WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Improving Teacher Education through Inquiry-Based Learning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Preservice educators face daunting challenges throughout their professional development, but no challenge is greater than that of contextualizing their instruction within multicultural environments. Addressing the increasing diversity and ever-changing cultures within student populations is often skimmed over within teacher education curriculums; yet, its importance to the success of preservice teachers cannot be understated. Investigators developed two specific projects which led teacher candidates to innovate and promote inquiry-based learning within their elementary learners. These practical, real-world applications took teacher candidates through the process of effective instruction: assessment, modeling, scaffolding, and evaluation.

Evan Ortlieb

2011-01-01

2

Learning Outcomes of Project-Based and Inquiry-Based Learning Activities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Organization of science learning activities is appnecessary to rely on various methods of organization of learning and to be appropriate to learners. Organization of project-based learning activities and inquiry-based learning activities are teaching methods which can help students understand scientific knowledge. It would be more efficient. This study aimed to compare learning achievement, science process skills and analytical thinking of fifth grade students who learned by using organization of project-based and inquiry-based learning activities. Approach: The sample used in the study consisted of 88 fifth grade students, 2 selected classrooms at Muang Nakhon Ratchasima School, under the Office of Nakhon Ratchasima Educational Service Area Zone 1 in the first semester of the academic year 2008, obtained cluster random sampling technique. Students were divided into 2 groups, 44 students each. The research instruments used in the study were lesson plans for organization of project-based and inquiry-based learning activities, 8 plans each; a 30-item 4-choice science learning achievement test with discriminating powers ranging 0.28-0.46 and a reliability of 0.86; a 20-item 4-choice science process skill test with difficulties (P) ranging 0.36-0.68, discriminating powers ranging 0.38-0.72 and a reliability of 0.82 and a 20-item 4-choice analytical thinking test with difficulties (P) ranging 0.44-0.67, discriminating powers ranging 0.32-0.81 and a reliability 0.76. Hotelling T2 was employed for testing hypotheses. Results: The plans for organization of project-based and inquiry-based learning activities in the science learning had efficiencies 89.05/78.79 of project-based learning and 87.58/78.64 of inquiry-based learning in respectively. The plans for organization of project-based and inquiry-based learning activities had effectiveness indices 0.6774 of project-based learning and 0.6781of inquiry-based learning in respectively. Students who learned using the plans for organization of project-based learning activities and those who learned using the plans for organization of inquiry-based learning activities did not have different learning achievement, science process skills and analytical thinking (p>0.05). Conclusion: In conclusion, the plans for organization of project-based and inquiry-based learning activities were appropriately efficient and effective. The students in 2 groups did not show different learning achievement, science process skills and analytical thinking. Therefore, science teachers could implement both of these teaching methods in organization of activities as appropriate for learners to achieve in the future.

Mookdaporn Panasan; Prasart Nuangchalerm

2010-01-01

3

Learning Outcomes of Project-Based and Inquiry-Based Learning Activities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem statement: Organization of science learning activities is appnecessary to rely on various methods of organization of learning and to be appropriate to learners. Organization of project-based learning activities and inquiry-based learning activities are teaching methods which can help ...

Mookdaporn Panasan; Prasart Nuangchalerm

4

Cognitive Development, Analytical Thinking, and Learning Satisfaction of Second Grade Students learned through Inquiry-based Learning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Science teaching needs to be able students having knowledge and understanding. Also, students have to develop their thinking skills it should help students meet real science through inquiry-based pedagogical process. This study aims to (i) investigate effective teaching criterion through inquiry-based teaching at 80/80, (ii) find out effectiveness index of inquiry-based teaching, (iii) compare analytical thinking between before and after students had learned by inquiry-based learning activities, and (iv) study learning satisfaction of second grade students after they had learned through inquiry method. Participants of the study were 10 second grade students, sampled by purposive sampling technique. Research instruments comprised of 8-lesson plan, 20-item achievement test, 20-item analytical thinking test, and 15-item questionnaire on learning satisfaction. Data were gathered and analyzed by Wilcoxon Matched Pairs Singed–Ranks Test. Results revealed that inquiry-based learning activities had effective criterion at 84.46/82.50; effectiveness index of inquiry-based learning activities was 0.5200; post test score of achievement test higher than those pre test score at .05 statistical significance level; and students had learning satisfaction on inquiry-based learning activities at highest level. It can be concluded that inquiry-based learning activities promoted students in terms of both cognitive, analytical thinking, and learning satisfaction. It should be suggested in for pedagogical preparation and incorporate it into science curriculum.

Prasart Nuangchalerm; Benjaporn Thammasena

2009-01-01

5

Crawl into Inquiry-Based Learning: Hermit Crab Experiments  

Science.gov (United States)

|There is a particular need for inquiry-based lessons in the early elementary grades, when students are starting to develop their analytical skills. In this article, the authors present a 2-tiered inquiry-based lesson plan for 1st and 2nd grades that has been successfully used by graduate teaching fellows involved in the National Science…

Wolf, Maya; Laferriere, Alix

2009-01-01

6

The Role of Leadership in Fostering Inquiry-Based Learning and Teaching  

Science.gov (United States)

In this chapter, the author first address the concepts of inquiry and leadership presented in the National Science Education Standards (NRC 1996). Then presents examples of leaders who foster inquiry-based learning and teaching within the context

Van Zee, Emily

2009-02-21

7

Supporting Students’ Interest through Inquiry-Based Learning in the Context of Fuel Cells  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main aim of this research is to understand how inquiry-based learning in the context of fuel cells support the interest of 14 to 15-year-old male and female junior high school students. In total, 18 student groups (N=159) were involved in the case study in which a learning material with inquiry-based laboratory work in the context of fuel cells, designed based on previous research, was used. According to the survey conducted as a part of this research, the majority of youth liked inquiry-based chemistry experiments. The tangible stages of the work, i.e. compiling the miniature fuel cell car and operating it in practice, interested the youth the most. Boys were significantly more interested than girls in the applications of fuel cells related to the studied subject. Girls were interested in hydrogen energy economy, and that the issue is topical at the moment. Girls were also significantly more interested in the stages of inquiry-based learning – reporting the results and answering the questions that required reasoning. It seems that the model of inquiry-based learning used here and the learning materials give good opportunities for increasing the interests in chemistry among girls and boys alike, and thus provide a solution for the biggest challenge in chemistry education – increasing the youth’s interest in chemistry.

Maija Aksela; Matleena Boström

2012-01-01

8

An Exploration into Inquiry-Based Learning by a Multidisciplinary Group of Higher Education Faculty  

Science.gov (United States)

|This manuscript describes faculty and student experiences and future activities of a multidisciplinary group of university faculty who are implementing inquiry-based learning (IBL) in their classrooms for the first time. This opportunity to implement the IBL instructional method was provided to the faculty through a grant from the university's…

Friedman, Daniela B.; Crews, Tena B.; Caicedo, Juan M.; Besley, John C.; Weinberg, Justin; Freeman, Miriam L.

2010-01-01

9

Primary four students’ development of reading ability through inquiry-based learning projects  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper is part of a bigger study that investigates a collaborative instructional approach involving three kinds of teachers (Information Technology, General Studies, and Chinese) and the school librarian in guiding primary 4 (P4) students through two phases of inquiry-based learning (IBL) projec...

Chu, SKW; Tse, SK; Loh, EKY; Chow, K; Fung, HF; Ng, HWR

10

Use of Genomic Databases for Inquiry-Based Learning about Influenza  

Science.gov (United States)

The genome projects of the past decades have created extensive databases of biological information with applications in both research and education. We describe an inquiry-based exercise that uses one such database, the National Center for Biotechnology Information Influenza Virus Resource, to advance learning about influenza. This database…

Ledley, Fred; Ndung'u, Eric

2011-01-01

11

Blended learning in dentistry: 3-D resources for inquiry-based learning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Motivation is an important factor for inquiry-based learning, so creative design of learning resources and materials is critical to enhance students’ motivation and hence their cognition. Modern dentistry is moving towards “electronic patient records” for both clinical treatment and teaching. Study models have long been an essential part of dental records. Traditional plaster casts are, however, among the last type of clinical record in the dental field to be converted into digital media as virtual models. Advantages of virtual models include: simpler storage; reduced risk of damage, disappearance, or misplacement; simpler and effective measuring; and easy transferal to colleagues. In order to support student engagement with the rapidly changing world of digital dentistry, and in order to stimulate the students’ motivation and depth of inquiry, this project aims to introduce virtual models into a Bachelor and Dental Surgery (BDS) curriculum. Under a “blended” e-learning philosophy, students are first introduced to the new software then 3-D models are incorporated into inquiry-based problems as stimulus materials. Face-to-face tutorials blend virtual model access via interactive whiteboards (IWBs). Students’ perceptions of virtual models including motivation and cognition as well as the virtual models’ functionality were rated after a workshop introducing virtual models and plaster models in parallel. Initial student feedback indicates that the 3-D models have been generally well accepted, which confirmed the functionality of the programme and the positive perception of virtual models for enhancing students’ learning motivation. Further investigation will be carried out to assess the impact of virtual models on students’ learning outcomes.

Yanqi Yang; Linkun Zhang; Susan Bridges

2012-01-01

12

Developing inquiry-based teaching and learning in Family Maths programme facilitators  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The inquiry-based Family Maths professional development programme, offered by the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, attempts not only to support the transformative education practices targeted by the South African National Department of Education, but also to extend them beyond the school walls to the community at large. This study investigates the extent to which this programme develops facilitators’ ability to implement inquiry-based learning. The research undertaken uses both qualitative and quantitative methods in an empirical study of 39 facilitators. The facilitators’ inquiry beliefs and ability to implement inquiry learning was measured by means of questionnaires, observation schedules and interviews. Data generated by the study reveal that both the facilitators’ understanding and practice of inquiry improved as they progressed through the novice, intermediate and veteran categories of the Family Maths professional development programme.

Pam Austin; Paul Webb

2011-01-01

13

Enhancing Students' Scientific and Quantitative Literacies through an Inquiry-Based Learning Project on Climate Change  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Promoting sustainability and dealing with complex environmental problems like climate change demand a citizenry with considerable scientific and quantitative literacy. In particular, students in the STEM disciplines of (biophysical) science, technology, engineering, and mathematics need to develop interdisciplinary skills that help them understand the social dynamics of environmental problems and solutions. To this end, this study examines how participation in a semester-long inquiry-based learning project that involves sociological research on climate change beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors enhances the scientific and quantitative literacies of STEM students. The results suggest that participation in a sociological inquiry-based learning project helps STEM students to (a) improve their knowledge of scientific and statistical principles and processes, (b) hone their scientific research skills, and (c) gain respect for sociology specifically and social science more generally. While the inquiry-based learning project described here deals with climate change, educators can adapt it to deal with other environmental social science research topics (e.g., water use, energy conservation, food security, sustainability).

Aaron M McCright

2012-01-01

14

Inquiry-based learning and information literacy development: a CETL approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Centre for Inquiry-based Learning in the Arts and Social Sciences (CILASS) is a Centre for Excellence in Teaching and Learning (CETL) based at the University of Sheffield. CETL funding was awarded by HEFCE to the University in April 2005 for a period of five years, in recognition of existing excellence in inquiry-based learning (IBL) in the Faculties of Arts, Social Sciences and Law. CILASS is committed to supporting further development and innovation in IBL both locally within the University and more widely across higher education (HE) nationally and internationally. In particular, CILASS promotes approaches to IBL that involve students in collaborative discipline-based and inter-disciplinary inquiries, develop their information literacy capabilities, and use information and communications technologies imaginatively to enhance the learning experience.In order to provide suitable spaces for students and staff undertaking IBL, CILASS is establishing new learning and teaching spaces within its hub in the University’s new Information Commons (Centre for Learning Resources), which is scheduled to open in 2006-7. These spaces are being purpose-built to support collaborative IBL in an information- and technology-rich environment, and will offer flexibility in terms of configuring space differently for different learning activities combined with access to a range of advanced learning technologies. Additional funding for capital investment awarded to CILASS in January 2006 will allow for the creation of a further CILASS learning and teaching ‘collaboratory’ in a central satellite location within the University.This paper focuses in particular on the strategic approach being taken by CILASS to promoting the development of information literacy within the context of IBL.

Pamela McKinney; Philippa Levy

2006-01-01

15

An Open Educational Resource Supports a Diversity of Inquiry-Based Learning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There have been numerous calls for research that demonstrates how open education resources (OERs) are actually being used. This case study sought to shed light on the users of a well-visited set of modular music-education materials published at Connexions. Respondents to a voluntary survey included teachers, students, self-directed learners, music ensemble participants, and casual learners. Most reported accessing individual modules on their own initiative, as part of a specific, immediate inquiry, rather than responding to institutional directives or following entire online courses. This was supported by computer-log records, which showed that most visitors to a module arrived from an Internet search for terms specific to that module. The study suggests that, for teachers and students as well as self-directed learners, one function of OERs is as a resource for just-in-time, inquiry-based learning.

Catherine Anne Schmidt-Jones

2012-01-01

16

Laboratory projects using inquiry-based learning: an application to a practical inorganic course  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english This paper reports how laboratory projects (LP) coupled to inquiry-based learning (IBL) were implemented in a practical inorganic chemistry course. Several coordination compounds have been successfully synthesised by students according to the proposed topics by the LP-IBL junction, and the chemistry of a number of metals has been studied. Qualitative data were collected from written reports, oral presentations, lab-notebook reviews and personal discussions with the studen (more) ts through an experimental course with undergraduate second-year students at the Universidad Nacional de Colombia during the last 5 years. Positive skills production was observed by combining LP and IBL. Conceptual, practical, interpretational, constructional (questions, explanations, hypotheses), communicational, environmental and application abilities were revealed by the students throughout the experimental course.

Carriazo, José G.

2011-01-01

17

An Inquiry Based Exercise Using X-ray Diffraction Data to Incite Student Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

An inquiry based learning exercise was designed for an upper division advanced inorganic laboratory course that meets one of the requirements for the Bachelor of Science degree in Chemistry and Biochemistry at the University of California, Santa Cruz. The content goals of this exercise were evaluation of whether a given solid state structure was previously known by using powder X-ray diffraction data, and understanding how the diffraction pattern relates to the crystal structure of the compound in question. The scientific process goals included searching a database to match the patterns and preparing data for oral presentations. The goals of the exercise were addressed via an activity allowing students to utilize real X-ray powder diffraction data to search and match with known structures in a database (International Crystal Structure Database) and to give an oral presentation. After students found their structures in the database, they prepared oral presentations justifying their choice for the match and their reasoning through structural analysis of the X-ray data. Students learned about X-ray diffraction theory in an inquiry type environment and gained valuable experience and confidence in presenting their findings using strong reasoning and communication skills. Assessment was implemented during active facilitation throughout the activity and during the final oral presentations.

Rogow, D. L.; McDonald, W.; Bresler, M. R.

2010-12-01

18

The AIA Solar Learning Center: Taking Inquiry-based EPO Online  

Science.gov (United States)

The observations of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO-AIA) are expected to be groundbreaking within the field of heliophysics. To properly promote and explain the data produced by AIA, it is important that an innovative EPO effort be put forth. This has led to the development of "The AIA Solar Learning Center” (SLC), an inquiry-based educational website geared towards teaching about AIA and the Sun in general. The goal of the SLC is to provide K-12 students, teachers, parents, and homeschoolers with information and education about the Sun, primarily through hands-on activity modules that explain different aspects of our nearest star and the methods of observing it. While each module ultimately aims to impart information about the Sun or some related physical process, the activities also range across a host of different disciplines, including geology, chemistry, history, music, and art. In order to make the content applicable and accessible, activities are tailored to multiple difficulty levels, catering to different age groups. There is also a strong push towards facilitating teachers; activities are designed to fulfill specific teaching standards, and a host of additional teaching material is provided, including lesson plans and powerpoint presentations. Ultimately, the SLC aims to make science and the Sun inviting and accessible. The "Meet the Scientists” page will provide pictures and personal bios of participating scientists. Students will have the opportunity to interactively ask solar-related questions. There is even a host of lighter fare, such as a solar music playlist and links to relevant Facebook pages.

Wills-Davey, Meredith; Attrill, G. D. R.; Engell, A.

2009-05-01

19

The Integration of Creative Drama in an Inquiry-Based Elementary Program: The Effect on Student Attitude and Conceptual Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

Creative drama activities designed to help children learn difficult science concepts were integrated into an inquiry-based elementary science program. Children (n = 38) in an upper elementary enrichment program at one primary school were the participants in this action research. The teacher-researcher taught students the Full Option Science System™ (FOSS) modules of sound (fourth grade) and solar energy (fifth grade) with the integration of creative drama activities in treatment classes. A 2 × 2 × (2) Mixed ANOVA was used to examine differences in the learning outcomes and attitudes toward science between groups (drama and non-drama) and grade levels (4th and 5th grades) over time (pre/post). Learning was measured using the tests included with the FOSS modules. A shortened version of the Three Dimension Elementary Science Attitude Survey measured attitudes toward science. Students in the drama treatment group had significantly higher learning gains ( F = 160.2, p < 0.001) than students in the non-drama control group with students in grade four reporting significantly greater learning outcomes ( F = 14.3, p < 0.001) than grade five. There was a significantly statistical decrease in student attitudes toward science ( F = 7.5, p < 0.01), though a small change. Creative drama was an effective strategy to increase science conceptual learning in this group of diverse elementary enrichment students when used as an active extension to the pre-existing inquiry-based science curriculum.

Hendrix, Rebecca; Eick, Charles; Shannon, David

2012-11-01

20

The effect of guided inquiry-based instruction in secondary science for students with learning disabilities  

Science.gov (United States)

Students with learning disabilities (SWLDs) need to attain academic rigor to graduate from high school and college, as well as achieve success in life. Constructivist theories suggest that guided inquiry may provide the impetus for their success, yet little research has been done to support this premise. This study was designed to fill that gap. This quasi-experimental study compared didactic and guided inquiry-based teaching of science concepts to secondary SWLDs in SDC science classes. The study examined 38 students in four classes at two diverse, urban high schools. Participants were taught two science concepts using both teaching methods and posttested after each using paper-and-pencil tests and performance tasks. Data were compared to determine increases in conceptual understanding by teaching method, order of teaching method, and exposure one or both teaching methods. A survey examined participants' perceived self-efficacy under each method. Also, qualitative comparison of the two test formats examined appropriate use with SWLDs. Results showed significantly higher scores after the guided inquiry method on concept of volume, suggesting that guided inquiry does improve conceptual understanding over didactic instruction in some cases. Didactic teaching followed by guided inquiry resulted in higher scores than the reverse order, indicating that SWLDs may require direct instruction in basic facts and procedures related to a topic prior to engaging in guided inquiry. Also application of both teaching methods resulted in significantly higher scores than a single method on the concept of density, suggesting that SWLDs may require more in depth instruction found using both methods. No differences in perceived self-efficacy were shown. Qualitative analysis both assessments and participants' behaviors during testing support the use of performance tasks over paper-and-pencil tests with SWLDs. Implications for education include the use of guided inquiry to increase SWLDs conceptual understanding and process skills, while improving motivation and participation through hands-on learning. In addition, teachers may use performance tasks to better assess students' thought process, problem solving skills, and conceptual understanding. However, constructivist teaching methods require extra training, pedagogical skills, subject matter knowledge, physical resources, and support from all stakeholders.

Eliot, Michael H.

 
 
 
 
21

Investigating the Impact of a LEGO(TM)-Based, Engineering-Oriented Curriculum Compared to an Inquiry-Based Curriculum on Fifth Graders' Content Learning of Simple Machines  

Science.gov (United States)

This mixed method study examined the impact of a LEGO-based, engineering-oriented curriculum compared to an inquiry-based curriculum on fifth graders' content learning of simple machines. This study takes a social constructivist theoretical stance that science learning involves learning scientific concepts and their relations to each other. From…

Marulcu, Ismail

2010-01-01

22

Training Teachers to Use Technology and Inquiry-based Learning Practices in the Geosciences through an Industry-University Partnership  

Science.gov (United States)

Teacher professional development centered about the Geosciences is necessary in order to train K-12 teachers about this science field and to effectively educate K-12 students about Earth processes. The partnership of industries, universities, and K-12 schools is a collaborative pathway to support these efforts by providing teachers access to technology, inquiry-based learning, and authentic field experiences within the Geosciences context. This research presents the results of Project SMARTER (Science and Mathematics Advancement and Reform utilizing Technology and Enhanced Resources), a co-lead industry-university partnership and teacher professional development workshop program that focused on technology and inquiry-based learning in the Geosciences. The workshop included fifteen teachers from five distressed counties in Mississippi as defined by the Appalachian Regional Commission. Three (one science, once math, one technology) 7-12 grade teachers were selected from each school district and worked together during activities as a team to foster a cooperative learning experience. The two week workshop trained teachers on the use of a variety of technologies including: Vernier Probes and software, TI-calculators and presenter, Mimio Boards, GPS receivers, Google Earth, Excel, PowerPoint, projectors, and the use of historic geologic datasets. Furthermore, teachers were trained on proper field collection techniques, the use of Hach Kits and field probes, and the interpretation of geologic data. Each daily program incorporated the use of technology-rich and inquiry-based activities into one of the five Earth spheres: atmosphere, lithosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, and anthrosphere. Results from the pre-post technology attitude survey showed that participating teachers significantly (p < 0.05) increased their confidence level in using technology. Furthermore, all participants self-reflected that the workshop both increased their interest in the Geosciences and their plans to integrate technology in future classroom activities. Qualitative responses from daily feedback forms and journal entries indicated that participating teachers were enthusiastic about inquiry-, technology-, and field-based learning activities and were willing to incorporate cross-discipline lesson plans. Evaluation of final lesson plans developed by the teachers during the workshop combined with follow-up classroom visits illustrated that the teachers appropriately developed classroom lessons to incorporate inquiry and technology and that they successfully implemented these lesson plans in their own classroom as a direct result of participating in workshop activities.

McNeal, K.; Buell, R.; Eiland, L.

2009-12-01

23

An Inquiry-Based Linear Algebra Class  

Science.gov (United States)

Linear algebra is a standard undergraduate mathematics course. This paper presents an overview of the design and implementation of an inquiry-based teaching material for the linear algebra course which emphasizes discovery learning, analytical thinking and individual creativity. The inquiry-based teaching material is designed to fit the needs of a…

Wang, Haohao; Posey, Lisa

2011-01-01

24

Optimizing students' motivation in inquiry-based learning environments: The role of instructional practices  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of inquiry science instruction on the motivation of 1360 minority inner-city seventh graders was examined. The project-based curriculum incorporates motivating features like real world questions, collaboration, technology, and lesson variety. Students design investigations, collect and analyze data, and create artifacts; challenging tasks require extensive use of learning and metacognitive strategies. Study 1 used Structural Equation Modeling to investigate student perceptions of the prevalence of project-based features, including real world connections, collaboration, academic press, and work norms, and their relation to interest, efficacy, cognitive engagement, and achievement. Perceptions of features related to different motivational outcomes, indicating the importance of using differentiated rather than single measures to study motivation in context. Cognitive engagement was enhanced by interest and efficacy but did not influence achievement, perhaps because students were not proficient strategy users and were new to inquiry. Study 2 examined the relationship between instructional practices and motivation. The 23 teachers in study 1 were observed six times during one unit. Observations focused on curriculum congruence, content accuracy, contextualization, sense making, and management and climate. A majority of teacher enactment was congruent with the curriculum, indicating that students experienced motivating features of project-based science. Hierarchical Linear Modeling showed that contextualization accounted for between-teacher variance in student interest, efficacy, and cognitive engagement; Teachers encouraged motivation through extended real world examples that related material to students' experiences. Cluster analysis was used to determine how patterns of practice affected motivation. Unexpectedly these patterns did not differentially relate to cognitive engagement. Findings showed that interest and efficacy were enhanced when teachers used particular sense making practices. These teachers provided explicit scaffolding for accomplishing complex tasks with questioning and feedback that highlighted key points. Teachers also used effective management practices and maintained a positive classroom climate. In contrast, a pattern of practice where teachers used questioning and feedback to press students to make connections and synthesize concepts without scaffolding support diminished motivation, because students may have needed more help to deal with challenge. Implications from both studies suggest inquiry teachers need to use explicit scaffolding and academic press together, with effective management practices, to support motivation.

Kempler, Toni M.

25

A Constructivist Approach to Inquiry-Based Learning: A TUNEL Assay for the Detection of Apoptosis in Cheek Cells  

Science.gov (United States)

A laboratory exercise is presented that incorporates constructivist principles into a learning experience designed for upper-level university biology courses. The specific objectives for this exercise are as follows: (1) To introduce students to cancer biology and to the regulation of programmed cell death as part of the cell cycle; (2) To engage…

Correiro, Elizabeth E.; Griffin, Leanne R.; Hart, Peter E.

2008-01-01

26

An inquiry-based laboratory on friction  

CERN Multimedia

Sliding friction is usually introduced in high school, but rarely through activities in laboratory. A qualitative introduction to friction is presented by proposing exploration of different kind of materials in order to suggest which aspects can be relevant and which interaction is involved. Different quantitative experiments are proposed for studying Leonardo's laws for friction. The learning path was tested with two high school classes during an instruction trip at department. Students were engaged in the inquiry-based introductory activity and seemed to realize with care the measurements. However, the analysis of their reports shows some learning difficulties.

Montalbano, Vera

2013-01-01

27

Using Handheld Computers and Probeware in Inquiry-Based Science Education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Handheld computer technologies and probeware have the potential to support inquiry-based science projects in K-12 education. Teacher training is important for effective integration of inquiry-based learning to provide students with rich and authentic learning experiences. This article describes the implementation and results of a project designed to train teachers to use an inquiry-based approach to science education with the help of emerging handheld technologies. The project included training of elementary and middle school teachers on methods of inquiry-based science, integrating handhelds and probes, and development of inquiry-based science lessons. It was intended that the teacher participants model development and implementation of inquiry-based science lessons using handheld computer technologies.

Selma Vonderwell; Kathy Sparrow; Sajit Zachariah

2005-01-01

28

Coaching to Build Support for Inquiry-Based Teaching  

Science.gov (United States)

Coaching, as a means to support inquiry-based teaching, starts by changing the culture from within (school, teacher, and student) rather than from external mandates. Recognizing that teacher empowerment is the first step toward increasing student achievement, coaches support teachers as they relinquish non-productive, traditional practices. Through sustained collegial interactions within a strong support system provided by coaches, teachers are more willing to leave their comfort zone on a path of continuous improvement toward inquiry-based teaching and learning. This article describes how one school district in Massachusetts implemented this approach with success.

Holt, Patrice; Nastasi, Patricia; Bransfield, Paula

2007-01-01

29

Text comprehensionlearning styles – school performance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The following study interprets the results of a research carried out in 2008 in Romania, on a smaller sample. The aim of the study is the analysis of the text comprehension skills of 14 year old pupils, and the presentation of the connections with the social background, learning styles and school performance. The gathering of the data was completed during the survey with the analysis of the native language curricula and textbooks, class monitoring, as well as with a questionnaire addressed to teachers. The present paper presents the data on text comprehension, as well as the correlations with social background and learning. It summes up the result of the class monitoring, as well as those of the teacher interviews, emphasizing the aspects which are relevant from the point of view of text comprehension developing.

Krisztina Bartha; Rita Fóris-Ferenczi

2009-01-01

30

Using comparative genomics for inquiry-based learning to dissect virulence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Yersinia pestis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Genomics and bioinformatics are topics of increasing interest in undergraduate biological science curricula. Many existing exercises focus on gene annotation and analysis of a single genome. In this paper, we present two educational modules designed to enable students to learn and apply fundamental concepts in comparative genomics using examples related to bacterial pathogenesis. Students first examine alignments of genomes of Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains isolated from three food-poisoning outbreaks using the multiple-genome alignment tool Mauve. Students investigate conservation of virulence factors using the Mauve viewer and by browsing annotations available at the A Systematic Annotation Package for Community Analysis of Genomes database. In the second module, students use an alignment of five Yersinia pestis genomes to analyze single-nucleotide polymorphisms of three genes to classify strains into biovar groups. Students are then given sequences of bacterial DNA amplified from the teeth of corpses from the first and second pandemics of the bubonic plague and asked to classify these new samples. Learning-assessment results reveal student improvement in self-efficacy and content knowledge, as well as students' ability to use BLAST to identify genomic islands and conduct analyses of virulence factors from E. coli O157:H7 or Y. pestis. Each of these educational modules offers educators new ready-to-implement resources for integrating comparative genomic topics into their curricula.

Baumler DJ; Banta LM; Hung KF; Schwarz JA; Cabot EL; Glasner JD; Perna NT

2012-01-01

31

Evidence for implicit learning in syntactic comprehension.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study provides evidence for implicit learning in syntactic comprehension. By reanalyzing data from a syntactic priming experiment (Thothathiri & Snedeker, 2008), we find that the error signal associated with a syntactic prime influences comprehenders' subsequent syntactic expectations. This follows directly from error-based implicit learning accounts of syntactic priming, but it is unexpected under accounts that consider syntactic priming a consequence of temporary increases in base-level activation. More generally, the results raise questions about the principles underlying the maintenance of implicit statistical knowledge relevant to language processing, and about possible functional motivations for syntactic priming.

Fine AB; Florian Jaeger T

2013-04-01

32

Infrared Imaging for Inquiry-Based Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on detecting long-wavelength infrared (IR) radiation emitted by the subject, IR imaging shows temperature distribution instantaneously and heat flow dynamically. As a picture is worth a thousand words, an IR camera has great potential in teaching heat transfer, which is otherwise invisible. The idea of using IR imaging in teaching was first…

Xie, Charles; Hazzard, Edmund

2011-01-01

33

Inquiry-based problem solving in introductory physics  

Science.gov (United States)

What makes problem solving in physics difficult? How do students solve physics problems, and how does this compare to an expert physicist's strategy? Over the past twenty years, physics education research has revealed several differences between novice and expert problem solving. The work of Chi, Feltovich, and Glaser demonstrates that novices tend to categorize problems based on surface features, while experts categorize according to theory, principles, or concepts1. If there are differences between how problems are categorized, then are there differences between how physics problems are solved? Learning more about the problem solving process, including how students like to learn and what is most effective, requires both qualitative and quantitative analysis. In an effort to learn how novices and experts solve introductory electricity problems, a series of in-depth interviews were conducted, transcribed, and analyzed, using both qualitative and quantitative methods. One-way ANOVA tests were performed in order to learn if there are any significant problem solving differences between: (a) novices and experts, (b) genders, (c) students who like to answer questions in class and those who don't, (d) students who like to ask questions in class and those who don't, (e) students employing an interrogative approach to problem solving and those who don't, and (f) those who like physics and those who dislike it. The results of both the qualitative and quantitative methods reveal that inquiry-based problem solving is prevalent among novices and experts, and frequently leads to the correct physics. These findings serve as impetus for the third dimension of this work: the development of Choose Your Own Adventure Physics(c) (CYOAP), an innovative teaching tool in physics which encourages inquiry-based problem solving. 1Chi, M., P. Feltovich, R. Glaser, "Categorization and Representation of Physics Problems by Experts and Novices", Cognitive Science, 5, 121--152 (1981).

Koleci, Carolann

34

An Inquiry-Based Approach to Teaching Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent studies of American science education have highlighted the need for more inquiry-based lessons. For example, when the National Research Counsel evaluated the Advanced Placement (AP) Biology program, it pointed out, "AP laboratory exercises tend to be "cookbook" rather than inquiry based. This criticism is particularly apt for the lab…

O'Connell, Dan

2008-01-01

35

Life-Cycle Thinking in Inquiry-Based Sustainability Education – Effects on Students’ Attitudes towards Chemistry and Environmental Literacy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to improve the quality of students’ environmental literacy and sustainability education in chemistry teaching by combining the socio-scientific issue of life-cycle thinking with inquiry-based learning approaches. This case study presents results from an inquiry-based life-cycle thinking project: an interdisciplinary teaching model designed by chemistry teachers. The strength of the project is that upper-secondary students (N=105) are allowed to investigate the life cycle of an optional product based on their own interest. Studentcentred teaching methods are suggested to promote the students’ interest in studying. The research question was: How does an inquiry-based life-cycle thinking project in chemistry education affect students’ chemistry attitudes and environmental literacy? The research methods used included surveys and semi-structured interviews. The study shows that the project positively affected students’ attitudes towards chemistry learning: they valued the independent and collaborative learning setting. The changes in the students’ environmental literacy were evident in their new realisations: they emphasised the importance of environmental protection and recycling, but perceived that changing their own behaviour is still difficult. The inquiry-based teaching of life-cycle thinking can be seen as an effective approach to more motivating and sustainable chemistry education. Further research should address the kinds of knowledge outcomes that this type of inquiry-based life-cycle teaching creates in students. Furthermore, other useful approaches to teaching sustainable development in chemistry lessons should be shared.

Marianne Juntunen; Maija Aksela

2013-01-01

36

AP Investigative labs: An inquiry-base Approach Lab 6: Cellular Respiration  

Science.gov (United States)

In this inquiry-based investigation, students learn how to calculate the rate of cellular respiration by using a respirometer system (either microrespirometers or gas pressure sensors with computer interface) in plant seeds or small invertebrates, such as insects or earthworms. The article describes how students will design and conduct an experiment to explore the effect of certain factors, including environmental variables, on the rate of cellular respiration.

The College Board The College Board (The College Board;)

2012-10-23

37

Learning Styles, Personality Types and Reading Comprehension Performance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aims at reviewing the relationship between learning styles, personality and reading comprehension performance. In the last two decades, ample studies have been done to examine the relationship between learning styles, learner’s personality and performance in academic settings. The reviewed studies substantiate that there is a relationship between personality types and/or traits of the learners, the way they establish their learning styles and their academic success in school and university both at an undergraduate and postgraduate level. Therefore, learners depending on the type of their personality resort to different learning styles or preferences which-in turn- affect their learning performance. However, there are no studies – either theoretical or empirical – examining exclusively the role of personality and learning styles on reading comprehension performance. Moreover, the findings with regard to the bulk of research on the relationship between personality and success in reading comprehension- are not that congruent. Accordingly - due to the scarcity of the research on showing the relationship between personality, learning styles and achievement in reading comprehension, and also incongruity of the research results on personality and reading comprehension performance - the current study proposes that further research on the above areas would be of the great need.

Nabiollah Sadeghi; Zalina Mohd Kasim; Bee Hoon Tan; Faiz Sathi Abdullah

2012-01-01

38

Inquiry Based Laboratory Exercises in Stem Cell Biology  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a series of laboratory exercises that explore key concepts in stem cell biology and provide students opportunities to explore these topics in an inquiry-based approach while learning about experimental design. The laboratory exercises are divided into three units: planaria regeneration, mouse ES cell culture, and vertebrate regeneration. For each unit, students are introduced to the model system with a basic experimental demonstration, then asked to design a limited experiment to answer some question about the properties of the cells they are working with. The students then learn a given technique for each unit to analyze their experiments and draw conclusions (e.g. microscopy, immunocytochemistry, RT-PCR, etc.). After the three units, the students are asked to design and carry out a final experimental series over 4 weeks using any of the model systems and techniques that we used, basing their experiment on research in the primary literature, and then presenting their findings to their peers. The laboratory units complement the major themes of stem cell biology, and by integrating the primary literature, help students connect the literature with the process of doing scientific investigation.

Jason R Meyers (Colgate University Biology)

2007-09-01

39

Engaging Non-Science Majors Through Citizen Science Projects In Inquiry-Based Introductory Geoscience Laboratory Courses  

Science.gov (United States)

Although inquiry-based/problem-based methods have been successfully incorporated in undergraduate lecture classes, a survey of commonly used laboratory manuals indicates that few non-major geoscience laboratory classes use these strategies. The Department of Geology and Environmental Geosciences faculty members have developed a successful introductory Environmental Geology Laboratory course for undergraduate non-majors that challenges traditional teaching methodology as illustrated in most laboratory manuals. The Environmental Geology lab activities employ active learning methods to engage and challenge students. Crucial to establishing an open learning environment is capturing the attention of non-science majors from the moment they enter the classroom. We use catastrophic ‘gloom and doom’ current events to pique the imagination with images, news stories, and videos. Once our students are hooked, we can further the learning process with use of other teaching methods: an inquiry-based approach that requires students take control of their own learning, a cooperative learning approach that requires the participation of all team members in peer learning, and a problem/case study learning approach that primarily relies on activities distilled from current events. The final outcome is focused on creating innovative methods to communicate the findings to the general public. With the general public being the audience for their communiqué, students are less intimated, more focused, and more involved in solving the problem. During lab sessions, teams of students actively engage in mastering course content and develop essential communication skills while exploring real-world scenarios. These activities allow students to use scientific reasoning and concepts to develop solutions for scenarios such as volcanic eruptions, coastal erosion/sea level rise, flooding or landslide hazards, and then creatively communicate their solutions to the public. For example, during a two-week section on Earthquakes, teams study the effects of seismic motion on sediments underlying the Charleston, South Carolina region. Students discover areas where the greatest damage occurred during the 1886 earthquake via a walking tour of Charleston. Extracting information from historical and topographic maps, and aerial and satellite imagery provides students with the necessary information to produce an earthquake hazard map of the area. Applying the creativity and knowledge base of the multidisciplinary students generates a startling array of innovative methods for communicating their results: brochures, storybooks, computer-animated hazard maps, Facebook pages, YouTube videos - even Virtual Reality avatars! When allowed to use their imaginations and resourcefulness, these students have no bounds! Not only does the application of inquiry-based problem solving methodology in conjunction with cooperative learning enhance comprehension of the material, but by allowing undergraduate students to develop methods of communicating their knowledge to the public through an interesting variety of medium, students remain focused, engaged, and even excited about learning science that otherwise intimidated them.

Humphreys, R. R.; Hall, C.; Colgan, M. W.; Rhodes, E.

2010-12-01

40

Pre-Nursing Students Perceptions of Traditional and Inquiry Based Chemistry Laboratories  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes a process that attempted to meet the needs of undergraduate students in a pre-nursing chemistry class. The laboratory was taught in traditional verification style and students were surveyed to assess their perceptions of the educational goals of the laboratory. A literature review resulted in an inquiry based method and analysis of the needs of nurses resulted in more application based activities. This new inquiry format was implemented the next semester, the students were surveyed at the end of the semester and results were compared to the previous method. Student and instructor response to the change in format was positive. Students in the traditional format placed goals concerning technique above critical thinking and felt the lab was easy to understand and carry out. Students in the inquiry based lab felt they learned more critical thinking skills and enjoyed the independence of designing experiments and answering their own questions.

Rogers, Jessica

 
 
 
 
41

Development and Evaluation of an Online, Inquiry-Based Food Safety Education Program for Secondary Teachers and Their Students  

Science.gov (United States)

|Secondary science teachers who integrate food safety (FS) into curricula can provide FS knowledge and skills to youth while reinforcing science skills and concepts. National science education standards and the Biological Science Curriculum Study 5E Inquiry-based Learning Model were used to design an online training, Food Safety FIRST. The…

Beffa-Negrini, Patricia A.; Cohen, Nancy L.; Laus, Mary Jane; McLandsborough, Lynne A.

2007-01-01

42

Effects of Inquiry-Based Science Instruction on Science Achievement and Interest in Science: Evidence from Qatar  

Science.gov (United States)

The author sought to investigate the effects of inquiry-based science instruction on science achievement and interest in science of 5,120 adolescents from 85 schools in Qatar. Results of hierarchical linear modeling analyses revealed the substantial positive effects of science teaching and learning with a focus on model or applications and…

Areepattamannil, Shaljan

2012-01-01

43

Inquiry-Based Projects Within the Local Watersheds  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydrological and geomorphologic characteristics of local watersheds are being investigated by undergraduate students in different Geoscience classes at California University of Pennsylvania. Local stream assessments, water quality monitoring, assessment of drinking water supply, non-point source pollution, stream bank erosion, mass wasting, environmental impact of different land use practices are among topics of laboratory reports, individual and group course long projects of students in the Department of Earth Sciences at California University of Pennsylvania. These projects have two folded educational benefits. Students gain unique educational opportunities being involved into service-learning projects, residents of the community are being educated as students present results of their studies on the website and in the Newsletter. Local environmental groups benefit from students projects as student contribute their time to organizational activities, collect and analyze data, make recommendations, propose future study designs, and staying involved with organizations as officers after the course of study or though internship programs. This paper will present several examples of inquiry-based hands-on educational opportunities conducted by students within local watersheds in Southwestern Pennsylvania.

Nikitina, D.

2006-12-01

44

Implementing inquiry-based kits within a professional development school model  

Science.gov (United States)

Implementation of guided inquiry teaching for the first time carries inherent problems for science teachers. Reform efforts on inquiry-based science teaching are often unsustainable and are not sensitive to teachers' needs and abilities as professionals. Professional development schools are meant to provide a research-based partnership between a public school and a university. These collaborations can provide support for the professional development of teachers. This dissertation reports a study focused on the implementation of inquiry-based science kits within the support of one of these collaborations. The researcher describes the difficulties and successful adaptations experienced by science teachers and how a coteaching model provided support. These types of data are needed in order to develop a bottom-up, sustainable process that will allow teachers to implement inquiry-based science. A qualitative methodology with "researcher as participant" was used in this study of two science teachers during 2002--2003. These two teachers were supported by a coteaching model, which included preservice teachers for each teacher as well as a supervising professor. Data were collected from the researcher's direct observations of coteachers' practice. Data were also collected from interviews and reflective pieces from the coteachers. Triangulation of the data on each teacher's case supported the validity of the findings. Case reports were prepared from these data for each classroom teacher. These case reports were used and cross-case analysis was conducted to search for major themes and findings in the study. Major findings described the hurdles teachers encounter, examples of adaptations observed in the teachers' cases and the supportive interactions with their coteachers while implementing the inquiry-based kits. In addition, the data were used to make recommendations for future training and use of the kits and the coteaching model. Results from this study showed that the kit's guided structure of inquiry and the collaboration both affected the inservice teachers in the following ways: The coteaching model supported behavioral and material management issues caused by the implementation of the kits; collaboration with preservice teachers created a "smaller-class-size" effect, which allowed teachers to attend to a smaller number of students for cooperative learning and assessment, and the elementary inservice teachers learned pedagogical strategies and science content from collaborating with secondary preservice teachers in kit use and from the kits' curriculum. Results were used as a self-study for future training and support for implementation of inquiry-based kits.

Jones, Mark Thomas

45

New teaching and learning method in chemistry at comprehensive school  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The results of the international and national researches in science subjects draw attention to the problems in organizing the teaching and learning process. Therefore it is necessity to search for new methodological solutions. In the learning process, by choosing methodological approaches, it would be necessary to rouse students' cognitive interest, to consolidate students' fragmentary knowledge by using graphical information organizers. Based on the results of the researches the new teaching and learning method (TETRA-method) was developed where the tetrahedral spatial mind model was used to implement the method. The action of the model is oriented to the discovery and understanding of various thematic interconnections and phenomena. TETRA-method was used as an alternative methodological solution for the learning chemistry at comprehensive school. The results of approbation indicate that during chemistry lessons students showed greater students' interest and activation of the learning.

Mozeika Daina; Cedere Dagnija; Gedrovics Janis

2010-01-01

46

AP Investigative labs: An inquiry-base Approach Lab 5: Photosynthesis  

Science.gov (United States)

In this inquiry-based investigation, students will design and conduct an experiment to explore the effect of environmental variables on the rate of cellular photosynthesis. They will learn how to measure the rate of photosynthesis indirectly by using the floating leaf disk procedure to measure oxygen production and will connect and apply concepts, including the relationship between cell structure and function (chloroplasts); strategies for capture, storage, and use of free energy; diffusion of gases across cell membranes; and the physical laws pertaining to the properties and behaviors of gases.

The College Board The College Board (The College Board;)

2012-10-23

47

Digging into Inquiry-Based Earth Science Research  

Science.gov (United States)

|To help eighth-grade students experience the excitement of Earth science research, the authors developed an inquiry-based project in which students evaluated and cataloged their campus geology and soils. Following class discussions of rock-weathering and soil-forming processes, students worked in groups to excavate multiple soil pits in the…

Schultz, Bryan; Yates, Crystal; Schultz, Jayne M.

