Sample records for clinical pharmacy services

  1. Clinical Pharmacy Services in the Home

    MacKeigan, Linda D.; Nissen, Lisa M


    Articles on clinical pharmacy services in the home began appearing 3 decades ago but numbers have greatly increased in the last decade. This overview of the English language literature identified 66 reports describing 57 home-based clinical pharmacy programs. Most programs were provided in the context of a time-limited research project. Medication reviews (defined as comprehensive assessment of the appropriateness of the medication regimen) and medication management (defined as assessment and...

  2. Experience with the Implementation of Clinical Pharmacy Services and Processes in a University Hospital in Belgium.

    Somers, Annemie; Claus, Barbara; Vandewoude, Koen; Petrovic, Mirko


    This article summarizes the experience with the development of clinical pharmacy services in the Ghent University Hospital in Belgium. Implementation of clinical pharmacy services in Belgian hospitals has not been evident because these activities were initially not structurally financed. The aim is to describe the strengths and weaknesses of the clinical pharmacy development process, and the milestones that enhanced the progress. Furthermore, the organisation of clinical pharmacy in the Ghent University Hospital is explained, including back- and front-office activities, seamless pharmaceutical care and medication safety improvement. Some working methods, procedures and tools are explained for different clinical pharmacy services. In particular, the clinical pharmacy projects for geriatric patients as well as the preparation of clinical pharmacy services for the accreditation process are explained. We also reflect on the organisation model and the future development of clinical pharmacy, taking into consideration facilitators and potential barriers. PMID:26922733

  3. Impact of clinical pharmacy services on renal transplant recipients’ adherence and outcomes

    Chisholm-Burns, Marie A.; Spivey, Christina A.; Garrett, Charlene; McGinty, Herbert; Mulloy, Laura L


    The purpose of this article is to provide a description of a clinical pharmacy services program implemented in a renal transplant clinic to improve medication access and adherence as well as health and economic outcomes among renal transplant recipients (RTRs). Following a team-based planning process and an informal survey of RTRs, a clinical pharmacy service intervention was implemented in the Medical College of Georgia renal transplant clinic. As part of the intervention, a clinical pharmac...

  4. The Need for an Increased Emphasis on Research in Clinical Pharmacy Services.

    Nance, Kathleen S.; And Others


    Effectiveness of clinical pharmacy services is discussed through an analysis of the literature, an analysis of the funding of grant applications by the National Center for Health Services Research, and a review of the research component of doctoral programs in pharmacy. (MSE)

  5. Implementing ward based clinical pharmacy services in an Ethiopian University Hospital

    Mekonnen AB; Yesuf EA; Odegard PS; Wega SS


    Background: Clinical pharmacy practice has developed internationally to expand the role of a pharmacist well beyond the traditional roles of compounding, dispensing and supplying drugs to roles more directly in caring for patients. Studies on the activities of the clinical pharmacist in an inpatient ward in resource constrained settings are scarce, however.Objective: To assess ward based clinical pharmacy services in an internal medicine ward of Jimma University Specialized Hospital. Methods:...

  6. Injection drug users' perspectives on placing HIV prevention and other clinical services in pharmacy settings.

    Lutnick, Alexandra; Case, Patricia; Kral, Alex H


    In their role as a source of sterile syringes, pharmacies are ideally situated to provide additional services to injection drug users (IDUs). Expanding pharmacy services to IDUs may address the low utilization rates of healthcare services among this population. This qualitative study of active IDUs in San Francisco explored perspectives on proposed health services and interventions offered in pharmacy settings, as well as facilitators and barriers to service delivery. Eleven active IDUs participated in one-on-one semistructured interviews at a community field site and at a local syringe exchange site between February and May 2010. Results revealed that most had reservations about expanding services to pharmacy settings, with reasons ranging from concerns about anonymity to feeling that San Francisco already offers the proposed services in other venues. Of the proposed health services, this group of IDUs prioritized syringe access and disposal, clinical testing and vaccinations, and provision of methadone. Pharmacists' and pharmacy staff's attitudes were identified as a major barrier to IDUs' comfort with accessing services. The findings suggest that although IDUs would like to see some additional services offered within pharmacy settings, this is contingent upon pharmacists and their staff receiving professional development trainings that cultivate sensitivity towards the needs and experiences of IDUs. PMID:22231488

  7. Clinical Pharmacy Education in a Dental Pharmacy

    Helling, Dennis K.; Walker, John A.


    A clinical pharmacy training program for undergraduate students developed at the University of Iowa provides conjoint training of pharmacy and dental students in the clinic areas and pharmacy at the College of Dentistry. (LBH)

  8. Clinical and conventional pharmacy services in Polish hospitals: a national survey.

    Pawłowska, Iga; Pawłowski, Leszek; Kocić, Ivan; Krzyżaniak, Natalia


    Background Pharmacist-led care services within the hospital pharmacy setting have a significant impact on efficient drug management processes. The work of pharmacists is directly associated with the provision of drugs and medical supplies along with additional clinical, administrative, organizational and educational duties. Depending on the country, these practice roles may differ to a significant extent. Objective The aim of this research was to explore the role of the hospital pharmacist and the provision of both clinical and traditional pharmaceutical services for patients and medical staff in Polish general hospitals. Setting Hospital pharmacies from all general hospitals in Poland. Method A cross-sectional study was conducted, utilizing an anonymous questionnaire as the research instrument. Heads of hospital pharmacies were requested to participate in this study and complete the questionnaire. The survey was initially piloted to improve the research method. Main outcome measure The types of pharmaceutical services performed in Polish general hospitals. Results 166 hospital pharmacies took part in this survey. The overall response rate was 60.8 %. The total number of full-time equivalent (FTE) professionals employed within the surveyed hospital pharmacies was approximately 833. The procurement and distribution of drugs were identified as pharmaceutical services performed by most of the participants. The significant majority of pharmacists were also involved in compounding, adverse drug reaction monitoring and rational drug management services. Eleven (7 %) of the responding pharmacists had direct contact with patients and 7 (4 %) pharmacists took part in ward rounds. More precise legal regulations regarding hospital pharmacy practice were measures indicated by most pharmacists as necessary changes required in the hospital pharmacy system. Conclusion Polish hospital pharmacists provide various pharmaceutical services. Their work is closely related with direct

  9. Injection Drug Users’ Perspectives on Placing HIV Prevention and Other Clinical Services in Pharmacy Settings

    Lutnick, Alexandra; Case, Patricia; Kral, Alex H.


    In their role as a source of sterile syringes, pharmacies are ideally situated to provide additional services to injection drug users (IDUs). Expanding pharmacy services to IDUs may address the low utilization rates of healthcare services among this population. This qualitative study of active IDUs in San Francisco explored perspectives on proposed health services and interventions offered in pharmacy settings, as well as facilitators and barriers to service delivery. Eleven active IDUs parti...

  10. A Required Course in the Development, Implementation, and Evaluation of Clinical Pharmacy Services

    Kamal, Khalid M.; Berdine, Hildegarde J.


    Objective To develop, implement, and assess a required pharmacy practice course to prepare pharmacy students to develop, implement, and evaluate clinical pharmacy services using a business plan model. Design Course content centered around the process of business planning and pharmacoeconomic evaluations. Selected business planning topics included literature evaluation, mission statement development, market evaluation, policy and procedure development, and marketing strategy. Selected pharmacoeconomic topics included cost-minimization analysis, cost-benefit analysis, cost-effectiveness analysis, cost-utility analysis, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Assessment methods included objective examinations, student participation, performance on a group project, and peer evaluation. Assessment One hundred fifty-three students were enrolled in the course. The mean scores on the objective examinations (100 points per examination) ranged from 82 to 85 points, with 25%-35% of students in the class scoring over 90, and 40%-50% of students scoring from 80 to 89. The mean scores on the group project (200 points) and classroom participation (50 points) were 183.5 and 46.1, respectively. The mean score on the peer evaluation was 30.8, with scores ranging from 27.5 to 31.7. Conclusion The course provided pharmacy students with the framework necessary to develop and implement evidence-based disease management programs and to assure efficient, cost-effective utilization of pertinent resources in the provision of patient care. PMID:19214263

  11. Cultivation and Implementation of Community-Engaged Pharmacy Services in a Free Clinic to Enhance Care for the Medically Underserved

    Emmeline Tran, Pharm.D. Candidate; Brandon T. Jennings, Pharm.D.


    Partnerships between community free clinics and academic medical centers improve patient outcomes and enhance learning opportunities for students. A community-academic partnership between the Maliheh Free Clinic and the University of Utah College of Pharmacy was formed to fulfill a community need for pharmacy services, to promote interdisciplinary patient care, and to provide an experiential opportunity for students. The Maliheh Free Clinic based in Salt Lake City, Utah provides free primary ...

  12. The Kaiser Permanente Colorado Clinical Pharmacy Anticoagulation Service as a model of modern anticoagulant care.

    Witt, Daniel M


    The Clinical Pharmacy Anticoagulation Service (CPAS) at Kaiser Permanente Colorado grew from a single pharmacist assisting a single physician to a comprehensive service staffed by over 20 employees. CPAS provides care for over 7200 patients with each CPAS pharmacist managing all aspects of anticoagulation therapy for 150 to 500 patients. Unique aspects of CPAS include its centralized organization structure, the use of telepharmacy, collaboration drug therapy management agreement with referring physicians and a robust research agenda. Results of various CPAS research projects have been published in the peer-reviewed medical literature. PMID:18804262

  13. Implementing ward based clinical pharmacy services in an Ethiopian University Hospital

    Mekonnen AB


    Full Text Available Background: Clinical pharmacy practice has developed internationally to expand the role of a pharmacist well beyond the traditional roles of compounding, dispensing and supplying drugs to roles more directly in caring for patients. Studies on the activities of the clinical pharmacist in an inpatient ward in resource constrained settings are scarce, however.Objective: To assess ward based clinical pharmacy services in an internal medicine ward of Jimma University Specialized Hospital. Methods: The study was carried out in the internal medicine ward from March to April, 2011 at Jimma University Specialized Hospital. The study design was a prospective observational study where pharmaceutical care services provided by clinical pharmacists for inpatients were documented over a period of two months. Interventions like optimization of rational drug use and physician acceptance of these recommendations were documented. Clinical significance of interventions was evaluated by an independent team (1 internist, 1 clinical pharmacologist using a standardized method for categorizing drug related problems (DRPs. Results: A total of 149 drug related interventions conducted for 48 patients were documented; among which 133(89.3% were clinical pharmacists initiated interventions and 16(10.7% interventions were initiated by other health care professionals. The most frequent DRPs underlying interventions were unnecessary drug therapy, 36(24.2%; needs additional drug therapy, 34(22.8% and noncompliance, 29(19.5%. The most frequent intervention type was change of dosage/instruction for use, 23(15.4%. Acceptance rate by physicians was 68.4%. Among the interventions that were rated as clinically significant, 46(48.9% and 25(26.6% had major and moderate clinical importance respectively. Conclusion: Involving trained clinical pharmacists in the healthcare team leads to clinically relevant and well accepted optimization of medicine use in a resource limited settings. This

  14. Development of Clinical Pharmacy services at King Khalid University Hospital and its impact on the quality of healthcare provided.

    Saddique, Abdulaziz A


    Clinical Pharmacy is a unique service provided by the leading pharmacy departments in the United States. The concept of Clinical Pharmacy evolved after the significant increase in number of pharmaceuticals in the market and the increasing potential of drug interactions. However, the Clinical Pharmacist is not merely an individual who advises on drug interactions. There are a number of functions which include but are not limited to; the design of appropriate drug therapy, such as Pharmacokinetic assessment and evaluation to optimize drug therapy, drug information dissemination to the physicians and other healthcare providers and participation as a toxicology consultant in Poison management. At the King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH) the first Clinical Pharmacy services program began in 1983. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of our Clinical Pharmacy program on the patients' care as well as its perception by the Medical staff that came from different parts of the world. Our Clinical Pharmacists were asked to record any suggestions or interventions in the form. The forms were all collected at the end of each day and entered into a database for analysis. Each intervention was analyzed in order to assess the merit of the action in terms of the therapeutic, financial and direct cost impact. The study showed a positive impact on the patients' care as well as on the economy of the drugs prescribed. Meanwhile, the service was very much appreciated by the Medical staff as well as other healthcare providers. PMID:23960800

  15. Cultivation and Implementation of Community-Engaged Pharmacy Services in a Free Clinic to Enhance Care for the Medically Underserved

    Emmeline Tran, Pharm.D. Candidate


    Full Text Available Partnerships between community free clinics and academic medical centers improve patient outcomes and enhance learning opportunities for students. A community-academic partnership between the Maliheh Free Clinic and the University of Utah College of Pharmacy was formed to fulfill a community need for pharmacy services, to promote interdisciplinary patient care, and to provide an experiential opportunity for students. The Maliheh Free Clinic based in Salt Lake City, Utah provides free primary health care to uninsured individuals who live 150% below federal poverty guidelines. Three pharmacy services were developed and implemented. These include: 1 clinic chart reviews which involve written recommendations following a comprehensive assessment of the patient’s chart examining his or her disease states and the appropriateness of his or her medications; 2 medication reconciliations and discussion of pharmacy-related recommendations with patients during Diabetes Day, an inclusive interdisciplinary patient appointment that addresses important aspects of diabetes care; and 3 an insulin dose adjustment service through a collaborative practice agreement with the clinic to monitor a patient’s blood glucose levels and adjust his or her medications accordingly on a weekly basis.

  16. Action research methodology in clinical pharmacy

    Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Sørensen, Ellen Westh


    Introduction The focus in clinical pharmacy practice is and has for the last 30-35 years been on changing the role of pharmacy staff into service orientation and patient counselling. One way of doing this is by involving staff in change process and as a researcher to take part in the change process...

  17. The Potential Role of Clinical Pharmacy Services in Patients with Cardiovascular Diseases

    Azita Hajhossein Talasaz


    Full Text Available Clinical pharmacy is deemed an integral component of a health care system. The presence of clinical pharmacists in medical rounds could assist physicians in optimizing patients pharmacotherapy. Moreover, clinical pharmacists may reduce adverse effects and medication errors insofar as they contribute significantly to the detection and management of drug-related problems, not least in patients with cardiovascular diseases, who have the highest rank in the frequency of medication errors. Clinical pharmacists can also collaborate with physicians in the management of cardiovascular risk factors as well as anticoagulation therapy based on patients specific situations. In summary, the practice of clinical pharmacy is considered a crucial part of a health care team to improve the level of patients care by increasing the quality of therapy with the least expense for a health care system.

  18. A Systematic Review of the Effects of Continuing Education Programs on Providing Clinical Community Pharmacy Services.

    Obreli-Neto, Paulo Roque; Marques Dos Reis, Tiago; Guidoni, Camilo Molino; Girotto, Edmarlon; Guerra, Marisabelle Lima; de Oliveira Baldoni, André; Leira Pereira, Leonardo Régis


    Objective. To summarize the effects of media methods used in continuing education (CE) programs on providing clinical community pharmacy services and the methods used to evaluate the effectiveness of these programs. Methods. A systematic review was performed using Medline, SciELO, and Scopus databases. The timeline of the search was 1990 to 2013. Searches were conducted in English, Portuguese, and Spanish. Results. Nineteen articles of 3990 were included. Fourteen studies used only one media method, and the live method (n=11) was the most frequent (alone or in combination). Only two studies found that the CE program was ineffective or partially effective; these studies used only the live method. Most studies used nonrobust, nonvalidated, and nonstandardized methods to measure effectiveness. The majority of studies focused on the effect of the CE program on modifying the knowledge and skills of the pharmacists. One study assessed the CE program's benefits to patients or clients. Conclusion. No evidence was obtained regarding which media methods are the most effective. Robust and validated methods, as well as assessment standardization, are required to clearly determine whether a particular media method is effective. PMID:27402991

  19. Impact of clinical pharmacy services on renal transplant recipients’ adherence and outcomes

    Chisholm-Burns, Marie


    Marie A Chisholm-Burns1, Christina A Spivey1, Charlene Garrett2, Herbert McGinty2, Laura L Mulloy31Department of Pharmacy Practice and Science, The University of Arizona College of Pharmacy, Tuscon, AZ, USA; 2Medication Access Program (MAP), University of Georgia College of Pharmacy, Athens, GA, USA; 3Section of Nephrology, Hypertension and Transplantation Medicine, Medical College of Georgia School of Medicine, Augusta, GA, USAAbstract: The purpose of this article is to provide a description...

  20. Provision of clinical pharmacy services in two safety net provider settings

    SE, Connor; Snyder ME; Snyder ZJ; Steinmetz Pater K


    Objective: The purpose of this report is to characterize the patient population served by the Grace Lamsam Pharmacy Program and to describe program outcomes. Methods: A chart review was conducted for all patients (n=100) participating in the Grace Lamsam Pharmacy Program from January 1, 2007 to February 6, 2008. The primary outcome data collected were the medication related problems (unnecessary drug therapy, needs additional drug therapy, ineffective drug therapy, dosage too low, dosage too ...

  1. Impact of clinical pharmacy services in a short stay unit of a hospital emergency department in Qatar.

    Abdelaziz, Hani; Al Anany, Rasha; Elmalik, Ashraf; Saad, Mohammad; Prabhu, Kirti; Al-Tamimi, Haleema; Salah, Salem Abu; Cameron, Peter


    Background The presence of a clinical pharmacist in a hospital's Emergency Department (ED) is important to decrease the potential for medication errors. To our knowledge, no previous studies have been conducted to evaluate the impact of implementing clinical pharmacy services in the ED in Qatar. Objective To characterize the contributions of clinical pharmacists in a short stay unit of ED in order to implement and scale-up the service to all ED areas in the future. Methods A retrospective study conducted for 7 months in the ED of Hamad General Hospital, Qatar. The intervention recommendations were made by clinical pharmacists to the physician in charge during medical rounds. Results A total of 824 documented pharmacist recommendations were analyzed. The interventions included the following: Providing information to the physician (24.4 %) and recommending medication discontinuation (22.0 %), dose adjustment (19.3 %), medication addition (16.0 %), changes in frequency of medications (7.6 %), medication resumption (5.7 %), and patient education (5.0 %). Conclusion Clinical pharmacists in the ED studied play an important role in patient care. PMID:27033505

  2. Clinical research: business opportunities for pharmacy-based investigational drug services.

    Marnocha, R M


    The application by an academic health center of business principles to the conduct of clinical research is described. Re-engineering of the infrastructure for clinical research at the University of Wisconsin and University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics began in 1990 with the creation of the Center for Clinical Trials (CCT) and the restructuring of the investigational drug services (IDS). Strategies to further improve the institution's clinical research activities have been continually assessed and most recently have centered on the adaptation of a business philosophy within the institution's multidisciplinary research infrastructure. Toward that end, the CCT and IDS have introduced basic business principles into operational activities. Four basic business concepts have been implemented: viewing the research protocol as a commodity, seeking payment for services rendered, tracking investments, and assessing performance. It is proposed that incorporation of these basic business concepts is not only compatible with the infrastructure for clinical research but beneficial to that infrastructure. The adaptation of a business mindset is likely to enable an academic health center to reach its clinical research goals. PMID:10030512

  3. Pharmacy Education Reaction to Presentations on Bridging the Gap Between the Basic Sciences and Clinical Practice: Teaching, Research, and Service.

    Doluisio, James T.


    Issues in the conflict between clinical practice and basic research in pharmacy are reviewed: professional associations' role, curriculum needs and traditions, internal strains and diversity in the profession, computer use, scholarly work of faculty, using the medical profession as a model, and misperceptions of what clinical and basic sciences…

  4. Clinical Pharmacy Education in China

    Ryan, Melody; Shao, Hong; Yang, Li; Nie, Xiao-Yan; Zhai, Suo-Di; Shi, Lu-Wen; Lubawy, William C.


    Pharmacy education in China focuses on pharmaceutical sciences, with the bachelor of science (BS) of pharmacy as the entry-level degree. Pharmacy practice curricula in these programs are centered on compounding, dispensing, pharmacy administration, and laboratory experiences, which are the traditional responsibilities for pharmacists. Additional graduate-level training is available at the master of science (MS) and the doctor of philosophy (PhD) levels, most of which concentrate on drug disco...


    Max Joseph Herman


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Up to now there are more than 60 schools of pharmacy with a variety of accreditation level in lndonesia. Previous study found that the standard of pharmaceutical services at various service facilities (hospitals, primary health care and community pharmacy can not be fully implemented because of the limited competency of pharmacist. This study was conducted to identify the qualification of pharmacist who delivers services in community pharmacy in compliance with the Indonesian Health Law No. 36 of 2009. As mandated in the Health Law No. 36 of 2009, the government is obliged to establish minimum requirements that must be possessed. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in 2010 at 2 community pharmacies in each of 3 cities, i.e. Bandung, DI Yogyakarta and Surabaya. Other than ten pharmacists delivering services in community pharmacies, there were pharmacists as informants from 4 institutions in each city selected, i.e. six pharmacists from two Schools of Pharmacy, three pharmacists from three Regional Indonesian Pharmacists Association,six pharmacists from three District Health Offices and three Provincial Health Offices. Primary data collection through in-depth interviews and observation as well as secondary data collection concerning standard operating procedures, monitoring documentation and academic curricula has been used. Descriptive data were analysed qualitatively Results: The findings indicate that pharmacists' qualification to deliver services in a community pharmacy in accordance with the Government Regulation No. 51 of 2009, Standards of Pharmacy Services in Community Pharmacy and Good Pharmaceutical Practices (GPP was varied. Most pharmacists have already understood their roles in pharmacy service, but to practice it in accordance with the standards or guidelines they are still having problems. It is also acknowledged by pharmacists in other institutions, including School of Pharmacy, Regional

  6. A comparative evaluation of pharmacy services in single and no pharmacy towns

    Sunderland, V Bruce; Burrows, Suzanne D; Joyce, Andrew W


    Background Recent attention has focused on access of communities to pharmacy services in rural areas. To increase access to pharmacy services in rural Western Australia some doctors have been granted a licence to dispense medication on the rationale that a pharmacy would not be economically viable in that community. However, there have been no studies conducted on whether a doctor dispensing service adequately provides a pharmacy service with respect to access and quality. Method Residents of...

  7. Specialty Pharmacy Services: Preparing for a New Era in Health-System Pharmacy.

    Shay, Blake; Louden, Les; Kirschenbaum, Bonnie


    To deal with the changing health care landscape and the expanding growth of specialty pharmaceuticals, it is imperative that health systems evaluate their current structure of providing hospitalbased specialty pharmacy services. Specialty pharmacy services have rapidly expanded over the last decade, and this has affected a wide variety of disease states and in many cases has dramatically enhanced clinical outcomes. However, these medications come at a substantial cost, and a clear plan must be established at each institution to sustain financial viability. By focusing on developing a plan for specialty pharmaceuticals, the pharmacy director can help ensure the institution has prepared a strategy that is conservative, financially viable, and patient-centered. PMID:26912924

  8. Summative service and stakeholder evaluation of an NHS-funded community Pharmacy Emergency Repeat Medication Supply Service (PERMSS)

    Nazar, Hamde; Nazar, Zachariah; Simpson, Jill; Yeung, Andre; Whittlesea, Cate


    OBJECTIVES: Service and stakeholder evaluation of an NHS-funded service providing out-ofhours (OOH) emergency repeat medications to patients self-presenting at community pharmacies. SETTING: Community pharmacies across the North East of England accredited to provide this service. PARTICIPANTS: Patients self-presenting to community pharmacies during OOH periods with emergency repeat medication supply requests. INTERVENTION: Community pharmacists assessed each request for clinical appropriatene...

  9. Immeasurable Benefits of Professional Pharmacy Community Service

    Oliver, Brittany A


    Community service provides pharmacy students with invaluable opportunities for professional growth in communication, organization, and practice skills. Furthermore, students develop relationships with practicing pharmacists, which leads to influential mentoring and networking opportunities. While building students’ confidence and skills, these endeavors can have significant impact on community members’ lives.

  10. Analysis of the Practice of Pharmacy Service Quality of Clinical Promotion%临床提升西药房药学服务质量的实践分析



    Objective To investigate the clinical analysis pharmacy pharmacy practiceto enhance the quality of service.Methods In our hospital from June 2011 to June 2012 in the west pharmacy issues,divided into three groups. Otherwise our hospitalfrom July 2012 to July 2013 in the West pharmacy issues, divided into two groups. Depending on the implementation method,the control group using traditional pharmacy management system,the observation group to raise the overal quality of service pharmacy pharmacy. Two pharmaceutical care in our hospital pharmacy were analysed.Results Pharmacy error event rate and patient satisfaction in the observation group were significantly better than the control group,P< 0.05. The difference was statisticaly significant. Conclusion For a comprehensive upgrade pharmacy pharmacy service quality,greatly reducing the incidence of pharmacy error events, significantly improved patient satisfaction.%目的:探讨临床提升西药房药学服务质量的实践分析。方法选取我院2011年6月~2012年6月的西药房工作事宜,为对照组;另行选取我院2012年7月~2013年7月的西药房工作事宜,为观察组。依据不同的实施方法,对照组采用传统西药房管理制度,观察组采用全面提升西药房药学服务质量,对比分析本院两组西药房药学服务的情况。结果观察组的西药房差错事件发生率和患者满意度优于对照组,P<0.05,差异具有统计学意义。结论对于西药房进行全面提升药学服务质量,降低了西药房差错事件的发生率,提高了患者的满意度。

  11. Guidelines for the Clinical Pharmacy Preceptor

    Brodie, Donald C.; And Others


    Qualities that describe the performance of the clinical pharmacy preceptor are outlined, with particular concern for the personal and technical components of his role as a teacher. The guidelines were developed at an invitational workshop at the Los Angeles County/University of Southern California Medical Center. (LBH)

  12. Consumer views of community pharmacy services in Bangalore city, India

    Jayaprakash G; Rajan ML; Shivam P


    Objective: The opinion about pharmacy services was studied using an instrument which measured satisfaction with pharmacy services. The main focus of the instrument was to assess patients’ opinion and expectation of the present pharmacy services. Method: The instrument contained 20 items, which were grouped based on their similarity into eight dimensions, namely, General satisfaction, Interpersonal Skill, Evaluation, Gathering non-medical information, Trust, Helping Patients, Explanation, and ...

  13. Collaboration with pharmacy services in a family practice for the medically underserved

    Campbell K


    Full Text Available Objectives: Pharmacist-managed collaborative services in a family practice setting are described, and diabetes and hypertension outcomes are assessed.Methods: Pharmacist-managed clinics, pharmacotherapy consultations, and drug information services are provided for a medically underserved, predominantly African American population. A pharmacy residency director, an ambulatory care pharmacy resident and three PharmD candidate student pharmacists work directly with physicians, nurse practitioners, nurses, and social workers to form an interdisciplinary health care team. Providers utilize pharmacy services through consultations and referrals. Collaboration outcomes were evaluated in twenty-two patients with diabetes and thirty hypertensive patients. Patients were retrospectively followed throughout their history with pharmacy service. Hemoglobin A1c (A1C was tracked before referral to pharmacy services, 3 to 6 months after, and as the most current measure after at least 6 months. Blood pressure (BP was observed before pharmacy involvement, 2 to 4 months later, and then currently for at least 4 months with the service. The mean of the most current markers was calculated, and the percent of patients at their goal marker was compared to national averages.Results: Fifty percent of pharmacy service patients met the American Diabetes Association hemoglobin A1c goal of less than 7% in our evaluation compared to the national mean of 49.8% overall and 44% in African Americans. Thirty percent of patients were at their BP goal while 33.1% of patients without diabetes and 33.2% of patients with diabetes nationally are at goal. Conclusion: The medically underserved patients under the care of pharmacy services achieved a higher percentage at their A1C goal than the national mean. The percentage of patients who achieved their BP goals was comparable to the national average. Increasing utilization of pharmacy services in the family practice setting allows for

  14. Evaluation of a controlled, national collaboration study on a clinical pharmacy service of screening for risk medications

    Kjeldsen, Lene Juel; Clemmensen, Marianne Hald; Kronborg, Christian;


    Background Risk medications are frequently associated with adverse events and hospitalisations. Objective To evaluate a risk medication screening service for in-patients at Danish hospitals. Setting Danish hospitals. Methods The study was designed as a controlled, prospective intervention study. ...

