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Sample records for computed radiography analysis

  1. Analysis of exposure technique in computed radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For proper x-ray data acquisition and image display in computed radiography (CR: Fuji), it is necessary to know the dynamic ranges of the detector and display, and also of the subject being radiographed. The authors developed a computer program that enables measurement of the dynamic range of the subject. In the conventional radiographic techniques, they kept the dynamic range of the subject within the dynamic range of the film by changing the exposure factors. Exposure techniques should be reconsidered to take full advantage of CR, because the images with wide dynamic range show effectiveness of the picture processing, particularly spatial filtering

  2. Scale analysis using X-ray microfluorescence and computed radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scale deposits are the most common and most troublesome damage problems in the oil field and can occur in both production and injection wells. They occur because the minerals in produced water exceed their saturation limit as temperatures and pressures change. Scale can vary in appearance from hard crystalline material to soft, friable material and the deposits can contain other minerals and impurities such as paraffin, salt and iron. In severe conditions, scale creates a significant restriction, or even a plug, in the production tubing. This study was conducted to qualify the elements present in scale samples and quantify the thickness of the scale layer using synchrotron radiation micro-X-ray fluorescence (SR?XRF) and computed radiography (CR) techniques. The SR?XRF results showed that the elements found in the scale samples were strontium, barium, calcium, chromium, sulfur and iron. The CR analysis showed that the thickness of the scale layer was identified and quantified with accuracy. These results can help in the decision making about removing the deposited scale. - Highlights: • Qualification of the elements present in scale deposits by SR?XRF. • Analysis of the distribution of the elements in scale samples. • Quantification of the scale layer thickness by computed radiography

  3. The comparative analysis of computed radiography (CR) and screen-film radiography' exposure condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the exposure condition of CR and screen-film radiography and the radiation dose to patients, and to evaluate image quality of the CR system. Methods: Two thousand and five hundred sheets of CR and screen-film radiography images were selected and then analyzed by two junior radiologists and one senior radiologist. Results: (1)The quality of the images was classified into grades A, B, C: grade A in 63.6% , grade B in 27.2% , grade C in 9.2% ,waste in 0% for CR while grade A in 40.2%, grade B in 42.4%, grade C in 15.6%, waste in 1.8% for screen-film radiography. (2)The required voltage of CR system was 1-6 kV higher and radiantion exposure was increased by about 20% than the screen-film radiography system. Conclusions: The imaging quality of CR was obviously higher than that of the screen-film radiography, providing reliable diagnosis evidence for clinical practice, but the disadvantage of CR system was the higher exposure condition required, which increase the patient dose. (authors)

  4. Analysis of the painting 'Gioventu' (Eliseu Visconti) using EDXRF and computed radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, the painting 'Gioventu' (Eliseu Visconti, 1898) was analyzed by means of energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and computed radiography. A portable EDXRF system was employed to identify the pigments used by the artist: yellow, red and brown ocher; umber; vermilion; cobalt blue; lead white and viridian (or chromium oxide). The CR analysis revealed that the painting was in a good state of conservation and also a previous composition hidden under the painting.

  5. Analysis of the painting "Gioventú" (Eliseu Visconti) using EDXRF and computed radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calza, Cristiane; Oliveira, Davi F; Rocha, Henrique de Souza; Pedreira, Andrea; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu

    2010-01-01

    In this work, the painting "Gioventú" (Eliseu Visconti, 1898) was analyzed by means of energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and computed radiography. A portable EDXRF system was employed to identify the pigments used by the artist: yellow, red and brown ocher; umber; vermilion; cobalt blue; lead white and viridian (or chromium oxide). The CR analysis revealed that the painting was in a good state of conservation and also a previous composition hidden under the painting. PMID:19897378

  6. Computational radiology in skeletal radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent years have brought rapid developments in computational image analysis in musculo-skeletal radiology. Meanwhile the algorithms have reached a maturity that makes initial clinical use feasible. Applications range from joint space measurement to erosion quantification, and from fracture detection to the assessment of alignment angles. Current results of computational image analysis in radiography are very promising, but some fundamental issues remain to be clarified, among which the definition of the optimal trade off between automatization and operator-dependency, the integration of these tools into clinical work flow and last not least the proof of incremental clinical benefit of these methods.

  7. Computational radiology in skeletal radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peloschek, Ph.; Nemec, S. [Computational Image Analysis and Radiology Lab (CIR), Department of Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Widhalm, P. [Computational Image Analysis and Radiology Lab (CIR), Department of Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Pattern Recognition and Image Processing Group, Department of Computer Aided Automation, Vienna University of Technology, Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8-10/020, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Donner, R. [Computational Image Analysis and Radiology Lab (CIR), Department of Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Pattern Recognition and Image Processing Group, Department of Computer Aided Automation, Vienna University of Technology, Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8-10/020, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Institute for Computer Graphics and Vision, Graz University of Technology, Inffeldgasse 16, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Birngruber, E. [Computational Image Analysis and Radiology Lab (CIR), Department of Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Thodberg, H.H. [Visiana Aps, Sollerodvej 57C, DK-2840 Holte (Denmark); Kainberger, F. [Computational Image Analysis and Radiology Lab (CIR), Department of Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Langs, G. [Computational Image Analysis and Radiology Lab (CIR), Department of Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: georg.langs@meduniwien.ac.at

    2009-11-15

    Recent years have brought rapid developments in computational image analysis in musculo-skeletal radiology. Meanwhile the algorithms have reached a maturity that makes initial clinical use feasible. Applications range from joint space measurement to erosion quantification, and from fracture detection to the assessment of alignment angles. Current results of computational image analysis in radiography are very promising, but some fundamental issues remain to be clarified, among which the definition of the optimal trade off between automatization and operator-dependency, the integration of these tools into clinical work flow and last not least the proof of incremental clinical benefit of these methods.

  8. Pediatric musculoskeletal computed radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background. In conventional radiography, a film-screen system serves as the X-ray detector and the film also functions as an archival and display medium. Unlike film-screen radiography, these functions are uncoupled in computed radiography (CR). CR uses conventional radiographic equipment to expose an image on a storage phosphor plate instead of a film-screen combination. Objective. To review the basic concepts of CR and to provide a background for discussion of specific musculoskeletal applications of CR in children. Materials and methods. Various aspects of musculoskeletal CR in children are presented based on our 4 years' experience and a review of the literature. Results. A greater amount of scatter capture occurs with storage phosphor CR than with a film-screen system in the 70- to 120-kVp range. This is attributed to a lower K-absorption edge of barium in the barium fluorohalide (BaFBr) compound used in the imaging plate. A significant reduction of scatter to primary radiation, improvement in bony trabecular sharpness, and improvement in line pair resolution can be achieved in pediatric musculoskeletal imaging using an air gap without an increase in the skin entrance dose as compared to the non-grid table top technique. With CR, in addition to proper radiographic exposure technique, one needs to preprogram and select the optimal processing technique for each anatomic region, projection and age group of the child. Conclusion. The main advantages of CR in pediatriion. The main advantages of CR in pediatric musculoskeletal imaging consist of a reduction in radiation dose for many applications, improved contrast resolution, near elimination of repeat radiographs related to exposure errors, and digital processing capabilities for image enhancement, storage, retrieval, display and transmission. The current limitations of CR include the moderately high start-up cost, the long learning curve to produce optimal films, and the reduced spatial resolution. (orig.). With 8 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Evaluation of the map accuracy thickness defects by computer analysis of the radiography images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of the sensitivity map radiography for the local profiles of the surface steel plate with artificial of the thickness defects were presented of the paper. Errors of these method estimation and they sources were presented also. Usefulness of this mapping radiography during field investigations for paper and film carriers were discussed and concluded. (author)

  10. X-ray fluorescence and computed radiography analysis of a famous brazilian painting from XIX century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work used Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) and Computed Radiography (CR) to evaluate the general conditions of the painting 'Gioventu' (Eliseu Visconti, 1898), identifying possible problems, areas that revealed signs of previous retouchings and the pigments used by the artist. EDXRF measurements were carried out with a portable system consisting of an X-ray tube Oxford TF3005 with W anode, operating at 25 kV and 100 ?A, and a Si-PIN XR-100CR detector from Amptek. Several spectra were obtained in each color, with an acquisition time of 300 s and a beam collimation of 2 mm. The spectra were analyzed using the software QXAS-AXIL (IAEA). The results revealed that the drawings were made over a preparatory layer of lead white. Some pigments identified were: yellow, red and brown ochre; umbra; vermilion; cobalt blue; etc. The experimental setup used in the CR analysis consisted of an Oxford X-ray source, operating at 50 kV and 200 ?A, placed at 85 cm from the painting, a GE CR 50P portable computed radiography scanner and a Fuji imaging plate detector. The exposure time was 600 s. The radiographic images revealed that the painting was in a good state of conservation and also a complete composition hidden underneath the visible paint layer.(author)

  11. Analysis of the painting 'Gioventu' (Eliseu Visconti) using EDXRF and computed radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EDXRF and Computed Radiography were used to evaluate the general conditions of the painting 'Gioventu' (Eliseu Visconti, 1898), identifying possible problems, areas that revealed signs of previous retouchings and the pigments used by the artist. EDXRF measurements were carried out with a portable system consisting of an X-ray tube Oxford TF3005 with W anode, operating at 25 kV and 100 ?A, and a Si-PIN XR100CR detector from Amptek. Several spectra were obtained in each color, with an acquisition time of 300 s and a beam collimation of 2 mm. The spectra were processed and analyzed using the software QXAS-AXIL (IAEA). The results revealed that the drawings were made over a preparatory layer of lead white. Some pigments identified were: yellow, red and brown ochre; umbra; vermilion; cobalt blue; etc. The experimental setup used in the CR analysis consisted of an Oxford X-ray source, operating at 50 kV and 200 A, placed at 85 cm from the painting, a GE CR 50P Portable Computed Radiography Scanner and a Fuji Imaging Plate detector. The exposure time was 600 s. The radiographic images revealed that the painting was in a good state of conservation

  12. Computed radiography in NDT applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed Radiography, or digital radiography by use of reusable Storage Phosphor screens, offers a convenient and reliable way to replace film. In addition to the reduced cost on consumables, the return on investment of CR systems is strongly determined by savings in exposure time, processing times and archival times. But also intangible costs like plant shutdown, environment safety and longer usability of isotopes are increasingly important when considering replacing film by Storage Phosphor systems. But more than in traditional radiography, the use of digital images is a trade-off between the speed and the required quality. Better image quality is obtained by longer exposure times, slower phosphor screens and higher scan resolutions. Therefore, different kinds of storage phosphor screens are needed in order to cover every application. Most operations have the data, associated with the tests to be performed, centrally stored in a database. Using a digital radiography system gives not only the advantages of the manipulation of digital images, but also the digital data that is associated with it. Smart methods to associate cassettes and Storage screens with exposed images enhance the workflow of the NDT processes, and avoid human error. Automated measurements tools increase the throughput in different kinds of operations. This paper gives an overview of the way certain operations have decided to replace film by Computed Radiography, and what the major benefits for themaphy, and what the major benefits for them have been. (author)

  13. Acute Knee Trauma: Analysis of Multidetector Computed Tomography Findings and Comparison with Conventional Radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) findings of acute knee trauma and to compare radiography with MDCT in patients referred ta level 1 trauma center. Material and Methods: During a 5-year period, a total of 415 MDCT examinations were performed on 409 patients with acute knee trauma to reveal complex fracture anatomy or rule out a fracture. MDCT and primary radiographs were re-evaluated with respect to fracture location and trauma mechanism. Tibial plateau fractures were further analyzed depending on anatomical location: anterior-medial, anterior-lateral, posterior-lateral, and posterior-medial regions. Maximal depression of the tibial articular surface was measured. Findings on the primary knee radiographs were compared with MDCT findings. Results: Of the 409 patients, 356 (87%) had a knee fracture. A total of 451 fractures were found in all anatomic regions: distal femur ( n = 49), proximal tibia ( n 307), patella ( n = 23), and proximal fibula ( n = 72). Primary radiographs were available in 316 (76%) cases. Of these, 225 (71%) had MDCT in order to reveal the fracture anatomy better, and 91 (29%) had a subsequent MDCT after negative plain radiographs. Overall sensitivity of radiography was 83%, while negative predictive value was 49%. On radiography, tibial plateau articular depression was underestimated in all regions except when the fracture consisted of the whole half of the anterior or posterior plateau. The three main injury mechanrior plateau. The three main injury mechanisms were traffic accident, a simple fall, and sport. In 49 cases (15%), primary radiographs were suboptimal due to positioning. Conclusion: In severely injured patients, diagnostically sufficient radiographs are difficult to obtain, and therefore a negative radiograph is not reliable in ruling out a fracture. In these patients, MDCT is a fast and accurate examination and is also recommended in patients with tibial plateau fractures or complex knee injuries in order to evaluate the fracture adequately

  14. Fact or fiction: An analysis of the 10 kVp ‘rule’ in computed radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine whether increasing the tube voltage by 10 kVp whilst reducing the tube current by 50% (10 kVp ‘rule’) produces similar perceptual image quality. Method: 391 matched pairs of anthropomorphic chest phantom X-ray images were produced on a computed radiography (CR) system. Five experienced clinicians graded the images using a 2 alternative forced choice comparison method. Based on acquisition parameters and dose area product (DAP) readings, effective dose (E) was calculated for all images using dose calculation software. Results: Perceptual image quality scores prior to and following application of the 10 kVp ‘rule’ were found have no statistical difference (p > 0.1), indicating that the increase in kVp and reduction in mAs had limited impact on the perceptual image quality. In all cases E reduced, with an average 36% (s.d 7%) after the ‘rule’ had been applied (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Results demonstrate that application of the 10 kVp ‘rule’ significantly reduces E, with no significant reduction in perceptual image quality. Further research should be conducted for a range of examinations using CR and digital radiography (DR) systems

  15. Direct detector radiography versus dual reading computed radiography: feasibility of dose reduction in chest radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The image quality of dual-reading computed radiography and dose-reduced direct radiography of the chest was compared in a clinical setting. The study group consisted of 50 patients that underwent three posteroanterior chest radiographs within minutes, one image obtained with a dual read-out computed radiography system (CR; Fuji 5501) at regular dose and two images with a flat panel direct detector unit (DR; Diagnost, Philips). The DR images were obtained with the same and with 50% of the dose used for the CR images. Images were evaluated in a blinded side-by-side comparison. Eight radiologists ranked the visually perceivable difference in image quality using a three-point scale. Then, three radiologists scored the visibility of anatomic landmarks in low and high attenuation areas and image noise. Statistical analysis was based on Friedman tests and Wilcoxon rank sum tests at a significance level of P<0.05. DR was judged superior to CR for the delineation of structures in high attenuation areas of the mediastinum even when obtained with 50% less dose (P<0.001). The visibility of most pulmonary structures was judged equivalent with both techniques, regardless of acquisition dose and speed level. Scores for image noise were lower for DR compared with CR, with the exception of DR obtained at a reduced dose. Thus, in this clinical preference study, DR was equivalent or even superior to the most modern dual read-out CR, even when obtained with 50% dose. A further dose reductained with 50% dose. A further dose reduction does not appear to be feasible for DR without significant loss of image quality. (orig.)

  16. Practical application of suspension criteria scenarios in general radiography, computed radiography, digital radiography and fluoroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiological equipment must be assessed against criteria for acceptability to ensure that it meets the minimum standards for patient safety. This assessment is typically led by a medical physicist with input from radiology staff and the equipment supplier. Equipment that does not meet the criteria requires action and may be suspended from clinical use. European Commission report RP 91 will be revised and replaced as RP 162. It has been drawn up to aid medical physicists with the assessment process and provide guidance on suspension levels. This paper details several cases where the criteria in the proposed RP 162 were applied in general radiography, computed radiography, digital radiography and fluoroscopy. The factors considered by the medical physicist and the outcome of each case are presented. The proposed RP 162 report improves on its predecessor and provides a robust set of criteria for ensuring that patient safety within the EU medical exposures framework is optimised. (authors)

  17. Acceptance testing of Computed Radiography systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acceptance testing of computed radiography systems (CR) is required to verify not only image quality but also compliance with the manufacturer's specifications. Therefore, CR acceptance testing is manufacturer-specific. This paper describes a series of performance tests performed on a large number of CRs (FCR 5000, Fuji) recently acquired by our institution. In particular, we describe the following tests: dark noise, uniformity, exposure calibration, linearity and auto ranging, limiting resolution, noise and low-contrast resolution, spatial accuracy, laser-beam function, erasure thoroughness, aliasing, grid response. Special attention is given to the practical aspects related to measurement and subsequent image analysis. We report the results obtained in the various tests. No significant variations from the reference levels were found. Nonetheless, in some cases the operating procedures had to be adapted

  18. Autoradiographic analysis of radiolabeled anti-carcinoembryonic antigen monoclonal antibody CEA 102 in colorectal cancer using computed radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anti-carcinoembryonic antigen monclonal antibody (MAb) CEA 102 was produced by immunization with purified CEA and the specific accumulation of radiolabeled CEA 102 in colorectal cancers was investigated by autoradiography of sugical specimens using Fuji Computed Radiography (FCR). Five patients with colorectal cancer were injected intravenously with 131I-labeled intact CEA 102 or its F(ab')2. Primary tumor and liver metastases were successfully detected by external scanning with a gamma camera in 4 cases. Autoradiographic study of the surgical specimens using FCR showed predominant localization of 131I-labeled CEA 102 in primary tumors and liver metastases in all cases. Even a small liver metastasis (0.5 cm) was clearly visualized in the autoradiogram by FCR. The pixel distribution curves of the density of the respective tissues in the autoradiograms by FCR showed the heterogeneity of the distribution of administreted radiolabeled MAb in individual tumors, but the density of the tumors was higher than the normal tissues. In the quantitative distribution analysis of CEF 102, the uptake of the primary tumor (mean 1.10% ID/kg) was ten-fold greater than that of the normal colon mucosa (mean 0.10% ID/kg). These results revealed that the application of MAb has great potential in radioimmunodetection as well as in antibody-directed therapy. (auhtor)

  19. Computed radiography for major airway in pediatrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper shows the efficacy of computed radiography for major airway in pediatrics. For this purpose, we examined 40 children (range 2 weeks to 14 years; mean 2.3 years) using Fuji Computed Radiography (FCR) and radiation dose using pediatric phantom under FCR and conventional film and screen system. In comparison study with FCR and conventional film and screen system, FCR images are superior to conventional system in all cases. Scorings were done for the quality of the image of the pharynx, the trachea, and both main bronchi. In phantom study to check radiation dose, radiation dose could be reduced 1/6 of the value using high speed film and screen and 1/15 of the value using conventional speed film and screen. FCR also showed clear airway images in all cases but technical failure to evaluate the clinical lesion. These results suggest that FCR is the adequate imaging modality to evaluate the major airway in children. (author)

  20. Multidimensional analysis in industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EDF uses non-destructive testing by X or gamma-ray radiography for routine nozzle inspection in nuclear power plants. The images obtained are examined by radiographic specialists in order to detect, identify and quantify any defects, but the quality of the radiograms and the small size of the defects make their work extremely difficult. It is for these reasons that EDF developed ENTRAIGUES, a digital package for the processing and aid in interpretation of images generated by radiographical inspections, aimed at: -digitizing the radiographic films to be appraised, - facilitating analysis of the digitized radiograms. Defect orientation is estimated by 3D reconstruction of the component being inspected, based on a limited number of its projections. (authors). 11 figs., 6 refs

  1. Integrating computer aided radiography and plantar pressure measurements for complex gait analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiographic Fluoroscopy (DRF) and Contact Pressure Display (CPD). The CPD method uses a birefiingent integrated optical sandwich for contact stress analysis, e.g. plantar pressure distribution. The DRF method displays and electronically records skeletal motion using X-ray radiation, providing the exact bone and joint positions during gait. Integrating the two techniques, contribution of each segment to the HFS behavior may be studied by applying image processing and analysis techniques. The combined resulted data may be used not only to detect and diagnose gait pathologies but also as a base for development of advanced numerical models of the foot structure

  2. Pepper seed germination assessed by combined X-radiography and computer-aided imaging analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A lot of pepper seeds having 87% germination were subjected to X-ray inspection using a non lethal dose of radiation. Seeds with less than 2.7% (on the basis of total seed area) of free space area, i.e. the spaces between embryo and endosperm, were classified as highly viable seeds (97-100% germination) with the lowest level of abnormal seedlings. Seeds X-ray classified as good were subjected to a computerised image analysis to study seed imbibition and radicle elongation. The patterns of seed area increase, chosen as the most accurate indicator of seed swelling, resembled the triphasic curve of water uptake. The first phase was completed at 9 h followed by a second phase that varied widely in time until completion of germination between 52 and 96 h. The proportion of seeds with radicle protrusion between 52-56 h and 64-72 h assessed with the image analysis was significantly higher than that recorded using a conventional germination test. In addition, the rate of increase of seed area during the third phase of imbibition, mostly due to protrusion of the radicle tip and its growth, was highly correlated with the corresponding radicle elongation rate

  3. FCR (Fuji Computed Radiography) in neurosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the evolution of computer technology, Fuji Computed Radiography (FCR) has been developed as a new system for radiographical diagnosis. In this system, the X-ray energy is stored on the imaging plate and then converted into digital signals utilizing scanning laser-stimulated luminence. After proper image processing, it offers much more improved information for diagnosis than the conventional film system does. Since April, 1986, we have principally used FCR (System 101) for neurosurgical practice. In this article, we present our recent experience and evaluate its usefulness. (author)

  4. Introduction of computed radiography in two mammography services: image quality and dose analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study has evaluated the impact of the introduction of CR technology in the routine of two mammography services operating with Lorad Affinity X-ray units and CR Fuji Profect One system. Mean glandular dose was determined to set Automatic Exposure Control parameters according to optimal image quality. Reject analysis of patient images was made to establish the overall impact in routine work. As regards to dose evaluation, the results show that in 44% of mammography exams the MGD were above action levels. It is due to inadequate AEC adjustment and insufficient training of the staff in operating CR systems. In addition, common errors with screen/film systems like wrong breast positing and selection of exposure parameters, as well as X-ray unit failures like insufficient anti scatter grid movement still occurs. This is an indication that ongoing efforts should be concentrated in the constancy of AEC adjustment for CR image plates and staff training. Until now, brazilian health authorities did not implement any program to evaluate digital systems performance, but efforts are being done in order to provide guidelines to breast screening aiming the control of breast dose compatible with optimal image quality. (author)

  5. Introduction of computed radiography in two mammography services: Image quality and dose analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study has evaluated the impact of the introduction of CR technology in the routine of two mammography services operating with Lorad Affinity x-ray units and CR Fuji Profect One system. Mean glandular dose was determined to set Automatic Exposure Control parameters according to optimal image quality. Reject analysis of patient images was made to establish the overall impact in routine work. As regards to dose evaluation, the results show that in 44% of mammography exams the MGD were above action levels. It is due to inadequate AEC adjustment and insufficient training of the staff in operating CR systems. In addition, common errors with screen/film systems like wrong breast positing and selection of exposure parameters, as well as x-ray unit failures like insufficient anti scatter grid movement still occurs. This is an indication that ongoing efforts should be concentrated in the constancy of AEC adjustment for CR image plates and staff training. Until now, brazilian health authorities did not implement any program to evaluate digital systems performance, but efforts are being done in order to provide guidelines to breast screening aiming the control of breast dose compatible with optimal image quality. (author)

  6. Phosphors for conventional and computed radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In medical radiography a combination of intensifying luminescent screens with a film is used commonly as a radiation receiver. Recently, a new method has been created which is frequently referred to as digital luminescent radiography (DLR) or computed radiography. This method is based on the application of screens storing energy of ionizing radiation and releasing it in the form of photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) as they are scanned by a He-Ne laser beam. Such screens perform the function both of an X-ray converter, and that of the storage unit of the system. It is obvious that phosphors fabricated for intensifying screens and for image storing screens need to meet conflicting requirements. Nevertheless, a systematic investigation of phosphors for conventional screens has enabled phosphors with effective PSL as well as the conditions for their preparation to be found. In this paper special attention is devoted to the BaFBr:Eu phosphor - to the nature and distribution of defects in it and to the mechanism of its photo-stimulated luminescence. The important role of defect segregation, of anti-structural disordering of Frenkel type and of the diffusional mechanism of electron migration involving trapping is noted. (author)

  7. Computed radiography simulation using the Monte Carlo code MCNPX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simulating x-ray images has been of great interest in recent years as it makes possible an analysis of how x-ray images are affected owing to relevant operating parameters. In this paper, a procedure for simulating computed radiographic images using the Monte Carlo code MCNPX is proposed. The sensitivity curve of the BaFBr image plate detector as well as the characteristic noise of a 16-bit computed radiography system were considered during the methodology's development. The results obtained confirm that the proposed procedure for simulating computed radiographic images is satisfactory, as it allows obtaining results comparable with experimental data. (author)

  8. Radiological protection procedures for industrial applications of computed radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to its very particular characteristics, industrial radiography is responsible for roughly half of the relevant accidents in nuclear industry, in developed as well as in developing countries, according to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Thus, safety and radiological protection in industrial gamma radiography have been receiving especial treatment by regulatory authorities of most Member States. The main objective of the present work was to evaluate, from the radioprotection point of view, the main advantages of computed radiography (CR) for filmless industrial radiography. In order to accomplish this, both techniques, i.e. conventional and filmless computed radiography were evaluated and compared through practical studies. After the studies performed at the present work it was concluded that computed radiography significantly reduces the inherent doses, reflecting in smaller restricted areas and costs, with consequent improvement in radiological protection and safety. (author)

  9. Optimization and quality control of computed radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Charles E.; Weiser, John C.; Leckie, Robert G.; Romlein, John R.; Norton, Gary S.

    1994-05-01

    Computed radiography (CR) is a relatively new technique for projection radiography. Few hospitals have CR devices in routine service and only a handful have more than one CR unit. As such, the clinical knowledge base does not yet exist to establish quality control (QC) procedures for CR devices. Without assurance that CR systems are operating within nominal limits, efforts to optimize CR performance are limited in value. A complete CR system includes detector plates that vary in response, cassettes, an electro-optical system for developing the image, computer algorithms for processing the raw image, and a hard copy output device. All of these subsystems are subject to variations in performance that can degrade image quality. Using CR manufacturer documentation, we have defined acceptance protocols for two different Fuji CR devices, the FCR 7000 and the AC1+, and have applied these tests to ten individual machines. We have begun to establish baseline performance measures and to determine measurement frequencies. CR QC is only one component of the overall quality control for totally digital radiology departments.

  10. Image analysis in industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-destructive testing in nuclear power plants remains a major EDF objective for the coming decades. To facilitate diagnosis, the expert must be provided with elaborate decision-making aids: contrasted images, noise-free signals, pertinent parameters, ''meaningful'' images. In the field of industrial radiography, the inspector's offer of a portable system for digitalization and subsequent processing of radiographs (ENTRAIGUES) is an improvement in the inspection of primary circuit nozzles. Three major directions were followed: - improvement of images and localization of flaws (2D approach); techniques such as Markov modelling were evaluated and tested, - development of a system which can be transported on site, for digitalization, processing and subsequent archiving on inspection radiographs, known as ENTRAIGUES, - development of a program for aid in analysis of digitized radiographs (''bread-board'' version), offering an ergonomic interface and push-button processing, which is the software component in ENTRAIGUES and uses sophisticated methods: contrast enhancement, background flattening, segmentation. An other objective is to reconstruct a three-dimensional volume on the basis of a few radiographs taken at different incidences and to estimate the flaw orientation within a piece understudy. This information makes sense to experts, with regards to the deterioration rate of the flaw; the equipment concerned includes the formed bends in the primary coolant nozzles. This reconstruction problem is ill-posed and a solution can be obtained by introducing a priori information on the solution. The first step of our algorithm is a classical iterative reconstruction A.R.T. type method (Algebraic Reconstruction Techniques) which provides a rough volumic reconstructed tridimensional zone containing the flaw. Then, on this reconstructed zone, we apply a Bayesian restoration method introducing a Markov Random Field (MRF) modelling. Conclusive results have been obtained. (author). 2 figs., 4 refs

  11. A methodology for radiological accidents analysis in industrial gamma radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A critical review of 34 published severe radiological accidents in industrial gamma radiography, that happened in 15 countries, from 1960 to 1988, was performed. The most frequent causes, consequences and dose estimation methods were analysed, aiming to stablish better procedures of radiation safety and accidents analysis. The objective of this work is to elaborate a radiological accidents analysis methodology in industrial gamma radiography. The suggested methodology will enable professionals to determine the true causes of the event and to estimate the dose with a good certainty. The technical analytical tree, recommended by International Atomic Energy Agency to perform radiation protection and nuclear safety programs, was adopted in the elaboration of the suggested methodology. The viability of the use of the Electron Gamma Shower 4 Computer Code System to calculate the absorbed dose in radiological accidents in industrial gamma radiography, mainly at sup(192)Ir radioactive source handling situations was also studied. (author)

  12. Performance evaluation of a computed radiography system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roussilhe, J.; Fallet, E. [Carestream Health France, 71 - Chalon/Saone (France); Mango, St.A. [Carestream Health, Inc. Rochester, New York (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Computed radiography (CR) standards have been formalized and published in Europe and in the US. The CR system classification is defined in those standards by - minimum normalized signal-to-noise ratio (SNRN), and - maximum basic spatial resolution (SRb). Both the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the contrast sensitivity of a CR system depend on the dose (exposure time and conditions) at the detector. Because of their wide dynamic range, the same storage phosphor imaging plate can qualify for all six CR system classes. The exposure characteristics from 30 to 450 kV, the contrast sensitivity, and the spatial resolution of the KODAK INDUSTREX CR Digital System have been thoroughly evaluated. This paper will present some of the factors that determine the system's spatial resolution performance. (authors)

  13. Performance evaluation of a computed radiography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed radiography (CR) standards have been formalized and published in Europe and in the US. The CR system classification is defined in those standards by - minimum normalized signal-to-noise ratio (SNRN), and - maximum basic spatial resolution (SRb). Both the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the contrast sensitivity of a CR system depend on the dose (exposure time and conditions) at the detector. Because of their wide dynamic range, the same storage phosphor imaging plate can qualify for all six CR system classes. The exposure characteristics from 30 to 450 kV, the contrast sensitivity, and the spatial resolution of the KODAK INDUSTREX CR Digital System have been thoroughly evaluated. This paper will present some of the factors that determine the system's spatial resolution performance. (authors)

  14. Impact of computers in radiography: the advent of digital radiography, part-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed radiography (CR) systems use a photostimulable phosphor plate enclosed in a cassette. In CR, image acquisition is a two-stage process wherein image capture and image read out are done separately. Direct digital radiography (DR) systems, on the other hand, use detectors that have a combined image capture and image read out capability. DR systems are also called as DDR or ddR systems by some vendors. This article focuses on DR systems

  15. Collaboration in radiography: A bibliometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Increasing research activity is an aim of the radiography profession, but there is a lack of knowledge of how this can be achieved. Collaboration between clinical and academic centres as well as between individuals has increased productivity in other professions and has been suggested as a strategy for radiography. This bibliometric study maps the current contribution to the radiography evidence base through a single journal. Method: All articles published in Radiography from 1997 to 2011 were reviewed to identify collaboration trends together with article type and subject. Analysis also enabled comparison of research and publication patterns. Results: 706 articles were published by 1205 individual authors. 63.0% were written by UK based authors, although this varied over time. Over 80% of authors published only single article. Two thirds of articles were collaborative with an increase in clinical-academic co-authorship over the 15 years of the study. Although the majority of articles were diagnostic imaging based, the pattern mirrors the UK workforce profile. Clinicians, including clinical-academic co-authors, tend to write about clinical practice and roles, whereas academics write about a broader range of topics. Conclusions: There has been a growth in research and scholarship within the UK radiography journal and both clinical and academic radiographers are contributing to the evidence base through increased collaboration.ollaboration.

  16. a study of computed radiography by whole body CT scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In October, 1975, the first home-made CT unit by Hitachi Ltd. was installed in Fujita Gakuen University Hospital. Since then, the methods to set a level of scan in CT examination have been investigated and reported. First, the slit scanography was discussed, which was used to determine a most adequate level for the examination with a CT scanner. Then, two-dimensional images reconstructed from the data of CT detectors were adopted for clinical use, and the Scoutview of GE CT/T8800 and others have adopted so-called computed radiography (CR) system. In order to improve the quality of CR images and to find a new radiological technique by CT for clinical applications, efforts have been exerted by the hospital. The advantages of CR are as follows. As the digital data have been accumulated and memorized in this system, CR images can be modified in many ways, and displayed on the CRT. The contrast resolution of the system is superior to that of conventional radiography. As the linearity of the detector sensitivity is superior to conventional screen film system, the quantitative analysis of CR images is feasible. CR images enable to confirm the level of scan without moving a patient to another table. The X-ray dose of CR system is reduced to 1/5 as compared with the routine X-ray radiography of skulls and abdomens. The spatial resolution of CT images is insufficient, however. (Kako, I.)

  17. Computer radiography-X-ray with vision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computer radiography describes an entire process of creating a digital image including acquiring, processing, presenting and managing the image data. the cassettes are special in that they use an imaging plate instead of films. the imaging plate is coated with storage phosphors which captures x-ray as they pass through the patient. the imaging plate is read with a bar code reader and the imaging plate number recorded in the computer. The cassette is then loaded in the reader unit where it is read using infra-red light which excites the particles on the plate which in turn illuminates and picked by photo-sensors which converts the signal into digital pulses. the pulses then run through a board which converts it into an image which is then displayed on the control console. The plate then runs through the erasure section where it is exposed to yellow light, which erases the plate. The IP is then put back in the cassette and locked and can be reused for the next episode

  18. Simulation of computed radiography with imaging plate detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tisseur, D.; Costin, M. [CEA LIST, CEA Saclay 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Mathy, F. [CEA-LETI, Campus Minatec, F-38054, Grenoble (France); Schumm, A. [EDF R and D, 1 avenue du général de gaulle 92141 Clamart (France)

    2014-02-18

    Computed radiography (CR) using phosphor imaging plate detectors is taking an increasing place in Radiography Testing. CR uses similar equipment as conventional radiography except that the classical X-ray film is replaced by a numerical detector, called image plate (IP), which is made of a photostimulable layer and which is read by a scanning device through photostimulated luminescence. Such digital radiography has already demonstrated important benefits in terms of exposure time, decrease of source energies and thus reduction of radioprotection area besides being a solution without effluents. This paper presents a model for the simulation of radiography with image plate detectors in CIVA together with examples of validation of the model. The study consists in a cross comparison between experimental and simulation results obtained on a step wedge with a classical X-ray tube. Results are proposed in particular with wire Image quality Indicator (IQI) and duplex IQI.

  19. Simulation of computed radiography with imaging plate detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed radiography (CR) using phosphor imaging plate detectors is taking an increasing place in Radiography Testing. CR uses similar equipment as conventional radiography except that the classical X-ray film is replaced by a numerical detector, called image plate (IP), which is made of a photostimulable layer and which is read by a scanning device through photostimulated luminescence. Such digital radiography has already demonstrated important benefits in terms of exposure time, decrease of source energies and thus reduction of radioprotection area besides being a solution without effluents. This paper presents a model for the simulation of radiography with image plate detectors in CIVA together with examples of validation of the model. The study consists in a cross comparison between experimental and simulation results obtained on a step wedge with a classical X-ray tube. Results are proposed in particular with wire Image quality Indicator (IQI) and duplex IQI

  20. Portable Digital Radiography and Computed Tomography Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-11-01

    This user manual describes the function and use of the portable digital radiography and computed tomography (DRCT) scanner. The manual gives a general overview of x-ray imaging systems along with a description of the DRCT system. An inventory of the all the system components, organized by shipping container, is also included. In addition, detailed, step-by-step procedures are provided for all of the exercises necessary for a novice user to successfully collect digital radiographs and tomographic images of an object, including instructions on system assembly and detector calibration and system alignment. There is also a short section covering the limited system care and maintenance needs. Descriptions of the included software packages, the DRCT Digital Imager used for system operation, and the DRCT Image Processing Interface used for image viewing and tomographic data reconstruction are given in the appendixes. The appendixes also include a cheat sheet for more experienced users, a listing of known system problems and how to mitigate them, and an inventory check-off sheet suitable for copying and including with the machine for shipment purposes.

  1. Evaluation and testing of computed radiography systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The implementation of film replacement digital radiographic imaging systems throughout Europe is now gathering momentum. Such systems create the foundations for totally digital departments of radiology, since radiographic examinations constitute the most prevalent modality. Although this type of development will lead to improvements in the delivery and management of radiological service, such widespread implementation of new technology must be carefully monitored. The implementation of effective QA tests on installation, at periodic intervals and as part of a routine programme will aid this process. This paper presents the results of commissioning tests undertaken on a number of computed radiography imaging systems provided by different manufacturers. The aim of these tests was not only to provide baseline performance measurements against which subsequent measurements can be compared but also to explore any differences in performance, which might exist between different units. Results of measurements will be presented for (1) monitor and laser printer setup; (2) imaging plates, including sensitivity, consistency and uniformity; (3) resolution and contrast detectability; and (4) signal and noise performance. Results from the latter are analysed in relationship with both system and quantum noise components. (authors)

  2. Some malpractices in application of computed radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To improve the CR image quality and to promote the digital image standard constitution by analyzing the common problems and malpractices in application of computed radiography. Methods: Phenomenon and reasons of 107 CR junk-films from nine three-'A'-hospitals were analyzed, discussed, recorded, and statistised by 20 radiologists, radiographers and engineers. Results: Among 107 junk films, there are 36 cases (33.64%) of incorrect operations, 29 cases (27.10%) of artifacts in reading and transferring the data of IP, 15 cases (14.02%) of artifacts in IP system, and 13 cases (12.15%) of selection of inappropriate radiographic parameters, and 9 cases (8.41%) of printer-failures, and 5 cases (4.67%) of inappropriate post-processing techniques. By analyzing the reasons of 107 junk films we found that 60.74% were due to less responsibilities and incorrect operations, and 35.51% were due to new problems in CR techniques, and other were due to inappropriate post-processing techniques. Conclusion: Responsibilities, operation regulations, digital image quality standards, studying of new techniques and appropriate use of the post-processing techniques are the key points for improving the CR image quality and the diagnosis level. (authors)

  3. Quantitative assessment of computed radiography quality control parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quality controls for testing the performance of computed radiography (CR) systems have been recommended by manufacturers and medical physicists' organizations. The purpose of this work was to develop a set of image processing tools for quantitative assessment of computed radiography quality control parameters. Automatic image analysis consisted in detecting phantom details, defining regions of interest and acquiring measurements. The tested performance characteristics included dark noise, uniformity, exposure calibration, linearity, low-contrast and spatial resolution, spatial accuracy, laser beam function and erasure thoroughness. CR devices from two major manufacturers were evaluated. We investigated several approaches to quantify the detector response uniformity. We developed methods to characterize the spatial accuracy and resolution properties across the entire image area, based on the Fourier analysis of the image of a fine wire mesh. The implemented methods were sensitive to local blurring and allowed us to detect a local distortion of 4% or greater in any part of an imaging plate. The obtained results showed that the developed image processing tools allow us to implement a quality control program for CR with short processing time and with absence of subjectivity in the evaluation of the parameters

  4. Quantitative assessment of computed radiography quality control parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampado, O.; Isoardi, P.; Ropolo, R.

    2006-03-01

    Quality controls for testing the performance of computed radiography (CR) systems have been recommended by manufacturers and medical physicists' organizations. The purpose of this work was to develop a set of image processing tools for quantitative assessment of computed radiography quality control parameters. Automatic image analysis consisted in detecting phantom details, defining regions of interest and acquiring measurements. The tested performance characteristics included dark noise, uniformity, exposure calibration, linearity, low-contrast and spatial resolution, spatial accuracy, laser beam function and erasure thoroughness. CR devices from two major manufacturers were evaluated. We investigated several approaches to quantify the detector response uniformity. We developed methods to characterize the spatial accuracy and resolution properties across the entire image area, based on the Fourier analysis of the image of a fine wire mesh. The implemented methods were sensitive to local blurring and allowed us to detect a local distortion of 4% or greater in any part of an imaging plate. The obtained results showed that the developed image processing tools allow us to implement a quality control program for CR with short processing time and with absence of subjectivity in the evaluation of the parameters.

  5. Control dose in chest radiography after the installation of the computed radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work is to verify patient does after the installation of the computed radiography. Entrance surface doses were obtained from a measurement of the output of the x-ray tube and exposure factor used at posteroanterior (PA) and lateral (LAT) chest in 50 adult patients before and after the installation. The obtained average values were 0.28±0.10mGy in the PA view and 0.8±0.5 mGy in the LAT view with the conventional screen-film system 0.27±0.06 mGy in PA view and 0.69±0.18 mGy in LAT view with the digital radiography system. The results do not exceed the diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) and are constant after the change of system. (Author)

  6. Pilot Study of Bovine Interdigital Cassetteless Computed Radiography

    OpenAIRE

    El-shafaey, El-sayed Ahmed Awad; Aoki, Takahiro; Ishii, Mitsuo; Yamada, Kazutaka

    2013-01-01

    Twenty-one limbs of bovine cadavers (42 digits) were exposed to interdigital cassetteless imaging plate using computed radiography. The radiographic findings included exostosis, a rough planta surface, osteolysis of the apex of the distal phalanx and widening of the laminar zone between the distal phalanx and the hoof wall. All these findings were confirmed by computed tomography. The hindlimbs (19 digits) showed more changes than the forelimbs (10 digits), particularly in the ...

  7. Studies on the Fuji computed radiography depended on the panoramic radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fuji Computed Radiography (FCR) developed recently involves the following procedures; photography in the same way as the hitherto radiography, printing auto imaging plate of photostimulable phospher, conversion to electric signals, and recording reproduced images by computerization. Highly valuable images for diagnoses in the medical field have already been obtained by the FCR. Then, we attempted to study FCR images panoramically radiographed for jaw lesions in the field of oral surgery. Method for study: As the samples to be studied, the selected subjects were cases of periodontal diseases, fracture of the jaw, odontogenic cyst and tumor, etc. In the present study the FCR images of panoramic radiography were compared with hitherto panoramic flat radiograms. Result of study: Although the images of the FCR vary depending on the methods of treatment, that is, on how gradient processing and spatial frequency enhancement are, the method of purpose-fitting treatment provided diagnostically significant images for grasping bone lesions. The images obtained from this FCR permitted us to grasp more distinctly condition of alveolar bone resorption in periodontal diseases, running of minute fracture lines in fracture of the jaw, and characteristic images of bone resorption in odontogenic cysts and tumor, etc. Thus the images of the FCR are highly useful in diagnosing bone lesions, but granularity of the images themselves have still been questioned, and additionally the images vary depending on the methods of gradient processing and spatial frequency enhancement. Therefore further repeat studies are probably needed for these questions. (author)

  8. Computed radiography dose optimization in pediatric patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation dose reduction in pediatric X-ray imaging is especially important because of children radiation sensitivity. For any radiographic examination performed at a fixed radiographic tube potential, the patient absorbed dose is directly proportional to the value of milliampere-seconds (mAs) selected by the operator. Nevertheless, reducing X-ray exposure has the unavoidable disadvantage of increasing the quantum noise in the resultant image. The objective of this work is to identify the minimum tube current setting required for maintaining accurate examinations, to modify, if required, the daily protocols applied at La Fe de Valencia University Hospital. To accomplish this goal, a noise addition software has been developed in order to study the diagnostic accuracy as a function of reducing dose by artificially increasing the image noise. The noise addition tool has been applied to several thorax images acquired from pediatric unit to simulate new lower dose radiographies and allow medical researchers to study how lower dose affects the patient pneumonia diagnosis. (author)

  9. Computed radiography dose optimization in pediatric patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation dose reduction in pediatric X-ray imaging is especially important because of children radiation sensitivity. For any radiographic examination performed at a fixed radiographic tube potential, the patient absorbed dose is directly proportional to the value of milliampere-seconds (mAs) selected by the operator. Nevertheless, reducing X-ray exposure has the unavoidable disadvantage of increasing the quantum noise in the resultant image. The objective of this work is to identify the minimum tube current setting required for maintaining accurate examinations, to modify, if required, the daily protocols applied at La Fe de Valencia Universitary Hospital. To accomplish this goal, a noise addition software has been developed in order to study the diagnostic accuracy as a function of reducing dose by artificially increasing the image noise. The noise addition tool has been applied to several thorax images acquired from pediatric unit to simulate new lower dose radiographies and allow medical researchers to study how lower dose affects the patient pneumonia diagnosis. (author)

  10. Application of computed radiography for power plant tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For radiographic examination, it is imperative that the film characteristics be determined so that optimal test conditions, and the result thereof, can be verified by analyzing the film values with regard to different radiation sources, and for standardizing the characteristics such as sensitivity, exposure thickness range (latitude) and maximum and minimum exposure dose, The research presented in this paper was aimed at evaluating the radioactive sensitivity characteristics of the Image Plate, in lieu of film, as used in Computer Radiography for various radiation sources, in order to apply this newly developed technology in other industrial fields, and in particular, the Power Plant industry. Several possibilities and improvements were discovered with the substitution of Computer Radiography for Conventional Film Radiographic Test.

  11. Physical image quality of computed radiography in mammography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full-text: Mammography is a screening procedure that mostly used for early detection of breast cancer. In digital imaging system, Computed Radiography is a cost-effective technology that applied indirect conversion detector. The paper presents physical image quality parameter measurements namely modulation transfer function (MTF), normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS) and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of Computed Radiography in mammography system. MTF was calculated from two different orientations of slanted images of an edge test device and NNPS was estimated using flat-field image. Both images were acquired using a standard mammography beam quality. DQE was determined by applying the MTF and NNPS values into our developed software program. Both orientations have similar DQE characteristics. (author)

  12. Digital computed radiography in industrial X-ray testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed radiography is used for X-ray testing in many industrial applications. There are different systems depending on the application, e.g. fast systems for detection of material inhomogeneities and slower systems with higher local resolution for detection of cracks and fine details, e.g. in highly stressed areas or in welded seams. The method is more dynamic than film methods, and digital image processing is possible during testing

  13. Recognition and Prevention of Computed Radiography Image Artifacts

    OpenAIRE

    Hammerstrom, Kevin; Aldrich, John; Alves, Len; Ho, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    Initiated by complaints of image artifacts, a thorough visual and radiographic investigation of 197 Fuji, 35 Agfa, and 37 Kodak computed radiography (CR) cassettes with imaging plates (IPs) in clinical use at four radiology departments was performed. The investigation revealed that the physical deterioration of the cassettes and IPs was more extensive than previously believed. It appeared that many of the image artifacts were the direct result of premature wear of the cassettes and imaging pl...

  14. Practical guidelines for radiographers to improve computed radiography image quality

    OpenAIRE

    Pongnapang, N.

    2005-01-01

    Computed Radiography (CR) has become a major digital imaging modality in a modern radiological department. CR system changes workflow from the conventional way of using film/screen by employing photostimulable phosphor plate technology. This results in the changing perspectives of technical, artefacts and quality control issues in radiology departments. Guidelines for better image quality in digital medical enterprise include professional guidelines for users and the quality control programme...

  15. Computer-aided recognition of emphysema on digital chest radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miniati, Massimo, E-mail: Massimo.Miniati@unifi.it [Department of Medical and Surgical Critical Care, University of Florence, 50134 Florence (Italy); Coppini, Giuseppe; Monti, Simonetta [Institute of Clinical Physiology, National Research Council, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Bottai, Matteo [Unit of Biostatistics, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, 17177 Stockholm (Sweden); Division of Biostatistics, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, 29208 Columbia, SC (United States); Paterni, Marco; Ferdeghini, Ezio Maria [Institute of Clinical Physiology, National Research Council, 56124 Pisa (Italy)

    2011-11-15

    Background: Computed tomography (CT) is the benchmark for diagnosis emphysema, but is costly and imparts a substantial radiation burden to the patient. Objective: To develop a computer-aided procedure that allows recognition of emphysema on digital chest radiography by using simple descriptors of the lung shape. The procedure was tested against CT. Methods: Patients (N = 225), who had undergone postero-anterior and lateral digital chest radiographs and CT for diagnostic purposes, were studied and divided in a derivation (N = 118) and in a validation sample (N = 107). CT images were scored for emphysema using the picture-grading method. Simple descriptors that measure the bending characteristics of the lung profile on chest radiography were automatically extracted from the derivation sample, and applied to train a neural network to assign a probability of emphysema between 0 and 1. The diagnostic performance of the procedure was described by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Results: AUC was 0.985 (95% confidence interval, 0.965-0.998) in the derivation sample, and 0.975 (95% confidence interval, 0.936-0.998) in the validation sample. At a probability cutpoint of 0.55, the procedure yielded 92% sensitivity and 96% specificity in the derivation sample; 90% sensitivity and 97% specificity in the validation sample. False negatives on chest radiography had trace or mild emphysema on CT. Conclusions: The computer-aided procedure is simple and inexpensive, and permits quick recognition of emphysema on digital chest radiographs.

  16. Development of computer assisted learning program using cone beam projection for head radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a computer assisted learning (CAL) program to simulate head radiography. The program provides cone beam projections of a target volume, simulating three-dimensional computed tomography (CT) of a head phantom. The generated image is 512 x 512 x 512 pixels with each pixel 0.6 mm on a side. The imaging geometry, such as X-ray tube orientation and phantom orientation, can be varied. The graphical user interface (GUI) of the CAL program allows the study of the effects of varying the imaging geometry; each simulated projection image is shown quickly in an adjoining window. Simulated images with an assigned geometry were compared with the image obtained using the standard geometry in clinical use. The accuracy of the simulated image was verified through comparison with the image acquired using radiography of the head phantom, subsequently processed with a computed radiography system (CR image). Based on correlation coefficient analysis and visual assessment, it was concluded that the CAL program can satisfactorily simulate the CR image. Therefore, it should be useful for the training of head radiography. (author)

  17. Fuji computed radiography (FCR) for the diagnosis of spinal disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since April, 1985, we have, in co-operation with the Fuji Film Co., Ltd., used Fuji Computed Radiography (FCR) in the diagnosis of spinal disorders. FCR is a new computed radiographic system which uses an energy-storage phosphorus panel called an ''Imaging Plate'' as an image sensor. The ''Imaging Plate'' can be used to obtain radiographs in exactly the same way as the screen-film combination used in conventional radiography; X-rays are exposed on the ''Imaging Plate'' instead of X-ray film in the conventional fashion, and then the ''Imaging Plate'' is calculated. The processed digital data from the scans is transformed into a picture by means of digital-to-analogue conversion. The pictures are always clear and beautiful. Plain films of the spine taken by FCR are even clearer, even in the cervicothoracic region, where it is usually difficult to obtain clear cervicothoracic films in conventional radiography. We can obtain much precise information about the spinal posterior osteophytes and grafted bone, even when the patients are immobilized in a Halo apparatus. In myelography, the pictures are also clearer; we can see how the root or roots are compressed, how the dura and cord are involved in patients with cervical disc disease, and even the very narrow space between the cord and an intradural tumor. FCR is thus very useful in observing spinal disorders, either in plain films or myelography. (author)

  18. Computer-aided diagnosis in chest radiography: Beyond nodules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginneken, Bram van [University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht (Netherlands)], E-mail: bram@isi.uu.nl; Hogeweg, Laurens; Prokop, Mathias [University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2009-11-15

    Chest radiographs are the most common exam in radiology. They are essential for the management of various diseases associated with high mortality and morbidity and display a wide range of findings, many of them subtle. In this survey we identify a number of areas beyond pulmonary nodules that could benefit from computer-aided detection and diagnosis (CAD) in chest radiography. These include interstitial infiltrates, catheter tip detection, size measurements, detection of pneumothorax and detection and quantification of emphysema. Recent work in these areas is surveyed, but we conclude that the amount of research devoted to these topics is modest. Reasons for the slow pace of CAD development in chest radiography beyond nodules are discussed.

  19. Tomosynthesis for the early detection of pulmonary emphysema: diagnostic performance compared with chest radiography, using multidetector computed tomography as reference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Yoshitake [Keio University School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Tokyo (Japan); Nippon Koukan Hospital, Department of Radiology, Kawasaki-shi, Kanagawa (Japan); Jinzaki, Masahiro; Hashimoto, Masahiro; Shiomi, Eisuke; Kuribayashi, Sachio [Keio University School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Tokyo (Japan); Abe, Takayuki [Keio University School of Medicine, Center for Clinical Research, Tokyo (Japan); Ogawa, Kenji [Nippon Koukan Hospital, Department of Radiology, Kawasaki-shi, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2013-08-15

    To compare the diagnostic performance of tomosynthesis with that of chest radiography for the detection of pulmonary emphysema, using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) as reference. Forty-eight patients with and 63 without pulmonary emphysema underwent chest MDCT, tomosynthesis and radiography on the same day. Two blinded radiologists independently evaluated the tomosynthesis images and radiographs for the presence of pulmonary emphysema. Axial and coronal MDCT images served as the reference standard and the percentage lung volume with attenuation values of -950 HU or lower (LAA{sub -950}) was evaluated to determine the extent of emphysema. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and generalised estimating equations model were used. ROC analysis revealed significantly better performance (P < 0.0001) of tomosynthesis than radiography for the detection of pulmonary emphysema. The average sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of tomosynthesis were 0.875, 0.968, 0.955 and 0.910, respectively, whereas the values for radiography were 0.479, 0.913, 0.815 and 0.697, respectively. For both tomosynthesis and radiography, the sensitivity increased with increasing LAA{sub -950}. The diagnostic performance of tomosynthesis was significantly superior to that of radiography for the detection of pulmonary emphysema. In both tomosynthesis and radiography, the sensitivity was affected by the LAA{sub -950}. (orig.)

  20. One Year’s Results from a Server-Based System for Performing Reject Analysis and Exposure Analysis in Computed Radiography

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, A. Kyle; Polman, Raimund; Willis, Charles E.; Shepard, S. Jeff

    2009-01-01

    Rejected images represent both unnecessary radiation exposure to patients and inefficiency in the imaging operation. Rejected images are inherent to projection radiography, where patient positioning and alignment are integral components of image quality. Patient motion and artifacts unique to digital image receptor technology can result in rejected images also. We present a centralized, server-based solution for the collection, archival, and distribution of rejected image and exposure indicat...

  1. Tomosynthesis for the early detection of pulmonary emphysema: diagnostic performance compared with chest radiography, using multidetector computed tomography as reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare the diagnostic performance of tomosynthesis with that of chest radiography for the detection of pulmonary emphysema, using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) as reference. Forty-eight patients with and 63 without pulmonary emphysema underwent chest MDCT, tomosynthesis and radiography on the same day. Two blinded radiologists independently evaluated the tomosynthesis images and radiographs for the presence of pulmonary emphysema. Axial and coronal MDCT images served as the reference standard and the percentage lung volume with attenuation values of -950 HU or lower (LAA-950) was evaluated to determine the extent of emphysema. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and generalised estimating equations model were used. ROC analysis revealed significantly better performance (P -950. The diagnostic performance of tomosynthesis was significantly superior to that of radiography for the detection of pulmonary emphysema. In both tomosynthesis and radiography, the sensitivity was affected by the LAA-950. (orig.)

  2. Advances in computed radiography systems and their physical imaging characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiological imaging is progressing towards an all-digital future, across the spectrum of medical imaging techniques. Computed radiography (CR) has provided a ready pathway from screen film to digital radiography and a convenient entry point to PACS. This review briefly revisits the principles of modern CR systems and their physical imaging characteristics. Wide dynamic range and digital image enhancement are well-established benefits of CR, which lend themselves to improved image presentation and reduced rates of repeat exposures. However, in its original form CR offered limited scope for reducing the radiation dose per radiographic exposure, compared with screen film. Recent innovations in CR, including the use of dual-sided image readout and channelled storage phosphor have eased these concerns. For example, introduction of these technologies has improved detective quantum efficiency (DQE) by approximately 50 and 100%, respectively, compared with standard CR. As a result CR currently affords greater scope for reducing patient dose, and provides a more substantive challenge to the new solid-state, flat-panel, digital radiography detectors

  3. Computer-aided recognition of emphysema on digital chest radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Computed tomography (CT) is the benchmark for diagnosis emphysema, but is costly and imparts a substantial radiation burden to the patient. Objective: To develop a computer-aided procedure that allows recognition of emphysema on digital chest radiography by using simple descriptors of the lung shape. The procedure was tested against CT. Methods: Patients (N = 225), who had undergone postero-anterior and lateral digital chest radiographs and CT for diagnostic purposes, were studied and divided in a derivation (N = 118) and in a validation sample (N = 107). CT images were scored for emphysema using the picture-grading method. Simple descriptors that measure the bending characteristics of the lung profile on chest radiography were automatically extracted from the derivation sample, and applied to train a neural network to assign a probability of emphysema between 0 and 1. The diagnostic performance of the procedure was described by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Results: AUC was 0.985 (95% confidence interval, 0.965-0.998) in the derivation sample, and 0.975 (95% confidence interval, 0.936-0.998) in the validation sample. At a probability cutpoint of 0.55, the procedure yielded 92% sensitivity and 96% specificity in the derivation sample; 90% sensitivity and 97% specificity in the validation sample. False negatives on chest radiography had trace or mild emphysema on CT. Conclusions: The computer-aided procedure is simple andThe computer-aided procedure is simple and inexpensive, and permits quick recognition of emphysema on digital chest radiographs.

  4. Computer-aided diagnosis in chest radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Automating mass chest screening for tuberculosis (TB) requires segmentation and texture analysis in chest radiographs. Several rule-based schemes, pixel classifiers, and active shape model techniques for segmenting lung fields in chest radiographs are described and compared. An improved version of the active shape model segmentation technique, originally developed by Cootes and Taylor from Manchester University, UK, is described that uses optimal local features to steer the segmentation process and outperforms the original method in segmentation tasks for several types of medical images: chest radiographs and slices from MRI brain data. In order to segment the posterior ribs in PA chest radiographs, a statistical model of the complete rib cage is constructed using principal components analysis and a method is described to fit this model to input images automatically. For texture analysis, an extension is proposed to the framework of locally orderless images, a multiscale description of local histograms recently proposed by Koenderink and Van Doorn from Utrecht University, The Netherlands. The segmentation and texture analysis techniques are combined into a single method that automatically detects textural abnormalities in chest radiographs and estimates the probability that an image contains abnormalities. The method was evaluated on two databases. On a 200 case database of clinical chest films with interstitial disease from the University of Chicago, excellent resulthe University of Chicago, excellent results are obtained (area under the ROC curve Az=0.986). The results for a 600 case database from a TB screening program are encouraging (area under the ROC curve Az=0.820)

  5. QC of direct radiography and computed radiography mammography systems: Image quality and average glandular dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today, two technologies have emerged in digital mammography: direct radiology (DR) and computed radiology (CR). The introduction of these technologies leads to different measures and limitations in the quality control (QC) of these mammography systems. The objective of this work was to carry out QC tests on DR and CR mammography systems using the EUREF protocol about image quality and average glandular dose (AGD). These evaluations were made using the same test tools for both SIEMENS DR and CR mammography systems. Image quality was compared in terms of low contrast detectability, exposure time, and ghost factors. Exposure factors were selected clinically. Entrance surface air kerma (ESAK) was calculated from the measured output for PMMA thickness of 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 cm. The AGD was determined from ESAK and the measured half-value layer (HVL), and the respective conversion factors were obtained from the protocol. Test results indicated that DR mammography system selected a longer exposure time and a higher ghost image factor. CR mammography system yielded mean contrast-detail score higher than that of the DR system, for smaller details. The contrast-detail curves of both systems are shown. They indicate that the DR system has better low contrast detectability than the CR system, as seen from the contrast-detail curve that extends further to the left toward small detail. HVL of DR mammography system is higher than that of CR system. The entrance surface air kerma an system. The entrance surface air kerma and average glandular dose of both systems: direct radiography and computed radiography is shown. For both systems, AGD decreases as PMMA thickness increases; AGD for DR is higher. To conclude, both DR and CR mammography systems performed well within the stated values of the EUREF protocol. However, we found that the DR mammography system operated with higher beam quality that resulted in higher dose and better low contrast detectability. Therefore, DR should not be considered equal to CR mammography system

  6. Quantitative tool for quality control of computed radiography systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogucki, Terese M.; Kulpinski, Robert W.; Askins, Paul

    1996-04-01

    The goal of computed radiography (CR) acceptance testing is to establish the storage phosphor reader and phosphor screen baseline performance. Quality control testing then detects changes in the CR system that could affect radiographic image quality. These tests currently require multiple exposures that are laser printed on film, and evaluated subjectively and using optical density measurements. Soft copy digital images have rarely been used to characterize CR systems. This paper presents an automated test target for the acceptance and quality control testing of Kodak storage phosphor readers. By using digital images for testing, the CR system can be evaluated independent of laser printer, film, and film processing effects.

