBOARDS added value in the design optimization of the HSCT engine.

1995-01-01

203

The Effect of Concept Mapping on L2 Writing Performance: Examining Possible Effects of Trait-Level Writing Anxiety  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Research on anxiety in a foreign language-learning context is well-documented; however, few studies have directly focused on anxiety occurring within writing contexts despite the fact that writing anxiety is known to affect students’ learning. The present study examined the effectiveness of concept mapping considering students’ writing anxiety. Participants completed writing anxiety scales and were randomly assigned to three groups before completing a writing task: concept mapping, idea listing, or an unrelated task. Results indicated that, especially for students with low trait-level writing anxiety, concept mapping positively influenced the quality of writing content. Teaching implications will be discussed in the light of the results of this study.

Naoko Machida

2014-08-01

204

Improving learning with science and social studies text using computer-based concept maps for students with disabilities.  

Science.gov (United States)

Concept maps have been used to help students with learning disabilities (LD) improve literacy skills and content learning, predominantly in secondary school. However, despite increased access to classroom technology, no previous studies have examined the efficacy of computer-based concept maps to improve learning from informational text for students with LD in elementary school. In this study, we used a concurrent delayed multiple probe design to evaluate the interactive use of computer-based concept maps on content acquisition with science and social studies texts for Hispanic students with LD in Grades 4 and 5. Findings from this study suggest that students improved content knowledge during intervention relative to a traditional instruction baseline condition. Learning outcomes and social validity information are considered to inform recommendations for future research and the feasibility of classroom implementation. PMID:25301848

Ciullo, Stephen; Falcomata, Terry S; Pfannenstiel, Kathleen; Billingsley, Glenna

2015-01-01

205

Does the mind map learning strategy facilitate information retrieval and critical thinking in medical students?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background A learning strategy underutilized in medical education is mind mapping. Mind maps are multi-sensory tools that may help medical students organize, integrate, and retain information. Recent work suggests that using mind mapping as a note-taking strategy facilitates critical thinking. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a relationship existed between mind mapping and critical thinking, as measured by the Health Sciences Reasoning Test (HSRT, and whether a relationship existed between mind mapping and recall of domain-based information. Methods In this quasi-experimental study, 131 first-year medical students were randomly assigned to a standard note-taking (SNT group or mind map (MM group during orientation. Subjects were given a demographic survey and pre-HSRT. They were then given an unfamiliar text passage, a pre-quiz based upon the passage, and a 30-minute break, during which time subjects in the MM group were given a presentation on mind mapping. After the break, subjects were given the same passage and wrote notes based on their group (SNT or MM assignment. A post-quiz based upon the passage was administered, followed by a post-HSRT. Differences in mean pre- and post-quiz scores between groups were analyzed using independent samples t-tests, whereas differences in mean pre- and post-HSRT total scores and subscores between groups were analyzed using ANOVA. Mind map depth was assessed using the Mind Map Assessment Rubric (MMAR. Results There were no significant differences in mean scores on both the pre- and post-quizzes between note-taking groups. And, no significant differences were found between pre- and post-HSRT mean total scores and subscores. Conclusions Although mind mapping was not found to increase short-term recall of domain-based information or critical thinking compared to SNT, a brief introduction to mind mapping allowed novice MM subjects to perform similarly to SNT subjects. This demonstrates that medical students using mind maps can successfully retrieve information in the short term, and does not put them at a disadvantage compared to SNT students. Future studies should explore longitudinal effects of mind-map proficiency training on both short- and long-term information retrieval and critical thinking.

Olson Valerie G

2010-09-01

206

Does the mind map learning strategy facilitate information retrieval and critical thinking in medical students?  

Science.gov (United States)

Background A learning strategy underutilized in medical education is mind mapping. Mind maps are multi-sensory tools that may help medical students organize, integrate, and retain information. Recent work suggests that using mind mapping as a note-taking strategy facilitates critical thinking. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a relationship existed between mind mapping and critical thinking, as measured by the Health Sciences Reasoning Test (HSRT), and whether a relationship existed between mind mapping and recall of domain-based information. Methods In this quasi-experimental study, 131 first-year medical students were randomly assigned to a standard note-taking (SNT) group or mind map (MM) group during orientation. Subjects were given a demographic survey and pre-HSRT. They were then given an unfamiliar text passage, a pre-quiz based upon the passage, and a 30-minute break, during which time subjects in the MM group were given a presentation on mind mapping. After the break, subjects were given the same passage and wrote notes based on their group (SNT or MM) assignment. A post-quiz based upon the passage was administered, followed by a post-HSRT. Differences in mean pre- and post-quiz scores between groups were analyzed using independent samples t-tests, whereas differences in mean pre- and post-HSRT total scores and subscores between groups were analyzed using ANOVA. Mind map depth was assessed using the Mind Map Assessment Rubric (MMAR). Results There were no significant differences in mean scores on both the pre- and post-quizzes between note-taking groups. And, no significant differences were found between pre- and post-HSRT mean total scores and subscores. Conclusions Although mind mapping was not found to increase short-term recall of domain-based information or critical thinking compared to SNT, a brief introduction to mind mapping allowed novice MM subjects to perform similarly to SNT subjects. This demonstrates that medical students using mind maps can successfully retrieve information in the short term, and does not put them at a disadvantage compared to SNT students. Future studies should explore longitudinal effects of mind-map proficiency training on both short- and long-term information retrieval and critical thinking. PMID:20846442

2010-01-01

207

Concepts for landscape scale digital soil mapping using field scale geophysical sensor data  

Science.gov (United States)

An essential prerequisite for site-specific soil protection and restoration, alongside sustainable land use, water management, and environmental management, is the availability of high-resolution soil property maps. One aim of the iSOIL project (EU FP7) was the validation of the potential of field-scale proximal soil sensing for landscape-scale Digital Soil Mapping (DSM). Within the iSOIL project we applied a combination of several preprocessing approaches to determine where the sensors should be applied. In a first step the landscape was segmented into homogeneous landscape units and in a second step representative patches or spatial subsets were derived as core areas for soil sensing. This talk presents and compares multiple approaches to integrate these patch-scale geophysical sensing data (EM and Gamma) into landscape scale DSM. Hyper-scale digital terrain features (ConMap) were used as the only predictors for building the regression models. Eighty calibration samples covering the feature space of the interpolated geophysical sensor data were used for building the soil property models. Validation was based on 20 fully independent samples outside the sampling areas covering the geographical space. Validation shows that some approaches do not show any benefit compared to our benchmark model, where no geophysical data was included. However, one concept returns a boost in R2 validation accuracy of up to 11 %. This demonstrates that it is crucial how the field scale geophysical data is included in landscape scale DSM frameworks and that field scale geophysical data can successfully be used for landscape scale DSM.

Behrens, T.; Schmidt, K.; Werban, U.; Dietrich, P.; Scholten, T.

2012-04-01

208

STRATEGY MAP AS AN OPERATIONALIZATION TOOL OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY STRATEGY IN INDUSTRY OF THE REGION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The problem of increasing the energy efficiency is considered very urgent in Ukraine and its regions. In relation to international standards Ukraine has drastically low rates of energy efficiency and it causes the necessity of implementing the strategic approach to energy efficiency management.To solve the problem of industrial energy efficiency of the region the article offers to design a strategic map and a balanced scorecard system. It is considered that the use of the given approach will enable to achieve scientifically grounded, resource-provided, strategic goals to improve industrial energy efficiency of the region. As a strategic outlook, which forms the basis of the strategic map, the following components are offered: economic and environmental components, which are the criterion of energy efficiency from the perspective of sustainable development, and the components of internal processes and development, which determine the dynamics of industrial energy efficiency of the region.On the assumption of the given perspectives, 13 key performance indicators were determined; their values are particular measuring instruments for achieving the strategic goals of industrial energy efficiency of the region.

Salashenko T. I.

2012-01-01

209

A Study on Language Learning Strategy Use and Its Relation to Academic Self-concept: The Case of EFL Students in Taiwan  

OpenAIRE

The current study investigates the language learning strategy use (LLSU) among EFL university freshmen and its relation to academic self-concept (ASC). Of six strategy categories, compensation strategies were reported as the most frequently used and social strategies were the least used. Participants with low and medium ASC used compensation strategies the most, while the participants of high ASC used metacognitive strategies the most. A significant positive relationship between strategy use ...

Hui-ju Liu; Chih-hui Chang

2013-01-01

210

New concepts, experimental approaches, and dereplication strategies for the discovery of novel phytoestrogens from natural sources.  

Science.gov (United States)

Phytoestrogens constitute an attractive research topic due to their estrogenic profile and their biological involvement in woman's health. Therefore, numerous studies are currently performed in natural products chemistry area aiming at the discovery of novel phytoestrogens. The main classes of phytoestrogens are flavonoids (flavonols, flavanones), isoflavonoids (isoflavones, coumestans), lignans, stilbenoids as well as miscellaneous chemical groups abundant in several edible and/or medicinal plants, belonging mostly to the Leguminosae family. As for other bioactives, the detection of new structures and more potent plant-derived phytoestrogens typically follows the general approaches currently available in the natural product discovery process. Plant-based approaches selected from traditional medicine knowledge and bioguided concepts are routinely employed. However, these approaches are associated with serious disadvantages such as time-consuming, repeated, and labor intensive processes as well as lack of specificity and reproducibility. In recent years, the natural products chemistry became more technology-driven, and several different strategies have been developed. Structure-oriented procedures and miniaturized approaches employing advanced hyphenated analytical platforms have recently emerged. They facilitate significantly not only the discovery of novel phytoestrogens but also the dereplication procedure leading to the anticipation of major drawbacks in natural products discovery. In this review, apart from the traditional concepts followed in phytochemistry for the discovery of novel biologically active compounds, recent applications in the field of extraction, analysis, fractionation, and identification of phytoestrogens will be discussed. Moreover, specific methodologies combining identification of actives and biological evaluation in parallel, such as liquid chromatography-biochemical detection, frontal affinity chromatography-mass spectrometry and pulsed ultrafiltration-MS will also be presented. Finally, miniaturized methods (microchip and biosensor) will be also discussed.With the current review, we attempt to give a wide and holistic overview of the different approaches which could be employed in the discovery of new phytoestrogens. On the other hand, we anticipate to attract more scientists to the area of phytoestrogens and to indicate the need of multidisciplinary concepts. PMID:23479392

Michel, Thomas; Halabalaki, Maria; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros

2013-05-01

211

Paper-Based and Computer-Based Concept Mappings: The Effects on Computer Achievement, Computer Anxiety and Computer Attitude  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this paper is to compare the effects of paper-based and computer-based concept mappings on computer hardware achievement, computer anxiety and computer attitude of the eight grade secondary school students. The students were randomly allocated to three groups and were given instruction on computer hardware. The teaching methods used…

Erdogan, Yavuz

2009-01-01

212

Concept Mapping as an Innovative Tool for the Assessment of Learning: An Experimental Experience among Business Management Degree Students  

Science.gov (United States)

In the search to improve the quality of education at the university level, the use of concept mapping is becoming an important instructional technique for enhancing the teaching-learning process. This educational tool is based on cognitive theories by making a distinction between learning by rote (memorizing) and learning by meaning, where…

Ruiz-Palomino, Pablo; Martinez-Canas, Ricardo

2013-01-01

213

Students' Concept Mapping for Hypermedia Design: Navigation through World Wide Web (WWW) Space and Self-Assessment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Addresses the main functions of concept mapping as a student activity in their learning processes: (1) design method to be used as a structural scaffolding technique before and during the development of hypermedia; (2) navigation device for exploring hypermedia documents on CD-ROMs or WWW; (3) knowledge elicitation technique; and (4) authentic…

Kommers, Piet; Lanzing, Jan

1997-01-01

214

Effects of Concept Mapping Instruction on the Vocabulary Acquisition Skills of Seventh-Graders with Mild Disabilities: A Replication Study  

Science.gov (United States)

The present investigation replicates and extends an earlier study comparing 2 conditions, a dictionary approach versus a concept mapping model, on the learning of vocabulary words among 4 students with mild disabilities (i.e., emotional and/or behavioral disorders and other health impairments) attending a middle school. An A-B-A-B design was used…

Palmer, Jessica; Boon, Richard T.; Spencer, Vicky G.

2014-01-01

215

Development and evaluation of RapTAT: a machine learning system for concept mapping of phrases from medical narratives.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rapid, automated determination of the mapping of free text phrases to pre-defined concepts could assist in the annotation of clinical notes and increase the speed of natural language processing systems. The aim of this study was to design and evaluate a token-order-specific naïve Bayes-based machine learning system (RapTAT) to predict associations between phrases and concepts. Performance was assessed using a reference standard generated from 2860 VA discharge summaries containing 567,520 phrases that had been mapped to 12,056 distinct Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine - Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT) concepts by the MCVS natural language processing system. It was also assessed on the manually annotated, 2010 i2b2 challenge data. Performance was established with regard to precision, recall, and F-measure for each of the concepts within the VA documents using bootstrapping. Within that corpus, concepts identified by MCVS were broadly distributed throughout SNOMED CT, and the token-order-specific language model achieved better performance based on precision, recall, and F-measure (0.95±0.15, 0.96±0.16, and 0.95±0.16, respectively; mean±SD) than the bag-of-words based, naïve Bayes model (0.64±0.45, 0.61±0.46, and 0.60±0.45, respectively) that has previously been used for concept mapping. Precision, recall, and F-measure on the i2b2 test set were 92.9%, 85.9%, and 89.2% respectively, using the token-order-specific model. RapTAT required just 7.2ms to map all phrases within a single discharge summary, and mapping rate did not decrease as the number of processed documents increased. The high performance attained by the tool in terms of both accuracy and speed was encouraging, and the mapping rate should be sufficient to support near-real-time, interactive annotation of medical narratives. These results demonstrate the feasibility of rapidly and accurately mapping phrases to a wide range of medical concepts based on a token-order-specific naïve Bayes model and machine learning. PMID:24316051

Gobbel, Glenn T; Reeves, Ruth; Jayaramaraja, Shrimalini; Giuse, Dario; Speroff, Theodore; Brown, Steven H; Elkin, Peter L; Matheny, Michael E

2014-04-01

216

Ordered shotgun sequencing, a strategy for integrated mapping and sequencing of YAC clones  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ordered shotgun sequencing proposes to organize the mapping and sequencing of YACs with a hierarchical strategy that incorporates a feedback loop. Building on current protocols, a YAC is subcloned into plasmids, plasmid insert ends are sequenced, and the sequences are overlapped to create a partial map. Complete sequencing then starts with plasmids whose end-sequence tracts have overlapped, but to a minimal extent. The next plasmids to be sequenced are again selected for least overlap, striking out progressively to span the YAC with minimal directed gap-filling. Simulations support its feasibility and indicate that during the generation of the complete sequence, the approach facilitates the early choice of regions for selective sequencing, for example, for coding units. The sequencing of plasmids would also require less redundancy, and discriminate repetitive sequences more easily, than random sequencing across larger clones. The overall effort scales with YAC size and can be further reduced by additional mapping information. 32 refs., 2 figs.

Chen, E.Y. (Applied Biosystems, Inc., Foster City, CA (United States)); Schlessinger, D.; Kere, J. (Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States))

1993-09-01

217

The effect of the use of concept maps on community college students' conceptual understanding of biology course content  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose of the study. The major purpose of this study was to measure the change, if any, in students' conceptual understanding of biology course content using concept maps (experimental) or a standard lecture format (control). In addition, the effectiveness of the use of concept maps as advance organizers was measured according to the various subgroups of cognitive development level, age, ethnicity, gender, class time, and educational background. A final concern was the relationships between conceptual understanding of biology course content and the students' cognitive development level. Procedure. A quasi-experimental design was used to conduct the study during a sixteen-week semester. The study was conducted during the fall, 1997, semester at a community college using 190 students enrolled in General Biology 1406. Major data were collected using a pretest, posttest, and the Test of Logical Thinking. Data were treated through the application of analysis of covariance, Pearson product-moment correlation, and the Fisher Z-transformation technique. Findings. The findings of this investigation were as follows: (1) Concept maps used as advance organizers had a significant effect on student conceptual understanding of biology course content. (2) The use of concept maps as advance organizers had a significant effect on student conceptual understanding of biology when students are classified according to their cognitive developmental level, age, gender, major, course time, and educational background. (3) A significant relationship between cognitive developmental level and conceptual understanding was also found. Conclusions. The use of concept maps, as advance Organizers, is an effective method for improving student learning in general biology classes. A positive relationship exists between students' cognitive developmental level and conceptual understanding.

Wells, Franklin Brian

218

Innovative operation in A Private University of Technology-An Application of Strategy Map on Balanced Scorecard  

OpenAIRE

Under the severe competition in higher education market currently, the universities of technology must seek their competitive strengths from every relevant segment as enterprises and improve their operation strategy. This case study aimed to explore the present operation strategies used in the subject school, estimated if the strategies were developed according to the goals and vision of the school, and finally the strategy map oriented on balanced scorecard was designed. The research was con...

Huai-En Mo; Shin-Chyang Lee; Yu-Fen Chen

2012-01-01

219

A new strategy of axial power distribution control based on three axial offsets concept  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have proposed a very simple control procedure for axial xenon oscillation control based on a characteristic trajectory. The trajectory is drawn by three offsets of power distributions, namely, AOp, AOi and AOx. They are defined as the offset of axial power distribution, the offset of the power distribution under which the current iodine distribution is obtained as the equilibrium and that for xenon distribution, respectively. When these offsets are plotted on X-Y plane for (AOp-AOx, AOi-AOx) the trajectory draws a quite characteristic ellipse (or an elliptic spiral). On the other hands, Constant Axial Offset Control (CAOC) procedure is adopted as axial power distribution control strategy during both base load and load following operations in domestic PWRs. In the previous paper, we have presented an innovative procedure of axial power distribution control during load following in PWRs based on this trajectory such that the AOp-AOx is to be controlled to zero when the value deviates the pre-determined limiting values. In this paper we propose a modified control strategy to get more stability of axial power distributions. In this strategy, we control the trajectory to be close to the major axis of the ellipse when the power distribution reaches the limiting values. In other words, the plot is not controlled only to reduce AOp-AOx but also AOi-AOx is taken into account at the same time. It is known that when the plot is controlled to the major axis, it means that the point gives the peak position of axial xenon oscillation. Therefore xenon oscillation will not increase its amplitude any more. Thus more stable axial power distribution control is attained. This kind of design concept is quite important especially for the future PWRs with elongated fuel length and longer core life. Because in a longer effective core and also the longer core life, it has been known that the stability of axial xenon oscillation becomes more unstable. In this paper, some simulation results are presented to show the effectiveness of this control strategy. And further discussions are given for items to be evaluated in the future to apply it in the actual reactor control. (author)

220

Least-cost planning as a concept of control. New economic strategies for the rational use of electric energy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the face of imminent climate change, reform concepts that are based on energy conservation are bound to prevail over other approaches. One such concept is that of Least Cost Planning (LCP). LCP aims at an unbiased choice among the options on the supply side (power plants, networks) and those on the demand side (energy conservation and substitution programmes). While today LCP is often discussed in a rather abbreviated sense as a concept for corporate strategies of power supply companies, the present paper develops it as a new concept for public control of power supply companies. An example of US American practice is analysed to determine to what extent the concept of LCP is compatible, in principle and practice, with a control system over power supply companies. This is used to develop elements for the reform of the German control system which would provide the economic dimension to the power supply companies' task of efficient energy utilisation. (orig.)

221

Fostering primary school students’ understanding of cells and other related concepts with interactive computer animation instruction accompanied by teacher and student-prepared concept maps  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of instruction (application including interactive computer animation accompanied by teacher and student-prepared concept maps on primary students’ biology achievement during instruction, as well as revealing attitudes towards science as a school subject. A quasi-experimental pre-test/post-test control group design was used in this study. The experimental group had 31 students and the control group had 34 students. The experimental group received instruction including interactive computer animation accompanied by teacher- and student-prepared concept maps, while the control group received traditional instruction. A biology achievement test and an attitude scale toward science were used as data collection instruments. The present study indicates that the experimental group had significantly higher scores than the control group in the biology achievement test (regarding cells and other related concepts. Regarding students’ attitudes toward science as a school subject, there was no significant difference between the experimental and control groups in the pre- and post-test results. However there was a statistically significant difference between the gain scores of the control group and the experimental group in favor of the experimental group.

Ercan AKPINAR

2008-06-01

222

Health risk in the context of climate change and adaptation - Concept and mapping as an integrated approach  

Science.gov (United States)

Climate change has been stated as being one of the greatest challenges to global health in the current century. Climate change impacts on human health and the socio-economic and related poverty consequences are however still poorly understood. While epidemiological issues are strongly coupled with environmental and climatic parameters, the social and economic circumstances of populations might be of equal or even greater importance when trying to identify vulnerable populations and design appropriate and well-targeted adaptation measures. The inter-linkage between climate change, human health risk and socio-economic impacts remains an important - but largely outstanding - research field. We present an overview on how risk is traditionally being conceptualised in the human health domain and reflect critically on integrated approaches as being currently used in the climate change context. The presentation will also review existing approaches, and how they can be integrated towards adaptation tools. Following this review, an integrated risk concept is being presented, which has been currently adapted under the EC FP7 research project (HEALTHY FUTURES; http://www.healthyfutures.eu/). In this approach, health risk is not only defined through the disease itself (as hazard) but also by the inherent vulnerability of the system, population or region under study. It is in fact the interaction of environment and society that leads to the development of diseases and the subsequent risk of being negatively affected by it. In this conceptual framework vulnerability is being attributed to domains of lack of resilience as well as underlying preconditions determining susceptibilities. To fulfil a holistic picture vulnerability can be associated to social, economic, environmental, institutional, cultural and physical dimensions. The proposed framework also establishes the important nexus to adaptation and how different measures can be related to avoid disease outbreaks, reduce vulnerability in order to lower health risks and disease impacts. The proposed framework explains the generic concepts of disease hazard, vulnerability, risk and its connections. It can be applied to many different diseases and implemented in different ways. Statistical or dynamic disease models integrating future climate projections can - for example - be combined with forecast models. These can be evaluated against different socio-economic development pathways and feed into decisions support systems with an ultimate aim of designing the most appropriate risk reduction strategies. The paper will present first preliminary results on the mapping of vulnerability for the Eastern African region, including diseases such as Malaria, Schistosomiasis and Rift Valley Fever and conclude with current research challenges and how they will be addressed within the HEALTHY FUTURES project.

Kienberger, S.; Notenbaert, A.; Zeil, P.; Bett, B.; Hagenlocher, M.; Omolo, A.

2012-04-01

223

The Glacier and Land Ice Surface Topography Interferometer: An Airborne Proof-of-concept Mapping Sensor  

Science.gov (United States)

In May 2009 a new radar technique for mapping ice surface topography was demonstrated in a Greenland campaign as part of the NASA International Polar Year activities. This was achieved by integrating a Ka-band single-pass interferometric synthetic radar on the NASA Dryden Gulfstream III for a coordinated deployment. Although the technique of using radar interferometry for mapping terrain has been demonstrated before, this is the first such application at millimeter-wave frequencies. This proof-of-concept demonstration was motivated by the Glacier and Land Ice Surface Topography Interferometer (GLISTIN) Instrument Incubator Program and furthermore, highly leveraged existing ESTO hardware and software assets (the Unmanned Airborne Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) and processor and the PR2 (precipitation radar 2) RF assembly and power amplifier). Initial Ka-band test flights occurred in March and April of 2009 followed by the Greenland deployment. Instrument performance indicates swath widths over the ice between 5-7km, with height precisions ranging from 30cm-3m at a posting of 3m x 3m. However, for this application the electromagnetic wave will penetrate an unknown amount into the snow cover thus producing an effective bias that must be calibrated. This penetration will be characterized as part of this program and is expected to vary as a function of snow wetness and radar incidence angle. To evaluate this, we flew a coordinated collection with the NASA Wallops Airborne Topographic Mapper on a transect from Greenland’s Summit its West coast. This flight included two field calibration sites at Colorado Institute for Research in Environmental Science’s Swiss Camp and the National Science Foundation’s Summit station. Additional collections entailed flying a grid over Jakobshavn glacier which were repeated after 6 days to reveal surface dynamics. In this time frame we were able to observe horizontal motion of over 1km on the glacier. While developed for relevancy to ice surface mapping, the Ka-band interferometer was able to make targeted observations relevant for the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission. Most notably, en route to Greenland via North Dakota, data was collected in the “SWOT-like” geometry by rolling the GIII toward nadir and collecting nadir data over surface water targets (Red and Missouri Rivers, Devils Lake, ND and the Big Bog, MN). Flying into Thule, SWOT data was also collected over sea ice. In summary, the campaign and demonstration was highly successful. Not only were we able to achieve the primary objective of validated data collections for ice-surface topography, but we also gathered unique observations that will be used by the SWOT mission. In the next year, the detailed processing, absolute calibration and intersensor comparisons will enable us ultimately to produce a high quality topographic map of Jakobshavn as an IPY reference for measuring future changes in ice elevation. Finally, our experiment has paved the way to make more topographic products available to glaciologists, either through dedicated airborne campaigns, or ultimately as a satellite mission.

Moller, D.; Hensley, S.; Chuang, C.; Fisher, C.; Muellerschoen, R.; Milligan, L.; Sadowy, G.; Rignot, E. J.

2009-12-01

224

Scientific concepts for hydroacoustic seafloor mapping in the coastal zone and beyond  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydroacoustic seafloor mapping is a reliable and cost-effective method to investigate and monitor the seafloor in high spatial and temporal resolution. The results are important for the evaluation of benthic habitats and help to identify vulnerable environments that require protection. Yet, how can we overcome the problems that occur when different gear produces different results, which are evaluated by people that have different points of view and different backgrounds? These aspects form an integer part of the project WIMO ("Scientific concepts for monitoring the German Bight, SE North Sea", Subproject 1.1: "Hydroacoustic Habitat Mapping"). It aims at comparing different hydroacoustic gear, methodologies and workflows in order to work out basic routines for universal use in marine benthic habitat mapping. The project investigates a number of target areas in the German Bight (North Sea) using different sidescan sonars (SSS), acoustic seafloor-classification systems (AGDS), multibeams, and different sampling and grain-size analytical methods as well as sea-floor imaging methods. We tested different gear on different ships, on the same ship but not synchronously, and as many instruments as possible measuring at the same time on the same ship. Our results suggest that guidelines and requirements for surveys can hardly be standardized as they depend largely on the water depth, the seabed, and on the vessel and the equipment available. All of these frame conditions usually differ from survey to survey. Taking this into account, we present a reasonable workflow for time and cost-effective benthic habitat mapping and monitoring. Transect-line distances as well as monitoring frequencies, number and positioning of ground-truth samples and seabed imaging are discussed. We recommend frequency combinations and appropriate swath widths and overlaps for SSS and show a way to ground-truth lower-frequency data using high-frequency data. Acoustic ground discrimination systems are usually single-beam systems that need suitable interpolation routines. We present a workflow for on-survey visualization of hydroacoustic data using color interpolation and present a method to combine the hydroacoustic and ground-truth data sets. Eventually, we suggest a way to interpret the data in a most objective manner. The results from the coastal zone of the North Sea reveal that for scientific purposes it is mostly sufficient to maintain transect-line distances of two or three times the SSS swath width. It is suggested to build gray-scale SSS mosaics during the survey. As a general rule a classification into 20% gray-scale classes should be carried out and 5 samples per class should be taken as a minimum requirement. We recommend to apply two SSS frequencies synchronously to enable the discrimination between backscatter due to grain size and backscatter due to small bedforms. This information is also most important for the interpretation of roughness and hardness data provided by the AGDS. The synopsis of both, SSS and AGDS in combination with multibeam and ground-truth data reveals the most reliable results.

Hass, H. Christian; Bartholomä, Alexander; Bürk, Dietmar; Holler, Peter; Mielck, Finn; Reimers, Hans-Christian

2013-04-01

225

Primary School Student Teachers' Understanding of Climate Change: Comparing the Results Given by Concept Maps and Communication Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Climate change is a complex environmental problem that can be used to examine students' understanding, gained through classroom communication, of climate change and its interactions. The present study examines a series of four science sessions given to a group of primary school student teachers (n = 20). This includes analysis of the communication styles used and the students' pre- and post-conceptualisation of climate change based on results obtained via essay writing and drawings. The essays and drawings concerned the students' unprompted pre- and post-conceptions about climate change, collected before and after each of the four inquiry-based science sessions (in physics, chemistry, biology and geography). Concept mapping was used in the analysis of the students' responses. The communication used in the four sessions was analysed with a communicative approach in order to find out the discussion about climate change between teacher and students. The analyses indicated that the students did not have the knowledge or the courage to participate in discussion, but post-conceptualisation map showed that students' thinking had become more coherent after the four sessions. Given the results of the present study, proposals for using concepts maps and/or communication analysis in studying students' conceptions are presented.

Ratinen, Ilkka; Viiri, Jouni; Lehesvuori, Sami

2012-11-01

226

Effectiveness of the conceptual change texts accompanied by concept maps about students’ understanding of the molecules carrying genetical information  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the effects of concept maps, together with conceptual change texts, given to 11th grade students’ on the subject of molecules carrying genetical information. The semistructured individual interviews were conducted with 5 upper class students to find misconceptions related to the subject. A success test was developed in the light of information taken from both literature and also interviews. This test was applied to the control group, who was taking traditional educational courses, and to the sample group students who were taking classes using concept maps and conceptual change texts together. The data was collected from 50 students; the groups consisted of 25 in the sample group and 25 in the control group. It was found that the conceptual change texts accompanied by concept mapping instruction produced a positive effect on students’ understanding of the concept. The average percent of correct responses of the experimental group was 61.6% and that of the control group was 53.6% after treatment.