2008-01-01

48

Discovering Biofilms: Inquiry-Based Activities for the Classroom  

Science.gov (United States)

|In nature, bacteria exist in and adapt to different environments by forming microbial communities called "biofilms." We propose simple, inquiry-based laboratory exercises utilizing a biofilm formation assay, which allows controlled biofilm growth. Students will be able to qualitatively assess biofilm growth via staining. Recently, we developed a…

Redelman, Carly V.; Marrs, Kathleen; Anderson, Gregory G.

2012-01-01

49

Beverage-agarose gel electrophoresis: an inquiry-based laboratory exercise with virtual adaptation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A wide range of literature and experience has shown that teaching methods that promote active learning, such as inquiry-based approaches, are more effective than those that rely on passive learning. Gel electrophoresis, one of the most common laboratory techniques in molecular biology, has a wide range of applications in the life sciences. As such, we chose it as a platform to expose high school and undergraduate students to the active process of scientific inquiry in general, while specifically teaching electrophoresis. First, we optimized DNA electrophoresis in the laboratory by using common beverages instead of standard media (e.g., Tris-based media). Second, we adapted this laboratory process of progressive optimization to a Web-based format in which students had to achieve all the same steps of optimization by performing serial electrophoreses. And third, we evaluated the use of this entirely Web-based virtual laboratory exercise in high school and undergraduate biology courses. Students learned fundamental and practical principles of electrophoresis, while experiencing the essential inquiry-based process of optimizing a technique, and they also enjoyed it. Our findings provide a readily accessible, inexpensive, and intriguing technique for teaching electrophoresis and the progressive optimization of a laboratory technique.

Cunningham SC; McNear B; Pearlman RS; Kern SE

2006-01-01

50

E-Learning and Comprehensive School and Kindergarten Development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The content of this article includes experiences and results of a comprehensive development project for schools and kindergartens in Denmark. The project includes all pedagogical professionals within the organization and contains a professional development sequence based on - among other things e-learning where pedagogical professionals collaboratively develop their common and individual practices. The article takes a look at both the challenges and potentials that have surfaced using e-learning as part of the framework for both professional and organizational development. In addition, the article proposes how the experience gathered from this existing project can be used as springboard to design new professional development projects where e-learning becomes an important element of competency development for pedagogical professionals in schools and kindergartens closely related to practice.

Line Hansen; Ole Hansen; Pia Guttorm Andersen

2012-01-01

51

Overcoming the difficulties of inquiry-based teaching through the use of coaching  

Science.gov (United States)

This research examines the use of coaching as a professional development approach to enhance the introduction of inquiry-based teaching methods. Previous professional development efforts are well documented in the science education literature, and implementation rates are generally low, despite a wide-spread belief that inquiry-based teaching methods are beneficial to student learning. Difficulties that are often found include a lack of time, tension from high-stakes testing, a lack of content knowledge, a lack of inquiry knowledge, a scarcity of inquiry resources, and a conflict between the teacher's learning style and the inherent style of inquiry. These barriers lead to slow, poorly understood progress in adopting inquiry methods, and a shortage of concrete suggestions on how best to proceed. To examine how teacher-coach pairs overcome these difficulties, a multiple-case study was planned that uncovered specific steps taken by creating a richly detailed narrative of how this science curriculum is implemented. This narrative was closely affiliated with a certain specific context of underperforming high schools in a major American city, but the results may generalize to other similar contexts as well. Additionally, the findings from these case studies may serve to validate other analogous findings from the literature.

Kraus, Rudolf

52

The Cooperative Learning Effects on English Reading Comprehension and Learning Motivation of EFL Freshmen  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This experimental study aims to investigate the effects of using cooperative learning to enhance the English reading comprehension and learning motivation of EFL freshmen by comparing the cooperative learning instruction and traditional lecture instruction. This experiment was implemented in a Freshman English Reading course, a two credit course, with two hours of instruction per week, over a full semester. Seventy-eight EFL freshmen taking Freshman English Reading courses participated in this study, with 44 participants in the experimental group and 34 in the comparison group. We employed a pretest-posttest comparison group quasi-experimental design. The experimental group received a reciprocal cooperative learning instruction, whereas the comparison group received a traditional lecture instruction. Both groups were administered three English-reading achievement tests and an English learning motivation scale. The data were analyzed by means, standard deviations, t tests, and one-way ANCOVA. The findings indicate statistically significant differences in favor of cooperative learning instruction on English reading comprehension, particularly among medium- and low-proficiency students. Cooperative learning instruction also created a significantly positive effect on student motivation toward learning English reading. In conclusion, we strongly suggest teachers use cooperative learning instruction in university-level EFL reading classes.

Ching-Ying Pan; Hui-Yi Wu

2013-01-01

53

Comprehensive Assessment and Evaluation of Students with Learning Disabilities: A Paper Prepared by the National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities (NJCLD) strongly supports comprehensive assessment and evaluation of students with learning disabilities by a multidisciplinary team for the identification and diagnosis of students with learning disabilities. Comprehensive assessment of individual students requires the use of multiple data…

Learning Disability Quarterly, 2011

2011-01-01

54

Exciting middle and high school students about immunology: an easy, inquiry-based lesson.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

High school students in the United States are apathetic about science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM), and the workforce pipeline in these areas is collapsing. The lack of understanding of basic principles of biology means that students are unable to make educated decisions concerning their personal health. To address these issues, we have developed a simple, inquiry-based outreach lesson centered on a mouse dissection. Students learn key concepts in immunology and enhance their understanding of human organ systems. The experiment highlights aspects of the scientific method and authentic data collection and analysis. This hands-on activity stimulates interest in biology, personal health and careers in STEM fields. Here, we present all the information necessary to execute the lesson effectively with middle and high school students.

Lukin K

2013-03-01

55

Learning to Estimate Slide Comprehension in Classrooms with Support Vector Machines  

Science.gov (United States)

Comprehension assessment is an essential tool in classroom learning. However, the judgment often relies on experience of an instructor who makes observation of students' behavior during the lessons. We argue that students should report their own comprehension explicitly in a classroom. With students' comprehension made available at the slide…

Pattanasri, N.; Mukunoki, M.; Minoh, M.

2012-01-01

56

Teachers’ Transformation to Inquiry-Based Instructional Practice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This collective case study examines secondary science teachers’ responses to a professional development program designed to assist in the transformation of inquiry belief structures and inquiry instructional practices. These teachers were participants in a year-long professional development institute that focused on increasing the quantity and quality of inquiry in secondary science classrooms. This multi-case design examines multiple data sources in order to answer the following research question: How do the beliefs and practices of teachers regarding inquiry-based instruction evolve over the year of intervention? Participants were selected using the data from an inquiry observational protocol to represent a variety of abilities and beliefs regarding inquiry instructional practice. The results provide insights into teachers’ belief structures and classroom structure related to inquiry instruction. Further, we detail the role of the professional development experience in facilitating transformation of classroom practice. Implications for how professional development programs are developed and led are provided.

Jeff C. Marshall; Julie B. Smart

2013-01-01

57

Enhancing Hispanic Minority Undergraduates’ Botany Laboratory Experiences: Implementation of an Inquiry-based Plant Tissue Culture Module Exercise  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Early involvement of students in hands-on research experiences are known to demystify research and promote the pursuit of careers in science. But in large enrolment departments such opportunities for undergraduates to participate in research are rare. To counteract such lack of opportunities, inquiry-based laboratory module in plant tissue culture was implemented in an undergraduate botany course impacting approximately 140 Hispanic minority students per year. In this module, spread throughout the semester, the students used African violet to gain experience in plant tissue culture techniques. The objective was for the students to learn how to take part of the plant from in vivo to in vitro culture. This required the establishment of aseptic techniques and the use of different media components to multiply plants under in vitro conditions. In depth assessment of gain-of content knowledge and gain-of confidence revealed that our inquiry-based approach allowed the students to learn while increasing their self-perception of scientific methodology. In three semesters, the students reported a 2.5-fold overall increase in the post-module assessment for content knowledge compared to pre-module assessment. Similarly, approximately 85% of the students reported that they gained self-confidence in many aspects pertaining to conducting future research such as the use of primary literature, the design and performance of novel scientific experiments, and the formulation of a testable hypothesis. Though this lab module was solely in plant tissue culture, the inquiry-based nature of the exercise developed students’ research skills and built confidence which is important in increasing retention of students in sciences.

Dimuth Siritunga; Vivian Navas; Nanette Diffoot

2012-01-01

58

Ocean Science in a K-12 setting: Promoting Inquiry Based Science though Graduate Student and Teacher Collaboration  

Science.gov (United States)

The University of South Florida, College of Marine Science Oceans: GK-12 Teaching Fellowship Program is successfully enriching science learning via the oceans. Funded by the National Science Foundation, the program provides a unique opportunity among scientists and K-12 teachers to interact with the intention of bringing ocean science concepts and research to the classroom environment enhance the experience of learning and doing science, and to promote `citizen scientists' for the 21st century. The success of the program relies heavily on the extensive summer training program where graduate students develop teaching skills, create inquiry based science activities for a summer Oceanography Camp for Girls program and build a relationship with their mentor teacher. For the last year and a half, two graduate students from the College of Marine Science have worked in cooperation with teachers from the Pinellas county School District, Southside Fundamental Middle School. Successful lesson plans brought into a 6th grade Earth Science classroom include Weather and climate: Global warming, The Geologic timescale: It's all about time, Density: Layering liquids, and Erosion processes: What moves water and sediment. The school and students have benefited greatly from the program experiencing hands-on inquiry based science and the establishment of an after school science club providing opportunities for students to work on their science fair projects and pursuit other science interests. Students are provided scoring rubrics and their progress is creatively assessed through KWL worksheets, concept maps, surveys, oral one on one and classroom discussions and writing samples. The year culminated with a series of hands on lessons at the nearby beach, where students demonstrated their mastery of skills through practical application. Benefits to the graduate student include improved communication of current science research to a diverse audience, a better understanding of the perspective of teachers and their content knowledge, and experience working with children and youth. The GK-12 teacher mentor benefits include a resource of inquiry based ocean science activities and increased knowledge of current scientific ocean research. The K-12 students gain an opportunity to be engage with young passionate scientists, learn about current ocean science research, and experience inquiry based science activities relating to concepts already being taught in their classroom. This program benefits all involved including the graduate students, the teachers, the K-12 students and the community.

Lodico, J. M.; Greely, T.; Lodge, A.; Pyrtle, A.; Ivey, S.; Madeiros, A.; Saleem, S.

2005-12-01

59

The Role of Morphological Awareness in Reading Comprehension among Typical and Learning Disabled Native Arabic Speakers  

Science.gov (United States)

This work examines the role of morphological awareness in contrast to phonological processing in reading comprehension amongst two groups of native Arabic children: a group with learning disabilities (LD) and a mainstream group who were matched to the LD group in age or reading level. Measures of reading comprehension fluency, phonological skills,…

Mahfoudhi, Abdessatar; Elbeheri, Gad; Al-Rashidi, Mousa; Everatt, John

2010-01-01

60

Implementation of Inquiry-Based Tutorials in AN Introductory Physics Course: the Role of the Graduate Teaching Assistant.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study determined if the training provided physics teaching assistants was sufficient to accomplish the objectives of inquiry-based tutorials for an introductory physics course. Qualitative research methods were used: (1) to determine if the Physics by Inquiry method was modeled; (2) to describe the process from the teaching assistant perspective; (3) to determine TA opinions on training methods; (4) to develop a frame of reference to better understand the role of TA's as instructional support staff. The study determined that the teaching assistants verbalized appropriate instructional actions, but were observed to use a predominantly didactic teaching style. TA's held a variety of perceptions and beliefs about inquiry -based learning and how science is learned. They felt comfortable in the role of tutorial instructor. They were satisfied with the training methods provided and had few suggestions to change or improve training for future tutorial instructors. A concurrent theme of teacher action dependent on teacher beliefs was sustained throughout the study. The TA's actions, as tutorial instructors, reflected their educational beliefs, student background and learning experiences. TA's performance as tutorial instructors depended on what they think and believe about learning science. Practical implications exist for training teaching assistants to be tutorial instructors. Some recommendations may be appropriate for TA's required to use instructional methods that they have not experienced as students. Interview prospective teaching assistants to determine educational experience and beliefs. Employ inexperienced teaching assistants whose perspectives match the proposed instructional role and who might be more receptive to modeling. Incorporate training into staff meetings. Provide time for TA's to experience the instructional model with simulation or role play as students and as instructors, accompanied by conference discussion. Use strategies known to enhance adult learning and that are sensitive to the variability of adult learners. Educate for critical reflection; incorporate a system of peer coaching. Include a teaching assistant training component in group process and group management.

Thoresen, Carol Wiggins

1994-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PERCEPTUAL LEARNING STYLE PREFERENCES AND LISTENING COMPREHENSION STRATEGIES OF IRANIAN INTERMEDIATE EFL LEARNERS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article aims to identify the learning styles and listening comprehension strategies of students, to check whether there are significant in the learning style and strategy preferences between high and low proficient listeners, and investigate whether there is any relationship between students’ learning style and listening strategy preferences. To achieve this purpose, a language proficiency test was administered to ninety language learners majoring in English Language Translation and ultimately sixtyintermediate language learners were selected and they were assigned as high and low proficient listeners through administering a listening comprehension proficiency test. They were asked to complete two questionnaires. One was used to identify students’perceptual learning style preferences and the other was used to identify students’listening comprehension strategies. In addition, think aloud protocols were held to determine the cognitive and metacognitive strategies students used while listening. The data analysis of the first questionnaire revealed that high and low proficient listeners’major learning style preferences were visual learning and kinesthetic learning. Furthermore, significant difference was found in the preference of group learning style between high and low proficient listeners. The analysis of the second questionnairerevealed that cognitive and metacognitive strategies were favored the most, respectively. In addition, significant difference was found in the preferences of listening strategies between high and low proficient listeners. The analysis with respect to the relationship between learning styles and listening strategies revealed that

Mehdi Jowkar

2012-01-01

62

ACTIVE STRATEGIES DURING INQUIRY-BASED SCIENCE TEACHER EDUCATION TO IMPROVE LONG-TERM TEACHER SELF-EFFICACY  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Teacher development aimed at increasing the use of inquiry based methods in schools is an important way to reach science learning goals. To this end, the EC has promoted inquiry based science teaching (IBST) within the Seventh Framework Program (FP7). One dimension, typically absent from the FP7 products, is the personal capacity belief of self- efficacy which has been shown to be important to personal behavioral change. The purpose of this research was to develop and test a model of teacher professional development (TPD) which adds specific elements for altering teacher self-efficacies to existing FP7 IBST products. This model was tested for its usefulness in increasing participant self-efficacy as evidenced by short and long term quantitative measures as well as by evaluation of long terminquiry lessons. Workshops to promote IBST were conducted in five different countries. Each workshop included strategies for increasing participant’s self-efficacies. Pre and post assessments showed consistently improved personal self-efficacy scores in all of the workshops. In addition, and unlike other long-term studies of teachers, these self-efficacy scores did not significantly diminish over six months. The promotion of self-efficacy in TPD provides a consistent way of evaluating the impact of IBST workshops through the use of changes in self-efficacy.

Evans, Robert Harry

2012-01-01

63

Achieving science, math and reading literacy for all: The role of inquiry-based science instruction  

Science.gov (United States)

With the enactment of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, educators and policy makers have been seeking effective strategies to improve students' science, mathematics and reading achievement. One of the primary teaching strategies recommended by reform-oriented organizations, such as the National Research Council (1996), is to utilize inquiry-based science instruction. In this study, I examined the effects of inquiry-based science instruction and traditional science instruction on student achievement across science, mathematics and reading. I also compared the effects of inquiry-based science instruction and traditional science instruction on student achievement. Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999---a large, national data sample---a series of structural equation modeling analyses were performed. Results indicated that inquiry-based science instruction was associated with significant, positive gains not only in science achievement, but also in mathematics and reading achievement. The positive relationship between inquiry instruction and student achievement was found above and beyond the contributions of traditional science instruction, which generally showed no significant relationship to student achievement. Findings support the theoretical position that inquiry-based science instruction can have robust benefits across the curriculum. This study contributes to the dialogue on effective instructional methods to achieve science, mathematics and reading literacy for all. Overall, this study provides cautious support for the idea that student achievement can be promoted by supporting and encouraging teachers to implement inquiry-based science instruction.

Hung, Man

64

Challenging the Non-Science Majors with Inquiry-based Laboratory Environmental Geoscience Courses  

Science.gov (United States)

Although there is proven rationale for teaching inquiry-based/problem-based lessons in the undergraduate classroom, very few non-major geoscience course implement these instructional strategies in their laboratory sections. The College of Charleston Department of Geology and Environmental Geosciences has developed an introductory Environmental Geology Laboratory course for undergraduate non-majors, which corrects this traditional methodology. The Environmental Geology lab activities employ an inquiry-based approach, in which the students take control of their own learning; a cooperative learning approach, in which each member of a team is responsible not only for learning what is taught but also for helping their peers learn; and a problem/case study-based learning approach, in which activities are abstracted from a real-life scenario. In these lab sessions, students actively engage in mastering course content and develop essential skills while exploring real-world scenarios through case studies. For example, during the two-week section on Earthquakes, teams of students study the effects of seismic motion on various types of sediments found underlying the Charleston, South Carolina region. Students discover areas where the greatest damage occurred during the 1886 7.4 MM earthquake through a walking tour of downtown Charleston. Extracting information from historical and topographic maps, as well as aerial and satellite imagery provides students with the necessary information to produce an earthquake hazard-zone map of the Charleston Peninsula. These types of exercises and laboratory activities allow the students to utilize scientific reasoning and application of scientific concepts to develop solutions to environmental scenarios, such as volcanic eruptions, coastal, flooding, or landslide hazards, and groundwater contamination. The newly implemented labs began in Fall of 2008 and have been undergoing adaptations throughout the Spring and Fall of 2009. Qualitative data will be gathered and analyzed to show the effectiveness of moving beyond traditional laboratory teaching methods to methods that require and promote deeper learning and retaining of content. Qualitative data will be based upon the engagement of the students, the deeper level of questioning, the engagement of the faculty, among others. The data will be acquired through the use of personal responses and end of course surveys. For the Spring 2009 semester, the department will develop a more quantitative means of assessment by integrating a pre- and post-survey for this course as well as the traditionally-taught introductory course. Acquisition of knowledge and depth of knowledge by the students from both types of courses will be obtained and compared for assessing effectiveness of this teaching strategy in a laboratory setting. This data will encourage the faculty teaching Environmental Geology Labs as well as the standard introductory labs to redesign the remaining lab courses. In addition, the method used here may serve as a model for laboratory courses in other disciplines.

Humphreys, R. R.; Hall, C.; Colgan, M. W.

2009-12-01

65

Inquiry Based Science Education og den sociokulturelt forankrede dialog i naturfagsundervisningen.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Through study, investigation and discussion of the concept Best Practice in science education (Ellebæk & Østergaard, 2009) it was shown, that the dialogue in the teaching sequences was an important factor for the children’s understanding, engagement and interest for the science subjects and phenomena. In this article we will discuss dialogue in the light of sociocultural learning theories, and relate it to Inquiry Based Science Education (IBSE), as the pedagogical and didactical method, which are promoted most strongly these years (e.g. in the inter-European Pollen and Fibonacci projects). The method is central in the action research project NatSats, where focus is on chidren’s hypothesizing and the way teacher’s use dialogue in their teaching or guiding of children in kindergarten and primary school. Results from the project indicate that an open and interrogative dialogue based on the student’s premises is able to support hypothesizing, which initiates explorative and investigative challenges for the students.

Østergaard, Lars Domino

2012-01-01

66

Comprehensibility.  

Science.gov (United States)

The act of communicating is not complete until the message is received and understood by the audience. This paper focuses on formulating messages for comprehensibility, in a discussion that is fundamentally applicable to all media. The ability to understand a verbovisual message depends on its readability, legibility, and its reading value.…

Pettersson, Rune

67

Multimedia Glosses and Their Effect on L2 Text Comprehension and Vocabulary Learning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study investigates the effects that different types of multimedia glosses, namely textual, pictorial, and textual + pictorial, have on text comprehension and vocabulary learning when the goal is exclusively comprehension of a computerized text. This study is based on the theoretical framework of attention, which maintains that attention is critical in the acquisition process of an L2 (Robinson, 1995; Schmidt, 1995, 2001; Tomlin and Villa, 1994). Ninety-four participants read a text under one of four gloss conditions while asked to think aloud. This study investigated whether any of the conditions promoted noticing and whether this noticing led to better comprehension of the text and learning of the target vocabulary words. Reading comprehension, recognition, and production measures were utilized in a pre-post test design. Results of quantitative and qualitative analyses of the data gathered showed first that all multimedia gloss groups noticed and recognized significantly more of the target words than the control group. Second, no significant differences were found among any of the groups in production of the target vocabulary items. Finally, regarding comprehension, results showed that the combination gloss group significantly outperformed all other groups. These results confirm that the multimedia glosses under investigation have a different effect on comprehension and vocabulary learning respectively.

Iñigo Yanguas

2009-01-01

68

The Effects of Hypertext Gloss on Comprehension and Vocabulary Retention under Incidental and Intentional Learning Conditions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study investigated comprehension, immediate and delayed vocabulary retention under incidental and intentional learning conditions via computer mediated hypertext gloss. One hundred and eighty four (N= 184) intermediate students of English as a foreign language at an English school participated in the study. They were randomly assigned to either the incidental or the intentional conditions, and received differential treatments. The participants read the same enhanced electronic text with permanently highlighted target vocabularies in the intentional condition, and temporarily highlighted target ones in the incidental condition. The target items were hyperlinked to the same textual enhancements. The results presented the strong and the weak points of the two learning conditions with regards to immediate and delayed retention; as the intentional modality enhanced immediate gain and the incidental one facilitated retention. Consequently, it is recommended that both methods of vocabulary learning can be implemented jointly in a virtual Learning environment in order to improve comprehension and vocabulary retention.

Zeinab Zandieh; Manoochehr Jafarigohar

2012-01-01

69

Gender Differences in L2 Comprehension and Vocabulary Learning in the Video-based CALL Program  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study examined whether there were significant differences between males and females in comprehension, vocabulary acquisition and vocabulary retention in the video-based computer assisted language learning (CALL) program. In total, 74 male and 43 female university students taking Freshman Englis...

Lu-Fang Lin

70

The Effects of Hypertext Gloss on Comprehension and Vocabulary Retention under Incidental and Intentional Learning Conditions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present study investigated comprehension, immediate and delayed vocabulary retention under incidental and intentional learning conditions via computer mediated hypertext gloss. One hundred and eighty four (N= 184) intermediate students of English as a foreign language at an English scho...

Zeinab Zandieh; Manoochehr Jafarigohar

71

Sustainability in a State Comprehensive Cancer Control Coalition: Lessons Learned.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Alabama Comprehensive Cancer Control Coalition (ACCCC) has developed an integrated and coordinated approach to reducing cancer incidence, morbidity, and mortality, and to improving the quality of life for cancer survivors, their families, and their caregivers. The ACCCC is currently in a maintenance phase and a formal plan for sustainability of the coalition was needed to keep the members engaged and productive. A training session in coalition sustainability conducted in 2013 identified the following elements as essential to success: (1) increased marketing of the coalition by simplifying its mission; (2) improved networking including flexibility in coalition meeting location and attendance; (3) increased membership satisfaction through transformational leadership; (4) revision of the working structure of committees and improved accountability; and (5) enhancement of partner satisfaction with coalition activities designed to recruit and retain new partners. A self-administered membership satisfaction survey was given to assess coalition mission, meeting logistics, organization, capacity building, and coalition goals. Results indicated that the subcategories of communication, mission, and meeting logistics were rated satisfied to very satisfied on a five-point scale. Although the ACCCC had clearly written goals, improvement could be made in leadership participation and new member orientation could be improved. Most members rated their parent organization as highly involved with the ACCCC and many offered suggestions on capacity building. Results of the sustainability training have clarified the ACCCC's plans to ensure coalition viability and improve strategies to inform stakeholders of the benefits of participation in the coalition.

Desmond RA; Chapman K; Graf G; Stanfield B; Waterbor JW

2013-10-01

72

Media Presentation Mode, English Listening Comprehension and Cognitive Load in Ubiquitous Learning Environments: Modality Effect or Redundancy Effect?  

Science.gov (United States)

Although ubiquitous learning enhances students' access to learning materials, it is crucial to find out which media presentation modes produce the best results for English listening comprehension. The present study examined the effect of media presentation mode (sound and text versus sound) on English listening comprehension and cognitive load.…

Chang, Chi-Cheng; Lei, Hao; Tseng, Ju-Shih

2011-01-01

73

Effects of a Computer-Assisted Concept Mapping Learning Strategy on EFL College Students' English Reading Comprehension  

Science.gov (United States)

|The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of a computer-assisted concept mapping learning strategy on EFL college learners' English reading comprehension. The research questions were: (1) what was the influence of the computer-assisted concept mapping learning strategy on different learners' English reading comprehension? (2)…

Liu, Pei-Lin; Chen, Chiu-Jung; Chang, Yu-Ju

2010-01-01

74

Effects of a Computer-Assisted Concept Mapping Learning Strategy on EFL College Students' English Reading Comprehension  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of a computer-assisted concept mapping learning strategy on EFL college learners' English reading comprehension. The research questions were: (1) what was the influence of the computer-assisted concept mapping learning strategy on different learners' English reading comprehension? (2) did…

Liu, Pei-Lin; Chen, Chiu-Jung; Chang, Yu-Ju

2010-01-01

75

How does participation in inquiry-based activities influence gifted students' higher order thinking?  

Science.gov (United States)

Inquiry-based learning is considered a useful technique to strengthen the critical thinking skills of students. The National Science Standards emphasize its use and the complexities and challenge it provides are well suited for meeting the needs of the gifted. While many studies have documented the effectiveness of this type of instruction, there is a lack of research on growth in higher-order thinking through participation in science inquiry. This study investigated such growth among a small group of gifted fifth-grade students. In this study a group of fifth-grade gifted science students completed a series of three forensics inquiry lessons, and documented questions, ideas and reflections as they constructed evidence to solve a crime. From this class of students, one small group was purposely selected to serve as the focus of the study. Using qualitative techniques, the questions and statements students made as they interacted in the activity were analyzed. Videotaped comments and student logs were coded for emerging patterns and also examined for evidence of increased levels of higher-order thinking based on a rubric that was designed using the six levels of Bloom's Taxonomy. Evidence from this study showed marked increase in and deeper levels of higher-order thinking for two of the students. The other boy and girl showed progress using the inquiry activities, but it was not as evident. The social dynamics of the group seemed to hinder one girl's participation during some of the activities. The social interactions played a role in strengthening the exchange of ideas and thinking skills for the others. The teacher had a tremendous influence over the production of higher-level statements by modeling that level of thinking as she questioned the students. Through her practice of answering a question with a question, she gradually solicited more analytical thinking from her students.

Reger, Barbara H.

76

Self Regulated Learning strategies as Predictors of Reading Comprehension among Students of English as a Foreign Language  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This cross-sectional study investigates the self regulated learning strategies used as predictors of reading comprehension. Participants of the study were 248 EFL university students: 112 males and 136 females enrolled in the Faculty of Arts, Foreign Languages Department. The primary aims of the study were: (1) to examine whether there were positive relationships between the use of self regulated learning strategies and reading comprehension; (2) whether there were significant differences between males and females in use of self regulated learning strategies and reading comprehension; (3) and finally to gauge predictors of reading comprehension themselves through self regulated learning strategies towards learning English language. Students were asked to answer questions based on a 5-point Likert-scale self regulated learning Questionnaire and they were asked to read three different passages and answer the questions that followed each passage. The results of MANOVA also revealed that there were differences between males and females in the use of self regulated learning strategies in favour of females. However, there were differences between males and females in the reading comprehension test to the advantage of males. The results of MANOVA analysis revealed that there were differences between students across their different academic levels in self regulated learning strategies. There were also differences between students across different academic levels, in the reading comprehension test. The results of multiple regression reported that some of the self-regulated learning strategies were predictors of reading comprehension.

AbdulRahman Awad Al Asmari; Nasrah Mahmoud Ismail

2012-01-01

77

Inquiry-Based Investigation on the Internet: Sound and the Human Ear  

Science.gov (United States)

In this online exploration of sound energy and the human ear, students carry out an inquiry-based activity, which leads them to websites featuring a diagram of a human ear, an interactive demonstration of the Doppler effect, a model of longitudinal waves, and an animation of human hearing. In the activity, students formulate, justify, and evaluate…

Quinlan, Kevin; Sterling, Donna R.

2006-01-01

78

Authority in an Agency-Centered, Inquiry-Based University Calculus Classroom  

Science.gov (United States)

Authority roles among teachers and students have traditionally been hierarchal and centered with the expertise and power of the teacher limiting opportunities for students to act with autonomy to build and justify mathematics. In this paper we discuss authority roles for teachers and students that have been realized in an inquiry-based university,…

Gerson, Hope; Bateman, Elizabeth

2010-01-01

79

AP Investigative labs: An inquiry-base Approach Lab 12: Fruit Fly Behavior  

Science.gov (United States)

In this inquiry-based investigation, students will explore the relationship between fruit flies and their response to different environmental conditions. Students will design a controlled experiment to explore environmental factors that either attract or repel fruit flies in the laboratory setting.

The College Board The College Board (The College Board;)

2012-10-24

80

AP Investigative labs: An inquiry-base Approach Lab 4: Diffusion and Osmosis  

Science.gov (United States)

This inquiry-based investigation allows students to use artificial cells to study the relationship of surface area and volume, create models of living cells to explore osmosis and diffusion, and observe osmosis in living cells. Students will develop the skills to design experiments to measure water potential in plant cells and gauge the rate of osmosis in model cells.

The College Board The College Board (The College Board;)

2012-10-23

 
 
 
 
81

Reading Comprehension  

CERN Multimedia

Reading Comprehension: Assisting Children with Learning Difficulties examines the complex nature of reading comprehension. It introduces a model for classifying reading comprehension based on an expanded Simple View of Reading. Issues related to assessment, diagnosis, and remediation of reading comprehension difficulties are discussed and translated into clear recommendations to inform reading intervention design and practice. It gives an informed understanding as to why reading comprehension is difficult for some children with learning disabilities such as ADHD, autism, language difficulties

Woolley, Gary

2011-01-01

82

Contributions of Metacognitive and Self-Regulated Learning Theories to Investigations of Calibration of Comprehension  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we examine the contributions of metacognitive and self-regulated learning theories to research on students' calibration of comprehension. Historically, cognitive psychologists have studied calibration of comprehension within a purely metacognitive framework, with an emphasis on the role of text and task factors but little consideration of factors of self. There has been a recent trend, however, towards incorporating a social cognitive perspective to the study of calibration of comprehension, with factors of self such as motivation and affect being examined more often. Among the factors of self that have been examined, self-efficacy has played a major role as it may be all but impossible to disentangle its influence on students' calibration of comprehension. Other variables of self that have been examined include ability, familiarity, ego and goal-orientation, goal setting, personality traits and susceptibility to social and cultural influences. Broadening the context in which calibration of comprehension is assessed allows a more complete examination of the rich set of interrelated processes that affect students' performance.

Stephanie STOLP; Karen M. ZABRUCKY

2009-01-01

83

Gender Differences in L2 Comprehension and Vocabulary Learning in the Video-based CALL Program  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examined whether there were significant differences between males and females in comprehension, vocabulary acquisition and vocabulary retention in the video-based computer assisted language learning (CALL) program. In total, 74 male and 43 female university students taking Freshman English course in Taiwan joined this study. A quantitative analysis of video comprehension tests, vocabulary immediate tests, and vocabulary retention tests was conducted. Two types of videotexts ranked as easy and difficult materials were used. The statistic results showed that first, regardless of videotext difficulty, females achieved higher percentage scores than males in comprehension, vocabulary immediate, and vocabulary retention tests. Second, with an easy videotext, females achieved significantly higher scores of comprehension and vocabulary retention tests than males. Third, a within-group comparison showed that females achieved significantly higher scores of both vocabulary immediate and retention tests of the easy segment than their scores of the difficult segment. Fourth, males themselves acquired vocabulary significantly better while viewing the easy segment; however, males’ comprehension of the difficult videotext was significantly better than their score of the easy one. Finally, instructional recommendations were presented to enhance L2 instruction through the video-based CALL program.

Lu-Fang Lin

2011-01-01

84

AP Investigative labs: An inquiry-base Approach Lab 11: Transpiration  

Science.gov (United States)

In this inquiry-based investigation, students calculate leaf surface area and the average number of stomata per square millimeter in a particular kind of plant. From these observations, students will be able to formulate questions about the process of transpiration and design an experiment based on previous knowledge of osmosis, diffusion, and active transport; the movement of molecules and ions across cell membranes; the physical and chemical properties of water; photosynthesis; and the exchange of matter between biological systems and the environment.

The College Board The College Board (The College Board;)

2012-10-24

85

AP Investigative labs: An inquiry-base Approach Lab 7: Cell Division: Mitosis and Meiosis  

Science.gov (United States)

In this inquiry-based investigation, students will explore the storage and transmission of genetic information by studying the events in the cell cycle and seeing how these events are controlled. By observing various cell structures, students will be able to explain how DNA is transmitted to the next generation via mitosis; and understand how meiosis and crossing over leads to increased genetic diversity which is necessary for evolution.

The College Board The College Board (The College Board;)

2012-10-23

86

An inquiry-based approach to Maxwell distribution: a case study with engineering students  

Science.gov (United States)

The concept of distribution is a fundamental component of statistical thinking. This paper describes a teaching approach for it that uses a specific activity related to the field of statistical mechanics. The concept of the velocity distribution of a particle system is dealt with using an inquiry-based approach involving an experimental examination of Maxwell's distribution. Some outcomes of a teaching experiment held at the Faculty of Engineering of the University of Palermo, Italy are described.

Rosario Battaglia, Onofrio; Fazio, Claudio; Sperandeo-Mineo, Rosa Maria

2013-07-01

87

The Relationship among Extraversion Tendency, Vocabulary Learning Strategies, and Reading Comprehension of EFL Undergraduates in Kerman Province  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article aims mainly to explore the relationship among the degree of extraversion tendency, vocabulary learning strategies, and reading comprehension of EFL undergraduate students in Kerman Province. For this study, there are five different categories of vocabulary learning strategies as determination, memory, social, cognitive, and metacognitive. In order to investigate the current variables, 164 EFL undergraduate students in Kerman Province were chosen based on one-step cluster sampling. The data were collected by using Schmitt’s vocabulary learning strategies questionnaire (VLSQ) adopted from Bennett (2006), Eysenck personality inventory, revised version (EPQ-R), and TOEFL reading comprehension test. Then, they were analyzed by Pearson Product Moment Correlation. The findings showed that: a) overall strategy use and four categories (out of 5) of vocabulary learning strategies were not significantly correlated with reading comprehension, b) there was a significant and positive correlation between extroversion tendency and four categories of (out of 5) vocabulary learning strategies as well as overall strategy use, and c) there was no significant relationship between reading comprehension and degree of extroversion tendency.Key words: Vocabulary Learning Strategy; Reading Comprehension; Extroversion Tendency; Language Learning Strategy

Mohammad Hosseini Naveh; Reza Kafipour; Rahmatollah Soltani

2011-01-01

88

??????????????????????? Educational Website Evaluation:Learning Facilitating Effect versus Functionality Comprehensiveness Perspectives  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????147????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????t???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????The main focus of this paper is to examine any significant differences between participants’ evaluative ratings towards the website in terms of its facilitating effects for learning versus its functionality comprehensiveness. A survey research method was used in the study. 147 high school students who successfully passed to the second phase of the Fifth Annual High Temperature Superconductor Tournament participated in the study. Data analysis yielded that statistically significant differences were found only on areas related to multimedia features. Specifically, the obtained results indicated that students may use their past website surfing experiences as a point of reference and tended to hold a higher expectation toward the embedded multimedia features. As such, their evaluative ratings towards the facilitating effects of multimedia, including the animation, film, and audio, tended to be significantly higher than those of its functionality comprehensiveness. Suggestions for website evaluation and future studies are offered.

Fu-Yun Yu; Meng-Da Shieh; In-Gann Chen; Ya-Ling Lian

2007-01-01

89

Learning with Summaries: Effects of Representation Mode and Type of Learning Activity on Comprehension and Transfer  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the experiment was to examine whether students better understand a science text when they are asked to self-generate summaries or to study predefined summaries. Furthermore, we tested the effects of verbal and pictorial summaries. The experiment followed a 2 x 2 design with representation mode (verbal vs. pictorial) and learning

Leopold, Claudia; Sumfleth, Elke; Leutner, Detlev

2013-01-01

90

Learn AppleScript The Comprehensive Guide to Scripting and Automation on MAC OS X  

CERN Document Server

AppleScript is an English-like, easy-to-understand scripting language built into every Mac. AppleScript can automate hundreds of AppleScriptable applications, performing tasks both large and small, complex and simple. Learn AppleScript: The Comprehensive Guide to Scripting and Automation on Mac OS X, Third Edition has been completely updated for Mac OS X Snow Leopard. It's all here, with an emphasis on practical information that will help you solve any automation problem-from the most mundane repetitive tasks to highly integrated workflows of complex systems. * Friendly enough for beginners, d

Rosenthal, Hanaan

2009-01-01

91

Children’s comprehension of informational text: Reading, engaging, and learning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Reading, Engaging, and Learning project (REAL) investigated whether a classroom intervention that enhanced young children's experience with informational books would increase reading achievement and engagement. Participants attended schools serving low income neighborhoods with 86% African American enrollment. The longitudinal study spanned second through fourth grades. Treatment conditions were: (1) Text Infusion/Reading for Learning Instruction -- students were given greater access to informational books in their classroom libraries and in reading instruction; (2) Text Infusion Alone -- the same books were provided but teachers were not asked to alter their instruction; (3) Traditional Instruction -- students experienced business as usual in the classroom. Children were assessed each year on measures of reading and reading engagement, and classroom instructional practices were observed. On most measures, the informational text infusion intervention did not yield differential growth over time. However, the results inform efforts to increase children’s facility with informational text in the early years in order to improve reading comprehension.

Linda BAKER; Mariam Jean DREHER; Angela Katenkamp SHIPLET; Lisa Carter BEALL; Anita N. VOELKER; Adia J. GARRETT; Heather R. SCHUGAR; Maria FINGER-ELAM

2011-01-01

92

Image Segmentation using a Refined Comprehensive Learning Particle Swarm Optimizer for Maximum Tsallis Entropy Thresholding  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Thresholding is one of the most important techniques for performing image segmentation. In this paper to compute optimum thresholds for Maximum Tsallis entropy thresholding (MTET) model, a new hybrid algorithm is proposed by integrating the Comprehensive Learning Particle Swarm Optimizer (CPSO) with the Powell’s Conjugate Gradient (PCG) method. Here the CPSO will act as the main optimizer for searching the near-optimal thresholds while the PCG method will be used to fine tune the best solutions obtained by the CPSO in every iteration. This new multilevel thresholding technique is called the refined Comprehensive Learning Particle Swarm Optimizer (RCPSO) algorithm for MTET. Experimental results over multiple images with different range of complexities validate the efficiency of the proposed technique with regard to segmentation accuracy, speed, and robustness in comparison with other techniques reported in the literature. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposedRCPSO algorithm can search for multiple thresholds which are very close to the optimal ones examined by the exhaustive search method.

L. Jubair Ahmed; A. Ebenezer Jeyakumar

2013-01-01

93

Machine Learning and Data Mining for Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Monitoring  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) is gaining renewed attention in light of growing worldwide interest in mitigating risks of nuclear weapons proliferation and testing. Since the International Monitoring System (IMS) installed the first suite of sensors in the late 1990's, the IMS network has steadily progressed, providing valuable support for event diagnostics. This progress was highlighted at the recent International Scientific Studies (ISS) Conference in Vienna in June 2009, where scientists and domain experts met with policy makers to assess the current status of the CTBT Verification System. A strategic theme within the ISS Conference centered on exploring opportunities for further enhancing the detection and localization accuracy of low magnitude events by drawing upon modern tools and techniques for machine learning and large-scale data analysis. Several promising approaches for data exploitation were presented at the Conference. These are summarized in a companion report. In this paper, we introduce essential concepts in machine learning and assess techniques which could provide both incremental and comprehensive value for event discrimination by increasing the accuracy of the final data product, refining On-Site-Inspection (OSI) conclusions, and potentially reducing the cost of future network operations.

Russell, S; Vaidya, S

2009-07-30

94

The Relationship between Iranian EFL Instructors’ Understanding of Learning Styles and Their Students’ Success in Reading Comprehension  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Many variables reasonably influence teachers’ education. One of these considering variables is being aware of the students’ learning styles. Dörnyei (2005) maintains that individual differences correlate strongly with L2 achievements. Keefe (1979) believes that learning styles might be thought of as cognitive, affective, and physiological traits that are relatively stable indicators of how learners perceive, interact with, and respond to the learning environment. The present study investigated the relationship between Iranian EFL instructors’ understanding of learning styles and their students’ success in reading comprehension tests. To achieve this goal, the researchers randomly selected 240 Iranian EFL instructors at tertiary level with more than three years of experience in teaching reading comprehension courses. The Teacher’s View over Students’ Learning Preferences Inventory (TVSLPI) as well as a test of language proficiency (MELAB) was employed as the study’s instruments. The findings revealed a significant relationship (p?0.05) between the Iranian EFL instructors’ recognition of learning styles and their students’ success in reading comprehension test. Besides, the results of interviews showed that Iranian instructors have approximately similar attitudes toward teaching reading comprehension in Iranian contexts.

Marzieh Khademi; Khalil Motallebzadeh; Hamid Ashraf

2013-01-01

95

Machine learning for radioxenon event classification for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method of weapon detection for the Comprehensive nuclear-Test-Ban-Treaty (CTBT) consists of monitoring the amount of radioxenon in the atmosphere by measuring and sampling the activity concentration of 131mXe, 133Xe, 133mXe, and 135Xe by radionuclide monitoring. Several explosion samples were simulated based on real data since the measured data of this type is quite rare. These data sets consisted of different circumstances of a nuclear explosion, and are used as training data sets to establish an effective classification model employing state-of-the-art technologies in machine learning. A study was conducted involving classic induction algorithms in machine learning including Naive Bayes, Neural Networks, Decision Trees, k-Nearest Neighbors, and Support Vector Machines, that revealed that they can successfully be used in this practical application. In particular, our studies show that many induction algorithms in machine learning outperform a simple linear discriminator when a signal is found in a high radioxenon background environment.

2010-01-01

96

Developing a Student Centered Inquiry Based Teaching Approach at Elementary Level Science in Pakistan-A Three Years Implementation Cycle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available National Curriculum, 2006 is one of the significant measures to improve the quality of education in Pakistan. For General Science, grades IV-VIII, “Student-Centered and Inquiry-Based (SCIB) learning” are a key concept of it. However the system for teachers’ in-service training in the country at the Federal and the Provincial levels is pathetic and many of the teachers do not have chances to be equipped for the new ways of teaching science based on the new curriculum. To address this issue and help Pakistan in this significant task of national importance, the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) undertaken the challenge of coping with the problem and help Pakistan through a technical cooperation project aiming at establishing a training model that ensures teachers to deliver SCIB science lessons. The purpose of this paper is to describe the SCIB project design and the basic policy of a three years implementation cycle that will support in development and sustainability of science curriculum reforms efforts in Pakistan. The process and achievements of the project outlines the development of teaching plans, master trainers training, teacher training, school cluster and baseline survey of schools and organization of forums at the Federal and the Provincial levels. The paper covers an analysis of some issues related to SCIB teaching model development in the perspectives of ground reality and the lesson learned from implementing such innovative projects in past. The concept of Teaching through Easily Available Material (TEAM) and SCIB teaching approach being practiced in Pakistan may be valuable for the developing countries of the region.