  7. An experimental comparison of detector performance for computed radiography systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The intrinsic resolution, noise, and signal-to-noise transfer characteristics of five commercial digital computed radiography (CR) systems were compared using identical experimental methods. The reader/screen combinations evaluated were Agfa ADC-Compact/MD-10, Agfa ADC-Compact/MD-30, Agfa ADC-Solo/MD-10, Agfa ADC-Solo/MD-30, Lumisys CR-2000/MD-10, Fuji FCR-9501(HQ)/ST-Va, Kodak CR-400/GP-25, and Kodak CR-400/HR. Measurements were made at 70 and 115 kVp with 19 mm added aluminum filtration. The presampled modulation transfer functions (MTFs) of the systems were measured using an edge method. The noise power spectra (NPS) were determined by 2D Fourier analysis of uniformly exposed radiographs. The frequency-dependent detective quantum efficiencies (DQEs) were computed from the MTF, NPS, exposure measurements, and computational estimates of the ideal signal-to-noise ratios. Using 70 kVp and 0.1-0.12 mm pixel sizes, spatial frequencies of 2.1, 2.0, 2.2, 1.9, 2.0, 2.0, 2.3, 2.3, and 3.5 cycles/mm were measured at 0.2 MTF for the eight reader/screen combinations, respectively. Using 70 kVp, 7.74x10-8 C/kg (0.3 mR), and 0.1-0.12 mm pixel sizes, DQE(0.15) values of 20.3%, 22.9%, 24.6%, 28.6%, 22.2%, 30.0%, 29.5%, and 17.3% were obtained for the eight combinations, respectively. The corresponding values at 115 kVp were 15.9%, 18.5%, 21.5%, 21.8%, 15.3%, 23.1%, 22.3%, and 13.8%, respectively. The findings of the study demonstrate the pixel size, orientation, beam quarate the pixel size, orientation, beam quality, screen, and reader dependencies of image quality in CR systems. The physical performance of the systems having standard-resolution screens demonstrated similar resolution performance but more notable variations in DQE. The one high-resolution screen tested had reduced DQE and increased MTF at high frequencies

  8. Application of digital radiography in the analysis of cultural heritage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oiveira, Davi F.; Calza, Cristiane; Rocha, Henrique S.; Nascimento, Joseilson R.; Lopes, Ricardo T., E-mail: davi@lin.ufrj.br, E-mail: ccalza@lin.ufrj.br, E-mail: henrique@lin.ufrj.br, E-mail: joseilson@lin.ufrj.br, E-mail: ricardo@lin.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear

    2013-07-01

    The scientific examination of artworks has gained increasing interest in the last years, allowing the characterization of materials and techniques employed by the artists. This analysis can be extremely valuable to conservation and restoration treatments. However, the fact that every artworks is a unique piece emphasizes the necessity of working with non-destructive techniques. Although radiography has been used in the technical examination of museum objects for many decades, digital radiography is rapidly becoming a preferred modality for this essential tool in the advanced examination of works of art. The ability to electronically combine images from the large painting into a single composite image file was extremely valuable and results in higher quality images than those achieved with conventional radiography. These images can be also processed and improved using adequate software. Additional advantages of digital radiography include the possibility of an almost immediate analysis of the results, use of an only recording film and absence of chemical processing. Radiographic imaging can be applied to the analysis of virtually all media including paintings, sculptures, woodworks, engravings, etc. This paper reports some case studies of the use of digital radiography in the study of paintings and sculptures, showing the feasibility and advantages of this technique for this kind of purpose. The radiographic images revealed the conservation state of the analyzed objects and various details of its execution in order to assist recently restoration processes. (author)

  9. Assessing the impact of computed radiography and PACS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors' institution is a VA pilot center for total digital imaging and PACS. They are gathering quantitative service delivery and cost data before, during, and after stepwise implementation of computed radiography and PACS at our institution to define the impact on imaging service delivery. They designed a simple audit method using the X-ray request and time clocks to determine patient waiting time, imaging time, film use, image availability to the radiologist, matching of current with previous images, image availability to clinicians, and time to final interpretation. Their department model is a multichannel, multiserver patient queue. Their current radiograph file is space limited. Their preimplementation audit showed some long waiting times (40 minutes, average 20) and immediate retrieval of prior films in only 42% of cases, with an average retrieval time of 22 hours. Computed radiography and the optical archive have the potential to improve these figures. The audit will be ongoing and automated as implementation of PACS progresses, to measure service improvement and learning curve with the new equipment. This paper presents the audit format and baseline preimplementation figures

  10. Research to exploit, utilize computed radiography system and build suitable process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CR is computed radiography method. CR35 is digital radiography equipment which has just equipped in Viet Nam at the end of 2009 by VIE8020 project. The system include image plate (IP) to change for film, CR35 equipment which scans and records IPs signal by laser light and converts to digital image. This system can replaces of film radiography at any where has possible infrastructure like stable power supply, flat, etc. The research purpose is to use the CR35 system, own equipment and technology, compile technical documents and process guide for practice computed radiography. (author)

  11. Quality assurance of computed and digital radiography systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, C; Gorman, D; Byrne, P; Larkin, A; Dowling, A; Malone, J F

    2008-01-01

    Computed radiography (CR) and digital radiography (DR) are replacing traditional film screen radiography as hospitals move towards digital imaging and picture archiving and communication systems (PACS). Both IPEM and KCARE have recently published quality assurance and acceptance testing guidelines for DR. In this paper, the performance of a range of CR and DR systems is compared. Six different manufacturers are included. Particular attention is paid to the performance of the systems under automatic exposure control (AEC). The patient is simulated using a range of thicknesses of tissue equivalent material. Image quality assessment was based on detector assessment protocols and includes pixel value measures as well as subjective assessment using Leeds Test Objects. The protocols for detector assessment cover a broad range of tests and in general detectors (whether DR or CR) performed satisfactorily. The chief limitation in performing these tests was that not all systems provided ready access to pixel values. Subjective tests include the use of the Leeds TO20. As part of this work, suggested reference values are provided to calculate the TO20 image quality factor. One consequence of moving from film screen to digital technologies is that the dynamic range of digital detectors is much wider, and increased exposures are no longer evident from changes in image quality. As such, AEC is a key parameter for CR and DR. Dose was measured using a standard phantom as a basic means of comparing systems. In order to assess the AEC performance, exit doses were also measured while varying phantom thickness. Signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) were calculated on a number of systems where pixel values were available. SNR was affected by the selection of acquisition protocol. Comparisons between different technologies and collation of data will help refine acceptance thresholds and contribute to optimising dose and image quality. PMID:18319281

  12. The Brazilian radiological accidents analysis methodology in industrial gamma radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A critical review of 34 severe radiological accidents in industrial gamma radiography, that happened in 15 countries, from 1960 to 1988, was performed. It was noted that there is a need for improvement of the analysis and dose estimations methods, in order to obtain real information and good dose estimations. The present paper shows the Brazilian radiological accidents analysis methodology in industrial gamma radiography, based in the analytical tree techniques, recommended by International Atomic Energy Agency to perform radiation protection and nuclear safety programs. (author)

  13. Accuracy of cone beam computed tomography, intraoral radiography, and periodontal probing for periodontal bone defects measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eskandarlo A

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aims: Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT produces high-quality data about diagnosis and periodontal treatment. To date, there is not enough research regarding periodontal bone measurement using CBCT. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of CBCT in measuring periodontal defects to that of intraoral radiography and probing methods."nMaterials and Methods: Two-hundred and eighteen artificial osseous defects (buccal and lingual infrabony, interproximal, horizontal, crater, dehiscence and fenestration defects were created on 13 mandibles of dry skulls. The mandibles were put into a plexiglass box full of water to simulate soft tissue. CBCT images, radiographic images taken with parallel technique and direct measurements using a WHO periodontal probe were recorded and compared to a standard reference (digital caliper. Inter and intra observe consistencies were assessed using Intra class correlation coefficient and pearson correlation."nResults: Inter and intra observer consistencies were high for CBCT and probing methods (ICC- Intra class correlation coefficient>88%, but moderate for intraoral radiography (ICC-Intra class correlation coefficient > 54%. There were not any significant differences between observers for all techniques (P>0/05. According to paired T-test analysis, mean difference for CBCT technique (0.01 mm was lower than that for probing (0.04 mm and radiography (0.62 mm. CBCT was able to measure all kinds of lesions, but radiography could not measure defects in the buccal and lingual sites."nConclusion: All three modalities are useful for identifying periodontal defects. Compared to probing and radiography, the CBCT technique has the most accuracy in measuring periodontal defects.

  14. Observer variation for radiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging of occult hip fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Collin, David; Dunker, Dennis; Gothlin, Jan H.; Geijer, Mats

    2011-01-01

    Background: Conventional radiography is insufficient for diagnosis in a small but not unimportant number of hip fractures, and secondary imaging with computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is warranted. There are no convincing observer variation studies performed for conventional radiography or CT in occult fractures, and no large materials for MRI. Purpose: To assess observer variation in radiography, CT and MRI of suspected occult, non-displaced hip fractures, and to e...

  15. Industrial radiography with Ir-192 using computed radiographic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this research is to study the utilization of a low activity Ir-192 gamma source for industrial radiographic testing using the Computed Radiography (CR) system. Due to a photo-salbutamol Imaging Plate (I P) using in CR is much more radiation sensitive than a type II film with lead foil intensifying screen, the exposure time with CR can be significantly reduced. For short-lived gamma-ray source like Ir-192 source, the exposure time must be proportionally increased until it is not practical particularly for thick specimens. Generally, when the source decays to an activity of about 5 Ci or less, it will be returned to the manufacturer as a radioactive waste. In this research, the optimum conditions for radiography of a 20 mm thick welded steel sample with 2.4 Ci Ir-192 was investigated using the CR system with high resolution image plate, i.e. type Bas-SR of the Fuji Film Co. Ltd. The I P was sandwiched by a pair of 0.25 mm thick Pb intensifying sere en. Low energy scattered radiations was filtered by placing another Pb sheet with a thickness of 3 mm under the cassette. It was found that the CR image could give a contrast sensitivity of 2.5 % using only 3-minute exposure time which was comparable to the image taken by the type II film with Pb intensifying screen using the exposure time of 45 minutes

  16. Conventional radiography and computed tomography of cardiac assist devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients intended for circulatory support by cardiac assist devices (CAD) usually suffer from end-stage acute or chronic heart failure. Since the introduction of CAD in 1963 by DeBakey and coworkers, the systems have gone through a substantial evolution and have been increasingly used in the intervening decades. The spectrum of CAD includes a variety of systems serving to assist the systolic function of the left ventricle, the right ventricle, or both. Conventional radiography and multislice spiral computed tomography (CT) are the most commonly used radiological techniques for imaging patients with a CAD. CT is very useful for evaluating CAD systems by using both two- and three-dimensional reconstructions of the volumetric data sets. The two techniques together allow for the comprehensive assessment of patients with devices by imaging the in- and outflow cannulae, the anastomoses, the position of the pump, as well as associated complications. A close collaboration with cardiac surgeons with expertise in the field of circulatory support is deemed necessary for adequate image interpretation. This article describes the technical diversity of the currently available CAD systems. The imaging characteristics on conventional radiography and multislice spiral CT as well as the typical complications of their use are demonstrated. (orig.)

  17. Conventional radiography and computed tomography of cardiac assist devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheffel, Hans; Stolzmann, Paul; Desbiolles, Lotus; Leschka, Sebastian; Frauenfelder, Thomas; Schertler, Thomas; Marincek, Borut; Alkadhi, Hatem [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Wilhelm, Markus J.; Lachat, Mario [University Hospital Zurich, Clinic for Cardiovascular Surgery, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2009-09-15

    Patients intended for circulatory support by cardiac assist devices (CAD) usually suffer from end-stage acute or chronic heart failure. Since the introduction of CAD in 1963 by DeBakey and coworkers, the systems have gone through a substantial evolution and have been increasingly used in the intervening decades. The spectrum of CAD includes a variety of systems serving to assist the systolic function of the left ventricle, the right ventricle, or both. Conventional radiography and multislice spiral computed tomography (CT) are the most commonly used radiological techniques for imaging patients with a CAD. CT is very useful for evaluating CAD systems by using both two- and three-dimensional reconstructions of the volumetric data sets. The two techniques together allow for the comprehensive assessment of patients with devices by imaging the in- and outflow cannulae, the anastomoses, the position of the pump, as well as associated complications. A close collaboration with cardiac surgeons with expertise in the field of circulatory support is deemed necessary for adequate image interpretation. This article describes the technical diversity of the currently available CAD systems. The imaging characteristics on conventional radiography and multislice spiral CT as well as the typical complications of their use are demonstrated. (orig.)

  18. Comparison of Waters' radiography, panoramic radiography, and computed tomography in the diagnosis of antral mucosal thickening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the CT findings as gold standard, the sensitivity, the specificity, and the diagnostic accuracy of Waters' radiography and Waters' radiography with panoramic radiography were compared in the diagnosis of antral mucosal thickening of 16 patients. Three oral radiologists and three non-oral radiologists interpreted the Waters' radiographs and after 4 weeks, interpreted the Waters' radiographs and panoramic radiographs simultaneously. The interpretation was the existence or the non-existence of the mucosal thickening on the medial, the posterolateral, the floor, and the roof of maxillary sinus. The obtained results were as followed ; 1. In oral radiologist group, the sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of Waters' film were 0.7250, 0.8489 and 0.7578 respectively. 2. The sensitivity and the diagnostic accuracy in oral radiologist group were higher than those of non-oral radiologist group (P0.05). 3. There was no significant difference of the diagnostic abilities except the specificity in oral radiologist group between Waters' radiography and Waters' radiography with panoramic radiography (P>0.05). 4. The sensitivity and the diagnostic accuracy were the highest in the case of medial wall interpretation, the specificity was the highest in the posterolateral wall. 5. In the posterolateral wall and the floor, the sensitivity and the diagnostic accuracy of oral radiologist e diagnostic accuracy of oral radiologist group were higher than those of non-oral radiologist group (P<0.05)

  19. Analysis of X-ray radiography in atomizing sprays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linne, Mark

    2012-09-01

    Recent studies of spray-related flowfields using synchrotron-based X-ray radiography at the Advanced Photon Source (APS), Argonne National Lab, have produced useful results related to fuel mass. A companion article to this one analyzed X-ray phase contrast imaging and it identified several problems. Those results could potentially raise questions about radiography as well. Here, we simulate X-ray radiography using the same computational tools as before, but we reach a different set of conclusions. One important finding is the demonstration that radiography detects the total liquid mass along a line-of-sight, including both drops and intact liquid. As such, it can reveal liquid mass fraction, which is related to the spray breakup rate and gas entrainment; both critical for understanding of sprays. The potential for confusion between local signal reduction by diffraction and local signal reduction by absorption is also discussed. The issue is not unusual in such circumstances. This potential background problem can be avoided by careful arrangement of the experiment, and it is clear that it does not affect the results produced by the APS.

  20. Analysis of X-ray radiography in atomizing sprays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linne, Mark [Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Applied Mechanics, Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2012-09-15

    Recent studies of spray-related flowfields using synchrotron-based X-ray radiography at the Advanced Photon Source (APS), Argonne National Lab, have produced useful results related to fuel mass. A companion article to this one analyzed X-ray phase contrast imaging and it identified several problems. Those results could potentially raise questions about radiography as well. Here, we simulate X-ray radiography using the same computational tools as before, but we reach a different set of conclusions. One important finding is the demonstration that radiography detects the total liquid mass along a line-of-sight, including both drops and intact liquid. As such, it can reveal liquid mass fraction, which is related to the spray breakup rate and gas entrainment; both critical for understanding of sprays. The potential for confusion between local signal reduction by diffraction and local signal reduction by absorption is also discussed. The issue is not unusual in such circumstances. This potential background problem can be avoided by careful arrangement of the experiment, and it is clear that it does not affect the results produced by the APS. (orig.)

  1. Comparison of computed tomography and radiography for detecting changes induced by malignant nasal neoplasia in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability of computed tomography and radiography to detect changes associated with nasal neoplasia was compared in dogs. Eighteen areas or anatomic structures were evaluated in 21 dogs for changes indicative of neoplasia. Computed tomography was superior (P < or = 0.05) to radiography for detecting changes in 14 of 18 areas. Radiography was not superior for detecting changes in any structure or area. Computed tomography reveals vital information not always detected radiographically to assist in providing a prognosis and in planning treatment for nasal neoplasms in dogs

  2. MYTHS vesus reality in computed radiography image quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As NDE operation - particularly radiographic testing - ransition form analog to digital technologies such as computed radiography (CR), users are learning that there's more to digital image quality than meets the eye. In fact, there are ultiple factors that determine the final perceived image quality of a computed radiograph. Many of these factors are misunderstood, and some are touted as the ''key parameter'' or ''magic bullet'' in producing optiumum image quality, In reality, such claims are oversimplified, and are more marketing hype than reality. The truth?. Perceived image quality results form the cascaded effects of many factor - such as sharpness, system noise, spot size and pixel size, subject contrast, bit depth, radiographic technique, and so on. Many of these factors are within the control of rdiographers or designers of equipment and media. This paper will explain some of these key factors, dispel some of the myths surrounding them, and will show that qualities such as bigger, smaller, more, or less are not always better when it comes to CR image quality. (authors)

  3. Radiogenic cancer induction associated with spinal radiography: a quantitative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computations of organ-specific radiation absorption by lung, breast, thyroid, active bone marrow and uterine tissues are used to rank sectional and full spine radiographic procedures according to their potentials for cancer induction. Assuming that the dose-effect relationship of radiation damage is linear and lacks a threshold effect, the prospective and retrospective carcinogenicities of commonly ordered spinal series are estimated. Cervical radiography is demonstrated to pose the least hazard to the patient, while full spine and lumbar (five views) procedures have the greatest. Organs most at risk as a result of spinal radiography are lung (thoracic and full spine), colon (lumbar and full spine), breast (thoracic and full spine), and prostate (full spine and lumbar)

  4. PyRAT - python radiography analysis tool (u)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temple, Brian A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Buescher, Kevin L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Armstrong, Jerawan C [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-14

    PyRAT is a radiography analysis tool used to reconstruction images of unknown 1-0 objects. The tool is written in Python and developed for use on LINUX and Windows platforms. The tool is capable of performing nonlinear inversions of the images with minimal manual interaction in the optimization process. The tool utilizes the NOMAD mixed variable optimization tool to perform the optimization.

  5. Detectability of simulated low-contrast object using computed radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In computed radiography, the optical density of images does not depend on the exposure conditions. Therefore, the same density image is obtained even if the anti-scatter grid ratio is changed. In this case, the more scattered X-rays are removed, the incident dose to the detector decreases. Conversely, the more scattered X-rays increase, then the incident dose increases. We investigated the visual detection of simulated low-contrast object changing incident dose related to quantum noise, scatter fraction related to radiographic contrast and contrast enhancement. This means that visual detectability is more seriously affected by such factors as incident dose, scatter fraction or contrast enhancement. The results indicate that when the incident dose to the detector is almost equivalent to the medium-speed screen-film system, the lower scattered X-rays are more visually detectable. However, when the incident dose is less than that of the high-speed screen-film system, the removal of too much scattered X-rays results in less detection. This shows that if the incident dose is too low, it is better not to remove almost all of the scattered X-rays. Contrast enhanced effect is greater in a larger incident dose than in a smaller one. (author)

  6. Temporal digital subtraction radiography with a personal computer digital workstation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technique have been developed and implemented on a personal computer (PC)-based digital workstation to accomplish temporal digital subtraction radiography (TDSR). TDSR is useful in recording radiologic change over time. Thus, this technique is useful not only for monitoring chronic disease processes but also for monitoring the temporal course of interventional therapies. A PC-based digital workstation was developed on a PC386 platform with add-in hardware and software. Image acquisition, storage, and processing was accomplished using 512 x 512 x 8- or 12-bit frame grabber. Software and hardware were developed to accomplish image orientation, registration, gray scale compensation, subtraction, and enhancement. Temporal radiographs of the jaws were made in a fixed and reproducible orientation between the x-ray source and image receptor enabling TDSR. Temporal changes secondary to chronic periodontal disease, osseointegration of endosseous implants, and wound healing were demonstrated. Use of TDSR for chest imaging was also demonstrated with identification of small, subtle focal masses that were not apparent with routine viewing. The large amount of radiologic information in images of the jaws and chest may obfuscate subtle changes that TDSR seems to identify. TDSR appears to be useful as a tool to record temporal and subtle changes in radiologic images

  7. Digital Radiography and Computed Tomography (DRCT) Product Improvement Plan (PIP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tim Roney; Bob Pink; Karen Wendt; Robert Seifert; Mike Smith

    2010-12-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been developing and deploying x-ray inspection systems for chemical weapons containers for the past 12 years under the direction of the Project Manager for Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel (PMNSCM). In FY-10 funding was provided to advance the capabilities of these systems through the DRCT (Digital Radiography and Computed Tomography) Product Improvement Plan (PIP), funded by the PMNSCM. The DRCT PIP identified three research tasks; end user study, detector evaluation and DRCT/PINS integration. Work commenced in February, 2010. Due to the late start and the schedule for field inspection of munitions at various sites, it was not possible to spend sufficient field time with operators to develop a complete end user study. We were able to interact with several operators, principally Mr. Mike Rowan who provided substantial useful input through several discussions and development of a set of field notes from the Pueblo, CO field mission. We will be pursuing ongoing interactions with field personnel as opportunities arise in FY-11.

  8. Neutron Computed Tomography Using Real-Time Neutron Radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulcoski, Mark Francis

    Conventional neutron radiography of an object records a two-dimensional distribution of the neutron beam intensity after it has passed through an object. The neutron radiograph, whether static film or real-time, may be considered a "shadow graph" of the object. In a shadow graph, internal structures in an object may mask one another making it difficult or impossible to precisely define the internals of the object. This problem can be solved by tomographic imaging. A real-time neutron radiography facility was constructed including the capability of neutron tomography. The neutron beam was measured for total neutron flux ((1.0 (+OR-) 0.2) x 10('11) n/(m('2)-sec)), gold cadmium ratio (52 (+OR-) 3) and effective neutron temperature (83(DEGREES)C (+OR -) 8(DEGREES)C). The angular divergence or nonparallelism of the neutron beam was measured to be \\2.3(DEGREES) (+OR -) 0.1(DEGREES) thereby providing a means of quantifying the collimator effectiveness. The resolution capabilities of both static film and real-time neutron radiographs were quantified using a Fourier transform algorithm to calculate the modulation transfer function of both types of radiographs. The contrast sensitivity of both types of radiographs was measured as 3.1% for film and 4.0% for real-time radiographs. Two tomography algorithms, the simultaneous iterative reconstruction technique (SIRT) and the convolution method, were programmed on an Intellect 100 Image Processing System. The SIRT algorithm was found to be too large and slow on the Intellect 100 to produce useful tomographs. The convolution method produced results near the theoretical resolution limits for a given number of projections. A tomographic resolution of at least 1.3 mm was demonstrated using 200 projections. Computer running time for the convolution method was found to be (TURN)30 seconds for each projection used. A series of experiments were conducted using the convolution method investigating the effect of high and low pass filtering, diagonal line enhancement and contrast stretching on the finished tomographs. These experiments showed that spatial resolution is not generally improved by these filtering functions but contrast sensitivity of the tomographs is improved. A further series of tests applying frame integration and recursive noise reduction techniques to the projection data before the tomographic calculation show a definite decrease in the noise content along with increased edge definition and contrast sensitivity for both techniques.

  9. Human performance analysis of industrial radiography radiation exposure events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A set of radiation overexposure event reports were reviewed as part of a program to examine human performance in industrial radiography for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Incident records for a seven year period were retrieved from an event database. Ninety-five exposure events were initially categorized and sorted for further analysis. Descriptive models were applied to a subset of severe overexposure events. Modeling included: (1) operational sequence tables to outline the key human actions and interactions with equipment, (2) human reliability event trees, (3) an application of an information processing failures model, and (4) an extrapolated use of the error influences and effects diagram. Results of the modeling analyses provided insights into the industrial radiography task and suggested areas for further action and study to decrease overexposures

  10. Digital radiography: are the manufacturers' settings too high? Optimisation of the Kodak digital radiography system with aid of the computed radiography dose index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manufacturers offer exposure indices as a safeguard against overexposure in computed radiography, but the basis for recommended values is unclear. This study establishes an optimum exposure index to be used as a guideline for a specific CR system to minimise radiation exposures for computed mobile chest radiography, and compares this with manufacturer guidelines and current practice. An anthropomorphic phantom was employed to establish the minimum milliamperes consistent with acceptable image quality for mobile chest radiography images. This was found to be 2 mAs. Consecutively, 10 patients were exposed with this optimised milliampere value and 10 patients were exposed with the 3.2 mAs routinely used in the department of the study. Image quality was objectively assessed using anatomical criteria. Retrospective analyses of 717 exposure indices recorded over 2 months from mobile chest examinations were performed. The optimised milliampere value provided a significant reduction of the average exposure index from 1840 to 1570 (p<0.0001). This new ''optimum'' exposure index is substantially lower than manufacturer guidelines of 2000 and significantly lower than exposure indices from the retrospective study (1890). Retrospective data showed a significant increase in exposure indices if the examination was performed out of hours. The data provided by this study emphasise the need for clinicians and personnel to consider establishing their own optimum exposure indices for digtheir own optimum exposure indices for digital investigations rather than simply accepting manufacturers' guidelines. Such an approach, along with regular monitoring of indices, may result in a substantial reduction in patient exposure. (orig.)

  11. Daily quality control in computed radiography mammography using the manufacturer phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quality control (QC) in mammography system involves a large amount of test tools, which implies a large space for storage and a high number of exposure. This work describes a QC system using a phantom, Fuji Computed Radiography (FCR) One Shot Phantom M Plus, that evaluates several parameters with just one exposure. The software offers tests with annual, semi-annual, quarterly, weekly and daily periodicity, and analyzes the conformities of the mammography equipment, image plate and cassettes. Because of the high number of tests, it was evaluated the daily test only for seven months in two mammography equipment. The test, through the software and its image, allows the analysis of ten parameters in QC. The evaluation of these parameters was realized by the average of the values provided by the software. Only one of the evaluated items showed not conformity, but this was observed and the necessary corrections were realized. The monitoring of use of FCR Mammography QC software with the FCR One Shot Phantom M Plus was realized and through this we could investigate that the quality program provided by the system is appropriate for the radiology services that has the Fuji Computed Radiography system. (author)

  12. Optimisation of computed radiography systems for chest imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzimami, K.; Sassi, S.; Alkhorayef, M.; Britten, A. J.; Spyrou, N. M.

    2009-03-01

    The main thrust of this study is to investigate methods of optimising the radiation dose-image quality relationship in computed radiography (CR) systems for chest imaging. Specifically, this study investigates the possibility of reducing the patient radiation exposure through an optimal selection of tube filtration, exposure parameters and air gap technique, in parallel with a study of the image quality, particularly low contrast detail detectability, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and scatter fraction (SF). The CDRAD phantom was used to assess the quality of the CR images. Tissue equivalent Polystyrene blocks were placed in the front of the phantom as scattering material with thicknesses of 5 and 15 cm to simulate an adult chest and heart/diaphragm regions, respectively. A series of exposure techniques were used, including Cu filtration with various thicknesses of Cu in the presence and absence of an air gap, whilst the exposure was kept as constant as possible throughout. The estimated patient effective dose and skin entrance dose were calculated using the NRPB-SR262 X-ray dose calculation software. The results have shown that the low contrast-detail detectability in the lung and the heart/diaphragm regions improves when using an air gap and no Cu filtration, particularly at low kilovoltage (kVp). However, there is no significant difference in low contrast-detail in the absence or presence of a 0.2 mm Cu filtration. SF values for the lung and heart regions decrease when using both, the air gap technique and a 0.2 mm Cu filtration, particularly at low kVp. SNR values for the lung and heart regions improve when using a small Cu thickness. In conclusion, this investigation has shown that the quality of chest CR images could be improved by using an air gap technique and a 0.2 mm Cu filtration at low kVp, particularly at 99 kVp.

  13. Neutron-computer tomography using real-time neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A real-time neutron radiography facility was constructed including the capability of neutron tomography. The neutron beam was measured for total neutron flux ((1.0 +/- 0.2) x 1011 m/(m2-sec)), gold cadmium ratio (52 +/- 3) and effective neutron temperature (830C +/- 80C). The angular divergence or nonparallelism of the neutron beam was measured to be 2.30 +/- 0.10 thereby providing a means of quantifying the collimator effectiveness. The resolution capabilities of both static film and real-time neutron radiographs were quantified using a Fourier transform algorithm to calculate the modulation transfer function of both types of radiographs. The contrast sensitivity of both types of radiographs. The contrast sensitivity of both types of radiographs was measured as 3.1% for film and 4.0% for real-time radiographs. Two tomography algorithms, the simultaneous iterative reconstruction technique (SIRT) and the convolution method, were programmed on an Intellect 100 Image Processing System. The SIRT algorithm was found to be too large and slow on the Intellect 100 to produce useful tomographs. The convolution method produced results near the theoretical resolution limits for a given number of projections. A tomographic resolution of at least 1.3 mm was demonstrated using 200 projections. Computer running time for the convolution method was found to be ? 30 seconds for each projection used. A series of experimach projection used. A series of experiments were conducted using the convolution method investigating the effect of high and low pass filtering, diagonal line enhancement and contrast stretching on the finished tomographs. These experiments showed that spatial resolution is not generally improved by these filtering functions but contrast sensitivity of the tomographs is improved

  14. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) using Fuji computed radiography (FCR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A vessel phantom suitable for evaluation of spatial and contrast resolution of FCRDSA (Fuji Computed Radiography, digital subtraction angiography) has been developed and used for determining resolution. The effects of iodine concentration, low dose exposure, and acryl thickness on the resolution were evaluated in FCRDSA, and FCRDSA images were compared with film substraction with use of this phantom. It has been proven that limitation of resolution of FCRDSA was 5 % 1 mm and about 1/4 dose exposure compared with conventional film exposure was clinically acceptable. Dye dilution method was useful to determine a program of IVDSA with imaging plate. It has been proven that time to appearance and time to peak of time-concentration curve of dye dilution method closely correlate to time to appropriate image of DSA in the neck, the chest, and the abdomen. 106 cases of IVDSA and 130 cases of IADSA using FCR in Tohoku University Hospital from January through December 1984 were analized. 90 % of IVDSA were clinically useful, and 40 % of IVDSA were equal or superior than the conventional image. IADSA has more excellent image than IVDSA, especially in the head and the extremity. 95 % of IADSA were cllinically useful. Inadequate timing exposure of IVDSA were seen in several cases. Almost all causes of unsuccessful examination were occured by misregistration artifacts, consisting of respiration or cardiac motion in the chest, bowel gas in the abdomen. The aortic arch and branches ohe abdomen. The aortic arch and branches of the aorta were well opacified by IVDSA. However, vessels of the skull and the exteremity were difficult to diagnose by IVDSA, IADSA is recommended in these cases. (J.P.N.)

  15. Computed tomography, ultrasonography and plain radiography in the detection of foreign bodies in pork muscle tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the possibility to detect foreign bodies in superficial soft tissue a comparative study including computed tomography, ultrasonography and plain radiography, is presented. Nine different materials, ranging in size from 2x3 to 3x10 mm, were inserted into pork muscle. All foreign bodies were detected and exact location was achieved using computed tomography and ultrasonography. In plain radiography wood was not visualised and exact location of all foreign bodies was not obtained. According to our results computed tomography and ultrasonography is useful in detecting foreign bodies in superficial soft tissue. (orig.)

  16. Computed radiography versus mobile direct radiography for bedside chest radiographs: Impact of dose on image quality and reader agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To asses the image quality and potential for dose reduction of mobile direct detector (DR) chest radiography as compared with computed radiography (CR) for intensive care unit (ICU) chest radiographs (CXR). Methods and materials: Three groups of age-, weight- and disease-matched ICU patients (n = 114 patients; 50 CXR per acquisition technique) underwent clinically indicated bedside CXR obtained with either CR (single read-out powder plates) or mobile DR (GOS-TFT detectors) at identical or 50% reduced dose (DR50%). Delineation of anatomic structures and devices used for patient monitoring, overall image quality and disease were scored by four readers. In 12 patients pairs of follow-up CR and DR images were available, and in 15 patients pairs of CR and DR50% images were available. In these pairs the overall image quality was also compared side-by-side. Results: Delineation of anatomy in the mediastinum was scored better with DR or DR50% than with CR. Devices used for patient monitoring were seen best with DR, with DR50% being superior to CR. In the side-by-side comparison, the overall image quality of DR and DR50% was rated better than CR in 96% (46/48) and 87% (52/60), respectively. Inter-observer agreement for the assessment of pathology was fair for CR and DR50% (? = 0.33 and ? = 0.39, respectively) and moderate for DR (? = 0.48). Conclusion: Mobile DR units offer better image quality than CR fts offer better image quality than CR for bedside chest radiography and allow for 50% dose reduction. Inter-observer agreement increases with image quality and is superior with DR, while DR50% and CR are comparable.

  17. Radiological protection procedures for industrial applications of computed radiography; Procedimentos de protecao radiologica em aplicacoes industriais da radiografia computadorizada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquino, Josilto Oliveira de

    2009-03-15

    Due to its very particular characteristics, industrial radiography is responsible for roughly half of the relevant accidents in nuclear industry, in developed as well as in developing countries, according to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Thus, safety and radiological protection in industrial gamma radiography have been receiving especial treatment by regulatory authorities of most Member States. The main objective of the present work was to evaluate, from the radioprotection point of view, the main advantages of computed radiography (CR) for filmless industrial radiography. In order to accomplish this, both techniques, i.e. conventional and filmless computed radiography were evaluated and compared through practical studies. After the studies performed at the present work it was concluded that computed radiography significantly reduces the inherent doses, reflecting in smaller restricted areas and costs, with consequent improvement in radiological protection and safety. (author)

  18. Observer variation for radiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging of occult hip fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background Conventional radiography is insufficient for diagnosis in a small but not unimportant number of hip fractures, and secondary imaging with computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is warranted. There are no convincing observer variation studies performed for conventional radiography or CT in occult fractures, and no large materials for MRI. Purpose To assess observer variation in radiography, CT and MRI of suspected occult, non-displaced hip fractures, and to evaluate to what extent observer experience or patient age may influence observer performance. Material and Methods A total of 375 patients after hip trauma where radiography was followed by CT or MRI to evaluate a suspected occult hip fracture were collected retrospectively from two imaging centers. After scoring by three observers with varying degrees of radiologic experience, observer variation was assessed by using linear weighted kappa statistics. Results For radiography, agreements between the three observers were moderate to substantial for intra capsular fractures, with kappa values in the ranges of 0.56-0.66. Kappa values were substantial for extracapsular fractures, in the ranges of 0.69-0.72. With increasing professional experience, fewer fractures were classified as equivocal at radiography. For CT and MRI, observer agreements were similar and almost perfect, with kappa values in the ranges of 0.85-0.97 and 0.93-0.97. Conclusion There were almost perfect observer agreemenhere were almost perfect observer agreements for CT and MRI in diagnosing non-displaced, occult hip fractures. Observer agreements for radiography were moderate to substantial, and observer experience influenced agreement only at radiography

  19. SisRadiologia: a new software tool for analysis of radiological accidents and incidents in industrial radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Camila M. Araujo; Silva, Francisco C.A. da, E-mail: araujocamila@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: dasilva@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Araujo, Rilton A., E-mail: consultoria@maximindustrial.com.br [Maxim Industrial Assessoria TI, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    According to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), many efforts have been made by Member states, aiming a better control of radioactive sources. Accidents mostly happened in practices named as high radiological risk and classified by IAEA in categories 1 and 2, being highlighted those related to radiotherapy, large irradiators and industrial radiography. Worldwide, more than 40 radiological accidents have been recorded in the industrial radiography. Worldwide, more than 40 radiological accidents have been recorded in the industrial radiography area, involving 37 workers, 110 members of the public and 12 fatalities. Records display 5 severe radiological accidents in industrial radiography activities in Brazil, in which 7 workers and 19 members of the public were involved. Such events led to hands and fingers radiodermatitis, but to no death occurrence. The purpose of this study is to present a computational program that allows the data acquisition and recording in the company, in such a way to ease a further detailed analysis of radiological event, besides providing the learning cornerstones aiming the avoidance of future occurrences. After one year of the 'Industrial SisRadiologia' computational program application - and mostly based upon the workshop about Analysis and Dose Calculation of Radiological Accidents in Industrial Radiography (Workshop sobre Analise e Calculo de dose de acidentes Radiologicos em Radiografia Industrial - IRD 2012), in which several Radiation Protection officers took part - it can be concluded that the computational program is a powerful tool to data acquisition, as well as, to accidents and incidents events recording and surveying in Industrial Radiography. The program proved to be efficient in the report elaboration to the Brazilian Regulatory Authority, and very useful in workers training to fix the lessons learned from radiological events.

  20. SisRadiologia: a new software tool for analysis of radiological accidents and incidents in industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), many efforts have been made by Member states, aiming a better control of radioactive sources. Accidents mostly happened in practices named as high radiological risk and classified by IAEA in categories 1 and 2, being highlighted those related to radiotherapy, large irradiators and industrial radiography. Worldwide, more than 40 radiological accidents have been recorded in the industrial radiography. Worldwide, more than 40 radiological accidents have been recorded in the industrial radiography area, involving 37 workers, 110 members of the public and 12 fatalities. Records display 5 severe radiological accidents in industrial radiography activities in Brazil, in which 7 workers and 19 members of the public were involved. Such events led to hands and fingers radiodermatitis, but to no death occurrence. The purpose of this study is to present a computational program that allows the data acquisition and recording in the company, in such a way to ease a further detailed analysis of radiological event, besides providing the learning cornerstones aiming the avoidance of future occurrences. After one year of the 'Industrial SisRadiologia' computational program application - and mostly based upon the workshop about Analysis and Dose Calculation of Radiological Accidents in Industrial Radiography (Workshop sobre Analise e Calculo de dose de acidentes Radiologicos em Radiografia Industrial - IRD 2012), in which several Radiation Protection officers took part - it can be concluded that the computational program is a powerful tool to data acquisition, as well as, to accidents and incidents events recording and surveying in Industrial Radiography. The program proved to be efficient in the report elaboration to the Brazilian Regulatory Authority, and very useful in workers training to fix the lessons learned from radiological events.

  1. Radiography and bone scintigraphy in multiple myeloma: a comparative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sensitivity of radionuclide imaging for detecting skeletal lesions was compared with that of radiography by evaluating 573 different anatomical sites in 41 patients with multiple myeloma. Radiography revealed a significantly greater number of myeloma-related bone lesions than did radionuclide imaging. Of the 179 myeloma-related bone lesions detected when both techniques were applied, 163 were seen by radiography and 82 by radionuclide imaging. Ninety-seven lesions were detected by radiography alone and 16 lesions seen by scintiscanning only, yielding a sensitivity of 91% for the former and of 46% for the latter technique. Radionuclide imaging proved superior to radiography only occasionally in the rib cage, and rarely in other anatomical sites. These findings suggest that radiography is the method of first choice in obtaining a skeletal survey in patients with multiple myeloma. In cases with continued pain, unexplained by standard radiography, the skeletal survey should be supplemented by tomography and radionuclide imaging. (author)

  2. Computed radiography (FCR) with a dual side reading system. Comparison with conventional radiography for visualization of nodular lung cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the diagnostic capability Fuji computed radiography (FCR) using a dual side reading system was compared to the conventional radiography using a film-screen system. Twenty-eight patients with lung cancer were examined with a new FCR system (FCR 5501D) and a conventional screen-film system concurrently. FCR utilizes a reading system that detects emissions from dual sides of imaging plate. Chest X-rays were obtained with same exposure factors in both systems. Image qualities of both systems were compared by two radiologists using a five-level score. There were no lesion that FCR images were inferior to film-screen images. The frequency of score +1 or +2 that FCR images were superior to film-screen images was 31% in large nodular shadows, 40% in accompanying shadows with a nodule, 67% of small nodular shadows, and 43% of the lymph node swelling in the hilum of the lung or mediastinum. In large nodular shadows which were the most frequent abnormality score +1 or +2 were observed in 43% of adenocarcinoma and 26% of squamous cell lung cancer. FCR with the dual side reading system is superior to the conventional screen-film system for visualization of nodular lung cancers. (author)

  3. Digital Detectors: Computed Radiography (CR for All Radiologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans Dhaenens

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Digital techniques in radiology have many advantages for radiologists, radiographers, patients, clinicians and hospital-operators from many perspectives: diagnostic quality, dose reduction, access to old and new images and reports via PACS, HIS and RIS."nRadiologists concentrate more and more on organs and pathology (super specialties rather than in modalities. Organ based radiology requires the integration of all modalities and has to cover large geographical regions to deliver expertise, as there few top-experts. This is only possible in the digital world of HICT (Health Information and Communication Technology, where digital detectors are the first step in a long chain of informatics."nToday most of the diagnostic imaging modalities (CT, MRI, US, PET,.. used in radiology are digital except plain film imaging. In order to digitize plain x-ray (also called General Radiology there is choice between Computed Radiography (CR based upon storage phosphor screens and DR (Digital Radiography based on "flat or panel" detectors. A large spectrum of applications and price ranges is available on the market."nTechnology: Both CR and DR rely on conversion and storage of x-ray energy in "pixel"-like elements in the detector. These detectors are linear (film is S-curved and have a enormous dynamic range (1 in 100.000 so no information is lost and they resist over- and under-exposure up to 4 times."n- In CR x-ray energy is stored into the phosphor-crystals and converted into visible light after stimulation by (laser light which is in turn captured and digitized by an optical system. Pixels (in size between 50 and 150 µm are one after one stimulated and translated into a digital image of millions of points. "n- In DR systems x-ray energy is converted in 2 or 3 steps into electrical charge that is stored in every pixel of the detector. These charges are digitized row after row to make a digital image. The conversion of the x-rays is done by a "scintillator" or phosphor, known from screens and image amplifiers. There are 2 groups of DR: the first group is amorphous selenium + TFT pixel backplane and the second is a scintillator + TFT pixel backplane. The first directly converts x-ray into charge (2 steps and the latter first converts x-rays into light and light into charge in a photodiode in each pixel. "nOf course the DR technology is complex and difficult to manufacture in the large formats needed in radiology (14"x17" and explains the high price/unit (>200 k$."nDR can only be justified in a limited number of situations: high throughput (like chest, high labor-cost and lack of radiographers, radiation-dose regulations."nThe technical nature of DR is very sensitive to environmental conditions like vibrations (mobile applications and temperature (Selenium has to be air-conditioned and the portable models are still bulky and costly to put under the bed patients. However, in the future DR prices are expected to come down"n- There are numerous combined systems: lens or fiber coupled CCD systems guiding the x-ray image into a small (and cheap CCD with a bad image quality."nSlit/slot methods moving a small bundle of x-rays and a line-detector over the patient during several seconds exhausting the tube and the patient...."nThere is no perfect system: most have some advantages and some drawbacks and all of them are compromises between quality and price. "nConclusion: Today CR based on powder phosphors is still the best solution in a starter situation where cost and a broad range of ap-plications are important, because it replaces all types of film-screen cassettes by 1 CR cassette, without changes to the x-ray modality and the workflow. Immediately it allows lower doses and a decrease in repeat rates to <1% at a high image quality (with multi-frequency image processing like Agfa Musica."nCR readers are offered in a wide range of sophistication and prices matching most of the needs and budgets of r

  4. Risk analysis of radiography as a nondestructive testing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The risk analysis was made in preparation of a safety manual for the wide variety of applications of industrial radiography. The safety manual is intended to serve as a guide to professionals, presenting the information about safety and health risks involved in a concise though very illustrative manner. The potential risks were listed and evaluated on the occasion of a meeting of experts in October 1999, who used the FMEA analysis, a quality management tool. The following methods or sources were analysed and rated in terms of risks involved: (a) ionizing radiation (b) electric power (c) handling of radioactive radiation sources (d) minor accidents (e) defect equipment (f) activities at construction sites (g) transportation of gear and instruments (h) auxiliary equipment. The risk evaluation presented in the paper also permits identification of problematic aspects in the daily routine. (orig./CB)

  5. Agreement between chest radiography and high-resolution computed tomography in diagnosing dust-related interstitial lung fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Rajnarayan R

    2015-03-01

    Although it has been suggested that high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scans can be obtained when plain radiographs are equivocal for the presence of interstitial lung fibrosis (ILF) caused by inhalation of dust, such as silica, asbestos fibres, etc., the specificity of the findings remains in question. The present study was carried out to compare the relative efficacy of chest radiography by conventional method and HRCT in evaluating ILF which included 22 workers exposed to fibrogenic dust, who were subjected to clinical examination, pulmonary function testing, posteroanterior chest radiography and HRCT. In the six subjects who had findings suggestive of ILF on HRCT, four had normal chest x-ray (CXR) while one each has been diagnosed as having tuberculosis and ILF on CXR. The agreement analysis between HRCT and CXR suggests that there was a poor agreement between HRCT and CXR (kappa = 0.34). PMID:23293132

  6. Cholesteatoma: computed tomography and radiography in a dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cholesteatoma, a rare and/or misdiagnosed disease, results of a serious complication in dogs with chronic otitis. This article describes a case of a dachshund sent to the veterinary hospital presenting signs of cognitive dysfunction associated to peripheral neuropathy of the facial nerve on the right side. At radiography, an enlargement and thickness of the contours associated with loss of anatomical definition of the right tympanic bulla compared to the left was seen. At tomography, this enlargement and thickness were seen with better definition, besides the fulfilling by hyperdense calcified content, bullae osteolysis and temporal bone sclerosis at the same side. (author)

  7. Anomalous pulmonary venous drainage shown by duplex sonography, computed tomography, and plain radiography.

    OpenAIRE

    Huebsch, P.; Neuhold, A.; Mayr, H.; Glogar, D.

    1989-01-01

    In a patient with the scimitar syndrome duplex Doppler sonography was used to show the point of entry of the abnormal pulmonary vein into the inferior vena cava to determine blood flow. Chest radiography and computed tomography also showed the vein descending to the diaphragm.

  8. Computed radiography system using an imaging plate as an x-ray sensor, TCR-201

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The computed radiography system, TCR-201, has been developed through cooperation between Fuji Photo Film Co., Ltd. and Toshiba, with the objects of improving the diagnostic efficiency and accuracy of X-ray examinations. It is a digital radiography system with an imaging plate (IP) as an X-ray sensor. Image reading and recording are performed with a high-definition He-Ne laser scanner. The system provides high-resolution images by advanced variations of image processing such as gradational and spatial frequency enhancement and subtraction. It has wide application in current X-ray systems. (author)

  9. FCR AC-1: Prototype of a new generation of equipment for computed radiography (CR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The promising perspective to integrate the project-image-radiography into future picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) failed in medium terms because of high costs. A new generation of compact computed radiography systems (CR) facilitate the entry into storage-phosphorus technique for routine application while future PACS-connection is still possible. In August 1990 the Institute of Diagnostic Radiology (University of Duesseldorf) received the first FCR AC-1 in Germany for clinical trials. The acquired experiences expounded by case reports emphasize the diagnostic benefit of this technique. The varying use of expansible FCR AC-1 systems is illustrated. (orig.)

  10. Imaging suspected cervical spine injury: Plain radiography or computed tomography? Systematic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: (1) to establish which modality offers the greatest accuracy in the detection of cervical spine injury (CSI) Following trauma: plain radiography or computed tomography (CT), and (2) make an evidence-based recommendation for the initial imaging modality of choice. Method: A systematic literature review was performed to identify primary research studies which compare the diagnostic accuracy of plain radiography and CT with the results of a reference standard in the detection of CSI. A search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Science Direct and Pubmed Central databases was conducted. Results: Ten studies were identified. Critical appraisal identified limitations among all studies. There was heterogeneity in the sensitivity estimates for plain radiography, whereas estimates for CT were consistently high. Examination of the reported sensitivities shows that CT outperforms plain radiography in the detection of CSI. Conclusion: CT is superior to plain radiography in the detection of CSI. However, the optimal imaging strategy depends on the patients' relative risk of injury. If at high-risk cervical CT is indicated. If at low-risk the increased cost and radiation exposure mean that screening CT may not be warranted, good-quality plain radiographs are sufficient.

  11. Dose area product measurement for diagnostic reference levels and analysis of patient dose in dental radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) were suggested and patient doses were analysed through the dose-area product value in dental radiography. In intraoral radiography, at three sites, i.e. molar, premolar and incisor on the maxilla and acquired third quartile values: 55.5, 46 and 36.5 mGy cm2, respectively, were measured. In panoramic, cephalo-metric and cone beam computed tomography, the values were 120.3, 146 and 3203 mGy cm2 (16 x 18 cm), respectively. It has been shown that, in intraoral radiography, the patient dose changes proportionally to the value of mA s, but the change in extra-oral radiography in response to mA s could not be confirmed. The authors could confirm, however, the difference in dose according to the manufacturer in all dental radiography examinations, except for panoramic radiography. Depending on the size of hospital, there were some differences in patient dose in intraoral radiography, but no difference in patient dose in extra-oral radiography. (authors)

  12. Analyze image quality and comparative study between conventional and computed radiography applied to the inspection of alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piping system design takes into account relevant factors such as: internal coating, dimensioning, vibration system, adequate supports and principally, piping material. Cost is a decisive factor in the phase of material selection. The non-destructive testing method most commonly employed in industry to analyze the structure of an object is radiographic testing. Computed radiography (CR) is a quicker and much more efficient alternative to conventional radiography but, although CR presents numerous advantages, testing procedures are still largely based on trial and error, due to the lack of a consecrated methodology to choose parameters as it exists for conventional radiography. Notwithstanding, this paper presents a study that uses the technique of computed radiography to analyze metal alloys. These metal alloys are used as internal pipe coating aiming to protect against corrosion and cracks. This study seeks to evaluate parameters such as basic spatial resolution, Normalized Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNRN), contrast, intensity and also to compare conventional radiography with CR. (author)

  13. Analyze image quality and comparative study between conventional and computed radiography applied to the inspection of alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Alessandra S.; Oliveira, Davi F.; Silva, Aline S.S.; Nascimento, Joseilson R.; Lopes, Ricardo T., E-mail: alemachado@lin.ifrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear. Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear; Simoes, Heleno, E-mail: hsimoes@confab.com.br [CONFAB Industrial S.A. - Equipamentos, SP (Brazil); Universidade de Taubate (UNITAU), SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Piping system design takes into account relevant factors such as: internal coating, dimensioning, vibration system, adequate supports and principally, piping material. Cost is a decisive factor in the phase of material selection. The non-destructive testing method most commonly employed in industry to analyze the structure of an object is radiographic testing. Computed radiography (CR) is a quicker and much more efficient alternative to conventional radiography but, although CR presents numerous advantages, testing procedures are still largely based on trial and error, due to the lack of a consecrated methodology to choose parameters as it exists for conventional radiography. Notwithstanding, this paper presents a study that uses the technique of computed radiography to analyze metal alloys. These metal alloys are used as internal pipe coating aiming to protect against corrosion and cracks. This study seeks to evaluate parameters such as basic spatial resolution, Normalized Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNRN), contrast, intensity and also to compare conventional radiography with CR. (author)

  14. Study of chest portable radiography using computed radiography. Removal effect of X-ray scatter by a copper plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When chest radiographs are obtained using an anti-scatter grid in a mobile x-ray unit by Fuji Computed Radiography (FCR), right lung densities may differ from left lung densities owing to misalignment caused by an oblique x-ray beam. Such misalignment is considered to be caused by factors such as the shape of the bed and angle of the x-ray tube. Misalignment is especially frequent when exposure is carried out in the sitting position. Although a low-ratio grid has been reported to offer improvement, the misalignment is not completely eliminated. Therefore, we used a copper plate without a lattice feature instead of grid, and examined the results. The copper plate was found to have the ability of a grid to eliminate radiation scatter, and, furthermore, to offer the physical capabilities of a grid as determined by Carlin's new grid assessment method. Image quality was demonstrated through contrast manipulation to be equal to that obtained by grid use. Further, optimal conditions were found to be a 95 kV tube voltage and 0.3 mm thick copper plate. (author)

  15. Study of chest portable radiography using computed radiography. Removal effect of X-ray scatter by a copper plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Hiroshi; Katano, Takahito; Nakamura, Yoshifumi; Kitamura, Yoshiaki [Kousei Chuo General Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-04-01

    When chest radiographs are obtained using an anti-scatter grid in a mobile x-ray unit by Fuji Computed Radiography (FCR), right lung densities may differ from left lung densities owing to misalignment caused by an oblique x-ray beam. Such misalignment is considered to be caused by factors such as the shape of the bed and angle of the x-ray tube. Misalignment is especially frequent when exposure is carried out in the sitting position. Although a low-ratio grid has been reported to offer improvement, the misalignment is not completely eliminated. Therefore, we used a copper plate without a lattice feature instead of grid, and examined the results. The copper plate was found to have the ability of a grid to eliminate radiation scatter, and, furthermore, to offer the physical capabilities of a grid as determined by Carlin's new grid assessment method. Image quality was demonstrated through contrast manipulation to be equal to that obtained by grid use. Further, optimal conditions were found to be a 95 kV tube voltage and 0.3 mm thick copper plate. (author)

  16. Diagnostic sensitivity of ultrasound, radiography and computed tomography for gender determination in four species of lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Ianni, Francesco; Volta, Antonella; Pelizzone, Igor; Manfredi, Sabrina; Gnudi, Giacomo; Parmigiani, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Gender determination is frequently requested by reptile breeders, especially for species with poor or absent sexual dimorphism. The aims of the current study were to describe techniques and diagnostic sensitivities of ultrasound, radiography, and computed tomography for gender determination (identification of hemipenes) in four species of lizards. Nineteen lizards of known sex, belonging to four different species (Pogona vitticeps, Uromastyx aegyptia, Tiliqua scincoides, Gerrhosaurus major) were prospectively enrolled. With informed owner consent, ultrasound, noncontrast CT, contrast radiography, and contrast CT (with contrast medium administered into the cloaca) were performed in conscious animals. Imaging studies were reviewed by three different operators, each unaware of the gender of the animals and of the results of the other techniques. The lizard was classified as a male when hemipenes were identified. Nineteen lizards were included in the study, 10 females and nine males. The hemipenes were seen on ultrasound in only two male lizards, and appeared as oval hypoechoic structures. Radiographically, hemipenes filled with contrast medium appeared as spindle-shaped opacities. Noncontrast CT identified hemipenes in only two lizards, and these appeared as spindle-shaped kinked structures with hyperattenuating content consistent with smegma. Hemipenes were correctly identified in all nine males using contrast CT (accuracy of 100%). Accuracy of contrast radiography was excellent (94.7%). Accuracy of ultrasound and of noncontrast CT was poor (64.3% and 63.1%, respectively). Findings from the current study supported the use of contrast CT or contrast radiography for gender determination in lizards. PMID:25065912

  17. [Evaluation of irreversible compressed images in computed radiography using physical image quality measures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Haruyuki; Tsai, Du-Yih; Lee, Yongbum; Nakamura, Tomohiro; Miyazaki, Masanori; Kuramochi, Yoshio; Kojima, Katsuyuki

    2009-12-20

    Joint photographic experts group(JPEG)and JPEG2000 are widely used as image compression algorithms in medical image database systems. Compressed images have been mainly evaluated by visual assessment on acceptable compression levels in clinical studies. However, to the best of our knowledge, little work has been done to clarify image properties based on physical analysis. In this work, investigations were made to clarify image properties based on physical analysis and to discuss the major causes of degradation related to compression ratios. The physical properties of JPEG2000-compressed and JPEG-compressed images in computed radiography(CR)were compared by measuring the characteristic curve, modulation transfer function(MTF), noise power spectrum(NPS), peak signal-to-noise ratio(PSNR), contrast-to-noise ratio(CNR), and noise equivalent quanta(NEQ). In the MTF measurement, the MTFs of JPEG at high compression ratio showed pronounced degradation at all frequencies. The NPS values of JPEG2000 tend to decrease considerably compared to that of the JPEG at all frequencies with the increase of compression ratio. Furthermore, JPEG2000 images showed higher PSNR, CNR, and NEQ values than JPEG images in the same compression ratio. In these signal-to-noise ratio measurements, good reproducibility of JPEG2000 images was achieved. Overall, JPEG2000 compressed images were far superior to JPEG compressed images. In the physical properties measured, these physical analyses are useful to comprehend physical properties for each irreversible compressed image related to compression ratios in CR. PMID:20124739

  18. The contrast-detail behaviour of a photostimulable phosphor based computed radiography system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, N W; Faulkner, K; Busch, H P; Lehmann, K J

    1994-12-01

    Contrast-detail measurements were performed on a computed radiography imaging system as a function of detector entrance air kerma over the dose range from 0.743 microGy (0.085 mR) to 277 microGy (31.8 mR). A theoretical model of contrast-detail behaviour for a photostimulable phosphor computed radiography system has been derived, which is based on a modified version of the Rose theory of threshold detection. Included in the model are both system and x-ray quantum noise terms, as well as the response of the eye. The zero-frequency noise power of the computed film images was measured with a double-beam scanning microdensitometer. For a given detector dose, good agreement was found between the predicted and measured data when this measurement of system noise was included in the model. The contrast-detail results obtained for the computed radiography system were also compared with contrast-detail results for an image intensifier-TV based digital imaging system and a conventional film-screen system. PMID:15551554

  19. Comparison of conventional and computed radiography in neonatal and infant intensive care patient evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A retrospective study comparing portable chest images generated by a computed radiography system with those generated by conventional film radiogrphy is in process. The computed radiography system uses a photostimulable imaging plate, an A/D converter, and image processor, and an image recorder. More than 200 serial portable examinations were reviewed and only the ''shortest interval'' pairs of images from 40 different patients are being evaluated. Included is a spectrum of neonatal lung disease and both assisted ventilation and postoperative complications. The images are reviewed in a blinded fashion by a pediatric cardiovascular radiologist, a pediatric radiologist, two neonatologists, and a neonatal nurse practitioner. The following parameters are assessed: image quality and resolution visualization of normal structures, radiation dosimetry, and diagnostic accuracy

  20. Fine tuning of work practices of common radiological investigations performed using computed radiography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: The advent of the computed radiography (CR) has brought about remarkable changes in the field of diagnostic radiology. A relatively large cross-section of the human population is exposed to ionizing radiation on account of common radiological investigations. This study is intended to audit radiation doses imparted to patients during common radiological investigations involving the use of CR systems. Method: The entrance surface doses (ESD) were measured using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) for various radiological investigations performed using the computed radiography (CR) systems. Optimization of radiographic techniques and radiation doses was done by fine tuning the work practices. Results and conclusion: Reduction of radiation doses as high as 47% was achieved during certain investigations with the use of optimized exposure factors and fine-tuned work practices

  1. Significance of the Fuji-computed radiography algorithms on hardcopy images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiser, John C.; Leckie, Robert G.; Freedman, Matthew T.; Smith, Donald V.; Cawthon, Michael A.; Romlein, John R.; Willis, Charles E.; Goeringer, Fred

    1993-06-01

    The appearance and diagnostic quality of images from Fuji-based computed radiography equipment is dependent upon a series of steps involving both procedural criteria and machine parameters. These steps can be divided into the three general categories of image acquisition, image digitization, and image display. The implementation of an effective quality control program for computed radiography requires an understanding of the interdependence of these three stages of image production, and the development of methods to assess both operator and machine deviations from required performance. Our experience thus far with the implementation of CR in a large scale PACS at 3 medical centers underscores the need for dedicated applications training support, and for a systematic approach to parameter adjustment.

  2. Comparison of conventional film and computed radiography in neonatal and pediatric intensive care patient evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A prospective study comparing only portable images generated by a computed radiography system with conventional film radiographs is in progress. The computed radiography system uses a photostimulable imaging plate, an analog-digital converter, an image processor, and an image recorder. More than 200 serial portable examinations in 50 patients are being reviewed. The comparisons include the spectrum of neonatal lung disease, pediatric respiratory distress syndrome, complications of assisted ventilation, and postoperative chest, abdomen, and muskuloskeletal applications. The images are reviewed in a blinded fashion by four experienced general radiologists, two pediatric radiologists, and two neonatologists. The following parameters are assessed: image quality and resolution, depiction of normal structures, radiation dosimetry, and diagnostic accuracy

  3. Quantitative assessment of the impact of computed radiography and PACS on imaging service delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The San Francisco Veterans Administration Medical Center is a pilot center for computed radiography and picture archiving and communications system (PACS). The impact of PACS on health care is unclear because of a lack of rigorous pre- and postimplementation studies. In this paper the authors describe a simple audit method to determine patient waiting time, imaging time, film use, the availability of images to radiologists and clinicians, prior image retrieval, and time to final interpretation. A preimplementation audit showed some lone waiting times (up to 40 minutes; average, 20 minutes), and only 42% immediate retrieval of prior films (average retrieval time, 22 hours). Computed radiography an PACS have the potential to improve these figures

  4. Initial quality performance results using a phantom to simulate chest computed radiography

    OpenAIRE

    Muhogora Wilbroad; Padovani Renato; Msaki Peter

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a homemade phantom for quantitative quality control in chest computed radiography (CR). The phantom was constructed from copper, aluminium, and polymenthylmethacrylate (PMMA) plates as well as Styrofoam materials. Depending on combinations, the literature suggests that these materials can simulate the attenuation and scattering characteristics of lung, heart, and mediastinum. The lung, heart, and mediastinum regions were simulated by 10 mm x 10 mm x 0.5 mm...

  5. Lung nodule conspicuity using unsharp mask filters with storage-phosphor-based computed radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, S. [Shinshu Univ. School of Medicine, Dept. of Radiology, Matsumoto (Japan); Sone, S. [Shinshu Univ. School of Medicine, Dept. of Radiology, Matsumoto (Japan); Kiyono, K. [Shinshu Univ. School of Medicine, Dept. of Radiology, Matsumoto (Japan)

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the performance of various types of unsharp mask filter applied in storage-phosphor-based computed radiography (SR), and to improve the detection of faint nodules of the lung cancer type. Material and Methods: A total of 120 SR radiographs were obtained by means of an anthropomorphous chest phantom and a combination of 3 types of small simulated nodule (5-mm sphere-shaped, and 5-mm and 10-mm hemisphere-shaped) placed on the phantom`s surface. Eight combinations of nodule site were selected from 16 predetermined chosen sites, and 5 types of parameter were used for unsharp mask filtering. Eight observers evaluated the images, and the detectability of the lung nodules was evaluated from the images by a ROC analysis. Results: The visibility of the 10-mm hemispherical nodules was nearly equivalent at each site when 5 types of unsharp mask filter were used. The detection of the 5-mm nodules with mid-frequency suppressing and very-low-frequency enhancing filters was better than with a conventional (department standard) mid-frequency enhancing filter. Conclusion: Mid-frequency suppressing versions of the filter helped to demonstrate faint nodular opacity, which is often shown by early bronchogenic carcinoma. This filter could replace conventional filters in the detection of lung nodules. (orig.).

  6. Noise and contrast performance of the Toshiba Computed Radiography system TCR 201

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Toshiba Computed Radiography system (TCR) is one of the first digital x-ray imaging systems, which permits imaging of large area formats up to the chest format of 14'' x 17''. Its uses an imagining plate, based on a storage phosphor, which is read out with the aid of a scanning laser beam after exposure to x-radiation in the patients examination room, making use of photostimulable radioluminescence (PSL). As a truly digital system, it separates the functions of detection and display such that the information displayed to the human observer can be optimized with respect to the requirements of the observer. This paper investigates the noise both as total noise (rms) and as noise power per spatial frequency (Noise Power Spectrum, NPS), each one in dependence of the x-ray exposure. Furthermore, this paper presents data on the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) for the purpose of further noise analysis by comparison of MTf with NPS: The NPS of photon noise limited imaging systems should follow the

  7. Development of a computer simulation system of intraoral radiography using perspective volume rendering of CT data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of a computer simulation system for intraoral radiography as an educational aid for radiographic training for dental students. A dried skull was scanned with a multidetector CT, and the series of slice data was transferred to a workstation. A software AVS Express Developer was used to construct the x-ray projected images from the CT slice data. Geometrical reproducibilities were confirmed using numerical phantoms. We simulated images using the perspective projection method with an average value algorithm on this software. Simulated images were compared with conventional film images projected from the same geometrical positions, including eccentric projection. Furthermore, to confirm the changes of the image depending on the projection angles of the x-ray beam, we constructed simulation images in which the root apexes were enhanced with the maximum value algorithm. Using this method, high resolution simulated images with perspective projection, as opposed to parallel, were constructed. Comparing with conventional film images, all major anatomic components could be visualized easily. Any intraoral radiographs at an arbitrary angular projection could be simulated, which was impossible in the conventional training schema for radiographic technique. Therefore, not only standard projected images but also eccentric projections could be displayed. A computer simulation system of intraoral radiography with this method ma intraoral radiography with this method may be useful for training in intraoral radiographic technique for dental students. (author)

  8. Comparison of Waters' radiography, panoramic radiography, and computed tomography in the diagnosis of antral mucosal thickening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyun, Young Min; Lee, Sam Sun; Choi, Soon Chul [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology and Dental Research Institute, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-02-15

    With the CT findings as gold standard, the sensitivity, the specificity, and the diagnostic accuracy of Waters' radiography and Waters' radiography with panoramic radiography were compared in the diagnosis of antral mucosal thickening of 16 patients. Three oral radiologists and three non-oral radiologists interpreted the Waters' radiographs and after 4 weeks, interpreted the Waters' radiographs and panoramic radiographs simultaneously. The interpretation was the existence or the non-existence of the mucosal thickening on the medial, the posterolateral, the floor, and the roof of maxillary sinus. The obtained results were as followed: 1. In oral radiologist group, the sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of Waters' film were 0.7250, 0.8489 and 0.7578 respectively. 2. The sensitivity and the diagnostic accuracy in oral radiologist group were higher than those of non-oral radiologist group (P<0.05), but there was no significant difference between two groups in the specificity (P>0.05). 3. There was no significant difference of the diagnostic abilities except the specificity in oral radiologist group between Waters' radiography and Waters' radiography with panoramic radiography (P>0.05). 4. The sensitivity and the diagnostic accuracy were the highest in the case of medial wall interpretation, the specificity was the highest in the posterolateral wall. 5. In the posterolateral wall and the floor, the sensitivity and the diagnostic accuracy of oral radiologist group were higher than those of non-oral radiologist group (P<0.05)

  9. Pelvic lipomatosis - its appearance on radiography and computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hold, M.; Olbert, F.; Schlegl, A.; Klumair, J.; Fochem, K.

    1981-06-01

    Case report on a case of pelvic lipomatosis, the 21. case published in the world literature. The typical radiographic findings, such as deformity of the urinary bladder and the abnormal course of the sigma, were seen. Computed tomography confirms the diagnosis.

  10. Pelvic lipomatosis - its appearance on radiography and computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Case report on a case of pelvic lipomatosis, the 21. case published in the world literature. The typical radiographic findings, such as deformity of the urinary bladder and the abnormal course of the sigma, were seen. Computed tomography confirms the diagnosis. (orig.)