Ibrahim Tastan

2008-06-01

227

The Effects of a Constructivist Teaching Approach on Student Academic Achievement, Self-Concept, and Learning Strategies  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of a constructivist approach on academic achievement, self-concept and learning strategies, and student preference were investigated. The 76 six graders were divided into two groups. The experimental group was taught using the constructivist approach while the control group was taught using the traditional approach. A total of 40 hours…

Kim, Jong Suk

2005-01-01

228

Análise do conhecimento e das concepções sobre saúde oral de alunos de odontologia: avaliação por meio de mapas conceituais Analysis of dental students' knowledge and concepts in oral health: evaluation by concept maps  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo inicial deste trabalho foi apreender a estrutura cognitiva de alunos do último ano (sétimo período do curso de graduação em odontologia da UFRJ em relação à temática do esmalte. Essa temática é de fundamental importância para a compreensão da saúde oral, na medida em que oferece conceitos científicos importantes e fundamentais para o exercício da prática clínica e preventiva, bem como por ser objeto de estudo em várias disciplinas ao longo do curso de Odontologia. Para a análise da estrutura cognitiva, utilizou-se a estratégia de mapas conceituais proposta por Novak e fundamentou-se na teoria da Aprendizagem Significativa, de Ausubel. A análise dos mapas elaborados pelos estudantes possibilitou um estudo não só sobre a estrutura cognitiva e as concepções sobre saúde oral dos alunos, como também permitiu um diagnóstico do conhecimento em diversos aspectos relevantes à formação científica e profissional, apontando para a necessidade de se repensar o processo ensino-aprendizagem nos cursos de Odontologia.This study sought to analyze senior dental students' cognitive structure concerning the topic of "enamel", which is fundamentally important for understanding oral health, since it offers basic scientific concepts for clinical and preventive practices and is the main subject of several courses during dentistry training. The strategy used to analyze students' cognitive structures was Novak's Concept Maps, based on Ausubel's Meaningful Learning theory. Analysis of students' maps allowed for a study of students' cognitive structure and concepts concerning oral health. It also fostered a diagnosis of students' knowledge in several important aspects of scientific and professional training. The results highlighted the need for rethinking the teaching/ learning process in dentistry training.

Miriam Struchiner

1999-01-01

229

Decision-making and feedback as foci for knowledge-based strategies supporting concept development  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Performance attributes of the product, such as robustness, reliability and safety are widely acknowledged as relevant considerations through the design process. Yet they are more important in early design stages to ensure the feasibility of design requirements and reduce later design rework in the product lifecycle. This influence is due to the available room for making decisions, together with the cascading effects of these through downstream design activities [Andreasen & Olesen, 1990]. Prior studies revealed the incompleteness of information from early stages for using current methods for robustness, reliability and safety, which also confirmed the problem of the extensive resource requirements in their use [Marini, Restrepo & Ahmed, 2010]. In response to this conclusion, a longitudinal study was performed in collaboration with the manufacturer of an insulin injection pen. This study followed the development of 20 solution alternatives for a new design of such device. This paper aims to describe the influence of design decisions and feedback originated from failures in solution alternatives during the concept development activity. It identifies the characteristics of the development process that influence practices in decision-making and feedback, and it discusses strategies to evaluate and mitigate failures in solution alternatives.

Marini, Vinicius Kaster; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

2012-01-01

230

Integrating Thematic Strategy and Modularity Concept into Interactive Video-based Learning System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available For preventing the superficial learning attitude known as “couch-potato-attitude”, this study integrated the thematic instructional strategy and modularity concept into the video-based instructional material. An exploratory test was carried out with 73 college majoring in design students. Research data were collected through the questionnaire and tests. The findings of this study revealed that the interactive thematic video could promote students more engaged and acquired more information and remembered more ideas. Under the self-controlled learning environment, students could easily hyperlink the particular segment they need so as to reduce students’ extraneous cognitive load. In addition, the interactive thematic video presented the related textual and pictorial learning elements simultaneously which could benefit to reinforce their learning. Accordingly, the students in the experimental group could get the higher posttest scores. Furthermore, the interactive thematic video could effectively attract and maintain the students’ attention; they felt that the course contents and activities were related to their life experience. Also, they were confident to achieve the expected outcomes of the course and satisfied with the instruction.

Yuh-Tyng Chen

2012-01-01

231

A qualitative enquiry into learner experience of utilising concept maps as a learning method in physical science  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this study was to describe the experience of learners who utilise concept maps as a learning method in Physical Science.

Opsomming
Die doel met die studie was om die ervaring van leerders, wat begripskaarte as leermetode in Natuur- en Skeikunde gebruik, te beskryf. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.

Ankiewicz, Piet J.; Elizabeth Steyn; Ann Miiller

1998-01-01

232

A study on the effectiveness of investment strategy based on the concept of pivot points levels using Matthews criterion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this work, the possibility of assessing traditional investment strategy based on the pivot points for using with other than the commonly used criterion is examined. The authors attempted to apply the Matthews Correlation Coefficient (further reffered as MCC criterion based on a confusion matrix when assessing the strategy to include more factors than the traditional criteria (such as profit, profit vs. Risk, Sharpe ratio, Calmar ratio and to express these factors by one number. The criterion based on a confusion matrix is, in authors beliefs, unique in this application and gives a fairly valuable estimation of trading strategy. An example of several strategies tested on EURUSD 1h time series in selected intervals in the years 2012-2013 is considered. Among these strategies there is a simple strategy based on the concept of pivot points levels and more complex derivative strategies, based on the vector of optimized values of certain parameters. These strategies are evaluated using both traditional criteria and modification of MCC proposed by the authors.

Antoni Wili?ski

2013-04-01

233

Energy Management Strategies based on efficiency map for Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The addition of a fast auxiliary power source like a supercapacitor bank in fuel cell-based vehicles has a great potential because permits a significant reduction of the hydrogen consumption and an improvement of the vehicle efficiency. The Energy Management Strategies, commanding the power split between the power sources in the hybrid arrangement to fulfil the power requirement, perform a fundamental role to achieve this objective. In this work, three strategies based on the knowledge of the fuel cell efficiency map are proposed. These strategies are attractive due to the relative simplicity of the real time implementation and the good performance. The strategies are tested both in a simulation environment and in an experimental setup using a 1.2-kW PEM fuel cell. The results, in terms of hydrogen consumption, are compared with an optimal case, which is assessed trough an advantageous technique also introduced in this work and with a pure fuel cell vehicle as well. This comparative reveals high efficiency and good performance, allowing to save up to 26% of hydrogen in urban scenarios. (author)

Feroldi, Diego; Serra, Maria; Riera, Jordi [Institut de Robotica i Informatica Industrial (CSIC-UPC), C. Llorens i Artigas 4, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

2009-05-15

234

Conception of ecological strategy «Olympic sport for maintainance of nature» during leadthrough of winter Olympic Games 2022 in Ukrainian Carpathians  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An analysis is conducted scientific and to scientifically-methodical literatures on issue of ecological strategy of organization and leadthrough of winter Olympiads. Conception of ecological strategy of organization and leadthrough of winter Olympiad is developed 2022 (Ukraine, Carpathians. It was offered, that ecological strategy of organization and leadthrough of Olympiad had an ecological motto «Olympic sport for the maintainance of nature». Strategy included the ways of decision of problem of negative influence of global change of climate on the olympic winter types of sport. The problems of providing of ecological safety of sporting activity are considered in relation to a man and wild-life. Solution is offered questions of the ecological marketing, management and ecological inlightening. The ecological ground of choice of Lvov is conducted as a city of organizer of winter Olympiad 2022. As a mountain-skier center a mountain-skier complex Borzhava, located in the area Carpathians of Ukraine, is offered.

Tsyganenko O.I.

2012-12-01

235

Functional Ontology and Concept Maps for Knowledge Navigation: An Application Example for Contest Robot  

OpenAIRE

Because the volume of web resources (web pages, images, music, video, etc.) continues to increase exponentially, enabling reuse and sharing of creative knowledge in engineering domain becomes our driving force to develop the knowledge map navigation. Map navigation is a way of organizing the world's information geographically. Knowledge maps are used to visualize a set of related information. To solve problems of knowledge sharing and knowledge reusing in engineering domain, this study propos...

Shuen-Ren Yu; Chao-Chi Chan

2011-01-01

236

Formative use of select-and-fill-in concept maps in online instruction: Implications for students of different learning styles  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this research was to investigate the formative use of Select and Fill-In (SAFI) maps in online instruction and the cognitive, metacognitive, and affective responses of students to their use. In particular, the implications of their use with students of different learning styles was considered. The research question investigated in this qualitative study was: How do students of different learning styles respond to online instruction in which SAFI maps are utilized? This question was explored by using an emergent, collective case study. Each case consisted of community college students who shared a dominant learning style and were enrolled in an online course in environmental studies. Cases in the study were determined using Kolb's Learning Style Inventory (LSI). Seven forms of data were collected during the study. During the first phase of data collection, dominant learning style and background information on student experience with concept mapping and online instruction was determined. In the second phase of data collection, participants completed SAFI maps and quiz items that corresponded to the content of the maps. Achievement data on the map activities and quiz and student responses to a post-SAFI survey and questionnaire were recorded to identify learner cognitive, metacognitive, and affective responses to the tasks. Upon completion of data collection, cases were constructed and compared across learning styles. Cases are presented using the trends, across participants sharing the same dominant learning style, in achievement, behaviors and attitudes as seen in the evidence present in the data. Triangulation of multiple data sources increased reliability and validity, through cross-case analyses, and produced a thick description of the relationship between the cases for each learning style. Evidence suggesting a cognitive response to the SAFI tasks was inconsistent across cases. However, learners with an affinity towards reflective learning activities demonstrated more positive metacognitive and affective responses to the SAFI tasks. This suggests that the contemplation and consideration of relationships expressed in the map requires learners, while completing the SAFI task, to compare their existing cognitive structure with an accepted structure and to reflect on the differences and similarities that may exist. Subsequently, the value of formative online SAFI map use for learners lies within the cognitive process of completing the tasks, not in the construction of an abstract cognitive structure reflecting an accepted structure and organization of concepts suggested by a completed map.

Kaminski, Charles William

237

An RGB color management concept based on an improved gamut mapping algorithm  

Science.gov (United States)

In principal, color reproduction on specific devices can be divided into transformation of color coordinates and the adaptation of colors to a device, called gamut mapping. The well established ICC color management neglects the latter aspect. This paper presents a practical implementation addressing both an eficient color transformation and a sophisticated gamut mapping.

Caluori, Ursina; Simon, Klaus

2009-01-01

238

The ACS Exams Institute Undergraduate Chemistry Anchoring Concepts Content Map II: Organic Chemistry  

Science.gov (United States)

As a way to assist chemistry departments with programmatic assessment of undergraduate chemistry curricula, the ACS Examinations Institute is devising a map of the content taught throughout the undergraduate curriculum. The structure of the map is hierarchal, with large grain size at the top and more content detail as one moves "down"…

Raker, Jeffrey; Holme, Thomas; Murphy, Kristen

2013-01-01

239

A Study on Language Learning Strategy Use and Its Relation to Academic Self-concept: The Case of EFL Students in Taiwan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The current study investigates the language learning strategy use (LLSU among EFL university freshmen and its relation to academic self-concept (ASC. Of six strategy categories, compensation strategies were reported as the most frequently used and social strategies were the least used. Participants with low and medium ASC used compensation strategies the most, while the participants of high ASC used metacognitive strategies the most. A significant positive relationship between strategy use and ASC was identified. All six strategy categories were found to be significant regarding different ASC of the research participants while only three particular strategy items were not. Among the strategy categories, metacognitive and cognitive strategies were found to have the highest correlations with ASC. Among the two components of ASC, academic effort was more highly related to overall strategy use than academic confidence. Educational implications and suggestions from the current study are presented to benefit the promotion of ASC and LLSU.

Hui-ju Liu

2013-03-01

240

Innovative operation in A Private University of Technology-An Application of Strategy Map on Balanced Scorecard  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Under the severe competition in higher education market currently, the universities of technology must seek their competitive strengths from every relevant segment as enterprises and improve their operation strategy. This case study aimed to explore the present operation strategies used in the subject school, estimated if the strategies were developed according to the goals and vision of the school, and finally the strategy map oriented on balanced scorecard was designed. The research was conducted by literature reviewing, interviewing method, SWOT analysis, and concluding the results with the strategy map oriented on BSC. The study suggested subsuming the standard operation procedure into the administration procedure, it will be beneficial to achieve the goals and vision of the school development and improve school administration efficiency.

Huai-En Mo

2012-11-01

241

Methodology and applicability of a safety and demonstration concept for a HAW final repository on clays. Safety concept and verification strategy; Methodik und Anwendungsbezug eines Sicherheits- und Nachweiskonzeptes fuer ein HAW-Endlager im Tonstein. Sicherheitskonzept und Nachweisstrategie  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report describes the site independent frame for a safety concept and verification strategy for a final repository for heat generating wastes in clay rock. In the safety concept planning specifications and technical measures are summarized that are supposed to allow a safe inclusion of radionuclides in the host rock. The verification strategy defines the systematic procedures for the development of fundamentals and scenarios as basis for the demonstration of the safety case and to allow the prognosis of appropriateness. The report includes the boundary conditions, the safety concept for the post-closure phase and the verification strategy for the post-closure phase.

Ruebel, Andre; Meleshyn, Artur

2014-08-15

242

Intervention mapping for the development of a strategy to implement the insurance medicine guidelines for depression  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background This article describes the development of a strategy to implement the insurance medicine guidelines for depression. Use of the guidelines is intended to result in more transparent and uniform assessment of claimants with depressive symptoms. Methods The implementation strategy was developed using the Intervention Mapping (IM method for alignment with insurance-medical practice. The ASE behavioural explanation model (Attitude, Social Influence and Self-Efficacy was used as theoretical basis for the development work. A literature study of implementation strategies and interviews with insurance physicians were performed to develop instruments for use with the guideline. These instruments were designed to match the needs and the working circumstances of insurance physicians. Performance indicators to measure the quality of the assessment and the adherence to the guidelines were defined with input from insurance physicians. Results This study resulted in the development of a training course to teach insurance physicians how to apply the guidelines for depression, using the aforementioned instruments. The efficacy of this training course will be evaluated in a Randomized Controlled Trial. Conclusions The use of IM made it possible to develop guideline support instruments tailored to insurance medical practice.

Anema Johannes R

2011-01-01

243

Uso de Mapas Mentales en la construcción de un concepto actualizado de ciencia / Mind Map use in the construction an up dated concept of science  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El propósito fue describir una experiencia de enseñanza aprendizaje, con estudiantes de Educación Especial de las menciones Dificultades de Aprendizaje y Deficiencias Auditivas instruidos en el uso de Mapas Mentales, según la teoría de Tony Buzan y Barry Buzan (1996) para la construcción de un conce [...] pto actualizado de ciencia. Es una investigación de campo, descriptiva, donde se cotejan, analizan y evalúan productos (mapas mentales) elaborados por estudiantes regulares de la asignatura Estrategias Didácticas III de los períodos académicos entre 2002-I y 2006-I. Las etapas fueron: a) Diagnóstico; b) Revisión Documental y Discusión; c) Elaboración del Mapa Mental y d) Evacuación. Los datos sugieren que los estudiantes progresan en la elaboración del mapa, probablemente por la ejercitación continua que promueve la instrucción, los estudiantes alcanzan un rendimiento satisfactorio en la construcción de un concepto actualizado de Ciencia y en la elaboración del mapa mental.. El rendimiento mejoró hasta alcanzar niveles de excelencia a lo largo de estos períodos académicos. Se puede afirmar que el procedimiento favorece el aprendizaje de la estrategia en particular y permite ampliar y profundizar sobre un concepto actualizado de ciencia que involucra aspectos relacionados con la economía, la tecnología, el conocimiento científico multidisciplinario y el contexto social. Abstract in english The purpose of this work was to describe one teaching-learning experience, carried out with groups of special education students, of the mentions: disabled learning and disabled auditory, taught to use Mind Maps according to Tony and Barry Buzan’s Theory (1996) for the construction of an updated sci [...] ence concept. The study corresponds to a field research of descriptive character, which are compared, analyzed, and evaluated the products (minds maps) elaborated by regular students of the Didactic Strategies III course in the academic periods from 2002-I to 2006-I. the process was carried out in the following stages: a) Diagnosis; b) Documentary checking and discussion; c) Elaboration of the Mind Map, and d) Evaluation. The obtained data suggest, on the one hand, that the students progress in the construction of the Mind Map, probably for the continuous practise that helps the teacher’s instruction, on the other hand, It was observed that the students reached a satisfactory performance in construction of an updated concept of Science and therefore in the elaboration of the Mind Map. The yield was better till reach levels of excellence throughout these academic periods. Finally, it is possible to be affirmed that the followed procedure promotes the good use of the Mind Map, allows to extend and to deepen a scientific concept, as in this case, the updated concept of Science that involves aspects related to economy, technology, the multidisciplinary knowledge scientific and the social context.

Clemen, Mazzarella; Rosana, Monsanto.

244

Graded-threshold parametric response maps: towards a strategy for adaptive dose painting  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: To modify the single-threshold parametric response map (ST-PRM) method for predicting treatment outcomes in order to facilitate its use for guidance of adaptive dose painting in intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Methods: Multiple graded thresholds were used to extend the ST-PRM method (Nat. Med. 2009;15(5):572-576) such that the full functional change distribution within tumours could be represented with respect to multiple confidence interval estimates for functional changes in similar healthy tissue. The ST-PRM and graded-threshold PRM (GT-PRM) methods were applied to functional imaging scans of 5 patients treated for hepatocellular carcinoma. Pre and post-radiotherapy arterial blood flow maps (ABF) were generated from CT-perfusion scans of each patient. ABF maps were rigidly registered based on aligning tumour centres of mass. ST-PRM and GT-PRM analyses were then performed on overlapping tumour regions within the registered ABF maps. Main findings: The ST-PRMs contained many disconnected clusters of voxels classified as having a significant change in function. While this may be useful to predict treatment response, it may pose challenges for identifying boost volumes or for informing dose-painting by numbers strategies. The GT-PRMs included all of the same information as ST-PRMs but also visualized the full tumour functional change distribution. Heterogeneous clusters in the ST-PRMs often became more connected in the GT-PRMs by voxels with similar functional changes. Conclusions: GT-PRMs provided additional information which helped to visualize relationships between significant functional changes identified by ST-PRMs. This may enhance ST-PRM utility for guiding adaptive dose painting.

Lausch, A.; Jensen, N.; Chen, J.; Lee, T. Y.; Lock, M.; Wong, E.

2014-03-01

245

An instantaneous optimization strategy based on efficiency maps for internal combustion engine/battery hybrid vehicles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • Instantaneous optimization method based on efficiency maps is proposed. • The energy sent to or supplied from the hybrid energy source is focused. • The efficiency of this energy is introduced as a new cost function to be maximized. • The results of our method are compared to that of DP, ECMS and MPC methods. • Our method provides competitive results with a lower computational load. - Abstract: This paper presents an instantaneous optimization algorithm based on the knowledge of the efficiency maps of the internal combustion engine (ICE) and the generator for the energy management system in hybrid electric vehicles. The proposed method formulates a new cost function representing the analytical expression of the overall energy efficiency of the hybrid energy source (i.e. ICE/generator set + battery pack) which is calculated based on the energy flow at the DC bus. Engine operating points are determined by assessing not only the efficiency map of the engine but also the efficiency map of the generator and the charge/discharge efficiency of the battery pack in order to maximize the efficiency of the energy delivered from the hybrid energy source to the drive system. The performance of the proposed method is analyzed and demonstrated on a hybrid electric bus developed in MATLAB/Simulink for different driving cycle conditions and the results have been compared with alternative optimization methods such as equivalent consumption minimization strategy (ECMS), model predictive control (MPC) and dynamic programming (DP) approach. The simulation results show that the proposed method provides a competitive performance with a lower computational burden compared to the alternative methods for different state of charge (SOC) ranges and drive cycle conditions

246

Students' Alternative Conceptions about Electricity and Effect of Inquiry-Based Teaching Strategies  

Science.gov (United States)

This study attempted to investigate the alternative conceptions that a group of 12 Lebanese students in a grade 9 class hold about electricity. It also attempted to evaluate learning outcomes of implementing in that class an inquiry-based module for the acquisition of conceptual understanding of basic concepts in electricity. Fourteen mostly…

Afra, Nada Chatila; Osta, Iman; Zoubeir, Wassim

2009-01-01

247

Concepts of soil mapping as a basis for the assessment of soil functions  

Science.gov (United States)

Soil mapping systems in Europe have been designed mainly as a tool for the description of soil characteristics from a morphogenetic viewpoint. Contrasting to the American or FAO system, the soil development has been in the main focus of European systems. Nevertheless , recent developments in soil science stress the importance of the functions of soils with respect to the ecosystems. As soil mapping systems usually offer a sound and extensive database, the deduction of soil functions from "classic" mapping parameters can be used for local and regional assessments. According to the used pedo-transfer functions and mapping systems, tailored approaches can be chosen for different applications. In Austria, a system mainly for spatial planning purposes has been developed that will be presented and illustrated by means of best practice examples.

Baumgarten, Andreas

2014-05-01

248

Rectifying Self Organizing Maps for Automatic Concept Learning from Web Images  

OpenAIRE

We attack the problem of learning concepts automatically from noisy web image search results. Going beyond low level attributes, such as colour and texture, we explore weakly-labelled datasets for the learning of higher level concepts, such as scene categories. The idea is based on discovering common characteristics shared among subsets of images by posing a method that is able to organise the data while eliminating irrelevant instances. We propose a novel clustering and out...

Golge, Eren; Duygulu, Pinar

2013-01-01

249

Conception of forming of marketing strategy of development of the strictly specialized machine-building enterprises  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the article the basic theoretical going is considered near development and realization of marketing strategy of the strictly specialized machine-building enterprises; the stages of forming of strategy are described; the complex of economic problems of realization of strategic marketing approach is exposed at the market of the special industrial to the products.

V.J. Bytsa

2011-10-01

250

Young Brazilian and Norwegian Children’s Concepts of Strategies and Goals for Emotion Regulation  

Science.gov (United States)

Four-hundred-and-eighty children in the age groups of four and six years, 240 each from Brazil and Norway, were asked how their feelings of anger, sadness and fear were reduced in a recollected episode, to propose emotion regulation strategies for protagonists and to envisage the result of regulation strategies. A majority of even the youngest…

Vikan, Arne; Karstad, Silja Berg; Dias, Maria

2013-01-01

251

Using Self-Adaptive Evolutionary Algorithms to Evolve Dynamism-Oriented Maps for a Real Time Strategy Game  

OpenAIRE

This work presents a procedural content generation system that uses an evolutionary algorithm in order to generate interesting maps for a real-time strategy game, called Planet Wars. Interestingness is here captured by the dynamism of games (i.e., the extent to which they are action-packed). We consider two different approaches to measure the dynamism of the games resulting from these generated maps, one based on fluctuations in the resources controlled by either player and another one based ...

Lara Cabrera, Rau?l; Cotta, Carlos; Ferna?ndez Leiva, Antonio J.

2013-01-01

252

Overview of superconductivity in Japan Strategy road map and R&D status  

Science.gov (United States)

Superconducting technology benefits society in broad fields; environment/energy, life science, manufacturing industry and information and communication. Superconducting equipments and devices used in various fields are divided into two categories, electric and electronic applications. Technologies in those applications are progressing remarkably owing to firm and consistent supports by various national projects. The final target of the NEDO R&D project of fundamental technology for superconductivity applications to develop 500 m long coated conductors (CCs) of the critical current 300 A/cm (at 77 K, 0 T) will be fulfilled by the end of JFY 2007 and manufacturing process to produce extremely low-cost CCs is to be developed to make the applications realistic. Preliminary works to develop power apparatuses using CCs have started in the frame of the R&D project for the fundamental technology and have produced significant results. Performance of BSCCO/Ag-sheathed wires has been improved greatly and various applications using those wires are being developed. R&D projects for SMES, power cable, flywheel energy storage and rotating machines are going to introduce those equipments to the real world. Technologies of SQUID and SFQ, basic devices of the electronic applications, are progressing dramatically also owing to various national projects. In this back ground the technology strategy map in the field of superconducting technology was formulated to prioritize investments in R&D by clearly defining the objectives and inspire autonomous R&D actives in various fields of industries. R&D activities in the superconducting technologies are to be scheduled following this strategy map.

Tsukamoto, O.

2008-09-01

253

Overview of superconductivity in Japan - Strategy road map and R and D status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Superconducting technology benefits society in broad fields; environment/energy, life science, manufacturing industry and information and communication. Superconducting equipments and devices used in various fields are divided into two categories, electric and electronic applications. Technologies in those applications are progressing remarkably owing to firm and consistent supports by various national projects. The final target of the NEDO R and D project of fundamental technology for superconductivity applications to develop 500 m long coated conductors (CCs) of the critical current 300 A/cm (at 77 K, 0 T) will be fulfilled by the end of JFY 2007 and manufacturing process to produce extremely low-cost CCs is to be developed to make the applications realistic. Preliminary works to develop power apparatuses using CCs have started in the frame of the R and D project for the fundamental technology and have produced significant results. Performance of BSCCO/Ag-sheathed wires has been improved greatly and various applications using those wires are being developed. R and D projects for SMES, power cable, flywheel energy storage and rotating machines are going to introduce those equipments to the real world. Technologies of SQUID and SFQ, basic devices of the electronic applications, are progressing dramatically also owing to various national projects. In this back ground the technology strategy map in the field of superconducting technology was formulated to prioritize invechnology was formulated to prioritize investments in R and D by clearly defining the objectives and inspire autonomous R and D actives in various fields of industries. R and D activities in the superconducting technologies are to be scheduled following this strategy map

254

Application of a concept development process to evaluate process layout designs using value stream mapping and simulation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: We propose and demonstrate a concept development process (CDP as a framework to solve a value stream mapping (VSM related process layout design optimization problem.Design/methodology/approach: A case study approach was used to demonstrate the effectiveness of CDP framework in a portable fire extinguisher manufacturing company. To facilitate the CDP application, we proposed the system coupling level index (SCLI and simulation to evaluate the process layout design concepts.Findings: As part of the CDP framework application, three process layout design concepts - current layout (CL, express lane layout (ELL and independent zone layout (IZL - were generated. Then, the SCLI excluded CL and simulation selected IZL as the best concept. The simulation was also applied to optimize the performance of IZL in terms of the number of pallets. Based on this case study, we concluded that CDP framework worked well.Research limitations/implications: The process layout design optimization issue has not been well addressed in the VSM literature. We believe that this paper initiated the relevant discussion by showing the feasibility of CDP as a framework in this issue.Practical implications: The CDP and SCLI are very practice-oriented approaches in the sense that they do not require any complex analytical knowledge.Originality/value: We discussed a not well-addressed issue with a systematic framework. In addition, the SCLI presented was also unique.

Ki-Young Jeong

2011-07-01

255

Mapping the future of environmental health and nursing: strategies for integrating national competencies into nursing practice.  

Science.gov (United States)

:Nurses are increasingly the primary contact for clients concerned about health problems related to their environment. In response to the need for nursing expertise in the field of environmental health, the Institute of Medicine (IOM), Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), and National Institute of Nursing Research (NINR) have designed core competencies for the nursing profession. The IOM competencies focus on four areas: (1) knowledge and concepts; (2) assessment and referral; advocacy, ethics, and risk communication; and (4) legislation and regulation. The competencies establish a baseline of knowledge and awareness in order for nurses to prevent and minimize health problems associated with exposure to environmental agents. To address the known difficulties of incorporating new priorities into established practice, nurses attending an environmental health short course participated in a nominal group process focusing on the question, "What specific actions can we take to bring environmental health into the mainstream of nursing practice?" This exercise was designed to bring the concepts of the national initiatives (IOM, NINR, ATSDR) to the awareness of individual nurses involved in the direct delivery of care. Results include 38 action items nurses identified as improving awareness and utilization of environmental health principles. The top five ideas were: (1) get environmental health listed as a requirement or competency in undergraduate nursing education; (2) improve working relationships with interdepartmental persons-a team approach; (3) strategically place students in essential organizations such as NIOSH, ATSDR, or CDC; (4) educate nurse educators; and (5) create environmental health awards in nursing. The 38 original ideas were also reorganized into a five-tiered conceptual model. The concepts of this model include: (1) developing partnerships; (2) strengthening publications; (3) enhancing continuing education; (4) updating nursing practice; and (5) strengthening schools of nursing. The model serves as a road map for action in building environmental health capacity within mainstream nursing. PMID:12071904

Larsson, Laura S; Butterfield, Patricia

2002-01-01

256

Thinking Like a Scientist: Using Vee-Maps to Understand Process and Concepts in Science  

Science.gov (United States)

It is considered important for students to participate in scientific practices to develop a deeper understanding of scientific ideas. Supporting students, however, in knowing and understanding the natural world in connection with generating and evaluating scientific evidence and explanations is not easy. In addition, writing in science can help students to understand such connections as they communicate what they know and how they know it. Although tools such as vee-maps can scaffold students' efforts to design investigations, we know less about how these tools support students in connecting scientific ideas with the evidence they are generating, how these connections develop over time, or how writing can be used to encourage such connections. In this study, we explored students' developing ability to reason scientifically by examining the relationship between students' understanding of scientific phenomena and their understanding of how to generate and evaluate evidence for their ideas in writing. Three high school classes completed three investigations. One class used vee-mapping each time, one used vee-mapping once, and one did not use vee-mapping. Students' maps and written reports were rated for understanding of relevant science procedural and conceptual ideas. Comparisons between groups and over time indicate a positive relationship between improved procedural and conceptual understanding. Findings also indicate that improved procedural understanding preceded improved conceptual understanding, and thus, multiple experiences were needed for students to connect evidence and explanation for science phenomena.

Knaggs, Christine M.; Schneider, Rebecca M.

2012-08-01

257

Narcotic analgesic utilization amongst injured workers: using concept mapping to understand current issues from the perspectives of physicians and pharmacists  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Work-related injuries result in considerable morbidity, as well as social and economic costs. Pain associated with these injuries is a complex, contested topic, and narcotic analgesics (NA remain important treatment options. Factors contributing to NA utilization patterns are poorly understood. This qualitative study sought to characterize the factors contributing to NA utilization amongst injured workers from the perspectives of physicians and pharmacists. Methods The study employed concept mapping methodology, a structured process yielding a conceptual framework of participants' views on a particular topic. A visual display of the ideas/concepts generated is produced. Eligible physicians and pharmacists (n = 22 serving injured workers in the province of Ontario (Canada were recruited via purposive sampling, and participated in concept mapping activities (consisting of brainstorming, sorting, rating, and map exploration. Participants identified factors influencing NA utilization, and sorted these factors into categories (clusters. Next, they rated the factors on two scales: 'strength of influence on NA over-utilization' and 'amenability to intervention'. During follow-up focus groups, participants refined the maps and discussed the findings and their implications. Results 82 factors were sorted into 7 clusters: addiction risks, psychosocial issues, social/work environment factors, systemic-third party factors, pharmacy-related factors, treatment problems, and physician factors. These clusters were grouped into 2 overarching categories/regions on the map: patient-level factors, and healthcare/compensation system-level factors. Participants rated NA over-utilization as most influenced by patient-level factors, while system-level factors were rated as most amenable to intervention. One system-level cluster was rated highly on both scales (treatment problems - e.g. poor continuity of care, poor interprofessional communication, lack of education/support for physicians regarding pain management, unavailability of multidisciplinary team-based care, prolonged wait times to see specialists. Conclusions Participants depicted factors driving NA utilization among injured workers as complex. Patient-level factors were perceived as most influential on over-utilization, while system-level factors were considered most amenable to intervention. This has implications for intervention design, suggesting that systemic/structural factors should be taken into account in order to address this important health issue.