Alyas Qadeer Tahir

2011-01-01

97

The Effects of the Use of Renzulli Learning on Student Achievement in Reading Comprehension, Reading Fluency, Social Studies, and Science  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Renzulli Learning is an on-line educational profile and educational learning system designed to match student interests, learning styles, and expression styles with a vast array of educational activities and resources designed to enrich and engage students’ learning process. In this experimental study, quantitative procedures were used to investigate the use of Renzulli Learning on oral reading fluency, reading comprehension, science achievement, social studies achievement of 383 elementary and middle schools students. The research took place in two schools, an urban middle school in Georgia where half of all students are considered to be at risk due to poverty or other factors, and a suburban elementary school in southern California. Students in grades 3 5 (n = 185) and grades 6 8 (n = 198) were randomly assigned to use Renzulli Learning for 2-3 hours each week for a 16-week period. Students in the treatment groups were compared to students who did not have the opportunity to use Renzulli Learning in control classes in the same schools. A two-way repeated-measures ANOVA was used to explore differences between treatment and control students. After 16 weeks, students who participated in Renzulli Learning demonstrated significantly higher growth in reading comprehension (p < .001), significantly higher growth in oral reading fluency (p = .016), and significantly higher growth in social studies achievement (p = .013) than those students who did not participate in Renzulli Learning.

Gara B Field

2009-01-01

98

From Heuristic Optimization to Dictionary Learning: A Review and Comprehensive Comparison of Image Denoising Algorithms.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Image denoising is a well explored topic in the field of image processing. In the past several decades, the progress made in image denoising has benefited from the improved modeling of natural images. In this paper, we introduce a new taxonomy based on image representations for a better understanding of state-of-the-art image denoising techniques. Within each category, several representative algorithms are selected for evaluation and comparison. The experimental results are discussed and analyzed to determine the overall advantages and disadvantages of each category. In general, the nonlocal methods within each category produce better denoising results than local ones. In addition, methods based on overcomplete representations using learned dictionaries perform better than others. The comprehensive study in this paper would serve as a good reference and stimulate new research ideas in image denoising.

Shao L; Yan R; Li X; Liu Y

2013-08-01

99

[Problem based learning: achievement of educational goals in the information and comprehension sub-categories of Bloom cognitive domain  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim this work was to assess and compare the achievements of medical students, subjected to problem based learning methodology. The information and comprehension categories of Bloom were tested in 17 medical students in four different occasions during the physiopathology course, using a multiple choice knowledge test. There was a significant improvement in the number of correct answers towards the end of the course. It is concluded that these medical students obtained adequate learning achievements in the information subcategory of Bloom using problem based learning methodology, during the physiopathology course.

Montecinos P; Rodewald AM

1994-06-01

100

Organising the Chemistry of Question-Based Learning: A Case Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Designing inquiry-based-learning with and for university students develops problem-solving skills and logical reasoning, as well as reflective thinking. It involves working as a member of a team, questioning, being creative, shaping the skills for continued intellectual development. It is argued that inquiry-based group work is one of the most…

de Jesus, Helena Pedrosa; de Souza, Francisle Neri; Teixeira-Dias, Jose J. C.; Watts, Mike

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

A Practical Approach to Inquiry-Based Learning in Linear Algebra  

Science.gov (United States)

Linear algebra has become one of the most useful fields of mathematics since last decade, yet students still have trouble seeing the connection between some of the abstract concepts and real-world applications. In this article, we propose the use of thought-provoking questions in lesson designs to allow two-way communications between instructors…

Chang, J.-M.

2011-01-01

102

The Impact of Collaborative Groups versus Individuals in Undergraduate Inquiry-Based Astronomy Laboratory Learning Exercises  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the long-standing general undergraduate education requirements common to many colleges and universities is a science course with a laboratory experience component. One of the objectives frequently included in the description of most of these courses is that a student will understand the nature and processes of scientific inquiry. However,…

Sibbernsen, Kendra J.

2010-01-01

103

Inquiry-based laboratory course improves students' ability to design experiments and interpret data.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We redesigned our intermediate-level organismal physiology laboratory course to center on student-designed experiments in plant and human physiology. Our primary goals were to improve the ability of students to design experiments and analyze data. We assessed these abilities at the beginning and end of the semester by giving students an evaluation tool consisting of an experimental scenario, data, and four questions of increasing complexity. To control for nontreatment influences, the improvement scores (final minus initial score for each question) of students taking both the laboratory and the companion lecture course were compared with those of students taking the lecture course only. The laboratory + lecture group improved more than the lecture-only group for the most challenging question. This evidence suggests that our inquiry-based curriculum is achieving its primary goals. The evaluation tool that we developed may be useful to others interested in measuring experimental analysis abilities in their students.

Myers MJ; Burgess AB

2003-12-01

104

Computer-based and paper-based reading comprehension in adolescents with typical language development and language-learning disabilities.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: With the global expansion of technology, our reading platform has shifted from traditional text to hypertext, yet little consideration has been given to how this shift might help or hinder students' reading comprehension. The purpose of this study was to compare reading comprehension of computer-based and paper-based texts in adolescents with and without language-learning disabilities (LLD). METHOD: Fourteen adolescents with LLD and 25 adolescents with typical language development (TLD) read literary texts in computer-based and paper-based formats and then answered reading comprehension questions. RESULTS: The LLD group scored significantly lower than the TLD group on the reading comprehension measure, but there were no significant between-group differences for reading or answering time. In addition, there were no significant within-group differences for the computer-based or paper-based conditions. Predictors for reading comprehension varied by group and condition. CONCLUSION: Neither group appeared to be affected by the additional cognitive load imposed by hypertext in the computer-based condition; however, the load between conditions may not have been sufficient to differentially impact reading comprehension. Based on the regression analyses, it appears that working memory, oral language, and decoding differed in their contribution to reading comprehension for each group and condition.

Srivastava P; Gray S

2012-10-01

105

Science teachers' online strategies for seeking inquiry-based lesson activities  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reports the findings of a mixed methods study that examines how 9th grade science teachers engage in online searches for inquiry-based activities in two different search engines---Google and the Digital Library for Earth System Education. The goal of this dissertation was two-fold: (a) to detail science teacher search behaviors during a realistic online search task related to their teaching, and (b) the effect of search engine affordances on those search practices. At the center of the dissertation activities were an experimental task and talk-aloud protocols of the teachers engaged in the task. The task itself asked teacher participants to search for earth science activities linking the concept of volcanism to plate tectonics. In addition to the experiment and talk-aloud protocol, a demographic survey, content knowledge evaluation, inquiry-based activity evaluation, and post-task structured interview were conducted. Because substantial prior research in non-educational areas has shown that task domain influences search behaviors, it was expected that the science teaching domain would have its own particular influence on teachers' online information seeking. The concept of task domain was developed in terms of an information seeking framework developed by Marchionini (1995). The Marchionini (1995) model of information seeking was used as a guiding framework for the dissertation investigations. The objectives of this dissertation were to characterize the behaviors and products of real-world online information seeking by 9th grade science teachers, and to inform the work of educational software designers.

Lenell, Elizabeth Ann

106

Machine learning update for compliance verification of the Comprehensive nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: A possible method of explosion detection for the Comprehensive nuclear- Test-Ban-Treaty (CTBT) consists of monitoring the amount of radioxenon in the atmosphere by measuring and sampling the activity concentration of Xe-131m, Xe-133, Xe-133m, and Xe-135. Several samples were simulated under different circumstances of nuclear detonation, and are used as training datasets to establish an optimal classification model employing state-of-the-art technologies in machine learning (ML). We conducted a preliminary study involving ML algorithms including Naive Bayes, Neural Networks, Decision Trees, k-Nearest Neighbours, and Support Vector Machines. In addition to confirming that ML technology is appropriate for this problem, the study suggested that it can help guide our quest for more accurate simulated data sets, which benefit the entire CTBT community. By using these algorithms, we discovered undesirable artifacts of our initial synthetic explosion data set that needed to be rectified. Our preliminary ML study compelled us to improve the dataset by using a more realistic set of fission yields and by including atmospheric dispersion effects. The fission yields were corrected for amount of time in the explosion cavity and we assume a 10 % release rate each 24 hours. The radioxenon from the explosion site was atmospherically transported (through simulations) to CTBT stations to determine an amount of radioxenon that would be measured by the stations. This was done for real atmospheric data. This new synthetic data set and the results of the machine learning algorithm obtained on it will be discussed. (author)

2008-01-01

107

A comprehensive stroke center patient registry: advantages, limitations, and lessons learned  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: The use of medical data registry allows insitutions to effectively manage information for many different investigations related to the registry, as well as evaluate patient's trends over time, with the ultimate goal of recognizing trends that may improve outcomes in a particular patient population.Methods: The purpose of this article is to illustrate our experience with a stroke patient registry at a comprehensive stroke center and highlight advantages, disadvantages, and lessons learned in the process of designing, implementing, and maintaining a stroke registry. We detail the process of stroke registry methodology, common data element (CDE) definitions, the generation of manuscripts from a registry, and the limitations.Advantages: The largest advantage of a registry is the ability to prospectively add patients, while allowing investigators to go back and collect information retrospectively if needed. The continuous addition of new patients increases the sample size of studies from year to year, and it also allows reflection on clinical practices from previous years and the ability to investigate trends in patient management over time.Limitations: The greatest limitation in this registry pertains to our single-entry technique where multiple sites of data entry and transfer may generate errors within the registry.Lessons Learned: To reduce the potential for errors and maximize the accuracy and efficiency of the registry, we invest significant time in training competent registry users and project leaders. With effective training and transition of leadership positions, which are continuous and evolving processes, we have attempted to optimize our clinical research registry for knowledge gain and quality improvement at our center.

James E Siegler; Amelia K. Boehme; Adrianne M. Dorsey; Dominique J. Monlezun; Alex J. George; Amir Shaban; H. Jeremy Bockholt; Karen C. Albright; Sheryl Martin-Schild

2013-01-01

108

Enhancing Pedagogical Content Knowledge in a Collaborative School-Based Professional Development Program for Inquiry-Based Science Teaching  

Science.gov (United States)

This study reports on the trial of a school-based professional development process aimed at helping science teachers improve their inquiry-based science teaching skills. This process focuses on developing the pedagogical content knowledge of teachers through peer collaboration, under the guidance of a teacher educator. A multi-method interpretive…

Lee, Yeung-Chung

2011-01-01

109

A Psychometric Approach to the Development of a 5E Lesson Plan Scoring Instrument for Inquiry-Based Teaching  

Science.gov (United States)

This research centers on the psychometric examination of the structure of an instrument, known as the 5E Lesson Plan (5E ILPv2) rubric for inquiry-based teaching. The instrument is intended to measure an individual's skill in developing written 5E lesson plans for inquiry teaching. In stage one of the instrument's development, an exploratory…

Goldston, M. Jenice; Dantzler, John; Day, Jeanelle; Webb, Brenda

2013-01-01

110

On the Relationship between Self-regulated Learning Components and L2 Vocabulary Knowledge and Reading Comprehension  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the past two decades, self-regulation has been the center of heated debate in educational psychology. The present study attempted to investigate the relationship between Iranian EFL learners' self-regulated learning components and vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension .To fulfill this objective, a 60-item vocabulary and reading comprehension TOEFL test was administered to a sample of 250 male and female college students majoring in English Teaching, English Language Translation, and English Literature. The Persian version of “Self- regulation Trait Questionnaire” was administered to the same participants. Pearson correlation procedure was used to analyze data. Results indicated that the correlation between self-regulated learning components: planning, self -checking, effort and self-efficacy gave mixed results. That is to say, two of the correlation coefficients, self –checking and effort were significant while the other two, planning and self-efficacy, were non-significant.

Abbas Ali Zarei; Gamar Hatami

2012-01-01

112

Machine learning for compliance verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: A possible method of weapon detection for the Comprehensive nuclear-Test-Ban-Treaty consists of monitoring the amount of radioxenon in the atmosphere by measuring and sampling the activity concentration of Xe-131m, Xe-133, Xe-133m, and Xe-135 by radionuclide monitoring. Several samples were obtained under different circumstances of nuclear weapon detonation, and are used as training datasets to establish an optimal classification model employing state-of-the-art technologies in machine learning (ML). We conducted a preliminary study involving ML algorithms including naive Bayes, neural networks, decision trees, k-nearest neighbours, and support vector machines, that revealed that any noise, uncorrelated features, and interactions in extracted weapon signals will cause difficulties for induction algorithms. We developed a novel feature selection approach that addresses these issues. The method is based on the Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization procedure, and can be used to rebuild the whole feature space such that the resulting features are orthonormal to each other (they do not interact with each other, and each resulting feature is sufficiently correlated with the target. This approach was shown to boost performance in 16 out of 36 experiments where no feature selection was applied (in four cases, by more than 10 %), to change nothing in 11 cases and to degrade performance in 9 cases (in only three of these cases, more than 2 % degradation occurred, but never more than 4.2 %). This method was also shown to obtain an improvement of 4.59 % in accuracy over 10 state-of-the-art feature selection methods and no feature selection, on our most challenging data set. (author)

2007-01-01

113

Time Spent on Reading and Reading Comprehension in Second Language Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the relationship between time spent on reading and reading comprehension in a second language (L2). Eighty-one French-speaking learners of English, from beginners to advanced, were tested for reading comprehension in French and in English as well as for English grammar and vocabulary competence. Low-proficiency learners showed…

Pichette, Francois

2005-01-01

114

The Effectiveness of Using an Explicit Language Learning Strategy-Based Instruction in Developing Secondary School Students' EFL Listening Comprehension Skills  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study aimed at exploring the effectiveness of using explicit language learning strategy-based instruction in developing secondary school students' EFL listening comprehension skills. It was hypothesized that using explicit strategy-based instruction would develop students' EFL listening comprehension skill and its sub-skills. The…

Amin, Iman Abdul-Reheem; Amin, Magdy Mohammad; Aly, Mahsoub Abdul-Sadeq

2011-01-01

115

Team learning and innovation in nursing teams: Results of a comprehensive research project  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background/Objective: Noncompliance to implementation of innovations is a problem in nursing teams. In literature, team learning is proposed as a facilitator for change. Still, studies reporting the effects of team learning activities on the implementation of innovations in nursing teams are scarce. To address this gap in literature, this study explored the influence of team learning on the implementation of two innovations. Methods: A literature and three empirical studies were performed to address the research questions of this project. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted between 2008-2011 with a sample of 1111 nurses, representing 79 nursing teams from The Netherlands and Belgium. Results: The results of the literature review revealed research on team learning and innovation in nursing is limited. Team learning included processes to gather, process, and store information from different innovations within the nursing team. The prevalence of team-learning activities was contributed or hindered by individual and contextual factors. Principal component analyses of a 26-item team learning activities scale revealed a five-factor model, explaining 78% of the variance. Team-composition explained 33% of team learning. Analyses on the influence of contextual factors yielded three models that explained 76%, 81% and 83% of the variance in team learning. Positive relationships were detected between team learning activities handling production-oriented information and implementation-effectiveness of an incremental innovation. In addition, team learning activities regarding development-oriented information positively affected the implementation of a radical innovation. Conclusions: Nursing teams undertake different team learning activities to process different types of information that cross over within the nursing team. The way the nursing team is composed had a minor effect on the prevalence of team learning activities in nursing teams. Contextual factors had a major effect on the prevalence of team learning activities. Team learning activities related to the production of nursing care had a positive effect on the implementation of an incremental innovation. Team learning activities related with the development of nursing care of the team positively affected the implementation of a radical innovation. Implications for practice and policy: Throughout team learning nursing teams can enhance their implementation-effectiveness on innovations and increase patient safety and the quality of provided nursing managers and nursing teams can develop effective team learning processes that enable nursing teams to improve implementation-effectiveness of different types of innovations.

Olaf Timmermans; Roland Van Linge; Peter Van Petegem; Joke Denekens

2012-01-01

116

Specific learning disability and its newest definition: which is comprehensive? And which is insufficient?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The American Psychiatric Association's proposed definition of specific learning disability ("specific learning disorder") for the DSM-5 reflects current thinking and best practice in learning disabilities. It continues the core conceptualization of learning disability (LD) as well as proposes identification criteria to supplant the discredited aptitude-achievement discrepancy formula. Improvements can be found along with long-standing and new controversies about the nature of LD. The proposed definition both provides a model of a currently acceptable definition and reflects critical issues in the operationalization of LD that the field continues to neglect.

Scanlon D

2013-01-01

117

Polymer Science Learning Center  

Science.gov (United States)

The Polymer Science Learning Center (PSLC) is an interactive web site in polymer education that offers an innovative, inquiry-based, multi-faceted learning environment for pre-kindergarten through adult explorers. The site offers links to educational resources, activities, demonstrations and events. The "Macrogalleria" houses virtual learning shops that are filled with free polymer information for beginners and experienced researchers. A section for children is also available. Keywords: polyvinylchloride, polystyrene, ABS, teflon.

2010-07-02

118

Neural Network Processing of Natural Language: II. Towards a Unified Model of Corticostriatal Function in Learning Sentence Comprehension and Non-Linguistic Sequencing  

Science.gov (United States)

A central issue in cognitive neuroscience today concerns how distributed neural networks in the brain that are used in language learning and processing can be involved in non-linguistic cognitive sequence learning. This issue is informed by a wealth of functional neurophysiology studies of sentence comprehension, along with a number of recent…

Dominey, Peter Ford; Inui, Toshio; Hoen, Michel

2009-01-01

119

The Effect of Multimedia Glosses on Online Computerized L2 Text Comprehension and Vocabulary Learning of Iranian EFL Learners  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of different types of multimedia glosses, namely text, picture, and text plus picture on online computerized L2 text comprehension and vocabulary learning of junior high school students. About 60 female Iranian junior high school students were selected from a population pool of 102 volunteers based on their performance on a standard English proficiency test (Nelson). Afterwards, they were randomly assigned to 4 groups of 15, three gloss groups, subsequently exposed to the research treatment and one control group. Taking advantage of the results of the pilot study, some words of the computerized written texts were glossed and hyperlinked by a computer software program. When the students clicked on hyperlinked words, a new page appeared and showed the word with a definition in English (textual gloss group), a picture (pictorial gloss group), or a combination of both definition and picture (textual plus pictorial gloss group). Participants in each experimental group read the texts under one of the three mentioned conditions. Statistical analyses of the results reveal that 1) all multimedia gloss groups comprehended computerized L2 texts significantly better than the control group, 2) A significant difference between the multimedia gloss groups and the control group in the production of the target vocabulary items was found. 3) The mix gloss group insignificantly outperformed the textual and pictorial gloss groups in computerized L2 text comprehension, and 4) regarding vocabulary learning, the mix gloss group significantly outperformed the other two gloss groups. Hence, the findings of this study indicate that utilizing computers and multimedia glosses can be influential in language teaching in general and online L2 text comprehension as well as incidental vocabulary learning in particular.

Omid Tabatabaei; Nasrin Shams

2011-01-01

120

Quest to Learn: Developing the School for Digital Kids  

Science.gov (United States)

Quest to Learn, an innovative school for grades 6 to 12 in New York City, grew out of the idea that gaming and game design offer a promising new paradigm for curriculum and learning. The designers of Quest to Learn developed an approach to learning that draws from what games do best: drop kids into inquiry-based, complex problem spaces that are…

Salen, Katie; Torres, Robert; Wolozin, Loretta; Rufo-Tepper, Rebecca; Shapiro, Arana

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

A Case-Based Approach Increases Student Learning Outcomes and Comprehension of Cellular Respiration Concepts  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated student learning outcomes using a case-based approach focused on cellular respiration. Students who used the case study, relative to students who did not use the case study, exhibited a significantly greater learning gain, and demonstrated use of higher-order thinking skills. Preliminary data indicate that after engaging…

Rybarczyk, Brian J.; Baines, Antonio T.; McVey, Mitch; Thompson, Joseph T.; Wilkins, Heather

2007-01-01

122

The Effects of Segmentation and Personalization on Superficial and Comprehensive Strategy Instruction in Multimedia Learning Environments  

Science.gov (United States)

|Short, cause-and-effect instructional multimedia tutorials that provide learner control of instructional pace (segmentation) and verbal representations of content in a conversational tone (personalization) have been demonstrated to benefit problem solving transfer. How might a more comprehensive multimedia instructional environment focused on…

Doolittle, Peter

2010-01-01

123

Increasing health worker capacity through distance learning: a comprehensive review of programmes in Tanzania  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Tanzania, like many developing countries, faces a crisis in human resources for health. The government has looked for ways to increase the number and skills of health workers, including using distance learning in their training. In 2008, the authors reviewed and assessed the country's current distance learning programmes for health care workers, as well as those in countries with similar human resource challenges, to determine the feasibility of distance learning to meet the need of an increased and more skilled health workforce. Methods Data were collected from 25 distance learning programmes at health training institutions, universities, and non-governmental organizations throughout the country from May to August 2008. Methods included internet research; desk review; telephone, email and mail-in surveys; on-site observations; interviews with programme managers, instructors, students, information technology specialists, preceptors, health care workers and Ministry of Health and Social Welfare representatives; and a focus group with national HIV/AIDS care and treatment organizations. Results Challenges include lack of guidelines for administrators, instructors and preceptors of distance learning programmes regarding roles and responsibilities; absence of competencies for clinical components of curricula; and technological constraints such as lack of access to computers and to the internet. Insufficient funding resulted in personnel shortages, lack of appropriate training for personnel, and lack of materials for students. Nonetheless, current and prospective students expressed overwhelming enthusiasm for scale-up of distance learning because of the unique financial and social benefits offered by these programs. Participants were retained as employees in their health care facilities, and remained in their communities and supported their families while advancing their careers. Space in health training institutions was freed up for new students entering in-residence pre-service training. Conclusions A blended print-based distance learning model is most feasible at the national level due to current resource and infrastructure constraints. With an increase in staffing; improvement of infrastructure, coordination and curricula; and decentralization to the zonal or district level, distance learning can be an effective method to increase both the skills and the numbers of qualified health care workers capable of meeting the health care needs of the Tanzanian population.

Nartker Anya J; Stevens Liz; Shumays Alyson; Kalowela Martin; Kisimbo Daniel; Potter Katy

2010-01-01

124

Comprehensive study on techniques of Incremental learning with decision trees for streamed data  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Incremental learning is an approach to deal with the classification task when datasets are too large or when new examples can arrive at any time. Data streams are inherently time-varying and exhibit various types of dynamics. There are some problems in data stream mining like class imbalance, concept drift, arrival of a novel class, etc. This paper focuses on the problem of concept drift. The presence of concept drift in the data significantly influences the accuracy of the learner, thus efficient handling of non-stationary environment is an important problem. Detecting changes of concept definitions in data streams and adapting classifiers to them is studied in this paper. The classifying technique studied is decision trees classification for streamed data, As decision trees are more efficient and easily interpretable. The comparative studies of some algorithms FIMT-DD, ORTO, FIOT, OVA-classifier, i+learning, UFFT, SCRIPT and HOT are shown in this paper

Prerana Gupta; Amit Thakkar; Amit Ganatra

2012-01-01

125

The comprehensive approach to commercial new construction program impact evaluations -- Lessons learned in California  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two major utility companies have twice conducted impact evaluations of their nonresidential new construction programs, following California's Protocols for measurement and evaluation. Several important methodological issues are discussed, including: sampling of participant and nonparticipant buildings, collection of both on-site and decisionmaker data, calibration of building simulation models, and determination of net-to-gross savings rations. The paper presents lessons learned from these state-of-the-art impact studies.

Mahone, D.; Chappell, C.; Wright, R.; Erickson, E.; Jacobs, P.; Horwatt, A.; Morse, M.; Richardson, V.

1998-07-01

126

Learning from Mistakes --- A Comprehensive Study on Real World Concurrency Bug Characteristics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The reality of multi-core hardware has made concurrent programs pervasive. Unfortunately, writing correct concurrent programs is difficult. Addressing this challenge requires advances in multiple directions, including concurrency bug detection, concurrent program testing, concurrent programming model design, etc. Designing effective techniques in all these directions will significantly benefit from a deep understanding of real world concurrency bug characteristics. This paper provides the first (to the best of our knowledge) comprehensive real world concurrency bug characteristic study. Specifically, we have carefully examined concurrency bug patterns, manifestation, and fix strategies of 105 randomly selected real world concurrency bugs from 4 representative server and client opensource applications (MySQL, Apache, Mozilla and OpenOffice). Our study reveals several interesting findings and provides useful guidance for concurrency bug detection, testing, and concurrent programming language design. Some of our findings are as follows: (1) Around one third of the examined non-deadlock concurrency bugs are caused by violation to programmers order intentions, which may not be easily expressed via synchronization primitives like locks and transactional memories; (2) Around 34% of the examined non-deadlock concurrency bugs involve multiple variables, which are not well addressed by existing bug detection tools; (3) About 92% of the examined concurrency bugs can be reliably triggered by enforcing certain orders among no more than 4 memory accesses. This indicates that testing concurrent programs can target at exploring possible orders among every small groups of memory accesses, instead of among all memory accesses; (4) About 73% of the examined non-deadlock concurrency bugs were not fixed by simply adding or changing locks, and many of the fixes were not correct at the first try, indicating the difficulty of reasoning concurrent execution by programmers.

2008-01-01

127

Inquiry-Based Arson Investigation for General Chemistry Using GC-MS  

Science.gov (United States)

|We have developed a two-week guided-inquiry laboratory in which first-semester general chemistry students investigate a suspected arson using gas chromatography--mass spectrometry and paper chromatography. In the process of evaluating evidence from the crime scene, students develop and test hypotheses and learn the fundamentals of chromatography,…

Maurer, Marta K.; Bukowski, Michael R.; Menachery, Mary D.; Zatorsky, Adam R.

2010-01-01

128

The Heat Is on: An Inquiry-Based Investigation for Specific Heat  

Science.gov (United States)

A substantial number of upper-level science students and practicing physical science teachers demonstrate confusion about thermal equilibrium, heat transfer, heat capacity, and specific heat capacity. The traditional method of instruction, which involves learning the related definitions and equations, using equations to solve heat transfer…

Herrington, Deborah G.

2011-01-01

129

The Effect of Inquiry-Based Science Teaching on Elementary School Students' Science Process Skills and Science Attitudes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine Turkish elementary school students’ level of success on science process skills and science attitudes and if there were statistically significant differences in their success degree and science attitudes depending to their grade level and teaching method. The total 241 students comprised of 122 males, 119 females. For this purpose, a pretest-post test control group and experimental group design was used. The data were collected through using Basic Science Process Skill Test and Integrated Science Process Skill Test and Science Attitude Scale. Study was conducted during the two semesters. Results of the study showed that use of inquiry based teaching methods significantly enhances students’ science process skills and attitudes.

R. Ergul; Y. Simsekli; S. Calis; Z. Ozdilek; S. Gocmencelebi; M. Sanli

2011-01-01

130

An amorphous model for morphological processing in visual comprehension based on naive discriminative learning.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A 2-layer symbolic network model based on the equilibrium equations of the Rescorla-Wagner model (Danks, 2003) is proposed. The study first presents 2 experiments in Serbian, which reveal for sentential reading the inflectional paradigmatic effects previously observed by Milin, Filipovi? ?ur?evi?, and Moscoso del Prado Martín (2009) for unprimed lexical decision. The empirical results are successfully modeled without having to assume separate representations for inflections or data structures such as inflectional paradigms. In the next step, the same naive discriminative learning approach is pitted against a wide range of effects documented in the morphological processing literature. Frequency effects for complex words as well as for phrases (Arnon & Snider, 2010) emerge in the model without the presence of whole-word or whole-phrase representations. Family size effects (Moscoso del Prado Martín, Bertram, Häikiö, Schreuder, & Baayen, 2004; Schreuder & Baayen, 1997) emerge in the simulations across simple words, derived words, and compounds, without derived words or compounds being represented as such. It is shown that for pseudo-derived words no special morpho-orthographic segmentation mechanism, as posited by Rastle, Davis, and New (2004), is required. The model also replicates the finding of Plag and Baayen (2009) that, on average, words with more productive affixes elicit longer response latencies; at the same time, it predicts that productive affixes afford faster response latencies for new words. English phrasal paradigmatic effects modulating isolated word reading are reported and modeled, showing that the paradigmatic effects characterizing Serbian case inflection have crosslinguistic scope.

Baayen RH; Milin P; ?ur?evi? DF; Hendrix P; Marelli M

2011-07-01

131

Virtual reality as a comprehensive learning tool; Realidad virtual como una herramienta de aprendizaje integral  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article presents some of the experiences with developing systems based on non-immersive virtual reality (VR). It discusses the factors that make VR a tool for creating content and learning contexts so that instruction is more efficient. VR systems enable risk-free training even when activities involve high risks, such as procedures for maintenance of medium voltage power lines. In addition, these systems have been designed to record student progress, among other things. [Spanish] Se presentan aqui algunas experiencias en el desarrollo de sistemas basados en realidad virtual (RV) no inmersiva. Se discute acerca de los factores que hacen de la RV una herramienta para crear contenido y con textos de aprendizaje, de tal modo que la instruccion pueda ser mas eficiente. Los sistemas de RV permiten el entrenamiento sin riesgos, aun cuando las actividades involucradas sean de alto riesgo, como es el caso de los procedimientos de mantenimiento a lineas energizadas de media tension. Por otro lado, estos sistemas tambien han sido habilitados para registrar el progreso de los estudiantes, entre otras cosas.

Perez Ramirez, Miguel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Ontiveros Hernandez, Norma Josefina [Instituto Tecnologico de Zacatepec, Zacatepec, Morelos (Mexico)

2011-07-01

132

A comparison of graphic organizers on the comprehension and retention of science knowledge among Taiwanese adolescents with learning disabilities  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of mind mapping, as compared to the use of linear outlines, to present science knowledge to adolescents with learning disabilities. Three different types of informationally equivalent instructional materials (i.e., text directly derived from textbooks, mind maps, and outlines) were developed. An alternating treatments design was used to evaluate the relative facilitative effects of mind maps and outlines compared to text on the delivery of science knowledge. Four ninth grade Taiwanese students with learning disabilities were paired and participated in this study. Three dependent measures (free oral retells, production-response tests, and choice-response tests) directly evaluated the participants' comprehension and retention of the content presented, whereas a pretest/posttest was also used to measure generalization. The results showed that the nature of the measures made a difference in the evaluation of the outcomes. On the choice-response tests, three participants outperformed in the mind map condition as compared to the outline and baseline conditions. However, on the production-response tests, only one participant outperformed in the mind map condition as compared to the other two conditions. For oral free retells, none of the participants were able to recall more main ideas from the mind map than from both the outline and the text. Only two participants were able to slightly recall more facts during both the mind map and outline conditions than the baseline condition. The results lend some support to the effectiveness of mind mapping. Analysis of the procedure and results revealed that the facilitative effects of mind mapping may not be fully achieved due to the lack of intensive instruction and study skill training in this study. Limitations of this study included the inconsistency between baseline and intervention conditions, the lack of consistent testing for the mnemonic value of mind mapping, and the small number of participants.

Wang, Yu-Chia

133

Detergent-Based Isolation of Yeast Membrane Rafts: An Inquiry-Based Laboratory Series for the Undergraduate Cell Biology or Biochemistry Lab  

Science.gov (United States)

|Lipid rafts have been implicated in numerous cellular processes including cell signaling, endocytosis, and even viral infection. Isolation of these lipid rafts often involves detergent treatment of the membrane to dissolve nonraft components followed by separation of raft regions in a density gradient. We present here an inquiry-based lab series…

Willhite, D. Grant; Wright, Stephen E.

2009-01-01

134

Sharing the Environment: Cultural Exchange through Inquiry-Based Environmental Education in Trinidad and Tobago (T & T) and the United States  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the effects of Sharing the Environment (STE), a situated professional development pilot program that uses an inquiry-based approach to teaching Environmental Education (EE) to elementary students in the US and Trinidad. Inquiry is difficult to incorporate in both cultures because proficient performance on national tests is a…

McHenry, Nadine; Alvare, Bretton; Bowes, Kathleen; Childs, Ashley

2013-01-01

135

Supplementing a Traditional Math Curriculum With an Inquiry-Based Program: A Pilot of Math Out of the Box. Research Report. ETS RR-09-17  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined math achievement of elementary school students when Math Out of the Box (MTB), an inquiry-based math program, was used to supplement curriculum. The sample consisted of 767 New Jersey students in the third, fourth, and fifth grades, with approximately one third using MTB. Math achievement was measured by an assessment…

Rock, JoAnn L.; Courtney, Rosalea; Handwerk, Philip G.

2009-01-01

136

Adsorption of Arsenic by Iron Oxide Nanoparticles: A Versatile, Inquiry-Based Laboratory for a High School or College Science Course  

Science.gov (United States)

There has been much interest in magnetite (Fe[subscript 3]O[subscript 4]) due to its utility in adsorbing high concentrations of arsenic in contaminated water. The magnetic properties of the material allow for simple dispersion and removal from an aqueous system. An inquiry-based laboratory has been developed that illustrates these unique…

VanDorn, Daniel; Ravalli, Matthew T.; Small, Mary Margaret; Hillery, Barbara; Andreescu, Silvana

2011-01-01

137

Neural network processing of natural language: II. Towards a unified model of corticostriatal function in learning sentence comprehension and non-linguistic sequencing.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A central issue in cognitive neuroscience today concerns how distributed neural networks in the brain that are used in language learning and processing can be involved in non-linguistic cognitive sequence learning. This issue is informed by a wealth of functional neurophysiology studies of sentence comprehension, along with a number of recent studies that examined the brain processes involved in learning non-linguistic sequences, or artificial grammar learning (AGL). The current research attempts to reconcile these data with several current neurophysiologically based models of sentence processing, through the specification of a neural network model whose architecture is constrained by the known cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) neuroanatomy of the human language system. The challenge is to develop simulation models that take into account constraints both from neuranatomical connectivity, and from functional imaging data, and that can actually learn and perform the same kind of language and artificial syntax tasks. In our proposed model, structural cues encoded in a recurrent cortical network in BA47 activate a CSTC circuit to modulate the flow of lexical semantic information from BA45 to an integrated representation of meaning at the sentence level in BA44/6. During language acquisition, corticostriatal plasticity is employed to allow closed class structure to drive thematic role assignment. From the AGL perspective, repetitive internal structure in the AGL strings is encoded in BA47, and activates the CSTC circuit to predict the next element in the sequence. Simulation results from Caplan's [Caplan, D., Baker, C., & Dehaut, F. (1985). Syntactic determinants of sentence comprehension in aphasia. Cognition, 21, 117-175] test of syntactic comprehension, and from Gomez and Schvaneveldts' [Gomez, R. L., & Schvaneveldt, R. W. (1994). What is learned from artificial grammars?. Transfer tests of simple association. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 20, 396-410] artificial grammar learning experiments are presented. These results are discussed in the context of a brain architecture for learning grammatical structure for multiple natural languages, and non-linguistic sequences.

Dominey PF; Inui T; Hoen M

2009-05-01

138

Reading Comprehension  

Science.gov (United States)

This is an exercise in reading comprehension and following directions. Please make sure you read and re-read before asking for help. See how much work you can do all on your own and do your very best. Good luck, have fun and learn something new! 1. Click Here Be a Critical Reader : answer all 10 questions.Do not go on until you have answered all 10 correctly. At this time please stand and silently wave both your arms around as if you are trying to swat a fly for 5 seconds. Thank you :) 2. Click "CONTINUE" to go ...

Devitry, Mrs.

2010-03-02

139

Short-term memory treatment: patterns of learning and generalisation to sentence comprehension in a person with aphasia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Auditory-verbal short-term memory deficits (STM) are prevalent in aphasia and can contribute to sentence comprehension deficits. This study investigated the effectiveness of a novel STM treatment in improving STM (measured with span tasks) and sentence comprehension (measured with the Token Test and the Test for the Reception of Grammar, TROG) in a person with severe aphasia (transcortical motor). In particular, the research questions were: (1) Would STM training improve STM? (2) Would improvements from the STM training generalise to improvements in comprehension of sentences? STM was trained using listening span tasks of serial word recognition. No other language or sentence comprehension skills were trained. Following treatment, STM abilities improved (listening span, forward digit span). There was also evidence of generalisation to untreated sentence comprehension (only on the TROG). Backward digit span, phonological processing and single word comprehension did not improve. Improvements in sentence comprehension may have resulted from resilience to rapid decay of linguistic representations within sentences (words and phrases). This in turn facilitated comprehension.

Salis C

2012-01-01

140

Correlação entre tempo, erro, velocidade e compreensão de leitura em escolares com distúrbio de aprendizagem/ Correlation between time, error, speed and reading comprehension in students with learning disorders  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Correlacionar as variáveis: erros, tempo, velocidade e compreensão de leitura de escolares com distúrbios de aprendizagem e escolares sem dificuldade de aprendizagem. MÉTODOS: Participaram deste estudo 40 escolares de 8 a 12 anos de idade, de ambos os gêneros, de 2ª a 4ª série do Ensino Fundamental Municipal, divididos em GI: composto por 20 escolares sem dificuldade de aprendizagem e GII: composto por 20 escolares com distúrbio de aprendizagem. Foram u (more) tilizados textos selecionados a partir da indicação de professores da 2ª à 4ª série da Rede Municipal de Ensino, para a realização de leitura oral. A compreensão foi realizada por meio de quatro perguntas apresentadas após a leitura do texto, às quais os escolares deveriam responder oralmente. RESULTADOS: Houve diferença entre GI e GII no número de erros, velocidade e compreensão de leitura e tempo total de leitura. A correlação entre tempo total de leitura e erros cometidos durante a leitura foi positiva, e entre as variáveis tempo total de leitura e velocidade de leitura foi negativa. Para o grupo GII, houve diferença com correlação negativa entre as variáveis tempo total de leitura e velocidade de leitura. CONCLUSÃO: Para os escolares com distúrbio de aprendizagem, o desempenho nas variáveis que foram correlacionadas encontra-se alterado interferindo no desenvolvimento em leitura e, consequentemente, na compreensão do texto lido. Abstract in english PURPOSE: To correlate the variables error, time, speed and reading comprehension of students with learning disorders and students without learning disorders. METHODS: The participants of this study were 40 students, aged from 8 to 12 years old, of both genders, from 2nd to 4th grades of municipal elementary education, divided into GI: comprising 20 students without learning disorders, and GII: comprising 20 students with learning disorders. As procedure we used a selectio (more) n of texts indicated by teachers of 2nd to 4th grades of municipal schools, for an oral reading task. Reading comprehension of the texts was assessed through four questions presented sequentially after reading, which students should answer orally. RESULTS: Differences were found between GI and GII regarding the number of errors, reading speed and comprehension, and total reading time. There was a positive correlation between the variables total time of reading and errors during reading, and a negative correlation between the variables total time of reading and reading speed. GII obtained differences with negative correlation between the variables total time of reading and reading speed. CONCLUSION: For students with learning disorders, the performance in the variables correlated is altered, interfering in their reading development and, consequently, in their comprehension of the read text.

Silva, Cláudia da; Capellini, Simone Aparecida

2011-12-01

 
 
 
 
141

Correlação entre tempo, erro, velocidade e compreensão de leitura em escolares com distúrbio de aprendizagem Correlation between time, error, speed and reading comprehension in students with learning disorders  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Correlacionar as variáveis: erros, tempo, velocidade e compreensão de leitura de escolares com distúrbios de aprendizagem e escolares sem dificuldade de aprendizagem. MÉTODOS: Participaram deste estudo 40 escolares de 8 a 12 anos de idade, de ambos os gêneros, de 2ª a 4ª série do Ensino Fundamental Municipal, divididos em GI: composto por 20 escolares sem dificuldade de aprendizagem e GII: composto por 20 escolares com distúrbio de aprendizagem. Foram utilizados textos selecionados a partir da indicação de professores da 2ª à 4ª série da Rede Municipal de Ensino, para a realização de leitura oral. A compreensão foi realizada por meio de quatro perguntas apresentadas após a leitura do texto, às quais os escolares deveriam responder oralmente. RESULTADOS: Houve diferença entre GI e GII no número de erros, velocidade e compreensão de leitura e tempo total de leitura. A correlação entre tempo total de leitura e erros cometidos durante a leitura foi positiva, e entre as variáveis tempo total de leitura e velocidade de leitura foi negativa. Para o grupo GII, houve diferença com correlação negativa entre as variáveis tempo total de leitura e velocidade de leitura. CONCLUSÃO: Para os escolares com distúrbio de aprendizagem, o desempenho nas variáveis que foram correlacionadas encontra-se alterado interferindo no desenvolvimento em leitura e, consequentemente, na compreensão do texto lido.PURPOSE: To correlate the variables error, time, speed and reading comprehension of students with learning disorders and students without learning disorders. METHODS: The participants of this study were 40 students, aged from 8 to 12 years old, of both genders, from 2nd to 4th grades of municipal elementary education, divided into GI: comprising 20 students without learning disorders, and GII: comprising 20 students with learning disorders. As procedure we used a selection of texts indicated by teachers of 2nd to 4th grades of municipal schools, for an oral reading task. Reading comprehension of the texts was assessed through four questions presented sequentially after reading, which students should answer orally. RESULTS: Differences were found between GI and GII regarding the number of errors, reading speed and comprehension, and total reading time. There was a positive correlation between the variables total time of reading and errors during reading, and a negative correlation between the variables total time of reading and reading speed. GII obtained differences with negative correlation between the variables total time of reading and reading speed. CONCLUSION: For students with learning disorders, the performance in the variables correlated is altered, interfering in their reading development and, consequently, in their comprehension of the read text.

Cláudia da Silva; Simone Aparecida Capellini

2011-01-01

142

Is attribution retraining necessary? Use of self-regulation procedures for enhancing the reading comprehension strategies of children with learning disabilities.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present study investigates the need to include explicit attribution retraining in a program designed to teach reading comprehension strategies to children with learning disabilities (LD). The program had two versions: (a) self-regulation procedures and (b) self-regulation procedures plus explicit attributional retraining. Sixty children with LD were assigned to two training groups (with and without attributional retraining) and a control group. Twenty normally achieving students served as an additional control group. The effects were assessed via attribution measures and cognitive and metacognitive reading comprehension tests. Results indicated that children from both training groups improved on measures of cognitive strategies, but their gains were very low on metacognitive measures. In addition, regardless of training condition, students from both groups showed equally good attribution profiles.

Miranda A; Villaescusa MI; Vidal-Abarca E

1997-09-01

143

The Effects of Integrated Information Literacy in Science Curriculum on First-Grade Students’ Memory and Comprehension Using the Super3 Model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of integrated information literacy in first-grade science curriculum on students’ science learning. In this quasi-experimental study, two first-grade classrooms from a public elementary school were randomly assigned into the experimental group and control group. The former accepted an inquiry-based science curriculum infused information literacy using the Super3 model, while the latter accepted the traditional lecture-oriented instruction. The instructional unit in both experimental and control groups was taught by the same science teacher and lasted around three weeks, seven periods of time per week. Two tests were designed to test student’s memory of factual information and comprehension of scientific concepts. Results from the analyses of covariance showed that the experimental group significantly outperformed their counterparts on two measures of science learning. It is suggested that integrated information literacy instruction could have a positive impact on first-graders’ subject content learning and lay a foundation for young children to be lifelong learners.