  11. [Clinical efficacy of image processing of grid detection and suppression (GDS) in computed radiography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Motoaki; Nishimura, Sachie; Okamoto, Takahide; Vanmetter, Richard L; Wang, Xiaohui; Ichiji, Hiroshi; Sawai, Miho; Kiyooka, Makoto; Ikegami, Yuko

    2005-08-20

    In projection radiography, stationary grids are indispensable accessories to the improvement of diagnostic imaging. On the other hand, they are becoming one of the issues facing digital image processing. The lead foil that composes the grid can produce moiré on printed films and monitors according to the sampling interval at which the image is read by computed radiography (CR), creating a major obstacle to diagnosing images. The subject of this study on Grid Detection and Suppression (GDS) was the development of comprehensive image-processing software to detect and suppress grid lines automatically. Our results showed that applying GDS parameters 3 approximately 5 could provide a sufficient effect on suppression with little impact on images through the use of a multi-purpose grid (grid ratio 8:1, density 34 lp/cm) for general purposes. In projection radiography, it is expected that soft copy diagnosis will increase because the digital transition is proceeding, and the establishment of high-speed networks is becoming easier. Therefore, the digital environment is expected to improve and the choice of grids and monitors to expand, by using software such as GDS that does not require special skills. PMID:16132035

  12. Studies on image quality optimisation in computed radiography for weld inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of metal filters and metal screens improves the image contrast in film radiography. The mechanism of latent X-ray image generation and, its read-out from imaging plates and the subsequent visualization is different from that of radiographic films. The use of metal screens and the selection of the X ray tube voltage as recommended in the film radiography standards are not transferable for Computed Radiography (CR) for weld inspection. The quality of digital radiographs is determined by the inherent unsharpness and the Contrast to Noise Ratio (CNR). Whereas the standard EN 14784-1 describes manageable procedures for the determination of inherent unsharpness and Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR), the rules for the improvement of contrast by selection of the suitable tube voltage and metal screen thickness were not described sufficiently in EN 14874-2. Systematic studies on the influence of copper filter, lead screen imaging plate combinations as well as X-ray tube voltage on the image contrast were performed to improve the image quality for testing of welds with CR systems. Recommendations for the application of metal filter and screen combinations and the selection of appropriate X-ray tube voltages for the imaging plate technique were deduced from these results in order to optimise the X-ray testing procedure of welds. (orig.)

  13. Three-dimensional computational axial tomography scan of a volcano with cosmic ray muon radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hiroyuki K. M.; Taira, Hideaki; Uchida, Tomihisa; Tanaka, Manobu; Takeo, Minoru; Ohminato, Takao; Aoki, Yosuke; Nishitama, Ryuichi; Shoji, Daigo; Tsuiji, Hiroshi

    2010-12-01

    Cosmic ray muon radiography can measure the density distribution within a volcano. Unidirectional radiography shows a precise cross-sectional view of a conduit and a magma body through a volcano parallel to the plane of the detector. However, it only resolves the average density distribution along individual muon paths. Precise size and shape of underground structure, such as a conduit or a magma body, provide clear and pervasive information on understanding dynamics of volcanic eruption. Here we show a highly resolved three-dimensional tomographic image of an active volcano Asama in Japan. Specifically, we developed a portable power-effective muon radiography telescope that can be operated stable with a realistically sized solar panel so as to place it around an active volcano where commercial electric power is not available. The resulting image below the crater floor shows that a local low-density region accumulates sufficient gas pressure to cause Vulcanian eruption. The present muon computational axial tomography scan has a resolving power with a resolution of 100 m, allowing it to see great detail in volcanoes.

  14. Evaluation of selective alveolo-bronchography with Fuji computed radiography and x-ray CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selective alveolo-bronchography (SAB) has been routinely used to evaluate anatomical changes in the bronchiole and its distal air spaces. A narrowing of the bronchiole and abnormal pooling of contrast medium in the destroyed air space are the prime findings. Since the object of radiography is extremely thin, direct magnification radiography is mandatory to obtain radiologic details. However, the problem with this technique is that radiographic quality varies depending upon the size of the patient and the concentration of contrast medium to be introduced in the lung. This study had two goals. One was to improve the image quality of SAB by Fuji Computed Radiography (FCR). FCR provides radiographs with a good contrast and stable density throughout a wide range of exposure factors which occur in the use of SAB. The other goal was to separately evaluate morphological abnormalities in the outer and inner zones of the lung using X-ray CT. This idea was derived from our observations in positron emission tomography using 13N which revealed air trapped in the outer layer of the lung in diffuse panbronchiolitis. Fourteen patients underwent SAB, including two cases of bronchiectasis, one of cancer, one of silicosis, one of post-inflammatory scar, four of diffuse panbronchiolitis and five of chronic pulmonary emphysema. Of these fourteen cases ten and twelve cases received FCR and CT examinations, respectively. (author)

  15. Cephalometric radiography and computed tomography in infants undergoing craniofacial surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craniofacial growth after surgery in children is not completely understood. We have therefore formed a programme for pre- and postoperative studies with both roentgencephalometric- and computed tomographic investigations. This regiment results in overlapping information. Thus, an assessment of the advantages and disadvantages of the two methods was made and exemplified in four patients. In our experience both cephalometry and CT are essential for the diagnosis, surgical planning and follow-up of surgically treated children with craniofacial anomalies. To minimize the radiation doses and the diagnostic procedures which in these cases often includes general anesthesia, patients with isolated, asymmetrical conditions such as plagiocephaly, might be followed with CT only, since roentgencephalometry can not add much information. (Authors)

  16. Comparison of conventional radiography with cone beam computed tomography for detection of vertical root fractures: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varshosaz, Masoud; Tavakoli, Mohammad A; Mostafavi, Maryam; Baghban, Alireza A

    2010-12-01

    To assess the diagnostic accuracy of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in comparison with conventional radiography for vertical root fractures, 50 of 100 teeth were subjected to vertical root fracture (VRF) and then placed in dry mandibles. 3D scans were obtained for all teeth, and conventional radiographs were used as control images. All the images were assessed by 6 observers, who determined the presence of root fractures by using a 5-point confidence rating scale. The mean area under the curve (Az) for CBCT was 0.91, and that for conventional radiography was 0.64. The difference between the modalities was statistically significant (P = 0.003). On the basis of interclass coefficient, inter-observer agreement for CBCT was 0/750, and that for conventional radiography was 0/637. Thus CBCT was shown to be significantly better than conventional periapical radiography for diagnosis of vertical root fractures in vitro. PMID:21206162

  17. Comparison of conventional radiography with cone beam computed tomography for detection of vertical root fractures. An in vitro study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the diagnostic accuracy of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in comparison with conventional radiography for vertical root fractures, 50 of 100 teeth were subjected to vertical root fracture (VRF) and then placed in dry mandibles. 3D scans were obtained for all teeth, and conventional radiographs were used as control images. All the images were assessed by 6 observers, who determined the presence of root fractures by using a 5-point confidence rating scale. The mean area under the curve (Az) for CBCT was 0.91, and that for conventional radiography was 0.64. The difference between the modalities was statistically significant (P=0.003). On the basis of interclass coefficient, inter-observer agreement for CBCT was 0/750, and that for conventional radiography was 0/637. Thus CBCT was shown to be significantly better than conventional periapical radiography for diagnosis of vertical root fractures in vitro. (author)

  18. Neutron Radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, A. K.; Brenizer, J. S.

    Neutron radiography and its related two-dimensional (2D) neutron imaging techniques have been established as invaluable nondestructive inspection methods and quantitative measurement tools. They have been used in a wide variety of applications ranging from inspection of aircraft engine turbine blades to study of two-phase fluid flow in operating proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Neutron radiography is similar to X-ray radiography in that the method produces a 2D attenuation map of neutron radiation that has penetrated the object being examined. However, the images produced differ and are often complementary due to the differences between X-ray and neutron interaction mechanisms. The uses and types of 2D neutron imaging have expanded over the past 15 years as a result of advances in imaging technology and improvements in neutron generators/sources and computers. Still, high-intensity sources such as those from reactors and spallation neutron sources, together with conventional film radiography, remain the mainstay of high-resolution, large field-of-view neutron imaging. This chapter presents a summary of the history, methods, and related variations of neutron radiography techniques.

  19. Evaluation of image quality and radiation dose in mammography: a comparison among digital radiography, computed radiography and film-screen systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To compare the image quality, radiation dose and diagnostic accuracy on film-screen, digital radiography (DR) and computed radiography (CR) mammography. Methods: Three different kinds of mammography machines (film-screen, DR and CR) were tested to make sure they were qualified and comparable. Radiographs were taken on Mammo-152 phantom and ACR phantom using film- screen, DR and CR systems with the same radiation dose. Next, radiographs were taken on two phantoms using DR and CR systems with classic mode or AEC and the radiation dose was recorded. The images were numbered and scored by eight independent experienced radiologists under the same reading condition according to ACR method. Statistics was performed with the randomized complete-block design variance analysis. The diagnostic accuracy of three kinds of mammography methods were compared with Kappa test in clinical cases who had pathologic results. Results: The spatial resolution of film-screen system was the highest (7.0-8.0 Lp/mm) and that of CR was the lowest (2.5 Lp/mm). When the radiation dose was increased (27.0%-30.0%), the resolution was improved with DR (+11.0%) but almost no change with CR (+1.5%). The radiation dose of DR was the lowest on ACR phantom. The delineation of mass was better on film-screen than on CR, but the delineation of fibers and speck was better on CR. When the radiation dose of CR was increased (25.0%), the delineation of fibers and speck on CR was similar to that on DR and the delineation of mass was similar to that on film-screen. There was a good correlation between the mammography diagnosis and pathological results (film-screen is 50/56, DR is 83/90 and CR is 61/69, P0.75). The diagnostic accuracy of three mammography systems had no statistical difference [film-screen 89.3% (50/56), DR 92.2% (83/90) and CR 88.4% (61/69 ), Pearson ?2=0.722, P=0.697]. Conclusion: Film/screen system has the highest space resolution and DR has the lowest radiation dose. Three mammography systems have the same diagnostic accuracy for breast disease. (authors)

  20. Measurements of overall Wiener spectra in a computed radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 'overall' Wiener spectra of a computed radiographic system (FCR-101) were measured, and compared with the Wiener spectrum of a conventional screen/film system (Hiscreen/RXH). In addition, the noise properties for different exposure conditions to imaging plate (IP), the effects of unsharp masking filter, and the effect of image reduction to output display (film) including the effect of varying the sampling distance were examined. Overall Wiener spectra obtained in the perpendicular direction relative to the laser beam scanning in the laser printer were greater at high spatial frequencies, but comparable at low frequencies than those obtained in the parallel direction, and indicated the existence of a spectral peak around 10 cycles/mm mainly caused by banding artifact. The noise level of the CR system with HR, in the same exposure and gradient relative to the Hiscreen/RXH system, was comparable to that of the Hiscreen/RXH, however the noise level of CR with ST was superior to that of the Hiscreen/RXH. It was also found that the noise level of the CR was increased as the exposure decreased and that the frequency processing (unsharp masking) can increase the CR noise level. Moreover, the noise level was decreased by the effect of the image size reduction. (author)

  1. Dose audit for radiation safety during intravenous urography procedures using computed radiography imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dose auditing was done during intravenous urography (IVU) procedure. Eighty patients undergoing IVU examination were included in this study. All investigations were made using a conventional x-ray machine equipped with linear tomography device and images were processed in a Computed Radiography (CR) reader interfaced to a Picture Archival and Communication System (PACS). Thermoluminescent dosimeter was made use of in measurement of radiation dose imparted to patients during IVU procedures. An average of 9.4 radiographs were taken for each IVU procedure and the average effective dose ranged from 0.28 mSv to 7.52 mSv. (author)

  2. Finding-specific display presets for computed radiography soft-copy reading

    OpenAIRE

    Andriole, Katherine P.; Gould, Robert G.; Webb, W. Richard

    1999-01-01

    Much work has been done to optimize the display of cross-sectional modality imaging examinations for soft-copy reading (ie, window/level tissue presets, and format presentations such as tile and stack modes, four-on-one, nine-on-one, etc). Less attention has been paid to the display of digital forms of the conventional projection x-ray. The purpose of this study is to assess the utility of providing presets for computed radiography (CR) soft-copy display, based not on the window/level setting...

  3. The use of computed radiography plates to determine light and radiation field coincidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerns, James R. [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 and Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Texas Health Science Center Houston, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Anand, Aman [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, Arizona 85259 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: Photo-stimulable phosphor computed radiography (CR) has characteristics that allow the output to be manipulated by both radiation and optical light. The authors have developed a method that uses these characteristics to carry out radiation field and light field coincidence quality assurance on linear accelerators.Methods: CR detectors from Kodak were used outside their cassettes to measure both radiation and light field edges from a Varian linear accelerator. The CR detector was first exposed to a radiation field and then to a slightly smaller light field. The light impinged on the detector's latent image, removing to an extent the portion exposed to the light field. The detector was then digitally scanned. A MATLAB-based algorithm was developed to automatically analyze the images and determine the edges of the light and radiation fields, the vector between the field centers, and the crosshair center. Radiographic film was also used as a control to confirm the radiation field size.Results: Analysis showed a high degree of repeatability with the proposed method. Results between the proposed method and radiographic film showed excellent agreement of the radiation field. The effect of varying monitor units and light exposure time was tested and found to be very small. Radiation and light field sizes were determined with an uncertainty of less than 1 mm, and light and crosshair centers were determined within 0.1 mm.Conclusions: A new method was developed to digitally determine the radiation and light field size using CR photo-stimulable phosphor plates. The method is quick and reproducible, allowing for the streamlined and robust assessment of light and radiation field coincidence, with no observer interpretation needed.

  4. The use of computed radiography plates to determine light and radiation field coincidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Photo-stimulable phosphor computed radiography (CR) has characteristics that allow the output to be manipulated by both radiation and optical light. The authors have developed a method that uses these characteristics to carry out radiation field and light field coincidence quality assurance on linear accelerators.Methods: CR detectors from Kodak were used outside their cassettes to measure both radiation and light field edges from a Varian linear accelerator. The CR detector was first exposed to a radiation field and then to a slightly smaller light field. The light impinged on the detector's latent image, removing to an extent the portion exposed to the light field. The detector was then digitally scanned. A MATLAB-based algorithm was developed to automatically analyze the images and determine the edges of the light and radiation fields, the vector between the field centers, and the crosshair center. Radiographic film was also used as a control to confirm the radiation field size.Results: Analysis showed a high degree of repeatability with the proposed method. Results between the proposed method and radiographic film showed excellent agreement of the radiation field. The effect of varying monitor units and light exposure time was tested and found to be very small. Radiation and light field sizes were determined with an uncertainty of less than 1 mm, and light and crosshair centers were determined within 0.1 mm.Conclusions: A new method was developed to digitally determine the radiation and light field size using CR photo-stimulable phosphor plates. The method is quick and reproducible, allowing for the streamlined and robust assessment of light and radiation field coincidence, with no observer interpretation needed

  5. Dose reduction using non lineal diffusion and smoothing filters in computed radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, M. G.; Juste, B.; Vidal, V.; Verdú, G.; Mayo, P.; Rodenas, F.

    2014-02-01

    The use of Computed Radiography (CR) into clinical practice has been followed by a high increase in the number of examinations performed and overdose cases in patients, especially children in pediatric applications. Computed radiographic images are corrupted by noise because either data acquisition or data transmission. The level of this inherent noise is related with the X-ray dose exposure: lower radiation exposure involves higher noise level. The main aim of this work is to reduce the noise present in a low radiation dose CR image in order to the get a CR image of the same quality as a higher radiation exposure image. In this work, we use a non lineal diffusion filtering method to reduce the noise level in a CR, this means that we are able to reduce the exposure, milliampere-second (mAs), and the dose absorbed by the patients. In order to get an optimal result, the diffusive filter is complemented with a smoothing filter with edge detection in order to preserve edges. Therefore, the proposed method consists in obtaining a good quality CR image for diagnostic purposes by selection of lower X-ray exposure jointly with a reduction of the noise. We conclude that a good solution to minimize the dose to patients, especially children in pediatric applications, in X-ray computed radiography consists in decreasing the mAs of the X-ray exposure and then processing the image with the proposed method.

  6. Dose reduction in general radiography for adult patients by use of a dual-side-reading photostimulable phosphor plate in a computed radiography system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Norisato; Tanaka, Nobukazu; Akasaka, Tsutomu; Yabuuchi, Hidetake; Morishita, Junji

    2014-07-01

    Our purpose in this study was to evaluate the potential of dose reduction in general radiography for adult patients by use of a dual-side-reading (DSR) photostimulable phosphor plate in a computed radiography system. The image quality and low-contrast detectability in terms of the contrast-detail diagram of the DSR system with use of the X-ray beam quality of the RQA 5 defined by the International Electrotechnical Commission 61267 were compared with those of a conventional single-side-reading (SSR) system. The radiographic noise of the DSR system was lower compared to that of the SSR system under the same exposure conditions. Although there were no statistical differences in low-contrast detectabilities between the SSR system and the DSR system under the same exposure levels, the DSR system showed superior detectability compared to the SSR system. We conclude that the DSR system for general radiography has the potential to reduce the patient dose. PMID:24846451

  7. A comparison of low contrast performance for amorphous Silicon/caesium iodide direct radiography with a computed radiography: A contrast detail phantom study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A range of digital image acquisition devices exists in diagnostic radiology. This study compares contrast performance of two such systems: an amorphous Silicon/caesium iodide (a-Si:CsI) based flat panel (DR) digital chest radiography system and a computed radiography (CR) system. Images of a contrast detail resolution phantom were acquired at a range of radiation doses. Three observers assessed all hardcopy images using a four-alternative forced choice observer perception technique. Contrast detail performance was calculated and low contrast performance quantified. The DR system demonstrated significantly better low contrast performance and potential dose savings of up to 75% compared to the CR system. Threshold levels of contrast detail resolution were defined and levels of under- and over-exposure, compared to the threshold level, were highlighted. Both systems were noise limited at lower exposures and latitude limited at higher exposures. The results demonstrate that the DR system should perform better than the CR system under typical clinical conditions relevant to chest radiography particularly for the detection of low contrast details such as lung metastases or pneumothoraces

  8. A comparison of radiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging for the diagnosis of palmar process fractures in foals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relative sensitivity of radiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging for detecting palmar process fractures of the distal phalanx in foals was determined and the imaging findings were compared with histomorphologic evaluations of the palmar processes. Compared to radiography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging did not improve the sensitivity for detection of palmar process fractures. Statistical agreement for palmar process fracture diagnosis was excellent among the three imaging modalities. Histomorphologic evaluations were more sensitive for diagnosis of palmar process fracture than any of the imaging modalities. Three-dimensional image reconstructions and volume measurements of distal phalanges and palmar process fracture fragments from computed tomography studies provided more complete anatomical information than radiography. Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed that the deep digital flexor tendon insertion on the distal phalanx is immediately axial to the site where palmar process fractures occur, and differentiated cartilage, bone, and soft tissue structures of the hoof

  9. Can Computed Tomography Scout Radiography Replace Plain Film in the Evaluation of Patients with Acute Urinary Tract Colic?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine the sensitivity of computed tomography (CT) scout view in detecting ureteral stones and whether CT scout radiography can replace plain film in the evaluation of patients with acute urinary tract colic. Material and Methods: Between January 2000 and 2002, 110 patients with ureterolithiasis were prospectively evaluated for the detection of ureteral stones on CT scout radiographs. The findings were compared with those of plain films. All patients were examined with plain film, CT scout radiography, and unenhanced helical CT. CT scans were performed within 24 h of plain films. Each CT scout radiograph was interpreted without knowledge of the findings on plain film. Results: 111 stones were detected by unenhanced helical CT. Mean stone size was 3.9 mm (range 1-10 mm). Of all stones, 57 (52%) were visible on plain film; 44 (40%) were seen on CT radiographs. The sensitivity of 79 small stones (5 mm), the sensitivity of CT scout radiography was 66% and of abdominal radiography 87.5%. Conclusion: In this study, plain film was more sensitive than CT scout radiography in revealing ureteral calculi. However, the detection of stones 5 mm or larger had a sensitivity of 66% on CT scout radiographs; 77% (44/57) of the stones visible on plain films were also seen on CT scout radiographs. We therefore believe that CT scout radiography can be used as a baseline study in mosphy can be used as a baseline study in most patients with big ureteral stones

  10. Digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Digital computing techniques in computed tomography and radiography are reviewed under the following headings: characterisation and description of the digital image, exposure techniques, transducers for digital imaging (digital screen-film systems, laser scanner, television cameras, semiconductor linear arrays, image intensifier television systems, scintillators coupled to photodiodes or photomultipliers, photostimulable luminescence, digital xeroradiography and ionography, gas-filled detectors, electrophoretic displays. The appendix includes temporal subtraction techniques, energy subtraction, image processing and evaluation. (U.K.)

  11. Computed radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on clinical evaluation of portable chest films obtained with a prototype digital phosphor plate scanner (resolution 2048 x 2496 x 12 bit, Agfa). The phosphor plate scanner accepts conventional cassettes. More than 1,000 low-kilovolt portable chest films from the intensive care unit were interpreted by a panel of (certified) radiologists for several diagnostic and technical parameters that are currently under discussion (dose, resolution, image processing, and size and format of images). In addition to this series, a series of selected abnormal chest images were processed and compared with the conventional screenfilm images

  12. Scanned projection radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan beam digital radiography systems are referred to by the term 'scanned projection radiography', or 'SPR'. The most familiar scanned projection radiography devices are the localization systems employed on computed tomography scanners which use the CT detector and electronics to generate a 'computed radiograph' of the anatomy. The authors discuss temporal and energy subtraction techniques, clinical applications and some pending developments in spatial resolution, signal-to-noise ratio and scan speed. (Auth.)

  13. Computed radiography as a gamma ray detector—dose response and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keeffe, D. S.; McLeod, R. W.

    2004-08-01

    Computed radiography (CR) can be used for imaging the spatial distribution of photon emissions from radionuclides. Its wide dynamic range and good response to medium energy gamma rays reduces the need for long exposure times. Measurements of small doses can be performed without having to pre-sensitize the computed radiography plates via an x-ray exposure, as required with screen-film systems. Cassette-based Agfa MD30 and Kodak GP25 CR plates were used in applications involving the detection of gamma ray emissions from technetium-99m and iodine-131. Cassette entrance doses as small as 1 µGy (140 keV gamma rays) produce noisy images, but the images are suitable for applications such as the detection of breaks in radiation protection barriers. A consequence of the gamma ray sensitivity of CR plates is the possibility that some nuclear medicine patients may fog their x-rays if the x-ray is taken soon after their radiopharmaceutical injection. The investigation showed that such fogging is likely to be diffuse.

  14. Computed radiography as a gamma ray detector-dose response and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed radiography (CR) can be used for imaging the spatial distribution of photon emissions from radionuclides. Its wide dynamic range and good response to medium energy gamma rays reduces the need for long exposure times. Measurements of small doses can be performed without having to pre-sensitize the computed radiography plates via an x-ray exposure, as required with screen-film systems. Cassette-based Agfa MD30 and Kodak GP25 CR plates were used in applications involving the detection of gamma ray emissions from technetium-99m and iodine-131. Cassette entrance doses as small as 1 ?Gy (140 keV gamma rays) produce noisy images, but the images are suitable for applications such as the detection of breaks in radiation protection barriers. A consequence of the gamma ray sensitivity of CR plates is the possibility that some nuclear medicine patients may fog their x-rays if the x-ray is taken soon after their radiopharmaceutical injection. The investigation showed that such fogging is likely to be diffuse

  15. Radiography - A new field among health sciences in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to secure high quality X-ray services and efficient operation of clinical radiography, a study programme in radiography science was implemented at the University of Oulu in 1999. The need for a specific field of science has emerged as a result of social changes, such as the aging population, and the fast development of technology that has caused significant changes in the radiological working environment and clinical radiography. A need for a new, research-based informational foundation of clinical radiography is the basis for the programme. As service producers, radiographers need vast knowledge as well as specific expertise. The research object of radiography science is clinical radiography. If it was studied from the viewpoint of other sciences, the key professional skills of a radiographer would remain unexplored. Implementing an own field of science has enabled the development of radiography from its own bases. Basic research in the field is represented, for example, by the concept analysis of radiography in health sciences. Radiography science should produce research results for both clinical radiography and the instruction of radiography. So far, research results have dealt with the professional decision-making of a radiographer, the influences of computer technology on a radiographer's work and measuring the radiation exposure of a population

  16. Radiography - A new field among health sciences in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pakarinen, Ritva [Licentiate of Health Sciences, Department of Nursing Science and Health Administration, University of Oulu, Lamsantie 14 A1, 90230 Oulu (Finland)]. E-mail: ritva.pakarinen@oulu.fi; Jussila, Aino-Liisa [Doctor of Health Sciences, Department of Social and Health Care, Oulu Polytechnic, Oulu (Finland)

    2007-08-15

    In order to secure high quality X-ray services and efficient operation of clinical radiography, a study programme in radiography science was implemented at the University of Oulu in 1999. The need for a specific field of science has emerged as a result of social changes, such as the aging population, and the fast development of technology that has caused significant changes in the radiological working environment and clinical radiography. A need for a new, research-based informational foundation of clinical radiography is the basis for the programme. As service producers, radiographers need vast knowledge as well as specific expertise. The research object of radiography science is clinical radiography. If it was studied from the viewpoint of other sciences, the key professional skills of a radiographer would remain unexplored. Implementing an own field of science has enabled the development of radiography from its own bases. Basic research in the field is represented, for example, by the concept analysis of radiography in health sciences. Radiography science should produce research results for both clinical radiography and the instruction of radiography. So far, research results have dealt with the professional decision-making of a radiographer, the influences of computer technology on a radiographer's work and measuring the radiation exposure of a population.

  17. Basilar skull fracture in a Thoroughbred colt: Radiography or computed tomography?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Chee Kin, Lim; Montague N, Saulez; Adrienne, Viljoen; Ann, Carstens.

    Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english A two-year-old Thoroughbred colt was presented to the Equine Clinic, Onderstepoort Veterinary Academic Hospital for head trauma after rearing and falling backwards, hitting his head on the ground. Following medical therapy for acute onset neurological impairment secondary to a suspected basilar skul [...] l fracture, the horse was anaesthetised and computed tomography of the skull was performed. A diagnosis of a comminuted basilar skull fracture was made and skull radiographs were taken for comparison. The horse was subsequently euthanased owing to the poor prognosis; necropsy findings were compatible with imaging findings. The value and limitation of computed tomography versus radiography for the diagnosis of basilar skull fracture are discussed in this report.

  18. Radiologic analysis of femoral acetabular impingement: from radiography to MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwek, Jerry R. [University of California at San Diego, Department of Radiology, Rady Children' s Hospital and Health Center, San Diego, CA (United States); San Diego Imaging, San Diego, CA (United States); Monazzam, Shafagh [Rady Children' s Hospital and Health Center, Department of Orthopedics, San Diego, CA (United States); Chung, Christine B. [University of California at San Diego, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Femoral acetabular impingement is a set of morphologic abnormalities that are considered to be a major cause of degenerative disease in the hip joint. Early changes are already present in adolescence when it is the pediatric radiologist who must assess current damage with the aim of averting progression to more severe and debilitating osteoarthritis. A multimodality approach is used for diagnosis, that includes conventional radiography and CT to assess the osseous structures. MR arthrography is the primary advanced imaging modality for assessment of morphologic changes as well as injuries of the labrum and articular cartilage. Details of radiologic imaging are offered to guide the radiologist and provide an avenue for the accurate description of the osseous and articular alterations and injury. (orig.)

  19. Analysis of physeal growth in dogs, using biplanar radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biplanar radiography was used to study normal growth of the left and right radius in 5 Beagles and growth of the left radius alone in 15 additional Beagles. We explored the applicability of this radiographic method in veterinary medicine by measuring the contribution to total radius length from each growth plate. Spherical tantalum markers (0.5 mm) were embedded in the proximal epiphysis, diaphysis, and distal epiphysis of each dog's radius at 10 weeks of age. Simultaneous biplanar radiographic views were obtained every 4 weeks until skeletal maturity was documented. A three-dimensional coordinate system was constructed allowing for measurement of growth (in millimeters). Resolution of the measuring system was 0.074 mm. Mean +/- SEM length of the skeletally mature Beagle's radius, as measured from proximal epiphyseal bead to distal epiphyseal bead, was 95.33 +/- 1.07 mm. The percentage of contribution to the total radius length from the proximal and distal growth plates was 36.76 and 64.73%, respectively, with 95% confidence interval of 2.29%. The percentage of contribution to radius length from the distal radial growth plate increased for each consecutive time segment, with the distal radial physis contributing 61.75% from 10 to 14 weeks of age and increasing to 70.22% from 22 to 26 weeks of age. Significant growth was not observed after 26 weeks of age. The period of most rapid growth was between 10 and 14 weeks of age. Biplanar radiography was accurate and precise in quantifying the relative contribution of the proximal and distal growth plate to radius length in Beagles. The method is applicable in veterinary research or clinical medicine for monitoring of axial and angular growth: physiologic, iatrogenic, or pathologic

  20. Characterizing Parameters Using Expert Judgment and Bayesian Update in the Risk Analysis for Field Radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiological risk assessments can be calculated using crisp estimates of the exposure variables (e.g., source term, exposure time, distance, exposure frequency). However, aggregate and cumulative exposure studies require a better understanding of exposure variables and the uncertainty and variability associated with them. Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) is a tool for quantitative estimation of risk and associated uncertainties. The prevailing method in PRA is Monte Carlo analysis(MCA), which is a means of quantifying uncertainty or variability in a probabilistic framework using computer simulation. Risk is expressed as the sum of the product of the frequency and consequence pair over the possible states. The state of a system is a description of its physical condition and its environment. The status of all the barriers, controls defining the system and its environment determine the state. The radiation exposure is given by the summation of the exposure resulted from relevant exposure pathways. The most important factor of risk assessment is characteristic of the input variable. Risk estimation involves propagating the uncertainty distributions through the PRA models. In this study, the data analysis portion of field radiography PRA is addressed for estimates of the parameters used to determine the frequencies and consequences of the various events modeled. The Delphi survey and the Bayesian update technique are employed in characterizing uncertain variables characterizing uncertain variables

  1. Dose reduction using non lineal diffusion and smoothing filters in computed radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of Computed Radiography (CR) into clinical practice has been followed by a high increase in the number of examinations performed and overdose cases in patients, especially children in pediatric applications. Computed radiographic images are corrupted by noise because either data acquisition or data transmission. The level of this inherent noise is related with the X-ray dose exposure: lower radiation exposure involves higher noise level. The main aim of this work is to reduce the noise present in a low radiation dose CR image in order to the get a CR image of the same quality as a higher radiation exposure image. In this work, we use a non lineal diffusion filtering method to reduce the noise level in a CR, this means that we are able to reduce the exposure, milliampere-second (mAs), and the dose absorbed by the patients. In order to get an optimal result, the diffusive filter is complemented with a smoothing filter with edge detection in order to preserve edges. Therefore, the proposed method consists in obtaining a good quality CR image for diagnostic purposes by selection of lower X-ray exposure jointly with a reduction of the noise. We conclude that a good solution to minimize the dose to patients, especially children in pediatric applications, in X-ray computed radiography consists in decreasing the mAs of the X-ray exposure and then processing the image with the proposed method. - Highlights: • We have investigated the techniques to obtain the image quality to make a confident diagnosis. • We have used diffusion and smoothing filter in order to reduce the exposure. • Reducing CR doses, especially in pediatric applications. • The new CR images allow medical researchers to analyze how low dose affects the patient diagnosis

  2. Evaluation of the image in mammography application of ALVIM statistics phantom using computed radiography (CR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the minimal Al2O3 mottle (calcification)and nylon fiber signal (tumor) in mammography application of ALVIM statistics phantom by computed radiography (CR). Methods: ALVIM statistics phantom consists of five Al2O3 mottles(calcification) and five nylon fiber signals(tumor) various in size and was placed on the imaging plate(IP), test image with a density of D=0.70 ± 0.05 was obtained by molybdenum target X-ray equipment with a voltage of 26 kV and by adjusting exposure and selecting appropriate image processing parameter. Four observers gave it the total points of the ten lines each line consisting of five signals and five noise applying of the method of five values estimation, then according to the formula of ALVIM statistics phantom figuring out a set of true positive probabilities P (S/s) and false positive probabilities P(S/n) to drawing the ROC curve and figuring out each signals probabilities Pdet, at last processing data using SPSS 10.0 statistics analysis software to acquire the smallest calcification and parenchyma tumor. Results: After acquiring the data and judging probability average value Pact of the ROC curves statistics,five Al2O3 mottle (calcification) equal to 0.6250 of 0.22 mm is minimal, and Pact equal to 0.9000 of 0.55 mm was maximal. There was no significant variation in size Pact difference between Pdet of 0.20 mm and of 0.25 mm but there/sub> of 0.20 mm and of 0.25 mm but there was among others. Among the five varying nylon fibers size Pact equal to 0.5313 was minimal and Pdet, equal to 0.8813 of 1.00 mm was maximal. There was no significant difference between Pact of 0.45 mm and of 0.60 mm while significant difference was found between 0.45 and others. Conclusion: The method of plotting ROC curve using ALVIM statistics phantom and getting the judging probability Pdet was easy, fast and suitable to evaluate image quality control in daily clinic and popularized easily. (authors)

  3. Initial quantitative evaluation of computed radiography in an intensive care unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first computed radiography (CR) unit in Australia was installed at St Vincent's Hospital, Melbourne, in February 1994. An initial qualitative evaluation of the attitude of the intensive care unit (ICU) physicians to the CR unit was conducted by use of a survey. The results of the survey of ICU physicians indicated that images were available faster than under the previous system and that the use of the CR system was preferred to evaluate chest tubes and line placements. While it is recognized that a further detailed radiological evaluation of the CR system is required to establish the diagnostic performance of CR compared with conventional film, some comments on the implementation of the system and ICU physician attitudes to the CR system are put forward for consideration by other hospitals examining the possible use of CR systems. 11 refs., 1 tab

  4. Digital Radiography and Computed Tomography Project -- Fully Integrated Linear Detector ArrayStatus Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tim Roney; Robert Seifert; Bob Pink; Mike Smith

    2011-09-01

    The field-portable Digital Radiography and Computed Tomography (DRCT) x-ray inspection systems developed for the Project Manager for NonStockpile Chemical Materiel (PMNSCM) over the past 13 years have used linear diode detector arrays from two manufacturers; Thomson and Thales. These two manufacturers no longer produce this type of detector. In the interest of insuring the long term viability of the portable DRCT single munitions inspection systems and to improve the imaging capabilities, this project has been investigating improved, commercially available detectors. During FY-10, detectors were evaluated and one in particular, manufactured by Detection Technologies (DT), Inc, was acquired for possible integration into the DRCT systems. The remainder of this report describes the work performed in FY-11 to complete evaluations and fully integrate the detector onto a representative DRCT platform.

  5. Comprehensive and automated image quality performance measurement of computed radiography systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohui; Van Metter, Richard L.; Foos, David H.; Steklenski, David J.

    2001-06-01

    A method is developed that enables comprehensive and automatic image quality testing of storage phosphor-based computed radiography (CR) systems. The measurements made with this method are both quantitative and objective, and are consistent with the guidelines set forth by the American Association of Physics in Medicine Task Group 10. The method is implemented as a toolkit that consists of a test phantom, a procedure for making controlled x-ray exposures, and software that automatically analyzes phantom and flat-field images then compares the measured results against a set of tolerances. By using this new method, acceptance testing and periodic image quality control testing of CR systems can be performed quickly and efficiently. A complete CR test that includes measurements for three cassette sizes can be finished in about one hour.

  6. Evaluation of an image receptor for computed radiography system in mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dantas, Marcelino V.A.; Rosado, Paulo H.G.; Santana, Priscila C.; Alvarenga, Frederico L.; Nogueira, Maria S., E-mail: mvad@cdtn.b, E-mail: phgr2005@yahoo.com.b, E-mail: pridili@gmail.co, E-mail: frederico.alvarenga@su-imagem.com.b, E-mail: mnogue@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Programa de Pos Graduacao em Ciencia e Tecnologia das Radiacoes, Minerais e Materiais

    2009-07-01

    In this work, the performance of an image receptor for computed radiography system, Kodak CR850, was assessed through tests, recommended by the European protocol, with a specific image plate for mammography where were analyzed the Contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and uniformity and linearity of detector. The CNRs were 14.1, 11.7, 10.3, 8.4, 7.1 and 5.9 for 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 cm polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) thickness, respectively. The linearity between detector response and dose, obtained a correlation coefficient (R{sup 2}) greater than 0.99, and the maximum variation found in the detector uniformity calculation was 3.94 in the lower right corner. (author)

  7. Clinical evaluations of intra-arterial subtraction angiography using Fuji computed radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intra-arterial subtraction angiography(IADSA) using Fuji computed radiography(FCR) was performed on 130 patients with cervical, pelvic, peripheral and abdominal diseases. It was compared with conventional angiography(radiographs produced by combining photographic film with an intensifying screen) performed on same patients. Radiographs produced by FCR were better than conventional radiographs in cervical, pelvic and peripheral angiography. In the abdominal angiography using FCR, there was misregistration artifact in some cases, but in hepatic angiography, the new radiographs under the injection of small amount of contrast medium(about 10ml) and the short exposure duration(about 10 seconds) were excellent. It was as valuable as conventional angiography (infusion hepatic angiography) for diagnosing hepatic neoplasms. (author)

  8. Image quality of supine chest radiographs: intra-individual comparison of computed radiography and low-dose linear-slit digital radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szucs-Farkas, Zsolt; Vock, Peter [Inselspital, Berne University Hospital and University of Berne, Department of Diagnostic, Interventional and Paediatric Radiology, Berne (Switzerland)

    2009-09-15

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to intra-individually compare the image quality of computed radiography (CR) and low-dose linear-slit digital radiography (LSDR) for supine chest radiographs. A total of 90 patients (28 female, 62 male; mean age, 55.1 years) imaged with CR and LSDR within a mean time interval of 2.8 days {+-} 3.0 were included in this study. Two independent readers evaluated the image quality of CR and LSDR based on modified European Guidelines for Quality Criteria for chest X-ray. The Wilcoxon test was used to analyse differences between the techniques. The overall image quality of LSDR was significantly better than the quality of CR (9.75 vs 8.16 of a maximum score of 10; p < 0.001). LSDR performed significantly better than CR for delineation of anatomical structures in the mediastinum and the retrocardiac lung (p < 0.001). CR was superior to LSDR for visually sharp delineation of the lung vessels and the thin linear structures in the lungs. We conclude that LSDR yields better image quality and may be more suitable for excluding significant pathological features of the chest in areas with high attenuation compared with CR. (orig.)

  9. The effect of radiation dose reduction on clinical image quality in chest radiography of premature neonates using a dual-side readout technique computed radiography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate if the exposure could be reduced from the clinical setting (resulting in an effective dose of 8 ?Sv for a neonate of weight 0.7 kg and height 25 cm at a tube voltage of 90 kV) without negatively influencing the image quality for a dual-side readout technique computed radiography (CR) system in chest radiography of premature neonates. Chest radiographs of premature neonates were acquired with the double-side readout technique CR system. The images underwent simulated dose reduction in steps of 20% to represent five different radiation dose levels. Four image quality criteria, related to the visibility of important anatomical structures, were used in a visual grading study where five experienced radiologists rated how well the criteria were fulfilled for all images. When reducing the radiation dose, a decrease in image quality could be observed already at the 80% dose level for all the structures. The results indicate that a decrease in exposure from the clinically used setting affects the image quality negatively for the CR system. (authors)

  10. Slot-Scan Digital Radiography of the Lower Extremities: a Comparison to Computed Radiography with Respect to Image Quality and Radiation Dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare the slot-scan digital radiography (SSDR) of the lower extremity region and the computed radiography (CR) method with respect to the image quality and radiation exposure. We enrolled 54 patients who underwent both the SSDR and CR of the lower extremities. The study evaluated and statistically compared the image quality of four features (outer cortex, inner cortex, trabeculae and intermuscular fat) at six different levels (pelvis, hip, femur, knee, tibia and ankle) between each method. The image quality was evaluated using a visibility scale, and the entrance skin dose was measured using a dosimeter at three different levels of a phantom (hip, knee, and ankle). The mean image visibility scale values for the SSDR method were significantly higher than for the CR method. The entrance skin dose for the SSDR method was 278 ?Gy at each level, compared to the entrance skin doses of the CR method, which were 3,410 ?Gy for the hip, 1,152 ?Gy for the knee, and 580 ? Gy for the ankle. Both the image quality and patient entrance skin dose data suggest that the SSDR method is superior to the CR method for the lower extremity musculoskeletal examination

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging, chest radiography, computed tomography and ultrasonography in malignant lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was compared with chest radiography, computed tomography (CT) and ultrasonography (US) for demonstration of spleen and liver engagement and enlarged lymph nodes in patients with malignant lymphoma. The investigation comprised 24 patients with Hodgkin's disease (HD) and 39 with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). MRI demonstrated enlarged lymph nodes, distinctly separated from vessels, fat, muscle, liver and occasionally also pancreas without any contrast medium. The distinction between lymph nodes and spleen was, however, poor in the images. In the mediastinum, MRI was superior to chest radiography and had an accuracy similar to that of CT. In the abdomen and the pelvis MRI had slight advantages over CT in detection of enlarged lymph nodes. Compared with US the MRI results were similar in the abdomen and somewhat better in the pelvis. MRI and US were better than CT in revealing HD infiltrates in the spleen. Infiltration of NHL in the spleen was slightly better disclosed at US than at CT and MRI; most of the NHL infiltration, confirmed at histopathology, could, however, not be revealed with any of the modalities, except when the size of the spleen was considered. Regions in the spleen, displayed with low image intensity in the T2 weighted image, were most likely due to increased amount of fibrotic tissue in the lymphomatous lesions. Good demonstration of lymph nodes and lymphomatous lesions in the spleen with MRI required two sequences; one witn with MRI required two sequences; one with short TR and TE (T1 weighted image) and one with long TR and TE (T2 weighted image). (orig.)

  12. Initial quality performance results using a phantom to simulate chest computed radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to develop a homemade phantom for quantitative quality control in chest computed radiography (CR). The phantom was constructed from copper, aluminium, and polymenthylmethacrylate (PMMA) plates as well as Styrofoam materials. Depending on combinations, the literature suggests that these materials can simulate the attenuation and scattering characteristics of lung, heart, and mediastinum. The lung, heart, and mediastinum regions were simulated by 10 mm x 10 mm x 0.5 mm, 10 mm x 10 mm x 0.5 mm and 10 mm x 10 mm x 1 mm copper plates, respectively. A test object of 100 mm x 100 mm and 0.2 mm thick copper was positioned to each region for CNR measurements. The phantom was exposed to X-rays generated by different tube potentials that covered settings in clinical use: 110-120 kVp (HVL=4.26-4.66 mm Al) at a source image distance (SID) of 180 cm. An approach similar to the recommended method in digital mammography was applied to determine the CNR values of phantom images produced by a Kodak CR 850A system with post-processing turned off. Subjective contrast-detail studies were also carried out by using images of Leeds TOR CDR test object acquired under similar exposure conditions as during CNR measurements. For clinical kVp conditions relevant to chest radiography, the CNR was highest over 90-100 kVp range. The CNR data correlated with the results of contrast detail observations. The values of clinical tube potentials at which CNR is the highest are reentials at which CNR is the highest are regarded to be optimal kVp settings. The simplicity in phantom construction can offer easy implementation of related quality control program. (author)

  13. Initial quality performance results using a phantom to simulate chest computed radiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhogora Wilbroad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop a homemade phantom for quantitative quality control in chest computed radiography (CR. The phantom was constructed from copper, aluminium, and polymenthylmethacrylate (PMMA plates as well as Styrofoam materials. Depending on combinations, the literature suggests that these materials can simulate the attenuation and scattering characteristics of lung, heart, and mediastinum. The lung, heart, and mediastinum regions were simulated by 10 mm x 10 mm x 0.5 mm, 10 mm x 10 mm x 0.5 mm and 10 mm x 10 mm x 1 mm copper plates, respectively. A test object of 100 mm x 100 mm and 0.2 mm thick copper was positioned to each region for CNR measurements. The phantom was exposed to x-rays generated by different tube potentials that covered settings in clinical use: 110-120 kVp (HVL=4.26-4.66 mm Al at a source image distance (SID of 180 cm. An approach similar to the recommended method in digital mammography was applied to determine the CNR values of phantom images produced by a Kodak CR 850A system with post-processing turned off. Subjective contrast-detail studies were also carried out by using images of Leeds TOR CDR test object acquired under similar exposure conditions as during CNR measurements. For clinical kVp conditions relevant to chest radiography, the CNR was highest over 90-100 kVp range. The CNR data correlated with the results of contrast detail observations. The values of clinical tube potentials at which CNR is the highest are regarded to be optimal kVp settings. The simplicity in phantom construction can offer easy implementation of related quality control program.

  14. Comparison of computed radiography with conventional film-screen-technique in equine limb radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed radiographic systems have been introduced in 1981 by Fuji Photo Co., Ltd. Tokyo. This radiographic technology uses a plate made by photo-stimuable phosphor, which stores X-ray energy. The X-ray image information is scanned by a laser and then collected into a photomultiplier tube which converts it into digital signals. The image signals that are sent into the image processor are processed digitally and can be stored. Reading parameters for each anatomical location are completely menu-guided. An interactive workstation allows manipulation of contrast, detail and image noise. Repeated examinations with different X-ray doses for the evaluation of diagnostic important structures are often necessary in horse radiology. The image plate can accommodate a wide range of radiographic exposures while maintaining a good density. The improved linear response allows a decrease of repeated examination owing to initial incorrect exposures. X-ray image quality between computed radiography-system and conventional one is compared, the advantages include several attributes: The sensitivity and dynamic range of the radiation detector are automatically adjusted to the exposure level and exposure range of the stored image. Therefore, the digital signals are normalized for a wide range of radiographic exposure conditions. Soft tissue and skeletal images are evaluated in one examination. The computed radiology is particularly useful in identification of fine detail information in horfication of fine detail information in horse radiology. (author)

  15. Can low-dose computed tomographic scan of the spine replace conventional radiography? An evaluation based on imaging myelomas, bone metastases, and fractures from osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassang, Madleen; Grimaud, Anne; Cucchi, J M; Novellas, Sébastien; Amoretti, Nicolas; Chevallier, Patrick; Bruneton, Jean Noël

    2007-01-01

    We evaluated and compared the radiological images of the spine of 111 patients affected by myeloma, bone metastases, and fractures secondary to osteoporosis demonstrated in low-dose computed tomographic (CT) scans and those demonstrated in conventional radiographic studies. From the analysis of the data obtained, it appears that the duration of the CT procedure is definitely shorter and that its diagnostic sensitivity is superior to that of conventional radiography. We should mention that the dose of radiation delivered by CT scanning does not constitute an unfavorable element in patients, usually elderly, for whom CT scanning was indicated. PMID:17599614

  16. Influence of estrogen deficiency and tibolone therapy on trabecular and cortical bone evaluated by computed radiography system in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Ana Carolina Bergmann de; Henriques, Helene Nara [Postgraduate Program in Pathology, Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Fernandes, Gustavo Vieira Oliveira [Postgraduate Program in Medical Sciences, Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Lima, Inaya; Oliveira, Davi Ferreira de; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu [Nuclear Engineering Program, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Pantaleao, Jose Augusto Soares [Maternal and Child Department, Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Granjeiro, Jose Mauro [Department of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Maria Angelica Guzman [Department of Pathology, Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: To verify the effects of tibolone administration on trabecular and cortical bone of ovariectomized female rats by computed radiography system (CRS). Methods: The experiment was performed on two groups of rats previously ovariectomized, one received tibolone (OVX+T) while the other did not (OVX), those groups were compared to a control group (C) not ovariectomized. Tibolone administration (1 mg/day) began thirty days after the ovariectomy and the treatment remained for five months. At last, the animals were euthanized and femurs and tibias collected. Computed radiographs of the bones were obtained and the digital images were used to determine the bone optical density and cortical thickness on every group. All results were statistically evaluated with significance set at P<0.05%. Results: Tibolone administration was shown to be beneficial only in the densitometric analysis of the femoral head, performing higher optical density compared to OVX. No difference was found in cortical bone thickness. Conclusion: Ovariectomy caused bone loss in the analyzed regions and tibolone administered in high doses over a long period showed not to be fully beneficial, but preserved bone mass in the femoral head. (author)

  17. Influence of estrogen deficiency and tibolone therapy on trabecular and cortical bone evaluated by computed radiography system in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To verify the effects of tibolone administration on trabecular and cortical bone of ovariectomized female rats by computed radiography system (CRS). Methods: The experiment was performed on two groups of rats previously ovariectomized, one received tibolone (OVX+T) while the other did not (OVX), those groups were compared to a control group (C) not ovariectomized. Tibolone administration (1 mg/day) began thirty days after the ovariectomy and the treatment remained for five months. At last, the animals were euthanized and femurs and tibias collected. Computed radiographs of the bones were obtained and the digital images were used to determine the bone optical density and cortical thickness on every group. All results were statistically evaluated with significance set at P<0.05%. Results: Tibolone administration was shown to be beneficial only in the densitometric analysis of the femoral head, performing higher optical density compared to OVX. No difference was found in cortical bone thickness. Conclusion: Ovariectomy caused bone loss in the analyzed regions and tibolone administered in high doses over a long period showed not to be fully beneficial, but preserved bone mass in the femoral head. (author)

  18. Non-destructive analysis of rape plant pod by neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the ripening process of the rape plant pod has not been studied well, non-destructive analysis of the pod has been carried out by neutron radiography. From the water distribution in the pod, the formation of pod parenchyma as well as vascular system were clearly observed. During the ripening process of the pod water content and weight of the seed were measured. It was found that at the early stage of the ripening process the water content of the seed became maximum and began to decrease, whereas the weight of each seed was gradually increased throughout the ripening process. Neutron radiography, which shows the water content of the pod, will give the clue to the decrease of the water content of the seed from the middle of the ripening process. (author)

  19. Validation of an image simulation technique for two computed radiography systems: An application to neonatal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to develop a computer model to simulate the image acquisition for two computed radiography (CR) imaging systems used for neonatal chest imaging: (1) The Agfa ADC Compact, a flying spot reader with powder phosphor image plates (MD 40.0); and (2) the Agfa DX-S, a line-scanning CR reader with needle crystal phosphor image plates (HD 5.0). The model was then applied to compare the image quality of the two CR imaging systems. Methods: Monte Carlo techniques were used to simulate the transport of primary and scattered x rays in digital x-ray systems. The output of the Monte Carlo program was an image representing the energy absorbed in the detector material. This image was then modified using physical characteristics of the CR imaging systems to account for the signal intensity variations due to the heel effect along the anode-cathode axis, the spatial resolution characteristics of the imaging system, and the various sources of image noise. The simulation was performed for typical acquisition parameters of neonatal chest x-ray examinations. To evaluate the computer model, the authors compared the threshold-contrast detectability in simulated and experimentally acquired images of a contrast-detail phantom. Threshold-contrast curves were computed using a commercially available scoring program. Results: The threshold-contrast curves of the simulated and experimentally acquired images show good agreement; for the two CR systems, 93% of the ement; for the two CR systems, 93% of the threshold diameters calculated from the simulated images fell within the confidence intervals of the threshold diameter calculated from the experimentally assessed images. Moreover, the superiority of needle based CR plates for neonatal imaging was confirmed. Conclusions: The good agreement between simulated and experimental acquired results indicates that the computer model is accurate.

  20. Free software for performing physical analysis of systems for digital radiography and mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donini, Bruno; Lanconelli, Nico, E-mail: nico.lanconelli@unibo.it [Alma Mater Studiorum, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Bologna, Bologna 40127 (Italy); Rivetti, Stefano [Fisica Medica, Ospedale di Sassuolo S.p.A., Sassuolo 41049 (Italy); Bertolini, Marco [Medical Physics Unit, Azienda Ospedaliera ASMN, Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico, Reggio Emilia 42123 (Italy)

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: In this paper, the authors present a free software for assisting users in achieving the physical characterization of x-ray digital systems and image quality checks. Methods: The program was developed as a plugin of a well-known public-domain suite ImageJ. The software can assist users in calculating various physical parameters such as the response curve (also termed signal transfer property), modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectra (NPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE). It also includes the computation of some image quality checks: defective pixel analysis, uniformity, dark analysis, and lag. Results: The software was made available in 2009 and has been used during the last couple of years by many users who gave us valuable feedback for improving its usability. It was tested for achieving the physical characterization of several clinical systems for digital radiography and mammography. Various published papers made use of the outcomes of the plugin. Conclusions: This software is potentially beneficial to a variety of users: physicists working in hospitals, staff working in radiological departments, such as medical physicists, physicians, engineers. The plugin, together with a brief user manual, are freely available and can be found online ( http://www.medphys.it/downloads.htm ). With our plugin users can estimate all three most important parameters used for physical characterization (MTF, NPS, and also DQE). The plugin can run on any operating system equipped with ImageJ suite. The authors validated the software by comparing MTF and NPS curves on a common set of images with those obtained with other dedicated programs, achieving a very good agreement.

  1. Standard versus inverted digital luminescence radiography in detecting pulmonary nodules: A ROC analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: Observer performance tests were conducted to compare the effect of presenting digital luminescence radiography (DLR) monitor images in positive mode (“bones black”) or negative mode (“bones white”) in the detectability of subtle lung nodules. Methods: Five radiologists independently reviewed digital radiographs of 55 patients with either (a) a single, small (6–12 mm), non- calcified peripheral nodule confirmed by chest CT (n = 47) or (b) normal finding (n = 8) confirmed by chest CT, respectively. Mean size of pulmonary nodules was 8.3 mm (range 6–12 mm, median 7 mm). Radiographs were displayed either in standard mode (bones white) or inverse intensity (bones black). A total of 550 observations resulted. For the evaluation ROC analysis was performed using a specialized computer algorithm. Results: The standard presentation mode showed a sensitivity of 61.7% and a specificity of 72.5%, the inverse presentation mode a sensitivity of 68.1% and a specificity of 75.0%. ROC- analysis showed that the difference between the standard mode (Az- value 0.694) and the inverse mode (Az- value 0.810) was significant in favour of the inverse presentation mode (p = 0.001). This finding was especially observed in more experienced radiologist (Az- values 0.716 vs. 0.909, P < 0.001). Conclusion: Our study demonstrates a significant advantage of the inverse mode in the detection of small pulmonary nodules compared with the commonly used negative mode when interpreted by more experienced radiologists. Advance in knowledge: Inverse intensity images (“bones black”) may have some advantages in the detection of small pulmonary nodules in experienced readers when presented on a stand-alone display

  2. An x-ray imaging system for digital radiography and computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: This project investigated the use of an x-ray image intensifier (XRII) for projection radiography and computed tomography. The XRII allows the conversion of x-rays to visible light with an associated gain in brightness. The resultant image can be acquired digitally by means of a CCD camera coupled to the XRII output. Unfortunately, the image-intensifier-CCD-digitizer imaging chain produces a number of defects that degrade image quality. Consequently, the quantitative information contained in such images is also severely compromised. The defects identified were signal amplitude non-linearity, dark current offset, flare, spatial distortion, and brightness non-uniformity. These were characterised, and corrective procedures implemented as far as possible by image processing. The defect-corrected images were then utilised to investigate the viability of the experimental beam-line for computed tomography. The XRII allows rapid simultaneous acquisition of the data necessary to reconstruct many contiguous cross-sectional slices through an object. These slices may then be used to build three-dimensional image reconstructions of an object. The reconstructed images showed spatial discrimination of at least sub-millimetre resolution but there was evidence of ring and streak artefacts. A test object was also constructed to test the linear attenuation discrimination of the system. Measured attenuation values were found to be in good agreement with values calculated from ood agreement with values calculated from theoretical tabulations. Copyright (1999) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc

  3. Measurements of Wiener spectra of laser printer in a computed radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sources of noise in a computed radiography (CR) were investigated by measuring three different Wiener spectra: 1) laser printer Wiener spectra including CR film, 2) Wiener spectrum of CR film (single emulsion), and 3) overall Wiener spectra. To measure the noise contributed by the laser printer, 'image data' (i.e., image having a constant pixel value) were produced on a personal computer and were sent to the laser printer in the CR system. The noise level of laser printer was comparable to that of the CR film at low spatial frequencies (4 cycle/mm) was higher than that of the film. Laser printer Wiener spectra obtained in the perpendicular direction relative to the laser beam scanning direction were comparable at low spatial frequencies, but greater at high spatial frequencies, to those obtained in the parallel direction. And a spectral peak around 10 cycle/mm was obtained in the Wiener spectrum in the perpendicular direction. The peak is caused mainly by a banding artifact. Overall Wiener spectra in the parallel and perpendicular directions show the same tendency as those of the laser printer, but the noise level of the overall Wiener spectrum was increased mainly by X-ray quantum mottle at low spatial frequencies. In conclusion, the noise of laser printer greatly increases the overall Wiener spectrum at high spatial frequencies. (author)

  4. Objective measures of quality assurance in a computed radiography-based radiology department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Charles E.; Leckie, Robert G.; Carter, Jon R.; Williamson, Morgan P.; Scotti, Stephen D.; Norton, Gary S.

    1995-05-01

    Parameters are needed to assess quality assurance in a radiology department where computed radiography (CR) is the principal means of image acquisition. Laser-printed computed radiographs were collected for all patients examined over a period of several days. A sample of 1200 was sorted by subject anatomy and the associated exam information was entered into an EXCEL spreadsheet. Sensitivity (S) numbers were sorted into histogram and analyzed using standard descriptive statistics. Each film was over-read by a board-certified radiologist to assess whether the image was diagnostic and to determine if there were pathologic findings. A significant proportion of images were acquired using inappropriate menu codes. The histogram of S numbers for a given menu code describes a log normal distribution. The S number depends on the technologist's ability to control the technique. A significant proportion of the images were deemed non diagnostic, and many correlated to excessive S numbers. Some were a result of mispositioning. The S number is a valid retrospective measure of radiographic quality assurance. Departments using CR should strive for control on menu codes selected and S numbers produced. Such data should be available from PACS databases.

  5. Development of automatic analyses for star-shot images using computed radiography (CR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent progress in radiation therapy has been greatly enhanced in many facilities by the development of new machines for treatment, improved computer technology for radiotherapy treatment planning systems (RTPs), increased accuracy of radiation therapy such as stereotactic irradiation, and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Quality control (QC) of the isocenter, which has consisted of gantry rotation and limiting the radiation field, is important for greater accuracy of these radiation therapy technologies. Star-shot analyses using computed radiography (CR) for evaluation of the isocenter were employed in this study. Devices to support CR were created, and a method of automatically analyzing images obtained by the star-shot technique, which calculated the error (distance) from the isocenter and the incident beam angle, were developed. In terms of the accuracy of our method, the average maximum error was 0.33 mm (less than 2 pixels: 0.35 mm), the average absolute error and incident beam angle errors were 0.3 mm and 0.4 degrees at maximum and at one standard deviation (SD), respectively. In this study, the processing times were 16 sec at minimum, 152 sec at maximum, 18 sec at most frequencies, and 23.6 sec on average. In conclusion, it was considered that our newly developed method for analyzing star-shot images using CR enabled immediate, quantitative evaluation of the isocenter. (author)

  6. Post-operative observation of ilio-apophyseal transplants on the basis of radiography, computed tomography, autoradiography and histological assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study in 25 rabbits, in which the acetabular roof was reinforced by inserting a wedge-shaped autologous tissue fragment of the apophysis, led to the following conclusions: That complete healing and ossification of the implant took place within the observation period; that radiography, computed tomography, autoradiography and histology consistently provided evidence in confirmation of ossification; that a wedge-shaped fragment of apophyseal cartilage is a suitable material for plastic surgery in the acetabular roof. (TRV)

  7. Performance evaluation of three computed radiography systems using methods recommended in American Association of Physicists in Medicine Report 93

    OpenAIRE

    Muhogora, Wilbroad; Padovani, Renato; Bonutti, Faustino; Msaki, Peter; Kazema, R.

    2011-01-01

    The performances of three clinical computed radiography (CR) systems, (Agfa CR 75 (with CRMD 4.0 image plates), Kodak CR 850 (with Kodak GP plates) and Kodak CR 850A (with Kodak GP plates)) were evaluated using six tests recommended in American Association of Physicists in Medicine Report 93. The results indicated variable performances with majority being within acceptable limits. The variations were mainly attributed to differences in detector formulations, plate readers’ characteristics, ...

  8. Evaluation of peripheral vascular disease by intravenous digital subtraction angiography with the Fuji computed radiography (FCR) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intravenous digital subtraction angiography using Fuji computed radiography system (FCR-DSA) was used to evaluate 57 preoperative patients with clinical manifestations of peripheral vascular disease of lower extremity. With its high contrast resolution and good special resolution, image of FCR-DSA could offer optimal information of vascular abnormality in lower extremity distal to midfoot for the diagnosis and the choice of management. (orig.)

  9. Computed radiography for checking source position and dwell time in HDR brachytherapy: an alternative to radiographic films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Alternatives to radiographic film for quality assurance (QA) in radiotherapy are required as film processors are phased out of hospitals in favour of digital imaging equipment. Challenges in using Computed Radiography (CR) for this application include high sensitivity compared with film and the light-proof cassette which normally encloses the imaging plate and moves the front surface of the plate away from radiation sources.

  10. Initial experience with soft-copy display of computed radiography images on three picture archive and communication systems

    OpenAIRE

    Hangiandreou, Nicholas J.; Cesar, Laurie J.; Bruesewitz, Michael R.; Hartman, Thomas E.; King, Bernard F.; Rose, John F.; Swee, Ronald G.; Wenger, Doris E.; James, E. Meredith; Gray, Joel E.

    1997-01-01

    We recently installed picture archive and communication systems (PACS) from three different vendors on our campus for evaluation. A major part of this evaluation involved assessing the capabilities of these systems for displaying computed radiography (CR) images for primary interpretation. The three PACS provided different functionality for CR image display in terms of availability of the proprietary Fuji CR image processing algorithms, availability of user-specified contrast look-up tables, ...

  11. Chest radiography and thoracic computed tomography findings in children who have family members with active pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: The chest radiography and TCT findings in children who had contacted with adult family members with active pulmonary tuberculosis were compared. The contributions of thoracic computed tomography to the diagnosis of tuberculosis were investigated. Methods and material: The children who were 0-16 years old (n=173) and children of families with an adult member which was diagnosed as pulmonary tuberculosis were evaluated. The children were considered in two groups based on the absence (n=125) or presence (n=48) of complaints and/or ambiguous symptoms such as lack of appetite, mild cough, sweating, history of lung infection, low body weight and those with suspicious chest radiography findings (12 cases) were included in this study. Asymptomatic patients (n=125) did not undergo TCT. Patients who had positive PPD skin tests only received isoniazid. If the TCT demonstrated enlarged lymph nodes or parenchymal lesions, minimally active pulmonary tuberculosis was diagnosed and antituberculous treatment was given. Results and discussions: TCT revealed lymph node enlargement or parenchymal lesions in 39 children (81.2%). Of the 12 children whose CXRs revealed suspicious lymph node enlargement and/or infiltration, five had normal findings in TCT whereas the initial findings were confirmed in the remaining seven. These data suggest that there is a correlation between the presence of ambiguous symptoms in exposed children and TCT findings; chest radiography and TCT findingindings; chest radiography and TCT findings do not yield parallel findings. All the patients who received anti-TB treatment were resolved in the control examinations. Conclusion: In this study there is a correlation between presence of ambiguous symptoms and TCT findings, but the chest radiography and TCT findings do not yield harmony in exposed children with ambiguous symptoms (suspicious tuberculosis cases). These observations should be considered in children with symptoms similar to those of exposed children, but with no definite history of exposure. If similar TCT findings observed in such patients, treatment for tuberculosis should be considered

  12. Radiography - A conceptual approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: The purpose of this article is to describe interdisciplinary comparison of the attributes of the concept of radiography in health sciences, physics and technology on the grounds of concept analysis. Background: The concept of radiography is widely used in health sciences, physics and technology. However, the content of the concept may vary. In order to clarify the concept of radiography, the concept must be systematically examined and defined in linguistic form. Method: The concept of radiography was analysed by using the evolutionary method of concept analysis. The data were collected through discretionary sampling and consisted of literature and Internet pages. Qualitative content analysis was employed for analysing the data. Findings: As a result of concept analysis, the concept of radiography in health sciences was determined as expertise of radiographers in the use of radiation, which is dual, dynamic, social and situation-related in nature, and typically based on versatile synthesis. Regarding the attributes identified, the concept of radiography has both similarities and differences between health sciences, physics and technology. Conclusions: The concept of radiography was found to be more abstract, wider, more complex and more radiographer-centred in health sciences than in other disciplines. The content of the concept of radiography seems to vary according to the discipline

  13. Use of effective detective quantum efficiency to optimise radiographic exposures for chest imaging with computed radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertan, Ferihan; Mackenzie, Alistair; Urbanczyk, Hannah J.; Ranger, Nicole T.; Samei, Ehsan

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of the work was to test if effective detective quantum efficiency (eDQE) could be useful for optimisation of radiographic factors for computed radiography (CR) for adult chest examinations. The eDQE was therefore measured across a range of kilovoltage, with and without an anti-scatter grid. The modulation transfer function, noise power spectra, transmission factor and scatter fraction were measured with a phantom made of sheets of Aluminum and Acrylic. The entrance air kerma was selected to give an effective dose of 4.9 ?Sv. The effective noise equivalent quanta (eNEQ) is introduced in this work. eNEQ can be considered equal to the number of X-ray quanta equivalent in the image corrected for the amount of scatter and the blurring processes. The eNEQ was then normalised to account for slight differences in the effective dose (eNEQED). The peak eNEQED was largest at 80 kV and 100 kV with no grid and with grid respectively. At each kilovoltage, the eNEQED and eDQE were between 10% and 70% larger when the grid was not used. The results show that 80 kV without grid is the most suitable exposure conditions for CR in chest. This is consistent with clinical practice in the UK and previous publications recommending a low kV technique for CR for average sized adult chest imaging.