Fortin Claire

2011-10-01

258

Use of Concept Mapping To Integrate the Different Perspectives of Designers and Other Stakeholders in the Development of E-Learning Materials.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discussion of multidisciplinary teams and stakeholders involved in the production of electronic learning materials focuses on a constructivist methodology for course design. Explains concept mapping that provided the basis for an electronic learning development project at the University of Surrey (United Kingdom) and includes examples of concept

Hughes, Gwyneth; Hay, David

2001-01-01

259

From printed geological maps to web-based service oriented data products - strategies, foundations and problems.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Geological Survey of Austria is legally obligated by the INSPIRE directive to provide data that fall under this directive (geology, mineral resources and natural risk zones) to the European commission in a semantically harmonized and technically interoperable way. Until recently the focus was entirely on the publication of high quality printed cartographic products. These have a complex (carto-)graphic data-model, which allows visualizing several thematic aspects, such as lithology, stratigraphy, tectonics, geologic age, mineral resources, mass movements, geomorphology etc. in a single planar map/product. Nonetheless these graphic data-models do not allow retrieving individual thematic aspects since these were coded in a complex portrayal scheme. Automatic information retrieval is thus impossible; and domain knowledge is necessary to interpret these "encrypted datasets". With INSPIRE becoming effective and a variety of conceptual models (e.g. GeoSciML), built around a semantic framework (i.e. controlled vocabularies), being available it is necessary to develop a strategy and workflow for semantic harmonization of such datasets. In this contribution we demonstrate the development of a multistage workflow which will allow us to transform our printed maps to semantically enabled datasets and services and discuss some prerequisites, foundations and problems. In a first step in our workflow we analyzed our maps and developed controlled vocabularies that describe the thematic content of our data. We then developed a physical data-model which we use to attribute our spatial data with thematic information from our controlled vocabularies to form core thematic data sets. This physical data model is geared towards use on an organizational level but builds upon existing standards (INSPIRE, GeoSciML) to allow transformation to international standards. In a final step we will develop a standardized mapping scheme to publish INSPIRE conformant services from our core datasets. This two-step transformation is necessary since a direct mapping to international standards is not possible for traditional map-based data. Controlled vocabularies provide the foundation of a semantic harmonization. For the encoding of the vocabularies we build upon the W3C standard SKOS (=Simple Knowledge Organisation System), a thesaurus specification for the semantic web, which is itself based on the Resource Description Framework (RDF) and RDF Schema and added some DublinCore and VoID for the metadata of our vocabularies and resources. For the development of these thesauri we use the commercial software PoolParty, which is a tool specially build to develop, manage and publish multilingual thesauri. The corporate thesauri of the Austrian Geological Survey are exposed via a web-service that is conformant with the linked data principles. This web-service gives access to a (1) RDF/HTML representation of the resources via a simple, robust and thus persistent http URIs (2) a download of the complete vocabularies in RDF-format (3) a full-fledged SPARQL-Endpoint to query the thesaurus. With the development of physical data-models (based on preexisting conceptual models) one must dismiss the classical schemes of map-based portrayal of data. E.g. for individual Geological units on traditional geological maps usually a single age range is given (e.g. formation age). But one might want to attribute several geologic ages (formation age, metamorphic age, cooling ages etc.) to individual units. Such issues have to be taken into account when developing robust physical data-models. Based on our experience we are convinced that individual institutions need to develop their own controlled vocabularies and individual data-models that fit the specific needs on an organizational level. If externally developed vocabularies and data-models are introduced to established workflows newly generated and existing data may be diverging and it will be hard to achieve or maintain a common standard. We thus suggest that it is necessary for institutions to keep (or develop) to th

Ebner, M.; Schiegl, M.; Stöckl, W.; Heger, H.

2012-04-01

260

A new power mapping method based on ordinary kriging and determination of optimal detector location strategy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • A new power mapping method based on Ordinary Kriging (OK) is proposed. • Measurements from DayaBay Unit 1 PWR are used to verify the OK method. • The OK method performs better than the CECOR method. • An optimal neutron detector location strategy based on ordinary kriging and simulated annealing is proposed. - Abstract: The Ordinary Kriging (OK) method is presented that is designed for a core power mapping calculation of pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Measurements from DayaBay Unit 1 PWR are used to verify the accuracy of the OK method. The root mean square (RMS) reconstruction errors are kept at less than 0.35%, and the maximum reconstruction relative errors (RE) are kept at less than 1.02% for the entire operating cycle. The reconstructed assembly power distribution results show that the OK method is fit for core power distribution monitoring. The quality of power distribution obtained by the OK method is partly determined by the neutron detector locations, and the OK method is also applied to solve the optimal neutron detector location problem. The spatially averaged ordinary kriging variance (AOKV) is minimized using simulated annealing, and then, the optimal in-core neutron detector locations are obtained. The result shows that the current neutron detector location of DayaBay Unit 1 reactor is near-optimal

261

Language Learning Strategy Use and Concept Development among Jordanian Undergraduate English Language Majors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study investigated, for two continuous years, the level of use of foreign language learning strategies (FLLSs. It also investigated their development in terms of the study-semester and gender variables by 45 Jordanian undergraduate English Language Majors. The Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL was used as an instrument for collecting the data necessary to answer the questions of the study. Appropriate statistical devices were employed to analyze the data. The findings revealed that Jordanian undergraduates majoring in English Language were High strategy users for most of the strategies. The Metacognitive strategies were ranked first followed by the Social, Compensation, Affective, Cognitive, and Memory strategies respectively. Differences between males’ and females’ responses were not significant in terms of the gender variable while the study-semester variable showed significant differences in favor of third and fourth semesters' responses. The findings were ascribed to a variety of factors such as: age, courses students study, determination to get high marks, and wide use of modern technology. The conclusions support the idea of unconscious learning of FLLSs through long exposure to English Language courses and students' preference of Metacognitive strategies.

Mohammad Al-Jabali

2012-02-01

262

The use of active learning strategies in the instruction of Reactor Physics concepts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Each of the Active Learning strategies employed to teach Reactor Physics material has been or promises to be instructionally successful. The Cooperative Group strategy has demonstrated a statistically significant increase in student performance on the unit exam in teaching conceptually difficult, transport and diffusion theory material. However, this result was achieved at the expense of a modest increase in class time. The Tutorial CBI programs have enabled learning equally as well as classroom lectures without the direct intervention of an instructor. Thus, the Tutorials have been successful as homework assignments, releasing classroom time for other instruction. However, the time required for development of these tools was large, on the order of two hundred hours per hour of instruction. The initial introduction of the Case-Based strategy was roughly as effective as the traditional classroom instruction. Case-Based learning could well, after important modifications, perform better than traditional instruction. A larger percentage of the students prefer active learning strategies than prefer traditional lecture presentations. Student preferences for the active strategies were particularly strong when they believed that the strategies helped them learn the material better than they would have by using a lecture format. In some cases, students also preferred the active strategies because they were different from traditional instruction, a change of pace. Some students preferred lectures to CBI instruction, primarily because the CBI did not afford them the opportunity to question the instructor during the presentation

263

The use of active learning strategies in the instruction of Reactor Physics concepts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Each of the Active Learning strategies employed to teach Reactor Physics material has been or promises to be instructionally successful. The Cooperative Group strategy has demonstrated a statistically significant increase in student performance on the unit exam in teaching conceptually difficult, transport and diffusion theory material. However, this result was achieved at the expense of a modest increase in class time. The Tutorial CBI programs have enabled learning equally as well as classroom lectures without the direct intervention of an instructor. Thus, the Tutorials have been successful as homework assignments, releasing classroom time for other instruction. However, the time required for development of these tools was large, on the order of two hundred hours per hour of instruction. The initial introduction of the Case-Based strategy was roughly as effective as the traditional classroom instruction. Case-Based learning could well, after important modifications, perform better than traditional instruction. A larger percentage of the students prefer active learning strategies than prefer traditional lecture presentations. Student preferences for the active strategies were particularly strong when they believed that the strategies helped them learn the material better than they would have by using a lecture format. In some cases, students also preferred the active strategies because they were different from traditional instruction, a change of pace. Some students preferred lectures to CBI instruction, primarily because the CBI did not afford them the opportunity to question the instructor during the presentation.

Robinson, Michael A.

2000-01-01

264

Surfactant replacement and open lung concept – Comparison of two treatment strategies in an experimental model of neonatal ARDS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Several concepts of treatment in neonatal ARDS have been proposed in the last years. The present study compared the effects of open lung concept positive pressure ventilation (PPVOLC with a conventional ventilation strategy combined with administration of two different surfactant preparations on lung function and surfactant homoeostasis. Methods After repeated whole-lung saline lavage, 16 newborn piglets were assigned to either PPVOLC (n = 5 or surfactant treatment under conventional PPV using a natural bovine (n = 5 or a monomeric protein B based surfactant (n = 6. Results Comprehensive monitoring showed each treatment strategy to improve gas exchange and lung function, although the effect on PaO2 and pulmonary compliance declined over the study period in the surfactant groups. The overall improvement of the ventilation efficiency index (VEI was significantly greater in the PPVOLC group. Phospholipid and protein analyses of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid showed significant alterations to surfactant homoeostasis in the PPVOLC group, whereas IL-10 and SP-C mRNA expression was tendentially increased in the surfactant groups. Conclusion The different treatment strategies applied could be shown to improve gas exchange and lung function in neonatal ARDS. To which extent differences in maintenance of lung function and surfactant homeostasis may lead to long-term consequences needs to be studied further.

Ebsen Michael

2008-07-01

265

Protein identification by MALDI-TOF-MS peptide mapping: a new strategy.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new strategy for identifying proteins by MALDI-TOF-MS peptide mapping is reported. In contrast to current approaches, the strategy does not rely on a good relative or absolute mass accuracy as the criterion that discriminates false positive results. The protein sequence database is first searched for all proteins that match a minimum five of the submitted masses within the maximum expected relative errors when the default or externally determined calibration constants are used, for instance, +/-500 ppm. Typically, this search retrieves many thousand candidate sequences. Assuming initially that each of these is the correct protein, the relative errors of the matching peptide masses are calculated for each candidate sequence. Linear regression analysis is then performed of the calculated relative errors as a function of m/z for each candidate sequence, and the standard deviation to the regression is used to distinguish the correct sequence among the candidates. We show that this parameter is independent of whether the mass spectrometric data were internally or externally calibrated. The result is a search engine that renders internal spectrum calibration unnecessary and adapts to the quality of the raw data without user interference. This is made possible by a dynamic scoring algorithm, which takes into account the number of matching peptide masses, the percentage of the protein's sequence covered by these peptides and, as new parameter, the determined standard deviation. The lower the standard deviation, the less cleavage peptides are required for identification and vice versa. Performance of the new strategy is demonstrated and discussed. All necessary computing has been implemented in a computer program, free access to which is provided in the Internet. PMID:11985306

Egelhofer, Volker; Gobom, Johan; Seitz, Harald; Giavalisco, Patrick; Lehrach, Hans; Nordhoff, Eckhard

2002-04-15

266

Strategy for the Reverse Supply Chain : Applicability of the Lean and the Agile Concepts  

OpenAIRE

The reverse part of the supply chain becomes more and more important due to the legislation, environmental concerns, higher volumes of returns, etc. As a result, companies cannot see the reverse supply chain as the additional costs only and have to think strategically. The right strategy for the reverse supply chain can help to achieve the competitive advantage. However, there are not so many researches made about strategies for the reverse supply chain yet, contrarily to the forward supply c...

Daugnoraite, Laura; Slaitas, Kestutis

2010-01-01

267

Reconstructing Genome-Wide Protein–Protein Interaction Networks Using Multiple Strategies with Homologous Mapping  

Science.gov (United States)

Background One of the crucial steps toward understanding the biological functions of a cellular system is to investigate protein–protein interaction (PPI) networks. As an increasing number of reliable PPIs become available, there is a growing need for discovering PPIs to reconstruct PPI networks of interesting organisms. Some interolog-based methods and homologous PPI families have been proposed for predicting PPIs from the known PPIs of source organisms. Results Here, we propose a multiple-strategy scoring method to identify reliable PPIs for reconstructing the mouse PPI network from two well-known organisms: human and fly. We firstly identified the PPI candidates of target organisms based on homologous PPIs, sharing significant sequence similarities (joint E-value ? 1 × 10?40), from source organisms using generalized interolog mapping. These PPI candidates were evaluated by our multiple-strategy scoring method, combining sequence similarities, normalized ranks, and conservation scores across multiple organisms. According to 106,825 PPI candidates in yeast derived from human and fly, our scoring method can achieve high prediction accuracy and outperform generalized interolog mapping. Experiment results show that our multiple-strategy score can avoid the influence of the protein family size and length to significantly improve PPI prediction accuracy and reflect the biological functions. In addition, the top-ranked and conserved PPIs are often orthologous/essential interactions and share the functional similarity. Based on these reliable predicted PPIs, we reconstructed a comprehensive mouse PPI network, which is a scale-free network and can reflect the biological functions and high connectivity of 292 KEGG modules, including 216 pathways and 76 structural complexes. Conclusions Experimental results show that our scoring method can improve the predicting accuracy based on the normalized rank and evolutionary conservation from multiple organisms. Our predicted PPIs share similar biological processes and cellular components, and the reconstructed genome-wide PPI network can reflect network topology and modularity. We believe that our method is useful for inferring reliable PPIs and reconstructing a comprehensive PPI network of an interesting organism. PMID:25602759

Lo, Yu-Shu; Huang, Sing-Han; Luo, Yong-Chun; Lin, Chun-Yu; Yang, Jinn-Moon

2015-01-01

268

Testing communication strategies to convey genomic concepts using virtual reality technology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Health professionals need to be able to communicate information about genomic susceptibility in understandable and usable ways, but substantial challenges are involved. We developed four learning modules that varied along two factors: (1) learning mode (active learning vs. didactic learning) and (2) metaphor (risk elevator vs. bridge) and tested them using a 2 x 2 between-subjects, repeated measures design. The study used an innovative virtual reality technology experimental platform; four virtual worlds were designed to convey the concept that genetic and behavioral factors interact to affect common disease risk. The primary outcome was comprehension (recall, transfer). Study participants were 42 undergraduates aged 19-23. The results indicated that the elevator metaphor better supported learning of the concept than the bridge metaphor. Mean transfer score was significantly higher for the elevator metaphor (p effective than didactic learning in increasing comprehension of health information. The findings also indicated that less complex metaphors might convey abstract concepts more effectively. PMID:19466649

Kaphingst, Kimberly A; Persky, Susan; McCall, Cade; Lachance, Christina; Beall, Andrew C; Blascovich, Jim

2009-06-01

269

Estrategia pedagógica para la producción textual: casos de desarrollo de conceptos / Pedagogical strategy for text production: concept development cases  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Si bien el aprendizaje de conceptos es común a todas las lenguas, se señala la idea de que la práctica de una propuesta pedagógica centrada en el desarrollo de conceptos mejora la producción textual de los estudiantes de pregrado. Esta exposición tiene el objetivo de describir los cuatro indicadores [...] (SD, SE, SA y SNE) con los respectivos descriptores de función, fondo y forma para el dominio de desarrollo del concepto, además, dar a conocer casos de textos elaborados por los estudiantes en la aplicación didáctica. Se concluye que el estudio y ejercicio de la estrategia mejora las habilidades en la producción textual del desarrollo de conceptos. Abstract in english While, learning concepts is common to all the different languages, the idea remains that the implementation of a pedagogical proposal focused on the development of concepts improves textual production in undergraduate students. This work aims to describe four indicators (SD, SE, SA, and SNE) with th [...] e corresponding descriptors of function, content and form, for the mastery of concept development; also, it aims to present cases of texts developed by students in the didactic application. The conclusions suggest that study and strategy use improves concept development skills in text production.

Alejandra, Leal Ladrón de Guevara.

270

Generation IV nuclear energy systems: road map and concepts. Panel Discussion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text of publication follows: The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Initiative goal is as follows: Work internationally to identify, assess, and develop over the next three decades nuclear energy technologies that can compete in all markets with the most cost-efficient technologies anticipated while further enhancing nuclear safety, minimizing the impact of nuclear waste, and reducing the risk of proliferation. The first step, to develop a technology road map to guide international research and development cooperation, started in October 2000, is expected to take 2 yr and will address both short-term (5 to 10 yr) and long-term (30 yr) deployment of nuclear energy. The panel, consisting of DOE, National Laboratory, and Nuclear Energy Research Advisory Committee members, has been active in developing the initiative and road map. (authors)

271

Experienced Teachers' Strategies for Assessing Nature of Science Conceptions in the Elementary Classroom  

Science.gov (United States)

This study explored the nature of science (NOS) assessments K-4 classroom teachers developed for measuring students' understandings of NOS elements. We used the Views of Nature of Science Questionnaire-Form VNOS-D2 (Views of Nature of Science Elementary School Version 2) and interviews to verify that teachers' conceptions of NOS were sufficient to…

Akerson, Valarie L.; Cullen, Theresa A.; Hanson, Deborah L.

2010-01-01

272

Exploring Young Children's Understanding of Risks Associated with Internet Usage and Their Concepts of Management Strategies  

Science.gov (United States)

The Internet provides remarkable opportunities for children's learning and development. Nevertheless, it is unregulated and hard to control, which potentially places children at risk of exploitation. This study examined five-eight-year-old children's understanding of dangers associated with the Internet, management strategies and sources of their…

Ey, Lesley-Anne; Cupit, C. Glenn

2011-01-01

273

An Integrative Hierarchical Stepwise Sampling Strategy For Spatial Sampling And Its Application In Digital Soil Mapping  

Science.gov (United States)

Sampling design plays an important role in spatial modeling. Existing methods often require large amount of samples to achieve desired mapping accuracy but imply considerable cost. When there are not enough resources for collecting a large set of samples at once, stepwise sampling approach is often the only option for collecting the needed large sample set, especially in the case of field surveying over large areas. This paper proposes an integrative hierarchical stepwise sampling strategy which makes the samples collected at different stages an integrative one. The strategy is based on samples' representativeness of the geographic feature at different scales. The basic idea is to sample at locations that are representative of large-scale spatial patterns first and then add samples that represent more local patterns in a stepwise fashion. Based on the relationships between geographic feature and its environmental covariates, the proposed sampling method approximates a hierarchy of spatial variations of the geographic feature under concern by delineating natural aggregates (clusters) of its relevant environmental covariates at different scales. The natural occurrence of such aggregates is modeled using a fuzzy c-means clustering method. We iterate through different numbers of clusters from only a few to many more to be able to reveal clusters at different spatial scales. At a particular iteration, locations that bear high similarity to the cluster prototypes are identified. If a location is consistently identified at multiple iterations it is then considered to be more representative of the general or large-scale spatial patterns. Locations that are identified less during the iterations are representative of local patterns. The integrative stepwise sampling design then gives higher sampling priority to the locations that are more representative of the large scale patterns than local ones. We applied this sampling design in a digital soil mapping case study. Different representative samples were obtained and used for soil inference. We started with samples that are the most representative of the large scale patterns and then gradually include the samples representative of local patterns. Field evaluation indicated that the additions of more samples with lower representativeness lead to improvements of accuracy with a decreasing marginal gain. When cost-effectiveness is considered, the representative grade could provide essential information on the number and order of samples to be sampled for an effective sampling design.

Yang, L.; Zhu, A.; Qi, F.; Qin, C.; Li, B.; Pei, T.

2011-12-01

274

Mapas conceituais no ensino de pós-graduação em enfermagem: relato de experiência / Concept maps of the graduate programme in nursing: experience report / Mapas conceptuales en la escuela de postgrado en enfermería: relato de experiencia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Languages: English, Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O mapa conceitual é considerado uma estratégia que possibilita o desenvolvimento de habilidades de pensamento crítico. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar mapas conceituais elaborados por discentes para compreensão de projetos de pesquisa. Trata-se de um relato de experiência oriundo do Tópico Espec [...] ial: Mapa Conceitual, do Programa de Pós-Graduação em Enfermagem da Universidade Federal da Paraíba, em fevereiro de 2012. Desenvolveram-se leituras interativas sobre mapas conceituais, instalação e manuseio do software Cmap Tools, e construção de mapas conceituais. A avaliação considerou coerência entre conceitos, visualização de proposições, clareza de ideias e relação lógica entre conceitos. Como resultado, mapas foram evidenciados com coerência entre conceitos, relações significantes, clareza de ideias e relação lógica entre as etapas de um projeto de pesquisa. Salienta-se que o mapa conceitual pode ser uma estratégia de avaliação do processo de ensino-aprendizagem e pode ser utilizado no ensino, na pesquisa e em reflexões sobre a prática clínica em enfermagem. Abstract in spanish El mapa conceptual se considera una estrategia que permite el desarrollo de habilidades de pensamiento crítico. El objetivo de trabajo fue evaluar mapas conceptuales elaborados por estudiantes para comprensión de proyectos de investigación. Se trata de relato de experiencia que viene de Tema Especia [...] l: Mapa conceptual del Programa de Postgrado en Enfermería/Universidad Federal de Paraíba en febrero/2012. Desarrollando lectura interactiva sobre mapas conceptuales, instalación y manejo de software Cmap Tools, construcción de mapas conceptuales. Para la evaluación, se consideró la coherencia entre conceptos, proposiciones visión, claridad de ideas y relación lógica entre conceptos. Como resultado de ello, con mapas mostraron consistencia entre conceptos, relaciones significativas, claridad de ideas y relación lógica entre etapas de un proyecto de investigación. Debe tenerse en cuenta que el mapa conceptual puede ser una estrategia para evaluar el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje y se puede utilizar en docencia, investigación y reflexión sobre la práctica de enfermería. Abstract in english The conceptual map is considered a strategy that enables the development of critical thinking skills. The aim of this article was to evaluate concept maps produced by students to obtain an understanding of research projects. This is an experience report based on the Special Topic: concept map of the [...] Graduate Program in Nursing/Federal University of Paraiba in February/2012. Methodology comprised interactive reading of concept maps, installation and use of Cmap Tools® software and construction of concept maps. Concept evaluation included coherence, propositions, clarity of ideas and logical relation between concepts. This evaluation of maps revealed consistency among concepts, significant relationships, clarity of ideas and logical relationship between the stages of a research project. Results showed that the concept map is a valid strategy to evaluate the learning-teaching process and can be used for education, research and reflection in the nursing practice.

Greicy Kelly Gouveia Dias, Bittencourt; Maria Miriam Lima da, Nóbrega; Ana Cláudia Torres, Medeiros; Luciana Gomes, Furtado.

2013-06-01

275

The Care of Corporal Punishment: Conceptions of Early Childhood Discipline Strategies among Parents and Grandparents in a Poor and Urban Area in Tanzania  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigates conceptions of early childhood discipline strategies discussed in focus groups with parents and grandparents in a poor urban area in Tanzania. A grounded theory analysis suggested a model that included four discipline strategies related to corporal punishment: to beat with care, to treat like an egg, as if beating a snake…

Frankenberg, Sofia Johnson; Holmqvist, Rolf; Rubenson, Birgitta

2010-01-01

276

Intercreativity: Mapping Online Activism  

Science.gov (United States)

How do activists use the Internet? This article maps a wide range of activist practice and research by applying and developing Tim Berners-Lee's concept of ‘intercreativity' (1999). It identifies four dimensions of Net activism: intercreative texts, tactics, strategies and networks. It develops these through examples of manifestations of Net activism around one cluster of issues: support campaigns for refugees and asylum seekers.

Meikle, Graham

277

The Strategy Tool: The Trademark Map of Best 100 Brands in the World  

OpenAIRE

In this research, five steps are brought up to build up the trademark map, including (1) deciding sample range of trademarks, (2) analyzing the first-time information, (3) analyzing the second-time information, (4) building up the trademark map, and (5) analyzing the trademark map. This standard procedure can help enterprises create their trademark maps efficiently. A multi-dimensional scale is used for analyzing and building up the trademark map of the most famous one hundred brands, and 86 ...

Rain Chen; Chapie Liang

2013-01-01

278

Evaluation of diagnostic and therapeutic strategies in reproductive medicine: studies on hysterosalpingography and assisted conception  

OpenAIRE

In this thesis two studies are presented dealing with diagnostic and therapeutic strategies in reproductive medicine. The first subject is to investigate whether hysterosalpingography (HSG) prior to laparoscopy and dye should be maintained as a diagnostic procedure in the routine fertility workup. The results of a randomized controlled trial with or without HSG showed that routine use of HSG at an early stage in the fertility workup prior to laparoscopy and dye does not influence cumulati...

Perquin, Denise Arlette Maria

2007-01-01

279

Work with groups in Family Health: concepts, structure and strategies for transcultural care. A qualitative study  

OpenAIRE

This paper aims to investigate strategies of transcultural care emerging from group work in Family Health programs. It is a qualitative study based on Madeleine Leininger’s theory of the diversity and universality of care. Subjects were health professionals participating in Family Health teams, all of whom were group coordinators for diabetics and hypertensive patients in basic health care units within a sanitary district of Belo Horizonte. Participative observation and open interviews were...

Maria Teresinha de Oliveira Fernandes; Sônia Maria Soares

2007-01-01

280

Exploring the Mobile Structural Assessment Tool: Concept Maps for Learning Website / Exploración de la herramienta de aseguramiento estructural móvil: mapas conceptuales para websites de aprendizaje  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available En este artículo se describe cómo el algoritmo de búsqueda de ruta convierte puntajes de conceptos pareados en mapas conceptuales. También se presenta cómo este algoritmo ha sido utilizado para desarrollar estos mapas conceptuales para aprendizaje (\\url{http://www.conceptmapsforlearning.com}) basado [...] s en los principios del aseguramiento formativo efectivo. Las redes de búsqueda de ruta, una de las herramientas de representación de redes, ayudan a memorizar a los estudiantes y enunciar las relaciones entre mapas más que las herramientas de expresión espacial (tales como el escalonamiento multidimensional). Por tanto, las redes de búsqueda de rutas han sido usadas en varios estudios de estructura del conocimiento incluyendo la identificación de malos conceptos usados por los estudiantes. Para lograr esto, cada mapa de conocimiento tanto del estudiante como del experto son comparados vía el software de búsqueda de ruta y se remarcan las diferencias entre éstos. Después que los malos conceptos son identificados, el software de búsqueda falla en entregar una retroalimentación en estos nodos conceptuales. Para superar esta debilidad, se desarrolla una herramienta de mapa conceptual móvil que manda retroalimentaciones visuales, textuales y remediales (e.g. vídeos, enlaces a páginas web y applets) en las relaciones de los conceptos. Adicionalmente, los estudiantes son preguntados acerca de qué entienden de la retroalimentación brindada y se les da la oportunidad de revisar sus mapas de conocimiento después de recibir varios tipos de retroalimentación. Abstract in english In this paper, we describe how the pathfinder algorithm converts relatedness ratings of concept pairs to concept maps; we also present how this algorithm has been used to develop the Concept Maps for Learning website (\\url{http://www.conceptmapsforlearning.com}) based on the principles of effective [...] formative assessment. The pathfinder networks, one of the network representation tools, claim to help more students memorize and recall the relations between concepts than spatial representation tools (such as Multi-Dimensional Scaling). Therefore, the pathfinder networks have been used in various studies on knowledge structures, including identifying students misconceptions. To accomplish this, each students knowledge map and the expert knowledge map are compared via the pathfinder software, and the differences between these maps are highlighted. After misconceptions are identified, the pathfinder software fails to provide any feedback on these misconceptions. To overcome this weakness, we have been developing a mobile-based concept mapping tool providing visual, textual and remedial feedback (ex. videos, website links and applets) on the concept relations. This information is then placed on the expert concept map, but not on the students concept map. Additionally, students are asked to note what they understand from given feedback, and given the opportunity to revise their knowledge maps after receiving various types of feedback.

MEHMET, FILIZ; DAVID, TRUMPOWER; ARUN, VANAPALLI.

2014-12-15

281

''Energy 2000 - Radioactive waste disposal 2000'': strategy and concept of nuclear waste disposal in Switzerland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The preparatory steps for final disposal have reached a high degree of safety and have been tested industrially. Final storage for low and medium active wastes are in operation in several countries. Testing of locations for final storage of highly active wastes in Switzerland has begun. The application of the storage concept agreed to by the Federal Council however, has run into long delays due to the missing regulatory instruments. The division of competence between the state and the cantons must be cleared up at the political level

282

A comparison of policy and direct practice stakeholder perceptions of factors affecting evidence-based practice implementation using concept mapping  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The goal of this study was to assess potential differences between administrators/policymakers and those involved in direct practice regarding factors believed to be barriers or facilitating factors to evidence-based practice (EBP implementation in a large public mental health service system in the United States. Methods Participants included mental health system county officials, agency directors, program managers, clinical staff, administrative staff, and consumers. As part of concept mapping procedures, brainstorming groups were conducted with each target group to identify specific factors believed to be barriers or facilitating factors to EBP implementation in a large public mental health system. Statements were sorted by similarity and rated by each participant in regard to their perceived importance and changeability. Multidimensional scaling, cluster analysis, descriptive statistics and t-tests were used to analyze the data. Results A total of 105 statements were distilled into 14 clusters using concept-mapping procedures. Perceptions of importance of factors affecting EBP implementation varied between the two groups, with those involved in direct practice assigning significantly higher ratings to the importance of Clinical Perceptions and the impact of EBP implementation on clinical practice. Consistent with previous studies, financial concerns (costs, funding were rated among the most important and least likely to change by both groups. Conclusions EBP implementation is a complex process, and different stakeholders may hold different opinions regarding the relative importance of the impact of EBP implementation. Implementation efforts must include input from stakeholders at multiple levels to bring divergent and convergent perspectives to light.

Green Amy E

2011-09-01

283

Remind Me Who I Am: Social Interaction Strategies for Maintaining the Threatened Self-Concept.  

Science.gov (United States)

After failure, individuals frequently turn to others for support. The current research examined the process through which individuals utilize interpersonal relationships to stabilize threatened self-views. We may seek support to reassure us with warmth and acceptance after a self-threat, or to provide support for threatened self-knowledge. We proposed that although both types of support are likely to repair the affective consequences of a self-threat, only interacting with others who can provide evidence from the individuals' past that reconfirms a threatened self-aspect would help stabilize the self-concept. Two studies demonstrated that, for individuals who have suffered a self-threat, receiving specific evidentiary support for the threatened self-aspect was more effective at restoring confidence in both the specific self-aspect and at recovering self-concept clarity than was receiving emotional support, whether the interaction was imagined (Study 1), or offered in person (Study 2) after the threat. PMID:24914012

Slotter, Erica B; Gardner, Wendi L

2014-06-01

284

Nanocrystals of medium soluble actives--novel concept for improved dermal delivery and production strategy.  

