Sample records for climbing flight

  1. Best-range flight conditions for cruise-climb flight of a jet aircraft

    Hale, F. J.


    The Breguet range equation was developed for cruise climb flight of a jet aircraft to include the climb angle and is then maximized with respect to the no wind true airspeed. The expression for the best range airspeed is a function of the specific fuel consumption and minimum drag airspeed and indicates that an operational airspeed equal to the fourth root of three times the minimum-drag airspeed introduces range penalties of the order of one percent.

  2. Predicting postoperative cardiopulmonary complications by a test of stair climbing

    Objective: To assess whether a test of stair climbing ability could be used to predict the risk of developing postoperative cardiopulmonary complications in patients undergoing general anesthesia. Design: Cohort study Place and Duration of Study: The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi. The duration of the study was from December 2003 to December 2004. Patients and Methods: This study was carried out on consecutive, adult patients presenting for elective thoracic or abdominal surgery under general anesthesia. Pre-operatively, patients were asked to climb a standard staircase. Number of steps climbed was recorded. Those unable to climb stairs due to debilitation cardiac, pulmonary or rheumatologic disease were categorized as 0 stairs climbed. Outcome variables were postoperative cardiopulmonary complications for mortality. Period of follow-up was until hospital discharge. Results: Seventy-eight patients were enrolled; 59 (75.6%) climbed > 1 flight of stairs, 19 (24.3%) climbed 1 flight and 40% in those patients who climbed < 1 flight. The group that climbed < 1 flight tended to have complications associated with poor reserves of the cardiopulmonary systems; i.e. pulmonary edema, exacerbation of underlying lung disease. The relative risk of developing complications, if unable to climb at least 1 flight of stairs, was calculated to be 1.8 (95% CI 0.7 - 4.6). Conclusion: Stair climbing can be a useful pre-operative tool to predict the risk of postoperative cardiopulmonary complications. (author)

  3. Achieving Great Heights: The Climbing Child.

    Readdick, Christine A.; Park, Jennifer J.


    Addresses the importance of climbing in early childhood and issues of facilitating children's climbing skills. Considers why children climb, when they learn, how they climb, socializing the climbing child, and creating safe, developmentally appropriate climbing environments for children. (JPB)

  4. Lifting as You Climb

    Sullivan, Debra R.


    This article addresses leadership themes and answers leadership questions presented to "Exchange" by the Panel members who attended the "Exchange" Panel of 300 Reception in Dallas, Texas, last November. There is an old proverb that encourages people to lift as they climb: "While you climb a mountain, you must not forget others along the way." With…

  5. The Social Climbing Game

    Bardoscia, Marco; Livan, Giacomo; Marsili, Matteo; Tessone, Claudio J


    The structure of a society depends, to some extent, on the incentives of the individuals they are composed of. We study a stylized model of this interplay, that suggests that the more individuals aim at climbing the social hierarchy, the more society's hierarchy gets strong. Such a dependence is sharp, in the sense that a persistent hierarchical order emerges abruptly when the preference for social status gets larger than a threshold. This phase transition has its origin in the fact that the presence of a well defined hierarchy allow agents to climb it, thus reinforcing it, whereas in a "disordered" society it is harder for agents to find out whom they should connect to in order to become more central. Interestingly, a social order emerges when agents strive harder to climb society and it results in a state of reduced social mobility, as a consequence of ergodicity breaking, where climbing is more difficult.

  6. Climbing on Pyramids

    Serra, Jean; Kiran, Bangalore Ravi


    A new approach is proposed for finding the "best cut" in a hierarchy of partitions by energy minimization. Said energy must be "climbing" i.e. it must be hierarchically and scale increasing. It encompasses separable energies and those composed under supremum.

  7. Climbing Fiber Signaling and Cerebellar Gain Control

    Ohtsuki, Gen; Piochon, Claire; Hansel, Christian


    The physiology of climbing fiber signals in cerebellar Purkinje cells has been studied since the early days of electrophysiology. Both the climbing fiber-evoked complex spike and the role of climbing fiber activity in the induction of long-term depression (LTD) at parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapses have become hallmark features of cerebellar physiology. However, the key role of climbing fiber signaling in cerebellar motor learning has been challenged by recent reports of forms of synaptic ...

  8. Ben-Hur Staircase Climbs

    Dodge, John; Simoson, Andrew


    How many ways may one climb an even number of stairs so that left and right legs are exercised equally, that is, both legs take the same number of strides, take the same number of total stairs, and take strides of either 1 or 2 stairs at a time? We characterize the solution with a difference equation and find its generating function.

  9. 36 CFR 13.910 - Mountain climbing.


    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mountain climbing. 13.910 Section 13.910 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Provisions § 13.910 Mountain climbing. (a) Climbing Mount McKinley or Mount Foraker without a permit...

  10. Multiple-Segment Climbing Robots

    Kerley, James; May, Edward; Eklund, Wayne


    Multiple-segment climbing robots developed to perform such tasks as inspection, sandblasting, welding, and painting on towers and other structures. Look and move like caterpillars. Video camera mounted on one of segments rotated to desired viewing angle. Used in remote inspection of structure, to view motion of robot and/or provides video feedback for control of motion, and/or to guide operation of head mounted on foremost segment with motorized actuators.

  11. Diagnosis of climbing related overuse injuries

    Sport climbing shows an enormous increase in participation, evolving to more popularity, including even school sport activity on high standards. Therefore the number of climbing related injuries is increasing and becomes a more frequently encountered medical problem. Typical climbing associated injuries involve predominantly the upper limb. Overuse injuries are the most common climbing related injuries.The clinical examination is the first line investigation, which is often limited especially in the acute phase. However, an exact diagnosis is desireable for therapeutic management. Imaging modalities have shown to be capable for detection of climbing related injuries. An overview about the current use of x-ray, ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging in different climbing related overuse injuries is presented. (orig.)

  12. Dislocation climb in GaAs

    The weak-beam technique of transmission-electron-microscopy is used to investigate dislocation climb in GaAs, a high supersaturation of point defects being introduced by electron irradiation in a high-voltage-electron-microscope. It is shown that, at room temperature, climb of dissociated a/2 dislocations proceeds by nucleation of both Frank and perfect interstitial loops on the individual partials. Irradiation carried out at higher temperature (4500C) showed evidence for the interaction of the new loops with the non-parent partial, leading to climb of the total dislocation. Dislocations of α and β-type, i.e. of opposite edge character, exhibit the same climb mechanism. In this paper, the microscopic mechanism of dislocation climb is analysed and the relevance of this study to the understanding of the degradation of GaAs devices by climbing dislocations is considered

  13. Using Parallel Platforms as Climbing Robots

    Reinoso, Oscar; Aracil, Rafael; Saltaren, Roque


    At present, parallel robots show a great progress in their development due to their behaviour in multiple applications. In this sense, the Stewart-Gough platform with proper mechanical adaptations could be used for a climbing parallel robot. A climbing parallel robot with 6 degrees of freedom has been proposed and analysed. Parallel robots have great advantages compared to serial robots with legs using as climbing robots. Some advantages can be cited as the high weight payload capacity, robus...

  14. Hill climbing algorithms and trivium

    Borghoff, Julia; Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde; Matusiewicz, Krystian


    This paper proposes a new method to solve certain classes of systems of multivariate equations over the binary field and its cryptanalytical applications. We show how heuristic optimization methods such as hill climbing algorithms can be relevant to solving systems of multivariate equations. A...... characteristic of equation systems that may be efficiently solvable by the means of such algorithms is provided. As an example, we investigate equation systems induced by the problem of recovering the internal state of the stream cipher Trivium. We propose an improved variant of the simulated annealing method...

  15. Estimation of vertical and horizontal distribution of takeoff and climb NOx emission for commercial aircraft

    Highlights: • NOx emissions are investigated in terms of vertical and horizontal distance. • The CFM56-7B26 series engine and ten B737-800 aircraft are considered. • Actual flight data records and the ICAO emission database are used. • Averaged takeoff and climb NOx emissions are found to be 28.1 kg and 27.6 kg. • The NOx emissions for an aircraft per km of altitude are between 2 and 3 kg. - Abstract: An investigation of takeoff and climb NOx emissions is reported for a twin-engine, narrow-body, short-to-medium haul commercial aircraft, B737-800. Ten randomly selected flights are considered for two independent domestic routes. The study is based on two approaches: actual flight data records and the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) emission database. First, an empirical model is established in order to identify the relationship between fuel flow and a NOx emission index. Next, the NOx emissions are analyzed through the vertical air region and the horizontal distance from the runway. Averaged takeoff and climb NOx emissions for equal vertical regions for each route are found as 27.0 kg and 24.8 kg through the developed models for two routes, A and B, respectively. The results are also compared to those given in the ICAO database which utilizes standard takeoff and climb emission indices

  16. Amooty, a stair climbing intelligent maintenance robot

    Toshiba Corporation and a team from Tokyo University have jointly developed a prototype of a mobile, stair climbing intelligent robot, named Amooty, for inspection and maintenance tasks in nuclear power plants. (author)

  17. Rope Climbing Robot with Surveillance Capability

    Kanza Zafar


    Full Text Available In the past different engineers and researcher developed robots capable of climbing for various purposes. In this paper we have developed a robot capable of rope climbing in both horizontal and vertical direction. Furthermore, the robot has the ability to perform surveillance using a camera mounted on top of the robot. The quality of the transmitted video from the camera to the computer is clear and stable. Hence the developed robot is a good choice for surveillance purposes. In addition, it can be used to traverse floors of a building. It uses an IR sensor to sense strips attached at each floor. Once the strips are sensed, a dropping mechanism is activated in which a specific object is dropped to the targeted floor or location. The robot can work in automatic mode or manual through RF signals from an RF transmitter. Finally the robot is cost effective compared to many other developed robots for rope climbing.

  18. Climbing elements in finite coxeter groups

    Brady, Thomas; Kenny, Aisling; Watt, And Colum


    We define the notion of a climbing element in a finite real reflection group relative to a total order on the reflection set and we characterise these elements in the case where the total order arises from a bipartite Coxeter element.

  19. 21 CFR 890.3890 - Stair-climbing wheelchair.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stair-climbing wheelchair. 890.3890 Section 890...) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3890 Stair-climbing wheelchair. (a) Identification. A stair-climbing wheelchair is a device with wheels that is intended...

  20. Experimental study of flight noise on AS350B2 helicopter

    WANG Huaming; ZHANG Qiang; HU Zhangwei; BAO Jinsong


    A joint flight experiment is conducted by China Aviation Establishment and German Aerospace Center on an Aerospatiale AS350B2 helicopter to investigate rotorcraft flight acoustics at Pingfang airport, Harbing City, China. This paper briefly introduces the methodologies and facilities used in the flight tests. The flight exposure noise levels for ten test flight conditions are showed in the paper and harmonic spectrum and wavelet analysis methods are used for the noise test data processing, which are measured in the flight test in taking off, climbing, forward and descent flight conditions. Results show that the flight noise levels are relatively higher in the climbing and descending flight conditions. The flight noise comes mainly from the tail rotor for the climbing and from the main rotor due to the blade vortex interaction (BVI) for the descending flight conditions. The highest noise level occurs in the forward rotating blade side when the helicopter flys at moderate speed with about 6° descending slide angle.

  1. Robot-assisted practice of gait and stair climbing in nonambulatory stroke patients

    Stefan Hesse, MD


    Full Text Available A novel gait robot enabled nonambulatory patients the repetitive practice of gait and stair climbing. Thirty nonambulatory patients with subacute stroke were allocated to two groups. During 60 min sessions every workday for 4 weeks, the experimental group received 30 min of robot training and 30 min of physiotherapy and the control group received 60 min of physiotherapy. The primary variable was gait and stair climbing ability (Functional Ambulation Categories [FAC] score 0–5; secondary variables were gait velocity, Rivermead Mobility Index (RMI, and leg strength and tone blindly assessed at onset, intervention end, and follow-up. Both groups were comparable at onset and functionally improved over time. The improvements were significantly larger in the experimental group with respect to the FAC, RMI, velocity, and leg strength during the intervention. The FAC gains (mean +/– standard deviation were 2.4 +/– 1.2 (experimental group and 1.2 +/– 1.5 (control group, p = 0.01. At the end of the intervention, seven experimental group patients and one control group patient had reached an FAC score of 5, indicating an ability to climb up and down one flight of stairs. At follow-up, this superior gait ability persisted. In conclusion, the therapy on the novel gait robot resulted in a superior gait and stair climbing ability in nonambulatory patients with subacute stroke; a higher training intensity was the most likely explanation. A large randomized controlled trial should follow.

  2. ClimbAware: Investigating Perception and Acceptance of Wearables in Rock Climbing

    Kosmalla, Felix; Wiehr, Frederik; Daiber, Florian;


    Wearable sports devices like GPS watches and heart rate monitors are ubiquitous in sports like running or road cycling and enable the users to receive real-time performance feedback. Although rock climbing is a trending sport, there are little to no consumer electronics available to support rock...... vibro-tactile, audible, and visual cues while climbing an easy route and a hard route, requiring high physical and cognitive load, we found that the most suited notification channel is sound, directly followed by vibro-tactile output. Light has been found to be inappropriate for the use in the sport...

  3. Corporate graphic identity brands in the field of climbing

    Faganel, Nina


    The theoretical part of the dissertation represents the emergence of elements of the corporate graphic identity. It describes the important attributes that enterprise needs for good business and marketing. The dissertation is focused also on climbing, which represent the nature of the brand Na Fleš (eng. On Flash), whose products are intended for use in climbing. Special attention is given to the analysis and research of the corporate graphic identity brands in the field of climbing. ...

  4. Tree Climbing Robot Design, Kinematics and Motion Planning

    Lam, Tin Lun


    Climbing robot is a challenging research topic that has gained much attention from researchers. Most of the robots reported in the literature are designed to climb on manmade structures, but seldom robots are designed for climbing natural environment such as trees. Trees and manmade structures are very different in nature. It brings different aspects of technical challenges to the robot design. In this book, you can find a collection of the cutting edge technologies in the field of tree-climbing robot and the ways that animals climb. It provides a valuable reference for robot designers to select appropriate climbing methods in designing tree-climbing robots for specific purposes. Based on the study, a novel bio-inspired tree-climbing robot with several breakthrough performances has been developed and presents in this book. It is capable of performing various actions that is impossible in the state-of-the-art tree-climbing robots, such as moving between trunk and branches. This book also proposes several appro...

  5. Stair Climbing in a Quadruped Robot

    Shen-Chiang Chen


    Full Text Available This paper reports the algorithm of trajectory planning and the strategy of four-leg coordination for quasi-static stair climbing in a quadruped robot. This development is based on the geometrical interactions between robot legs and the stair, starting from single-leg analysis, followed by two-leg collaboration, and then four-leg coordination. In addition, a brief study on the robot’s locomotion stability is also included. Finally, simulation and experimental testing were executed to evaluate the performance of the algorithm.

  6. 49 CFR 238.407 - Anti-climbing mechanism.


    ... power car constructed with a crash energy management design is permitted to crush in a controlled manner... Equipment § 238.407 Anti-climbing mechanism. (a) Each power car shall have an anti-climbing mechanism at its... yielding. (c) The forward coupler of a power car shall be attached to the car body to resist a...

  7. Minimum-fuel, three-dimensional flight paths for jet transports

    Neuman, F.; Kreindler, E.


    A number of studies dealing with fuel minimization are concerned with three-dimensional flight. However, only Neuman and Kreindler (1982) consider cases involving commercial jet transports. In the latter study, only the climb-out and descent portions of complete long-range flight paths below 10,000 ft altitude have been investigated. The present investigation is concerned with the computation of minimum-fuel nonturning and turning flight paths for climb-outs from 2000 to 10,000 ft for long-range flights (greater than 50 n mi), and for complete flight paths of lengths between 5 and 50 n mi.

  8. HPV-Linked Cancers Still Climbing in U.S.

    ... page: HPV-Linked Cancers Still Climbing in U.S. Majority of ... Cancers linked to the sexually transmitted human papillomavirus (HPV) keep rising in the United States, even though ...


    East, Miriam; Micke, Wade


    Risk of establishment of the freshwater climbing perch (Anabas testudineus) in mainland Queensland from the Torres Strait is high. The species is dispersed through human assistance and/or attributes that assist its own spread. The species has the potential to out-compete native freshwater and estuarine species, and has sharp well-developed gill plates and spines that may choke and kill predatory species like barramundi if swallowed. The presence of climbing perch would severely impact Queensl...

  10. Evolution of a climbing habit promotes diversification in flowering plants.

    Gianoli, Ernesto


    Key innovations are traits that are associated with the particular evolutionary 'success' of some taxonomic groups. Climbing plants depend on the availability of physical support to reach the canopy and thereby prevent shading by neighbouring plants. The present article shows that the evolution of a climbing habit in flowering plants constitutes a key innovation. A literature survey identified 48 pairs of sister groups from 45 families of flowering plants for which information on phylogenetic...

  11. Therapeutic use of sport climbing for patients with multiple sclerosis

    Ana Ožura


    Full Text Available Sport climbing is a form of exercise that requires complex and variable movement. Because of the use of the so-called "top-rope system", this is a safe activity appropriate for individuals with physical disabilities. Therefore, climbing might prove to be an effective form of therapy for patients with multiple sclerosis. Multiple sclerosis is a chronic neurological disease that may include motor and cognitive deficits as well as affective disturbances. The illness is characterized by multifocal areas of brain damage (plaques, as consequence of autoimmune inflammation. Sport climbing might be a potentially useful activity for treating spasticity, improving a person's self image and certain aspects of cognition, such as attention and executive functions, as well as for managing emotional disturbances. All of the above are areas where patients with multiple sclerosis might be in need of assistance. The article also describes the experience of a patient with multiple sclerosis who was enrolled in our climbing program. Future research is needed to evaluate the effect of climbing therapy for patients with multiple sclerosis.

  12. Climbing robot actuated by meso-hydraulic artificial muscles

    Bryant, Matthew; Fitzgerald, Jason; Miller, Samuel; Saltzman, Jonah; Kim, Sangkyu; Lin, Yong; Garcia, Ephrahim


    This paper presents the design, construction, experimental characterization, and system testing of a legged, wall-climbing robot actuated by meso-scale hydraulic artificial muscles. While small wall-climbing robots have seen increased research attention in recent years, most authors have primarily focused on designs for the gripping and adhesion of the robot to the wall, while using only standard DC servo-motors for actuation. This project seeks to explore and demonstrate a different actuation mechanism that utilizes hydraulic artificial muscles. A four-limb climbing robot platform that includes a full closed-loop hydraulic power and control system, custom hydraulic artificial muscles for actuation, an on-board microcontroller and RF receiver for control, and compliant claws with integrated sensing for gripping a variety of wall surfaces has been constructed and is currently being tested to investigate this actuation method. On-board power consumption data-logging during climbing operation, analysis of the robot kinematics and climbing behavior, and artificial muscle force-displacement characterization are presented to investigate and this actuation method.

  13. A Survey of Wall Climbing Robots: Recent Advances and Challenges

    Shunsuke Nansai


    Full Text Available In recent decades, skyscrapers, as represented by the Burj Khalifa in Dubai and Shanghai Tower in Shanghai, have been built due to the improvements of construction technologies. Even in such newfangled skyscrapers, the façades are generally cleaned by humans. Wall climbing robots, which are capable of climbing up vertical surfaces, ceilings and roofs, are expected to replace the manual workforce in façade cleaning works, which is both hazardous and laborious work. Such tasks require these robotic platforms to possess high levels of adaptability and flexibility. This paper presents a detailed review of wall climbing robots categorizing them into six distinct classes based on the adhesive mechanism that they use. This paper concludes by expanding beyond adhesive mechanisms by discussing a set of desirable design attributes of an ideal glass façade cleaning robot towards facilitating targeted future research with clear technical goals and well-defined design trade-off boundaries.

  14. Kasner solutions, climbing scalars and big-bang singularity

    We elaborate on a recently discovered phenomenon where a scalar field close to big-bang is forced to climb a steep potential by its dynamics. We analyze the phenomenon in more general terms by writing the leading order equations of motion near the singularity. We formulate the conditions for climbing to exist in the case of several scalars and after inclusion of higher-derivative corrections and we apply our results to some models of moduli stabilization. We analyze an example with steep stabilizing potential and notice again a related critical behavior: for a potential steepness above a critical value, going backwards towards big-bang, the scalar undergoes wilder oscillations, with the steep potential pushing it back at every passage and not allowing the scalar to escape to infinity. Whereas it was pointed out earlier that there are possible implications of the climbing phase to CMB, we point out here another potential application, to the issue of initial conditions in inflation

  15. Avco Lycoming emission and flight test results

    Duke, L. C.