  15. Payment for nondistributive hospital pharmacy services--a regional survey.

    Strandberg, L R; Stennett, D J; Simonson, W


    Questionnaires were mailed to all (464) nongovernment, not-for-profit and investor owned for-profit hospital pharmacies in Washingon, Oregon and California. Responses were received from 350 institutions, a return rate of 75.4 percent. Pharmacists were asked to report data relating to the incidence of, the range of fees charged, and the extent of reimbursement received from third party carriers for the provision of nondistributive pharmacy services. The data received indicate that pharmacy consultation to physicians was provided by 77.9 percent of the respondents, drug therapy monitoring by 48.1 percent, generalized patient discharge consultation by 40.8 percent, CPR team participation by 27.2 percent, indepth patient discharge consultation by 17.5 percent and admitting medication history by 8.8 percent. Additionally, 12 institutions charged for providing 16 nondistributive pharmacy services. Directors of pharmacy from six hospitals indicated that they billed third party carriers for nondistributive pharmacy services as part of their total pharmacy charge via their usual billing procedure. All third party carriers billed in this manner paid for the nondistributive pharmacy service. PMID:10308024

  16. An investigation on pharmacy functions and services affecting satisfaction of patients with prescriptions in community pharmacies.

    Sakurai, Hidehiko; Nakajima, Fumio; Tada, Yuichirou; Yoshikawa, Emi; Iwahashi, Yoshiki; Fujita, Kenji; Hayase, Yukitoshi


    Various functions expected by patient expects are needed with progress in the system for separation of dispensing and prescribing functions. In this investigation, the relationship between patient satisfaction and pharmacy function were analyzed quantitatively. A questionnaire survey was conducted in 178 community pharmacies. Questions on pharmacy functions and services totaled 87 items concerning information service, amenities, safety, personnel training, etc. The questionnaires for patients had five-grade scales and composed 11 items (observed variables). Based on the results, "the percentage of satisfied patients" was determined. Multivariate analysis was performed to investigate the relationship between patient satisfaction and pharmacy functions or services provided, to confirm patient's evaluation of the pharmacy, and how factors affected comprehensive satisfaction. In correlation analysis, "the number of pharmacists" and "comprehensive satisfaction" had a negative correlation. Other interesting results were obtained. As a results of factor analysis, three latent factors were obtained: the "human factor," "patients' convenience," and "environmental factor," Multiple regression analysis showed that the "human factor" affected "comprehensive satisfaction" the most. Various pharmacy functions and services influence patient satisfaction, and improvement in their quality increases patient satisfaction. This will result in the practice of patient-centered medicine. PMID:19420889

  17. Impact of Clinical Pharmacy Services on KAP and QOL in Cancer Patients: A Single-Center Experience

    Yan Wang


    Full Text Available This study was to evaluate the efficacy of pharmaceutical intervention (PI on chemotherapy knowledge-attitude-practice (KAP and quality of life (QOL in cancer patients. A prospective, randomized, controlled study was carried out at Oncology Ward in a tertiary hospital affiliated to Southern Medical University, China. Eligible patient was randomly assigned to pharmaceutical intervention (PI group or control group. Each patient in PI group was given information booklets and was given 30 min face-to-face medication education and psychological counseling by clinical pharmacists, 2 sessions per week for 2 months. Patients in control group only received conventional treatment. All participants were asked to complete a structured Chemotherapy KAP Questionnaire and QOL Questionnaire at pre- and poststudy time. A total of 149 cancer patients (77 in PI group and 72 in control group completed the study. The baseline scores of KAP and QOL in 2 groups were similar. At the end of study, only knowledge score was significantly increased; meanwhile no difference existed for attitude, practice, and QOL scores in control group; both KAP scores and QOL score were significantly increased in PI group. As for the between-group comparison, both KAP scores and QOL score in PI group were significantly higher than those in control group. In conclusion, pharmaceutical intervention has a positive role in increasing chemotherapy-related knowledge, improving patients’ positive emotions, dealing with chemotherapy adverse reactions, and improving the quality of life of patients.

  18. Impact of Clinical Pharmacy Services on KAP and QOL in Cancer Patients: A Single-Center Experience.

    Wang, Yan; Wu, Huimin; Xu, Feng


    This study was to evaluate the efficacy of pharmaceutical intervention (PI) on chemotherapy knowledge-attitude-practice (KAP) and quality of life (QOL) in cancer patients. A prospective, randomized, controlled study was carried out at Oncology Ward in a tertiary hospital affiliated to Southern Medical University, China. Eligible patient was randomly assigned to pharmaceutical intervention (PI) group or control group. Each patient in PI group was given information booklets and was given 30 min face-to-face medication education and psychological counseling by clinical pharmacists, 2 sessions per week for 2 months. Patients in control group only received conventional treatment. All participants were asked to complete a structured Chemotherapy KAP Questionnaire and QOL Questionnaire at pre- and poststudy time. A total of 149 cancer patients (77 in PI group and 72 in control group) completed the study. The baseline scores of KAP and QOL in 2 groups were similar. At the end of study, only knowledge score was significantly increased; meanwhile no difference existed for attitude, practice, and QOL scores in control group; both KAP scores and QOL score were significantly increased in PI group. As for the between-group comparison, both KAP scores and QOL score in PI group were significantly higher than those in control group. In conclusion, pharmaceutical intervention has a positive role in increasing chemotherapy-related knowledge, improving patients' positive emotions, dealing with chemotherapy adverse reactions, and improving the quality of life of patients. PMID:26697487

  19. 提高药房药学服务水平搞好临床用药指导工作%Improving the quality of clinical pharmacy service and enhancing the guidance of clinical medication

    刘冠军; 谭永梅


    随着我国医疗体制改革的深入和发展,医院药学服务模式的改变,药剂人员面临着新形势下的机遇和挑战。结合药房工作的具体实践及体会,探讨如何提高药房窗口药学服务水平、搞好药学服务指导工作,更好地为病人服务。开展药学服务,保证药品质量,全力维护公众用药安全有效。%With the development of medical system reform in our country and the change in mode of hospital pharmacy services, pharmacy staff are facing opportunities and challenges under the new situation. combining the practice of pharmacy and the experience, we explored how to improve the quality of pharmaceutical care in pharmacy and enhance the guidance of pharmacy service in order to provide better services for patients. Besides we should develop pharmaceutical services and ensure the quality of drugs to maintain public safety and effectiveness of drugs.

  20. Discrete choice experiments of pharmacy services: a systematic review.

    Vass, Caroline; Gray, Ewan; Payne, Katherine


    Background Two previous systematic reviews have summarised the application of discrete choice experiments to value preferences for pharmacy services. These reviews identified a total of twelve studies and described how discrete choice experiments have been used to value pharmacy services but did not describe or discuss the application of methods used in the design or analysis. Aims (1) To update the most recent systematic review and critically appraise current discrete choice experiments of pharmacy services in line with published reporting criteria and; (2) To provide an overview of key methodological developments in the design and analysis of discrete choice experiments. Methods The review used a comprehensive strategy to identify eligible studies (published between 1990 and 2015) by searching electronic databases for key terms related to discrete choice and best-worst scaling (BWS) experiments. All healthcare choice experiments were then hand-searched for key terms relating to pharmacy. Data were extracted using a published checklist. Results A total of 17 discrete choice experiments eliciting preferences for pharmacy services were identified for inclusion in the review. No BWS studies were identified. The studies elicited preferences from a variety of populations (pharmacists, patients, students) for a range of pharmacy services. Most studies were from a United Kingdom setting, although examples from Europe, Australia and North America were also identified. Discrete choice experiments for pharmacy services tended to include more attributes than non-pharmacy choice experiments. Few studies reported the use of qualitative research methods in the design and interpretation of the experiments (n = 9) or use of new methods of analysis to identify and quantify preference and scale heterogeneity (n = 4). No studies reported the use of Bayesian methods in their experimental design. Conclusion Incorporating more sophisticated methods in the design of pharmacy

  1. Pharmacy Student Learning Through Community Service.

    Sobota, Kristen Finley; Barnes, Jeremiah; Fitzpatrick, Alyse; Sobota, Micah J


    The Ohio Northern University American Society of Consultant Pharmacists chapter provides students the opportunity to apply classroom knowledge with learning through community service. One such program took place at the Lima Towers Apartment Community from September 18, 2014, to October 2, 2014, in Lima, Ohio. Three evening educational sessions focused on a different health topic: 1) mental health, 2) medication adherence/brown bag, and 3) healthy lifestyle choices/nutrition/smoking cessation. All three programs were structured identically, starting with dinner, followed by educational intervention, survey, blood pressure checks, and medication reviews. Two pharmacists and 16 pharmacy students implemented the program. Participants completed a total of 76 satisfaction surveys for the three programs, which were included in the data analysis. The average age of the participants was 65 years; 82% (n = 63) were female. Data demonstrated that 94% (n = 72) "learned something new," while 96% (n = 74) would "recommend the program to a friend/family member." The collected data showed the vast majority of participants from the surrounding community found value in the presentations performed by students, especially with regard to the new information they received and its perceived benefits. In light of such successes, we encourage other student chapters to implement similar community outreach events. ASCP student members can make a strong, positive impact in the community while learning in a nontraditional environment. PMID:26173194

  2. Patients' reasons for accepting a free community pharmacy asthma service

    Kaae, Susanne; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark


    Background Challenges in recruiting patients at the pharmacy counter for cognitive services have been observed, hampering development in this area. To overcome this barrier, insight into the patient perspective is crucial to understanding their lack of appreciation of the services. However, very...... few studies have been conducted so far to explore why patients accept or decline offers of cognitive services at the pharmacy counter. Objective To explore patients’ reasons for accepting a particular cognitive service (the Inhaler Technique Assessment Service) a service intended to detect inhalation...... technique errors. The service is reimbursed by the Danish state and takes approximately 10 min. Setting Ten community pharmacies located in different regions of Denmark, including the center and suburbs of Copenhagen. Method Two types of interviews were conducted: long and short semi-structured interviews...

  3. Consumer views of community pharmacy services in Bangalore city, India

    Jayaprakash G


    Full Text Available Objective: The opinion about pharmacy services was studied using an instrument which measured satisfaction with pharmacy services. The main focus of the instrument was to assess patients’ opinion and expectation of the present pharmacy services. Method: The instrument contained 20 items, which were grouped based on their similarity into eight dimensions, namely, General satisfaction, Interpersonal Skill, Evaluation, Gathering non-medical information, Trust, Helping Patients, Explanation, and Finance. Chance random sampling was done and the participants were the general public above the age of 18 years. The main outcome measure was to study participants’ opinion regarding the current and desired pharmacy services. Descriptive statistics are presented for the satisfaction dimension score. The level of satisfaction with the different dimensions was compared across the different demographic characteristics.Result: The study results revealed significant difference in the General satisfaction and Interpersonal skill amongst the gender. Significant difference was seen in the Helping patients, Evaluation and Explanation skill among the various age groups. Education background showed significant difference in evaluation, Gathering-non-medical information, Helping patients and Explanation skills of the pharmacist. There was an overall satisfaction dimension score of 56.83% in the current practice and 68.83% in the desired practice. Conclusion: Awareness about pharmacy service continuing education programme for practicing pharmacist will heighten the pharmacy profession in our country.

  4. Pharmacies

    Department of Homeland Security — Pharmacies in the United States and Territories A pharmacy is a facility whose primary function is to store, prepare and legally dispense prescription drugs under...

  5. Assessment of patient perceptions concerning a community pharmacy-based warfarin monitoring service

    Stefanie Ferreri, PharmD, CDE, BCACP, FAPhA1


    Full Text Available Objective: To assess patient perceptions of a North Carolina community pharmacy-based warfarin monitoring service. Methods: Prospective study of patients 18 years of age and older, who filled a prescription for warfarin, in one of five Raleigh area community pharmacies, between May 1, 2010 and October 31, 2010. A 14 item survey, along with a self-addressed stamped envelope, was mailed to 330 identified patients. The survey inquired about details of current anticoagulation monitoring services, interest in utilizing a local community pharmacy for this service, and confidence in a pharmacist-managed program. Results: 26% of surveys were returned. 48% of surveyed individuals responded that they would be interested in having their warfarin monitoring performed by a trained pharmacist in a community pharmacy setting. Conclusion: Many participants responded that the community pharmacy would be more convenient than or as convenient as their current location. This may be a new clinical service that could be offered in certain community pharmacies.

  6. Immunization services offered in Québec (Canada) pharmacies

    Sauvageau, Chantal; Dubé, Eve; Bradet, Richard; Mondor, Myrto; Lavoie, France; Moisan, Jocelyne


    Canadian Pharmacists are easy to reach. Although Québec pharmacists are not allowed to administer vaccines, they can: (1) promote vaccination, (2) counsel patients on vaccination, (3) sell vaccines and (4) provide vaccine administration by a nurse. Our objectives were to describe immunization services given in Québec pharmacies and assess the potential relation between, on one hand, pharmacy characteristics and difficulties perceived by pharmacists and, on the other hand, vaccine administrati...

  7. Objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) in pharmacy education - a trend

    Shirwaikar A


    Pharmacy education has undergone a radical change as it evolves towards becoming a more patient oriented profession. With a greater emphasis on problem based teaching and competency, the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE), supported by its reliability and validity became the gold standard for the evaluation of clinical skills of undergraduate students of medicine and pharmacy worldwide. Core competency evaluation has become a mandatory and critical norm for accountability of edu...

  8. The Marketing Strategy of Pötting’s Pharmacy Using the Marketing Tool Service Blueprint

    Šilberská, Tereza


    The diploma thesis is focused on marketing strategy plan of a private pharmacy using service blueprint as a marketing tool. At the beginning the thesis deals with characteristics of specifics and state regulations of pharmacy marketing. Then the thesis analyses Czech pharmacy market in particular with regard to the expansion of pharmacy chains and also puts emphasis on current pharmacy trends that influence management and marketing of private pharmacies. The main goal is firstly to describe t...

  9. Pharmacy services at admission and discharge in adult, acute, public hospitals in Ireland.

    Grimes, Tamasine


    OBJECTIVES: to describe hospital pharmacy involvement in medication management in Ireland, both generally and at points of transfer of care, and to gain a broad perspective of the hospital pharmacy workforce. METHODS: a survey of all adult, acute, public hospitals with an accident and emergency (A&E) department (n = 36), using a semi-structured telephone interview. KEY FINDINGS: there was a 97% (n = 35) response rate. The majority (n = 25, 71.4%) of hospitals reported delivery of a clinical pharmacy service. On admission, pharmacists were involved in taking or verifying medication histories in a minority (n = 15, 42.9%) of hospitals, while few (n = 6,17.1%) deployed staff to the A&E\\/acute medical admissions unit. On discharge, the majority (n = 30,85.7%) did not supply any take-out medication, a minority (n =5,14.3%) checked the discharge prescription, 51.4% (n = 18) counselled patients, 42.9% (n = 15) provided medication compliance charts and one hospital (2.9%) communicated with the patient\\'s community pharmacy. The number of staff employed in the pharmacy department in each hospital was not proportionate to the number of inpatient beds, nor the volume of admissions from A&E. There were differences identified in service delivery between hospitals of different type: urban hospitals with a high volume of admissions from A&E were more likely to deliver clinical pharmacy. CONCLUSIONS: the frequency and consistency of delivering pharmacy services to facilitate medication reconciliation at admission and discharge could be improved. Workforce constraints may inhibit service expansion. Development of national standards of practice may help to eliminate variation between hospitals and support service development.

  10. Providing Quality Pharmacy Services: Good Intentions Are Not Enough

    Gorecki, Paul K.


    Elected representatives, like consumers, want reliable good quality medical services. Pharmacy services are no exception. Providing sound advice on which drug to take for a minor ailment, or the common side effects of a drug or keeping careful track of a consumer?s drug regimen, promote good health outcomes.

  11. Towards an operational definition of pharmacy clinical competency

    Douglas, Charles Allen

    The scope of pharmacy practice and the training of future pharmacists have undergone a strategic shift over the last few decades. The pharmacy profession recognizes greater pharmacist involvement in patient care activities. Towards this strategic objective, pharmacy schools are training future pharmacists to meet these new clinical demands. Pharmacy students have clerkships called Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences (APPEs), and these clerkships account for 30% of the professional curriculum. APPEs provide the only opportunity for students to refine clinical skills under the guidance of an experienced pharmacist. Nationwide, schools of pharmacy need to evaluate whether students have successfully completed APPEs and are ready treat patients. Schools are left to their own devices to develop assessment programs that demonstrate to the public and regulatory agencies, students are clinically competent prior to graduation. There is no widely accepted method to evaluate whether these assessment programs actually discriminate between the competent and non-competent students. The central purpose of this study is to demonstrate a rigorous method to evaluate the validity and reliability of APPE assessment programs. The method introduced in this study is applicable to a wide variety of assessment programs. To illustrate this method, the study evaluated new performance criteria with a novel rating scale. The study had two main phases. In the first phase, a Delphi panel was created to bring together expert opinions. Pharmacy schools nominated exceptional preceptors to join a Delphi panel. Delphi is a method to achieve agreement of complex issues among experts. The principal researcher recruited preceptors representing a variety of practice settings and geographical regions. The Delphi panel evaluated and refined the new performance criteria. In the second phase, the study produced a novel set of video vignettes that portrayed student performances based on recommendations of

  12. Clinical risk management in community pharmacy

    Buurma, H.


    In this thesis, several studies are presented providing information about frequency, nature and determinants of drug therapy related problems as they occur in daily pharmaceutical practice, including unavailability, drug-drug interactions and heavy use of psychotropic medicines. These studies especially focused on the pharmacist and his contribution and quality to the 'solution' of these problems. - In 2001 Dutch community pharmacies still compound more than 13,000 medicines per day (2.3% of ...

  13. Objective structured clinical examination (OSCE in pharmacy education - a trend

    Shirwaikar A


    Full Text Available Pharmacy education has undergone a radical change as it evolves towards becoming a more patient oriented profession. With a greater emphasis on problem based teaching and competency, the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE, supported by its reliability and validity became the gold standard for the evaluation of clinical skills of undergraduate students of medicine and pharmacy worldwide. Core competency evaluation has become a mandatory and critical norm for accountability of educational objectives as the traditional testing tools cannot evaluate clinical competence. Interpersonal and communication skills, professional judgment, skills of resolution etc., may be best assessed through a well- structured OSCE in comparison to oral examinations, multiple choice tests and other methods of assessment. Though OSCEs as an objective method of evaluation offer several advantages to both students and teachers, it also has disadvantages and pitfalls in implementation. This article reviews the OSCE as a trend in pharmacy education.

  14. Innovation in clinical pharmacy practice and opportunities for academic--practice partnership.

    Gubbins, Paul O; Micek, Scott T; Badowski, Melissa; Cheng, Judy; Gallagher, Jason; Johnson, Samuel G; Karnes, Jason H; Lyons, Kayley; Moore, Katherine G; Strnad, Kyle


    Clinical pharmacy has a rich history of advancing practice through innovation. These innovations helped to mold clinical pharmacy into a patient-centered discipline recognized for its contributions to improving medication therapy outcomes. However, innovations in clinical pharmacy practice have now waned. In our view, the growth of academic–practice partnerships could reverse this trend and stimulate innovation among the next generation of pioneering clinical pharmacists. Although collaboration facilitates innovation,academic institutions and health care systems/organizations are not taking full advantage of this opportunity. The academic–practice partnership can be optimized by making both partners accountable for the desired outcomes of their collaboration, fostering symbiotic relationships that promote value-added clinical pharmacy services and emphasizing continuous quality improvement in the delivery of these services. Optimizing academic–practice collaboration on a broader scale requires both partners to adopt a culture that provides for dedicated time to pursue innovation, establishes mechanisms to incubate ideas, recognizes where motivation and vision align, and supports the purpose of the partnership. With appropriate leadership and support, a shift in current professional education and training practices, and a commitment to cultivate future innovators, the academic–practice partnership can develop new and innovative practice advancements that will improve patient outcomes. PMID:24877189

  15. Service Scripts: A Tool for Teaching Pharmacy Students How to Handle Common Practice Situations


    Objectives This paper describes the use of service scripts to teach pharmacy students how to manage specific practice situations by learning and following scripted behaviors. Design Based upon role theory, service scripts require specific behaviors for a broad range of practice problems and communicate consistent messages about the responsibilities of all people involved. Service scripts are developed by (1) identifying scenarios for the script, (2) eliciting the script's structure and content, and (3) documenting the reasoning behind the steps in the script. Assessment Students in a nontraditional doctor of pharmacy program developed scripts for their practice settings. They concluded that scripts were useful for quickly learning new, routine tasks, but expressed concern that scripts could be misused by pharmacists and managers. The process of script development itself was useful in gaining feedback about common practice problems. Conclusion By mastering managerial, clinical, and communication scripts, students can develop capabilities to provide professional services. PMID:17136145

  16. Professional Nursing Duties in the Central Services: Hospital Pharmacy Nurses

    Inmaculada Gómez-Villegas; Belén Ruíz-Pérez; Dolores López-del-Pino; Francisco García-España


    Introduction. The new demands of a fast changing world necessitate expanding the traditional concepts of nursing, extending the classical aspects to cover new areas. Purpose. Based on their professional duties, the nursing team in the pharmacy of a second-level hospital aimed to establish a theoretical and situational framework for nurses working in the central services. Material and Methods. Application of the nursing process to nursing work in an area with no direct contact with patients. R...

  17. 临床药师在静脉药物配置中心批次决策中的作用%Role of clinical pharmacists in batches decision making in pharmacy intravenous admixture services

    秦娜; 魏立伟


    Reasonable batch decision-making of pharmacy intravenous admixture services (PIVAS) is a prerequisite for clinical rational drug use in the intravenous infusion. Clinical pharmacists in Luoyang Orthopedics Traumatological Hospital PIVAS draw up intravenous infusion batch rule according to the rational use of drug principle, and take manual intervention in special cases, which make the clinical PIVAS infusion delivery batches more scientific and reasonable, the clinical pharmacists play a decisive role in batches decision making.%静脉药物配置中心合理的批次决策能有效保障临床静脉输液合理用药。河南省洛阳正骨医院临床药师根据合理用药原则,制定静脉输液批次规则,在特殊情况下进行人工干预,使临床输液配送批次更加科学合理。临床药师在批次决策中起到举足轻重的作用。

  18. Societal perspectives on community pharmacy services in West Bank - Palestine

    Khdour MR


    Full Text Available Understanding the public's view of professional competency is extremely important; however little has been reported on the public’s perception of community pharmacists in PalestineObjectives: To determine the perception of Palestinian consumers of the community pharmacist and the services they offerMethod: This project used the survey methodology administered by structured interviews to consumers who attended the 39 randomly selected pharmacies, in six main cities in Palestine. The questionnaire had range of structured questions covering: Consumers’ patronage patterns, consumers’ interaction with community pharmacists, consumers’ views on how the pharmacist dealt with personal health issues, procedure with regard to handling private consultations.Results: Of 1,017 consumers approached, 790 consumers completed the questionnaire (77.7 %. Proximity to home and presence of knowledgeable pharmacist were the main reasons for patients to visit the same pharmacy. Physicians were identified as the preferred source of advice by 57.2% and pharmacists by 23.8%. Only 17% of respondents considered pharmacists as health professionals who know a lot about drugs and are concerned about and committed to caring for the public. In addition, 49% indicated that pharmacists spoke more quietly cross the counter during counseling and almost one third reported that the pharmacist used a private area within the pharmacy. The majority of respondents would be happy to receive different extended services in the community pharmacy like blood pressure monitoring.Conclusions: Palestinian consumers have a positive overall perception of community pharmacists and the services they offer. Awareness should be created amongst the public about the role of pharmacist and the added value they can provide as health care professional. There is a need to consider privacy when giving patient counseling to increase user satisfaction.

  19. Integrated Clinical Geriatric Pharmacy Clerkship in Long Term, Acute and Ambulatory Care.

    Polo, Isabel; And Others


    A clinical geriatric pharmacy clerkship containing three separate practice areas (long-term, acute, and ambulatory care) is described. The program follows the medical education clerkship protocol, with a clinical pharmacy specialist, pharmacy practice resident, and student. Participation in medical rounds, interdisciplinary conferences, and…

  20. Predictive Factors of Patient Satisfaction with Pharmacy Services in South Korea: A Cross-Sectional Study of National Level Data.

    Sunkyung Lee

    Full Text Available Patient satisfaction has emerged as a prerequisite to improving patients' health behaviors leading to better health care outcomes. This study was to identify predictive determinants for patient satisfaction with pharmacy services using national-level data.A cross-sectional evaluation was conducted using 2008 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES data. To assess the predictive factors for patient satisfaction with pharmacy services, an ordinal logistic regression model was conducted adjusting for patient characteristics, clinical comorbidities, and perception of health.A total of 9,744 people, a representative sample of 48.2 million Koreans, participated in the 2008 KNHANES, of whom 2,188 (23.6% reported visits to pharmacy within the last 2 weeks prior to the survey. Of the patients who visited the pharmacy, 74.6% reported to be either "very satisfied" or "satisfied," and 25.4% responded as being "neutral," "dissatisfied," or "very dissatisfied." A multivariate ordinal logistic regression analysis with weighted observations revealed that patients with fair perception of health (adjusted OR 1.32; 95% CI 1.01-1.74; p<0.05 and those with middle to low family incomes (adjusted OR 1.34; 95% CI 1.02-1.76; p<0.05 were more likely to be satisfied with pharmacy services, and employment-based insurers were less likely to be satisfied with pharmacy services (adjusted OR 0.80; 95% CI 0.65-0.97; p<0.05.Our findings indicated that three out of four patients expressed satisfaction toward pharmacy services. Middle to low family incomes, fair perception of health, and employee insured individuals were significant predictors of patient satisfaction with pharmacy services.

  1. A Lifestyle Medicine Clinic in a Community Pharmacy Setting

    Thomas L. Lenz, PharmD; Jessica Skradski, PharmD; Maryann Z. Skrabal, PharmD, CDE; Liz Ferguson, MA; Michael S. Monaghan, PharmD, BCPS


    Chronic diseases continue to be a significant burden to the health care system. Pharmacists have been able to show that drugtherapy for patients with chronic diseases can be improved through medication therapy management (MTM) services but have yet to become significantly involved in implementing lifestyle modification programs to further control and prevent chronic conditions. A novel and innovative lifestyle medicine program was started by pharmacists in a community pharmacy in 2008 to mo...

  2. A Novel Clinical Pharmacy Management System in Improving the Rational Drug Use in Department of General Surgery

    L Bao


    Full Text Available Hospital information system is widely used to improve work efficiency of hospitals in China. However, it is lack of the function providing pharmaceutical information service for clinical pharmacists. A novel clinical pharmacy management system developed by our hospital was introduced to improve the work efficiency of clinical pharmacists in our hospital and to carry out large sample statistical analyzes by providing pharmacy information services and promoting rational drug use. Clinical pharmacy management system was developed according to the actual situation. Taking prescription review in the department of general surgery as the example, work efficiency of clinical pharmacists, quality and qualified rates of prescriptions before and after utilizing clinical pharmacy management system were compared. Statistics of 48,562 outpatient and 5776 inpatient prescriptions of the general surgical department were analyzed. Qualified rates of both the inpatient and outpatient prescriptions of the general surgery department increased, and the use of antibiotics decreased. This system apparently improved work efficiency, standardized the level and accuracy of drug use, which will improve the rational drug use and pharmacy information service in our hospital. Meanwhile, utilization of prophylactic antibiotics for the aseptic operations also reduced.