Lin Ching Chen

2011-01-01

144

Nomeação rápida, leitura e compreensão em escolares com dificuldades de aprendizagem Rapid naming, reading and comprehension in students with learning difficulties  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar e correlacionar o desempenho em nomeação rápida, leitura e compreensão de escolares com dificuldades de aprendizagem. MÉTODOS: Participaram deste estudo 32 escolares da 4ª série do ensino fundamental, de ambos os gêneros, com faixa etária entre 11 anos e 4 meses e 12 anos e 7 meses. Foram realizadas a primeira e a segunda tomada de leitura oral de um texto, selecionado a partir da indicação dos professores da 4ª série; a primeira e a segunda tomada de compreensão por meio de quatro perguntas apresentadas sequencialmente ao texto, em que os escolares deveriam responder oralmente; e a prova de nomeação rápida do Teste de Desempenho Cognitivo-Linguístico, versão individual. RESULTADOS: Houve diferença entre a primeira e a segunda compreensão e entre nomeação rápida, primeira e segunda leitura. Houve forte correlação entre compreensão e leitura, sugerindo que o desempenho na primeira tomada de leitura influenciou de forma significativa o desempenho na segunda tomada de leitura; o mesmo ocorreu para a compreensão. CONCLUSÃO: A defasagem na realização das atividades de nomeação, leitura e compreensão na primeira avaliação ocasionou falhas no mecanismo de conversão fonema-grafema que podem ser suficientes para desencadear dificuldades na aprendizagem da leitura.PURPOSE: To compare and correlate the performance of students with learning difficulties in rapid naming, reading and comprehension. METHODS: Participants were 32 students from 4th grade of elementary school of both genders, with ages between 11 years and 4 months and 12 years and 7 months. The first and second oral reading of a text selected based on the indication of 4th grade teachers were conducted, as well as the first and second reading comprehension task composed by four questions presented right after the reading, to which students should answered orally, and the rapid naming task from the Test of Cognitive-Linguistic Performance, individual version. RESULTS: Differences were found between the first and the second comprehension scores, and between rapid naming, first and second reading. There was a strong correlation between comprehension and reading, suggesting that the performance in the first reading significantly influenced the performance in the second reading, which also occurred for comprehension. CONCLUSION: The delay in the activities of naming, reading and comprehension in the first evaluation provoked failures in the phoneme-grapheme conversion that may be enough to cause learning difficulties in reading.

Cláudia da Silva; Vera Lúcia Orlandi Cunha; Fábio Henrique Pinheiro; Simone Aparecida Capellini

2012-01-01

145

Nomeação rápida, leitura e compreensão em escolares com dificuldades de aprendizagem/ Rapid naming, reading and comprehension in students with learning difficulties  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Comparar e correlacionar o desempenho em nomeação rápida, leitura e compreensão de escolares com dificuldades de aprendizagem. MÉTODOS: Participaram deste estudo 32 escolares da 4ª série do ensino fundamental, de ambos os gêneros, com faixa etária entre 11 anos e 4 meses e 12 anos e 7 meses. Foram realizadas a primeira e a segunda tomada de leitura oral de um texto, selecionado a partir da indicação dos professores da 4ª série; a primeira e a segund (more) a tomada de compreensão por meio de quatro perguntas apresentadas sequencialmente ao texto, em que os escolares deveriam responder oralmente; e a prova de nomeação rápida do Teste de Desempenho Cognitivo-Linguístico, versão individual. RESULTADOS: Houve diferença entre a primeira e a segunda compreensão e entre nomeação rápida, primeira e segunda leitura. Houve forte correlação entre compreensão e leitura, sugerindo que o desempenho na primeira tomada de leitura influenciou de forma significativa o desempenho na segunda tomada de leitura; o mesmo ocorreu para a compreensão. CONCLUSÃO: A defasagem na realização das atividades de nomeação, leitura e compreensão na primeira avaliação ocasionou falhas no mecanismo de conversão fonema-grafema que podem ser suficientes para desencadear dificuldades na aprendizagem da leitura. Abstract in english PURPOSE: To compare and correlate the performance of students with learning difficulties in rapid naming, reading and comprehension. METHODS: Participants were 32 students from 4th grade of elementary school of both genders, with ages between 11 years and 4 months and 12 years and 7 months. The first and second oral reading of a text selected based on the indication of 4th grade teachers were conducted, as well as the first and second reading comprehension task composed b (more) y four questions presented right after the reading, to which students should answered orally, and the rapid naming task from the Test of Cognitive-Linguistic Performance, individual version. RESULTS: Differences were found between the first and the second comprehension scores, and between rapid naming, first and second reading. There was a strong correlation between comprehension and reading, suggesting that the performance in the first reading significantly influenced the performance in the second reading, which also occurred for comprehension. CONCLUSION: The delay in the activities of naming, reading and comprehension in the first evaluation provoked failures in the phoneme-grapheme conversion that may be enough to cause learning difficulties in reading.

Silva, Cláudia da; Cunha, Vera Lúcia Orlandi; Pinheiro, Fábio Henrique; Capellini, Simone Aparecida

2012-01-01

146

Marine Debris Clean-Ups as Meaningful Science Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

This seven to eight week hands-on Marine Debris Clean-up Project used a service project to provide an introduction of marine science ecology, watershed interrelationships, the scientific method, and environmental stewardship to 8th grade middle school students. It utilized inquiry based learning to introduce marine debris sources and impacts to…

Stepath, Carl M.; Bacon, Joseph Scott

2010-01-01

147

THINKING ALOUD, TALKING, AND LEAThinking aloud, talking, and learning to read: esl reading comprehension training in small cooperative groups Thinking aloud, talking, and learning to read: esl reading comprehension training in small cooperative groups  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Training students to become independent skillful readers is a major concern of the EFL reading teacher. How can we best train students in selecting and applying reading strategies so that they become more efficient readers? Can we ensure that an increase in students’ awareness of the need to use strategies will help them become more skillful readers? These questions served as a trigger for this study. The aim of this study was to investigate whether verbal articulation of reading behavior in a small group will improve foreign language comprehension. It is our contention that using verbalization in small groups will raise metacognitive awareness which will in turn enhance effective use of skills and strategies and result in improvement in reading comprehension. We assume that the special features that characterize small group interactions can provide an appropriate setting for raising metacognitive awareness. Training students to become independent skillful readers is a major concern of the EFL reading teacher. How can we best train students in selecting and applying reading strategies so that they become more efficient readers? Can we ensure that an increase in students’ awareness of the need to use strategies will help them become more skillful readers? These questions served as a trigger for this study. The aim of this study was to investigate whether verbal articulation of reading behavior in a small group will improve foreign language comprehension. It is our contention that using verbalization in small groups will raise metacognitive awareness which will in turn enhance effective use of skills and strategies and result in improvement in reading comprehension. We assume that the special features that characterize small group interactions can provide an appropriate setting for raising metacognitive awareness.

Yael Bejanaro; Esther Klein-Whol

2008-01-01

148

Strategic Processing of Text: Improving Reading Comprehension of Students with Learning Disabilities. ERIC/OSEP Digest #599.  

Science.gov (United States)

This digest, based on a book of the same title, summarizes relevant research and promising practices in the strategic processing of text, both narrative and expository, by students with learning disabilities. For narrative text, it cites studies on improving students' ability to use narrative structure and the effectiveness of teaching students to…

Williams, Joanna P.

149

Análisis de ambientes virtuales de aprendizaje desde una propuesta semiótico integral/ Analysis of Virtual Learning Environments from a Comprehensive Semiotic Perspective  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Si bien existe una amplia variedad de perspectivas y modelos dedicadas al estudio de la educación online, la mayoría se centra en el análisis de los aspectos verbales, pero muy pocos consideran la relación con recursos de otra naturaleza, como las imágenes y la hipermedialidad. En un artículo anterior, partimos de una propuesta de análisis semiótico integral de ambientes virtuales de aprendizaje, que hemos desarrollado recientemente y probado para el estudio de di (more) ferentes cursos de formación online no intervenidos. En este trabajo, recurrimos a dicha propuesta para analizar entornos de aprendizaje en red en el marco de cursos intervenidos. Una de las observaciones principales de este tipo de análisis es que los aspectos organizativos de los cursos tienen que ver con la manera en que se construyen las disposiciones de entrada para un proceso de enseñanza y aprendizaje. Abstract in english Although there is a wide variety of perspectives and models for the study of online education, most of these focus on the analysis of the verbal aspects of such learning, while very few consider the relationship between speech and elements of a different nature, such as images and hypermediality. In a previous article we presented a proposal for a comprehensive semiotic analysis of virtual learning environments that more recently has been developed and tested for the stud (more) y of different online training courses without instructional intervention. In this paper we use this same proposal to analyze online learning environments in the framework of courses with instructional intervention. One of the main observations in relation to this type of analyses is that the organizational aspects of the courses are found to be related to the way in which the input elements for the teaching and learning process are constructed.

Álvarez Cadavid, Gloria; Alvarez, Guadalupe

2012-01-01

150

The Inquiry Nature of Primary Schools and Students' Self-Directed Learning Knowledge  

Science.gov (United States)

Self-directed learning (SDL) is viewed as a desirable outcome of schooling, yet scant information is available to educational leaders and teachers on how to implement an inquiry-based curriculum or to support effectively students' development as self-directed learners. To understand better the relationship between the inquiry nature of primary…

Van Deur, Penny; Murray-Harvey, Rosalind

2005-01-01

151

Investigating the Effectiveness of Inquiry Instruction on the Motivation of Different Learning Styles Students  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to investigate 8th graders with different learning styles their motivation outcomes after implementing 10 weeks (40 hours) inquiry-based teaching. Two hundreds and fifty four 8th graders were involved in experimental group, this group of students experienced inquiry instruction. Two hundreds and thirty two 8th graders…

Tuan, Hsiao-Lin; Chin, Chi-Chin; Tsai, Chi-Chung; Cheng, Su-Fey

2005-01-01

152

Jogos pedagógicos e responsividade: ludicidade, compreensão leitora e aprendizagem/ Educational games and responsiveness: playfulness, reading comprehension and learning  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Este artigo, embasado em pressupostos teóricos da teoria bakhtiniana, tem o objetivo de analisar as características das atitudes responsivas de alunos de duas turmas de 1ª ano do Ensino Médio de uma escola pública em Fortaleza, durante a interação com textos em um jogo educativo voltado para o ensino de leitura em Língua Portuguesa. A análise é feita a partir de dados colhidos em um experimento-piloto que tinha como objetivo analisar a influência do uso de um O (more) bjeto de Aprendizagem (OA) no desenvolvimento de estratégias de leitura. Durante a tarefa de ler, verificou-se que o OA, devido à forma como propõe a tarefa e ao uso de tecnologia interativa para a aprendizagem, desenvolveu, nos alunos-usuários do jogo, atitudes responsivas ativas durante a complementação de significados do texto. Abstract in english This article, based on theoretical assumptions of the Bakhtinian theory aims to analyze the characteristics of responsive attitudes of students from two high school classes at a public school in Fortaleza. The research took place during interaction with texts in an educational game for teaching reading in Portuguese. The analysis is based on data collected in a pilot experiment that aimed to analyze the influence of using a Learning Object (LO) in the development of readi (more) ng strategies. During the task of reading, it was verified that the LO, due to the way the task is proposed and the use of interactive technology for learning, developed, in the student-users of the game, active responsive attitudes during the complementation of meanings of the text.

Araújo, Nukácia Meyre Silva; Ribeiro, Fernanda Rodrigues; Santos, Suellen Fernandes dos

2012-06-01

153

Atenção integral à saúde de adolescentes em situação de trabalho: lições aprendidas/ Comprehensive health services for working adolescents: lessons learned  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Este artigo apresenta a experiência do Programa de Saúde do Trabalhador Adolescente (PSTA) do Núcleo de Estudos da Saúde do Adolescente da Uerj. Na área assistencial, a equipe multidisciplinar do Núcleo vem desenvolvendo um modelo de atenção integral aos adolescentes trabalhadores, buscando analisar as questões ligadas ao nexo causal entre os agravos à saúde e o processo produtivo em que estão envolvidos. No que se refere à extensão, os profissionais, em ass (more) ociação com alguns adolescentes trabalhadores, vêm desenvolvendo uma metodologia de educação em saúde resgatando a discussão sobre o potencial produtivo de maneira abrangente, abordando temas que vão além da questão do trabalho. Devido ao conhecimento adquirido, a equipe, em parceria com a OIT, recebeu a incumbência de elaborar materiais pedagógicos para a formação e capacitação de recursos humanos sobre saúde e segurança no trabalho infanto-juvenil. Conclui-se que, diante das políticas públicas para a eliminação do trabalho infantil e proteção do trabalhador adolescente, já em vigência em nível nacional, a experiência relatada aponta para a necessidade da criação de programas semelhantes para a garantia dos direitos desta população. Abstract in english This article presents the collected experiences of the Health Program for Adolescent Workers (PSTA) at the Center for the Study of Adolescent Health at the State University of Rio de Janeiro. In terms of health services, the multidisciplinary team has developed a model of comprehensive health care for adolescent workers that seeks to analyze the causal links between health problems and the work conditions in which these young people are usually involved. In terms of healt (more) h outreach, the health professionals have been working with a group of adolescent workers to develop a specific health education methodology. This methodology seeks to promote a broad discussion of the meaning of work in a empowering way that transcends the question of work. Based on this innovative experience, the staff was invited by the ILO to develop materials to train other professionals in the topics of health and occupational safety for adolescent workers. Given the current policies in effect in Brazil to eradicate child labor and protect adolescent workers, the experience of this initiative suggests the need for health programs to guarantee the rights of adolescent workers to occupational health and safety.

Asmus, Carmen Ildes Rodrigues Fróes; Raymundo, Carmen Maria; Barker, Suyanna Linhales; Pepe, Carla Cristina Coelho Augusto; Ruzany, Maria Helena

2005-12-01

154

Learning Strategies in Student Approach to Text Comprehension in E F L Estratégias de Aprendizagem na abordagem à compreensão de textos em língua inglesa.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper focuses on two learning strategies used by EFL college students in their approach to text comprehension: resourcing and elaboration. Resourcing refers to the use of the dictionary for word meanings. Elaboration refers to the use of meaningful associations between textual material and previous/y acquired know/edge. The evidence in the data shows that resourcing was often an ineffective strategy whereas elaboration was a valuable process that promoted involvement with the target language.Este estudo apresenta uma discussão de duas estratégias de aprendizagem empregadas por alunos de inglês durante a execução de exercícios de compreensão de textos: o uso do dicionário e o uso de associação. A primeira estratégia consiste do uso do dicionário para descobrir o significado das palavras desconhecidas. A segunda consiste do uso de associações entre elementos do texto e conhecimento adquirido previamente com o objetivo de resolver problemas de compreensão. Os dados encontrados indicam que, de modo geral, o uso do dicionário foi uma técnica dispersiva e ineficiente. Por outro lado, a associação foi um processo produtivo que promoveu a interação na língua alvo.

Conceição Aparecida Absy

1993-01-01

155

Necesidades de aprendizaje del especialista de Medicina General Integral sobre la drogodependencia Learning requirements of the comprehensive general physician about drug dependency  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Las necesidades de aprendizaje o capacitación resultan de contrastar un desempeño ideal o propuesto con el real, bien sea para un individuo o un grupo determinado. Constituyen el punto de partida para la búsqueda de una solución pedagógica, capacitante, a fin de contribuir a la transformación cualitativa de los servicios de salud, y su oportuna identificación una trascendental herramienta de la Educación Permanente. Objetivo: identificar las necesidades de aprendizaje que, sobre la drogodependencia, tienen los médicos que laboran en los Equipos de Atención Primaria de Salud del municipio Playa. Método: se realizó la identificación de necesidades de aprendizaje mediante un cuestionario escrito, que se aplicó de forma colectiva y anónima a 18 especialistas de MGI seleccionados al azar, que laboran en tres policlínicas del extremo este del municipio Playa. Resultados: se puntualizaron las deficiencias e insuficiencias de los conocimientos y habilidades profesionales sobre el fenómeno de la drogodependencia. Conclusiones: a pesar de que la Atención a la drogodependencia constituye, en el primer nivel de atención, uno de los Programas priorizados, en lo que a Salud Mental se refiere, la mayoría de los especialistas exhibió dificultades en el manejo integral de estos pacientes, persiste un comportamiento cuyo riesgo es, habitualmente, poco explorado, y su evaluación adolece, en ocasiones, de elementos de obligatoria indagación y conocimiento, lo que afecta su calidad y su adecuado seguimiento.The learning or training requirements result from comparing the ideal or proposed performance with the real one of either an individual or a group. They are the starting point to look for an enabling pedagogic solution that contributes to the qualitative transformation of health services and their timely identification represents a fundamental tool of the continuing education. Objective: to identify the learning requirements of the primary health care team physicians in Playa municipality in terms of drug dependence. Methods: learning requirements were detected through a written questionnaire anonymously and collectively administered to 18 randomly selected family physicians, who worked in three polyclinics of Playa municipality. Results: lack of adequate professional knowledge and skills to deal with drug dependence was shown. Conclusions: in spite of the fact that care to drug dependence is one of the priority mental health programs within the primary health care system, most of the Comprehensive General Medicine specialists did have difficulties in managing these patients, their risky behaviour is persistent and regularly poorly explored, and their evaluation sometimes lacks elements of compulsory inquiry and knowledge, thus affecting the quality of such evaluation and the suitable follow-up of these patients.

Víctor Tadeo Pérez Martínez

2012-01-01

156

Environmental Education & Ecology in a Life Science Course for Preservice K-8 Teachers Using Project Wildlife in Learning Design  

Science.gov (United States)

During laboratory sessions devoted to ecology, 182 preservice K-8 teachers participated in a Project Wildlife in Learning Design (WILD) workshop. Participants rated the workshop highly, indicated they would use more inquiry-based activities, and were more interested in teaching ecology following the workshop. Post-test scores indicated an…

Nelson, Allan

2010-01-01

157

Genetically modified food in perspective: an inquiry-based curriculum to help middle school students make sense of tradeoffs  

Science.gov (United States)

To understand how students learn about science controversy, this study examines students' reasoning about tradeoffs in the context of a technology-enhanced curriculum about genetically modified food. The curriculum was designed and refined based on the Scaffolded Knowledge Integration Framework to help students sort and integrate their initial ideas and those presented in the curriculum. Pre-test and post-test scores from 190 students show that students made significant (p genetically modified food controversy. Analyses of students' final papers, in which they took and defended a position on what type of agricultural practice should be used in their geographical region, showed that students were able to provide evidence both for and against their positions, but were less explicit about how they weighed these tradeoffs. These results provide important insights into students' thinking and have implications for curricular design.

Seethaler, Sherry; Linn, Marcia

158

Comprehension Syntax  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The syntax of comprehensions is very close tothe syntax of a number of practical database query languagesand is, we believe, a better starting point thanfirst-order logic for the development of database languages.We give an informal account of a language basedon comprehension syntax that deals uniformly with a varietyof collection types; it also includes pattern matching,variant types and function definition. We show,again informally, how comprehension syntax is a naturalfragment of structural recursion, a much more powerfulprogramming paradigm for collection types. We alsoshow that a very small "abstract syntax language" canserve as a basis for the implementation and optimizationof comprehension syntax.1 IntroductionEver since relational databases were first conceived [12],first-order logic, i.e., relational calculus/algebra has beentaken as the starting point for the design of relationalquery languages. It has been an invaluable tool for formulatingboth semanti...

Peter Buneman; Leonid Libkin; Dan Suciu; Val Tannen; Limsoon Wong

159

Lessons learned from the first US/Russian Federation joint tabletop exercise to prepare for conducting on-site inspections under the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A U.S./Russian Federation Joint Tabletop Exercise took place in Snezhinsk, Russia, from 19 to 24 October 1998 whose objectives were to examine the functioning of an Inspection Team (IT) in a given scenario, to evaluate the strategies and techniques employed by the IT, to identify ambiguous interpretations of treaty provisions that needed clarification, and to confirm the overall utility of tabletop exercises to assist in developing an effective Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) verification regime. To achieve these objectives, the United States and Russian Federation (RF) agreed that two exercises would be conducted. The first would be developed by the RF, who would act as controller and as the inspected State Party (ISP), while the United States would play the role of the IT. The roles would be reversed in the second exercise; the United States would develop the scenario and play the ISP, while the RF would play the IT. A joint control team, comprised of members of both the U.S. and RF control teams, agreed on a number of ground rules for the two exercises and established a joint Evaluation Team to evaluate both of the exercises against the stated objectives. To meet time limitations, the scope of this joint exercise needed to be limited. The joint control team decided that each of the two exercises would not go beyond the first 25 days of an on-site inspection (OSI) and that the focus would be on examining the decision-making of the IT as it utilized the various technologies to clarify whether a nuclear test explosion had taken place. Hence, issues such as logistics, restricted access, and activities prior to Point of Entry (POE) would be played only to the extent needed to provide for a realistic context for the exercises' focus on inspection procedures, sensor deployments, and data interpretation. Each of the exercises began at the POE and proceeded with several iterations of negotiations between the IT and ISP, instrument deployments, and data evaluation by the IT. By the end of each of the exercises, each IT had located the site of the underground nuclear explosion (UNE). While this validated the methods employed by each of the ITS, the Evaluation Team noted that each IT employed different search strategies and that each strategy had both advantages and disadvantages. The exercises also highlighted ambiguities in interpretation of certain treaty provisions related to overflights and seismic monitoring. Likewise, a substantial number of lessons were learned relating to radionuclide monitoring and the impact of logistical constraints on successful OSI execution. These lessons are discussed more fully in the body of this report. Notwithstanding the overall positive assessment by the U.S. and RF participants, as well as by the Evaluation Team, that the exercise had met its objectives, there were a variety of areas identified that could be improved in subsequent OSI exercises. Some of these included reexamination of the methods used to convey visual observation data in an exercise; the amount of time compression employed; and the need for better verification of agreements pertaining to the structure, format, and other rules of the exercise. This report summarizes the lessons learned pertaining to both the technical and operational aspects of an OSI as well as to those pertaining to the planning and execution of an OSI exercise. It concludes with comments from the Evaluation Team and proposed next steps for future U.S./RF interactions on CTBT OSIs.

Filarowski, C; Kreek, S; Smith, A; Sweeney, J; Wild, J; Gough, R; Rockett, P; MacLeod, G; Hawkins, W; Wohletz, K; Knowles, S

1999-03-24

160

Relationship of college student characteristics and inquiry-based geometrical optics instruction to knowledge of image formation with light-ray tracing  

Science.gov (United States)

This study is premised on the fact that student conceptions of optics appear to be unrelated to student characteristics of gender, age, years since high school graduation, or previous academic experiences. This study investigated the relationships between student characteristics and student performance on image formation test items and the changes in student conceptions of optics after an introductory inquiry-based physics course. Data was collected from 39 college students who were involved in an inquiry-based physics course teaching topics of geometrical optics. Student data concerning characteristics and previous experiences with optics and mathematics were collected. Assessment of student understanding of optics knowledge for pinholes, plane mirrors, refraction, and convex lenses was collected with, the Test of Image Formation with Light-Ray Tracing instrument. Total scale and subscale scores representing the optics instrument content were derived from student pretest and posttest responses. The types of knowledge, needed to answer each optics item correctly, were categorized as situational, conceptual, procedural, and strategic knowledge. These types of knowledge were associated with student correct and incorrect responses to each item to explain the existences and changes in student scientific and naive conceptions. Correlation and stepwise multiple regression analyses were conducted to identify the student characteristics and academic experiences that significantly predicted scores on the subscales of the test. The results showed that student experience with calculus was a significant predictor of student performance on the total scale as well as on the refraction subscale of the Test of Image Formation with Light-Ray Tracing. A combination of student age and previous academic experience with precalculus was a significant predictor of student performance on the pretest pinhole subscale. Student characteristic of years since high school graduation significantly predicted the gain in student scores on pinhole and plane-mirror items from the pretest to the posttest with those students who were most recent graduates from high school doing better. Multivariate and univariate analyses of variance of the Test of Image Formation with Light-Ray Tracing pinhole scale and individual item changes from the pretest to the posttest resulted in statistically significant mean differences between total scores as well as between various individual pinhole items. There were no significant changes for individual plane-mirror items from pretest to posttest. Results revealed that there is a perceivable relationship between student optics-content knowledge and the types of knowledge required by items. At the pretest, the greatest selection of wrong responses related to the items requiring situational type of knowledge and the fewest selection of wrong responses was relate to the items requiring procedural type of knowledge. Student selection of wrong options for each item revealed the following naive optics conceptions: pinholes do not create reversed images (pretest), size and sharpness of pinhole images are related to the focus of a pinhole camera (pretest and posttest); propagation of light rays are interpreted as being radial rather than directional (pretest and posttest); no conception of image formation and observation for parallel mirrors (pretest and posttest), the place of an image depends on the position of the observer (pretest and posttest), a plane mirror reflects the images of the objects placed at one side of the mirror and the observers who were positioned at the other side of the mirror can see them (pretest and posttest); applying the law of reflection to plane mirrors without considering the variations in angles of incidence and reflection (pretest and posttest), and image observation is confused with the image formation in mirrors placed perpendicular to one another (pretest and posttest). Future research should focus on the acquisition, development, and identification of reliable measures of optics concepts, processe

Isik, Hakan

 
 
 
 
161

Comprehension Syntax  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The syntax of comprehensions is very close tothe syntax of a number of practical database query languagesand is, we believe, a better starting point thanfirst-order logic for the development of database languages.We give an informal account of a language based on comprehensionsyntax that deals uniformly with a variety ofcollection types; it also includes pattern matching, varianttypes and function definition. We show, again informally,how comprehension syntax is a natural fragmentof structural recursion, a much more powerful programmingparadigm for collection types. We also show that avery small "abstract syntax language" can serve as a basisfor the implementation and optimization of comprehensionsyntax.1 IntroductionEver since relational databases were first conceived [12],first-order logic, i.e., relational calculus/algebra has beentaken as the starting point for the design of relationalquery languages. It has been an invaluable tool for formulatingboth semanti...

Peter Buneman; Leonid Libkin; Dan Suciu; Val Tannen; Limsoon Wong

162

A Review of Adventure Learning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Adventure learning (AL) is an approach for the design of digitally-enhanced teaching and learning environments driven by a framework of guidelines grounded on experiential and inquiry-based education. The purpose of this paper is to review the adventure learning literature and to describe the status quo of the practice by identifying the current knowledge, misconceptions, and future opportunities in adventure learning. Specifically, the authors present an integrative analysis of the adventure learning literature, identify knowledge gaps, present future research directions, and discuss research methods and approaches that may improve the AL approach.The authors engaged in a systematic search strategy to identify adventure learning studies then applied a set of criteria to decide whether to include or exclude each study. Results from the systematic review were combined, analyzed, and critiqued inductively using the constant comparative method and weaved together using the qualitative metasynthesis approach.Results indicate the appeal and promise of the adventure learning approach. Nevertheless, the authors recommend further investigation of the approach. Along with studies that investigate learning outcomes, aspects of the AL approach that are engaging, and the nature of expert-learner collaboration, future adventure learning projects that focus on higher education and are (a) small and (b) diverse can yield significant knowledge into adventure learning. Research and design in this area will benefit by taking an activity theory and design-based research perspective.

George Veletsianos; Irene Kleanthous

2009-01-01

163

Propuesta metodológica para la investigación comprensiva: interacciones comunicativas en un entorno virtual de aprendizaje/ A methodological proposal for comprehensive research: Communicative interactions in a virtual learning environment/ Proposta metodológica para a investigação compreensiva: interações comunicativas num meio virtual de aprendizagem  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Para compreender as interações comunicativas que surgem nas relações dos estudantes num Meio Virtual de Aprendizagem, desenvolveu-se o projeto "interações comunicativas num Meio Virtual de Aprendizagem" emoldurado na investigação compreensiva, a qual faz referência ao entrelaçado de decisões e atuações, de ordem epistemológico e metodológico, que permitem aceder compreensivamente ao sentido das práticas de vida. Partindo do enfoque etnometodológico se apr (more) esenta a obtenção dos dados, a rota de análise e os aspectos éticos. A investigação se realizou na Universidade de Medellín com estudantes da matéria eletiva "TIC" sob metodología blended em 2009-1. Abstract in spanish Para comprender las interacciones comunicativas que surgen en las relaciones de los estudiantes en un entorno virtual de aprendizaje, se desarrolló el proyecto "Interacciones comunicativas en un entorno virtual de aprendizaje" enmarcado en la investigación comprensiva, la cual hace referencia al entramado de decisiones y actuaciones, de orden epistemológico y metodológico, que permiten acceder comprensivamente al sentido de las prácticas de vida. Partiendo del enfoqu (more) e etnometodológico se presenta la obtención de los datos, la ruta de análisis y los aspectos éticos. La investigación se realizó en la Universidad de Medellín con estudiantes de la asignatura electiva "TIC" bajo metodología blended en 2009-1. Abstract in english To understand the communicative interactions that come up in the relationships of students in a virtual learning environment, the project "Communicative interactions in a virtual learning environment" was developed within a comprehensive research framework that refers to the structure of epistemological and methodological decisions and acts that allows a person to comprehensively access to the sense of life practices. Departing from an etnomethodological focus, the data o (more) btaining, the analysis route and the ethical aspects are introduced. The research was made at Universidad de Medellín with students of the elective subject "TIC" under the blended method in the first semester of 2009-1.

Vásquez Lopera, Claudia; Arango Vásquez, Sandra

2011-07-01

164

Recursos de aprendizaje en la asignatura de Psiquiatría para la formación del Médico Integral Comunitario/ Learning resources in the subject Psychiatry for the formation of the comprehensive community physician  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Se realizó una investigación descriptiva basada en la revisión bibliográfica de documentos curriculares, normativos y metodológicos de la carrera de Medicina en Cuba y en la República Bolivariana de Venezuela, mediante análisis y discusión con especialistas de Psiquiatría, profesores del Programa Nacional de Formación del Médico Integral Comunitario (PNFMIC) y grupo asesor de diseño de la Coordinación Nacional de la Misión Médica Cubana Barrio Adentro, con (more) el objetivo de diseñar los recursos del aprendizaje a utilizar en dicha asignatura. En la elaboración de los recursos del aprendizaje se tuvo en cuenta que respondieran a los objetivos del programa de estudio de la asignatura de Psiquiatría y al perfil de salida del médico integral comunitario, con las nuevas técnicas de la información y la comunicación en integración sistémica desde la Atención Primaria de Salud. Abstract in english A descriptive study was conducted, on the basis of a literature review of curricular, normative and methodological documents of the medical studies in Cuba and in the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela. It comprised analysis and discussions with psychiatry experts, professors of the national program of formation of the comprehensive community physician (PNFMIC in Spanish) and the advisory group of the National Coordination System of the Cuban medical mission called Barrio A (more) dentro, with the objective of designing the learning resources to be used in the subject. In preparing the learning resources, it was taken into account that they had to respond to the objectives of the curriculum of the subject Psychiatry and to the output profile of the comprehensive community physician, according to the new information and communication techniques in systemic integration from the primary health care.

Cuenca Doimeadios, Edeltes; Reyes Hernández, Dunia; Ellis Yards, María Luisa; Navarro Hernández, Marlene; Alvelo Pérez, Dania

2013-03-01

165

Lessons learned from the first U.S./Russian Federation joint tabletop exercise to prepare for conducting on-site inspections under the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A U.S./Russian Federation Joint Tabletop Exercise took place in Snezhinsk, Russia, from 19 to 24 October 1998, whose objectives were the following: (1) To simulate the actions of the Inspection Team (IT), including interactions with the inspected State Party (ISP), in order to examine different ways the United States and Russian Federation (RF) approach inspections and develop appropriate recommendations for the international community. (2) To identify ambiguities and contradictions in the interpretation of Treaty and Protocol provisions that might become apparent in the course of an inspection and that need clarification in connection with the development of Operational Manuals and on-site inspection (OSI) infrastructure. (3) To confirm the efficacy of using bilateral tabletop exercises to assist in developing an effective Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) verification regime. (4) To identify strong and weak points in the preparation and implementation methods of such exercises for the purpose of further improving possible future exercises.

Filarowski, C; Gough, R; Hawkins, W; Knowles, S; Kreek, S; MacLeod, G; Rockett, P; Smith, A; Sweeney, J; Wild, J; Wohletz, K

1999-03-24

166

Comprehensive curriculum evaluation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The comprehensive scope of this evaluation plan, with both summative and formative components, will provide the data necessary to guide our decision making. Some aspects, such as sampling students' work, the use of simulation, and the testing of actual learning, strengthens this process. However, satisfaction with our initial attempts at evaluation has not clouded an attitude of scrutiny. Undoubtedly, revision of the evaluation methods will be necessary in the future as inadequacies are pointed out to us through experience. The faculty have become acutely aware that curriculum evaluation is a time-consuming, tedious process. However, the faculty, committed to bearing responsibility for student performance, have found their involvement educational as well as satisfying. A well-constructed curriculum evaluation system can give the teacher a sense of security; a belief that what works will be preserved while ineffective components will be deleted. As Dressel points out, "Unless continuing constructive evaluation is evident in some form, both teaching and learning degenerate to rote patterns that hardly justify the designation of education" (Dressel, 1980, p. 197).

O'Neill EL

1986-01-01

167

The effect of learning styles and attitude on preservice elementary teachers' conceptual understanding of chemistry and the nature of matter in a simulation-based learning environment  

Science.gov (United States)

This causal-comparative descriptive study investigated the achievement of pre-service elementary teachers taking an introductory physical science course that integrates inquiry-based instruction with computer simulations. The study was intended to explore if pre-service elementary teachers with different attitudes towards science as well as students with different learning styles would benefit differentially. Four research questions including four hypotheses were developed. The first major question consist of four specific hypothesis that addressed preservice elementary teachers' learning styles (Active/Reflective, Sensing/Intuitive, Visual/Verbal, and Sequential/Global) and their conceptual understanding of chemistry and the particulate nature of matter in a science class which use hands-on learning integrated with computer based simulated activities. The second major question pertained to the relationship between preservice teachers learning science and chemistry and their attitude towards science. The third major question related to preservice elementary teachers science and chemistry achievement gain scores and attitude average affected by their learning styles. Finally, the fourth question pertained to the dissipation or the minimization of preservice elementary teachers' science and chemistry misconceptions over the course of study. Three instruments were given to preservice elementary teachers in three different classes: pretest/posttest for the science conceptual understanding examination, and pretest-only for the science attitude and learning styles instruments. Total usable science attitude surveys returned was 67 out of 70. The overall average mean was 3.13 (SD = .51) on a five point scale. Total return of science achievement instrument was 65, with a total mean test score (quantitative and qualitative together) of 6.38 (SD = 3.05) on the pretest, with a post test mean of 9.06 (SD = 4.19). Results revealed no statistically significant achievement gain scores based on students' learning styles, entering in all 4-combined dimensions at the same time Visual/Verbal, Sensing/Intuitive, Sequential/Global, and Active/Reflective (p > .05), indicating the four learning styles dimensions cannot be used to predict students' achievement gain. Results also indicated that there was no significant relationship between achievement gain and students' attitude (p > .05). Attitude and learning style together were also not significantly related to achievement gain. Preservice elementary teachers' comprehension of chemical concepts in this study varied from no comprehension to fair comprehension, and included many misconceptions; no answer showed complete understanding of the concepts. Many of the preservice teachers held misconception related to evaporation. If not addressed in science content and methods courses, this could be a problem as this new generation of teachers goes out to teach. It is proposed that to fix preservice elementary teachers' conceptual problems, curriculum needs to specifically focus on misconceptions. The preservice elementary subjects of the study showed a variety of misconceptions on both pretest and posttest concerning the particulate and the kinetic nature of matter. Suggestions are made is that a science content course could more contribute to preservice students' conceptual change if curriculum designers incorporate a segment that specifically addresses misconceptions, especially those misconceptions that have been documented in the literature for decades. A robust cognitive model for science education is proposed to increase teachers' science knowledge and to decrease science misconceptions.

Al-Jaroudi, Mo H.

168

Genetically Modified Food in Perspective: An Inquiry-Based Curriculum to Help Middle School Students Make Sense of Tradeoffs. Research Report  

Science.gov (United States)

To understand how students learn about science controversy, this study examines students' reasoning about tradeoffs in the context of a technology-enhanced curriculum about genetically modified food. The curriculum was designed and refined based on the Scaffolded Knowledge Integration Framework to help students sort and integrate their initial…

Seethaler, Sherry; Linn, Marcia

2004-01-01

169

Students' Conceptions of Sound Waves Resulting from the Enactment of a New Technology-Enhanced Inquiry-Based Curriculum on Urban Bird Communication  

Science.gov (United States)

|The emerging field of urban ecology has the potential to engage urban youth in the practices of scientists by studying a locally relevant environmental problem. To this end, we are developing curriculum modules designed to engage students in learning science through the use of emerging information technology. In this paper, we describe the impact…

Houle, Meredith E.; Barnett, G. Michael

2008-01-01

170

The Importance of Metacognitive Reading Strategy Awareness in Reading Comprehension  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Metacognitive reading strategy awareness plays a significant role in reading comprehension and educational process. In spite of its importance, metacognitive strategy has long been the ignored skill in English language teaching, research, learning, and assessment. This lack of good metacognitive reading strategy skill is exacerbated by the central role of reading comprehension in education success. One solution to the problem of poor reading comprehension is the learning of metacognitive reading strategy skills. Metacognitive reading strategy ability needs to be focused in language learning and teaching. The present study is an attempt to find out whether "meta-cognitive reading strategy awareness" enhances EFL students’ reading comprehension. Furthermore, it attempts to detect the relationship between metacognitive reading strategy awareness and reading comprehension. This paper focuses on the four main issues. First, it discusses the definition of metacognitive reading strategy, the significance of metacognitive reading strategy. Second, it reviews the process of metacognitive reading strategy. Third, definition of reading comprehension and different models of reading comprehension are reviewed. Fourth, the relationship between metacognitive reading strategy and reading comprehension will be discussed. Findings based on the review of the literature along with analysis of the data are of great significance and can be advantageous to improve EFL learners' metacognitive reading comprehension skill. Metacognitive reading comprehension skill has a positive effect on learning a second language and learners can gain the skills they need for effective communication in English.

Mohammad Reza Ahmadi; Hairul Nizam Ismail; Muhammad Kamarul Kabilan Abdullah

2013-01-01

171

ESL teaching and students’ reading comprehension  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper investigates the effects of ESL (English as a Second Language) teaching on third-year secondary education students’ reading comprehension. Teaching was studied in terms of an interpersonal and a learning activities perspective. The interpersonal perspective describes teaching in terms of ...

Brok, P. den; Brekelmans, M.; Wubbels, Th.; Westhoff, G.J.

172

Kernel adaptive filtering a comprehensive introduction  

CERN Multimedia

Online learning from a signal processing perspective There is increased interest in kernel learning algorithms in neural networks and a growing need for nonlinear adaptive algorithms in advanced signal processing, communications, and controls. Kernel Adaptive Filtering is the first book to present a comprehensive, unifying introduction to online learning algorithms in reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces. Based on research being conducted in the Computational Neuro-Engineering Laboratory at the University of Florida and in the Cognitive Systems Laboratory at McMaster University, O

Liu, Weifeng; Haykin, Simon

2010-01-01

173

Conversational Implicature in English Listening Comprehension  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Some English learners find it hard to understand a sentence when they are given a piece of listening material although they have a good master of vocabulary and grammatical rules. In order to improve the ability of listening comprehension, it’s necessary for English learners to introduce some basic Pragmatics theories. Grice’s Conversational Implicature Theory is one of the most important contents of Pragmatics. The theory focuses its attention on the phenomenon of conveying more than what is said. Therefore, the English listeners can and should master the theory of Grice’s Conversational Implicature, learn how to infer implicature to guide their learning and lead in such theories in listening comprehension. This thesis attempts to examin the relationship between them and state the roles played by the conversational implicature in listening comprehension.

Haiyan Wang

2011-01-01

174

The Learning Advantage Six Practices of Learning-Directed Leadership  

CERN Multimedia

Highlighting the best in management learning theory and practices, the authors provide a comprehensive approach to leadership from a learning perspective. This exciting new book, from award-winning authorities on learning, describes how leaders gain the advantage when they cultivate learning in themselves and others.

Kayes, Anna

2011-01-01

175

Web Based Application for Reading Comprehension Skills  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The use of the web in languages learning has been developed at very high speed these last years. Thus, we are witnessing many research and development projects set in universities and distance learning programs. However, the interest in research related to writing competence remains relatively low. Our proposed research examines the use of the web for studying English as a second foreign language at an Algerian university. One focus is on pedagogy: therefore, a major part of our research is on developing, evaluating, and analyzing writing comprehension activities, and then composing activities into a curriculum. The article starts with the presentation of language skills and reading comprehension. It then presents our approach of the use of the web for learning English as a second language. Finally a learner evaluation methodology is presented. The article ends with the conclusion and future trends.

Samir Zidat; Mahieddine Djoudi

2011-01-01

176

Comprehension of Discourse Markers and Reading Comprehension  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available According to many research findings, the presence of discourse markers (DMs) enhances readers’ comprehension of the texts they read. However, there is a paucity of research on the relationship between knowledge of DMs and reading comprehension (RC) and the present study explores the relationship between them. Knowledge of DMs is measured through examining the subjects’ recognition of DMs. To carry out the research, 86 Iranian sophomores majoring in English took a test of DMs alongside a RC test. The correlation between their scores on the two tests was calculated using the software SPSS. The analysis revealed that there is high correlation between the students’ knowledge of DMs (i.e., their correct recognition of discourse markers) and their reading comprehension (rxy = .71). Moreover, high correlation carries a strong regression power and scores on a test of DMs could be a good indicator of the test takers’ reading ability.

Mohamad Khatib; Mahmood Safari

2011-01-01

177

Innovation in collaborative health research training: the role of active learning.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper describes and discusses the essential pedagogical elements of the Partnering in Community Health Research (PCHR) program, which was designed to address the training needs of researchers who participate in collaborative, interdisciplinary health research. These elements were intended to foster specific skills that helped learners develop research partnerships featuring knowledge, capabilities, values and attitudes needed for successful research projects. By establishing research teams called "clusters", PCHR provided research training and experience for graduate students and post-doctoral fellows, as well as for community health workers and professionals. Pedagogical elements relied on active learning approaches such as inquiry-based and experience-based learning. Links between these elements and learning approaches are explained. Through their work in cluster-based applied research projects, the development of learning plans, and cross-cluster learning events, trainees acquired collaborative research competencies that were valuable, relevant and theoretically informed.

Poole G; Egan JP; Iqbal I

2009-03-01

178

Problem-Based Learning in Science Education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem-based learning (PBL) is an influential way for inquiry-based learning in which students use an authentic problem as the context for an in-depth investigation of what they need and what to know. Problem-based learning differs from didactic teaching in that students, faced with a description of new situation or event, are required to define their learning needs and questions in order to achieve understanding of the situation or event. Problem-based learning is an educational approach that challenges students to work cooperatively in groups to seek solutions to real-world problems and to develop skills to become self-directed learners. Instruction is more student-centred. Learning is active rather than passive. The teacher plays several roles, including lecturer, facilitator and coach. Moreover, this approach lets students improve their critical thinking skills, analyze and solve complex, real-world problems, work cooperatively in groups, and communicate orally and in written form. The aim of this paper is to provide framework for theoretical and practical application of PBL in science education.

Behiye AKÇAY

2009-01-01

179

Propuesta de ejercicios interactivos para la autoevaluación del aprendizaje en la asignatura Medicina General Integral/ A proposal of interactive exercises for the self-assessment of learning in the subject Comprehensive General Medicine  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Antecedentes: en los exámenes teóricos realizados en Medicina es frecuente la utilización de las preguntas de ensayo, y en menor medida, las empleadas en el instrumento de evaluación teórico estatal, las que exigen del entrenamiento previo del estudiante, aún insuficiente. Métodos: en la Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de Villa Clara, de enero a junio del 2012, se realizó un estudio para diseñar un sistema de ejercicios interactivos para la autoevaluación de lo (more) s contenidos de la asignatura Medicina General Integral de sexto año. Resultados: la metodología utilizada permitió el conocimiento sobre el estado de la problemática planteada, por lo que se confeccionaron ejercicios con el programa Hot Potatoes versión 5, a partir del diseño de diferentes preguntas teniendo en cuenta los objetivos de la asignatura. El material cuenta con 29 ejercicios. Conclusiones: con el sistema de ejercicios el estudiante puede construir su aprendizaje mediante el esfuerzo y su implicación activa en el proceso, y entrenarse en los diferentes tipos de preguntas que se emplean en el instrumento de evaluación teórica estatal. Abstract in english Background: the theoretical examinations conducted in medicine undergraduate studies often include the use of essay questions, and to a lesser extent, of those used in the state theoretical assessment instrument, requiring the student's previous training, which is still insufficient. Methods: a study was conducted at the Medical University of Villa Clara, from January to June 2012, in order to design a system of interactive exercises for the self-assessment of the content (more) s in the subject Comprehensive General Medicine, in sixth year. Results: the methodology used allowed the understanding of the problem studied; thus, exercises were devised with the program Hot Potatoes, version 5, through the design of different questions taking into account the objectives of the subject. The material has 29 exercises. Conclusions: with the system of exercises, the students can build their learning through their effort and active involvement in the process, training themselves in the different types of questions used in the state theoretical assessment instrument.