    The Avco Lycoming flight test program for reduced emissions was conducted to determine and document the lean fuel schedule limits for current production aircraft based on flight safety. Based on analysis of the emissions profile, Avco Lycoming proposed to evaluate the effect of leaner schedules in the idle/taxi, climb, and approach modes. These modes were selected as areas where it was felt that possible improvements could be made with the greatest improvement in cyclic emissions reduction. The fuel systems to produce these leaner stepped fuel schedules were tailored specifically for the flight test.

  16. Research on a Micro Flip Robot that Can Climb Stairs

    Jianzhong Wang


    Full Text Available Micro mobile robots (MMRs can operate in rugged, narrow or dangerous regions; thus, they are widely used in numerous areas including surveillance, rescue and exploration. In urban environments, stairs are common obstacles, ones that such robots find difficult to manoeuvre over. The authors analysed the research status of MMRs, particularly in terms of difficulties when performing stair climbing and present a novel type of MMR called the micro flip robot (MFRobot. A support arm subassembly was added to the centre of a wheeled chassis; using this structure, the MFRobot can climb stairs when a flipping mode is utilized. Based on this structure, the authors established a kinematic model of the stair-climbing process and analysed the force conditions for the key status, contributing to the existing knowledge of robot design. An MFRobot prototype was produced and the stair-climbing experiments, as well as experiments on manoeuvring through rubble regions and slope surfaces, were conducted. The results show that the MFRobot can rapidly climb common stairs and can easily manoeuvre through a rubble region. The maximum slope angle the robot can climb was shown to be about 35° for concrete and wooden slope surfaces. In the case where the robot needed to be equipped with sensors, particularly a camera, the camera was equipped on the support arm of robot. The MFRobot prototype weighs 2.5 kg and is easily transportable. This structure can resolve contradictions between portability and performance in terms of overcoming obstacles; in addition, operational effectiveness can be improved using this structure.

  17. Minimally Actuated Dynamic Climbing in the Sagittal Plane

    Birkmeyer, Paul Michael


    This thesis explores the design of systems that can climb vertical surfaces with non-negligible dynamics in the sagittal plane. The development of a low-dimensional model addresses a lack of understanding of sagittal plane dynamics during climbing in the space of reduced-order dynamic models of legged systems. Using a construction derived from the well-known and well-studied Spring-Loaded Inverted Pendulum (SLIP), we propose a two-legged system with both torsional and linear compliance driven...

  18. Piper (Piperaceae) in the Solomon Islands: the climbing species

    Gardner, R.O.


    Eleven climbing species of Piper in the Solomon Islands are recognized: P. abbreviatum, P. betle, P. bosnicanum, P. caninum, P. celtidiforme, P. fragile, P. insectifugum (syn. P. austrocaledonicum), P. interruptum, P. macropiper, P. majusculum, and, as the only endemic, P. sclerophloeum, for which a

  19. Leading Organizational Change Is Like Climbing a Mountain

    Zimmerman, Judith


    Leading organizational change is like climbing a mountain. Transformational leaders must prepare to lead change, understand the process and nature of change, and provide the essential gear so that those involved can be successful. The author draws on the literature and personal experiences as a hiker and change leader to provide a guide for…

  20. Project CLIMB, 1985-1986. OEA Evaluation Report.

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn. Office of Educational Assessment.

    In 1985-86, Project CLIMB was in its first year of funding at two high schools in the Bronx, New York. The program provided instructional and supportive services to 188 students of limited English proficiency (LEP) in grades 9-12. The students were recent immigrants from Cambodia and Vietnam, and all spoke their native language at home. The goal…

  1. Climbing Ability of the Common Bed Bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    Hottel, B A; Pereira, R M; Gezan, S A; Qing, R; Sigmund, W M; Koehler, P G


    Little is known about what factors influence the climbing ability of bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), in relation to the various surfaces they encounter. We examined how sex, time since last fed, and what surfaces the bed bugs were in contact with affected their climbing performance. The effects of sex and time since fed were tested by counting the number of bed bugs able to climb a 45° slope. The pulling force was recorded using an analytical balance technique that captured the sequential vertical pulling force output of bed bugs attached to various surfaces. Recently fed female bed bugs were found to have the most difficulty in climbing smooth surfaces in comparison with males. This difference can be explained by the larger weight gained from bloodmeals by female bed bugs. A variety of vertical pulling forces were observed on surfaces ranging from sandpaper to talc powder-covered glass. For surfaces not treated with talc powder, bed bugs generated the least amount of vertical pulling force from synthetically created 0.6-µm plastron surfaces. This vast range in the ability of bed bugs to grip onto various surfaces may have implications on limiting bed bugs dispersal and hitchhiking behaviors. PMID:26334801

  2. A comparison of motor behaviours in groups of rats distinguished by their climbing response to apomorphine.

    Davis, A.S.; Jenner, P.; Marsden, C. D.


    Administration of apomorphine hydrochloride (0.5 mg kg-1 s.c.) to adult male or female Wistar rats previously acclimatized to the test environment induced climbing behaviour in approximately 50% of animals examined. The proportion of animals climbing was related to age, being maximal at 8-9 weeks. Those animals showing an initial climbing response to apomorphine (0.5 mg kg-1 s.c.), climbed when challenged with this dose of apomorphine on subsequent occasions. In 'climbing' animals the intensi...

  3. Effects of sports climbing on muscle performance and balance for patients with multiple sclerosis

    Jolk, Christoph; Dalgas, Ulrik; Osada, Nani;


    Background/Aims: The potential benefits of sports climbing for many diseases have not been investigated. The aim of this case series was to examine whether sports climbing is feasible and whether it can influence isometric muscle performance and balance in people with multiple sclerosis (MS...... extensors was found to have improved by 23.4% (p<0.05). The difference in muscle strength between the stronger and weaker leg was not affected after 5 weeks of climbing. Climbing did not have any significant impact on balance. Conclusions: Sports climbing appears feasible for people with mild relapsing...

  4. Kinetic Simulations of Ladder Climbing and Autoresonance of Plasma Waves

    Kaminski, Erez; Barth, Ido; Fisch, Nat; Dodin, Ilya


    Quantum like Ladder Climbing and Autoresonance of classical Langmuir waves in bounded plasmas are numerically studied within a kinetic model and compared with earlier fluid model simulations. Both dynamical solutions are excited and controlled via chirped modulations of the background density that preserve the plasma wave quanta. Landau damping determines the system's maximal stable level, imposing a kinetic limit on the maximal level of the Ladder Climbing or Autoresonance dynamics. Vlasov simulations are employed to test the kinetic stability of both dynamics and to find the kinetic limit for different system's parameters. This work was Supported by NNSA grant DE274-FG52-08NA28553, DOE contract DE-AC02-09CH11466, and DTRA grant HDTRA1-11-1-0037.


    Sobel, Dafna; Constantin, Naama; Or, Omer


    Rock climbing is becoming an increasingly popular sport in Israel with more and more climbing walls being built in the cities and new routes being traced on cliffs around the country. Our account describes the case of a 15 years old climber with chronic pain (without trauma) in the 3rd finger of the right hand. A stress fracture, involving the proximal interphalangeal joint (SH3) of the middle phalanx, was diagnosed. The fracture healed following two months of rest with gradual return to activity. As this sport becomes more common, there is an increasing need for knowledge about the characteristic injuries, their diagnosis and treatment. Although considered an extreme sport, most of the injuries are overuse injuries, mainly to the upper limbs. Finger flexor tendon pulley rupture being one of the most common. Diagnosis is based on history, physical examination and ultrasonography. Conservative treatment is successful for most injuries, while more complicated cases require surgical intervention. PMID:27544986

  6. Factors Influencing Physical Risk Taking in Rock Climbing

    Taylor, Marcus K.; Gould, Daniel R.; Hardy, Lew; Woodman, Tim


    This study was designed to investigate factors influencing physical risk taking in the sport of rock climbing. Specifically, the relationships between physical risk taking, sensation seeking, spheres of control, and desirability of control were examined. One hundred five rock climbers from the United States completed a series of surveys measuring each of the above-mentioned psychological variables. As predicted, physical risk taking demonstrated significant positive relationships to both tota...

  7. Piper (Piperaceae) in the Philippine Islands: the climbing species

    Gardner, R.O.


    Piper in the Philippine Islands is reviewed. Fifteen climbing species are recognized (many fewer than in previous treatments) and distinguished in a key. Most are widely distributed through Malesia, with ranges that end eastwards in the Solomon Islands or Australia. Piper myrmecophilum, the only taxon accepted as endemic to the Philippines, is ant-associated. Piper celtidiforme, once thought endemic, also occurs in New Guinea and the Solomons. The five shrubby Piper species in the Philippines...

  8. Lifting as We Climb: Recognizing Intersectional Gender Violence in Law

    Shreya Atrey


    This paper interrogates the meaning of lifting all women as we climb the ladder of gender equality and justice by recognizing that gender violence affects women differently. This is because violence against women is perpetrated not only on the basis of their gender or sex but also other identities of race, religion, caste, region, age, disability, nationality, sexual orientation etc. With reference to CEDAW jurisprudence and examples from India, I seek to explain this understanding with the h...

  9. Fast, vacancy-free climb of prismatic dislocation loops in bcc metals.

    Swinburne, Thomas D; Arakawa, Kazuto; Mori, Hirotaro; Yasuda, Hidehiro; Isshiki, Minoru; Mimura, Kouji; Uchikoshi, Masahito; Dudarev, Sergei L


    Vacancy-mediated climb models cannot account for the fast, direct coalescence of dislocation loops seen experimentally. An alternative mechanism, self climb, allows prismatic dislocation loops to move away from their glide surface via pipe diffusion around the loop perimeter, independent of any vacancy atmosphere. Despite the known importance of self climb, theoretical models require a typically unknown activation energy, hindering implementation in materials modeling. Here, extensive molecular statics calculations of pipe diffusion processes around irregular prismatic loops are used to map the energy landscape for self climb in iron and tungsten, finding a simple, material independent energy model after normalizing by the vacancy migration barrier. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations yield a self climb activation energy of 2 (2.5) times the vacancy migration barrier for 1/2〈111〉 (〈100〉) dislocation loops. Dislocation dynamics simulations allowing self climb and glide show quantitative agreement with transmission electron microscopy observations of climbing prismatic loops in iron and tungsten, confirming that this novel form of vacancy-free climb is many orders of magnitude faster than what is predicted by traditional climb models. Self climb significantly influences the coarsening rate of defect networks, with important implications for post-irradiation annealing. PMID:27549928

  10. To boldly climb: behavioural and cognitive differences in migrating European glass eels.

    Podgorniak, T; Blanchet, S; De Oliveira, E; Daverat, F; Pierron, F


    European eel (Anguilla anguilla) is a catadromous fish species that received substantial attention as its population has markedly declined in the last three decades. The possible causes of this decline include habitat fragmentation factors such as dams and weirs. In some cases, these obstacles are equipped with fish friendly passage devices that may select young eels according to their climbing behaviour. We tested how individual climbing tendency was related to the event of fishway passage experienced in the field and classified fish climbing profiles as climbing 'leaders', 'followers', 'finishers' and 'no climbers'. Moreover, we analysed the brain transcription level of genes related to neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity and compared it to climbing profiles. We found that fish from the upstream segments of an impounded river had a higher climbing propensity. Their behaviour was also more repeatable throughout the whole test than the obstacle-naive fish from the downstream segment. Moreover, we found that boldly climbing 'leaders' had lower levels of transcription of synapse-related genes than the climbing 'followers'. These differences could be related to coping styles of fish, where proactive 'leaders' express a routine and risky behaviour, whereas reactive fish need an environmental assessment before exploratory behaviour. Our study showed that differences in climbing propensity exist in glass eels separated by water obstacles. Moreover, eels could adopt climbing different strategies according to the way they deal with environmental stress and to the cognitive abilities they possess. PMID:26909192

  11. A Kinect-sensor-based Tracked Robot for Exploring and Climbing Stairs

    I-Hsum Li


    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the stair-climbing problem for a tracked robot. The tracked robot designed in this paper has the ability to explore stairs in an unknown indoor environment, climbing up and down the stairs, keeping balance while climbing, and successfully landing on the stair platform. Intelligent algorithms are proposed to explore and align stairs, and a fuzzy controller is introduced to stabilize the tracked robot’s movement during the exploration. An inexpensive Kinect depth sensor is the only equipment needed for all the control modes. Finally, experiments illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach for climbing stairs.

  12. An Oil Droplet That Spontaneously Climbs up Stairs

    Sumino, Y.; Magome, N.; Yoshikawa, K.

    It has been reported that an oil droplet on a glass surface moves spontaneously in an oil-water system. This motion of an oil droplet can be understood as the spreading of a reactive droplet, which is induced by the interfacial tension gradient at the glass surface. In this paper, we focus on the spontaneous motion of an oil droplet climbing up stairs. We found that an oil droplet tends to move up the stairs rather than to step down. We describe some of the mechanisms of this unique behavior.

  13. Optimal molecular alignment and orientation through rotational ladder climbing

    Salomon, J; Turinici, G; Salomon, Julien; Dion, Claude M.; Turinici, Gabriel


    We study the control by electromagnetic fields of molecular alignment and orientation, in a linear, rigid rotor model. With the help of a monotonically convergent algorithm, we find that the optimal field is in the microwave part of the spectrum and acts by resonantly exciting the rotation of the molecule progressively from the ground state, i.e., by rotational ladder climbing. This mechanism is present not only when maximizing orientation or alignment, but also when using prescribed target states that simultaneously optimize the efficiency of orientation/alignment and its duration.

  14. Design of a Docking Wall-Climbing Robot

    Rong Liu; Ran Liang


    This paper introduces an innovative wall‐climbing robot. The robot consists of two single‐body negative pressure adsorption robots which could dock together as a mother‐robot or separate into two independent child‐robots. The child‐robots connect with each other through a docking mechanism which can not only lock solidly and unlock smoothly but which can also adjust the relative position of the two child‐robots. This design guarantees that while in dock mode the mother robot will be able to c...

  15. Climbing Nitrogenase: Towards a Mechanism of Enzymatic Nitrogen Fixation

    Hoffman, Brian M.; Dean, Dennis R.; Seefeldt, Lance C.


    “Nitrogen fixation”—the reduction of dinitrogen (N2) to two ammonia (NH3) molecules—by the Mo-dependent nitrogenase is essential for all life. Despite four decades of research, a daunting number of unanswered questions about the mechanism of nitrogenase make it the ‘Everest of enzymes’. This Account describes our efforts to climb one “face” of this mountain by meeting two interdependent challenges central to determining the mechanism of biological N2 reduction. The first challenge is to deter...

  16. Design of a Docking Wall-Climbing Robot

    Rong Liu


    Full Text Available This paper introduces an innovative wall‐climbing robot. The robot consists of two single‐body negative pressure adsorption robots which could dock together as a mother‐robot or separate into two independent child‐robots. The child‐robots connect with each other through a docking mechanism which can not only lock solidly and unlock smoothly but which can also adjust the relative position of the two child‐robots. This design guarantees that while in dock mode the mother robot will be able to cross some barriers which are impossible to surmount for a single‐body wall‐climbing robot, while in separate mode the child‐robots maintain agility and mobility compared to other two‐body robots. In this paper, an overview of the mechanical structure of the robot is first presented and then three possible mechanisms for barrier‐crossing are discussed and a reasonable one is selected. An analysis of the initial docking condition of the selected design is also given which provides the basis for the experiments and research for the future.

  17. 36 CFR 13.1312 - Climbing and walking on Exit Glacier.


    ... Glacier. 13.1312 Section 13.1312 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... General Provisions § 13.1312 Climbing and walking on Exit Glacier. Except for areas designated by the Superintendent, climbing or walking on, in, or under Exit Glacier is prohibited within 1/2 mile of the...

  18. 77 FR 33777 - General Aviation Safety Forum: Climbing to the Next Level


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD General Aviation Safety Forum: Climbing to the Next Level The National Transportation Safety...-20, 2012 in Washington, DC. The event, ``General Aviation Safety: Climbing to the Next Level,''...

  19. Features and functionality of speed and power capabilities of elite climbers and various types of rock climbing

    Ryepko O.A.


    The purpose of this study was comparative and functional characterization of speed- force readiness elite athletes - representatives of climbing to the complexity, speed and climbers. The study involved 26 athletes: 10 masters of sports of international class (speed climbing), 10 masters of sports of international class (climbing difficulty), 6 world-class climbers. The age of the athletes was 19-22 years. Found that the different types of rock climbing have different requirements for the dev...

  20. Mechanical Design and Dynamcis of an Autonomous Climbing Robot for Elliptic Half-shell Cleaning

    Houxiang Zhang


    Full Text Available This paper presents an auto-climbing robot for cleaning the elliptic half-shell of National Grand Theatre in China. The robot consists of a climbing mechanism, a moving mechanism, two cleaning brushes and supporting mechanisms. The mechanism and unique aspects are presented in detail. A distributed control system based on CAN bus is designed to meet the requirements of controlling the robot. After that the emphasis for discussion is on the motion realization which includes climbing and cleaning movements. The robot independently climbs and descends in the vertical direction and cleans in the horizontal direction. It takes the circling tracks as supports for climbing up and down between strips and moving horizontally along one strip around the ellipsoid. For system design and control purposes, the dynamic models of the climbing and cleaning processes are given applying of the Lagrange equation. Furthermore the force distribution of the front and rear supporting mechanisms is computed in a way that ensures the safety of the climbing process. In the end, the successful on-site tests confirm the principles described above and the robot's ability.