  3. A New Approach to Health Services and Pharmacy in Cuba.

    Sánchez, Alina M


    In December 17, 2014, U.S. President Barack Obama surprised the world by announcing his intention to enter into negotiations aimed at reestablishing diplomatic relations with Cuba. Since then, expectations and interest regarding the health system of that country have increased. This report focuses on the Cuban health and pharmacy systems from a practical and educational standpoint. Pharmaceutical services, strengths, opportunities, and challenges are described. Cuba's new trends toward patient-centered care are analyzed to provide insights for developing pharmaceutical care practice and implementing policies suitable for practice in all health care settings. PMID:26684551

  4. Clinical pharmacy activities in chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease patients: a systematic literature review

    Stemer Gunar


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD and end-stage renal disease (ESRD represent worldwide health problems with an epidemic extent. Therefore, attention must be given to the optimisation of patient care, as gaps in the care of CKD and ESRD patients are well documented. As part of a multidisciplinary patient care strategy, clinical pharmacy services have led to improvements in patient care. The purpose of this study was to summarise the available evidence regarding the role and impact of clinical pharmacy services for these patient populations. Methods A literature search was conducted using the Medline, Embase and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts databases to identify relevant studies on the impact of clinical pharmacists on CKD and ESRD patients, regarding disease-oriented and patient-oriented outcomes, and clinical pharmacist interventions on drug-related problems. Results Among a total of 21 studies, only four (19% were controlled trials. The majority of studies were descriptive (67% and before-after studies (14%. Interventions comprised general clinical pharmacy services with a focus on detecting, resolving and preventing drug-related problems, clinical pharmacy services with a focus on disease management, or clinical pharmacy services with a focus on patient education in order to increase medication knowledge. Anaemia was the most common comorbidity managed by clinical pharmacists, and their involvement led to significant improvement in investigated disease-oriented outcomes, for example, haemoglobin levels. Only four of the studies (including three controlled trials presented data on patient-oriented outcomes, for example, quality of life and length of hospitalisation. Studies investigating the number and type of clinical pharmacist interventions and physician acceptance rates reported a mean acceptance rate of 79%. The most common reported drug-related problems were incorrect dosing, the need for additional

  5. Rethinking the Role of Clinical Practice Guidelines in Pharmacy Education.

    Brown, Daniel L


    Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) play a major role in pharmacy education. Students learn to locate, retrieve, and apply CPGs in didactic coursework and practice experiences. However, they often memorize and quote recommendations without critical analysis, which tends to undermine their clinical growth. Students should become genuine drug experts, based on strong critical-thinking skills and the ability to assimilate extensive clinical and scientific knowledge. Clinical practice guidelines improve health care, and students should be familiar with them, but there are legitimate criticisms of CPGs, stemming largely from potential conflicts of interest and limitations in the quality and scope of available evidence. Despite such flaws, CPGs can be used to facilitate the clinical growth of students if the emphasis is placed on critically analyzing and evaluating CPG recommendations, as opposed to blindly accepting them. From that perspective, the role that CPGs have come to play in education may need to be reconsidered. PMID:26889060

  6. The relevance of political prestudies for implementation studies of cognitive services in community pharmacies

    Kaae, Susanne; Traulsen, Janine Marie; Søndergaard, Birthe;


    BACKGROUND: Studies of cognitive services implementation in the pharmacy sector traditionally focus on individual and/or organizational factors to explain why some pharmacies are successful and others are not. The social and political context of the origins of these services is rarely part...... of the analysis. Researchers and practitioners in the field of pharmacy practice research are increasingly being encouraged to take into account the specific political and societal climate which often plays a defining role in the success or failure of cognitive services implementation in community pharmacies....... OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article is to argue for the inclusion of political pre-studies as part of the study design for implementation studies on reimbursed services in community pharmacy. METHODS: A political pre-study of the Inhaler Technique Assessment Service (ITAS) introduced in Denmark in 2004...

  7. Characterization of drug-related problems identified by clinical pharmacy staff at Danish hospitals

    Kjeldsen, Lene Juel; Birkholm, Trine; Fischer, Hanne;


    Background In 2010, a database of drug related problems (DRPs) was implemented to assist clinical pharmacy staff in documenting clinical pharmacy activities locally. A study of quality, reliability and generalisability showed that national analyses of the data could be conducted. Analyses...... at the national level may help identify and prevent DRPs by performing national interventions. Objective The aim of the study was to explore the DRP characteristics as documented by clinical pharmacy staff at hospital pharmacies in the Danish DRP-database during a 3-year period. Setting Danish hospital pharmacies....... Method Data documented in the DRP-database during the initial 3 years after implementation were analyzed retrospectively. The DRP-database contains DRPs reported at hospitals by clinical pharmacy staff. The analyses focused on DRP categories, implementation rates and drugs associated with the DRPs. Main...


    Molugulu Nagashekhara


    Full Text Available The services of retail pharmacies in Malaysia are still lagging behind compared to those in some developed countries. Doctors are allowed to dispense prescription medication to their patients. Besides that, traditional Chinese practices and other retailers, are allowed to sell their medical products and over the counter medications. Thus, retail pharmacies have to compete with all the above medicine outlets to win the customers. The purpose of this study is to determine the patient satisfaction on retail pharmacy services such as general, intervention and cognitive services. Data was collected using convenience sampling from 250 respondents using structured questionnaire which consisted of 30 items. Reliability test was conducted using Cronbach’s alpha values and are of 0.643, 0.695 and 0.674 for General, Intervention and Cognitive services respectively. The results revealed that respondents were adequately satisfied with general, intervention and cognitive services. In addition there is no difference in opinion among male and female respondents. In Malaysia, there are three different types of retail pharmacies exist, namely independent pharmacies, chain pharmacies and franchised pharmacies. Further investigations in details are required to find out the relationship between services provided by different types of retail pharmacies and patient satisfaction.

  9. Assessing the acceptability of community pharmacy based pharmaceutical care services in Karachi

    Muhammad Amir, B.Pharmacy, MSc. MBA, Assistant Professor/Clinical Pharmacist


    Full Text Available Provision of pharmaceutical care services in community pharmacies is a new trend in pharmacy practice worldwide. Published literature from developed countries is available showing benefits of pharmaceutical care services provided in community pharmacies. However, relatively little published literature is available from developing countries in which unique market environments are encountered. This study was conducted to assess the acceptability of community pharmacy based pharmaceutical care services in Karachi. Pharmaceutical care services were developed and offered to pharmacy customers for a period of two months. Acceptability was evaluated with respect to enrollment of participants in the program, discontinuation, and complaints registered. The findings provide a better understanding of pharmaceutical care marketing strategies and are discussed within the context of the health care environment in Karachi.

  10. Impact of a Service-Learning Course on First-Year Pharmacy Students’ Learning Outcomes

    Kearney, Kevin R.


    Objectives. To assess the differences in learning outcomes of first-year (P1) pharmacy students enrolled in a course based on service learning with those of a comparable group of students not enrolled in a course involving service learning.

  11. Counselling in Swedish Community Pharmacies : Understanding the Process of a Pharmaceutical Care Service

    Montgomery, Anna


    Community pharmacy practice is moving towards patient care and away from the mere dispensing of medicines. In this movement, which is guided by the philosophy of Pharmaceutical care (PC), new counselling services emerge. The purpose of the thesis was to add knowledge about the real-world provision of PC services by studying a defined PC service in Swedish pharmacies. Specific aims of this thesis were to investigate the experiences of professionals working with or close to the service and to d...

  12. Current status and future prospects of the development of clinical Pharmacy in China: A SWOT analysis.

    Rao, Yuefeng; Zhao, Qingwei; Zhang, Xiangyi; Yang, Hongyu; Lou, Yan; Zhang, Xingguo


    In many industrialized countries, clinical pharmacy has developed into a separate discipline and become a vital part of inpatient care in hospitals. However, as compared to many established branches of medicine, clinical pharmacy is still in its infancy, with much room for growth, improvement, and recognition by both the medical community and patients. In this study, a widely-recognized development strategy analysis tool, Strength, Weakness, Opportunity and Threat (SWOT), was used to systematically address several key issues to the development of clinical pharmacy in China. This analysis aims to provide feasible recommendations for the development of clinical pharmacy in China by identifying current problems and growth opportunities. Full development of clinical pharmacy as a mature clinical discipline will help promote the rational use of drugs by both clinicians and patients and lead to enhanced drug efficacy and safety. PMID:27087089

  13. Role Model Ambulatory Care Clinical Training Site in a Community-Based Pharmacy.

    Magarian, Edward O.; And Others


    An interdisciplinary project provided ambulatory care clinical training for pharmacy and nursing students in community-based pharmacies, promoting early detection and medical follow-up of common health problems within the community. Students learned new clinical skills in patient health assessment, new diagnostic technologies, patient education…

  14. An evaluation of community pharmacy-based services for type 2 diabetes in an Indonesian setting: patient survey

    Wibowo, Yosi; Parsons, Richard; Sunderland, Bruce; Hughes, Jeffery


    Background. Diabetes is an emerging chronic disease in developing countries. Its management in developing countries is mainly hospital/clinic based. The increasing diabetes burden in developing countries provides opportunities for community pharmacists to deliver a range of services. Since the management of diabetes requires the patient’s own involvement, it is important to gain their views in order to develop pharmacy-based diabetes services. Studies on diabetes patients’ views have been lim...


    Jeevangi V M; Neelkantreddy Patil; Anand B Geni; Hinchageri SS; Manjunath G; Shantveer H


    Drug information service refers to activities carried out by pharmacists in providing any drug related information to healthcare professionals to provide better patient care. Providing drug information is a clinical pharmacy service and delivered as part of the multidisciplinary approach to patient care. Accurate information about safety of drugs is very essential for health care professionals in identifying, preventing and managing Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs), thereby ensuring safe use of ...

  16. Influence Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction towards Drug Purchase Intention in Anggrek Outpatient Pharmacy Depo at Hasan Sadikin Hospital

    Pratiwi; Ahmad Muhtadi; Emma Surahman


    The quality of service is an evaluation which focused on customer’s awareness about a structural construction of a service or product that involves 5 main aspects which are tangibility, empathy, responsiveness, reliability and assurance. Based on monthly reports of pharmacy installation only about 30% of patients buy drugs in the Anggrek out patient depo out off patients visiting Anggrek out patient specialist clinic in Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital. The aim of this study is to determine the eff...

  17. Balanced Scorecards As a Tool for Developing Patient-Centered Pharmacy Services

    Enwere, Emmanuel N.; Keating, Ellen A.; Weber, Robert J.


    Having accurate data is essential for the pharmacy director to manage the department and develop patient-centered pharmacy services. A balanced scorecard (BSC) of essential department data, which is a broad view of a department’s function beyond its financial performance, is an important part of any department’s strategic plan. This column describes how the pharmacy director builds and promotes a department’s BSC. Specifically, this article reviews how the BSC supports the department’s mission and vision, describes the metrics of the BSC and how they are collected, and recommends how the pharmacy director can effectively use the scorecard results in promoting the pharmacy. If designed properly and updated consistently, a BSC can present a broad view of the pharmacy’s performance, serve as a guide for strategic decision making, and improve on the quality of its services. PMID:24958976

  18. A mixed methods evaluation of a patient care clinic located within a pharmacy school.

    Jorgenson, Derek J; Landry, Eric J L; Lysak, Katherine J


    Background The Medication Assessment Center is a faculty and student run patient care clinic located within the pharmacy school at the University of Saskatchewan (Canada). It was created as a novel experiential education site for pharmacy students and to provide clinical pharmacist services for complex patients who have trouble accessing services elsewhere. Objective To determine if the clinical services provided by faculty and students at the Medication Assessment Center are valuable to patients who are referred to the program. Setting The Medication Assessment Center, which is faculty and student run patient care clinic. Method Convergent mixed methods design comprised of a retrospective patient chart audit and a paper based patient experience survey. All patients who attended at least one appointment at the Medication Assessment Center between March 1, 2014 and July 31, 2015 were included in the chart audit. All new patients who were referred between April 1, 2015 and October 26, 2015 were included in the survey. Main outcome measures Recommendations made by the pharmacist and patient experience survey indicators. Results 173 patients were included in the chart audit, which found that patients were elderly (64.8 years), highly medically complex (13.8 medications and 6.5 diagnoses each), and had a large number of recommendations made by the pharmacist to adjust drug therapy (6.2 per patient). 121 questionnaires were mailed to patients with a response rate of 66.9 % (n = 81). The survey found high levels of support and satisfaction for the program, including more than half of patients (59.2 %) who reported that their health had improved as a result of the Medication Assessment Center. Conclusion The patient care and experiential education program offered by the Medication Assessment Center provides a valuable service to patients who are referred to the clinic. PMID:27166829

  19. Assessment of patient perceptions concerning a community pharmacy-based warfarin monitoring service

    Stefanie Ferreri, PharmD, BCACP, CDE, FAPhA; Debbie Pruss Hiller, PharmD2; Macary Weck Marciniak, PharmD, BCACP, BCPS, FAPhA; Jennifer Waitzman, PharmD1


    Objective: To assess patient perceptions of a North Carolina community pharmacy-based warfarin monitoring service. Methods: Prospective study of patients 18 years of age and older, who filled a prescription for warfarin, in one of five Raleigh area community pharmacies, between May 1, 2010 and October 31, 2010. A 14 item survey, along with a self-addressed stamped envelope, was mailed to 330 identified patients. The survey inquired about details of current anticoagulation monitoring services,...

  20. Development, test-retest reliability and validity of the Pharmacy Value-Added Services Questionnaire (PVASQ)

    Tan CL; Hassali MA; Saleem F; Shafie AA; Aljadhey H; Gan VB.


    Objective: (i) To develop the Pharmacy Value-Added Services Questionnaire (PVASQ) using emerging themes generated from interviews. (ii) To establish reliability and validity of questionnaire instrument. Methods: Using an extended Theory of Planned Behavior as the theoretical model, face-to-face interviews generated salient beliefs of pharmacy value-added services. The PVASQ was constructed initially in English incorporating important themes and later translated into the Malay language wit...

  1. Proceedings of the International Congress on Clinical Pharmacy Education. (1st, Minneapolis, Minnesota, July 13-16, 1976).

    American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy, Bethesda, MD.

    The proceedings of the First International Congress on Clinical Pharmacy Education, which introduced pharmacy educators from outside of North America to the U.S. clinical pharmacy component of education and practice are presented in more than 20 separate papers. The program's objectives were: (1) to provide a historical overview of the development…

  2. Pharmacy-based needle exchange in New Zealand: a review of services

    Greenhill Nicola


    Full Text Available Background New Zealand has been offering needle exchange services since 1987. Over 170 community pharmacies are involved in the provision of this service. However, no recent detailed review of New Zealand's pharmacy-based needle exchange has been published. This study aimed to explore service provision, identify problems faced by pharmacists, and look for improvements to services. Methods The study used a cross-sectional survey of all needle exchange pharmacies. Postal questionnaires were used with postal and telephone follow-up. Results A response rate of 88% was obtained overall. Pharmacists had been providing the service for a mean of 6 years. Pharmacies had given out an average of 130 injecting units, in a mean of 62 transactions to a mean of 17 clients in the 4 weeks prior to completing the questionnaire. The majority had not incurred problems such as violence or intoxicated clients in the last 12 months, although almost one third had experienced shoplifting which they associated with service provision. Training and improving return rates were identified as potential areas for further development. Conclusion New Zealand needle exchange pharmacies are providing services to a number of clients. The majority of service providers had been involved for a number of years, indicating the problems incurred had not caused them to withdraw their services – findings which echo those from the UK. Further training and support, including an exploration of improving return rates may be needed in the future.

  3. Student Pharmacists’ Clinical Interventions in Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences at a Community Nonteaching Hospital

    Shogbon, Angela O.; Lundquist, Lisa M.


    Objective. To assess student pharmacists’ clinical interventions in advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs) at a community nonteaching hospital and evaluate completed interventions based on the type of documentation method used.


    Molugulu Nagashekhara; Ng Sze-Nee; Matanjun David; Urban John Arnold D’Souza; Balan Rathakrishnan


    The services of retail pharmacies in Malaysia are still lagging behind compared to those in some developed countries. Doctors are allowed to dispense prescription medication to their patients. Besides that, traditional Chinese practices and other retailers, are allowed to sell their medical products and over the counter medications. Thus, retail pharmacies have to compete with all the above medicine outlets to win the customers. The purpose of this study is to determine the patient satisfacti...

  5. A survey for assessment of the role of pharmacist in community pharmacy services

    SHARMA, H; Jindal, D.; Aqil, M.; Alam, M. S.; Karim, S.; Kapur, P.


    Objective : To assess the role of a pharmacist in a community setting and the consumer′s perception in the National Capital Region. Setting : The study was conducted in the National Capital Region of India during the year 2003 - 2004. Materials and Methods : Four pharmacies were selected for this study, which were not attached to any hospital or clinic. Seventy-seven consumers, who visited these pharmacies during the study period, were selected for this study and interviewed just after they v...


    Shah Syed Shaukat Ali Muttaqi; Sumbul Shamim; Mustapha Omer


    Pharmacy education has been an important and integral part of the education system of a country. Pharmacy education in Pakistan has grown significantly through the ages and there are quite a few number of pharmacy schools providing education to the students. The academia and practice had always been disjointed in the country. Dow College of Pharmacy (DCOP) at DUHS was established in the year 2008, with the vision to provide exemplary pharmacy education to the students and bridging the gap bet...

  7. The impact of introducing a satellite dispensary service at an outpatient HIV clinic

    S Vekeria; Jalali, F.; S Sonecha; Bates, I.


    Background: Studies have demonstrated the potential impact of pharmaceutical services in HIV care [1]. We sought to extend HIV pharmacy services at the Dean Street outpatient HIV/GUM clinic to improve efficiency and enhance client satisfaction. The pharmacy team was expanded and a satellite dispensary was opened in the clinic. This project compares the new dispensary service with the previous one offered. Method: Comparisons were made between the pre- and post-change period across a range of ...

  8. PDCA应用于医院药事管理中的临床分析%Clinical Analysis of the Application of PDCA in Pharmacy Administration



    Objective Study on Application of PDCA in clinical management of hospital pharmacy. Methods Our hospital 500 cases of patients were randomly assigned to use clinical management and PDCA management. Statistical analysis of error event rates in patients with pharmacy,pharmacy management quality ratings and pharmacy service evaluation. Results Pharmacy error occurred in the observation group was 6.00%,satisfaction rate of pharmacy services 92.80%,pharmacy management quality score was(93.41±4.69),the control group were 20.80%,78.00%,(73.45±4.51),the difference has statistics significance(P < 0.05). Conclusion In the hospital clinical pharmacy management,PDCA can reduce the occurrence of error events pharmacy,improve patients’satisfaction with pharmaceutical services,improving overal hospital pharmacy management.%目的:研究临床医院药事管理中 PDCA 的应用。方法对我院500例患者随机分组,分别采用临床常规管理模式、PDCA 管理,统计分析患者药学差错事件发生率、药学管理质量评分以及患者对药学服务评价。结果观察组药学差错事件发生率为6.00%,对药学服务满意率为92.80%,药学管理质量评分为(93.41±4.69),对照组分别为20.80%、78.00%、(73.45±4.51),差异具有统计学意义(P <0.05)。结论在医院临床药事管理,PDCA 能减少药学差错事件的发生,提高患者对药学服务满意程度,提高医院整体药学管理水平。

  9. Evolution of Hospital-based Pharmacy Teaching Programs from 1989-1998.

    Raehl, Cynthia; Bond, C. A.


    Analyzed databases from four U.S. National Clinical Pharmacy Services Studies and the American Hospital Association for trends in hospital involvement in pharmacy education. Detailed findings indicated that clinical pharmacy services within the nation's teaching hospitals are not standardized and that financial pressures impede a full, consistent…

  10. The Future of Clinical Pharmacy: Developing a Holistic Model

    Patricia A. Shane


    Full Text Available This concept paper discusses the untapped promise of often overlooked humanistic skills to advance the practice of pharmacy. It highlights the seminal work that is, increasingly, integrated into medical and nursing education. The work of these educators and the growing empirical evidence that validates the importance of humanistic skills is raising questions for the future of pharmacy education and practice. To potentiate humanistic professional competencies, e.g., compassion, empathy, and emotional intelligence, how do we develop a more holistic model that integrates reflective and affective skills? There are many historical and current transitions in the profession and practice of pharmacy. If our education model is refocused with an emphasis on pharmacy’s therapeutic roots, the field has the opportunity to play a vital role in improving health outcomes and patient-centered care. Beyond the metrics of treatment effects, achieving greater patient-centeredness will require transformations that improve care processes and invest in patients’ experiences of the treatment and care they receive. Is layering on additional science sufficient to yield better health outcomes if we neglect the power of empathic interactions in the healing process?

  11. Impact of Facilitated Asynchronous Distance Education on Clinical Skills Development of International Pharmacy Graduates

    Austin, Zubin; Dean, Marie Rocchi


    The use of distance education for clinical skills development in the health professions has not been extensively described, due in part to the intensive nature of the relationship between the patient and practitioner. In the context of pharmacy practice, there are specific needs to develop new vehicles for clinical skills education due to growing…

  12. Perception of community pharmacists towards the barriers to enhanced pharmacy services in the healthcare system of Dubai: a quantitative approach

    Rayes IK


    Full Text Available Background: In many developing countries, pharmacists are facing many challenges while they try to enhance the quality of services provided to patients approaching community pharmacies. Objective: To explore perception of community pharmacists in Dubai regarding the obstacles to enhanced pharmacy services using a part of the results from a nation-wide quantitative survey. Methods: A questionnaire was distributed to 281 full-time licensed community pharmacists in Dubai. The questionnaire had 5 inter-linked sections: demographic information, information about the pharmacy, interaction with physicians, pharmacists’ current professional role, and barriers to enhanced pharmacy services. Results: About half of the respondents (45.4%, n=90 agreed that pharmacy clients under-estimate them and 52.5% (n=104 felt the same by physicians. About 47.5% (n=94 of the respondents felt that they are legally unprotected against profession’s malpractice. Moreover, 64.7% (n=128 stated that pharmacy practice in Dubai turned to be business-focused. In addition, 76.8% (n=252 found that one of the major barriers to enhanced pharmacy services is the high business running cost. Pharmacists screened tried to prove that they are not one of the barriers to optimized pharmacy services as 62.7% (n=124 disagreed that they lack appropriate knowledge needed to serve community and 67.7% (n=134 gave the same response when asked whether pharmacy staff lack confidence when treating consumers or not. Conclusions: Although being well established within the community, pharmacists in Dubai negatively perceived their own professional role. They stated that there are number of barriers which hinder optimized delivery of pharmacy services like under-estimation by pharmacy clients and other healthcare professionals, pressure to make sales, and high running cost.

  13. Exploring long term implementation of cognitive services in community pharmacies - a qualitative study

    Kaae S


    Full Text Available Implementing cognitive services in community pharmacies faces certain obstacles. One approach aimed at improving long-term implementation is to consider the implementation process as consisting of different stages, all of which require tailored initiatives. Taking this approach into account, there is a marked need for increased knowledge regarding the initiatives necessary to support especially the later phases of the implementation process. Objective: The aim of this project was to develop insight into factors pertaining to the later phases of implementing cognitive services in community pharmacies.Methods: A qualitative study was conducted, consisting of semi-structured interviews with 12 Danish pharmacy staff members, who were all in charge of improving the implementation of the Inhaler Technique Assessment Service (ITAS in the 5 years following its introduction. The interviews were used to explore which implementation barriers had been identified by the staff and how they had sought to overcome them. The interviews were analyzed by combining content and critical common sense analysis with theoretical interpretations based on Rogers “Diffusion of innovation” theory.Results: The most predominant long-term barrier was the staff members’ adoption of the ITAS at very different rates. The problem of laggards was not lack of competencies, but a lack of self-efficacy in believing that their actual competencies were sufficient to provide the service. Lack of time and attention to the service and obtaining support from the more senior members of the pharmacy were also problematic. Both individual and group activities were launched to overcome the identified challenges belonging to different phases of the implementation process. Conclusion: Those in charge of ensuring long term implementation of cognitive services in community pharmacies should consider the necessity to handle several simultaneous actions of both an individual and collective kind

  14. [Pharmacists' Behavior in Clinical Practice: Results from a Questionnaire Survey of Pharmacy Students].

    Nakada, Akiko; Akagawa, Keiko; Yamamoto, Hitomi; Kato, Yasuhisa; Yamamoto, Toshinori


    A questionnaire survey was performed to obtain pharmacy students' impressions of pharmacists' behavior, to classify these based on professionalism, and to analyze the relationship between these experiences and students' satisfaction with their clinical practice in Japan. The questionnaire was answered by 327 5th-year pharmacy school students upon completing clinical practice at community pharmacies from 2011 to 2012. They rated their satisfaction with their clinical practice using a 6-point Likert scale, and provided descriptions of their experience such as, "This health provider is professional", or "What a great person he/she is as a health provider". We counted the words and then categorized the responses into 10 traits, as defined by the American Pharmaceutical Association Academy of Students of Pharmacy-American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy, Council of Deans Task Force on Professionalism 1999, using text mining. We analyzed the relationship between their experiences with respectful persons, and satisfaction, using the Mann-Whitney U-test (significance leveltext mining analysis after excluding unsuitable responses. The word most used was "patient" (121 times). Many students noted their impression that the pharmacists had answered patients' questions. Of the 10 trait categories, "professional knowledge and skills" was mentioned most often (151 students). PMID:26831812

  15. Can a pharmacy intervention improve the metabolic risks of mental health patients? Evaluation of a novel collaborative service

    Maulavizada, Husna; Emmerton, Lynne; Hattingh, Hendrika Laetitia


    Background The pressure on healthcare services worldwide has driven the incorporation of disease state management services within community pharmacies in developed countries. Pharmacists are recognised as the most accessible healthcare professionals, and the incorporation of these services facilitates patient care. In Australia, the opportunity to manage pharmacy patients with mental illness has been underutilised, despite the existence of service models for other chronic conditions. This pap...

  16. Development, test-retest reliability and validity of the Pharmacy Value-Added Services Questionnaire (PVASQ

    Tan CL


    Full Text Available Objective: (i To develop the Pharmacy Value-Added Services Questionnaire (PVASQ using emerging themes generated from interviews. (ii To establish reliability and validity of questionnaire instrument. Methods: Using an extended Theory of Planned Behavior as the theoretical model, face-to-face interviews generated salient beliefs of pharmacy value-added services. The PVASQ was constructed initially in English incorporating important themes and later translated into the Malay language with forward and backward translation. Intention (INT to adopt pharmacy value-added services is predicted by attitudes (ATT, subjective norms (SN, perceived behavioral control (PBC, knowledge and expectations. Using a 7-point Likert-type scale and a dichotomous scale, test-retest reliability (N=25 was assessed by administrating the questionnaire instrument twice at an interval of one week apart. Internal consistency was measured by Cronbach’s alpha and construct validity between two administrations was assessed using the kappa statistic and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC. Confirmatory Factor Analysis, CFA (N=410 was conducted to assess construct validity of the PVASQ. Results: The kappa coefficients indicate a moderate to almost perfect strength of agreement between test and retest. The ICC for all scales tested for intra-rater (test-retest reliability was good. The overall Cronbach’ s alpha (N=25 is 0.912 and 0.908 for the two time points. The result of CFA (N=410 showed most items loaded strongly and correctly into corresponding factors. Only one item was eliminated. Conclusions: This study is the first to develop and establish the reliability and validity of the Pharmacy Value-Added Services Questionnaire instrument using the Theory of Planned Behavior as the theoretical model. The translated Malay language version of PVASQ is reliable and valid to predict Malaysian patients’ intention to adopt pharmacy value-added services to collect partial

  17. A Mass Merchandiser's Role in Enhancing Pharmacy Students’ Business Plan Development Skills for Medication Therapy Management Services

    Morris Moultry, Aisha


    Objectives. To develop a relationship between a pharmacy management course and a mass merchandiser and to determine whether involving pharmacy managers from the mass merchandiser in the course would enhance student skills in developing a business plan for medication therapy management services.