Casas Blanco, José Carlos; López Guerra, Regla Lisbel; Rodríguez Hernández, Mabel

2013-08-01

180

Estranged Labor Learning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article is in praise of the labor of reading profound and rich texts, in this case the essay on 'estranged labor' by Karl Marx. Comparing in detail what Marx wrote on estranged labor with current social practices of learning and education leads us to comprehensive ideas about learning - including the  social practices of alienated learning. We then emphasize the importance of distribution in the institutionalized production of alienated learning. And we end this article with critical reflections on the importance of alienation for the relationship between teaching and learning in the social practice of scholars.

Jean Lave; Ray McDermott

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

A true comprehensive approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The United States Comprehensive Approach (USCA) to preserving the global commons and protecting the earth from global warming is significantly flawed. USCA will take a long time to implement; it ignores the realities of the current international order; and the kind of analysis, infrastructure and sophistication demanded by USCA are absent within the domestic order of developing countries. Emission limitations on CO[sub 2] constitute the necessary initial steps in the development of a true comprehensive approach (TCA). A TCA begins by exploring our dependence on fossil fuels, as global warming is a problem of energy pollution. 68 refs., 2 tabs.

Guruswamy, L. (Arizona University, Tucson, AZ (USA))

1992-01-01

182

Using Technology to Engage Preservice Elementary Teachers in Learning about Scientific Inquiry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Elementary teachers are often required to teach inquiry in their classrooms despite having had little exposure to inquiry learning themselves. In a capstone undergraduate science course preservice elementary teachers experience scientific inquiry through the completion of group projects, activities, readings and discussion, in order to develop a sense of how inquiry learning takes place. At the same time, they learn science content necessary for teacher licensure. The course exposes students to different pathways of scientific discovery and to the use of the computer both as a tool for conducting inquiry-based investigations and as a means of collecting and sharing student opinions. The students involved have many misconceptions about science and it is often difficult for them to distinguish science from pseudoscience. Computer simulations are used to help students understand that difference. In addition, a classroom response system using “clickers” is used to poll studentopinions on controversial issues and to stimulate discussion.

Loretta L. Jones; James R. MacArthur; Sevil Akaygün

2011-01-01

183

Comprehensive Plan, Shepherd, Texas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Shepherd, Texas is located in the 'Piney Woods' region of Texas approximately 70 miles from the City of Houston and approximately 8 miles below the Lake Livingston Dam site. The 1970 population of the City was 928. The Comprehensive Plan anticipates the 1...

1971-01-01

184

Comprehensive Environmental Management Process  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report contains information about Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Comprehensive Environmental Management Plan. The topics covered include: waste minimization, waste generation, environmental concerns, public relations of the laboratory, and how this plan will help to answer to the demands of the laboratory as their mission changes.

Hjeresen, D.L.; Roybal, S.L.

1994-08-01

185

Making a comprehensive diagnosis in a comprehensive care curriculum.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Comprehensive care models in dental education encourage students to deliver patient-centered care. But to deliver effective comprehensive care, a clinician must first make a comprehensive diagnosis. Students of general dentistry are taught to make one or more diagnoses as defined by the dental specialties, and to direct patient care accordingly. Without a comprehensive diagnosis, patients may receive fragmented, poorly prioritized care that is inappropriate to their overall oral health. This paper presents a simple diagnostic classification that can be used to make a comprehensive diagnosis with which to guide the student of general dentistry in planning comprehensive care.

Douglass GD

2002-03-01

186

Learning design Rashomon II: exploring one lesson through multiple tools  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An increasing number of tools are available to support the learning design process at different levels and from different perspectives. However, this variety can make it difficult for researchers and teachers to assess the tool that is best suited to their objectives and contexts as learning designers. Several of the tools are presented elsewhere in this issue. In this article, the aforementioned tools are used as lenses to view the same learning design narrative – an inquiry-based learning lesson on healthy eating aimed at secondary-school students – from different perspectives, in a manner inspired by the plot structure of Kurosawa's film “Rashomon”. In modelling the lesson on five tools, we uncovered similarities and differences in relation to the challenges posed by modelling a particular learning scenario, the ease of implementation of the computer-interpretable products’ output by the tools and their different target audiences and pedagogical specialities. This comparative analysis thus illustrates some of the current underlying issues and challenges in the field of Learning Design.

Luis P. Prieto; Yannis Dimitriadis; Brock Craft; Michael Derntl; Valérie Émin; Mary Katsamani; Diana Laurillard; Elizabeth Masterman; Symeon Retalis; Eloy Villasclaras

2013-01-01

187

Translating advances in reading comprehension research to educational practice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The authors review five major findings in reading comprehension and their implications for educational practice. First, research suggests that comprehension skills are separable from decodingprocesses and important at early ages, suggesting that comprehension skills should be targeted early, even before the child learns to read. Second, there is an important distinction between readingprocesses and products, as well as their causal relationship: processes lead to certain products. Hence, instructional approaches and strategies focusing on processes are needed to improve students’reading performance (i.e., product). Third, inferences are a crucial component of skilled comprehension. Hence, children need scaffolding and remediation to learn to generate inferences, even when they know little about the text topic. Fourth, comprehension depends on a complex interaction between the reader, the characteristics of the text, and the instructional task, highlighting the need for careful selection of instructional materials for individual students and specific groups of students. Finally, educators may benefit from heightened awareness of the limitations and inadequacies of standardized reading comprehension assessments, as well as the multidimensionality of comprehension to better understand their students’ particular strengths and weaknesses.

Danielle S. McNAMARA; Panayiota KENDEOU

2011-01-01

188

QRAC-the-Code: a comprehension monitoring strategy for middle school social studies textbooks.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Requirements for reading and ascertaining information from text increase as students advance through the educational system, especially in content-rich classes; hence, monitoring comprehension is especially important. However, this is a particularly challenging skill for many students who struggle with reading comprehension, including students with learning disabilities. A randomized pre-post experimental design was employed to investigate the effectiveness of a comprehension monitoring strategy (QRAC-the-Code) for improving the reading comprehension of 323 students in grades 6 and 7 in inclusive social studies classes. Findings indicated that both general education students and students with learning disabilities who were taught a simple comprehension monitoring strategy improved their comprehension of textbook content compared to students who read independently and noted important points. In addition, students in the comprehension monitoring condition reported using more reading strategies after the intervention. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

Berkeley S; Riccomini PJ

2013-03-01

189

Systems Thinking For Sustainable Design: A Conceptual Framework of Constructivist Web-Based Learning Environment Management Using Inquiry Learning Process  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research is study sustainable education development on arts management, arranging the education with system approach which is operational method that emphasize on design, implementation and evaluation of overall process. The systematic thinking has holistic, interaction and networks characteristics. It has boundary and hierarchy of feedback-loops with system structure that has pattern and adaptation. The format of how to find the knowledge of systematic method is directly related to analysis, synthesis and operational plan. It is how to solve the problem by using scientific method. So the education must be inquiry-based instruction which consists of constructivist theory encouraging learners to create knowledge by themselves and learning environment on the networks which is a combination of constructivist learning system with media that has hyperlink, hypertext or hypermedia. The symbolic system of various media has influence to understanding or systematic thinking of learners while learning by technology that acts as learning environment for learners to create the knowledge by themselves. The researchers have realized the importance and study the development of Constructivist Web-Based Learning Environment Management Using Inquiry Learning Process to Enhance Systems Thinking for Sustainable Product Design of Undergraduate Students.

2013-01-01

190

Sustaining Students' Reading Comprehension  

Science.gov (United States)

Extensive research over the years indicates that there are at least five essential components teachers can include in their classroom to help their students comprehend and learn. These features include: (1) giving background and connecting to students' prior knowledge; (2) providing a strong vocabulary program; (3) setting aside ample opportunity…

Mariotti, Arleen P.

2010-01-01

191

Comprehensive Water Pollution Control Planning.  

Science.gov (United States)

Contents: Comprehensive water pollution control planning; Columbia River basin comprehensive water pollution control project; Use and role of water pollution control plan by other federal agencies; The state's role and use of pollution control plan; Why s...

1965-01-01

192

How we learn : Learning and non-learning in school and beyond  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

How We Learn, deals with the fundamental issues of the processes of learning, critically assessing different types of learning and obstacles to learning. It also considers a broad range of other important questions in relation to learning such as: modern research into learning and brain functions, self-perception, motivation and competence development, teaching, intelligence and learning style, learning in relation to gender and life age. The book provides a comprehensive introduction to both traditional learning theory and the newest international research into learning processes, while at the same time being an innovative contribution to a new and more holistic understanding of learning including discussion on school-based learning, net-based learning, workplace learning and educational politics. How We Learn examines all the key factors that help to create a holistic understanding of what learning actually is and why and how learning and non-learning take place. It is also however a refreshing and thought-provoking piece of scholarly work as it adds new research material, new understandings and new points of view.

Illeris, Knud

2007-01-01

193

Priming Ditransitive Structures in Comprehension  

Science.gov (United States)

Many studies have shown evidence for syntactic priming during language production (e.g., Bock, 1986). It is often assumed that comprehension and production share similar mechanisms and that priming also occurs during comprehension (e.g., Pickering & Garrod, 2004). Research investigating priming during comprehension (e.g., Branigan et al., 2005 and…

Arai, Manabu; van Gompel, Roger P. G.; Scheepers, Cristoph

2007-01-01

194

Comprehensive multiplatform collaboration  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe the architecture and implementation of our comprehensive multi-platform collaboration framework known as Columbia InterNet Extensible Multimedia Architecture (CINEMA). It provides a distributed architecture for collaboration using synchronous communications like multimedia conferencing, instant messaging, shared web-browsing, and asynchronous communications like discussion forums, shared files, voice and video mails. It allows seamless integration with various communication means like telephones, IP phones, web and electronic mail. In addition, it provides value-added services such as call handling based on location information and presence status. The paper discusses the media services needed for collaborative environment, the components provided by CINEMA and the interaction among those components.

Singh, Kundan; Wu, Xiaotao; Lennox, Jonathan; Schulzrinne, Henning G.

2003-12-01

195

Naturally Simplified Input, Comprehension, and Second Language Acquisition.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article examines the concept of simplification in second language (SL) learning, reviewing research on the simplified input that both naturalistic and classroom SL learners receive. Research indicates that simplified input, particularly if derived from naturally occurring interactions, does aid comprehension but has not been shown to…

Ellis, Rod

196

Reading Comprehension in Face-to-Face and Web-Based Modalities: Graduate Students' Use of Reading and Language Learning Strategies in EFL/ Comprensión de lectura en las modalidades presencial y en la web: lectura y Estrategias de Aprendizaje del Lenguaje usadas por estudiantes de posgrados aprendices de inglés como lengua extranjera  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Pocos estudios en Colombia han explorado y comparado los procesos de comprensión de lectura en inglés de los estudiantes, en diferentes modalidades de instrucción. En este artículo se presentan algunos hallazgos de un estudio en el cual dos grupos de estudiantes de posgrado de la Facultad de Derecho participaron en un curso de competencia lectora en inglés, ofrecido en dos modalidades diferentes: presencial y virtual. Ambos cursos fueron servidos por un profesor de i (more) nglés de la Escuela de Idiomas de la Universidad de Antioquia. Los datos recogidos de las observaciones de clase, de las entrevistas a profundidad, de los cuestionarios, de los exámenes, del diario del profesor y los datos grabados en la plataforma permitieron comprender el uso de estrategias de lectura y de aprendizaje en ambas modalidades. Los hallazgos muestran que los estudiantes aplicaron las estrategias de lectura enseñadas explícitamente en el curso y algunas estrategias de aprendizaje para las cuales no hubo instrucción explícita. Abstract in english Few studies in Colombia have explored and compared students' reading comprehension processes in EFL, in different modalities of instruction. This article reports on some findings of a larger study in which two groups of graduate Law students took a reading comprehension course in English, delivered in two different modalities of instruction: face-to-face and web-based. Both courses were served by an English teacher from the School of Languages at Universidad de Antioquia. (more) The data gathered from class observations, in-depth interviews, questionnaires, tests, the teacher's journal and data records in the platform provided insights about the students' use of reading and language learning strategies in both modalities. Findings suggest that students applied the reading strategies explicitly taught during the courses and some language learning strategies for which they did not receive any instruction.

Arismendi Gómez, Fabio Alberto; Colorado López, Doris; Grajales Marin, Luisa Fernanda

2011-07-01

197

Comprehensive national energy strategy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This Comprehensive National Energy Strategy sets forth a set of five common sense goals for national energy policy: (1) improve the efficiency of the energy system, (2) ensure against energy disruptions, (3) promote energy production and use in ways that respect health and environmental values, (4) expand future energy choices, and (5) cooperate internationally on global issues. These goals are further elaborated by a series of objectives and strategies to illustrate how the goals will be achieved. Taken together, the goals, objectives, and strategies form a blueprint for the specific programs, projects, initiatives, investments, and other actions that will be developed and undertaken by the Federal Government, with significant emphasis on the importance of the scientific and technological advancements that will allow implementation of this Comprehensive National Energy Strategy. Moreover, the statutory requirement of regular submissions of national energy policy plans ensures that this framework can be modified to reflect evolving conditions, such as better knowledge of our surroundings, changes in energy markets, and advances in technology. This Strategy, then, should be thought of as a living document. Finally, this plan benefited from the comments and suggestions of numerous individuals and organizations, both inside and outside of government. The Summary of Public Comments, located at the end of this document, describes the public participation process and summarizes the comments that were received. 8 figs.

NONE

1998-04-01

198

The Energy Retrofit of a Building: A Journey Through Bloom's Learning Domains  

Science.gov (United States)

At Colorado College, the energy retrofit of a building is used as a service-learning research project to teach physics and chemistry in a variety of courses. In introductory courses for nonscience majors, the project helps students appreciate the scientific method and quantitative reasoning. Within the physical-chemistry course, students see that the abstract science of thermodynamics has very real applications to life. The energy retrofit project successfully teaches inquiry-based science and effectively takes students through all of Bloom's learning domains: cognitive, affective, and psychomotor. The most dramatic impact on students is in the affective domain as indicated by student actions following the conclusion of the project and the constant demand for the project offering.

Whitten, Barbara; Morgenstern, Mark; Reuer, Matt; Meyer, Sally

2008-05-01

199

Designing Authentic Learning Environments in Chemistry Lessons: Paving the Way in Pre-Service Teacher Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Authenticity has recently become a popular term in science education. A study focusing on authenticity in the sense of making chemistry lessons better resemble chemistry practice is carried out at the University of Cologne in the Institute of Chemical Education, where prospective chemistry teachers are trained. In the long run an innovative module shall be developed, which challenges teacher students' pre-conceptions about characteristics of chemistry practice and supports them in translating their conceptions into authentic learning environments. This paper presents the first part of the project in which course elements to stimulate reflection on students' attitudes were evaluated. Moreover the students were given an opportunity for teacher students to create a practical activity for pupils in order to detect aspects in which the students need more support, for example possible ways for this transformation or more experience with inquiry-based learning.

Schumacher, Andrea; Reiners, Christiane S.

2013-09-01

200

Learning Curve? Which One?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Learning curves have been studied for a long time. These studies provided strong support to the hypothesis that, as organizations produce more of a product, unit costs of production decrease at a decreasing rate (see Argote, 1999 for a comprehensive review of learning curve studies). But the organizational mechanisms that lead to these results are still underexplored. We know some drivers of learning curves (ADLER; CLARK, 1991; LAPRE et al., 2000), but we still lack a more detailed view of the organizational processes behind those curves. Through an ethnographic study, I bring a comprehensive account of the first year of operations of a new automotive plant, describing what was taking place on in the assembly area during the most relevant shifts of the learning curve. The emphasis is then on how learning occurs in that setting. My analysis suggests that the overall learning curve is in fact the result of an integration process that puts together several individual ongoing learning curves in different areas throughout the organization. In the end, I propose a model to understand the evolution of these learning processes and their supporting organizational mechanisms.

Paulo Prochno

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Lessons learned from the first U.S./Russian Federation joint tabletop exercise to prepare for conducting on-site inspections under the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty; TOPICAL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A U.S./Russian Federation Joint Tabletop Exercise took place in Snezhinsk, Russia, from 19 to 24 October 1998, whose objectives were the following: (1) To simulate the actions of the Inspection Team (IT), including interactions with the inspected State Party (ISP), in order to examine different ways the United States and Russian Federation (RF) approach inspections and develop appropriate recommendations for the international community. (2) To identify ambiguities and contradictions in the interpretation of Treaty and Protocol provisions that might become apparent in the course of an inspection and that need clarification in connection with the development of Operational Manuals and on-site inspection (OSI) infrastructure. (3) To confirm the efficacy of using bilateral tabletop exercises to assist in developing an effective Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) verification regime. (4) To identify strong and weak points in the preparation and implementation methods of such exercises for the purpose of further improving possible future exercises

1998-10-24

202

Una estrategia para favorecer la comprensión y el aprendizaje en las Ciencias Morfológicas: Presentaciones en PowerPoint. [ A strategy to improve the comprehension and learning in morphological science: powerpoint presentation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, a hypertext to the Morphological Sciences in biological area was developed and evaluated. The application with format of digital atlas approaches Anatomical, Histological and Functional concepts about the man and animals in integrated form. PowerPoint presentation was developed to operators which experience in the handling of software are limited. This digital resource was qualified as a good complement of other didactic materials. In this knowledge area offers opportunity to develop significant knowledge to improve the understanding and learning through an interactive methodology

Carranza, Miriam L. y Celaya, Gabriela

2003-01-01

203

Comprehensive nuclear materials  

CERN Multimedia

Comprehensive Nuclear Materials encapsulates a panorama of fundamental information on the vast variety of materials employed in the broad field of nuclear technology. The work addresses, in five volumes, 3,400 pages and over 120 chapter-length articles, the full panorama of historical and contemporary international research in nuclear materials, from Actinides to Zirconium alloys, from the worlds' leading scientists and engineers. It synthesizes the most pertinent research to support the selection, assessment, validation and engineering of materials in extreme nuclear environments. The work discusses the major classes of materials suitable for usage in nuclear fission, fusion reactors and high power accelerators, and for diverse functions in fuels, cladding, moderator and control materials, structural, functional, and waste materials.

Allen, Todd; Stoller, Roger; Yamanaka, Shinsuke

2012-01-01

204

Psychodermatology: a comprehensive review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Psychodermatology is an interesting domain of dermatology that overlaps with psychiatry. This arena in dermatology has received limited diligence, partly due to lack of training in this realm. We present here a comprehensive review of salient features and treatment updates in primary psychiatric dermatoses and have also discussed the role of psyche in psychophysiological cutaneous disorders. Secondary psychiatric morbidity is relatively common among patients visiting the dermatologists but often overlooked and uncared for. Dermatologist should be able to initiate basic pharmacotherapy, should be knowledgeable about various non-pharmacological treatments and know the right time to refer the patient to the psychiatrist. Awareness and pertinent treatment of psychodermatological disorders among dermatologists will lead to a more holistic treatment approach and better prognosis in this unique group of patients.

Yadav S; Narang T; Kumaran MS

2013-03-01

205

Psychodermatology: a comprehensive review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Psychodermatology is an interesting domain of dermatology that overlaps with psychiatry. This arena in dermatology has received limited diligence, partly due to lack of training in this realm. We present here a comprehensive review of salient features and treatment updates in primary psychiatric dermatoses and have also discussed the role of psyche in psychophysiological cutaneous disorders. Secondary psychiatric morbidity is relatively common among patients visiting the dermatologists but often overlooked and uncared for. Dermatologist should be able to initiate basic pharmacotherapy, should be knowledgeable about various non-pharmacological treatments and know the right time to refer the patient to the psychiatrist. Awareness and pertinent treatment of psychodermatological disorders among dermatologists will lead to a more holistic treatment approach and better prognosis in this unique group of patients. PMID:23442456

Yadav, Savita; Narang, Tarun; Kumaran, M Sendhil

206

Affordances of Augmented Reality in Science Learning: Suggestions for Future Research  

Science.gov (United States)

Augmented reality (AR) is currently considered as having potential for pedagogical applications. However, in science education, research regarding AR-aided learning is in its infancy. To understand how AR could help science learning, this review paper firstly has identified two major approaches of utilizing AR technology in science education, which are named as image- based AR and location- based AR. These approaches may result in different affordances for science learning. It is then found that students' spatial ability, practical skills, and conceptual understanding are often afforded by image-based AR and location-based AR usually supports inquiry-based scientific activities. After examining what has been done in science learning with AR supports, several suggestions for future research are proposed. For example, more research is required to explore learning experience (e.g., motivation or cognitive load) and learner characteristics (e.g., spatial ability or perceived presence) involved in AR. Mixed methods of investigating learning process (e.g., a content analysis and a sequential analysis) and in-depth examination of user experience beyond usability (e.g., affective variables of esthetic pleasure or emotional fulfillment) should be considered. Combining image-based and location-based AR technology may bring new possibility for supporting science learning. Theories including mental models, spatial cognition, situated cognition, and social constructivist learning are suggested for the profitable uses of future AR research in science education.

Cheng, Kun-Hung; Tsai, Chin-Chung

2013-08-01

207

[Comprehensive health care: indications from the training of nurses].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study has the objective of understanding the training of nurses for comprehensive health care. It used data from interviews with teachers, students and service nurses submitted to discourse analysis. There is an understanding of comprehensive care in the training of nurses from the perspective of establishing a healthcare model in which care is directed to the patient. There are reflections regarding the technologies and the form of organization of the work, expressed in a permanent tension: Clinical versus Collective Health as a challenge for comprehensive care. It was identified that building completeness in the formation implies assuming acting in health as an educative principle in a new form of learning-teaching in health, which breaks up with pre-formed, out-of-context knowledge. The conclusion is that comprehensive health care is taken as an object of reflection in the movement for change in the pedagogical practices, and that it is reflected in health attention.

Silva KL; de Sena RR

2008-03-01

208

Deepening ESP Reading Comprehension through Visualization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Teaching through visualization or in Tomlinson's (1998) terms "the ability to build mental pictures or images while reading" is known as an efficient strategy in language learning. Thus, this research was done to investigate the role of this strategy on ESP reading comprehension ability of Iranian students whose syllabus mostly focuses on this skill. To do so, two homogeneous groups of thirty served as the experimental and the control groups. Before treatment, pretest was performed in both groups. The participants in the experimental group were taught through visualization and the ones in the control group were taught through the conventional method common in Iranian ESP setting by the same teacher. At the end of the treatment which took twenty-four sessions of two hours during twelve weeks, a test of 30-item multiple choice in ESP reading comprehension was administered to both groups. Finally, drawing on t-test at the 0.05 level of significance, the researchers compared the participants' performances to study such an effect. The findings revealed the significant advantage of using visualization in promoting ESP reading comprehension ability of university students.

Seyyed Mahdi Erfani; Abutaleb Iranmehr; Hossein Davari

2011-01-01

209

Textual Glosses, Text Types, and Reading Comprehension  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Studies conducted in the field of second language (L2) learning have revealed that the impact of gloss types on reading comprehension is an issue of debate. The present study investigated this issue across narrative and expository texts. The glosses applied in this study included single gloss in participants’ first language (SL1G), single gloss in participants’ second language (SL2G), and multiple-choice gloss (MCG) in participants’ L2. A total of 108 undergraduate students majoring in English Literature and Translation at the University of Kashan in Iran read the texts under three conditions: SL1G, SL2G, and MCG. After reading, participants answered a multiple-choice (MC) reading comprehension test. To control the participants’ reading proficiency, an MC cloze test was given to them a week later. One-Way ANOVA and follow-up post hoc Tukey’s HSD tests (p<.05) showed that the most facilitative gloss type for the participants’ reading comprehension of the narrative and expository texts were SL1G and SL2G respectively. When surveyed, participants showed their preference for marginal glosses in L2.

Mohammad Taghi Farvardin; Reza Biria

2011-01-01

210

[Comprehensiveness in practice (or, on the practice of comprehensiveness)].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article reflects on the manifestations or signs of comprehensiveness in health practice, seeking to facilitate recognition of experiences that are advancing in this direction and allowing them to be analyzed subsequently. The article is also intended to spawn increasing involvement by actors in practices based on comprehensiveness. The point of departure is the principle that what characterizes comprehensiveness is an expanded grasp of the needs and ability to recognize the adequacy of the health care supply in the specific context where the subject meets the health team; in addition, to foster comprehensiveness means defending the notion that health actions be attuned to the specific context of each encounter.

Mattos RA

2004-09-01

211

Important Constructs in Literacy Learning across Disciplines  

Science.gov (United States)

Currently students who struggle with language and literacy learning are classified with various labels in different states--language learning disabilities, dyslexia, specific language impairment, and specific learning disability--in spite of having similar diagnostic profiles. Drawing on the research on comprehension of written language, we…

Foorman, Barbara R.; Arndt, Elissa J.; Crawford, Elizabeth C.

2011-01-01

212

Classroom Interaction, Comprehension, and the Acquisition of L2 Word Meanings.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two studies investigated the effects of modified interaction on comprehension and vocabulary acquisition among Japanese high school students learning English as a Second Language. The studies found that interactionally modified input resulted in better comprehension and the acquisition of more new words than premodified input. (MDM)

Ellis, Rod; And Others

1994-01-01

213

On the Role of Strategy Use and Strategy Instruction in Listening Comprehension  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper provides a review of ideas and research regarding the role of strategy use and strategy instruction in listening comprehension. Firstly, it provides a brief explanation of different models of listening comprehension. Secondly, it sketches out different categories of learning and listening strategies. Thirdly models of strategy instruction and different attitudes towards it are reviewed. Finally, empirical studies carried out to examine the role of strategy use and strategy instruction on listening comprehension is presented.

Amir Hossein Rahimi

2012-01-01

214

BBC Learning: Online Courses  

Science.gov (United States)

The BBC Learning Web site (last mentioned in the May 5, 1995 Scout Report), is now providing a series of short online learning courses for persons hoping to gain a helpful introduction to a number of topics. Current courses include Becoming Webwise; How to be a Gardener; and several on history, including Victorian Britain. Particularly helpful are the short courses in German, French, Italian, and Spanish. All of the different language courses are accompanies by audio and video clips so that users will have more a comprehensive and holistic understanding of the language in context. For those looking for an introduction to a number of subjects, these learning tools will prove quite valuable.

215

Beyond Reading Comprehension: The Effect of Adding a Dynamic Assessment Component on EFL Reading Comprehension  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dynamic assessment (DA) stresses the need for unifying assessment and instruction. This paper presents an interactionist model of DA to assessment in reading comprehension of 30 Iranian male students who were selected based on available sampling procedure. Data collection procedures before and after implementation of DA were done through administration of multiple-choice reading comprehension test. The results of students’ performance before and after implementation of DA were calculated through t-test. The results indicate significant improvement in student performance after implementation. Finally, the null hypothesis is rejected and it is concluded that incorporation of DA as a supplement procedure to standard testing has positive effective on both test performance and learning of students.

Mehdi Mardani; Manssour Tavakoli

2011-01-01

216

Comprehensive facilities plan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory`s Comprehensive Facilities Plan (CFP) document provides analysis and policy guidance for the effective use and orderly future development of land and capital assets at the Berkeley Lab site. The CFP directly supports Berkeley Lab`s role as a multiprogram national laboratory operated by the University of California (UC) for the Department of Energy (DOE). The CFP is revised annually on Berkeley Lab`s Facilities Planning Website. Major revisions are consistent with DOE policy and review guidance. Facilities planing is motivated by the need to develop facilities for DOE programmatic needs; to maintain, replace and rehabilitate existing obsolete facilities; to identify sites for anticipated programmatic growth; and to establish a planning framework in recognition of site amenities and the surrounding community. The CFP presents a concise expression of the policy for the future physical development of the Laboratory, based upon anticipated operational needs of research programs and the environmental setting. It is a product of the ongoing planning processes and is a dynamic information source.

NONE

1997-09-01

217

Learning from Mistakes --- A Comprehensive Study on Real World Concurrency Bug Characteristics. In the proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Architecture Support for Programming Languages and Operating Systems (ASPLOS'08), March 2008  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The reality of multi-core hardware has made concurrent programs pervasive. Unfortunately, writing correct concurrent programs is difcult. Addressing this challenge requires advances in multiple directions, including concurrency bug detection, concurrent program testing, concurrent programming model design, etc. Designing effective techniques in all these directions will signicantly benet from a deep understanding of real world concurrency bug characteristics. This paper provides the rst (to the best of our knowledge) comprehensive real world concurrency bug characteristic study. Specifically, we have carefully examined concurrency bug patterns, manifestation, and x strategies of 105 randomly selected real world concurrency bugs from 4 representative server and client opensource applications (MySQL, Apache, Mozilla and OpenOfce). Our study reveals several interesting ndings and provides useful guidance for concurrency bug detection, testing, and concurrent programming language design. Some of our ndings are as follows: (1) Around one third of the examined non-deadlock concurrency bugs are caused by violation to programmers' order intentions, which may not be easily expressed via synchronization primitives like locks and transactional memories; (2) Around 34% of the examined non-deadlock concurrency bugs involve multiple variables, which are not well addressed by existing bug detection tools; (3) About 92% of the examined concurrency bugs can be reliably triggered by enforcing certain orders among no more than 4 memory accesses. This indicates that testing concurrent programs can target at exploring possible orders among every small groups of memory accesses, instead of among all memory accesses; (4) About 73% of the examined non-deadlock concurrency bugs were not xed by simply adding or changing locks, and many of the xes were not correct at the rst try, indicating the difculty of reasoning concurrent execution by programmers.

Yuanyuan Zhou

2008-03-01

218

Comprehension in "hyperlexic" readers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mentally retarded children who can read aloud written words better than one would expect from their Mental Age are often called hyperlexic. The reading comprehension thought to be impaired in such children was investigated in four experiments. Mentally retarded advanced decoders, including autistic and nonautistic children, were compared with younger nonretarded children matched for Mental Age and Reading Age. Experiment 1 established that mildly mentally retarded readers could match sentences to pictures as well as could be expected from their verbal ability. This was the same whether they read the sentences or heard them. Experiment 2 demonstrated that only the more able retarded subjects, but not the less able ones, used sentence context in a normal way in order to pronounce homographs. Experiments 3 and 4 showed that these same more able children could extract meaning at both sentence and story level, and their performance was indistinguishable from that of normal controls. Hence, it is doubtful whether these advanced decoders should be called hyperlexic. In contrast, the readers of relatively low verbal ability performed much worse than their normal controls. Although they could be induced under certain conditions to read sentence-by-sentence rather than word-by-word, they did not do so spontaneously. Furthermore, they did not make use of already existing general knowledge in order to answer questions about the stories they had read. The ability to comprehend in terms of large units of meaning seems to be specifically impaired in these low verbal ability fluent readers. We suggest that it is this impairment that marks true hyperlexia. Since there were no differences between autistic and nonautistic readers on any of our tasks, we conclude that hyperlexia is not an autism-specific phenomenon.

Snowling M; Frith U

1986-12-01

219

Comprehension in "hyperlexic" readers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mentally retarded children who can read aloud written words better than one would expect from their Mental Age are often called hyperlexic. The reading comprehension thought to be impaired in such children was investigated in four experiments. Mentally retarded advanced decoders, including autistic and nonautistic children, were compared with younger nonretarded children matched for Mental Age and Reading Age. Experiment 1 established that mildly mentally retarded readers could match sentences to pictures as well as could be expected from their verbal ability. This was the same whether they read the sentences or heard them. Experiment 2 demonstrated that only the more able retarded subjects, but not the less able ones, used sentence context in a normal way in order to pronounce homographs. Experiments 3 and 4 showed that these same more able children could extract meaning at both sentence and story level, and their performance was indistinguishable from that of normal controls. Hence, it is doubtful whether these advanced decoders should be called hyperlexic. In contrast, the readers of relatively low verbal ability performed much worse than their normal controls. Although they could be induced under certain conditions to read sentence-by-sentence rather than word-by-word, they did not do so spontaneously. Furthermore, they did not make use of already existing general knowledge in order to answer questions about the stories they had read. The ability to comprehend in terms of large units of meaning seems to be specifically impaired in these low verbal ability fluent readers. We suggest that it is this impairment that marks true hyperlexia. Since there were no differences between autistic and nonautistic readers on any of our tasks, we conclude that hyperlexia is not an autism-specific phenomenon. PMID:3806010

Snowling, M; Frith, U

1986-12-01

220

Reading through Interaction: From Individualistic Reading Comprehension to Collaboreading  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Group work and interaction play significant roles in the learning process and much of the evidence comes from studies of foreign language learners’ interaction with native speakers. This study aimed at finding out whether interaction among learners also facilitates reading comprehension. For this purpose, a number of Iranian EFL students at Abadeh and Shiraz Islamic Azad Universities were selected and divided into two groups. While in the first group individualistic reading was encouraged, the second group read together and had interaction and collaboration in understanding the texts. The results revealed that collaboreading improves the learners’ comprehension better than individualistic reading.

Fatemeh Behjat

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Now We Get It! Boosting Comprehension with Collaborative Strategic Reading  

CERN Multimedia

A proven method for teaching reading skills in mixed-ability classrooms Collaborative Strategic Reading is an innovative new approach to teaching reading that weaves together two instructional programs: cooperative learning and reading comprehension strategy instruction. In small groups, students work through the four main steps-Preview, "Click and Clunk," Get the Gist, and Wrap Up-helping each other improve comprehension and increase reading fluency. This book offers a hands-on guide to implementing CSR in grades 4 through 12. It includes sample dialogues for teachers to use during instruct

Klingner, Janette K; Boardman, Alison; Swanson, Elizabeth

2012-01-01

222

Syntactic comprehension deficits in agrammatism.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Eleven agrammatic and 16 fluent aphasic patients were given a comprehension task consisting of simple, active and passive reversible sentences. The purpose of the study is to reconsider the comprehension disorders in agrammatism, and particularly of passive reversible sentences, to test to what extent Grodzinsky's trace deletion hypothesis (TDH) is generalizable to other types of NP-movement, and finally to ascertain whether the pattern of impairment observed in agrammatism differs from that of fluent aphasic patients. The study confirms that trace analysis may be selectively impaired in agrammatism. However, this deficit is not the only mechanism underlying comprehension disorders and cannot be said to occur in all agrammatic patients. Comprehension disorders also involve the processing of clitic object pronouns which also underly NP-movement. Finally, the impairment found in fluent aphasic patients differs, both in type and severity, from that of agrammatic patients, thus confirming the peculiar aspects of the agrammatic comprehension deficit suggested by Grodzinsky's TDH.

Luzzatti C; Toraldo A; Ghirardi G; Lorenzi L; Guarnaschelli C

2000-06-01

223

Syntactic comprehension deficits in agrammatism.  

Science.gov (United States)

Eleven agrammatic and 16 fluent aphasic patients were given a comprehension task consisting of simple, active and passive reversible sentences. The purpose of the study is to reconsider the comprehension disorders in agrammatism, and particularly of passive reversible sentences, to test to what extent Grodzinsky's trace deletion hypothesis (TDH) is generalizable to other types of NP-movement, and finally to ascertain whether the pattern of impairment observed in agrammatism differs from that of fluent aphasic patients. The study confirms that trace analysis may be selectively impaired in agrammatism. However, this deficit is not the only mechanism underlying comprehension disorders and cannot be said to occur in all agrammatic patients. Comprehension disorders also involve the processing of clitic object pronouns which also underly NP-movement. Finally, the impairment found in fluent aphasic patients differs, both in type and severity, from that of agrammatic patients, thus confirming the peculiar aspects of the agrammatic comprehension deficit suggested by Grodzinsky's TDH. PMID:10857717

Luzzatti, C; Toraldo, A; Ghirardi, G; Lorenzi, L; Guarnaschelli, C

224

Les schémas réparateurs entre interaction et interactivité - A propos de l'apprentissage collaboratif en binôme autour d'un didacticiel de compréhension orale Repairing schemes between interaction and interactivity - On collaborative learning in pair work with an educational software for oral comprehension  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nous avons analysé, en nous référant au groupe-classe traditionnel, une situation particulière d'apprentissage en adoptant comme entrée la question des réparations et des réajustements: il s'agit d'une activité à  partir d'un didacticiel de compréhension orale sur la base de reportages télévisés et de questionnaires à remplir. Les apprenants mènent cette activité en binôme. Nous rappelons et analysons brièvement les différentes caractéristiques du schéma réparateur dans la classe de langue en général et dans les conversations authentiques. Nous établissons ensuite une comparaison à  partir de l'analyse de transcriptions des échanges qui ont donc lieu autour d'un support et dans un contexte très différents, comparaison qui se mène essentiellement sur la base des questions suivantes: l'organisation du schéma réparateur et l'initiative des réparations, l'objet des réparations (cf. notion de bifocalisation chez Bange), la forme des réparations (correction-injonction ou correction incitative? appréciation positive ou négative?) La deuxième partie du travail vise à repérer les particularités des réparations mises en place dans ce dispositif et à cerner les incidences sur la manière dont la compréhension orale est travaillée. Notre objectif est de mettre en relation la modification des supports et des contextes avec les schémas réparateurs dans l'apprentissage d'une langue.A specific situation of learning has been analyzed, in reference to the traditional classroom, based on the notions of reparation and readjustment. The activity described relies on the use of an educational software for oral comprehension, based on television reports and forms to be filled in. This activity is organized in pairs. The different characteristics of repairing schemes in traditional language class and in authentic communication are briefly described. Then a comparison is made thanks to the analysis of the transcription of the conversations that have taken place around a specific aid and in a very different situation. This comparison is made taking into account the following questions: the organization of the repairing scheme and the origin of reparations, the aim of such reparations (see Bange's bifocalisation), the form taken by the reparations. In our second part, our aim is to focus on the specificities of the reparations in such a setting and to work out the way oral comprehension is considered. The aim is to relate the change in the type of aid and context with the repairing schemes used in language learning..

Martine Eisenbeis

2003-01-01

225

Computer Assisted Language Learning. Routledge Studies in Computer Assisted Language Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

|Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is an approach to language teaching and learning in which computer technology is used as an aid to the presentation, reinforcement and assessment of material to be learned, usually including a substantial interactive element. This books provides an up-to date and comprehensive overview of…

Pennington, Martha

2011-01-01

226

The Effects of Controlled Language Processing on Listening Comprehension and Recall  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study seeks to determine the possible interactions between listening proficiency and the state of strategic self-awareness; second, and more importantly, to investigate the effects of learned strategies on listening comprehension and recall; and finally to describe the most common real-time listening comprehension problems faced by EFL learners and to compare the differences between learners with different listening abilities. After ten training sessions, an assessment was made to see whether or not well-learned strategies could provide students with ample opportunity to practice the comprehension and recall processes. The analyses of the data revealed the causes of ineffective low-level processing and provided insights to solve the problems of parsing. Moreover, the study reveals that explicit instruction of cognitive and metacognitive strategies is needed if a syllabus wishes to help learners improve their listening comprehension and become more-proficient at directing their own learning and development as L2 listeners.

Mohsen Jannejad; Hossein Shokouhi; Somayeh Biparva Haghighi

2012-01-01

227

Science teachers’ individual and social learning related to IBSE in the frames of a large-scale, long-term, collaborative TPD project  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

It is acknowledged internationally that teachers’ Professional Development (TPD) is crucial for reforming science teaching. The Danish QUEST project (“Qualifying in-service Education of Science Teachers”) is designed using widely agreed criteria for effective TPD: content focus, active learning, coherence, duration, collaborative activities and collective participation, and organised on principles of situated learning in Professional Learning Communities (PLCs). QUEST-activities follow a rhythm of full day seminars, where teachers are introduced to research-based material followed by a period of collaborative inquiries locally. A major theme in the first year has been Inquiry Based Science Education (IBSE) recommended as a focus to improve science education internationally. The research presented focuses on the participating teachers’ intertwined levels of individual and social learning. Data from repeated surveys and case studies reveal a positive attitude towards trying IBSE in the own classroom, however with the main part of the reflections focused on students’ hands-on experiences and fewer including students manipulating science ideas, like posing hypotheses. Teachers’ reflections indicate that many are positive toward IBSE-seminars based on trying activities directly applicable in the classroom. Other teachers’ reflections, and case-studies, indicate a potentially more sustainable development, where they collaboratively re-design former teaching using the IBSE thinking - and by doing so gaining experiences to support their design of inquiry based learning experiences for students also in new content areas. Case studies support that the PLCs are developing a new focus on student learning, but 25 % of the teachers report little change in collaboration locally with case studies identifying challenges related to disseminating IBSE to colleagues. Factors supporting or hampering local sustainable development are discussed under the headlines 1) QUEST rhythm, 2) Research knowledge meeting practitioner knowledgeand 3) Individual and collaborative agency.

Nielsen, Birgitte Lund; Sillasen, Martin

228

Brain mapping in cognitive disorders: a multidisciplinary approach to learning the tools and applications of functional neuroimaging  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background With rapid advances in functional imaging methods, human studies that feature functional neuroimaging techniques are increasing exponentially and have opened a vast arena of new possibilities for understanding brain function and improving the care of patients with cognitive disorders in the clinical setting. There is a growing need for medical centers to offer clinically relevant functional neuroimaging courses that emphasize the multifaceted and multidisciplinary nature of this field. In this paper, we describe the implementation of a functional neuroimaging course focusing on cognitive disorders that might serve as a model for other medical centers. We identify key components of an active learning course design that impact student learning gains in methods and issues pertaining to functional neuroimaging that deserve consideration when optimizing the medical neuroimaging curriculum. Methods Learning gains associated with the course were assessed using polychoric correlation analysis of responses to the SALG (Student Assessment of Learning Gains) instrument. Results Student gains in the functional neuroimaging of cognition as assessed by the SALG instrument were strongly associated with several aspects of the course design. Conclusion Our implementation of a multidisciplinary and active learning functional neuroimaging course produced positive learning outcomes. Inquiry-based learning activities and an online learning environment contributed positively to reported gains. This functional neuroimaging course design may serve as a useful model for other medical centers.

Kelley Daniel J; Johnson Sterling C

2007-01-01

229

Teaching and Learning Scientific Literacy and Citizenship in Partnership with Schools and Science Museums  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The purpose of this paper is to bring together research on learning and teaching in science – especially for scientific literacy and citizenship – with new insights into museum didactics in order to inform innovative ways of creating museum exhibits and visits and develop new ways of linking formal and informal learning environments. Knowledge from different domains that have evolved substantially over the past few decades is brought together with the intention of setting up some relatively concrete guidelines for arranging visits to science museums. First we examine new understandings of science learning in relation to the questions of why young people should learn science and what kind of science they should learn. We touch upon issues of scientific literacy and citizenship, dialogical processes, the nature of science, and inquiry-based teaching among others. Secondly, we relate our reflections on teaching and learning in science to their implications for science museums and centres. As an overall conclusion museum exhibits and activities need to include both the content and processes relevant to the given science, thus including opportunities for discovery and understanding of both aspects of science. Furthermore, we describe some design principles in accordance with our reflections and conclusions; e.g. critical issues-based exhibits, the five-step process of reflection, and immersion and multisensory interactions. Finally, we discuss how to get full benefit of museum visits for pupils and we put forward some guidelines, in relation to a concrete exhibit, for designing experiences at science museums and centres.

Dolin, Jens; Evans, Robert Harry

230

The Research of Comprehensive Quality Evaluation for Distant Education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study on the quality evaluation and the related technology on distant education can provide evidence for the quality teaching and learning, and ensure the high quality and efficiency for distant education. It is highly significant to construct the teaching resources and learning supporting system by establishing an appropriate system that fits the level of education and guarantees the teaching quality. On the basis of the research results of programs, standards and technology for the quality evaluation of the distant education, this essay puts forward a method of comprehensive quality evaluation by applying the theory of comprehensive evaluation into this area, which is a quantitative research about how to set and calculate the weight indices for the evaluation. This method can process the quality indices by quantity efficiently, give a direct view of the quality by the comparative analysis, and provide the evidence for improving the quality.