  1. The muscle activation patterns of lower limb during stair climbing at different backpack load.

    Yali, Han; Aiguo, Song; Haitao, Gao; Songqing, Zhu


    Stair climbing under backpack load condition is a challenging task. Understanding muscle activation patterns of lower limb during stair climbing with load furthers our understanding of the factors involved in joint pathology and the effects of treatment. At the same time, stair climbing under backpack load requires adjustments of muscle activations and increases joint moment compared to level walking, which with muscle activation patterns are altered as a result of using an assistive technology, such as a wearable exoskeleton leg for human walking power augmentation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze lower limb muscles during stair climbing under different backpack load. Nine healthy volunteers ascended a four-step staircase at different backpack load (0 kg, 10 kg, 20 kg, 30 kg). Electromyographic (EMG) signals were recorded from four lower limb muscles (gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior, hamstring, rectus femoris). The results showed that muscle activation amplitudes of lower limb increase with increasing load during stair climbing, the maximum RMS of gastrocnemius are greater than tibialis anterior, hamstring and rectus femoris whether stair climbing or level walking under the same load condition. However, the maximum RMS of hamstring are smaller than gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior and rectus femoris. The study of muscle activation under different backpack load during stair climbing can be used to design biomechanism and explore intelligent control based on EMG for a wearable exoskeleton leg for human walking power augmentation. PMID:26899302

  2. Hormone responses to a continuous bout of rock climbing in men.

    Sherk, Vanessa D; Sherk, Kyle A; Kim, SoJung; Young, Kaelin C; Bemben, Debra A


    Rock climbing is rapidly increasing in popularity as a recreational activity and as a competitive sport. Few studies have tested acute physiological responses to climbing, and no studies to date have tested hormone responses to a climbing-based workout. This study aimed to measure testosterone (T), growth hormone (GH), and cortisol (C) responses to continuous vertical climbing in young male rock climbers. Ten male rock climbers, aged between 21 and 30 years, climbed laps on a submaximal 55' climbing route for 30 min, or until exhaustion, whichever came first. Heart rate (HR) was recorded after every lap. Blood samples were collected by venipuncture before (Pre), immediately post (IP), and 15 min after the climbing exercise (P15) to assess blood lactate and plasma GH, T, and C. Subjects climbed 24.9 ± 1.9 min and 507.5 ± 82.5 feet. Peak HR was 182.1 ± 2.3 bpm, and lactate (Pre: 2.9 ± 0.6 mmol/dL, IP: 11.1 ± 1.0 mmol/dL) significantly (P Pre to IP. T concentrations significantly (P Pre (6.04 ± 0.31 ng/mL) to IP (7.39 ± 0.40 ng/mL) and returned to baseline at P15 (6.23 ± 0.33 ng/mL). Cortisol levels did not significantly change during the protocol. GH significantly (P Pre (0.63 ± 0.17 ng/mL) to IP (19.89 ± 4.53 ng/mL) and remained elevated at P15 (15.03 ± 3.89 ng/mL). An acute, short-term bout of high-intensity continuous climbing was an effective exercise stimulus for elevating plasma testosterone and growth hormone levels in young males. PMID:20963437




    Full Text Available Despite the large ecological study of tree-climbing mangrove sesarmid crabs in other countries, the Philippine representatives appear to have not been investigated extensively. This paper presents the feeding ecology as to dependence on mangrove trees of sesarmids in different mangrove areas of southern Luzon. This is biased on the nature of the crab habitats, arboreal climbing skills and burrowing behavior of the sesarmids: Selatium elongatum and Episesarma versicolor − exclusive mangrove tree climbers (EMTC; Sarmatium germaini − occasional mangrove tree climber (OMTC; and the non-mangrove tree-climbing (NMTC sesarmids- Neosarmatium smithii, Perisesarma bidens and Perisesarma eumolpe

  4. Climbing nitrogenase: toward a mechanism of enzymatic nitrogen fixation.

    Hoffman, Brian M; Dean, Dennis R; Seefeldt, Lance C


    "Nitrogen fixation", the reduction of dinitrogen (N2) to two ammonia (NH3) molecules, by the Mo-dependent nitrogenase is essential for all life. Despite four decades of research, a daunting number of unanswered questions about the mechanism of nitrogenase activity make it the "Everest of enzymes". This Account describes our efforts to climb one "face" of this mountain by meeting two interdependent challenges central to determining the mechanism of biological N2 reduction. The first challenge is to determine the reaction pathway: the composition and structure of each of the substrate-derived moieties bound to the catalytic FeMo cofactor (FeMo-co) of the molybdenum-iron (MoFe) protein of nitrogenase. To overcome this challenge, it is necessary to discriminate between the two classes of potential reaction pathways: (1) a "distal" (D) pathway, in which H atoms add sequentially at a single N or (2) an "alternating" (A) pathway, in which H atoms add alternately to the two N atoms of N2. Second, it is necessary to characterize the dynamics of conversion among intermediates within the accepted Lowe-Thorneley kinetic scheme for N2 reduction. That goal requires an experimental determination of the number of electrons and protons delivered to the MoFe protein as well as their "inventory", a partition into those residing on each of the reaction components and released as H2 or NH3. The principal obstacle to this "climb" has been the inability to generate N2 reduction intermediates for characterization. A combination of genetic, biochemical, and spectroscopic approaches recently overcame this obstacle. These experiments identified one of the four-iron Fe-S faces of the active-site FeMo-co as the specific site of reactivity, indicated that the side chain of residue alpha70V controls access to this face, and supported the involvement of the side chain of residue alpha195H in proton delivery. We can now freeze-quench trap N2 reduction pathway intermediates and use electron

  5. Features and functionality of speed and power capabilities of elite climbers and various types of rock climbing

    Ryepko O.A.


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was comparative and functional characterization of speed- force readiness elite athletes - representatives of climbing to the complexity, speed and climbers. The study involved 26 athletes: 10 masters of sports of international class (speed climbing, 10 masters of sports of international class (climbing difficulty, 6 world-class climbers. The age of the athletes was 19-22 years. Found that the different types of rock climbing have different requirements for the development of the components of speed- force readiness: speed climbing is more conducive to the development of explosive power and speed endurance, climbing on the complexity is more conducive to the development of power abilities and strength endurance in short time intervals. Taken in the study to compare climbing contributes to the development of strength endurance over longer intervals of time.

  6. strange beta: An assistance system for indoor rock climbing route setting

    Phillips, C.; Becker, L.; Bradley, E.


    This paper applies the mathematics of chaos to the task of designing indoor rock-climbing routes. Chaotic variation has been used to great advantage on music and dance, but the challenges here are quite different, beginning with the representation. We present a formalized system for transcribing rock climbing problems and then describe a variation generator that is designed to support human route-setters in designing new and interesting climbing problems. This variation generator, termed strange beta, uses chaos to introduce novelty. We validated this approach with a large blinded study in a commercial climbing gym, in cooperation with experienced climbers and expert route setters. The results show that strange beta can help a human setter produce routes that are at least as good as, and in some cases better than, those produced in the traditional manner.

  7. Effect of sunflower climbing bean intercroping system on insect pest incidence and crop productivity

    Intercropping of sunflower and climping beans were evaluated for pest incidence and yield advantages during the main season of 2000/2001 at KARI-NPBRC, Njoro. Three sunflower varieties, Fedha, Record, PAN-7553 and three climbing beans varieties, Puebla, Omukingi and Flora were laid out in a complete randomised block design with four replications. Sunflower was spaced at 75 x 30 cm while the climbing beans were spaced at 50 x 37.5 cm. Assessment of pest damage on various treatments commenced 17 days after planting. Results showed that low plant germination was mainly a result of dry weather and taht cutworm damage was insignificant. There was a sunflower x climbing bean variety interaction, which regulated the aphid infestation of the climbing beans. Sunflower variety PAN-7553 recorded significantly (P<0.01) more pecked heads than the other two varieties. (author)

  8. Pre-performance psychological states and performance in an elite climbing competition.

    Sanchez, X; Boschker, M S J; Llewellyn, D J


    The purpose of the present study was to assess the relationship between pre-performance psychological states and expert performance in non-traditional sport competition. Nineteen elite male sport climbers (M=24.6, SD=4.0 years of age) completed the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule before an international rock climbing competition. Climbing performances were video-recorded to calculate movement fluency (entropy) and obtain ascent times. Official route scores were also obtained. Successful climbers reported higher pre-performance levels of somatic anxiety and climbed the most difficult part of the route more slowly than their unsuccessful counterparts. The psychological states preceding elite climbing competition appeared to be an important factor in determining success, even when differences in baseline ability were taken into account. PMID:19486480

  9. Nudged-elastic band method with two climbing images: finding transition states in complex energy landscapes

    Zarkevich, Nikolai A


    The nudged-elastic band (NEB) method is modified with concomitant two climbing images (C2-NEB) to find a transition state (TS) in complex energy landscapes, such as those with serpentine minimal energy path (MEP). If a single climbing image (C1-NEB) successfully finds the TS, C2-NEB finds it with higher stability and accuracy. However, C2-NEB is suitable for more complex cases, where C1-NEB misses the TS because the MEP and NEB directions near the saddle point are different. Generally, C2-NEB not only finds the TS but guarantees that the climbing images approach it from the opposite sides along the MEP, and it estimates accuracy from the three images: the highest-energy one and its climbing neighbors. C2-NEB is suitable for fixed-cell NEB and the generalized solid-state NEB (SS-NEB).

  10. The fastest drop climbing on a wet conical fibre

    Li, Erqiang


    We use high-speed video imaging to study the capillary-driven motion of a micro-droplet along the outside of a pre-wetted conical fiber. The cones are fabricated on a glass-puller with tip diameters as small as 1 μm, an order of magnitude smaller than in previous studies. The liquid is fed through the hollow fiber accumulating at the fiber tip to form droplets. The droplets are initially attached to the opening as they grow in size before detaching and traveling up the cone. This detachment can produce a transient oscillation of high frequency. The spatial variation of the capillary pressure drives the droplets towards the wider side of the cone. Various liquids were used to change the surface tension by a factor of 3.5 and viscosity by a factor of 1500. Within each droplet size and viscous-dissipation regime, the data for climbing speeds collapse on a single curve. Droplets traveling with and against gravity allow us to pinpoint the absolute strength of the driving capillary pressure and viscous stresses and thereby determine the prefactors in the dimensionless relationships. The motions are consistent with earlier results obtained from much larger cones. Translation velocities up to 270 mm/s were observed and overall the velocities follow capillary-viscous scaling, whereas the speed of the fastest droplets is limited by inertia following their emergence at the cone tip.

  11. Design of Low Cost Stair Climbing Robot Using

    Arduino Jeyabalaji C


    Full Text Available Since the invention of the wheel, Man has sought to reduce effort to get things done easily. Ultimately, it has resulted in the invention of the Robot, an Engineering Marvel. Up until now, the biggest factor that hampers wide proliferation of robots is locomotion and maneuverability. They are not dynamic enough to conform even to the most commonplace terrain such as stairs. To overcome this, we are proposing a stair climbing robot that looks a lot like the human leg and can adjust itself according to the height of the step. But, we are currently developing a unit to carry payload of about 4 Kg. The automatic adjustment in the robot according to the height of the stair is done by connecting an Android device that has an application programmed in OpenCV with an Arduino in Host mode. The Android Device uses it camera to calculate the height of the stair and sends it to the Arduino for further calculation. This design employs an Arduino Mega ADK 2560 board to control the robot and other home fabricated custom PCB to interface it with the Arduino Board. The bot is powered by Li-Ion batteries and Servo motors.

  12. Autonomous stair-climbing with miniature jumping robots.

    Stoeter, Sascha A; Papanikolopoulos, Nikolaos


    The problem of vision-guided control of miniature mobile robots is investigated. Untethered mobile robots with small physical dimensions of around 10 cm or less do not permit powerful onboard computers because of size and power constraints. These challenges have, in the past, reduced the functionality of such devices to that of a complex remote control vehicle with fancy sensors. With the help of a computationally more powerful entity such as a larger companion robot, the control loop can be closed. Using the miniature robot's video transmission or that of an observer to localize it in the world, control commands can be computed and relayed to the inept robot. The result is a system that exhibits autonomous capabilities. The framework presented here solves the problem of climbing stairs with the miniature Scout robot. The robot's unique locomotion mode, the jump, is employed to hop one step at a time. Methods for externally tracking the Scout are developed. A large number of real-world experiments are conducted and the results discussed. PMID:15828659

  13. Inverse Kinematic Analysis of a Redundant Hybrid Climbing Robot

    Adrian Peidro


    Full Text Available This paper presents the complete inverse kinematic analysis of a novel redundant truss climbing robot with 10 degrees of freedom. The robot is bipedal and has a hybrid serial-parallel architecture, where each leg consists of two parallel mechanisms connected in series. By separating the equation for inverse kinematics into two parts - with each part associated with a different leg - an analytic solution to the inverse kinematics is derived. In the obtained solution, all the joint coordinates are calculated in terms of four or five decision variables (depending on the desired orientation whose values can be freely decided due to the redundancy of the robot. Next, the constrained inverse kinematic problem is also solved, which consists of finding the values of the decision variables that yield a desired position and orientation satisfying the joint limits. Taking the joint limits into consideration, it is shown that all the feasible solutions that yield a given desired position and orientation can be represented as 2D and 3D sets in the space of the decision variables. These sets provide a compact and complete solution to the inverse kinematics, with applications for motion planning.

  14. Design and Implementation of Autonomous Stair Climbing with Nao Humanoid Robot

    Lu, Wei


    With the development of humanoid robots, autonomous stair climbing is an important capability. Humanoid robots will play an important role in helping people tackle some basic problems in the future. The main contribution of this thesis is that the NAO humanoid robot can climb the spiral staircase autonomously. In the vision module, the algorithm of image filtering and detecting the contours of the stair contributes to calculating the location of the stairs accurately. Additionally, the st...

  15. Gripping during climbing of arboreal snakes may be safe but not economical

    Byrnes, Greg; Jayne, Bruce C.


    On the steep surfaces that are common in arboreal environments, many types of animals without claws or adhesive structures must use muscular force to generate sufficient normal force to prevent slipping and climb successfully. Unlike many limbed arboreal animals that have discrete gripping regions on the feet, the elongate bodies of snakes allow for considerable modulation of both the size and orientation of the gripping region. We quantified the gripping forces of snakes climbing a vertical ...

  16. Dislocation dynamics simulations with climb: kinetics of dislocation loop coarsening controlled by bulk diffusion

    Dislocation climb mobilities, assuming vacancy bulk diffusion, are derived and implemented in dislocation dynamics simulations to study the coarsening of vacancy prismatic loops in fcc metals. When loops cannot glide, comparison of the simulations with a coarsening model based on the line tension approximation shows good agreement. Dislocation dynamics simulations with both glide and climb are then performed. Allowing for glide of the loops along their prismatic cylinders leads to faster coarsening kinetics, as direct coalescence of the loops is now possible. (authors)




    Despite the large ecological study of tree-climbing mangrove sesarmid crabs in other countries, the Philippine representatives appear to have not been investigated extensively. This paper presents the feeding ecology as to dependence on mangrove trees of sesarmids in different mangrove areas of southern Luzon. This is biased on the nature of the crab habitats, arboreal climbing skills and burrowing behavior of the sesarmids: Selatium elongatum and Episesarma versicolor − exclusive mangrove ...

  18. Wall Climbing Robot Using Electrostatic Adhesion Force Generated by Flexible Interdigital Electrodes

    Rong Liu; Rui Chen; Hua Shen; Rong Zhang


    Electrostatic adhesion technology has broad application prospects on wall climbing robots because of its unique characteristics compared with other types of adhesion technologies. A double tracked wall climbing robot based on electrostatic adhesion technology is presented including electrode panel design, mechanical structure design, power supply system design and control system design. A theoretical adhesion model was established and the electrostatic potential and field were expressed by se...

  19. The mechanism of dislocation climb in GaAs under electron irradiation

    The weak-beam technique of transmission electron microscopy has been used to study the climb of dissociated a/2 dislocations in GaAs under high point defect supersaturations introduced by electron irradiation in the high-voltage electron microscope. Irradiations at room temperature show the nucleation of high densities of both Frank and perfect prismatic loops on the individual partials, the loop type tending to minimize the elastic energy of the partial plus loop and to give a large climb force. Irradiations at higher temperatures (400 to 450 deg C) showed different dislocation configurations consistent with the nucleation of new loops and their subsequent interaction with the non-parent partial leading to climb of the total dislocation. Some evidence for the generation of new loops in the matrix by climbing dislocations was obtained. Dislocations of α and β type were observed to climb by similar mechanisms. The mechanisms of dislocation climb in GaAs are analysed and their significance for understanding the degradation of GaAs devices is discussed. (author)

  20. Climbing, falling, and jamming during ant locomotion in confined environments.

    Gravish, Nick; Monaenkova, Daria; Goodisman, Michael A D; Goldman, Daniel I


    Locomotion emerges from effective interactions of an individual with its environment. Principles of biological terrestrial locomotion have been discovered on unconfined vertical and horizontal substrates. However, a diversity of organisms construct, inhabit, and move within confined spaces. Such animals are faced with locomotor challenges including limited limb range of motion, crowding, and visual sensory deprivation. Little is known about how these organisms accomplish their locomotor tasks, and such environments challenge human-made devices. To gain insight into how animals move within confined spaces, we study the locomotion of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta, which constructs subterranean tunnel networks (nests). Laboratory experiments reveal that ants construct tunnels with diameter, D, comparable to body length, L = 3.5 ± 0.5 mm. Ants can move rapidly (> 9 bodylengths per s) within these environments; their tunnels allow for effective limb, body, and antennae interaction with walls, which facilitate rapid slip-recovery during ascending and descending climbs. To examine the limits of slip-recovery in artificial tunnels, we perform perturbations consisting of rapid downward accelerations of the tunnels, which induce falls. Below a critical tunnel diameter, Ds = 1.31 ± 0.02 L, falls are always arrested through rapid interaction of appendages and antennae with tunnel walls to jam the falls. Ds is comparable to the size of incipient nest tunnels (D = 1.06 ± 0.23 L), supporting our hypothesis that fire ants construct environments that simplify their control task when moving through the nest, likely without need for rapid nervous system intervention. PMID:23690589

  1. Understanding Flight

    Anderson, David


    Through the years the explanation of flight has become mired in misconceptions that have become dogma. Wolfgang Langewiesche, the author of 'Stick and Rudder' (1944) got it right when he wrote: 'Forget Bernoulli's Theorem'. A wing develops lift by diverting (from above) a lot of air. This is the same way that a propeller produces thrust and a helicopter produces lift. Newton's three laws and a phenomenon called the Coanda effect explain most of it. With an understanding of the real physics of flight, many things become clear. Inverted flight, symmetric wings, and the flight of insects are obvious. It is easy to understand the power curve, high-speed stalls, and the effect of load and altitude on the power requirements for lift. The contribution of wing aspect ratio on the efficiency of a wing, and the true explanation of ground effect will also be discussed.

  2. Miracle Flights for Kids

    ... today Saving Lives One Flight At A Time Miracle Flights provides free flights to distant specialized care and valuable second opinions. Miracle Flights Through June 2016 Flights Coordinated: 101,862 ...

  3. The effect of falling anxiety on selected physiological parameters with different rope protocols in sport rock climbing

    ARAS, Dicle; Akalan, Cengiz


    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of falling anxiety on selected physiological parameters in sport rock climbing. For this aim, before performing  the top-rope and lead climbing, the anxiety inventory was used in sport rock climbers. Afterwards, the selected physiological parameters were recorded during the climbing. Four female and 22 male, totally 26 middle level rock climber were participated to the study. The mean age of the subjects was 27.73 ± 6.67, climbing years ...

  4. The effect of falling anxiety on selected physiological parameters with different rope protocols in sport rock climbing

    Dicle Aras


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of falling anxiety on selected physiological parameters in sport rock climbing. For this aim, before performing  the top-rope and lead climbing, the anxiety inventory was used in sport rock climbers. Afterwards, the selected physiological parameters were recorded during the climbing. Four female and 22 male, totally 26 middle level rock climber were participated to the study. The mean age of the subjects was 27.73 ± 6.67, climbing years 6.61 ±4.84 and lead climbing age was 5.71 ±4.34.  In order to eliminate force loss differences between top-rope and lead climbing, top rope climbing was designed as if it is a lead climbing. The second rope was connected on the waist of the athletes during top-rope climbing and they clipped it to expresses such as leading. The ascents were perforformed on 15 m high climbing wall. The route was rated as VI grad (Unıon Internationale des Association d’Alpinisme. During both climbing  hearth rate was recorded and energy consumption was measured by portable gas analyzer as MET and units. Though gas analyzer VE, RER were measured.  When two types of climbing trial compared, results indicated that there were statistically significant mean difference between CSAI-2 subscales cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and self confidence. When physiological parameters examined in terms of two different types of climbing, results showed that there was no statistically significant difference in HR values. However, there were significant differences found between, VE, RER, and MET values. There wasn’t found significant difference in climbing times between two trials. This result shows us that we designed the ascents successfully and could eliminate the physical differences both lead and top-rope climbing. We observed on the same work load of two climbing trials more oxygen consumption, energy expenditure and anxiety scores during leading

  5. Lifting as We Climb: Recognizing Intersectional Gender Violence in Law

    Shreya Atrey


    Full Text Available This paper interrogates the meaning of lifting all women as we climb the ladder of gender equality and justice by recognizing that gender violence affects women differently. This is because violence against women is perpetrated not only on the basis of their gender or sex but also other identities of race, religion, caste, region, age, disability, nationality, sexual orientation etc. With reference to CEDAW jurisprudence and examples from India, I seek to explain this understanding with the help of a normative framework of ‘intersectional integrity’. The framework insists on considering claimants as a whole by tracing unique and shared patterns of gender violence when it is also based on other identities such as race, religion, caste, region, age, disability, nationality, and sexual orientation. I argue that applying the framework allows us to diagnose and address the nature of violence suffered on multiple identities, in a clear and comprehensive way. Este artículo cuestiona el sentido de levantar a todas las mujeres a medida que se asciende la escalera de la igualdad de género y la justicia, reconociendo que la violencia de género afecta a las mujeres de manera diferente. Esto se debe a que la violencia contra las mujeres se comete no sólo sobre la base de su género o sexo, sino también por su raza, religión, casta, región, edad, discapacidad, nacionalidad, orientación sexual, etc. Se pretende explicar esta afirmación con la ayuda de un marco normativo de “integridad interseccional”, a través de referencias a la jurisprudencia del CEDAW y ejemplos de la India. El marco insiste en considerar a las demandantes en su conjunto, trazando patrones únicos y compartidos de violencia de género cuando se basa también en otras identidades como raza, religión, casta, región, edad, discapacidad, nacionalidad, orientación sexual. Se sostiene que la aplicación del marco permite diagnosticar y abordar la naturaleza de la violencia

  6. Finite Element Analysis based Optimization of Magnetic Adhesion Module for Concrete Wall Climbing Robot

    MD Omar faruq Howlader


    Full Text Available Wall climbing robot can provide easier accessibility to tall structures for Non Destructive Testing (NDT and improve working environments of human operators. However, existing adhesion mechanism for climbing robots such as vortex, electromagnet etc. are still at development stage and offer no feasible adhesion mechanism. As a result, few practical products have been developed for reinforced concrete surfaces, though wall-climbing robots have been researched for many years. This paper proposes a novel magnetic adhesion mechanism for wall-climbing robot for reinforced concrete surface. Mechanical design parameters such as distance between magnets, the yoke thickness, and magnet arrangements have been investigated by Finite Element Analysis (FEA. The adhesion module can be attached under the chassis of a prototype robot. The magnetic flux can penetrate maximum concrete cover of 30 mm and attain adhesion force of 121.26 N. The prototype provides high Force-to-Weight ratio compared to other reported permanent magnet based robotic systems. Both experiment and simulation results prove that the magnetic adhesion mechanism can generate efficient adhesion force for the climbing robot to operate on vertical reinforced concrete structures.