  18. Impact of Pharmacy Student Interventions in an Urban Family Medicine Clinic

    Ginzburg, Regina


    Objectives. To determine the number of interventions made by pharmacy students at an urban family medicine clinic and the acceptance rate of these recommendations by the healthcare providers. The secondary objective was to investigate the cost avoidance value of the interventions.

  19. An Endocrine Pharmacology Course for the Clinically-Oriented Pharmacy Curriculum

    Rahwan, Ralf G.


    In view of trends in clinical pharmacy education, the role of the traditional basic sciences has to be reassessed. An endocrine pharmacology course comprised of 49 clock-hours and open for professional undergraduate and graduate credit is described that blends basic and applied pharmacology. (LBH)

  20. Evaluation of a pharmacy service helping patients to get a good start in taking their new medications for chronic diseases

    Kaae, Susanne; Dam, Pernille; Rossing, Charlotte


    to the risk of non-adherence. Counseling at the pharmacy counter may not be structured appropriately to address issues of potential non-adherence to new medication. For these reasons, a new pharmacy service in Denmark was developed. The service consists of a 15-min face-to-face interview and a 10-min...... and a good start in taking the new medication due to the pharmacy service. The majority of patients reported being adherent, but a potential risk of non-adherence was identified in nearly 50% of patients. Only slight improvements in perceived concordance were reported. The positive outcome of the service...... was mainly due to the first interview. Some patients had concerns about their new situation, which they thought more important to resolve than issues of potential non-adherence. CONCLUSIONS: Patients were satisfied with the pharmacy service and reported that staff helped them get a good start with the new...

  1. A multicenter study of biological effects assessment of pharmacy workers occupationally exposed to antineoplastic drugs in Pharmacy Intravenous Admixture Services.

    Zhang, Jingjing; Bao, Jianan; Wang, Renying; Geng, Zhou; Chen, Yao; Liu, Xinchun; Xie, Yongzhong; Jiang, Ling; Deng, Yufei; Liu, Gaolin; Xu, Rong; Miao, Liyan


    This multi-centered study was designed to evaluate the biological effects of exposure to antineoplastic drugs (ADs) at PIVAS (Pharmacy Intravenous Admixture Service) across ten Chinese hospitals. 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) was used as a biomarker of DNA oxidative damage and lymphocyte apoptosis assays using peripheral lymphocyte cells were used to detect primary DNA damage. The mutagenicity activity was estimated with the Ames fluctuation test. 158 exposed and 143 unexposed workers participated in this study. The urinary 8-OHdG/Cr concentrations of the exposed group was 22.05±17.89ng/mg Cr, which was significantly higher than controls of 17.36±13.50ng/mg Cr (P<0.05). The rate of early lymphocyte apoptosis was slightly increased in exposed group than that of the control group (P=0.087). The mutagenic activity was significantly higher in the exposed group relative to the control group (P<0.05). Moreover, while no statistically significant difference was observed, higher concentrations of 8-OHdG/Cr in urine and an early lymphocyte apoptosis rate were found in exposed group II as compared to exposed group I. In addition, a significant correlation between early lymphocyte apoptosis and exposure time to ADs was also observed (P<0.05). In conclusion, our study identified elevated biomarkers in PIVAS workers exposed to ADs. However whether these findings could lead to increased incidence of genotoxic responses remains to be further investigated. PMID:27179702

  2. Clinical pharmacy in a multidisciplinar team for chronic pain in adults.

    Bauters, T G M; Devulder, J; Robays, H


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the role and the impact of a clinical pharmacist as a member of a multidisciplinary pain team. Although physicians have a good knowledge of pharmacotherapy in the field of pain medication, pharmacy interventions were necessary to enhance the quality of prescribing. On a population of 93 patients, a total of 120 interventions were recorded. The different types of interventions included: provision of information (10.0%), clinical intervention (89.2%) and the provision of a specific product (0.8%). Out of the 107 clinical interventions, a total of 95.3 % interventions were accepted by the physicians. The results highlight the clinical importance of the pharmacy in optimizing drug therapy for adult patients with chronic pain. PMID:19048702

  3. Pharmacy Locations, Pharmacy Locations, Published in unknown, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, Warren County Emergency Services.

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Pharmacy Locations dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of unknown. It is described as...

  4. Development and operation of a pharmacy-based intravenous cytotoxic reconstitution service.

    M Anderson; Brassington, D; Bolger, J


    An intravenous cytotoxic reconstitution service has proved extremely popular with both medical and nursing staff. Since the pharmacy has taken over the responsibility for presenting these medicines in a readily usable form, many potential hazards to inexperienced medical staff have been eliminated, and much time and money have been saved. The pharmacists are in an excellent position to offer advice on many aspects of excellent position to offer advice on many aspects of cytotoxic treatment an...

  5. The lay user perspective on the quality of pharmaceuticals, drug therapy and pharmacy services--results of focus group discussions

    Traulsen, Janine Marie; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Björnsdóttir, Ingunn


    This article presents the results of a study on quality of pharmacy services and perceived risk of pharmaceuticals. The results presented here are part of a multi-study evaluation of major changes in drug distribution in Iceland.......This article presents the results of a study on quality of pharmacy services and perceived risk of pharmaceuticals. The results presented here are part of a multi-study evaluation of major changes in drug distribution in Iceland....

  6. Is Mail Service Pharmacy Cost Beneficial to Plan Sponsors?

    Larisa Vulakh, Student Pharmacist


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to describe and compare prescription drug costs charged to a plan sponsor for the top 50 maintenance medications provided through retail and mail service procurement channels. Data were obtained for covered beneficiaries of a health plan sponsored by an employer with just over 3,000 covered employees The analytics team at the PBM administering the plan sponsor’s prescription drug benefit provided de-identified claims information for the top 50 maintenance prescription drugs delivered through either mail service or retail procurement methods for this employer over a one year period (7/1/2008 to 6/30/2009. Based on these data, (1 dollar amount difference (mail service minus retail, and (2 percentage difference between mail and retail costs (as a percentage of the lower net cost per day were computed. The findings revealed that 76 percent of the medication products studied were associated with a lower net cost per day to the plan sponsor through mail service procurement and 24 percent were associated with lower net cost through retail procurement.

  7. The influence of job characteristics on job outcomes of pharmacists in hospital, clinic, and community pharmacies.

    Lin, Blossom Yen-Ju; Yeh, Ying-Chen; Lin, Wen-Hung


    This study examines the relationship between job characteristics and job outcomes of pharmacists in hospital, clinic, and community pharmacies in Taiwan. The structured questionnaires covered the items of job characteristics, job outcomes, and demographics of pharmacists, and were distributed between Feb 2004 and April 2004. Two hundred and ninety-eight pharmacists responded. Data were analyzed descriptively, and univariate analyses, factor analysis, and multiple regression analyses were used. It found the more enriched the job, the greater the job satisfaction and less intention to leave. And community pharmacists reported greater job enrichment and job satisfaction and less intention to leave than did hospital and clinic pharmacists. It suggests pharmacy managers could recognize the needs of pharmacists to redesign and enrich their work arrangements. PMID:17622026

  8. Clinical and Business Intelligence: Why It's Important to Your Pharmacy.

    Pinto, Brian; Fox, Brent I


    According to the Healthcare Information Management and Systems Society, "Clinical & Business Intelligence (C&BI) is the use and analysis of data captured in the healthcare setting to directly inform decision-making" ( Some say that it is the right information given to the right person at the right time in the right way. No matter how you define it, the fact remains that timely access, synthesis, and visualization of clinical data have become key to how health professionals make patient care decisions and improve care delivery. PMID:27559195

  9. Pharmacy without walls.

    Shane, R R


    Attributes of excellence in pharmacy management are described: big-picture thinking, the ability to exploit change, and willingness to take risks. Big-picture thinking means understanding trends that are shaping health care in order to determine where pharmacy fits. Health systems look beyond inpatient care and use case managers to maximize resource use; pharmacists might serve as case managers. Managed care has caused physicians to be more receptive to resource-management strategies, such as clinical pathways; pharmacists can collaborate in the development of clinical pathways. Pharmacists can serve as physician extenders; for example, by conducting anticoagulation or hypertension clinics. Pharmacists need flexibility to adapt to changes in the internal organization of acute care institutions; they will need to learn about the clinical, behavioral, operational, and fiscal aspects of managing the total patient. New reporting relationships give pharmacists the opportunity to demonstrate to other members of the health care team their role in preventing, managing, and resolving drug-related problems throughout the continuum of care. Risk-taking can mean setting ambitious goals. By setting and achieving ambitious goals for products and services, pharmacists can raise patients' and other health care providers' expectations for pharmacy services. Pharmacists' success will depend on their willingness to experiment with new services and discard services that do not substantially advance patient care. Pharmacists must monitor changes in the provision of health care, determine the implications for their practice and seek opportunities for participation outside the walls within which they have traditionally practiced. PMID:8673664


    Alsaraf Khulood Majid


    Potential activation of clinical pharmacist role is of great importance in reducing the medication errors which are a well- known problem in hospital. The medication errors could be prescribing errors, dispensing errors, and administering errors. In this study medication errors randomly were collected by clinical pharmacist and inpatient pharmacist from different wards at a Hospital in Dubai, UAE, from July to October 2011. The results showed that the highest percentage of medication errors w...


    Alsaraf Khulood Majid


    Full Text Available Potential activation of clinical pharmacist role is of great importance in reducing the medication errors which are a well- known problem in hospital. The medication errors could be prescribing errors, dispensing errors, and administering errors. In this study medication errors randomly were collected by clinical pharmacist and inpatient pharmacist from different wards at a Hospital in Dubai, UAE, from July to October 2011. The results showed that the highest percentage of medication errors was prescribing errors, followed by administering errors and then dispensing errors. Among prescribing errors, the results showed the highest percentage was stat errors, followed by pro re nata(PRN, then incomplete or unclear Rx and at the end antibiotic errors. The study shows that the clinical pharmacist play important role in reduction of medication errors evolving from pharmacist and nursing site, on the other hand, prescribing errors were reduced up to 23% with the medication review system.

  12. Medical Oncology Pharmacy: A New Role for the Clinical Pharmacist

    Morris, Carl R.; Hickman, Mary Johne


    The University of Tennessee has established a training program for clinical pharmacists dealing with cancer chemotherapy patients. Health-care settings are described in which these individuals can contribute as unique health-care team members in oncology. (Author/LBH)

  13. An Ambient Intelligence Framework for End-User Service Provisioning in a Hospital Pharmacy: a Case Study.

    Martín, Diego; Alcarria, Ramón; Sánchez-Picot, Álvaro; Robles, Tomás


    End-user development is a new trend to provide tailored services to dynamic environments such as hospitals. These services not only facilitate daily work for pharmacy personnel but also improve self-care in elder people that are still related to hospital, such as discharged patients. This paper presents an ambient intelligence (AmI) environment for End-user service provisioning in the pharmacy department of Gregorio Marañón Hospital in Madrid, composed of a drug traceability infrastructure (DP-TraIN) and a ubiquitous application for enabling the pharmacy staff to create and execute their own services for facilitating drug management and dispensing. The authors carried out a case study with various experiments where different roles from the pharmacy department of Gregorio Marañón Hospital were involved in activities such as drug identification, dispensing and medication administering. The authors analyzed the effort required to create services by pharmacy staff, the discharged patients' perception of the AmI environment and the quantifiable benefits in reducing patient waiting time for drug dispensing. PMID:26286317

  14. Clinical Microbiology in Pharmacy Education: A Practice-based Approach

    Olla Wasfi; Mary Power; Slavcev, Roderick A.


    The increasing incidence of multi-drug resistant pathogenic bacteria, alongside viral and fungal human pathogens, supports the argument that skills in microbiology and infectious disease diagnosis, treatment and prevention are of growing global importance to be held among primary care clinicians.In Canada, inevitable future astronomical health care costs largely due to an aging population, have forced eyes upon pharmacists as one of (if not) the primary clinical professions to accommodate the...

  15. Objective structured clinical examination for pharmacy students in Qatar: cultural and contextual barriers to assessment.

    Wilby, K J; Black, E K; Austin, Z; Mukhalalati, B; Aboulsoud, S; Khalifa, S I


    This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and psychometric defensibility of implementing a comprehensive objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) on the complete pharmacy programme for pharmacy students in a Middle Eastern context, and to identify facilitators and barriers to implementation within new settings. Eight cases were developed, validated, and had standards set according to a blueprint, and were assessed with graduating pharmacy students. Assessor reliability was evaluated using inter-class coefficients (ICCs). Concurrent validity was evaluated by comparing OSCE results to professional skills course grades. Field notes were maintained to generate recommendations for implementation in other contexts. The examination pass mark was 424 points out of 700 (60.6%). All 23 participants passed. Mean performance was 74.6%. Low to moderate inter-rater reliability was obtained for analytical and global components (average ICC 0.77 and 0.48, respectively). In conclusion, OSCE was feasible in Qatar but context-related validity and reliability concerns must be addressed prior to future iterations in Qatar and elsewhere. PMID:27432407

  16. Evaluation of preceptors and skills achievement by clinical pharmacy clerkship students during their clinical rotations at University of Gondar, Ethiopia

    Belachew SA


    Full Text Available Sewunet Admasu Belachew, Tadesse Melaku Abegaz, Akshaya Srikanth Bhagavathula, Henok Getachew, Yonas Getaya TeferaClinical Pharmacy Department, University of Gondar, Gondar, EthiopiaAim: To investigate the overall experiences of clinical pharmacy students during their clinicalattachments and to understand the breadth and depth of clinical skills provided by their preceptors.Methods: A cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire containing 34 itemsto obtain feedback from the clerkship students from June to July 2015. Data analysis was performedto calculate mean, standard deviation, percentages, and multiple logistic regression usingStatistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS software Version 22. Statistical significancewas set at P<0.01.Results: All 58 clerkship students actively participated in the study, yielding a response rateof 100%. While students ranked their clerkship experience as moderate, >15% remarked thatthey did not receive enough opportunities to hone their pharmaceutical care documentationskills. A relatively high percentage of students (32.8% strongly agreed that their preceptors hadprovided ample opportunity to discuss the patient problems at the bedside and encouraged themto express their opinions regarding patients’ drug therapeutic issues. This study also revealedthat students’ continuity in developing their therapeutic and disease process knowledge wassignificantly associated with the preceptor’s ability to provide adequate training and orientation(P =0.01, engagement in clinical pharmacy activities (P =0.01, regular review of students’ work(P =0.01, and instruction to students before entering clinical sites (P =0.00.Conclusion: The findings of this study reveal that a majority of the students were moderatelysatisfied with the clinical training program and preceptors need to demonstrate effective pharmaceutical care processes in their clinical sites.Keywords: pharmaceutical care, training

  17. Addressing Cultural Competency in Pharmacy Education through International Service Learning and Community Engagement

    Rosemin Kassam


    Full Text Available This paper describes the design, implementation and evaluation of a course in international service learning and community engagement for pharmacy undergraduate students. The course offered students opportunities to cultivate cultural competency in an international setting foreign to their own—Sub-Saharan Africa. The experience consisted of pre-departure preparation seminars followed by subsequent community immersion to experience, explore and confront personal attitudes and perceptions. A key feature of this course was its emphasis on a continuing cycle of learning, community engagement and reflection. Three students participated, a near-maximum cohort. Their daily self-reflections were qualitatively analyzed to document the impact of their cultural learning and experiences and revealed meaningful learning in the domains of self-assessment and awareness of their personal and professional culture, exposure to a participatory health delivery model involving the patient, the community and a multidisciplinary team and opportunities to engage in patient care in a different cultural setting. This proof-of-concept course provided students with experiences that were life-changing on both personal and professional levels and confirmed the viability and relevance of international service learning for the pharmacy field within its university-wide mandate.

  18. Identification of patients with atrial fibrillation in UK community pharmacy: an evaluation of a new service.

    Twigg, M J; Thornley, T; Scobie, N


    Background Many patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) are asymptomatic and diagnosed via opportunistic screening. Community pharmacy has been advocated as a potential resource for opportunistic screening and lifestyle interventions. Objective The objective of this evaluation is to describe the outcomes from an AF service, in terms of referrals and interventions provided to patients identified as not at risk. Methods Eligibility was assessed from pharmacy records and the completion of a short questionnaire. Once consented, patients were screened for AF and their blood pressure was measured. Results Of 594 patients screened, nine were identified as at risk of having AF and were referred to their GP. The service also identified 109 patients with undiagnosed hypertension, 176 patients with a Body Mass Index >30, 131 with an Audit-C score >5 and 59 smokers. Pharmacists provided 413 interventions in 326 patients aimed at weight reduction (239), alcohol consumption (123) and smoking cessation (51). Conclusion This evaluation characterises the interventions provided to, not only those identified with the target condition-in this case AF-but also those without it. The true outcome of these additional interventions, along with appropriate follow-up, should be the focus of future studies. PMID:27107584

  19. Influence Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction towards Drug Purchase Intention in Anggrek Outpatient Pharmacy Depo at Hasan Sadikin Hospital



    Full Text Available The quality of service is an evaluation which focused on customer’s awareness about a structural construction of a service or product that involves 5 main aspects which are tangibility, empathy, responsiveness, reliability and assurance. Based on monthly reports of pharmacy installation only about 30% of patients buy drugs in the Anggrek out patient depo out off patients visiting Anggrek out patient specialist clinic in Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of service quality and customer satisfaction to purchase intention in the Anggrek out patient depo Hasan Sadikin hospital at Bandung. The method used in this study is analytical survey with cross sectional design. The samples used were 200 patients, consist of 104 customers who have visited more than one times and 96 first visit costumer to this clinic. Data was collected using a questionnaire and analyzed using Smart PLS V 2.0 software. The results of this study showed that the service quality with tangible dimensions, reliability, responsiveness, assurance, and empathy are affecting the customer satisfaction with a score of 12.755 t-count (greater than t-table 1.983 and a positive value of the original sample of 0.800. Customer satisfaction affecting the customer purchase intentions with t-count is greater than t-table values of 5.012 and 0.726 of the original positive sample. While the service quality does not directly influence customer purchase intention with the t-test is smaller than t-table is 1.455 and the negative of the original sample -0.287. Some of service quality influence customers that causes not purchasing drugs from the out patient depo there are effect of unavailability of counseling, long waiting time of service, the need for special counseling room, a spacious waiting room, and the completeness of drug availability.

  20. Pharmacists' Perceptions of the Barriers and Facilitators to the Implementation of Clinical Pharmacy Key Performance Indicators

    Minard, Laura V; Deal, Heidi; Harrison, Megan E; Toombs, Kent; Neville, Heather; Meade, Andrea


    Background In hospitals around the world, there has been no consensus regarding which clinical activities a pharmacist should focus on until recently. In 2011, a Canadian clinical pharmacy key performance indicator (cpKPI) collaborative was formed. The goal of the collaborative was to advance pharmacy practice in order to improve patient outcomes and enhance the quality of care provided to patients by hospital pharmacists. Following a literature review, which indicated that pharmacists can improve patient outcomes by carrying out specific activities, and an evidence-informed consensus process, a final set of eight cpKPIs were established. Canadian hospitals leading the cpKPI initiative are currently in the early stages of implementing these indicators. Objective To explore pharmacists' perceptions of the barriers and facilitators to the implementation of cpKPIs. Methods Clinical pharmacists employed by the Nova Scotia Health Authority were invited to participate in focus groups. Focus group discussions were audio-recorded and transcribed, and data was analyzed using thematic analysis. Findings Three focus groups, including 26 pharmacists, were conducted in February 2015. Three major themes were identified. Resisting the change was comprised of documentation challenges, increased workload, practice environment constraints, and competing priorities. Embracing cpKPIs was composed of seeing the benefit, demonstrating value, and existing supports. Navigating the unknown was made up of quality versus quantity battle, and insights into the future. Conclusions Although pharmacists were challenged by documentation and other changes associated with the implementation of cpKPIs, they demonstrated significant support for cpKPIs and were able to see benefits of the implementation. Pharmacists came up with suggestions for overcoming resistance associated with the implementation of cpKPIs and provided insights into the future of pharmacy practice. The identification of barriers

  1. 探讨提高我院门诊西药房服务质量满意度%Pharmacy service satisfaction analysis in outpatient pharmacy

    黄洋扬; 谭活玲


    Objective:To enhace satisfaction rate of pharmaceutical service in outpatient pharmacy by means of the investigation of outpatients’satisfaction of pharmacy service.Methods:The outpatients’ pharmacy service satisfaction were investigated by questionnaire designed from pharmacy department outpatient pharmacy.100 outpatients were investigated by random selection.Result:After screening indiG cators,96 questionnaires were distributed,and the recovery rate of 96%.The ful mark was 5.The satisfaction of waiting time for taking medicine was the lowest(4.65);secondly,the satisfaction of language courtesy was 4.67;the satisfaction of service attitude was 4.71;the satisfaction of special medication attention was 4.72;the satisfaction of answering the patient questions was 4.76;the satisfaction of the accuracy of medicine dispensing was most(4.88).Conclusion:Patients of our hospital outpatient pharmacy service overal is satisfactory at present.Accuracy of medicine was mostly metioned,while the most unsatisfactory was waiting time for medicine.It stil needed improvement on the language courtesy,service attitude,special medication attention and answering of the patient questions.%目的:通过调查广东省中医院门诊西药房服务质量的现状,探讨提高患者对门诊西药房服务的满意度.方法:采用科室自行设计的药剂科门诊西药房服务满意度调查问卷,用随机抽样法对100名患者进行问卷调查.结果:回收有效问卷96份,有效回收率为96%.满分为5.患者对排队候药时间的满意度最低为4.65,其次为礼貌用语为4.67、服务态度为4.71、交代药品特殊用法为4.72、解答病人疑问为4.76、配发药品准确性是最高为4.88.结论:患者对目前我院门诊西药房服务总体是满意的,集中体现在配方药的准确性,最不满意的是取药候药时间,在礼貌用语、交代特殊用法、服务态度、回答病人疑问方面等仍需要提高.

  2. Online Pharmacy Services in the Context of the Modern Internet of Things Online Pharmacy Services in the Context of the Modern Internet of Things%现代物联网条件下的在线药学服务

    孔健; 刘颖; 李莹莹; 周尚


    Objective:To explore online pharmacy service in the context of internet of things, so as to provide references for improving the overall pharmaceutical care level. Methods:By analyzing and comparing online pharmacy services and the advantages of internet of things, this paper expounded the social beneift of integration of pharmacy service and internet of things in the public health service and explored the feasibility of establishment of online pharmacy service in the context of the modern internet of things.Results and Conclusion:The combination of internets of things and online pharmacy service not only can effectively supervise drug safety on the internet, but also can solve difficulties in purchasing medicine and drugs for patients and improve the prevalence and quality of online pharmacy service. In the context of the modern internet of things, establishment of the system of online pharmacy service will better promote the development of pharmaceutical care and public health management.%目的:探索物联网条件下在线药学服务,为全面提高药学服务水平提供参考。方法:通过分析和比较在线药学服务和物联网的优势,论述两者相整合在公共卫生服务中所能发挥的社会效益,探讨建立现代物联网条件下的在线药学服务体系的可行性。结果与结论:物联网与在线药学服务相结合,不仅可以有效监管互联网上的药品安全,还可以解决患者买药和用药困难,提高在线药学服务的普及率与服务质量。建立现代物联网条件下的在线药学服务体系,将更好地推动我国药学服务及全民健康管理事业的发展。

  3. 儿科药学信息服务系统的应用及评价%Application and Evaluation of Pediatric Pharmacy Information Service System

    李晶; 徐咏


    目的:为促进儿科合理用药提供参考.方法:介绍我院依据儿科特色,采用动态网页技术设计开发儿科药学信息服务系统并加以应用的情况,同时就其应用效果进行评价.结果与结论:该系统具有立足药学、服务儿科,设计创新、更新及时,数据库管理药学信息,实现网上交流与咨询等特点;主要包括儿科用药查询系统、合理用药、药品不良反应、药学信息等板块.该系统的应用规范了儿科处方,促进了临床合理用药,为医药人员提供了继续教育的平台,为药学与临床架起沟通桥梁,获得了全院医务人员的好评,值得推广.%OBJECTIVE: To provide reference for the improvement of rational drug use in pediatric department. METHODS: Pediatric pharmacy information service system was developed and applied by dynamic web page techniques according to the characteristics of pediatric department in our hospital. The effects of system were evaluated. RESULTS & CONCLUSION: The service system covers various characteristics of basing on pharmacy, serving for pediatric department, innovation and design, timely update, pharmacy information management by database, realizing online communication and query. The service system includes several modules, such as medication inquiry, rational drug use, adverse drug reaction, pharmacy information. The service system standardizes pediatric prescription, promotes rational drug use in the clinic, and provides continuing education platform for medical personnel and platform for communication between pharmacy and clinical practice, etc. It has won the praise of the hospital medical staff and is worth of promoting.

  4. Identifying consumer segments in health services markets: an application of conjoint and cluster analyses to the ambulatory care pharmacy market.

    Carrol, N V; Gagon, J P


    Because of increasing competition, it is becoming more important that health care providers pursue consumer-based market segmentation strategies. This paper presents a methodology for identifying and describing consumer segments in health service markets, and demonstrates the use of the methodology by presenting a study of consumer segments in the ambulatory care pharmacy market. PMID:10262855


    Jeevangi V M


    Full Text Available Drug information service refers to activities carried out by pharmacists in providing any drug related information to healthcare professionals to provide better patient care. Providing drug information is a clinical pharmacy service and delivered as part of the multidisciplinary approach to patient care. Accurate information about safety of drugs is very essential for health care professionals in identifying, preventing and managing Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs, thereby ensuring safe use of medications. The aim of the study was to assess and evaluate the drug information service from enquirer’s perspective. The data was collected from drug information centre through drug information request forms and feedback questionnaires form. A nine months hospital based prospective study was carried out at Basaveshwar Teaching and General Hospital (BTGH, Gulbarga. A total number of 122 queries were received during the study period. Most of the queries were received from general medicine department 82(67.21% and least were from general surgery 2(1.64%. Most of the queries were for update of knowledge 69 (56.56% and time frame for reply was within a day 83 (68.03%, answers were given in printed format 77(63.11%. The majority of queries were regarding dose and administration of drug 49 (36.03% and most preferred resource was Micromedex 75 (52.45%. The quality of the services provided by the centre was appreciated by majority of its users. However there is a need to bring greater awareness about the service in the hospital and to encourage the healthcare professionals to utilize the services for better patient care.

  6. Community pharmacy: an untapped patient data resource

    Wright DJ


    Full Text Available David John Wright, Michael James Twigg School of Pharmacy, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK Abstract: As community pharmacy services become more patient centered, they will be increasingly reliant on access to good quality patient information. This review describes how the information that is currently available in community pharmacies can be used to enhance service delivery and patient care. With integration of community pharmacy and medical practice records on the horizon, the opportunities this will provide are also considered. The community pharmacy held patient medication record, which is the central information repository and has been used to identify non-adherence, prompts the pharmacist to clinically review prescriptions, identify patients for additional services, and identify those patients at greater risk of adverse drug events. While active recording of patient consultations for treatment over the counter may improve the quality of consultations and information held, the lost benefits of anonymity afforded by community pharmacies need to be considered. Recording of pharmacy staff activities enables the workload to be monitored, remuneration to be justified, critical incidents to be learned from, but is not routine practice. Centralization of records between community pharmacies enables practices to be compared and consistent problems to be identified. By integrating pharmacy and medical practice records, patient behavior with respect to medicines can be more closely monitored and should prevent duplication of effort. When using patient information stored in a community pharmacy, it is, however, important to consider the reason why the information was recorded in the first instance and whether it is appropriate to use it for a different purpose without additional patient consent. Currently, community pharmacies have access to large amounts of information, which, if stored and used appropriately, can significantly enhance the

  7. To Investigate the Central Pharmacy Service Quality%提高中心药房服务质量的探讨



    医院药学是一门综合学科,涉及面广,内容丰富[1]。本文就医院病区药房如何顺应医疗卫生事业的发展,提高服务质量,从规范药房管理、强化与完善药房的药学服务与研究职能、部分实现药房自动化三个方面进行了论述。%The hospital pharmacy is a comprehensive subject, involving a wide range, rich content. The development of the hospital ward pharmacy how to comply with the medical and health work, improve service quality, from the standard of pharmacy management, strengthen and perfect the pharmacy service and research functions, part of the realization of three aspects of pharmacy automation are discussed.