Mu Dan; Liu Ming-Li

2011-01-01

231

Tracing learning about astronomy during an ICT supported inquiry  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

nquiry-based science education (IBSE) has been argued to prepare students for the modern world by opening up opportunities to query the natural and man-made world. Information communication technology (ICT) that allows more than collection of data and information but offers opportunities to collaborate, discuss and share information is claimed to aid this process. However evidence to support such great expectations is still inconclusive. Assessment tools and the insights they may lend into students’ learning vary greatly and there is a danger they fail to persuade of the potential inquiry-based learning has to offer. In this presentation we examine the cases of two year 8 classes (14 year old students) who engaged in science inquiry in their science and English lessons and collaborated with a New Zealand class to explore the topic of astronomy. To gain insight into the students’ developing ideas in astronomy we adopted a multilevel– multifaceted approach. Evidence of learning was collected at three different levels: immediate, close and proximal. We will highlight the insights we gained into students’ developing science inquiry skills and knowledge and explain how the different proximities of the assessment strategies used assisted this task.

Otrel-Cass, Kathrin; Østergaard, Lars Domino

2012-01-01

232

Comprehensive policy analysis for health system reform.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article presents the results of a comprehensive approach to policy analysis that may serve as an input for health system reform. The comprehensive character of this effort stems from the attempt to combine, in a coherent framework, various analytical tools that have been developed recently, such as measurement of the burden of disease, cost-effectiveness analysis to integrate packages of essential interventions, national health accounts, assessment of system performance, consumer surveys, and political mapping. These tools were all applied in a study that was carried out in Mexico from August 1993 through September 1994. After explaining the logic of the study, the paper summarizes the findings and recommendations under five headings that shape the form of reform: the problems, the principles, the purposes, the proposals, and the protagonists. Rather than describing these various elements in detail, the paper focuses on the strategic aspects, which are most relevant to other countries currently planning or implementing reform initiatives. The article concludes that, under the current wave of international interest in health system reform, it is necessary to establish a mechanism for shared learning at the global level. Only in this way will it be possible to reproduce the analytical skills and accumulate the body of evidence that health systems require for their sustained improvement.

Frenk J

1995-04-01

233

Comprehensive policy analysis for health system reform.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article presents the results of a comprehensive approach to policy analysis that may serve as an input for health system reform. The comprehensive character of this effort stems from the attempt to combine, in a coherent framework, various analytical tools that have been developed recently, such as measurement of the burden of disease, cost-effectiveness analysis to integrate packages of essential interventions, national health accounts, assessment of system performance, consumer surveys, and political mapping. These tools were all applied in a study that was carried out in Mexico from August 1993 through September 1994. After explaining the logic of the study, the paper summarizes the findings and recommendations under five headings that shape the form of reform: the problems, the principles, the purposes, the proposals, and the protagonists. Rather than describing these various elements in detail, the paper focuses on the strategic aspects, which are most relevant to other countries currently planning or implementing reform initiatives. The article concludes that, under the current wave of international interest in health system reform, it is necessary to establish a mechanism for shared learning at the global level. Only in this way will it be possible to reproduce the analytical skills and accumulate the body of evidence that health systems require for their sustained improvement. PMID:10156642

Frenk, J

234

Comprehensive numerical modelling of tokamaks.  

Science.gov (United States)

We outline a plan for the development of a comprehensive numerical model of tokamaks. The model would consist of a suite of independent, communicating packages describing the various aspects of tokamak performance (core and edge transport coefficients and...

R. H. Cohen B. I. Cohen P. F. Dubois

1991-01-01

235

Impact of Psycholinguistic strategy- Reading Comprehension at Secondary Level  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study is an attempt to discuss the Impact of Psycholinguistic strategy in Reading Comprehension at Secondary Level. Reading is the process of decoding a set of written symbols that have been assigned linguistic meaning for the purpose of communicating ideas. Children for the purpose of communicating ideas. Children typically come to the reading task with a foundation for learning to read. They have attained a substantial amount of oral language and they have accumulated a store house of personal background experience. Areader then is a user of language who contently seeks sense from what he reads. If the learner is asked to read the text, the learner should comprehend the meaning completely. For this the teachers should give proper guidelines and training to get comprehension skills thro some psycholinguistic strategies. The teacher should be very effective in helping struggling learner to successfully master reading comprehension skills.

SV.Ulagammai; M. Parimala Fathima; S.Mohan

2013-01-01

236

Enchanted Learning: Zoom Sharks  

Science.gov (United States)

An Enchanted Learning creation, Zoom Sharks is a very comprehensive, kid-friendly website all about sharks. The site "is designed for people of all ages and levels of comprehension," and provides great information about numerous shark subjects. The website features educational Shark Information Sheets for many different types of sharks including information on teeth, diet and feeding habits, taxonomic classification, reproduction, and more. Some of the many other website features are Shark Classroom Activities, Shark Anatomy, and an Illustrated Shark Dictionary with over 385 defined terms. Note: While the site asks for a $20/year donation, the site is free to use and requires no registration or fee.

237

Learning How to Make Inquiry into Electricity and Magnetism Discernible to Middle Level Teachers  

Science.gov (United States)

As university professors we sought to disrupt the practice of giving our students the actions we felt they should imitate in their teaching practice. Instead, we sought to actively engage teachers in the creation of workable solutions to real-life problems. We accomplished this by conducting a participatory action research project. This paper illustrates our action research project focused on preparing middle level science teachers to foster inquiry-based learning in their classrooms. The findings of this study not only lead to a revised professional development opportunity for science teachers, but also provided an example of university faculty engaging in pragmatic research focused on addressing contemporary issues in K-12 science education.

Buck, Gayle A.; MacIntyre Latta, Margaret A.; Leslie-Pelecky, Diandra L.

2007-06-01

238

Reading Comprehension: A Viable Challenge for Public School Students  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was conducted in the Diana Turbay state school with students of one eighth grade class with a low English level. The group was chosen because of their special characteristics within this public institution: their number (just eighteen students) and their interest in and motivation for learning English as a foreign language. The motivation they show allowed the researchers to observe and collect more specific information for this study and for future research on reading comprehension. Data collection was conducted using many different techniques, such as open observations, diary, surveys, students’ self-evaluation and field notes. All these techniques provided information as authentic as possible. The purpose of the study was to determine if students improved their reading comprehension in English by applying specific reading strategies. Results showed that students from state schools can achieve good comprehension of English texts through adequate training despite the fact that they start their English learning so late. Further research on this topic should study the relationship between reading comprehension in Spanish and in English. It would also be necessary to study how students can acquire language structures through reading activities.

Correales Rocío; Mendivelso Olga; Santacruz Flor

2000-01-01

239

Investigating deaf students' use of visual multimedia resources in reading comprehension.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A mixed research design was used to examine how deaf students used the visual resources of a multimedia software package that was designed to support reading comprehension. The viewing behavior of 8 deaf students, ages 8-12 years, was recorded during their interaction with multimedia software that included narrative texts enriched with Greek Sign Language videos, pictures, and concept maps. Also, students' reading comprehension was assessed through reading comprehension questions and retelling. Analysis of the students' viewing behavior data, their answers to reading comprehension questions, their "think alouds," and their story retells indicated that they used visual resources, but they did not exploit them in a strategic manner to aid their reading comprehension. The study underscores the important role of mediated instruction in "visual literacy" skills that enable students to learn how to process visual aids in a way that supports their reading comprehension.

Nikolaraizi M; Vekiri I; Easterbrooks SR

2013-01-01

240

Listening Comprehension for Tenth Grade Students in Tabaria High School for Gir  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper analyzes listening comprehension of English language skills for tenth grade students at Tabaria high school in the city of Irbid in Jordan. The paper answers the following questions: 1. What are the factors that determine students' interest in learning English? 2. How frequently listening educational instruments are used to improve the listening skills for student? 3. What are the common difficulties that face the respondents in the questionnaire implemented in this paper in terms of listening comprehension? Thus, the paper aims to find the factors influencing English listening comprehension and the strategies to be taken that might improve students’ listening comprehension. The paper indicates that the current problems face students in developing listening comprehension skills are speed speech, limited knowledge of vocabulary, and limited knowledge of the subject in question. Further studies could be conducted to gauge the issue of listening comprehension at the university level-among university students-and the use of listening educational instruments.

Abeer H Malkawi

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Active-Learning Methods to Improve Student Performance and Scientific Interest in a Large Introductory Course  

Science.gov (United States)

Teaching methods that are often recommended to improve the learning environment in college science courses include cooperative learning, adding inquiry-based activities to traditional lectures, and engaging students in projects or investigations. Two questions often surround these efforts: 1) can these methods be used in large classes; and 2) how do we know that they are increasing student learning? This study, from the University of Massachusetts, describes how education researchers have transformed the environment of a large-enrollment oceanography course (600 students) by modifying lectures to include cooperative learning via interactive in-class exercises and directed discussion. Assessments were redesigned as "two-stage" exams with a significant collaborative component. Results of student surveys, course evaluations, and exam performance demonstrate that learning of the subject under these conditions has improved. Student achievement shows measurable and statistically significant increases in information recall, analytical skills, and quantitative reasoning. There is evidence from both student surveys and student interview comments that for the majority of students, the course increased their interest in science -- a difficult effect to achieve with this population.

Yuretich, Richard; Khan, Samia; Leckie, R.

2001-03-01

242

The Application of Constructivism: Activities for Enlivening Comprehensive English Class  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Comprehensive English Course (CEC) plays a vital role in English language learning for college students in China. However, students’ motivation for this course is low due to the fact that they are bored with the instructivist-based teaching environment. This paper first reviews the theories of Constructivism, and then demonstrates how to apply constructivist-based pedagogy in an instructivist-based environment by illustrating the constructivist-based activities: free writing, formative assessment, data-driven learning and sentence auction. This pedagogic proposal is not just suitable for the CEC in China, but also useful for the course where the four skills of the English language are practiced while constructivist-based teaching methods are not in use. Hopefully this proposal can contribute significantly to the undeniable need to educate students to be more informed, curious, and critical in English language teaching and learning.

Jing Shi

2013-01-01

243

A model of poetic comprehension  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article introduces an account of aesthetic comprehension and experience together with an implemented miniature which generates analogical interpretations from a semi-automatic parse of Wordsworth`s {open_quotes}Lines Written in Early Spring{close_quotes}. In our account, a poem serves as an analogy teaching machine by using formal structure to cue the formation of novel analogies. This account builds on an analogical model of comprehension previously applied to large corpora of newspaper summaries. In the miniature, an automatic grammatical and semantic analysis of the text is augmented with information about rhyme and rhythm. These formal cues allow the system to determine analogies which it would not otherwise consider. The article describes the comprehension framework, the annotated piece, and the matcher`s performance on the piece. It closes with a discussion of possible objections to aspects of the thesis or experiment and suggested directions for future work.

Haase, K. [MIT Media Lab., Cambridge, MA (United States)

1996-12-31

244

Modern Standard Arabic: Aural Comprehension Course. Volume XX: Comprehension Drills.  

Science.gov (United States)

The last of 20 volumes of lessons designed for use in a full-time, intensive training program in Arabic is presented. The 128 lessons in this volume contain various types of comprehension drills. Lessons 14-128 are completely in Arabic. (AMH)

Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

245

Teaching Reading in the 21st Century: A Glimpse at How Special Education Teachers Promote Reading Comprehension  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, we conducted 124 observations of 41 special education teachers teaching reading to their third- through fifth-grade students with learning disabilities to determine the extent to which and in what ways they promoted students' reading comprehension. In 42 lessons, we did not observe any comprehension instruction. In 30 lessons, the…

Klingner, Janette K.; Urbach, Jennifer; Golos, Deborah; Brownell, Mary; Menon, Shailaja

2010-01-01

246

M programming a comprehensive guide  

CERN Document Server

M Programming: A Comprehensive Guide is a complete update to ABCs of MUMPS. While ABCs of MUMPS was an introduction for novice and intermediate M programmers, M Programming: A Comprehensive Guide has a new section containing advanced material. This new section addresses features such as transaction processing, networking, structured system variables, and interfaces to other standards. Five new chapters have been added, covering an overview of M for readers familiar with other languages; M and the Windows environment; interaction between M and the underlying system; transaction processing; inte

Walters, Richard

1997-01-01

247

Improving Student Learning When Budgets Are Tight  

Science.gov (United States)

How do you stay focused on increasing student learning when budget cuts threaten everything you are striving for? This book offers a comprehensive framework to enhance student achievement in good times and in bad. School reform expert Allan R. Odden outlines a school improvement action plan focused sharply on student learning and then shows how to…

Odden, Allan R.

2012-01-01

248

Transferability of Computer-Based Learning Materials.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to get a comprehensive view of the problems and present development of the transferability to other locations of computer-based learning materials, it is necessary to examine short-range versus long-range viewpoints and the distinctions between computer-related aspects and those aspects associated with innovative learning and teaching…

Bork, Alfred

249

Botanical literacy: What and how should students learn about plants?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Botanists benefit from a scientifically literate society and an interested and botanically literate student population, and we have opportunities to promote literacy in our classes. Unfortunately, scientific illiteracy exists, in part, because students are technologically advanced but lack intellectual curiosity and rigor. Botanical illiteracy results from several interacting factors, including a lack of interest in plants and infrequent exposure to plant science before students reach college. If scientific or botanical literacy is a goal, we must understand what literacy means and how we can help students reach that goal. A model of biological literacy recognizes four levels; students enter courses at the lowest level possessing misconceptions about concepts; however, misconceptions can be used to our advantage, especially by using concept inventories. Inquiry-based instruction is advocated for all science courses, and learning theory supports inquiry. Seven principles of learning inform recommendations about how botanists should teach, including using themes and "thinking botanically" to illustrate all biological concepts. Overall, consideration of the botanical content taught is less critical than the methods used to teach that content. If botanists emphasize thinking and process skills with an understanding of concepts, we will prepare scientifically literate students and citizens and benefit from our efforts.

Uno GE

2009-10-01

250

Steam generator comprehensive testing facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The main system and equipment of a capacity of 30 MW steam generator testing rig is briefly introduced. The thermal performance of steam generator simulator has been verified with a steam generator model comprehensive testing. The application and function of the Facility are analyzed. And the effective use of the equipment of the Facility is also proposed

1998-01-01

251

Patient comprehension of informed consent.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Obtaining informed consent is an essential process in the patient centred approach to modern medicine. However, research shows that patients have a poor understanding of the process of informed consent, as well as a poor understanding of the procedures they are consenting for. Improvements need to be made to improve comprehension and ensure that consent is truly valid.

Richardson V

2013-01-01

252

Electroconvulsive Therapy: A Comprehensive Assessment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is one of the most important discoveries of psychiatric treatments. This article comprehensively assesses historical progress, mechanism of actions, practical methods, indications, side effects, complications, drug interactions of ECT and attitudes towards ECT. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2003; 12(4.000): 340-377

Tayfun Zeren; Lut Tamam; Yunus Emre Evlice

2003-01-01

253

Resources: The Dollars and Sense of Comprehensive Professional Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

Very little of the professional development literature identifies its costs. Many say good professional development is expensive, but what is meant by expensive, and if so, expensive relative to what? This article shows that effective professional development is not expensive relative to overall spending and that its key elements and their costs…

Odden, Allan

2011-01-01

254

Enhancing learning and comprehension through strengthening visual literacy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Living in an image-rich world, as we currently do, does not mean that individuals naturally possess visual literacy skills. This article explores the concept of ‘visual literacy’, and the skills needed to develop visual literacy and visual intelligence. Developing visual literacy in educational environments is important because it can contribute to individual empowerment, and it is therefore necessary to take pedagogical advantage of visual literacy’s place across the disciplines. Doing this means tapping into experiences, expertise and interest in visual communication and building a new paradigm that takes visual education seriously.

Cheryl Le Roux

2011-01-01

255

Depressive Symptoms during Adolescence: Do Learning Difficulties Matter?  

Science.gov (United States)

|To examine whether learning difficulties play a role in depressive symptoms, 658 Finnish adolescents were asked to complete scales for depression three times during the transition to post-comprehensive education. They also reported on their learning difficulties and feelings of inadequacy as a student. The results showed that learning

Kiuru, Noona; Leskinen, Esko; Nurmi, Jari-Erik; Salmela-Aro, Katariina

2011-01-01

256

Self-Directed Learning in Adulthood: A Literature Review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Self-directed learning (SDL) is among the most productive areas of research in adult education. Malcolm S. Knowles is credited with a comprehensive synthesis of adult teaching and adult learning principles. Andragogy, the art and science of helping adults learn, lies at the heart of Knowles' work. Lucy M. Guglielmino theorized regarding the…

Owen, T. Ross

257

E-Learning for Depth in the Semantic Web  

Science.gov (United States)

|In this paper, we describe concept parsing algorithms, a novel semantic analysis methodology at the core of a new pedagogy that focuses learners attention on deep comprehension of the conceptual content of learned material. Two new e-learning tools are described in some detail: interactive concept discovery learning and meaning equivalence…

Shafrir, Uri; Etkind, Masha

2006-01-01

258

Cooperative Learning In An Architectural Design Studio  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to discover the efficiency of cooperative learning approach in architectural design education. The study was conducted with 23 architecture students from the first and third year students in February-March 2011, in Bursa, Turkey. Researchers adopted a qualitative research strategy since it enables a deeper understanding of the context. The result of this study indicated that cooperative learning method at various levels can be used as an effective learning method to increase motivation of students, sharing knowledge and increasing learning capacity. Furthermore, this study showed that cooperative learning method during the first year of architecture education simplifies understanding, comprehension, and interpreting project areas.

Nilüfer AKINCITÜRK; Yasemin ERB?L; Çi?dem YÜCEL

2011-01-01

259

An Elementary Introduction to Statistical Learning Theory  

CERN Multimedia

A thought-provoking look at statistical learning theory and its role in understanding human learning and inductive reasoning A joint endeavor from leading researchers in the fields of philosophy and electrical engineering, An Elementary Introduction to Statistical Learning Theory is a comprehensive and accessible primer on the rapidly evolving fields of statistical pattern recognition and statistical learning theory. Explaining these areas at a level and in a way that is not often found in other books on the topic, the authors present the basic theory behind contemporary machine learning and

Kulkarni, Sanjeev

2011-01-01

260

Learning ROS for robotics programming  

CERN Multimedia

The book will take an easy-to-follow and engaging tutorial approach, providing a practical and comprehensive way to learn ROS.If you are a robotic enthusiast who wants to learn how to build and program your own robots in an easy-to-develop, maintainable and shareable way, ""Learning ROS for Robotics Programming"" is for you. In order to make the most of the book, you should have some C++ programming background, knowledge of GNU/Linux systems, and computer science in general. No previous background on ROS is required, since this book provides all the skills required. It is also advisable to hav

Martinez, Aaron

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

An Action Research Plan for Developing and Implementing The Students’ Listening Comprehension Skills  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This is a proposal for an action research plan designed to find out how to improve students’ listening comprehension skills, enhance their performance and help to promote better learning. This plan is focused on the minority students who major in English in our University. Listening comprehension is one of the most difficult courses for them. As their teacher, the author would like to conduct an action research in her classroom teaching in order to make some changes in her teaching, to assist the students to become active listeners, and to improve their overall listening comprehension skills.

Chunpin Luo

2008-01-01

262

Service-Learning in Introductory Chemistry: Supplementing Chemistry Curriculum in Elementary Schools  

Science.gov (United States)

The pedagogy of service-learning is becoming an accepted method of connecting college classrooms to the community. A service-learning course component has been successfully incorporated into the second quarter of Introductory Chemistry (Chem 120) at Kalamazoo College. Students in Chem 120 design inquiry-based laboratory experiments related to course material for students in grades K 6. The Chem 120 students then conduct these experiments with assigned classes at a local elementary school. This project reinforces course material for the college students while supplementing the elementary school's science curriculum and exposing children to topics they otherwise would not learn. In addition to providing a context for college students to make connections between textbook concepts and real life processes, this project also offers a chance to improve other skills, such as problem solving and communication. Surveys of the Chem 120 students and comments from the elementary school community demonstrate that the project is successful overall and is a way to interest students at all levels in chemistry. This paper discusses the methods used to conduct and assess this service-learning project, survey results, comments from the elementary school community, and the effect of this project on the number of chemistry majors at Kalamazoo College.

Esson, Joan M.; Stevens-Truss, Regina; Thomas, Anne

2005-08-01

263

Disfluencies and human language comprehension.  

Science.gov (United States)

Spoken language contains disfluencies, which include editing terms such as uh and um as well as repeats and corrections. In less than ten years the question of how disfluencies are handled by the human sentence comprehension system has gone from virtually ignored to a topic of major interest in computational linguistics and psycholinguistics. We discuss relevant empirical findings and describe a computational model that captures how disfluencies influence parsing and comprehension. The research reviewed shows that the parser, which presumably evolved to handle conversations, deals with disfluencies in a way that is efficient and linguistically principled. The success of this research program reinforces the current trend in cognitive science to view cognitive mechanisms as adaptations to real-world constraints and challenges. PMID:15120682

Ferreira, Fernanda; Bailey, Karl G D

2004-05-01

264

A comprehensive nuclear test ban  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The conclusion of a comprehensive nuclear test ban is of critical importance for the future of arms limitation and disarmament. As the 1980 report of the Secretary-General concluded, a comprehensive nuclear test ban is regarded as the first and most urgent step towards the cessation of the nuclear arms race and, in particular, of its qualitative aspects. It could serve as an important measure for the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, both vertical and horizontal. It would have a major arms limitation impact in that it would make it difficult, if not impossible, to develop new designs of nuclear weapons and would also place constraints on the modification of existing weapon designs. The permanent cessation of all nuclear-weapon tests has long been sought by the world community and its achievement would be an event of great international significance

1985-01-01

265

Disfluencies and human language comprehension.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Spoken language contains disfluencies, which include editing terms such as uh and um as well as repeats and corrections. In less than ten years the question of how disfluencies are handled by the human sentence comprehension system has gone from virtually ignored to a topic of major interest in computational linguistics and psycholinguistics. We discuss relevant empirical findings and describe a computational model that captures how disfluencies influence parsing and comprehension. The research reviewed shows that the parser, which presumably evolved to handle conversations, deals with disfluencies in a way that is efficient and linguistically principled. The success of this research program reinforces the current trend in cognitive science to view cognitive mechanisms as adaptations to real-world constraints and challenges.

Ferreira F; Bailey KG

2004-05-01

266

Comprehensive radiological equipment management program.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The increasing cost and complexity of state-of-the-art radiological equipment, and the need for more comprehensive safety and performance assurance, have increased maintenance expenditures to a level where they have become one of the largest operating expenses of radiology departments. To cope with this ever increasing expenditure, a comprehensive in-house maintenance program was implemented in our institution. This program properly balanced the capability of the radiology department's in-house technical personnel with support provided by equipment manufacturers' service organizations. Quality assurance activities are also included as an integral part of the entire program. Since the implementation of the program, an average 40% reduction in the annual maintenance expenditure has been observed.

Chu WK; Dobry CA; Imasy TJ; Taylor TK

1984-10-01

267

Emergency preparedness: a comprehensive plan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The Atlantic Richfield Hanford Company (ARHCO) has developed comprehensive plans for coping with emergencies ranging from criticality to civil disturbance. A unique notification system provides for immediate contact with key personnel by using a central communications center, crash alarm warning networks, and a continuing telephone cascade notification system. There is also the capability of immediately contacting other contractor key personnel. Certain jobs have been predetermined as necessary for coping with an emergency. An emergency staff consisting of responsible management, with alternates, has been preselected to automatically fill these jobs when notified. Control centers for headquarters and ''field'' are established with telephone and radio communication capabilities and are also supplied with some source materials to assist initiating plans for containing an emergency for recovery. A comprehensive emergency procedures manual has been developed, which contains information of company-wide application and procedures for specific facilities covering almost all accident situations

1975-07-12

268

Depression. Does it affect the comprehension of receptive skills?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To compare the comprehension of depressed and non-depressed male and female Iranian learners of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) in receptive skills, and to investigate whether inefficiency in learning English could be due to depression. METHODS: We selected 126 boys and 96 girls aged between 15 and 18 by simple random sampling from 2 high schools in Kerman, Iran to examine whether there was any significant relationship between depression and comprehension of receptive skills in males and females. We undertook this descriptive, correlational study between January and May 2011 in Kerman, Iran. After administration of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), we found that 93 students were non-depressed, 65 had minimal depression, 48 mild depression, and 16 suffered from severe depression. RESULTS: The correlation between participants` scores on listening and reading test with depression level indicated a significant relationship between depression and comprehension of both listening, and reading. Males had higher scores in both reading and listening. In listening, there was no significant difference among the levels of depression and males and females. Regarding the reading skill, there was no significant difference among levels of depression; however, the reading comprehension of males and females differed significantly. CONCLUSION: Learners who show a deficiency in receptive skills should be examined for the possibility of suffering from some degree of depression.

Rashtchi M; Zokaee Z; Ghaffarinejad AR; Sadeghi MM

2012-07-01

269

Helping Students Develop Listening Comprehension  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Listening practice is often neglected or handled inappropriately in the teachinglearning process. This poses problem because listening is an integral part of conversations. Oral skills without equally welldeveloped listening abilities are of little practical value. In this article, I will take a look at issues related to the area of listening that may be considered when guiding students toward developing listening comprehension.

Cárdenas Beltrán Melba Libia

2000-01-01

270

A comprehensive dairy valorization model.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Dairy processors face numerous challenges resulting from both unsteady dairy markets and some specific characteristics of dairy supply chains. To maintain a competitive position on the market, companies must look beyond standard solutions currently used in practice. This paper presents a comprehensive dairy valorization model that serves as a decision support tool for mid-term allocation of raw milk to end products and production planning. The developed model was used to identify the optimal product portfolio composition. The model allocates raw milk to the most profitable dairy products while accounting for important constraints (i.e., recipes, composition variations, dairy production interdependencies, seasonality, demand, supply, capacities, and transportation flows). The inclusion of all relevant constraints and the ease of understanding dairy production dynamics make the model comprehensive. The developed model was tested at the international dairy processor FrieslandCampina (Amersfoort, the Netherlands). The structure of the model and its output were discussed in multiple sessions with and approved by relevant FrieslandCampina employees. The elements included in the model were considered necessary to optimally valorize raw milk. To illustrate the comprehensiveness and functionality of the model, we analyzed the effect of seasonality on milk valorization. A large difference in profit and a shift in the allocation of milk showed that seasonality has a considerable impact on the valorization of raw milk.

Banaszewska A; Cruijssen F; van der Vorst JG; Claassen GD; Kampman JL

2013-02-01

271

The Impact of Listening Strategy on Listening Comprehension  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Successful FL learners are characterized by knowing how to use language learning strategies effectively. This article reports a study of the effect of strategy training on listening comprehension. In the study, 56 intermediate foreign language learners at Shandong Economic College were either participants in a strategies-based instructional treatment or were comparison students receiving the regular listening course. Data were obtained and analyzed through the performance of a set of three listening tasks on a pre-post basis by both groups. The subsample of twelve students also provided verbal report data to show their cognitive insights into strategy use and the instruction itself. It was found that the increased use of listening strategy contributed positively to listening comprehension, which led to the implication that formal strategy training should have a role in the foreign language listening classroom.

Yan Zhang

2012-01-01

272

Using Interactive Animations to Enhance Teaching, Learning, and Retention of Respiration Pathway Concepts in Face-to-Face and Online High School, Undergraduate, and Continuing Education Learning Environments  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One major tool set teachers/instructors can use is online interactive animations, which presents content in a way that helps pique students' interest and differentiates instructional content.  The Virtual Cell Animation Collections (VCAC), developed from the Molecular and Cellular Biology Learning Center, has developed a series of online interactive animations that provide teacher/instructors and students with immersive learning tools for studying and understanding respiration processes.  These virtual tools work as powerful instructional devices to help explain and reinforce concepts of metabolic pathways that would normally be taught traditionally using static textbook pages or by neumonic flashcards. High school, undergraduate, and continuing education students of today learn and retain knowledge differently than their predecessors.  Now teachers face new challenges and must engage and assess students, within a small window during classroom instruction, but also have the skills to provide useful content in distance learning environments.  Educators have to keep up with changing trends in education as a result of technological advances, higher student/teacher ratios, and the influence of social media on education. It is critical for teachers/instructors to be able to present content that not only keeps students interested but also helps bridge learning gaps. VCAC provides high school, undergraduate, and continuing education biology or life science teachers/instructors with classroom strategies and tools for introducing respiration content through free open source online resources. VCAC content supports the development of more inquiry-based classroom and distance-learning environments that can be facilitated by teachers/instructors, which helps improve retention of important respiration subject content and problem-based learning skills for students.

Sederick C. Rice

2013-01-01

273

Improving text comprehension strategies in upper primary school children: a design experiment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: With respect to the acquisition of competence in reading, new standards for primary education stress more than before the importance of learning and teaching cognitive and metacognitive strategies that facilitate text comprehension. Therefore, there is a need to design a research-based instructional approach to strategic reading comprehension. AIMS: The design experiment aimed at developing, implementing and evaluating a research-based, but also practically applicable learning environment for enhancing skilled strategy use in upper primary school children when reading a text. Four text comprehension strategies (activating prior knowledge, clarifying difficult words, making a schematic representation of the text, and formulating the main idea) and a metacognitive strategy (regulating one's own reading process) were trained through a variety of highly interactive instructional techniques, namely modelling, whole class discussion, and small group work in the format of reciprocal teaching. SAMPLE: Participants in the study were four experimental 5th grade classes (79 children) and eight comparable control classes (149 pupils). METHOD: The effects of the learning environment were measured using a pretest-post-test-retention design. Multilevel hierarchical linear regression models were used to analyse the quantitative data of a Reading Strategy Test, a standardised Reading Comprehension Test, a Reading Attitude Scale, a Transfer Test and an interview about strategy use during reading. RESULTS: The data of the Reading Strategy Test, the Transfer Test and the interviews about strategy use showed that the experimental group out-performed the control group in terms of the strategy adoption and application during text reading. Whilst the experimental group also scored higher on the Reading Comprehension Test than the control group, the difference was not significant. CONCLUSIONS: This design experiment shows that it is possible to foster pupils' use and transfer of strategic reading comprehension skills in regular classrooms by immersing them in a powerful learning environment. But this intervention does not automatically result in improvement of performance on a standardised reading comprehension test.

De Corte E; Verschaffel L; Van De Ven A

2001-12-01

274

Mobile Learning (M-Learning) and Educational Environments  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mobile devices show a dramatic departure from old-fashion of computing platforms as they no more represent a static or fixed notion of context, where changes are small, absent, or predictable. With this dramatic departure, the expansion and continued evolution of modern mobile devices an opportunity has arisen for much more comprehensive integration of these modern devices into educational environments. Mobile learning is a new research area, that has become an emerging tool for our education system. Themobile learning can be used to enhance the overall learning experience of our students and teachers. This paper discusses the background of mobile learning and how it can be used to enhance the whole eLearning system. The paper presents the M-learning approach as the next generation of eLearning, whereas the next generation of the learning systems will provide easy access and widely available to all who wish to be part of it. The paper also highlights the benefits and future challenges of mobile learning in our educational environments.

Mohamed Sarrab; Laila Elgamel; Hamza Aldabbas

2012-01-01

275

City of Temple, Texas. Comprehensive Plan Report.  

Science.gov (United States)

The City of Temple's Comprehensive Plan Report contains those final planning elements previously prepared as interim reports. The report serves as a guide for the development of the city's future urban area. Data and plans presented in the comprehensive r...

1972-01-01

276

Constrained Optimization with Evolutionary Algorithms : A Comprehensive Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Global optimization is an essential part of any kind of system. Various algorithms have been proposed that try to imitate the learning and problem solving abilities of the nature up to certain level. The main idea of all nature-inspired algorithms is to generate an interconnected network of individuals, a population. Although most of unconstrained optimization problems can be easily handled with Evolutionary Algorithms (EA), constrained optimization problems (COPs) are very complex. In this paper, a comprehensive literature review will be presented which summarizes the constraint handling techniques for COPs.

Ali Osman Kusakci; Mehmet Can

2012-01-01

277

Applying Reporting of Comprehensive Income in China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper discusses the characteristics of comprehensive income and how to apply reporting of comprehensive incomein China. Through a detailed analysis, we summarize the situation of current performance reporting type, and give some advices on how to apply comprehensive income reporting in China, to provide investors and creditors morecomprehensive and relevant performance information. There are two steps advised to be applied in China to update thecurrent income reporting to comprehensive income reporting.

Xiaoyan Liu; Yunan Liu

2009-01-01

278

Learning Sequences  

CERN Multimedia

We describe the algorithms used by the ALEKS computer learning system for manipulating combinatorial descriptions of human learners' states of knowledge, generating all states that are possible according to a description of a learning space in terms of a partial order, and using Bayesian statistics to determine the most likely state of a student. As we describe, a representation of a knowledge space using learning sequences (basic words of an antimatroid) allows more general learning spaces to be implemented with similar algorithmic complexity. We show how to define a learning space from a set of learning sequences, find a set of learning sequences that concisely represents a given learning space, generate all states of a learning space represented in this way, and integrate this state generation procedure into a knowledge assessment algorithm. We also describe some related theoretical results concerning projections of learning spaces, decomposition and dimension of learning spaces, and algebraic representati...

Eppstein, David

2008-01-01

279

NRC comprehensive records disposition schedule  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effective January 1, 1982, NRC will institute records retention and disposal practices in accordance with the approved Comprehensive Records Disposition Schedule (CRDS). CRDS is comprised of NRC Schedules (NRCS) 1 to 4 which apply to the agency's program or substantive records and General Records Schedules (GRS) 1 to 22 which apply to housekeeping or facilitative records. The schedules are assembled functionally/organizationally to facilitate their use. Preceding the records descriptions and disposition instructions for both NRCS and GRS, there are brief statements on the organizational units which accumulate the records in each functional area, and other information regarding the schedules' applicability.

1982-01-01

280

Comprehensive management of project changes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The goal of this research was to examine how project changes can be prevented, and how to reduce their negative impact. Theoretical research examined risk management, project control and change management. Based on the study a “Comprehensive Change Management Model” was developed and verified after conducting empirical research in Slovenian enterprises. The research confirmed that risk management identifies possible changes and reduces their impact; project control ensures the timely detection of changes and an efficient response, while formal change management ensures the effective implementation of changes. The combined functioning of all three areas ensures effective project execution.

Aljaž Stare

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

IR Cards: Inquiry-Based Introduction to Infrared Spectroscopy  

Science.gov (United States)

As infrared spectroscopy (IR) is frequently used in undergraduate organic chemistry courses, an inductive introduction to IR spectroscopy that uses index cards printed with spectra, structures, and chemical names is described. Groups of students are given an alphabetized deck of these "IR cards" to sort into functional groups. The students then…

Bennett, Jacqueline; Forster, Tabetha

2010-01-01

282

Evaluating an Inquiry-Based Bioinformatics Course Using Q Methodology  

Science.gov (United States)

Faculty at a Midwestern metropolitan public university recently developed a course on bioinformatics that emphasized collaboration and inquiry. Bioinformatics, essentially the application of computational tools to biological data, is inherently interdisciplinary. Thus part of the challenge of creating this course was serving the needs and…

Ramlo, Susan E.; McConnell, David; Duan, Zhong-Hui; Moore, Francisco B.

2008-01-01

283

From Performance-Based To Inquiry-Based Accountability  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper argues Canada has a unique approach to large-scale assessment and accountability that is not reflected in the current literature. I explore its construction by drawing on the results of two pan-Canadian SSHRC-funded studies and reflecting on Canada’s philosophical identity that...

Sonia Ben Jaafar

284

Inducing Mutations in "Paramecium": An Inquiry-Based Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

|A major challenge in teaching any college level general genetics course including a laboratory component is having the students actively understand the research part of an experiment as well as develop the necessary laboratory skills. This laboratory experience furthers the students' knowledge of genetics while improving their laboratory skills.…

Elwess, Nancy L.; Latourelle, Sandra L.

2004-01-01

285

Developing Inquiry-Based Labs Using Micro-Column Chromatography  

Science.gov (United States)

Chromatography is a process by which mixtures can be separated or substances can be purified. Biological and chemical laboratories use many different types of chromatographic processes. For example, the pharmaceutical industry uses chromatographic techniques to purify drugs, medical labs use them to identify blood components such as cholesterol,…

Barden-Gabbei, Laura M.; Moffitt, Deborah L.

2006-01-01

286

Theology in Ecological Perspective: An Interdisciplinary, Inquiry-Based Experiment  

Science.gov (United States)

As the result of an extensive self-study for the purpose of reaccreditation, the Department of Theology at The University of Portland began offering a new series of courses called Theological Perspective Courses (THEP). THEP courses are upper division and offered by theology faculty in conjunction with another department that has required core…

Butkus, Russell A.; Kolmes, Steven A.

2008-01-01

287

A Study of Factors Affecting EFL Learners' English Listening Comprehension and the Strategies for Improvement  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Listening plays a significant role in daily communication and educational process. In spite of its importance, listening has long been the neglected skill in second language acquisition, research, teaching, and assessment. However, in recent years there has been an increased focus on L2 listening ability because of its perceived importance in language learning and teaching. The study tries to find the factors influencing English listening comprehension and the strategies to be taken that might improve students’ listening comprehension. The paper focuses on four main issues. First, it discusses the definition of listening, significance of listening. Second, it reviews the process of listening comprehension, strategies of listening comprehension. Third, analysis of listening comprehension problems is reviewed. Fourth, teaching methods for listening comprehension will be discussed. Fifth, researchers review teaching listening activities. Sixth, general principles in teaching listening comprehension are discussed. Findings based on the review of the literature along with analysis of the data are of great significance and can be advantageous to improve EFL learners' English listening comprehension skill.

Abbas Pourhossein Gilakjani; Mohammad Reza Ahmadi

2011-01-01

288

Comparison of reading comprehension and working memory in hearing-impaired and normal-hearing children  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and Aim: Reading is the most important human need for learning. In normal-hearing people working memory is a predictor of reading comprehension. In this study the relationship between working memory and reading comprehension skills was studied in hearing-impaired children, and then compared with the normal-hearing group.Methods: This was a descriptive-analytic study. The working memory and reading comprehension skills of 18 (8 male, 10 female) sever hearing-impaired children in year five of exceptional schools were compared by means of a reading test with 18 hearing children as control group. The subjects in the control group were of the same gender and educational level of the sample group.Results: The children with hearing loss performed similarly to the normal-hearing children in tasks related to auditory-verbal memory of sounds (reverse), visual-verbal memory of letters, and visual-verbal memory of pictures. However, they showed lower levels of performance in reading comprehension (p<0.001). Moreover, no significant relationship was observed between working memory and reading comprehension skills.Conclusion: Findings indicated that children with hearing loss have a significant impairment in the reading comprehension skill. Impairment in language knowledge and vocabulary may be the main cause of poor reading comprehension in these children. In hearing-impaired children working memory is not a strong predictor of reading comprehension.

Mohammad Rezaei; Vahid Rashedi; Laya Gholami Tehrani; Akbar Daroei

2013-01-01

289

Bibliotherapy for All: Enhancing Reading Comprehension, Self-Concept, and Behavior.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes using bibliotherapy to improve reading comprehension and enhance self-esteem or improve behavior for students with learning and behavior problems. A step-by-step procedure is provided to ensure success with all students. A list of recommended books to use with students in preschool through second grade is provided. (Contains…

Sridhar, Dheepa; Vaughn, Sharon

2000-01-01

290

Listening Comprehension for Tenth Grade Students in Tabaria High School for Gir  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper analyzes listening comprehension of English language skills for tenth grade students at Tabaria high school in the city of Irbid in Jordan. The paper answers the following questions: 1. What are the factors that determine students' interest in learning English? 2. How frequently listening ...

Abeer H Malkawi

291

Physical Education, the Policy Entrepreneur and Comprehensive Schooling: Can They Exist in Harmony?  

Science.gov (United States)

This article analyses the ways in which policy entrepreneurs have recently influenced physical education (PE) policy and practice in England and Scotland and discusses some of the implications this might have for students' learning opportunities within comprehensive schools in future years. And, while considerations of this sort raise a plethora…

Thorburn, Malcolm

2009-01-01

292

Orthographic Processing and Reading Comprehension among Arabic Speaking Mainstream and LD Children  

Science.gov (United States)

Two cohorts of mainstream children (grades 2-5) and one cohort of children with learning disabilities (LD; grades 3-5), all Arabic speaking children in Kuwait, were given measures of reading comprehension fluency and orthographic discrimination to assess the relationship between the two. Additional measures of phonological processing (decoding and…

Elbeheri, Gad; Everatt, John; Mahfoudhi, Abdessatar; Al-Diyar, Mosaad Abu; Taibah, Nadia

2011-01-01

293

Visions That Work: A Further Elaboration of the Comprehensive Model of Educational Effectiveness.  

Science.gov (United States)

To better conceptualize educational effectiveness, a comprehensive model (Creemers 1994) that takes as a point of departure the differences in the learning results of students was developed. To explain the differences in outcomes, this paper introduces more formal characteristics--consistency, cohesion, constancy, and control--for effectiveness in…

Creemers, Bert P. M.

294

Character Reading Fluency, Word Segmentation Accuracy, and Reading Comprehension in L2 Chinese  

Science.gov (United States)

|This study investigated the relationships between lower-level processing and general reading comprehension among adult L2 (second-language) beginning learners of Chinese, in both target and non-target language learning environments. Lower-level processing in Chinese reading includes the factors of character-naming accuracy, character-naming…

Shen, Helen H.; Jiang, Xin

2013-01-01

295

Authors' response: forward models and their implications for production, comprehension, and dialogue.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Our target article proposed that language production and comprehension are interwoven, with speakers making predictions of their own utterances and comprehenders making predictions of other people's utterances at different linguistic levels. Here, we respond to comments about such issues as cognitive architecture and its neural basis, learning and development, monitoring, the nature of forward models, communicative intentions, and dialogue.

Pickering MJ; Garrod S

2013-08-01

296

SMS: Tool for L2 Vocabulary Retention and Reading Comprehension Ability  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mobile phones are the new addition to the information and communication technologies (ITC) for learning. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of SMS on vocabulary retention and reading comprehension ability of Iranian EFL learners. Forty university students were assigned into experim...

Khalil Motallebzadeh; Razyeh Ganjali

297

NRC comprehensive records disposition schedule  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Title 44 United States Code, ''Public Printing and Documents,'' regulations cited in the General Services Administration's (GSA) ''Federal Information Resources Management Regulations'' (FIRMR), Part 201-9, ''Creation, Maintenance, and Use of Records,'' and regulation issued by the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) in 36 CFR Chapter XII, Subchapter B, ''Records Management,'' require each agency to prepare and issue a comprehensive records disposition schedule that contains the NARA approved records disposition schedules for records unique to the agency and contains the NARA's General Records Schedules for records common to several or all agencies. The approved records disposition schedules specify the appropriate duration of retention and the final disposition for records created or maintained by the NRC. NUREG-0910, Rev. 2, contains ''NRC's Comprehensive Records Disposition Schedule,'' and the original authorized approved citation numbers issued by NARA. Rev. 2 totally reorganizes the records schedules from a functional arrangement to an arrangement by the host office. A subject index and a conversion table have also been developed for the NRC schedules to allow staff to identify the new schedule numbers easily and to improve their ability to locate applicable schedules.