  7. Research on Centroid Position for Stairs Climbing Stability of Search and Rescue Robot

    Yan Guo


    Full Text Available This paper represents the relationship between the stability of stairs climbing and the centroid position of the search and rescue robot. The robot system is considered as a mass point-plane model and the kinematics features are analyzed to find the relationship between centroid position and the maximal pitch angle of stairs the robot could climb up. A computable function about this relationship is given in this paper. During the stairs climbing, there is a maximal stability-keeping angle depends on the centroid position and the pitch angle of stairs, and the numerical formula is developed about the relationship between the maximal stability-keeping angle and the centroid position and pitch angle of stairs. The experiment demonstrates the trustworthy and correction of the method in the paper.

  8. Using a body sensor network to measure the effect of fatigue on stair climbing performance

    In terms of self-rated health, the most important activities of daily living are those involving mobility. Of these activities stair climbing is regarded as the most strenuous. A loss of stair climbing ability with age is normally associated with a loss of muscle strength and power, while other factors that influence muscle function, such as fatigue, are often not taken into account. So far no research has been published on how long-lasting fatigue affects activities of daily living, despite the fact that it has been repeatedly proven, in laboratory settings, to influence muscle force production over long periods of time. Technological advances in body sensor networks (BSNs) now provide a method to measure performance during complex real-life situations. In this study the use of a BSN was explored to investigate the effects of long-lasting fatigue on stair climbing performance in 20 healthy adults. Stair climbing performance was measured before and after a fatiguing protocol using a BSN. Performance was defined by temporal and spatial parameters. Long-lasting fatigue was successfully induced in all participants using an exercise protocol. The BSN showed that post-exercise fatigue did not influence stair climbing times (p > 0.2) and no meaningful changes in joint angles were found. No effect on overall stair climbing performance was found, despite a clear presence of long-lasting fatigue. This study shows that physiological paradigms can be further explored using BSNs. Ecological validity of lab-based measurements can be increased by combining them with BSNs. (paper)

  9. Expertise affects representation structure and categorical activation of grasp postures in climbing

    Bettina E. Bläsing


    Full Text Available In indoor rock climbing, the perception of object properties and the adequate execution of grasping actions highly determine climbers’ performance. In two consecutive experiments, effects of climbing expertise on the cognitive activation of grasping actions following the presentation of climbing holds was investigated. Experiment 1 evaluated the representation of climbing holds in the long-term memory of climbers and non-climbers with the help of a psychometric measurement method. Within a hierarchical splitting procedure subjects had to decide about the similarity of required grasping postures. For the group of climbers, representation structures corresponded clearly to four grip types. In the group of non-climbers, representation structures differed more strongly than in climbers and did not clearly refer to grip types. To learn about categorical knowledge activation in Experiment 2, a priming paradigm was applied. Images of hands in grasping postures were presented as targets and images of congruent, neutral, or incongruent climbing holds were used as primes. Only in climbers, reaction times were shorter and error rates were smaller for the congruent condition than for the incongruent condition. The neutral condition resulted in intermediate performance. The findings suggest that perception of climbing holds activates the commonly associated grasping postures in climbers but not in non-climbers. The findings of this study give evidence that the categorization of visually perceived objects is fundamentally influenced by the cognitive-motor potential for interaction, which depends on the observer’s experience and expertise. Thus, motor expertise not only facilitates precise action perception, but also benefits the perception of action-relevant objects.

  10. Climbing for preventing and treating health problems: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials

    Fechtelpeter, Dennis


    Full Text Available Objective: To summarize the best available evidence on effectiveness of therapeutic or sport climbing in preventing or treating health problems. Methods: We searched Medline, Embase, CENTRAL, PsycINFO, PEDro, OTseeker and SportDiscus for randomized controlled trials published up to December 26, 2010. We included all trials assessing patient-relevant outcomes. Two reviewers independently selected relevant studies, assessed their methodological quality and extracted data. Quality of evidence was rated using the GRADE system. Data were entered into RevMan 5 to calculate effect sizes and 95% confidence intervals where appropriate.Results: Eligible for inclusion were four RCTs studying the effectiveness of climbing in (a geriatric patients, (b adults with multiple sclerosis, (c adults with chronic low-back pain and (d children with disabilities and poor motor function. The sample sizes ranged between 20 and 95. All trials had major methodological limitations. We found very low quality evidence that therapeutic climbing may improve activities of daily living in geriatric patients compared to physiotherapy as measured by the Barthel index (difference in mean change score: 2.32 [95%-CI: 0.45 to 4.19]. We found very low quality evidence that therapeutic climbing compared to standard exercise therapy may improve physical functioning (difference in mean change score: 16.15 [95%-CI: 4.45 to 27.85] and general physical health (13.14 [95%-CI: 3.61 to 22.67] as measured by the SF-36 in adults with chronic low back-pain. Conclusions: Evidence for the effectiveness of therapeutic climbing is limited to small trials at high risk of bias. The effects of therapeutic climbing are therefore unclear.



    The magnetic circuit of a kind of permanent magnetic sucker attached to the tracks of a wall-climbing robot was researched. The formula of the attractive force of sucker to a wall was derived and the relationship between the force and the air gaps was analyzed. Furthermore the effect of the parameters of the magnetic sucker on the sucker's performance was discussed. The experiments show that proper selections of the sucker's structural parameters can provide sufficient attractive force so as to make the wall-climbing robot move safely on the steel wall surface.

  12. Climb the Green Ladder Make Your Company and Career More Sustainable

    Fetzer, Amy V


    Want to make your workplace more sustainable, get ahead in your career and improve your reputation?. Want to help your company or organisation save money, boost profits and improve its brand?. Whatever your level or industry, from sales and management to government and teaching, Climb The Green Ladder offers practical knowledge to help you make a difference. Whether you'd like to transform your entire company or just get your colleagues recycling, Climb The Green Ladder will provide you with the tools and motivation to move your company (and career) towards a more successful, more sustainable

  13. Biologically-inspired synthetic dry adhesives for wall-climbing robots

    Murphy, Michael P.

    Animals such as insects, spiders, and lizards are capable of clinging to and climbing on a variety of surfaces, from rough stone to smooth silicon. Hairy microscale arrays of structures on their feet conform to surface roughness to create millions of points of contact, creating a large overall contact area. Weak intermolecular forces (van der Waals forces) between each fiber tip and the surface sum to large overall forces due to the high number of contacts. In this work we present the fabrication, characterization, and demonstration of synthetic polyurethane fibrillar adhesives inspired by these animals. Angled polymer micro-fiber arrays are fabricated and characterized. A tip modification technique is presented which enables fabrication of fibers with flat mushroom shaped tips which greatly increase the adhesion of the fibers, up to 5N/cm 2 (normal direction), and with a magnitude within the range of geckos (10 N/cm2) in the shear direction on smooth surfaces. We present a fabrication technique to create fibers with angled flat mushroom-shaped tips which replicate the directional characteristics of geckos, gripping in one direction (within the range of gecko adhesion) and releasing easily in the other. Multilevel hierarchical structures with specialized tips for roughness adaptation are also presented. Fiber hierarchies from the millimeter scale to the sub-micron scale are demonstrated, including three-level fiber fabrication with specialized tips. Hierarchical structures demonstrate up to 5 times the adhesion of an unstructured sample, and requiring up to 10 times the detachment energy. Finally, an agile, wireless, palm-sized wall climbing robot which uses the synthetic fibrillar dry adhesives to climb is presented. Waalbot , named after the van der Waals forces it uses to climb, exploits the attachment and detachment characteristics of the developed dry adhesives, capabilities include climbing smooth surfaces such as glass in any orientation on any surface slope

  14. Physiological changes following a 12 week gym based stair-climbing, elliptical trainer and treadmill running program in females



    PUBLISHED Despite the growing popularity of the elliptical trainer aerobic exercise modality the physiological changes induced following a training program using elliptical trainers remains unknown. Donne investigates the metabolic and cardiorespiratory improvements following a 12-week aerobic training program using elliptical trainer, treadmill or stair-climbing modalities. Findings reveal that in moderately active females similar physiological improvements were observed using stair-climb...



    Check in With Singapore Airlines, Check out With Paypal Singapore Airlines customers in the United States, Singapore and five other Asia Pacific countries and territories can now pay for their flights with PayPal on This facility will progressively be made available to the airline’s customers in up to 17 countries, making this the largest collaboration between PayPal and an Asian carrier to date.

  16. Computational space flight mechanics

    Weiland, Claus


    Computational Space Flight Mechanics presents numerical solutions for topics and problems within space flight mechanics. Topics include orbit determination, Lagrange's perturbation equations for disturbed Earth's orbits, the flight of a mass point in flight path coordinates, and more.

  17. Stair-climbing capabilities of USU's T3 ODV mobile robot

    Robinson, D. Reed; Wood, Carl G.


    A six-wheeled autonomous omni-directional vehicle (ODV) called T3 has been developed at Utah State University's (USU) Center for Self-Organizing and Intelligent Systems (CSOIS). This paper focuses on T3's ability to climb stairs using its unique configuration of 6 independently driven and steered wheels and active suspension height control. The ability of T3, or any similar vehicle, to climb stairs is greatly dependent on the chassis orientation relative to the stairs. Stability criteria is developed for any vehicle dimensions and orientation, on any staircase. All possible yaw and pitch angles on various staircases are evaluated to find vehicle orientations that will allow T3 to climb with the largest margin of stability. Different controller types are investigated for controlling vertical wheel movement with the objective of keeping all wheels in contact with the stairs, providing smooth load transfer between loaded and unloaded wheels, and maintaining optimum chassis pitch and roll angles. A controller is presented that uses feedback from wheel loading, vertical wheel position, and chassis orientation sensors. The implementation of the controller is described, and T3's stair climbing performance is presented and evaluated.

  18. 135 tf climbing crane for the construction of large scale plants

    Development of a larger capacity, wider working radius and higher lift climbing crane was in demand since the large block construction method become common in plant construction. At first, scaling up of the conventional climbing crane was planned. But, it turned out that the deflection at the top of the jib would cause the load to drift at takeoff in crane operation. Therefore, the crane was newly designed to solve the problem. Some of its advantage are as follows. (1) This crane can be used as either a climbing or a nonclimbing type depending on installation locations and objective plants. (2) Accurate and easy operation is achieved because of little deflection at the top of the jib. (3) Efficient crane operation is possible through high speed hoisting and slewing motions in frequent auxiliary hoisting operations. (4) The construction time can be shortened by adopting pin joints between the blocks and by reducing the number of assembling parts at the site. A nonclimbing type crane is now in operation at the nuclear power plant in Kashiwazaki and a climbing type will be in operation at the nuclear power plant in Fukushima this year. The report presents an outline of the specifications, structures and advantages. (author)

  19. Wall Climbing Robot Using Electrostatic Adhesion Force Generated by Flexible Interdigital Electrodes

    Rong Liu


    Full Text Available Electrostatic adhesion technology has broad application prospects on wall climbing robots because of its unique characteristics compared with other types of adhesion technologies. A double tracked wall climbing robot based on electrostatic adhesion technology is presented including electrode panel design, mechanical structure design, power supply system design and control system design. A theoretical adhesion model was established and the electrostatic potential and field were expressed by series expansions in terms of solutions of the Laplace function. Based on this model, the electrostatic adhesion force was calculated using the Maxwell stress tensor formulation. Several important factors which may influence the electrostatic adhesion force were analysed and discussed by both FEM simulation and theoretical calculation. In addition, experiments on the adhesion performance of the electrode panel and the climbing performance of the robot on various wall materials were carried out. Both the simulation and experiment results verify the feasibility of electrostatic adhesion technology being applied on wall climbing robots. The theoretical model and calculation method for the electrostatic adhesion force proposed in this paper are also justified.

  20. An Overwhelming Climb: The Complexities of Combining College, Full-Time Work, and Company Tuition Assistance

    Gagnon, Janelle L.; Packard, Becky Wai-Ling


    This paper examines the complex experiences of full-time employed adults trying to climb the career ladder in their company by making use of company tuition assistance to earn their first college degree. Guided by Savickas' (2005) career construction theory, emphasizing the personal agency and meaning-making within career development, we conducted…

  1. 75 FR 23151 - Noxious Weeds; Old World Climbing Fern and Maidenhair Creeper


    ... published at 74 FR 53397-53400 on October 19, 2009. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. Alan V. Tasker... interim rule that amended 7 CFR parts 360 and 361 and that was published at 74 FR 53397-53400 on October... Inspection Service 7 CFR Parts 360 and 361 Noxious Weeds; Old World Climbing Fern and Maidenhair...

  2. The Effect of Climbing Wall Use on the Grip Strength of Fourth-Grade Students

    Lirgg, Cathy D.; Dibrezzo, Ro; Gray, Michelle; Esslinger, Travis


    Physical educators are challenged to provide quality experiences that are fun for their students, enhance fitness levels, and build confidence. These challenges are amplified with the current decrease in activity levels of American youth. A possible solution to enhancing physical activity engagement in children is to incorporate climbing walls…

  3. Goffman Goes Rock Climbing: Using Creative Fiction to Explore the Presentation of Self in Outdoor Education

    Beames, Simon K.; Pike, Elizabeth C. J.


    Outdoor education literature has a recent history of examining its practice through a variety of sociological, philosophical, psychological, and anthropological lenses. Following this trend, this paper explores the face-to-face social interaction of a fictional introductory rock-climbing course. The analysis of this creative fiction draws on…

  4. Environmental design shapes perceptual-motor exploration, learning and transfer in climbing

    Ludovic eSeifert


    Full Text Available This study investigated how environmental design shapes perceptual-motor exploration, when meta-stable regions of performance are created. Here, we examined how creating meta-stable regions of performance could destabilize pre-existing skills, favoring greater exploration of performance environments, exemplified in this study by climbing surfaces. In this investigation we manipulated hold orientations on an indoor climbing wall to examine how nine climbers explored, learned and transferred various trunk-rolling motion patterns and hand grasping movements. The learning protocol consisted of four sessions, in which climbers randomly ascended three different routes, as fluently as possible. All three routes were 10.3m in height and composed of 20 hand-holds at the same locations on an artificial climbing wall; only hold orientations were altered: (i a horizontal-edge route was designed to afford horizontal hold grasping, (ii a vertical-edge route afforded vertical hold grasping, and (iii, a double-edge route was designed to afford both horizontal and vertical hold grasping. As a meta-stable condition of performance invite an individual to both exploit his pre-existing behavioral repertoire (i.e., horizontal hold grasping pattern and trunk face to the wall and explore new behaviors (i.e., vertical hold grasping and trunk side to the wall, it was hypothesized that the double-edge route characterized a meta-stable region of performance. Data were collected from inertial measurement units located on the neck and hip of each climber, allowing us to compute rolling motion referenced to the artificial climbing wall. Information on ascent duration, the number of exploratory and performatory movements for locating hand-holds, and hip path was also observed in video footage from a frontal camera worn by participants. Climbing fluency was assessed by calculating geometric index of entropy. Results showed that the meta-stable condition of performance may have

  5. ER-2 in flight


    In this film clip, we see an ER-2 on its take off roll and climb as it departs from runway 22 at Edwards AFB, California. In 1981, NASA acquired its first ER-2 aircraft. The agency obtained a second ER-2 in 1989. These airplanes replaced two Lockheed U-2 aircraft, which NASA had used to collect scientific data since 1971. The U-2, and later the ER-2, were based at the Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California, until 1997. In 1997, the ER-2 aircraft and their operations moved to NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Since the inaugural flight for this program, August 31, 1971, NASA U-2 and ER-2 aircraft have flown more than 4,000 data missions and test flights in support of scientific research conducted by scientists from NASA, other federal agencies, states, universities, and the private sector. NASA is currently using two ER-2 Airborne Science aircraft as flying laboratories. The aircraft, based at NASA Dryden, collect information about our surroundings, including Earth resources, celestial observations, atmospheric chemistry and dynamics, and oceanic processes. The aircraft also are used for electronic sensor research and development, satellite calibration, and satellite data validation. The ER-2 is a versatile aircraft well-suited to perform multiple mission tasks. It is 30 percent larger than the U-2 with a 20 feet longer wingspan and a considerably increased payload over the older airframe. The aircraft has four large pressurized experiment compartments and a high-capacity AC/DC electrical system, permitting it to carry a variety of payloads on a single mission. The modular design of the aircraft permits rapid installation or removal of payloads to meet changing mission requirements. The ER-2 has a range beyond 3,000 miles (4800 kilometers); is capable of long flight duration and can operate at altitudes up to 70,000 feet (21.3 kilometers) if required. Operating at an altitude of 65,000 feet (19.8 kilometers) the ER-2 acquires data

  6. The effect of falling anxiety on selected physiological parameters with different rope protocols in sport rock climbing

    Dicle Aras; Cengiz Akalan


    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of falling anxiety on selected physiological parameters in sport rock climbing. For this aim, before performing  the top-rope and lead climbing, the anxiety inventory was used in sport rock climbers. Afterwards, the selected physiological parameters were recorded during the climbing. Four female and 22 male, totally 26 middle level rock climber were participated to the study. The mean age of the subjects was 27.73 ± 6.67, cli...

  7. The Effect of Climbing Ability and Slope Inclination on Vertical Foot Loading Using a Novel Force Sensor Instrumentation System

    Baláš Jiří; Panáčková Michaela; Jandová Soňa; Martin Andrew J.; Strejcová Barbora; Vomáčko Ladislav; Charousek Jan; Cochrane Darryl J.; Hamlin Mike; Draper Nick


    The aim of the study was to assess the effects of climbing ability and slope inclination on vertical loading both in terms the forces involved and physiological responses. Five novice and six intermediate female climbers completed a climbing route at three slope inclinations (85°, 90°, and 98°). The vertical loading during the climb was assessed by force-time integral using a Novel Pedar-X insole and physiological responses via oxygen uptake and heart rate. The novice climbers had a significa...