  8. Critical thinking in the context of clinical practice: The need to reinvent pharmacy education

    de Freitas, Erika Lourenço; Ramalho-de-Oliveira, Djenane


    In order to understand how pedagogical practices influence pharmacy students’ development of critical thinking skills, we used critical ethnography and the methods of participant observation, focus groups and in-depthinterviews with students and faculty from one of the top ten Colleges of Pharmacy in the United States. The results that emerged from two semesters of fieldwork engagement suggested that the traditionally taught pharmaceutical knowledge isn’t enough to prepare pharmacy students f...

  9. Cost-Effectiveness of Clinical Pharmacy Education on Infection Management Among Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease in an Indonesian Hospital

    Nasution, Azizah; Sulaiman, SA. Syed; A. A. SHAFIE


    Objectives This study evaluated the clinical and economic impacts of clinical pharmacy education (CPE) on infection management among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages 4 and 5 in Haji Adam Malik Hospital, Indonesia. Methods A quasi-experimental economic evaluation comparing CPE impact on 6-month CKD mortality was conducted on the basis of payer perspective. The experimental group (n = 63) received care by health care providers who were given CPE on drug-related probl...

  10. 21 CFR 1304.05 - Records of authorized central fill pharmacies and retail pharmacies.


    ... retail pharmacies. 1304.05 Section 1304.05 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... fill pharmacies and retail pharmacies. (a) Every retail pharmacy that utilizes the services of a... number, that are authorized to fill prescriptions on its behalf. The retail pharmacy must also verify...

  11. Analysis of Potential Drug-Drug Interactions and Its Clinical Manifestation of Pediatric Prescription on 2 Pharmacies in Bandung

    Melisa I. Barliana


    Full Text Available The potential of Drug-Drug Interactions (DDI in prescription have high incidence around the world, including Indonesia. However, scientific evidence regarding DDI in Indonesia is not available. Therefore, in this study we have conducted survey in 2 pharmacies in Bandung against pediatric prescription given by pediatrician. These prescriptions then analyzed the potential for DDI contained in the prescription and clinical manifestation. The analysis showed that in pharmacy A, there are 33 prescriptions (from a total of 155 prescriptions that have potential DDI, or approximately 21.19% (2 prescriptions have the potential DDI major categories, 23 prescriptions categorized as moderate, and 8 prescriptions as minor. In Pharmacy B, there are 6 prescriptions (from a total of 40 prescriptions or 15% of potential DDI (4 prescriptions categorized as moderate and 2 prescriptions as minor. This result showed that potential DDI happened less than 50% in pediatric prescription from both pharmacies. However, this should get attention because DDI should not happen in a prescription considering its clinical manifestations caused by DDI. Moreover, current pharmaceutical care refers to patient oriented than product oriented. In addition, further study for the pediatric prescription on DDI incidence in large scale need to be investigated.

  12. Pharmacist and Pharmacy Staff Experiences with Non-prescription (NP) Sale of Syringes and Attitudes Toward Providing HIV Prevention Services for Injection Drug Users (IDUs) in Providence, RI

    Zaller, Nickolas; Jeronimo, Alexandra; Bratberg, Jeffrey; Case, Patricia; Rich, Josiah D.


    Increased access to sterile syringes among injection drug users (IDUs) has been correlated with reduced syringe sharing. Many states, including Rhode Island, have legalized non-prescription (NP) sale of syringes in pharmacies. Previous studies have suggested that training pharmacists to provide HIV-related services to IDUs may be an important opportunity to engage IDUs and provide them with such services. However, it is not clear to what extent pharmacy staff are willing to expand their roles...

  13. Attitude of fourth year Doctor of Pharmacy students towards pharmacy profession and their career preferences

    Salman Saad


    Conclusion: Fourth year students believed that pharmacy education and practice affect the health care system. Their favorite career areas were clinical pharmacy, industrial pharmacy, and hospital pharmacy. Personal interest was the most important factor involved in this selection. Most of them were interested in pharmacy-related research activities.


    Viera Žufková


    Full Text Available One of the key questions in medicine nowadays is the ethics and its maximum involvement into medical profession. The absence of ethics is very notable in public and professional relations. In spite of the fact that the pharmacy profession was separated from the medical profession in the 13th century by the emperor Frederic II, the ethics is involved into pharmacy study in minimum amount.  In the article there is presented the ethics inclusion into pharmacy study in 31 Universities of the European Union (EU. The method of our research was the analysis of 31 WebPages of Faculties of Pharmacy in the EU. The ethics is taught in the 45% study programmes. It is mostly a part of syllabus of master programme (Czech Republic, Estonia and Portugal or bachelor programme (Slovakia. We have not managed to find a full study plan in 13% of study plans. As the ethics remains the crucial part of the pharmacy profession, there is a great importance of its involvement into the pharmacy study. The Code of Conduct for Pharmacy students with its seven principles shall be a part of ethical preparation of future pharmacists in Europe. 


    Viera Žufková; Ján Klimas; Ján Kyselovič; Michal Vivoda; Marián Šuráb


    One of the key questions in medicine nowadays is the ethics and its maximum involvement into medical profession. The absence of ethics is very notable in public and professional relations. In spite of the fact that the pharmacy profession was separated from the medical profession in the 13th century by the emperor Frederic II, the ethics is involved into pharmacy study in minimum amount.  In the article there is presented the ethics inclusion into pharmacy study in 31 Universities of the Euro...

  16. A drop-in clinic for patients with poorly-controlled diabetes: a community pharmacy feasibility study

    Twigg, Michael; Bhattacharya, Debi; Desborough, James; Wright, David


    Background Preparatory work suggests that there may be a role for the pharmacist in managing sub-optimal medication adherence and dose titration of prescribed medicines in patients with type 2 diabetes. Patients have reported that they are receptive towards pharmacists becoming involved in their care providing that this is integrated into the care received from their medical practice. Objective To determine whether a community pharmacy diabetes drop-in clinic is feasible and acceptable to pat...

  17. [Application of personal drug (P-drug) seminar to clinical pharmacy education in the graduate school of pharmaceutical sciences].

    Kawakami, Junichi; Mimura, Yasuhiko; Adachi, Isao; Takeguchi, Noriaki


    The P-drug seminar, a novel method of teaching the process of rational pharmacotherapy, was introduced in 2000 into the practice program of the clinical pharmacy course in the Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University (TMPU). The P-drug concept is evidence-based drug selection according to criteria (i.e., efficacy, safety, suitability and cost) deter mined in advance and rational prescribing by each physician. The P-drug seminar originated from educational courses for medical students at the University of Groningen and has been propagated by the WHO Action Programme on Essential Drugs world wide. In the TMPU, the seminar consists of 5 half-days before the start of bedside teaching during clinical pharmacy practice. Each term, 8 graduate students licensed as pharmacists form one seminar group, and 32 students have completed it successfully in the past 2 years. Problem-based learning and self-awareness methods are applied through discussion among students. The same teaching materials as those used in the WHO P-drug workshop and the English textbook Guide to Good Prescribing were adopted. A short lecture on the pharmacist's role in the rational use of drugs was added to modify the original P-drug workshop for medical students since this was considered suitable for graduate students in clinical pharmacy. Our graduate students were able to learn the process of pharmacotherapy by following the steps of P-drug selection and rational treatment under the P-drug concept and also understand the viewpoint of prescribers and pharmacists' roles as medical staff. In conclusion, this is the first report on application of the P-drug method to clinical pharmacy education. PMID:12400163

  18. Clinical Service of Chinese Medicine


    @@ The clinical practice of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) faces three major challenges:(1)How to enhance its contribution on overall medical service quality? (2) How to best address the unmet medical needs in the contemporary society? (3)How to guarantee that the traditional perspective for disease diagnosis and treatment not be neglected in clinical practice?

  19. Sequencing of Simulation and Clinic Experiences in an Introductory Pharmacy Practice Experience

    Leon, Nicholas; Hajjar, Emily; DeSevo Bellottie, Gina


    Objective. To examine how the intrasemester sequencing of a simulation component, delivered during an ambulatory care introductory pharmacy practice experience (IPPE), affects student performance on a series of 3 assessments delivered during the second professional (P2) year.

  20. Chlamydia testing and treatment in community pharmacies: findings and lessons learned from setting out to evaluate an unexpectedly short lived service in Lothian, Scotland

    Kapadia, Mufiza Zia


    Genital chlamydia is the most commonly diagnosed sexually transmitted infection. In August 2008, the Scottish government directed its health boards to involve community pharmacies in providing chlamydia testing and treatment for young people. Lothian Health Board envisaged a pharmacy-based chlamydia testing and treatment (CT&T) service to be able to reach deprived population. This research project set out to evaluate the implementation of the CT&T in Lothian, Scotland. Howev...

  1. Impact of genetic polymorphisms on clinical response to antithrombotics

    Lanham, Kena J; Oestreich, Julie H; Dunn, Steven P.; et al


    Kena J Lanham1,2, Julie H Oestreich3, Steven P Dunn1,2, Steven R Steinhubl41Pharmacy Services, UK HealthCare, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA; 2Department of Pharmacy Practice and Science, College of Pharmacy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA; 3Department of Pharmacy Practice, College of Pharmacy, University of Nebraska, Omaha, Nebraska, USA; 4The Medicines Company, Zurich, Switzerland and The Geisinger Clinic, Danville, Pennsylvania, USAAbstract: Antithrombot...

  2. Clinical pharmacy to meet the health needs of Tanzanians: education reform through partnership across continents (2008-2011).

    Youmans, Sharon; Ngassapa, Olipa; Chambuso, Mhina


    In 2009, the Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences (MUHAS) School of Pharmacy began to revise its BPharm curriculum for students entering in 2011. Its goal was to assure these pioneer students and their successors would be prepared to lead pharmacy practice to improve patient care and health outcomes in Tanzania. Building on its own experience and recommendations from other parts of the world, MUHAS actively engaged counterparts from the University of California San Francisco School of Pharmacy. MUHAS's vision was to create a curriculum to educate students to become 'clinical pharmacists' with a more direct patient-care focus. This means a major expansion in activities undertaken by newly graduating pharmacists - beyond preparing and dispensing medications. With the transformation from a traditional curriculum (knowledge-based) and teaching (lectures), the new approach emphasizes interprofessional team care, clinical science content (treatment and prevention of diseases), and experiential learning opportunities from classrooms to patient-care settings. Assessments of strengths and weaknesses of previous graduates' performance in their early employment informed curricular revision; evaluation of the competence of students and of new graduates will guide further revisions to assure preparation of effective pharmacists to lead practice in Tanzania. PMID:23254837

  3. Comparison of self-reported professional competency across pharmacy education programs: a survey of Thai pharmacy graduates enrolled in the public service program

    Sumpradit N; Suttajit S; Hunnangkul S; Wisaijohn T; Putthasri W


    Nithima Sumpradit,1,2 Siritree Suttajit,3 Saowalak Hunnangkul,4 Thunthita Wisaijohn,1 Weerasak Putthasri1 1International Health Policy Program, Ministry of Public Health, Nonthaburi, Thailand; 2Food and Drug Administration, Ministry of Public Health, Nonthaburi, Thailand; 3Faculty of Pharmacy, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand; 4Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand Introduction: Thai pharmacy education consists of two undergraduate programs, a ...

  4. Identification of losses to follow-up in a community-based antiretroviral therapy clinic in South Africa using a computerized pharmacy tracking system

    Bekker Linda-Gail; Wood Robin; Kaplan Richard; Nglazi Mweete D; Lawn Stephen D


    Abstract Background High rates of loss to follow-up (LTFU) are undermining rapidly expanding antiretroviral treatment (ART) services in sub-Saharan Africa. The intelligent dispensing of ART (iDART) is an open-source electronic pharmacy system that provides an efficient means of generating lists of patients who have failed to pick-up medication. We determined the duration of pharmacy delay that optimally identified true LTFU. Methods We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study of a comm...

  5. Clinical services for sleep disorders

    Stores, G; Wiggs, L.


    Children's sleep disorders are common and often harmful to development and well being. The clinical services available to affected children and their families need to be improved. At present, professional interest and expertise in sleep disorders medicine is severely limited by the paucity of appropriate teaching and training. The work of a mainly tertiary sleep disorders clinic was reviewed, which showed that accurate diagnosis of a wide range of sleep disorders is possible...

  6. Satisfação dos usuários com serviços da farmácia: tradução e validação do Pharmacy Services Questionnaire para o Brasil Patient satisfaction with pharmacy services: translation and validation of the Pharmacy Services Questionnaire for Brazil

    Cassyano Januário Correr


    Full Text Available Este estudo teve por objetivo traduzir e validar para o português o Pharmacy Services Questionnaire (PSQ. O instrumento possui 20 questões que medem a satisfação dos usuários com serviços da farmácia, organizadas em dois domínios. Utiliza uma escala de respostas Likert de 1 (ruim a 5 (excelente. O Questionário de Satisfação com os Serviços da Farmácia (QSSF foi aplicado a 137 diabéticos entre 31 e 89 anos (60,6% mulheres, clientes de farmácias privadas, em sua maioria usuários de serviços públicos de saúde (65,7%, com baixa escolaridade (67,9% até ensino fundamental e utilizando em média 4,3 medicamentos por pessoa. O escore geral na população estudada foi de 3,6 [DP = 1,1 (IC95%: 3,4-3,8]. Após análise fatorial, os domínios "exposição agradável" e "manejo da terapia" incluíram 8 e 12 itens, respectivamente, e se correlacionaram significativamente entre si (r = 0,92; p The aim of this study was to translate into Portuguese and validate the Pharmacy Services Questionnaire (PSQ. The instrument includes 20 questions that measure user satisfaction with pharmacy services, and is organized according to two factors. It uses a Likert scale of answers from 1 (poor to 5 (excellent. The PSQ-Brazil was applied to 137 diabetics from 31 to 89 years of age (60.6% women, clients of private pharmacies, mostly users of public health services (65.7%, with low education (67.9% elementary schooling or less, and who used an average of 4.3 medicines per person. Overall score in the sample was 3.6 (SD = 1.1 [95%CI 3.4-3.8]. After factor analysis, "pleasant exposure" and "treatment management" included 8 and 12 items, respectively, and were significantly correlated with each other (r = 0.92, p < 0.001 and with the overall score. The instrument obtained a Cronbach's alpha of 0.98 for the overall score. The pleasant exposure and treatment management variables showed alphas of 0.94 and 0.98. PSQ-Brazil shows adequate reliability and validity

  7. Pharmacy Education and the Role of the Local Pharmacy at Gifu Pharmaceutical University Pharmacy.

    Teramachi, Hitomi


    Gifu Pharmaceutical University Pharmacy was established in front of Gifu University Hospital (GUH) as a pharmacy attached to the university, the first in Japan in 1998. When GUH moved in 2004, Gifu Pharmaceutical University Pharmacy was built in its current location. One of the priorities of the design of the new facility was easy access to those with disabilities. For example, ramps, wheelchair accessible restrooms, and handicap-friendly waiting-room chairs were installed. In cooperation with GUH, we introduced a two-dimensional bar code system for prescriptions. This promoted the efficiency of compounding medicines. In addition, starting in 2006, we introduced digital drug-history records at Gifu Pharmaceutical University Pharmacy. We also increased the staff of the affiliated pharmacy in 2006. We designed the system of the affiliated pharmacy for long-term pharmacy practice. Currently, we accept pharmacy students visiting pharmacy of early exposure and long-term pharmacy practice. Today, the pharmacy fills an average of 80 prescriptions a day, primarily from GUH. Our staff consists of six pharmacists, one full-time office manager, and three part-time office assistants. In keeping with our role as a community pharmacy, we hold regular lectures and an education forum for pharmacists. We also carry out clinical studies. PMID:27150929

  8. A Pharmacy Student–Facilitated Interprofessional Diabetes Clinic With the Penobscot Nation

    Martin, Sarah Levin; Williams, Evan; Huerth, Benjamin; Robinson, J. Daniel; ,


    Background American Indians/Alaska Natives have a greater increased risk for diabetes than non-Hispanic whites. Lifestyle interventions are effective in preventing and treating diabetes, and an interprofessional approach is important in diabetes management. Community Context The Penobscot Nation has a health center with a wide range of services. Our goal with the Nation was to 1) establish an interprofessional, student-facilitated diabetes clinic in the health center; 2) assess the clinic’s p...

  9. Causes and consequences of rural pharmacy closures: a multi-case study.

    Todd, Kelli; Westfall, Katie; Doucette, Bill; Ullrich, Fred; Mueller, Keith


    Local rural pharmacies provide essential pharmacy and clinical services to their communities. Pharmacists play a critical role in the continuum of care for rural residents, and the loss of a local pharmacy may impact access to prescription drugs and clinical care. This policy brief identifies factors that contributed to the closing of six pharmacies and describes how the affected communities adapted to losing locally based services. Key Findings. (1) Five out of the six pharmacies studied closed due to retirement and/or difficulties in recruiting a successor. (2) In five of the six communities, residents now either drive to the nearest pharmacy or use mail-order to receive their prescriptions and, in some instances, receive their prescriptions through a courier service from a pharmacy in a nearby town. (3) Access to pharmacy services in these communities is of most concern for individuals with limited mobility and those who lack a support system that can pick up and deliver their prescriptions (e.g., the elderly and people with acute conditions). PMID:25399462

  10. 42 CFR 440.90 - Clinic services.


    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Clinic services. 440.90 Section 440.90 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS SERVICES: GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 440.90 Clinic services....

  11. Pharmacy students' attitudes towards physician-pharmacist collaboration: Intervention effect of integrating cooperative learning into an interprofessional team-based community service.

    Wang, Jun; Hu, Xiamin; Liu, Juan; Li, Lei


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the attitudes towards physician-pharmacist collaboration among pharmacy students in order to develop an interprofessional education (IPE) opportunity through integrating cooperative learning (CL) into a team-based student-supported community service event. The study also aimed to assess the change in students' attitudes towards interprofessional collaboration after participation in the event. A bilingual version of the Scale of Attitudes Toward Physician-Pharmacist Collaboration (SATP(2)C) in English and Chinese was completed by pharmacy students enrolled in Wuhan University of Science and Technology, China. Sixty-four students (32 pharmacy students and 32 medical students) in the third year of their degree volunteered to participate in the IPE opportunity for community-based diabetes and hypertension self-management education. We found the mean score of SATP(2)C among 235 Chinese pharmacy students was 51.44. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.90. Our key finding was a significant increase in positive attitudes towards interprofessional collaboration after participation in the IPE activity. These data suggest that there is an opportunity to deliver IPE in Chinese pharmacy education. It appears that the integration of CL into an interprofessional team-based community service offers a useful approach for IPE. PMID:27310204

  12. Establishment of pharmacy intravenous admixture service in our hospital and its signification%我院静脉药物配置中心的开展与意义



    By introducing the establishment, personnel, processes and other aspects about pharmacy intravenous admixture service (PIVAS) and analyzing the deficiencies of PIVAS which needed to be improved, this article discusses the significance of PIVAS in our hospital. PIVAS can promote the development of clinic pharmacy, ensure ' the safety of drugs use and improve the nursing quality, which is sure to be of great importance to the clinical pharmacy practice in our hospital.%通过介绍我院PIVAS的设施、人员和工作流程等情况,探讨开展PIVAS的意义并在工作实践中分析PIVAS存在的不足之处.PIVAS能有效促进医院临床药学的发展,有利于保障用药安全、提高护理质量等.PIVAS的开展对我院临床药学实践具有重要意义.

  13. Quality Service Analysis and Improvement of Pharmacy Unit of XYZ Hospital Using Value Stream Analysis Methodology

    Jonny; Nasution, Januar


    Value stream mapping is a tool which is needed to let the business leader of XYZ Hospital to see what is actually happening in its business process that have caused longer lead time for self-produced medicines in its pharmacy unit. This problem has triggered many complaints filed by patients. After deploying this tool, the team has come up with the fact that in processing the medicine, pharmacy unit does not have any storage and capsule packing tool and this condition has caused many wasting times in its process. Therefore, the team has proposed to the business leader to procure the required tools in order to shorten its process. This research has resulted in shortened lead time from 45 minutes to 30 minutes as required by the government through Indonesian health ministry with increased %VA (valued added activity) or Process Cycle Efficiency (PCE) from 66% to 68% (considered lean because it is upper than required 30%). This result has proved that the process effectiveness has been increase by the improvement.

  14. Quality Service Analysis and Improvement of Pharmacy Unit of XYZ Hospital Using Value Stream Analysis Methodology

    Value stream mapping is a tool which is needed to let the business leader of XYZ Hospital to see what is actually happening in its business process that have caused longer lead time for self-produced medicines in its pharmacy unit. This problem has triggered many complaints filed by patients. After deploying this tool, the team has come up with the fact that in processing the medicine, pharmacy unit does not have any storage and capsule packing tool and this condition has caused many wasting times in its process. Therefore, the team has proposed to the business leader to procure the required tools in order to shorten its process. This research has resulted in shortened lead time from 45 minutes to 30 minutes as required by the government through Indonesian health ministry with increased %VA (valued added activity) or Process Cycle Efficiency (PCE) from 66% to 68% (considered lean because it is upper than required 30%). This result has proved that the process effectiveness has been increase by the improvement.

  15. An Assessment of Service-Learning in 34 US Schools of Pharmacy Follow Up on the 2001 Professional Affairs Committee Report.

    Schlesselman, Lauren; Borrego, Matthew; Bloom, Timothy J; Mehta, Bella; Drobitch, Robert K; Smith, Thomas


    Objective. To determine if the service-learning components used at a convenience sample of schools and colleges of pharmacy meet the intent of the 2001 AACP Professional Affairs Committee (PAC) report. Methods. An online questionnaire was used to survey faculty members or staff involved with service-learning education at their school of pharmacy. Questions addressed aspects of service-learning including types of activities used, duration of student involvement with community partners, and association of learning objectives with service-learning activities. Results. The majority (85.3%) of respondents reported their institution used service-learning. Activities reported as part of service-learning ranged from working at health fairs to involvement with pharmacy school recruitment. More than half (64.3%) of service-learning activities involved long-term interactions with one community partner, and 74.1% of respondents indicated there was always an opportunity for student reflection on the service-learning activity. Conclusion. There is increasing though inconsistent application of PAC guidelines regarding service-learning. PMID:26688584

  16. Community Pharmacy: an untapped patient data resource

    Wright DJ; Twigg MJ


    David John Wright, Michael James Twigg School of Pharmacy, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK Abstract: As community pharmacy services become more patient centered, they will be increasingly reliant on access to good quality patient information. This review describes how the information that is currently available in community pharmacies can be used to enhance service delivery and patient care. With integration of community pharmacy and medical practice records on the horizon, the opport...

  17. Exploration of Clinical Pharmacy Model for Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital%中医医院开展临床中药学工作初探

    顾晓玲; 朱江; 陈丽华


    In this paper , the current status of the development of clinical pharmacy in our hospital ( as a type A of grade two hospital of traditional Chinese medicine ) , especially the clinical Chinese material medica was analyzed . The training pattern of clinical pharmacist of Chinese medicine and the development strategy were discussed . The standardization of working mode of pharmaceutical ward round was explored , such as the combination of ward round with doctor and without doctor . A valuable reference was provided for clinical work and for the improvement of pharmaceutical service of pharmacist .%分析我院(二级甲等中医医院)临床药学开展的现状,特别是临床中药学,讨论临床中药师的培养模式及发展策略,探索规范化药学查房的工作模式---随医查房和独自查房相结合,为提高药师的临床药学服务质量提供参考。

  18. 我院门诊药房服务流程的改进%Service process in outpatient pharmacy in our hospital

    覃逢超; 陈楚雄; 梁丹


    Objective To improve the service quality and efficiency of outpatient pharmacy. Methods We established the label dispensing system through adjusting the proportion of dispensers, guiding patients with LED screen, and flexible scheduling system to optimize the service process in outpatient pharmacy. Results The waiting time of patients was shortened and the quality of dispensing and pharmacy service was improved. Conclusion The service process in the outpatient pharmacy in our hospital is obviously improved.%目的 提高门诊药房工作效率和药学服务水平.方法 通过调整发药窗口数及配-发药人员比例,推行药品标签配-发药系统,使用电子屏幕引导患者取药,实施弹性排班制度,优化门诊药房的服务流程.结果 缩短了患者取药等待时间,提高了发药质量,加强了药学服务.结论 我院门诊药房服务流程的改进取得了明显效益,值得推广.

  19. Survey and coping strategies for job stress of new nurses in pharmacy intravenous admixture service: a pilot study.

    Wang, Feng-Shuang; Jin, Ou; Feng, Hua; Wang, Feng-Hua; Ren, Chun-Hui


    To survey the nurse stress and analyze stressors in new nurses from pharmacy intravenous admixture service (PIAS). A questionnaire survey referring to the revised stressor scale was carried out on 52 new nurses of PIAS in four hospitals in Harbin. The average stress score for all participants was 2.43±0.63, as medium level of stress. The stressors were classified into 6 categories: ensuring up-to-date knowledge of professional nursing skills, increased workload and work-time, interpersonal relationship, ensuring knowledge of equipments, attending educational programs, and decreased occupational demand. The most important stressors included fear of medical accident occurrence, fear of failure in performance assessment, fear of occupational injuries, feeling fatigue and lack of sleep. Considering the various kinds of stressors in the working places, it was necessary for managers' to use appropriate strategies to cope with the job stress in new nurses of PIAS. PMID:26770583

  20. The WHO UNESCO FIP Pharmacy Education Taskforce

    Rouse Mike


    Full Text Available Abstract Pharmacists' roles are evolving from that of compounders and dispensers of medicines to that of experts on medicines within multidisciplinary health care teams. In the developing country context, the pharmacy is often the most accessible or even the sole point of access to health care advice and services. Because of their knowledge of medicines and clinical therapeutics, pharmacists are suitably placed for task shifting in health care and could be further trained to undertake functions such as clinical management and laboratory diagnostics. Indeed, pharmacists have been shown to be willing, competent, and cost-effective providers of what the professional literature calls "pharmaceutical care interventions"; however, internationally, there is an underuse of pharmacists for patient care and public health efforts. A coordinated and multifaceted effort to advance workforce planning, training and education is needed in order to prepare an adequate number of well-trained pharmacists for such roles. Acknowledging that health care needs can vary across geography and culture, an international group of key stakeholders in pharmacy education and global health has reached unanimous agreement that pharmacy education must be quality-driven and directed towards societal health care needs, the services required to meet those needs, the competences necessary to provide these services and the education needed to ensure those competences. Using that framework, this commentary describes the Pharmacy Education Taskforce of the World Health Organization, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization and the International Pharmaceutical Federation Global Pharmacy and the Education Action Plan 2008–2010, including the foundation, domains, objectives and outcome measures, and includes several examples of current activities within this scope.

  1. Obesity: A preliminary report of an introductory service- learning course on the role of pharmacy students in health promotion

    Sarah Radloff


    Full Text Available

    Lifestyle diseases such as obesity have been neglected in developing countries partly due to a more urgent focus on infectious diseases in these countries. The incidence of obesity is on the increase in developing countries, with a marked rise in childhood obesity. The present health-promotion activity employed service-learning principles by which final year pharmacy students prepared a piloted computer-based quiz using a pre- and post- test design along with other learning material, for participants who attended the 2007 Sasol National Festival of Science and Technology (SciFest. Interactive models, posters and information leaflets were used in explaining the prevention and control of obesity to learners. The results showed that the pre-existing knowledge of the  participants was good. There was a further improvement after the educational intervention. Activities such as this are important in heightening awareness of obesity in learners as it is likely to reduce the incidence of obesity later in life. Furthermore, the activity also served to increase awareness of the role of pharmacists in the prevention of lifestyle diseases such as obesity.