Science.gov (United States)

After use in oral pharmaceutical products, nanocrystals are meanwhile applied to improve the dermal penetration of cosmetic actives (e.g. rutin, hesperidin) and of drugs. By now, nanocrystals are only dermally applied made from poorly soluble actives. The novel concept is to formulate nanocrystals also from medium soluble actives, and to apply a dermal formulation containing additionally nanocrystals. The nanocrystals should act as fast dissolving depot, increase saturation solubility and especially accumulate in the hair follicles, to further increase skin penetration. Caffeine was used as model compound with relevance to market products, and a particular process was developed for the production of caffeine nanocrystals to overcome the supersaturation related effect of crystal growth and fiber formation - typical with medium soluble compounds. It is based on low energy milling (pearl milling) in combination with low dielectric constant dispersion media (water-ethanol or ethanol-propylene glycol mixtures) and optimal stabilizers. Most successful was Carbopol(®) 981 (e.g. 20% caffeine in ethanol-propylene glycol 3:7 with 2% Carbopol, w/w). Nanocrystals with varied sizes can now be produced in a controlled process e.g. 660 nm (optimal for hair follicle accumulation) to 250 nm (optimal for fast dissolution). The short term test proved stability over 2 months of the present formulation being sufficient to perform in vivo testing of the novel concept. PMID:24813782

Zhai, Xuezhen; Lademann, Jürgen; Keck, Cornelia M; Müller, Rainer H

2014-08-15

285

Ecological problems related to uranium mining and uranium processing industry in Ukraine and restoration strategy concept  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ukraine's uranium facilities are located in the central part of the country, in urbanized districts with a high population density and intensively developed industry and agriculture. Nearly 50 years of uranium mining and milling at these facilities have caused radioactive contamination of the environment. This paper is devoted to identification of the main sources of actual and potential releases of radioactive materials to the environment, assessment of the radiological and environment risk as a basis for remedial measures. Choice of the best strategy for site restoration are described in this paper. (author)

286

Aplicação de mapa conceitual para identificação de diagnósticos de enfermagem / Application of concept map for the identification of nursing diagnosis / Aplicación del mapa conceptual para identificación de diagnósticos de enfermería  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Trata-se de relato de experiência cujo objetivo é o de relatar a aplicação do Mapa Conceitual como estratégia para desenvolver habilidades de pensamento crítico, na identificação dos diagnósticos de enfermagem prioritários numa situação clínica. Para tanto, apresenta-se o caso clínico fictício elabo [...] rado e o Mapa Conceitual construído com o auxílio do software Cmaps Tools. Concluiu-se que a utilização do Mapa Conceitual na identificação dos diagnósticos de enfermagem possibilitou o desenvolvimento de habilidades do pensamento crítico, devendo seu uso ser estimulado ao longo da formação acadêmica. Abstract in spanish Trata-se del relato de experiencia cuyo objetivo es relatar la aplicación del Mapa Conceptual, como estrategia para desarrollar habilidades del pensamiento crítico, en la identificación de los diagnósticos de enfermería prioritarios en una situación de clínica. Para tanto, se presenta uno caso clíni [...] co ficticio y el Mapa Conceptual construido con auxilio del software Cmaps Tools. Se concluye que la utilización del Mapa Conceptual en la identificación de los diagnósticos de enfermería posibilita el desarrollo de habilidades del pensamiento crítico, debiendo ser estimulado su uso a lo largo de la formación académica. Abstract in english This is an experience report, aiming at describing the application of the Concept Map as a strategy to develop critical thinking skills in the identification of priority nursing diagnoses in a clinical situation. An elaborated fictitious clinical case and the concept map, created by using the IHMC C [...] mapTools computer program, are presented. It was concluded that the use of Concept Map to identify the nursing diagnoses led to the development of critical thinking skills; therefore, its use should be stimulated during the academic program.

Greicy Kelly Gouveia Dias, Bittencourt; Diego, Schaurich; Maiko, Marini; Maria da Graça Oliveira, Crossetti.

2011-10-01

287

VERITAS: A Mission Concept for the High Resolution Topographic Mapping and Imaging of Venus  

Science.gov (United States)

Magellan, a NASA mission to Venus in the early 1990's, mapped nearly the entire surface of Venus with an S-band (12 cm) synthetic aperture radar and microwave radiometer and made radar altimeter measurements of the topography. These measurements revolutionized our understanding of the geomorphology, geology and geophysical processes that have shaped the evolution of the surface of Venus. The Magellan spacecraft had an elliptical orbit with an apoapsis of approximately 8000 km and a periapsis of 257 km and an orbital inclination of 86°. In this way the radar was able to collect long strips of data approximately 10000 km in length running north to south with altitudes varying from 3000 km to 257 km. During the remainder of the orbit the collected data was down linked to earth. The SAR mode operated in burst mode fashion whereby it transmitted a small string of pulses up to a couple of hundred pulses in length followed by a quiescent period when the radar ceased transmission and allowed interleaved operation of the altimeter and radiometer modes. This mode of operation allowed for a significant reduction in downlinked SAR imaging data at the expense of azimuth (i.e. along-track) resolution. However, the lack of finer resolution imagery and topography of the surface than that obtained by the Magellan mission has hampered the definitive answer to key questions concerning the processes and evolution of the surface of Venus. The Venus Emissivity, Radio Science, InSAR Topography And Spectroscopy (VERITAS) Mission is a proposed mission to Venus designed to obtain high resolution imagery and topography of the surface using an X-band radar configured as a single pass radar interferometer coupled with a multispectral NIR emissivity mapping capability. VERITAS would map surface topography with a spatial resolution of 250 m and 5 m vertical accuracy and generate radar imagery with 30 m spatial resolution. These capabilities represent an order of magnitude or better improvement of the Magellan system and are expected to reveal definitive information on processes not possible with the Magellan data. The combination of surface topography and image data provide unprecedented knowledge of Venus' tectonic and impact history, the timing and mechanisms of volcanic resurfacing, and the mantle processes responsible for them. The combination of instruments on VERITAS, and in particular the InSAR instrument, is designed to address a series of focused hypothesis driven questions left unresolved by the Magellan mission for example: 1) Is there evidence for a past tectonic or cratered surface beneath the plains? and 2) How and when did Venus resurface? This talk will present an overview of the proposed VERITAS mission, the radar instrument design and trade options and the projected performance as well as a brief overview of some of the major science objectives. This research was conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

Hensley, S.; Smrekar, S. E.; Pollard, B.

2012-12-01

288

Water resource management under deep uncertainty: The concept and application of vulnerability maps  

Science.gov (United States)

Assessments of potential impacts of climate change on water resources are generally based on the use of downscaled climate scenarios to force hydrological models and hence estimate the changes in natural water availability in comparison to baseline conditions. This framework, however, suffers from various sources of uncertainty. First, climate models have large uncertainty associated with key climate variables such as precipitation. Second, downscaling approaches are based on several assumptions, which degrade their prediction capability for future conditions. Third, hydrological models are associated with a set of limitations due to lack of process understanding and data support as well as structural and parametric identifiability. As a result, given a particular water resource system and a certain scenario of climate change, different combinations of climate/downscaling/hydrological models may result in very different estimates of future water availability. Moreover, using the 'cascade of models approach', limited insights into the water resource system response to potential hydrological changes in the flow regime are obtained. We argue that there is merit in an alternative approach in which the vulnerability in water resource system response to a feasible range of future inflows is evaluated. We develop a stochastic reconstruction framework that generates a large ensemble of perturbed flow series at the local scale to represent a range of potential flow responses to climate change. This approach is generic and can provide insight into critical thresholds beyond which changes in the natural streamflow regime can initiate stress in the system. It can also provide the basis for assessment of specific realizations of future scenarios, which can be located on a vulnerability map. The methodology is applied to the existing water resource system of the South Saskatchewan river in southern Alberta, Canada, to explore the system's vulnerability to potential changes in the streamflow regime. By the use of a two- parameter representation of regime change (i.e. the shift in the timing of the annual peak as well as the shift in the annual flow volume), system vulnerability is visualized in a 2D vulnerability map. Our study shows that the water resource system in southern Alberta is vulnerable to the expected decrease in annual flow volume, particularly when combined with an earlier annual peak. Under such conditions, adaptation will be required to return the system to a feasible operational mode and sustain the apportionment commitments to the downstream province of Saskatchewan.

Nazemi, A.; Wheater, H. S.

2013-12-01

289

CITY BRAND PERSONALITY – AN INTERNATIONAL CONCEPT WITH REGIONAL APPLIANCE IN THE TOURISM DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The personality of a city is an important concept to be created and evaluated by local administrators as this should be part of the touristic strategic approach. The aim of this paper is to create a research instrument that allows researchers to define the brand personality of a Romanian city. In order to use one instrument in a specific geographical area, the instrument has to be created using a qualitative research. Three focus groups were conducted in order to identify items to create the research instrument which is presented at the end of the paper. This research is a preliminary step for a future quantitative research that is intended to measure the city brand personality of the city of Iasi. The created instrument can be applied to any Romanian city.

Oana Tugulea

2013-12-01

290

Language Management x 3 : A Theory, a Sub-concept, and a Business Strategy Tool  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The term ‘language management’ has become a widely used expression in the sociolinguistic literature. Originally introduced by Jernudd and Neustupný in 1987, as a novel continuation of the language planning tradition stemming from the 1960/70s, language management along these lines has developed into the Language Management Theory (LMT). A second definition of language management, diverting from LMT, can be found in the work of Spolsky, who treats language management as a theoretical component of the wider concept of language policy. Furthermore, over the past 15 years a number of scholars, particularly from the international management discipline, appear to have taken an interest in language as a variable in business and corporate management. It is also common to refer to this research field as language management. This conceptual article offers a theoretically based comparison of the three definitions of language management, before discussing five main focus points, which may be used to highlight their analytical differences.

Sanden, Guro Refsum

2014-01-01

291

Patterns of Persian EFL Learners’ Comprehension of Idiomatic Expressions: Reading Strategies and Cross-Cultural Mappings in focus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper primarily focuses on the description of the results of a study conducted with sixty Iranian adult EFL learners to investigate how the reading strategies and pragmatic elements are likely to govern and characterize the comprehension and interpretation process of English idioms with and without contextualized reading. It also intends to determine the role of cultural mappings and the extent to which Iranian EFL learners' knowledge of cultural idioms is affected by their L1 when they try to construct their own meanings. The researchers came up with some interesting inferences about such idiomatic expressions by the use of descriptive statistics and   analyzing the participants' metacognitive comments in four phases.  Keywords: Idiom, Comprehension, Reading strategies, Context, Culture mapping   

Bahador Sadeghi

2010-07-01

292

Mapping acoustic emissions from hydraulic fracture treatments using coherent array processing: Concept  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydraulic fracturing is a widely-used well completion technique for enhancing the recovery of gas and oil in low-permeability formations. Hydraulic fracturing consists of pumping fluids into a well under high pressure (1000--5000 psi) to wedge-open and extend a fracture into the producing formation. The fracture acts as a conduit for gas and oil to flow back to the well, significantly increasing communication with larger volumes of the producing formation. A considerable amount of research has been conducted on the use of acoustic (microseismic) emission to delineate fracture growth. The use of transient signals to map the location of discrete sites of emission along fractures has been the focus of most research on methods for delineating fractures. These methods depend upon timing the arrival of compressional (P) or shear (S) waves from discrete fracturing events at one or more clamped geophones in the treatment well or in adjacent monitoring wells. Using a propagation model, the arrival times are used to estimate the distance from each sensor to the fracturing event. Coherent processing methods appear to have sufficient resolution in the 75 to 200 Hz band to delineate the extent of fractures induced by hydraulic fracturing. The medium velocity structure must be known with a 10% accuracy or better and no major discontinuities should be undetected. For best results, the receiving array must be positioned directly opposite the perforations (same depths) at a horizontal range of 200 to 400 feet from the region to be imaged. Sources of acoustic emission may be detectable down to a single-sensor SNR of 0.25 or somewhat less. These conclusions are limited by the assumptions of this study: good coupling to the formation, acoustic propagation, and accurate knowledge of the velocity structure.

Harris, D.B.; Sherwood, R.J.; Jarpe, S.P.; Harben, P.E.

1991-09-01

293

Patterns of Persian EFL Learners’ Comprehension of Idiomatic Expressions: Reading Strategies and Cross-Cultural Mappings in focus  

OpenAIRE

This paper primarily focuses on the description of the results of a study conducted with sixty Iranian adult EFL learners to investigate how the reading strategies and pragmatic elements are likely to govern and characterize the comprehension and interpretation process of English idioms with and without contextualized reading. It also intends to determine the role of cultural mappings and the extent to which Iranian EFL learners' knowledge of cultural idioms is affected by their L1 when they ...

Bahador Sadeghi; Hossein Vahid Dastjerdi; Saeed Ketabi

2010-01-01

294

Validation of RCS depressurization strategy and core coolability map for independent scenarios of SBLOCA, SBO, and TLOFW  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Severe accident analysis for Small Break (SB), Middle Break (MB), and Large Break (LB) Loss-Of-Coolant Accident (LOCA), Station Black Out (SBO), Total Loss-Of-Feed-Water (TLOFW) was performed and effectiveness of Reactor Coolant System (RCS) depressurization strategies of OPR1000 was analyzed using MELCOR 1.8.6 code. Required injection flow rate has been derived using Core Exit Temperature (CET) information obtained from MELCOR calculation and a simple model and corresponding coolability map have been suggested to assist effective operator action. The depressurization strategies using secondary Atmospheric Dump Valve (ADV) for SBLOCA, pressurizer Safety Depressurization System (SDS) for SBO and TLOFW were introduced in 5 min since the initiation of Severe Accident Management Guidance (SAMG). Respective mitigation strategy employed leads to significant delay of the reactor pressure vessel failure and RCS pressure at Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) failure was lower than the SAMG target pressure of 2.86 MPa. Thus, possibility of High Pressure Melt Ejection (HPME) and impair of containment building is expected to avoid effectively. Using CET information obtained from MELCOR calculation, a simple model and a coolability map for the required injection flow rate were developed for recovery of core coolability. It is suggested that the coolability map based on MELCOR calculation results may provide decisive and intuitive information to operators for more effective safety management. (author)

295

Establishment of an indicator concept for the German strategy on adaptation to climate change  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Even if we succeed in achieving the EU target of reducing global warming to 2 C, it will be absolutely essential to adapt to changing climatic conditions. The greenhouse gases currently present in the atmosphere will influence the climate in coming decades. The day on which it is quite clear which climatic scenario prevails, so that it is possible to model all relevant processes down to regional level, will be the day on which it is too late to adapt to the actual scenario. Our endeavours to adapt to climate change do not mean, however, that we can neglect to take measures in order to reduce the output of greenhouse gases. It is important to remember that on their own, neither adaptation nor mitigation can prevent the grave impacts resulting from climate change. In fact, they complement each other meaningfully thus helping to alleviate the risks of climate change. On 17th December 2008 the German Federal Cabinet adopted the DAS (German Strategy for the Adaptation to Climate Change), (Bundesregierung 2008). The DAS has created the framework for adapting to the consequences of climate change in Germany. First and fore-most, the DAS contributes its guidelines at Federal level, to provide a guideline for agents at other levels. The Strategy lays the foundation for a medium-term process. In conjunction with the individual Federal States and other groups representing various sectors of society, the Strategy provides a step-by-step assessment of the risks of climate change. Furthermore, it states the potential requirements for action, and defines the appropriate goals and potential adaptation measures to be developed and implemented in this process. In due course, the Federal Environment Agency (UBA) will design a comprehensive set of tools to support and advance the DAS. An integral part of this will be the Special Information System 'Adaptation' (FISKA) and an Indicator System to aid adaptation. The latter is one of the key tasks identified for the DAS. As far as the Indicator System is concerned, it has been decided to prepare a Report on Indicators for the success of adaptation measures and the challenges facing Germany. Proposals regarding indicators for monitoring the success of the adaptation strategy and a proposal for a suitable illustration in the shape of an indicator-based report for adaptation at Federal level are to be presented in spring 2011, in conjunc-tion with the publication of the Action Plan 'Adaptation at Federal Level'. This may be added to the Action Plan either as an enclosure or as a supplementary document. Furthermore it is planned to incorporate the preparation of a Report on Indicators and the underlying Indicator Set as a Measure under the Action Plan. This is to be achieved by 2013. Subsequently, regular reviews of progress made in adapting to the consequences of climate change could be carried out by means of progress reports. The DAS Indicator System and the Adaptation Report will be developed in a multi-stage process on behalf of the BMU. This process will be under the aegis of UBA / KomPass. The Consultation Project entitled 'Indicators for the German Adaptation Strategy' discussed in this document, was initiated in December 2008 and completed in March 2010. It resulted in an initial set of indicators for adaptation at Federal level and a structure for the Report on Indicators. This set of indicators will be consolidated in a R and E project that is scheduled to run (with a time lag) from the beginning of 2010 until the beginning of 2011. One of the objectives of this R and D project is to produce a Report on Indicators. The Consultation Project was initially based on a sectoral and very pragmatic approach thus reflecting the basic structural approach of the DAS. The statements contained in the DAS refer essentially to the Action Fields and to two additional Cross-sectional Fields. The Con-sultation Project dealt with all Action Fields and Cross-sectional Fields. These are: - human health, - building sector, - water regime, water management, coastal and marine pr

Schoenthaler, Konstanze; Andrian-Werburg, Stefan von; Wulfert, Katrin [Bosch und Partner GmbH, Muenchen (Germany); Luthardt, Vera; Kreinsen, Beatrice; Schultz-Sternberg, R.; Hommel, Robert [Hochschule fuer Nachhaltige Entwicklung Eberswalde (Germany)

2010-11-15

296

Work with groups in Family Health: concepts, structure and strategies for transcultural care. A qualitative study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate strategies of transcultural care emerging from group work in Family Health programs. It is a qualitative study based on Madeleine Leininger’s theory of the diversity and universality of care. Subjects were health professionals participating in Family Health teams, all of whom were group coordinators for diabetics and hypertensive patients in basic health care units within a sanitary district of Belo Horizonte. Participative observation and open interviews were used for data collection. Information was collected between June and November 2006, respecting ethical issues. Data interpretation was based on Bardin’s proposal for content analysis. The themes we found were as follows: the group in a transcultural perspective, how the group is structured, work strategies with diabetic and hypertensive groups, the technology of work with groups in a transcultural perspective, and the challenges and advances of group work in Family Health programs. Results indicate that group work is still poorly innovative, with a need to increase multidisciplinarity; current methodologies emphasize a culture of disease and recurrent pedagogic processes such as approaches still focused on the transmission of knowledge. It is worth noting that certain professionals, such as nurses, physical therapists and social workers, practice a differentiated approach centered on the culture of subjects and on the validation of their experiences. The gaze on diabetic and hypertensive patients goes beyond surveillance for medication use, reaching out to those aspects that influence the treatment and control of the disease, within the context in which such patients live. In practice, we were able to recognize and confirm the technical and theoretical difficulties that professionals face when coordinating groups, and to check the belief that resources and logistical support make it possible for groups to become more interesting and effective. Groups were started after these professionals joined the Family Health program, and became a tool to deal with the demands of diabetic and hypertensive patients, becoming an indispensable tool for the daily work of health teams. With its modus operandi the method needs to be recognized, having become a reality in all of the Basic Health Units where, generally speaking, group work is well developed. Group work raises the possibility of transforming teamwork to reach a more horizontal relation between participating agents, meaning that professional power/autonomy needs to be negotiated and subdivided so that knowledge and decisions become shared.

Maria Teresinha de Oliveira Fernandes

2007-10-01

297

Work with groups in Family Health: concepts, structure and strategies for transcultural care. A qualitative study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate strategies of transcultural care emerging from group work in Family Health programs. It is a qualitative study based on Madeleine Leininger’s theory of the diversity and universality of care. Subjects were health professionals participating in Family Health teams, all of whom were group coordinators for diabetics and hypertensive patients in basic health care units within a sanitary district of Belo Horizonte. Participative observation and open interviews were used for data collection. Information was collected between June and November 2006, respecting ethical issues. Data interpretation was based on Bardin’s proposal for content analysis. The themes we found were as follows: the group in a transcultural perspective, how the group is structured, work strategies with diabetic and hypertensive groups, the technology of work with groups in a transcultural perspective, and the challenges and advances of group work in Family Health programs. Results indicate that group work is still poorly innovative, with a need to increase multidisciplinarity; current methodologies emphasize a culture of disease and recurrent pedagogic processes such as approaches still focused on the transmission of knowledge. It is worth noting that certain professionals, such as nurses, physical therapists and social workers, practice a differentiated approach centered on the culture of subjects and on the validation of their experiences. The gaze on diabetic and hypertensive patients goes beyond surveillance for medication use, reaching out to those aspects that influence the treatment and control of the disease, within the context in which such patients live. In practice, we were able to recognize and confirm the technical and theoretical difficulties that professionals face when coordinating groups, and to check the belief that resources and logistical support make it possible for groups to become more interesting and effective. Groups were started after these professionals joined the Family Health program, and became a tool to deal with the demands of diabetic and hypertensive patients, becoming an indispensable tool for the daily work of health teams. With its modus operandi the method needs to be recognized, having become a reality in all of the Basic Health Units where, generally speaking, group work is well developed. Group work raises the possibility of transforming teamwork to reach a more horizontal relation between participating agents, meaning that professional power/autonomy needs to be negotiated and subdivided so that knowledge and decisions become shared.

Maria Teresinha de Oliveira Fernandes

2007-12-01

298

Enhancement of the remote handling strategy for the refurbishment of the backplate bayonet concept of IFMIF target system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One of the most technically challenging activities of the IFMIF facility is the maintenance and the refurbishment of its components, and among these the target system appears to be critical since it is located in the most severe region of neutron irradiation (60 dpa/fpy). Two different target assembly systems have been developed: the first is known as integral target while the second one is based on the so called replaceable backplate bayonet concept. The present remote handling (RH) procedures developed for the refurbishment of the removable backplate foresee the removal of all the components from the upper part of the test cell. This operation has a strong impact on the intervention time for the backplate refurbishment which has to be repeated at least every year. Consequently the need to update the RH strategy for the refurbishment of this component becomes a precondition in order to fulfill the stringent requirement to enhance the duty cycle of IFMIF plant. In this paper two potential approaches are presented: the first relies on the possibility to perform all the refurbishment operations in situ in the test cell cavern, whilst the second one foresees to perform these operations off-line in a hot cell. Advantages and disadvantages of these approaches together with the RH requirements for the refurbishment operations of the backplate bayonet concepts are also reported.

Micciche, G., E-mail: gioacchino.micciche@enea.it [CR ENEA Brasimone, I-40035 Camugnano, BO (Italy); Lorenzelli, L.; Bernardi, D. [CR ENEA Brasimone, I-40035 Camugnano, BO (Italy); Queral, V. [EURATOM-CIEMAT, Avda. Computense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

2011-10-15

299

Concepts and Strategies for Transparency Monitoring of Nuclear Materials at the Back End of the Fuel/Weapons Cycle  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Representatives of the Department of Energy, the national laboratories, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), and others gathered to initiate the development of broad-based concepts and strategies for transparency monitoring of nuclear materials at the back end of the fuel/weapons cycle, including both geologic disposal and monitored retrievable storage. The workshop focused on two key questions: ''Why should we monitor?'' and ''What should we monitor?'' These questions were addressed by identifying the range of potential stakeholders, concerns that stakeholders may have, and the information needed to address those concerns. The group constructed a strategic framework for repository transparency implementation, organized around the issues of safety (both operational and environmental), diversion (assuring legitimate use and security), and viability (both political and economic). Potential concerns of the international community were recognized as the possibility of material diversion, the multinational impacts of potential radionuclide releases, and public and political perceptions of unsafe repositories. The workshop participants also identified potential roles that the WIPP may play as a monitoring technology development and demonstration test-bed facility. Concepts for WIPP'S potential test-bed role include serving as (1) an international monitoring technology and development testing facility, (2) an international demonstration facility, and (3) an education and technology exchange center on repository transparency technologies

300

Discontinuous PWM Modulation Strategy with Circuit-Level Decoupling Concept of Three-Level Neutral-Point Clamped (NPC) Inverter  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A new pulse width modulation (PWM) strategy which is an alternative approach of discontinuous PWM (DPWM) for a three-level neutral point clamped (NPC) inverter is developed and presented in this paper. The proposed PWM scheme not only takes advantage of the special properties available in NPC inverters, but also reduces the switching loss of the inverter along with an inherent neutral point (NP) voltage control. Based on a circuit-level decoupling concept, the NPC inverter can be decoupled into two three-level Buck converters in every defined operating section, and thereby the controller design can be simplified. The salient features of the proposed scheme, as compared with the existing carrier-based DPWM strategies, are: 1) its reduced computational processing time, 2) its capability to balance the DC-link voltage without any additional control and 3) its reduced complexity e.g. only one carrier wave needed for pulse width modulating. Same as a space vector modulation, the maximum modulation index, 1.1547, can be attainable by the proposed scheme. Moreover, compared to conventional continuous sinusoidal pulse width modulation, using this technique here the switching losses of the devices can be reduced by one third. In order to explain the operation of this topology properly, the decoupling principle including the driving signal synthesis and the NP potential variation are analyzed in detail in this paper. Finally the viability and performance of the proposed modulation scheme are shown through simulation and experimental results in a laboratory prototype.

Zhang, Zhe; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius

2013-01-01

301

The Learning Effectiveness of the Concept Map Approach of e-Learning Applied to a Math Class of Special Educational Students in a Vocational School  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to improve the learning math capability among learning with disabilities in a special education class at a vocational school, the researchers tried to understand the learning predicament of special education students and tried to apply the Concept Map approach of e-learning to a math class. Also the researchers sought to explore the predicament of action process, solution methods, professional growth and the consequences. The research adopted the execution and observation of action research, interviews of 8 research participants and collected qualitative and quantitative data, evaluated the effect of action research and revised the action research. The results of the findings of this study were first, providing assistance to students by applying the Concept Map approach of teaching material; second, effective learning and positive feedback due to the Concept Map approach of e-learning; third, the use of blended (mixed e-learning improves apprehension; and, finally, the Concept Map approach of e-learning can be employed on after-class review and remedial work. Based on these findings, the researchers provided concrete suggestions for teaching practices in the future.

Wan-Ju Chen

2014-10-01

302

What Is a Doctorate? A Concept-Mapped Analysis of Process versus Product in the Supervision of Lab-Based PhDs  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Concept-mapping and interview techniques are used to track knowledge and understanding over the duration of PhD study amongst four students and their supervisors in the course of full-time research towards their PhDs. This work is in contrast to much PhD supervision research and policy research that focuses on supervisory styles and…

Kandiko, Camille B.; Kinchin, Ian M.

2012-01-01

303

Effect of Instructor-Provided Concept Maps and Self-Directed Learning Ability on Students' Online Hypermedia Learning Performance  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this experimental study was to explore the instructional effectiveness of integrating varied instructor-provided concept maps into an online hypertext learning environment, and the effect of learners' self-directed learning abilities on their learning performance. The research adopted a randomized posttest with…

Chou, Pao-Nan

2013-01-01

304

Evolutionary pressure on reproductive strategies in flatfish and groundfish: Relevant concepts and methodological advancements  

Science.gov (United States)

Flatfish and groundfish show many similarities in reproductive strategies and tactics, both in types present and in responses to fishing pressure or changes in their environment. Over the last 20-30 years the reproduction of Atlantic cod Gadus morhua, Atlantic halibut Hippoglossus hippoglossus, plaice Pleuronectes platessa, sole Solea solea, and turbot Scophthalmus maximus have been extensively studied in the North Atlantic. For cod, halibut and turbot, the research has progressed rapidly due to interest from the aquaculture industry. Extensive overexploitation over many years in combination with climate change represents a potential evolutionary pressure towards changes in growth, lower age at maturity, increased fecundity, smaller egg size (and thereby larval size) and change in spawning time. Early sexual maturity/precocious maturation is also seen in aquaculture and is problematic economically due to a reduction in fillet production. In this paper information is reviewed from studies on both wild and captive populations in experiments, the latter considered important because overexploitation, such as observed in the North Sea, often reduces the natural dynamics in growth and reproduction and complicates collection of sufficiently large samples. Evidence from laboratory experiments demonstrates the inherent plasticity of fecundity production and how this is controlled by food availability and length of photoperiod, while recent information from field studies demonstrates the evolution of genotypes in response to fishing mortality. Today several laboratories have adopted modern techniques for analysis of reproductive investments (fecundity, atresia and sperm characterisation) in controlled experimental situations to explore the effect of temperature or other environmental parameters (such as salinity) on reproduction. These developments, in combination with the rapid implementation of molecular techniques, should make it possible in the future to present highly precise information on reproductive potential, both at the individual and stock level. Of particular interest, and a major goal, would be to dissociate genetic and phenotypic control of reproductive traits arising from a better understanding of gene expression in captive populations.

Kjesbu, O. S.; Witthames, P. R.