  14. Determination of half value layers of X-ray equipment using computed radiography imaging plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariga, Eiji; Ito, Shigeki; Deji, Shizuhiko; Saze, Takuya; Nishizawa, Kunihide

    2012-01-01

    A method for determining half value layers (HVLs) of inverter-type X-ray equipment using a computed radiography (CR) systems was developed. This method is similar to the traditional method, where the air kerma (K) is measured using an ionization based dosimeter and increasing aluminum (Al) absorber thickness, but utilized an imaging plate (IP) and the sensitivity index (S number) of the CR system as the dosimeter and the dosimeter reading, respectively. The IP and the S number were calibrated using an ionization chamber having traceability to the National Standard Ionization Chamber. A modified version of the S number definition equation K=a × S(-b) was used to translate the S number to K values for X-ray beams produced using tube voltages ranging from 50 to 120 kV and additional Al filtration up to 2.5mm. The coefficient 'a' varied depending on the beam quality, while the coefficient 'b' showed a constant value of 0.991. The HVLs in the range from 1.8 to 5.5mm Al that were obtained with this method were in good agreement with those obtained with the traditional method, as uncertainties were between -7 and 4%. This method can be used to determine the HVLs of inverter-type X-ray equipment within an acceptable accuracy. PMID:21310641

  15. Comparison of full field digital (FFD) and computed radiography (CR) mammography systems in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate and compare the performance of 52 full field digital (FFD) and computed radiography (CR) mammography systems checked by the Greek Atomic Energy Commission with respect to dose and image quality. Entrance surface air kerma (ESAK) was measured and average glandular dose (AGD) was calculated according to the European protocol on dosimetry in mammography. The exposures were performed using the clinical protocol of each laboratory. The image quality was assessed by the total score of resolved phantom structures incorporated in an American College of Radiology accreditation phantom. The mean ESAK values for FFD and CR systems were 4.59±1.93 and 5.0±1.78 mGy, respectively, whereas the AGD yielded a mean value of 1.06±0.36 mGy for the FFD and 1.04±0.35 mGy for the CR systems. Considering image quality, FFD systems indicated a mean total score of 13.04±0.89, whereas CR systems a mean total score of 11.54±1.06. (authors)

  16. Evaluation of a computed radiography system for megavoltage photon beam dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed radiography (CR) systems have been gaining adoption as digital replacements for film for diagnostic and therapy imaging. As a result, film processors are being removed from service, leaving a void for the medical physicists who use film and processors for two-dimensional megavoltage beam dosimetry. This is the first report to evaluate the ability of a commercial CR reader and storage phosphor plate system to accurately quantitate absolute dose and dose distributions from a 6 MV photon beam. There are potential advantages and disadvantages of current CR systems compared to film systems. CR systems inherently produce a linear dose-response over several logs of dose. However, the barium in the storage phosphor has a higher atomic number than the silver in film, resulting in significant energy sensitivity. The purpose of this work is to fully characterize the impact of these and other features of this CR system relevant to dosimetry. The tests performed and reported on in this study include uniformity of readout across a uniform field, geometrical accuracy, intra- and interday reproducibility, signal decay with time and with light exposure, dose-to-signal calibration, high dose effects, obliquity effects, perpendicular and parallel calibration results, field size and depth of measurement effects and the use of lead filters to minimize them, and intensity modulated radiation therapy quality assurance test results compared to that for film. Practical techniques areto that for film. Practical techniques are provided to optimize the accuracy of the system as a dosimetric replacement for film

  17. Low cost, high resolution x-ray detector system for digital radiography and computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have designed and evaluated a novel design of line array x-ray detector for use with digital radiography (DR) and computed tomography (CT) systems. The Radiographic Line Scan (RLS) detector is less than half the cost of discrete multi-channel line array detectors, yet provides the potential for resolution to less than 25 microm at energies of 420 kV. The RLS detector consists of a scintillator fiber-optically coupled to a thermo-electrically cooled line array CCD. Gadolinium oxysulfide screen material has been used as the scintillator, in thicknesses up to 250 microm. Scintillating glass, which is formed into a fiber optic bundle, has also been used in thicknesses up to 2 mm. The large 2.5 mm by 25 microm CCD cells provide high dynamic range while preserving high resolution; the 2.5 mm dimension is oriented in the x-ray absorption direction while the 25 microm dimension is oriented in the resolution direction. Servo controlled thermo-electric cooling of the CCD to a fixed temperature provides reduction of dark current and stabilization of the output. Greater dynamic range is achieved by reducing the dark current, while output stabilization reduces the need for frequent calibration of the detector. Measured performance characteristics are presented along with DR and CT images produced using the RLS detector

  18. The role of high-energy computed radiography (CR) in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed radiography (CR) imaging has high irradiation tolerance and it is easy to archive CR images along with other image information by Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) format, and to process them. CR can be used in radiation Quality Control (QC) task and verification of treatment setting-up.In this paper, the role of high-energy CR in radiation oncology is studied. The patients were imaged by CR system and EPID before radiotherapy. All verification images were acquired with 1-2 MU (Monitor Unit) using 6 MV X-rays. QC for a linac was done with film and high-energy CR to collect the data on daily, weekly and monthly basis. The QC included Multileaf Collimators (MLC) calibration and mechanical iso-centre check. CR was also adapted to verify patient position, the film was used to compare with digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRR) and portal image from EPID. Treatment setting-up was verified based on the result of comparison. High quality verification images could be acquired by the CR system. Comparing to EPID, the results showed that the system was suitable for practical use to acquire daily verification images, and it was useful to fulfill part of quality assurance (QA) in radiation oncology. The quality of image acquired by the high-energy CR system is comparable or even better than DRRs and portal images. The final treatment set-up for the patients could be verified more accurately with the CR system.(authors)tem.(authors)

  19. Observer study of a noise suppression algorithm for computed radiography images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couwenhoven, Mary; Sehnert, William; Wang, Xiaohui; Dupin, Michael; Wandtke, John; Don, Steven; Kraus, Richard; Paul, Narinder; Halin, Neil; Sarno, Robert

    2005-04-01

    Lower x-ray exposures are commonly used in radiographic exams to reduce the patient radiation dose. An unwanted side effect is that the noise level increases as the exposure level is reduced. Image enhancement techniques increasing image contrast, such as sharpening and dynamic range compression tend to increase the appearance of noise. A Gaussian filter-based noise suppression algorithm using an adaptive soft threshold has been designed to reduce the noise appearance in low-exposure images. The advantage of this technique is that the algorithm is signal-dependent, and therefore will only impact image areas with low signal-to-noise ratio. Computed radiography images captured with lower exposure levels were collected from clinical sites, and used as controls in an observer study. The noise suppression algorithm was applied to each of the control images to generate test images. Hardcopy printed film versions of control and test images were presented side-by-side on a film alternator to six radiologists. The radiologists were asked to rate the control and test images using a 9-point diagnostic quality rating scale and a 7-point delta-preference rating scale. The results showed that the algorithm reduced noise appearance, which was preferred, while preserving the diagnostic image quality. This paper describes the noise suppression algorithm and reports on the results of the observer study.

  20. Comparison of the new and the used imaging plates on computed radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To compare image quality and radiation dose of the new imaging plate (IP) with the used IP on computed radiography (CR), and to investigate the using principle in the two kinds of IP. Methods: The dark noise, uniformity and erasure thoroughness of the new and the used IP were measured respectively. Based on threshold contrast-detail detectability (TCCD) technique, the phantom TO, 16 photography was done at 75 kV, and with the two kinds of IP respectively. Three observers scored each image sequence using double blind method, calculated the threshold detection index (HT). The volunteers were randomly divided into three groups: the knee joint group, the chest group and the lumbar group. Each group had 50 cases and checked with the same condition as the phantom. Three radiologists using double blind method evaluated the imaging quality of knee joint, chest and lumbar. Results: The physical characteristic indexes of the new and the used IP were similar to each other. Under the same condition, the detection ability of the new IP was better than that of the used one. When the dose of exposure was raised about 20%, the detection ability of the used IP was close to that of the new one. Conclusions: The dose of exposure can be raised to keep the same imaging quality with the increase times of IP used. The detection ability of IP can decrease with the same dose as before, and the image quality decreases too. (authors)s)

  1. A software tool for quality assurance of computed/digital radiography (CR/DR) systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Nikunj; Valentino, Daniel J.

    2011-03-01

    The recommended methods to test the performance of computed radiography (CR) systems have been established by The American Association of Physicists in Medicine, Report No. 93, "Acceptance Testing and Quality Control of Photostimulable Storage Phosphor Imaging Systems". The quality assurance tests are categorized by how frequently they need to be performed. Quality assurance of CR systems is the responsibility of the facility that performs the exam and is governed by the state in which the facility is located. For Example, the New York State Department of Health has established a guide which lists the tests that a CR facility must perform for quality assurance. This study aims at educating the reader about the new quality assurance requirements defined by the state. It further demonstrates an easy to use software tool, henceforth referred to as the Digital Physicist, developed to aid a radiologic facility in conforming with state guidelines and monitoring quality assurance of CR/DR imaging systems. The Digital Physicist provides a vendor independent procedure for quality assurance of CR/DR systems. Further it, generates a PDF report with a brief description of these tests and the obtained results.

  2. Studies on the correlation between photograph condition and image quality on computed radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate how to use reasonably the combination of exposure dose and speed class on the base of imaging quality on computed radiography (CB). Methods: Based on threshold contrast- detail detectability (TCCD)technique, phantom TO. 16 photography was done with 55, 65 and 75 kV, and combination with three kinds of different exposure dose and speed class respectively. Three radiologists scored each image sequence using double blind method and calculated the threshold detection index (HT). The imaging quality of knee joint, chest and lumbarspine was also evaluated by these radiologists on the base of diagnostic quality and the different combination of exposure close and speed class. Results: Exposure dose was increased by using lower kV value, and Hr value was increased by lower exposure grade rather than higher kV value. Exposure dose was decreased obviously and speed class was increased in the good contrast location at the same kV value. Conclusions: Based on the demand of diagnostic quality and the contrast of the checked location, the speed class should be carefully selected to decrease the radiation dose exposure to patients, without any decrease of the diagnostic quality. (authors)

  3. Patient dose, gray level and exposure index with a computed radiography system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, T. R.; Yoshimura, E. M.

    2014-02-01

    Computed radiography (CR) is gradually replacing conventional screen-film system in Brazil. To assess image quality, manufactures provide the calculation of an exposure index through the acquisition software of the CR system. The objective of this study is to verify if the CR image can be used as an evaluator of patient absorbed dose too, through a relationship between the entrance skin dose and the exposure index or the gray level values obtained in the image. The CR system used for this study (Agfa model 30-X with NX acquisition software) calculates an exposure index called Log of the Median (lgM), related to the absorbed dose to the IP. The lgM value depends on the average gray level (called Scan Average Level (SAL)) of the segmented pixel value histogram of the whole image. A Rando male phantom was used to simulate a human body (chest and head), and was irradiated with an X-ray equipment, using usual radiologic techniques for chest exams. Thermoluminescent dosimeters (LiF, TLD100) were used to evaluate entrance skin dose and exit dose. The results showed a logarithm relation between entrance dose and SAL in the image center, regardless of the beam filtration. The exposure index varies linearly with the entrance dose, but the angular coefficient is beam quality dependent. We conclude that, with an adequate calibration, the CR system can be used to evaluate the patient absorbed dose.

  4. Determination of the two-dimensional detective quantum efficiency of a computed radiography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on a recently described method for determining the two-dimensional presampling modulation transfer function (MTF), the aperture mask method, a method for determining the two-dimensional detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of a digital radiographic system was developed. The method was applied to a new computed radiography (CR) system and comparisons with one-dimensional determinations of the presampling MTF and the DQE were performed. The aperture mask method was shown to agree with the conventional tilted slit method for determining the presampling MTF along the axes. For the particular CR system studied, the mean of one-dimensional determinations of the DQE in orthogonal directions led to a representative measure of the average DQE behavior of the system up to the Nyquist frequency along the axes, but a deviation was observed above this frequency. In conclusion, the method developed for determining the two-dimensional DQE can be used to determine the imaging properties of a digital radiographic detector system over almost the entire frequency domain, the exception being the lowest frequencies (?0.1 mm-1) at which the validity and the reliability of the method are low

  5. Interobserver agreement and performance score comparison in quality control using a breast phantom: screen-film mammography vs computed radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our objective was to evaluate interobserver agreement and to compare the performance score in quality control of screen-film mammography and computed radiography (CR) using a breast phantom. Eleven radiologists interpreted a breast phantom image (CIRS model X) by four viewing methods: (a) original screen-film; (b) soft-copy reading of the digitized film image; (c) hard-copy reading of CR using an imaging plate; and (d) soft-copy reading of CR. For the soft-copy reading, a 17-in. CRT monitor (1024 x 1536 x 8 bits) was used. The phantom image was evaluated using a scoring system outlined in the instruction manual, and observers judged each object using a three-point rating scale: (a) clearly seen; (b) barely seen; and (c) not seen. For statistical analysis, the kappa statistic was employed. For ''mass'' depiction, interobserver agreement using CR was significantly lower than when using screen-film (p<0.05). There was no significant difference in the kappa value for detecting ''microcalcification''; however, the performance score of ''microcalcification'' on CR hard-copy was significantly lower than on the other three viewing methods (p<0.05). Viewing methods (film or CR, soft-copy or hard-copy) could affect how the phantom image is judged. Paying special attention to viewing conditions is recommended for quality control of CR mammograms. (orig.)

  6. PyRAT (python radiography analysis tool): overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, Jerawan C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Temple, Brian A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Buescher, Kevin L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-14

    PyRAT was developed as a quantitative tool for robustly characterizing objects from radiographs to solve problems such as the hybrid nonlinear inverse problem. The optimization software library that was used is the nonsmooth optimization by MADS algorithm (NOMAD). Some of PyRAT's features are: (1) hybrid nonlinear inverse problem with calculated x-ray spectrum and detector response; (2) optimization based inversion approach with goal of identifying unknown object configurations - MVO problem; (3) using functionalities of Python libraries for radiographic image processing and analysis; (4) using the Tikhonov regularization method of linear inverse problem to recover partial information of object configurations; (5) using a priori knowledge of problem solutions to define feasible region and discrete neighbor for the MVO problem - initial data analysis + material library {yields} a priori knowledge; and (6) using the NOMAD (C++ version) software in the object.

  7. An in vitro comparison of diagnostic abilities of conventional radiography, storage phosphor, and cone beam computed tomography to determine occlusal and approximal caries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kayipmaz, Saadettin, E-mail: kayipmaz@ktu.edu.tr [Karadeniz Technical University, Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Oral Diagnosis and Radiology, Farabi, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Sezgin, Omer Said, E-mail: omersaidsezgin@gmail.com [Karadeniz Technical University, Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Oral Diagnosis and Radiology, Farabi, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Saricaoglu, Senem Tugra, E-mail: senem_tugra@hotmail.com [Karadeniz Technical University, Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Oral Diagnosis and Radiology, Farabi, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Can, Gamze, E-mail: gcanktu@yahoo.com [Karadeniz Technical University Faculty of Medicine Department of Public Health (Turkey)

    2011-11-15

    Aim: The aim of this study was to compare conventional radiography, storage phosphor plate, and cone beam computed tomography for in vitro determination of occlusal and approximal caries. Methods: A total of 72 extracted human premolar and molar teeth were selected. Teeth were radiographed with conventional intraoral radiography, a storage phosphor plate system, and cone beam computed tomography and evaluated by two observers. The teeth were then separated and examined with a stereomicroscope and a scanner at approximately 8x magnification. Results: CBCT was statistically superior to conventional radiography and phosphor plate for determining occlusal caries. No significant difference from CBCT, conventional radiography and the phosphor plate system for determining approximal caries was found. Conclusion: The CBCT system may be used as an auxiliary method for the detection of caries.

  8. An in vitro comparison of diagnostic abilities of conventional radiography, storage phosphor, and cone beam computed tomography to determine occlusal and approximal caries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: The aim of this study was to compare conventional radiography, storage phosphor plate, and cone beam computed tomography for in vitro determination of occlusal and approximal caries. Methods: A total of 72 extracted human premolar and molar teeth were selected. Teeth were radiographed with conventional intraoral radiography, a storage phosphor plate system, and cone beam computed tomography and evaluated by two observers. The teeth were then separated and examined with a stereomicroscope and a scanner at approximately 8x magnification. Results: CBCT was statistically superior to conventional radiography and phosphor plate for determining occlusal caries. No significant difference from CBCT, conventional radiography and the phosphor plate system for determining approximal caries was found. Conclusion: The CBCT system may be used as an auxiliary method for the detection of caries.

  9. Improvement of the clinical use of computed radiography for mobile chest imaging: Image quality and patient dose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rill, Lynn Neitzey

    Chest radiography is technically difficult because of the wide variation of tissue attenuations in the chest and limitations of screen-film systems. Mobile chest radiography, performed bedside on hospital inpatients, presents additional difficulties due to geometrical and equipment limitations inherent to mobile x-ray procedures and the severity of illness in patients. Computed radiography (CR) offers a new approach for mobile chest radiography by utilizing a photostimulable phosphor. Photostimulable phosphors are more efficient in absorbing lower-energy x-rays than standard intensifying screens and overcome some image quality limitations of mobile chest imaging, particularly because of the inherent latitude. This study evaluated changes in imaging parameters for CR to take advantage of differences between CR and screen-film radiography. Two chest phantoms, made of acrylic and aluminum, simulated x-ray attenuation for average-sized and large- sized adult chests. The phantoms contained regions representing the lungs, heart and subdiaphragm. Acrylic and aluminum disks (1.9 cm diameter) were positioned in the chest regions to make signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) measurements for different combinations of imaging parameters. Disk thicknesses (contrast) were determined from disk visibility. Effective dose to the phantom was also measured for technique combinations. The results indicated that using an anti-scatter grid and lowering x- ray tube potential improved the SNR significantly; however, the dose to the phantom also increased. An evaluation was performed to examine the clinical applicability of the observed improvements in SNR. Parameter adjustments that improved phantom SNRs by more than 50% resulted in perceived image quality improvements in the lung region of clinical mobile chest radiographs. Parameters that produced smaller improvements in SNR had no apparent effect on clinical image quality. Based on this study, it is recommended that a 3:1 grid be used for mobile chest radiography with CR in order to improve image quality. Using a higher kVp (+15 kVp) did not have a detrimental effect on image quality and offered a patient dose savings, including effective dose and breast dose. Higher kVp techniques should be considered when using a grid is not possible.

  10. Comparison of digital radiography and dual-sided reading of computed radiography system for imaging quality and radiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To compare imaging quality and radiation dose on DR and dual-sided reading of CR system. Methods: The TRG of ALVIM statistics phantom was exposed by DR and dual-sided reading of CR with the same radiation dose, then the exposure factor and the entrance surface dose (ESD) were recorded. After that, the phantom was exposed by dual-sided reading of CR with various mAs ( 3.2, 4.0, 4.3, 4.8 and 5.2 mAs) and the same kV, and the ESD was recorded, too. The acquired images were read by three radiologists on the monitor of diagnosis work station with the same window width and window level, then the total points of the images were given with the method of a five-level confidence scale. ROC curves were drawn and probability Pdet was calculated. Then the data was analyzed statistically by analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results: The ROC analysis of bone substitute with diameter from 0.5 to 1.0 mm and muscle substitute with diameter from 0.9 to 2.0 mm showed A(z) values of 0.742 to 0.923 and 0.635 to 0.900 for DR system when the radiation dose was 137.5 ?Gy. The ROC analysis of bone substitute and muscle substitute showed A (z) values of 0.526 to 0.586 and 0.473 to 0.560 for dual-sided reading of CR at the same radiation dose. The probability Pdet discrepancy of bone substitute in two systems was from 0.216 to 0.337, with the highest of 0.337 in the diameter of 1.0 mm. The probability Pdet, discrepancy by muscle substitute in two systems was from 0.075 to 0.342, with the highest of 0.342 in the diameter of 2.0 mm. There was significant statistical difference between the two groups (F=35.30, Pdet, discrepancy of bone substitute in two systems was from -0.003 to 0.009. The probability Pdet, discrepancy of muscle substitute in two systems was from -0.005 to 0.008, and there was no statistical difference between the two groups (F=5.23, P> 0.05). When the probability Pdet of two systems was the same, the ESD was 180.4 ?Gy by dual-sided reading of CR system, and the ESD was 137.5 ?Gy by DR system. Conclusion: Detection with DR system was proved to be superior to dual-sided reading of CR system at the same radiation dose. When the image quality was similar, the radiation dose of DR system was less than the dual-sided reading of CR system. (authors)

  11. Digital Radiography and PACS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravin, Carl E.

    1989-05-01

    The use of a Digital Radiography system (DR) with a digital interface to a PACS, greatly increases the potential of the system for effective communications, since it makes the majority of the cases done in the radiology department available without the need to digitize film. The new all digital, fully integrated system, consisting of a DR system and a PACS has been installed in the Duke University Medical Center Radiology Department. The digital radiography system, Philips Computed Radiography (PCR), transmits images to the PACS (CommView ) via a PACS Interface Processor (PIP). The questions and problems associated with the integrated system are now being investigated.

  12. SU-E-I-27: Establishing Target Exposure Index Values for Computed Radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To develop a standard set of target exposure index (TEI) values to be applied to Agfa Computed Radiography (CR) readers in accordance with International Electrotechnical Committee 62494-1 (ed. 1.0). Methods: A large data cohort was collected from six USAF Medical Treatment Facilities that exclusively use Agfa CR Readers. Dose monitoring statistics were collected from each reader. The data was analyzed based on anatomic region, view, and processing speed class. The Agfa specific exposure metric, logarithmic mean (LGM), was converted to exposure index (EI) for each data set. The optimum TEI value was determined by minimizing the number of studies that fell outside the acceptable deviation index (DI) range of +/? 2 for phototimed techniques or a range of +/?3 for fixed techniques. An anthropomorphic radiographic phantom was used to corroborate the TEI recommendations. Images were acquired of several anatomic regions and views using standard techniques. The images were then evaluated by two radiologists as either acceptable or unacceptable. The acceptable image with the lowest exposure and EI value was compared to the recommended TEI values using a passing DI range. Results: Target EI values were determined for a comprehensive list of anatomic regions and views. Conclusion: Target EI values must be established on each CR unit in order to provide a positive feedback system for the technologist. This system will serve as a mechanism to prevent under or overexposures of patients. The TEI recommendations are a first attempt at a large scale process improvement with the goal of setting reasonable and standardized TEI values. The implementation and effectiveness of the recommended TEI values should be monitored and adjustments made as necessary

  13. Visualisation of uric acid renal calculi (UARC) using computed radiography (CR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To investigate the capability of CR to visualise UARC through inverse image post-processing technique. Methods. A patient-equivalent phantom (PEP) consisting of six 2.5-cm thick Perspex layers and one 1-mm thick aluminium layer was used to represent human tissues and bones respectively. A total of eight exposures were made on PEP to radiograph 1 mm, 2 mm and 3 mm UARC located between three layers of 2-cm thick cattle muscle, positioned inside the PEP. After each exposure, a layer of Perspex was removed, and another exposure was made until only one Perspex layer and one layer of muscle (containing the three UARC) remained. For each exposure, two images (a positive and an inverse image) were produced for comparison using Fuji XG1 computed radiography system with IP0 type C-ST-VI Fuji imaging plate (equivalent to 400 speed radiographic screen-film systems). Results: In positive image, UARC of all three sizes (1 mm, 2 mm and 3 mm) located in the cattle muscle, cannot be visualised when the PEP consists of more than one layer of Perspex. In inverse image, the 3-mm UARC can be seen even when the PEP consists of five layers of Perspex. Conclusion: This study revealed the post-processing capability of CR to increase the visualisation of UARC which has been categorised as radiolucent. A further study of clinical image quality should be performed using blinded observers to test diagnostic accuracy, which was not included in this study.udy.

  14. Comparison of computed tomography with radiography as a noninvasive diagnostic technique for chronic nasal disease in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed tomography was evaluated as a noninvasive technique for the diagnosis of chronic nasal disease in dogs. Computed tomographic images, radiographs, and histopathologic findings were compared in 11 dogs with chronic nasal disease. Definitive diagnosis was made following traumatic nasal flush, exploratory surgery, or necropsy. The study included 8 dogs with intranasal tumors, 2 dogs with bacterial rhinitis (Pasteurella sp), and 1 dog with mycotic rhinitis (Aspergillus sp). Computed tomography was superior to radiography in defining the extent of the disease process and in differentiating infectious rhinitis from nasal neoplasms. It defined lesions in the palate, nasopharyngeal meatus, maxillary sinus, caudal ethmoturbinates, and periorbital tissues that were difficult to demonstrate by use of conventional radiography. Tumors appeared as space-occupying lesions that obliterated the turbinates, caused deviation of the nasal septum, and eroded bone. Rhinitis appeared as a cavitating lesion that spared the paranasal sinuses, thickened and distorted the turbinates, and widened the meatus. Although morphologically distinct on computed tomographic images, infectious rhinitis and nasal neoplasms could not be differentiated by attenuation measurements or degree of contrast enhancement. Computed tomography appeared to be a reliable, noninvasive technique for the diagnosis of chronic nasal disease in dogs, and a promising alternative to diagnostic techniques currently in use

  15. Diagnostic Value of Cone-Beam Computed Tomography and Periapical Radiography In Detection of Vertical Root Fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzodini Ardakani, Fatemeh; Razavi, Seyed Hossein; Tabrizizadeh, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Vertical root fracture (VRF) is the longitudinal fracture of the root in endodontically treated teeth. Considering the limitations of two-dimensional radiographic images in detection of VRF and introduction of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), this study was designed to find the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of CBCT and periapical (PA) radiography in detection of VRFs. Methods and Materials: This was a cross-sectional in vitro study on 80 extracted human single canal teeth including 40 maxillary and 40 mandibular teeth. After standardized endodontic treatment of the roots, VRF was induced in half of the teeth in each group, and other half were left without fracture. Teeth were inserted in dry maxillary and mandibular alveoli. PA radiographs and CBCT images were taken from the specimens. Data were analyzed with SPSS software. The McNemar test was used to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of images, and kappa coefficient was used to assess the degree of agreement between the observers. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: Sensitivity and specificity values of CBCT were 97.5% and 95%, respectively. However, for PA radiography the sensitivity and specificity were 67.5% and 92.5%, in order of appearance. Accuracy of CBCT (96.25%) and PA radiography (80%) in both jaws were significantly different (P=0.022). Two methods were not significantly different when testing specificity (P=0.298). Conclusion: This study showed that the sensitivity and accuracy of CBCT in detection of vertical root fracture are higher than periapical radiography. CBCT can be recommended to be used in detection of vertical root fractures.

  16. Chest radiography and thoracic computed tomography findings in children who have family members with active pulmonary tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uzum, Kazim; Karahan, Okkes I.; Dogan, Sukru; Coskun, Abdulhakim E-mail: coskuna@erciyes.edu.tr; Topcu, Faik

    2003-12-01

    Objective: The chest radiography and TCT findings in children who had contacted with adult family members with active pulmonary tuberculosis were compared. The contributions of thoracic computed tomography to the diagnosis of tuberculosis were investigated. Methods and material: The children who were 0-16 years old (n=173) and children of families with an adult member which was diagnosed as pulmonary tuberculosis were evaluated. The children were considered in two groups based on the absence (n=125) or presence (n=48) of complaints and/or ambiguous symptoms such as lack of appetite, mild cough, sweating, history of lung infection, low body weight and those with suspicious chest radiography findings (12 cases) were included in this study. Asymptomatic patients (n=125) did not undergo TCT. Patients who had positive PPD skin tests only received isoniazid. If the TCT demonstrated enlarged lymph nodes or parenchymal lesions, minimally active pulmonary tuberculosis was diagnosed and antituberculous treatment was given. Results and discussions: TCT revealed lymph node enlargement or parenchymal lesions in 39 children (81.2%). Of the 12 children whose CXRs revealed suspicious lymph node enlargement and/or infiltration, five had normal findings in TCT whereas the initial findings were confirmed in the remaining seven. These data suggest that there is a correlation between the presence of ambiguous symptoms in exposed children and TCT findings; chest radiography and TCT findings do not yield parallel findings. All the patients who received anti-TB treatment were resolved in the control examinations. Conclusion: In this study there is a correlation between presence of ambiguous symptoms and TCT findings, but the chest radiography and TCT findings do not yield harmony in exposed children with ambiguous symptoms (suspicious tuberculosis cases). These observations should be considered in children with symptoms similar to those of exposed children, but with no definite history of exposure. If similar TCT findings observed in such patients, treatment for tuberculosis should be considered.

  17. Digital real time radiography and X-ray computed tomography development at AWE plc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Digital X-ray imaging promises many advantages over conventional film radiography. The technique collects images electronically thus eliminating X-ray film, chemicals and chemical waste. Many radiographs can be stored on an optical disk or CD ROM and can be retrieved quickly and repeatedly using modern data archiving methods. Data can be transmitted electronically over local networks or the Internet for remote consultations. This paper discusses the development of a lens coupled digital radiography system currently being developed at AWE plc to examine high-density weapon components and sub-assemblies

  18. Proton radiography and proton computed tomography based on time-resolved dose measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Mauro; Verburg, Joost M.; Rose, Mark; Min, Chul Hee; Tang, Shikui; Hassane Bentefour, El; Paganetti, Harald; Lu, Hsiao-Ming

    2013-11-01

    We present a proof of principle study of proton radiography and proton computed tomography (pCT) based on time-resolved dose measurements. We used a prototype, two-dimensional, diode-array detector capable of fast dose rate measurements, to acquire proton radiographic images expressed directly in water equivalent path length (WEPL). The technique is based on the time dependence of the dose distribution delivered by a proton beam traversing a range modulator wheel in passive scattering proton therapy systems. The dose rate produced in the medium by such a system is periodic and has a unique pattern in time at each point along the beam path and thus encodes the WEPL. By measuring the time dose pattern at the point of interest, the WEPL to this point can be decoded. If one measures the time-dose patterns at points on a plane behind the patient for a beam with sufficient energy to penetrate the patient, the obtained 2D distribution of the WEPL forms an image. The technique requires only a 2D dosimeter array and it uses only the clinical beam for a fraction of second with negligible dose to patient. We first evaluated the accuracy of the technique in determining the WEPL for static phantoms aiming at beam range verification of the brain fields of medulloblastoma patients. Accurate beam ranges for these fields can significantly reduce the dose to the cranial skin of the patient and thus the risk of permanent alopecia. Second, we investigated the potential features of the technique for real-time imaging of a moving phantom. Real-time tumor tracking by proton radiography could provide more accurate validations of tumor motion models due to the more sensitive dependence of proton beam on tissue density compared to x-rays. Our radiographic technique is rapid (˜100 ms) and simultaneous over the whole field, it can image mobile tumors without the problem of interplay effect inherently challenging for methods based on pencil beams. Third, we present the reconstructed pCT images of a cylindrical phantom containing inserts of different materials. As for all conventional pCT systems, the method illustrated in this work produces tomographic images that are potentially more accurate than x-ray CT in providing maps of proton relative stopping power (RSP) in the patient without the need for converting x-ray Hounsfield units to proton RSP. All phantom tests produced reasonable results, given the currently limited spatial and time resolution of the prototype detector. The dose required to produce one radiographic image, with the current settings, is ˜0.7 cGy. Finally, we discuss a series of techniques to improve the resolution and accuracy of radiographic and tomographic images for the future development of a full-scale detector.

  19. neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron radiography (or radiology) is a diverse filed that uses neutrons of various energies, subthermal, thermal, epithermal or fast in either steady state or pulsed mode to examine objects for industrial, medical, or other purposes, both microscopic and macroscopic. The applications include engineering design, biological studies, nondestructive inspection and materials evaluation. In the past decade, over 100 different centers in some 30 countries have published reports of pioneering activities using reactors, accelerators and isotopic neutron sources. While film transparency and electronic video are most common imaging methods for static or in motion objects respectively, there are other important data gathering techniques, including track etch, digital gauging and computed tomography. A survey of the world-wide progress shows the field to be gaining steadily in its diversity, its sophistication and its importance. (author)

  20. Computed tomographic analysis of urinary calculi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newhouse, J.H.; Prien, E.L.; Amis, E.S. Jr.; Dretler, S.P.; Pfister, R.C.

    1984-03-01

    Excised urinary calculi were subjected to computed tomographic (CT) scanning in an attempt to determine whether CT attenuation values would allow accurate analysis of stone composition. The mean, maximum, and modal pixel densities of the calculi were recorded and compared; the resulting values reflected considerable heterogeneity in stone density. Although uric acid and cystine calculi could be identified by their discrete ranges on one or more of these criteria, calcium-containing stones of various compositions, including struvite, could not be distinguished reliably. CT analysis of stone density is not likely to be more accurate than standard radiography in characterizing stone composition in vivo.

  1. Computed tomographic analysis of urinary calculi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Excised urinary calculi were subjected to computed tomographic (CT) scanning in an attempt to determine whether CT attenuation values would allow accurate analysis of stone composition. The mean, maximum, and modal pixel densities of the calculi were recorded and compared; the resulting values reflected considerable heterogeneity in stone density. Although uric acid and cystine calculi could be identified by their discrete ranges on one or more of these criteria, calcium-containing stones of various compositions, including struvite, could not be distinguished reliably. CT analysis of stone density is not likely to be more accurate than standard radiography in characterizing stone composition in vivo

  2. The stationary neutron radiography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to prevent corrosion-related aircraft loss, one must detect corrosion in the component before failure. This can be accomplished through the nondestructive Inspection (NDI) technique called neutron radiography. Implementation of neutron radiography for NDI is taking place at McClellan AFB, headquarters for the Sacramento Air Logistics Center (SMALC). Three systems will utilize the neutron radiography technique: the Transportable Neutron Radiography System (TNRS), the Maneuverable Neutron Radiography System (MNRS), and the Stationary Neutron Radiography System (SNRS). The SNRS is a specially designed facility, consisting of: TRIGA Reactor; Shield and Containment; four radiography bays; two robotic parts positioning systems; two real-time imaging systems. Like other TRIGA systems, the SNRS can also inspect advanced composite materials, turbine blades, hydraulic components, pyrotechnics. Further capabilities include neutron activation analysis using a pneumatic tube transfer system and nuclear hardening studies. The SNRS will also be capable of pulsing

  3. Detection of bone erosions in rheumatoid arthritis wrist joints with magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography and radiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    DØhn, Uffe MØller; Ejbjerg, Bo J

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The objectives of the present study were, with multidetector computed tomography (CT) as the reference method, to determine the performance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and radiography for the detection of bone erosions in rheumatoid arthritis wrist bones, and to test whether measuring volumes of erosions on CT and MRI is reproducible and correlated to semiquantitative assessments (scores) of erosions on CT, MRI and radiography. METHODS: Seventeen patients with rheumatoid arthritis and four healthy control individuals underwent CT, MRI and radiography of one wrist, performed on the same day. CT was performed on a Philips Mx8000IDT unit (voxel size 0.4 mm x 0.4 mm x 1 mm) and MRI was performed on a Philips Panorama 0.6T unit (voxel size 0.4 mm x 0.4 mm x 0.4 mm). Images were evaluated separately for erosions in all wrist bones and were scored according to the principles of the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology Rheumatoid Arthritis MRI Scoring System (CT and MRI) and the Sharp/van der Heijde (radiographs) scoring methods. Measurements of erosion volumes of all erosions were performed twice with a 1-week interval. RESULTS: With CT as the reference method, the overall sensitivity, specificity and accuracy (concordance) of MRI for detecting erosions were 61%, 93% and 77%, respectively, while the respective values were 24%, 99% and 63% for radiography. The intramodality agreements when measuring erosion volumes were high for both CT and MRI (Spearman correlation coefficients 0.92 and 0.90 (both P < 0.01), respectively). Correlations between volumes and scores of individual erosions were 0.96 for CT and 0.99 for MRI, while they were 0.83 (CT) and 0.80 (MRI) for persons' total erosion volume and total score (all P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: With CT as the reference method, MRI showed moderate sensitivity and good specificity and accuracy for detection of erosions in rheumatoid arthritis and healthy wrist bones, while radiography showed very low sensitivity. The tested volumetric method was highly reproducible and correlated to scores of erosions.

  4. Neutron radiography and X-ray computed tomography for quantifying weathering and water uptake processes inside porous limestone used as building material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewanckele, J., E-mail: jan.dewanckele@gmail.com [Department of Geology and Soil Science—UGCT, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281 S8, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); De Kock, T. [Department of Geology and Soil Science—UGCT, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281 S8, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Fronteau, G. [University of Reims Champagne-Ardenne (URCA), GEGENAA, EA3795 Reims (France); Derluyn, H. [Chair of Building Physics, ETH Zurich, HIL E 47.2, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 15, 8093 Zürich Hönggerberg (Switzerland); Vontobel, P. [Spallation Neutron Source Division, Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Dierick, M.; Van Hoorebeke, L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy—UGCT, Ghent University, Proeftuinstraat 86, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Jacobs, P.; Cnudde, V. [Department of Geology and Soil Science—UGCT, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281 S8, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2014-02-15

    Euville and Savonnières limestones were weathered by acid test and this resulted in the formation of a gypsum crust. In order to characterize the crystallization pattern and the evolution of the pore structure below the crust, a combination of high resolution X-ray computed tomography and SEM–EDS was used. A time lapse sequence of the changing pore structure in both stones was obtained and afterwards quantified by using image analysis. The difference in weathering of both stones by the same process could be explained by the underlying microstructure and texture. Because water and moisture play a crucial role in the weathering processes, water uptake in weathered and non-weathered samples was characterized based on neutron radiography. In this way the water uptake was both visualized and quantified in function of the height of the sample and in function of time. In general, the formation of a gypsum crust on limestone slows down the initial water uptake in the materials. - Highlights: • Time lapse sequence in 3D of changing pore structures inside limestone • A combination of X-ray CT, SEM and neutron radiography was used. • Quantification of water content in function of time, height and weathering • Characterization of weathering processes due to gypsum crystallization.

  5. Three-dimensional biplanar radiography as a new means of accessing femoral version: a comparitive study of EOS three-dimensional radiography versus computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To validate femoral version measurements made from biplanar radiography (BR), three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions (EOS imaging, France) were made in differing rotational positions against the gold standard of computed tomography (CT). Two cadaveric femurs were scanned with CT and BR in five different femoral versions creating ten total phantoms. The native version was modified by rotating through a mid-diaphyseal hinge twice into increasing anteversion and twice into increased retroversion. For each biplanar scan, the phantom itself was rotated -10, -5, 0, +5 and +10 . Three-dimensional CT reconstructions were designated the true value for femoral version. Two independent observers measured the femoral version on CT axial slices and BR 3D reconstructions twice. The mean error (upper bound of the 95 % confidence interval), inter- and intraobserver reliability, and the error compared to the true version were determined for both imaging techniques. Interobserver intraclass correlation for CT axial images ranged from 0.981 to 0.991, and the intraobserver intraclass correlation ranged from 0.994 to 0.996. For the BR 3D reconstructions these values ranged from 0.983 to 0.998 and 0.982 to 0.998, respectively. For the CT measurements the upper bound of error from the true value was 5.4-7.5 , whereas for BR 3D reconstructions it was 4.0-10.1 . There was no statistical difference in the mean error from the true values for any of the measurements done with axial CT or BR 3D reconstructions. BR 3D reconstructions accurately and reliably provide clinical data on femoral version compared to CT even with rotation of the patient of up to 10 from neutral. (orig.)

  6. Three-dimensional biplanar radiography as a new means of accessing femoral version: a comparitive study of EOS three-dimensional radiography versus computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomerantz, M.L. [University of California San Diego School of Medicine, Orthopaedic Surgery Department, San Diego, CA (United States); Glaser, Diana [Aurora Spine, Carlsbad, CA (United States); Doan, Josh [Orthopedic Biomechanics Research Center, San Diego, CA (United States); Kumar, Sita [University of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Edmonds, Eric W. [University of California San Diego School of Medicine, Orthopaedic Surgery Department, San Diego, CA (United States); Rady Children' s Hospital San Diego, Division of Orthopedic Surgery, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2014-10-17

    To validate femoral version measurements made from biplanar radiography (BR), three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions (EOS imaging, France) were made in differing rotational positions against the gold standard of computed tomography (CT). Two cadaveric femurs were scanned with CT and BR in five different femoral versions creating ten total phantoms. The native version was modified by rotating through a mid-diaphyseal hinge twice into increasing anteversion and twice into increased retroversion. For each biplanar scan, the phantom itself was rotated -10, -5, 0, +5 and +10 . Three-dimensional CT reconstructions were designated the true value for femoral version. Two independent observers measured the femoral version on CT axial slices and BR 3D reconstructions twice. The mean error (upper bound of the 95 % confidence interval), inter- and intraobserver reliability, and the error compared to the true version were determined for both imaging techniques. Interobserver intraclass correlation for CT axial images ranged from 0.981 to 0.991, and the intraobserver intraclass correlation ranged from 0.994 to 0.996. For the BR 3D reconstructions these values ranged from 0.983 to 0.998 and 0.982 to 0.998, respectively. For the CT measurements the upper bound of error from the true value was 5.4-7.5 , whereas for BR 3D reconstructions it was 4.0-10.1 . There was no statistical difference in the mean error from the true values for any of the measurements done with axial CT or BR 3D reconstructions. BR 3D reconstructions accurately and reliably provide clinical data on femoral version compared to CT even with rotation of the patient of up to 10 from neutral. (orig.)

  7. Complete erasing of ghost images on computed radiography plates and role of deeply trapped electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed radiography (CR) plates made of europium-doped Ba(Sr)FBr(I) were simultaneously exposed to filtered ultraviolet light and visible light in order to erase ghost images, i.e., latent image that is unerasable with visible light (LIunVL) and reappearing one, which are particularly observed in plates irradiated with a high dose and/or cumulatively over-irradiated. CR samples showing LIunVLs were prepared by irradiating three different types of CR plates (Agfa ADC MD10, Kodak Directview Mammo EHRM2, and Fuji ST-VI) with 50 kV X-ray beams in the dose range 8.1 mGy - 8.0 Gy. After the sixth round of simultaneous 6 h exposures to filtered ultraviolet light and visible light, all the LIunVLs in the three types of CR plates were erased to the same level as in an unirradiated plate and no latent images reappeared after storage at 0 °C for 14 days. With conventional exposure to visible light, LIunVLs consistently remained in all types of CR plates irradiated with higher doses of X-rays and latent images reappeared in the Agfa M10 plates after storage at 0 °C. Electrons trapped in deep centers cause LIunVLs and they can be erased by simultaneous exposures to filtered ultraviolet light and visible light. To study electrons in deep centers, the absorption spectra were examined in all types of irradiated CR plates by using polychromatic ultraviolet light from a deep-ultraviolet lamp. It was found that deep centers showed a dominant peak in the absorption spectra at around 3ak in the absorption spectra at around 324 nm for the Agfa M10 and Kodak EHRM2 plates, and at around 320 nm for the Fuji ST-VI plate, in each case followed by a few small peaks. The peak heights were dose-dependent for all types of CR samples, suggesting that the number of electrons trapped in deep centers increases with the irradiation dose.

  8. Complete erasing of ghost images on computed radiography plates and role of deeply trapped electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohuchi-Yoshida, Hiroko, E-mail: hiroko@mail.pharm.tohoku.ac.jp [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tohoku University, 6-3 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Kondo, Yasuhiro [Ishinomaki Senshu University, 1 Shinmito Minamisakai Ishinomaki-shi, Miyagi 986-8580 (Japan)

    2011-12-11

    Computed radiography (CR) plates made of europium-doped Ba(Sr)FBr(I) were simultaneously exposed to filtered ultraviolet light and visible light in order to erase ghost images, i.e., latent image that is unerasable with visible light (LIunVL) and reappearing one, which are particularly observed in plates irradiated with a high dose and/or cumulatively over-irradiated. CR samples showing LIunVLs were prepared by irradiating three different types of CR plates (Agfa ADC MD10, Kodak Directview Mammo EHRM2, and Fuji ST-VI) with 50 kV X-ray beams in the dose range 8.1 mGy - 8.0 Gy. After the sixth round of simultaneous 6 h exposures to filtered ultraviolet light and visible light, all the LIunVLs in the three types of CR plates were erased to the same level as in an unirradiated plate and no latent images reappeared after storage at 0 Degree-Sign C for 14 days. With conventional exposure to visible light, LIunVLs consistently remained in all types of CR plates irradiated with higher doses of X-rays and latent images reappeared in the Agfa M10 plates after storage at 0 Degree-Sign C. Electrons trapped in deep centers cause LIunVLs and they can be erased by simultaneous exposures to filtered ultraviolet light and visible light. To study electrons in deep centers, the absorption spectra were examined in all types of irradiated CR plates by using polychromatic ultraviolet light from a deep-ultraviolet lamp. It was found that deep centers showed a dominant peak in the absorption spectra at around 324 nm for the Agfa M10 and Kodak EHRM2 plates, and at around 320 nm for the Fuji ST-VI plate, in each case followed by a few small peaks. The peak heights were dose-dependent for all types of CR samples, suggesting that the number of electrons trapped in deep centers increases with the irradiation dose.

  9. Plate-specific gain map correction for the improvement of detective quantum efficiency in computed radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The purpose of this work is to improve the noise power spectrum (NPS), and thus the detective quantum efficiency (DQE), of computed radiography (CR) images by correcting for spatial gain variations specific to individual imaging plates. CR devices have not traditionally employed gain-map corrections, unlike the case with flat-panel detectors, because of the multiplicity of plates used with each reader. The lack of gain-map correction has limited the DQE(f) at higher exposures with CR. This current work describes a feasible solution to generating plate-specific gain maps. Methods: Ten high-exposure open field images were taken with an RQA5 spectrum, using a sixth generation CR plate suspended in air without a cassette. Image values were converted to exposure, the plates registered using fiducial dots on the plate, the ten images averaged, and then high-pass filtered to remove low frequency contributions from field inhomogeneity. A gain-map was then produced by converting all pixel values in the average into fractions with mean of one. The resultant gain-map of the plate was used to normalize subsequent single images to correct for spatial gain fluctuation. To validate performance, the normalized NPS (NNPS) for all images was calculated both with and without the gain-map correction. Variations in the quality of correction due to exposure levels, beam voltage/spectrum, CR reader used, and registration were investigated. Results: The NNPS with plate-specific gainResults: The NNPS with plate-specific gain-map correction showed improvement over the noncorrected case over the range of frequencies from 0.15 to 2.5 mm-1. At high exposure (40 mR), NNPS was 50%-90% better with gain-map correction than without. A small further improvement in NNPS was seen from carefully registering the gain-map with subsequent images using small fiducial dots, because of slight misregistration during scanning. Further improvement was seen in the NNPS from scaling the gain map about the mean to account for different beam spectra. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that a simple gain-map can be used to correct for the fixed-pattern noise in a given plate and thus improve the DQE of CR imaging. Such a method could easily be implemented by manufacturers because each plate has a unique bar code and the gain-map for all plates associated with a reader could be stored for future retrieval. These experiments indicated that an improvement in NPS (and hence, DQE) is possible, depending on exposure level, over a wide range of frequencies with this technique.

  10. Investigation of appropriate X-ray exposure on a computed radiography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the appropriate patient X-ray exposure when comparing computed radiography (CR) system with film-screen combination. Methods: On the basis of the same radiographic parameters and image density, an image plate was exposed compared with a kind of screen-film system. Overall Wiener spectrum (WS) sampling films were acquired by changing mAs. WS values were calculated by scanning on micro-densimeter for every film processed as discrete signal by using fast Fourier transform (FFT). The X-ray exposure of CR image, which had the same WS values with film-screen combination image, was obtained. Results: (1) With the same exposure dose, the WS value of CR film was 23.1 x 10-6 mm2 when the spatial frequency was 0.1 LP/mm, while the WS of CaWO4 screen-Fuji film was 20.1 x 10-6 mm2; When the spatial frequency was 0.5 LP/mm, CR film was 9.73 x 10-6 mm2, and screen-Fuji film was 8.41 x 10-6 mm2. (2) When the spatial frequency was 0.1 LP/mm, the WS value of CR film exposed at 5.61 ?Gy was 0.53 times of that at 1.40 ?Gy's, 0.75 times of 2.80 ?Gy's, 1.14 times of 8.76 ?Gy's, 1.44 times of 13.67 ?Gy's, and 1.80 times of 21.11 ?Gy's; when the spatial frequency was 0.5 LP/mm, the WS value of CR film exposed at 5.61 ?Gy was 0.40 times of that at 1.40 ?Gy's, 0.58 times of 2.80 ?Gy's, 1.26 times of 8.76 ?Gy's, 1.47 times of 13.67 ?Gy's, and 2.16 times of 21.11 Gy's, and 2.16 times of 21.11 ?Gy's. (3) When they had the same WS value, exposure of CR system should be around 7.70 ?Gy while screen-film combination was 5.61 ?Gy when the special frequency was 0.5 LP/mm. Conclusion: For identical exposures, the overall Wiener spectrum of the CR was richer than that of the film-screen combination. With the exposure increased the WS values of CR decreased. The exposure of CR must be higher than that of film-screen combination when they had the same WS values. (author)

  11. Investigation of overall wiener spectrum measurement in a computed radiography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the effect of image processing on overall Wiener spectrum (WS) in a computed radiography system. Methods: Imaging plate was exposed using conventional X-ray equipment. Overall WS sampling films were made by changing 3 parameters of spatial frequency processing, including frequency rang (RN), frequency type (RT), and degree of enhancement (RE), and by changing 1 to 4 parameters of gradation processing (rotation amount, GA). WS values were calculated by scanning on micro-densimeter for every film proceeded as discrete signal using fast Fourier transform. Results: (1) The WS value of subscan direction was 7.26 x 10-5 mm2 when the spatial frequency was 1.0 LP/mm, it was 1.57 times larger than that of scan direction. The WS had peaks under high spatial frequency at sun-scan direction. (2) The WS value of RN with 0 at scan direction was 7.90 x 10-5 mm2 when the spatial frequency was 1.0 LP/mm, it was 1.70 times larger than that of RN with 5, and 3.30 times larger than that of RN with 9. (3) The WS value of RE with 1.5 at scan direction was 1.05 x 10-'4 mm2 when the spatial frequency was 1.0 LP/mm, it was 2.27 times larger than that of RE with 1.0 and 2.92 times larger than that of RE with 0.5. (4) The WS value of GA with 1.5 at scan direction was 1.25 x 10-4 mm2 when the spatial frequency is 1.0 LP/mm, it was 2.70 times larger than that of GA with 0.8. (5) The WS valu than that of GA with 0.8. (5) The WS value of RT with T at subscan direction was 9.80 x 10-5 mm2 when the spatial frequency was 1.0 LP/mm, it was 1.02 times larger than that of RT with F, and 1.35 times larger than that of RT with R, and also 1.55 times larger than that of RT with P. Conclusions: RN, RE and GA contributed strongly to Wiener spectra, but the contribution of RT was small. When processing the clinical images, adequate processing parameters should be chosen to reduce the image noise, so as to meet the clinical diagnostic need

  12. Assessment of survey radiography and comparison with x-ray computed tomography for detection of hyperfunctioning adrenocortical tumors in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of abdominal survey radiography and x-ray computed tomography (CT) were compared in 13 dogs with hyperadrenocorticism histologically attributed to adrenocortical tumors. X-ray computed tomography enabled accurate localization of the tumor in all 13 dogs. Apart from 2 poorly demarcated irregular-shaped and mineralized carcinomas, there were no differences between adenoma (n = 3) and carcinoma (n = 10) on CT images. In 1 dog, invasion of the caudal vena cava by the tumor was suggested on CT images and was confirmed during surgery. Suspicion of adhesions between tumors of the right adrenal gland and the caudal vena cava on the basis of CT images was confirmed during surgery in only 2 of 6 dogs. Survey radiography allowed accurate localization of the tumor in 7 dogs (4 on the right side and 3 on the left). In 6 of these dogs, the tumor was visible as a well-demarcated soft tissue mass and, in the other dog, as a poorly demarcated mineralized mass. The smallest tumor visualized on survey radiographs had a diameter of 20 mm on CT images. Six tumors with diameter less than or equal to 20 mm were not visualized on survey radiographs. In 1 of these dogs, a mineralized nodule was found in the left adrenal region, without evidence of a mass. In a considerable number of cases, survey radiography can provide presurgical localization of adrenocortical tumors in dogs with hyperadrenocorticism; CT is redundant in these instances. In the absence of positive radiographic findings, CT is valuable for localization of adrenocortical tumors

  13. Evaluation of an edge method for computed radiography and an electronic portal imaging device in radiotherapy: Image quality measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Soon-Yong; Choe, Bo-Young; Lee, Jeong-Woo; Kim, Jung-Min; Jeong, Hoi-Woun; Kim, Ham-Gyum; Kim, Wha-Sun; Lyu, Kwang-Yeul; Min, Jung-Whan; Kim, Ki-Won

    2014-12-01

    Regular quality assurance (QA) of image quality is essential for reasonable patient dose and accurate treatment. Thus, QA should be performed as a routine for correction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the modulation transfer function (MTF), the noise power spectrum (NPS) and the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of the computed radiography (CR) system and the digital radiography (DR) system by using the edge method in megavoltage X-ray imaging (MVI). We used an edge block, which consisting of tungsten with dimensions of 19 (thickness) × 10 (length) × 1 (width) cm3 and measured the pre-sampling MTF by using a 6-megavolt (MV) energy. Computed radiography with an image plate (CR-IP) showed the values of 0.4 mm-1 and 1.19 mm-1 for MTF 0.5 and 0.1. In the DR group, Elekta iViewGT showed the highest value of 0.27 mm-1 for MTF 0.5, and Siemens BEAMVIEW PLUS showed the highest value of 0.98 mm-1 for MTF 0.1. In CR, the NPS of CR-IP showed a favorable noise distribution. Thus, in the DR group, the NPS of Elekta iViewGT showed the highest noise distribution. CR-IP showed values at peak DQE and 1 mm-1 DQE of 0.0013 and 0.00011, respectively. In the DR group, Elekta iViewGT showed the best efficiency at a peak DQE of 0.0009, and Siemens BEAMVIEW PLUS showed the best efficiency at a 1-mm-1 DQE of 0.000008. The edge method produced fast assessments of the MTF and the DQE. We could validate the evaluation of the edge method by comparing of the CR system to the DR system. This study demonstrated that the edge method can be used for not only traditional QA imaging but also quantitative MTF, NPS and DQE measurements in detector development.

  14. Central axis dose verification in patients treated with total body irradiation of photons using a Computed Radiography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To propose and evaluate a method for the central axis dose verification in patients treated with total body irradiation (TBI) of photons using images obtained through a Computed Radiography (CR) system. It was used the Computed Radiography (Fuji) portal imaging cassette readings and correlate with measured of absorbed dose in water using 10 x 10 irradiation fields with ionization chamber in the 60Co equipment. The analytical and graphic expression is obtained through software 'Origin8', the TBI patient portal verification images were processed using software ImageJ, to obtain the patient dose. To validate the results, the absorbed dose in RW3 models was measured with ionization chamber with different thickness, simulating TBI real conditions. Finally it was performed a retrospective study over the last 4 years obtaining the patients absorbed dose based on the reading in the image and comparing with the planned dose. The analytical equation obtained permits estimate the absorbed dose using image pixel value and the dose measured with ionization chamber and correlated with patient clinical records. Those results are compared with reported evidence obtaining a difference less than 02%, the 3 methods were compared and the results are within 10%. (Author)

  15. Computed image analysis of neutron radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Similar with X-radiography, using neutron like penetrating particle, there is in practice a nondestructive technique named neutron radiology. When the registration of information is done on a film with the help of a conversion foil (with high cross section for neutrons) that emits secondary radiation (?,?) that creates a latent image, the technique is named neutron radiography. A radiographic industrial film that contains the image of the internal structure of an object, obtained by neutron radiography, must be subsequently analyzed to obtain qualitative and quantitative information about the structural integrity of that object. There is possible to do a computed analysis of a film using a facility with next main components: an illuminator for film, a CCD video camera and a computer (PC) with suitable software. The qualitative analysis intends to put in evidence possibly anomalies of the structure due to manufacturing processes or induced by working processes (for example, the irradiation activity in the case of the nuclear fuel). The quantitative determination is based on measurements of some image parameters: dimensions, optical densities. The illuminator has been built specially to perform this application but can be used for simple visual observation. The illuminated area is 9x40 cm. The frame of the system is a comparer of Abbe Carl Zeiss Jena type, which has been adapted to achieve this application. The video camera assures the capture of image that is stored and processed by computer. A special program SIMAG-NG has been developed at INR Pitesti that beside of the program SMTV II of the special acquisition module SM 5010 can analyze the images of a film. The major application of the system was the quantitative analysis of a film that contains the images of some nuclear fuel pins beside a dimensional standard. The system was used to measure the length of the pellets of the TRIGA nuclear fuel. (authors)

  16. Analysis of background component introduced by mirror in neutron radiography CCD image system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a CCD based neutron radiography system, some fluorescent light will be reflected back to the scintillator by the mirror if the mirror is too close to the scintillator. Some of the incoming neutrons may also be scattered back to the scintillator. These two factors form a strong background that cannot be neglected. This background is harmful to quantitative analysis and CT reconstruction. The analytic calculation of the reflection component as the well as Monte Carlo simulation of the back-scattering component has been carried out, the result of which agrees well with the background measurements. The background component introduced by mirror accounts for more than 10% of the whole background in a typical detection system configuration. (authors)

  17. Identification of microorganisms for the analysis of images obtained by neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main difficulty in identifying infectious microorganisms is the time required to obtain a reliable result, a minimum of 72 h. We propose a reduction to about 5 h through the technique of neutron radiography. Samples containing the bacillus Escherichia coli and the cocci Staphylococcus epidermidis were incubated with B10, layered on SSNTD (CR-39) surface and irradiated in the J-9 channel from the Argonauta Reactor (IEN/CNEN) with a flux of thermal neutrons at a rate of 2.2x105 n/cm2 s. Images were observed in an optical microscope after exposure of the plates to chemical development of the latent alpha-tracks. Analysis of the images revealed morphological differences between the species, conferring the technique the perspective to use in microbial diagnosis.

  18. Skeletal imaging following reconstruction of the posterior cruciate ligament: in vivo comparison of fluoroscopy, radiography, and computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intra- and postoperative validation of anatomic footprint replication in posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) reconstruction can be conducted using fluoroscopy, radiography, or computed tomography (CT) scans. However, effectiveness and exposure to radiation of these imaging modalities are unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the comparative effectiveness of fluoroscopy, radiography, and CT in detecting femoral and tibial tunnel positions following an all-inside reconstruction of the PCL ligament in vivo. The study design was a retrospective case series. Intraoperative fluoroscopic images, postoperative radiographs, and CT scans were obtained in 50 consecutive patients following single-bundle PCL reconstruction. The centers of the tibial and femoral tunnel apertures were identified and correlated to measurement grid systems. The results of fluoroscopic, radiographic, and CT measurements were compared to each other and accumulated radiation dosages were calculated. Comparing the imaging groups, no statistically significant difference could be detected for the reference of the femoral tunnel to the intercondylar depth and height, for the reference of the tibial tunnel to the mediolateral diameter of the tibial plateau and for the superoinferior distance of the tibial tunnel entry to the tibial plateau and to the former physis line. Effective doses resulting from fluoroscopic, radiographic, and CT exposure averaged 2.9 mSv, standard deviation (±SD) 4.1 mSv, to 1.3 ± 0.8 mSv and to 3.6 ± 1.0 mSv, respectively. Fluoroscopy, radiography, and CT yield approximately equal effectiveness in detecting parameters used for quality validation intra- and postoperatively. An accumulating exposure to radiation must be considered. (orig.)

  19. Studies on image quality optimisation in computed radiography for weld inspection; Untersuchungen zur Optimierung der Bildqualitaet in der Computer-Radiografie fuer die Schweissnahtpruefung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckmann, Joerg; Zscherpel, Uwe [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe Digitale Radiologie und Bildanalyse; Ewert, Uwe [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany). Fachgruppe Radiologie

    2008-07-01

    The application of metal filters and metal screens improves the image contrast in film radiography. The mechanism of latent X-ray image generation and, its read-out from imaging plates and the subsequent visualization is different from that of radiographic films. The use of metal screens and the selection of the X ray tube voltage as recommended in the film radiography standards are not transferable for Computed Radiography (CR) for weld inspection. The quality of digital radiographs is determined by the inherent unsharpness and the Contrast to Noise Ratio (CNR). Whereas the standard EN 14784-1 describes manageable procedures for the determination of inherent unsharpness and Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR), the rules for the improvement of contrast by selection of the suitable tube voltage and metal screen thickness were not described sufficiently in EN 14874-2. Systematic studies on the influence of copper filter, lead screen imaging plate combinations as well as X-ray tube voltage on the image contrast were performed to improve the image quality for testing of welds with CR systems. Recommendations for the application of metal filter and screen combinations and the selection of appropriate X-ray tube voltages for the imaging plate technique were deduced from these results in order to optimise the X-ray testing procedure of welds. (orig.)

  20. Documented Safety Analysis Addendum for the Neutron Radiography Reactor Facility Core Conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Neutron Radiography Reactor Facility (NRAD) is a Training, Research, Isotope Production, General Atomics (TRIGA) reactor which was installed in the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Hot Fuels Examination Facility (HFEF) at the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) in the mid 1970s. The facility provides researchers the capability to examine both irradiated and non-irradiated materials in support of reactor fuel and components programs through non-destructive neutron radiography examination. The facility has been used in the past as one facet of a suite of reactor fuels and component examination facilities available to researchers at the INL and throughout the DOE complex. The facility has also served various commercial research activities in addition to the DOE research and development support. The reactor was initially constructed using Fuel Lifetime Improvement Program (FLIP)- type highly enriched uranium (HEU) fuel obtained from the dismantled Puerto Rico Nuclear Center (PRNC) reactor. In accordance with international non-proliferation agreements, the NRAD core will be converted to a low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel and will continue to utilize the PRNC control rods, control rod drives, startup source, and instrument console as was previously used with the HEU core. The existing NRAD Safety Analysis Report (SAR) was created and maintained in the preferred format of the day, combining sections of both DOE-STD-3009 and Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulatory Guide 1.70egulatory Commission Regulatory Guide 1.70. An addendum was developed to cover the refueling and reactor operation with the LEU core. This addendum follows the existing SAR format combining required formats from both the DOE and NRC. This paper discusses the project to successfully write a compliant and approved addendum to the existing safety basis documents.