    Leefwysesiektes soos obesiteit word verwaarloos in ontwikkelende lande weens die fokus op aansteeklike siektes. Voorvalle van obesiteit het verdriedubbel in ontwikkelende lande, met 'n skerp styging in kinderobesiteit. Die huidige gesondheidsprogram bied 'n indiensopleidingskursus aan, waar finalejaar-aptekerstudente 'n loodsprogram aanbied met behulp van 'n rekenaarvasvraprogram waar 'n voor- en na-toets saam met ander leermateriaal gebruik word vir bywoners van die 2007 Sasol Nasionale Wetenskap- fees. Interaktiewe modelle, plakkate en inligtingspam- flette is as hulpmiddels gebruik om die voorkoming en beheer van obesiteit aan leerders te illustreer. Die resultate het gewys dat die kennis van die deelnemers goed was. Dit het ná opvoedkundige raadgewing verder

  2. Brief talk about quality control of various aspects in pharmacy intravenous admixture service%浅谈 PIVAS 工作中各环节质量控制



    目的:通过分析总结静脉用药调配中心(PIVAS)各工作环节注意事项,为提高工作质量提供参考。方法:分析医嘱审核、摆药、配制等环节,提出针对性的解决措施。结果:加强医嘱审核、科学合理摆药、严密把握配制关等环节可进一步提高各环节质量。结论:通过各工作环节质量控制,为临床提供安全输液的静脉用药。%Objective:To summarize and analyze the points for attention of all work aspects in pharmacy intravenous ad-mixture service(PIVAS),to provide a reference for improve work quality. Methods:By analyzing prescriptions analysis,drug dispensing and admixture,to come up with purposeful solving measures. Results:By means of reinforcing prescription analysis, scientific and reasonable drug dispensing and strict drug admixture and so on,all aspects of work can be further improved. Con-clusion:According to the improvement measure of all work aspects,safe clinical infusion can be provided.

  3. Measures of improving service quality in outpatient pharmacy for western medicine%提高门诊西药房服务质量的对策

    欧阳宇; 闫彩霞; 廖义芳


    Objective To explore the factors affecting service quality in outpatient pharmacy in a hospital, and to summarize the improvement methods. Methods An outpatient pharmacy for western medicine in a hospital was selected as the research subject. Its service was observed and studied, its staff and patients were surveyed and related measures were proposed according to study results.ResultsInsufficient staff allocation and uneven time arrangement could be seen in the pharmacy; Excessive number of patients and long waiting time were the key factors affecting the service quality; dispensing time of pharmacists with occupational qualification was shorter and patients’ satisfaction towards them was higher.Conclusion The pharmacy should open more service windows and allocate more staff members, and enhance service capabilities of staff members. Service concepts should be changed actively, and therefore provide a full range of service such as consultation, guidance and prescription verification for patients. In addition, management should be strengthened so as to realize the target of comprehensively improving the service quality of the pharmacy.%目的:探讨某院门诊西药房影响服务质量的因素,总结改善方法。方法以某院门诊西药房为研究对象,对其服务现状进行观察研究,对工作人员、患者分别进行调查,并据结果提出对策。结果药房存在工作人员配置相对不足、时间分配不均现象;患者人数太多、等待时间过长是影响服务质量的重要因素;具有药师职业资格者其配药时间、患者满意度相对较高。结论药房应积极增加窗口、增加人员配置,提升工作人员业务水平,并积极转变服务理念,为患者提供咨询、指导、处方审核等全方位服务,通过加强管理实现全面提升药房服务质量的目的。

  4. A Model of Small-Group Problem-Based Learning in Pharmacy Education: Teaching in the Clinical Environment

    Khumsikiew, Jeerisuda; Donsamak, Sisira; Saeteaw, Manit


    Problem-based Learning (PBL) is an alternate method of instruction that incorporates basic elements of cognitive learning theory. Colleges of pharmacy use PBL to aid anticipated learning outcomes and practice competencies for pharmacy student. The purpose of this study were to implement and evaluate a model of small group PBL for 5th year pharmacy…

  5. Seeking to understand: using generic qualitative research to explore access to medicines and pharmacy services among resettled refugees.

    Bellamy, Kim; Ostini, Remo; Martini, Nataly; Kairuz, Therese


    Introduction There are challenges associated with selecting a qualitative research approach. In a field abundant with terminology and theories, it may be difficult for a pharmacist to know where and how to begin a qualitative research journey. The purpose of this paper is to provide insight into generic qualitative research and to describe the journey of data collection of a novice qualitative researcher in the quest to answer her research question: 'What are the barriers to accessing medicines and pharmacy services for resettled refugees in Queensland, Australia?' Methodology Generic qualitative research draws on the strengths of one or more qualitative approaches. The aim is to draw out participants' ideas about things that are 'outside themselves'; rather than focussing on their inner feelings the research seeks to understand a phenomenon, a process, or the perspectives of participants. Sampling is designed to obtain a broad range of opinions about events and experiences and data collection includes interviews, questionnaires or surveys; thematic analysis is often used to analyse data. When to use Generic qualitative research provides an opportunity to develop research designs that fit researchers' epistemological stance and discipline, with research choices, including methodology and methods, being informed by the research question. Limitations Generic qualitative research is one of many methodologies that may be used to answer a research question and there is a paucity of literature about how to do it well. There is also debate about its validity as a qualitative methodology. PMID:26873481

  6. [Evaluation of Brazilian online pharmacies].

    Gondim, Ana Paula Soares; Falcão, Cláudio Borges


    The growing number of Internet users brought forth an increase in the search for Brazilian online pharmacy services. Aiming at evaluating the validity of information disseminated in these websites, a descriptive study was carried out in 18 virtual pharmacies concerning legal aspects, accessibility, sources of information and drug advertising. It was found 15 pharmacies did not have authorization of the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency; the manager pharmaceutical officer's name could not be found in 17 of them; 17 pharmacies marketed drugs with no registration, especially herbal medicines, and did not show either information on adverse drug reactions or this agency's alerts and health recommendations. Since health control and drug commerce in Brazilian online pharmacies have not been yet regulated by proper government agencies, these gaps found in the sites can pose risk to the users' health. PMID:17384808

  7. Use of clinical practice as a motivating tool of radioprotection teaching and radiopharmacology in early semesters of pharmacy course

    The research teaching methods aimed at the success of the higher education student in pharmacology and medicine courses in technical expertise in the fields of radiological protection, radiopharmacology and interventional radiology is extremely important in view of the progress of these sectors. The objective of this work is to propose a methodological sequence of teaching work with first-year students of pharmacy and medicine courses within a biophysical discipline where the integrated knowledge to clinical practice can be used for this purpose. The methodology was to assess individual learning of a group of N = 49 students of the first half in the age group of 17-19 years through conceptual acquisition by the traditional method of 'blackboard and chalk' and developed method that includes four pedagogical moments focused on the area health. An analysis of the evaluation student performance through Variance Analysis of a pathway showed improved scores with respect to the performance of application issues of knowledge concerning radiation protection and biological mechanisms of radiation with respect to the method of 'blackboard and chalk' with p < 0.05. Therefore, work with students with respect to the content in the form of six steps of clinical interest are a promising technique for radiation protection education in the early grades of college courses with experimental effectiveness

  8. Special Risks of Pharmacy Compounding

    ... serious eye infections in the Miami area. A pharmacy had repackaged the Avastin from single-use vials into multiple single-use syringes, distributing them to multiple eye clinics, and infecting at least 12 patients. Some patients ...

  9. Pharmacy intervention on antimicrobial management of critically ill patients

    Ijo I


    Full Text Available Frequent, suboptimal use of antimicrobial drugs has resulted in the emergence of microbial resistance, compromised clinical outcomes and increased costs, particularly in the intensive care unit (ICU. Mounting on these challenges is the paucity of new antimicrobial agents.Objectives: The study aims to determine the impact of prospective pharmacy-driven antimicrobial stewardship in the ICU on clinical and potential financial outcomes. The primary objectives were to determine the mean length of stay (LOS and mortality rate in the ICU resulting from prospective pharmacy interventions on antimicrobial therapy. The secondary objective was to calculate the difference in total drug acquisition costs resulting from pharmacy infectious diseases (ID-related interventions.Methods: In collaboration with an infectious disease physician, the ICU pharmacy team provided prospective audit with feedback to physicians on antimicrobial therapies of 70 patients over a 4-month period in a 31-bed ICU. In comparison with published data, LOS and mortality of pharmacy-monitored ICU patients were recorded. Daily cost savings on antimicrobial drugs and charges for medication therapy management (MTM services were added to calculate potential total cost savings. Pharmacy interventions focused on streamlining, dose optimization, intravenous-to-oral conversion, antimicrobial discontinuation, new recommendation and drug information consult. Antimicrobial education was featured in oral presentations and electronic newsletters for pharmacists and clinicians.Results: The mean LOS in the ICU was 6 days, which was lower than the published reports of LOS ranging from 11 to 36 days. The morality rate of 14% was comparable to the reported range of 6 to 20% in published literature. The total drug cost difference was a negative financial outcome or loss of USD192 associated with ID-related interventions.Conclusion: In collaboration with the infectious disease physician, prospective

  10. Opportunities and challenges in social pharmacy and pharmacy practice research

    Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Kaae, Susanne; Traulsen, Janine M


    Pharmacy practice and social pharmacy are two important research areas within pharmaceutical and health sciences. As the disciplines have undergone and are still undergoing changes, it is useful to reflect on the current state of their research as the basis for discussing further development....... The two areas are currently beset by a lack of consensus and charged all too often with evaluating narrowly focused pharmacy services. With the added challenge of diminished funding for research and the pressures to publish results, these fields have to accommodate a much broader research framework than...

  11. Service-based Systems in Clinical Environments

    Stantchev, Vladimir


    In this report we present an architectural approach to add quality-of-service (QoS) assurance and location awareness to service-based systems within existing clinical infrastructures. To address typical design requirements of such systems (e.g., cooperating services, performance and availability) the work proposes a service-oriented architecture (SOA) as architectural concept and architectural translucency to provide stable QoS. We evaluate position sensing systems, QoS assurance approaches a...

  12. Harvey A. K. Whitney Lecture. Shifting pharmacy's paradigm.

    Ivey, M F


    Changes occurring in the pharmacy profession and their effects on the paradigm for pharmacy practice are discussed. The paradigm of pharmacy, the pattern or model of pharmacy's structure, services, daily activities, and organization, is shifting, and if pharmacists do not shift with it, they will be left behind. Advances in technological capabilities often result in automation and centralization of services. Improvements in drug therapy have caused shifts in the performance of clinical functions. Philosophical changes about the way health care should be delivered have produced the concepts of pharmaceutical care, patient-focused care, and continuous quality improvement of care. Teams of caregivers whose primary concern is the patient have replaced caregiving based on technology, discipline, or employee needs. Pharmacists have focused on the patient as their primary customer instead of the nurse or practitioner, and they anticipate the patient's needs in a structured and documented fashion. The principles of continuous quality improvement have been applied to every aspect of providing pharmaceutical care. If pharmacists are to adjust to the shift in the pharmacy paradigm, they must recognize their strength as a group, make proper recommendations about pharmaceutical use, move horizontally to grow as professionals, consider themselves clinicians, be active in the making of pharmaceutical care decisions, and believe in themselves. PMID:8135232

  13. Clinical risk management in Dutch community pharmacies: the case of drug-drug interactions.

    Buurma, H.; Smet, P.A.G.M. de; Egberts, A.C.G.


    BACKGROUND: The prevention of drug-drug interactions requires a systematic approach for which the concept of clinical risk management can be used. The objective of our study was to measure the frequency, nature and management of drug-drug interaction alerts as these occur in daily practice of Dutch

  14. 中药房调剂质量对临床治疗效果的影响%The Quality of Clinical Therapeutic Effect of TCM Pharmacy Dispensing

    李海涛; 蔺爽; 刘丹


    目的:观察中药房调剂质量对临床治疗效果的影响。方法选择2013年2月~2015年2月我院开具的340例中药房处方,其中实施中药房强化调剂质量监督管理前处方160例,管理后处方180例,分析管理前后不良事件发生情况。结果实施管理前不良事件发生率16.25%高于管理后3.89%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论中药房强化调剂质量监督管理减少不良事件,确保临床用药的具有较高安全性及有效性。%ObjectiveTo observe the effects of TCM pharmacy dispensing quality of clinical therapeutic effect.MethodsFrom February 2013 to February 2013, 340 cases of TCM pharmacy prescription,including implementation of TCM pharmacy to strengthen prescription 160 cases before dispensing quality supervision and management,management prescriptions of 180 cases after adverse events before and after the analysis of the management.ResultsThe incidence of adverse events before implementing management 16.25% above 3.89% after management,the difference was statisticaly significant(P<0.05).ConclusionTCM pharmacy improved dispensing quality supervision management significantly reduce adverse events,to ensure high safety and efficacy of clinical application.

  15. Diabetes and Hypertension Screening by Pharmacy Students in Thai Communities

    Ploylearmsang, Chanuttha; Sookaneknun, Phayom; Poophalee, Thanapong; Pongruea, Piyatida


    Objective. To integrate pharmacy education into a diabetes and hypertension screening program to improve pharmacy student disease knowledge and screening skills and provide a valuable service to the community.

  16. Clinical service desires of medical cannabis patients

    Janichek Jennifer L


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical cannabis dispensaries following the social or hybrid model offer supplementary holistic services in addition to dispensing medical cannabis. Historically, alternative physical health services have been the norm for these dispensaries, including services such as yoga, acupuncture, or chiropractor visits. A clinical service dearth remains for medical cannabis patients seeking substance use, misuse, dependence, and mental health services. This study examined patient desires for various clinical services and level of willingness to participate in specific clinical services. Methods Anonymous survey data (N = 303 were collected at Harborside Health Center (HHC, a medical cannabis dispensary in Oakland, CA. The sample was 70% male, 48% Caucasian and 21% African American. The mean male age was 38 years old and female mean age was 30. Sixty two percent of the male participants and 44% of the female participants are single. Sixteen percent of the population reported having a domestic partner. Forty six percent of the participants are employed full time, 41% have completed at least some college, and 49% make less than $40,000 a year. Results A significant portion of the sample, 62%, indicated a desire to participate in free clinical services at HHC, 34% would like more information about substances and use, and 41% want to learn more about reducing harms from substance use. About one quarter of the participants marked "would" or "likely would" participate in individual services such as consultation. Approximately 20% indicated "would" or "likely would" participate in psycho-educational forums, harm reduction information sharing sessions, online support groups, and coping, life, and social skills group. There was little interest in traditional NA/AA 12-step groups or adapted 12-step groups. Conclusions Desired clinical services can be qualified as a combination of harm reduction, educational, skills-based, peer support and

  17. Community Impact of Pharmacy-Randomized Intervention to Improve Access to Syringes and Services for Injection Drug Users

    Crawford, Natalie D.; Amesty, Silvia; Rivera, Alexis V.; Harripersaud, Katherine; Turner, Alezandria; Fuller, Crystal M.


    Objectives: In an effort to reduce HIV transmission among injection drug users (IDUs), New York State deregulated pharmacy syringe sales in 2001 through the Expanded Syringe Access Program by removing the requirement of a prescription. With evidence suggesting pharmacists' ability to expand their public health role, a structural,…

  18. Antibody-Drug Conjugates: A Clinical Pharmacy Perspective on an Emerging Cancer Therapy.

    Jerjian, Taleen V; Glode, Ashley E; Thompson, Lisa A; O'Bryant, Cindy L


    Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) combine highly specific monoclonal antibodies with potent cytotoxic drugs. Their synergy allows for targeted delivery of toxic drugs to cancer cells while sparing systemic exposure. In this review, we focus on the history and clinical applications of ADCs approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of cancer and highlight new ADCs in the drug development pipeline. Three ADCs have received FDA approval thus far. Gemtuzumab ozogamicin, although withdrawn from the U.S. market, may still be an effective treatment modality in subsets of patients with acute myeloid leukemia. Brentuximab vedotin and ado-trastuzumab emtansine have shown improved efficacy and safety data compared with standard chemotherapy for the treatment of advanced lymphoma and breast cancer, respectively. With a number of ADCs with promising preliminary data in the clinical trial pipeline, cancer therapy is moving forward from traditional chemotherapy to targeted treatment modalities driven by the specificity of monoclonal antibodies and advancing biotechnology. PMID:26799352

  19. Pharmacy experience with facsimile prescriptions.

    Huntzinger, Paul E


    The purpose of this mixed qualitative/quantitative study was to review the impact of a policy to accept facsimile (fax) prescriptions as standard operating procedure. Between February and April 2009 the pharmacy processed 4,792 new prescriptions of which 363 (7.6%) were received through fax. Of the fax prescriptions, 19 (5.2%) concerned clarification of information, which took approximately 30 minutes to resolve. The fax prescription process allowed the pharmacy to adjust the distribution of its workload, provided quicker service for new prescriptions, and allowed more time for medication consultation that resulted in a high level of customer satisfaction. It appeared the policy allowing fax prescriptions was a "win-win" situation for both the pharmacy and its customers. Military pharmacies should consider running trials of accepting fax prescriptions to see whether it improves their prescription filling process. PMID:21121504

  20. Drug assessment by a Pharmacy and Therapeutics committee: from drug selection criteria to use in clinical practice

    Lozano-Blázquez A; Calvo-Pita C; Carbajales-Álvarez M; Suárez-Gil P; Martínez-Martínez F; Calleja-Hernández MA


    Ana Lozano-Blázquez,1 Cecilia Calvo-Pita,2 Mónica Carbajales-Álvarez,1 Patricio Suárez-Gil,3 Fernando Martínez-Martínez,4 Miguel Ángel Calleja-Hernández51Pharmacy Department, Hospital de Cabueñes, Gijón, Spain; 2Pharmacy Department, Primary Health Care, Servicio Madrileño de Salud, Dirección Asistencial Oeste, Madrid, Spain; 3Research Unit Área V, Hosp...

  1. Nuclear pharmacy education: international harmonization

    Education of nuclear pharmacists exists in many countries around the world. The approach and level of education varies between countries depending upon the expectations of the nuclear pharmacist, the work site and the economic environment. In Australia, training is provided through distance learning. In Europe and Canada, nuclear pharmacists and radiochemists receive postgraduate education in order to engage in the small-scale preparation and quality control of radiopharmaceuticals as well as research and development. In the U.S.A., nuclear pharmacy practitioners obtain basic knowledge primarily through undergraduate programs taken when pursuit the first professional degree in pharmacy. Licensed practitioners in pharmacy enter the practice of nuclear pharmacy through distance learning programs or short courses. While different approaches to education exist, there is a basic core of knowledge and a level of competence required of all nuclear pharmacists and radiochemists providing radiopharmaceutical products and services. It was with this realization that efforts were initiated to develop harmonization concepts and documents pertaining to education in nuclear pharmacy. The benefits of international harmonization in nuclear pharmacy education are numerous. Assurance of the availability of quality professionals to provide optimal products and care to the patient is a principle benefit. Spanning national barriers through the demonstration of self governance and unification in education will enhance the goal of increased freedom of employment between countries. Harmonization endeavors will improve existing education programs through sharing of innovative concepts and knowledge between educators. Documents generated will benefit new educational programs especially in developing nations. A committee on harmonization in nuclear pharmacy education was formed consisting of educators and practitioners from the international community. A working document on education was

  2. SimPharm: How Pharmacy Students Made Meaning of a Clinical Case Differently in Paper- and Simulation-Based Workshops

    Loke, Swee-Kin; Tordoff, June; Winikoff, Michael; McDonald, Jenny; Vlugter, Peter; Duffull, Stephen


    Several scholars contend that learning with computer games and simulations results in students thinking more like professionals. Bearing this goal in mind, we investigated how a group of pharmacy students learnt with an in-house developed computer simulation, SimPharm. Adopting situated cognition as our theoretical lens, we conducted a case study…

  3. Retail pharmacy market structure and performance.

    Brooks, John M; Doucette, William R; Wan, Shaowei; Klepser, Donald G


    Substantial variation has been observed in the use of prescription drugs from retail pharmacies, the level of services provided by retail pharmacies, and the prices paid for prescriptions from retail pharmacies. It is not clear whether local area retail pharmacy market structures affect these pharmacy outcomes. The goal of this paper is to discuss the potential research avenues to address these issues. The discussion provides. 1) background on the retail pharmacy and its place within the pharmaceutical supply chain; 2) a discussion of the data that are available to address these issues and the measures that can be developed from these data; and 3) a review of existing research findings and gaps in knowledge. PMID:18524293

  4. Establishing a clinical cardiac MRI service

    After several years of research development cardiovascular MRI has evolved into a widely accepted clinical tool. It offers important diagnostic and prognostic information for a variety of clinical indications, which include ischaemic heart disease, cardiomyopathies, valvular dysfunction and congenital heart disorders. It is a safe non-invasive technique that employs a variety of imaging sequences optimized for temporal or spatial resolution, tissue-specific contrast, flow quantification or angiography. Cardiac MRI offers specific advantages over conventional imaging techniques for a significant number of patients. The demand for cardiac MRI studies from cardiothoracic surgeons, cardiologists and other referrers is likely to continue to rise with pressure for more widespread local service provision. Setting up a cardiac MRI service requires careful consideration regarding funding issues and how it will be integrated with existing service provision. The purchase of cardiac phased array coils, monitoring equipment and software upgrades must also be considered, as well as the training needs of those involved. The choice of appropriate imaging protocols will be guided by operator experience, clinical indication and equipment capability, and is likely to evolve as the service develops. Post-processing and offline analysis form a significant part of the time taken to report studies and an efficient method of providing quantitative reports is an important requirement. Collaboration between radiologists and cardiologists is needed to develop a successful service and multi-disciplinary meetings are key component of this. This review will explore these issues from our perspective of a new clinical cardiac MRI service operating over its first year in a teaching hospital imaging department

  5. Effective medicine control for Platinum Health pharmacies / Dewald Jacobus Pretorius

    Pretorius, Dewald Jacobus


    Effective Medicine Control is the essence of pharmaceutical service delivery and of financial management in Platinum Health Pharmacies. Platinum Health Pharmacies implement medicine control measures to enhance and optimise service delivery. As Platinum Health Pharmacies deliver a pharmaceutical service as business associates of Anglo Platinum, it serves the same workforce. The requirement of the pharmaceutical service delivery for Anglo Platinum is timely, appropriate and available medicine. ...

  6. Prevalence and determinants of pharmacy shopping behaviour.

    Buurma, H.; Bouvy, M.L.; Smet, P.A.G.M. de; Floor-Schreudering, A.; Leufkens, H.G.; Egberts, A.C.G.


    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Discontinuity of care bears the risk of medication errors and poor clinical outcomes. Little is known about the continuity of care related to pharmacies. Therefore, we studied the prevalence and determinants of pharmacy shopping behaviour in the Netherlands. METHODS: Benefi

  7. Prevalence and determinants of pharmacy shopping behaviour

    Bouvy, M. L.; De Smet, P. A. G. M.; Floor-Schreudering, A.; Leufkens, H. G. M.; Egberts, A. C. G.; Buurma, H


    Background and objective: Discontinuity of care bears the risk of medication errors and poor clinical outcomes. Little is known about the continuity of care related to pharmacies. Therefore, we studied the prevalence and determinants of pharmacy shopping behaviour in the Netherlands. Methods: Benefi

  8. Clinical pathology services: remapping our strategic itinerary.

    Blanckaert, Norbert


    Both technological advances and economic drivers have led to major changes in clinical laboratories across the world, with vastly improved testing productivity. However, the production process capability advances have far outpaced the clinical pathologists' success in assuring optimal test utilization and interpretation. While productivity of 'commodity' testing increases, our healthcare value productivity decreases. Such developments constitute a serious threat to our clinical pathology specialty, not only because pathologists may lose direct control of the commodity testing production activities, but also because the present evolution exposes a failure of our core clinical activities, the pathologist's knowledge processes that translate 'commodity' results into medical outcomes optimization. At a time when a revolution in health care organization is inescapable in the years ahead, clinical pathology must proceed from a merely reactive strategy (to fulfill the 'more with less' demands) to a proactive strategy where we build excellence and visibility in knowledge services on a strong foothold of operational excellence. Based on a Strengths-Weaknesses-Opportunities-Threats analysis, we argue that clinical pathology should safeguard and expand its healthcare value productivity by assuming leadership in building integrated laboratory services networks. We also suggest that the core knowledge processes deserve a system approach, for example, by applying a risk-based quality management system. PMID:20491600

  9. The Implementation and Development of an Objective Structured Clinical Examination in the Community Pharmacy Course of a Select Gulf-Region Academic Institution (Ras Al Khaimah College of Pharmaceutical Sciences): A Pilot Study

    Al-Azzawi, Amad Mohammed Jamil; Nagavi, B.G.; Hachim, Mahmood Y.; Mossa, Omar H.


    Background: Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs) were used to assess translational pharmacotherapeutic skills of a Gulf-region representative academic institution. Aim: The aim of the current study was to assess the clinical skills of students enrolled within the third year Bachelor of Pharmacy (BPharm) programme within Ras Al…

  10. An Evaluation of the Education of Hospital Pharmacy Directors.

    Oakley, Robert S.; And Others


    Hospital pharmacy directors ranked their academic needs as: personnel and financial management (greatest), computers, hospital organization, clinical pharmacy practice, traditional pharmacy practice, and statistics. Those with MBAs perceived themselves stronger in these areas than did those with other degrees. Only MBAs and MSs felt adequately…

  11. Pharmacy Education in India: Strategies for a Better Future

    Jishnu, V; Gilhotra, RM; Mishra, DN.


    In this world of specialization and globalization the pharmacy education in India is suffering from serious backdrops and flaws. There is an urgent need to initiate an academic exercise aimed at attaining revamping of curriculum, keeping in pace with current and emerging trends in the field of pharmacy. Unfortunately all these years, enough emphasis was not laid on strengthening the components of Community Pharmacy, Hospital and Clinical pharmacy, while designing curriculum at diploma and deg...

  12. Application of Quality Assurance Strategies in Diagnostics and Clinical Support Services in Iranian Hospitals

    Asgar Aghaei Hashjin


    Full Text Available Background Iran has a widespread diagnostics and clinical support services (DCSS network that plays a crucial role in providing diagnostic and clinical support services to both inpatient and outpatient care. However, very little is known on the application of quality assurance (QA policies in DCSS units. This study explores the extent of application of eleven QA strategies in DCSS units within Iranian hospitals and its association with hospital characteristics. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in 2009/2010. Data were collected from 554 DCSS units among 84 hospitals. Results The average reported application rate for the QA strategies ranged from 57%-94% in the DCSS units. Most frequently reported were checking drugs expiration dates (94%, pharmacopoeia availability (92%, equipment calibration (87% and identifying responsibilities (86%. Least reported was external auditing of the DCSS (57%. The clinical chemistry and microbiology laboratories (84%, pharmacies, blood bank services (83% reported highest average application rates across all questioned QA strategies. Lowest application rates were reported in human tissue banks (50%. There was no significant difference between the reported application rates in DCSS in the general/specialized, teaching/research, nonteaching/research hospitals with the exception of pharmacies and radiology departments. They reported availability of a written QA plan significantly more often in research hospitals. Nearly all QA strategies were reported to be applied significantly more often in the DCSS of Social Security Organization (SSO and private-for-profit hospitals than in governmental hospitals. Conclusion There is still room for strengthening the managerial cycle of QA systems and accountability in the DCSS in Iranian hospitals. Getting feedback, change and learning through application of specific QA strategies (eg, external/internal audits can be improved. Both the effectiveness of QA

  13. Clinical laboratories: production industry or medical services?

    Plebani, Mario


    The current failure to evidence any link between laboratory tests, clinical decision-making and patient outcomes, and the scarcity of financial resources affecting healthcare systems worldwide, have put further pressure on the organization and delivery of laboratory services. Consolidation, merger, and laboratory downsizing have been driven by the need to deliver economies of scale and cut costs per test while boosting productivity. Distorted economics, based on payment models rewarding volume and efficiency rather than quality and clinical effectiveness, have underpinned the entrance of clinical laboratories into the production industry thus forcing them to relinquish their original mission of providing medical services. The sea change in laboratory medicine in recent years, with the introduction of ever newer and ever more complex tests, including 'omics', which impact on clinical decision-making, should encourage clinical laboratories to return to their original mission as long as payments models are changed. Rather than being considered solely in terms of costs, diagnostic testing must be seen in the context of an entire hospital stay or an overall payment for a care pathway: the testing process should be conceived as a part of the patient's entire journey. PMID:25405721

  14. Pharmacy practice simulations: performance of senior pharmacy students at a University in southern Brazil

    Galato D; Alano GM; Trauthman SC; França TF


    Objective: A simulation process known as objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) was applied to assess pharmacy practice performed by senior pharmacy students.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted based on documentary analysis of performance evaluation records of pharmacy practice simulations that occurred between 2005 and 2009. These simulations were related to the process of self-medication and dispensing, and were performed with the use of patients simulated. The simulati...