2007-07-01

305

Breaking the Ice: Strategies for Future European Research in the Polar Oceans - The AURORA BOREALIS Concept  

Science.gov (United States)

Research vessels dedicated to work in polar ice-covered waters have only rarely been built. Their history began with Fritjof Nansen's FRAM, which he used for his famous first crossing of the Arctic Ocean 1893-1896. She served as example for the first generation of polar research vessels, at their time being modern instruments planned with foresight. Ice breaker technology has developed substantially since then. However, it took almost 80 years until this technical advance also reached polar research, when the Russian AKADEMIK FEDEROV, the German POLARSTERN, the Swedish ODEN and the USCG Cutter HEALY were built. All of these house modern laboratories, are ice-breakers capable to move into the deep-Arctic during the summer time and represent the second generation of dedicated polar research vessels. Still, the increasing demand in polar marine research capacities by societies that call for action to better understand climate change, especially in the high latitudes is not matched by adequate facilities and resources. Today, no icebreaker platform exists that is permanently available to the international science community for year-round expeditions into the central Arctic Ocean or heavily ice-infested waters of the polar Southern Ocean around Antarctica. The AURORA BOREALIS concept plans for a heavy research icebreaker, which will enable polar scientists around the world to launch international research expeditions into the central Arctic Ocean and the Antarctic continental shelf seas autonomously during all seasons of the year. The European Research Icebreaker Consortium - AURORA BOREALIS (ERICON-AB) was established in 2008 to plan the scientific, governance, financial, and legal frameworks needed for the construction and operation of this first multi-nationally owned and operated research icebreaker and polar scientific drilling platform. By collaborating together and sharing common infrastructures it is envisioned that European nations make a major contribution to tackle problems of high societal relevance beyond the scope of individual disciplines. It is planned to use part of the berthing capacity of AURORA BOREALIS for dedicated university education and teaching programmes in order to give future polar scientists the best training facilities available and enable a vital international exchange between educational centres. This aims at helping to vertically structure the new generation of young and well-trained students and playing a key role in the construction of an efficient research and innovation environment for future collaboration in polar research

Lembke-Jene, L.; Biebow, N.; Wolff-Boenisch, B.; Thiede, J.; European Research Icebreaker Consortium

2011-12-01

306

Digital soil mapping: strategy for data pre-processing Mapa digital de solos: estratégias para processamento de dados  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The region of greatest variability on soil maps is along the edge of their polygons, causing disagreement among pedologists about the appropriate description of soil classes at these locations. The objective of this work was to propose a strategy for data pre-processing applied to digital soil mapping (DSM. Soil polygons on a training map were shrunk by 100 and 160 m. This strategy prevented the use of covariates located near the edge of the soil classes for the Decision Tree (DT models. Three DT models derived from eight predictive covariates, related to relief and organism factors sampled on the original polygons of a soil map and on polygons shrunk by 100 and 160 m were used to predict soil classes. The DT model derived from observations 160 m away from the edge of the polygons on the original map is less complex and has a better predictive performance.Mapas de solos têm na borda dos polígonos a região de maior variabilidade, o que leva os pedólogos a divergir quanto ao delineamento das classes de solos nesses locais. O objetivo deste estudo foi propor uma estratégia de pré-processamento de dados aplicada ao mapeamento digital de solos. Polígonos de solos em um mapa de treinamento foram deslocados para seu interior em 100 e 160 m. Essa estratégia possibilitou que covariáveis localizadas próximas à borda das classes de solos não fossem utilizadas na geração dos modelos de Árvore de Decisão (AD. Três ADs geradas a partir de oito covariáveis preditoras, ligadas aos fatores relevo e organismos, amostradas nos polígonos originais de um mapa de solos e em polígonos deslocados em 100 e 160 m para o seu interior, foram utilizadas para predizer classes de solos. O modelo de AD a partir de observações distantes 160 m da borda dos polígonos no mapa original é menos complexo e tem melhor desempenho preditivo.

Alexandre ten Caten

2012-08-01

307

Effective learning stratgies to support children's construction of science concepts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article provides ways of eliciting children's previous understanding of science: drawing of conept maps, annotated drawings and concept cartoons. Besides, there are suggestions of effective learning strategies to support children in learning science concepts which include: simulations, comic cartoons, toys, analogies and games.

Wing Mui Winnie SO

2002-12-01

308

Use of a group concept mapping approach to define learning outcomes for an interdisciplinary module in medicine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Learning outcomes are typically developed using standard group-based consensus methods. Two main constraints with standard techniques such as the Delphi method or expert working group processes are: (1) the ability to generate a comprehensive set of outcomes and (2) the capacity to reach agreement on them. We describe the first application of Group Concept Mapping (GCM) to the development of learning outcomes for an interdisciplinary module in medicine and engineering. The biomedical design module facilitates undergraduate participation in clinician-mentored team-based projects that prepare students for a multidisciplinary work environment. GCM attempts to mitigate the weaknesses of other consensus methods by excluding pre-determined classification schemes and inter-coder discussion, and by requiring just one round of data structuring. Academic members from medicine and engineering schools at three EU higher education institutions participated in this study. Data analysis, which included multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analysis, identified two main categories of outcomes: technical skills (new advancement in design process with special attention to users, commercialization and standardization) and transversal skills such as working effectively in teams and creative problem solving. The study emphasizes the need to address the highest order of learning taxonomy (analysis, synthesis, problem solving, creativity) when defining learning outcomes. PMID:24323801

Stoyanov, Slavi; Spoelstra, Howard; Bennett, Deirdre; Sweeney, Catherine; Van Huffel, Sabine; Shorten, George; O'Flynn, Siun; Cantillon-Murphy, Padraig; O'Tuathaigh, Colm; Burgoyne, Louise

2014-06-01

309

Mapping the inhomogeneity of the U and Th distributions using sample size concept in the field conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Indigenously fabricated portable gamma-ray spectrometer (PGRS) is used for the measurement of gamma activity of 214Bi (1.76 MeV) and 208Tl (2.62 MeV), under field conditions in Mohar area, Shivpuri Distt. (MP). The energies are discriminated by using a NaI (Tl) crystal of size 1.75 inch x 2 inch. PGRS used to map the primordial elemental distributions shows reversals of concentration of thorium and uranium (represented by radium group) in field and lab analysis in many samples, which is attributed to the inhomogeneity of distribution of these elements in the area. The concept of difference in the volume of dish shaped field sample and the randomly picked up sample from the field grid point (400 gm in lab analysis) is utilized to interpret the inhomogeneity of these elements. However interpretations are based on the assumption that these primordial elements (U, Th) are in secular equilibrium and the terrain has low topographic relief. (author)

310

El concepto de estrategia como fundamento de la planeación estratégica / The concept of strategy as a basis for strategic planning  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Resumen El concepto de estrategia ha tenido a través del tiempo muchos usos y aplicaciones diversas, desde el campo militar -en el cual se dice que tuvo su origen-, pasando por el político, administrativo, económico, religioso, cultural y social; en cada uno de ellos se ubica como un referente por l [...] a forma en que ha sido utilizado. La estrategia se constituye en un aspecto muy importante en las decisiones que deben tomar las personas que tienen a cargo la gestión de una organización, en la que hay recursos de todo tipo que deben ser utilizados en forma óptima para cumplir con las políticas y metas trazadas. Asimismo, la estrategia es una apuesta en un mundo globalizado en el que las empresas luchan por lograr mantenerse en el mercado utilizando todas las herramientas que poseen, estableciendo políticas flexibles y agresivas de gestión que les permitan posicionarse y tener continuidad en el futuro. Abstract in english Abstract The concept of strategy has had over time, many uses and diverse applications from the military field, where it says have originated, passing through the political, administrative, economic, religious, cultural and social fields, in each of them has located in such a way, that constitutes a [...] referent by the way that has been used. It is a very important aspect for the decisions to be taken by those who are responsible for the management of an organization, where there are all kinds of resources, that should be used optimally in order to comply with the policies and goals drawn. The strategy is a bet in a globalized world, where companies are fighting to stay in the market using all the tools they possess, establishing flexible and aggressive policies management that allow positioning and have continuity in the future.

Emigdio Rafael, Contreras Sierra.

2013-12-01

311

An Improved Reversible Data Hiding Method Using Alternative Location Map Embedment Strategy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study proposed an improved data embedding scheme based on the Local Variance Controlled Reversible data hiding method (LVCR proposed by Hong and Chen in 2010. In LVCR, the location map has to be recorded in the LSBs of a set of cover pixels and the original LSBs of these cover pixels have to be embedded into the other set of cover pixels. As a result, the pure payload of the cover image may significantly be decreased when the location map is large. The proposed method adopts an alternative method to embed location map together with the secret data directly into the pre-processed cover pixels. Therefore, the number of cover pixels for carrying data bits is increased. The location map can be directly extracted from the stego image. Experimental results reveal that the proposed method offers better or equivalent stego image quality than that of LVCR under the same payload.

Wien Hong

2012-01-01

312

KLONER; a computer program to simulate recombinant DNA strategies by restriction map manipulation.  

OpenAIRE

A computer program is described which allows for the manipulation of restriction maps of various DNA fragments to demonstrate techniques used in DNA cloning and to predict and/or confirm experimental results. This program is capable of reading in restriction enzyme cleavage sites for several different DNA molecules of interest. This information is then compiled in order to form restriction maps which can then be processed by digestion with restriction endonucleases and treatment with other co...

Caron, P. R.

1984-01-01

313

Maintenance strategies and safety on a deregulated market. Mapping of changes in maintenance strategies and their possible consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The overall purpose of the project was to make a survey of the changes in the Swedish nuclear power plants over the last five years. There is a risk that nuclear power companies after a deregulation will focus especially on reducing operation and maintenance costs and that the changes could have a negative effect on the reactor safety. The task has involved summarising the actual changes, describing the present situation, the need for future development and the differences between the plants as well as identifying possible reactor safety related risks. The survey has been carried out in a broad perspective, studying the changes in equipment, maintenance strategies and the work situation of the staff. Three case studies were carried out at the Swedish nuclear power plants. Documentation from the companies has been analysed and a selection of in total 27 'informed' employees in different positions have been interviewed in total. The project also included a fourth case study concerning railway traffic. This branch of business is interesting because of its longer experience on a deregulated and competitive market. Conclusions concerning the companies individually as well as similarities and differences between them are presented in this report. Results: There have been more changes both in strategy and organisation in the last five years than during the preceding 5-10-year-period and the pace has been relatively rapid. The deregulation of the electricity market was implemented January 1997 and became the main motive force for the changes. The staffing has been reduced or unchanged and the work demands have increased. The maintenance skills have been redistributed within the organisation. New methods and equipment, i.e. RCM, and programmable systems make increased demands for analytical and theoretical competence. In the short term, job satisfaction and motivation have in some cases been negatively influenced by the new organisation forms, according to several of the interviewed. The results indicate, in accordance with other research results, that rationalisations and changes must be combined with work development and the participation of the employees to be successful. Outsourcing has been used for some activities. All the companies have established a joint maintenance department for their units. The companies have been moving towards lean organization which has increased the work load of the staff. Therefore more planning is required to get a optimal resource allocation, to avoid problems at work peaks. All the plants have abandoned a downright customer-supplier relation for the benefit of one competent maintenance supplier with a comprehensive view. As a result the contractual undertaking of the maintenance department towards the production units is made on a long term basis. The new maintenance strategy is based on status controls for condition based maintenance and on riskbased analysing methods. There are modern computer-based maintenance systems at all the plants. Computer-based instruments are used direct in the production line where they require a competence shift in the staff. Positive effects that appeared in the interviews are better possibilities for experience feed back and methods development, access to a wider and larger competence and a joint working method. The results show that there are already some positive effects and there are more to be expected. But it is also clear that these effects have neither come as easily nor as fast as was expected. Possible negative effects: there is a risk that the staffing might be too scarce, especially in work peaks, e.g. unexpected shutdowns. A high work load and much overtime work mean greater strain on the staff. Problems with job satisfaction and motivation, chiefly after the change to a matrix organisation. Uncertainties as to responsibility and roles in the new organisation. The practical competence might 'disappear' in the present competence shift focusing on analytical, computer based methods. The difficulties of risk based methods are several: they might not cor

314

Digital soil mapping: strategy for data pre-processing / Mapa digital de solos: estratégias para processamento de dados  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Mapas de solos têm na borda dos polígonos a região de maior variabilidade, o que leva os pedólogos a divergir quanto ao delineamento das classes de solos nesses locais. O objetivo deste estudo foi propor uma estratégia de pré-processamento de dados aplicada ao mapeamento digital de solos. Polígonos [...] de solos em um mapa de treinamento foram deslocados para seu interior em 100 e 160 m. Essa estratégia possibilitou que covariáveis localizadas próximas à borda das classes de solos não fossem utilizadas na geração dos modelos de Árvore de Decisão (AD). Três ADs geradas a partir de oito covariáveis preditoras, ligadas aos fatores relevo e organismos, amostradas nos polígonos originais de um mapa de solos e em polígonos deslocados em 100 e 160 m para o seu interior, foram utilizadas para predizer classes de solos. O modelo de AD a partir de observações distantes 160 m da borda dos polígonos no mapa original é menos complexo e tem melhor desempenho preditivo. Abstract in english The region of greatest variability on soil maps is along the edge of their polygons, causing disagreement among pedologists about the appropriate description of soil classes at these locations. The objective of this work was to propose a strategy for data pre-processing applied to digital soil mappi [...] ng (DSM). Soil polygons on a training map were shrunk by 100 and 160 m. This strategy prevented the use of covariates located near the edge of the soil classes for the Decision Tree (DT) models. Three DT models derived from eight predictive covariates, related to relief and organism factors sampled on the original polygons of a soil map and on polygons shrunk by 100 and 160 m were used to predict soil classes. The DT model derived from observations 160 m away from the edge of the polygons on the original map is less complex and has a better predictive performance.

Alexandre ten, Caten; Ricardo Simão Diniz, Dalmolin; Luis Fernando Chimelo, Ruiz.

1083-10-01

315

Strategies for mapping synaptic inputs on dendrites in vivo by combining two-photon microscopy, sharp intracellular recording and pharmacology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Uncovering the functional properties of individual synaptic inputs on single neurons is critical for understanding the computational role of synapses and dendrites. Previous studies combined whole-cell patch recording to load neurons with a fluorescent calcium indicator and two-photon imaging to map subcellular changes in fluorescence upon sensory stimulation. By hyperpolarizing the neuron below spike threshold, the patch electrode ensured that changes in fluorescence associated with synaptic events were isolated from those caused by back-propagating action potentials. This technique holds promise for determining whether the existence of unique cortical feature maps across different species may be associated with distinct wiring diagrams. However, the use of whole-cell patch for mapping inputs on dendrites is challenging in large mammals, due to brain pulsations and the accumulation of fluorescent dye in the extracellular milieu. Alternatively, sharp intracellular electrodes have been used to label neurons with fluorescent dyes, but the current passing capabilities of these high impedance electrodes may be insufficient to prevent spiking. In this study, we tested whether sharp electrode recording is suitable for mapping functional inputs on dendrites in the cat visual cortex. We compared three different strategies for suppressing visually evoked spikes: (1 hyperpolarization by intracellular current injection, (2 pharmacological blockade of voltage-gated sodium channels by intracellular QX-314, and (3 GABA iontophoresis from a perisomatic electrode glued to the intracellular electrode. We found that functional inputs on dendrites could be successfully imaged using all three strategies. However, the best method for preventing spikes was GABA iontophoresis with low currents (5 to 10 nA, which minimally affected the local circuit. Our methods advance the possibility of determining functional connectivity in preparations where whole-cell patch may be impractical.

PrakashKara

2012-12-01

316

Combating Global Warming Mind Map  

Science.gov (United States)

An attractive concept/mind map that illustrates various human strategies for responding to climate change. It was developed by a psychologist and not by an educator or scientist but can be used to inspire discussion and artistic representations of the human dimension to climate and energy issues.

Media Learning Fundamentals

317

Mapping the categories of the Swedish primary health care version of ICD-10 to SNOMED CT concepts: Rule development and intercoder reliability in a mapping trial  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Terminologies and classifications are used for different purposes and have different structures and content. Linking or mapping terminologies and classifications has been pointed out as a possible way to achieve various aims as well as to attain additional advantages in describing and documenting health care data. The objectives of this study were: • to explore and develop rules to be used in a mapping process • to evaluate intercoder reliability and the assessed degree of concordance when the 'Swedish primary health care version of the International Classification of Diseases version 10' (ICD-10 is matched to the Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine, Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT • to describe characteristics in the coding systems that are related to obstacles to high quality mapping. Methods Mapping (interpretation, matching, assessment and rule development was done by two coders. The Swedish primary health care version of ICD-10 with 972 codes was randomly divided into an allotment of three sets of categories, used in three mapping sequences, A, B and C. Mapping was done independently by the coders and new rules were developed between the sequences. Intercoder reliability was measured by comparing the results after each set. The extent of matching was assessed as either 'partly' or 'completely concordant' Results General principles for mapping were outlined before the first sequence, A. New mapping rules had significant impact on the results between sequences A - B (p Conclusion Mapping from ICD-10-categories to SNOMED CT needs clear and extensive rules. It is possible to reach high intercoder reliability in mapping from ICD-10-categories to SNOMED CT. However, several obstacles to high quality mapping remain due to structure and content characteristics in both coding systems.

Nilsson Gunnar H

2007-05-01

318

The Influence of Teaching Note-Taking and Information Mapping on Learning and Recalling in Science  

Science.gov (United States)

This work describes an experimental research on note taking and concept mapping in a science class of 5 graders in Kayseri (Central Anatolia, Turkey) in the academic year 2002 - 2003. Gained results are in favor of convictions that view note taking as an effective learning strategy. At least it was more effective than concept mapping in the…

Arslan, Mehmet

2006-01-01

319

An Improved Reversible Data Hiding Method Using Alternative Location Map Embedment Strategy  

OpenAIRE

This study proposed an improved data embedding scheme based on the Local Variance Controlled Reversible data hiding method (LVCR) proposed by Hong and Chen in 2010. In LVCR, the location map has to be recorded in the LSBs of a set of cover pixels and the original LSBs of these cover pixels have to be embedded into the other set of cover pixels. As a result, the pure payload of the cover image may significantly be decreased when the location map is large. The proposed method adopts an alternat...

Wien Hong; Yan-Wei Li

2012-01-01

320

The Effect of Task-based Teaching via Drawing the Concept Map of Metabolic Pathways as Homework on the Academic Achievement of Pharmaceutical Students in Biochemistry Course  

OpenAIRE

Task-based learning is a teaching method that focuses on meaningful learning through completely student-centered homework assignment. The present study investigated the effects of task-based teaching through drawing the concept map as homework on the academic achievement and easier and more effective learning of metabolic pathways of biochemistry course in pharmaceutical students. Having examined the homework assignments done by the experimental group and having given the exam, the scores of ...

Gholamabbas Dinarvand; Asad Vaisi-Raygani

2013-01-01

321

The Learning Effectiveness of the Concept Map Approach of e-Learning Applied to a Math Class of Special Educational Students in a Vocational School  

OpenAIRE

In order to improve the learning math capability among learning with disabilities in a special education class at a vocational school, the researchers tried to understand the learning predicament of special education students and tried to apply the Concept Map approach of e-learning to a math class. Also the researchers sought to explore the predicament of action process, solution methods, professional growth and the consequences. The research adopted the execution and observation of action r...

Wan-Ju Chen; Hong-Min Lin; Shu-Fen Nien

2014-01-01

322

Scanning strategy for mapping the Cosmic Microwave Background anisotropies with Planck  

CERN Document Server

We present simulations of different scanning strategies for the Planck satellite. We review the properties of slow- and fast-precession strategies in terms of uniformity of the integration time on the sky, the presence of low-redundancy areas, the presence of deep fields, the presence of sharp gradients in the integration time, and the redundancy of the scanning directions. We also compare the results obtained when co-adding all detectors of a given frequency channel. The slow-precession strategies allow a good uniformity of the coverage, while providing two deep fields. On the other hand, they do not allow a wide spread of the scan-crossing directions, which is a feature of the fast-precession strategies. However, the latter suffer from many sharp gradients and low-coverage areas on the sky. On the basis of these results, the strategy for Planck can be selected to be a slow (e.g. 4 month-period) sinusoidal or cycloidal scanning.

Tauber, X D J

2004-01-01

323

Mapeamneto conceitual como estratégia para romper fronteiras disciplinares: a isomeria nos sistemas biológicos / Concept mapping as a tool to break disciplinary boundaries: isomerism in biological systems  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available O mapeamento conceitual foi utilizado como uma ferramenta para verificar as mudanças conceituais de estudantes de Ensino Médio após a realização de atividades didáticas desenvolvidas durante as aulas de Química. O objetivo pedagógico a ser atingido foi romper as fronteiras que segregam o conheciment [...] o científico em disciplinas isoladas. Os estudantes foram intencionalmente provocados a relacionar conceitos de Química e de Biologia, a fim de compreender melhor e explicar as conseqüências biológicas da isomeria. Os mapas conceituais elaborados pelos estudantes, antes e após as atividades propostas, evidenciaram o aparecimento de relações entre conceitos químicos e biológicos, que foram avaliadas qualitativamente. Este trabalho mostra que os mapas conceituais podem ser utilizados como ferramentas para auxiliar o professor na realização de práticas didáticas interdisciplinares na escola, bem como para acompanhar o progresso dos estudantes em direção à interdisciplinaridade. Abstract in english Concept mapping was used as a tool for checking the conceptual changes caused by didactic activities implemented during chemistry classes in high school. Its pedagogical aim was to break down the boundaries, which segregate scientific knowledge into isolated disciplines. The students were intentiona [...] lly provoked to merge concepts from chemistry and biology, in order to better understand and explain the biological consequences of isomerism. The concept maps produced by the students before and after the activities confirmed the appearance of relationships among chemical and biological concepts, which were qualitatively evaluated. This work shows that concept maps can be used to follow the students' progress towards interdisciplinarity, and to help the teacher to devise future classroom activities to reinforce and to expand interdisciplinary relationships.

Paulo Rogério Miranda, Correia; John W. A., Donner Jr.; Maria Elena, Infante-Malachias.

324

Mapeamneto conceitual como estratégia para romper fronteiras disciplinares: a isomeria nos sistemas biológicos Concept mapping as a tool to break disciplinary boundaries: isomerism in biological systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O mapeamento conceitual foi utilizado como uma ferramenta para verificar as mudanças conceituais de estudantes de Ensino Médio após a realização de atividades didáticas desenvolvidas durante as aulas de Química. O objetivo pedagógico a ser atingido foi romper as fronteiras que segregam o conhecimento científico em disciplinas isoladas. Os estudantes foram intencionalmente provocados a relacionar conceitos de Química e de Biologia, a fim de compreender melhor e explicar as conseqüências biológicas da isomeria. Os mapas conceituais elaborados pelos estudantes, antes e após as atividades propostas, evidenciaram o aparecimento de relações entre conceitos químicos e biológicos, que foram avaliadas qualitativamente. Este trabalho mostra que os mapas conceituais podem ser utilizados como ferramentas para auxiliar o professor na realização de práticas didáticas interdisciplinares na escola, bem como para acompanhar o progresso dos estudantes em direção à interdisciplinaridade.Concept mapping was used as a tool for checking the conceptual changes caused by didactic activities implemented during chemistry classes in high school. Its pedagogical aim was to break down the boundaries, which segregate scientific knowledge into isolated disciplines. The students were intentionally provoked to merge concepts from chemistry and biology, in order to better understand and explain the biological consequences of isomerism. The concept maps produced by the students before and after the activities confirmed the appearance of relationships among chemical and biological concepts, which were qualitatively evaluated. This work shows that concept maps can be used to follow the students' progress towards interdisciplinarity, and to help the teacher to devise future classroom activities to reinforce and to expand interdisciplinary relationships.

Paulo Rogério Miranda Correia

2008-01-01

325

A Modern Twist on the Beaumont and St. Martin Case: Encouraging Analysis and Discussion in the Bioethics Classroom with Reflective Writing and Concept Mapping  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Historical ethical dilemmas are a valuable tool in bioethics courses. However, garnering student interest in reading and discussing the assigned cases in the classroom can be challenging. In an effort to actively engage undergraduate and graduate students in an Ethical Issues in Biotechnology course, an activity was developed to encourage reflection on a classical ethical dilemma between a patient, St. Martin, and his employer/caretaker, Beaumont. Two different texts were used to analyze the ethical ramifications of this relationship: a chapter in a popular press book and a short perspective in a medical journal. Participants read the book chapter for homework and discussed it in class. This easy read highlights the fundamental ethical issues in the relationship between two men. Students were then provided with a second text focusing on the scientific accomplishments achieved through Beaumont's experimentation on St. Martin. A structured worksheet prompted participants to reflect on their feelings after reading each text and create a concept map depicting the dilemma. Student-generated concept maps and written reflections indicate participants were able to list the ethical issues, analyze the situation, and evaluate the information provided. This activity not only encouraged higher-level thinking and reflection, it also mirrored the course's structured approach of using concept mapping and reflection to dissect ethical dilemmas.

Carlos C. Goller

2014-09-01

326

The quality of radiation care: The results of focus group interviews and concept mapping to explore the patient’s perspective  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background and purpose: In this study, we explore the quality aspects of radiation care from the patient’s perspective in order to develop a draft Consumer Quality Index (CQI) Radiation Care instrument. Materials and methods: Four focus group discussions with (former) cancer patients were held to explore the aspects determining the quality of radiation care. The list of aspects generated was categorised based on similarity and importance in a concept mapping procedure. Results: Four focus group discussions revealed seven main themes related to the quality of radiation care: information provision, a patient-centred approach, professional competence, planning and waiting times, accessibility, cooperation and communication, and follow-up care. Results of concept mapping procedures revealed which items the patients considered to be most important. A radiation oncologist who is up to date about the patient’s file is of paramount importance for cancer patients receiving radiotherapy. Conclusions: The quality aspects found through focus group discussions provided useful insight into how patients experience radiation care. Furthermore, concept mapping made these results more solid. To evaluate the quality of radiation care from the patient’s perspective, these quality aspects will be guiding in the development of a CQI Radiation Care.

327

Substantial prevalence of microdeletions of the Y-chromosome in infertile men with idiopathic azoospermia and oligozoospermia detected using a sequence-tagged site-based mapping strategy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Genes on the long arm of Y (Yq), particularly within interval 6, are believed to play a critical role in human spermatogenesis. Cytogenetically detectable deletions of this region are associated with azoospermia in men, but are relatively uncommon. The objective of this study was to validate a sequence-tagged site (STS)-mapping strategy for the detection of Yq microdeletions and to use this method to determine the proportion of men with idiopathic azoospermia or severe oligozoospermia who carry microdeletions in Yq. STS mapping of a sufficiently large sample of infertile men should also help further localize the putative gene(s) involved in the pathogenesis of male infertility. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral leukocytes of 16 normal fertile men, 7 normal fertile women, 60 infertile men, and 15 patients with the X-linked disorder, ichthyosis. PCR primers were synthesized for 26 STSs that span Yq interval 6. None of the 16 normal men of known fertility had microdeletions. Seven normal fertile women failed to amplify any of the 26 STSs, providing evidence of their Y specificity. No microdeletions were detected in any of the 15 patients with ichthyosis. Of the 60 infertile men typed with 26 STSs, 11 (18%; 10 azoospermic and 1 oligozoospermic) failed to amplify 1 or more STS. Interestingly, 4 of the 11 patients had microdeletions in a region that is outside the Yq region from which the DAZ (deleted in azoospermia gene region) gene was cloned. In an additional 3 patients, microdeletions were present both inside and outside the DAZ region. The physical locations of these microdeletions provide further support for the concept that a gene(s) on Yq deletion interval 6 plays an important role in spermatogenesis. The presence of deletions that do not overlap with the DAZ region suggests that genes other than the DAZ gene may also be implicated in the pathogenesis of some subsets of male infertility. 48 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Najmabadi, H.; Huang, V.; Bhasin, D. [Drew Univ. of Medicine and Science, Los Angeles, CA (United States)] [and others

1996-04-01

328

A novel respiratory motion compensation strategy combining gated beam delivery and mean target position concept - A compromise between small safety margins and long duty cycles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To evaluate a novel respiratory motion compensation strategy combining gated beam delivery with the mean target position (MTP) concept for pulmonary stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). Materials and methods: Four motion compensation strategies were compared for 10 targets with motion amplitudes between 6 mm and 31 mm: the internal target volume concept (planITV); the MTP concept where safety margins were adapted based on 4D dose accumulation (planMTP); gated beam delivery without margins for motion compensation (plangated); a novel approach combining gating and the MTP concept (plangated and MTP). Results: For 5/10 targets with an average motion amplitude of 9 mm, the differences in the mean lung dose (MLD) between plangated and planMTP were gated and MTP. Despite significantly shorter duty cycles, plangated reduced the MLD by gated and MTP. The MLD was increased by 18% in planMTP compared to that of plangated and MTP. Conclusions: For pulmonary targets with motion amplitudes >10-15 mm, the combination ion amplitudes >10-15 mm, the combination of gating and the MTP concept allowed small safety margins with simultaneous long duty cycles.

329

Mapping the categories of the Swedish primary health care version of ICD-10 to SNOMED CT concepts: Rule development and intercoder reliability in a mapping trial  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Terminologies and classifications are used for different purposes and have different structures and content. Linking or mapping terminologies and classifications has been pointed out as a possible way to achieve various aims as well as to attain additional advantages in describing and documenting health care data. The objectives of this study were: • to explore and develop rules to be used in a mapping process • to evaluate intercoder reliability and the assessed degre...

Nilsson Gunnar H; Strender Lars-Erik; Skånér Ylva; Vikström Anna

2007-01-01

330

Mapping the Journey: Developing an Information Literacy Strategy as Part of Curriculum Reform  

Science.gov (United States)

This article will outline the development of an Information Literacy Strategy in 2009 as part of an overall program of curriculum review and renewal at La Trobe University, Australia. Current information literacy programs at La Trobe University Library employ a diverse range of approaches and delivery methods. However, they are limited in scope…

Salisbury, Fiona; Sheridan, Linda

2011-01-01

331

A strategy for the mapping of N-glycans by high-performance capillary electrophoresis  

OpenAIRE

We have evaluated high-performance capillary electrophoresis (HPCE) with respect to its suitability for use in establishing a carbohydrate-mapping database that would enable a carbohydrate structural analysis by mere comparison of migration times. The suitability of HPCE for carbohydrate structural assignments was ascertained by validation experiments. The migration times of distinct N-glycans, prepared and measured on different days, were shown to be highly reproducible, with a coefficient o...

Vliegenthart, J. F. G.; Hermentin, P.; Doenges, R.; Witzel, R.; Hokke, C. H.; Kamerling, J. P.; Conradt, H. S.; Nimtz, M.

1994-01-01

332

Optimum allocation of resources for QTL detection using a nested association mapping strategy in maize  

OpenAIRE

In quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping studies, it is mandatory that the available financial resources are spent in such a way that the power for detection of QTL is maximized. The objective of this study was to optimize for three different fixed budgets the power of QTL detection 1 ? ?* in recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations derived from a nested design by varying (1) the genetic complexity of the trait, (2) the costs for developing, genotyping, and phenotyping RILs, (3) the to...

Stich, Benjamin; Utz, H. Friedrich; Piepho, Hans-peter; Maurer, Hans P.; Melchinger, Albrecht E.

2009-01-01

333

Modeling and Mapping Golden-winged Warbler Abundance to Improve Regional Conservation Strategies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Conservation planning requires identifying pertinent habitat factors and locating geographic locations where land management may improve habitat conditions for high priority species. I derived habitat models and mapped predicted abundance for the Golden-winged Warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera, a species of high conservation concern, using bird counts, environmental variables, and hierarchical models applied at multiple spatial scales. My aim was to understand habitat associations at multiple spatial scales and create a predictive abundance map for purposes of conservation planning for the Golden-winged Warbler. My models indicated a substantial influence of landscape conditions, including strong positive associations with total forest composition within the landscape. However, many of the associations I observed were counter to reported associations at finer spatial extents; for instance, I found Golden-winged Warblers negatively associated with several measures of edge habitat. No single spatial scale dominated, indicating that this species is responding to factors at multiple spatial scales. I found Golden-winged Warbler abundance was negatively related with Blue-winged Warbler (Vermivora cyanoptera abundance. I also observed a north-south spatial trend suggestive of a regional climate effect that was not previously noted for this species. The map of predicted abundance indicated a large area of concentrated abundance in west-central Wisconsin, with smaller areas of high abundance along the northern periphery of the Prairie Hardwood Transition. This map of predicted abundance compared favorably with independent evaluation data sets and can thus be used to inform regional planning efforts devoted to conserving this species.