  8. Evolution of avian flight: muscles and constraints on performance.

    Tobalske, Bret W


    Competing hypotheses about evolutionary origins of flight are the 'fundamental wing-stroke' and 'directed aerial descent' hypotheses. Support for the fundamental wing-stroke hypothesis is that extant birds use flapping of their wings to climb even before they are able to fly; there are no reported examples of incrementally increasing use of wing movements in gliding transitioning to flapping. An open question is whether locomotor styles must evolve initially for efficiency or if they might instead arrive due to efficacy. The proximal muscles of the avian wing output work and power for flight, and new research is exploring functions of the distal muscles in relation to dynamic changes in wing shape. It will be useful to test the relative contributions of the muscles of the forearm compared with inertial and aerodynamic loading of the wing upon dynamic morphing. Body size has dramatic effects upon flight performance. New research has revealed that mass-specific muscle power declines with increasing body mass among species. This explains the constraints associated with being large. Hummingbirds are the only species that can sustain hovering. Their ability to generate force, work and power appears to be limited by time for activation and deactivation within their wingbeats of high frequency. Most small birds use flap-bounding flight, and this flight style may offer an energetic advantage over continuous flapping during fast flight or during flight into a headwind. The use of flap-bounding during slow flight remains enigmatic. Flap-bounding birds do not appear to be constrained to use their primary flight muscles in a fixed manner. To improve understanding of the functional significance of flap-bounding, the energetic costs and the relative use of alternative styles by a given species in nature merit study.This article is part of the themed issue 'Moving in a moving medium: new perspectives on flight'. PMID:27528773

  9. The CLIMB Geoportal - A web-based dissemination and documentation platform for hydrological modelling data

    Blaschek, Michael; Gerken, Daniel; Ludwig, Ralf; Duttmann, Rainer


    Geoportals are important elements of spatial data infrastructures (SDIs) that are strongly based on GIS-related web services. These services are basically meant for distributing, documenting and visualizing (spatial) data in a standardized manner; an important but challenging task especially in large scientific projects with a high number of data suppliers and producers from various countries. This presentation focuses on introducing the free and open-source based geoportal solution developed within the research project CLIMB (Climate Induced Changes on the Hydrology of Mediterranean Basins, that serves as the central platform for interchanging project-related spatial data and information. In this collaboration, financed by the EU-FP7-framework and coordinated at the LMU Munich, 21 partner institutions from nine European and non-European countries were involved. The CLIMB Geoportal ( stores and provides spatially distributed data about the current state and future changes of the hydrological conditions within the seven CLIMB test sites around the Mediterranean. Hydrological modelling outcome - validated by the CLIMB partners - is offered to the public in forms of Web Map Services (WMS), whereas downloading the underlying data itself through Web Coverage Services (WCS) is possible for registered users only. A selection of common indicators such as discharge, drought index as well as uncertainty measures including their changes over time were used in different spatial resolution. Besides map information, the portal enables the graphical display of time series of selected variables calculated by the individual models applied within the CLIMB-project. The implementation of the CLIMB Geoportal is finally based on version 2.0c5 of the open source geospatial content management system GeoNode. It includes a GeoServer instance for providing the OGC-compliant web services and comes with a metadata catalog (pycsw) as well

  10. Dislocation Climb Sources Activated by 1 MeV Electron Irradiation of Copper-Nickel Alloys

    Barlow, P.; Leffers, Torben


    irradiation temperatures corresponding to the highest source densities is approximately 350°–500°C. The climb sources are not related to any pre-existing dislocations resolved in the microscope. The sources emit three types of loop: ‘rectangular’ loops with a100 Burgers vector and {100} habit plane, normal...... prismatic loops with Burgers vector a/2110, and Frank loops. There is no significant difference between the apparent activation energy for growth of the three types of loops. The source points are suggested to be submicroscopic nickel precipitates-with reference to the existing evidence that......Climb sources emitting dislocation loops are observed in Cu-Ni alloys during irradiation with 1 MeV electrons in a high voltage electron microscope. High source densities are found in alloys containing 5, 10 and 20% Ni, but sources are also observed in alloys containing 1 and 2% Ni. The range of...

  11. The effects of gait time and trunk acceleration ratio during stair climbing in old-old adult females

    Shin, Sun-Shil; Yoo, Won-Gyu


    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of gait time and trunk acceleration ratio in old-old adult females during stair climbing. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-five older adult females who were able to walk independently volunteered for this study and were categorized into two age groups (older adults or old-old adults). Gait time and trunk acceleration ratio were measured using an accelerometer during stair climbing. [Results] Gait time and trunk acceleration ratio when climbing stairs were significantly higher in the old-old age group than in the older adults group. [Conclusions] These findings suggest that old-old females have decreased upper trunk control. In addition, gait time and the trunk acceleration ratio during stair climbing are useful clinical markers for predicting function and balance control ability in old-old elderly populations. PMID:27512256

  12. In vivo two-photon imaging of climbing fibers plasticity after laser axotomy

    Allegra Mascaro, A. L.; Cesare, P.; Sacconi, L.; Grasselli, G.; Mandolesi, G.; Maco, B.; Knott, G. W.; De Paola, V.; Strata, P.; Pavone, F. S.


    In the adult nervous system, different neuronal classes show different regenerative behavior. Although previous studies demonstrated that olivocerebellar fibers are capable of axonal regeneration in a suitable environment as a response to injury, we have hitherto no details about the real dynamics of fiber regeneration. We set up a model of singularly axotomized climbing fibers (CF) to investigate their reparative properties in the adult central nervous system (CNS) in vivo. Here we describe the approach followed to characterize the reactive plasticity after injury.

  13. The Effect of Climbing as a Recreational Event on Adoles ent ’ s Locus of Control

    Güçlü ÖZEN


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of experience of the secondary education ( class 10th and 11th students‟ participation on artificial wall climbing refe r r ed to experiential learning education and defined as high activity on th eir locus of control . Artifical wall climbing is a learning point beyond the sport act ivity that give an opportunity to participants recognize their own limits and others and do they active not passive . This study was done as pretest - posttest control group with quasi - experimental model and the data were collected using „ Nowicki - Strickland Locus of Control Scale‟ adapted to Turkish by Yeşilyaprak (1988 . In this research, 90 students (40 female, 50 male aged 17 ,75 ±1.06 participated voluntery and divided in two groups as a trail and control group randomly. Trial group participated artifcial wall climbing twice a week, totel six weeks. During this time period the control group not join any activity has continued to normal life. As a result of the statistical analysis, no significant difference s were found between control and trial groups pre - test scores (p>0.05. No significant difference s were found between pre and post - test scores of control group (p>0.05, significant differences were found between pre and post - test scores of trial group (p0.05 and no significant differences between the difference of the differences (p>0.05. C onsequently, it could be said that the articifal wall climbing activities has a positive efect on the particip ants‟ locus of control, it caused a movement from out side to inside. And it has a significant effect on gender differences, that women have more gain than men.

  14. Using the Own Flexibility of a Climbing Robot as a Double Force Sensor

    Somolinos Sanchez, Jose Andres; Morales Cabrera, Rafael; Moron Fernandez, Carlos; Garcia Garcia, Alfonso


    Force sensors are used when interaction tasks are carried out by robots in general, and by climbing robots in particular. If the mechanics and electronics systems are contained inside the own robot, the robot becomes portable without external control. Commercial force sensors cannot be used due to limited space and weight. By selecting the links material with appropriate stiffness and placing strain gauges on the structure, the own robot flexibility can be used such as force sensor. Thus...

  15. Research on adsorption mechanism of wall climbing robots based on internally balanced theory

    FAN Ji-zhuang; ZHU Yan-he; ZHAO Jie; CAI He-gao


    The internally balanced theory proposed by the Japanese researchers, solved the contradiction between adsorption ability and moving capability of the permanent magnetic adsorption mechanism. However, it still has some problems when applied to wall climbing robots. This paper analyzes and improves this theory, and the improved internally balanced theory satisfies the requirements of the adsorption mechanism significantly. Finally, a practical prototype is proposed based on this method, and both the analysis using ANSYS and the experiment results justify the design validity.

  16. The effect of step climbing exercise on balance and step length in chronic stroke patients

    Park, Ki-Hyeon; Kim, Da-Yeon; Kim, Tae-ho


    [Purpose] The objective of this study was to examine the effect of step climbing exercise on the walking ability of stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Among hospitalized stroke patients, 24 were selected based on the study criteria and randomly divided into two groups: an experimental group (12 patients) and a control group (12 patients). The patients in both groups participated in 15-minute exercise sessions three times a week for eight weeks. To analyze the effect of the exercise, musc...

  17. An intensive Alpine climbing expedition and its influence on some anthropometric measurements.

    Baker, S. J.


    The effects of an intensive 4 week Alpine climbing expedition on percentage body fat, absolute body fat and lean body mass was investigated in 14 adult male students. Anthropometric measures were taken on two occasions during the training period prior to the expedition, twice during the expedition and finally eight weeks after the expedition had returned home. There was a 3% reduction in percentage body fat between the first testing occasion and the fourth taken towards the end of the expedit...

  18. Vitamin D, Iron Metabolism, and Diet in Alpinists During a 2-Week High-Altitude Climb.

    Kasprzak, Zbigniew; Śliwicka, Ewa; Hennig, Karol; Pilaczyńska-Szcześniak, Łucja; Huta-Osiecka, Anna; Nowak, Alicja


    A defensive mechanism against hypobaric hypoxia at high altitude is erythropoesis. Some authors point to the contribution of vitamin D to the regulation of this process. The aim of the present study was to assess the 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25(OH)D) level and its associations with iron metabolic and inflammatory indices in participants of a 2-week mountaineering expedition. The study sample included 9 alpinists practicing recreational mountain climbing. Every 2 or 3 days they set up a different base between 3200 and 3616 m with the intention of climbing 4000 m peaks in the Mont Blanc massif. Before their departure for the mountains and 2 days after returning to the sea level anthropometric parameters, hematological parameters, serum levels of 25(OH)D and iron metabolic indices were measured in all the participants. The composition of the participants' diet was also evaluated. The comparative analysis showed a significant decrease in body mass, BMI values, total iron, and 25(OH)D concentrations (p<0.05). Also significant increases in unsaturated iron-binding capacity, hematocrit, and C-reactive protein concentrations (p<0.05) were found. It can be concluded that the 2-week climbing expedition contributed to the reduction of 25(OH)D levels and these changes were associated with modulation of immune processes. Moreover, the climbers' diet requires some serious modifications. PMID:26125641

  19. Mountain climbing of the grown-up patient with non-corrected congenital heart defect.

    Haponiuk, Ireneusz; Gierat-Haponiuk, Katarzyna; Szalewska, Dominika; Niedoszytko, Piotr; Bakuła, Stanisław; Chojnicki, Maciej


    Congenital heart defects (CHD) are the cause of reduced physical performance. The presence of congenital abnormalities in the heart of grown-up patients contributes to excessive hypo-kinesia. We present endurance parameters and a personalized comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation program before an extreme mountain climbing of a 27-year-old patient with an uncorrected ventricular septal defect (VSD). A 26-year-old female patient with an uncorrected congenital VSD was admitted to the department of cardiac rehabilitation before the planned high-mountain expedition. Professional preparation and assessment of actual exercise capacity was performed before scheduled extreme climbing. We conclude that physical activity associated with a heavy load in people with uncorrected CHD who have not developed pulmonary hypertension and reverse right-to-left flow seems to be safe, while participation of grown-up patients with congenital heart disease (GUCH) in extreme mountain climbing requires special preparation, individually designed endurance training and education program, conducted by the team of professionals in specialist centers. PMID:27212986

  20. Decorative values of selected cultivars of climbing roses (Rosa L. with regard to thermal conditions

    Zofia Włodarczyk


    Full Text Available In the years 2004-2006 in Kraków, phenological observations of climbing roses were conducted in order to determine the length and dates of their flowering period. The diameters of their flowers were also compared. Eight flowering repeating cultivars were selected for the experiment: 'Climbing Souvenir de la Malmaison', 'Dortmund', 'Golden Showers', 'Goldstern', 'New Dawn', 'Parade', 'Sympathie' and 'White New Dawn'. During the studies, the shrub roses were not artificially watered in order to create conditions similar to those prevailing in public green areas. It was observed that irrespective of the air temperature pattern in a given year, the studied cultivars did not bloom before 15 June. In 2006 high temperatures (above 20oC, which continued throughout the whole flowering period, caused its shortening, and the interval between the first and the next flowering in the season lasted longer than in the previous years. In the years 2004-2006, the cultivar 'New Dawn' bloomed the longest. In 2005 the studied cultivars produced larger flowers than the next year. The cultivars 'Dortmund' and 'White New Dawn' were characterised by the smallest diameter of flowers, whereas 'Climbing Souvenir de la Malmaison', 'Golden Showers' and 'Parade' were marked by the largest diameter.

  1. Hill-Climbing search and diversification within an evolutionary approach to protein structure prediction

    Chira Camelia


    Full Text Available Abstract Proteins are complex structures made of amino acids having a fundamental role in the correct functioning of living cells. The structure of a protein is the result of the protein folding process. However, the general principles that govern the folding of natural proteins into a native structure are unknown. The problem of predicting a protein structure with minimum-energy starting from the unfolded amino acid sequence is a highly complex and important task in molecular and computational biology. Protein structure prediction has important applications in fields such as drug design and disease prediction. The protein structure prediction problem is NP-hard even in simplified lattice protein models. An evolutionary model based on hill-climbing genetic operators is proposed for protein structure prediction in the hydrophobic - polar (HP model. Problem-specific search operators are implemented and applied using a steepest-ascent hill-climbing approach. Furthermore, the proposed model enforces an explicit diversification stage during the evolution in order to avoid local optimum. The main features of the resulting evolutionary algorithm - hill-climbing mechanism and diversification strategy - are evaluated in a set of numerical experiments for the protein structure prediction problem to assess their impact to the efficiency of the search process. Furthermore, the emerging consolidated model is compared to relevant algorithms from the literature for a set of difficult bidimensional instances from lattice protein models. The results obtained by the proposed algorithm are promising and competitive with those of related methods.

  2. Alterations in lower limb multimuscle activation patterns during stair climbing in female total knee arthroplasty patients.

    Kuntze, G; von Tscharner, V; Hutchison, C; Ronsky, J L


    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) patients commonly experience neuromuscular adaptations that may affect stair climbing competence. This study identified multimuscle pattern (MMP) changes in postoperative female TKA patients during stair climbing with a support vector machine (SVM). It was hypothesized that TKA patients adopt temporal and spectral muscle activation characteristics indicative of muscle atrophy and cocontraction strategies. Nineteen female subjects [10 unilateral sex-specific TKAs, 62.2 ± 8.6 yr, body mass index (BMI) 28.2 ± 5.4 kg/m(2); 9 healthy control subjects, 61.4 ± 7.4 yr, BMI 25.6 ± 2.4 kg/m(2)] were recruited. Surface electromyograms (EMGs) were obtained for seven lower limb muscles of the affected limb of TKA subjects and a randomly assigned limb for control subjects during stair climbing. Stance phase (±30%) EMG data were wavelet transformed and normalized to total power. Data across all muscles were combined to form MMPs and analyzed with a SVM. Statistical analysis was performed with binomial tests, independent group t-tests, or independent group Mann-Whitney U-tests in SPSS (P tool for clinical neuromuscular function assessment and rehabilitation monitoring. PMID:26354313

  3. Penerapan Metode Hill Climbing Pada Sistem Informasi Geografis Untuk Mencari Lintasan Terpendek

    Eka Vickraien Dangkua


    Full Text Available Heuristic search methods is one of the methods commonly in use in finding the shortest path, one of which, namely the methods Hill Climbing process where testing is done using heuristic functions. Problems generally encountered is the shortest path search to solve the problem of distance can be changed into a graph structure, where the point of declaring the city and the State line that connects the two cities. From the logic so that it can locate destinations and save on travel costs. The hallmarks of this algorithm are all possible solutions will have then checked one by one from the left side, so it will be obtained solutions with optimal results. On a Hill Climbing method according to case using geographic information systems as a tool in making a decision, by way of collect, examine, and analyze information related to digital map. with a combination of Hill Climbing method and geographic information systems can result in an application that is certainly feasible for use in the search path problems.   Keywords: Hill Climbin method; digital map; Geographic Information Systems

  4. The effects of climbing cages on behaviour of female mink during the lactation period

    Lidfors, L.; Axelsson, H.; Loberg, J.;


    The aim was to investigate if there were differences in behaviour of female mink when kept in a climbing cage compared with a standard cage during the lactation period. The study was carried out on 90 mink of the colour type "black cross". Females were housed in either climbing cages (4.350 cm², n......=46) or standard cages (2.550 cm², n=44). Behavioural observations were made four weeks before birth until kits were nine weeks old with one-zero sampling during two hours before feeding. During week 1-4 after females had given birth they were mostly recorded in the nest box and there were no...... differences between cage types. Week 5-8 after giving birth females in climbing cages were less in the nest box, less active out in the cage and had fewer abnormal behaviours, but were on the platforms and more inactive out in the cage. In the bottom cage females were more often walking, grooming and inactive...

  5. Mountain climbing of the grown-up patient with non-corrected congenital heart defect

    Gierat-Haponiuk, Katarzyna; Szalewska, Dominika; Niedoszytko, Piotr; Bakuła, Stanisław; Chojnicki, Maciej


    Congenital heart defects (CHD) are the cause of reduced physical performance. The presence of congenital abnormalities in the heart of grown-up patients contributes to excessive hypo-kinesia. We present endurance parameters and a personalized comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation program before an extreme mountain climbing of a 27-year-old patient with an uncorrected ventricular septal defect (VSD). A 26-year-old female patient with an uncorrected congenital VSD was admitted to the department of cardiac rehabilitation before the planned high-mountain expedition. Professional preparation and assessment of actual exercise capacity was performed before scheduled extreme climbing. We conclude that physical activity associated with a heavy load in people with uncorrected CHD who have not developed pulmonary hypertension and reverse right-to-left flow seems to be safe, while participation of grown-up patients with congenital heart disease (GUCH) in extreme mountain climbing requires special preparation, individually designed endurance training and education program, conducted by the team of professionals in specialist centers. PMID:27212986

  6. Calcium is an intracellular mediator of the climbing fiber in induction of cerebellar long-term depression.

    Sakurai, M.


    In cerebellar Purkinje cells, conjunctive stimulation of parallel fibers and the climbing fiber causes long-term depression of parallel fiber-Purkinje cell transmission. It has been postulated that calcium is an intracellular mediator of the climbing fiber to induce this synaptic modification. To directly test the hypothesis, a calcium-chelating agent, EGTA, was intracellularly injected into Purkinje cells. In these injected cells, conjunctive stimulation failed to induce depression. Instead,...

  7. Effective Pneumatic Scheme and Control Strategy of a Climbing Robot for Class Wall Cleaning on High-rise Buildings

    Guanghua Zong; Jianwei Zhang; Houxiang Zhang


    A new kind of pneumatic climbing robot is presented to meet the requirements of glass-wall cleaning for high-rise buildings, which is totally actuated by pneumatic cylinders and attached to the glass wall with vacuum suckers. Using the pneumatic actuators the climbing robot can be made lightweight and dexterous. At the same time the movement driven by pneumatic actuators has the characteristic of passive compliance. In order to solve the problems of high speed movement for the Y cylinder and ...

  8. Strange Beta: An Assistance System for Indoor Rock Climbing Route Setting Using Chaotic Variations and Machine Learning

    Phillips, Caleb; Bradley, Elizabeth


    This paper applies machine learning and the mathematics of chaos to the task of designing indoor rock-climbing routes. Chaotic variation has been used to great advantage on music and dance, but the challenges here are quite different, beginning with the representation. We present a formalized system for transcribing rock climbing problems, then describe a variation generator that is designed to support human route-setters in designing new and interesting climbing problems. This variation generator, termed Strange Beta, combines chaos and machine learning, using the former to introduce novelty and the latter to smooth transitions in a manner that is consistent with the style of the climbs This entails parsing the domain-specific natural language that rock climbers use to describe routes and movement and then learning the patterns in the results. We validated this approach with a pilot study in a small university rock climbing gym, followed by a large blinded study in a commercial climbing gym, in cooperation w...

  9. Lévy flights in neutral fitness landscapes

    Tomassini, Marco


    Regions of equal or close fitness are common in biological and artificial evolutionary systems. Customary hill-climbing optimizing paradigms turn out to be unsuitable to walk and search such large neutral networks. Here we propose a new technique to quickly jump out of neutral networks and to reach better fitness regions. The algorithm, based on Lévy flights, is compared to an established nearest neighbors random drift technique on two families of constructive neutral landscapes called the NKq and the NKp ensembles. The results of our numerical simulations clearly show that the new algorithm performs better than the nearest neighbors random drift for all studied landscapes. We conclude with some explanations of the observed behavior and some suggestions for the use of Lévy flights in more general search and optimization heuristics.

  10. Flow Visualization of Rhinoceros Beetle (Trypoxylus dichotomus) in Free Flight

    Tien Van Truong; Tuyen Quang Le; Hieu Trung Tran; Hoon Cheol Park; Kwang Joon Yoon; Doyoung Byun


    Aerodynamic characteristics of the beetle,Trypoxylus dichotomus,which has a pair of elytra (forewings) and flexible hind wings,are investigated.Visualization experiments were conducted for various flight conditions of a beetle,Trypoxylus dichotomus:free,tethered,hovering,forward and climbing flights.Leading edge,trailing edge and tip vortices on both wings were observed clearly.The leading edge vortex was stable and remained on the top surface of the elytron for a wide interval during the downstroke of free forward flight.Hence,the elytron may have a considerable role in lift force generation of the beetle.In addition,we reveal a suction phenomenon between the gaps of the hind wing and the elytron in upstroke that may improve the positive lift force on the hind wing.We also found the reverse clap-fling mechanism of the T.dichotomus beetle in hovering flight.The hind wings touch together at the beginning of the upstroke.The vortex generation,shedding and interaction give a better understanding of the detailed aerodynamic mechanism of beetle flight.