  1. Documented Safety Analysis Addendum for the Neutron Radiography Reactor Facility Core Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd D. Christensen

    2009-05-01

    The Neutron Radiography Reactor Facility (NRAD) is a Training, Research, Isotope Production, General Atomics (TRIGA) reactor which was installed in the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Hot Fuels Examination Facility (HFEF) at the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) in the mid 1970s. The facility provides researchers the capability to examine both irradiated and non-irradiated materials in support of reactor fuel and components programs through non-destructive neutron radiography examination. The facility has been used in the past as one facet of a suite of reactor fuels and component examination facilities available to researchers at the INL and throughout the DOE complex. The facility has also served various commercial research activities in addition to the DOE research and development support. The reactor was initially constructed using Fuel Lifetime Improvement Program (FLIP)- type highly enriched uranium (HEU) fuel obtained from the dismantled Puerto Rico Nuclear Center (PRNC) reactor. In accordance with international non-proliferation agreements, the NRAD core will be converted to a low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel and will continue to utilize the PRNC control rods, control rod drives, startup source, and instrument console as was previously used with the HEU core. The existing NRAD Safety Analysis Report (SAR) was created and maintained in the preferred format of the day, combining sections of both DOE-STD-3009 and Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulatory Guide 1.70. An addendum was developed to cover the refueling and reactor operation with the LEU core. This addendum follows the existing SAR format combining required formats from both the DOE and NRC. This paper discusses the project to successfully write a compliant and approved addendum to the existing safety basis documents.

  2. Optimum exposure conditions for computed radiography depending on fixed pattern noise and efficiency of imaging plate-scanner systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presently active standards on Computed Radiography (CR) need a major revision. It was observed by many users that the image quality for class B of EN 14784-2 is not achievable under the same exposure conditions as used for film exposure. A mathematical model was developed and tested, which allows the calculation of the image quality, proven by image quality indicators (IQI), depending on the fixed pattern noise and the efficiency of the used imaging plate (IP) scanner system. All tested IP scanner systems provide a fixed correlation between the measured signal/noise ratio (SNR) and the grey values in the digital images. The maximum achievable SNRmax depends on the fixed pattern noise of the plate (high dose limit). Depending on the exposure dose an optimum visibility of IQIs can be predicted by calculation and measured considering the attenuation coefficient for calculation of the contrast/noise ratio (CNR). The diameter of the just visible wire is proportional to 1/sqrt(CNR). The optimum tube voltage for best visibility of IQIs and maximum CNR depend on the exposure dose. The optimum tube voltage for best visibility is achieved only at exposures with high dose. A dose dependant optimal tube voltage was not observed for film radiography.

  3. Comparison of Non-Destructive Testing Images using 192Ir and 75Se with Computed Radiography System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computed Radiography (CR) system by use of reusable Image Plate (IP) offers a convenient and reliable way to replace a conventional film-screen system for NDT (non-destructive testing) field. The quality of a radiography to detect a defect of welded objects depends on the procedure embracing several factors such as measurement conditions, image plate type/class, radiation energy, radiation type, and source to image plate distance. Also, the ability of images to detect a flaw reduces with increasing object thickness. In the study, the properties of gamma ray source were summarized for NDT field and inspection images of CR image system manufactured by FUJI were acquired using 75Se and 192Ir with welded objects. We analyzed the gray scale of hole defect image by using XCAP image processing program and calculated the image contrast and SNR in definition. Also the sesitivities of image quality indicator(IQI) were calculated for hot and cooling tube image of 75Se and 192Ir

  4. High-resolution computed tomography versus chest radiography in the diagnosis of interstitial lung disease in systemic sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To compare the accuracy of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) with chest radiography in the diagnosis of interstitial lung disease in systemic sclerosis (SSc). Materials And Methods: HRCT scans and chest radiographs in postero-anterior and lateral views were performed in 34 patients with systemic sclerosis, according to the American College of Rheumatology preliminary criteria for the diagnosis of SSc. The prevalence of radiological findings suggestive of interstitial lung disease in SSc seen on both imaging methods was compared. Results: Interstitial disease was observed on HRCT images of 31 patients (91%) and in the chest radiographs of 16 patients (47%). The most frequent findings observed on HRCT were septal lines (74%), honeycombing (56%) and parenchymal bands (26%). Chest radiographs showed reticular areas of attenuation in 11 patients (32%) and parenchymal distortion in 12% of the patients. In 18 patients (53%) with normal chest radiographs HRCT showed septal lines in 55%, ground glass in 44%, honeycombing in 38.5% and cysts in 33%. Conclusion: HRCT is more sensitive than chest radiography in the evaluation of incipient interstitial lung involvement in patients with SSc and can provide a justification for immunosuppressive therapy in patients with early disease. (author)

  5. Organ-specific dosimetry in spinal radiography: an analysis of genetic and somatic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation doses absorbed by the uterus, ovary, testicle and active bone marrow are computed for cervical, thoracic, lumbar, full spine and chest series performed under typical office conditions. Assuming a nonthreshold, linear relationship between dose and radiogenic effect, the computed tissue-specific doses are used to estimate the probability that each X-ray series might enhance the statistical probability of occurrence of an adult leukemia fatality of the irradiated patient; a childhood leukemia, mental retardation or cancer fatality as a result of fetal irradiation; or a variety of sex cell chromosomal aberrations in irradiated patients. It is concluded that the greatest hazard to active bone marrow, the uterus and the gonads is posed by lumbar and full spine radiography and that the need to adequately justify such exposure is mandatory; furthermore, in these series, irradiation of the ovary is 10 times as great as that of the testicle. Lumbar radiographic examinations can be made significantly safer by the elimination of the lumbosacral spot view

  6. Accuracy of Digital Radiography and Cone Beam Computed Tomography on Periapical Radiolucency Detection in Endodontically Treated Teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadas Venskutonis

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the present study was to compare the accuracy of intraoral digital periapical radiography and cone beam computed tomography in the detection of periapical radiolucencies in endodontically treated teeth. Material and Methods: Radiographic images (cone beam computed tomography [CBCT] scans and digital periapical radiography [PR] images from 60 patients, achieved from September 2008 to July 2013, were retrieved from databases of the Department of Oral Diseases, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Twenty patients met inclusion criteria and were selected for further evaluation. Results: In 20 patients (42.4 [SD 12.1] years, 65% men and 35% women a total of 35 endodontically treated teeth (1.75 [SD 0.91]; 27 in maxilla and 8 in mandible were evaluated. Overall, it was observed a statistical significant difference between the number of periapical lesions observed in the CBCT (n = 42 and radiographic (n = 24 examinations (P < 0.05. In molar teeth, CBCT identify a significantly higher amount of periapical lesions than with the radiographic method (P < 0.05. There were significant differences between CBCT and PR in the mean number of lesions identified per tooth (1.2 vs 0.66, P = 0.03, number of teeth with lesions (0.71 vs 0.46, P = 0.03 and number of lesions identified per canal (0.57 vs 0.33, P = 0.005. Considering CBCT as “gold standard” in lesion detection with the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy considering as score 1, then the same parameters of PR were 0.57, 1 and 0.76 respectively. Conclusions: Within the limitations of the present study, it can be concluded that cone beam computed tomography scans were more accurate compared to digital periapical radiographs for detecting periapical radiolucencies in endodontically treated teeth. The difference was more pronounced in molar teeth.

  7. Measurement of focal spot size with slit camera using computed radiography and flat-panel based digital detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of digital x-ray imaging detectors for the measurement of diagnostic x-ray tube focal spot size using a slit camera. Slit camera images of two focal spots for a radiographic x-ray tube were acquired with direct-exposure film (DF) (as specified by the National Electrical Manufacturers Association [NEMA] Standards Publication No. XR 5, 1992), computed radiography (CR) imaging plates, and an a-Si:H/CsI:Tl-based flat-panel (FP) detector. Images obtained with the CR and the FP were acquired over a broad range of detector entrance exposure levels. The DF slit images were evaluated according to NEMA specifications (visually, using a 7x magnifying glass with reticule) by six medical physicists. Additionally, the DF images were digitized and the focal spot sizes obtained from the digital profiles of the slit. The CR and the FP images were analyzed in a manner similar to the digitized DF images. It took less than 20 minutes for a complete CR or FP measurement of focal spot size in two dimensions. In comparison, a typical DF measurement with visual evaluation takes at least 60 minutes, in our experience. In addition to a great reduction in measurement time achieved by using digital detectors, the tube loading requirements were reduced to ?20 mAs compared with ?1000 mAs when using the DF technique. The calculated focal spot sizes for CR and FP differed from those of digitized DF by -2.4% to +4.8% (?=2.5%), far less than the -o +4.8% (?=2.5%), far less than the -16.6% to +9.3% (?=8.1%) variability introduced by the visual evaluation of the slit image. In addition, the calculated focal spot sizes for the CR and the FP images maintained a coefficient of variation <1.0% over the broad range of exposure levels. Based upon these results, we conclude that (1) FP and CR detectors yield consistent results in measurements of x-ray tube focal spot sizes, (2) compared to DF, CR and FP significantly reduce measurement time and tube loading requirements, (3) CR and FP readily permit digital profile analysis, thereby eliminating observer error, and (4) unlike DF, CR and FP are independent of exposure level

  8. Time resolved analysis of water drainage in porous asphalt concrete using neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porous asphalt as a road surface layer controls aquaplaning as rain water can drain through its highly porous structure. The process of water drainage through this permeable layer is studied using neutron radiography. Time-resolved water configuration and distribution within the porous structure are reported. It is shown that radiography depicts the process of liquid water transport within the complex geometry of porous asphalt, capturing water films, filled dead end pores and water islands. - Highlights: ? The water drainage process in porous asphalt was studied using neutron radiography. ? Despite similar mix designs, different processes of water transport were established. ? Water transport within porous asphalt showed filled dead end pores and water islands

  9. Comparison of plain radiography, conventional tomography, and computed tomography in detecting intrathoracic lymph node metastases from lung carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forty-two patients with T2 bronchogenic carcinoma were evaluated with plain radiography, conventional 550 oblique hilar and anteroposterior mediastinal tomography, and computed tomography (CT) to compare their accuracy in assessing mediastinal and hilar nodal metastases. Definitive staging was achieved by thoracotomy and histopathological evaluation of resected specimens. All modalities demonstrated about the same accuracy, however, in the 25 patients with hilar and/or mediastinal lymphadenopathy, CT of the mediastinum was more sensitive but not more specific than the other two and conventional tomography was no more accurate than CT for hilar evaluation. Overall, no technicue was accurate enough for routine staging; their value may lie in directing biopsy or in treatment planning in patients with inoperable disease

  10. Performance evaluation of three computed radiography systems using methods recommended in American Association of Physicists in Medicine Report 93

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performances of three clinical computed radiography (CR) systems (Agfa CR 75 (with CRMD 4. 0 image plates), Kodak CR 850 (with Kodak GP plates) and Kodak CR 850A (with Kodak GP plates) were evaluated using six tests recommended in American Association of Physicists in Medicine Report 93. The results indicated variable performances with majority being within acceptable limits. The variations were mainly attributed to differences in detector formulations, plate readers' characteristics, and aging effects. The differences of the mean low contrast scores between the imaging systems for three observers were statistically significant for Agfa and Kodak CR 850A (P=0.009) and for Kodak CR systems (P=0.006) probably because of the differences in ages. However, the differences were not statistically significant between Agfa and Kodak CR 850 (P=0.284) suggesting similar perceived image quality. The study demonstrates the need to implement quality control program regularly. (author)

  11. Imaging in rheumatoid arthritis--status and recent advances for magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasonography, computed tomography and conventional radiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Morten; Pedersen, Susanne Juhl

    2008-01-01

    Sensitive and reproducible tools for diagnosis, monitoring of disease activity and damage, and prognostication are essential in the management of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Conventional radiography (X-ray), the traditional gold standard for imaging in RA, is not able to detect early disease manifestations such as inflammatory changes in the soft tissues (synovitis, tensynovitis, enthesitis etc.) and the earliest stages of bone erosion. In contrast, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasonography (US) allow direct visualization of early inflammatory and destructive joint changes, and have several documented and potential applications in RA patients. This chapter will review key aspects of the current status and recent important advances in imaging in RA, briefly discussing X-ray and computed tomography, and particularly focusing on MRI and US. Suggestions for use in clinical trials and practice are provided Udgivelsesdato: 2008/12

  12. Neutrino Radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutrino radiography may provide an alternative tool to study the very deep structures of the Earth. The aim of this study is to measure how well the core and mantle averaged densities can be reconstructed through atmospheric neutrino radiography. We find that about a 2% sensitivity for the mantle and 5% for the core could be achieved for a ten year data taking at an underwater km3 Neutrino Telescope.

  13. Quality comparison between DEF-10 digital image from simulation technique and Computed Tomography (CR) technique in industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study was conducted to make comparison of digital image quality of DEF-10 from the techniques of simulation and computed radiography (CR). The sample used is steel DEF-10 with thickness of 15.28 mm. In this study, the sample is exposed to radiation from X-ray machine (ISOVOLT Titan E) with certain parameters. The parameters used in this study such as current, volt, exposure time and distance are specified. The current and distance of 3 mA and 700 mm respectively are specified while the applied voltage varies at 140, 160, 180 and 200 kV. The exposure time is reduced at a rate of 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 % for each sample exposure. Digital image of simulation produced from aRTist software whereas digital image of computed radiography produced from imaging plate. Therefore, both images were compared qualitatively (sensitivity) and quantitatively (Signal to-Noise Ratio; SNR, Basic Spatial Resolution; SRb and LOP size) using Isee software. Radiographic sensitivity is indicated by Image Quality Indicator (IQI) which is the ability of the CR system and aRTist software to identify IQI of wire type when the time exposure is reduced up to 80% according to exposure chart ( D7; ISOVOLT Titan E). The image of the thinnest wire diameter achieved by radiograph from simulation and CR are the wire numbered 7 rather than the wire numbered 8 required by the standard. In quantitative comparison, this study shows that the SNR values decreases with reducing exposure time. SRb values increa reducing exposure time. SRb values increases for simulation and decreases for CR when the exposure time decreases and the good image quality can be achieved at 80% reduced exposure time. The high SNR and SRb values produced good image quality in CR and simulation techniques respectively. (author)

  14. Optimization of digital chest radiography using computer modeling and voxels phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this work is to use the Monte Carlo code MCNPX and the Female Adult voxel (FAX) and Male Adult voxel (MAX) phantoms to investigate how the dose and image quality in digital chest radiography vary with tube voltage (70-150 kV), anti-scatter methods (grid and air gap) and gender of the patient. The effective dose was calculated by ICRP60 and image quality was quantified by calculating the signal-difference-to-noise ratio for pathological details (calcifications) positioned at different locations in the anatomy. Calculated quantities were normalized to a fixed value of air kerma (5 ?Gy) at the automatic exposure control chambers. The results obtained in this work show that the air gap technique and lower tube voltages provide an increase in the digital image quality. Furthermore, this study has also shown that the detection of pathological details vary with the gender of the patient. (author)

  15. Optimization of digital chest radiography using computer modeling and voxels phantoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, S.C.A.; Souza, E.M.; Silva, A.X.; Lopes, R.T., E-mail: scorrea@con.ufrj.b [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Milian, F.M. [Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz (UESC), Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this work is to use the Monte Carlo code MCNPX and the Female Adult voxel (FAX) and Male Adult voxel (MAX) phantoms to investigate how the dose and image quality in digital chest radiography vary with tube voltage (70-150 kV), anti-scatter methods (grid and air gap) and gender of the patient. The effective dose was calculated by ICRP60 and image quality was quantified by calculating the signal-difference-to-noise ratio for pathological details (calcifications) positioned at different locations in the anatomy. Calculated quantities were normalized to a fixed value of air kerma (5 muGy) at the automatic exposure control chambers. The results obtained in this work show that the air gap technique and lower tube voltages provide an increase in the digital image quality. Furthermore, this study has also shown that the detection of pathological details vary with the gender of the patient. (author)

  16. Stationary neutron radiography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stationary neutron radiography system (SNRS) is a custom-designed neutron radiography inspection system that utilizes a specially designed TRIGA reactor system, parts-positioning manipulators, and a real-time imaging system. The SNRS is designed to provide high-throughput nondestructive inspection capability for the detection of corrosion in aircraft components. The SNRS consists of the shield and containment system (SCS), nuclear reactor, and a component inspection system. The SCS [shield and containment system] is a three-level, rectangular-shaped 1,367-m2 (14,720-ft2) enclosure that incorporates a TRIGA reactor. This enclosure provides space, shielding, and environmental control for the neutron radiography operations. The nuclear reactor is a standard design 1,000 kW/pulsing, natural-convection-cooled TRIGA reactor with the reflector modified to accept the source ends of the four neutron radiography beam tubes, which terminate in four separate neutron radiography bays. The reactor is monitored and controlled by a microprocessor-driven, computer-based instrumentation and control system featuring color graphics display, self-calibration, and automatic logging of vital information. Both manual and automatic control options are available to the operator

  17. Stationary neutron radiography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stationary neutron radiography system (SNRS) is a custom-designed neutron radiography inspection system that utilizes specially designed parts-positioning manipulators. The SNRS provides high-throughput nondestructive inspection capability for the detection of corrosion in aircraft components. The SNRS consists of the shield and containment system (SCS); nuclear reactor; and component inspection system. The SCS is a three-level rectangular-shaped 1367-m2 enclosure that incorporates a TRIGA reactor. This enclosure provides space, shielding, and environmental control for the neutron radiography operations. The nuclear reactor is a standard design 1-MW, natural-convection-cooled TRIGA reactor with the reflector modified to accept the source ends of the four neutron radiography beam tubes, which terminate in four separate neutron radiography bays. The reactor is monitored and controlled by a microprocessor-driven computer-based instrumentation and control system featuring color graphics display, self-calibration, and automatic logging of vital information. Both manual and automatic control options are available to the operator

  18. Broadening the radiography spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The text discuses the mammography in breast screening and evaluation of breast cancer; Small parts ultrasounds at plaza imaging solutions; role of a Radiographer in mammography-new perspective; Medical imaging education in africa; Caring for the paediatric patient as to broaden radiotherapy spectrum; Problems and challenges in care for children undergoing radiotherapy; Paediatric radiotherapy, management and side effects; The principles of pattern recognition of skeletal structures; the place of distance learning education in broadening the radiography spectrum; the curriculum and budgeting image; sonographer's guide; Computed radiography- X-Ray with vision; digital Radiography in Kenya today; Particle Therapy at Ithemba Labs; The role of lung perfusion and ventilation study in the evaluation of the pulmonary embolism and lastly, an overview of Head and neck treatment at Kenyatta National hospital radiotherapy

  19. Industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Industrial radiography is a non-destructive testing (NDT) method which allows components to be examined for flaws without interfering with their usefulness. It is one of a number of inspection methods which are commonly used in industry to control the quality of manufactured products and to monitor their performance in service. Because of its involvement in organizing training courses in all the common NDT methods in regional projects in Asia and the Pacific and Latin America and the Caribbean and in many country programmes, the Agency is aware of the importance of standardizing as far as possible the syllabi and training course notes used by the many experts who are involved in presenting the training courses. IAEA-TECDOC-628 ''Training Guidelines in Non-destructive Testing'' presents syllabi which were developed by an Agency executed UNDP project in Latin America and the Caribbean taking into account the developmental work done by the International Committee for Non-destructive Testing. Experience gained from using the radiography syllabi from TECDOC-628 at national and regional radiography training courses in the Agency executed UNDP project in Asia and the Pacific (RAS/86/073) showed that some guidance needed to be given to radiography experts engaged in teaching at these courses on the material which should be covered. The IAEA/UNDP Asia and Pacific Project National NDT Coordinators therefore undertook to prepare Radiography Training Course Notes which could be used by experts to prepare lectures for Level 1,2 and 3 radiography personnel. The notes have been expanded to cover most topics in a more complete manner than that possible at a Level 1, 2 or 3 training course and can now be used as source material for NDT personnel interested in expanding their knowledge of radiography. Refs, figs and tabs

  20. A comparative study of cone-beam computed tomography and digital periapical radiography in detecting mandibular molars root perforations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haghanifar, Sina; Moudi, Ehsan; Mesgarani, Abbas; Abbaszadeh, Naghi [Dental Material Research Center, Dental Faculty, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bijani, Ali [Non-Communicable Pediatric Diseases Research Center, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    The aim of this in vitro study was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and digital periapical radiography in the detection of mesial root perforations of mandibular molars. In this in vitro study, 48 mandibular molars were divided into 4 groups. First, the mesial canals of all the 48 teeth were endodontically prepared. In 2 groups (24 teeth each), the roots were axially perforated in the mesiolingual canal 1-3 mm below the furcation region, penetrating the root surface ({sup r}oot perforation{sup )}. Then, in one of these 2 groups, the mesial canals were filled with gutta-percha and AH26 sealer. Mesial canals in one of the other 2 groups without perforation (control groups) were filled with the same materials. The CBCT and periapical radiographs with 3 different angulations were evaluated by 2 oral and maxillofacial radiologists. The specificity and sensitivity of the two methods were calculated, and P<0.05 was considered significant. The sensitivity and specificity of CBCT scans in the detection of obturated root canal perforations were 79% and 96%, respectively, and in the case of three-angled periapical radiographs, they were 92% and 100%, respectively. In non-obturated root canals, the sensitivity and specificity of CBCT scans in perforation detection were 92% and 100%, respectively, and for three-angled periapical radiographs, they were 50% and 96%, respectively. For perforation detection in filled-root canals, periapical radiography with three different horizontal angulations would be trustworthy, but it is recommended that CBCT be used for perforation detection before obturating root canals.

  1. A comparative study of cone-beam computed tomography and digital periapical radiography in detecting mandibular molars root perforations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this in vitro study was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and digital periapical radiography in the detection of mesial root perforations of mandibular molars. In this in vitro study, 48 mandibular molars were divided into 4 groups. First, the mesial canals of all the 48 teeth were endodontically prepared. In 2 groups (24 teeth each), the roots were axially perforated in the mesiolingual canal 1-3 mm below the furcation region, penetrating the root surface (root perforation). Then, in one of these 2 groups, the mesial canals were filled with gutta-percha and AH26 sealer. Mesial canals in one of the other 2 groups without perforation (control groups) were filled with the same materials. The CBCT and periapical radiographs with 3 different angulations were evaluated by 2 oral and maxillofacial radiologists. The specificity and sensitivity of the two methods were calculated, and P<0.05 was considered significant. The sensitivity and specificity of CBCT scans in the detection of obturated root canal perforations were 79% and 96%, respectively, and in the case of three-angled periapical radiographs, they were 92% and 100%, respectively. In non-obturated root canals, the sensitivity and specificity of CBCT scans in perforation detection were 92% and 100%, respectively, and for three-angled periapical radiographs, they were 50% and 96%, respectively. For perforation detection in filled-root canals, periapical radiography with three different horizontal angulations would be trustworthy, but it is recommended that CBCT be used for perforation detection before obturating root canals.

  2. Safety analysis of major unusual incidents and feed back to regulatory control system in Industrial Radiography practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In India, 423 industrial radiography institutions are using 1100 Gamma radiography exposure devices housing approximately integrated activity of 1100 TBq (30000 Ci) of 192Ir and 110 TBq (3000 Ci) of 60Co sources. The Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) has evolved the comprehensive regulatory control programme (RCP) for enforcing radiation safety provisions in this practice. The paper describes safety analysis of, major unusual incidents during the period from 1966 to 2000 and thereby feed back to RCP. This has contributed regulatory measures, inter-ali, enforcement of regulatory provisions through frequent inspections; QA in design, operation and servicing of exposure devices/associated accessories by designers, manufacturers/suppliers and users, pre-conditions for employment of trainee radiographers and their duties, siting, location and physical security in respect of source storage room. (author)

  3. Neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This introduction is addressed to an audience active in diverse forms of neutron source applications but not directly familiar with neutron radiography. Neutron radiography is, of course, similar to, and complementary to, radiography using x-rays. However, neutrons, being sensitive to the nuclear properties of materials, provide information fundamentally different from x-rays. For example, neutrons can penetrate many dense metals such as uranium, lead, bismuth or steel, and can reveal details of internal hydrogenous components: explosives, lubricants and gaskets. For nuclear fuel inspection neutron radiography offers the ability to penetrate dense uranium-238 and contrast the isotopes U-235 or Pu-239 and also offers the ability to discriminate against unwanted interference from gamma radiation. In addition to advantages in industrial applications, there are special situations in fields such as medical diagnostics, dentistry, agriculture and forensic science. Comprehensive accounts of applications in the field can be found in the proceedings of the world conferences on neutron radiography: USA (1981), FRANCE (1986). A third conference in this series is scheduled for May 1989 in Japan

  4. Comparative study by computed radiography, histology, and scanning electron microscopy of the articular cartilage of normal goats and in chronic infection with caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Videlina Rodrigues; das Chagas Araújo Sousa, Francisco; da Silva Filho, Osmar Ferreira; Grassi Rici, Rose Eli; das Neves Diniz, Anaemilia; da Silva Moura, Laécio; de Jesus Rosa Pereira Alves, Jacyara; de Sousa Júnior, Antônio; Angélica Miglino, Maria; de Sousa, João Macedo; de Jesus Moraes Junior, Felipe; Ribeiro Alves, Flávio

    2014-01-01

    In the northeast of Brazil, caprine arthritis-encephalitis (CAE) is one of the key reasons for herd productivity decreasing that result in considerable economic losses. A comparative study was carried out using computed radiography (CR), histological analysis (HA), and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) of the joints of CAE infected and normal goats. Humerus head surface of positive animals presented reduced joint space, increased bone density, and signs of degenerative joint disease (DJD). The carpal joint presented no morphological alterations in CR in any of the animals studied. Tarsus joint was the most affected, characterized by severe DJD, absence of joint space, increased periarticular soft tissue density, edema, and bone sclerosis. Histological analysis showed chronic tissue lesions, complete loss of the surface zone, absence of proteoglycans in the transition and radial zones and destruction of the cartilage surface in the CAE positive animals. Analysis by SEM showed ulcerated lesions with irregular and folded patterns on the joint surface that distinguished the limits between areas of normal and affected cartilage. The morphological study of the joints of normal and CAE positive goats deepened understanding of the alteration in the tissue bioarchitecture of the most affected joints. The SEM finding sustained previous histological reports, similar to those found for rheumatoid arthritis, suggesting that the goat infected with CAE can be considered as a potential model for research in this area. PMID:24190602

  5. Neutron radiography study of water absorption in porous building materials: anomalous diffusion analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dynamic neutron radiography was applied to obtain the experimental data concerning the kinetics of the wetting process in two different types (fired-clay and siliceous brick) of porous construction materials. The technique provides accurate experimental data concerning the first instants as well as the advanced stages of the imbibing process. A significant difference in water absorption parameters, contrasting the materials studied, is found. Both the advance of the wetting front and the time evolution of water content distribution within the sample are analysed. It is shown that for both materials the time dependence of the wetting front position d deviates from the classical square root of time t behaviour. The deviation is analysed in terms of the intercept b in the d = a?t + b approximation and the exponent n in the power law d ? tn/2. Both materials differ in the sign of the intercept parameter: b > 0 for siliceous brick and b 1 for fired-clay brick. At the initial stages (t -n/2. The evolution of the distribution of liquid in the porous medium was analysed in terms of the anomalous diffusion equation of Kuentz and Lavallee (2001 Experimental evidence and theoretical analysis of anomalous diffusion during water infiltration in porous building materials J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 34 2547-54) based on the non-linear generalization of the Fick's law. This approach makes a detailed analysis of the generalized hydraulic diffusivity in the low water content region possible. Successful fitting of experimental data with the diffusivity vanishing at null water content proved the importance of the hypodiffusive component of the process

  6. Preparation and realization of industrial radiography for the non destructive testing of welds in Nuclear Power Plants: A spatial cognition analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Controls of welds by radiographies are an efficient non destructive technique but it can be dangerous if not managed following a strict set of rules. EDF acts to avoid risks via several ways (adapted tools, best practices) and seeks for an integration of the radiographies with respect to the other maintenance operations, in order to raise the ratio of availability of the electricity production unit. This study explores an original analysis of industrial radiography: the influence of the representations of the workplace and its utilizations. This document supports the utilization of some space constraints as explanations of difficulties in the industrial radiography activity. The document proposes innovative points of view coming for on-site observations and from a theoretical background 'cognitive sciences' completed by technical propositions. (author)

  7. Accuracy of radiography and computed tomography in the diagnosis of distal radio-ulnar joint congruity in rheumatoid hands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Michio; Kawakita, Hirofumi; Ogawa, Ryokei; Minamikawa, Yoshitaka; Kojima, Shin; Morimoto, Tadanobu; Yakura, Hisayoshi; Iida, Hirosuke

    1988-01-01

    We investigated the accuracy of radiography and computed tomography in the diagnosis of distal radio-ulnar joint (DRUJ) congruity in 10 healthy hands and 84 rheumatoid hands. Operated-on joints were excluded from this series. The CT study of DRUJ was done in positions of 90 deg, 70 deg, 45 deg, 20 deg and 0 deg in pronation and supination of the forearm. The radiographic study was done of the lateral view of the wrist with the forearm in neutral rotation, and of the P-A view with the forearm in full pronation. The evaluation was done with Mino's and Snook's criteria. All computed tomograms showed good congruity in the 10 healthy hands, so we evaluated radiograms using these results. In healthy hands, the accuracy of the lateral radiograms was 60 % and of the P-A view ones' 80 %. In the computed tomograms, good congruity was noted in 29 joints, subluxation in 57 joints and dislocation in no joints in 84 rheumatoid hands clinically diagnosed as having DRUJ incongruity. The accuracy of the lateral view radiograms was 60.5 % and of the P-A view ones' 35.7 %. Evaluation of the P-A view radiogram was impossible in 18.9 % due to bony destruction of the ulnar styloid process in RA. In the lateral view radiograms of 23 joints which showed subluxation in natural rotation by computed tomography, subluxation was noted in 11 joints, good congruity in 8 joints and dislocation in 4 joints. This study suggests that as the radiographic evaluation of DRUJ incongruity is difficult in rheumatoid hands because of severe bony and articular destruction, computed tomography is necessary for the diagnosis of DRUJ subluxation.

  8. Computer-aided diagnosis for the detection of the pulmonary nodules on digital chest radiography in lung cancer screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the value of computer-aided detection (CAD) system for pulmonary nodule detection using digital chest radiography in lung cancer screening. Methods: One hundred consecutive digital chest radiographs from 6280 outpatients for lung cancer screening were independently reviewed by a thoracic radiologist and a computer-aided pulmonary nodule detection system. The radiographs were also reviewed by two experienced thoracic radiologists and the true nodules confirmed by two radiologists with reference to the CT images were marked and stored as a gold standard in the CAD system. The sensitivity and false positive of the radiologist and the CAD system for the detection of nodules on digital chest radiographs were compared. Results: Ninety-five and 304 nodules were identified by radiologist and the CAD system, respectively. Of 134 nodules marked as true nodules by experienced radiologists, 82 (61.2%) and 105 (78.4%) nodules were identified by the radiologist and the CAD, respectively. The radiologist missed 35 true nodules which were only detected by CAD. The CAD system missed 10 true nodules which were only detected by radiologist. One hundred and twelve (83.6%) nodules were identified by radiologist with the CAD system. One hundred and ninety-nine nodules identified by CAD were false-positive with a rate of 2.0 (199/100) per case. Conclusion: Combining review of digital radiographs by radiologist with CAD system can improve the detection of pulmonary nodules in lung cancer screening. (authors)

  9. Computerized analysis of pneumoconiosis in digital chest radiography: effect of artificial neural network trained with power spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Eiichiro; Kawashita, Ikuo; Ishida, Takayuki

    2011-12-01

    It is difficult for radiologists to classify pneumoconiosis with small nodules on chest radiographs. Therefore, we have developed a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system based on the rule-based plus artificial neural network (ANN) method for distinction between normal and abnormal regions of interest (ROIs) selected from chest radiographs with and without pneumoconiosis. The image database consists of 11 normal and 12 abnormal chest radiographs. These abnormal cases included five silicoses, four asbestoses, and three other pneumoconioses. ROIs (matrix size, 32?×?32) were selected from normal and abnormal lungs. We obtained power spectra (PS) by Fourier transform for the frequency analysis. A rule-based method using PS values at 0.179 and 0.357 cycles per millimeter, corresponding to the spatial frequencies of nodular patterns, were employed for identification of obviously normal or obviously abnormal ROIs. Then, ANN was applied for classification of the remaining normal and abnormal ROIs, which were not classified as obviously abnormal or normal by the rule-based method. The classification performance was evaluated by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (Az value). The Az value was 0.972?±?0.012 for the rule-based plus ANN method, which was larger than that of 0.961?±?0.016 for the ANN method alone (P???0.15) and that of 0.873 for the rule-based method alone. We have developed a rule-based plus pattern recognition technique based on the ANN for classification of pneumoconiosis on chest radiography. Our CAD system based on PS would be useful to assist radiologists in the classification of pneumoconiosis. PMID:21153856

  10. Industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication is meant to be a manual for industrial radiography. As such the manual concentrates on the practical aspects, presenting existing radiographic system and techniques of operation to satisfy specified quality requirements. The manual also reviews the safety aspect of performing radiographic work. (author) systems

  11. Analysis of induced effects in matter during pulsed Nd:YAG laser welding by flash radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascal, G.; Noré, D.; Girard, K.; Perret, O.; Naudy, P.

    2000-05-01

    Tantalum and TA6V (titanium alloy) are respectively used in corrosive chemical product containers and in aircraft and aerospace industries. The objective of this study was to analyze the dynamic behavior of the matter during deep laser spot welding of these materials. The obtained images should allow a better understanding of laser-matter interaction and should validate a model developed for porosities formation. Because of the afterglow of detectors, classical video x-ray systems are not suitable for the analysis of short dynamic effects during and after the laser pulse. An experimental device, based on a flash x-ray generator EUROPULSE 600 kV and a QUANTEL pulsed Nd:YAG laser, has been used. The flash x-ray generator is triggered, after a programmed delay, by the laser shot. The x-ray pulse duration is 30 ns. Welding parameters (pulse duration and energy) yield molten zones of 2 mm depth. Both materials, tantalum and TA6V, have been tested. Radiological films BIOMAX coupled with radioluminescent screens and direct exposure film (DEF) were respectively used for tantalum and TA6V samples. A fine collimation was studied to avoid the scattering effect in the material and in the radioluminescent screen. Radiological test samples, made of tantalum and TA6V, were performed to estimate the images qualities obtained by flash radiography. About 270 laser/x-rays shots were performed. The radiographic images have been digitalized and processed. The results show a deep and narrow capillary hole called "keyhole" which appears a few milliseconds after the beginning of the interaction. The "keyhole" hollows until the end of the laser pulse. After the end of the laser pulse, the molten bath collapses in less than 1 ms, trapping cavities.

  12. Analysis of induced effects in matter during pulsed Nd:YAG laser welding by flash radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tantalum and TA6V (titanium alloy) are respectively used in corrosive chemical product containers and in aircraft and aerospace industries. The objective of this study was to analyze the dynamic behavior of the matter during deep laser spot welding of these materials. The obtained images should allow a better understanding of laser-matter interaction and should validate a model developed for porosities formation. Because of the afterglow of detectors, classical video x-ray systems are not suitable for the analysis of short dynamic effects during and after the laser pulse. An experimental device, based on a flash x-ray generator EUROPULSE 600 kV and a QUANTEL pulsed Nd:YAG laser, has been used. The flash x-ray generator is triggered, after a programmed delay, by the laser shot. The x-ray pulse duration is 30 ns. Welding parameters (pulse duration and energy) yield molten zones of 2 mm depth. Both materials, tantalum and TA6V, have been tested. Radiological films BIOMAX coupled with radioluminescent screens and direct exposure film (DEF) were respectively used for tantalum and TA6V samples. A fine collimation was studied to avoid the scattering effect in the material and in the radioluminescent screen. Radiological test samples, made of tantalum and TA6V, were performed to estimate the images qualities obtained by flash radiography. About 270 laser/x-rays shots were performed. The radiographic images have been digitalized and processed. The results show a deep and narroocessed. The results show a deep and narrow capillary hole called 'keyhole' which appears a few milliseconds after the beginning of the interaction. The 'keyhole' hollows until the end of the laser pulse. After the end of the laser pulse, the molten bath collapses in less than 1 ms, trapping cavities

  13. Neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The digital processing of the neutron radiography images gives the possibility for data quantification. In this case an exact relation between the measured neutron attenuation and the real macroscopic attenuation coefficient for every point of the sample is required. The assumption that the attenuation of the neutron beam through the sample is exponential is valid only in an ideal case where a monochromatic beam, non scattering sample and non background contribution are assumed. In the real case these conditions are not fulfilled and in dependence on the sample material we have more or less deviation from the exponential attenuation law. Because of the high scattering cross-sections of hydrogen (?s=80.26 barn) for thermal neutrons, the problem with the scattered neutrons at quantitative radiography investigations of hydrogenous materials (as PE, Oil, H2O, etc) is not trivial. For these strong scattering materials the neutron beam attenuation is no longer exponential and a dependence of the macroscopic attenuation coefficient on the material thickness and on the distance between the sample and the detector appears. When quantitative radiography (2 D) or tomography investigations (3 D) are performed, some image correction procedures for a description of the scattering effect are required. This thesis presents a method that can be used to enhance the neutron radiography image for objects with high scattering materials like hydrogen, carbon and other light materials. This method uses the Monte Carlo code, MCNP5, to simulate the neutron radiography process and get the flux distribution for each pixel of the image and determine the scattered neutrons distribution that causes the image blur and then subtract it from the initial image to improve its quality.

  14. Detectability of simulated low-contrast object using computed radiography; Differences for incident dose, primary fraction and contrast enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanai, Kazumi; Ohtsuka, Akiyoshi; Hashida, Masahiro; Yamauchi, Shuichi; Ueda, Katsuhiko; Morishita, Junji; Nishihara, Sadamitsu; Kanzaki, Ryuji; Nakanishi, Takashi (Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan). Hospital)

    1993-04-01

    In computed radiography, the optical density of images does not depend on the exposure conditions. Therefore, the same density image is obtained even if the anti-scatter grid ratio is changed. In this case, the more scattered X-rays are removed, the incident dose to the detector decreases. Conversely, the more scattered X-rays increase, then the incident dose increases. We investigated the visual detection of simulated low-contrast object changing incident dose related to quantum noise, scatter fraction related to radiographic contrast and contrast enhancement. This means that visual detectability is more seriously affected by such factors as incident dose, scatter fraction or contrast enhancement. The results indicate that when the incident dose to the detector is almost equivalent to the medium-speed screen-film system, the lower scattered X-rays are more visually detectable. However, when the incident dose is less than that of the high-speed screen-film system, the removal of too much scattered X-rays results in less detection. This shows that if the incident dose is too low, it is better not to remove almost all of the scattered X-rays. Contrast enhanced effect is greater in a larger incident dose than in a smaller one. (author).

  15. Comparative examinations of serum pepsinogen I, II and gastric area using computed radiography in the atrophic gastritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsu, Yoshimitsu; Ogura, Yasuharu; Yamazaki, Kouichi [Osaka Medical Coll., Takatsuki (Japan)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    The relationship between serum PG I, PG II levels and extent of atrophic gastritis was examined. The subjects were 64 patients (male: 32, female: 32, 51.9 years old on average) with established diagnosis of either atrophic gastritis or normal. In the X-ray gastric examination, Fuji Computed Radiography (FCR) was used to obtain clear-cut images of the gastric area. Concerning the serum PG I level, patients in the group with atrophic gastritis showed lower levels than those of the people in the group with no atrophic change, but the variation was wide, and no definite tendency was seen in the relationship between the atrophic change and the serum PG I levels. Concerning the serum PG II level, as the atrophic change progresses, the serum PG II level tended to increase gradually. A significant reduction in the PG I/II ratio was seen in the group with atrophic changes (p<0.01) in comparison with the group with no atrophic changes, and the PG I/II value tended to decrease. In conclusion, as a relationship between the atrophic change and the serum PG levels had a wide variation, we considered it to be difficult to understand the presence and extent of the atrophic gastritis by measuring serum PG levels. (author).

  16. Comparative examinations of serum pepsinogen I, II and gastric area using computed radiography in the atrophic gastritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationship between serum PG I, PG II levels and extent of atrophic gastritis was examined. The subjects were 64 patients (male: 32, female: 32, 51.9 years old on average) with established diagnosis of either atrophic gastritis or normal. In the X-ray gastric examination, Fuji Computed Radiography (FCR) was used to obtain clear-cut images of the gastric area. Concerning the serum PG I level, patients in the group with atrophic gastritis showed lower levels than those of the people in the group with no atrophic change, but the variation was wide, and no definite tendency was seen in the relationship between the atrophic change and the serum PG I levels. Concerning the serum PG II level, as the atrophic change progresses, the serum PG II level tended to increase gradually. A significant reduction in the PG I/II ratio was seen in the group with atrophic changes (p<0.01) in comparison with the group with no atrophic changes, and the PG I/II value tended to decrease. In conclusion, as a relationship between the atrophic change and the serum PG levels had a wide variation, we considered it to be difficult to understand the presence and extent of the atrophic gastritis by measuring serum PG levels. (author)

  17. Low-cost, high-resolution x-ray detector system for digital radiography and computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Charles R.; Erker, Joseph W.

    1993-12-01

    We have designed and evaluated a novel design of line array x-ray detector for use with digital radiography (DR) and computed tomography (CT) systems. The Radiographic Line Scan (RLS) detector is less than half the cost of discrete multi-channel line array detectors, yet provides the potential for resolution to less than 25 micrometers at energies of 420 kV. The RLS detector consists of a scintillator fiber-optically coupled to a thermo-electrically cooled line array CCD. Gadolinium oxysulfide screen material has been used as the scintillator, in thicknesses up to 250 micrometers . Scintillating glass, which is formed into a fiber optic bundle, has also been used in thicknesses up to 2 mm. The large 2.5 mm by 25 micrometers CCD cells provide high dynamic range while preserving high resolution; the 2.5 mm dimension is oriented in the x-ray absorption direction while the 25 micrometers dimension is oriented in the resolution direction. Servo controlled thermo-electric cooling of the CCD to a fixed temperature provides reduction of dark current and stabilization of the output. Greater dynamic range is achieved by reducing the dark current, while output stabilization reduces the need for frequent calibration of the detector. Measured performance characteristics are presented along with DR and CT images produced using the RLS detector.

  18. Quality study of portal images acquired by computed radiography and screen-film system under megavoltage ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the quality of the portal images acquired by computed radiography (CR) system and conventional screen-film system, respectively. Methods: Imaging plates (IP) and X-ray films ora home-devised lead phantom with a leakage of 6.45% were acquired, and modulation transfer function (MTF) curves of the both images were measured using edge method. Portal images of 40 nasopharyngeal cancer patients were acquired by IP and screen-film system respectively. Two doctors with similar experience evaluated the damage degree of petrosal bone, the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of CR images and general images were drawn according to two doctors evaluation results. Results: The identification frequency of CR system and screen-film system were 1.159 and 0.806 Lp/mm respectively. For doctor one, the area under ROC curve of CR images and general images were 0.802 and 0.742 respectively. For doctor two, the area under ROC curve of CR images and general images were 0.751 and 0.600 respectively. The MTF curve and ROC curve of CR are both better than those of screen-film system. Conclusion: The image quality of CR portal imaging is much better than that of screen-film system. The utility of CR in linear accelerator for portal imaging is promising in clinic. (authors)

  19. Configuration of automatic exposure control on mammography units for computed radiography to match patient dose of screen film systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chang-Ying Joseph; Huang, Weidong

    2009-02-01

    Computed radiography (CR) is considered a drop-in addition or replacement for traditional screen-film (SF) systems in digital mammography. Unlike other technologies, CR has the advantage of being compatible with existing mammography units. One of the challenges, however, is to properly configure the automatic exposure control (AEC) on existing mammography units for CR use. Unlike analogue systems, the capture and display of digital CR images is decoupled. The function of AEC is changed from ensuring proper and consistent optical density of the captured image on film to balancing image quality with patient dose needed for CR. One of the preferences when acquiring CR images under AEC is to use the same patient dose as SF systems. The challenge is whether the existing AEC design and calibration process-most of them proprietary from the X-ray systems manufacturers and tailored specifically for SF response properties-can be adapted for CR cassettes, in order to compensate for their response and attenuation differences. This paper describes the methods for configuring the AEC of three different mammography units models to match the patient dose used for CR with those that are used for a KODAK MIN-R 2000 SF System. Based on phantom test results, these methods provide the dose level under AEC for the CR systems to match with the dose of SF systems. These methods can be used in clinical environments that require the acquisition of CR images under AEC at the same dose levels as those used for SF systems.

  20. Comparison of panoramic radiography and cone beam computed tomography for assessing the relationship between the maxillary sinus floor and maxillary molars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study compared panoramic radiography and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) for evaluating the relationship between the maxillary sinus floor and the roots of maxillary molars. Paired panoramic radiographs and CBCT images from 97 subjects were analysed. This analysis classified 388 maxillary molars according to their relationship to the maxillary sinus floor on panoramic radiograph and CBCT. Correlations between these two radiographic techniques were examined. Maxillary molar roots that were separate from the sinus floor showed the same classification in 100% of the cases when using these two imaging techniques. The corresponding percentage for such roots that were in contact with the sinus floor was 75%. When roots overlapped the maxillary sinus floor on panoramic radiographs, only 26.4% of maxillary first molars and 60.0% of second molars showed protrusion of roots into the sinus with CBCT. The results of the study suggest that roots projecting into the sinus on panoramic radiographs require a three-dimensional image in order to analyze the proximity of their apex to the sinus floor.

  1. A case of complex odontoma in a horse - clinical signs, radiography, ultrasonography and computer tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clinical signs, diagnosis and pathology of an adult horse with a complex odontoma are described. Computer tomography was shown to be a new diagnostic technique with outstanding potential in the investigation of diseases of the equine head

  2. An advanced neutron radiography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Stationary Neutron Radiography System (SNRS) nuclear reactor and radiography systems and their performance are described. The primary mission of the SNRS is to conduct neutron radiographic inspections of aircraft components to detect corrosion and moisture. Preliminary measurements indicate that the facility is capable of producing high quality real-time and film radiography. The reactor is capable of providing various additional services including sample irradiations, nuclear harness testing, in-core irradiations, in-core pneumatic rabbit system irradiations, neutron activation analysis, and pulse and square wave operation. 2 refs

  3. Digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Digital Radiography begins with an orderly introduction to the fundamental concepts of digital imaging. The entire X-ray digital imagining system is described, from an overall characterization of image quality to specific components required for a digital radiographic system. Because subtraction is central to digital radiographic systems, the author details the use of various subtraction methods for image enhancement. Complex concepts are illustrated with numerous examples and presented in terms that can readily be understood by physicians without an advanced mathematics background. The second part of the book discusses implementations and applications of digital imagining systems based on area and scanned detector technologies. This section includes thorough coverage of digital fluoroscopy, scanned projection radiography, and film-based digital imaging systems, and features a state-of-the-art synopsis of the applications of digital subtraction angiography. The book concludes with a timely assessment of anticipated technological advances

  4. Physical and Clinical Comparison between a Screen-Film System and a Dual-Side Reading Mammography-Dedicated Computed Radiography System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Digital mammography systems, thanks to a physical performance better than conventional screen-film units, have the potential of reducing the dose to patients, without decreasing the diagnostic accuracy. Purpose: To achieve a physical and clinical comparison between two systems: a screen-film plate and a dual-side computed radiography system (CRM; FUJIFILM FCR 5000 MA). Material and Methods: A unique feature of the FCR 5000 MA system is that it has a clear support medium, allowing light emitted during the scanning process to be detected on the 'back' of the storage phosphor plate, considerably improving the system's efficiency. The system's physical performance was tested by means of a quantitative analysis, with calculation of the modulation transfer function, detective quantum efficiency, and contrast-detail analysis; subsequently, the results were compared with those achieved using a screen-film system (SFM; Eastmann Kodak MinR-MinR 2000). A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was then performed on 120 paired clinical images obtained in a craniocaudal projection with the conventional SFM system under standard exposure conditions and also with the CRM system working with a dose reduced by 35% (average breast thickness: 4.3 cm; mean glandular dose: 1.45 mGy). CRM clinical images were interpreted both in hard copy and in soft copy. Results: The ROC analysis revealed that the performances of the two systems (SFM and CRM with reduced dose) were sems (SFM and CRM with reduced dose) were similar (P>0.05): the diagnostic accuracy of the two systems, when valued in terms of the area underneath the ROC curve, was found to be 0.74 for the SFM, 0.78 for the CRM (hard copy), and 0.79 for the CRM (soft copy). Conclusion: The outcome obtained from our experiments shows that the use of the dual-side CRM system is a very good alternative to the screen-film system

  5. Ambulating radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strong gamme or X-ray sources are utilized for non-destructive testing of i.e. bridges. The activities involve certain risks of accident that might lead to serious injuries caused by radiation. The National Institute of Radiation Protection has during the laste decade greatly yhe inspection rate in this area. It has today made controls of most enterprieses running ambulating radiography. (O.S.)

  6. Neutron induced electron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present paper a new radiography technique, the 'Neutron Induced Electron Radiography' - NIER, to inspect low thickness samples on the order of micra, has been developed. This technique makes use of low energy electrons as penetrating radiation generated from metallic gadolinium screens when irradiated by thermal neutrons. The conditions to obtain the best image for the conventional X-ray film Kodak-AA were determined by using a digital system to quantify the darkening level of the film. The irradiations have been performed at a radiography equipment installed at the beam-hole no. 8 of the 5 MW IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor of IPEN-CNEN/SP. The irradiation time to obtain the best radiography was 100 seconds and for such condition the technique was able to discern 1 ?m in 24 ?m of aluminum at a resolution of 32 ?m. By visual comparison the images obtained by the NIER shown a higher quality when compared with the ones from other usual techniques the make use of electrons a penetrating radiation and films for image registration. Furthermore the use of the digital system has provided a smaller time for data acquisition and data analysis as well as an improvement in the image visualization. (author)

  7. Optimization of the radiological protection of patients undergoing radiography, fluoroscopy and computed tomography. Final report of a coordinated research project in Africa, Asia and eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although radiography has been an established imaging modality for over a century, continuous developments have led to improvements in technique resulting in improved image quality at reduced patient dose. If one compares the technique used by Roentgen with the methods used today, one finds that a radiograph can now be obtained at a dose which is smaller by a factor of 100 or more. Nonetheless, some national surveys, particularly in the United Kingdom and in the United States of America in the 1980s and 1990s, have indicated large variations in patient doses for the same diagnostic examination, in some cases by a factor of 20 or more. This arises not only owing to the various types of equipment and accessories used by the different health care providers, but also because of operational factors. The IAEA has a statutory responsibility to establish standards for the protection of people against exposure to ionising radiation and to provide for the worldwide application of those standards. A fundamental requirement of the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS), issued by the IAEA in cooperation with the FAO, ILO, WHO, PAHO and NEA, is the optimization of radiological protection of patients undergoing medical exposure. Towards its responsibility of implementation of standards and under the subprogramme of radiation safety, in 1995, the IAEA launched a coordinated research project (CRP) on radiological protection in diagnostic radiology in some countries in the Eastern European, African and Asian region. Initially, the CRP addressed radiography only and it covered wide aspects of optimisation of radiological protection. Subsequently, the scope of the CRP was extended to fluoroscopy and computed tomography (CT), but it covered primarily situation analysis of patient doses and equipment quality control. It did not cover patient dose reduction aspects in fluoroscopy and CT. The project continued up to 1999. The primary objective was to initiate a programme of optimization of protection in diagnostic radiology in each of the participating countries by introducing quality control (QC) practices, assessment of patient doses, evaluation of image quality, and identification and implementation of corrective actions. This TECDOC may be used as an approach to optimization of radiological protection for patients in diagnostic radiology

  8. The physics analysis and experiment study of zinc sulphide scintillator for fast neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fast neutron radiography is a promising application for accelerator based neutron sources. The potential effectiveness of this technique depends on the development of suitable imaging detectors for fast neutrons. Zinc sulphide based scintillators have the largest light output per event in the family of imaging scintillators used so far in fast neutron radiography. This paper investigated different aspects of this scintillator in order to determine the factors which might affect the light output. A mathematical model was established to estimate effectiveness of this scintillator. Zinc sulphide screens were prepared with ZnS particles of different concentrations in polypropylene matrix. A 14 MeV fast neutron source was used in the experiments. The light output was detected using a CCD camera or a film coupled to the scintillator screen. The results showed that the optimum scintillators is around 3 mm in thickness with the weight ratio of 2:1 for ZnS and polypropylene

  9. The physics analysis and experiment study of zinc sulphide scintillator for fast neutron radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Bin; Wu, Yang [Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, CAEP, P.O. Box 919-211, Miang 621900 (China); Key Laboratory of Neutron Physics, Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang (China); Li, Hang, E-mail: lihang32@gmail.com [Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, CAEP, P.O. Box 919-211, Miang 621900 (China); Key Laboratory of Neutron Physics, Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang (China); Sun, Yong; Huo, Heyong; Liu, Bin; Tang, Ke; Yin, Wei; Chao, Chao [Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, CAEP, P.O. Box 919-211, Miang 621900 (China); Key Laboratory of Neutron Physics, Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang (China)

    2013-11-21

    Fast neutron radiography is a promising application for accelerator based neutron sources. The potential effectiveness of this technique depends on the development of suitable imaging detectors for fast neutrons. Zinc sulphide based scintillators have the largest light output per event in the family of imaging scintillators used so far in fast neutron radiography. This paper investigated different aspects of this scintillator in order to determine the factors which might affect the light output. A mathematical model was established to estimate effectiveness of this scintillator. Zinc sulphide screens were prepared with ZnS particles of different concentrations in polypropylene matrix. A 14 MeV fast neutron source was used in the experiments. The light output was detected using a CCD camera or a film coupled to the scintillator screen. The results showed that the optimum scintillators is around 3 mm in thickness with the weight ratio of 2:1 for ZnS and polypropylene.

  10. Impact of digital radiography on clinical workflow

    OpenAIRE

    May, Gerald A.; Deer, David D.; Dackiewicz, Doreen

    2000-01-01

    It is commonly accepted that digital radiography (DR) improves workflow and patient throughput compared with traditional film radiography or computed radiography (CR). DR eliminates the film development step and the time to acquire the image from a CR reader. In addition, the wide dynamic range of DR is such that the technologist can perform the quality-control (QC) step directly at the modality in a few seconds, rather than having to transport the newly acquired image to a centralized QC sta...

  11. The influence of metal/storage foil combinations on image quality in computerised radiography; Einfluss von Metall-Speicherfolien-Kombinationen auf die Bildqualitaet in der Computer-Radiographie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckmann, Joerg; Grosser, Anja; Zscherpel, Uwe; Ewert, Uwe [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    In the definition of standards for storage foils, the effects of metal foils and metal foil combinations on the quality of storage foil images have not been considered sufficiently. It is well known that in film/metal foil combinations, apart from changes in the optical density and film granularity, also changes in the internal blur may occur as a result of lateral energy transfer in the film/metal foil combination, which are mostly caused by electrons and partly also by secondary radiation. At the same time, the metal foils serve as scattered radiation filters in X-ray imaging with films and may improve the image contrast. The mechanisms for generation of the virtual X-ray image and its visualisation are not the same in storage foil and X-ray films, so that the standards set for metal foils in film radiography cannot be transferred to storage foils. On the basis of the results achieved here, recommendations can be derived for the future use of metal filters and filter/foil combinations for better image quality in the storage foil technique. [German] Bei der Normgestaltung fuer Speicherfolien sind die Auswirkungen von Metallfolien und Metallfolienkombinationen auf die Bildqualitaet von Speicher-folienaufnahmen nicht ausreichend beruecksichtigt worden. Es ist bekannt, dass bei Film - Metallfolien - Kombinationen zusaetzlich zur Aenderung der optischen Dichte und der Filmgranularitaet auch Aenderungen der inneren Unschaerfe durch den seitli-chen Energietransport in der Film - Metallfolien - Kombination entstehen, welche ueberwiegend durch ausgeloeste Elektronen und zum Teil durch sekundaere Strahlung hervorgerufen werden. Gleichzeitig dienen die Metallfolien bei Roentgenaufnahmen mit Film als Streustrahlfilter und koennen zur Verbesserung des Bildkontrastes bei-tragen. Die Mechanismen zur Erzeugung des virtuellen Roentgenbildes und dessen Visualisierung sind in Speicherfolien nicht mit denen in einem Roentgenfilm iden-tisch. Demzufolge koennen die in den Normen festgelegten Vorschriften zum Einsatz von Metallfolien in der Filmradiographie nicht auf Speicherfolien uneingeschraenkt uebertragen werden. Anhand der hier erzielten Ergebnisse lassen sich Empfehlungen zum zukuenftigen Einsatz der Metallfilter und -folienkombinationen fuer die Speicher-folientechnik zur Verbesserung der Bildguete ableiten.

  12. X-Ray Digital Radiography and Computed Tomography Characterization of Targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The summary of this report is: (1) The Xradia Micro XCT and LLNL CCAT x-ray systems are used to nondestructively characterize a variety of materials, assemblies, and reference standard components; (2) The digital radiograph (DR) and computed tomography (CT) image data may be used for metrology, quality control, and defect detection; and (3) The ability to detect and characterize imperfections leads to improvements in the manufacturing processes for assemblies

  13. Pelvic crush fractures in survivors of the Sichuan earthquake evaluated by digital radiography and multidetector computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Tian-wu [West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Department of Radiology, Chengdu, Sichuan (China); Affiliated Hospital of North Sichuan Medical College, Medical Imaging Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Nanchong, Sichuan (China); Affiliated Hospital of North Sichuan Medical College, Department of Radiology, Nanchong, Sichuan (China); Yang, Zhi-gang [West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Department of Radiology, Chengdu, Sichuan (China); West China Hospital of Sichuan University, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, Chengdu, Sichuan (China); Dong, Zhi-hui; Chu, Zhi-gang; Yao, Jin; Wang, Qi-ling [West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Department of Radiology, Chengdu, Sichuan (China)

    2010-11-15

    To investigate the profile of pelvic crush fractures in earthquake victims on digital radiography (DR) and multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). One hundred and sixty-seven consecutive survivors of the 2008 Sichuan earthquake with pelvic crush fractures classified into types according to the Tile classification system, entered our study. One hundred and thirty-nine, and 28 patients underwent DR and MDCT scans, respectively. Data were reviewed retrospectively focusing on anatomical sites, numbers, and classification of pelvic ring fractures. Pelvic fractures occurred in the pubis in 88 patients (52.7%), in other pelvic bones in 32 (19.16%), and in both the pubis and other pelvic bones in 47 (28.14%). Pubic fractures were more common than fractures of other pelvic bones, and involvement of bilateral pubis was more common than that of the left or right pubis (all p < 0.05). As for the numbers of pelvic bones involved, multiple fractures occurred in 48.52% patients (81 out of 167) composed predominantly of fractures of two bones in 58.02% (47 out of 81), and were seen more often in bilateral pubis than in any other pelvic bones (p < 0.05). Regarding classifications of pelvic ring fractures, they were Type A in 31 patients (18.56%); Type B in 72 (43.11%), predominantly Type B2 in 26 (15.58%) and Type B3 in 28 (16.77%); and Type C in 64 (38.32%), predominantly Type C3 in 40 (23.95%). Pelvic crush fractures particularly including multiple pelvic fractures, occurring predominantly in bilateral pubis, and composed of Type C3 followed by Type B3 and Type B2, could be considered to be the profile of pelvic crush fractures in an earthquake. (orig.)

  14. Radiography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging at 0.5 Tesla of mechanically inducedosteoarthritis in rabbit knees

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S.R., Torelli; S.C., Rahal; R.S., Volpi; S., Yamashita; M.J., Mamprim; A.J., Crocci.

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In the present experimental study we assessed induced osteoarthritis data in rabbits, compared three diagnostic methods, i.e., radiography (XR), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and correlated the imaging findings with those obtained by macroscopic evaluation. Ten young [...] female rabbits of the Norfolk breed were used. Seven rabbits had the right knee immobilized in extension for a period of 12 weeks (immobilized group), and three others did not have a limb immobilized and were maintained under the same conditions (control group). Alterations observed by XR, CT and MRI after the period of immobilization were osteophytes, osteochondral lesions, increase and decrease of joint space, all of them present both in the immobilized and non-immobilized contralateral limbs. However, a significantly higher score was obtained for the immobilized limbs (XT: P = 0.016, CT: P = 0.031, MRI: P = 0.0156). All imaging methods were able to detect osteoarthritis changes after the 12 weeks of immobilization. Macroscopic evaluation identified increased thickening of joint capsule, proliferative and connective tissue in the femoropatellar joint, and irregularities of articular cartilage, especially in immobilized knees. The differences among XR, CT and MRI were not statistically significant for the immobilized knees. However, MRI using a 0.5 Tesla scanner was statistically different from CT and XR for the non-immobilized contralateral knees. We conclude that the three methods detected osteoarthritis lesions in rabbit knees, but MRI was less sensitive than XR and CT in detecting lesions compatible with initial osteoarthritis. Since none of the techniques revealed all the lesions, it is important to use all methods to establish an accurate diagnosis.

  15. Radiography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging at 0.5 Tesla of mechanically induced osteoarthritis in rabbit knees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present experimental study we assessed induced osteoarthritis data in rabbits, compared three diagnostic methods, i.e., radiography (XR), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and correlated the imaging findings with those obtained by macroscopic evaluation. Ten young female rabbits of the Norfolk breed were used. Seven rabbits had the right knee immobilized in extension for a period of 12 weeks (immobilized group), and three others did not have a limb immobilized and were maintained under the same conditions (control group). Alterations observed by XR, CT and MRI after the period of immobilization were osteophytes, osteochondral lesions, increase and decrease of joint space, all of them present both in the immobilized and non-immobilized contralateral limbs. However, a significantly higher score was obtained for the immobilized limbs (XT: P = 0.016, CT: P 0.031, MRI: P = 0.0156). All imaging methods were able to detect osteoarthritis changes after the 12 weeks of immobilization. Macroscopic evaluation identified increased thickening of joint capsule, proliferative and connective tissue in the femoropatellar joint, and irregularities of articular cartilage, especially in immobilized knees. The differences among XR, CT and MRI were not statistically significant for the immobilized knees. However, MRI using a 0.5 Tesla scanner was statistically different from CT and XR for the non-immobilized contralateral knees. We conclude that the threralateral knees. We conclude that the three methods detected osteoarthritis lesions in rabbit knees, but MRI was less sensitive than XR and CT in detecting lesions compatible with initial osteoarthritis. Since none of the techniques revealed all the lesions, it is important to use all methods to establish an accurate diagnosis. (author)

  16. Radiography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging at 0.5 Tesla of mechanically inducedosteoarthritis in rabbit knees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torelli S.R.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present experimental study we assessed induced osteoarthritis data in rabbits, compared three diagnostic methods, i.e., radiography (XR, computed tomography (CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, and correlated the imaging findings with those obtained by macroscopic evaluation. Ten young female rabbits of the Norfolk breed were used. Seven rabbits had the right knee immobilized in extension for a period of 12 weeks (immobilized group, and three others did not have a limb immobilized and were maintained under the same conditions (control group. Alterations observed by XR, CT and MRI after the period of immobilization were osteophytes, osteochondral lesions, increase and decrease of joint space, all of them present both in the immobilized and non-immobilized contralateral limbs. However, a significantly higher score was obtained for the immobilized limbs (XT: P = 0.016, CT: P = 0.031, MRI: P = 0.0156. All imaging methods were able to detect osteoarthritis changes after the 12 weeks of immobilization. Macroscopic evaluation identified increased thickening of joint capsule, proliferative and connective tissue in the femoropatellar joint, and irregularities of articular cartilage, especially in immobilized knees. The differences among XR, CT and MRI were not statistically significant for the immobilized knees. However, MRI using a 0.5 Tesla scanner was statistically different from CT and XR for the non-immobilized contralateral knees. We conclude that the three methods detected osteoarthritis lesions in rabbit knees, but MRI was less sensitive than XR and CT in detecting lesions compatible with initial osteoarthritis. Since none of the techniques revealed all the lesions, it is important to use all methods to establish an accurate diagnosis.