Wayne E. Thogmartin

2010-12-01

334

Modeling and Mapping Golden-winged Warbler Abundance to Improve Regional Conservation Strategies  

OpenAIRE

Conservation planning requires identifying pertinent habitat factors and locating geographic locations where land management may improve habitat conditions for high priority species. I derived habitat models and mapped predicted abundance for the Golden-winged Warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera), a species of high conservation concern, using bird counts, environmental variables, and hierarchical models applied at multiple spatial scales. My aim was to understand habitat associations at multiple s...

Thogmartin, Wayne E.

2010-01-01

335

Map-based navigation in mobile robots - I. A review of localisation strategies  

OpenAIRE

For a robot, an animal, and even for man, to be able to use an internal representation of the spatial layout of its environment to position itself is a very complex task, which raises numerous issues of perception, categorization and motor control that must all be solved in an integrated manner to promote survival. This point is illustrated here, within the framework of a review of localization strategies in mobile robots. The allothetic and idiothetic sensors that may be used by these robots...

Filliat, David; Meyer, Jean-arcady

2003-01-01

336

Memory optimization strategies for linear mappings and indexation-based shared documents  

OpenAIRE

This thesis aims at developing strategies to enhance the power of sequential computation and distributed systems, particularly, it deals with sequential break down of operations and decentralized collaborative editing systems. The rapid growth in the use of modern computer technology increases the demand for higher performance in all areas of computing. This demand for ever greater performance led to growth in hardware performance and architecture evolution that results a stress on compiler t...

Ahmad, Mumtaz

2011-01-01

337

Recontextualising Cellular Respiration : Designing an learning-and-teaching strategy for developing biological concepts as flexible tools  

OpenAIRE

This thesis reports on a design-research study on recontextualising biological concepts. The term ‘recontextualising’ is based in socio-cultural activity theory and was proposed by van Oers in 1998 as a change of perspective on the idea of knowledge-transfer. Within this view concepts are tools to be used in activities or contexts. A possible explanation for disappointing results from previous transfer-research is the idea that concepts are used – and described – differently by partic...

Wierdsma, M. D. M.

2012-01-01

338

A strategy for the mapping of N-glycans by high-performance capillary electrophoresis.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have evaluated high-performance capillary electrophoresis (HPCE) with respect to its suitability for use in establishing a carbohydrate-mapping database that would enable a carbohydrate structural analysis by mere comparison of migration times. The suitability of HPCE for carbohydrate structural assignments was ascertained by validation experiments. The migration times of distinct N-glycans, prepared and measured on different days, were shown to be highly reproducible, with a coefficient of variation of usually less than 0.20%, requiring only femtomoles of N-glycan per injection for reliable measurements. By including mesityl oxide and sialic acid as internal standards and a triple-correction method, HPCE fulfills the analytical requirements with respect to accuracy, precision, reproducibility, and sensitivity. The N-glycan-mapping database was established using a newly developed and optimized buffer system containing 1,5-diaminopentane as an organic modifier. Approximately 80 different sialylated N-glycans of known structure, which have thus far been measured and characterized, have been entered into our Lotus 1-2-3 mapping database. The database for structural determinations was tested using the N-linked carbohydrates released from recombinant human urinary erythropoietin (baby hamster kidney) by PNGase F treatment and from bovine serum fetuin and alpha 1-acid glycoprotein by automated and manual (large-scale) hydrazinolysis, respectively. The efficiency of the database and of the triple-correction method was further confirmed by HPCE measurements performed in a different laboratory and by a different analyst who used the HPCE system of a different manufacturer. PMID:7527189

Hermentin, P; Doenges, R; Witzel, R; Hokke, C H; Vliegenthart, J F; Kamerling, J P; Conradt, H S; Nimtz, M; Brazel, D

1994-08-15

339

Geomorphology of mesophotic coral ecosystems: current perspectives on morphology, distribution, and mapping strategies  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a general review of the distribution of mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCEs) in relationship to geomorphology in US waters. It was specifically concerned with the depth range of 30-100 m, where more than 186,000 km2 of potential seafloor area was identified within the US Gulf of Mexico/Florida, Caribbean, and main Hawaiian Islands. The geomorphology of MCEs was largely inherited from a variety of pre-existing structures of highly diverse origins, which, in combination with environmental stress and physical controls, restrict the distribution of MCEs. Sea-level history, along with depositional and erosional processes, played an integral role in formation of MCE settings. However, mapping the distribution of both potential MCE topography/substrate and existing MCE habitat is only beginning. Mapping techniques pertinent to understanding morphology and MCE distributions are discussed throughout this paper. Future investigations need to consider more cost-effective and remote methods (such as autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) and acoustics) in order to assess the distribution and extent of MCE habitat. Some understanding of the history of known MCEs through coring studies would help understand their initiation and response to environmental change over time, essential for assessing how they may be impacted by future environmental change.

Locker, S. D.; Armstrong, R. A.; Battista, T. A.; Rooney, J. J.; Sherman, C.; Zawada, D. G.

2010-06-01

340

“CLASSIC NMR”: An In-Situ NMR Strategy for Mapping the Time-Evolution of Crystallization Processes by Combined Liquid-State and Solid-State Measurements**  

OpenAIRE

A new in-situ NMR strategy (termed CLASSIC NMR) for mapping the evolution of crystallization processes is reported, involving simultaneous measurement of both liquid-state and solid-state NMR spectra as a function of time. This combined strategy allows complementary information to be obtained on the evolution of both the solid and liquid phases during the crystallization process. In particular, as crystallization proceeds (monitored by solid-state NMR), the solution state becomes more dilute,...

Hughes, Colan E.; Williams, P. Andrew; Harris, Kenneth D. M.

2014-01-01

341

An new self-organizing maps strategy for solving the traveling salesman problem  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents an approach to the well-known traveling salesman problem (TSP) using self-organizing maps (SOM). There are many types of SOM algorithms to solve the TSP found in the literature, whereas the purpose of this paper is to look for the incorporation of an efficient initialization methods and the definition of a parameters adaptation law to achieve better results and a faster convergence. Aspects of parameters adaptation, selecting the number of nodes of neurons, index of winner neurons and effect of the initial ordering of the cities, as well as the initial synaptic weights of the modified SOM algorithm are discussed. The complexity of the modified SOM algorithm is analyzed. The simulated results show an average deviation of 2.32% from the optimal tour length for a set of 12 TSP instances.

Bai Yanping [Key Lab of Instrument Science and Dynamic Measurement of Ministry of Education, North University of China, No. 3, Xueyuan Road, TaiYuan, ShanXi 030051 (China)]. E-mail: baiyp@nuc.edu.cn; Zhang Wendong [Key Lab of Instrument Science and Dynamic Measurement of Ministry of Education, North University of China, No. 3, Xueyuan Road, TaiYuan, ShanXi 030051 (China)]. E-mail: wdzhang@nuc.edu.cn; Jin Zhen [Department of Applied Mathematics, North University of China, No. 3 Xueyuan Road, TaiYuan, ShanXi 030051 (China)

2006-05-15

342

Global mapping of herpesvirus-host protein complexes reveals a transcription strategy for late genes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mapping host-pathogen interactions has proven instrumental for understanding how viruses manipulate host machinery and how numerous cellular processes are regulated. DNA viruses such as herpesviruses have relatively large coding capacity and thus can target an extensive network of cellular proteins. To identify the host proteins hijacked by this pathogen, we systematically affinity tagged and purified all 89 proteins of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) from human cells. Mass spectrometry of this material identified over 500 virus-host interactions. KSHV causes AIDS-associated cancers, and its interaction network is enriched for proteins linked to cancer and overlaps with proteins that are also targeted by HIV-1. We found that the conserved KSHV protein ORF24 binds to RNA polymerase II and brings it to viral late promoters by mimicking and replacing cellular TATA-box-binding protein (TBP). This is required for herpesviral late gene expression, a complex and poorly understood phase of the viral lifecycle. PMID:25544563

Davis, Zoe H; Verschueren, Erik; Jang, Gwendolyn M; Kleffman, Kevin; Johnson, Jeffrey R; Park, Jimin; Von Dollen, John; Maher, M Cyrus; Johnson, Tasha; Newton, William; Jäger, Stefanie; Shales, Michael; Horner, Julie; Hernandez, Ryan D; Krogan, Nevan J; Glaunsinger, Britt A

2015-01-22

343

Spatial Vulnerability Map and Distributed Response Strategies for Irrigation System Under Climate Change  

Science.gov (United States)

It is an important issue whether irrigation systems can continuously provide quality service under climate change conditions. The streamflow irrigation system, which delivers water from a river directly, is still widely applied in Taiwan. Due to the impacts of climate change, the amount of available streamflow may decrease during dry season and higher variation of flows can be expected, which influences irrigation systems severely. Furthermore, sub-irrigation areas may have different levels of impacts under climate change. Instead of applying the adaptation strategies to the whole irrigation areas, different adaptive measures should be considered according to the vulnerability of each sub-irrigation area in order to face the impacts of climate change. The purposes of this study include defining the carrying capacity of an irrigation system, developing spatial distributed assessment methods through geographic information system and discussing how to develop adaptation systems for the areas which are more vulnerable. In this study, both agricultural and domestic water supply systems of the Touchien creek watershed are considered in this study. Future water demands of agriculture are estimated under the change of temperature and rainfall, and the amount of water supply to each sub-irrigation area is calculated according to its area and water losses. As for public water uses, the most restrict scenarios are taken in, e.g. the largest impact toward agriculture in the Touchien creek watershed. Then, the vulnerability of sub-irrigation areas is quantified by agricultural shortage index (ASI). ASI represents the percentage of crop yields in that area comparing with its potential crop yields. At last, the spatial distribution of vulnerability is established in order to emphasize the climate change impacts on each sub-irrigation area and to analyze their possible responses. Possible distributed adaptive strategies are proposed in this study too. Keywords: Vulnerability, Climate Change, Irrigation, GIS

Huang, P. H.; Tung, C. P.; Lien, W. Y.

2012-04-01

344

The effectiveness of teaching strategies for creativity in a nursing concepts teaching protocol on the creative thinking of two-year RN-BSN students.  

Science.gov (United States)

Because of changes in the medical environment, nurses must maintain the ability of divergent thinking to solve the health problems of patients. However, many nurses whose work in clinical practice has become routine have lost the ability of creativity. To cultivate nurses creativity should be a goal of nursing education. The purpose of this study is to evaluate a nursing concepts teaching protocol by utilizing teaching strategies directed toward creativity to promote creativity in two-year RN-BSN students. This study design is a time series and one group experiment utilizing multiple instances of treatment. Teaching strategies for creativity were applied to a teaching unit and 52 two-year RN-BSN students were tested for creativity before the end of each semester. This study was conducted from March, 1999 to May, 2000, but only 30 students completed all tests and reached a 58% return rate. Torrance s (1974) definitions of creativity includ fluency, flexibility, and uniqueness were followed and the instrument, a questionnaire on Creativity in the application of the Nursing Process Tool (CNPT), was designed based on Emerson (1988). The content validity of Chinese-version CNPT was.79. The inter-coder reliability between two researchers was.84 following a coding guide that ten nursing education experts had established. The results indicated that 30 two-year RN-BSN students had improved fluency and flexibility. The improvements reached a significant level after the third semester. Only uniqueness declined. It is suggested that nursing faculty apply teaching strategies uniqueness more often in a teaching protocol of nursing concepts. By utilizing teaching strategies of creativity in a teaching protocol of nursing concepts, it is expected that two-year RN-BSN students can acquire characteristics of creativity for problem-solving skills in clinical settings. PMID:12119595

Ku, Ya-Lie; Kao Lo, Chi-Hui; Wang, Jing-Jy; Lee Hsieh, Jane; Chen, Kuei-Min

2002-06-01

345

Mapas conceptuales como herramienta pedagógica en la enseñanza de la química orgánica / Concept maps as a pedagogical tool for teaching organic chemistry  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Organic Chemistry is a branch of Chemistry involving the study of the carbon atom, its compounds and reactions. Numerous investigations carried out in the field of teaching and learning processes indicate that knowledge of a conceptual and explanatory type is not conveyed in a conventional manner, b [...] ut rather each individual is constructed. Therefore, the proposal for this study was devised to help students achieve significant sustainable learning in the area of reactivity in organic chemistry, using the Concept Maps described by Novak (1998) as a teaching tool.

Francisco Javier, Cañas Urrutia; Carlos Manuel, Cárcamo Díaz; Leontina del Carmen, Lazo Santibáñez.

2014-04-01

346

Development of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) genetic maps using microsatellite and AFLP markers and a pseudo-testcross strategy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) are two of the four most important pond-cultured fish species inhabiting the major river basins of China. In the present study, genetic maps of silver carp and bighead carp were constructed using microsatellite and AFLP markers and a two-way pseudo-testcross strategy. To create the maps, 60 individuals were obtained from a cross of a single bighead carp (female) and a single silver carp (male). The silver carp map consisted of 271 markers (48 microsatellites and 223 AFLPs) that were assembled into 27 linkage groups, of which 22 contained at least four markers. The total length of the silver carp map was 952.2 cM, covering 82.8% of the estimated genome size. The bighead carp map consisted of 153 markers (27 microsatellites and 126 AFLPs) which were organized into 30 linkage groups, of which 19 contained at least four markers. The total length of the bighead carp map was 852.0 cM, covering 70.5% of the estimated genome size. Eighteen microsatellite markers were common to both maps. These maps will contribute to discovery of genes and genetic regions controlling traits in the two species of carp. PMID:17614988

Liao, M; Zhang, L; Yang, G; Zhu, M; Wang, D; Wei, Q; Zou, G; Chen, D

2007-08-01

347

A Fast-Processing Modulation Strategy for Three-Phase Four-Leg Neutral-Point-Clamped Inverter Based on the Circuit-Level Decoupling Concept  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper, a modulation strategy based on the circuit-level decoupling concept is proposed and investigated for the three-level four-leg neutral-point-clamped (NPC) inverter,with the aim of delivering power to all sorts of loads, linear/nonlinear and balanced/unbalanced. By applying the proposed modulation strategy, the four-leg NPC inverter can be decoupled into three three-level Buck converters in each defined operating section. This makes the controller design much simpler compared to the conventional four-leg NPC inverter controllers. Also, this technique can be implemented with a simple logic and can be processed very quickly. Moreover, the switching loss is reduced substantially and the dc-link capacitors’ voltages balance is also achieved without any feedback control. The proposed modulation technique is verified by the experiment.

Ghoreishy, Hoda; Zhang, Zhe

2012-01-01

348

Proposição do conceito Fit Strategy: estratégia de adequação para produtos populares Proposing the concept of a fit strategy for low-end products  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O interesse empresarial pelo mercado de baixa renda tem aumentado nos últimos anos nos países emergentes. Para atendê-lo, é necessária uma postura inovadora no desenvolvimento de novos produtos e na compreensão de suas especificidades. Estudar quais são os atributos mais importantes na decisão de compra do consumidor e como as empresas estão se organizando para atender este segmento da população é o foco deste trabalho. Analisa-se o caso do consumo de um eletrodoméstico - tanquinho (máquina de lavar menos sofisticada pela população de baixa renda. Assim, realizou-se uma pesquisa de campo em lojas de varejo com consumidores de baixa renda na cidade de São Paulo, no último trimestre de 2005. Os dados primários assim obtidos foram submetidos à análise através da utilização de técnicas estatísticas. Os resultados do trabalho mostram que o atendimento aos mercados populares não se consubstancia apenas com a adoção de estratégias genéricas de baixo custo. Necessita-se adotar uma estratégia de adequação, fit strategy, que se configura pelo equilíbrio entre a busca por ofertar melhores preços e o atendimento das necessidades do consumidor de baixa renda.The interest of businesses in the low-income market has increased in recent years in emerging countries. In order to serve this market, there is a need of an innovative approach in the development of new products and in understanding their specificities. The focus of this paper is to assess crucial attributes in consumer purchase decision and how companies are organizing themselves to serve this population segment. It examines the case of the consumption of an electrical appliance - tanquinho (a less sophisticated washing machine by low-income population. Thus, a field research was conducted in retail stores with low-income consumers in the city of São Paulo, in the last quarter of 2005. Primary data obtained were subjected to analysis using statistical techniques. The results show that to serve popular markets is not simply a matter of adopting low-cost generic strategies. There is also a need of an adequacy strategy, a fit strategy, which configures the balance between the search for the best price bid responses and addressing the needs of low-income consumers.

Fábio Lotti Oliva

2010-12-01

349

Proposição do conceito Fit Strategy: estratégia de adequação para produtos populares / Proposing the concept of a fit strategy for low-end products  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available O interesse empresarial pelo mercado de baixa renda tem aumentado nos últimos anos nos países emergentes. Para atendê-lo, é necessária uma postura inovadora no desenvolvimento de novos produtos e na compreensão de suas especificidades. Estudar quais são os atributos mais importantes na decisão de co [...] mpra do consumidor e como as empresas estão se organizando para atender este segmento da população é o foco deste trabalho. Analisa-se o caso do consumo de um eletrodoméstico - tanquinho (máquina de lavar menos sofisticada) pela população de baixa renda. Assim, realizou-se uma pesquisa de campo em lojas de varejo com consumidores de baixa renda na cidade de São Paulo, no último trimestre de 2005. Os dados primários assim obtidos foram submetidos à análise através da utilização de técnicas estatísticas. Os resultados do trabalho mostram que o atendimento aos mercados populares não se consubstancia apenas com a adoção de estratégias genéricas de baixo custo. Necessita-se adotar uma estratégia de adequação, fit strategy, que se configura pelo equilíbrio entre a busca por ofertar melhores preços e o atendimento das necessidades do consumidor de baixa renda. Abstract in english The interest of businesses in the low-income market has increased in recent years in emerging countries. In order to serve this market, there is a need of an innovative approach in the development of new products and in understanding their specificities. The focus of this paper is to assess crucial [...] attributes in consumer purchase decision and how companies are organizing themselves to serve this population segment. It examines the case of the consumption of an electrical appliance - tanquinho (a less sophisticated washing machine) by low-income population. Thus, a field research was conducted in retail stores with low-income consumers in the city of São Paulo, in the last quarter of 2005. Primary data obtained were subjected to analysis using statistical techniques. The results show that to serve popular markets is not simply a matter of adopting low-cost generic strategies. There is also a need of an adequacy strategy, a fit strategy, which configures the balance between the search for the best price bid responses and addressing the needs of low-income consumers.

Fábio Lotti, Oliva; Maria Cecília, Sobral; Abraham Sin Oih, Yu; Martinho Isnard Ribeiro de, Almeida; Celso Cláudio de Hildebrand e, Grisi; Hubert, Drouvot.

2010-12-01

350

STRATEGIC MAPS AND CRITICAL FACTORS FOR PROJECT MANAGEMENT MATURITY: A PROPOSAL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Project Management (PM and Strategic Management (SM are two subjects of growing importance in the corporate environment which are normally considered in isolation. One way of integrating these two concepts might be via the concept of project management maturity (Westphal et al., 2008. Rabechini and Pessoa (2005 state that to obtain project management maturity, it is necessary to achieve success in a number of critical factors which include organizational culture and structure, as well as sponsorship at both tactical and strategic levels (Silva et al., 2008. Another way of achieving this connection is by using Balanced Scorecard (BSC as an auxiliary tool to integrate between projects and organizational strategy (Brock et al., 2003. The original developers of the BSC, Kaplan e Norton, subsequently developed the concept of strategy mapping, which they affirm "represents the missing link between the formulation and the execution of the strategy" (Kaplan e Norton, 2004. This paper proposes a strategy map identifying critical factors for attaining project management maturity. To formulate the map, we used a qualitative, exploratory approach oriented by Project Management theory and strategy mapping. We first identified 13 critical factors, then developed a strategy map, which was evaluated by six specialists (three in SM area and three in PM area.The results suggest links between strategic mapping nad critical factors in project management. It also contributes to both areas independently. Specifically, the study identifies critical factors for project management maturity while demonstrating the applicability of strategic mapping techniques to Balanced Scorecard concepts.

Sady Darcy Silva Junior

2010-06-01

351

A concept for biological valuation in the marine environment  

OpenAIRE

In order to develop management strategies for sustainable use and conservation in the marine environment, reliable and meaningful, but integrated ecological information is needed. Biological valuation maps that compile and summarize all available biological and ecological information for a study area, and that allocate an overall biological value to subzones, can be used as baseline maps for future spatial planning at sea. This paper provides a concept for marine biological valuation which is...

Hans Hillewaer; Kris Hosten; Glen Jamieson; Louise Lieberknecht; Jan Mees; Ine Moulaert; Sergej Olenin; Desire Paelinckx; Marijn Rabaut; Eike Rachor; John Roff; Eric Willem Maria Stienen; Jan Tjalling van der Wal; Vera van Lancker; Els Verfaillie

2007-01-01

352

Ocean Maps Coordinate Planes  

CERN Document Server

Learn about ocean maps and the concepts surrounding coordinate planes as Ocean Maps explores geography under the sea, early and current navigation practices, and the variety of ways the ocean can be mapped such as sonar, submersibles, and satellites.

Wall, Julia

2009-01-01

353

Learners' strategies for reconstructing cognitive frameworks and navigating conceptual change from prior conception to consensual genetics knowledge  

Science.gov (United States)

Problem. Science teachers are charged with preparing students to become scientifically literate individuals. Teachers are given curriculum that specifies the knowledge that students should come away with; however, they are not necessarily aware of the knowledge with which the student arrives or how best to help them navigate between the two knowledge states. Educators must be aware, not only of where their students are conceptually, but how their students move from their prior knowledge and naive theories, to scientifically acceptable theories. The understanding of how students navigate this course has the potential to revolutionize educational practices. Methods. This study explored how five 9th grade biology students reconstructed their cognitive frameworks and navigated conceptual change from prior conception to consensual genetics knowledge. The research questions investigated were: (1) how do students in the process of changing their naive science theories to accepted science theories describe their journey from prior knowledge to current conception, and (2) what are the methods that students utilize to bridge the gap between alternate and consensual science conceptions to effect conceptual change. Qualitative and quantitative methods were employed to gather and analyze the data. In depth, semi-structured interviews formed the primary data for probing the context and details of students' conceptual change experience. Primary interview data was coded by thematic analysis. Results and discussion. This study revealed information about students' perceived roles in learning, the role of articulation in the conceptual change process, and ways in which a community of learners aids conceptual change. It was ascertained that students see their role in learning primarily as repeating information until they could add that information to their knowledge. Students are more likely to consider challenges to their conceptual frameworks and be more motivated to become active participants in constructing their knowledge when they are working collaboratively with peers instead of receiving instruction from their teacher. Articulation was found to be instrumental in aiding learners in identifying their alternate conceptions as well as in revisiting, investigating and reconstructing their conceptual frameworks. Based on the assumptions generated, suggestions were offered to inform pedagogical practice in support of the conceptual change process.

Parrott, Annette M.

354

A high-throughput strategy for screening of bacterial artificial chromosome libraries and anchoring of clones on a genetic map constructed with single nucleotide polymorphisms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Current techniques of screening bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC libraries for molecular markers during the construction of physical maps are slow, laborious and often assign multiple BAC contigs to a single locus on a genetic map. These limitations are the principal impediment in the construction of physical maps of large eukaryotic genomes. It is hypothesized that this impediment can be overcome by screening multidimensional pools of BAC clones using the highly parallel Illumina GoldenGate™ assay. Results To test the efficacy of the Golden Gate assay in BAC library screening, multidimensional pools involving 302976 Aegilops tauschii BAC clones were genotyped for the presence/absence of specific gene sequences with multiplexed Illumina GoldenGate oligonucleotide assays previously used to place single nucleotide polymorphisms on an Ae. tauschii genetic map. Of 1384 allele-informative oligonucleotide assays, 87.6% successfully clustered BAC pools into those positive for a BAC clone harboring a specific gene locus and those negative for it. The location of the positive BAC clones within contigs assembled from 199190 fingerprinted Ae. tauschii BAC clones was used to evaluate the precision of anchoring of BAC clones and contigs on the Ae. tauschii genetic map. For 41 (95% assays, positive BAC clones were neighbors in single contigs. Those contigs could be unequivocally assigned to loci on the genetic map. For two (5% assays, positive clones were in two different contigs and the relationships of these contigs to loci on the Ae. tauschii genetic map were equivocal. Screening of BAC libraries with a simple five-dimensional BAC pooling strategy was evaluated and shown to allow direct detection of positive BAC clones without the need for manual deconvolution of BAC clone pools. Conclusion The highly parallel Illumina oligonucleotide assay is shown here to be an efficient tool for screening BAC libraries and a strategy for high-throughput anchoring of BAC contigs on genetic maps during the construction of physical maps of eukaryotic genomes. In most cases, screening of BAC libraries with Illumina oligonucleotide assays results in the unequivocal relationship of BAC clones with loci on the genetic map.

Deal Karin R

2009-01-01

355

Mapas conceptuales para favorecer el aprendizaje significativo en ciencias de la salud / Concept maps to promote meaningful learning in health sciences  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En esta Pauta en Educación Médica se describe un proceso para facilitar la creación de mapas conceptuales como estrategia de enseñanza y aprendizaje, que permita analizar la información a través de promover la identificación del esquema de conocimientos previos, en el que se establezcan relaciones l [...] ógicas con la información a aprender, para promover el pensamiento crítico y el aprendizaje significativo. Abstract in english This guideline describes a process to make easy the creation of "conceptual maps" so that the strategy of teaching and learning promotes the information analysis through the identification scheme of previous knowledge, in this scheme is established the logical relationship with the information to le [...] arn in order to this schemes promote the meaningful learning and critical thinking.

Verónica, Luna de la Luz.

2014-12-01

356

STRATEJ?K DÜ?ÜNMEDEK? KESK?N V?RAJ YA DA SOYUT VARLIKLARIN ZAFER?: STRATEJ? HAR?TALARI = THE HAIRPIN BEND OF STRATEGIC THOUGHT OR VICTORY OF INTANGIBLE ASSETS: STRATEGY MAPS  

OpenAIRE

Recently, the concept of “strategy” has become important in business literature again. The implementation of strategy is as important as its formulation process. Strategy describes how a value can be created for shareholders. As more than 75 percent of market value of businesses composed of their intangible assets, it’s very important to give a holistic approach to strategy. In this study, it is aimed to open different perspectives to strategic thought by approaching it with four differ...

Kec?eci?og?lu, Tamer

2008-01-01

357

Constructing a Story-Based Interactive Learning Approach with the Anchor Strategy and Modularity Concept for Foreign Spouses (Case of Taiwan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In Taiwan, because of the change of social structure, the number of transnational marriage immigrants, mostly females, coming from Southeast Asia has increased dramatically in recent years. This oneyexchanged mates and cultural circumstances differ will cause them to face the acculturation pressures. The aims of this study are to construct a story-based interactive for foreign spouses accommodation courses. Considering the varied cultural background and education divide, we integrated the anchor strategy, modularity concept and web navigation to construct a vivid, flexible and effective learning environment. An exploratory test was carried out with 32 foreign spouses. Research data were collected through the questionnaire. The results revealed that the interactive PowerPoint could effectively attract and maintain the participants attention; they felt that the course content and activities were related to their personal goals. Also, they were confident to achieve the expected outcomes of the course and satisfied with the instruction.

Yuh-Tyng Chen

2012-09-01

358

Software CMAP TOOLS® para a construção de mapas conceituais: a avaliação dos estudantes de enfermagem Software CMAP TOOLS® para la construcción de mapas conceptuales: evaluación de estudiantes de enfermería Software CMAP TOOLS ™ to build concept maps: an evaluation by nursing students  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O mapeamento conceitual (MC é uma estratégia de ensino que pode ser utilizada para resoluções de casos clínicos, porém de trabalhosa execução manuscrita. O estudo teve por objetivos descrever os desafios e as contribuições do software Cmap Tools® para a construção de mapas conceituais para resolução de caso clínico. Para isso, utilizou-se método descritivo, qualitativo, com estudantes da 3ª série de Graduação em Enfermagem da Universidade Federal de São Paulo. A estratégia de ensino foi aplicada e os dados foram coletados pela técnica do grupo focal. Os resultados evidenciaram que o software facilita e garante a organização, visualização e correlação dos dados, porém com dificuldades iniciais relacionadas ao manejo das ferramentas que dispõe. Concluiu-se que o software Cmap Tools® favoreceu a construção dos MC por seus recursos de formatação e autoformatação e que estratégias de orientação deveriam ser implantadas para a fase inicial de utilização.El mapeo conceptual (MC es una estrategia de enseñanza que puede utilizarse para resolución de casos clínicos, más allá de su trabajosa ejecución manual. Se objetivó describir los desafíos y contribuciones del software CMAP Tools® para la construcción de mapas conceptuales enfocados a resolución de casos clínicos. Metodología descriptiva, cuantitativa, con estudiantes de tercer año de Enfermer?a de la Universidad Federal de São Paulo. Se aplicó estrategia de enseñanza, datos recolectados mediante técnica del grupo focal. Los resultados evidenciaron que el software facilita y garantiza la organización, visualización y correlación de datos, aunque con dificultades iniciales relacionadas al manejo de las herramientas de las que dispone. Se concluye en que el software CMAP Tools® facilitó la construcción de MC por sus recursos de formateo y auto-formateo, y que deberían implantarse estrategias de orientación para la fase inicial de utilización.Concept mapping (CM is a teaching strategy that can be used to solve clinical cases, but the maps are difficult to write. The objective of this study was to describe the challenges and contributions of the Cmap Tools® software in building concept maps to solve clinical cases. To do this, a descriptive and qualitative method was used with junior nursing students from the Federal University of São Paulo. The teaching strategy was applied and the data were collected using the focal group technique. The results showed that the software facilitates and guarantees the organization, visualization, and correlation of the data, but there are difficulties related to the handling of its tools initially. In conclusion, the formatting and auto formatting resources of Cmap Tools® facilitated the construction of concept maps; however, orientation strategies should be implemented for the initial stage of the software utilization.