  11. Extreme positive allometry of animal adhesive pads and the size limits of adhesion-based climbing.

    Labonte, David; Clemente, Christofer J; Dittrich, Alex; Kuo, Chi-Yun; Crosby, Alfred J; Irschick, Duncan J; Federle, Walter


    Organismal functions are size-dependent whenever body surfaces supply body volumes. Larger organisms can develop strongly folded internal surfaces for enhanced diffusion, but in many cases areas cannot be folded so that their enlargement is constrained by anatomy, presenting a problem for larger animals. Here, we study the allometry of adhesive pad area in 225 climbing animal species, covering more than seven orders of magnitude in weight. Across all taxa, adhesive pad area showed extreme positive allometry and scaled with weight, implying a 200-fold increase of relative pad area from mites to geckos. However, allometric scaling coefficients for pad area systematically decreased with taxonomic level and were close to isometry when evolutionary history was accounted for, indicating that the substantial anatomical changes required to achieve this increase in relative pad area are limited by phylogenetic constraints. Using a comparative phylogenetic approach, we found that the departure from isometry is almost exclusively caused by large differences in size-corrected pad area between arthropods and vertebrates. To mitigate the expected decrease of weight-specific adhesion within closely related taxa where pad area scaled close to isometry, data for several taxa suggest that the pads' adhesive strength increased for larger animals. The combination of adjustments in relative pad area for distantly related taxa and changes in adhesive strength for closely related groups helps explain how climbing with adhesive pads has evolved in animals varying over seven orders of magnitude in body weight. Our results illustrate the size limits of adhesion-based climbing, with profound implications for large-scale bio-inspired adhesives. PMID:26787862

  12. Vibrational ladder-climbing in surface-enhanced, ultrafast infrared spectroscopy.

    Kraack, Jan Philip; Hamm, Peter


    In a recent work (J. Phys. Chem. C 2016, 120, 3350-3359), we have introduced the concept of surface-enhanced, two-dimensional attenuated total reflectance (2D ATR IR) spectroscopy with modest enhancement factors (450), which allows for multi-quantum IR excitation of adsorbed molecules, a process known as "vibrational ladder-climbing", even for weakly absorbing (ε ultrafast dynamics of highly excited vibrational states or surface-sensitive coherent control experiments of ground-state reactions at solid-liquid interfaces. PMID:27265518

  13. The importance of burrowing, climbing and standing upright for laboratory rats

    Makowska, I. Joanna; Daniel M. Weary


    Standard laboratory cages prevent rats (Rattus norvegicus) from performing many behaviours that they perform in the wild, but little is known about how this may affect their welfare. The aims of this study were (i) to record the propensity to burrow, climb and stand upright in 3-, 8- and 13-month old laboratory rats housed in semi-naturalistic environments and (ii) to compare the frequency of lateral stretching in semi-naturalistic versus standard-housed rats; we predicted standard-housed rat...

  14. Climbing robot

    Kerley, James J.; May, Edward L.; Ecklund, Wayne D.


    A mobile robot for traversing any surface consisting of a number of interconnected segments, each interconnected segment having an upper 'U' frame member, a lower 'U' frame member, a compliant joint between the upper 'U' frame member and the lower 'U' frame member, a number of linear actuators between the two frame members acting to provide relative displacement between the frame members, a foot attached to the lower 'U' frame member for adherence of the segment to the surface, an inter-segment attachment attached to the upper 'U' frame member for interconnecting the segments, a power source connected to the linear actuator, and a computer/controller for independently controlling each linear actuator in each interconnected segment such that the mobile robot moves in a caterpillar like fashion.

  15. Comparison of stability and control parameters for a light, single-engine, high-winged aircraft using different flight test and parameter estimation techniques

    Suit, W. T.; Cannaday, R. L.


    The longitudinal and lateral stability and control parameters for a high wing, general aviation, airplane are examined. Estimations using flight data obtained at various flight conditions within the normal range of the aircraft are presented. The estimations techniques, an output error technique (maximum likelihood) and an equation error technique (linear regression), are presented. The longitudinal static parameters are estimated from climbing, descending, and quasi steady state flight data. The lateral excitations involve a combination of rudder and ailerons. The sensitivity of the aircraft modes of motion to variations in the parameter estimates are discussed.

  16. Flight Test Engineering

    Pavlock, Kate Maureen


    Although the scope of flight test engineering efforts may vary among organizations, all point to a common theme: flight test engineering is an interdisciplinary effort to test an asset in its operational flight environment. Upfront planning where design, implementation, and test efforts are clearly aligned with the flight test objective are keys to success. This chapter provides a top level perspective of flight test engineering for the non-expert. Additional research and reading on the topic is encouraged to develop a deeper understanding of specific considerations involved in each phase of flight test engineering.

  17. The effect of climbing ability and slope inclination on vertical foot loading using a novel force sensor instrumentation system.

    Baláš, Jiří; Panáčková, Michaela; Jandová, Soňa; Martin, Andrew J; Strejcová, Barbora; Vomáčko, Ladislav; Charousek, Jan; Cochrane, Darryl J; Hamlin, Mike; Draper, Nick


    The aim of the study was to assess the effects of climbing ability and slope inclination on vertical loading both in terms the forces involved and physiological responses. Five novice and six intermediate female climbers completed a climbing route at three slope inclinations (85°, 90°, and 98°). The vertical loading during the climb was assessed by force-time integral using a Novel Pedar-X insole and physiological responses via oxygen uptake and heart rate. The novice climbers had a significantly lower (p vertical loading on foot holds and higher oxygen uptake and heart rate compared to intermediate climbers. A significant negative correlation was identified between the force-time integral and oxygen uptake (R = -0.72), and with heart rate (R = -0.64), respectively. The time-force integral decreased across the ascents with increasing slope inclination (p rate) across all slope inclinations. PMID:25713667

  18. Force Sensor of a Climbing Robot Derived from Its Own Flexible Structure

    José Andrés Somolinos


    Full Text Available One of the most important design constraints of a climbing robot is its own weight. When links or legs are used as a locomotion system they tend to be composed of special lightweight materials, or four‐bars‐linkage mechanisms are designed to reduce the weight with small rigidity looses. In these cases, flexibility appears and undesirable effects, such as dynamics vibrations, must be avoided at least when the robot moves at low speeds. The knowledge of the real tip position requires the computation of its compliance or stiffness matrix and the external forces applied to the structure. Gravitational forces can be estimated, but external tip forces need to be measured. This paper proposes a strain gauge system which achieves the following tasks: (i measurement of the external tip forces, and (ii estimation of the real tip position (including flexibility effects. The main advantages of the proposed system are: (a the use of external force sensors is avoided, and (b a substantial reduction of the robot weight is achieved in comparison with other external force measurement systems. The proposed method is applied to a real symmetric climbing robot and experimental results are presented.

  19. Crawling gait realization of the mini-modular climbing caterpillar robot

    Wei Wang; Kun Wang; Houxiang Zhang


    The concept of a modular climbing caterpillar robot is inspired by the kinematics of real caterpillars,Two typical kinematics models and gaits are investigated based on the crawling motion of the inchworm and the tobacco hornworm.Due to the fixed constraints between the suckers and the wall,the gait of a caterpillar robot engages a changing kinematic chain which is from an open chain to a closed chain,and then to an open chain in order.During the open chain periods,an unsymmetrical phase method (UPM) is used to ensure the reliable attachment of the passive suckers to the wall.In the closed-chain state,a four-link kinematics model is adopted to fulfill the fixed constraints,By combining the two methods together,the complete joint control trajectories are acquired for a modular caterpillar robot with seven joints.At last,on-site tests confirm the proposed principles and the validity of the climbing gait.

  20. A study on a wheel-based stair-climbing robot with a hopping mechanism

    Kikuchi, Koki; Sakaguchi, Keisuke; Sudo, Takayuki; Bushida, Naoki; Chiba, Yasuhiro; Asai, Yuji


    In this study, we propose a simple hopping mechanism using the vibration of a two-degree-of-freedom system for a wheel-based stair-climbing robot. The robot, consisting of two bodies connected by springs and a wire, hops by releasing energy stored in the springs and quickly travels using wheels mounted in its lower body. The trajectories of the bodies during hopping change in accordance with the design parameters, such as the reduced mass of the two bodies, the mass ratio between the upper and lower bodies, the spring constant, the control parameters such as the initial contraction of the spring and the wire tension. This property allows the robot to quickly and economically climb up and down stairs, leap over obstacles, and landing softly without complex control. In this paper, the characteristics of hopping motion for the design and control parameters are clarified by both numerical simulations and experiments. Furthermore, using the robot design based on the results the abilities to hop up and down a step, leap over a cable, and land softly are demonstrated.

  1. Microwave facilitation of domperidone antagonism of apomorphine-induced stereotypic climbing in mice

    Quock, R.M.; Kouchich, F.J.; Ishii, T.K.; Lange, D.G.


    The dopaminergic agonist apomorphine produced dose-dependent stereotypic climbing behavior in mice housed in cages with vertical bars. This drug effect was competitively inhibited by systemic pretreatment with the centrally acting dopaminergic antagonist haloperidol but not by microwave irradiation (2.45 GHz, 20 mW/cm2, CW, 10 min) nor by systemic pretreatment with domperidone, a dopaminergic antagonist that only poorly penetrates the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Yet when mice were systemically pretreated with domperidone and then subjected to microwave irradiation (as above), the apomorphine effect was significantly reduced. Microwave irradiation also facilitated antagonism of the apomorphine effect by low and otherwise ineffective systemic pretreatment doses of haloperidol. Apomorphine-induced stereotypic climbing behavior was also reduced by domperidone administered intracerebrally, which bypassed the BBB. Exposure of intracerebral domperidone-pretreated animals to microwave irradiation failed to increase the degree of antagonism. These findings indicate that microwave irradiation can facilitate central effects of domperidone, a drug which acts mainly in the periphery. One possible explanation for these findings is that microwave irradiation alters the permeability of the BBB and increases the entry of domperidone to central sites of action.

  2. Sensor placement on Canton Tower for health monitoring using asynchronous-climb monkey algorithm

    Heuristic optimization algorithms have become a popular choice for solving complex and intricate sensor placement problems which are difficult to solve by traditional methods. This paper proposes a novel and interesting methodology called the asynchronous-climb monkey algorithm (AMA) for the optimum design of sensor arrays for a structural health monitoring system. Different from the existing algorithms, the dual-structure coding method is designed and adopted for the representation of the design variables. The asynchronous-climb process is incorporated in the proposed AMA that can adjust the trajectory of each individual dynamically in the search space according to its own experience and other monkeys. The concept of ‘monkey king’ is introduced in the AMA, which reflects the Darwinian principle of natural selection and can create an interaction network to correctly guide the movement of other monkeys. Numerical experiments are carried out using two different objective functions by considering the Canton Tower in China with or without the antenna mast to evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm. Investigations have indicated that the proposed AMA exhibits faster convergence characteristics and can generate sensor configurations superior in all instances when compared to the conventional monkey algorithm. For structures with stiffness mutation such as the Canton Tower, the sensor placement needs to be considered for each part separately. (paper)

  3. Truss Climbing Robot for Space Station: Design, Analysis, and Motion Control

    Chung, Wing Kwong

    The application of space robots has become more popular in performing tasks such as Intra and Extra Vehicular Activities (EVA) in Low Earth Orbit. For EVA, space robots were always designed as a chain-like manipulator with a joint configuration similar to on the earth robotic arm. Based on their joint configuration, they can be classified into two main categories. The first one is the six degrees of freedom (DOF) robotic arm including Shuttle Remote Manipulator System (SRMS), Engineering Test Satellite No. 7 (ETS-VII), the Main Arm (MA) and the Small Fine Arm (SFA) of Module Remote Manipulator System (JEMRMS). The other group is the seven-DOF space robotic arm which includes European Robotic Arm (ERA) and Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS), or Canadarm2. They not only perform manipulation tasks, but also be able to navigate on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS). In a free floating environment, motions of a space robotic arm cause the attitude change of a space station because of their dynamic coupling effect. Hence, the stabilization of the space station attitude is important to maintain the electrical energy generated by the solar panels and the signal strength for communication. Most of research in this area focuses on the motion control of a space manipulator through the study of Generalized Jacobian Matrix. Little research has been conducted specifically on the design of locomotion mechanism of a space manipulator. This dissertation proposes a novel methodology for the locomotion on a space station which aims to lower the disturbance on a space station. Without modifying the joint configuration of conventional space manipulators, the use of a new gripping mechanism is proposed which combines the advantages of active wheels and conventional grippers. To realize the proposed gripping mechanism, this dissertation also presents the design of a novel frame climbing robot (Frambot) which is equipped with the new gripping mechanism

  4. The effect of climbing Mount Everest on spleen contraction and increase in hemoglobin concentration during breath holding and exercise.

    Engan, Harald K; Lodin-Sundström, Angelica; Schagatay, Fanny; Schagatay, Erika


    Release of stored red blood cells resulting from spleen contraction improves human performance in various hypoxic situations. This study determined spleen volume resulting from two contraction-evoking stimuli: breath holding and exercise before and after altitude acclimatization during a Mount Everest ascent (8848 m). Eight climbers performed the following protocol before and after the climb: 5 min ambient air respiration at 1370 m during rest, 20 min oxygen respiration, 20 min ambient air respiration at 1370 m, three maximal-effort breath holds spaced by 2 min, 10 min ambient air respiration, 5 min of cycling at 100 W, and finally 10 min ambient air respiration. We measured spleen volume by ultrasound and capillary hemoglobin (HB) concentration after each exposure, and heart rate (HR) and arterial oxygen saturation (Sao2) continuously. Mean (SD) baseline spleen volume was unchanged at 213 (101) mL before and 206 (52) mL after the climb. Before the climb, spleen volume was reduced to 184 (83) mL after three breath holds, and after the climb three breath holds resulted in a spleen volume of 132 (26) mL (p=0.032). After exercise, the preclimb spleen volume was 186 (89) mL vs. 112 (389) mL) after the climb (p=0.003). Breath hold duration and cardiovascular responses were unchanged after the climb. We concluded that spleen contraction may be enhanced by altitude acclimatization, probably reflecting both the acclimatization to chronic hypoxic exposure and acute hypoxia during physical work. PMID:24673535

  5. Climbing walls as multitasking sites of geo(morpho)logical interests: Italian examples from the Western Alps and Sardinia

    Bollati, Irene; Fossati, Maria; Panizza, Valeria; Pelfini, Manuela; Zanoletti, Enrico; Zucali, Michele


    Geosites and in particular geomorphosites have been recently more and more used as base for educational activities in Earth Sciences and to enhance the geodiversity of a territory. Their attributes acquire a greater value and become especially appreciable when associated with field and outdoor activities. Frequently rock walls represent key sites for geological and gemorphological researches due to the wide outcrops of rocks where mineralogical composition and structures are very evident as well as landforms deriving from the modeling of outcrops surfaces. Where the rock walls are equipped for climbing activities they may be considered open-air laboratories useful to get in touch with the different features of rocks that condition progression on climbing routes. Due to these two aspects, geohistorical importance and educational exemplarity contribute to the increase of the scientific value and, as a consequence, of the global value of these sites as geosites. Geomorphosites from climbing sites allow to realize educational projects with different goals: 1) Recent researches in the Western Italian Alps have been conducted to make a census of climbing rock cliffs along the Ossola Valley (Verbanio-Cusio-Ossola Province, Italy) and to operate a choice of the ones characterized by high educational value (considering easy accessibility, grades for experts and beginners and the good exposition of rock features), representativeness, geohistorical importance, high cultural and socio-economic values, in order to propose an educational project addressed to students of an Italian secondary school aimed at introducing the three great families of rocks (magmatic, metamorphic and sedimentary); 2) The Eclogitic Micaschist Complex of the Austroalpine Domain (Montestrutto climbing wall, Turin Province, Italy) has been investigated in order to i) reconstruct the deformation stages at local scales along the sport climbing wall and the relationships between geological elements and

  6. 14 CFR 91.109 - Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight and certain flight tests.


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight and certain flight tests. 91.109 Section 91.109 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules General § 91.109 Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight...

  7. Manned Flight Simulator (MFS)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Aircraft Simulation Division, home to the Manned Flight Simulator (MFS), provides real-time, high fidelity, hardware-in-the-loop flight simulation capabilities...

  8. In Flight, Online

    Lucking, Robert A.; Wighting, Mervyn J.; Christmann, Edwin P.


    The concept of flight for human beings has always been closely tied to imagination. To fly like a bird requires a mind that also soars. Therefore, good teachers who want to teach the scientific principles of flight recognize that it is helpful to share stories of their search for the keys to flight. The authors share some of these with the reader,…

  9. White flight or flight from poverty?

    Jego, C; Jego, Charles; Roehner, Bertrand M.


    The phenomenon of White flight is often illustrated by the case of Detroit whose population dropped from 1.80 million to 0.95 million between 1950 and 2000 while at the same time its Black and Hispanic component grew from 30 percent to 85 percent. But is this case really representative? The present paper shows that the phenomenon of White flight is in fact essentially a flight from poverty. As a confirmation, we show that the changes in White or Black populations are highly correlated which means that White flight is always paralleled by Black flight (and Hispanic flight as well). This broader interpretation of White flight accounts not only for the case of northern cities such as Cincinnati, Cleveland or Detroit, but for all population changes at county level, provided the population density is higher than a threshold of about 50 per square-kilometer which corresponds to moderately urbanized areas (as can be found in states like Indiana or Virginia for instance).

  10. Control for going from hovering to small speed flight of a model insect

    Jianghao Wu; Mao Sun


    The longitudinal steady-state control for going from hovering to small speed flight of a model insect is studied, using the method of computational fluid dynamics to compute the aerodynamic derivatives and the techniques based on the linear theories of stability and control for deter-mining the non-zero equilibrium points. Morphological and certain kinematical data of droneflies are used for the model insect. A change in the mean stroke angle (δφ) results in a horizontal forward or backward flight; a change in the stroke amplitude (δΦ) or a equal change in the down- and upstroke angles of attack (δα1) results in a vertical climb or decent; a proper combination of δφ and δΦ controls (or δφ and δα1 controls) can give a flight of any (small) speed in any desired direction.

  11. Eclipse - tow flight closeup and release


    flight brought the project to a successful completion. Preliminary flight results determined that the handling qualities of the QF-106 on tow were very stable; actual flight-measured values of tow rope tension were well within predictions made by the simulation, aerodynamic characteristics and elastic properties of the tow rope were a significant component of the towing system; and the Dryden high-fidelity simulation provided a representative model of the performance of the QF-106 and C-141A airplanes in tow configuration. Total time on tow for the entire project was 5 hours, 34 minutes, and 29 seconds. All six flights were highly productive, and all project objectives were achieved. All three of the project objectives were successfully accomplished. The objectives were: demonstration of towed takeoff, climb-out, and separation of the EXD-01 from the towing aircraft; validation of simulation models of the towed aircraft systems; and development of ground and flight procedures for towing and launching a delta-winged airplane configuration safely behind a transport-type aircraft. NASA Dryden served as the responsible test organization and had flight safety responsibility for the Eclipse project. Dryden also supplied engineering, simulation, instrumentation, range support, research pilots, and chase aircraft for the test series. Dryden personnel also performed the modifications to convert the QF-106 into the piloted EXD-01 aircraft. During the early flight phase of the project, Tracor, Inc. provided maintenance and ground support for the two QF-106 airplanes.The Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC), Edwards, California, provided the C-141A transport aircraft for the project, its flight and engineering support, and the aircrew. Kelly Space and Technology provided the modification design and fabrication of the hardware that was installed on the EXD-01 aircraft. Kelly Space and Technology hopes to use the data gleaned from the tow tests to develop a series of low-cost reusable

  12. Multi-Scale Compliant Foot Designs and Fabrication for Use with a Spider-Inspired Climbing Robot

    Dan Sameoto; Yasong Li; Carlo Menon


    Climbing robots are of potential use for surveillance, inspection and exploration in different environments. In particular,the use of climbing robots for space exploration can allow scientists to explore environments too challenging for traditional wheeled designs. To adhere to surfaces, biomimetic dry adhesives based on gecko feet have been proposed. These biomimetic dry adhesives work by using multi-scale compliant mechanisms to make intimate contact with different surfaces and adhere by using Van der Waals forces. Fabrication of these adhesives has frequently been challenging however, due to the difficulty in combining macro, micro and nanoscale compliance. We present an all polymer foot design for use with a hexapod climbing robot and a fabrication method to improve reliability and yield. A high strength, low-modulus silicone, TC-5005, is used to form the foot base and microscale fibres in one piece by using a two part mold. A macroscale foot design is produced using a 3D printer to produce a base mold, while lithographic definition of microscale fibres in a thick photoresist forms the 'hairs' of the polymer foot. The adhesion of the silicone fibres by themselves or attached to the macro foot is examined to determine best strategies for placement and removal of feet to maximize adhesion. Results demonstrate the successful integration of micro and macro compliant feet for use in climbing on a variety of surfaces.