  17. Painful spondylolysis or spondylolisthesis studied by radiography and single-photon emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planar bone scintigraphy (PBS) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) were compared in 19 adults with radiographic evidence of spondylolysis and/or spondylolisthesis. SPECT was more sensitive than PBS when used to identify symptomatic patients and sites of painful defects in the pars interarticularis. In addition, SPECT allowed more accurate localization than PBS. In 6 patients, spondylolysis or spondylolisthesis was unrealted to low back pain, and SPECT images of the posterior neural arch were normal. The authors conclude that when spondylolysis or spondylolisthesis is the cause of low back pain, pars defects are frequently heralded by increased scintigraphic activity which is best detected and localized by SPECT

  18. Digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Digital projection radiography may replace conventional radiography some day, provided it can meet several requirements: equal or better diagnostic effectiveness of the screen-film systems; reasonable image cost; real improvement in the productivity of the Departments of Imaging. All digital radiographic systems include an X-ray source, an image acquisition and formatting sub-system, a display and manipulation sub-system, and archiving subsystem and a laser editing system, preferably shared by other sources of digital images. Three digitization processes are available: digitization of the radiographic film, digital fluorography and phospholuminescent detectors with memory. The advantages of digital fluoroscopy are appealing: real-time image acquisition, suppression of cassettes; but its disadvantages are far from negligible: it cannot be applied to bedside radiography, the field of examination is limited, and the wide-field spatial resolution is poor. Phospholuminescent detectors with memory have great advantages: they can be used for bedside radiographs and on all the common radiographic systems; spatial resolution is satisfactory; its current disadvantages are considerable. These two systems, have common properties making up the entire philosophy of digital radiology and specific features that must guide our choice according to the application. Digital fluorography is best applied in pediatric radiology. However, evaluation works have showed that it was applicable wworks have showed that it was applicable with sufficient quality to many indications of general radiology in which a fluoroscopic control and fast acquisition of the images are essential; the time gained on the examination may be considerable, as well as the savings on film. Detectors with memory are required for bedside radiographs, in osteoarticular and thoracic radiology, in all cases of traumatic emergency and in the resuscitation and intensive care departments

  19. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis: a comparative evaluation of computed tomography with plain chest radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed tomography (CT) was done in 15 consecutive patients with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA). When compared with chest X-ray, CT was found to be superior in the diagnosis of bronchiectasis in patients with ABPA. Of the 90 lobes studied, CT detected bronchiectasis in 57 lobes and plain chest X-ray in 44 lobes. In addition to central bronchiectasis, peripheral bronchiectasis was diagnosed with CT in 18 of the 57 lobes. Follow-up CT was done in two patients after treatment for detection of progression or regression of bronchiectatic lesions. One patient showed radiological as well as clinical improvement, with a recurrence of symptoms 4 months after stopping treatment. Computed tomography showed radiological progression of bronchiectasis and the patient was successfully treated with corticosteroids (thus preventing further bronchial damage). It is concluded from this study that CT is superior to plain chest X-ray in the diagnosis of bronchiectasis in patients with ABPA. Being non-invasive, it is also helpful in monitoring the course of bronchiectasis in these patients. 12 refs., 3 tabs., 12 figs

  20. Radiography apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The apparatus of the present invention provides radiography apparatus wherein the use of a flat, generally rectangular beam or a fan-shaped beam of radiation in combination with a collimator, scintillator and device for optically coupling a self-scanning array of photodiodes to the scintillator means will permit production of images or image data with high contrast sensitivity and detail. It is contemplated that the self-scanning array of photodiodes may contain from about 60 to 2048, and preferably about 256 to 2048, individual photodiode elements per inch of object width, thereby permitting maximum data collection to produce a complete image or complete collection of image data

  1. Mass radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relation of expense to benefit of mass radiography (RRU) can no longer be referred to the tuberculosis discovery rate. Far more frequently other thoracic diseases are detected, e.g. tumors, cardiovascular diseases, pneumoconiosis, sarcoidoses, etc. The prerequisite and therefore the immediate objective is the limitation to the defined and detectable group of risks so as to increase the detection rate. In combination with other prophylactic investigations the benefit of RRU can still be increased - it provides a valuable insight into the epidemiology of different social diseases. (orig.)

  2. The teaching of computer programming and digital image processing in radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, G L; Zylinski, J

    1998-06-01

    The increased use of digital processing techniques in Medical Radiations imaging modalities, along with the rapid advance in information technology has resulted in a significant change in the delivery of radiographic teaching programs. This paper details a methodology used to concurrently educate radiographers in both computer programming and image processing. The students learn to program in visual basic applications (VBA), and the programming skills are contextualised by requiring the students to write a digital subtraction angiography (DSA) package. Program code generation and image presentation interface is undertaken by the spreadsheet Microsoft Excel. The user-friendly nature of this common interface enables all students to readily begin program creation. The teaching of programming and image processing skills by this method may be readily generalised to other vocational fields where digital image manipulation is a professional requirement. PMID:9726504

  3. Imaging in early rheumatoid arthritis: roles of magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasonography, conventional radiography and computed tomography.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Mikkel; Ejbjerg, Bo

    2005-01-01

    Efficient methods for diagnosis, monitoring and prognostication are essential in early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). While conventional X-rays only visualize the late signs of preceding disease activity, there is evidence for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasonography being highly sensitive for early inflammatory and destructive changes in RA joints, and for MRI findings being sensitive to change and of predictive value for future progressive X-ray damage. Reviewing the data on X-ray, computed tomography, MRI and ultrasonography in RA, this paper discusses current and future roles of these imaging modalities in the management of early RA. The main focus is on recent advances in MRI and ultrasonography. Suggestions on clinical use and research priorities are provided

  4. Cephalometric radiography and computed tomography in infants undergoing craniofacial surgery. A comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilja, J.; Friede, H.; Svendsen, P.; Aggeryd, J.; Lauritzen, C.; Moeller, M.; Andersson, H.; Johansson, B. (University of Goeteborg (Sweden))

    1983-01-01

    Craniofacial growth after surgery in children is not completely understood. We have therefore formed a programme for pre- and postoperative studies with both roentgencephalometric- and computed tomographic investigations. This regiment results in overlapping information. Thus, an assessment of the advantages and disadvantages of the two methods was made and exemplified in four patients. In our experience both cephalometry and CT are essential for the diagnosis, surgical planning and follow-up of surgically treated children with craniofacial anomalies. To minimize the radiation doses and the diagnostic procedures which in these cases often includes general anesthesia, patients with isolated, asymmetrical conditions such as plagiocephaly, might be followed with CT only, since roentgencephalometry can not add much information.

  5. Cephalometric radiography and computed tomography in infants undergoing craniofacial surgery. A comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilja, J.; Friede, H.; Svendsen, P.; Aggeryd, J.; Lauritzen, C.; Moeller, M.; Andersson, H.; Johansson, B. (University of Goeteborg (Sweden))

    1984-01-01

    Craniofacial growth after surgery in children is not completely understood. We have therefore formed a programme for pre- and postoperative studies with both roentgencephalometric- and computed tomographic investigations. This regimen results in overlapping information. Thus, an assessment of the advantages and disadvantages of the two methods was made and exemplified in four patients. In our experience both cephalometry and CT are essential for the diagnosis, surgical planning and follow-up of surgically treated children with craniofacial anomalies. To minimize the radiation doses and the diagnostic procedures which in these cases often includes general anesthesia, patients with isolated, asymmetrical conditions such as plagiocephaly, might be followed with CT only, since roentgencephalometry can not add much information.

  6. MTF analysis of the near-real time neutron radiography facility at MURR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several neutron radiography systems designed to view transient processes on a real-time basis have been developed. With the advent of these different real-time systems comes the necessity to develop a means to quantitatively evaluate and compare these systems. A suitable method for measuring the resolution capabilities of the image-forming system is the determination of the modulation transfer function (MTF). The MTF is a measure of an imaging system's ability to reproduce the spatial frequencies present in an image. The system in use at the University of Missouri Research Reactor is described. (Auth.)

  7. Ability of chest X-ray to detect faint shadows documented as ground-glass attenuation in images of computed tomography: A comparison between flat-panel detector radiography and film-screen radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To compare flat-panel detector (FPD) radiography and film-screen (FS) radiography in detectability of faint shadows documented as ground-glass attenuation (GGA) areas in images of computed tomography (CT). Materials and methods: Study population was comprised of 50 patients who underwent FS and another 50 patients who underwent FPD. Standard of reference (SOR) was determined on the basis of area of GGA in all cross-sections of CT, in terms of GGA extent and presence or absence of GGA in each trisected lung fields (GGA distribution). Eight radiologists assessed the GGA extent with the 5-grade scale and the GGA distribution. Inter-observer variances of the GGA extents and distributions, degree of divergences and correspondence in the GGA extent and distributions with SOR, were compared between the FS and FPD by the jackknife method and Fisher's exact test. Results: Inter-observer variance in the GGA extent and distribution were slightly larger in the FS than in the FPD. The GGA extent scale corresponded with SOR in the FS statistically significantly better (p = 0.001), as the correct ratio was 0.428 in the FS and 0.310 in the FPD. Divergence in the GGA extent scale with SOR was smaller in the FS, as average kappa pseudo-value of Kendall's rank correlation coefficient was 0.474 in the FS and 0.433 in the FPD. Conclusion: These results indicate that some lesions of GGA documented in CT may not be reflected and are difficult to be detected in chest X-ray radiograplt to be detected in chest X-ray radiographs with the FPD.

  8. Flash radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flash radiography is a method for recording radiographic pictures of a non-transparent high-speed phenomenon. Such events occur in a variety of fields: Ballistics, dynamic high pressure physics, detonics, industry, and medical diagnostics. The phenomena observed by flash-radiography generally move at velocities between 100 m/s and 10000 m/s. The motion blur recorded on the picture is negligible only if the duration of the X-ray pulse (or the exposure time) falls in the range 10-8 - 10-7s. With a medical or industrial radiographic device, the correct blackening of a film is obtained with a current of some milliamperes and a mean exposure time of 0.1 s. From this it is deduced that the value of the current passing through a flash X-ray tube must be approximately equal to 104 A. These values cannot be attained in conventional X-ray tubes with a heated cathode. The production of large currents is mainly achieved by vacuum discharges and field emission. Two applications of the technique are presented: flash radiographs of shock waves, and flash X-ray diffraction. (Auth.)

  9. High-resolution computed tomography in silicosis: correlation with chest radiography and pulmonary function tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To correlate tomographic findings with pulmonary function findings, as well as to compare chest X-ray findings with high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings, in patients with silicosis. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 44 non-smoking patients without a history of tuberculosis. Chest X-ray findings were classified according to the International Labour Organization recommendations. Using a semiquantitative system, the following HRCT findings were measured: the full extent of pulmonary involvement; parenchymal opacities; and emphysema. Spirometry and forced oscillation were performed. Pulmonary volumes were evaluated using the helium dilution method, and diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide was assessed. Results: Of the 44 patients studied, 41 were male. The mean age was 48.4 years. There were 4 patients who were classified as category 0 based on X-ray findings and as category 1 based on HRCT findings. Using HRCT scans, we identified progressive massive fibrosis in 33 patients, compared with only 23 patients when X-rays were used. Opacity score was found to correlate most closely with airflow, DLCO and compliance. Emphysema score correlated inversely with volume, DLCO and airflow. In this sample of patients presenting a predominance of large opacities (75% of the individuals), the deterioration of pulmonary function was associated with the extent of structural changes. Conclusions: In the early detection of silicosis aons: In the early detection of silicosis and the identification of progressive massive fibrosis, HRCT scans are superior to X-rays. (author)

  10. High-resolution computed tomography in silicosis: correlation with chest radiography and pulmonary function tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Agnaldo Jose [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Pedro Ernesto Univ. Hospital. Dept. of Respiratory Function]. E-mail: phel.lop@uol.com.br; Mogami, Roberto; Capone, Domenico; Jansen, Jose Manoel [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). School of Medical Sciences; Tessarollo, Bernardo [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Radiology and Diagnostic Image; Melo, Pedro Lopes de [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. of Biology

    2008-05-15

    Objective: To correlate tomographic findings with pulmonary function findings, as well as to compare chest X-ray findings with high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings, in patients with silicosis. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 44 non-smoking patients without a history of tuberculosis. Chest X-ray findings were classified according to the International Labour Organization recommendations. Using a semiquantitative system, the following HRCT findings were measured: the full extent of pulmonary involvement; parenchymal opacities; and emphysema. Spirometry and forced oscillation were performed. Pulmonary volumes were evaluated using the helium dilution method, and diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide was assessed. Results: Of the 44 patients studied, 41 were male. The mean age was 48.4 years. There were 4 patients who were classified as category 0 based on X-ray findings and as category 1 based on HRCT findings. Using HRCT scans, we identified progressive massive fibrosis in 33 patients, compared with only 23 patients when X-rays were used. Opacity score was found to correlate most closely with airflow, DLCO and compliance. Emphysema score correlated inversely with volume, DLCO and airflow. In this sample of patients presenting a predominance of large opacities (75% of the individuals), the deterioration of pulmonary function was associated with the extent of structural changes. Conclusions: In the early detection of silicosis and the identification of progressive massive fibrosis, HRCT scans are superior to X-rays. (author)

  11. High energy x-ray radiography and computed tomography of bridge pins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridge pins were used in the hanger assemblies for some multi-span steel bridges built prior to the 1980's, and are sometimes considered fracture critical elements of a bridge. During a test on a bridge conducted by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), ultrasonic field inspection results indicated that at least two pins contained cracks. Several pins were removed and selected for further examination. This provided an excellent opportunity to learn more about these pins and the application of x-ray systems at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), as well as to learn more about the application of different detectors recently obtained by LLNL. Digital radiographs and computed tomography (CT) were used to characterize the bridge pins, using a LINAC x-ray source with a 9-MV bremsstrahlung spectrum. We will describe the performance of two different digital radiographic detectors. One is a detector system frequently used at LLNL consisting of a scintillator glass optically coupled to a CCD camera. The other detector is a new amorphous silicon detector recently acquired by LLNL

  12. Computer Based Power analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.J.RajanCSE,

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this Computer based Power Analysis has focused at building a compact scheme for monitoring the parameters and to protect the generator by replacing the relays into various transducers and are interfaced with the Personal Computer (PC and the generator protection is implemented by means of a single computer using the time sharing scheme. In Thermal power plants various inter locks and protections are used for safeguarding generator, boiler, turbine, coal feeders etc., Hard-wired logic gates are used in the most of the existing power plants.

  13. Application of neutron radiography and tomography for analysis of root morphology of growing ginseng

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Ho; Sung, Bong Jae; Park, Jong Yoon [Geumsan Agricultural Development and Technology Center, Geumsan (Korea, Republic of); Sim, Cheul Muu; Kim, Young Jin; Lee, Seung Wook [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    The shape of main root of ginseng is very important for its commercial value. The morphology of main root is predominantly determined by the root-growing pattern in one year after transplantation of ginseng seedling(one years root). There are many factors affecting the root growing of young ginseng but no systematic approach has been applied to find the effects of various factors. The main reason for this was no method was sought to see the root shapes non-destructively. Neutron radiography is thought to be an appropriate NDT method for root morphology examination in ginseng and a study on using NR for the research on ginseng is being conducted. Considering that the live plants should be moved to the reactor site for their examination of four or five times per year at least, the pot growing method is indispensable. The pot should contain enough soils for growing-up of ginseng and its maximum size is limited to have good contrast in neutron radiography image of ginseng root. Thus, a preliminary radiographic study was performed to find the proper size of ginseng pot using the NR facility of HANARO. Several pots will be prepared for young ginsengs and they will be examined for about one year.

  14. Application of neutron radiography and tomography for analysis of root morphology of growing ginseng

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The shape of main root of ginseng is very important for its commercial value. The morphology of main root is predominantly determined by the root-growing pattern in one year after transplantation of ginseng seedling(one years root). There are many factors affecting the root growing of young ginseng but no systematic approach has been applied to find the effects of various factors. The main reason for this was no method was sought to see the root shapes non-destructively. Neutron radiography is thought to be an appropriate NDT method for root morphology examination in ginseng and a study on using NR for the research on ginseng is being conducted. Considering that the live plants should be moved to the reactor site for their examination of four or five times per year at least, the pot growing method is indispensable. The pot should contain enough soils for growing-up of ginseng and its maximum size is limited to have good contrast in neutron radiography image of ginseng root. Thus, a preliminary radiographic study was performed to find the proper size of ginseng pot using the NR facility of HANARO. Several pots will be prepared for young ginsengs and they will be examined for about one year

  15. enhancement of neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    neutron radiography (NR) is a powerful non destructive testing (NDT) technique in viewing the internal details of objects and components. the advantage of nr over other NDT techniques is that nr can provide in come cases full detailed information that cannot be obtained by any other traditional techniques such as x-ray or gamma ray radiography. the image formation by nr can be degraded by many factors, the most important of which is scattering blur from the sample itself. previous attempts were made to correct scattering effects on neutron radiography, using computer software. in this thesis experimental work was carried out to enhance the image quality and increase the ETRR-2 nr facility sensitivity by scattered thermal neutrons deblurring, using two different techniques. the first technique is image enhancement using multilayer converter screens. the first technique is image enhancement using multilayer converter screens. the second technique is image deblurring using an anti scatter grid. the Monte Carlo N-particle (MCNP) code calculations were used to determine the best image formation from the multilayer converter screens technique . the code was also used in the design of the anti scatter grid dimensions and to find the fraction of thermal scattered neutrons removed by the grid

  16. Computed vs. conventional radiography for detecting fatigue cracks in riveted lap joints of aeronautical grade hybrid fiber-metal laminate Glare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aimed at assessing the capability of three different radiographic approaches (two computed or digital, and one conventional or analogous) for imaging fatigue cracks in riveted lap joints of composite fiber-metal laminate Glare. These structural joints are unique in the sense that fatigue cracks develop mainly at the faying surfaces of Glare sheets, so that visual detection is largely prevented and nondestructive inspection becomes mandatory. For this purpose, a round-robin programme comprising several industrial and research centers that employ X-ray radiography routinely to inspect high-demanding equipments, components and structures was conducted. (authors)

  17. Computed vs. conventional radiography for detecting fatigue cracks in riveted lap joints of aeronautical grade hybrid fiber-metal laminate Glare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarpani, J.R. [Sao Paulo Univ. (Brazil); Hideki Shinohara, A. [Pernambuco Federal Univ. (Brazil); Da Silva, R.R. [Rio de Janeiro Federal Univ., Rio de Janeiro-RJ (Brazil); Do Val Lacerda, N. [Compoende Aeronautica Ltda (Brazil)

    2007-07-01

    This study aimed at assessing the capability of three different radiographic approaches (two computed or digital, and one conventional or analogous) for imaging fatigue cracks in riveted lap joints of composite fiber-metal laminate Glare. These structural joints are unique in the sense that fatigue cracks develop mainly at the faying surfaces of Glare sheets, so that visual detection is largely prevented and nondestructive inspection becomes mandatory. For this purpose, a round-robin programme comprising several industrial and research centers that employ X-ray radiography routinely to inspect high-demanding equipments, components and structures was conducted. (authors)

  18. Computer aided safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document reproduces 20 selected papers from the 38 papers presented at the Technical Committee/Workshop on Computer Aided Safety Analysis organized by the IAEA in co-operation with the Institute of Atomic Energy in Otwock-Swierk, Poland on 25-29 May 1987. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these 20 technical papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  19. Industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westinghouse Hanford obtains a wide range of high-quality radiographs in support of its nuclear program. We emphasize safety in all of our work. Safe operation of both x-ray machines and radioactive isotope sources is of primary importance. This effort has paid off; no injuries have been caused by radiography. As safety techniques have been perfected, they have been shared with the rest of the technical community. This is accomplished by the participation of Westinghouse Hanford personnel on national committees and by publishing findings, such as the need for periodic x-ray of the source tubes. X-ray safety and general safety conditions are emphasized in the control documentation, training, equipment design, and more importantly in the operation of the x-ray and gamma ray devices. 4 refs

  20. Radiography exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter, the reader will introduce with basic knowledge on radiography exposure. All the code and standard must give a specification on density or their range that can accepted. So the result outside the specification usually will be unacceptable and this can effected the time, cost and energy of the radiographer. So, for radiographer, they must work carefully to produce a good result and one way to solve this problem is through good exposure. The more the exposure can make a film darker while the less exposure can make the radiograph not enough density. So, through this chapter, the reader can know detailed how to manage this problem. As mention earlier, this technique is a combination between theories and practical, so, here theory is a main part to make the practical successful.

  1. Electron radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Frank E.; Morris, Christopher

    2005-05-17

    A system capable of performing radiography using a beam of electrons. Diffuser means receive a beam of electrons and diffuse the electrons before they enter first matching quadrupoles where the diffused electrons are focused prior to the diffused electrons entering an object. First imaging quadrupoles receive the focused diffused electrons after the focused diffused electrons have been scattered by the object for focusing the scattered electrons. Collimator means receive the scattered electrons and remove scattered electrons that have scattered to large angles. Second imaging quadrupoles receive the collimated scattered electrons and refocus the collimated scattered electrons and map the focused collimated scattered electrons to transverse locations on an image plane representative of the electrons' positions in the object.

  2. Efficacy of plain radiography and computer tomography in localizing the site of pelvic arterial bleeding in trauma patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Immediate angiography is warranted in pelvic trauma patients with suspected arterial injury (AI) in order to stop ongoing bleeding. Prior to angiography, plain pelvic radiography (PPR) and abdominopelvic computer tomography (CT) are performed to identify fracture and hematoma sites. Purpose: To investigate if PPR and CT can identify the location of AI in trauma patients undergoing angiography. Material and Methods: 95 patients with pelvic fractures on PPR (29 women, 66 men), at a mean age of 44 (9-92) years, underwent pelvic angiography for suspected AI. Fifty-six of them underwent CT additionally. Right and left anterior and posterior fractures on PPR were registered, and fracture displacement was recorded for each quadrant. Arterial blush on CT was registered, and the size of the hematoma in each region was measured in cm2. AIs were registered for anterior and posterior segments of both internal iliac arteries. Presence of fractures, arterial blush, and hematomas were correlated with AI. Results: Presence of fracture in the corresponding skeletal segment on PPR showed sensitivity and specificity of 0.86 and 0.58 posteriorly, and 0.87 and 0.44 anteriorly. The area under the curve (AUC) was 0.77 and 0.69, respectively. Fracture displacement on PPR >0.9 cm posteriorly and >1.9 cm anteriorly revealed specificity of 0.84. Sensitivities of arterial blush and hematoma on CT were 0.38 and 0.82 posteriorly, and 0.24 and 0.82 anteriorly. The specificiti 0.24 and 0.82 anteriorly. The specificities were 0.96 and 0.58 posteriorly, and 0.79 and 0.53 anteriorly, respectively. For hematomas, the AUC was 0.79 posteriorly and 0.75 anteriorly. Size of hematoma >22 cm2 posteriorly and >29 cm2 anteriorly revealed specificity of 0.85 and 0.86, respectively. Conclusion: CT findings of arterial blush and hematoma predicted site of arterial bleeding on pelvic angiography. Also, PPR predicted the site of bleeding using location of fracture and size of displacement. In the hemodynamically unstable patient, PPR may contribute equally to effective assessment of injured arteries

  3. On the use of computed radiography plates for quality assurance of intensity modulated radiation therapy dose distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: As traditional film is phased out in most radiotherapy centers, computed radiography (CR) systems are increasingly being purchased as a replacement. CR plates can be used for patient imaging, but may also be used for a variety of quality assurance (QA) purposes and can be calibrated in terms of dose. This study looks at their suitability for verification of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) dose distributions. Methods: A CR plate was calibrated in terms of the relative dose and the stability of response over 1 year was studied. The effect of exposing the CR plate to ambient light and of using different time delays before scanning was quantified. The CR plate was used to verify the relative dose distributions for ten IMRT patients and the results were compared to those obtained using a two dimensional (2D) diode array. Results: Exposing the CR plate to 10 s of ambient light between irradiation (174 cGy) and scanning erased approximately 80% of the signal. Changes in delay time between irradiation and scanning also affected the measurement results. The signal on the plate was found to decay at a rate of approximately 3.6 cGy/min in the first 10 min after irradiation. The use of a CR plate for IMRT patient-specific QA resulted in a significantly lower distance to agreement (DTA) and gamma pass rate than when using a 2D diode array for the measurement. This was primarily due to the over-response of the CR phosphor to low energy scattered radiation. Forhor to low energy scattered radiation. For the IMRT QA using the CR plate, the average gamma pass rate was 97.3%. For the same IMRT QA using a diode array, the average gamma pass rate was 99.7%. The gamma criteria used were 4% dose difference and 4 mm DTA for head and neck treatments and 3% dose difference and 3 mm DTA for prostate treatments. The gamma index tolerance was 1. The lowest 10% of the dose distribution was excluded from all gamma and DTA analyses. Conclusions: Although the authors showed that CR plates can be used for patient specific IMRT QA, the practical problems such as the over-response to low energy scatter and signal fading with light exposure and time mean that alternative detectors such as radiochromic film or diode arrays will be a more sensible choice for most radiotherapy departments.

  4. Measurement of water distribution by using neutron radiography and network analysis of gas-velocity distributions in a PEFC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuel gas (hydrogen gas) and oxidant gas (air) are supplied to a Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell (PEFC). Condensation may occur in the cathode side, since air is super-saturated by the fuel cell reactions. If condensed water exists in a gas diffusion layer (GDL) or the gas channels, it may affect the fuel cell performances because of blocking the oxygen from reaching the cathode reaction site. In order to clarify water effects on performances of a PEFC, visualization and quantitative measurements of water distributions in a PEFC were carried out by means of neutron radiography. A network analysis of gas-velocity distribution was applied for the experimental results. It analyzes the gas-velocity distribution depending on the flow resistance which is the pressure drop. Applying the measured data of water thickness, pressure drop in the gas channel and the GDL can be obtained. (author)

  5. Analysis of steam formation and migration in firefighters' protective clothing using X-ray radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiser, Corinne; Wyss, Peter; Rossi, René M

    2010-01-01

    X-ray radiography was used to quantify evaporation and moisture transfer in a multilayer firefighter protective clothing system with defined wetted layers exposed to low thermal radiation. Evaporation was faster and took place at higher temperatures if the moisture was located in the outer layers of the clothing system. Moisture that evaporated in the outer layers of the clothing system was found to move inwards and condense in the inner layers and on the cap of the measurement cell. Results found in this study correlated well with the findings of our former study based on simple temperature distribution measurements to determine moisture transfer in protective clothing layers at low level thermal radiation. PMID:20540841

  6. Particle Beam Radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peach, Ken; Ekdahl, Carl

    2014-02-01

    Particle beam radiography, which uses a variety of particle probes (neutrons, protons, electrons, gammas and potentially other particles) to study the structure of materials and objects noninvasively, is reviewed, largely from an accelerator perspective, although the use of cosmic rays (mainly muons but potentially also high-energy neutrinos) is briefly reviewed. Tomography is a form of radiography which uses multiple views to reconstruct a three-dimensional density map of an object. There is a very wide range of applications of radiography and tomography, from medicine to engineering and security, and advances in instrumentation, specifically the development of electronic detectors, allow rapid analysis of the resultant radiographs. Flash radiography is a diagnostic technique for large high-explosive-driven hydrodynamic experiments that is used at many laboratories. The bremsstrahlung radiation pulse from an intense relativistic electron beam incident onto a high-Z target is the source of these radiographs. The challenge is to provide radiation sources intense enough to penetrate hundreds of g/cm2 of material, in pulses short enough to stop the motion of high-speed hydrodynamic shocks, and with source spots small enough to resolve fine details. The challenge has been met with a wide variety of accelerator technologies, including pulsed-power-driven diodes, air-core pulsed betatrons and high-current linear induction accelerators. Accelerator technology has also evolved to accommodate the experimenters' continuing quest for multiple images in time and space. Linear induction accelerators have had a major role in these advances, especially in providing multiple-time radiographs of the largest hydrodynamic experiments.

  7. Indications for computed tomography (CT-) diagnostics in proximal humeral fractures: a comparative study of plain radiography and computed tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Weise Kuno; Pereira Philippe L; Dietz Klaus; Eingartner Christoph; Schmal Hagen; Südkamp Norbert P; Rolauffs Bernd; Bahrs Christian; Lingenfelter Erich; Helwig Peter

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Precise indications for computed tomography (CT) in proximal humeral fractures are not established. The purpose of this study was a comparison of conventional radiographic views with different CT reconstructions with 2 D and 3 D imaging to establish indications for additional CT diagnostics depending on the fractured parts. Methods In a prospective diagnostic study in two level 1 trauma centers, 44 patients with proximal humeral fractures were diagnosed with conventional X...

  8. Cross-sectional void fraction distribution measurements in a vertical annulus two-phase flow by high speed X-ray computed tomography and real-time neutron radiography techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvel, G.D. [McMaster Univ., Ontario (Canada)]|[Combustion and Heat Transfer Lab., Takasago (Japan); Hori, K.; Kawanishi, K. [Combustion and Heat Transfer Lab., Takasago (Japan)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    A Real-Time Neutron Radiography (RTNR) system and a high speed X-ray Computed tomography (X-CT) system are compared for measurement of two-phase flow. Each system is used to determine the flow regime, and the void fraction distribution in a vertical annulus flow channel. A standard optical video system is also used to observe the flow regime. The annulus flow channel is operated as a bubble column and measurements obtained for gas flow rates from 0.0 to 30.01/min. The flow regimes observed by all three measurement systems through image analysis shows that the two-dimensional void fraction distribution can be obtained. The X-CT system is shown to have a superior temporal resolution capable of resolving the void fraction distribution in an (r,{theta}) plane in 33.0 ms. Void fraction distribution for bubbly flow and slug flow is determined.

  9. Cross-sectional void fraction distribution measurements in a vertical annulus two-phase flow by high speed X-ray computed tomography and real-time neutron radiography techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Real-Time Neutron Radiography (RTNR) system and a high speed X-ray Computed tomography (X-CT) system are compared for measurement of two-phase flow. Each system is used to determine the flow regime, and the void fraction distribution in a vertical annulus flow channel. A standard optical video system is also used to observe the flow regime. The annulus flow channel is operated as a bubble column and measurements obtained for gas flow rates from 0.0 to 30.01/min. The flow regimes observed by all three measurement systems through image analysis shows that the two-dimensional void fraction distribution can be obtained. The X-CT system is shown to have a superior temporal resolution capable of resolving the void fraction distribution in an (r,?) plane in 33.0 ms. Void fraction distribution for bubbly flow and slug flow is determined

  10. Morphology of the Pelvis and Hind Limb of the Red Panda (Ailurus fulgens) Evidenced by Gross Osteology, Radiography and Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makungu, M; du Plessis, W M; Groenewald, H B; Barrows, M; Koeppel, K N

    2014-10-13

    The red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is a quadrupedal arboreal animal primarily distributed in the Himalayas and southern China. It is a species commonly kept in zoological collections. This study was carried out to describe the morphology of the pelvis and hind limb of the red panda evidenced by gross osteology, radiography and computed tomography as a reference for clinical use and identification of skeletons. Radiography of the pelvis and right hind limb was performed in nine and seven animals, respectively. Radiographic findings were correlated with bone specimens from three adult animals. Computed tomography of the torso and hind limb was performed in one animal. The pelvic bone had a wide ventromedial surface of the ilium. The trochlea of the femur was wide and shallow. The patella was similar to that seen in feline species. The medial fabella was not seen radiographically in any animal. The cochlea grooves of the tibia were shallow with a poorly defined intermediate ridge. The trochlea of the talus was shallow and presented with an almost flattened medial ridge. The tarsal sesamoid bone was always present. The lateral process of the base of the fifth metatarsal (MT) bone was directed laterally. The MT bones were widely spaced. The morphology of the pelvis and hind limb of the red panda indicated flexibility of the pelvis and hind limb joints as an adaptation to an arboreal quadrupedal lifestyle. PMID:25308447

  11. Digital chest radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The observer performance for video monitor images presented in positive mode ('bones black') was compared to that of images presented in negative mode ('bones white') in a digital system for chest radio-graphy based on large image intensifier. In the 1st part of the study, the original, non-linear grey-scale reversal performed in the computer of the digital image intensifier system (DS 1000) was studied together with fixed and variable settings of light and contrast. In the 2nd part true grey-scale reversal performed in a minicomputer (Micro-VAX II) where the images were also processed with edge and contrast enhancement, was studied. The time spent viewing the images was also recorded. Before the 2nd part of the study, the image intensifier system was optimized with regard to spatial and contrast resolution and dose settings. Simulated pathology was random positioned over the lungs and the mediastinum of an anthropomorphic phantom. Observer performance was evaluated with Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis on the digital images. In the 1st part of the study, a significant advantage for the positive images was seen, but no significant difference between fixed and variable settings of light and contrast. In the 2nd part, no significant difference in the detectability of the test structures was seen between positive and negative images. A significant improvement in the detectability was seen between the 1st and the 2nd part of the study for the nodules over nd part of the study for the nodules over the mediastinum in both negative and positive images. No significant difference in the time spent observing positive and negative images, was seen. If negative mode is chosen for image presentation, true grey-scale reversal is necessary for adequate contrast resolution. (author). 11 refs.; 2 figs.; 1 tab

  12. Radiographic Imaging in Osteomyelitis: The Role of Plain Radiography, Computed Tomography, Ultrasonography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, and Scintigraphy

    OpenAIRE

    Pineda, Carlos; Espinosa, Rolando; Pena, Angelica

    2009-01-01

    The diagnostic imaging of osteomyelitis can require the combination of diverse imaging techniques for an accurate diagnosis. Conventional radiography should always be the first imaging modality to start with, as it provides an overview of the anatomy and the pathologic conditions of the bone and soft tissues of the region of interest. Sonography is most useful in the diagnosis of fluid collections, periosteal involvement, and surrounding soft tissue abnormalities and may provide guidance for ...

  13. Effectiveness of chest radiography, lung ultrasound and thoracic computed tomography in the diagnosis of congestive heart failure

    OpenAIRE

    Cardinale, Luciano; Priola, Adriano Massimiliano; Moretti, Federica; Volpicelli, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Hydrostatic pulmonary edema is as an abnormal increase in extravascular water secondary to elevated pressure in the pulmonary circulation, due to congestive heart failure or intravascular volume overload. Diagnosis of hydrostatic pulmonary edema is usually based on clinical signs associated to conventional radiography findings. Interpretation of radiologic signs of cardiogenic pulmonary edema are often questionable and subject. For a bedside prompt evaluation, lung ultrasound (LUS) may assess...

  14. Computed tomography scout views vs. conventional radiography in body-packers – Delineation of body-packs and radiation dose in a porcine model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziegeler, Edvard, E-mail: edvard.ziegeler@campus.lmu.de [Institute for Clinical Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich, Nussbaumstraße 20, 80336 Munich (Germany); Grimm, Jochen M., E-mail: jochen.grimm@med.lmu.de [Institute for Clinical Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich, Nussbaumstraße 20, 80336 Munich (Germany); Wirth, Stefan, E-mail: tefan.wirth@med.lmu.de [Institute for Clinical Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich, Nussbaumstraße 20, 80336 Munich (Germany); Uhl, Michael, E-mail: michael.uhl@polizei.bayern.de [Bavarian State Criminal Police Office, Maillingerstrasse 15, 80636 Munich (Germany); Reiser, Maximilian F., E-mail: Maximilian.Reiser@med.lmu.de [Institute for Clinical Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich, Nussbaumstraße 20, 80336 Munich (Germany); Scherr, Michael K., E-mail: Michael.Scherr@med.lmu.de [Institute for Clinical Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich, Nussbaumstraße 20, 80336 Munich (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    Objective: To compare abdominal computed tomography (CT) scout views with conventional radiography regarding radiation dose and delineation of drug packages in a porcine body-packer model. Materials and methods: Nine samples of illicit drugs packed in ovoid plastic containers were consecutively placed in the rectum of a 121.5 kg pig cadaver. Antero-posterior and lateral scout views were obtained at 120 kVp and 80 mA, 150 mA and 200 mA, respectively, using a 64-row MDCT. Scout views were compared with conventional abdominal antero-posterior radiographs (77 kV and 106 ± 13 mAs). Visibility of three body pack characteristics (wrapping, content, shape) was rated independently by two radiologists and summarized to a delineation score ranging from 0 to 9 with a score ?6 representing sufficient delineation. Mean delineation scores were calculated for each conventional radiography and single plane scout view separately and for a combined rating of antero-posterior and lateral scout views. Results: Even the lowest single plane scout view delineation score (5.3 ± 2.0 for 80 mA lateral; 0.4 mSv; sensitivity = 44%) was significantly higher than for conventional radiographs (3.1 ± 2.5, p < 0.001; 2.4 ± 0.3 mSv; sensitivity = 11%). Combined reading of antero-posterior and lateral scout views 80 mA yielded sufficient delineation (6.2 ± 1.4; 0.8 mSv; sensitivity = 56%). Conclusions: All CT scout views showed significantly better delineation ratings and sensitivity than conventional radiographs. Scout views in two planes at 80 mA provided a sufficient level of delineation and a sensitivity five times higher than conventional radiography at less than one third of the radiation dose. In case of diagnostic insecurity, CT can be performed without additional logistical effort.

  15. [Contribution of computed tomography in patients with lung metastases of differentiated thyroid carcinoma not apparent on plain radiography who were treated with radioiodine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosário, Pedro W S; Tavares, Wilson C; Barroso, Alvaro L; Rezende, Leonardo L; Padrão, Eduardo L; Purisch, Saulo

    2008-02-01

    Computed tomography (CT or CAT Scan) of the chest is more sensitive than radiography in the detection of lung metastases of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), but little information is available regarding the aggregated value of this method. The present study evaluated the response of patients with lung metastases of DTC not apparent on radiography to treatment with 131I and the value of CT in these cases. Twenty-five patients with lung metastases not apparent on radiography, who initially received 100-200 mCi I151, were evaluated and those presenting pulmonary uptake on post-therapy WBS were submitted to a new treatment after 6 to 12 months, and so on. The chance of detection of pulmonary uptake on post-therapy WBS did not differ between patients with negative and positive CT (100% versus 91.5%). Mean serum Tg levels were higher in patients with positive CT (108 ng/ml versus 52 ng/ml). Negative post-therapy WBS was achieved in 82% of patients with positive CT and in 92.3% with negative CT and the cumulative I131 activity necessary to achieve this outcome did not differ between the two groups (mean=300 mCi). Stimulated Tg was undetectable in 47% of patients with negative CT at the end of treatment, but in none of the patients whose CT continued to be positive. In patients with elevated Tg, the CT result apparently did not change the indication of therapy or the I131 activity to be administered. In cases with lung metastases, the persistence of micronodules on CT was associated with the persistence of detectable Tg in patients presenting negative post-therapy WBS. PMID:18345404

  16. Quantitative radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiographic techniques have been used in nondestructive evaluation primarily to develop qualitative information (i.e., defect detection). This project applies and extends the techniques developed in medical x-ray imaging, particularly computed tomography (CT), to develop quantitative information (both spatial dimensions and material quantities) on the three-dimensional (3D) structure of solids. Accomplishments in FY 86 include (1) improvements in experimental equipment - an improved microfocus system that will give 20-?m resolution and has potential for increased imaging speed, and (2) development of a simple new technique for displaying 3D images so as to clearly show the structure of the object. Image reconstruction and data analysis for a series of synchrotron CT experiments conducted by LLNL's Chemistry Department has begun

  17. A UK-wide analysis of trait emotional intelligence within the radiography profession

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to profile the Trait emotional intelligence (EI) of the radiography profession, explore any differences between subgroups, compare the profession with a normative group and investigate the relationship between EI and the leaders of the profession. An online UK-wide survey was conducted using the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire, a self-report measure. Three main analyses were undertaken to investigate any differences between the sample and population, the radiographer subgroups and the sample and a normative group. The sample had similar characteristics to the population. There were differences between types of radiographer, with nuclear medicine radiographers scoring consistently lower than other groups. There were differences between the leaders and other members of the profession particularly in the Sociability factor. Radiographers scored higher than the TEIQue normative group for Global EI and three of the four factors. The study has benchmarked the Trait EI of one healthcare profession and identified areas for future research to develop our understanding of emotional intelligence.

  18. Long-term evaluation of apical root resorption after orthodontic treatment using periapical radiography and cone beam computed tomography

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jairo Curado de, Freitas; Olavo César Porto, Lyra; Ana Helena Gonçalves de, Alencar; Carlos, Estrela.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: avaliar a frequência de reabsorção radicular apical (RRA) após tratamento ortodôntico, em longo prazo, por meio de imagens de radiografia periapical (RP) e tomografia computadorizada de feixe cônico (TCFC). MÉTODOS: as imagens radiográficas obtidas de dentes de 58 pacientes, antes (T1), ap [...] ós o tratamento ortodôntico (T2) e decorridos pelo menos 52 meses do tratamento (T3), foram analisadas por três examinadores, membros do Board Brasileiro de Ortodontia e Ortopedia Facial. As estruturas apicais foram avaliadas por meio de imagens de RP (T2 e T3), utilizando o sistema de escores de Levander e Malmgren modificado. A presença de RRA nas imagens tomográficas obtidas em T3 foi detectada por um especialista em radiologia com experiência em TCFC. Os dados foram estatisticamente analisados pelo teste de Kolmogorov-Smirnov, com nível de significância de 5%. O teste kappa determinou o nível de concordância entre os observadores. RESULTADOS: as RRAs mais frequentes foram as de escore 1 em T2 (51,6%) e em T3 (53,1%), quando avaliadas por RPs (p > 0,05). Quando comparadas as frequências de RRAs em T3, entre imagens de RP e de TCFC, a diferença foi estatisticamente significativa para o grupo de pré-molares da maxila e da mandíbula, e de molares mandibulares. Os dentes que apresentaram maior frequência de RRA quando analisados por meio de imagens de TCFC, foram os incisivos laterais superiores (94,5%) e os centrais inferiores (87,7%), enquanto os de menor frequência foram os pré-molares. As imagens de TCFC mostraram que os dentes envolvidos em tratamentos ortodônticos com extrações apresentaram maior frequência de RRA (p Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the frequency of Apical Root Resorption (ARR) after orthodontic treatment at 52-288 months using periapical radiography (PR) and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). METHODS: Radiographic images obtained from 58 patients, before (T1) and after orthodontic treatment (T2), and [...] following 52-288 months of treatment were analyzed by three members of the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics. Apical structures were evaluated by PR images (T2 and T3), using Levander and Malmgren scores. The presence of ARR on CBCT images were detected only at T3. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used for statistical analyses, and the level of significance was set at 5%. Kappa statistics determined interobserver agreement. RESULTS: The more frequent ARR were with scores 1 in T2 (51.6%) and T3 (53.1%), when evaluated by PR (p > 0.05). When compared the frequencies of ARR in T3 among PR and CBCT images, the differences were significant for maxillary and mandibular pre-molar groups, and for mandibular molar group (p > 0.05). The teeth with highest frequency of ARR presence using CBCT images were maxillary lateral incisors (94.5%) and mandibular central incisors (87.7%), while the premolars showed the lowest frequency. The CBCT images showed that the teeth involved in orthodontic treatment with extraction present higher ARR frequency (p

  19. a-Si:H/CsI(Tl) flat-panel versus computed radiography for chest imaging applications: image quality metrics measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) flat-panel (FP) imaging systems have recently become commercially available for both chest and mammographic imaging applications. It has been shown that this new detector technology offers better image quality and various operational advantages over the computed radiography (CR) which to date has been the most widely implemented and used digital radiography technique. However, most image quality measurements reported on flat-panel systems have been performed on prototype systems in laboratories while those for CR systems were typically independently performed and reported on in separate studies. To directly compare the two technologies, we have measured the image properties for a commercial amorphous silicon/cesium iodide [a-Si:H/CsI(Tl)] flat-panel based digital chest system and a commercial CR system under clinical imaging conditions. In this paper, measurements of image quality metrics, including the modulation transfer functions (MTFs), noise power spectra (NPSs), and detective quantum efficiencies (DQEs), for the FP and CR systems are presented and compared. Methods and issues related to these measurements are discussed. The results show that the flat-panel system has slightly lower MTF but significantly higher DQEs than the CR system. The DQEs of the flat-panel system were found to increase with the exposure while those of the CR system decrease slightly with the exposure

  20. Analysis of the impact of digital tomosynthesis on the radiological investigation of patients with suspected pulmonary lesions on chest radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quaia, Emilio; Baratella, Elisa; Cernic, Stefano; Lorusso, Arianna; Casagrande, Federica; Cioffi, Vincenzo; Cova, Maria Assunta [University of Trieste (Italy), Department of Radiology, Cattinara Hospital, Trieste (Italy)

    2012-09-15

    To assess the impact of digital tomosynthesis (DTS) on the radiological investigation of patients with suspected pulmonary lesions on chest radiography (CXR). Three hundred thirty-nine patients (200 male; age, 71.19 {+-} 11.9 years) with suspected pulmonary lesion(s) on CXR underwent DTS. Two readers prospectively analysed CXR and DTS images, and recorded their diagnostic confidence: 1 or 2 = definite or probable benign lesion or pseudolesion deserving no further diagnostic workup; 3 = indeterminate; 4 or 5 = probable or definite pulmonary lesion deserving further diagnostic workup by computed tomography (CT). Imaging follow-up by CT (n = 76 patients), CXR (n = 256) or histology (n = 7) was the reference standard. DTS resolved doubtful CXR findings in 256/339 (76 %) patients, while 83/339 (24 %) patients proceeded to CT. The mean interpretation time for DTS (mean {+-} SD, 220 {+-} 40 s) was higher (P < 0.05; Wilcoxon test) than for CXR (110 {+-} 30 s), but lower than CT (600 {+-} 150 s). Mean effective dose was 0.06 mSv (range 0.03-0.1 mSv) for CXR, 0.107 mSv (range 0.094-0.12 mSv) for DTS, and 3 mSv (range 2-4 mSv) for CT. DTS avoided the need for CT in about three-quarters of patients with a slight increase in the interpretation time and effective dose compared to CXR. (orig.)

  1. Analysis of the impact of digital tomosynthesis on the radiological investigation of patients with suspected pulmonary lesions on chest radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the impact of digital tomosynthesis (DTS) on the radiological investigation of patients with suspected pulmonary lesions on chest radiography (CXR). Three hundred thirty-nine patients (200 male; age, 71.19 ± 11.9 years) with suspected pulmonary lesion(s) on CXR underwent DTS. Two readers prospectively analysed CXR and DTS images, and recorded their diagnostic confidence: 1 or 2 = definite or probable benign lesion or pseudolesion deserving no further diagnostic workup; 3 = indeterminate; 4 or 5 = probable or definite pulmonary lesion deserving further diagnostic workup by computed tomography (CT). Imaging follow-up by CT (n = 76 patients), CXR (n = 256) or histology (n = 7) was the reference standard. DTS resolved doubtful CXR findings in 256/339 (76 %) patients, while 83/339 (24 %) patients proceeded to CT. The mean interpretation time for DTS (mean ± SD, 220 ± 40 s) was higher (P < 0.05; Wilcoxon test) than for CXR (110 ± 30 s), but lower than CT (600 ± 150 s). Mean effective dose was 0.06 mSv (range 0.03-0.1 mSv) for CXR, 0.107 mSv (range 0.094-0.12 mSv) for DTS, and 3 mSv (range 2-4 mSv) for CT. DTS avoided the need for CT in about three-quarters of patients with a slight increase in the interpretation time and effective dose compared to CXR. (orig.)

  2. The academic analysis for the parameter and performance of 6LiF-ZnS neutron radiography scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Expatiate the luminescence theory of neutron radiography scintillator,the mathematical model is set up. Matlah is adopted to simulate and discuss the parameter and performance of scintillator, got some significative conclusion. (authors)

  3. Shielding Benchmark Computational Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past several decades, nuclear science has relied on experimental research to verify and validate information about shielding nuclear radiation for a variety of applications. These benchmarks are compared with results from computer code models and are useful for the development of more accurate cross-section libraries, computer code development of radiation transport modeling, and building accurate tests for miniature shielding mockups of new nuclear facilities. When documenting measurements, one must describe many parts of the experimental results to allow a complete computational analysis. Both old and new benchmark experiments, by any definition, must provide a sound basis for modeling more complex geometries required for quality assurance and cost savings in nuclear project development. Benchmarks may involve one or many materials and thicknesses, types of sources, and measurement techniques. In this paper the benchmark experiments of varying complexity are chosen to study the transport properties of some popular materials and thicknesses. These were analyzed using three-dimensional (3-D) models and continuous energy libraries of MCNP4B2, a Monte Carlo code developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico. A shielding benchmark library provided the experimental data and allowed a wide range of choices for source, geometry, and measurement data. The experimental data had often been used in previous analyses by reputable groups such as the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency Nuclear Science Committee (OECD/NEANSC)

  4. Neutron-induced alpha radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new radiography technique to inspect thin samples was developed. Low energy alpha particles, generated by a boron based screen under thermal neutron irradiation, are used as penetrating radiation. The solid state nuclear track detector CR-39 has been used to register the image. The interaction of the ? - particles with the CR-39 gives rise to damages which under an adequate chemical etching became tracks the basic units forming the image. A digital system was developed for data acquisition and data analysis as well as for image processing. The irradiation and etching conditions to obtain the best radiography are 1,3 hours and 25 minutes at 70 deg C respectively. For such conditions samples having 10 ?m in thickness can be inspected with a spatial resolution of 32 ?m. The use of the digital system has reduced the time spent for data acquisition and data analysis and has improved the radiography image visualization. Furthermore, by using the digital system, it was possible to study several new parameters regarding the tracks which are very important to understand and study the image formation theory in solid state nuclear track detectors, the one used in this thesis. Some radiography images are also shown which demonstrate the potential of the proposed radiography technique. When compared with the other radiography techniques already in use to inspect thin samples, the present one developed in the present paper allows a smaller time to obtain the image, it is not necessary to handle liquid radioactive substances, the detector is insensitive to ?, ?, X-ray and visible light. (author)

  5. Application of digital radiography to diagnosis of laryngeal diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuji Computed Radiography (FCR) is a new system of digital radiography that is based on the latest computer technologies. We applied this FCR system to the X-ray diagnosis of the laryngeal disease. Twenty patients with various laryngeal diseases were evaluated by both FCR frontal tomography and conventional screen-film frontal tomography under the same exposure condition. Both tomograms were then compared on the subject of the clarity of delineation of laryngeal structures. As the result, FCR tomograms revealed the feature of the laryngeal lumen and cartilages more clearly than conventional tomograms. In addition, energy subtraction method, which is one of FCR image processing systems, was presented as a new technical procedure to extinguish cervical spine shadows in plain anteroposterior laryngeal X-photograph. We stress that FCR system is the suitable procedure for X-ray analysis of laryngeal diseases, especially in the region related with the phono-surgery. (author)

  6. Evaluation of traumatic lateral cervical spine computed radiography images: quality control acceptability of images for clinical diagnosis, hardcopy versus high-resolution monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leckie, Robert G.; Sheehy, Monet R.; Cade, Lawrence; Goeringer, Fred; Meyers, Chris A.; Parker, James E.; Smith, Donald V.; Freedman, Matthew T.

    1993-06-01

    The computed radiography images of 100 randomly selected traumatic cervical spine series were evaluated. The studies were reviewed on the laser printed hardcopy and 2K monitor soft copy images. In addition to the cervical vertebrae, the cervico-thoracic vertebral body interface must be recognized for a lateral c-spine image to be acceptable. The level of visualization of the spine was on average, 1/2 vertebral body better on the monitor than the hardcopy image. In 8% of cases, this improve visualization allowed clearance of the lateral cervical spine thereby expediting patient care in this critical area. This presentation will cover the quality of images and techniques to improve the success rate for clearing the cervical spine.

  7. National Survey of Radiation Doses of Pediatric Chest Radiography in Korea: Analysis of the Factors Affecting Radiation Doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate radiation doses in pediatric chest radiography in a national survey and to analyze the factors that affect radiation doses. The study was based on the results of 149 chest radiography machines in 135 hospitals nationwide. For each machine, a chest radiograph was obtained by using a phantom representing a 5-year-old child (ATOM dosimetry phantom, model 705-D, CIRS, Norfolk, VA, USA) with each hospital's own protocol. Five glass dosimeters (M-GD352M, Asahi Techno Glass Corporation, Shizuoka, Japan) were horizontally installed at the center of the phantom to measure the dose. Other factors including machine's radiography system, presence of dedicated pediatric radiography machine, presence of an attending pediatric radiologist, and the use of automatic exposure control (AEC) were also evaluated. The average protocol for pediatric chest radiography examination in Korea was 94.9 peak kilovoltage and 4.30 milliampere second. The mean entrance surface dose (ESD) during a single examination was 140.4 microgray (?Gy). The third quartile, median, minimum and maximum value of ESD were 160.8 ?Gy, 93.4 ?Gy, 18.8 ?Gy, and 2334.6 ?Gy, respectively. There was no significant dose difference between digital and non-digital radiography systems. The use of AEC significantly reduced radiation doses of pediatric chest radiographs (p < 0.001). Our nationwide survey shows that the third quartile, median, and mean ESD for pediatric chest radiograph is 160.8 ?Gy, 93.4 ?Gyt radiograph is 160.8 ?Gy, 93.4 ?Gy, and 140.4 ?Gy, respectively. No significant dose difference is noticed between digital and non-digital radiography systems, and the use of AEC helps significantly reduce radiation doses.

  8. Compton radiography, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The compton radiography aims at collection of depth information by recording with a scinticamera those Compton rays that have resulted from scattering of a monoenergetic gamma beam by a volume of interest. Appreciably clear clinical scinti-tomograms were obtained of the chest wall, and intrathoracic structures such as the lungs, intrapulmonary pathologies and mediastinum. This was achieved without any computer assistance for image reconstruction such as those in the case of XCT. Apparently, suitable corrections of the attenuations of the primary monoenergetic gamma rays and secondary Compton rays would greatly improve the image quality, and imaging time and radiation exposure as well. This technic is simple in principle, relatively cheap, and yet prospective of development of stereoptic fluoroscopy that would be extremely helpful in guiding such procedures as visceral biopsies. (auth.)

  9. “Drug mules” as a radiological challenge: Sensitivity and specificity in identifying internal cocaine in body packers, body pushers and body stuffers by computed tomography, plain radiography and Lodox

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, Patricia M., E-mail: patricia.flach@irm.uzh.ch [Centre for Forensic Imaging and Virtopsy, Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Bern, Buehlstrasse 20, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Department of Neuroradiology, Inselspital Bern, University of Bern, 3010 Bern (Switzerland); Centre for Forensic Imaging and Virtopsy, Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190/52, 8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Department of Radiology, University Hospital USZ, University of Zurich, Raemistrasse 100, 8091 Zurich (Switzerland); Ross, Steffen G. [Centre for Forensic Imaging and Virtopsy, Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Bern, Buehlstrasse 20, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Ampanozi, Garyfalia; Ebert, Lars [Centre for Forensic Imaging and Virtopsy, Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Bern, Buehlstrasse 20, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Centre for Forensic Imaging and Virtopsy, Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190/52, 8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Germerott, Tanja; Hatch, Gary M. [Centre for Forensic Imaging and Virtopsy, Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Bern, Buehlstrasse 20, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Thali, Michael J. [Centre for Forensic Imaging and Virtopsy, Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Bern, Buehlstrasse 20, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Centre for Forensic Imaging and Virtopsy, Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190/52, 8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Patak, Michael A. [Department of Radiology, Inselspital Bern, University of Bern, 3010 Bern (Switzerland); Department of Radiology, University Hospital USZ, University of Zurich, Raemistrasse 100, 8091 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: The purpose of our study was to retrospectively evaluate the specificity, sensitivity and accuracy of computed tomography (CT), digital radiography (DR) and low-dose linear slit digital radiography (LSDR, Lodox{sup ®}) in the detection of internal cocaine containers. Methods: Institutional review board approval was obtained. The study collectively consisted of 83 patients (76 males, 7 females, 16–45 years) suspected of having incorporated cocaine drug containers. All underwent radiological imaging; a total of 135 exams were performed: nCT = 35, nDR = 70, nLSDR = 30. An overall calculation of all “drug mules” and a specific evaluation of body packers, pushers and stuffers were performed. The gold standard was stool examination in a dedicated holding cell equipped with a drug toilet. Results: There were 54 drug mules identified in this study. CT of all drug carriers showed the highest diagnostic accuracy 97.1%, sensitivity 100% and specificity 94.1%. DR in all cases was 71.4% accurate, 58.3% sensitive and 85.3% specific. LSDR of all patients with internal cocaine was 60% accurate, 57.9% sensitive and 63.4% specific. Conclusions: CT was the most accurate test studied. Therefore, the detection of internal cocaine drug packs should be performed by CT, rather than by conventional X-ray, in order to apply the most sensitive exam in the medico-legal investigation of suspected drug carriers. Nevertheless, the higher radiation applied by CT than by DR or LSDR needs to be considered. Future studies should include evaluation of low dose CT protocols in order to address germane issues and to reduce dosage.

  10. “Drug mules” as a radiological challenge: Sensitivity and specificity in identifying internal cocaine in body packers, body pushers and body stuffers by computed tomography, plain radiography and Lodox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The purpose of our study was to retrospectively evaluate the specificity, sensitivity and accuracy of computed tomography (CT), digital radiography (DR) and low-dose linear slit digital radiography (LSDR, Lodox®) in the detection of internal cocaine containers. Methods: Institutional review board approval was obtained. The study collectively consisted of 83 patients (76 males, 7 females, 16–45 years) suspected of having incorporated cocaine drug containers. All underwent radiological imaging; a total of 135 exams were performed: nCT = 35, nDR = 70, nLSDR = 30. An overall calculation of all “drug mules” and a specific evaluation of body packers, pushers and stuffers were performed. The gold standard was stool examination in a dedicated holding cell equipped with a drug toilet. Results: There were 54 drug mules identified in this study. CT of all drug carriers showed the highest diagnostic accuracy 97.1%, sensitivity 100% and specificity 94.1%. DR in all cases was 71.4% accurate, 58.3% sensitive and 85.3% specific. LSDR of all patients with internal cocaine was 60% accurate, 57.9% sensitive and 63.4% specific. Conclusions: CT was the most accurate test studied. Therefore, the detection of internal cocaine drug packs should be performed by CT, rather than by conventional X-ray, in order to apply the most sensitive exam in the medico-legal investigation of suspected drug carriers. Nevertheless, the higher radiation applied by CT than by DR or LSDR needs to be considered. Future studies should include evaluation of low dose CT protocols in order to address germane issues and to reduce dosage

  11. Neutron radiography using a transportable superconducting cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A thermal neutron radiography system based on a compact 12 MeV superconducting proton cyclotron is described. Neutrons are generated using a thick beryllium target and moderated in high density polyethylene. Monte Carlo computer simulations have been used to model the neutron and photon transport in order to optimise the performance of the system. With proton beam currents in excess of 100 ?A, it can provide high thermal neutron fluxes with L/D ratios of between 50 and 300 for various applications. Both film and electronic imaging are used to produce radiographs. The electronic imaging system consists of a 6Li-loaded ZnS intensifier screen, and a low light CCD or SIT camera. High resolution images can be recorded and computer-controlled data processing, analysis and display are possible. ((orig.))

  12. An approach to stereotaxic radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple approach to stereotaxic radiography, including a new method for determination of target coordinates, is described. The proposed technique may be used in combination with conventional equipment for roentgen examinations available in X-ray departments and operating rooms; the only additional outfit needed is a coordinate frame that can be attached to the patient's head. Determination of the coordinates is easily made graphically, or from a simple equation using a pocket calculator or a mini-computer. (auth.)

  13. Evidence-based radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evidence-based practice (EBP) offers the integration of the best research evidence with clinical knowledge and expertise and patient values. EBP is a well known term in health care. This paper discusses the implementation of EBP into radiography and introduces the term evidence-based radiography. Evidence-based radiography is radiography informed and based on the combination of clinical expertise and the best available research-based evidence, patient preferences and resources available. In Norway, EBP in radiography is being debated and radiographers are discussing the challenges of implementing EBP in both academic and clinical practice. This discussion paper explains why EBP needs to be a basis for a radiography curriculum and a part of radiographers' practice. We argue that Norwegian radiographers must increase participation in research and developing practice within their specific radiographic domain

  14. Magnification radiography in osteomyelitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osteomyelitis often eludes early diagnosis because plain film radiography is too insensitive and radionuclide bone scanning is nonspecific. In this study, 90 diabetic patients were studied with plain film and magnification radiographs of their feet. Among the 24 patients with osteomyelitis, plain radiographs suggested the diagnosis in 14 patients and magnification radiography was diagnostic in 18 of these patients. Thus, magnification radiography offers some diagnostic advantage in patients suspected of having osteomyelitis. (orig.)

  15. Proton nuclear scattering radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear scattering of protons allows to radiograph objects with specific properties: 3-dimensional radiography, different information as compared to X-ray technique, hydrogen radiography. Furthermore the nuclear scattering radiography (NSR) is a well adapted method to gating techniques allowing the radiography of fast periodic moving objects. Results obtained on phantoms, formalin fixed head and moving object are shown and discussed. The dose delivery is compatible with clinical use, but at the moment, the irradiation time is too long between 1 and 4 hours. Perspectives to make the radiograph faster and to get a practical method are discussed

  16. Specific radiography technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beside radiography testing using x-ray machine and gamma source, there are several technique that developed specifically to complete the testing that cannot be done with the two earlier. This technique was specific based on several factor, for the example, the advantages of neutron and electron using to show the image was unique compare to x-ray and gamma. Besides that, these special radiography techniques maybe differ in how to detect the radiation get through the object. These technique can used to inspect thin or specimen that contained radioactive material. There are several technique will discussed in this chapter such as neutron radiography, electron radiography, fluoroscopy and also autoradiography.

  17. Comparison of whole-body 64-slice multidetector computed tomography and conventional radiography in staging of multiple myeloma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroepil, Patric; Fritz, Lars B.; Blondin, Dirk; Moedder, Ulrich; Cohnen, Mathias [Institut fuer Diagnostische Radiologie der Universitaet Duesseldorf, Duesseldorf (Germany); Fenk, Roland; Kobbe, Guido [Onkologie und Klinische Immunologie der Universitaet Duesseldorf, Klinik fuer Haematologie, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2008-01-15

    This study compares the sensitivity of whole-body multidetector CT (MDCT) and conventional radiography (CR) in the staging of multiple myeloma (MM). Twenty-nine patients with MM underwent a staging examination both by MDCT and CR. CT examination was performed with a collimation of 64 x 0.6 mm, a tube potential of 100 kVp, an effective tube current-time product of 100 mAs and automatic dose modulation as low-dose protocol. Number, size and diagnostic confidence of osteolytic lesions were determined and compared. The effective dose of MDCT and CR was assessed. Using MDCT, the detection of osteolysis was increased seven-fold concerning the spine. Ninety-seven lesions in 18 patients were detected exclusively by MDCT. The detection rate concerning the spine, pelvic skeleton and thoracic cage was significantly higher (p{<=}0.001), and diagnostic confidence was increased by MDCT (p<0.02) compared to CR. Therapy was changed after MDCT in 18.2% of the patients with a clinical suspicion of progressive disease. The estimated effective dose of MDCT (4.8 mSv) and CR (1.7 mSv) was comparable. In conclusion, MDCT has a significantly higher sensitivity and reliability in the detection of osteolysis than CR and can be recommended as standard imaging method in the staging of MM. (orig.)