Paula Barreto Ferreira

2012-08-01

359

Software CMAP TOOLS® para a construção de mapas conceituais: a avaliação dos estudantes de enfermagem / Software CMAP TOOLS ™ to build concept maps: an evaluation by nursing students / Software CMAP TOOLS® para la construcción de mapas conceptuales: evaluación de estudiantes de enfermería  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available O mapeamento conceitual (MC) é uma estratégia de ensino que pode ser utilizada para resoluções de casos clínicos, porém de trabalhosa execução manuscrita. O estudo teve por objetivos descrever os desafios e as contribuições do software Cmap Tools® para a construção de mapas conceituais para resoluçã [...] o de caso clínico. Para isso, utilizou-se método descritivo, qualitativo, com estudantes da 3ª série de Graduação em Enfermagem da Universidade Federal de São Paulo. A estratégia de ensino foi aplicada e os dados foram coletados pela técnica do grupo focal. Os resultados evidenciaram que o software facilita e garante a organização, visualização e correlação dos dados, porém com dificuldades iniciais relacionadas ao manejo das ferramentas que dispõe. Concluiu-se que o software Cmap Tools® favoreceu a construção dos MC por seus recursos de formatação e autoformatação e que estratégias de orientação deveriam ser implantadas para a fase inicial de utilização. Abstract in spanish El mapeo conceptual (MC) es una estrategia de enseñanza que puede utilizarse para resolución de casos clínicos, más allá de su trabajosa ejecución manual. Se objetivó describir los desafíos y contribuciones del software CMAP Tools® para la construcción de mapas conceptuales enfocados a resolución de [...] casos clínicos. Metodología descriptiva, cuantitativa, con estudiantes de tercer año de Enfermería de la Universidad Federal de São Paulo. Se aplicó estrategia de enseñanza, datos recolectados mediante técnica del grupo focal. Los resultados evidenciaron que el software facilita y garantiza la organización, visualización y correlación de datos, aunque con dificultades iniciales relacionadas al manejo de las herramientas de las que dispone. Se concluye en que el software CMAP Tools® facilitó la construcción de MC por sus recursos de formateo y auto-formateo, y que deberían implantarse estrategias de orientación para la fase inicial de utilización. Abstract in english Concept mapping (CM) is a teaching strategy that can be used to solve clinical cases, but the maps are difficult to write. The objective of this study was to describe the challenges and contributions of the Cmap Tools® software in building concept maps to solve clinical cases. To do this, a descript [...] ive and qualitative method was used with junior nursing students from the Federal University of São Paulo. The teaching strategy was applied and the data were collected using the focal group technique. The results showed that the software facilitates and guarantees the organization, visualization, and correlation of the data, but there are difficulties related to the handling of its tools initially. In conclusion, the formatting and auto formatting resources of Cmap Tools® facilitated the construction of concept maps; however, orientation strategies should be implemented for the initial stage of the software utilization.

Paula Barreto, Ferreira; Cibelli Rizzo, Cohrs; Edvane Birelo Lopes, De Domenico.

2012-08-01

360

Mapas Conceptuales como Herramienta en la Enseñanza de Contenidos Comunes a Diferentes Cursos de Ingeniería Agronómica / Concept Maps as a Teaching Tool of Similar Subjects in Agronomy Engineering Courses  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available En este trabajo se muestran las ventajas de la utilización de mapas conceptuales en diferentes cursos de la carrera de Ingeniería Agronómica al abordar un mismo contenido. La temática elegida para su aplicación es la Fusariosis de la espiga de trigo (FET), enfermedad producida por un hongo que afect [...] a al cultivo y cuya aparición se produce ante determinadas condiciones ambientales. El mapa conceptual de la FET fue elaborado usando los conceptos extraídos de los textos utilizados en los diferentes cursos y usando el programa CmapTools. El mapa finalmente fue exportado a formato de página Web, para que todos los estudiantes accedan fácilmente a él desde su propia computadora. Se concluye que al utilizar el mapa conceptual al inicio de la clase en cada curso donde se trate el tema, el alumno adquiere una visión general del mismo, continuando la clase con la profundización de los temas específicos de cada área. Abstract in english In this work the advantages of using concept maps as a tool in covering the same subjects in different courses of Agronomy Engineering are shown. The selected topic to construct the concept map is the Fusarium ear blight (FEB), a fungal disease that affects ear wheat and it appears with particular e [...] nvironmental conditions. The concept map of FEB was developed using the concepts extracted from the textbooks used in different courses and applying the software CmapTools. Finally, the map was exported to Web page format so all the students could access it from their own computer. It is concluded that using the concept map at the beginning of the class in each course where the selected concept is treated, students can get a global vision of it, to then deal with the specific subjects of the course in depth.

Miriam E, Presutti; Elisa C, Miceli; Gladys M, Laporte.

361

Substrate mapping strategies for successful ablation of ventricular tachycardia: A review / Técnicas de mapeo y ablación del sustrato arrítmico en pacientes con taquicardia ventricular  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available La ablación de la taquicardia ventricular está adquiriendo gran importancia en el tratamiento de la taquicardia ventricular incesante así como en la reducción y prevención de episodios en pacientes con taquicardia ventricular monomorfa sostenida. El abordaje convencional requiere la inducción de la [...] taquicardia ventricular y la tolerancia de la misma durante el procedimento. Sin embargo, en muchos pacientes con taquicardia ventricular, en contexto de un infarto previo, no es factible la inducción de la taquicardia clínica, la inducción presenta baja reproducibilidad, la taquicardia se acompaña de inestabilidad hemodinámica o se presentan múltiples morfologías con variaciones espontáneas de una morfología a otra que dificultan el mapeo durante la taquicardia. Para superar a estas limitaciones, se han desarrollado las técnicas de mapeo y ablación de sustrato en ritmo sinusal, que actualmente se llevan a cabo en muchos centros. Esta revisión se centra en los avances realizados en los últimos años en el campo de la ablación de sustrato de la taquicardia ventricular en el paciente con cardiopatía estructural. Abstract in english Catheter ablation of ventricular tachycardia (VT) currently has an important role in the treatment of incessant ventricular tachycardia and reduction of the number of episodes of recurrent ventricular tachycardia. Conventional mapping techniques require ongoing tachycardia and haemodynamic stability [...] during the procedure. However, in many patients with scar-related ventricular tachycardia, non-inducibility of clinical tachycardia, poor induction reproducibility, haemodynamic instability, and multiple ventricular tachycardias with frequent spontaneous changes of morphology, preclude tachycardia mapping. To overcome these limitations, new strategies for mapping and ablation in sinus rhythm (SR) - substrate mapping strategies - have been developed and are currently used by many centres. This review summarizes the progresses recently achieved in the ablative treatment of ventricular tachycardia using a substrate mapping approach in patients with structural heart disease.

Pasquale, Vergara; Carla, Roque; Teresa, Oloriz; Patrizio, Mazzone; Paolo, Della Bella.

2013-06-01

362

Ciclização intramolecular: uma estratégia promissora no desenvolvimento de pró-fármacos Intramolecular cyclization: a promising strategy in the prodrug conception  

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Full Text Available Muitos fármacos estão associados a vários efeitos adversos e limitada biodisponibilidade. A resolução destes problemas continua sendo um alvo importante para a comunidade científica. O desenvolvimento de pró-fármacos que conduzam a uma liberação controlada in vivo é um caminho atrativo para resolver estes problemas. Um pró-fármaco clássico é molécula inativa, em que o princípio ativo é ligado covalentemente a uma unidade transportadora, de modo que o fármaco pode ser liberado através de uma reação química ou enzimática. Um sistema novo e interessante de pró-fármaco, que tem sido apresentado para fármacos possuidores de grupos amino, álcool e tiol, é aquele no qual o princípio ativo é liberado através de uma ciclização intramolecular. Neste caso, o processo de ciclização, dependendo da cadeia da unidade transportadora e do próprio fármaco, pode controlar a velocidade de liberação do princípio ativo. Desta forma, este trabalho apresenta uma revisão do desenvolvimento de pró-fármacos baseados na liberação do princípio ativo através de uma ciclização intramolecular.Many drugs used for the treatment of common diseases are associated with various adverse effects and limited bioavailability. The suppression of such problems continues to be a very important target for scientists. The development of prodrugs for controlled release in vivo is an attractive way to overcome these problems. Classical in prodrug is an inactive molecule which the parent drug is covalently bonded to a carrier unit, and which can liberate the drug through chemical or enzymatic pathways. A new and interesting prodrug system for amine, alcohol, and thiol drugs takes advantage of several easy intramolecular cyclization reactions. So, the cyclization process can control the release rate of the parent drug. In this paper is a review about the prodrug strategies based on intramolecular cyclization reactions is presented.

Cledir Santos

2008-09-01

363

Ciclização intramolecular: uma estratégia promissora no desenvolvimento de pró-fármacos / Intramolecular cyclization: a promising strategy in the prodrug conception  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Muitos fármacos estão associados a vários efeitos adversos e limitada biodisponibilidade. A resolução destes problemas continua sendo um alvo importante para a comunidade científica. O desenvolvimento de pró-fármacos que conduzam a uma liberação controlada in vivo é um caminho atrativo para resolver [...] estes problemas. Um pró-fármaco clássico é molécula inativa, em que o princípio ativo é ligado covalentemente a uma unidade transportadora, de modo que o fármaco pode ser liberado através de uma reação química ou enzimática. Um sistema novo e interessante de pró-fármaco, que tem sido apresentado para fármacos possuidores de grupos amino, álcool e tiol, é aquele no qual o princípio ativo é liberado através de uma ciclização intramolecular. Neste caso, o processo de ciclização, dependendo da cadeia da unidade transportadora e do próprio fármaco, pode controlar a velocidade de liberação do princípio ativo. Desta forma, este trabalho apresenta uma revisão do desenvolvimento de pró-fármacos baseados na liberação do princípio ativo através de uma ciclização intramolecular. Abstract in english Many drugs used for the treatment of common diseases are associated with various adverse effects and limited bioavailability. The suppression of such problems continues to be a very important target for scientists. The development of prodrugs for controlled release in vivo is an attractive way to ov [...] ercome these problems. Classical in prodrug is an inactive molecule which the parent drug is covalently bonded to a carrier unit, and which can liberate the drug through chemical or enzymatic pathways. A new and interesting prodrug system for amine, alcohol, and thiol drugs takes advantage of several easy intramolecular cyclization reactions. So, the cyclization process can control the release rate of the parent drug. In this paper is a review about the prodrug strategies based on intramolecular cyclization reactions is presented.

Cledir, Santos.

2008-09-01

364

The NASA Innovations in Climate Education Project: 'Instructional Strategies for Expanding Climate Change Concepts within Readng/Literacy Skills  

Science.gov (United States)

The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) provide a consistent, clear understanding of what students are expected to learn, so teachers and parents know what they need to do to help them. In 2010 the standards were designed to be robust and relevant to the real world, reflecting the knowledge and skills that young people need for success in college and careers. In 2013 the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) in connection with the CCSS developed revised science standards in performance, prior standards documents listed what students should know or understand, foundations were each performance expectation incorporates all three dimensions from a science or engineering practice, a core disciplinary idea, and a crosscutting concept, and coherence that connects each set of performance expectations lists connections to other ideas within the disciplines of science and engineering. Elizabeth City State University (ECSU) in Elizabeth City, North Carolina has joined with the University of New Hampshire (UNH) in Durham, New Hampshire under the NASA Innovations in Climate Education (NICE) grant to empower faculty of education programs at Minority Serving Institutions (MSIs) to better engage their pre-service teachers in teaching and learning about global climate change through the use of NASA Earth observation sets. Specifically, professors from MSIs received training with Global Positioning Systems (GPS) and GES-DISC Interactive Online Visualization And aNalysis Infrastructure (GIOVANNI) to engage pre-service teachers in facets of climate education. Grambling State University faculty members served as participants of the NICE workshop for 2012 and were encouraged to develop lessons in climate education from information shared at the workshop. A corresponding project that incorporated the CCSS and NGSS at Grambling State University in Grambling, Louisiana was headed by Dr. Loretta Jaggers. This paper documents activities that pre-service students in the GSU Curriculum and Instruction Department (College of Education) ED 452-Advanced Seminar Methods course have implemented. Activities included: Critique of Climate Education (oceans) articles, Methodology instruction; and design of a grade specific daily science lesson plan based on Climate Education that focused on El Nino, La Nina, seasonal characteristics of the southern oceans and resources from a NASA NICE workshop packet. Lessons designed were implemented on-site of partner secondary schools. The implementation included a virtual component as Grambling and ECSU students interacted via a polycom environment during reports from ED 452-Advanced Seminar Methods students.

Walton-Jaggers, L. J.; Johnson, D.; Hayden, L. B.; Hale, S. R.

2013-12-01

365

A brief review of spatial analysis concepts and tools used for mapping, containment and risk modelling of infectious diseases and other illnesses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fast response and decision making about containment, management, eradication and prevention of diseases, are increasingly important aspects of the work of public health officers and medical providers. Diseases and the agents causing them are spatially and temporally distributed, and effective countermeasures rely on methods that can timely locate the foci of infection, predict the distribution of illnesses and their causes, and evaluate the likelihood of epidemics. These methods require the use of large datasets from ecology, microbiology, health and environmental geography. Geodatabases integrating data from multiple sets of information are managed within the frame of geographic information systems (GIS). Many GIS software packages can be used with minimal training to query, map, analyse and interpret the data. In combination with other statistical or modelling software, predictive and spatio-temporal modelling can be carried out. This paper reviews some of the concepts and tools used in epidemiology and parasitology. The purpose of this review is to provide public health officers with the critical tools to decide about spatial analysis resources and the architecture for the prevention and surveillance systems best suited to their situations. PMID:24476672

Caprarelli, Graziella; Fletcher, Stephanie

2014-04-01

366

Auditory-motor mapping training as an intervention to facilitate speech output in non-verbal children with autism: a proof of concept study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although up to 25% of children with autism are non-verbal, there are very few interventions that can reliably produce significant improvements in speech output. Recently, a novel intervention called Auditory-Motor Mapping Training (AMMT) has been developed, which aims to promote speech production directly by training the association between sounds and articulatory actions using intonation and bimanual motor activities. AMMT capitalizes on the inherent musical strengths of children with autism, and offers activities that they intrinsically enjoy. It also engages and potentially stimulates a network of brain regions that may be dysfunctional in autism. Here, we report an initial efficacy study to provide 'proof of concept' for AMMT. Six non-verbal children with autism participated. Prior to treatment, the children had no intelligible words. They each received 40 individual sessions of AMMT 5 times per week, over an 8-week period. Probe assessments were conducted periodically during baseline, therapy, and follow-up sessions. After therapy, all children showed significant improvements in their ability to articulate words and phrases, with generalization to items that were not practiced during therapy sessions. Because these children had no or minimal vocal output prior to treatment, the acquisition of speech sounds and word approximations through AMMT represents a critical step in expressive language development in children with autism. PMID:21980480

Wan, Catherine Y; Bazen, Loes; Baars, Rebecca; Libenson, Amanda; Zipse, Lauryn; Zuk, Jennifer; Norton, Andrea; Schlaug, Gottfried

2011-01-01

367

The science knowledge, conceptions of the nature of science, attitudes about teaching science, and science instructional strategies of bilingual and English-only elementary teachers  

Science.gov (United States)

The goal of this study was to explore bilingual and English-only elementary teachers' science knowledge, their conceptions of the nature of science, their attitudes about teaching science, and their self-reported science instructional skills. In this study, a bilingual teacher was defined as a teacher who provides instruction in Spanish and English in core academic subjects and has completed and/or is completing a bilingual certification program. An English-only teacher was defined as a monolingual teacher that only speaks and instructs in English. The principal questions guiding this dissertation investigation were the following: How do bilingual elementary teachers differ from English-only elementary teachers in (a) their science knowledge, (b) their conceptions of the nature of science, (c) their attitude about teaching science, and (d) their self-reported science instructional skills? This dissertation study is a component of a three-year long Eisenhower Project granted to Hueneme School District and the University of California, Santa Barbara Southcoast Science Project. While the Project will last three years (1997--2000), this dissertation study was developed to answer only a subset of questions of the entire project and data was collected in 1998. The research design for this study consisted of a self-administered questionnaire that was given to Hueneme School District elementary teachers that teach science and was developed by reviewing the relevant literature about teachers' science knowledge, their conceptions of the nature of science, their attitudes about teaching science, and the instructional strategies that support science learning. The findings showed that both the bilingual and the English-only respondents demonstrated a similar science knowledge base, which is suggested, by this researcher, to be limited. That both bilingual and English-only teacher respondents demonstrated similar positive attitudes about teaching science and both reported making use of similar instructional strategies, many of which are known to support science learning in the classroom (laboratory/hands-on activities, whole group discussion, questioning, and cooperative/small group activities). Concerning assessment strategies, both the bilingual and English-only groups reported very similar answers. They reported usually making use of students' projects, student's logs/journals/diaries, performance activities such as lab practicals and hands-on tests to assess science learning. They also reported seldom or never making use of paper/pencil quizzes nor end-of-chapter/unit tests. There was not enough clear information to decide whether bilingual and English-only elementary respondents hold similar or different views of science. This study's implications encompass two different areas: (a) changes that bilingual and elementary credentialing programs need to undergo and (b) further bilingual science teaching research. The findings concerned with science knowledge, that both bilingual and English-only elementary teachers possess a limited science knowledge base leads me to suggest, just as the science teaching literature has suggested, that elementary credentialing programs need to strengthen their candidates' science content by increasing the science content addressed in the science methodology courses and/or by requiring a greater number of science undergraduate courses (most liberal arts majors require no more than five courses, San Diego State University, 1999). (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Alegria, Adelina Victoria

368

A felicidade em foco – mensurando conceito metafísico para estratégia governamental e recomendações organizacionais HAPPINESS IN FOCUS – MEASURING METAPHYSICAL CONCEPT FOR COUNTRY STRATEGY AND ORGANIZATIONAL RECOMMENDATIONS  

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Full Text Available For Aristotle, Happiness should be ultimate reason for life. Researchers have demonstrated that Happiness is positively correlated with creativity and productivity. So, the subject is relevant for each one as well as for organizations. Bentham's Utility Principle proposed that each people action should be judged according its final contribution to Happiness, whether positive or negative. Now the question of this work arises: are the organizational concepts (e.g.: Innovation, Competitiveness, Sustainability, Quality of Life, so frequent in administration technical literature, "useful" for Happiness? Are they "useful" for people as well as for organizations? The analysis of an interrelationship model proposed, covering such concepts, has positively answered this question. Hume (1741 and Bentham's proposal, in which administrators should take Happiness in account when establishing their government strategy, is very actual.Para Aristóteles, a Felicidade seria a razão última da vida. Pesquisadores demonstraram que ela está positivamente correlacionada com a criatividade e produtividade. Portanto, o tema possui relevância para os indivíduos e as organizações. O Princípio da Utilidade de Bentham (1789 propunha que cada ação dos indivíduos deveria ser julgada pela sua contribuição final à Felicidade, positiva ou negativa. Daí a questão deste estudo: conceitos organizacionais (ex: Inovação, Competitividade, Sustentabilidade, Qualidade de Vida, tão frequentes na literatura técnica sobre administração nas últimas duas décadas, são “úteis” para a Felicidade? E, consequentemente, para os indivíduos e para as próprias organizações? Este trabalho propõe um modelo de relacionamento desses conceitos, cuja análise respondeu afirmativamente a essa questão. A proposta de Hume (1741 e Bentham, para que administradores públicos considerem a Felicidade como referência ao estabelecerem sua estratégia de governo seria, então, muito atual.

Daniel Jardim Pardini

2010-08-01

369

EL MEJORAMIENTO DE VIVIENDA Y ENTORNO EN BOGOTÁ 1994-1998:: PROGRAMAS, CONCEPTOS Y ESTRATEGIAS / HOUSING AND SURROUNDINGS IMPROVEMENT IN BOGOTA 1994-1998:: PROGRAMS, CONCEPTS AND STRATEGIES  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available El problema del habitat sigue siendo un asunto acuciante para la población de escasos recursos de Latinoamérica. Sin embargo, el problema no es solo cuantitativo, sino de la calidad del espacio habitado y su entorno, o sea de aspectos cualitativos que dignifican dicho espacio. Las estrategias del me [...] joramiento de vivienda atienden precisamente esa carencia cualitativa. El programa de subsidio para mejoramiento de vivienda tuvo en Colombia un impacto muy importante en la calidad de vida y en el desarrollo e imagen urbana, especialmente de Bogotá, y su experiencia constituye un importante caso de estudio. Con base en un intenso trabajo de campo, entrevistas a beneficiarios del subsidio y seguimiento a oferentes de mejoramiento de vivienda, se presentan en este artículo resultados del análisis de los programas, conceptos y estrategias del mejoramiento de vivienda, que hicieron parte de la política de subsidios a la vivienda en Colombia hasta 1998. Abstract in english Habitat continues to be the most acute problem for lower income population in Latin America. However, it's not only a quantitative problem, but fundamentally a qualitative one in which habituated spaces and their environments that dignify living conditions in these spaces. Strategies for housing ren [...] ewal are aimed at these qualitative issues. The subsidies for housing and Urban renewals program in Colombia produced a significant impact on quality of live and development variables, especially in Bogotá thus becoming an important case study. This paper presents the results of a study based on extensive field work, interviews to subsidy beneficiaries , and housing renewal proponents that took part in the Programs, concepts and strategies for housing renewal , as part of a housing subsidies policy in Colombia until 1998.

RICARDO ADRIÁN, VERGARA DURAN.

2008-01-01

370

Bildung: Concept, conception, ideal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The author claims that we should differentiate the concept, the conception and the ideal of Bildung. Based on these differences, Bildung could be considered as a kind of attitude, project, or as specific - normative and optative - practice. .

Dobrijevi? Aleksandar

2007-01-01

371

Nova abordagem para verificar como os alunos articulam diferentes materiais instrucionais utilizando mapas conceituais / New approach to investigate how students articulate different instructional materials using concept maps  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho tem como objetivo propor uma nova forma de utilizar os mapas conceituais (MCs) para verificar como os alunos articulam os diferentes materiais instrucionais (MIs) indicados para estudo pelo professor. Isso expande a possibilidade de uso dos MCs como ferramenta de avaliação, norma [...] lmente restrita à aprendizagem dos alunos. O procedimento proposto requer que os alunos incluam informações sobre a origem de cada um dos conceitos do MC, em função dos MIs indicados para estudo. MCs (n = 88) sobre astronomia formam o primeiro conjunto de dados empíricos que ratifica o potencial dessa nova abordagem. Os resultados revelam que houve diferença significativa entre as frequências das proposições que envolvem conceitos com origem no mesmo MI (25%) e as proposições que envolvem conceitos com origem em MIs diferentes (75%). A integração entre diferentes MIs é desejável porque indica uma compreensão histórica mais precisa da evolução da astronomia, bem como os impactos que as descobertas sobre o universo tiveram sobre a sociedade. A análise da relação entre os MIs não exclui a necessidade do professor ler e corrigir os erros conceituais expressos nas proposições elaboradas pelos alunos. Pelo contrário, a nossa proposta se soma aos procedimentos já tradicionais de leitura e avaliação dos MCs para fins de avaliação da aprendizagem. Uma vantagem associada ao procedimento proposto é a possibilidade do professor também avaliar o seu plano de ensino, verificando como os alunos articularam os MIs. Abstract in english This paper aims to propose a new way of using concept maps (Cmaps) to see how students articulate different instructional materials (IMs) selected by the teacher. This expands the possibility of using Cmaps as an assessment tool, usually restricted to students' learning. The proposed procedure asks [...] students for including information about the origin of each of Cmap's concepts, based on the IMs selected for study. Cmaps (n = 88) about astronomy form the first set of empirical data that confirms the potential of this new approach. The results reveal a significant difference between the frequencies of propositions involving concepts from the same IM (25%) and propositions involving concepts from different IMs (75%). The integration between different IMs is valuable because it shows a more accurate understanding of the historical development of astronomy, as well as the impact that the discoveries about the universe had on society. The analysis of the relationship between IMs does not eliminate the necessity of the teacher to check and correct the misconceptions expressed in propositions made by students. Rather, our proposal adds to the traditional procedures for reading and evaluating the Cmaps for assessment purposes of learning. An advantage associated with the proposed procedure is the possibility of the teacher to evaluate your teaching plan, checking how students articulated the IMs.

Camila Aparecida Tolentino, Cicuto; Bárbara Chagas, Mendes; Paulo Rogério Miranda, Correia.

2013-09-01

372

STRONGLY MINIMAL g* -CONTINUOUS MAPS AND STRONGLY MINIMAL g** -CONTINUOUS MAPS IN MINIMAL SPACES  

OpenAIRE

In this paper, we introduce and study the concepts of a new class of maps, namely strongly minimal continuous maps, strongly minimal g*-continuous maps, strongly minimal g**-continuous maps which includes the class of continuous maps.

E.Subha,; Pushpalatha, A.

2010-01-01

373

Concept Mapping zur Unterstützung der differentialdiagnostischen Hypothesenbildung im fallbasierten Online-Lernsystem CASUS: Qualitative Verbesserung der Diagnosefindung durch ICD-10 Kodierung [Concept mapping for supporting the differential diagnostic generation of hypotheses in the case-based online learning system CASUS: Qualitative improvement of dagnostic performance through ICD-10 coding  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available [english] Introduction: Concept mapping tools have long been established in medical education as an aid for visualizing learning processes in computer-based programs. The case-based learning system CASUS with its mapping tool for visualizing the differential diagnostic reasoning process is an example. It was shown that such tools are well accepted by users and lead to an increased number of diagnostic hypotheses being visualized as maps. However, there is scarce evidence on the quality of user-generated diagnostic hypotheses. This study examines the quality of diagnostic hypotheses obtained with CASUS and whether the quality can be improved through ICD-10 coding as compared with an expert’s solution. Methods: We randomized 192 third-year medical students at the University of Munich into two groups. The students worked in groups of two on one computer. Group A was asked to code their diagnostic hypotheses with an ICD-10 coding browser before entering them into the mapping tool. Group B generated their hypotheses without prior ICD-10 coding. The differential diagnostic reasoning visualizations were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. An expert solution was used as reference. Results: Eighty-seven differential diagnoses were evaluated. Group A, using ICD-10 coding, made the correct and precise diagnosis of malaria tropica significantly more often than Group B (p < 0.05. For additional alternative diagnostic hypotheses, no quantitative or qualitative differences were detected. Conclusions: ICD-10 coding in connection with a mapping tool supporting the diagnostic reasoning process improved the accuracy of diagnostic performance in third-year medical students in the case of malaria tropica. [german] Einleitung: Der Einsatz von Concept-Mapping-Tools in computergestützten Lernprogrammen ist in der medizinischen Ausbildung etabliert: Es konnte gezeigt werden, dass diese Werkzeuge zur Visualisierung von Differentialdiagnosen vom Anwender akzeptiert werden und zu einer vermehrten Hypothesenbildung beitragen. Es gibt bisher jedoch wenige Erkenntnisse über die Qualität der dabei vom Anwender erstellten Hypothesen. Die vorliegende Studie untersucht die Qualität der im Netzwerk-Tool im fallbasierten Lernsystem CASUS erstellten Hypothesen und inwieweit diese durch Kodierung mittels ICD10 präzisiert werden können. Methodik: Die Lernenden bearbeiteten zu zweit einen Computerlernfall zum Thema Malaria. Wir randomisierten 192 Teilnehmer der Studie aus dem 3. Studienjahr an der Universität München in zwei Gruppen: Gruppe A wurde gebeten, die erdachten Hypothesen vor der Eingabe in das Netzwerk-Tool mittels eines ICD10-Browsers zu kodieren. Gruppe B erstellte ihre Hypothesen ohne weitere Hilfsmittel. Die Netzwerke wurden quantitativ und qualitativ evaluiert und die Ergebnisse der beiden Gruppen verglichen. Als Referenz diente das von Experten erstellte Netzwerk. Ergebnisse: 87 differentialdiagnostische Netzwerke konnten ausgewertet werden. In Gruppe A mit ICD10-Kodierung der Hypothesen, konnten die Lernenden signifikant häufiger (p<0,005 die exakte Hauptdiagnose Malaria tropica stellen. In der Gruppe ohne ICD10 Kodierung wurde signifikant häufiger (p<0,005 die unpräzise Diagnose "Malaria" gestellt. Für die Nebendiagnosen ergaben sich qualitativ und quantitativ keine Unterschiede. Schlussfolgerungen: Die ICD10-Kodierung der Hypothesen im Netzwerk-Tool führte zu einer präziseren Diagnosestellung der Studierenden im klinischen Studienabschnitt. Die Integration eines ICD-Browsers zur Unterstützung der differentialdiagnostischen Hypothesenbildung in fallbasierten Lernsystemen ist sinnvoll.

Kernt, Marcus

2008-08-01

374

Use of an integrated MS--multiplexed MS/MS data acquisition strategy for high-coverage peptide mapping studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) peptide maps have become a basic tool for characterizing proteins of biological and pharmaceutical interest. The ability to generate reproducible maps with high protein sequence coverage is a central goal of methods development. We have applied a recently developed analytical approach (termed LC/MS(E)) to LC/MS peptide mapping. Using the LC/MS(E) approach, the mass detector alternates between a low-energy scanning mode (MS) for accurate mass peptide precursor identification, and an elevated-energy mode (MS(E)) for generation of accurate mass multiplex peptide fragmentation data. In this paper, we evaluate this analytical approach against a tryptic digest of yeast enolase. From the low-energy data, high peptide map coverage (98% of sequence from peptides >3 amino acids) was reproducibly obtained. The MS signal for essentially equimolar peptides varied over 2 orders of magnitude in intensity, and peptide intensities could be precisely and reproducibly measured. Using the temporal constraint that MS(E) peptide fragment ions exhibit chromatographic profiles that parallel the precursor ions that generated them, we were able to produce accurate mass time-resolved MS/MS information for all enolase peptides with sufficient abundance to produce a detectable fragment ion. PMID:17279597

Chakraborty, Asish B; Berger, Scott J; Gebler, John C

2007-01-01

375

A Novel Bioinformatics Strategy to Analyze Microbial Big Sequence Data for Efficient Knowledge Discovery: Batch-Learning Self-Organizing Map (BLSOM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the remarkable increase of genomic sequence data of microorganisms, novel tools are needed for comprehensive analyses of the big sequence data available. The self-organizing map (SOM is an effective tool for clustering and visualizing high-dimensional data, such as oligonucleotide composition on one map. By modifying the conventional SOM, we developed batch-learning SOM (BLSOM, which allowed classification of sequence fragments (e.g., 1 kb according to phylotypes, solely depending on oligonucleotide composition. Metagenomics studies of uncultivable microorganisms in clinical and environmental samples should allow extensive surveys of genes important in life sciences. BLSOM is most suitable for phylogenetic assignment of metagenomic sequences, because fragmental sequences can be clustered according to phylotypes, solely depending on oligonucleotide composition. We first constructed oligonucleotide BLSOMs for all available sequences from genomes of known species, and by mapping metagenomic sequences on these large-scale BLSOMs, we can predict phylotypes of individual metagenomic sequences, revealing a microbial community structure of uncultured microorganisms, including viruses. BLSOM has shown that influenza viruses isolated from humans and birds clearly differ in oligonucleotide composition. Based on this host-dependent oligonucleotide composition, we have proposed strategies for predicting directional changes of virus sequences and for surveilling potentially hazardous strains when introduced into humans from non-human sources.