  13. Neurobiological degeneracy and affordance perception support functional intra-individual variability of inter-limb coordination during ice climbing.

    Seifert, Ludovic; Wattebled, Léo; Herault, Romain; Poizat, Germain; Adé, David; Gal-Petitfaux, Nathalie; Davids, Keith


    This study investigated the functional intra-individual movement variability of ice climbers differing in skill level to understand how icefall properties were used by participants as affordances to adapt inter-limb coordination patterns during performance. Seven expert climbers and seven beginners were observed as they climbed a 30 m icefall. Movement and positioning of the left and right hand ice tools, crampons and the climber's pelvis over the first 20 m of the climb were recorded and digitized using video footage from a camera (25 Hz) located perpendicular to the plane of the icefall. Inter-limb coordination, frequency and types of action and vertical axis pelvis displacement exhibited by each climber were analysed for the first five minutes of ascent. Participant perception of climbing affordances was assessed through: (i) calculating the ratio between exploratory movements and performed actions, and (ii), identifying, by self-confrontation interviews, the perceptual variables of environmental properties, which were significant to climbers for their actions. Data revealed that experts used a wider range of upper and lower limb coordination patterns, resulting in the emergence of different types of action and fewer exploratory movements, suggesting that effective holes in the icefall provided affordances to regulate performance. In contrast, beginners displayed lower levels of functional intra-individual variability of motor organization, due to repetitive swinging of ice tools and kicking of crampons to achieve and maintain a deep anchorage, suggesting lack of perceptual attunement and calibration to environmental properties to support climbing performance. PMID:24587084

  14. Ecophysiological Traits May Explain the Abundance of Climbing Plant Species across the Light Gradient in a Temperate Rainforest

    Gianoli, Ernesto; Saldaña, Alfredo; Jiménez-Castillo, Mylthon


    Climbing plants are a key component of rainforests, but mechanistic approaches to their distribution and abundance are scarce. In a southern temperate rainforest, we addressed whether the dominance of climbing plants across light environments is associated with the expression of ecophysiological traits. In mature forest and canopy gaps, we measured leaf size, specific leaf area, photosynthetic rate, and dark respiration in six of the most abundant woody vines. Mean values of traits and their phenotypic change (%) between mature forest and canopy gaps were predictor variables. Leaf size and specific leaf area were not significantly associated with climbing plant dominance. Variation in gas-exchange traits between mature forest and canopy gaps explained, at least partly, the dominance of climbers in this forest. A greater increase in photosynthetic rate and a lower increase in dark respiration rate when canopy openings occur were related to the success of climbing plant species. Dominant climbers showed a strategy of maximizing exploitation of resource availability but minimizing metabolic costs. Results may reflect phenotypic plasticity or genetic differentiation in ecophysiological traits between light environments. It is suggested that the dominant climbers in this temperate rainforest would be able to cope with forest clearings due to human activities. PMID:22685611

  15. On the development a pneumatic four-legged mechanism autonomous vertical wall climbing robot

    The paper describes the design of a prototype legged mechanism together with suction mechanism, the mechanical design, on-board controller and an initial performance test. The design is implemented in the form of a pneumatically powered multi-legged robot equipped with suction pads at the sole of the feet for wall climbing purpose. The whole mechanism and suction system is controlled by controller which is housed on-board the robot. The gait of the motion depended on the logic control patterns as dictated by the controller. The robot is equipped with sensors both at the front and rear ends that function as an obstacle avoidance facility. Once objects are detected, signals are sent to the controller to start an evasive action that is to move in the opposite direction. The mechanism has been tested and initial results have shown promising potential for an autonomous mobile. (Author)

  16. Fault detection and identification based on combining logic and model in a wall-climbing robot

    Yong JIANG; Hongguang WANG; Lijin FANG; Mingyang ZHAO


    A combined logic- and model-based approach to fault detection and identification (FDI) in a suction foot control system of a wall-climbing robot is presented in this paper. For the control system, some fault models are derived by kinematics analysis. Moreover, the logic relations of the system states are known in advance. First, a fault tree is used to analyze the system by evaluating the basic events (elementary causes), which can lead to a root event (a particular fault). Then, a multiple-model adaptive estimation algorithm is used to detect and identify the model-known faults. Finally, based on the system states of the robot and the results of the estimation, the model-unknown faults are also identified using logical reasoning. Experiments show that the proposed approach based on the combination of logical reasoning and model estimating is efficient in the FDI of the robot.

  17. Optimal Gait for Bioinspired Climbing Robots Using Dry Adhesion:A Quasi-Static Investigation

    Paolo Boscariol; Michael A.Henrey; Yasong Li; Carlo Menon


    Legged robots relying on dry adhesives for vertical climbing are required to preload their feet against the wall to increase contact surface area and consequently maximize adhesion force.Preloading a foot causes a redistribution of forces in the entire robot,including contact forces between the other feet and the wall.An inappropriate redistribution of these forces can cause irreparable detachment of the robot from the vertical surface.This paper investigates an optimal preloading and detaching strategy that minimizes energy consumption,while retaining safety,during locomotion on vertical surfaces.The gait of a six-legged robot is planned using a quasi-static model that takes into account both the structure of the robot and the characteristics of the adhesive material.The latter was modelled from experimental data collected for this paper.A constrained optimization routine is used,and its output is a sequence of optimal posture and motor torque set-points.


    Cristina Tatomir


    Full Text Available In this paper we assess the evolution of Romania’s economic convergence with the European Union (EU and Euro area, during the period 2000-2010. In order to determine the number of years required to reach the EU and Euro area average, we employ an economic convergence index, made up of real and structural convergence indexes. The analysis shows that Romania has been climbing the ladder in the process of catching-up with the EU and the Euro area until 2008 when, because of the international crisis, the economic convergence index started decreasing. We report that Romania will reach the EU average in April 2056 and the Euro area average in September 2062.As revealed by the analysis, it will take decadesto attain the European levels of economic convergence, this being the most important challenge for Romania on the long term.

  19. Cytology and mating systems in the climbing cacti Hylocereus and Selenicereus.

    Lichtenzveig, J; Abbo, S; Nerd, A; Tel-Zur, N; Mizrahi, Y


    Chromosome numbers and meiotic behavior are reported for the climbing cacti species Hylocereus undatus, Hylocereus polyrhizus, and Selenicereus megalanthus. The Hylocereus spp. are diploid (2n = 22), while S. megalanthus is a tetraploid (2n = 44). Irregular chromosome disjunction at anaphase I in pollen mother cells of S. megalanthus is probably the major cause of its reduced pollen viability and may contribute to low seed set, low number of viable seeds and, consequently, low fruit mass. A pollination study confirmed self-incompatibility in H. polyrhizus and a weakened incompatibility reaction in H. undatus and S. megalanthus. Major crossability barriers do not exist between the Hylocereus spp. investigated. Reciprocal intergeneric crosses were successful between Hylocereus spp. and S. megalanthus, suggesting that an Hylocereus sp. might be one of the diploid progenitors of the tetraploid S. megalanthus. The implications of the results on cacti nomenclature and systematics are briefly discussed. PMID:10898783

  20. Automatic stair-climbing algorithm of the planetary wheel type mobile robot in nuclear facilities

    A mobile robot, named KAEROT, has been developed for inspection and maintenance operations in nuclear facilities. The main feature of locomotion system is the planetary wheel assembly with small wheels. This mechanism has been designed to be able to go over the stairs and obstacles with stability. This paper presents the inverse kinematic solution that is to be operated by remote control. The automatic stair climbing algorithm is also proposed. The proposed algorithms the moving paths of small wheels and calculates the angular velocity of 3 actuation wheels. The results of simulations and experiments are given for KAEROT performed on the irregular stairs in laboratory. It is shown that the proposed algorithm provides the lower inclination angle of the robot body and increases its stability during navigation. 14 figs., 16 refs. (Author)

  1. A New Self-Loading Locomotion Mechanism for Wall Climbing Robots Employing Biomimetic Adhesives

    Amirpasha Peyvandi; Parviz Soroushian; Jue Lu


    A versatile locomotion mechanism is introduced and experimentally verified.This mechanism comprises four rectangular wheels (legs) with rotational phase difference which enables the application of pressure to each contacting surface for securing it to the surface using bio-inspired or pressure-sensitive adhesives.In this mechanism,the adhesives are applied to two rigid plates attached to each wheel via hinges incorporating torsional springs.The springs force the plates back to their original position after the contact with the surface is lost in the course of locomotion.The wheels are made of low-modulus elastomers,and the pressure applied during contact is controlled by the elastic modulus,geometry and phase difference of wheels.This reliable adhesion system does not rely upon gravity for adhering to surfaces,and provides the locomotion mechanism with the ability to climb walls and transition from horizontal to vertical surfaces.

  2. Australopithecus afarensis scapular ontogeny, function, and the role of climbing in human evolution.

    Green, David J; Alemseged, Zeresenay


    Scapular morphology is predictive of locomotor adaptations among primates, but this skeletal element is scarce in the hominin fossil record. Notably, both scapulae of the juvenile Australopithecus afarensis skeleton from Dikika, Ethiopia, have been recovered. These scapulae display several traits characteristic of suspensory apes, as do the few known fragmentary adult australopith representatives. Many of these traits change significantly throughout modern human ontogeny, but remain stable in apes. Thus, the similarity of juvenile and adult fossil morphologies implies that A. afarensis development was apelike. Additionally, changes in other scapular traits throughout African ape development are associated with shifts in locomotor behavior. This affirms the functional relevance of those characteristics, and their presence in australopith fossils supports the hypothesis that their locomotor repertoire included a substantial amount of climbing. PMID:23112331

  3. Influence of Lower Extremity Muscle Size and Quality on Stair-Climb Performance in Career Firefighters.

    Kleinberg, Craig R; Ryan, Eric D; Tweedell, Andrew J; Barnette, Timothy J; Wagoner, Chad W


    Kleinberg, CR, Ryan, ED, Tweedell, AJ, Barnette, TJ, and Wagoner, CW. Influence of lower extremity muscle size and quality on stair-climb performance in career firefighters. J Strength Cond Res 30(6): 1613-1618, 2016-The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of lower extremity muscular size and quality on stair-climb performance (SCP) in career firefighters. Forty-six male career firefighters (age = 37.0 ± 7.2 years; stature = 180.2 ± 6.9 cm; body mass = 108.0 ± 19.8 kg) volunteered for this study. Panoramic ultrasound images of the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris were obtained to determine cross-sectional area (CSA) and echo intensity (EI) of each muscle. The CSA of each muscle was then summed together and normalized to body mass (CSA/BM [QCSA]). Additionally, EI was averaged across both muscles (QEI). Participants then performed a timed and weighted SCP assessment where they ascended and descended 26 stairs 4 times as quickly as possible while wearing a weighted vest (22.73 kg) to simulate the weight of their self-contained breathing apparatus and turnout gear. Bivariate correlations and stepwise regression analyses were used to examine the relationships among variables and the relative contributions of QCSA and QEI to SCP. Partial correlations were used to examine the relationship between QCSA and SCP and QEI and SCP while controlling for age and body mass index (BMI). The results indicated that QCSA and QEI were significantly related to SCP before (r = -0.492, p = 0.001; r = 0.363, p = 0.013, respectively) and after accounting for age and BMI (r = -0.324, p = 0.032; r = 0.413, p = 0.005, respectively). Both QCSA and QEI contributed significantly to the prediction of SCP (r = 0.560, p firefighting tasks, which have been shown to be improved with resistance training. PMID:26605810

  4. Are Himalayan Sherpas better protected against brain damage associated with extreme altitude climbs?

    Garrido, E; Segura, R; Capdevila, A; Pujol, J; Javierre, C; Ventura, J L


    1. The potential risk of brain damage when low-landers attempt to climb the highest summits is a well-known fact. However, very little is known about what occurs to Himalayan natives, perfectly adapted to high altitude, when performing the same type of activity. 2. Taking into account their long-life climbing experience at extreme altitudes, we examined seven of the most recognized Sherpas with the aim of performing a comprehensive neurological evaluation based on medical history, physical examination and magnetic resonance brain imaging. We compared them with one group of 21 lowland elite climbers who had ascended to altitudes of over 8000 m, and another control group of 21 healthy individuals who had never been exposed to high altitude. 3. While all of the lowland climbers presented psychoneurological symptoms during or after the expeditions, and 13 of them (61%) showed magnetic resonance abnormalities (signs of mild cortical atrophy and/or periventricular high-intensity signal areas in the white matter), only one Sherpa (14%) showed similar changes in the scans, presenting neurological symptoms at extreme altitude. The neurological examination was normal in all three groups, and no neuroimaging abnormalities were detected in the control group. 4. The significant differences, in both clinical and neuroimaging terms, suggest that Sherpa highlanders have better brain protection when exposed to extreme altitude. Although the key to protection against cerebral hypoxia cannot be established, it is possible that an increase in the usually short period of acclimatization could minimize brain damage in those low-landers who attempt the highest summits without supplementary oxygen. PMID:8697710


    N.S. Tlale


    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The modular design of a wall-climbing robot, implementing two articulated legs per module (biped robotic modules, is presented in this paper. Modular design improves a wall-climbing robot’s manoeuvrability and flexibility during surface changes or while walking on uneven surfaces. The design of the articulated legs uses four motors to control the posture of the vacuum cups, achieving the best possible contact with the surface. Each leg can contain more than five sensors for effective feedback control, and additional sensors such as gyros, CCD sensors, etc, can be fitted on a module, depending on the robot’s application. As the number of modules used in the design of the robot is increased, the number of actuators and sensors increases exponentially. A distributed mechatronics controller of such systems is presented.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Modulêre ontwerp van 'n muurklim-robot met twee geskarnierde bene per module (twee-benige robotmodules word in hierdie artikel weergegee. Modulêre ontwerp verbeter die muurklim-robot se beweeglikheid en aanpasbaarheid tydens veranderings in die loopvlak of terwyl dit loop op ongelyke oppervlaktes. Ontwerp van geskarnierde bene implementeer vier motors wat die oriëntasie van vakuumsuigdoppe beheer om die bes moontlike kontak met die loopvlak te handhaaf. Elke been kan meer as vyf sensors hê vir doeltreffende terugvoerbeheer, en bykomende sensors soos giroskope, CCD sensors, ens. kan by 'n module gevoeg word soos die toepassing van die robot dit mag vereis. Soos die aantal modules wat in die ontwerp van die robot gebruik word, toeneem, neem die aantal aktiveerders en sensors eksponensiëel toe. 'n Verdeelde megatroniese beheerder van sulke stelsels word aangebied.

  6. Climbing ripple structure and associated storm-lamination from a Proterozoic carbonate platform succession: Their environmental and petrogenetic significance

    Asru K Chaudhuri


    The Mesoproterozoic Pandikunta Limestone, a shallow water carbonate platform succession in the Pranhita–Godavari Valley, south India, displays well developed climbing ripple lamination and storm deposited structures, such as HCS, wave ripple-lamination, combined-flow ripple-lamination and low angle trough cross-stratification. Different types of stratification developed in calcisiltite with minor amounts of very fine quartz sand and silt. The climbing ripple structures exhibit a complex pattern of superposition of different types (type A, B and S) within cosets pointing to a fluctuating rate of suspension deposition versus bedform migration, and an unsteady character of the flow. Close association of climbing ripple structures, HCS with anisotropic geometry, wavy lamination and combined-flow ripple-lamination suggest that the structures were formed by storm generated combined-flow in a mid-shelf area above the storm wave base. The combined-flow that deposited the climbing ripple structures had a strong unidirectional flow component of variable magnitude. The climbing ripple structure occurs as a constituent of graded stratified beds with an ordered vertical sequence of different types of lamination, reflecting flow deceleration and increased rate of suspension deposition. It is inferred that the beds were deposited from high-density waning flows in the relatively deeper part of the ancient shelf. The structures indicate that the Pandikunta platform was subjected to open marine circulation and intense storm activities. The storm deposited beds, intercalated with beds of lime-mudstone, consist primarily of fine sand and silt size carbonate particles that were hydrodynamically similar to quartz silt. Detrital carbonate particles are structureless and are of variable roundness. The particles were generated as primary carbonate clasts in coastal areas by mechanical disintegration of rapidly lithified beds, stromatolites or laminites, and the finest grade was

  7. Biomechanics of bird flight.

    Tobalske, Bret W


    Power output is a unifying theme for bird flight and considerable progress has been accomplished recently in measuring muscular, metabolic and aerodynamic power in birds. The primary flight muscles of birds, the pectoralis and supracoracoideus, are designed for work and power output, with large stress (force per unit cross-sectional area) and strain (relative length change) per contraction. U-shaped curves describe how mechanical power output varies with flight speed, but the specific shapes and characteristic speeds of these curves differ according to morphology and flight style. New measures of induced, profile and parasite power should help to update existing mathematical models of flight. In turn, these improved models may serve to test behavioral and ecological processes. Unlike terrestrial locomotion that is generally characterized by discrete gaits, changes in wing kinematics and aerodynamics across flight speeds are gradual. Take-off flight performance scales with body size, but fully revealing the mechanisms responsible for this pattern awaits new study. Intermittent flight appears to reduce the power cost for flight, as some species flap-glide at slow speeds and flap-bound at fast speeds. It is vital to test the metabolic costs of intermittent flight to understand why some birds use intermittent bounds during slow flight. Maneuvering and stability are critical for flying birds, and design for maneuvering may impinge upon other aspects of flight performance. The tail contributes to lift and drag; it is also integral to maneuvering and stability. Recent studies have revealed that maneuvers are typically initiated during downstroke and involve bilateral asymmetry of force production in the pectoralis. Future study of maneuvering and stability should measure inertial and aerodynamic forces. It is critical for continued progress into the biomechanics of bird flight that experimental designs are developed in an ecological and evolutionary context. PMID:17766290

  8. Flight to Egypt - The Flight of All Flights

    Konečný, Lubomír

    Prague: The UN Refugee Agency, 2002 - (Raimanová, I.; Concolato, J.), s. 10-14 ISBN 80-238-8859-5 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK9056118 Keywords : Flight to Egypt * iconography * literary sources Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  9. From falling to flying: the path to powered flight of a robotic samara nano air vehicle

    This paper details the development of a nano-scale (>15 cm) robotic samara, or winged seed. The design of prototypes inspired by naturally occurring geometries is presented along with a detailed experimental process which elucidates similarities between mechanical and robotic samara flight dynamics. The helical trajectories of a samara in flight were observed to differ in-flight path and descent velocity. The body roll and pitch angular rates for the differing trajectories were observed to be coupled to variations in wing pitch, and thus provide a means of control. Inspired by the flight modalities of the bio-inspired samaras, a robotic device has been created that mimics the autorotative capability of the samara, whilst providing the ability to hover, climb and translate. A high-speed camera-based motion capture system is used to observe the flight dynamics of the mechanical and robotic samara. Similarities in the flight dynamics are compared and discussed as it relates to the design of the robotic samara.