  18. Filmless radiology - digital radiography systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article presents new digital radiography systems. The principles of digital radiography and differences between traditional and digital radiography units are discussed. Two types of digital radiography systems are compared. The principles of the Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS), Radiological Information System (RIS), and Hospital Information System (HIS) connected with digital radiography are presented. The benefits of digital radiography for hospitals, radiologists, physicians, and patients are discussed. (authors)

  19. Digital radiography for the abdomen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdominal radiographs taken by the computed radiography (CR) system were evaluated comparing with those by a conventional film/screen method. The image quality of (1) plain abdominal radiographs, (2) upper GI series, (3) barium enema and (4) drip infusion cholecystocholangiographs obtained by this system was analysed using the statistical threestep (A, B and C) evaluation program. The improvement of the image quality due to the wide dynamic range of this system was confirmed particularly in the visibility of fine mucosal pattern (area gastricae), converging mucosal folds, flank stripes, stones in the gallbladder fundus. The radiation dose could be significantly reduced due to the high sensitibity of this system. Thus, diagnostically acceptable images were obtained with approximately 1/5 of the routine dose for the conventional radiography except in the cases of the lateral view of the rectum. (author)

  20. Simulation of the radiography formation process from CT patient volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work is to develop an algorithm to simulate the radiographic image formation process using volumetric anatomical data of the patient, obtained from 3D diagnostic CT images. Many applications, including radiographic driven surgery, virtual reality in medicine and radiologist teaching and training, may take advantage of such technique. The designed algorithm has been developed to simulate a generic radiographic equipment, whatever oriented respect to the patient. The simulated radiography is obtained considering a discrete number of X-ray paths departing from the focus, passing through the patient volume and reaching the radiographic plane. To evaluate a generic pixel of the simulated radiography, the cumulative absorption along the corresponding X-ray is computed. To estimate X-ray absorption in a generic point of the patient volume, 3D interpolation of CT data has been adopted. The proposed technique is quite similar to those employed in Ray Tracing. A computer designed test volume has been used to assess the reliability of the radiography simulation algorithm as a measuring tool. From the errors analysis emerges that the accuracy achieved by the radiographic simulation algorithm is largely confined within the sampling step of the CT volume. (authors)

  1. Analysis of muon radiography of the Toshiba nuclear critical assembly reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, C. L.; Bacon, Jeffery; Borozdin, Konstantin; Fabritius, J. M.; Perry, John; Ramsey, John [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Ban, Yuichiro; Izumi, Mikio; Sano, Yuji; Yoshida, Noriyuki [Toshiba Corporation, 8 Shinsugita-cho, Isogo-ku, Yokohama 235-8523 (Japan); Miyadera, Haruo [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Toshiba Corporation, 8 Shinsugita-cho, Isogo-ku, Yokohama 235-8523 (Japan); Mizokami, Shinya; Otsuka, Yasuyuki; Yamada, Daichi [Tokyo Electric Power Company, 1-1-3 Uchisaiwai-cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Sugita, Tsukasa; Yoshioka, Kenichi [Toshiba Corporation, 4-1 Ukishima-cho, Kawasaki-ku, Kawasaki 210-0862 (Japan)

    2014-01-13

    A 1.2?×?1.2 m{sup 2} muon tracker was moved from Los Alamos to the Toshiba facility at Kawasaki, Japan, where it was used to take ?4 weeks of data radiographing the Toshiba Critical Assembly Reactor with cosmic ray muons. In this paper, we describe the analysis procedure, show results of this experiment, and compare the results to Monte Carlo predictions. The results validate the concept of using cosmic rays to image the damaged cores of the Fukushima Daiichi reactors.

  2. Quantitative neutron radiography using neutron absorbing honeycomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This investigation concerns quantitative neutron radiography and computed tomography by using a neutron absorbing honeycomb collimator. By setting the neutron absorbing honeycomb collimator between object and imaging system, neutrons scattered in the object were absorbed by the honeycomb material and eliminated before coming to the imaging system, but the neutrons which were transmitted the object without interaction could reach the imaging system. The image by purely transmitted neutrons gives the quantitative information. Two honeycombs were prepared with coating of boron nitride and gadolinium oxide and evaluated for the quantitative application. The relation between the neutron total cross section and the attenuation coefficient confirmed that they were in a fairly good agreement. Application to quantitative computed tomography was also successfully conducted. The new neutron radiography method using the neutron-absorbing honeycomb collimator for the elimination of the scattered neutrons improved remarkably the quantitativeness of the neutron radiography and computed tomography. (author)

  3. ROC-analysis of detection performance by analogue and digital plain film systems in chest radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To compare the performances of 4 imaging systems in the diagnostic radiology of the chest: an asymmetric screen-film combination (a-SFC); a conventional screen-film combination of speed class 200 (SFC); a screen-film combination of speed class 200 with an aluminum lung filter; a digital luminescence radiographs (DLR). Material and Methods: Object detectability studies were carried out using an anthropomorphic chest phantom. The images were obtained under standard exposure conditions at 125 kVp. The detection performance of the various systems was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis on the basis of a total of 12 240 observations. Results: In the overall evaluation the a-SFC and the SFC plus lung filter received equally high ratings of 0.878±0.018 and 0.860±0.21, respectively (p>0.05). There was no significant difference between the 200-speed SFC and the storage phosphor radiographs. In the mediastinum all the tested systems were clearly superior to the 200-speed SFC (p0.05). Conclusion: The a-SFC and the digital luminescence radiographs provide a significant gain in diagnostic information in the mediastinum without diminishing detail detectability in the lung fields and without additional radiation exposure. (orig.)rig.)

  4. Contrast-detail analysis of three flat panel detectors for digital radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borasi, Giovanni; Samei, Ehsan; Bertolini, Marco; Nitrosi, Andrea; Tassoni, Davide

    2006-06-01

    In this paper we performed a contrast detail analysis of three commercially available flat panel detectors, two based on the indirect detection mechanism (GE Revolution XQ/i, system A, and Trixell/Philips Pixium 4600, system B) and one based on the direct detection mechanism (Hologic DirectRay DR 1000, system C). The experiment was conducted using standard x-ray radiation quality and a widely used contrast-detail phantom. Images were evaluated using a four alternative forced choice paradigm on a diagnostic-quality softcopy monitor. At the low and intermediate exposures, systems A and B gave equivalent performances. At the high dose levels, system A performed better than system B in the entire range of target sizes, even though the pixel size of system A was about 40% larger than that of system B. At all the dose levels, the performances of the system C (direct system) were lower than those of system A and B (indirect systems). Theoretical analyses based on the Perception Statistical Model gave similar predicted SNRT values corresponding to an observer efficiency of about 0.08 for systems A and B and 0.05 for system C. PMID:16872078

  5. Contrast-detail analysis of three flat panel detectors for digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we performed a contrast detail analysis of three commercially available flat panel detectors, two based on the indirect detection mechanism (GE Revolution XQ/i, system A, and Trixell/Philips Pixium 4600, system B) and one based on the direct detection mechanism (Hologic DirectRay DR 1000, system C). The experiment was conducted using standard x-ray radiation quality and a widely used contrast-detail phantom. Images were evaluated using a four alternative forced choice paradigm on a diagnostic-quality softcopy monitor. At the low and intermediate exposures, systems A and B gave equivalent performances. At the high dose levels, system A performed better than system B in the entire range of target sizes, even though the pixel size of system A was about 40% larger than that of system B. At all the dose levels, the performances of the system C (direct system) were lower than those of system A and B (indirect systems). Theoretical analyses based on the Perception Statistical Model gave similar predicted SNRT values corresponding to an observer efficiency of about 0.08 for systems A and B and 0.05 for system C

  6. Research on computed tomography reconstructions from one or two radiographs: A report and the application to FXR radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Back, N.; Schneberk, D.; McMillan, C.; Azevedo, S.; Gorvad, M.

    1995-01-26

    This report documents some cooperative research into volumetric image reconstruction from single radiographs. Imaging dynamic events is the most important application for this type of work, but the techniques have possible extensions. Two general objectives guide this work. The first objective is to gain an understanding of the assumptions and limitations of single-view methods for representing internal features. Second, we endeavor to obtain and/or develop techniques for performing image reconstructions with FXR radiographs. If possible, we seek to obtain some quantitative measure of the accuracy of this class of image reconstructions in two respects: (i) in terms of the dimensional accuracy of feature boundaries, and (ii) as pertains to the accuracy of the voxel intensities. Dynamic events are not always self-calibrating, and it is important to establish the reconstruction accuracy of single-view methods for placing bounds on the kinds of conclusions which can be advanced from single-view reconstructed images. Computed tomographic image reconstructions provide dimensional detail of internal structures of objects and provide a measure of the per-voxel attenuation of material in the object. When assumptions behind a reconstruction algorithm are not satisfied, or are satisfied in a limited way, the accuracy of the reconstructed image is compromised. It is the goal of Cr analysis to discern the {open_quotes}real{close_quotes} features of the internals of an object in the midst of a certain level of artifactual content in the image. By understanding the ways in which CT reconstructions from a single radiograph can produce misleading results we hope to develop some measure of the benefits and limitations of single view techniques. 31 refs., 20 figs.

  7. The application of anatomical side markers during abdominal and IVU examinations: An investigation of practice prior to and post-installation of computed radiography (CR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Professionally, radiographers are accountable for their practice. Available literature highlights the ramifications of not using anatomical side markers within the primary beam. It was thought by the authors that the installation of a computed radiography (CR) system could potentially cause a change in practice due to the ease of adding anatomical side markers manually/electronically during post-processing. This study assessed anatomical marker use within the primary beam at a district general hospital in East Anglia, one-year pre-CR installation and one-year post-CR installation. 100 abdominal images were evaluated from each time period and the presence of anatomical side markers was recorded and compared to establish any significant change. The study showed that although there was a decline in use of anatomical side markers used within the primary beam post-CR installation (from 32% to 25%), the changes were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). However, the agreed standard of 100% images having the primary beam side marker present was not met. There is a conflict of opinion about the necessity for anatomical side markers to be used within the primary beam. However, the researchers believe there is a case for recommending alterations and improvements to practice to comply with 'best practice' requirements.

  8. A simple quality assurance test tool for the visual verification of light and radiation field congruent using electronic portal images device and computed radiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Njeh Christopher F

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The radiation field on most megavoltage radiation therapy units are shown by a light field projected through the collimator by a light source mounted inside the collimator. The light field is traditionally used for patient alignment. Hence it is imperative that the light field is congruent with the radiation field. Method A simple quality assurance tool has been designed for rapid and simple test of the light field and radiation field using electronic portal images device (EPID or computed radiography (CR. We tested this QA tool using Varian PortalVision and Elekta iViewGT EPID systems and Kodak CR system. Results Both the single and double exposure techniques were evaluated, with double exposure technique providing a better visualization of the light-radiation field markers. The light and radiation congruency could be detected within 1 mm. This will satisfy the American Association of Physicists in Medicine task group report number 142 recommendation of 2 mm tolerance. Conclusion The QA tool can be used with either an EPID or CR to provide a simple and rapid method to verify light and radiation field congruence.

  9. Treatment planning with computerized digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An essential development in individual treatment planning by means of computed tomography is reported in the present contribution. Digital radiography makes possible a representation of the body segments to be irradiated, visualizing frontal and lateral views in a quality almost equal to conventional X-ray radiographs. As a decisive advantage, beside the image reproduction without distortion, must be regarded digital localization of the field's limits and mid-point in the isocenter and, therefore, accurate localization of the transversal layer for treatment planning. Utilization of computed tomography combined with digital radiography thus appears as a real alternative of the therapy simulator. (orig.)

  10. An analysis of the experiences of radiography and radiotherapy students who are carers at one UK university

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: This is a mixed methods study of the experiences and attendance of radiography and radiotherapy students who are carers at one UK university, Undergraduate radiography and radiotherapy programmes are attracting increasing numbers of mature students. It is therefore likely that the number of students with carer responsibilities is also increasing. This study explores the experiences of higher education of students with caring responsibilities. The aim of the study is to identify possible strategies and practices to enhance the student experience and so to work towards compliance with the recent Equality Act 2010. Method: All students on the radiography (n = 130) and radiotherapy (n = 97) programmes were invited to complete a short questionnaire. Students who identified themselves as carers on the questionnaire were invited to participate in focus group sessions. Due to the issues raised in the focus groups by students with regard to attendance at university and clinical placement, student absence rates were also investigated for students with and without caring responsibilities. Results: 215 students completed the questionnaire. 30 of the 215 students identified themselves as carers. 18 carers agreed to take part in focus groups. Carers reported that having fees paid by the NHS was an important choice factor for higher education. Carers' main concerns were: timetabling, finances, support after exam failures, understanding from academic staff and attendance issing from academic staff and attendance issues. Examination of absence rates demonstrated carers had significantly (p = 0.000) less absence than non-carers for radiography and no significant differences for radiotherapy (p = 0.105). Conclusion: The NHS states it must be reflective of the community it serves. Thus those responsible for delivering health professional programmes have a duty to recruit and retain a diverse student population. The introduction of the Equality Act 2010 means higher education institutions must consider the needs of those with protected characteristics. A number of actions regarding the delivery and administration of the programmes have been identified from this study.

  11. An analysis of the experiences of radiography and radiotherapy students who are carers at one UK university

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, Zainab, E-mail: zay@liv.ac.u [Directorate of Medical Imaging and Radiotherapy, School of Health Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GB (United Kingdom); Pickering, Vicki, E-mail: vmoscrip@liv.ac.u [Directorate of Medical Imaging and Radiotherapy, School of Health Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GB (United Kingdom); Percy, Dave, E-mail: D.F.Percy@salford.ac.u [Operational Research and Applied Statistics, Salford Business School, University of Salford, Greater Manchester, M5 4WT (United Kingdom); Crane, Julie, E-mail: abbotj@liv.ac.u [Directorate of Nursing, School of Health Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GB (United Kingdom); Bogg, Jan, E-mail: jbogg@liv.ac.u [Population, Community and Behavioural Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GB (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-15

    Purpose: This is a mixed methods study of the experiences and attendance of radiography and radiotherapy students who are carers at one UK university, Undergraduate radiography and radiotherapy programmes are attracting increasing numbers of mature students. It is therefore likely that the number of students with carer responsibilities is also increasing. This study explores the experiences of higher education of students with caring responsibilities. The aim of the study is to identify possible strategies and practices to enhance the student experience and so to work towards compliance with the recent Equality Act 2010. Method: All students on the radiography (n = 130) and radiotherapy (n = 97) programmes were invited to complete a short questionnaire. Students who identified themselves as carers on the questionnaire were invited to participate in focus group sessions. Due to the issues raised in the focus groups by students with regard to attendance at university and clinical placement, student absence rates were also investigated for students with and without caring responsibilities. Results: 215 students completed the questionnaire. 30 of the 215 students identified themselves as carers. 18 carers agreed to take part in focus groups. Carers reported that having fees paid by the NHS was an important choice factor for higher education. Carers' main concerns were: timetabling, finances, support after exam failures, understanding from academic staff and attendance issues. Examination of absence rates demonstrated carers had significantly (p = 0.000) less absence than non-carers for radiography and no significant differences for radiotherapy (p = 0.105). Conclusion: The NHS states it must be reflective of the community it serves. Thus those responsible for delivering health professional programmes have a duty to recruit and retain a diverse student population. The introduction of the Equality Act 2010 means higher education institutions must consider the needs of those with protected characteristics. A number of actions regarding the delivery and administration of the programmes have been identified from this study.

  12. Neutron radiography, techniques and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After describing the principles of the ''in pool'' and ''dry'' installations, techniques used in neutron radiography are reviewed. Use of converter foils with silver halide films for the direct and transfer methods is described. Advantages of the use of nitrocellulose film for radiographying radioactive objects are discussed. Dynamic imaging is shortly reviewed. Standardization in the field of neutron radiography (ASTM and Euratom Neutron Radiography Working Group) is described. The paper reviews main fields of use of neutron radiography. Possibilities of use of neutron radiography at research reactors in various scientific, industrial and other fields are mentioned. Examples are given of application of neutron radiography in industry and the nuclear field. (author)

  13. Recent developments in radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advances in radiography are reviewed and eighty-one references are cited to provide additional information. The review includes information on x-ray sources in terms of output, portability and imaging geometry and detectors in terms of films and screens, electrostatic methods, real-time techniques and solid state devices. Inspection methods utilizing radiations other than x-rays, neutrons and charged particles, expand the inspection problems suitable for radiography. Techniques such as tomography, digital radiography and image enhancement are described. Tomography, in particular, provides excellent capability to characterize materials and discontinuities

  14. Diagnosis of asbestosis by a time expanded wave form analysis, auscultation and high resolution computed tomography: a comparative study.

    OpenAIRE

    Al Jarad, N.; Strickland, B.; Bothamley, G.; Lock, S.; Logan-sinclair, R.; Rudd, R. M.

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Crackles are a prominent clinical feature of asbestosis and may be an early sign of the condition. Auscultation, however, is subjective and interexaminer disagreement is a problem. Computerised lung sound analysis can visualise, store, and analyse lung sounds and disagreement on the presence of crackles is minimal. High resolution computed tomography (HRCT) is superior to chest radiography in detecting early signs of asbestosis. The aim of this study was to compare clinical auscul...

  15. Value of computed tomography in the diagnosis of bronchial carcinomas and pulmonary metastases as compared to that of conventional radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The usefulness of computed tomography in the preoperative diagnosis of bronchial carcinomas and pulmonary metastases is compared to that of the more conventional radiologic procedures. For this purpose, surgical reports and findings previously revealed by bronchoscopy, mediastinoscopy, conventional X-ray imaging and computed tomography were contrasted with each other for the individual patients. On the basis of the results obtained it appears that the use of CT can be recommended to decide whether an operation should be performed on a bronchial carcinoma, to give direction guidance in mediastinoscopy, to follow up patients subjected to pneumonectomy, to determine therapeutic strategies for inoperable patients and to detect metastisation into the lungs. (orig./GDG)

  16. Experiments on neutron radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdul Ghaffar Ramli; Azali Muhamad; Wan Ruslan Yusof; Ahmad Sabri Abdul Razak; Jamal Khaer Ibrahim; Rosley Jaafar (PUSPATI, Selangor (Malaysia))

    1984-12-01

    This paper presents the neutron-radiography research activities in Nuclear Energy Unit (UTN) as a trial before a neutron-radiography service can routinely be given. This trial neutron-radiography research encompasses the design and construction of a facility (NuR 1), collimator and the exposure system, as well as measurements of neutron and gamma dose-distribution, neutron-beam properties in NuR 1 and characteristics of the image recorder. A few problems arose in the early stage of work and the action taken to overcome these are also mentioned. Finally, methods of increasing the quality of the image are proposed and attempted. This project has given some important information so as to enable the construction of a permanent facility (Nur 2) and the execution of a neutron-radiography service.

  17. Análisis del Patrón Óseo Trabecular de Mandíbulas Maceradas en Radiografías Panorámicas Digitales / Analysis of the Trabecular Bone Pattern of Dry Human Mandibles in Digital Panoramic Radiographies

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Plauto Christopher Aranha, Watanabe; Solange Aparecida Caldeira, Monteiro; Joyce Carvalho Tenfuss, Campbell; David Alberto Aristizabal, Elejalde.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Nuestro propósito fue estudiar la sensibilidad de la metodología de esqueletonizacion en las alteraciones del patrón óseo trabecular, en radiografías panorámicas digitales. Con el fin de poder utilizar esta metodología a futuro para el análisis y la observación de los cambios de densidad ósea en la [...] estructura trabecular, en pacientes con osteoporosis y sanos. El material examinado consistió en cinco mandíbulas adultas, maceradas. Los 4 sitios de interés de cada mandíbula fueron escogidos en cuerpo mandibular, debajo de los alvéolos dentarios: Sitio 1. Oral y anterior al foramen mentoniano derecho. Sitio 2. Oral y posterior al foramen mentoniano derecho. Sitio 3. Oral y anterior al foramen mentoniano izquierdo. Sitio 4. Oral y posterior al foramen mentoniano izquierdo. Se realizó la toma de radiografías panorámicas digitales. Posterior a la primera toma radiográfica, se recortaron las áreas delimitadas removiendo las tablas vestibulares, Se fracturó intencionalmente el trabeculado óseo y luego se reubicaron las tablas vestibulares y se realizó una segunda toma radiográfica, con el uso de un soporte confeccionado para el posicionamiento de las mandíbulas, manteniendo las líneas guía fijas,para cada especimen: Plano mediano, Línea canina y Plano de Frankfurt. Los sitios de interés fueron trabajados en software, siguiendo el método empleado por Watanabe (2003), las imágenes resultantes, que muestran los esqueletos de las trabéculas óseas fueron analizadas utilizando las siguientes herramientas: Histograma, Análisis de partículas, Dimensión fractal, Cantidad de Uniones o encuentro triple de trabéculas y Porcentaje de trabéculas por área. En el análisis estadístico según los datos obtenidos de las diferentes regiones, antes y después de la remoción/inserción, no se encontró una diferencia estadísticamente significativa. Las trabéculas vistas en la radiografía panorámica son formadas principalmente por inserciones en las corticales. El método de retirar la tabla ósea proporcionó apenas una ruptura en el interior (segmento) del cuerpo mandibular Abstract in english The objective investigation is to study and analyze the sensibility of the esqueletonization methodology in the alterations of the trabecular bone pattern in digital panoramic radiographies. In order to use this analysis and look changes in the bone density in the trabecular structure in healthy pat [...] ients and with osteoporosis.The elements analyzed consist in five dry human mandibles. The four studied zones of each mandible were selected in the mandible body under the alveolar bone, studied zones: 1) Bucal and anterior to the right mental foramen, 2) Bucal and posterior to the right mental foramen, 3) Bucal and anterior to the left mental foramen, 4) Bucal and posterior to the left mental foramen.We realized the digital panoramic radiographies. After the first radiography we cut the delimited areas removing the buccal cortical plates. we did intentional fractures in the trabecular bone. Then we replace the buccal cortical plates and realized the second radiography, using the support created for the mandibles replacement, maintaining the fixed guide lines for each specimen. mid Sagital plane, canine line and Frankfurt Plane.The studied zones were analyzed in the software using the Watanabe 2003 Method. The studied images that show the trabecular bone squeleton were analyzed using: Histogram, particulas analysis, Fractal dimension, unions quantity or trabecuialr third union and the trabecular percent.The statistical analysis of the different zones before and after of the renovation and insertion didn't show a statistical important difference. The trabecular that the panoramic radiography showed were formed for the insertions in the corticals. The method of take off the cortical bone plates just breaks part inside the mandible body

  18. Charged Particle Radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Coulomb multiple scattering of charged particles as they pass through material allows them to be used as a radiographic probe. This forms the basis for a new kind of radiography that is finding application where conventional x-ray radiography is limited by flux or backgrounds. Charged-particle radiography is providing a versatile new probe that has advantages over conventional x-ray radiography for some unique application. Proton radiography has been used to make quantitative motion pictures of high explosive driven experiments and proves to be of great value for radiographing experiments that mock up nuclear weapon primaries for stockpile certification. By taking advantage of magnetic lens to magnify images and by using the very bright beams that can be made with electrons, charged-particle radiography may be useful for studying the fine spatial detail and very fast motion in laser driven implosion experiments at the National Ignition Facility. Finally, radiographs can be made using cosmic-ray muons for searching vehicles and cargo containers for surreptitious cargo of high z materials such as uranium or plutonium.

  19. Analysis on Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.PATHRO

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Cloud storage enables users to remotelystore their data and enjoy the on-demand high quality cloud applications without the burden of local hardware and software management. Though the benefits are clear, such a service is also relinquishing users’ physical possession of their outsourced data, which inevitably poses new security risks towards the correctness of the data in cloud. In order to address this new problem and further achieve a secure and dependable cloud storage service, we propose in this paper a flexible distributed storage integrity auditing mechanism, utilizing the homomorphic token and distributed erasure-coded data. The proposed design allows users to audit the cloud storage with very lightweight communication and computation cost. The auditing result not only ensures strong cloud storage correctness guarantee, but also simultaneously achieves fast data error localization, i.e., the identification of misbehaving server. Considering the cloud data are dynamic in nature, the proposed design further supports secure and efficient dynamic operations on outsourced data, including block modification, deletion, and append.

  20. The importance of conventional radiography in the mutational analysis of skeletal dysplasias (the TRPV4 mutational family)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spondylo and spondylometaphyseal dysplasias (SMDs) are characterized by vertebral changes and metaphyseal abnormalities of the tubular bones, which produce a phenotypic spectrum of disorders from the mild autosomal-dominant brachyolmia to SMD Kozlowski to autosomal-dominant metatropic dysplasia. Investigations have recently drawn on the similar radiographic features of those conditions to define a new family of skeletal dysplasias caused by mutations in the transient receptor potential cation channel vanilloid 4 (TRPV4). This review demonstrates the significance of radiography in the discovery of a new bone dysplasia family due to mutations in a single gene. (orig.)

  1. The importance of conventional radiography in the mutational analysis of skeletal dysplasias (the TRPV4 mutational family)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemec, Stefan F.; Cohn, Daniel H.; Krakow, Deborah; Funari, Vincent A.; Rimoin, David L.; Lachman, Ralph S. [Medical Genetics Institute, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, International Skeletal Dysplasia Registry, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2012-01-15

    The spondylo and spondylometaphyseal dysplasias (SMDs) are characterized by vertebral changes and metaphyseal abnormalities of the tubular bones, which produce a phenotypic spectrum of disorders from the mild autosomal-dominant brachyolmia to SMD Kozlowski to autosomal-dominant metatropic dysplasia. Investigations have recently drawn on the similar radiographic features of those conditions to define a new family of skeletal dysplasias caused by mutations in the transient receptor potential cation channel vanilloid 4 (TRPV4). This review demonstrates the significance of radiography in the discovery of a new bone dysplasia family due to mutations in a single gene. (orig.)

  2. In situ analysis of equiaxed growth of aluminium-nickel alloys by x-ray radiography at ESRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present results obtained at the ID19 beamline of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) by synchrotron x-ray radiography during the solidification of Al-Ni alloys. We focus on columnar dendritic and equiaxed solidification, and the transition between the two regimes. The columnar to equiaxed transition is a critical and still pending issue in metallurgy. By making use of the high potential of synchrotron experimental tools for in situ and real-time characterization of the solid-liquid interface during directional solidification, we were able to provide insight into key physical phenomena, in particular, sedimentation, interaction and arrangement of equiaxed grains

  3. Intercomparison of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, quantitative neutron capture radiography, and prompt gamma activation analysis for the determination of boron in biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütz, C L; Brochhausen, C; Hampel, G; Iffland, D; Kuczewski, B; Otto, G; Schmitz, T; Stieghorst, C; Kratz, J V

    2012-10-01

    Boron determination in blood and tissue samples is a crucial task especially for treatment planning, preclinical research, and clinical application of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Comparison of clinical findings remains difficult due to a variety of analytical methods, protocols, and standard reference materials in use. This paper addresses the comparability of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, quantitative neutron capture radiography, and prompt gamma activation analysis for the determination of boron in biological samples. It was possible to demonstrate that three different methods relying on three different principles of sample preparation and boron detection can be validated against each other and yield consistent results for both blood and tissue samples. The samples were obtained during a clinical study for the application of BNCT for liver malignancies and therefore represent a realistic situation for boron analysis. PMID:22918535

  4. Intercomparison of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, quantitative neutron capture radiography, and prompt gamma activation analysis for the determination of boron in biological samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuetz, C.L. [University of Mainz, Institute for Nuclear Chemistry, Mainz (Germany); Johannes Gutenberg-University of Mainz, Institute for Nuclear Chemistry, Mainz (Germany); Brochhausen, C. [University of Mainz, Institute of Pathology, Mainz (Germany); Hampel, G.; Iffland, D.; Schmitz, T.; Stieghorst, C.; Kratz, J.V. [University of Mainz, Institute for Nuclear Chemistry, Mainz (Germany); Kuczewski, B. [Regional Council Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany); Otto, G. [University of Mainz, Department of Hepatobiliary, Pancreatic and Transplantation Surgery, Mainz (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    Boron determination in blood and tissue samples is a crucial task especially for treatment planning, preclinical research, and clinical application of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Comparison of clinical findings remains difficult due to a variety of analytical methods, protocols, and standard reference materials in use. This paper addresses the comparability of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, quantitative neutron capture radiography, and prompt gamma activation analysis for the determination of boron in biological samples. It was possible to demonstrate that three different methods relying on three different principles of sample preparation and boron detection can be validated against each other and yield consistent results for both blood and tissue samples. The samples were obtained during a clinical study for the application of BNCT for liver malignancies and therefore represent a realistic situation for boron analysis. (orig.)

  5. Intercomparison of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, quantitative neutron capture radiography, and prompt gamma activation analysis for the determination of boron in biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron determination in blood and tissue samples is a crucial task especially for treatment planning, preclinical research, and clinical application of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Comparison of clinical findings remains difficult due to a variety of analytical methods, protocols, and standard reference materials in use. This paper addresses the comparability of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, quantitative neutron capture radiography, and prompt gamma activation analysis for the determination of boron in biological samples. It was possible to demonstrate that three different methods relying on three different principles of sample preparation and boron detection can be validated against each other and yield consistent results for both blood and tissue samples. The samples were obtained during a clinical study for the application of BNCT for liver malignancies and therefore represent a realistic situation for boron analysis. (orig.)

  6. Ceramic femoral component fracture in total knee arthroplasty: an analysis using fractography, fourier-transform infrared microscopy, contact radiography and histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Alexander P; Singh, Gurpal; Beil, Frank Timo; Feuerstein, Bernd; Ruether, Wolfgang; Lohmann, Christoph H

    2014-05-01

    Ceramic components in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) are evolving. We analyze the first case of BIOLOX delta ceramic femoral component fracture. A longitudinal midline fracture in the patellar groove was present, with an intact cement mantle and no bony defects. Fractographic analysis with laser scanning microscopy and white light interferometry showed no evidence of arrest lines, hackles, wake hackles, material flaws, fatigue or crack propagation. Analysis of periprosthetic tissues with Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) microscopy, contact radiography, histology, and subsequent digestion and high-speed centrifugation did not show ceramic debris. A macrophage-dominated response was present around polyethylene debris. We conclude that ceramic femoral component failure in this case was related to a traumatic event. Further research is needed to determine the suitability of ceramic components in TKA. PMID:24360338

  7. Experimental and clinical studies on the usefulness and assessment of the angiographic images processed by a digital radiography system (FCR: Fuji Computed Tomography)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to assess experimentally and clinically the usefulness of Fuji Computed Radiography (FCR) in angiographic examinations. FCR had a spatial resolution with much lower X-ray exposure doses, although the resolution of FCR was generally inferior to conventional films. When a contrast medium of 1% iodine concentration was used, FCR pinpointed a mass 1.5 mm in diameter; and conventional film could detect a mass 2.2 mm in diameter. The contrast of iodine in FCR examinations was stable. A high sensitivity of imaging plate allowed a wide range of visualization. In 148 selective angiographic examinatinons for 138 patients, FCR-subtraction images were superior to conventional film angiography for contrast resolution; it had a high sensitivity in detecting areas, such as the mediastimun and left lobe of the liver, and tumor stains in capillary phase. The capability of FCR arteriogram was as good as film arteriogram even with a half concentration of contrast medium and a half exposure dose of X-ray. Among 86 patients undergoing IVDSA examinations, 69 patients (81%) showed clinically satisfactory outcome of IVDSA by using FCR. In the remaining patients, insufficient outcome of IVDSA was due to inappropriate elimination of patietns' motion and suspension of respiration. These results suggest that FCR has the ability to improve image quality of conventional film angiography, as well as to maintain the proper image even with lower X-ray dose or lower dose even with lower X-ray dose or lower dose of contrast medium and without arterial approach in IVDSA. (Namekawa, K)

  8. Making Sensitivity Analysis Computationally Efficient

    OpenAIRE

    Kjærulff, Uffe; Gaag, Linda C.

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the robustness of the output probabilities of a Bayesian network, a sensitivity analysis can be performed. A one-way sensitivity analysis establishes, for each of the probability parameters of a network, a function expressing a posterior marginal probability of interest in terms of the parameter. Current methods for computing the coefficients in such a function rely on a large number of network evaluations. In this paper, we present a method that requires just...

  9. Power Computations for Intervention Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mcleod, A. I.; Vingilis, E. R.

    2005-01-01

    In many intervention analysis applications, time series data may be expensive or otherwise difficult to collect. In this case the power function is helpful, because it can be used to determine the probability that a proposed intervention analysis application will detect a meaningful change. Assuming that an underlying autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) or fractional ARIMA model is known or can be estimated from the preintervention time series, the methodology for computing the r...

  10. Proceedings of 7th short conference on neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first short period conference on neutron radiography was held in 1970, and now the 7th meeting was held. The works to develop neutron radiography in Japan are as active as those in western countries, and the research is in progress by using neutrons from reactors, radioisotopes and accelerators in order to achieve the technology of high standard. In this conference, 26 papers and six comments were presented, and the themes covered the equipment for radiography, the practical application, and the related research. The second World Conference on Neutron Radiography will be held in Paris in June, 1986, and the further promotion of the spread of neutron radiography can be expected. The proceedings of the conference is published with the hope that joint effort and information exchange are further enhanced in coming years to develop the neutron radiography in Japan. The neutron radiography using the Kinki University reactor, the Rikkyo Triga-2 reactor, the Musashi reactor, the Kyoto research reactor, a 3MV Van de Graaff accelerator in Toyota, a subcompact cyclotron in Sumitomo, a baby cyclotron-dual collimator in National Space Development Agency and so on, Cf-252 based thermal neutron radiography, CT with Sb-124/Be neutrons, pulse power neutron source, imaging converters, neutron radiographic image processing, computed tomography using neutron television systems and others are reported. (Kako, I.)

  11. [Digital radiography: fundamentals and future potentials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, K

    1989-01-25

    Digital radiography consists of four major steps which include X-ray detection, digitization, image processing and display. Important parameters in digitization process is the pixel size and the number of grey levels which affect the quality of digitized images. A number of digital radiographic systems have been or are being developed which include the point-beam, line-beam, slot-beam and multiple slit-beam systems as well as conventional wide-beam systems such as image intensifier-TV system, storage phosphor system and film-based system. Important physical properties of digital radiographic systems are the sensitivity, resolution, noise, system response, scatter rejection, contrast sensitivity and image acquisition time. The resolution property is affected by the pixel size, sampling distance, display pixel size, image processing, detector response and X-ray beam characteristics. From ROC studies on chest images, the pixel size of approximately 0.2 mm and the corresponding image matrix of about 2,000 x 2,000 is considered optimal choice of these parameters. Future potentials of digital radiography are likely to be in the areas of computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) and PACS. Preliminary results obtained from recent studies on quantitative analysis of digital radiographic images are promising. The rms variation and the first moment of the texture of abnormal lungs with various interstitial diseases were clearly different from those of normal lungs. Automated detection scheme of nodules in chest images indicated approximately 70% true positive rates and a few false positives in each lung.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2660097

  12. Computed radiography and MRI evaluation of a novel functional brace for conservative treatment of subcutaneous Achilles tendon rupture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 267 patients were conservatively treated using novel functional braces. In 34 patients, we observed healing process of the Achilles tendon in a series of magnetic resonance (MR) and computed radiogram (CR) images. CR images were taken periodically, while MR images were obtained at onset of injury and 3 to 4 weeks, 9 to 10 weeks, and 4 to 5 months after injury. We assessed the morphology of the ruptured tendon section by observing intensity changes in the periodic MR examinations. During early conservative therapy (3 to 4 weeks), dumbbell-shaped tendons were most common. At 9 to 10 weeks (i.e., when the brace was removed), tendon continuity was observed at the rupture site; the average antero-posterior tendon diameter was 8.5 mm. Most areas were of low signal intensity, although some areas of moderate signal intensity remained. The tendons of 22 patients had an hourglass shape, while those of 12 patients were spindle shaped. Four to 5 months after injury (i.e., when patients resumed athletic activity), tendon continuity had further improved, and average antero-posterior tendon diameter had increased to 13.8 mm. The entire tendon displayed uniformly low signal intensity. A brace is a straightforward method of treating Achilles tendon ruptures. Because of difficulties in image interpretation, it seems unlikely that CR will become widely used in the diagnosis and monitoring of tendon rupture. The results indicate that the use of MR imaging on an as-needed basishe use of MR imaging on an as-needed basis provides a superior understanding of tendon rupture healing. We conclude that further clinical application of MR imaging is warranted. (author)

  13. Analysis of neutron attenuation in boron-alloyed stainless steel with neutron radiography and JEN-3 gauge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastürk, M.; Arztmann, J.; Jerlich, W.; Kardjilov, N.; Lehmann, E.; Zawisky, M.

    2005-05-01

    This paper concerns the neutron attenuation behavior of boron-alloyed stainless steels, and quantitative estimations of secondary effects on the neutron transmission measurements, such as beam hardening, background and micro-structure of neutron absorber causing a decrease in the total macroscopic cross-sections. Systematic thermal neutron transmission measurements of boron-alloyed steel plates have been performed at different neutron radiography facilities and at a portable gauge called JEN-3, which is a practical neutron transmission setup for industrial demands in non-destructive material inspection. In addition, MCNP (Monte Carlo Neutron Particle transport) simulations were performed for a better understanding of the experimental results, the secondary factors affecting the total macroscopic cross-sections, and the characteristics of the JEN-3 gauge. The detectable thickness limit for 1.88 wt% natural boron-alloyed steel plates was determined as 1-1.5 cm depending on the contributions of the secondary factors in each facility.

  14. Accuracy of conventional panoramic radiography and stereo radiography in determining the position of impacted maxillary canines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Abdinian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In addition to conventional radiography, several other techniques such as stereoradiography have so far been proposed to determine the position of impacted maxillary canines. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of panoramic radiography and stereoradiography for determining the position of impacted maxillary canines.Materials and Methods: This was a prognostic, cross sectional study. A total of 30 impacted maxillary canines in 23 patients candidated for surgery were included. Four well coordinated observers separately determined the position of impacted maxillary canines using both panoramic radiography and stereoradiography. In the next phase, the exact position of impacted canines were determined through surgical exploration. Mc-Nemar and kappa index were applied for statistical data analysis. (? = 0.05.Results: The rate of correct diagnosis in stereoradiography and conventional radiography was 93.35% and 60.82% respectively which demonstrated a statistically significant difference. With each method, there were no significant differences among observers. Sensitivity and specificity with stereoradiography were calculated 91.98% and 94.78% respectively. With conventional radiography however these values dropped to 49.90% and 74.11% respectively.Conclusion: Stereoradiography seems quite reliable for determining the position of impacted maxillary canines. On the contrary, conventional radiography per se does not look precise enogh to determin the position of impacted maxillary canines. Key words: Stereoradiography, Panoramic, Impacted tooth, Canine, Maxilla.

  15. Spatially coded backscatter radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conventional radiography requires access to two opposite sides of an object, which makes it unsuitable for the inspection of extended and/or thick structures (airframes, bridges, floors etc.). Backscatter imaging can overcome this problem, but the indications obtained are difficult to interpret. This paper applies the coded aperture technique to gamma-ray backscatter-radiography in order to enhance the detectability of flaws. This spatial coding method involves the positioning of a mask with closed and open holes to selectively permit or block the passage of radiation. The obtained coded-aperture indications are then mathematically decoded to detect the presence of anomalies. Indications obtained from Monte Carlo calculations were utilized in this work to simulate radiation scattering measurements. These simulated measurements were used to investigate the applicability of this technique to the detection of flaws by backscatter radiography

  16. Real-time radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossi, R.H.; Oien, C.T.

    1981-02-26

    Real-time radiography is used for imaging both dynamic events and static objects. Fluorescent screens play an important role in converting radiation to light, which is then observed directly or intensified and detected. The radiographic parameters for real-time radiography are similar to conventional film radiography with special emphasis on statistics and magnification. Direct-viewing fluoroscopy uses the human eye as a detector of fluorescent screen light or the light from an intensifier. Remote-viewing systems replace the human observer with a television camera. The remote-viewing systems have many advantages over the direct-viewing conditions such as safety, image enhancement, and the capability to produce permanent records. This report reviews real-time imaging system parameters and components.

  17. Hysterosalpingography with digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Digital image intensifier radiography (Siemens/Polytron) offers the chance to reduce patient exposure dose in hysterosalpingography (HSG) by 85% compared with conventional film/screen radiography and by 11% compared with the 100 mm technique. By appropriate choice of the parameters the signal-to-noise ratio was adapted to the detectability of the diagnostic information (variation of the dose). Thirty patients were examined with the 28 cm image intensifier and an image intensifier input dose of 50 ?R. The diagnostic image quality was assessed being aware of the results of laparoscopy or surgery; in 29 cases the quality was classified very good without any limitations. Digital image intensifier radiography offers additional advantages over conventional X-ray units: The images are directly available on the monitor and offer the possibility of post-processing. (orig.)

  18. Real-time radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Real-time radiography is used for imaging both dynamic events and static objects. Fluorescent screens play an important role in converting radiation to light, which is then observed directly or intensified and detected. The radiographic parameters for real-time radiography are similar to conventional film radiography with special emphasis on statistics and magnification. Direct-viewing fluoroscopy uses the human eye as a detector of fluorescent screen light or the light from an intensifier. Remote-viewing systems replace the human observer with a television camera. The remote-viewing systems have many advantages over the direct-viewing conditions such as safety, image enhancement, and the capability to produce permanent records. This report reviews real-time imaging system parameters and components

  19. Apparatus for gamma radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the present standard is to fix the rules for the construction of gamma radiography instrumentation without prejudice to the present regulations. These apparatus have to be fitted with only sealed sources conformable to the experimental standard M 61-002. The present standard agrees with the international standard ISO 3999 of 1977 dealing with the same subject. Nevertheless, it is different on the three main following points: it does not accept the same limits of absorbed dose rates in the air calculated on the external surface of projectors; it precribes tightness, bending, crushing and tensile tests for some components of the gamma radiography it prescribes tests of endurance and resistance to breaking for the locking systems of the gamma radiography apparatus. The present standard also specifies the following points: symbols and indications to put on projectors and on the source-holder; identification of the source contained in the projector; and, accompanying documents. The regulation references are given in annexe

  20. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Play Video Clip (00:04:40) Your Radiologist Explains Bone X-ray What is Bone X-ray ( ... X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive medical ...

  1. Management Waste Of Of Radiography Of Personal Certification Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Have been conducted analysis of waste of Radiography Personnel Certification Level 1 and Level 2 to measure whether Certification NDE Radiography activity to effect environment or not. The result of waste analysis to be compared with standard is 0.05 ppm. Three locations are selected to get waste sample continuously are : Fixer Tank, Back of 71 Building and Control Main Drain Box. Result of analysis from three selected locations of waste flow have reduced silver containment. The Silver containment of waste to be release to environment is below 0.05 ppm; it means that Radiography of Personnel Certification Process is not effect environmental

  2. Computer vision in microstructural analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Malur N.; Massarweh, W.; Hough, C. L.

    1992-01-01

    The following is a laboratory experiment designed to be performed by advanced-high school and beginning-college students. It is hoped that this experiment will create an interest in and further understanding of materials science. The objective of this experiment is to demonstrate that the microstructure of engineered materials is affected by the processing conditions in manufacture, and that it is possible to characterize the microstructure using image analysis with a computer. The principle of computer vision will first be introduced followed by the description of the system developed at Texas A&M University. This in turn will be followed by the description of the experiment to obtain differences in microstructure and the characterization of the microstructure using computer vision.

  3. Radiography in archaeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corfield, M.

    1995-11-01

    Radiography is a potent tool for archaeologists, conservators and archaeological scientists concerned with the investigation of the artefacts and ecofacts recovered from excavations. Increasingly specialists are refining the information they can recover from archaeological materials; in the pre-war years, mummies, and other skeletal material were of primary interest but since the war, all materials have been examined, although the emphasis remains on ferrous objects. Although much information can be recovered using basic equipment, increasingly sophisticated techniques are being applied. This paper reviews the use of radiography in archaeology and describes the techniques of primary value to archaeologists.

  4. Uncertainty in radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uncertainty in measured results is an integral part of measurement. The ISO Guide 25 (1990), the applicable ISO standard for testing and calibrating laboratories, requires one to specify the uncertainty of each measurement, in order to give additional information about the measure and and the quality of the measurement. It is well understood how to calculate the uncertainty for quantitative measurements such as length, temperature and so on, but not for test results as in radiography or other NDT testing methods. This paper describes a study undertaken to calculate uncertainty and to estimate the real sizes of discontinuities observed in radiography. (Author)

  5. Computational Aeroacoustic Analysis System Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadid, A.; Lin, W.; Ascoli, E.; Barson, S.; Sindir, M.

    2001-01-01

    Many industrial and commercial products operate in a dynamic flow environment and the aerodynamically generated noise has become a very important factor in the design of these products. In light of the importance in characterizing this dynamic environment, Rocketdyne has initiated a multiyear effort to develop an advanced general-purpose Computational Aeroacoustic Analysis System (CAAS) to address these issues. This system will provide a high fidelity predictive capability for aeroacoustic design and analysis. The numerical platform is able to provide high temporal and spatial accuracy that is required for aeroacoustic calculations through the development of a high order spectral element numerical algorithm. The analysis system is integrated with well-established CAE tools, such as a graphical user interface (GUI) through PATRAN, to provide cost-effective access to all of the necessary tools. These include preprocessing (geometry import, grid generation and boundary condition specification), code set up (problem specification, user parameter definition, etc.), and postprocessing. The purpose of the present paper is to assess the feasibility of such a system and to demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the numerical algorithm through numerical examples. Computations of vortex shedding noise were carried out in the context of a two-dimensional low Mach number turbulent flow past a square cylinder. The computational aeroacoustic approach that is used in CAAS relies on coupling a base flow solver to the acoustic solver throughout a computational cycle. The unsteady fluid motion, which is responsible for both the generation and propagation of acoustic waves, is calculated using a high order flow solver. The results of the flow field are then passed to the acoustic solver through an interpolator to map the field values into the acoustic grid. The acoustic field, which is governed by the linearized Euler equations, is then calculated using the flow results computed from the flow solver.

  6. CGAT: computational genomics analysis toolkit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, David; Ilott, Nicholas E; Sansom, Stephen N; Sudbery, Ian M; Johnson, Jethro S; Fawcett, Katherine A; Berlanga-Taylor, Antonio J; Luna-Valero, Sebastian; Ponting, Chris P; Heger, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Computational genomics seeks to draw biological inferences from genomic datasets, often by integrating and contextualizing next-generation sequencing data. CGAT provides an extensive suite of tools designed to assist in the analysis of genome scale data from a range of standard file formats. The toolkit enables filtering, comparison, conversion, summarization and annotation of genomic intervals, gene sets and sequences. The tools can both be run from the Unix command line and installed into visual workflow builders, such as Galaxy. PMID:24395753

  7. Screening of Miners and Millers at Decreasing Levels of Asbestos Exposure: Comparison of Chest Radiography and Thin-Section Computed Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terra-Filho, Mario; Bagatin, Ericson; Nery, Luiz Eduardo; Nápolis, Lara Maris; Neder, José Alberto; de Souza Portes Meirelles, Gustavo; Silva, C. Isabela; Muller, Nestor L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Chest radiography (CXR) is inferior to Thin-section computed tomography in the detection of asbestos related interstitial and pleural abnormalities. It remains unclear, however, whether these limitations are large enough to impair CXR´s ability in detecting the expected reduction in the frequency of these asbestos-related abnormalities (ARA) as exposure decreases. Methods Clinical evaluation, CXR, Thin-section CT and spirometry were obtained in 1418 miners and millers who were exposed to progressively lower airborne concentrations of asbestos. They were separated into four groups according to the type, period and measurements of exposure and/or procedures for controlling exposure: Group I (1940–1966/tremolite and chrysotile, without measurements of exposure and procedures for controlling exposure); Group II (1967–1976/chrysotile only, without measurements of exposure and procedures for controlling exposure); Group III (1977–1980/chrysotile only, initiated measurements of exposure and procedures for controlling exposure) and Group IV (after 1981/chrysotile only, implemented measurements of exposure and a comprehensive procedures for controlling exposure). Results In all groups, CXR suggested more frequently interstitial abnormalities and less frequently pleural plaques than observed on Thin-section CT (p<0.050). The odds for asbestosis in groups of decreasing exposure diminished to greater extent at Thin-section CT than on CXR. Lung function was reduced in subjects who had pleural plaques evident only on Thin-section CT (p<0.050). In a longitudinal evaluation of 301 subjects without interstitial and pleural abnormalities on CXR and Thin-section CT in a previous evaluation, only Thin-section CT indicated that these ARA reduced as exposure decreased. Conclusions CXR compared to Thin-section CT was associated with false-positives for interstitial abnormalities and false-negatives for pleural plaques, regardless of the intensity of asbestos exposure. Also, CXR led to a substantial misinformation of the effects of the progressively lower asbestos concentrations in the occurrence of asbestos-related diseases in miners and millers. PMID:25790222

  8. Recent developments in Resonance Neutron Radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of the developments in Resonance Neutron Radiography at the National Bureau of Standards is presented. The development of high-resolution, two-dimensional neutron detectors and their application in measurement systems using pulsed neutron sources is covered with special emphasis on the application to nuclear fuel material analysis and evaluation

  9. The stationary neutron radiography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To provide the high intensity neutron beam and support systems necessary for radiography, the Stationary Neutron Radiography System was constructed at McClellan Air Force Base. The Stationary Neutron Radiography System utilizes a one megawatt TRIGA reactor contained in an Aluminium tank surrounded by eight foot thick concrete walls. There are four neutron beam tubes at inclined angles from the reactor core to separate radiography bays. In three of the bays, robotic systems manipulate aircraft components in the neutron beam, while real-time imaging systems provide images concurrent with the irradiation. Film radiography of smaller components is performed in the remaining bay

  10. Accelerator-based neutron tomography cooperating with X-ray radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron resonance absorption spectroscopy (N-RAS) using a pulsed neutron source can be applied to time-of-flight (TOF) radiography, and the obtained parameters from the peak shape analysis can be reconstructed as the tomograms of nuclide distributions using computed tomography (CT). The problem is that the available spatial resolution is not sufficient for radiography imaging. In this study, we combined neutron and X-ray radiographies to improve the quantitative reconstruction of the neutron tomogram. The accelerator-based neutron source emits X-rays (or gamma-rays) at the same time the neutron pulse is emitted. We utilized the X-ray beam from the neutron source to obtain X-ray radiogram on the same beam line with neutron radiography and then reconstructed the neutron tomogram quantitatively with the help of a detailed sample internal structure obtained from the X-ray radiogram. We calculated the nuclide number density distribution tomogram using a statistical reconstruction procedure, which was easy to include in the structure model during the reconstruction. The obtained result of nuclide number density distribution showed good coincidence with the original object number density.

  11. Pet fish radiography: technique and case history reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiography can be used to aid in the diagnosis and treatment of pet fish diseases. Handling, restraint and radiographic technique for the radiographic examination of pet fish is described. Quality diagnostic images can be obtained with standard radiographic equipment and radiographic techniques. Fishes with undifferentiated sarcoma, swim bladder herniation and scoliosis are three clinical examples that are described where radiography was used in the management of the patient. Conventional radiography appears to be best for evaluating skeletal and swim bladder diseases. Alternate imaging techniques such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging may enhance the evaluation of coelomic soft tissue structures

  12. Optimizing digital radiography of children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pediatric projection imaging differs from imaging of the adult patient. Children are smaller, more radiosensitive, and less compliant than their adult counterparts. Their characteristics affect the way projection imaging is practiced and how dose is optimized. Computed radiography (CR) and digital radiography (DR) have been embraced by pediatric practitioners in order to reduce dose and improve image quality. Unfortunately, dose optimization with CR and DR has been hampered by a lack of definition of appropriate exposure levels, a lack of standardization in exposure factor feedback, and a lack of understanding of the fundamentals of CR and DR technology. The potential for over-exposure exists with both CR and DR. Both the Society for Pediatric Radiology and the American Association of Physicists in Medicine recognize the promise and shortcomings of CR and DR technology and have taken steps to join with manufacturers in improving the practice of CR and DR imaging. Although the risks inherent in pediatric projection imaging with CR and DR are low, efforts to reduce dose are worthwhile, so long as diagnostic quality is maintained. Long-standing recommendations for limiting radiation dose in pediatric projection imaging are still applicable to CR and DR.

  13. High definition radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the use of small X and gamma ray sources in industrial radiography. The emphasis is on how they can be used in the ''mass production'' situation or when a large number of tube to tubeplate welds are to be inspected

  14. Compton radiography, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compton radiography, a tomographic technic with Compton-scattered rays of a monochromatic gamma ray beam, was feasible of tomographing a chest phantom. The result suggested that the technic could be extended to imaging of the lung and the surrounding structures of the chest wall, mediastinum and liver in Compton tomographic mode. (auth.)

  15. Apparatus for radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This patent describes an arrangement of equipment for radiography which enables an increase in contrast sensitivity with a corresponding decrease in radiation exposure. The arrangement consists basically of a radiation source, a collimator and a scintillator. The latter is optically coupled to a self-scanning, integrated row of photodiodes. (Th.W.J.P.)

  16. Introduction to radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contents of this chapter are follows - Radiology in Malaysia: Properties and Effects of X-ray, Roles of Radiology Department: Imaging Modalities in the Radiology Department: Imaging Modalities in the Imaging Department: Imaging Modalities in the Imaging Department: Conventional Radiography of Today

  17. Manual on industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This manual is intended as a source of educational material to personnel seeking certification as industrial radiographers, and as a guide and reference text for educational organizations that are providng courses in industrial radiography. It covers the basic principles of x-ray and gamma radiation, radiation safety, films and film processing, welding, casting and forging, aircraft structures and components, radiographic techniques, and records

  18. Basic principles of industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray radiography and gamma radiography are used in industrial radiography. X-rays and gamma rays have the ability to penetrate materials and be absorbed by different densities. This characteristic makes them useful tools in industrial and medical radiography. The sources used for the generation of x-rays, gamma rays and radioisotopes are discussed. Films are one of the recording methods of x-radiography. The article also deals with advantages and disadvantages of radiography. Factors governing radiation exposure includes: the type of radiation source, material to be radiographed, distance, film, and the method for development. International specifications are also responsible for strict control over the standard of workmanship in industrial radiography

  19. Neutron and gamma radiography with a research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thesis consists of eight publications, which describe the instrumental analysis of both neutron and ?-radiography. The emphasis is on various research applications, especially solidification and segregation in Sn-Cd and Sn-In alloys. (L.M.K.)

  20. Comprehensive Optimization Process of Paranasal Sinus Radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: The optimization of radiological examinations is important in order to reduce unnecessary patient radiation exposure. Purpose: To perform a comprehensive optimization process for paranasal sinus radiography at Mikkeli Central Hospital (FI). Material and Methods: Patients with suspicion of acute sinusitis were imaged with a Kodak computed radiography (CR) system (n=20) and with a Philips digital radiography (DR) system (n=30) using focus-detector distances (FDDs) of 110 cm, 150 cm, or 200 cm. Patients' radiation exposure was determined in terms of entrance surface dose and dose-area product. Furthermore, an anatomical phantom was used for the estimation of point doses inside the head. Clinical image quality was evaluated by an experienced radiologist, and physical image quality was evaluated from the digital radiography phantom. Results: Patient doses were significantly lower and image quality better with the DR system compared to the CR system. The differences in patient dose and physical image quality were small with varying FDD. Clinical image quality of the DR system was lowest with FDD of 200 cm. Further, imaging with FDD of 150 cm was technically easier for the technologist to perform than with FDD of 110 cm. Conclusion: After optimization, it was recommended that the DR system with FDD of 150 cm should always be used at Mikkeli Central Hospital. We recommend this kind of comprehensive approach in all optimization processes of radiological examinationtion processes of radiological examinations

  1. Comprehensive Optimization Process of Paranasal Sinus Radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saarakkala, S. (Dept. of Clinical Radiology, Kuopio Univ. Hospital, Kuopio (Finland)); Nironen, K.; Hermunen, H.; Aarnio, J.; Heikkinen, J.O. (Dept. of Radiology, Etel-Savo Hospital District, Mikkeli Central Hospital, Mikkeli (Finland))

    2009-04-15

    Background: The optimization of radiological examinations is important in order to reduce unnecessary patient radiation exposure. Purpose: To perform a comprehensive optimization process for paranasal sinus radiography at Mikkeli Central Hospital (Finland). Material and Methods: Patients with suspicion of acute sinusitis were imaged with a Kodak computed radiography (CR) system (n=20) and with a Philips digital radiography (DR) system (n=30) using focus-detector distances (FDDs) of 110 cm, 150 cm, or 200 cm. Patients' radiation exposure was determined in terms of entrance surface dose and dose-area product. Furthermore, an anatomical phantom was used for the estimation of point doses inside the head. Clinical image quality was evaluated by an experienced radiologist, and physical image quality was evaluated from the digital radiography phantom. Results: Patient doses were significantly lower and image quality better with the DR system compared to the CR system. The differences in patient dose and physical image quality were small with varying FDD. Clinical image quality of the DR system was lowest with FDD of 200 cm. Further, imaging with FDD of 150 cm was technically easier for the technologist to perform than with FDD of 110 cm. Conclusion: After optimization, it was recommended that the DR system with FDD of 150 cm should always be used at Mikkeli Central Hospital. We recommend this kind of comprehensive approach in all optimization processes of radiological examinations.

  2. Analysis of micro computed tomography images; a look inside historic enamelled metal objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linden, Veerle van der; Janssens, Koen [University of Antwerp, Departement Chemie, Wilrijk (Belgium); Casteele, Elke van de [Skyscan N.V., Kontich (Belgium); Thomas, Mienke Simon [Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Vos, Annemie de [Antwerpen (Belgium); Janssen, Elsje [Hessenhuis, Collectiebeleid/Behoud en Beheer, Antwerpen (Belgium)

    2010-02-15

    In this study the usefulness of micro-Computed Tomography ({mu}-CT) for the in-depth analysis of enamelled metal objects was tested. Usually investigations of enamelled metal artefacts are restricted to non-destructive surface analysis or analysis of cross sections after destructive sampling. Radiography, a commonly used technique in the field of cultural heritage studies, is limited to providing two-dimensional information about a three-dimensional object (Lang and Middleton, Radiography of Cultural Material, pp. 60-61, Elsevier-Butterworth-Heinemann, Amsterdam-Stoneham-London, 2005). Obtaining virtual slices and information about the internal structure of these objects was made possible by CT analysis. With this technique the underlying metal work was studied without removing the decorative enamel layer. Moreover visible defects such as cracks were measured in both width and depth and as of yet invisible defects and weaker areas are visualised. All these features are of great interest to restorers and conservators as they allow a view inside these objects without so much as touching them. (orig.)

  3. Analysis of micro computed tomography images; a look inside historic enamelled metal objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linden, Veerle; van de Casteele, Elke; Thomas, Mienke Simon; de Vos, Annemie; Janssen, Elsje; Janssens, Koen

    2010-02-01

    In this study the usefulness of micro-Computed Tomography (µ-CT) for the in-depth analysis of enamelled metal objects was tested. Usually investigations of enamelled metal artefacts are restricted to non-destructive surface analysis or analysis of cross sections after destructive sampling. Radiography, a commonly used technique in the field of cultural heritage studies, is limited to providing two-dimensional information about a three-dimensional object (Lang and Middleton, Radiography of Cultural Material, pp. 60-61, Elsevier-Butterworth-Heinemann, Amsterdam-Stoneham-London, 2005). Obtaining virtual slices and information about the internal structure of these objects was made possible by CT analysis. With this technique the underlying metal work was studied without removing the decorative enamel layer. Moreover visible defects such as cracks were measured in both width and depth and as of yet invisible defects and weaker areas are visualised. All these features are of great interest to restorers and conservators as they allow a view inside these objects without so much as touching them.

  4. Comparison of conventional radiography and MDCT in suspected scaphoid fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzadi, Cyrus; Karul, Murat; Henes, Frank Oliver; Laqmani, Azien; Catala-Lehnen, Philipp; Lehmann, Wolfgang; Nagel, Hans-Dieter; Adam, Gerhard; Regier, Marc

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine the diagnostic accuracy and radiation dose of conventional radiography and multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in suspected scaphoid fractures. METHODS: One hundred twenty-four consecutive patients were enrolled in our study who had suffered from a wrist trauma and showed typical clinical symptoms suspicious of an acute scaphoid fracture. All patients had initially undergone conventional radiography. Subsequent MDCT was performed within 10 d because of persisting clinical symptoms. Using the MDCT data as the reference standard, a fourfold table was used to classify the test results. The effective dose and impaired energy were assessed in order to compare the radiation burden of the two techniques. The Wilcoxon test was performed to compare the two diagnostic modalities. RESULTS: Conventional radiography showed 34 acute fractures of the scaphoid in 124 patients (42.2%). Subsequent MDCT revealed a total of 42 scaphoid fractures. The sensitivity of conventional radiography for scaphoid fracture detection was 42.8% and its specificity was 80% resulting in an overall accuracy of 59.6%. Conventional radiography was significantly inferior to MDCT (P < 0.01) concerning scaphoid fracture detection. The mean effective dose of MDCT was 0.1 mSv compared to 0.002 mSv of conventional radiography. CONCLUSION: Conventional radiography is insufficient for accurate scaphoid fracture detection. Regarding the almost negligible effective dose, MDCT should serve as the first imaging modality in wrist trauma. PMID:25628802

  5. Personnel exposures in industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The manifold increase in production, and ease of availability of radioisotopes in India have been responsible for a tremendous increase in use of radioisotopes in industrial radiography during past fifteen years. Among various applications of radioisotopes the industrial radiography involves a large potential risk of occupational radiation exposures. The dose records of past fifteen years in respect of all radiation workers maintained by the Personnel Monitoring Group of Division of Radiological Protection of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay, have been analysed. Analysis of excessive exposure (exceeding 400 mrem/fortnight) reveals that this figure is increasing at an alarming rate among the radiation workers of this category. In spite of various regulatory controls the dose per person per week has remained higher as compared to the same in other categories. This combined with the increase in number of radiation workers every year would soon contribute significantly to the per capita dose for radiation workers. Use of adequately shielded fool-proof remote control equipment and training of all personnel in safe handling of radiation sources seem to be the only solution to arrest the rate of increase in personnel exposures of this category. (auth.)

  6. Computer aided analysis of disturbances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computer aided analysis of disturbances and the prevention of failures (diagnosis and therapy control) in technological plants belong to the most important tasks of process control. Research in this field is very intensive due to increasing requirements to security and economy of process control and due to a remarkable increase of the efficiency of digital electronics. This publication concerns with analysis of disturbances in complex technological plants, especially in so called high risk processes. The presentation emphasizes theoretical concept of diagnosis and therapy control, modelling of the disturbance behaviour of the technological process and the man-machine-communication integrating artificial intelligence methods, e.g., expert system approach. Application is given for nuclear power plants. (author)

  7. Diagnostic radiography of the shoulder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The frequent complaint about 'pain in the shoulder' is so diffuse that it needs exact clinical and differentiated radiographic examination. The diagnosis 'periarthritis humeroscapularis' can only be given after exclusion of ossous, chondral, or capsular lesions, joint disorders, rotator cuff rupture, or constriction of the subacromial space. Subsequent to antero-posterior and axial, sometimes also tangential, radiography, sonographic examination in many cases already yields the significant information. In case of suspected rotator cuff rupture, the diagnosis can be verified by arthrography or NMR imaging, and labrum defects can well be detected by computed arthro-tomography or NMR imaging. Although sometimes laborious, diagnostic radiology yields the information required to select the suitable conservative or surgical treatment. (orig.)