1992-01-01

298

Bayesian Network Webserver: a comprehensive tool for biological network modeling.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

SUMMARY: The Bayesian Network Webserver (BNW) is a platform for comprehensive network modeling of systems genetics and other biological datasets. It allows users to quickly and seamlessly upload a dataset, learn the structure of the network model that best explains the data and use the model to understand relationships between network variables. Many datasets, including those used to create genetic network models, contain both discrete (e.g. genotype) and continuous (e.g. gene expression traits) variables, and BNW allows for modeling hybrid datasets. Users of BNW can incorporate prior knowledge during structure learning through an easy-to-use structural constraint interface. After structure learning, users are immediately presented with an interactive network model, which can be used to make testable hypotheses about network relationships. Availability and implementation: BNW, including a downloadable structure learning package, is available at http://compbio.uthsc.edu/BNW. (The BNW interface for adding structural constraints uses HTML5 features that are not supported by current version of Internet Explorer. We suggest using other browsers (e.g. Google Chrome or Mozilla Firefox) when accessing BNW). CONTACT: ycui2@uthsc.edu SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

Ziebarth JD; Bhattacharya A; Cui Y

2013-11-01

299

Bayesian Network Webserver: a comprehensive tool for biological network modeling.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

SUMMARY: The Bayesian Network Webserver (BNW) is a platform for comprehensive network modeling of systems genetics and other biological datasets. It allows users to quickly and seamlessly upload a dataset, learn the structure of the network model that best explains the data and use the model to understand relationships between network variables. Many datasets, including those used to create genetic network models, contain both discrete (e.g. genotype) and continuous (e.g. gene expression traits) variables, and BNW allows for modeling hybrid datasets. Users of BNW can incorporate prior knowledge during structure learning through an easy-to-use structural constraint interface. After structure learning, users are immediately presented with an interactive network model, which can be used to make testable hypotheses about network relationships.Availability and implementation: BNW, including a downloadable structure learning package, is available at http://compbio.uthsc.edu/BNW. (The BNW interface for adding structural constraints uses HTML5 features that are not supported by current version of Internet Explorer. We suggest using other browsers (e.g. Google Chrome or Mozilla Firefox) when accessing BNW). CONTACT: ycui2@uthsc.edu SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

Ziebarth JD; Bhattacharya A; Cui Y

2013-08-01

300

Lessons Learned Successful Management in the Changing Marketplace  

CERN Multimedia

In Lessons Learned, Rade Vukmir attempts to utilize his personal experience, along with the work of other business professionals, to offer a comprehensive organizational plan for business development emphasizing managerial and staff motivational skills.

Vukmir, Rade

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

The comprehensive antibiotic resistance database.  

Science.gov (United States)

The field of antibiotic drug discovery and the monitoring of new antibiotic resistance elements have yet to fully exploit the power of the genome revolution. Despite the fact that the first genomes sequenced of free living organisms were those of bacteria, there have been few specialized bioinformatic tools developed to mine the growing amount of genomic data associated with pathogens. In particular, there are few tools to study the genetics and genomics of antibiotic resistance and how it impacts bacterial populations, ecology, and the clinic. We have initiated development of such tools in the form of the Comprehensive Antibiotic Research Database (CARD; http://arpcard.mcmaster.ca). The CARD integrates disparate molecular and sequence data, provides a unique organizing principle in the form of the Antibiotic Resistance Ontology (ARO), and can quickly identify putative antibiotic resistance genes in new unannotated genome sequences. This unique platform provides an informatic tool that bridges antibiotic resistance concerns in health care, agriculture, and the environment. PMID:23650175

McArthur, Andrew G; Waglechner, Nicholas; Nizam, Fazmin; Yan, Austin; Azad, Marisa A; Baylay, Alison J; Bhullar, Kirandeep; Canova, Marc J; De Pascale, Gianfranco; Ejim, Linda; Kalan, Lindsay; King, Andrew M; Koteva, Kalinka; Morar, Mariya; Mulvey, Michael R; O'Brien, Jonathan S; Pawlowski, Andrew C; Piddock, Laura J V; Spanogiannopoulos, Peter; Sutherland, Arlene D; Tang, Irene; Taylor, Patricia L; Thaker, Maulik; Wang, Wenliang; Yan, Marie; Yu, Tennison; Wright, Gerard D

2013-05-06

302

The comprehensive antibiotic resistance database.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The field of antibiotic drug discovery and the monitoring of new antibiotic resistance elements have yet to fully exploit the power of the genome revolution. Despite the fact that the first genomes sequenced of free living organisms were those of bacteria, there have been few specialized bioinformatic tools developed to mine the growing amount of genomic data associated with pathogens. In particular, there are few tools to study the genetics and genomics of antibiotic resistance and how it impacts bacterial populations, ecology, and the clinic. We have initiated development of such tools in the form of the Comprehensive Antibiotic Research Database (CARD; http://arpcard.mcmaster.ca). The CARD integrates disparate molecular and sequence data, provides a unique organizing principle in the form of the Antibiotic Resistance Ontology (ARO), and can quickly identify putative antibiotic resistance genes in new unannotated genome sequences. This unique platform provides an informatic tool that bridges antibiotic resistance concerns in health care, agriculture, and the environment.

McArthur AG; Waglechner N; Nizam F; Yan A; Azad MA; Baylay AJ; Bhullar K; Canova MJ; De Pascale G; Ejim L; Kalan L; King AM; Koteva K; Morar M; Mulvey MR; O'Brien JS; Pawlowski AC; Piddock LJ; Spanogiannopoulos P; Sutherland AD; Tang I; Taylor PL; Thaker M; Wang W; Yan M; Yu T; Wright GD

2013-07-01

303

DNA Microarray Learning Module  

Science.gov (United States)

The Southwest Center for Microsystems Education is a Regional Advanced Technology Education Center funded in part by the National Science Foundation. This learning module introduces users to DNA microarrays, including how they are used in biomedical applications as well as how they are fabricated and interpreted. The unit also allows students the opportunity to discuss the ethics of such devices. A comprehensive PowerPoint presentation is included along with instructor and participant guides and a Zip file with DNA microarray animations. Visitors are encouraged to create an account and log in in order to access the full set of resources.

2011-10-11

304

COMPREHENSIVE INCOME – PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available At present, the performance measurement in accounting is achieved with the help of the comprehensive income, which contains the determined result in the profit and loss account, also the profits and losses are accepted directly in the equity. However, not so long ago, the comprehensive income was only a concept debated at the academic level, at present it has become reality. The reason consists in the changes made for IAS 1 regarding the obligation to draft the statement of the comprehensive in-come by all the companies applying IFRS. Do the companies have experience in preparing the statement of the comprehensive income? What element from other gains and losses has the greatest weight in preparing the statement of the comprehensive income? Does the statement of the comprehensive income offer more pertinent information than the result from the profit and loss account? These are the questions which are answered in the above study.

Mihaela DUMITRANA; Iulia JIANU; Gabriel JINGA

2010-01-01

305

Authentic Learning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In my paper I use my own children as examples of how this way of learning might look like. They are people learning from out of their own curiosity- evolving new interests and ideas as they go along, rather then having learning imposed on them. The paper also features Radio Free School, a weekly radio program produced by my family which is reflective of what I like to call authentic learning .

Beatrice Ekoko

2007-01-01

306

Swine Flu -A Comprehensive View  

Science.gov (United States)

The present article is aimed on comprehensive view of Swine flu. It was first isolated from pigs in 1930 in USA. Pandemic caused by H1N1 in 2009 brought it in limelight. Itís a viral respiratory disease caused by viruses that infects pigs, resulting in nasal secretions, barking cough, decreased appetite, and listless behavior. Swine virus consist of eight RNA strands, one strand derived from human flu strains, two from avian (bird) strains, and five from swine strains. Swine flu spreads from infected person to healthy person by inhalation or ingestion of droplets contaminated with virus while sneezing or coughing. Two antiviral agents have been reported to help prevent or reduce the effects of swine flu, flu shot and nasal spray. WHO recommended for pandemic period to prevent its future outbreaks through vaccines or non-vaccines means. Antiviral drugs effective against this virus are Tamiflu and Relenza. Rapid antigen testing (RIDT), DFA testing, viral culture, and molecular testing (RT-PCR) are used for its diagnosis in laboratory

Singh, Vandana; Sood, Meenakshi

2012-07-01

307

NRC comprehensive records disposition schedule  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effective January 1, 1982, NRC will institute records retention and disposal practives in accordance with the approved Comprehensive Records Disposition Schedule (CRDS). CRDS is comprised of NRC Schedules (NRCS) 1 to 4 which apply to the agency's program or substantive records and General Records Schedules (GRS) 1 to 24 which apply to housekeeping or facilitative records. NRCS-I applies to records common to all or most NRC offices; NRCS-II applies to program records as found in the various offices of the Commission, Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Panel, and the Atomic Safety and Licensing Appeal Panel; NRCS-III applies to records accumulated by the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards; and NRCS-IV applies to records accumulated in the various NRC offices under the Executive Director for Operations. The schedules are assembled functionally/organizationally to facilitate their use. Preceding the records descriptions and disposition instructions for both NRCS and GRS, there are brief statements on the organizational units which accumulate the records in each functional area, and other information regarding the schedules' applicability.

1983-01-01

308

ACE INHIBITORS: A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hypertension is a chronic increase in blood pressure, characterized as primary and secondary hypertension. The disorder is associated with various risk factors like obesity, diabetes, age, lack of exercise etc. Hypertension is being treated since ancient times by Ayurvedic, Chinese and Unani medicine. Now various allopathic drugs are available which include diuretics, calcium channel blockers, ?-blockers, ?-blockers, vasodilators, central sympatholytics and ACE-inhibitors. Non-pharmacological treatments include weight reduction, dietary sodium reduction, increased potassium intake and reduction in alcohol consumption. ACE-inhibitors are widely used in the treatment of hypertension by inhibiting the angiotensin converting enzyme responsible for the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II (responsible for vasoconstriction). Various structure activity relationship studies led to the synthesis of ACE-inhibitors, some are under clinical development. This comprehensive review gives various guidelines on classification of hypertension, hypertension therapy including ancient, pharmacological, non-pharmacological therapies, pharmacoeconomics, historical perspectives of ACE, renin, renin angiotensin system (circulating vs local RAS), mechanism of ACE inhibitors, and development of ACE inhibitors. Review also emphasizes on the recent advancements on ACE inhibitors including drugs in clinical trials, computational studies on ACE-inhibitors, peptidomimetics, dual, natural, multi-functional ACE inhibitors, and conformational requirements for ACE-inhibitors.

Pradeep Kumar Arora* and Ashish Chauhan

2013-01-01

309

Math learning & study skills program  

CERN Multimedia

Do your students have difficulty understanding math terms??Remembering the steps of algorithms in sequence? Interpreting data in displays? Our math study skills program will help you teach them math and how to learn! Essential to the program is the comprehensive Teacher's Guide. It provides a focus on the importance of study skills, directions for using the student text, and practical suggestions for both the experienced and inexperienced teacher.

2000-01-01

310

Integrating Planning and Learning: The PRODIGY Architecture  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Planning is a complex reasoning task that is well suited for the study of improving performance andknowledge by learning, i.e. by accumulation and interpretation of planning experience. PRODIGY is anarchitecture that integrates planning with multiple learning mechanisms. Learning occurs at the planner'sdecision points and integration in PRODIGY is achieved via mutually interpretable knowledge structures.This article describes the PRODIGY planner, briefly reports on several learning modules developed earlieralong the project, and presents in more detail two recently explored methods to learn to generate plansof better quality. We introduce the techniques, illustrate them with comprehensive examples, and showprelimary empirical results. The article also includes a retrospective discussion of the characteristics of theoverall PRODIGY architecture and discusses their evolution within the goal of the project of building a largeand robust integrated planning and learning system.

Manuela Veloso; Jaime Carbonell; Alicia Perez; Daniel Borrajo; Eugene Fink; Jim Blythe

311

Integrating Planning and Learning: The PRODIGY Architecture  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Planning is a complex reasoning task that is well suited for the study of improving performance and knowledge by learning, i.e. by accumulation and interpretation of planning experience. PRODIGY is an architecture that integrates planning with multiple learning mechanisms. Learning occurs at the planner's decision points and integration in PRODIGY is achieved via mutually interpretable knowledge structures. This article describes the PRODIGY planner, briefly reports on several learning modules developed earlier along the project, and presents in more detail two recently explored methods to learn to generate plans of better quality. We introduce the techniques, illustrate them with comprehensive examples, and show prelimary empirical results. The article also includes a retrospective discussion of the characteristics of the overall PRODIGY architecture and discusses their evolution within the goal of the project of building a large and robust integrated planning and learning system. 1...

Manuela Veloso; Jaime Carbonell; Alicia Perez; Daniel Borrajo; Eugene Fink; Jim Blythe

312

Integrating Planning and Learning: The PRODIGY Architecture  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Planning is a complex reasoning task that is well suited for the study of improving performance andknowledge by learning, i.e. by accumulation and interpretation of planning experience. PRODIGY is anarchitecture that integrates planning with multiple learning mechanisms. Learning occurs at the planner'sdecision points and integration in PRODIGY is achieved via mutually interpretable knowledge structures.This article describes the PRODIGY planner, briefly reports on several learning modules developed earlieralong the project, and presents in more detail two recently explored methods to learn to generate plansof better quality. We introduce the techniques, illustrate them with comprehensive examples, and showprelimary empirical results. The article also includes a retrospective discussion of the characteristics of theoverall PRODIGY architecture and discusses their evolution within the goal of the project of building a largeand robust integrated planning and learning system.1...

Manuela Veloso; Jaime Carbonell; Alicia Perez; Daniel Borrajo; Eugene Fink; Jim Blythe

313

A Model for Implementing E-Learning in Iranian Organizations  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reviews the current status of information and communications technology (ICT) usage and provides a comprehensive outlook on e-learning in both virtual universities and organizations in Iran. A model for e-learning implementation is presented. This model tries to address specific issues in Iranian organizations. (Contains 1 table and 2…

Ghaeni, Emad; Abdehagh, Babak

2010-01-01

314

Plants and Photosynthesis: Peer Assessment to Help Students Learn  

Science.gov (United States)

|This study investigates how peer assessment can help students to learn about photosynthesis in a "high attaining," year nine class in a UK 11-18 comprehensive school. There is limited research on how peer assessment can influence the learning of "high attaining students"; most existing research focuses on how formative assessment can benefit…

Crane, Lucy; Winterbottom, Mark

2008-01-01

315

Trends in Undergraduate Medical Education: Clinical Clerkship Learning Objectives  

Science.gov (United States)

|Objective: To assist and inform the process of revising learning objectives for the psychiatry clerkship, a comprehensive review of the current state of learning objectives endorsed by national specialty organizations for core clinical clerkships was undertaken. Methods: National specialty organizations that have developed and endorsed clerkship…

Burke, Michael J.; Brodkey, Amy C.

2006-01-01

316

Financial planning on a comprehensive scale.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Hospitals and health systems that wish to explore the shift to comprehensive care management should: Assess the investments in infrastructure necessary to support comprehensive care management, Gauge the financial implications and set quality and financial goals, Monitor performance using metrics such as patient satisfaction, avoidable admissions, out-of-group referrals, and average length of stay.

Mishra S

2013-04-01

317

Comprehensive cardiovascular modeling: cardiovascular and respiratory systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This chapter illustrates the concept of comprehensive modeling applied to circulatory system. After giving some general indications, some details on comprehensive circulatory models are given. The description of artero-ventricular (A-V) and venous-atrial (V-A) interactions defines the general relati...

Ferrari G.; De Lazzari C.; Di Molfetta A.; Fresiello L.

318

National Survey of Reading Comprehension in Finland.  

Science.gov (United States)

|Examines the cognitively high-level text processing, or macro-processing, of expository passages. Investigates reading comprehension during the sixth and ninth school years. Finds that girls outperformed boys regardless of the comprehension measure and also finds that performance on both measures, but particularly on hierarchy-rating, correlated…

Lehto, Juhani E.; Scheinin, Patrik; Kupiainen, Sirkku; Hautamaki, Jarkko

2001-01-01

319

Psycholinguistic Perspectives on Comprehension in SLA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There are many interesting areas of investigation in the psychology of second language acquisition (SLA). One of these interesting areas is study of the psycholinguistic processes and perspectives relevant to reading and listening comprehension. Comprehension of any given text or speech, in SLA, is ...

Parisa Naseri Karimvand

320

Cognitive Development and Comprehension of Physics Concepts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigated cognitive development of eleventh-grade students (N=389) in Jordan and its relationship to comprehension of concrete and formal physics concepts. Results revealed that cognitive level (17% formal; 52% concrete) was related to comprehension of both concrete and formal concepts. Findings related to sex differences are also reported.…

Billeh, Victor Y.; Khalili, Khalil

1982-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Psycholinguistic Perspectives on Comprehension in SLA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There are many interesting areas of investigation in the psychology of second language acquisition (SLA). One of these interesting areas is study of the psycholinguistic processes and perspectives relevant to reading and listening comprehension. Comprehension of any given text or speech, in SLA, is based on much more than simple decoding. Familiarity with cultural nuance, structure of the language, vocabulary development, background knowledge about the setting and/or topic, and attitude toward the text are some of the most common factors involved in the process of comprehension by English learners. Listening and reading have many things in common. Both listening and reading are a form of language comprehension in which one is trying to get some meaning from the language. Understanding how comprehension works can have huge implications in language pedagogy, testing and research. So, this paper aims at providing a general overview about reading and listening comprehension in SLA, based on the literature review. In this regard, first a brief introduction to SLA Psycholinguistic theories and their pros and cons is presented. Later, the study is narrowed down to the very processes involved in comprehension of reading and listening, in particular. At the end, a short discussion about the brain’s language areas active in the process of comprehension is ensued.

Parisa Naseri Karimvand

2011-01-01

322

Improving Reading Comprehension of Intermediate Grade Children.  

Science.gov (United States)

|This practicum was designed to improve reading comprehension of intermediate grade children attending compensatory education classes in a Florida elementary school. It involved 11 students in grades 2 through 5 who were low achievers in reading and/or math. It was designed to improve reading comprehension by providing training using six specific…

Nachman, Leah B.

323

How EFL Teachers Can Use TV News to Boost Listening Comprehension and Speaking Proficiency in Their Classes?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the main challenges regarding language teaching and learning is how to improve listening comprehension and speaking proficiency. Accordingly, the present paper aims at helping EFL/ESL teachers as well as learners to know more about the pedagogical values of TV news in order to incorporate TV news stories in an intermediate or advanced level conversation courses. Moreover, the role of the instructor is also explored and teaching suggestions are offered. Finally, an extensive checklist of listening comprehension and speaking proficiency core activities and a demonstration on incorporating them into a lesson plan is also integrated into these materials. Key words: TV News; Boost; Listening Comprehension; Speaking Proficiency

Taher Bahrani

2011-01-01

324

Comparison of Different Levels of Reading Comprehension between Hearing-Impaired Loss and Normal-Hearing Students  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and Aim: Reading skill is one of the most important necessities of students' learning in everyday life. This skill is referred to the ability of comprehension, comment and conclusion from texts and receiving the meaning of the massage which is composed. Educational development in any student has a direct relation with the ability of the comprehension. This study is designed to investigate the effects of hearing loss on reading comprehension in hearing-impaired students compared to normal-hearing ones.Methods: Seventeen hearing-impaired students in 4th year of primary exceptional schools in Karaj, Robatkarim and Shahriyar, Iran, were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Seventeen normal-hearing students were randomly selected from ordinary schools next to exceptional ones as control group. They were compared for different levels of reading comprehension using the international standard booklet (PIRLS 2001). Results: There was a significant difference in performance between hearing-impaired and normal- hearing students in different levels of reading comprehension (p<0.05).Conclusion: Hearing loss has negative effects on different levels of reading comprehension, so in exceptional centers, reconsideration in educational planning in order to direct education from memorizing to comprehension and deeper layers of learning seems necessary.

Azam Sharifi; Ali Asghar Kakojoibari; Mohammad Reza Sarmadi

2011-01-01

325

A Meta – analysis of e- learning effectiveness antecedent  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The academic research on e-learning effectiveness becomes one of the current themes. In this perspective, many efforts have been made to give more comprehension to learning effectiveness determinants. In fact, researchers focus frequently on the variables that maximize the reaction, learning and behaviour changes of trainees. Despite these efforts that aim at giving more comprehension to learning effectiveness determinants, researchers have not reached a consensus on the andquot;nomological networkandquot; of learning results, ruling distinctness over how to explain them and queries as how could they make training experience more effective and interesting in education and corporation area as well. These divergent perspectives suggest that a conceptual and quantitative review of nomological network of learning outcomes antecedents is justified and necessary. The present study addresses the limitation of understanding regarding learning outcomes antecedents by reviewing the empirical results of literature. In this case, a review and Meta –analytic summarizes of studies assessing learning outcomes such as declarative knowledge, skill acquisition, its antecedents, and its relationships with learning transfer are presented. First, the present report provides a narrative review of conceptual framework, focusing only on variables that are linked to learning outcomes and the relationship between learning outcomes and learning transfer. Second, Meta –analysis conducts to derive the average effect size value (ravg), average fisher's Z (zavg) and to address the degree of homogeneity of each relationship. The findings are discussed in terms of their theoretical implication and the limitations of this study are shown.

Rabeb Mbarek; Jamel Eddine El Gharbi

2013-01-01

326

Students' Experiences of Clinic-Based Learning during a Final Year Veterinary Internship Programme  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated veterinary students' experiences of clinic-based learning (CBL) during a comprehensive final year internship programme. Open-ended surveys (n = 93) were used to gather qualitative data about students' conceptions of what is learned during CBL and their approaches to learning in clinics. Phenomenography was used for detailed…

Matthew, Susan M.; Taylor, Rosanne M.; Ellis, Robert A.

2010-01-01

327

A Framework for Building an Interactive Satellite TV Based M-Learning Environment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents a description of an interactive satellite TV based mobile learning (STV-ML) framework, in which a satellite TV station is used as an integral part of a comprehensive interactive mobile learning (M-Learning) environment. The proposed framework assists in building a reliable, effic...

Ghassan Issa; Shakir M. Hussain; Hussein Al-Bahadili

328

Disciplinary Fragmentation in Comprehensive Issues  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The geographical and spatial proximity of the activities in the Songkhla Lake Bassin ties the region together trough the common use of the lake waters as a resource or a discharge media as well as a regional economy, the capacities of a common workforce, local demographic features and the social welfare of the population at large. This paper suggests that The Lake Bassin must be described and analyzed as a comprehensive issue which integrates an understanding of the uplands of the lake as more than watersheds. A literature surevey was performed searching major international research databases for all English language references to Songk(h)la and Southern Thailand. The survey shows that the existing litereature can provide a quite detailed picture of the pollution of the lake and rivers as natural phenomena. The chemical and biological characteristics of the waters are described, as well as some of the immediate sources of pollution. Other but more remote sources that are also located in the watersheds of the Songkla Lake Basin are not described in relation to the Songkhla lakes; agroindustries as palm oil and rubber. Also the more indirect effects of the present development with regards to social and economic factors are not subjects of specific analysis in the literature. They can to some extent be derived from the assumptions of the articles on environmental planning: Socio-economic data are available as statistics for the area, but they are not related to the concrete sources of environmental degradation of the lakes. Articles on environmental planning contain a more integrated understanding of the environmental degradation as a result of social activities. But also here the scope of the studies tend to be limited to the water related issues. The results of the literature survey indicates, that the existing research suffer from disciplinary fragmentation. Most of the literature appear to focus on specific and very detailed descriptions of specific issues in different scientific fields of investigation rather than clarify the complex relationships between socio-economic factors and environmental degradation.

Lauridsen, Erik Hagelskjær

2004-01-01

329

Idiom comprehension in Mandarin-speaking children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study examines the effect of familiarity, context, and linguistic convention on idiom comprehension in Mandarin speaking children. Two experiments (a comprehension task followed by a comprehension task coupled with a metapragmatic task) were administered to test participants in three age groups (6 and 9-year-olds, and an adult control group). Laval (Journal of Pragmatics 35(2):723-739, 2003) showed that familiarity had an effect on idiom comprehension for French 9-year-olds. However, our finding showed that familiarity was important for 6-year-old Chinese children when a context was not given. Abkarian et al. (Journal of Speech and Hearing Research 35:580-587, 1992) claimed that context has little or no effect on comprehension for children under 6. Our results show that context has an effect on 6-year-old children's understanding of idioms in a different way. Overall, our major research findings are: (1) Familiarity first appeared in responses at age 6. (2) Context played an important role in idiom comprehension and had different effects on different age groups. (3) Linguistic convention starts from age 6 on, and a significant effect took place at the age of 9. (4) Metapragmatic knowledge showed at the age of 6 and could surface even younger. As context and linguistic convention have a substantial effect on the comprehension of idioms, it is necessary to take them into account to explain language functioning and communicative situations.

Hsieh SC; Hsu CC

2010-12-01

330

Idiom comprehension in Mandarin-speaking children.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines the effect of familiarity, context, and linguistic convention on idiom comprehension in Mandarin speaking children. Two experiments (a comprehension task followed by a comprehension task coupled with a metapragmatic task) were administered to test participants in three age groups (6 and 9-year-olds, and an adult control group). Laval (Journal of Pragmatics 35(2):723-739, 2003) showed that familiarity had an effect on idiom comprehension for French 9-year-olds. However, our finding showed that familiarity was important for 6-year-old Chinese children when a context was not given. Abkarian et al. (Journal of Speech and Hearing Research 35:580-587, 1992) claimed that context has little or no effect on comprehension for children under 6. Our results show that context has an effect on 6-year-old children's understanding of idioms in a different way. Overall, our major research findings are: (1) Familiarity first appeared in responses at age 6. (2) Context played an important role in idiom comprehension and had different effects on different age groups. (3) Linguistic convention starts from age 6 on, and a significant effect took place at the age of 9. (4) Metapragmatic knowledge showed at the age of 6 and could surface even younger. As context and linguistic convention have a substantial effect on the comprehension of idioms, it is necessary to take them into account to explain language functioning and communicative situations. PMID:20043210

Hsieh, Shelley Ching-Yu; Hsu, Chun-Chieh Natalie

2010-12-01

331

Machine Learning for Bioclimatic Modelling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Many machine learning (ML) approaches are widely used to generate bioclimatic models for prediction of geographic range of organism as a function of climate. Applications such as prediction of range shift in organism, range of invasive species influenced by climate change are important parameters in understanding the impact of climate change. However, success of machine learning-based approaches depends on a number of factors. While it can be safely said that no particular ML technique can be effective in all applications and success of a technique is predominantly dependent on the application or the type of the problem, it is useful to understand their behavior to ensure informed choice of techniques. This paper presents a comprehensive review of machine learning-based bioclimatic model generation and analyses the factors influencing success of such models. Considering the wide use of statistical techniques, in our discussion we also include conventional statistical techniques used in bioclimatic modelling.

Maumita Bhattacharya

2013-01-01

332

A Comprehensive Study of Data Mining and Application  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Data mining refers to extracting or ?mining?knowledge from large amounts of data. Data mining involvesan integration of techniques from multiple disciplines such asdatabase technology, statistics, machine learning, highperformance computing, pattern recognition, neuralnetworks, data visualization, information retrieval, image andsignal processing, and spatial data analysis. Data miningapplications can use a variety of parameters to examine thedata. They include association, sequence or path analysis,classification, clustering and forecasting. An applicationcompared to other data analysis applications such asstructured queries or statistical analysis software. Illustrationof the data mining application that offer opportunities forresearch. The overall goal of the data mining process is toextract information from a data set and transform it into anunderstandable structure for further use. In this paper presenta comprehensive study for data mining, models, issue, andfocuses its application.

Dheeraj Agrawal

2013-01-01

333

A Comprehensive Note on Complexity Issues in Sorting Algorithms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since the dawn of computing, the sorting problem has attracted a great deal of research. Inpast, many researchers have attempted to optimize it properly using empirical analysis. We haveinvestigated the complexity values researchers have obtained and observed that there is scope for finetuning in present context. Strong evidence to that effect is also presented. We aim to provide a usefuland comprehensive note to researcher about how complexity aspects of sorting algorithms can be bestanalyzed. It is also intended current researchers to think about whether their own work might beimproved by a suggestive fine tuning. Our work is based on the knowledge learned after literaturereview of experimentation, survey paper analysis being carried out for the performance improvements ofsorting algorithms. Although written from the perspective of a theoretical computer scientist, it isintended to be of use to researchers from all fields who want to study sorting algorithms rigorously.

Parag Bhalchandra; Nilesh Deshmukh; Sakharam Lokhande; Santosh Phulari

2009-01-01

334

[Comprehensive models of treatment in individuals with autism spectrum disorders].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION. The steady increase in the number of children with autism spectrum disorders, has led to a better social awareness but also to a higher demand for specific interventions. This has questioned what the most appropriate and effective procedures for detection, diagnosis and treatment are. AIM. To review different approaches and classifications of interventions with individuals with autism spectrum disorders based on scientific evidence. DEVELOPMENT. According to the latest revisions, there are three types of classifications to categorize evidence-based interventions: practice-based intervention, comprehensive models of treatment and drug treatments. There are difficulties in comparing results of different methods of intervention, however, some common elements to prove their effectiveness have been identified. CONCLUSIONS. All intervention models should include functional communication skills, meaningful learning, carried out in various contexts, addressing challenging behaviors through positive behavioral support, promoting activities with peers and emphasize the role of parents in the planning and implementation of the objectives.

Salvadó-Salvadó B; Palau-Baduell M; Clofent-Torrentó M; Montero-Camacho M; Hernández-Latorre MA

2012-02-01

335

Comprehensive Nuclear Test-ban Treaty  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty was adopted by the General Assembly on 10 September 1996 (Res/50/245) and was open for signature by all states on 24 September 1996. It will enter into force 180 days after the date of deposit of the instruments of ratification by all states listed in Annex 2 to the Treaty. This document reproduces the text of the Treaty and the Protocol to the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Protocol to the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty.

1996-09-10

336

CMS Security Handbook The Comprehensive Guide for WordPress, Joomla, Drupal, and Plone  

CERN Multimedia

Learn to secure Web sites built on open source CMSs Web sites built on Joomla!, WordPress, Drupal, or Plone face some unique security threats. If you're responsible for one of them, this comprehensive security guide, the first of its kind, offers detailed guidance to help you prevent attacks, develop secure CMS-site operations, and restore your site if an attack does occur. You'll learn a strong, foundational approach to CMS operations and security from an expert in the field.More and more Web sites are being built on open source CMSs, making them a popular target, thus making you vulnerable t

Canavan, Tom

2011-01-01

337

The Impact of Strategies-based Instruction on Listening Comprehension  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper aims at providing some information concerning the impact of strategies-based instruction on listening comprehension. First the author briefly reviews some literature relating to this issue, and then focuses on a study conducted in English major at Jiangsu University of Science & Technology. This study is set out to examine the contribution that formal strategies-based instruction might offer learners to their improving listening proficiency. 44 senior students in English major, varying in performance in English learning (with the consideration of students’ scores in TEM-4), are sampled. The Microsoft Excel is undertaken to analyze sample materials and data. Despite the limitation of the study, the final results indicate that strategies-based instruction plays a positive role in determining students’ improvement in listening comprehension. The pedagogical implication of the study is that: if the instructors systematically introduce and reinforce strategies that can help students to improve listening competence and that are specially designed for any given test, their students may well improve the performance on language tasks. The study also seems to endorse the notion of integrating strategy training into the classroom instructional plan and embedding strategies into daily language tasks.

Yucheng Li; Yan Liu

2008-01-01

338

FY 1987 Superfund Comprehensive Accomplishments Plan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The directive contains points for EPA Regions to consider while developing their Superfund Comprehensive Accomplishments Plan (SCAP) and contains charts showing preliminary SCAP/SPMS commitments for the Regions.

1986-10-28

339

Context Improves Comprehension of Fronted Objects.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Object-initial clauses (OCs) are associated with more processing difficulties than subject-initial clauses (SCs) in a number of languages (e.g. English, German and Finnish), but a supportive context can reduce or neutralize the difference between SCs and OCs with respect to reading times. Still, it is unresolved how context can affect the comprehension of OCs. In the present self-paced reading study of Danish, we therefore investigated both reading times, comprehension accuracy and response times for OCs and SCs. In line with previous studies on word order processing, OCs in an unsupportive context showed longer reading times than SCs, longer response times and a comprehension accuracy as poor as chance level. A manipulation of context showed no effect of reading time, but a supportive context had a stronger facilitating effect on comprehension (response accuracy and response time) for OCs than for SCs.

Kristensen LB; Engberg-Pedersen E; Poulsen M

2013-03-01

340

Bihemispheric foundations for human speech comprehension  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Emerging evidence from neuroimaging and neuropsychology suggests that human speech comprehension engages two types of neurocognitive processes: a distributed bilateral system underpinning general perceptual and cognitive processing, viewed as neurobiologically primary, and a more specialized left he...

Bozic, Mirjana; Tyler, Lorraine K.; Ives, David T.; Randall, Billi; Marslen-Wilson, William D.

 
 
 
 
341

The Effect of Classical Music on the Reading Comprehension of Iranian Students  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The influence of music on language learning and performance has been the subject of study for many years. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of classical music (Mozart Sonata) on the reading comprehension performance of two groups of Iranian students in an English institute in Iran. To this end, the study compared two groups of Iranian English students (N=60) over a period of three months: one was taught reading comprehension with a music background and the other with no music background whatsoever. The results of the study showed a significant difference between the performance of the group exposed to music and the performance of the other group not exposed to music. The group taught reading comprehension with a music background outperformed the other taught it with no music background.

Nasser Rashidi; Farman Faham

2011-01-01

342

Learning style and learning strategies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two important factors need attention when contemplating how and where to use the new computer-based learning technologies. Firstly, in order to select the right kind of software, it is necessary to have a clear picture of the desired outcomes of a particular learning situation. There are many varieties of interactive multimedia available, and matching the tool to the job should be an early consideration. Of equal, if not greater importance, is the question of whether, for a particular learner, interactive multimedia is the most appropriate learning tool. If there is too great a mismatch between the learning styles and strategies of a particular learner and the given learning environment, learning may be inhibited rather than enhanced.

Pat Paterson; John Robottorn

1995-01-01

343

How EFL Teachers Can Use TV News to Boost Listening Comprehension and Speaking Proficiency in Their Classes?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

One of the main challenges regarding language teaching and learning is how to improve listening comprehension and speaking proficiency. Accordingly, the present paper aims at helping EFL/ESL teachers as well as learners to know more about the pedagogical values of TV ne...

Taher Bahrani

344

Effects of Teachers' Reading-Aloud Styles on Vocabulary Acquisition and Comprehension of Students in the Early Elementary Grades.  

Science.gov (United States)

|Effects of just reading, performance reading, and interactional reading-aloud styles on learning were assessed for 117 first graders and 129 third graders. Results reveal that reading-aloud styles produced statistically significant effects on vocabulary acquisition and comprehension and similar results at each grade level. Vocabulary acquisition…

Brabham, Edna Greene; Lynch-Brown, Carol

2002-01-01

345

THE IMPACT OF ACTIVE LEARNING APPROACH ON IMPROVING THE READING SKILLS IN NATIVE LANGUAGE TEACHING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this research, the effectiveness of active learning approach in native language education has been emphasized. This research is an experimental one that is used by Turkish Teaching organized by active learning approach for determining learning levels of the students concerning their reading comprehension skills. Data have been obtained by utilizing “Turkish Reading Comprehension Skill Test”. The research was conducted at fifth class level in ªehit Tuncer and Geçitkale primary schools by getting permission from Ministry of Education and it lasted for fourteen weeks in the second term of 2005-2006 education semester. In Turkish teaching, there is a meaningful difference in favor of the active learning group between the experiment group’s (that active learning approach is applied to) and control group’s (that traditional method is applied to) average of the reading comprehension skill points. The results of the study indicated that the active learning approach is more effective than the traditional approach.

Ahmet Güneyli

2008-01-01

346

Enhancing Reading Comprehension through Short Stories in Iranian EFL Learners  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Incorporating literature in language classes had many ups and down. In hay days of Grammar Translation Method, literature was the core source of foreign language learning. However by the emergence of Direct Method literature has been generally out of favor. In recent years literature came back to language classes. Literature has been discovered as a valuable and interesting material for improving students’ language ability (Premawardhena, 2005). It has been found that if appropriate literary texts are chosen it would ?be an effective tool for stimulating and achieving language learning and equipping learners with relevant linguistic and socio-cultural competences? (Sell, 2005, p. 92). This study tries to test using literary text in improving reading comprehension ability of Iranian foreign language learners. A group of 26 students majoring in English at the Islamic Azad University Babol Branch and Amol Branch has been sampled for the purpose of this study. The students were then divided into two groups– the control group and the experimental group. Both the groups were administered identical Pre-Test and Post-Test which consists of selected reading passage from different TOEFL books. Contrary to the previous researches the result of the present study shows that the experimental group did not show a significant improvement over the control group. So the using of literary texts seems unsatisfactory for Iranian EFL learners’.

Mohammad Khatib; Atefeh Nasrollahi

2012-01-01

347

The effect of font size on reading comprehension on second and fifth grade children: bigger is not always better.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Research on reading development has focused on the linguistic, cognitive, and recently, metacognitive skills children must master in order to learn to read. Less focus has been devoted to how the text itself, namely the perceptual features of the words, affects children's learning and comprehension. In this study, we manipulated perceptual properties of text by presenting reading passages in different font sizes, line lengths, and line spacing to 100 children in the second and fifth grades. For second graders (Experiment 1), decreasing font size, as well as increasing line length, yielded significantly lower comprehension scores. Line spacing had no effect on performance. For fifth graders (Experiment 2), decreasing font size yielded higher comprehension scores, yet there were no effects for line length and line spacing. Results are discussed within a "desirable difficulty" approach to reading development.

Katzir T; Hershko S; Halamish V

2013-01-01

348

Neurobiological bases of reading comprehension: Insights from neuroimaging studies of word level and text level processing in skilled and impaired readers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

For accurate reading comprehension, readers must first learn to map letters to their corresponding speech sounds and meaning and then they must string the meanings of many words together to form a representation of the text. Furthermore, readers must master the complexities involved in parsing the relevant syntactic and pragmatic information necessary for accurate interpretation. Failure in this process can occur at multiple levels and cognitive neuroscience has been helpful in identifying the underlying causes of success and failure in reading single words and in reading comprehension. In general, neurobiological studies of skilled reading comprehension indicate a highly overlapping language circuit for single word reading, reading comprehension and listening comprehension with largely quantitative differences in a number of reading and language related areas. This paper reviews relevant research from studies employing neuroimaging techniques to study reading with a focus on the relationship between reading skill, single word reading, and text comprehension.

Landi N; Frost SJ; Menc WE; Sandak R; Pugh KR

2013-04-01

349

Investing in the Future with Comprehensive Competencies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes a program in which students earn high school credits using a high tech/high touch classroom and learning basic skills and having successful learning experiences. Discusses the groundwork of the program, credit towards graduation, staffing, funding, student selection, and establishing the system. Students have a high return rate. (MVL)

Novoa, Irma

1988-01-01

350

Learning objects, learning tasks and handhelds  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The main idea behind learning objects is that they are to exist as digital resources separated from the learning task in which they are used. This allows a learning object to be reused with different learning tasks. However, not all learning objects operate in similar ways, neither are all learning ...

Churchill, D; Hedberg, JG

351

Conceptualisation of knowledge construction in community service-learning programmes in nursing education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Practices in higher education have been criticised for not developing and preparing students for the expertise required in real environments. Literature reports that educational programmes tend to favour knowledge conformation rather than knowledge construction; however, community service learning (CSL) is a powerful pedagogical strategy that encourages students to make meaningful connections between the content in the classroom and real-life experiences as manifested by the communities. Through CSL, learning is achieved by the active construction of knowledge supported by multiple perspectives within meaningful real contexts, and the social interactions amongst students are seen to play a critical role in the processes of learning and cognition. This article reflects facilitators’ perspective of the knowledge construction process as used with students doing community service learning in basic nursing programmes. Objectives: The aim of this article was to conceptualise the phenomenon of knowledge construction and thereby provide educators with a shared meaning and common understanding, and to analyse the interaction strategies utilised by nurse educators in the process of knowledge construction in community service-learning programmes in basic nursing education. Method: A qualitative research approach based on a grounded theory research design was used in this article. Two nursing education institutions were purposively selected. Structured interviews were conducted with 16 participants. Results: The results revealed that the knowledge construction in community service-learning programmes is conceptualised as having specific determinants, including the use of authentic health-related problems, academic coaching through scaffolding, academic discourse-dialogue, interactive learning in communities of learners, active learning, continuous reflection as well as collaborative and inquiry-based learning. Upon completion of an experience, students create and test generated knowledge in different contextual health settings. Conclusion: It was concluded that knowledge is constructed by students as a result of their interaction with the communities in their socio-cultural context and is mediated by their prior concrete experiences. The implication of this is that students construct knowledge that can be applied in their future work places.