  15. Clinical effectiveness of baclofen for the treatment of alcohol dependence: a review

    Brennan JL; Leung JG; Gagliardi JP; Rivelli SK; Muzyk AJ


    Jessica L Brennan,2 Jonathan G Leung,1 Jane P Gagliardi,3 Sarah K Rivelli,3 Andrew J Muzyk4 1Department of Hospital Pharmacy Services, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, 2Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University, Durham, NC, 4Department of Pharmacy Practice, Campbell University School of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Buies Creek, NC, USA Abstract: Baclofen, an agonist at the ...

  16. Pharmaceutical care in community pharmacies: practice and research in Denmark

    Herborg, Hanne; Sørensen, Ellen Westh; Frøkjaer, Bente


    OBJECTIVE: To review the current status of Danish community pharmacy in both practice and research and discuss future trends. FINDINGS: Denmark has a social welfare system that provides health care, social services, and pensions to its population. Medical care and surgery are free. Prescription...... medicines are reimbursed by an average of 56%. Community pharmacies are privately owned, but the health authorities regulate drug prices and the number of pharmacies. At present, Denmark has 322 pharmacies, corresponding to 1 pharmacy per 16,700 inhabitants. All pharmacies provide prescription and over......-the-counter products, advice about medicine use, dose dispensing, generic substitutions, and administration of individual reimbursement registers. Except for very simple processes, compounding is centralized at 3 pharmacies. Many pharmacies offer measurement of blood glucose, blood pressure, and cholesterol, and 60...

  17. Pharmacy in a New Frontier - The First Five Years at the Johnson Space Center Pharmacy

    Bayuse, Tina


    A poster entitled "Space Medicine - A New Role for Clinical Pharmacists" was presented in December 2001 highlighting an up-and-coming role for pharmacists at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, Texas. Since that time, the operational need for the pharmacy profession has expanded with the administration s decision to open a pharmacy on site at JSC to complement the care provided by the Flight Medicine and Occupational Medicine Clinics. The JSC Pharmacy is a hybrid of traditional retail and hospital pharmacy and is compliant with the ambulatory care standards set forth by the Joint Commission. The primary charge for the pharmacy is to provide medication management for JSC. In addition to providing ambulatory care for both clinics, the pharmacists also practice space medicine. A pharmacist had been involved in the packing of both the Space Shuttle and International Space Station Medical Kits before the JSC Pharmacy was established; however, the role of the pharmacist in packing medical kits has grown. The pharmacists are now full members of the operations team providing consultation for new drug delivery systems, regulations, and patient safety issues. As the space crews become more international, so does the drug information provided by the pharmacists. This presentation will review the journey of the JSC Pharmacy as it celebrated its five year anniversary in April of 2008. The implementation of the pharmacy, challenges to the incorporation of the pharmacy into an existing health-care system, and the current responsibilities of a pharmacist at the Johnson Space Center will be discussed.

  18. A performance evaluation of {sup 90}Y dose-calibrator measurements in nuclear pharmacies and clinics in the United States

    Schultz, Michael K. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Nuclear Medicine Standards Program, 100 Bureau Drive, MS 8462, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States)], E-mail:; Cessna, Jeffrey T. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Nuclear Medicine Standards Program, 100 Bureau Drive, MS 8462, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Anderson, Tamara L. [College of Pharmacy, Univ. of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, New Mexico Center for Isotopes in Medicine, 2502 Marble, NE MSC09 5360, Albuquerque, NM 87131-0001 (United States); Ponto, James A. [Dept. of Radiology, Div. of Nuclear Medicine, Univ. of Iowa Hospital and Clinics, 200 Hawkins Drive, 3832 JPP, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Petry, Neil [Dept. of Radiology, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Duke Univ. Medical Center, 133 Bell Building, Box 3304, Durham, NC 27710-3304 (United States); Kowalsky, Richard J. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of North Carolina, 1312 Kerr Hall, CB 7360, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Palmer, Matthew R. [Dept. of Radiology, Div. of Nuclear Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 330 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02215-5400 (United States); Beinlich, Uwe F. [QSA Global, Inc., Auriga Medical Div., 40 North Avenue, Burlington, MA 01803 (United States); Baker, William [Pharmaceutical and Diagnostic Services, 1152 West 2240 South St. E., West Valley City, UT 84119 (United States); Hinkle, George H. [Ohio State Univ. Medical Center, Room 203D, Doan Hall, 410 West 10th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Hung, Joseph C. [Mayo Clinic, Div. of Nuclear Medicine, Dept. of Radiology, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Quinton, Timothy [Radiopharmacy, Inc., 1409 E. Virginia St., Evansville, IN 47711 (United States); Rice, Peter A. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Div. of Nuclear Medicine, Tilton-2, 55 Fruit Street, Boston, MA 02114 (United States)] (and others)


    A blind performance test was conducted to evaluate dose-calibrator measurements at nuclear pharmacies in the United States (US). Two test-sample geometries were chosen to represent those used for measurements of {sup 90}Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan (ZEVALIN). The radioactivity concentration of test-samples was verified by the US National Institute of Standards and Technology. Forty-five results were reported by 10 participants. Eighty percent of reported values were within the US Pharmacopoeia content standard ({+-}10%) for {sup 90}Y-ZEVALIN. All results were within US Nuclear Regulatory Commission conformance limits ({+-}20%) for defining therapeutic misadministrations.

  19. A performance evaluation of 90Y dose-calibrator measurements in nuclear pharmacies and clinics in the United States

    A blind performance test was conducted to evaluate dose-calibrator measurements at nuclear pharmacies in the United States (US). Two test-sample geometries were chosen to represent those used for measurements of 90Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan (ZEVALIN). The radioactivity concentration of test-samples was verified by the US National Institute of Standards and Technology. Forty-five results were reported by 10 participants. Eighty percent of reported values were within the US Pharmacopoeia content standard (±10%) for 90Y-ZEVALIN. All results were within US Nuclear Regulatory Commission conformance limits (±20%) for defining therapeutic misadministrations

  20. To improve the outpatient pharmacy service quality, some improvement measures of doctor-patient relationship%提高门诊药房服务质量改善医患关系的几点措施



    objective to improve out-patient pharmacy service quality, better service for patients, to provide protection for the doctor-patient relationship better. Methods in our hospital outpatient pharmacy characteristics and current situation, to strengthen the system and internal management, improve the comprehensive quality of pharmacists, actively carry out pharmaceutical care, meet the doctors and patients needs. Results the system more sound and perfect the outpatient pharmacy; pharmacists professional knowledge and comprehensive ability has been improved obviously; doctors prescription medication more standardized, more safe, economic, effective; patients to the hospital service satisfaction improved. Conclusion the system construction, pharmacist training and pharmacy services, improve service quality, outpatient pharmacy important measure to improve the doctor-patient relationship.%目的提高门诊药房服务质量,更好的为患者服务,为更好的医患关系提供保障。方法结合我院特点和门诊药房现状,强化制度和内部管理,提高药师的综合素质,积极开展药学服务,满足医生和患者需求。结果门诊药房各项制度更加健全和完善;药师的专业知识和综合能力得到明显提高;各科医生处方更加规范,用药更加安全、经济、有效;患者对医院服务的满意度不断提高。结论制度建设、药师培养和开展药学服务等,是提高门诊药房服务质量、改善医患关系的重要措施。

  1. Establish the Procedure of Hospital Pharmacy Service Based on Six Sigma Management%基于六西格玛管理构建医院药学服务流程

    张美玲; 黄萍; 应茵; 叶佐武; 杨秀丽; 袁雍


    目的 运用六西格玛管理形成一套系统、切实可行的标准化流程,提升医院药学服务质量.方法 按照六西格玛的五步法(DMAIC)实施,即定义-测量-分析-改进-控制,重组和优化药学服务流程.结果 形成98个标准流程,涵盖药事管理各个方面.结论 应用六西格玛管理,使医院药学流程标准化和规范化,以低资源成本、低缺陷的质量水平、优质的服务水准整体上实现医院药学服务质量的提升,实现六西格玛水准,满足患者多层次的需求,顺利接轨新医改.%OBJECTIVE To establish a set of systemic, available and standard procedure, and improve the quality of hospital pharmacy service by the application of six sigma management. METHODS According to five steps of six sigma management including definition, measurement, analysis, improvement and control, we rebuilt and optimized the pharmacy service procedure. RESULTS All of 98 standard procedures were established covering all aspects of pharmacy management. CONCLUSION The established hospital pharmacy service procedure based on six sigma management can improve the quality of pharmacy service by reducing the resource cost and the defect of service quality. This will be benefit for satisfying patients at multi-aspects requirements and connecting to the new medical system reformation.

  2. Satisfaction With Medication Therapy Management Services at a University Ambulatory Care Clinic.

    Kim, Shiyun; Martin, Michelle T; Pierce, Andrea L; Zueger, Patrick


    A survey was issued to patients enrolled in the Medication Therapy Management Clinic (MTMC) at University of Illinois Hospital and Health Sciences (June 2011-January 2012) in order to assess satisfaction with pharmacy services provided by pharmacists. A 23-item survey was offered to 65 patients in the MTMC program before or after clinic visits. Since there is a paucity of data indicating the level of satisfaction with MTM services provided by pharmacists, this survey may contribute to the process of building a greater collaboration between the pharmacist and patient. Sixty-two of 65 patients completed the survey; satisfaction with MTMC pharmacists was demonstrated to be significantly positively correlated with overall satisfaction with the MTMC. Patient satisfaction is not significantly different according to age, gender, ethnicity, or number of disease states. Satisfaction with the pillbox service is not significantly different between younger and older patients. It was also noted that patients taking a greater number of medications had higher levels of satisfaction. Most patients indicated that they were satisfied with the MTMC pharmacists and services; further study linking patient satisfaction with MTM services to improved patient outcomes may allow our MTMC to serve as a model for other pharmacist-managed MTMCs serving similar patient populations. PMID:25312261

  3. Investigation on the Influential Factors of Satisfaction about Patients on Pharmacy Services in Medical and Health Institutions of Zhejiang Province Based on Structural Equation%基于结构方程的浙江省医疗卫生机构患者药学服务满意度影响因素调研



    目的:了解影响患者对于药学服务满意度的因素,为药学服务工作的改善提供参考.方法:采用问卷调查的方法,从取药便利度、感知质量、药学服务预期、感知价值、患者感受、患者投诉6个方面,对浙江省23家医院的部分患者进行药学服务满意度影响因素调查,基于结构方程构建模型,并进行分析.结果:共发放问卷500份,回收有效问卷413份,有效回收率为82.6%.所建立的模型共包含19个观测变量和6个潜变量.结果显示,取药便利度对于感知质量、药物服务预期、感知价值、患者感受具有正向的影响作用,其中取药便利度对于患者感受(满意度)影响程度最大;药学服务预期与患者感受成正相关关系;感知价值与患者投诉呈现负相关关系.结论:为提升患者对于药学服务的满意度,需提高药学服务人员的专业水平和服务态度,提高患者取药便利程度,提高患者在心理、社会性方面的满意度.%OBJECTIVE:To understand the influential factors of clinical pharmacy service satisfaction,and provide reference for improving the pharmacy service. METHODS:Questionnaire survey was adopted to investigate and analyze the influential fac-tors about satisfaction of parts of patients from 23 hospitals in Zhejiang province on pharmacy service from aspects of ease of tak-ing medicines,perceived quality,pharmacy services expectations,perceived value,patients'feelings and complaints based on structural equation. RESULTS:Totally 500 questionnaires were sent out and 413 were valid with effective rate of 82.6%. The estab-lished model included 19 observed variables and 6 latent variables;results showed ease of taking medicines had positive effect on perceived quality,pharmacy services expectations,perceived value and patients'feelings,and most affected on patients'feelings (satisfaction);pharmacy services expectations had positive correlation with patients'feelings;perceived value had

  4. Study of two-dimensional barcode prescription system for pharmacists' activities of NHI contracted pharmacy.

    Wang, Wei-Ling; Lin, Chyi-Hong


    To lower the cost and enhance the quality of healthcare service, the Taiwan government launched National Health Insurance (NHI) in 1995 and the System of Separation of Medicine and Pharmacy in 1997. After the separation of dispensing and prescribing (SDP), pharmacists in NHI-contracted pharmacies have the right to fill prescriptions from a clinic. This means that pharmacists in NHI-contracted pharmacies have four more activities than previously. How to improve the additional activities remains an issue to be solved. Today, in most countries, patients deliver a written prescription to the pharmacy of their choice. The pharmacist validates the prescription and dispenses the drug. In this paper, we describe an automatic data collection system, the two-dimensional barcode prescription system (2DBPS) for pharmacists. The system allows patients to deliver a paper prescription with a 2D barcode issued by a clinic to the pharmacy of their choice. The pharmacist scans in the 2D barcode, validates the prescription, and dispenses the drug. Evaluation of the 2DBPS showed that most pharmacists use it to execute additional activities and it was more efficient than before. Moreover, the easy-to-use 2DBPS is accepted and appreciated by pharmacists. We can thus conclude that the aim of the 2DBPS is to reduce the workload of pharmacist in data processing. It will help pharmacists to expand their role beyond simple dispensing and data processing to providing pharmaceutical care services. PMID:18176063

  5. Investigation on the Basic Situation of Pharmaceutical Service in Chain Pharmacies in Chengdu City%成都市区连锁药店药学服务基本情况调查Δ

    金朝辉; 顾锦建; 郑明琳; 赵淼


    目的:为促进连锁药店药学服务的进一步开展和相关部门实施监管提供参考。方法:通过实地调查和问卷调查相结合的方式对成都市区5家连锁药店分店开展药学服务的基本情况进行调查与分析。结果:核心服务方面,调查发现2家药店未悬挂药师证且药师不在岗;各药店药师提供用药指导频度的差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),超过50%的受访消费者在药店B、C和E购药时药师经常会提供用药指导。感知服务方面,存在违法广告和促销情况的药店各有3家;各药店药品分区情况均较好;服务存档材料情况药店C最好,药店D最差;服务咨询区设置上独立咨询区的设置情况较差。扩展服务方面,会员卡业务一项除会员日优惠外5家药店对会员的优惠方式各有不同;各药店药品拆零服务开展情况较差,无一家药店拆零品种数≥10。结论:成都市区连锁药店药学服务基本情况差强人意。除了采取药店加强对药师的考核和管理、完善药学服务项目,监管部门强化对药品广告和促销的监管等手段外,建议借助互联网信息技术手段,建立云监管平台,开展远程服务和云服务,加强互联网品牌服务营销,以提升连锁药店的药学服务水平。%OBJECTIVE:To provide reference for promoting the further development of pharmaceutical service in chain phar-macies and the regulation of related departments. METHODS:Field investigation and questionnaire survey were used to investigate the basic situation of pharmaceutical care in 5 chain pharmacies in Chengdu city and analyze the results. RESULTS:In terms of core service,it showed that 2 pharmacies had no suspension of pharmacists license and the pharmacist was not on-the-job;there was significant difference in the medication guidance frequency of pharmacists in those pharmacies(P<0.05);more than 50% sur-veyed consumers received

  6. [History of Polish pharmacy].

    Okuda, J; Okuda, R


    Doctoral thesis (in French) by Monika Debska-Donnet, entitled "History of pharmacy and pharmaceutical art collections in Poland" which was presented to Paris XI University (Faculty of Pharmaceutical and Biological Sciences) in 1991, was translated into Japanese and summarized. In this report, histories of pharmacy education, pharmacists, community pharmacies, pharmacopoeiae, pharmaceutical industries in Poland were described, and four representative Polish museums of history of pharmacy were also explained. PMID:11639718

  7. 基于SERVQUAL模型的我国药店服务质量评价内容初步探讨%Preliminary study on the contents for the evaluation of pharmacy service quality based on SERVQUAL model

    赵建芹; 吴幼萍; 陈永法


    ABSTRACT Based on the research of literatures, the specific meaning of the five service quality evaluation dimensions of Chinese pharmacy service in the SERVQUAL model was analyzed so as to provide a reference for pharmacy managers to improve their service quality and for further study.%  在文献研究的基础上,初步探讨SERVQUAL模型提出的5个服务质量评价维度在我国药店服务的具体内涵,为药店经营管理者如何提高药店服务质量提供参考,并且为药店服务质量评价的近一步研究提供借鉴。

  8. Improving Pharmacy Dispensing Performance Through Time Management

    Shaat, Mohamed


    The aim of this project was to carry out a change model in one of Family Medicine Clinic’s Pharmacy in Abu Dhabi. While, the objectives of the project were to improve patient satisfaction through improving patient waiting time for medications collection, improving patient’s knowledge about the pharmacy services and then generalize the implemented change in all other six clinic’s pharmacies. The change was happened because of current system of dispensing patient’s prescription ‘in turn’, which...

  9. A decade of experience with a clinical pharmacokinetics service.

    Ambrose, P J; Smith, W E; Palarea, E R


    The development, operation, and functions of the pharmacokinetics service at Memorial Medical Center of Long Beach (MMCLB) are described, and the data used to determine the quality and cost-effectiveness of the service are presented. Current functions of the pharmacokinetics service at MMCLB include making brief written comments about the interpretations of serum drug concentrations (SDCs) and oral recommendations to physicians on dosage adjustment; provision of written consultations with dosage recommendations; provision of drug information, education, and research; and development of drug dosing guidelines for the pharmacy and medical staff. During the 10-year existence of this service, costs have been justified on the basis of not only revenue generated by the service (in the form of "drug concentration scheduling" and "drug concentration evaluation" fees charged to patients) but also by cost savings resulting from the prevention of inappropriate, misleading, and potentially dangerous SDCs. An audit conducted in 1986 showed that the policy of having pharmacists schedule the sampling times for SDCs saves about $500,000 annually. Quality assurance has been documented by auditing compliance with and therapeutic effectiveness of dosing guidelines and by working with laboratory personnel to identify and prevent spurious SDC results and assay errors. The methods used by the pharmacokinetics service at MMCLB to document the benefits of the service have been vital in proving both its cost-effectiveness and its positive effect on patient care. PMID:3147596

  10. Current situation analysis of after-sales service in online pharmacies based on consumer psychology%基于消费者心理的网上药店售后服务现状分析

    张璨; 昝旺; 许依省; 刘锦


    Objective To facilitate the purchase of medicines for consumers online and provide a reference for the development of the online pharmacies by investigating the public preferences and satisfaction about the after-sales service offered by online pharmacies. Methods A spot investigation about the current situation of after-sales service offered by online pharmacies and customers' expectation was carried out by questionnaires in a way of convenience sampling. Then the conclusion was reached by analyzing the statistics. Results The after-sales service offered by online pharmacies was far from customers' expectation, and customers' purchasing desire online was impacted by different modes of after-sales service to some extent. Conclusion It is right to improve the after-sales service of online pharmacies on the basis of customers' psychological preferences to promote the development of online pharmacies.%目的:通过调查公众对网上药店售后服务的心理偏好及满意度,得出迎合消费者心理的售后服务模式,从而为消费者网上购药提供便利,也为网上药店的发展提供参考。方法采用便利抽样的方式,针对网上药店售后服务现状及消费者对售后服务的期望对群众进行随机问卷调查,并对回收的问卷进行统计和分析,得出结论。结果消费者对于网上药店的售后服务现状满意度不高,不同网上药店的售后服务模式在一定程度上影响着消费者的购买意愿。结论网上药店的售后服务应根据消费者的心理偏好有所改进,完善网上药店售后服务,促进网上药店的发展。

  11. 我院门诊药房规范操作与人性化服务之契合浅析%Integration between Standard Operation and People-oriented Service in Outpatient Pharmacy of Our Hospital



    目的:浅析我院门诊药房规范操作与人性化服务之契合的特点,供同行交流.方法:通过对我院门诊药房传统工作模式进行分析,以药师自查形式结合工作中常见问题以及患者建议,设计并建立门诊药房药师规范服务流程.结果:借鉴移动通讯服务行业成熟的服务礼仪规范,建立门诊药房规范服务流程,规范服务流程体系(分工明确化、操作标准化、用语规范化、观念更新化等)可实现规范操作与人性化服务之契合.结论:该流程体系提升了门诊药房服务质量,达到了减少医患不和谐关系事件的目的.%OBJECTIVE: To analyze the characteristics of integration between standard operation and people-oriented service in outpatient pharmacy of our hospital. METHODS: By analyzing traditional working model of outpatient pharmacy in our hospital, standard pharmacist service procedure of outpatient pharmacy was designed and established, basing on pharmacist self-inspection, common problems and patient's suggestions. RESULTS: Referring to mature service etiquette regulation of mobile communication service industry, standard service procedure of outpatient pharmacy is established, integration between standard operation and people-oriented service can be achieved by standardizing service procedure system (clear division of labor, standard operation, standard phraseology, conception updating, etc.). CONCLUSION: The system improves the service quality of outpatient pharmacy to attain the objective of reducing the occurrence of disharmonious doctor-patient relationship.

  12. Big Data: Implications for Health System Pharmacy.

    Stokes, Laura B; Rogers, Joseph W; Hertig, John B; Weber, Robert J


    Big Data refers to datasets that are so large and complex that traditional methods and hardware for collecting, sharing, and analyzing them are not possible. Big Data that is accurate leads to more confident decision making, improved operational efficiency, and reduced costs. The rapid growth of health care information results in Big Data around health services, treatments, and outcomes, and Big Data can be used to analyze the benefit of health system pharmacy services. The goal of this article is to provide a perspective on how Big Data can be applied to health system pharmacy. It will define Big Data, describe the impact of Big Data on population health, review specific implications of Big Data in health system pharmacy, and describe an approach for pharmacy leaders to effectively use Big Data. A few strategies involved in managing Big Data in health system pharmacy include identifying potential opportunities for Big Data, prioritizing those opportunities, protecting privacy concerns, promoting data transparency, and communicating outcomes. As health care information expands in its content and becomes more integrated, Big Data can enhance the development of patient-centered pharmacy services. PMID:27559194

  13. 42 CFR 410.76 - Clinical nurse specialists' services.


    ... Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) doctoral degree; and (3) Be certified as a clinical nurse specialist by... nurse specialist's services; (3) Although incidental, are an integral part of the professional service... immediately available). (e) Professional services. Clinical nurse specialists can be paid for...

  14. Assessment of service quality of public antiretroviral treatment (ART clinics in South Africa: a cross-sectional study

    Kinkel Hans F


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In South Africa the ever increasing demand for antiretroviral treatment (ART runs the risk of leading to sub-optimal care in public sector ART clinics that are overburdened and under resourced. This study assessed the quality of ART services to identify service areas that require improvement. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out at 16 of 17 public ART clinics in the target area in greater Pretoria, South Africa. Trained participant observers presented as ART qualifying HIV positive patients that required a visit to assess treatment readiness. They evaluated each facility on five different occasions between June and November 2009, assessing the time it took to get an appointment, the services available and accessed, service quality and the duration of the visit. Services (reception area, clinician’s consultation, HIV counselling, pharmacy, nutrition counselling and social worker’s assessment were assessed against performance standards that apply to all clinics. Service quality was expressed as scores for clinic performance (CPS and service performance (SPS, defined as the percentage of performance standards met per clinic and service area. Results In most of the clinics (62.5% participant observers were able to obtain an appointment within one week, although on the day of their visit essential services could not always be accessed. The median CPS of the assessed facilities was 68.5 with four clinics not meeting minimum standards (CPS > 60. The service areas that performed least well were the clinician’s consultation (SPS 67.3 and HIV counselling (SPS 70.7. Most notably, clinicians performed a physical examination in only 41.1% of the visits and rarely did a complete TB symptom screening. Counsellors frequently failed to address prevention of HIV transmission. Conclusions Overall public sector ART clinics in greater Pretoria were easily accessible and their services were of an acceptable quality. However

  15. 减少药品差错规范药房管理提高服务质量%Drugs Reduce Errors and Standardize Pharmacy Management to Improve Service Quality



    目的:探讨医院药房内药品发生差错的种类和原因,分析管理中存在的问题,提出有针对性的对策,提高药学服务质量。方法通过文献调研并结合工作实践,分析药品出现差错的主要原因,发现药房管理中存在的问题,有针对性提出提高药房管理和药学服务质量的对策。结果医院药房差错包括医生处方差错、药品使用方法与用量差错、药品错发给患者、药品变质过期、退换药产生的差错,药品信息录入错误、新药层出不穷、工作负担重、专业知识欠缺、责任心不强、药房制度不健全是产生差错的主要原因。落后的基础设施设备,药品管理制度难以贯彻执行、较低的药剂人员素质和信息化水平等为医院药房管理存在的主要问题。结论医院应逐步购置和更新药房硬件设施,建立健全并切实贯彻执行药品管理制度,不断提高药剂人员的综合素质和医院的信息化水平,保障药品质量,避免和减少药品差错的发生机会,保证患者安全有效用药,提供优质的药学服务,使患者得到积极有效的治疗。%Objective To investigate the drug errors occurred in hospital pharmacy reason, analysis and management of the existing problems, propose improvement measures to improve the quality of pharmacy services. Methods Through literature research and work practice, mainly due to the drug analysis errors found in the pharmacy management problems targeted proposed to increase the quality of service pharmacy and pharmacy management measures. Results Hospital pharmacy pre-scription errors include errors, drug use and dosage errors, sent the wrong drugs in patients, the drug expired metamorphism, returned an error generated by the drug, drug supervision information input ineffective new drugs emerging, heavy workload, lack of professional knowledge, responsibility the heart is not strong, the pharmacy system is not

  16. Teaching Management in a Community Pharmacy

    Calomo, Joseph M.


    Students need strong interpersonal skills to ensure application of their clinical skills and knowledge. Pharmacy schools across the nation must assess the quantity and quality of management skills instruction within their curriculums, including experiential education. The purpose of this article is to describe the importance of the development and utilization of business and people management skills within a community pharmacy, as well as how to incorporate these skills into a student's advan...

  17. 静脉药物配置中心退药原因分析%Analysis of the cause of drug withdrawal in Pharmacy intravenous admixture services



    目的 分析医院静脉药物配置中心退药现状及原因,促进合理用药.方法 药师通过审查静脉药物配置中心处方,对退药处方进行整理分析.结果 退药原因主要有医生因素、护士因素、工作人员因素、患者因素、药物因素、处方信息因素等.结论 药师通过静脉药物配置中心对退药原因进行分析,降低成本,提高药师的工作效率,减少差错的发生,充分体现了药师的价值.%Objective To analyze the situation and the causes of drug withdrawal in Pharmacy intravenous admixture services(PIVAS) ,to promote the rational drug use in our hospital. Methods The prescriptions of drug withdrawal in PIV AS were collected and analyzed. Results The main reasons for drug withdrawal were the doctor factors, the nurse factors, staff factors, patient factors, drug factors, prescribing information factors. Conclusion Analysis on the reasons of drug withdrawal in PIV AS by pharmacist can reduce the cost, improve working efficiency of pharmacists, reduce the error rate,thus fully embody the value of pharmacist.