  8. Industrial radiography on radiographic paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation was performed to compare the quality of radiographic paper with that of X-ray film, after a review had been made of the rather scarce literature on the subject. The equipment used throughout the investigation is described, and characteristic curves for Agfa-Gevaert and Kodak papers exposed with different intensifying screens in the low and intermediate voltage range are reproduced. The relative speed, contrast and exposure latitude were computed from these curves. The quality of the radiographic image was checked on U/Al blocks and plates, Al and Fe blocks, and fiber-reinforced composites. Exposure charts for Al and Fe were made for various paper and screen combinations. Both the sharpness of the radiographic image as well as the influence of processing on speed and contrast were checked. Examples are given of the practical application of the paper for radiography of castings, weldings, solderings, assemblies, etc. (author)

  9. Digital radiography simulation for industrial applications with MCNPX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy dependent response of a BaFBr Image Plate detector was modeled and introduced in MCNPX radiography tally input. To convert MCNPX radiography tally output in 16 bits digital images, a post processing program called PROGRAMA IMAGEM is presented. Simulate images of a steel tube containing corrosion alveoli and grinded defects were compared with experimental images. The radiography technique used in all tests was double wall single image, DWSI, using an Iridium source (192Ir) touching the adjacent wall. Visual and perfilometric analysis showed that the methodology used for sensible material simulation and data post-processing makes simulate digital images comparable to experimental images. (author)

  10. Industrial Radiography Safety in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first applications of the imaging capability of X-rays were non-medical. Roentgen produced images of his shotgun, a compass and a set of weights in a closed box to show his colleagues. Prior to 1912, X-rays were used little outside the realms of medicine and dentistry because the X-ray tubes failed under the higher voltages required for industrial purposes. However, that changed in 1913 when high vacuum X-ray tubes designed by Coolidge became available. In 1922, industrial radiography took another step forward with the advent of the 200,000-volt X-ray tube that allowed radiographs of thick steel parts to be produced in a reasonable amount of time. In 1931 the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) permitted approval of fusion welded pressure vessels by x-ray, which promoted an acceptance and use of the method. That application continues. Radium became the initial gamma ray source for industrial radiography. The material allowed radiography of castings up to 30cm thick. During World War II, industrial radiography grew significantly as part of the US Navy's shipbuilding-program, and in 1946 gamma ray sources such as cobalt 60 and iridium 192 became available. These new sources gained rapid popularity because they emitted more intense radiation than radium and were less expensive. Present state: the majority of industrial radiography techniques have changed little since their inception. An image is captured, processed and analysed for evidence of fault or ded and analysed for evidence of fault or defect. Today however, the images are of higher quality and greater sensitivity, through the use of better quality films, smaller radiation sources and automated processing. Developments in electronics and computers now allow technicians to create a digital image, enhance it, transmit it or store it indefinitely. The most noticeable change in industrial radiography equipment from the technician's view would be the reduction in weight of the equipment for a given kV output. Never the less it remains cumbersome and often exceeds the prescribed OH and S single person lifting limits. The role of industrial radiography has expanded to inspect not only welds and castings, so that it now includes inspection of assembled and processed goods ranging from automotive air-bags to canned food. It is also used in security systems at airports and other facilities. Almost all these applications use cabinet systems which are rarely the subject of serious radiation incidents or accidents. Gamma ray inspection no longer uses radium. The most common radio-isotopes in use now are Cobalt 60 and Iridium 192. Their freedom from the need for an electrical power supply; their high radiation energy and the ability to place a source in positions of limited physical access, ensures the ongoing attraction of the method. The useful activity ranges of typical sources vary according to their application and the effect on total inspection costs. Common source activities in Australia range between 185 and 370 GBq for Cobalt 60; and between 1500 and 3700 GBq for Iridium 192. Outside Australia however there are recent reports of routine industrial radiography using more than 5500 GBq of Iridium 192. Thus it can be appreciated that any radiation accidents involving these high activity sources have the potential for significant radiation doses. Personal Dose Data: ARPANSA and its predecessor, the Australian Radiation Laboratory, has been providing a personal radiation monitoring service for some time, and releases a summary report every few years (ARPANSA/TR 139, ARL/TR 121, ARL/TR 107). The selected data shown in Table 2 indicate a downward trend in occupational doses received by industrial radiographers working in open site situations, which are potentially the most hazardous. This trend is encouraging, especially when the number of industrial radiographers is increasing. A comparison of the ARPANSA data indicate that whilst the average Australian industrial radiographer's annual dose is higher than the 400 ?Sv average for industrial radiographers in a d

  11. Quantitative radiography for transient multidimensional, multiphase flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As computations of transient, multidimensional, multiphase flows are becoming increasingly more realistic, so increases the demand for their detailed experimental validation. The key in this task is the evolution of flow patterns, and the usual approaches of local measurements are inherently limited in meeting this demand. In this paper, we demonstrate the particular suitability of flash X-ray radiography, and the feasibility of reliably quantifying the radiographs of flow regions of various sizes, from microscopic to rather large scale. (orig.)

  12. Quantitative film radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devine, G.; Dobie, D.; Fugina, J.; Hernandez, J.; Logan, C.; Mohr, P.; Moss, R.; Schumacher, B.; Updike, E.; Weirup, D.

    1991-02-26

    We have developed a system of quantitative radiography in order to produce quantitative images displaying homogeneity of parts. The materials that we characterize are synthetic composites and may contain important subtle density variations not discernible by examining a raw film x-radiograph. In order to quantitatively interpret film radiographs, it is necessary to digitize, interpret, and display the images. Our integrated system of quantitative radiography displays accurate, high-resolution pseudo-color images in units of density. We characterize approximately 10,000 parts per year in hundreds of different configurations and compositions with this system. This report discusses: the method; film processor monitoring and control; verifying film and processor performance; and correction of scatter effects.

  13. Quantitative film radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a system of quantitative radiography in order to produce quantitative images displaying homogeneity of parts. The materials that we characterize are synthetic composites and may contain important subtle density variations not discernible by examining a raw film x-radiograph. In order to quantitatively interpret film radiographs, it is necessary to digitize, interpret, and display the images. Our integrated system of quantitative radiography displays accurate, high-resolution pseudo-color images in units of density. We characterize approximately 10,000 parts per year in hundreds of different configurations and compositions with this system. This report discusses: the method; film processor monitoring and control; verifying film and processor performance; and correction of scatter effects

  14. High-resolution computed tomography versus chest radiography in the diagnosis of interstitial lung disease in systemic sclerosis; Avaliacao da tomografia de alta resolucao versus radiografia de torax na doenca intersticial pulmonar na esclerose sistemica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, Ana Beatriz Cordeiro de; Calderaro, Debora; Moreira, Caio [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Servico de Reumatologia; Guimaraes, Silvana Mangeon Meirelles [Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Secao de Tomografia Computadorizada; Tavares Junior, Wilson Campos; Leao Filho, Hilton Muniz; Andrade, Diego Correa de [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Servico de Radiologia e Diagnostico por Imagem]. E-mail: wilsontavaresjrmd@yahho.fr; Ferreira, Cid Sergio; Vieira, Jose Nelson Mendes [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Radiologia

    2005-04-01

    Objective: To compare the accuracy of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) with chest radiography in the diagnosis of interstitial lung disease in systemic sclerosis (SSc). Materials And Methods: HRCT scans and chest radiographs in postero-anterior and lateral views were performed in 34 patients with systemic sclerosis, according to the American College of Rheumatology preliminary criteria for the diagnosis of SSc. The prevalence of radiological findings suggestive of interstitial lung disease in SSc seen on both imaging methods was compared. Results: Interstitial disease was observed on HRCT images of 31 patients (91%) and in the chest radiographs of 16 patients (47%). The most frequent findings observed on HRCT were septal lines (74%), honeycombing (56%) and parenchymal bands (26%). Chest radiographs showed reticular areas of attenuation in 11 patients (32%) and parenchymal distortion in 12% of the patients. In 18 patients (53%) with normal chest radiographs HRCT showed septal lines in 55%, ground glass in 44%, honeycombing in 38.5% and cysts in 33%. Conclusion: HRCT is more sensitive than chest radiography in the evaluation of incipient interstitial lung involvement in patients with SSc and can provide a justification for immunosuppressive therapy in patients with early disease. (author)

  15. Compton radiography, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomographic images of an object are obtainable by irradiating it with a collimated beam of monochromatic gamma rays and recording the resultant Compton rays scattered upward at right angles. This is the scattered-ray principle of the formation of a radiation image that differs from the traditional ''silhouette principle'' of radiography, and that bears prospects of stereopsis as well as cross-section tomography. (Evans, J.)

  16. Panoramic dental radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apparatus is described for improving the handling rate of patients in panoramic dental radiography when tube head-camera assembly of a low silhouette panoramic dental X-ray machine is rotated for a scan in one direction only. This is effected by fast return of the tube head-camera assembly with its simultaneous elevation, thus facilitating the radiographed patient's exit from the machine and the entrance of another patient. Fast speed is about twice the scanning speed. (author)

  17. Introduction to industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the first topic in this book, more on introduction to nondestructive testing, also a little bit on another technique such as magnetic testing, liquid penetrated, ultrasonic testing and others. This book mentions more on radiographic testing and for that, more details on this topic such as history, definition and devices that use in this technique. This radiography testing firstly started with the discovering of x-ray by Wilhelm Roentgen (1895). So, on 1913, David Coolidge successfully invented and developed x-ray tube that could made x-ray more intensified and produced highly penetration forces. Radiography in Malaysia firstly started two years after the discovery made by Wilhelm Roentgen when one hospital here used the x-ray machine for medical purposes. Besides using x-ray, radiography also used gamma rays, and for these purpose, they used Co-60 and Ir-192. Now, more company based on NDT established to provide a service on inspection pipe and others. For filled these requirement, radiographer must take an exam to make them expert and trained well to work in this field. There is no advantage using this technique or other technique. So that's why this book was published to make people understand what is radiographic testing truly.

  18. On neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron radiography has the features that it enables to perform the inspection, difficult by X- or ?-ray radiography such as the identification of isotopes or the substances having close atomic number, and that it can get the image of strongly radioactive bodies. But it is not yet fully pervaded. Though principal reason is that neutron beam can not be easily obtained outside reactor facility, there is room for the improvement of photographing techniques and problems in the quality and quantity of neutron beam. As neutron beam, the beam collimated to some extent is required, and thermal or epi-thermal neutrons of 105n/cm2sec to 108n/cm2sec are suitable as neutron flux. There are two methods of transcription and direct photographing in photographing techniques. Scintillator converter is sensitive and can be made good resolution depending on production method. However, it is not technically complete and requires further development. At present, the application of neutron radiography is limited mainly to bodies incapable to get images with X-ray, such as reactor fuel and materials. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  19. First experience with digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The digital radiogram is explained, its advantages being the various possibilities of image processing, loss-free transmission, recording and storage capabilities, and in special cases, prompt availability of processed images. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and the high-resolution method of digital, luminescent radiography, which replaced the conventional film-foil radiography, are explained as the first developments for the introduction of digital radiography, which today already is an applicable technique. (orig./MG)

  20. Research Analysis of Cloud Computing?

    OpenAIRE

    Vijay Baskar, G.; Sathees Kumar, N.; Karthick?, N.

    2013-01-01

    Cloud Computing is the emerging buzzword in Information Technology. It is growing day by daydue to its rich features of services. It is a virtual pool of resources which are provided to the users throughInternet. Cloud computing is a new flavor of computing where our trend of using Internet changes. It is thefuture of Internet. It is also called as fifth generation of computing after Mainframe, Personal Computer,Client-Server Computing, and the Web. Nowadays, various Internet services are ava...

  1. Quality assurance in digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At present, there is no standard way of evaluating performance characteristics of digital radiography systems. Continuous measurements of performance parameters are necessary in order to obtain images of high quality. Parameters of quality assurance in digital radiography, which can be evaluated with simple, quick methods, are spatial resolution, low-contrast detectability, dynamic range and exposure dose. Spatial resolution was determined by a lead bar pattern, whereas the other parameters were measured by commercially available phantoms. Performance measurements of 10 digital subtraction angiography (DSA) units and one digital radiography system for unsubtracted digital radiography were assessed. From these results, recommendations for performance parameter levels will be discussed. (author)

  2. Study of positioning techniques for radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A good positioning technique is of great importance in radiology in order to obtain accurate diagnostic information and reduce the patient's X-ray exposure. In positioning training, students place the phantom on the table under an X-ray tube, adjust the position of the phantom, and repeat the positioning practices until they can obtain fine diagnostic images. As X-ray films are usually used in radiography, the development of such films is necessary. In this kind of training practice, it takes a great deal of time to obtain the X-ray image at the phantom position. It is desirable for students to perform positioning accurately and to confirm the results of positioning within a short time. In this article, we propose a new positioning training method using digital image processing. First, we scan the skull phantom by CT (computed tomography) and obtain CT images. Next, we measure the positioning information of the phantom under the X-ray equipment by using scene analysis. Then, we develop a method that produces the plane image corresponding to the detected phantom position under the X-ray tube. It is expected that our method will be useful as a teaching device to help in the practice of the positioning techniques for various organs without X-ray exposure and, furthermore, in the development of X-ray films. (author)

  3. Evaluation of knee-joint cartilage and menisci ten years after isolated and combined ruptures of the medial collateral ligament. Investigation by weight-bearing radiography, MR imaging and analysis of proteoglycan fragments in the joint fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To compare radiography, MR imaging, and chemical analysis in posttraumatic knees. Material and Methods: Ten matched pairs with either isolated partial rupture of the medial collateral ligament or combined medial collateral ligament/anterior cruciate ligament rupture were compared with matched controls 10 years after trauma. Weight-bearing radiographys and MR examinations were compared with proteoglycan fragment concentrations in the joint fluid. Results: The chemical analyses were similar in both trauma groups. The radiographs showed mild signs of arthrosis in half the patients with combined injury. MR images showed almost all injuried knees to have degenerative changes of various degrees in the cartilage and menisci. More frequent and more advanced changes were found after combined injury than after isolated injury (p<0.01). There were no changes in the controls. Conclusion: MR imaging is the best method for detecting and differentiating early posttraumatic knee arthrosis. (orig.)

  4. Radiography room design and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shielding solutions of radiography room should be able to meet the relevant requirements of protection, and not too conservative to waste resources. According to the actual of radiography room, introducing the overall design and shielding solutions of 60Co radiography room, 192lr radiography room, and X-ray radiography room; calculating on the thickness of lead door, the walls, and roofs. Introducing radiography room used for radiation protection measures: Introducing radiation protection measures used in radiography room. The results show that the design and shielding solutions, dose limits and safety measures for radiography room content the relevant requirements. (authors)

  5. The visualization of soil movement by x-ray radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the study of the interaction problems between soil and structures or construction machinery, it is necessary to observe the soil movement around them. And so we have attempted to apply an X-ray radiography method for the visualization of the inner soil movement, which cannot be directly observed. This paper presents an outline of the results of the experimental study on the analysis of inner soil behavior by an X-ray radiography method. (author)

  6. Image enhancement for radiography inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Wong, Brian Stephen; Guan, Tui Chen

    2005-04-01

    The x-ray radiographic testing method is often used for detecting defects as a non-destructive testing method (NDT). In many cases, NDT is used for aircraft components, welds, etc. Hence, the backgrounds are always more complex than a piece of steel. Radiographic images are low contrast, dark and high noise image. It is difficult to detect defects directly. So, image enhancement is a significant part of automated radiography inspection system. Histogram equalization and median filter are the most frequently used techniques to enhance the radiographic images. In this paper, the adaptive histogram equalization and contrast limited histogram equalization are compared with histogram equalization. The adaptive wavelet thresholding is compared with median filter. Through comparative analysis, the contrast limited histogram equalization and adaptive wavelet thresholding can enhance perception of defects better.

  7. Piping stress analysis with personal computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growing market of the personal computers is providing an increasing number of professionals with unprecedented and surprisingly inexpensive computing capacity, which if using with powerful software, can enhance immensely the engineers capabilities. This paper focuses on the possibilities which opened in piping stress analysis by the widespread distribution of personal computers, on the necessary changes in the software and on the limitations of using personal computers for engineering design and analysis. Reliability and quality assurance aspects of using personal computers for nuclear applications are also mentioned. The paper resumes with personal views of the author and experiences gained during interactive graphic piping software development for personal computers. (orig./GL)

  8. Personal Computer Transport Analysis Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiStefano, Frank, III; Wobick, Craig; Chapman, Kirt; McCloud, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Personal Computer Transport Analysis Program (PCTAP) is C++ software used for analysis of thermal fluid systems. The program predicts thermal fluid system and component transients. The output consists of temperatures, flow rates, pressures, delta pressures, tank quantities, and gas quantities in the air, along with air scrubbing component performance. PCTAP s solution process assumes that the tubes in the system are well insulated so that only the heat transfer between fluid and tube wall and between adjacent tubes is modeled. The system described in the model file is broken down into its individual components; i.e., tubes, cold plates, heat exchangers, etc. A solution vector is built from the components and a flow is then simulated with fluid being transferred from one component to the next. The solution vector of components in the model file is built at the initiation of the run. This solution vector is simply a list of components in the order of their inlet dependency on other components. The component parameters are updated in the order in which they appear in the list at every time step. Once the solution vectors have been determined, PCTAP cycles through the components in the solution vector, executing their outlet function for each time-step increment.

  9. Application of neutron radiography in architecture field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron radiography is one of a useful non-destructive methods based upon the fact that the neutron beam is attenuated due to the interaction of neutrons with the nuclei of the atoms in the object materials. With this method, not only the transmission analysis with highly spatial resolution and time resolution, but also monitoring of transport processes of moisture and hydrogenous liquids in porous materials is enabled. This article reviews some researches to apply this technique in architecture field. (author)

  10. Interactive computer programs in sequence data analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Jagadeeswaran, P.; Mcguire, P. M.

    1982-01-01

    We present interactive computer programs for the analysis of nucleic acid sequences. In order to handle these programs, minimum computer experience is sufficient. The nucleotide sequence of the human gamma globin gene complex is used as an example to illustrate the data analysis.

  11. Optimisation in general radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Cj

    2007-04-01

    Radiography using film has been an established method for imaging the internal organs of the body for over 100 years. Surveys carried out during the 1980s identified a wide range in patient doses showing that there was scope for dosage reduction in many hospitals. This paper discusses factors that need to be considered in optimising the performance of radiographic equipment. The most important factor is choice of the screen/film combination, and the preparation of automatic exposure control devices to suit its characteristics. Tube potential determines the photon energies in the X-ray beam, with the selection involving a compromise between image contrast and the dose to the patient. Allied to this is the choice of anti-scatter grid, as a high grid ratio effectively removes the larger component of scatter when using higher tube potentials. However, a high grid ratio attenuates the X-ray beam more heavily. Decisions about grids and use of low attenuation components are particularly important for paediatric radiography, which uses lower energy X-ray beams. Another factor which can reduce patient dose is the use of copper filtration to remove more low-energy X-rays. Regular surveys of patient dose and comparisons with diagnostic reference levels that provide a guide representing good practice enable units for which doses are higher to be identified. Causes can then be investigated and changes implemented to address any shortfalls. Application of these methods has led to a gradual reduction in doses in many countries. PMID:21614270

  12. Proton radiography for clinical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talamonti, C.; Reggioli, V.; Bruzzi, M.; Bucciolini, M.; Civinini, C.; Marrazzo, L.; Menichelli, D.; Pallotta, S.; Randazzo, N.; Sipala, V.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Petterson, M.; Blumenkrantz, N.; Feldt, J.; Heimann, J.; Lucia, D.; Seiden, A.; Williams, D. C.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Bashkirov, V.; Schulte, R.

    2010-01-01

    Proton imaging is not yet applied as a clinical routine, although its advantages have been demonstrated. In the context of quality assurance in proton therapy, proton images can be used to verify the correct positioning of the patient and to control the range of protons. Proton computed tomography (pCT) is a 3D imaging method appropriate for planning and verification of proton radiation treatments, because it allows evaluating the distributions of proton stopping power within the tissues and can be directly utilized when the patient is in the actual treatment position. The aim of the PRoton IMAging experiment, supported by INFN, and the PRIN 2006 project, supported by MIUR, is to realize a proton computed radiography (pCR) prototype for reconstruction of proton images from a single projection in order to validate the technique with pre-clinical studies and, eventually, to conceive the configuration of a complete pCT system. A preliminary experiment performed at the 250 MeV proton synchrotron of Loma Linda University Medical Center (LLUMC) allowed acquisition of experimental data before the completion of PRIMA project's prototype. In this paper, the results of the LLUMC experiment are reported and the reconstruction of proton images of two phantoms is discussed.

  13. A new clinical unit for digital radiography based on a thick amorphous Selenium plate: Physical and psychophysical characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Here, we present a physical and psychophysical characterization of a new clinical unit (named AcSelerate) for digital radiography based on a thick a-Se layer. We also compared images acquired with and without a software filter (named CRF) developed for reducing sharpness and noise of the images and making them similar to images coming from traditional computed radiography systems. Methods: The characterization was achieved in terms of physical figures of merit [modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectra (NPS), detective quantum efficiency (DQE)], and psychophysical parameters (contrast-detail analysis with an automatic reading of CDRAD images). We accomplished measurements with four standard beam conditions: RAQ3, RQA5, RQA7, and RQA9. Results: The system shows an excellent MTF (about 50% at the Nyquist frequency). The DQE is about 55% at 0.5 lp/mm and above 20% at the Nyquist frequency and is almost independent from exposure. The contrast-detail curves are comparable to some of the best published data for other systems devoted to imaging in general radiography. The CRF filter influences both the MTF and NPS, but it does lead to very small changes on DQE. Also the visibility of CDRAD details is basically unaltered, when the filter is activated. Conclusions: As normally happens with detector based on direct conversion, the system presents an excellent MTF. The improved efficiency caused by the thick layer allows getting good noise characteristics allows getting good noise characteristics and DQE results better (about 10% on average) than many of the computed radiography (CR) systems and comparable to those obtained by the best systems for digital radiography available on the market.

  14. Resonance neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production of images by the use of neutrons having energies in the resonance region is described. Two-dimensional position-sensitive neutron detectors are used to produce transmission images using neutron time-of-flight techniques at the National Bureau of Standards' electron linac facility. Two types of detectors are described. The first is a crossed-wire proportional counter using 3He as the neutron-sensitive component. The second type utilizes a multichannel plate electron multiplier and a resistive anode readout. A lithium glass scintillator is the neutron-sensitive component in the latter detector. Resonance neutron radiography, using these detectors, has the capability of producing images with isotopic and chemical element discrimination in a complex matrix with a resolution of 1 mm or better. (Auth.)

  15. Improvements relating to radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improved combination of photosensitive materials suitable for use in radiography is described, with particular reference to a combination for an X-ray intensifying screen of the fluorescent type and a silver halide recorder. The intensifying material comprises a phosphor consisting wholly or mainly of a rare earth metal activated lanthanum oxyhalide, having more than half its spectral energy emission > 410 nm wavelength, more than half its visible light spectral energy emission in the range 400 to 500 nm, and its maximum energy emission peak in the range 400 to 450 nm. The phosphor should have a coverage of at least 200 to 800 g of the oxyhalide per sq. m. The screen material also contains a dye or pigment that absorbs light within the emission spectrum of the phosphor. The photosensitive recording material incorporates at least one silver halide emulsion layer. The combination should give a screen intensification factor of at least 20 to 40 kV. (U.K.)

  16. Radiography geometry principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If one object placed in the field under the sun, we can see the shadow of that object in two dimensional where that object was placed. Nevertheless, the sun cannot penetrate deeply so that it will produce the shadow with same object. This principal also same as radiography, however, with ionizing radiation, it can penetrate through the object so that the image that produced not only the shadow of the object but also what are inside the object. So this can give advantages for the radiographer to make inspection what are inside this object. The images that produce depend with the shape, density, thickness and distance between the object, film and source. The reader also will introduce with some term such as Distance source to film, distance source to object, and distance object to film also some basic on DIN standard and API 1104 Standard.

  17. Filters For Chest Radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, N.; Paron, J.

    1980-08-01

    The objective of low dose radiography is achieved by a judicious combination of proper kV selection, fast film-screen systems and beam filtration. A systematic study of filters was undertaken to evaluate the improvements that can be realized in terms of patient Entrance Skin Exposures (ESE) for chest radiographs. The Picker CD 135 Generator and the Automatic Chest Filmer with dynamic phototiming were used for the study. The kV dependence of ESE with various amounts of zinc and aluminum filtration is presented. The effect of filtration on image contrast is discussed. The variations of ESE with phantom thickness under different filtration conditions are also considered. It was found that the ESE can be reduced by as much as a factor of 1.8 ± .1 with no significant increase in tube loading.

  18. Application of SDS gradient polyacrylamide slab gel electrofluoresis to analysis of apolipoprotein mass and radiography of rat lipoproteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An application of SDS gradient polyacrylamide slab gel electrophoresis to the analysis of lipoprotein polypeptides is described. The 10-15% polyacrylamide gradient provides a high degree of resolution and sensitivity resulting in a single separation of the major apoproteins which can be easily visualized. When combined with autofluorography, individual protein mass and radioactivity can be determined densitometrically while still retaining excellent resolution. Examples of rat lymph and plasma apolipoproteins are shown, and apparent heterogeneity of certain apoprotein subgroups is described. (author)

  19. Numerical Analysis of Multiscale Computations

    CERN Document Server

    Engquist, Björn; Tsai, Yen-Hsi R

    2012-01-01

    This book is a snapshot of current research in multiscale modeling, computations and applications. It covers fundamental mathematical theory, numerical algorithms as well as practical computational advice for analysing single and multiphysics models containing a variety of scales in time and space. Complex fluids, porous media flow and oscillatory dynamical systems are treated in some extra depth, as well as tools like analytical and numerical homogenization, and fast multipole method.

  20. Digital Radiography for Determination of Primary Tooth Length: In Vivo and Ex Vivo Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Maria D.; Jeremias, Fabiano; Cordeiro, Rita C. L.; Santos-Pinto, Lourdes

    2015-01-01

    Background. Methods for determining the root canal length of the primary tooth should yield accurate and reproducible results. In vitro studies show some limitations, which do not allow their findings to be directly transferred to a clinical situation. Aim. To compare the accuracy of radiographic tooth length obtained from in vivo digital radiograph with that obtained from ex vivo digital radiograph. Method. Direct digital radiographs of 20 upper primary incisors were performed in teeth (2/3 radicular resorption) that were radiographed by an intraoral sensor, according to the long-cone technique. Teeth were extracted, measured, and mounted in a resin block, and then radiographic template was used to standardise the sensor-target distance (30?cm). The apparent tooth length (APTL) was obtained from the computer screen by means of an electronic ruler accompanying the digital radiography software (CDR 2.0), whereas the actual tooth length (ACTL) was obtained by means of a digital calliper following extraction. Data were compared to the ACTL by variance analysis and Pearson's correlation test. Results. The values for APTL obtained from in vivo radiography were slightly underestimated, whereas those values obtained from ex vivo were slightly overestimated. No significance was observed (P ? 0.48) between APTL and ACTL. Conclusion. The length of primary teeth estimated by in vivo and ex vivo comparisons using digital radiography was found to be similar to the actual tooth length. PMID:25802894

  1. Heavy ion radiography and tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parodi, K

    2014-07-01

    In the latest years, radiation therapy with ion beams has been rapidly spreading worldwide. This is mainly due to the favourable interaction properties of ion beams with matter, offering the possibility of more conformal dose deposition with superior sparing of healthy tissue in comparison to conventional photon radiation. Moreover, heavier ions like carbon offer a selective increase of biological effectiveness which can be advantageous for the treatment of tumours being resistant to sparsely ionizing radiation. However, full clinical exploitation of the advantages offered by ion beams is still challenged by the lack of exact knowledge of the beam range within the patient. Therefore, increasing research efforts are being devoted to the goal of reducing range uncertainties in ion beam therapy. In this context, ion transmission imaging is being recognized as a promising modality capable of providing valuable pre- (or even "in-between") treatment information on the patient-specific stopping properties for indirect in-vivo range verification and low dose image guidance at the treatment site. The more recent availability of energetic ion beam sources at therapeutic treatment facilities, in combination with the advances in detector technologies and computational power, have considerably renewed the interest in this imaging technique. Nowadays, many research efforts are being devoted to the development of novel detector prototypes for heavy ion radiography and tomography, as will be reviewed in this contribution. PMID:24685181

  2. A Portable Electron Radiography System

    CERN Document Server

    Merrill, Frank E; Harmon, Frank; Hunt, Alan W; King, B J; Morris, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    The technique of charged particle radiography has been developed and proven with 800 MeV protons at LANSCE and 24 GeV protons at the AGS. Recent work at Los Alamos National Laboratory in collaboration with the Idaho Accelerator Center has extended this diagnostic technique to electron radiography through the development of an inexpensive and portable electron radiography system. This system has been designed to use 30 MeV electrons to radiograph thin static and dynamic systems. The system consists of a compact 30 MeV pulsed electron linear accelerator coupled to a quadrupole lens magnifier constructed from permanent magnet quadrupoles. The design features and operational characteristics of this radiography system are presented as well as the radiographic performance parameters.

  3. Euratom neutron radiography working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1979 a Neutron Radiography Working Group (NRWG) was constituted within Euratom with the participation of all centers within the European Community at which neutron facilities were available. The main purpose of NRWG was to standardize methods and procedures used in neutron radiography of nuclear reactor fuel as well as establish standards for radiographic image quality of neutron radiographs. The NRWG meets once a year in each of the neutron radiography centers to review the progress made and draw plans for the future. Besides, ad-hoc sub-groups on different topics within the field of neutron radiography are constituted. This paper reviews the activities and achievements of the NRWG and its sub-groups. (author)

  4. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? View larger with caption A bone ... exposure. top of page What are the limitations of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? While x-ray images ...

  5. Beam characterization at the Neutron Radiography Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The project characterized the beam at the Neutron Radiography Reactor. • Experiments indicate that the neutron energy spectrum model may not be accurate. • The facility is a category I radiography facility. • The beam divergence and effective collimation ratio are 0.3 ± 0.1° and >125. • The predicted total neutron flux at the image plane is 5.54 × 106 n/cm2 s. -- Abstract: The quality of a neutron-imaging beam directly impacts the quality of radiographic images produced using that beam. Fully characterizing a neutron beam, including determination of the beam's effective length-to-diameter ratio, neutron flux profile, energy spectrum, potential image quality, and beam divergence, is vital for producing quality radiographic images. This paper provides a characterization of the east neutron imaging beamline at the Idaho National Laboratory Neutron Radiography Reactor (NRAD). The experiments which measured the beam's effective length-to-diameter ratio and potential image quality are based on American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards. An analysis of the image produced by a calibrated phantom measured the beam divergence. The energy spectrum measurements consist of a series of foil irradiations using a selection of activation foils, compared to the results produced by a Monte Carlo n-Particle (MCNP) model of the beamline. The NRAD has an effective collimation ratio greater than 125, a beam divergence of 0.3 ± 0.1°, and a gold foil cadmium ratio of 2.7. The flux profile has been quantified and the facility is an ASTM Category 1 radiographic facility. Based on bare and cadmium covered foil activation results, the neutron energy spectrum used in the current MCNP model of the radiography beamline over-samples the thermal region of the neutron energy spectrum

  6. Impact analysis on a massively parallel computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced mathematical techniques and computer simulation play a major role in evaluating and enhancing the design of beverage cans, industrial, and transportation containers for improved performance. Numerical models are used to evaluate the impact requirements of containers used by the Department of Energy (DOE) for transporting radioactive materials. Many of these models are highly compute-intensive. An analysis may require several hours of computational time on current supercomputers despite the simplicity of the models being studied. As computer simulations and materials databases grow in complexity, massively parallel computers have become important tools. Massively parallel computational research at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and its application to the impact analysis of shipping containers is briefly described in this paper

  7. Analogue Quantum Computers for Data Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Vlasov, Alexander Yu

    1998-01-01

    Analogue computers use continuous properties of physical system for modeling. In the paper is described possibility of modeling by analogue quantum computers for some model of data analysis. It is analogue associative memory and a formal neural network. A particularity of the models is combination of continuous internal processes with discrete set of output states. The modeling of the system by classical analogue computers was offered long times ago, but now it is not very e...

  8. Axial tomography from digitized real time radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zolnay, A.S.; McDonald, W.M.; Doupont, P.A.; McKinney, R.L.; Lee, M.M.

    1985-01-18

    Axial tomography from digitized real time radiographs provides a useful tool for industrial radiography and tomography. The components of this system are: x-ray source, image intensifier, video camera, video line extractor and digitizer, data storage and reconstruction computers. With this system it is possible to view a two dimensional x-ray image in real time at each angle of rotation and select the tomography plane of interest by choosing which video line to digitize. The digitization of a video line requires less than a second making data acquisition relatively short. Further improvements on this system are planned and initial results are reported.

  9. Adjustment computations spatial data analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Ghilani, Charles D

    2011-01-01

    the complete guide to adjusting for measurement error-expanded and updated no measurement is ever exact. Adjustment Computations updates a classic, definitive text on surveying with the latest methodologies and tools for analyzing and adjusting errors with a focus on least squares adjustments, the most rigorous methodology available and the one on which accuracy standards for surveys are based. This extensively updated Fifth Edition shares new information on advances in modern software and GNSS-acquired data. Expanded sections offer a greater amount of computable problems and their worked solu

  10. Computer Complex for Analysis of Radiographic Images

    International Science & Technology Center (ISTC)

    Research and Development of Soft Hardware Family for Computer Analysis and Evaluation of Radiographs for Assurance a Better Ecological Safety of Oil and Gas Pipelines, Nuclear Power Engineering and Chemical Industry Institutions

  11. Discourse Analysis of Teaching Computing Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Matt

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses the teaching and learning of computing in a Web-conferencing environment. A discourse analysis of three introductory programming learning episodes is presented to demonstrate issues and effects that arise when teaching computing using such an approach. The subject of discussion, the interactive nature of discussion and any…

  12. Present status of structural analysis computer programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The computer programs for the structural analysis by finite element method have been used widely, and the authors carried out the bench mark test on the computer programs for finite element method already. As the result, they pointed out a number of problems concerning the use of the computer programs for finite element method. In this paper, the details of their development, the analytical function and the examples of calculation are described centering around the versatile computer programs used for the previous study. As the versatile computer programs for finite element method, ANSYS developed by Swanson Analysis System Co., USA, ASKA developed by ISD, West Germany, MARC developed by MARC Analysis Research Institute, NASTRAN developed by NASA, USA, SAP-4 developed by University of California, ADINA developed by MIT, NEPSAP developed by Lockheed Missile Space Co., BERSAFE developed by CEGB, Great Britain, EPACA developed by Franklin Research Institute, USA, and CREEP-PLAST developed by GE are briefly introduced. As the exampled of calculation, the thermal elastoplastic creep analysis of a cylinder by ANSYS, the elastoplastic analysis of a pressure vessel by ASKA, the analysis of a plate with double cracks by MARC, the analysis of the buckling of a shallow arch by MSC-NASTRAN, and the elastoplastic analysis of primary cooling pipes by ADINA are explained. (Kako, I.)

  13. Evaluation of diagnostic ability of CCD digital radiography in the detection of incipient dental caries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the diagnostic ability of a CCD-based digital system (CDX-2000HQ) in the detection of incipient dental caries. 93 extracted human teeth with sound proximal surfaces and interproximal artificial cavities were radiographed using 4 imaging methods. Automatically processed No.2 Insight film (Eastman Kodak Co., U.S.A.) was used for conventional radiography, scanned images of conventional radiograms for indirect digital radiography were used. For the direct digital radiography, the CDX-2000HQ CCD system (Biomedisys Co. Korea) was used. The subtraction images were made from two direct digital images by Sunny program in the CDX-2000HQ system. Two radiologists and three endodontists examined the presence of lesions using a five-point confidence scale and compared the diagnostic ability by ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) analysis and one way ANOVA test. The mean ROC areas of conventional radiography, indirect digital radiography, direct digital radiography, and digital subtraction radiography were 0.9093, 0.9102, 0.9184, and 0.9056, respectively. The diagnostic ability of direct digital radiography was better than the other imaging modalities, but there were no statistical differences among these imaging modalities (p>0.05). These results indicate that new CCD-based digital systems (CDX-2000HQ) have the potential to serve as an alternative to conventional radiography in the detection of incipient dental caries.n of incipient dental caries.

  14. Efficiency tests of impregnating agents for porous materials by means of neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron radiography is particularly suited as sensitive method for the determination of moisture and moisture-sealing materials in porous building materials. For the determination of the properties and efficiency of moisture-sealing materials a STMA, standard testing moisture analysis by means of neutron radiography was developed. This method was among others recommended by the Czech building industry as STMA. (orig.)

  15. Distributed computing and nuclear reactor analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large-scale scientific and engineering calculations for nuclear reactor analysis can now be carried out effectively in a distributed computing environment, at costs far lower than for traditional mainframes. The distributed computing environment must include support for traditional system services, such as a queuing system for batch work, reliable filesystem backups, and parallel processing capabilities for large jobs. All ANL computer codes for reactor analysis have been adapted successfully to a distributed system based on workstations and X-terminals. Distributed parallel processing has been demonstrated to be effective for long-running Monte Carlo calculations

  16. Study of phase transitions of partially miscible 3-methylpyridine-heavy water mixture by dynamic neutron radiography, image analysis and neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neural network models were used to extract temperature information from phases in the closed-loop phase diagram of 3-methylpyridine-heavy water mixture, studied by dynamic neutron radiography, into the output space. The heuristic variable learning rate backpropagation (traingda, traingdx) and one-step secan (quasi-Newton) (trainoss) resulted in the least mean square error. To the fastest algorithms with acceptable mean square error belonged the conjugate gradient backpropagation algorithms (trainscg, traincgf, traincgb, traincgp) and the resilient backpropagation (trainrp).

  17. Calibrating automatic exposure control devices for digital radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, P.; Martin, C. J.

    2006-11-01

    The energy responses of digital radiography detectors differ from those of screen-film systems. To provide a consistent level of image quality at different tube potentials automatic exposure control (AEC) devices must be calibrated to suit the energy response of the image receptor with which they are intended for use. AEC calibration for digital radiography systems requires an alternative parameter to optical density, ideally one related to the quality of a digital image. Energy responses of computed radiography (CR) and indirect digital radiography (IDR) image receptors have been calculated, and compared with those for screen-film systems. Practical assessments of the relative sensitivities of a CR detector made using the detector dose indicator (DDI), pixel value and signal-to-noise ratio showed similar variations with tube potential. The DDI has been used to determine the correct kV compensation curve required to calibrate the AECs for the loss in detector sensitivity with tube potential. AECs are set up relative to a predetermined air kerma incident on the detector at 80 kV for CR and IDR systems using this curve and the method used is described. Factors influencing the calibration of AECs for digital radiography including techniques, types of phantom and contributions from scatter are reviewed, and practical methods recommended for use.

  18. Image quality and exposure dose in digital projection radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Comparison of the imaging capabilities of storage phosphor (computed) radiography and flat plate radiography with conventional film-screen radiography to find new strategies for quality and dose management, i.e., optimizing imaging quality and dose depending on the imaging method and clinical situation. Materials and Methods: Images of a CDRAD-phantom, hand-phantom, abdomen-phantom and chest-phantom obtained with different exposure voltages (50 kV, 73 kV, 109 kV) and different speeds (200, 400, 800, 1600) were processed with various digital systems (flat plate detector: Digital Diagnost [Philips]; storage phosphors: ADC-70 [Agfa], ADC-Solo [Agfa], FCR XG 1 [Fuji]) and a conventional film-screen system (HT100G/Ortho Regular [Agfa]). Results: The evaluation of CDRAD images found the flat plate detector system to have the highest contrast detectability for all dose levels, followed by the FCR XG 1, ADC-Solo and ADC-70 systems. Comparison of the organ-phantom images found the flat plate detector system to be equal to film-screen radiography and especially to storage phosphor systems even for low exposure doses. Conclusions: Flat plate radiography systems demonstrate the highest potential for high image quality when reducing the exposure dose. Depending on the system generation, the storage phosphor systems also show an improved image quality, but the possibility of a dose reduction is limited in comparison with the flat plate detector system. (orig.)late detector system. (orig.)

  19. Calibrating automatic exposure control devices for digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy responses of digital radiography detectors differ from those of screen-film systems. To provide a consistent level of image quality at different tube potentials automatic exposure control (AEC) devices must be calibrated to suit the energy response of the image receptor with which they are intended for use. AEC calibration for digital radiography systems requires an alternative parameter to optical density, ideally one related to the quality of a digital image. Energy responses of computed radiography (CR) and indirect digital radiography (IDR) image receptors have been calculated, and compared with those for screen-film systems. Practical assessments of the relative sensitivities of a CR detector made using the detector dose indicator (DDI), pixel value and signal-to-noise ratio showed similar variations with tube potential. The DDI has been used to determine the correct kV compensation curve required to calibrate the AECs for the loss in detector sensitivity with tube potential. AECs are set up relative to a predetermined air kerma incident on the detector at 80 kV for CR and IDR systems using this curve and the method used is described. Factors influencing the calibration of AECs for digital radiography including techniques, types of phantom and contributions from scatter are reviewed, and practical methods recommended for use

  20. Dual energy radiography using active detector technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new technology has been implemented using an open-quotes active-detectorclose quotes comprised of two computed radiography (CR) imaging plates in a sandwich geometry for dual-energy radiography. This detector allows excellent energy separation, short exposure time, and high signal to noise ratio (SNR) for clinically robust open-quotes bone-onlyclose quotes and open-quotes soft-tissue onlyclose quotes images with minimum patient motion. Energy separation is achieved by two separate exposures at widely different kVp's: the high energy (120 kVp + 1.5 mm Cu filter) exposure is initiated first, followed by a short burst of intense light to erase the latent image on the front plate, and then a 50 kVp (low energy) exposure. A personal computer interfaced to the x-ray generator, filter wheel, and active detector system orchestrates the acquisition sequence within a time period of 150 msec. The front and back plates are processed using a CR readout algorithm with fixed speed and wide dynamic range. open-quotes Bone-onlyclose quotes and open-quotes soft-tissue onlyclose quotes images are calculated by geometric alignment of the two images and application of dual energy decomposition algorithms on a pixel by pixel basis. Resultant images of a calibration phantom demonstrate an increase of SNR2 / dose by ?73 times when compared to a single exposure open-quotes passive-detectorclose quotes comprised of CR imaging plates, and an ?8 fold increase compared to a screen ?8 fold increase compared to a screen-film dual-energy cassette comprised of different phosphor compounds. In conclusion, dual energy imaging with open-quotes active detectorclose quotes technology is clinically feasible and can provide substantial improvements over conventional methods for dual-energy radiography

  1. Drugs detection by neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the several methods of non-destructive test that can be used to the detection of drugs and also explosives, the ones that use nuclear techniques have been showing to have essential qualities an efficient detection system because they allow for inspect a large quantity of sample in a rapid, sensible, specific and automatic decision way, as they already utilize radiation of great power of penetration. This work aims to show the neutron radiography potentially to the detection of the drugs even when they are concealed by heavy materials. In the radiographic test with thermal neutron, samples of powder cocaine (90% and 50% of purity degree) were inspected in paste and in crack inclusively concealed by several materials. The samples were irradiated during 30 minutes in the J-9 channel of the Argonauta research reactor of the IEN/CNEN in a flux of neutron of 5 x 105 n/cm2.s1. We used two sheets of gadolinium converter 25 ?m thick each and a Kodak Industrex A5 photographic plate. A comparative analysis among the radiographic images obtained with X-ray and neutrons is shown. From the images obtained by neutrongraphy we concluded that the system was capable of detecting the drug, even when it is concealed by materials. (author)

  2. Radiography with heavy particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The failure of x-ray diagnostic techniques to accurately detect tumors and other regions of abnormal density in soft tissue has been, for many years, a significant shortcoming of this important technique in medicine. Accelerated heavy particles with plastics for track detection can be used to record small differences in density in soft tissues which may correspond to biological structures and abnormalities. In heavy-particle radiography (HPR), plastic detectors are well suited for recording images since their threshold nature makes them insensitive to spurious low-LET radiations and light secondaries. Sources of error which limit the resolution of HPR are inversely dependent on the atomic mass number (A) of the incident particle. Range straggling, responsible for loss of depth resolution, is proportional to A-05 while multiple scattering which degrades lateral resolution is approximately proportional to A-0.395. Recent experiments showing calcification in human blood vessels and soft tissue features in rats underline the potential of HPR as a diagnostic tool. High-resolution, three-dimensional reconstructions are possible using multiple layer plastic detectors and the short exposure time produces blur-free radiographs of specimens whose internal structure may be in motion. (auth)

  3. Comparative Analysis Of Cloud Computing Security Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AKRAM MUJAHID

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Almost all the organizations are seriously thinking to adopt the cloud computingservices, seeing its benefits in terms of cost, accessibility, availability, flexibility andhighly automated process of updation. Cloud Computing enhance the current capabilitiesdynamically without further investment. Cloud Computing is a band of resources, applicationsand services. In cloud computing customer’s access IT related services in terms of infrastructure platform and software without getting knowledge of underlying technologies. With the executionof cloud computing, organizations have strong concerns about the security of their data.Organizations are hesitating to take initiatives in the deployment of their businesses due to data security problem. This paper gives an overview of cloud computing and analysis of security issues in cloud computing.

  4. Analysis by synchrotron X-ray radiography of convection effects on the dynamic evolution of the solid-liquid interface and on solute distribution during the initial transient of solidification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogno, A., E-mail: abdoul-aziz.bogno@im2np.fr [Aix Marseille Universite, Campus Saint-Jerome, Case 142, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); CNRS, UMR 6242, Campus Saint-Jerome, Case 142, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Nguyen-Thi, H. [Aix Marseille Universite, Campus Saint-Jerome, Case 142, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); CNRS, UMR 6242, Campus Saint-Jerome, Case 142, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Buffet, A. [ESRF, Avenue des Martyrs, BP 220, 38048 Grenoble Cedex (France); Reinhart, G.; Billia, B.; Mangelinck-Noel, N.; Bergeon, N. [Aix Marseille Universite, Campus Saint-Jerome, Case 142, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); CNRS, UMR 6242, Campus Saint-Jerome, Case 142, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Baruchel, J. [ESRF, Avenue des Martyrs, BP 220, 38048 Grenoble Cedex (France); Schenk, T. [LPM - ENSMN, Parc de Saurupt, 54042 Nancy Cedex (France)

    2011-06-15

    In situ monitoring of the initial transient of directional solidification was carried out by means of synchrotron X-ray radiography. Experiments with Al-4 wt.% Cu alloy samples were performed on beamline ID19 of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) in a dedicated Bridgman-type furnace. X-ray radiography enabled a detailed analysis of the evolution over time of the solid-liquid interface macroscopic shape in interaction with convection in the melt. Lateral solute segregation induced by fluid flow resulted in a significant deformation of the solid-liquid interface. The time-dependent velocity of the solidification front was determined at different abscissa values along the curved interface during the solidification process, from the growth phase with a smooth interface to the onset of morphological instability. Further, using a novel quantitative image analysis technique we were able to measure longitudinal solute profiles in the melt during the initial transient. Solutal length was then deduced as well as concentration in the melt, both at the interface and far away from it. The influence of convection on growth velocity and the characteristic parameters of the solute boundary layer are discussed, and a comparison with the Warren and Langer model is also presented.

  5. Analysis by synchrotron X-ray radiography of convection effects on the dynamic evolution of the solid-liquid interface and on solute distribution during the initial transient of solidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In situ monitoring of the initial transient of directional solidification was carried out by means of synchrotron X-ray radiography. Experiments with Al-4 wt.% Cu alloy samples were performed on beamline ID19 of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) in a dedicated Bridgman-type furnace. X-ray radiography enabled a detailed analysis of the evolution over time of the solid-liquid interface macroscopic shape in interaction with convection in the melt. Lateral solute segregation induced by fluid flow resulted in a significant deformation of the solid-liquid interface. The time-dependent velocity of the solidification front was determined at different abscissa values along the curved interface during the solidification process, from the growth phase with a smooth interface to the onset of morphological instability. Further, using a novel quantitative image analysis technique we were able to measure longitudinal solute profiles in the melt during the initial transient. Solutal length was then deduced as well as concentration in the melt, both at the interface and far away from it. The influence of convection on growth velocity and the characteristic parameters of the solute boundary layer are discussed, and a comparison with the Warren and Langer model is also presented.

  6. Computational analysis of Ancylostoma ceylanicum cysteine proteinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baska, Piotr; Wísniewski, Marcin; Mieszczanek, Juliusz; Wedrychowicz, Halina

    2006-01-01

    The potential tertiary structure of Ancylostoma ceylanicum cysteine proteinase was obtained by Automatic Program 3D-JIGSAW and used for finding homologues of known structure by VAST program. The results of computational analysis showed the presence of domains recognizing host immunoglobulins. Based on this analysis we suggest that this protein is involved in cleaving of host antibodies and therefore it may be promising vaccine candidate. In this paper we present the computational analysis of parasitic antigen which is very helpful in evaluation of the potential role of this protein. PMID:17432618

  7. Assessing the use of digital radiography and a real-time interactive pulmonary nodule analysis system for large population lung cancer screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rationale and objectives: To assess the use of chest digital radiograph (DR) assisted with a real-time interactive pulmonary nodule analysis system in large population lung cancer screening. Materials and methods: 346 DR/CR patient studies with corresponding CT images were selected from 12,500 patients screened for lung cancer from year 2007 to 2009. Two expert chest radiologists established CT-confirmed Gold Standard of nodules on DR/CR images with consensus. These cases were read by eight other chest radiologists (participating radiologists) first without using a real-time interactive pulmonary nodule analysis system and then re-read using the system. Performances of participating radiologists and the computer system were analyzed. Results: The computer system achieved similar performance on DR and CR images, with a detection rate of 76% and an average FPs of 2.0 per image. Before and after using the computer-aided detection system, the nodule detection sensitivities of the participating radiologists were 62.3% and 77.3% respectively, and the Az values increased from 0.794 to 0.831. Statistical analysis demonstrated statically significant improvement for the participating radiologists after using the computer analysis system with a P-value 0.05. Conclusion: The computer system could help radiologists identify more lesions, especially small ones that are more likely to be overlooked on chest DR/CR images, and could help reduce inter-observer diagnostic var help reduce inter-observer diagnostic variations, while its FPs were easy to recognize and dismiss. It is suggested that DR/CR assisted by the real-time interactive pulmonary nodule analysis system may be an effective means to screen large populations for lung cancer.

  8. The NASTRAN computer program for structural analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macneal, R. H.; Mccormick, C. W.

    1971-01-01

    Discussion of a large NASA-sponsored digital computer program for static and dynamic analysis of structures with linear or nonlinear material properties. The program fits to perform buckling analysis, vibration mode analysis of conservative or damped systems, frequency response analysis, and transient response analysis on the IBM 360, UNIVAC 1108, and CDC 6600 computers. It also provides automatic generation of several types of loads such as gravity loads and thermal strain loads, plots of deformed and nondeformed structures, and the choice of alternate analysis methods such as direct or modal formulations of dynamic problems. The program is intended primarily for large problems involving hundreds of thousands of degrees of freedom. A flexible Executive System is provided to facilitate the addition of new functional capabilities to the program.

  9. Turbo Pascal Computer Code for PIXE Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To optimal utilization of the 150 kV ion accelerator facilities and to govern the analysis technique using ion accelerator, the research and development of low energy PIXE technology has been done. The R and D for hardware of the low energy PIXE installation in P3TM have been carried on since year 2000. To support the R and D of PIXE accelerator facilities in harmonize with the R and D of the PIXE hardware, the development of PIXE software for analysis is also needed. The development of database of PIXE software for analysis using turbo Pascal computer code is reported in this paper. This computer code computes the ionization cross-section, the fluorescence yield, and the stopping power of elements also it computes the coefficient attenuation of X- rays energy. The computer code is named PIXEDASIS and it is part of big computer code planed for PIXE analysis that will be constructed in the near future. PIXEDASIS is designed to be communicative with the user. It has the input from the keyboard. The output shows in the PC monitor, which also can be printed. The performance test of the PIXEDASIS shows that it can be operated well and it can provide data agreement with data form other literatures. (author)

  10. Computer aided nonlinear electrical networks analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slapnicar, P.

    1977-01-01

    Techniques used in simulating an electrical circuit with nonlinear elements for use in computer-aided circuit analysis programs are described. Elements of the circuit include capacitors, resistors, inductors, transistors, diodes, and voltage and current sources (constant or time varying). Simulation features are discussed for dc, ac, and/or transient circuit analysis. Calculations are based on the model approach of formulating the circuit equations. A particular solution of transient analysis for nonlinear storage elements is described.

  11. [Fabrication of improved multi-slit equipment to obtain the input-output characteristics of computed radiography systems: correction of the heel effect, and application to high tube-voltage experiments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maehata, Itsumi; Hayashi, Hiroaki; Takegami, Kazuki; Ujita, Syohei; Kimoto, Natsumi; Konishi, Yuki; Fukuda, Ikuma

    2014-09-01

    Multi-slit equipment is a new experimental apparatus that can measure the input-output characteristics of a CR (computed radiography) system with limited influence of the fading effect. Kimoto et al. recently proposed a new type of multi-slit apparatus in which the multi-slit setup, the insertion region of the phosphor plate, and plate shielding are integrated to create a single handy-type item (an all-in-one type multi-slit apparatus). However, some problems remained unsolved. The aims of this study were to devise a setup for application to high tube voltage conditions, and to improve the all-in-one type multi-slit equipment so as to correct the heel effect. We examined the capabilities of our improved multi-slit equipment using diagnostic X-ray apparatus and found that it can obtain input-output characteristics with 5% accuracy for tube voltages of 40-140 kV and SID (source to image receptor distances) of 50-200 cm. PMID:25242595

  12. Neutron radiography techniques and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the 1960's, neutron radiography became recognized as a potentially important nondestructive testing tool for industrial applications. The author discusses how neutron radiography is used today for a variety of nondestructive testing applications. In general, neutron radiography and x-radiography tend to complement one another when applied to the same object. Because materials exhibit different attenuation characteristics for neutrons than they do for x-rays, the resulting radiographs emphasize different features for the object. Neutron attenuation is governed by the nuclear scattering and absorption cross-sections of the material, which may vary even between isotopes of a given element, rather than density or any other physical or chemical property of the material. For example, lead, which is very difficult to penetrate with x-rays, is easily penetrated by a neutron beam. Hydrogenous materials such as o-rings, corrosion products, and explosive compounds have high scattering cross-sections and excellent energy moderation characteristics for neutrons and can be imaged easily using neutron radiography even when surrounded with a denser material such as metal

  13. Avaliação da tomografia de alta resolução versus radiografia de tórax na doença intersticial pulmonar na esclerose sistêmica High-resolution computed tomography versus chest radiography in the diagnosis of interstitial lung disease in systemic sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Beatriz Cordeiro de Azevedo

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a acurácia da tomografia de alta resolução (TCAR do tórax em relação à radiografia simples (RX do tórax no diagnóstico de doença intersticial pulmonar relacionada à esclerose sistêmica (ES. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foram realizados TCAR e RX de tórax em póstero-anterior e perfil em 34 pacientes com diagnóstico de ES, segundo critérios do Colégio Americano de Reumatologia, e feita comparação entre as prevalências dos achados radiológicos sugestivos de doença intersticial pulmonar encontradas com estes dois métodos de imagem. RESULTADOS: Foram observadas alterações em 31 (91% das TCAR, enquanto 16 (47% dos RX de tórax se apresentavam alterados. Os achados mais freqüentes à TCAR foram: linhas septais (74%, faveolamento (56% e bandas parenquimatosas (26%, localizados predominantemente nas bases pulmonares. Os RX de tórax demonstraram áreas de infiltrado reticular em 32% dos casos e distorção parenquimatosa em 12% dos pacientes. Em 18 (53% pacientes com RX de tórax normal a TCAR revelou espessamento septal em 55%, vidro fosco em 44%, faveolamento em 38,5% e cistos em 33%. CONCLUSÃO: A TCAR é mais sensível que o RX de tórax para a investigação de envolvimento intersticial pulmonar inicial em pacientes com ES, justificando, em casos incipientes, tratamento com terapia imunossupressora.OBJECTIVE: To compare the accuracy of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT with chest radiography in the diagnosis of interstitial lung disease in systemic sclerosis (SSc. MATERIALS AND METHODS: HRCT scans and chest radiographs in postero-anterior and lateral views were performed in 34 patients with systemic sclerosis, according to the American College of Rheumatology preliminary criteria for the diagnosis of SSc. The prevalence of radiological findings suggestive of interstitial lung disease in SSc seen on both imaging methods was compared. RESULTS: Interstitial disease was observed on HRCT images of 31 patients (91% and in the chest radiographs of 16 patients (47%. The most frequent findings observed on HRCT were septal lines (74%, honeycombing (56% and parenchymal bands (26%. Chest radiographs showed reticular areas of attenuation in 11 patients (32% and parenchymal distortion in 12% of the patients. In 18 patients (53% with normal chest radiographs HRCT showed septal lines in 55%, ground glass in 44%, honeycombing in 38.5% and cysts in 33%. CONCLUSION: HRCT is more sensitive than chest radiography in the evaluation of incipient interstitial lung involvement in patients with SSc and can provide a justification for immunosuppressive therapy in patients with early disease.

  14. Avaliação da tomografia de alta resolução versus radiografia de tórax na doença intersticial pulmonar na esclerose sistêmica / High-resolution computed tomography versus chest radiography in the diagnosis of interstitial lung disease in systemic sclerosis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Beatriz Cordeiro de, Azevedo; Silvana Mangeon Meirelles, Guimarães; Wilson Campos, Tavares Júnior; Débora, Calderaro; Hilton Muniz, Leão Filho; Cid Sergio, Ferreira; José Nelson Mendes, Vieira; Diego Correa de, Andrade; Caio, Moreira.

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a acurácia da tomografia de alta resolução (TCAR) do tórax em relação à radiografia simples (RX) do tórax no diagnóstico de doença intersticial pulmonar relacionada à esclerose sistêmica (ES). MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foram realizados TCAR e RX de tórax em póstero-anterior e perfil em [...] 34 pacientes com diagnóstico de ES, segundo critérios do Colégio Americano de Reumatologia, e feita comparação entre as prevalências dos achados radiológicos sugestivos de doença intersticial pulmonar encontradas com estes dois métodos de imagem. RESULTADOS: Foram observadas alterações em 31 (91%) das TCAR, enquanto 16 (47%) dos RX de tórax se apresentavam alterados. Os achados mais freqüentes à TCAR foram: linhas septais (74%), faveolamento (56%) e bandas parenquimatosas (26%), localizados predominantemente nas bases pulmonares. Os RX de tórax demonstraram áreas de infiltrado reticular em 32% dos casos e distorção parenquimatosa em 12% dos pacientes. Em 18 (53%) pacientes com RX de tórax normal a TCAR revelou espessamento septal em 55%, vidro fosco em 44%, faveolamento em 38,5% e cistos em 33%. CONCLUSÃO: A TCAR é mais sensível que o RX de tórax para a investigação de envolvimento intersticial pulmonar inicial em pacientes com ES, justificando, em casos incipientes, tratamento com terapia imunossupressora. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To compare the accuracy of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) with chest radiography in the diagnosis of interstitial lung disease in systemic sclerosis (SSc). MATERIALS AND METHODS: HRCT scans and chest radiographs in postero-anterior and lateral views were performed in 34 patien [...] ts with systemic sclerosis, according to the American College of Rheumatology preliminary criteria for the diagnosis of SSc. The prevalence of radiological findings suggestive of interstitial lung disease in SSc seen on both imaging methods was compared. RESULTS: Interstitial disease was observed on HRCT images of 31 patients (91%) and in the chest radiographs of 16 patients (47%). The most frequent findings observed on HRCT were septal lines (74%), honeycombing (56%) and parenchymal bands (26%). Chest radiographs showed reticular areas of attenuation in 11 patients (32%) and parenchymal distortion in 12% of the patients. In 18 patients (53%) with normal chest radiographs HRCT showed septal lines in 55%, ground glass in 44%, honeycombing in 38.5% and cysts in 33%. CONCLUSION: HRCT is more sensitive than chest radiography in the evaluation of incipient interstitial lung involvement in patients with SSc and can provide a justification for immunosuppressive therapy in patients with early disease.

  15. DFT computational analysis of piracetam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajesh, P.; Gunasekaran, S.; Seshadri, S.; Gnanasambandan, T.

    2014-11-01

    Density functional theory calculation with B3LYP using 6-31G(d,p) and 6-31++G(d,p) basis set have been used to determine ground state molecular geometries. The first order hyperpolarizability (?0) and related properties (?, ?0 and ??) of piracetam is calculated using B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) method on the finite-field approach. The stability of molecule has been analyzed by using NBO/NLMO analysis. The calculation of first hyperpolarizability shows that the molecule is an attractive molecule for future applications in non-linear optics. Molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) at a point in the space around a molecule gives an indication of the net electrostatic effect produced at that point by the total charge distribution of the molecule. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies show that charge transfer occurs within these molecules. Mulliken population analysis on atomic charge is also calculated. Because of vibrational analysis, the thermodynamic properties of the title compound at different temperatures have been calculated. Finally, the UV-Vis spectra and electronic absorption properties are explained and illustrated from the frontier molecular orbitals.

  16. Digital selenium radiography: anti-scatter grid for chest radiography in a clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, T M; Rapp-Bernhardt, U; Hausmann, T; Reichel, G; Krause, U W; Doehring, W

    2000-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of an additional stationary anti-scatter grid in digital selenium radiography (DSR) compared with images acquired with only an air gap. Chest radiographs were obtained with DSR in 100 patients with and without an anti-scatter grid. Four observers scored 12 anatomical landmarks, catheters and wire cerclages for their visualization in both subsets of images. Statistical analysis was performed using a paired t-test. Anatomical landmarks, catheters and wire cerclages were statistically better visualized in regions of high attenuation when the images were performed with an anti-scatter grid. No statistically significant difference was noted for peripheral regions, nor for sex and weight of the patient between the two modalities. Therefore, an anti-scatter grid is not recommended for chest radiography as it increases the radiation exposure of patients without having a significant impact on visualization for all regions of the chest. PMID:11064649

  17. Medium range energy proton nuclear scattering radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis is concerned with a new application of the strong nuclear interaction aiming to radiographic analysis. In this work, some physical processes have been analyzed with detail; these processes play a fundamental role in method quality and limitations; they have been detailed to facilitate comprehension to scientists who are not nuclear physicists. To better appreciate specific qualities of the RDN (Radiography par Diffusion Nucleaire), a chapter reviews strong nuclear interaction properties. Then, the experimental device is described, processing and acquisition system. Spatial resolution and sensitivity limits are studied. Results are presented

  18. MTX data acquisition and analysis computer network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the MTX experiment, we use a network of computers for plasma diagnostic data acquisition and analysis. This multivendor network employs VMS, UNIX, and BASIC based computers connected in a local area Ethernet network. Some of the data is acquired directly into a VAX/VMS computer cluster over a fiber-optic serial CAMAC highway. Several HP-Unix workstations and HP-BASIC instrument control computers acquire and analyze data for the more data intensive or specialized diagnostics. The VAX/VMS system is used for global analysis of the data and serves as the central data archiving and retrieval manager. Shot synchronization and control of data flow are implemented by task-to-task message passing using our interprocess communication system. The system has been in operation during our initial MTX tokamak and FEL experiments; it has operated reliably with data rates typically in the range of 5 Mbytes/shot without limiting the experimental shot rate

  19. CFRMF neutron radiography facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In reviewing the existing sources for neutron radiography it was determined early that the Coupled Fast Reactivity Measurement Facility (CFRMF) was the logical and economical choice. It is a swimming pool type reactor with space available for a collimator-radiograph assembly and a canal depth sufficient to reduce shielding requirements. The neutron source strength is sufficient to provide superior resolution with reasonable exposure times. The ratio of the source-sample distance to the source diameter (L/D) is an aspect ratio commonly quoted to indicate potential resolution; i.e., the greater the L/D ratio the better the resolution obtainable. Based on recent measurements using CFRMF nuclear radiograph facility, an L/D ratio of 200 has been obtained with reasonable exposure times (approximately 1 hr). The CFRMF radiograph facility is a dry tube facility. It is designed for radiographing radioactive materials which in most cases are irradiated fuel pins. It incorporates a platform placed on the canal parapet with shielding extending below the canal water level, shielded doors and positioning dowels for placement of a shielded cask. The dry tube of the radiograph assembly extends to the bottom of the canal, and into a hole extending 245 cm below the canal floor. A tapered collimater passes neutrons from the core to the samples to be radiographed. Dimensions of this collimater are: length 254 cm, maximum source aperture diameter 2.54 cm, object aperture 10 cm by 91 cm. Other source apertures of 1.9 cm and 1.27 cm are also provided. Samples longer than 91 cm require multiple radiographs to cover the entire length. Maximum sample length that can be accomodated is 416 m. Sample containment is incorporated in the positioning fixture so that contamination of the facility by the sample or vice versa is eliminated

  20. Computer analysis of face beauty: a survey

    OpenAIRE

    Laurentini, Aldo; Bottino, Andrea Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The human face conveys to other human beings, and potentially to computer systems, information such as identity, intentions, emotional and health states, attractiveness, age, gender and ethnicity. In most cases analyzing this information involves the computer science as well as the human and medical sciences. The most studied multidisciplinary problems are analyzing emotions, estimating age and modeling aging effects. An emerging area is the analysis of human attractiveness. The purpose of th...