Yuki Iwasaki

2013-11-01

376

A note on the efficiencies of sampling strategies in two-stage Bayesian regional fine mapping of a quantitative trait.  

Science.gov (United States)

In focused studies designed to follow up associations detected in a genome-wide association study (GWAS), investigators can proceed to fine-map a genomic region by targeted sequencing or dense genotyping of all variants in the region, aiming to identify a functional sequence variant. For the analysis of a quantitative trait, we consider a Bayesian approach to fine-mapping study design that incorporates stratification according to a promising GWAS tag SNP in the same region. Improved cost-efficiency can be achieved when the fine-mapping phase incorporates a two-stage design, with identification of a smaller set of more promising variants in a subsample taken in stage 1, followed by their evaluation in an independent stage 2 subsample. To avoid the potential negative impact of genetic model misspecification on inference we incorporate genetic model selection based on posterior probabilities for each competing model. Our simulation study shows that, compared to simple random sampling that ignores genetic information from GWAS, tag-SNP-based stratified sample allocation methods reduce the number of variants continuing to stage 2 and are more likely to promote the functional sequence variant into confirmation studies. PMID:25132153

Chen, Zhijian; Craiu, Radu V; Bull, Shelley B

2014-11-01

377

Students' Alternative Conceptions of the Human Circulatory System: A Cross-Age Study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Concept maps and structured/clinical interviews were completed by 25 fourth graders and 25 college freshmen to determine knowledge of the human circulatory system. Students (N=945) at various levels were then measured for misconception frequencies. Student preconceptions appear to be tenacious, but confrontation strategies may assist fundamental…

Arnaudin, Mary W.; Mintzes, Joel J.

1985-01-01

378

Redefinición y tendencias del concepto de estrategia para el gerente colombiano / Redefinition and trends of the concept of strategy for the Colombian manager  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese Na Colômbia, são poucos os estudos especializados realizados sobre estratégia e pensamento estratégico com referência ao empresário e as empresas. A indagação mostra algumas pesquisas realizadas sobre a matéria na Universidade do Rosário, na Universidade dos Andes e na Universidade Icesi, pioneiras [...] neste tipo de estudo; que buscam conhecer um pouco de como pensam e agem os gerentes colombianos. Desta vez, a pergunta sobre o tema direciona-se ao grupo de gestão empresarial da Universidade CES e ao grupo Perdurabilidade Empresarial da Universidade de Rosário, que a partir das aulas assistidas na cátedra empresarial em ambas as instituições, pretendem contribuir no assunto definindo o conceito de estratégia a partir do interesse de um gerente colombiano. Abstract in spanish En Colombia son pocos los estudios especializados realizados sobre estrategia y pensamiento estratégico con referencia al empresario y las empresas. La indagación muestra algunas investigaciones realizadas sobre la materia en la Universidad del Rosario, en la Universidad de los Andes y en la Univers [...] idad Icesi, pioneras en este tipo de estudios; que buscan conocer un poco acerca de cómo piensan y actúan los gerentes colombianos. Ésta vez, la pregunta sobre el tema se traslada al grupo de gestión empresarial de la Universidad ces y al grupo de Perdurabilidad Empresarial de la Universidad del Rosario, quienes a partir de las conferencias obtenidas en la cátedra empresarial en ambas instituciones, pretenden contribuir al interés por definir el concepto de estrategia desde la perspectiva del gerente colombiano. Abstract in english In Colombia, only a few specialized studies have been conducted on the topic of strategy and strategic thinking with reference to employers and companies. The inquiry shows the findings of some research works on this subject at Universidad del Rosario, Universidad de los Andes, and, Icesi University [...] in Cali, which are pioneers in these kinds of studies aiming at learning more about how Colombian managers think and act. In this opportunity, the question regarding this topic was addressed by the business management group at the CES University and the business sustainability group at Universidad del Rosario, who use the knowledge, obtained through conferences in entrepreneurial courses, to contribute to raising interest in defining the concept of strategy from the perspective of Colombian managers.

JAHIR ALEXANDER, GUTIERREZ OSSA.

2012-03-01

379

Road mapping technology for enhancing security to protect medical & genetic data. D6.1 RADICAL project dissemination strategy  

OpenAIRE

The RADICAL Dissemination Strategy describes the approach and strategic planning for raising the awareness for, and supporting the understanding of the VPH approach and particularly also for the protection of medical and genetic data in the implemen-tation of that approach. It supports further the promotion of the RADICAL projects&8223; results, in particular to researchers, health projects in the FP7 programme, EU policy makers, national health authorities and other stakeholders.

Lange, M.; Giambene, G.; Stylianidis, S.; Smagas, K.; Chini, P.; Menevidis, Z.; Cox, B.; Tavlaki, E.; Kolios, A.

2009-01-01

380

The use of guided free and formal journal writing in the development of conceptual change in ninth-grade Earth science students as measured using concept maps and achievement tests  

Science.gov (United States)

The problem for this study is stated as follows. Does using guided free and formal journal writing affect a positive increase in conceptual change in science for ninth grade Earth science students when compared to ninth grade Earth science students not using guided free and formal journal writing? During one semester of work, an experimental group of 29 students used guided freewriting and formal writing of a summary in their journals. A control group of 29 students did not use journals during the same semester of study. Students within the experimental group spent five minutes at the end of each class for guided freewriting about concepts presented that day. On Friday of each week or at the close of a unit, students spent 15 minutes formally writing about the week's work. Students in both groups began each unit of study by creating a concept map and taking a pre-achievement test. At the close of each unit, students in both groups created a concept map and took a post-achievement test. In all four units of study, the amount of increase in the means from pre- to post-concept map scores for the experimental group was significantly greater (p freewriting and weekly formal writing in their science journals. The data was analyzed using a two-way ANOVA. The test yielded a significant interaction at p < 0.001 whereby guided free and formal journal writing did affect a positive increase in conceptual change in science for ninth grade Earth science students when compared to ninth grade Earth science students not using guided free and formal journal writing.

Feather, Ralph Merle, Jr.

381

Assessing the performance of different high-density tiling microarray strategies for mapping transcribed regions of the human genome.  

Science.gov (United States)

Genomic tiling microarrays have become a popular tool for interrogating the transcriptional activity of large regions of the genome in an unbiased fashion. There are several key parameters associated with each tiling experiment (e.g., experimental protocols and genomic tiling density). Here, we assess the role of these parameters as they are manifest in different tiling-array platforms used for transcription mapping. First, we analyze how a number of published tiling-array experiments agree with established gene annotation on human chromosome 22. We observe that the transcription detected from high-density arrays correlates substantially better with annotation than that from other array types. Next, we analyze the transcription-mapping performance of the two main high-density oligonucleotide array platforms in the ENCODE regions of the human genome. We hybridize identical biological samples and develop several ways of scoring the arrays and segmenting the genome into transcribed and nontranscribed regions, with the aim of making the platforms most comparable to each other. Finally, we develop a platform comparison approach based on agreement with known annotation. Overall, we find that the performance improves with more data points per locus, coupled with statistical scoring approaches that properly take advantage of this, where this larger number of data points arises from higher genomic tiling density and the use of replicate arrays and mismatches. While we do find significant differences in the performance of the two high-density platforms, we also find that they complement each other to some extent. Finally, our experiments reveal a significant amount of novel transcription outside of known genes, and an appreciable sample of this was validated by independent experiments. PMID:17119069

Emanuelsson, Olof; Nagalakshmi, Ugrappa; Zheng, Deyou; Rozowsky, Joel S; Urban, Alexander E; Du, Jiang; Lian, Zheng; Stolc, Viktor; Weissman, Sherman; Snyder, Michael; Gerstein, Mark B

2007-06-01

382

STUDY ON S.W.O.T ANALYSIS ON ONE FIRM IN THE TEXTILE INDUSTRY TO IMPLEMENT NEW CONCEPTS AND STRATEGIES  

OpenAIRE

Some commercial companies in the textile industry are concerned with the implementation of new strategies that lead to the development of high quality products, which are offered to the clients as quickly aspossible. Achieving this objective leads directly to the success of the company and getting the profit [3, 17, 19].Continuous improvement strategy “KAIZEN” represents a strategy whereby it designates the gradual and continuous improvement of the company' management and company's activi...

Pustianu, M.; Bucevschi, A.; Popa, A.; Airinei, E.

2012-01-01

383

Spectroscopic mapping and selective electronic tuning of molecular orbitals in phosphorescent organometallic complexes – a new strategy for OLED materials  

Science.gov (United States)

Summary The improvement of molecular electronic devices such as organic light-emitting diodes requires fundamental knowledge about the structural and electronic properties of the employed molecules as well as their interactions with neighboring molecules or interfaces. We show that highly resolved scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and spectroscopy (STS) are powerful tools to correlate the electronic properties of phosphorescent complexes (i.e., triplet emitters) with their molecular structure as well as the local environment around a single molecule. We used spectroscopic mapping to visualize several occupied and unoccupied molecular frontier orbitals of Pt(II) complexes adsorbed on Au(111). The analysis showed that the molecules exhibit a peculiar localized strong hybridization that leads to partial depopulation of a dz² orbital, while the ligand orbitals are almost unchanged. We further found that substitution of functional groups at well-defined positions can alter specific molecular orbitals without influencing the others. The results open a path toward the tailored design of electronic and optical properties of triplet emitters by smart ligand substitution, which may improve the performance of future OLED devices. PMID:25551053

Ewen, Pascal R; Sanning, Jan; Koch, Tobias; Doltsinis, Nikos L

2014-01-01

384

Concept Learning through Image Processing.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study explored computer-based image processing as a study strategy for middle school students' science concept learning. Specifically, the research examined the effects of computer graphics generation on science concept learning and the impact of using computer graphics to show interrelationships among concepts during study time. The 87…

Cifuentes, Lauren; Yi-Chuan, Jane Hsieh

385

Interrater reliability of the mind map assessment rubric in a cohort of medical students  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Learning strategies are thinking tools that students can use to actively acquire information. Examples of learning strategies include mnemonics, charts, and maps. One strategy that may help students master the tsunami of information presented in medical school is the mind map learning strategy. Currently, there is no valid and reliable rubric to grade mind maps and this may contribute to their underutilization in medicine. Because concept maps and mind maps engage learners similarly at a metacognitive level, a valid and reliable concept map assessment scoring system was adapted to form the mind map assessment rubric (MMAR. The MMAR can assess mind map depth based upon concept-links, cross-links, hierarchies, examples, pictures, and colors. The purpose of this study was to examine interrater reliability of the MMAR. Methods This exploratory study was conducted at a US medical school as part of a larger investigation on learning strategies. Sixty-six (N = 66 first-year medical students were given a 394-word text passage followed by a 30-minute presentation on mind mapping. After the presentation, subjects were again given the text passage and instructed to create mind maps based upon the passage. The mind maps were collected and independently scored using the MMAR by 3 examiners. Interrater reliability was measured using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC statistic. Statistics were calculated using SPSS version 12.0 (Chicago, IL. Results Analysis of the mind maps revealed the following: concept-links ICC = .05 (95% CI, -.42 to .38, cross-links ICC = .58 (95% CI, .37 to .73, hierarchies ICC = .23 (95% CI, -.15 to .50, examples ICC = .53 (95% CI, .29 to .69, pictures ICC = .86 (95% CI, .79 to .91, colors ICC = .73 (95% CI, .59 to .82, and total score ICC = .86 (95% CI, .79 to .91. Conclusion The high ICC value for total mind map score indicates strong MMAR interrater reliability. Pictures and colors demonstrated moderate to strong interrater reliability. We conclude that the MMAR may be a valid and reliable tool to assess mind maps in medicine. However, further research on the validity and reliability of the MMAR is necessary.

Zipp Genevieve

2009-04-01

386

Anteil Stigma-assoziierter Themen im Psychiatrie-Konzept von Medizinstudierenden in der Einführung in die klinische Medizin: Eine Mind-Map Studie [Proportion of stigma-associated items in medical students' psychiatric concepts at the beginning of the clinical phase of medical education: a mind-map study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available [english] Aims: Despite many efforts by support groups, mental health professionals and health care policy-makers, a stigmatization of psychiatry as a specialty and of mentally ill people is still prevalent in the general population. Earlier studies have shown that the stigma is prevalent even among psychiatric professionals and students of medicine and psychology. However, past studies on this issue often used questionnaires with a limited validity. Also questionnaires do not necessarily allow a neutral assessment of the underlying concepts of the student. Methods: In this study 133 students were asked to create mind maps on psychiatry. Results: In a systematic evaluation (based on a consensus of psychiatric concepts of 1353 concepts we found non-specific associations (N = 431 and five main categories: (i illness scirpts (n = 487; (ii therapeutic concepts (n = 241, (iii and (iv stigma and forensic psychiatry (81 mentions each; and (v psychopathology (n = 32. Stigma-associated negative concepts were more prevalent than positive connotations. Conclusions: Overall, it was shown that mind maps can be used with ease and quantified according to constructivist learning theory to explore disease concepts without the need for predefined or poorly validated questionnaires.[german] Zielsetzung: Trotz vieler Bemühungen, u. a. von Selbsthilfegruppen, der Fachgesellschaft und der Gesundheitspolitik gibt es in der Allgemeinbevölkerung immer noch eine Stigmatisierung der Psychiatrie als Fachgebiet. Frühere Untersuchungen zeigten, dass auch in der Psychiatrie tätige Menschen und Studierende der Medizin und Psychologie stigmatisierenden Äußerungen zustimmen. Zur genaueren Betrachtung wurden in der Vergangenheit jedoch meist Fragebögen verwendet, die eine begrenzte Validität haben und nicht zwangsläufig eine neutrale Beurteilung der zugrundeliegenden Konzepte der Studierenden erlauben.Methodik: In der vorliegenden Studie wurden 133 Studierende gebeten, Mind-Maps zum Thema Psychiatrie zu erstellen. Ergebnisse: In der systematischen Auswertung (auf der Basis vorher im Konsens bestimmter Konzepte von 1353 Begriffen ergaben sich neben unspezifischen Assoziationen (n=431 fünf Oberkategorien: 1. Krankheitsbilder (n=487; 2. Therapieformen (n=241; 3. und 4. Stigma-assoziierte Themen bzw. Eigen- und Fremdgefährdung (jeweils 81 Nennungen und 5. Psychopathologie (n=32. Negativ belegte Stigma-Themen waren wesentlich häufiger als positive Einstellungen zum Thema Stigma und betrafen meist Zwangsmaßnahmen. Schlussfolgerung: Insgesamt zeigte sich, dass Mind-Maps einfach eingesetzt und ausgewertet werden können, um Krankheitskonzepte und assoziierte Begriffe zu einem Fachgebiet im Sinne der konstruktivistischen Lerntheorie zu explorieren, ohne vordefinierte Fragebögen zu verwenden.

Degirmenci, Ümüt

2010-02-01

387

Harvard Map Collection: Digital Maps  

Science.gov (United States)

Not surprisingly, Harvard University has one of the largest map collections in the United States, with over 500,000 items. While not all of these items have been digitized for this site, visitors can take advantage of hundreds of the items here. First-time visitors should read the "Introduction" area and then browse through some of the map indexes. The site also includes technical information on the collection, and a selection of "Search Strategies". Some of the maps here document 17th century London, maps of the Revolutionary War, and towns in Massachusetts. The detailed search engine allows users to search by collection, keyword, and those records that have digital objects. Finally, the site also includes links to the Harvard Geospatial Library and the Harvard College Library.

388

Value adding management: A concept and a case  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Purpose: To develop a management concept that can assist facilities managers in implementing value adding strategies and practices. The FM Value Map has been developed to analyse and demonstrate the different ways FM can add value. However, there is a need to develop management tools that can be used more directly and proactively by facilities managers to implement adding value strategies and practices. Methodology: The development of the concept of Value Adding Management is based on the management model for FM included in the European FM standards, recent theories on added value of FM and real estate and the related concept of Value Management from building projects. The chapter outlines a preliminary theoretical based management concept, which is investigated, tested and discussed based on a case study of LEGO. Findings: The case study provides a clear example of a company that actual practice value adding management. It underlines the importance of stakeholder and relationship management as part of adding value. The case study confirms the relevance of the basic concept of Value Adding Management. Practical implications: The concept of Value Adding Management is expected to increase the awareness of the impacts and strategic importance of FM for organisations and can be a practical tool for facilities managers in implementing value adding strategies and practices. Research limitations: The concept has only been validated in a single case study; the generality should be validated with case studies from other types of organisation. Originality/value: The concept is new and represents a promising way to strengthen the strategic management of FM.

Jensen, Per Anker; Katchamart, Akarapong

2012-01-01

389

Geologic Maps and Mapping  

Science.gov (United States)

This portal provides access to resources on geologic mapping, and to sources of geologic maps. There is an introduction to geologic mapping, which summarizes its principles and practices, and a history of United States Geological Survey (USGS) mapping activities from 1879 to the present, as well as links to papers on the values and hazards associated with geologic maps and mapping. Online sources of maps include the USGS Geologic Map Database, other federal map products (FEDMAP), state geological survey products (STATEMAP), and university map products (EDMAP).

390

Mapping in the cloud  

CERN Document Server

This engaging text provides a solid introduction to mapmaking in the era of cloud computing. It takes students through both the concepts and technology of modern cartography, geographic information systems (GIS), and Web-based mapping. Conceptual chapters delve into the meaning of maps and how they are developed, covering such topics as map layers, GIS tools, mobile mapping, and map animation. Methods chapters take a learn-by-doing approach to help students master application programming interfaces and build other technical skills for creating maps and making them available on the Internet. Th

Peterson, Michael P

2014-01-01

391

Some Combined Relations between Contractive Mappings, Kannan Mappings, Reasonable Expansive Mappings, and -Stability  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In recent literature concerning fixed point theory for self-mappings in metric spaces , there are some new concepts which can be mutually related so that the inherent properties of each one might be combined for such self-mappings. Self-mappings can be referred to, for instance, as Kannan-mappings, reasonable expansive mappings, and Picard -stable mappings. Some relations between such concepts subject either to sufficient, necessary, or necessary and sufficient conditions are obtained so that in certain self-mappings can exhibit combined properties being inherent to each of its various characterizations.

De la Sen M

2009-01-01

392

A novel approach to mapping load transfer from the plantar surface of the foot to the walls of the total contact cast: a proof of concept study  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Total contact casting is regarded as the gold standard treatment for plantar foot ulcers. Load transfer from the plantar surface of the foot to the walls of the total contact cast has previously been assessed indirectly. The aim of this proof of concept study was to determine the feasibility of a new method to directly measure the load between the cast wall and the lower leg interface using capacitance sensors. Methods Plantar load was measured with pedar® sensor insoles ...

Begg Lindy; McLaughlin Patrick; Manning Leon; Vicaretti Mauro; Fletcher John; Burns Joshua

2012-01-01

393

Advancement of the climate dual strategy. New concepts for a globally effective climate protection; Weiterentwicklung der baden-wuerttembergischen Klimadoppelstrategie. Neue Konzepte fuer einen global wirksamen Klimaschutz  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Baden-Wuerttemberg Council on Sustainable Development (Stuttgart, Federal Republic of Germany) presents a climate expert report with new concepts for a globally effective climate protection. First of all, the development of the global emissions of carbon dioxide since 1990 is described. The development of the global emissions of carbon dioxide up to 2050 is forecasted. Four general criteria (effectiveness, efficiency, fairness and acceptance) for a comparative evaluation of climate protection concepts are introduced. A proposal for solution on the basis of a globally effective cap-and-trade system as well as an identical scenario as an alternative with respect to the implementation are described. This alternative scenario is based on a cap-and-trade system but it develops on the basis of national self-commitment in accordance with an incentive and sanctionative system. Both implementation proposals are compared. Recommendations of the national government Baden-Wuerttemberg are given.

NONE

2010-10-15

394

A map-based cloning strategy employing a residual heterozygous line reveals that the GIGANTEA gene is involved in soybean maturity and flowering.  

Science.gov (United States)

Flowering is indicative of the transition from vegetative to reproductive phase, a critical event in the life cycle of plants. In soybean (Glycine max), a flowering quantitative trait locus, FT2, corresponding to the maturity locus E2, was detected in recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from the varieties "Misuzudaizu" (ft2/ft2; JP28856) and "Moshidou Gong 503" (FT2/FT2; JP27603). A map-based cloning strategy using the progeny of a residual heterozygous line (RHL) from the RIL was employed to isolate the gene responsible for this quantitative trait locus. A GIGANTEA ortholog, GmGIa (Glyma10g36600), was identified as a candidate gene. A common premature stop codon at the 10th exon was present in the Misuzudaizu allele and in other near isogenic lines (NILs) originating from Harosoy (e2/e2; PI548573). Furthermore, a mutant line harboring another premature stop codon showed an earlier flowering phenotype than the original variety, Bay (E2/E2; PI553043). The e2/e2 genotype exhibited elevated expression of GmFT2a, one of the florigen genes that leads to early flowering. The effects of the E2 allele on flowering time were similar among NILs and constant under high (43°N) and middle (36°N) latitudinal regions in Japan. These results indicate that GmGIa is the gene responsible for the E2 locus and that a null mutation in GmGIa may contribute to the geographic adaptation of soybean. PMID:21406680

Watanabe, Satoshi; Xia, Zhengjun; Hideshima, Rumiko; Tsubokura, Yasutaka; Sato, Shusei; Yamanaka, Naoki; Takahashi, Ryoji; Anai, Toyoaki; Tabata, Satoshi; Kitamura, Keisuke; Harada, Kyuya

2011-06-01

395

Estratégias de aprendizagem e aprender a aprender: concepções e conhecimento de professores Estrategias de aprendizaje y aprender a aprender: concepciones y conocimiento de maestros Learning strategies and learning to learn: teacher’s conceptions and knowledge  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Como parte de uma pesquisa que tem por objetivo analisar o professor como estudante, seu conhecimento e uso de estratégias de aprendizagem, o presente estudo visa a investigar as concepções e o conhecimento dessas estratégias e do aprender a aprender de 35 professoras do ensino fundamental, de 1ª a 4ª séries, de três escolas da rede estadual de Campinas. Os dados foram coletados por meio de uma entrevista individual estruturada, tendo sido realizada uma análise de conteúdo das respostas abertas. As questões fechadas foram estudadas com base na estatística descritiva, e os resultados revelaram que muitas professoras confundiram o conceito de estratégias de aprendizagem com o de estratégias de ensino. A concepção do aprender a aprender também se apresentou equivocada. Os dados são discutidos em termos de suas implicações educacionais.Como parte de una investigación que tiene por objetivo analizar el maestro como estudiante, su conocimiento y uso de estrategias de aprendizaje, el presente estudio pretende investigar las concepciones y el conocimiento de esas estrategias y del aprender a aprender de 35 maestras de la educación básica, de 1º a 4º grados, de tres escuelas de la red pública de Campinas. Los datos fueron colectados a través de una encuesta individual estructurada, habiendo sido realizado un análisis del contenido de las respuestas abiertas. Las preguntas cerradas fueron estudiadas basado en la estadística descriptiva, y los resultados revelaron que muchas maestras confundieron el concepto de estrategias de aprendizaje con el de estrategias de enseñanza. La concepción del aprender a aprender también se presentó equivocada. Los datos son discutidos en términos de sus implicaciones educacionales.As a part of a research aimed at investigating the teacher as a student, his/her knowledge and the use of learning strategies, the objective of the present study was to examine the conceptions and the knowledge of learning strategies and learning to learn of 35 elementary school teachers, from 1st to 4th grades of three Campinas public schools. The data were collected through a structured individual interview. A content analysis of the open answers was accomplished. The closed answers were studied through descriptive statistics, and the results disclosed that most of the teachers misunderstood the concept of learning strategies confounding it with teaching strategies. The conception of learning to learn was also mistaken. The data are discussed in terms of their educational implications.

Osmar José Ximenes dos Santos

2011-01-01

396

Estratégias de aprendizagem e aprender a aprender: concepções e conhecimento de professores / Learning strategies and learning to learn: teacher’s conceptions and knowledge / Estrategias de aprendizaje y aprender a aprender: concepciones y conocimiento de maestros  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Como parte de uma pesquisa que tem por objetivo analisar o professor como estudante, seu conhecimento e uso de estratégias de aprendizagem, o presente estudo visa a investigar as concepções e o conhecimento dessas estratégias e do aprender a aprender de 35 professoras do ensino fundamental, de 1ª a [...] 4ª séries, de três escolas da rede estadual de Campinas. Os dados foram coletados por meio de uma entrevista individual estruturada, tendo sido realizada uma análise de conteúdo das respostas abertas. As questões fechadas foram estudadas com base na estatística descritiva, e os resultados revelaram que muitas professoras confundiram o conceito de estratégias de aprendizagem com o de estratégias de ensino. A concepção do aprender a aprender também se apresentou equivocada. Os dados são discutidos em termos de suas implicações educacionais. Abstract in spanish Como parte de una investigación que tiene por objetivo analizar el maestro como estudiante, su conocimiento y uso de estrategias de aprendizaje, el presente estudio pretende investigar las concepciones y el conocimiento de esas estrategias y del aprender a aprender de 35 maestras de la educación bás [...] ica, de 1º a 4º grados, de tres escuelas de la red pública de Campinas. Los datos fueron colectados a través de una encuesta individual estructurada, habiendo sido realizado un análisis del contenido de las respuestas abiertas. Las preguntas cerradas fueron estudiadas basado en la estadística descriptiva, y los resultados revelaron que muchas maestras confundieron el concepto de estrategias de aprendizaje con el de estrategias de enseñanza. La concepción del aprender a aprender también se presentó equivocada. Los datos son discutidos en términos de sus implicaciones educacionales. Abstract in english As a part of a research aimed at investigating the teacher as a student, his/her knowledge and the use of learning strategies, the objective of the present study was to examine the conceptions and the knowledge of learning strategies and learning to learn of 35 elementary school teachers, from 1st t [...] o 4th grades of three Campinas public schools. The data were collected through a structured individual interview. A content analysis of the open answers was accomplished. The closed answers were studied through descriptive statistics, and the results disclosed that most of the teachers misunderstood the concept of learning strategies confounding it with teaching strategies. The conception of learning to learn was also mistaken. The data are discussed in terms of their educational implications.

Osmar José Ximenes dos, Santos; Evely, Boruchovitch.

397

Evaluation of pesticide monitoring strategies in agricultural streams based on the toxic-unit concept--experiences from long-term measurements.  

Science.gov (United States)

The European Water Framework Directive requires surface water bodies to have a good chemical and ecological status. Although relatively few pesticides are included in the list of priority pollutants, they pose, due to their intrinsic biological activity, a significant risk for the integrity of aquatic ecosystems. In this context, the pesticide (up to 128 pesticides including some transformation products) exposure pattern in four agricultural streams and two rivers was determined from 2002 to 2011 under the umbrella of the Swedish national monitoring program employing time-proportional and grab sampling strategies, respectively. After transforming the measured pesticide concentrations into toxic units, the European Uniform Principles for algae (chronic), invertebrates and fish (both acute), which are partly employed as benchmark for pesticide regulation, were only occasionally (rivers, respectively. Moreover, the monitoring data show a continuous but rather low toxic potential of pesticides for all three trophic levels throughout the year, which suggests pesticides as an evolutionary force in agriculturally impacted aquatic ecosystems. However, the flow-triggered sampling, which was implemented as an additional sampling strategy in one of the agricultural streams starting in 2006, displayed an up to 7-fold underestimation of the maximum concentration in terms of toxic units for daphnids and fish during run-off events. The present study thus underpins that the optimal sampling design for pesticide monitoring strongly depends on its overall purpose. If the long-term exposure pattern is of concern a time-proportional composite sampling strategy is recommended, while for an assessment of peak exposures a flow-event-triggered high-resolution sampling strategy is superior. PMID:24686148

Bundschuh, Mirco; Goedkoop, Willem; Kreuger, Jenny

2014-06-15

398

Characteristics of Strategies in Product/Service-System Development  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The underlying principle in Product/Service-Systems (PSS) strategy is to shift from business based on the value of the transfer of product ownership and responsibility, to business based on the value of utility of the product and services. This paper identifies characteristics of various strategies that may be applied in PSS development. PSS concepts created in projects by third year Design & Innovation students at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) working with product-life oriented design approaches were reviewed, and the strategies developed were analysed. This identification and mapping of PSS strategy types gives us the opportunity to develop methods and approaches to PSS development, more tailored to specific business strategies.

Tan, Adrian; McAloone, Timothy Charles

2006-01-01

399

Suggesting the Enhanced Lakatosian Conflict Map for Science Teaching  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study is to suggest teaching strategies and procedures based on Lakatosian heuristic principle through suggested enhanced Lakatosian Conflict Map. Kuhn’s philosophy and history of science has been widely influential, but in this research it is argued that it is more appropriate to consider constructivist research within Science Education as ‘Research Program’ in the sense used by I. Lakatos. The Lakatosian Conflict Map applied in this research could help teachers understand the Cognitive dissonance between their students’ existing ideas and target scientific concepts.

Jun-Young Oh

2014-06-01

400

Automated mapping of clinical terms into SNOMED-CT. An application to codify procedures in pathology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Clinical terminologies are considered a key technology for capturing clinical data in a precise and standardized manner, which is critical to accurately exchange information among different applications, medical records and decision support systems. An important step to promote the real use of clinical terminologies, such as SNOMED-CT, is to facilitate the process of finding mappings between local terms of medical records and concepts of terminologies. In this paper, we propose a mapping tool to discover text-to-concept mappings in SNOMED-CT. Name-based techniques were combined with a query expansion system to generate alternative search terms, and with a strategy to analyze and take advantage of the semantic relationships of the SNOMED-CT concepts. The developed tool was evaluated and compared to the search services provided by two SNOMED-CT browsers. Our tool automatically mapped clinical terms from a Spanish glossary of procedures in pathology with 88.0% precision and 51.4% recall, providing a substantial improvement of recall (28% and 60%) over other publicly accessible mapping services. The improvements reached by the mapping tool are encouraging. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of accurately mappin