Sindi Z. Mthembu; Fikile G. Mtshali

2013-01-01

352

Use and limitations of learning curves for energy technology policy. A component-learning hypothesis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, we investigate the use of learning curves for the description of observed cost reductions for a variety of energy technologies. Starting point of our analysis is the representation of energy processes and technologies as the sum of different components. While we recognize that in many cases 'learning-by-doing' may improve the overall costs or efficiency of a technology, we argue that so far insufficient attention has been devoted to study the effects of single component improvements that together may explain an aggregated form of learning. Indeed, for an entire technology the phenomenon of learning-by-doing may well result from learning of one or a few individual components only. We analyze under what conditions it is possible to combine learning curves for single components to derive one comprehensive learning curve for the total product. The possibility that for certain technologies some components (e.g., the primary natural resources that serve as essential input) do not exhibit cost improvements might account for the apparent time dependence of learning rates reported in several studies (the learning rate might also change considerably over time depending on the data set considered, a crucial issue to be aware of when one uses the learning curve methodology). Such an explanation may have important consequences for the extent to which learning curves can be extrapolated into the future. This argumentation suggests that cost reductions may not continue indefinitely and that well-behaved learning curves do not necessarily exist for every product or technology. In addition, even for diffusing and maturing technologies that display clear learning effects, market and resource constraints can eventually significantly reduce the scope for further improvements in their fabrication or use. It appears likely that some technologies, such as wind turbines and photovoltaic cells, are significantly more amenable than others to industry-wide learning. For such technologies we assess the reliability of using learning curves at large to forecast energy technology cost reductions. (author)

2009-01-01

353

Use and limitations of learning curves for energy technology policy. A component-learning hypothesis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper, we investigate the use of learning curves for the description of observed cost reductions for a variety of energy technologies. Starting point of our analysis is the representation of energy processes and technologies as the sum of different components. While we recognize that in many cases 'learning-by-doing' may improve the overall costs or efficiency of a technology, we argue that so far insufficient attention has been devoted to study the effects of single component improvements that together may explain an aggregated form of learning. Indeed, for an entire technology the phenomenon of learning-by-doing may well result from learning of one or a few individual components only. We analyze under what conditions it is possible to combine learning curves for single components to derive one comprehensive learning curve for the total product. The possibility that for certain technologies some components (e.g., the primary natural resources that serve as essential input) do not exhibit cost improvements might account for the apparent time dependence of learning rates reported in several studies (the learning rate might also change considerably over time depending on the data set considered, a crucial issue to be aware of when one uses the learning curve methodology). Such an explanation may have important consequences for the extent to which learning curves can be extrapolated into the future. This argumentation suggests that cost reductions may not continue indefinitely and that well-behaved learning curves do not necessarily exist for every product or technology. In addition, even for diffusing and maturing technologies that display clear learning effects, market and resource constraints can eventually significantly reduce the scope for further improvements in their fabrication or use. It appears likely that some technologies, such as wind turbines and photovoltaic cells, are significantly more amenable than others to industry-wide learning. For such technologies we assess the reliability of using learning curves at large to forecast energy technology cost reductions. (author)

Ferioli, F.; Schoots, K. [Energy Research Centre of The Netherlands (ECN), Policy Studies Department, Petten/Amsterdam (Netherlands); Van der Zwaan, B.C.C. [The Earth Institute, Lenfest Center for Sustainable Energy, Columbia University, New York (United States)

2009-07-15

354

Comprensión verbal en alumnos universitarios Verbal comprehension of university students  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En este trabajo se comunican los resultados preliminares de una investigación más amplia sobre desempeño y autopercepción en lectura y escritura de alumnos universitarios. Se trata en este caso de los resultados en comprensión verbal, dadas las relaciones que guarda con la comprensión lectora. Esta última constituye un aspecto crítico, particularmente en la construcción del modelo de situación , que se logra vía integración de la información proporcionada por el texto con el conocimiento previo relevante. Para su estudio se seleccionó una muestra piloto aleatoria de 60 alumnos de tercer año, de ambos sexos, de 23 años de edad promedio, a los que se les aplicó colectivamente las pruebas Vocabulario, Información y Analogías del WAIS III. Los resultados en el índice de Comprensión Verbal muestran medidas de tendencia central semejantes a los de la muestra de tipificación y una dispersión menor, con casos particulares con puntuaciones en el límite inferior del promedio. Se hacen observaciones respecto del desempeño en población universitaria y sobre algunas particularidades acerca del tipo de errores en las respuestas proporcionadas, que merecen consideraciones adicionales. En principio indican ausencia e insuficiencia de información, confusiones conceptuales en algunos términos de uso relativamente frecuente y dificultades en la formación de conceptos, situación a ser atendida por sus implicaciones en el aprendizaje exitoso a partir de los textosThis paper presents the preliminary results of a broader research on performance and self-perception in reading and writing of university students. In particular, it focuses on verbal comprehension given its connection with reading comprehension. Reading comprehension is crucial, especially while constructing a situational model -achieved by integrating the information provided in the text with relevant prior knowledge. A random pilot sample of 60 students from third year, male and female, of an average age of 23 was selected. The Vocabulary, Information and Analogies tests from WAIS III were administered. The Verbal Comprehension findings show central tendency scores similar to those of the standardization sample with minor dispersion, with specific cases of scores in the lower average limit. Several comments are given on the performance of university students and other observations regarding the type of mistakes made in the answers provided which deserve further considerations. Preliminary conclusions point to a lack of and/or insufficient information, conceptual confusion with some terms of relatively high frequency and difficulties in the conceptualization process. These preliminary findings deserve further attention due to their impact in successful learning from texts

Telma Piacente

2012-01-01

355

Comprensión verbal en alumnos universitarios/ Verbal comprehension of university students  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish En este trabajo se comunican los resultados preliminares de una investigación más amplia sobre desempeño y autopercepción en lectura y escritura de alumnos universitarios. Se trata en este caso de los resultados en comprensión verbal, dadas las relaciones que guarda con la comprensión lectora. Esta última constituye un aspecto crítico, particularmente en la construcción del modelo de situación , que se logra vía integración de la información proporcionada por (more) el texto con el conocimiento previo relevante. Para su estudio se seleccionó una muestra piloto aleatoria de 60 alumnos de tercer año, de ambos sexos, de 23 años de edad promedio, a los que se les aplicó colectivamente las pruebas Vocabulario, Información y Analogías del WAIS III. Los resultados en el índice de Comprensión Verbal muestran medidas de tendencia central semejantes a los de la muestra de tipificación y una dispersión menor, con casos particulares con puntuaciones en el límite inferior del promedio. Se hacen observaciones respecto del desempeño en población universitaria y sobre algunas particularidades acerca del tipo de errores en las respuestas proporcionadas, que merecen consideraciones adicionales. En principio indican ausencia e insuficiencia de información, confusiones conceptuales en algunos términos de uso relativamente frecuente y dificultades en la formación de conceptos, situación a ser atendida por sus implicaciones en el aprendizaje exitoso a partir de los textos Abstract in english This paper presents the preliminary results of a broader research on performance and self-perception in reading and writing of university students. In particular, it focuses on verbal comprehension given its connection with reading comprehension. Reading comprehension is crucial, especially while constructing a situational model -achieved by integrating the information provided in the text with relevant prior knowledge. A random pilot sample of 60 students from third year (more) , male and female, of an average age of 23 was selected. The Vocabulary, Information and Analogies tests from WAIS III were administered. The Verbal Comprehension findings show central tendency scores similar to those of the standardization sample with minor dispersion, with specific cases of scores in the lower average limit. Several comments are given on the performance of university students and other observations regarding the type of mistakes made in the answers provided which deserve further considerations. Preliminary conclusions point to a lack of and/or insufficient information, conceptual confusion with some terms of relatively high frequency and difficulties in the conceptualization process. These preliminary findings deserve further attention due to their impact in successful learning from texts

Piacente, Telma

2012-12-01

356

Lifelong Learning as Transitional Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

|Globalization and individualization have radically changed both the economic system and the personal life world in industrial or postindustrial nation-states. To survive hypercompetition and volatile consumer choice, learning organizations and a workforce engaged in lifelong learning are needed. Constructing "the good life" has become an…

Glastra, Folke J.; Hake, Barry J.; Schedler, Petra E.

2004-01-01

357

Investigating Student Learning in a Constructivist Multimedia-Rich Learning Environment  

Science.gov (United States)

It has been suggested in the existing literature that the use of constructivist approaches in the educational setting contributes to active learning and knowledge transfer for students. This paper provides an overview of constructivist approaches used in a graduate-level instructional media production course at a midwestern comprehensive

Bolliger, Doris U.

2004-01-01

358

Logical relations and comprehension in conversation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study examines how logical relations (e.g., causality and identity) in spoken discourse affect comprehension. Research on cohesion, which shows that specific unit template structures link discourse and text together, is used to build a model of language comprehension that places template structures at the base of a context comparison operation. Subjects were engaged in ordinary conversation with a confederate trained to produce specific types of logical utterances unobtrusively. The comprehension model predicted that systematically different latencies, topical response, and remedial response of subjects would follow the test items produced by the confederate. The data support the predictions. It is shown that comprehension occurs via one processing path if there is a direct tie between the target item and the immediately prior item in discourse, and a separate processing path if the tie is between the target item and the earlier context. Subject response in conversation is shown to display useful evidence on the nature of comprehension achieved. The findings specify and extend the recent research on the integration of new information into a textual structure.

Vuchinich S

1980-09-01

359

Updating during reading comprehension: why causality matters.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present set of 7 experiments systematically examined the effectiveness of adding causal explanations to simple refutations in reducing or eliminating the impact of outdated information on subsequent comprehension. The addition of a single causal-explanation sentence to a refutation was sufficient to eliminate any measurable disruption in comprehension caused by the outdated information (Experiment 1) but was not sufficient to eliminate its reactivation (Experiment 2). However, a 3 sentence causal-explanation addition to a refutation eliminated both any measurable disruption in comprehension (Experiment 3) and the reactivation of the outdated information (Experiment 4). A direct comparison between the 1 and 3 causal-explanation conditions provided converging evidence for these findings (Experiment 5). Furthermore, a comparison of the 3 sentence causal-explanation condition with a 3 sentence qualified-elaboration condition demonstrated that even though both conditions were sufficient to eliminate any measurable disruption in comprehension (Experiment 6), only the causal-explanation condition was sufficient to eliminate the reactivation of the outdated information (Experiment 7). These results establish a boundary condition under which outdated information will influence comprehension; they also have broader implications for both the updating process and knowledge revision in general.

Kendeou P; Smith ER; O'Brien EJ

2013-05-01

360

Changing teaching techniques and adapting new technologies to improve student learning in an introductory meteorology and climate course  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Responding to the call for reform in science education, changes were made in an introductory meteorology and climate course offered at a large public university. These changes were a part of a larger project aimed at deepening and extending a program of science content courses that model effective teaching strategies for prospective middle school science teachers. Therefore, revisions were made to address misconceptions about meteorological phenomena, foster deeper understanding of key concepts, encourage engagement with the text, and promote inquiry-based learning. Techniques introduced include: use of a flash cards, student reflection questionnaires, writing assignments, and interactive discussions on weather and forecast data using computer technology such as Integrated Data Viewer (IDV). The revision process is described in a case study format. Preliminary results (self-reflection by the instructor, surveys of student opinion, and measurements of student achievement), suggest student learning has been positively influenced. This study is supported by three grants: NSF grant No. 0202923, the Unidata Equipment Award, and the Lucia Harrison Endowment Fund.

E. M. Cutrim; D. Rudge; K. Kits; J. Mitchell; R. Nogueira

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

learning environments and the learning proces of interaction  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In recent years, learning in working life has been launched as an important approach in relation to the urgent need for competence-development in our modern knowledge society. But what does it mean in practice? What can and what cannot be learned on the job; what is learned better at courses and schools; who is responsible for the learning, and who is to foot the bill? There are plenty of far-reaching questions to be tackled in connection with this exciting new development. At Learning Lab Denmark, a consortium of sixteen researchers have worked with these issues over a three-year period, and their results, findings and recommendations are summed up in this book. The book ranges from the background for this development, over general mapping of the area from social, learning and political angles, the development of an overview model and analysis of a wide variety of practical approaches to the concluding perspectives on a practical, a theoretical and a political level. On the practical level, the door is opened for close interaction between workplaces and educational organisers, and politically for broad cooperation between the state, the partners in the labour market, and educational institutions. The authors' approach is at one and the same time practical, constructive and critical. The book is co-written by the sixteen researchers and edited by the consortium's research director, Professor Knud Illeris from Roskilde University and Learning Lab Denmark. This is an up-to-date basic text with a comprehensive presentation of this interesting field with all its challenges and potential.

JØrgensen, Christian Helms

2004-01-01

362

Reading Comprehension Tests Vary in the Skills They Assess: Differential Dependence on Decoding and Oral Comprehension  

Science.gov (United States)

Comprehension tests are often used interchangeably, suggesting an implicit assumption that they are all measuring the same thing. We examine the validity of this assumption by comparing some of the most popular reading comprehension measures used in research and clinical practice in the United States: the Gray Oral Reading Test (GORT), the two…

Keenan, Janice M.; Betjemann, Rebecca S.; Olson, Richard K.

2008-01-01

363

Handbook of Research in Second Language Teaching and Learning Volume 2  

CERN Multimedia

This landmark volume provides a broad-based, comprehensive, state-of-the-art overview of current knowledge and research into second language teaching and learning. Volume II captures new and ongoing developments, research, and trends in the field.

Hinkel, Eli

2011-01-01

364

The Self-Directed Learning Handbook: Challenging Adolescent Students to Excel. The Jossey-Bass Education Series.  

Science.gov (United States)

This publication offers teachers and principals a program for customizing schooling to individual students' learning needs and motivating them to take increased responsibility for deciding what and how to learn. It presents a comprehensive framework for introducing self-directed learning (SDL) approaches in the classroom. Nine chapters include:…

Gibbons, Maurice

365

Learning Polynomial Networks for Classification of Clinical Electroencephalograms  

CERN Document Server

We describe a polynomial network technique developed for learning to classify clinical electroencephalograms (EEGs) presented by noisy features. Using an evolutionary strategy implemented within Group Method of Data Handling, we learn classification models which are comprehensively described by sets of short-term polynomials. The polynomial models were learnt to classify the EEGs recorded from Alzheimer and healthy patients and recognize the EEG artifacts. Comparing the performances of our technique and some machine learning methods we conclude that our technique can learn well-suited polynomial models which experts can find easy-to-understand.

Schetinin, V; Schetinin, Vitaly; Schult, Joachim

2005-01-01

366

The Effect of Information Visualization and Structure on Mobile Learning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine information visualization and structured learning content in a mobile learning environment. It compared learning from three different representations of content on a PDA system – traditional text (non-structured, non-visual), structured text without visuals, and structured text with visuals. Learner comprehension of the content was tested during the session. Results showed that structured text with visuals was more effective in supporting the development of learner understanding than either structured or non-structured text. The results suggest that to overcome the limitations of learning with mobile devices, ways of structuring text and visualizing content are required.

Hyungsung Park

2008-01-01

367

[Learning disorders].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Learning disorders are the center of medical process used for the assessment of school failure. We argue here that medical diagnosis is based on analysis of the interaction of three symptomatic clusters: cognitive symptoms, emotional symptoms, conduct disorders.

Gérard CL

2008-04-01

368

A comprehensive bibliography of linguistic steganography  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we will attempt to give a comprehensive bibliographic account of the work in linguistic steganography published up to date. As the field is still in its infancy there is no widely accepted publication venue. Relevant work on the subject is scattered throughout the literature on information security, information hiding, imaging and watermarking, cryptology, and natural language processing. Bibliographic references within the field are very sparse. This makes literature research on linguistic steganography a tedious task and a comprehensive bibliography a valuable aid to the researcher.

Bergmair, Richard

2007-02-01

369

Optimal Learning  

CERN Document Server

Learn the science of collecting information to make effective decisions Everyday decisions are made without the benefit of accurate information. Optimal Learning develops the needed principles for gathering information to make decisions, especially when collecting information is time-consuming and expensive. Designed for readers with an elementary background in probability and statistics, the book presents effective and practical policies illustrated in a wide range of applications, from energy, homeland security, and transportation to engineering, health, and business. This book covers the f

Powell, Warren B

2012-01-01

370

Reading strategies and prior knowledge in learning from hypertext.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In two experiments, we identified two main strategies followed by hypertext readers in selecting their reading orders. The first consisted in selecting the text semantically related to the previously read section (coherence strategy), and the second in choosing the most interesting text, delaying reading of less interesting sections (interest strategy). Comprehension data revealed that these strategies affected learning differently as a function of the reader's prior knowledge. For low-knowledge readers, the coherence strategy supported better learning of the content. This effect seems to rely on the improvement of reading order coherence induced by this strategy. By contrast, for intermediate-knowledge readers the coherence and the interest strategies benefited comprehension equally. In both cases, learning was supported through the active processing induced by these strategies. Discussion focuses on resolving inconsistencies in the literature concerning whether or not hypertext supports better comprehension than does traditional linear texts.

Salmerón L; Kintsch W; Cañas JJ

2006-07-01

371

What Instructors Need to Know about Learning How to Learn.  

Science.gov (United States)

Learning how to learn encompasses knowledge about learning, knowledge about learning style, and skills of learning proficiency. Metacognitive techniques can be incorporated into adult education through independent learning projects, collaborative learning, and other approaches. (SK)

Stouch, Catherine A.

1993-01-01

372

THE IMPACT OF COMPUTER-VIDEO PROJECTOR ON EFL LEARNERS’ LISTENING COMPREHENSION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Listening comprehension is considered as an active process in which individuals change words to thought to create meaning from the passage. “Listening comprehension has a long history, from analog phonograph readings, through the audio tape era, and into the digital realm” (Jones, 2008). With the appearance of new technologies and their influences on our life aspects, including education, language teaching and learning has entered a new area. Assisted Computer Language Learning (CALL) and L2 listening comprehension skill training are bound together for good (Blasco, 2009. p. 107). Lin (2010) found that news video in a CALL program can promote L2 comprehension and gaining of vocabularies. Although a lot of research has been carried out on the role of CALL on educational settings to facilitate language skills and sub skills, especially in L2 environments (Jones, 2008), this research study is left untouched. The present study is intended to facilitate the process of listening comprehension in EFL environments. 56 Iranian undergraduate students were selected for this study, and then they were divided into two groups randomly: control and experimental groups. The control group received instruction traditionally, while for the experimental group the researchers took advantages of computer and video projector in listening instruction to play the message and the manuscripts to the learners, simultaneously. The post test was administered at the end of the semester; the obtained data indicated the superiority of experimental group over the control group. The use of video texts allows listeners to utilize the non-verbal components (body language) of communication that can assist them in processing and comprehending aural input.

Ali Panah Dehghani; Mehdi Jowkar

2012-01-01

373

Language-Learning.net  

Science.gov (United States)

International WHERE+HOW, longtime publisher of Guides to Language Centres, has launched an online successor, providing free access to "the most comprehensive language schools directory online." The heart of the site is the Language Course Finder, a database of over 6,000 schools in 80 countries teaching 70 languages. Users begin browsing the database by selecting a language from a pull-down menu, then selecting a country where they wish to learn it. Users can then select from a number of variables, such as location (urban, rural, seaside), type of language courses, other activities, special services, and additional programs, to narrow their search. Alternatively, visitors can type in a city or institute where they wish to study. In both cases, the database returns contact information, including a URL when available, and a link to a more detailed listing. When reviewing the site using Netscape, we discovered to our annoyance that all attempts to backtrack to change our query produced a "Data Missing" error, forcing us to start again from the beginning, but this was not the case when using IE. In addition to the database, the main site offers a variety of language learning resources and may be viewed in an impressive number of languages.

374

LEARNING STYLES ADOPTED BY MEDICAL STUDENTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Learning results in gain of knowledge, skills and attitudes. Some like to learn by seeing, some by hearing and some by demonstration. Learning style influences the retention of information and depth of comprehension. Understanding their preferred learning styles as visual, auditory, read-write or kinesthetic learners will help improve the teaching methods adopted. Role of the educator necessitates making the most of each teaching opportunity by understanding the characteristics of the learning audience and incorporating demonstrated principles of adult educational design, with a focus on collaborative learning and variety in presentation techniques. The goal is to provide student oriented education, producing efficient doctors. A cross-sectional study among 92 medical students of the Govt. Medical College, Bhavnagar, conducted in 2009. VARK questionnaire was used to access their learning preference. Preference for different learning styles were, visual (V) 1.08%, auditory (A) 20.65%, reading/writing (R) 2.17% and kinesthetic (K) 17.39%. 41.30% of the total 92 students preferred a single mode of information presentation. Of the 92 students who preferred multiple modes of information presentation, some preferred two modes (bimodal, 31.52%), some preferred three modes (tri-modal, 27.13%), and only one student preferred quadri-modal.

Chinmay Shah; Naisargi Joshi; H.B.Mehta; P.A.Gokhle

2011-01-01

375

Therapeutic MEMS Overview Learning Module  

Science.gov (United States)

The Southwest Center for Microsystems Education is a Regional Advanced Technology Education Center funded in part by the National Science Foundation. This unit introduces users to therapeutic MEMS, or microelectromechanical systems. This module presents information for users to learn about how MEMS are utilized in therapeutics, which includes prevention and management of diseases. A comprehensive PowerPoint presentation is included along with instructor and participant guides. Visitors are encouraged to create an account and login in order to access the full set of resources.

2011-10-11

376

Evaluating Dynamic Analysis Techniques for Program Comprehension  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Program comprehension is an essential part of software development and software maintenance, as software must be sufficiently understood before it can be properly modified. One of the common approaches in getting to understand a program is the study of its execution, also known as dynamic analysis. ...

Cornelissen, S.G.M.

377

Comprehensive Family Services and Customer Satisfaction Outcomes  

Science.gov (United States)

Comprehensive Family Services (CFS) is a strengths-based and partnership-oriented approach to casework implemented through multiple initiatives. This study examines the relationship between the practice of CFS and satisfaction of clients, foster parents, and community partners. CFS indicators are paired with statewide customer satisfaction survey…

Huebner, Ruth A.; Jones, Blake L.; Miller, Viola P.; Custer, Melba; Critchfield, Becky

2006-01-01

378

Representing Object Colour in Language Comprehension  

Science.gov (United States)

|Embodied theories of cognition hold that mentally representing something "red" engages the neural subsystems that respond to environmental perception of that colour. This paper examines whether implicit perceptual information on object colour is represented during sentence comprehension even though doing so does not necessarily facilitate task…

Connell, Louise

2007-01-01

379

Pragmatic comprehension deficit in Parkinson's disease.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recognizing the specific speech act (Searle, 1969) that a speaker performs with an utterance is a fundamental feature of pragmatic competence. However, little is known about neurocognitive mediation of speech act comprehension. The present research examined the extent to which people with Parkinson's disease (PD) comprehend specific speech acts. In the first experiment, participants read conversational utterances and then performed a lexical decision task (decide whether a target string of letters was a word). Consistent with past research, nonimpaired participants performed this task more quickly when the target string was the speech act associated with the preceding utterance. In contrast, people with PD did not demonstrate this effect, suggesting that speech act activation is slowed or is not an automatic component of comprehension for people with PD. In a second study, participants were given unlimited time to indicate their recognition of the speech act performed with an utterance. PD participants were significantly poorer at this task than were control participants. We conclude that a previously undocumented language disorder exists in PD and that this disorder involves a selective deficit in speech act comprehension. Frontostriatal systems (the systems impaired in PD) likely contribute to normal speech act comprehension.

Holtgraves T; McNamara P

2010-04-01

380

Historical Text Comprehension Reflective Tutorial Dialogue System  

Science.gov (United States)

The Reflective Tutorial Dialogue System (ReTuDiS) is a system for learner modelling historical text comprehension through reflective dialogue. The system infers learners' cognitive profiles and constructs their learner models. Based on the learner model the system plans the appropriate--personalized for learners--reflective tutorial dialogue in…

Grigoriadou, Maria; Tsaganou, Grammatiki; Cavoura, Theodora

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Managing the Development of Comprehensive Instructional Systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

Identifies six stages for the development of a comprehensive instructional system (planning, design, development, implementation, management transfer, client operation) and describes briefly the general purpose of each stage as it relates to the total development efforts. Maintaining a strong user orientation and involvement at each stage is…

Baker, Robert L.; Elam, Robert J.

1978-01-01

382

Disfluencies, Language Comprehension, and Tree Adjoining Grammars  

Science.gov (United States)

|Disfluencies include editing terms such as "uh" and "um" as well as repeats and revisions. Little is known about how disfluencies are processed, and there has been next to no research focused on the way that disfluencies affect structure-building operations during comprehension. We review major findings from both computational linguistics and…

Ferreira, Fernanda; Lau, Ellen F.; Bailey, Karl G. D.

2004-01-01

383

Comprehensive Volumetric Confocal Microscopy with Adaptive Focusing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Comprehensive microscopy of distal esophagus could greatly improve the screening and surveillance of esophageal diseases such as Barrett’s esophagus by providing histomorphologic information over the entire region at risk. Spectrally encoded confocal microscopy (SECM) is a high-speed reflectance con...

Jillella, Priyanka; Kang, DongKyun; Yoo, Hongki; Bouma, Brett; Tearney, Guillermo James

384

A Comprehensive Framework for Effective School Improvement  

Science.gov (United States)

The comprehensive framework was developed in the Effective School Improvement Project. The initial framework was based on an analysis of a range of theories and an additional analysis of case studies in the field of school improvement. A revision took place after an analytic confrontation of the initial framework with successful improvement…

Reezigt, Gerry J.; Creemers, Bert P. M.

2005-01-01

385

Small Change: The Comprehensive School Improvement Program.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Comprehensive School Improvement Program (CSIP), which was mandated by New York State to address issues of school reform, was a disappointment both in the way the State conceived the program and in the way it was implemented. CSIP was designed to encourage cooperative planning among teachers, principals, parents, and other school staff to…

Kelley, Tina

386

Segmentation in Reading and Film Comprehension  

Science.gov (United States)

|When reading a story or watching a film, comprehenders construct a series of representations in order to understand the events depicted. Discourse comprehension theories and a recent theory of perceptual event segmentation both suggest that comprehenders monitor situational features such as characters' goals, to update these representations at…

Zacks, Jeffrey M.; Speer, Nicole K.; Reynolds, Jeremy R.

2009-01-01

387

Comprehensive School-Based Physical Activity Program  

Science.gov (United States)

A Comprehensive School-based Physical Activity Program (CSPAP) represents a commitment to support the health and well-being of students, faculty, staff, and the community. A CSPAP is a similar approach that specifically focuses on incorporating additional physical activity opportunities for youth within the school day and beyond physical education…

Heidorn, Brent D.; Hall, Tina J.; Carson, Russell L.

2010-01-01

388

Contract Learning in Organizational Learning & Management Development.  

Science.gov (United States)

Contract learning is an invaluable tool in organizational learning and management development. A contract can incorporate teacher-directed learning (TDL) and self-directed learning (SDL), as appropriate. Substantial research has revealed the power of SDL; the trick is to harness this learning for the benefit of the organization. The literature on…

Beitler, Michael A.

389

Linked Learning in Porterville: Creating Capacity for Innovation and Change through Collaborative Leadership and Community Engagement. Linked Learning Case Study Series  

Science.gov (United States)

This case study describes how Porterville Unified School District (PUSD), a rural school district in California's Central Valley, began to fulfill its vision to transform high school and career education through the implementation of Linked Learning. Linked Learning is a state-wide initiative for redesigning large comprehensive high schools into…

Rustique, Elle; Rutherford-Quach, Sara

2012-01-01

390

Scientists and Educators Working Together: Everyone Teaches, Everyone Learns  

Science.gov (United States)

The primary author has been working with three of the authors (Lebofsky, McCarthy, and Cañizo) for nearly 25 years and Schmitt and Higgins for 17 and 8 years, respectively. This collaboration can be summed up with the phrase: “everyone teaches, everyone learns.” What NASA calls E/PO and educators call STEM/STEAM, requires a team effort. Exploration of the Solar System and beyond is a team effort, from research programs to space missions. The same is true for science education. Research scientists with a long-term involvement in science education have come together with science educators, classroom teachers, and informal science educators to create a powerful STEM education team. Scientists provide the science content and act as role models. Science educators provide the pedagogy and are the bridge between the scientists and the teacher. Classroom teachers and informal science educators bring their real-life experiences working in classrooms and in informal settings and can demonstrate scientists’ approaches to problem solving and make curriculum more engaging. Together, we provide activities that are grade-level appropriate, inquiry-based, tied to the literacy, math, and science standards, and connected directly to up-to-date science content and ongoing research. Our programs have included astronomy camps for youth and adults, professional development for teachers, in-school and after-school programs, family science events, and programs in libraries, science centers, and museums. What lessons have we learned? We are all professionals and can learn from each other. By engaging kids and having them participate in activities and ask questions, we can empower them to be the presenters for others, even their families. The activities highlighted on our poster represent programs and collaborations that date back more than two decades: Use models and engage the audience, do not just lecture. Connect the activity with ongoing science and get participants outside to look at the real sky: do a Moon journal, measure shadows, observe constellations, and look through a telescope—the sky is more than just string, balls, or a computer program.

Lebofsky, Larry A.; Lebofsky, N. R.; McCarthy, D. W.; Canizo, T. L.; Schmitt, W.; Higgins, M. L.

2013-10-01

391

Structural health monitoring a machine learning perspective  

CERN Multimedia

Written by global leaders and pioneers in the field, this book is a must-have read for researchers,  practicing engineers and university faculty working in SHM. Structural Health Monitoring: A Machine Learning Perspective is the first comprehensive book on the general problem of structural health monitoring. The authors, renowned experts in the field, consider structural health monitoring in a new manner by casting the problem in the context of a machine learning/statistical pattern recognition paradigm, first explaining the paradigm in general terms then explaining the process

Farrar, Charles R

2012-01-01

392

Malnutrition and Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

|Explores the relationships between nutrition, stimulation, brain development, and learning. Consequences of malnutrition on learning include loss of learning time, interference with learning during critical periods of development, and motivation and personality changes. (Author/DB)|

Shneour, Elie A.; Shneour, Joan B.

1977-01-01

393

Networked Lifelong Learning  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sloep, P. B. (2012, 7 March). Networked Lifelong Learning. Presentation at the March meeting of the Transnational project Service Centre Lifelong Learning, Maastricht, The Netherlands. , Networked learning as a form of lifelong learning, an institutional perspective

Sloep, Peter

394

Preparing for reading comprehension: Fostering text comprehension skills in preschool and early elementary school children  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To understand what they read or hear, children and adults must create a coherent mental representation of presented information. Recent research suggests that the ability to do so starts to develop early –well before reading age- and that early individual differences are predictive of later reading-comprehension performance. In this paper, we review this research and discuss potential applications to early intervention. We then present two exploratory studies in which we examine whether it is feasible to design interventions with early readers (3rd grade) and even toddlers (2-3 years old). The interventions employed causal questioning techniques as children listen to orally presented,age-appropriate narratives. Afterwards, comprehension was tested through question answering and recall tasks. Results indicate that such interventions are indeed feasible. Moreover, they suggest thatfor both toddlers and early readers questions during comprehension are more effective than questions after comprehension. Finally, for both groups higher working memory capacity was related to bettercomprehension.

Paul van den BROEK; Panayiota KENDEOU; Sandra LOUSBERG; Gootje VISSER

2011-01-01

395

Foreign language learning difficulties in Italian children: are they associated with other learning difficulties?  

Science.gov (United States)

A group of seventh- and eighth-grade Italian students with low achievement (LA) in learning English as a foreign language (FL) was selected and compared to a group with high achievement (HA) in FL learning. The two groups were matched for age and nonverbal intelligence. Two experiments were conducted to examine the participants' verbal and nonverbal learning skills, such as native language reading accuracy, speed and comprehension, calculation, and attention and self-regulation. Both experiments showed that the LA group seemed at risk for reading comprehension difficulties, but its reading speed and accuracy were within the average range according to Italian norms. The results also excluded the possibility that FL learning difficulties of LA participants could be associated with a deficit in calculation. Furthermore, according to teachers' ratings, children with LA appeared at risk for attention-deficit disorder (ADD). The pattern of learning difficulties of seventh- and eighth-grade participants with LA appeared to be not completely comparable with that of high school students at risk of FL learning difficulties as described in the literature. PMID:17518217

Ferrari, Marcella; Palladino, Paola

396

Foreign language learning difficulties in Italian children: are they associated with other learning difficulties?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A group of seventh- and eighth-grade Italian students with low achievement (LA) in learning English as a foreign language (FL) was selected and compared to a group with high achievement (HA) in FL learning. The two groups were matched for age and nonverbal intelligence. Two experiments were conducted to examine the participants' verbal and nonverbal learning skills, such as native language reading accuracy, speed and comprehension, calculation, and attention and self-regulation. Both experiments showed that the LA group seemed at risk for reading comprehension difficulties, but its reading speed and accuracy were within the average range according to Italian norms. The results also excluded the possibility that FL learning difficulties of LA participants could be associated with a deficit in calculation. Furthermore, according to teachers' ratings, children with LA appeared at risk for attention-deficit disorder (ADD). The pattern of learning difficulties of seventh- and eighth-grade participants with LA appeared to be not completely comparable with that of high school students at risk of FL learning difficulties as described in the literature.

Ferrari M; Palladino P

2007-05-01

397

Preference Learning  

CERN Multimedia

The topic of preferences is a new branch of machine learning and data mining, and it has attracted considerable attention in artificial intelligence research in previous years. It involves learning from observations that reveal information about the preferences of an individual or a class of individuals. Representing and processing knowledge in terms of preferences is appealing as it allows one to specify desires in a declarative way, to combine qualitative and quantitative modes of reasoning, and to deal with inconsistencies and exceptions in a flexible manner. And, generalizing beyond traini

Furnkranz, Johannes

2011-01-01

398

Machine learning of user profiles: Representational issues  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As more information becomes available electronically, tools for finding information of interest to users becomes increasingly important. The goal of the research described here is to build a system for generating comprehensible user profiles that accurately capture user interest with minimum user interaction. The research described here focuses on the importance of a suitable generalization hierarchy and representation for learning profiles which are predictively accurate and comprehensible. In our experiments we evaluated both traditional features based on weighted term vectors as well as subject features corresponding to categories which could be drawn from a thesaurus. Our experiments, conducted in the context of a content-based profiling system for on-line newspapers on the World Wide Web (the IDD News Browser), demonstrate the importance of a generalization hierarchy and the promise of combining natural language processing techniques with machine learning (ML) to address an information retrieval (ER) problem.

Bloedorn, E.; Mani, I.; MacMillan, T.R. [MITRE Corp., McLean, VA (United States)

1996-12-31

399

Machine Learning of User Profiles Representational Issues  

CERN Multimedia

As more information becomes available electronically, tools for finding information of interest to users becomes increasingly important. The goal of the research described here is to build a system for generating comprehensible user profiles that accurately capture user interest with minimum user interaction. The research described here focuses on the importance of a suitable generalization hierarchy and representation for learning profiles which are predictively accurate and comprehensible. In our experiments we evaluated both traditional features based on weighted term vectors as well as subject features corresponding to categories which could be drawn from a thesaurus. Our experiments, conducted in the context of a content-based profiling system for on-line newspapers on the World Wide Web (the IDD News Browser), demonstrate the importance of a generalization hierarchy and the promise of combining natural language processing techniques with machine learning (ML) to address an information retrieval (IR) pro...

Bloedorn, E; MacMillan, T R; Bloedorn, Eric; Mani, Inderjeet

1997-01-01

400

Learning How to Learn : Learning Styles in Higher Education  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ole Lauridsen, Aarhus School of Business and Social Sciences, Aarhus University, Denmark Karen M. Lauridsen, Aarhus School of Business and Social Sciences, Aarhus University, Denmark Learning Styles in Higher Education – Learning How to Learn Applying learning styles (LS) in higher education teachin...

Lauridsen, Karen M.; Lauridsen, Ole

 
 
 
 
401

Review on the Studies and Advances of Machine Learning Approaches  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Artificial intelligence is a frontier field of computer science, and achieved considerable progress in the past few decades. Being an important research branch of artificial intelligence, machine learning has been successfully applied to many fields in recent years, such as expert system, automatic reasoning, natural language processing, pattern recognition, computer vision, intelligent robots, and so on. This article comprehensively introduces the main strategies of machine learning, and summarizes the existing problems and challenges.

Yongqing Wang; Qingxiu Li

2013-01-01

402

Predicting Vocabulary Comprehension: A Case Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The role of vocabulary comprehension in the reading process may be easily overlooked in fifth/sixth semester college Spanish courses taught in the USA. The teaching materials available for these courses may be deceiving in that the types of readings and the absence of systematic pedagogical treatment of the vocabulary may create the impression that students master more vocabulary than they actually do. Therefore, instructors' ability to predict what vocabulary will cause a comprehension breakdown becomes valuable. This case study presents data from a class that was either a fifth/sixth semester Spanish class taught at a university in the USA. The data show that the instructor was 37% accurate in predicting what words would have to be looked up by the students when they were given the task of reading a passage

Concepción B. Godev

2011-01-01

403

Computerized Adaptive Testing in Reading Comprehension  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract: A Computerized Adaptive Testing (CAT) project in reading comprehension was established to develop multiple choice tests across four grade levels, Primary 3 and 5, and Secondary I and 3. CAT is interactive and allows participants to select their own entry points to the test and gives feedback on their performance. Building a CAT system required the development of an item bank, selection of item and items order to be presented in a test, and evaluating the test for difficulty. The creation of the item bank involved the specifying reading comprehension skills, writing items, field testing, item analysis and calibration. The software, MICROCAT, was used to develop an item bank, to select items and item order to be presented in a test, and to evaluate the test for difficulty. The project is currently at the stage of field testing.

Lim Tock Keng, Ho Wah Kam

1997-01-01

404

Comprehensive management of arthrogryposis multiplex congenita.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita syndrome, characterized by multiple congenital joint contractures, is a manifestation of a neurogenic or myopathic disorder of unknown etiology. An accurate diagnosis is critical in management strategy. Muscle biopsy is usually the most important diagnostic procedure. Once the diagnosis is established, a team approach to comprehensive care is instituted, and the child is assisted in achieving maximum cognitive, physical, and social development. Physicians, nurse clinicians, therapists, social workers, and others constitute the team and work in coordination to develop an individual habilitation plan. The treatment plan is continually updated and modified as needed. Because the musculoskeletal deformities are generally the most prominent abnormality, the orthopedist usually has the major role in management. The orthopedist may serve as coordinator of the comprehensive care team and therefore must have a fundamental understanding of and global approach to management.

Thompson GH; Bilenker RM

1985-04-01

405

MTTC Pressure Sensor Process Learning Module  

Science.gov (United States)

This page from the Southwest Center for Microsystems Education features a learning module which describes the operation of and the fabrication of a MEMS pressure sensor. A participant guide, instructor guide (both in PDF format) and three comprehensive powerpoint presentations are included. Additionally, animations of the pressure sensor process are provided. Users are encouraged to register and log in in order to access the full content on the site.

2011-10-11

406

Inference making ability and the function of inferences in reading comprehension  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study is to explain the relation of reading comprehension and inference. The main target of reading process is to create a coherent mental representation of the text, therefore it is necessary to recognize relations between different parts of the texts and to relate them to one another. During reading process, to complete the missing information in the text or to add new information is necessary. All these processes require inference making ability beyond the information in the text. When the readers use such active reading strategies as monitoring the comprehension, prediction, inferring and background knowledge, they learn a lot more from the text and understand it better. In reading comprehension, making inference is a constructive thinking process, because it is a cognitive process in order to form the meaning. When reading comprehension models are considered, it can be easily seen that linguistics elements cannot explain these processes by themselves, therefore the ability of thinking and inference making is needed. During reading process, general world knowledge is necessary to form coherent relations between sentences. Information which comes from context of the text will not be adequate to understand the text. In order to overcome this deficiency and to integrate the meanings from different sentences witch each other, it is necessary to make inference. Readers make inference in order to completely understand what the writer means, to interpret the sentences and also to form the combinations and relations between them.

Salih Özenici; Mustafa K?ns?z; Hümset Seçkin

2011-01-01

407

Analysis of Statistical Content in Junior High School Mathematics Textbooks Based on Statistical Cognition and Graph Comprehension  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Content analysis was used to investigate statistical cognition and graph com-prehension of two textbooks edited according to 2003 curriculum guidelines. We found that the two textbooks provide substantial learning opportunities for statistical literacy; however, they provide almost no learning opportunities for statistical reasoning and thinking. Furthermore, both of the textbooks provide learning opportunities to interpret graphs by recognizing components and in-formation displayed in graphs, but provide almost no learning opportunities to infer from graphs or choose proper graphs for different situations. This may be because the guidelines only focus on knowing statistical knowledge, drawing graphs, and retrieving information directly. To enhance the ability of students to apply statistical graphs and concepts for making inferences, it is recommended to provide students with tasks for reasoning and thinking statistically, selecting graphs and making inference by analyzing information of graphs.

Kin-Hang Lei; Kai-Lin Yang

2012-01-01

408

Gene expression analysis following olfactory learning in Apis mellifera.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The honeybee has a strong learning and memory ability, and is recognized as the best model organism for studying the neurobiological basis of learning and memory. In this study, we analyzed the gene expression difference following proboscis extension response-based olfactory learning in the A. mellifera using a tag-based digital gene expression (DGE) method. We obtained about 5.71 and 5.65 million clean tags from the trained group and untrained group, respectively. A total of 259 differentially expressed genes were detected between these two samples, with 30 genes up-regulated and 229 genes down-regulated in trained group compared to the untrained group. These results suggest that bees tend to actively suppress some genes instead of activating previously silent genes after olfactory learning. Our DGE data provide comprehensive gene expression information for olfactory learning, which will facilitate our understanding of the molecular mechanism of honey bee learning and memory.

Wang ZL; Wang H; Qin QH; Zeng ZJ

2013-02-01

409

Gene expression analysis following olfactory learning in Apis mellifera.  

Science.gov (United States)

The honeybee has a strong learning and memory ability, and is recognized as the best model organism for studying the neurobiological basis of learning and memory. In this study, we analyzed the gene expression difference following proboscis extension response-based olfactory learning in the A. mellifera using a tag-based digital gene expression (DGE) method. We obtained about 5.71 and 5.65 million clean tags from the trained group and untrained group, respectively. A total of 259 differentially expressed genes were detected between these two samples, with 30 genes up-regulated and 229 genes down-regulated in trained group compared to the untrained group. These results suggest that bees tend to actively suppress some genes instead of activating previously silent genes after olfactory learning. Our DGE data provide comprehensive gene expression information for olfactory learning, which will facilitate our understanding of the molecular mechanism of honey bee learning and memory. PMID:23073783

Wang, Zi-Long; Wang, Huan; Qin, Qiu-Hong; Zeng, Zhi-Jiang

2012-10-17

410

Active Learning  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We investigate the following data mining problem from ComputationalChemistry: From a large data set of compounds, find those that bind toa target molecule in as few iterations of biological testing as possible. Ineach iteration a comparatively small batch of compounds is screened forbinding to the target. We apply active learning techniques for selectingthe successive batches.

Manfred K. Warmuth; Gunnar R Atsch; Michael Mathieson; Jun Liao; Christian Lemmen

411

Learning Analytics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper provides a brief introduction to the domain of ‘learning analytics’. We first explain the background and idea behind the concept. Then we give a brief overview of current research issues. We briefly list some more controversial issues before concluding.

Erik Duval; Katrien Verbert

2012-01-01

412

Distance Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

Amatrol's e-Learning program meets the challenge for flexible technical training by offering superb technical content depth as well as breadth, strong interactivity for skill development, and excellent assessment and student tracking through an intuitive, easy-to-use web portal. With 24 x 7 access, Amatrol's e-Learning program creates easy access to educational opportunities for technical skill development previously restricted to the classroom. The material is self-paced, making it ideal for individual use, traditional class settings, or a blended approach. Amatrol's proven curriculum is problem- solving oriented and teaches technical skills in a wide range of industrially-relevant technologies. e-Learning Topics- CNC Machining-Design Processes -Electric Motor Control -Electric Motors -Electrical Control -Electricity -Electro-Fluid Power -Electronic Drives -Hydraulics -Machine Tools -Measurement Tools -Mechanical -Mechanical Drives -Plastics -PLCs (PLC) -Pneumatics -Quality -Robotics -Sensors -Thermal Systems Amatrol offers more than 200 titles for distance learning. Each title equals approximately 2 -3 contact hours. Virtual trainers are embedded in some of these units. One time set up charge = $3,000.00 Annual maintenance fee after 1st year = $800.00 Virtual Units = $10/title/student Non-virtual Units = $8/title/student.

2012-10-18

413

COMPARISON OF COMPREHENSION ACTIVITIES CONTAINED IN SECOND LANGUAGE TEACHING SOURCES (‘YENI HITIT’ AND ‘NEW HEADWAY’ SAMPLES)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, the comprehension activities included in the ‘Yeni Hitit’ (Turkish) and the ‘New Headway’ (English) series, which are designed as second language textbooks, were investigated in terms of diversity, quality, and appropriateness for basic language skills; and the assessment and evaluation questions used in these activities were studied in terms of coverage, type of question (open-ended, multiple-choice, matching, true/false, etc.), and comprehensibility, etc. individually using the survey method. Then, the reading and listening activities contained in the books were studied and evaluated separately. Following the evaluation, the efficiency of the books in the learning/teaching process, as well as their positive and negative aspects, was established and the books were compared. Finally, the results of the study were presented, compared with those of other studies, discussed and recommendations were made accordingly.

Latif BEYREL?; Duygu AK BA?O?LU

2013-01-01

414

Water management in Siri oil field in Iran: A comprehensive case study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Successful water management and dealing with produced water is a crucial part of any oil and gas production scenarios. This paper investigates the role of comprehensive study in water management and produced water re-injection in an Iranian offshore oil field. Appropriate method can be chosen by taking into account various effective parameters such as reservoir properties, laboratory experiment, and learning from already done projects and etc. In this work, produced water reinjection in Siri oil field in Iran has been investigated by examining the effective parameters including reservoir characterization such as permeability, porosity, petrophysical properties as well as performing relevant laboratory experiments and reservoir parameters like aquifer support and carbonated rock reservoir issues. Finally, it was concluded that comprehensive study together with proper laboratory investigation has a significant effect in success of produced water re-injection process. (author) (tk)

Masoudi, Zahedzadeh M.; Abbasian, Ataei A.; Shokrollahzadeh, S.; Raadmehr, M.

2006-03-15

415

Comprehensive soldier fitness: building resilience in a challenging institutional context.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Comprehensive Soldier Fitness (CSF) program is designed to increase psychological strength and positive performance and to reduce the incidence of maladaptive responses of the entire U.S. Army. Based on the principles of positive psychology, CSF is a historically unique approach to behavioral health in a large (1.1 million members) organization. There are four program elements: (a) the assessment of emotional, social, family, and spiritual fitness; (b) individualized learning modules to improve fitness in these domains; (c) formal resilience training; and (d) training of Army master resilience trainers (MRTs) to instill better thinking skills and resilience in their subordinates. In contrast to traditional approaches, CSF is proactive; rather than waiting to see who has a negative outcome following stress, it provides ways of improving resilience for all members of the Army. CSF aims to move the full spectrum of responses to trauma and adversity-ranging from