  18. Assessing the relationship between pharmacists' job satisfaction and over-the-counter counselling at community pharmacies.

    Urbonas, Gvidas; Kubilienė, Loreta


    Background Community pharmacies have an increasing role in self-medication and community health is dependent on the quality of counselling services provided to patients. Some studies show that pharmacists' job satisfaction affects their work quality; other studies found that higher involvement in clinical services increases pharmacists' job satisfaction. Objective To test the relationship between job satisfaction and over-the-counter counselling practice at community pharmacies. Setting Community pharmacies in Lithuania. Method A convenience sample (n = 305) of community pharmacists participated in the cross-sectional survey where they expressed satisfaction with job and reported on their over-the-counter counselling behaviour on self-report scales. The Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modelling approach was employed for data analysis. Main outcome measure The strength of the relationship between job satisfaction and over-the-counter counselling service. Results A bidirectional relationship between job satisfaction and over-the-counter counselling service was found. In addition, job satisfaction and over-the-counter counselling quality depended on pharmacists' age. Conclusion Organizations were recommended to create a counselling friendly environment that would increase pharmacists' job satisfaction and, in return, counselling quality. Also, additional motivation of the retired pharmacists, as well as development of counselling skills of the younger pharmacy workforce, were seen as a means to improve both organizational climate and counselling quality over the counter. PMID:26666908

  19. Improving Communication Skills of Pharmacy Students Through Effective Precepting

    McDonough, Randy P.; Bennett, Marialice S


    Pharmacy students should be given opportunities to learn and practice interpersonal communication skills during their community advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE). Preceptors have the responsibility of setting the stage for the pharmacy students during their initial encounter. During this orientation to the site, students should become familiar with the history of the practice, the types of services provided, and the staff members. Once the orientation is completed, preceptors can d...

  20. The role of commercial nuclear pharmacy in the future practice of nuclear medicine.

    Callahan, R J


    It has been estimated that today 70% to 80% of all radiopharmaceutical doses are dispensed through commercial nuclear pharmacy channels. These services are provided by the approximately 250 facilities in the United States, with some multisite corporations dispensing in excess of 20,000 unit-dose prescriptions per day. As pressures mount within health care institutions to reduce manpower, increase cost-effectiveness, increase participation in managed care contracts, and to seek outside vendors for many services that were previously provided in-house, the future role of the commercial nuclear pharmacy in the practice of nuclear medicine will only continue to increase. The essence of nuclear pharmacy practice is the dispensing of a full range of high quality radiopharmaceuticals in patient-specific unit doses. These doses must be delivered in a timely and cost effective manner, without compromising quality or patient safety. Commercial nuclear pharmacies have expanded to provide such varied functions as radiation safety and waste management, as well as consultative and marketing activities directed towards clinicians within a nuclear medicine practitioners own facility. In-service continuing education programs directed towards physicians and technologists are frequently offered by many commercial nuclear pharmacies. Changes in health care economics, merging and down-sizing in the hospital industry, and the overall impact of managed care on the viability of hospitals in general has resulted in slow growth, or even a small decline in the number of institutionally based nuclear pharmacists. As a result, nuclear medicine practitioners will be looking to the commercial nuclear pharmacies to meet a larger portion of their radiopharmaceutical needs, as well as to value added services, such as education and research and development. Specialized practice settings, such as nuclear cardiology and free-standing nuclear medicine clinics, are especially well suited to the services

  1. An Educational Tool for Teaching Medication History Taking to Pharmacy Students

    Sando, Karen R.; Elliott, Jennifer; Stanton, Melonie L.; Doty, Randell


    Objective. To implement and evaluate the use of a situated-learning experience to prepare second-year pharmacy students to conduct medication history interviews in preparation for introductory pharmacy practice experiences (IPPE) at ambulatory clinic sites.

  2. Management and operation effects of the outpatient and emergency department pharmacy intravenous admixture services%我院门急诊静脉药物配置中心的管理及运行效果

    苏涣新; 黄灿炘


    Objective To explore the operation mechanism and effects of an outpatient and emergency department pharmacy intravenous admixture services ( PIVAS). Methods Many measures were taken,such as defining personal responsibilities,formulating reasonable management models,working processes,transfusion processes for outpatients and emergency patients, and quality control standards, implementing on - the -job training for nursing staff and layered quality control, and so on. Results It ensured the safety of clinical intravenous medication,reduced the occurrence of unreasonable drug use,drug wasting,and adverse drug events. Conclusion The PIVAS in outpatient and emergency department can improve the safety of clinical intravenous medication and increase patient satisfaction.%目的 探讨门急诊静脉药物配制中心管理机制及运行效果.方法 明确人员职责与排班,制订合理的管理模式、工作流程、门诊患者输液流程、急诊患者输液流程及质量管理规范,并对护理人员进行岗位培训,制订管理规范和工作流程,进行分层质量控制.结果 管理制度的运行保证了临床静脉用药安全,减少了不合理用药、药品浪费以及用药不良事件的发生.结论 门诊静脉药物配置中心在提高患者静脉用药安全和提高患者满意度方面发挥了积极的作用.

  3. Factors Associated with Presence of Pharmacies and Pharmacies that Sell Syringes Over-the-Counter in Los Angeles County

    Stopka, Thomas J.; Geraghty, Estella M.; Azari, Rahman; Gold, Ellen B.; DeRiemer, Kathryn


    Community pharmacies serve as key locations for public health services including interventions to enhance the availability of syringes sold over-the-counter (OTC), an important strategy to prevent injection-mediated HIV transmission. Little is known about the community characteristics associated with the availability of pharmacies and pharmacies that sell syringes OTC. We conducted multivariable regression analyses to determine whether the sociodemographic characteristics of census tract resi...

  4. The effect of an active on-ward participation of hospital pharmacists in Internal Medicine teams on preventable Adverse Drug Events in elderly inpatients: protocol of the WINGS study (Ward-oriented pharmacy in newly admitted geriatric seniors)

    J.E. Klopotowska; P.C. Wierenga; S.E. de Rooij; C.C. Stuijt; L. Arisz; P.F. Kuks; M.G. Dijkgraaf; L. Lie-A-Huen; S.M. Smorenburg


    The potential of clinical interventions, aiming at reduction of preventable Adverse Drug Events (preventable ADEs) during hospital stay, have been studied extensively. Clinical Pharmacy is a well-established and effective service, usually consisting of full-time on-ward participation of clinical pha

  5. How to carry out pharmaceutical services of clinical pharmacists%临床药师如何开展药学服务



    In this paper,the author discussed how to carry out pharmaceutical work in clinical pharmacists,and to make the clinical pharmacy services more effective.With the principles of safe,rational and economical in the use of drugs,we standardized the content and signiifcance of the speciifc work of clinical pharmacists in the clinical practice of pharmaceutical services.Clinical pharmacists should study the combination of clinical medicine and pharmacy,and enhance the ability of communication,to better serve the patients.%本文探讨临床药师如何开展药学工作,使临床药学服务更有效地服务患者。以患者安全、合理、经济用药为原则,规范临床药师在临床中开展药学服务的具体工作内容及意义,临床药师应学习临床医学知识,将其与药学结合,增强沟通能力。尽最大可能服务于患者。

  6. Who uses pharmacy for flu vaccinations? Population profiling through a UK pharmacy chain.

    Anderson, Claire; Thornley, Tracey


    Background There is a need to increase influenza vaccination rates in England particularly among those who are under 65 years of age and at-risk because of other conditions and treatments. Objective To understand the profile of people accessing flu vaccination services within a large pharmacy chain. Method Pharmacists requested people who had been vaccinated in 2014/15 to complete a questionnaire. Data was captured electronically on vaccine delivery levels across 1201 pharmacies. Deprivation profiles were calculated using the Carstairs index. Results 1741 patients from a total of 55 pharmacies completed the survey. Convenience and accessibility remain the key reasons for attending pharmacy. Pharmacy services are accessed by people from all postcode areas, including some from the most deprived localities. Conclusion Pharmacy flu vaccination services complement those provided by general practitioners to help improve overall coverage and vaccination rates for patients in at-risk groups. These services are highly accessed by patients from all socio demographic areas, and seem to be particularly attractive to carers, frontline healthcare workers, and those of working age. PMID:26821372

  7. Pharmacists’ social authority to transform community pharmacy practice

    Timothy McPherson, PhD, RPh


    Full Text Available Leaders in the profession of pharmacy have articulated a vision of pharmacists as providers of patient-centered care (PCC services and the Doctor of Pharmacy was established as the required practice degree to achieve this vision. Pharmacist-provided PCC services have been shown to reduce medication costs and improve patient compliance with therapies. While community pharmacists are capable of, and are ideally placed for, providing PCC services, in fact they devote most of their time to prescription dispensing rather than direct patient care. As professionals, community pharmacists are charged with protecting society by providing expert services to help consumers manage risks associated with drug therapies. Historically pharmacists fulfilled this responsibility by accurately dispensing prescription medications, verifying doses, and allergy checking. This limited view of pharmacy practice is insufficient in light of the modern view of pharmacists as providers of PCC. The consumers’ view of community pharmacy as a profession represents a barrier to transforming the basis of community pharmacy from product distribution to providing PCC services. Community pharmacists are conferred with social authority to dictate the manner in which their professional services are provided. Pharmacists can therefore facilitate the transition to PCC as the primary function of community pharmacy by exercising their social authority to engage consumers in their roles in the new patient-pharmacist relationship. Each pharmacist must decide to provide PCC services. Suggestions for initiating PCC services in community pharmacy are offered.

  8. Hospital nuclear pharmacy survey: preliminary aspects in Brazil.

    Brasil, Marcelo Pau; de Barros, Marcio Paes; Antunes, Leila Jorge; Santos-Oliveira, Ralph


    Radiopharmaceuticals are special drugs that in the composition preserve one or more radionuclides which can be used as diagnostic or therapeutic tools in Nuclear Medicine Units. This study evaluated hospitals and clinics which have nuclear medicines services at the city of Rio de Janeiro from August to November 2010. The data were obtained through a longitudinal research. The results showed that most of the hospitals (>80%) did not have pharmacist and all them (100%) considered that a pharmacist in the nuclear pharmacy is not required. PMID:23493051

  9. 从用药分析的视角看临床药学的发展%To see the development of clinical pharmacy from the perspective of medication analysis

    阮广新; 何淑妍


    From the perspective of doctor and clinical pharmacist respectively, medication analysis on the same prescription. Author explore and analysis on the quality of clinical pharmacist and present situation of Clinical pharmacy,and proceed with the prospect.%通过分别从医生和临床药师的角度对同一张处方进行用药分析,探讨临床药师应具备的素质,并对此进行展望。

  10. Managing Conflict: A Guide for the Pharmacy Manager.

    Haumschild, Ryan J; Hertig, John B; Weber, Robert J


    Managing conflict among a variety of people and groups is a necessary part of creating a high performance pharmacy department. As new pharmacy managers enter the workforce, much of their success depends on how they manage conflict. The goal of this article is to provide a guide for the pharmacy director on conflict in the workplace. By evaluating each type of conflict, we can learn how to respond when it occurs. Resolving conflict requires a unique and individualized approach, and the strategy used may often be based on the situational context and the personality of the employee or manager. The more that pharmacy leaders can engage in conflict resolution with employees and external leaders, the more proactive they can be in achieving positive results. If pharmacy directors understand the source of conflicts and use management strategies to resolve them, they will ensure that conflicts result in a more effective patient-centered pharmacy service. PMID:26405347

  11. The Vision and Challenges of Hokkaido Pharmaceutical University's Affiliated Pharmacy.

    Norose, Takahiko; Manabe, Tomohiro; Furuta, Seiichi; Watanabe, Kazuhiro


    Hokkaido Pharmaceutical University (HPU), according to its educational mission, seeks to "develop medical professionals who contribute to community medicine", and it has produced more than 6300 graduates since 1974. With recent medical advancements and a progressively aging society, the role of the pharmacist in community medicine has diversified and is increasing in importance. Therefore, in April 2012, the Hokkaido Pharmaceutical University Affiliated Pharmacy was established as a for-profit business of the Educational Foundation of the Hokkaido University of Science, the parent body of HPU. The pharmacy is located near the Sapporo station; it is operated by six pharmacists and four clerks, and supported by three faculty members who are engaged in providing HPU student education such as on-site clinical training, in addition to their pharmacy duties such as home care pharmaceutics. For the first two years it was open, the pharmacy focused on the establishment of pharmacy administration and fiscal consolidation. In April 2015, the Pharmacy Management Committee set the pharmacy's future vision, as well as its mid-term strategy, which consists of the four main components of pharmacy practices, education, research, and social contribution, in order for the pharmacy to serve as a model of community pharmacy. PMID:27150928

  12. Clinical impact of a pharmacist-led inpatient anticoagulation service: a review of the literature

    Lee T


    Full Text Available Tiffany Lee, Erin Davis, Jason Kielly School of Pharmacy, Memorial University, St John's, NL, Canada Background: Anticoagulant therapies provide management options for potentially life-threatening thromboembolic conditions. They also carry significant safety risks, requiring careful consideration of medication dose, close monitoring, and follow-up. Inpatients are particularly at risk, considering the widespread use of anticoagulants in hospitals. This has prompted the introduction of safety goals for anticoagulants in Canada and the USA, which recommend increased pharmacist involvement to reduce patient harm. The goal of this review is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of pharmacist-led inpatient anticoagulation services compared to usual or physician-managed care. Methods: This narrative review includes articles identified through a literature search of PubMed, Embase, and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts databases, as well as hand searches of the references of relevant articles. Full publications of pharmacist-managed inpatient anticoagulation services were eligible if they were published in English and assessed clinical outcomes. Results: Twenty-six studies were included and further divided into two categories: 1 autonomous pharmacist-managed anticoagulation programs (PMAPs and 2 pharmacist recommendation. Pharmacist management of heparin and warfarin appears to result in improvements in some surrogate outcomes (international normalized ratio [INR] stability and time in INR goal range, while results for others are mixed (time to therapeutic INR, length of stay, and activated partial thromboplastin time [aPTT] measures. There is also some indication that PMAPs may be associated with reduced patient mortality. When direct thrombin inhibitors are managed by pharmacists, there seems to be a shorter time to therapeutic aPTT and a greater percentage of time in the therapeutic range, as well as a decrease in the frequency of medication

  13. Factors influencing pharmacy students’ attitudes towards pharmacy practice research and strategies for promoting research interest in pharmacy practice

    Kritikos VS


    Full Text Available Objectives: To (1 investigate the relationships between students’ characteristics and their (a perceptions of research in general and (b attitudes towards pharmacy practice research; (2 identify strategies that could be used by pharmacy educators to promote research interest in pharmacy practice; and (3 identify perceived barriers to the pursuit or completion of a pharmacy practice research degree. Methods: A survey was administered to all students enrolled in each year of the four-year pharmacy undergraduate program, University of Sydney, Australia. Perceptions of research in general were measured using 4 items on a five-point semantic-differential scale and attitudes towards pharmacy practice research were measured using 16 items on a five-point Likert scale. Student characteristics were also collected as were responses to open-ended questions which were analysed using content analysis. Results: In total 853 students participated and completed the survey (83% response rate. Participants’ characteristics were associated with some but not all aspects of research and pharmacy practice research. It appeared that positive attitudes and perspectives were influenced strongly by exposure to the ‘research’ process through projects, friends or mentors, previous degrees or having future intentions to pursue a research degree. Results from both the quantitative and qualitative analyses suggest positive attitudes and perceptions of research can be nurtured through the formal inclusion in research processes, particularly the utility of practice research in clinical practice across the four years of study. Participants indicated there was a lack of awareness of the needs, benefits and career opportunities associated with pharmacy practice research and voiced clear impediments in their career path with respect to the choice of practice research-related careers. Conclusions: Future research should investigate changes in perceptions and attitudes in a

  14. Future-proofing the pharmacy profession in a hypercompetitive market.

    Singleton, Judith A; Nissen, Lisa M


    This paper highlights the hypercompetitive nature of the current pharmacy landscape in Australia and to suggest either a superior level of differentiation strategy or a focused differentiation strategy targeting a niche market as two viable, alternative business models to cost leadership for small, independent community pharmacies. A description of the Australian health care system is provided as well as background information on the current community pharmacy environment in Australia. The authors propose a differentiation or focused differentiation strategy based on cognitive professional services (CPS) which must be executed well and of a superior quality to competitors' services. Market research to determine the services valued by target customers and that they are willing to pay for is vital. To achieve the superior level of quality that will engender high patient satisfaction levels and loyalty, pharmacy owners and managers need to develop, maintain and clearly communicate service quality specifications to the staff delivering these services. Otherwise, there will be a proliferation of pharmacies offering the same professional services with no evident service differential. However, to sustain competitive advantage over the long-term, these smaller, independent community pharmacies will need to exploit a broad core competency base in order to be able to continuously introduce new sources of competitive advantage. With the right expertise, the authors argue that smaller, independent community pharmacies can successfully deliver CPS and sustain profitability in a hypercompetitive market. PMID:23820045

  15. 42 CFR 440.20 - Outpatient hospital services and rural health clinic services.


    ... profession under State law, if the physician performs the services in the clinic or the services are... residence” does not include a hospital or a skilled nursing facility. (c) Other ambulatory...

  16. The effect of a clinical pharmacist discharge service on medication discrepancies in patients with heart failure

    R.N. Eggink; A.W. Lenderink (Albert); J.W. Widdershoven (Jos); P.M.L.A. van den Bemt (Patricia)


    textabstractObjective: Heart failure patients are regularly admitted to hospital and frequently use multiple medication. Besides intentional changes in pharmacotherapy, unintentional changes may occur during hospitalisation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a clinical pharmacis

  17. Comparison of Family Clinic Community Health Service Model with State-owned Community Health Service Model

    万方荣; 卢祖洵; 张金隆


    Summary: Based on a survey of community health service organization in several cities, communi-ty health service model based on the family clinic was compared with state-owned communityhealth service model, and status quo, advantages and problems of family community health serviceorganization were analyzed. Furthermore, policies for the management of community health ser-vice organization based on the family clinic were put forward.

  18. 持续质量改进措施在优化临床药剂工作中的应用价值分析%Application Value Analysis of Continuous Quality Improvement Measures in Optimizing Clinical Pharmacy Work



    Objective To investigate the value of the continuous quality improvement measures for clinical pharmacy work. Methods The pharmacy department in our hospital from 2013 began to implement continuous quality improvement measures, comparative analysis before and after the implementation of the effect. Results The qualified rate, the rate of drug release and the satisfaction rate of the patients were significantly better than before the implementation (P<0.05). Conclusion In the clinical pharmacy work carried out the continuous quality improvement measure, the application value is high.%目的:探讨临床药剂工作应用持续质量改进措施的价值。方法我院药剂科从2013年开始实施持续质量改进措施,对比分析实施前后效果。结果实施后药剂人员工作合格率、药品发放差错率及患者满意率均优于实施前(P <0.05)。结论在临床药剂工作中开展持续质量改进措施,应用价值高。

  19. Management of children’s acute diarrhea by community pharmacies in five towns of Ethiopia: simulated client case study

    Abegaz TM; Belachew SA; Abebe TB; Gebresilassie BM; Teni FS; Woldie HG


    Tadesse Melaku Abegaz,1 Sewunet Admasu Belachew,1 Tamrat Befekadu Abebe,1 Begashaw Melaku Gebresilassie,1 Fitsum Sebsibe Teni,2 Habtamu Gebremeskel Woldie3 1Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Gondar University, Gondar, 2Department of Pharmaceutics and Social Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, 3Department of Hospital Pharmacy, Debremarkos Teaching and Referral Hospital, Debremarkos, Ethiopia Background: Acute diarr...

  20. Effect of a Pharmaceutical Care Program on quality of life and satisfaction with pharmacy services in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Cassyano Januário Correr; Roberto Pontarolo; Rodrigo Augusto de Paula e Souza; Rafael Venson; Ana Carolina Melchiors; Astrid Wiens


    The aim is to evaluate the humanistic outcomes in type 2 diabetic patients by the adoption of pharmacotherapy follow-up in community pharmacies. Controlled, non-randomized, 12-months trial; n=161 patients distributed into control and intervention groups; 6 community pharmacies involved, all in the Curitiba city region, in the state of Paraná were used. The health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and the satisfaction index were determined using both the DQOL assessment tool, which measures HRQo...

  1. To Investigate the Effect of the Quality of the West Pharmacy on the Clinical Curative Effect%探讨住院药房调剂质量对临床疗效的影响

    沙春慧; 赵玲


    目的:探讨住院药房调剂质量对临床疗效的影响,以对住院药房进行规范化管理。方法探讨住院药房药品调剂工作中存在的问题,结合本院实际情况提出防范对策。结果药品调剂工作易出差错,应提高药师专业素质,增强责任心和使命感,改善工作质量。结论对住院药房调剂质量规范化管理能够对疾病的预防及治疗起到至关重要的作用,可显著降低不良事件事件的发生,保证患者的安全用药,值得我们在临床上的借鉴与推广。%Objective Explore the quality of hospital pharmacy dispensing influence on clinical curative effect, with standardized management on hospital pharmacy. Methods This paper probes into the problems in hospital pharmacy drug dispensing work, in combination with the practical situation of our hospital prevention countermeasures are put forward.Results Drug dispensing work is easy to make mistakes, we should improve pharmacists professional quality, enhance the sense of responsibility and mission, improve the quality of work.Conclusion Standardization management quality of hospital pharmacy dispensing to prevention and treatment of the disease play a crucial role, can significantly reduce the occurrences of adverse events to ensure the safety of the patients with medication, worthy of our reference and popularization in clinic.

  2. An investigation of non-prescription medicine supply in community pharmacies in Hanoi, Vietnam

    Do, Xuan Thang


    Supplying safe, appropriate and effective non-prescription medicines for customers in community pharmacies is a key role of pharmacists and pharmacy assistants in every country. However, in low and middle-income countries, including Vietnam, the quality of professional services from pharmacies is limited, unclear and has often been questioned. There is limited research about the real situation surrounding non-prescription medicine supply in community pharmacies in Vietnam. The factors that in...

  3. Education for arthritis patients: a community pharmacy based pilot project.

    Petkova VB


    Full Text Available There are different kinds of arthritis, widely spread among the population, that make them a clinical problem with social, psychological and economic burden. Different education programs have been developed in order to improve patients’ disease management, medication compliance and from there patients’ quality of life.Objective: To develop and implement a community pharmacy-based educational program for patients with arthritis. Improvements in pain, medication compliance, decrease in general practitioner’s visits and hospitalizations are expected.Methods: Prospective, randomized, controlled trial. The sample consisted of 43 individuals, with different stages of arthritis (aged 15 - 71, attending pharmacies – intervention group; and 43 individuals – control group. A 4-month education was conducted on the following topics: what causes arthritis and what are the factors that can intensify it; pain management and physical activities; self-management and prevention; pharmacotherapy and possible adverse drug reactions. Patient's health-related quality of life was assessed in the beginning and at the end of the survey. Results: Parameters assessed during the four stages of the program were: frequency of severe pain, frequency of general practitioner’s visits, frequency of urgent medical aid calls, compliance with therapy, satisfaction with pharmacy services. Improvement in patients’ health-related quality of life was observed and also: decrease in the severity of patients’ pain, decrease in the physician’s visits, and increase in satisfaction overall care.Conclusions: Positive results from the educational approach in pharmacy conditions were demonstrated. These consequences have a potential to increase arthritis patient’s quality of life.

  4. Question: in a service including a radio pharmacy, a TEP scan unit and five classical examination rooms, what is the most irradiating post?

    The first results give the radio pharmacy as the most irradiating post with a non negligible dosimetry at extremities and not the PET one as it was first supposed. These dosimetry studies allow to optimize the daily practices and lead to a more rigorous follow up of the personnel dosimetry. (N.C.)

  5. Refer-To-Pharmacy: Pharmacy for the Next Generation Now! A Short Communication for Pharmacy

    Alistair Gray


    Refer-to-Pharmacy is the first fully integrated hospital to community pharmacy referral system. This article explains the importance of these referrals for patients and health economies to improve medicines optimisation, and how Refer-to-Pharmacy works in both hospital and community pharmacies.

  6. Refer-To-Pharmacy: Pharmacy for the Next Generation Now! A Short Communication for Pharmacy

    Alistair Gray


    Full Text Available Refer-to-Pharmacy is the first fully integrated hospital to community pharmacy referral system. This article explains the importance of these referrals for patients and health economies to improve medicines optimisation, and how Refer-to-Pharmacy works in both hospital and community pharmacies.

  7. 精细化管理在静脉药物配置中心作业中的应用%Application of Delicacy Management in Pharmacy Intravenous Admixture Services

    王丽华; 范军


    Pharmacy intravenous admixture services (PIVAS) aims at improving infusion quality and efficiency. Delicacy management is conducive to improving PIVAS effects by specifying critical PIVAS steps with targeted management.%静脉药物配置中心作业的目的在于提高输液质量,提高输液配制效率,在PIVAS引入精细化管理,将其中关键步骤进行细分,实现针对性的管理,可以有效提升PIVAS作业的效果。

  8. 集束化管理在静脉用药调配中心预防医院感染的应用%Application of Cluster Management in Nosocomial Infection Prevention for Pharmacy Intravenous Admixture Services

    王雅蘋; 苏素红; 戈霓云; 张琼; 朱光辉


    Objective To avoid nosocomial infection in the pharmacy intravenous admixture services (PIVAS), our hospital took cluster management strategy on PIVAS, nosocomial infection control department, logistic engineering department and specialized company.Method The combination of self-examination, random check by nosocomial infection control department with equipment maintenance and purification environment by specialized company were adopted to find out the problems, after which cause analysis and quality improvement were conducted.ResultPIVAS infection control measures were made, which helped the inspection and monitoring indicators meet the standard.Conclusion PIVAS nosocomial infection control was improved by cluster management strategy, which ensured patients' intravenous medication safety.

  9. Pharmacy in medieval Bulgaria.

    Antonova, J


    A survey of the state of pharmacy in medieval Bulgaria is done, analyzing written records of various origin and content. Written documents are reviewed separately in chronological order. They all seem to lend support to the conclusion that realism is a characteristic feature of pharmacy in medieval Bulgaria. Mysticism and superstition are relatively rarely resorted to, precedence is given to real treatment with suitable and not so suitable medical plants, minerals and animal products. Relatively weak is the impact of West-European medicine and pharmacy because of the different influence of the Eastern and the Western Orthodox religion, and partly because of the territorial remoteness. During the High Middle Ages Bulgarian pharmacy developed under the influence of Hellenic ancient culture. Later, after the 15 century, the influence of the Arabian culture and medicine is also felt as a result of the complex compilation between the Bulgarian and Ottoman culture during the 500-year Turkish yoke. PMID:17663197

  10. Prototype of a Questionnaire and Quiz System for Supporting Increase of Health Awareness During Wait Time in Dispensing Pharmacy

    Toda, Takeshi; Chen, Poa-Min; Ozaki, Shinya; Ideguchi, Naoko; Miyaki, Tomoko; Nanbu, Keiko; Ikeda, Keiko

    For quit-smoking clinic and its campaign, there was a need for pharmacists to investigate pediatric patient's parent consciousness to tobacco harm utilizing wait time in a pediatric dispensing pharmacy. In this research, we developed the questionnaire and quiz total system using the tablet for user interface, in which people can easily answer the questionnaire/quiz and quickly see the total results on the spot in order to enhance their consciousness to the tobacco harm. The system also provides their tobacco dependence level based on the questionnaire results and some advice for their health and dietary habits due to the tobacco dependence level. From a field trial with one hundred four examinees in the pediatric dispensing pharmacy, the user interface was useful compared to conventional questionnaire form. The system could enhance their consciousness to tobacco harm and make their beneficial use of waiting time in dispensing pharmacy. Some interesting suggestions for improvement and new services were also obtained.