  10. The three-dimensional flight of red-footed boobies: adaptations to foraging in a tropical environment?

    Weimerskirch, H; Le Corre, M; Ropert-Coudert, Y; Kato, A; Marsac, F


    In seabirds a broad variety of morphologies, flight styles and feeding methods exist as an adaptation to optimal foraging in contrasted marine environments for a wide variety of prey types. Because of the low productivity of tropical waters it is expected that specific flight and foraging techniques have been selected there, but very few data are available. By using five different types of high-precision miniaturized logger (global positioning systems, accelerometers, time depth recorders, activity recorders, altimeters) we studied the way a seabird is foraging over tropical waters. Red-footed boobies are foraging in the day, never foraging at night, probably as a result of predation risks. They make extensive use of wind conditions, flying preferentially with crosswinds at median speed of 38 km h(-1), reaching highest speeds with tail winds. They spent 66% of the foraging trip in flight, using a flap-glide flight, and gliding 68% of the flight. Travelling at low costs was regularly interrupted by extremely active foraging periods where birds are very frequently touching water for landing, plunge diving or surface diving (30 landings h(-1)). Dives were shallow (maximum 2.4 m) but frequent (4.5 dives h(-1)), most being plunge dives. While chasing for very mobile prey like flying fishes, boobies have adopted a very active and specific hunting behaviour, but the use of wind allows them to reduce travelling cost by their extensive use of gliding. During the foraging and travelling phases birds climb regularly to altitudes of 20-50 m to spot prey or congeners. During the final phase of the flight, they climb to high altitudes, up to 500 m, probably to avoid attacks by frigatebirds along the coasts. This study demonstrates the use by boobies of a series of very specific flight and activity patterns that have probably been selected as adaptations to the conditions of tropical waters. PMID:15875570

  11. CLIMB - Climate induced changes on the hydrology of mediterranean basins - Reducing uncertainties and quantifying risk

    Ludwig, Ralf


    According to future climate projections, Mediterranean countries are at high risk for an even pronounced susceptibility to changes in the hydrological budget and extremes. These changes are expected to have severe direct impacts on the management of water resources. Threats include severe droughts and extreme flooding, salinization of coastal aquifers, degradation of fertile soils and desertification due to poor and unsustainable water management practices. It can be foreseen that, unless appropriate adaptation measures are undertaken, the changes in the hydrologic cycle will give rise to an increasing potential for tension and conflict among the political and economic actors in this vulnerable region. The presented project initiative CLIMB, funded under EC's 7th Framework Program (FP7-ENV-2009-1), has started in January 2010. In its 4-year design, it shall analyze ongoing and future climate induced changes in hydrological budgets and extremes across the Mediterranean and neighboring regions. This is undertaken in study sites located in Sardinia, Northern Italy, Southern France, Tunisia, Egypt and the Palestinian-administered area Gaza. The work plan is targeted to selected river or aquifer catchments, where the consortium will employ a combination of novel field monitoring and remote sensing concepts, data assimilation, integrated hydrologic (and biophysical) modeling and socioeconomic factor analyses to reduce existing uncertainties in climate change impact analysis. Advanced climate scenario analysis will be employed and available ensembles of regional climate model simulations will be downscaling. This process will provide the drivers for an ensemble of hydro(-geo)logical models with different degrees of complexity in terms of process description and level of integration. The results of hydrological modeling and socio-economic factor analysis will enable the development of a GIS-based Vulnerability and Risk Assessment Tool. This tool will serve as a platform

  12. Short-term modulation of cerebellar Purkinje cell activity after spontaneous climbing fiber input.

    Sato, Y; Miura, A; Fushiki, H; Kawasaki, T


    1. There are two opposite points of view concerning the way climbing fiber input in a Purkinje cell modifies simple spike (SS) activity transiently: depression versus enhancement of SS activity. The different groups of investigators favored one effect predominating over the other. In the decerebrate unanesthetized cat, we recorded spontaneous activity of single Purkinje cells and investigated time course of SS activity after the complex spike (CS). 2. In the peri-CS time histogram, there was a SS pause lasting, on average, 10.8 ms after onset of the CS in all of the 316 cells recorded. The pause was followed by a rapid increase in SS activity to a maximum, which was on average 175.6% of a pre-CS control level, and a gradual return to around the control level in the majority of the cells recorded (pause-facilitation type, 71.2%). The increase in SS activity was significant (P SS activity during the 20-100 ms was, on average, 163.7% of the control level. In some cells (pure-pause type, 25.3%), no significant changes were found (P > 0.01) in the post-pause SS firing. In contrast, only 3.5% of the cells (pause-reduction type) showed a significant (P 0.01) in the SS activity between pre-CS periods in all of the cells recorded, suggesting that the SS activity enhancement is not due to a coactivated mossy fiber input just preceding the activation of the climbing fiber input. 4. Analysis of the raster diagram revealed variability of individual SS responses after the CS. The probability of occurrence of the increase in SS number during a post-CS period of 0-100 ms with respect to that during a pre-CS period of -100-0 ms in individual raster traces was high (on average 78.2%), medium (57.3%), and low (36.3%) in the pause-facilitation, pure-pause, and pause-reduction types of the cell, respectively. 5. Nonsequential time histograms showing frequency distribution of the pause duration after the CS in individual raster traces and that showing interspike intervals of the SS were

  13. Relationship between the climbing up and climbing down stairs domain scores on the FES-DMD, the score on the Vignos Scale, age and timed performance of functional activities in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    Lilian A. Y. Fernandes


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Knowing the potential for and limitations of information generated using different evaluation instruments favors the development of more accurate functional diagnoses and therapeutic decision-making. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between the number of compensatory movements when climbing up and going down stairs, age, functional classification and time taken to perform a tested activity (TA of going up and down stairs in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD. METHOD: A bank of movies featuring 30 boys with DMD performing functional activities was evaluated. Compensatory movements were assessed using the climbing up and going down stairs domain of the Functional Evaluation Scale for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (FES-DMD; age in years; functional classification using the Vignos Scale (VS, and TA using a timer. Statistical analyses were performed using the Spearman correlation test. RESULTS: There is a moderate relationship between the climbing up stairs domain of the FES-DMD and age (r=0.53, p=0.004 and strong relationships with VS (r=0.72, p=0.001 and TA for this task (r=0.83, p<0.001. There were weak relationships between the going down stairs domain of the FES-DMD-going down stairs with age (r=0.40, p=0.032, VS (r=0.65, p=0.002 and TA for this task (r=0.40, p=0.034. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that the evaluation of compensatory movements used when climbing up stairs can provide more relevant information about the evolution of the disease, although the activity of going down stairs should be investigated, with the aim of enriching guidance and strengthening accident prevention. Data from the FES-DMD, age, VS and TA can be used in a complementary way to formulate functional diagnoses. Longitudinal studies and with broader age groups may supplement this information.

  14. Long migration flights of birds

    The extremely long migration flights of some birds are carried out in one hop, necessitating a substantial prior build-up of fat fuel. We summarize the basic elements of bird flight physics with a simple model, and show how the fat reserves influence flight distance, flight speed and the power expended by the bird during flight. (paper)

  15. Java for flight software

    Benowitz, E.; Niessner, A.


    This work involves developing representative mission-critical spacecraft software using the Real-Time Specification for Java (RTSJ). This work currently leverages actual flight software used in the design of actual flight software in the NASA's Deep Space 1 (DSI), which flew in 1998.

  16. Exploring flight crew behaviour

    Helmreich, R. L.


    A programme of research into the determinants of flight crew performance in commercial and military aviation is described, along with limitations and advantages associated with the conduct of research in such settings. Preliminary results indicate significant relationships among personality factors, attitudes regarding flight operations, and crew performance. The potential theoretical and applied utility of the research and directions for further research are discussed.

  17. Kinetics of dislocation step ensembles and edge dislocation climb in supersaturated solution of radiation-induced point defects

    Formation kinetics of step ensemble on the linear edge dislocation under conditions when supersaturated solution of radiation-induced point defects - vacancies and interstitials - was created in a material inder the effect of irradiation, is investigated. With regard to microscopic processes in dislocation nuclei the concentration of steps on the dislocation is found in a self-consistent way. Conditions under which the dislocations can be considered as discrete discharges for point defects so that the distance between dislocation steps exceeds considerably the average length of point defect free pass along the dislocation line are determined. The dislocation climb rate for the cases of material irradiation and annealing, which are of practical value, is found. Considerably nonlinear dependence of the dislocation climb rate on point defect supersaturation in material and its strong dependence on the temperature is demonstrated

  18. Online interactive meteorological self-briefing for soaring flights in isolated and aligned lift

    Liechti, O.


    server for participating in online contests. Flight data available on the web server is readily imported into the same weather browser used before the flight for self-briefing. Flight traces are visualized in the browser on the map and the barogram. The recorded altitude trace is displayed with the predicted updrafts in the background in order to verify the predicted height of the updrafts and the convective clouds. Additionally, the predicted climb rates are used to simulate the progression of the glider along the recorded flight track. Such simulations demonstrate the skill in predicting climb rates for soaring flights with operational numerical weather models. Flight plans for soaring in isolated and aligned lift can be obtained with state of the art prediction models and flight planning tools.

  19. Tarantulas (Araneae: Theraphosidae use different adhesive pads complementarily during climbing on smooth surfaces: experimental approach in eight arboreal and burrower species

    Fernando Pérez-Miles


    Full Text Available Tarantulas are large spiders with adhesive setae on their legs, which enable them to climb on smooth vertical surfaces. The mechanism proposed to explain adhesion in tarantulas is anisotropic friction, where friction is higher when the leg pushes than when it pulls. However, previous studies and measurements of adhesion in theraphosids were performed using dead specimens. To test their ability to climb, we studied static friction of live theraphosid spiders on different surfaces and at different inclines. We compared burrower with arboreal species to test the hypothesis of higher friction in arboreal tarantulas. We found a complementary participation of claw tufts and scopula of anterior and posterior legs when the tarantula climbs. The mechanics of climbing in association with the biological characteristics of the species are discussed.

  20. The effects of stepper exercise with visual feedback on strength, walking, and stair climbing in individuals following stroke

    Choi, Munsang; Yoo, Junsang; Shin, Soonyoung; Lee, Wanhee


    [Purpose] This study investigated the effect of stepper exercise with visual feedback on strength, walking, and stair climbing in stroke patients. [Subjects] Twenty-six stroke patients were divided randomly into the stepper exercise with visual feedback group (n = 13) or the stepper exercise group (n = 13). [Methods] Subjects in the experimental group received feedback through the mirror during exercise, while those in the control group performed the exercise without visual feedback; both gro...

  1. Ethanol affects NMDA receptor signaling at climbing fiber-Purkinje cell synapses in mice and impairs cerebellar LTD

    He, Qionger; Titley, Heather; Grasselli, Giorgio; Piochon, Claire; Hansel, Christian


    Ethanol profoundly influences cerebellar circuit function and motor control. It has recently been demonstrated that functional N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are postsynaptically expressed at climbing fiber (CF) to Purkinje cell synapses in the adult cerebellum. Using whole cell patch-clamp recordings from mouse cerebellar slices, we examined whether ethanol can affect NMDA receptor signaling in mature Purkinje cells. NMDA receptor-mediated currents were isolated by bath application of...

  2. Distributed behavior-based control architecture for a wall climbing robot

    In the past two decades, Behavior-based AI (Artificial Intelligence) has emerged as a new approach in designing mobile robot control architecture. It stresses on the issues of reactivity, concurrency and real-time control. In this paper we propose a new approach in designing robust intelligent controllers for mobile robot platforms. The Behaviour-based paradigm implemented in a multiprocessing firmware architecture will further enhance parallelism present in the subsumption paradigm itself and increased real-timeness. The paper summarises research done to design a four-legged wall climbing robot. The emphasis will be on the control architecture of the robot based on the Behavior -based paradigm. The robot control architecture is made up of two layers, the locomotion layer and the gait controller layer. The two layers are implemented on a Vesta 68332 processor board running the Behaviour-based kernel, The software is developed using the L programming language, introduced by IS Robotics. The Behaviour-based paradigm is outlined and contrasted with the classical Knowledge-based approach. A description of the distributed architecture is presented followed by a presentation of the Behaviour-based agents for the two layers. (author)

  3. Internal habitat quality determines the effects of fragmentation on austral forest climbing and epiphytic angiosperms.

    Ainhoa Magrach

    Full Text Available Habitat fragmentation has become one of the major threats to biodiversity worldwide, particularly in the case of forests, which have suffered enormous losses during the past decades. We analyzed how changes in patch configuration and habitat quality derived from the fragmentation of austral temperate rainforests affect the distribution of six species of forest-dwelling climbing and epiphytic angiosperms. Epiphyte and vine abundance is primarily affected by the internal characteristics of patches (such as tree size, the presence of logging gaps or the proximity to patch edges rather than patch and landscape features (such as patch size, shape or connectivity. These responses were intimately related to species-specific characteristics such as drought- or shade-tolerance. Our study therefore suggests that plant responses to fragmentation are contingent on both the species' ecology and the specific pathways through which the study area is being fragmented, (i.e. extensive logging that shaped the boundaries of current forest patches plus recent, unregulated logging that creates gaps within patches. Management practices in fragmented landscapes should therefore consider habitat quality within patches together with other spatial attributes at landscape or patch scales.

  4. A Circuit for Gradient Climbing in C. elegans Chemotaxis

    Johannes Larsch


    Full Text Available Animals have a remarkable ability to track dynamic sensory information. For example, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans can locate a diacetyl odor source across a 100,000-fold concentration range. Here, we relate neuronal properties, circuit implementation, and behavioral strategies underlying this robust navigation. Diacetyl responses in AWA olfactory neurons are concentration and history dependent; AWA integrates over time at low odor concentrations, but as concentrations rise, it desensitizes rapidly through a process requiring cilia transport. After desensitization, AWA retains sensitivity to small odor increases. The downstream AIA interneuron amplifies weak odor inputs and desensitizes further, resulting in a stereotyped response to odor increases over three orders of magnitude. The AWA-AIA circuit drives asymmetric behavioral responses to odor increases that facilitate gradient climbing. The adaptation-based circuit motif embodied by AWA and AIA shares computational properties with bacterial chemotaxis and the vertebrate retina, each providing a solution for maintaining sensitivity across a dynamic range.

  5. Does buckling instability of the pseudopodium limit how well an amoeba can climb?

    Ghosal, Sandip; Fukui, Yoshio


    The maximum force that a crawling cell can exert on a substrate is a quantity of interest in cell biomechanics. One way of quantifying this force is to allow the cell to crawl against a measurable and adjustable restraining force until the cell is no longer able to move in a direction opposite to the applied force. Fukui et al. (2000) reported on an experiment where amoeboid cells were imaged while they crawled against an artificial gravity field created by a centrifuge. An unexpected observation was that the net applied force on the amoeba did not seem to be the primary factor that limited its ability to climb. Instead, it appeared that the amoeba stalled when it was no longer able to support a pseudopodium against the applied gravity field. The high g-load bend the pseudopodium thereby preventing its attachment to the target point directly ahead of the cell. In this paper we further refine this idea by identifying the bending of the pseudopodium with the onset of elastic instability of a beam under its own weight. It is shown that the principal features of the experiment may be understood through this model and an estimate for the limiting g-load in reasonable accord with the experimental measurements is recovered. PMID:21130098

  6. Multiscale diffusion method for simulations of long-time defect evolution with application to dislocation climb

    Baker, K. L.; Curtin, W. A.


    In many problems of interest to materials scientists and engineers, the evolution of crystalline extended defects (dislocations, cracks, grain boundaries, interfaces, voids, precipitates) is controlled by the flow of point defects (interstitial/substitutional atoms and/or vacancies) through the crystal into the extended defect. Precise modeling of this behavior requires fully atomistic methods in and around the extended defect, but the flow of point defects entering the defect region can be treated by coarse-grained methods. Here, a multiscale algorithm is presented to provide this coupling. Specifically, direct accelerated molecular dynamics (AMD) of extended defect evolution is coupled to a diffusing point defect concentration field that captures the long spatial and temporal scales of point defect motion in the presence of the internal stress fields generated by the evolving defect. The algorithm is applied to study vacancy absorption into an edge dislocation in aluminum where vacancy accumulation in the core leads to nucleation of a double-jog that then operates as a sink for additional vacancies; this corresponds to the initial stages of dislocation climb modeled with explicit atomistic resolution. The method is general and so can be applied to many other problems associated with nucleation, growth, and reaction due to accumulation of point defects in crystalline materials.

  7. Mountain-climbing bears protect cherry species from global warming through vertical seed dispersal.

    Naoe, Shoji; Tayasu, Ichiro; Sakai, Yoichiro; Masaki, Takashi; Kobayashi, Kazuki; Nakajima, Akiko; Sato, Yoshikazu; Yamazaki, Koji; Kiyokawa, Hiroki; Koike, Shinsuke


    In a warming climate, temperature-sensitive plants must move toward colder areas, that is, higher latitude or altitude, by seed dispersal [1]. Considering that the temperature drop with increasing altitude (-0.65°C per 100 m altitude) is one hundred to a thousand times larger than that of the equivalent latitudinal distance [2], vertical seed dispersal is probably a key process for plant escape from warming temperatures. In fact, plant geographical distributions are tracking global warming altitudinally rather than latitudinally, and the extent of tracking is considered to be large in plants with better-dispersed traits (e.g., lighter seeds in wind-dispersed plants) [1]. However, no study has evaluated vertical seed dispersal itself due to technical difficulty or high cost. Here, we show using a stable oxygen isotope that black bears disperse seeds of wild cherry over several hundred meters vertically, and that the dispersal direction is heavily biased towards the mountain tops. Mountain climbing by bears following spring-to-summer plant phenology is likely the cause of this biased seed dispersal. These results suggest that spring- and summer-fruiting plants dispersed by animals may have high potential to escape global warming. Our results also indicate that the direction of vertical seed dispersal can be unexpectedly biased, and highlight the importance of considering seed dispersal direction to understand plant responses to past and future climate change. PMID:27115684

  8. Substrate diameter and compliance affect the gripping strategies and locomotor mode of climbing boa constrictors.

    Byrnes, Greg; Jayne, Bruce C


    Arboreal habitats pose unique challenges for locomotion as a result of their narrow cylindrical surfaces and discontinuities between branches. Decreased diameter of branches increases compliance, which can pose additional challenges, including effects on stability and energy damping. However, the combined effects of substrate diameter and compliance are poorly understood for any animal. We quantified performance, kinematics and substrate deformation while boa constrictors (Boa constrictor) climbed vertical ropes with three diameters (3, 6 and 9 mm) and four tensions (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 body weights). Mean forward velocity decreased significantly with both decreased diameter and increased compliance. Both diameter and compliance had numerous effects on locomotor kinematics, but diameter had larger and more pervasive effects than compliance. Locomotion on the largest diameter had a larger forward excursion per cycle, and the locomotor mode and gripping strategy differed from that on the smaller diameters. On larger diameters, snakes primarily applied opposing forces at the same location on the rope to grip. By contrast, on smaller diameters forces were applied in opposite directions at different locations along the rope, resulting in increased rope deformation. Although energy is likely to be lost during deformation, snakes might use increased surface deformation as a strategy to enhance their ability to grip. PMID:21113006

  9. The Effect of Climbing Ability and Slope Inclination on Vertical Foot Loading Using a Novel Force Sensor Instrumentation System

    Baláš Jiří


    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the effects of climbing ability and slope inclination on vertical loading both in terms the forces involved and physiological responses. Five novice and six intermediate female climbers completed a climbing route at three slope inclinations (85°, 90°, and 98°. The vertical loading during the climb was assessed by force-time integral using a Novel Pedar-X insole and physiological responses via oxygen uptake and heart rate. The novice climbers had a significantly lower (p < 0.05 vertical loading on foot holds and higher oxygen uptake and heart rate compared to intermediate climbers. A significant negative correlation was identified between the force-time integral and oxygen uptake (R = -0.72, and with heart rate (R = -0.64, respectively. The time-force integral decreased across the ascents with increasing slope inclination (p < 0.001. The results indicate that more advanced ability climbers make greater use of foot holds, with associated lowering in physiological response (oxygen uptake and heart rate across all slope inclinations.

  10. Effects of chlorpyrifos ethyl on acetylcholinesterase activity in climbing perch cultured in rice fields in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.

    Nguyen, Tam Thanh; Berg, Håkan; Nguyen, Hang Thi Thuy; Nguyen, Cong Van


    Climbing perch is commonly harvested in rice fields and associated wetlands in the Mekong Delta. Despite its importance in providing food and income to local households, there is little information how this fish species is affected by the high use of pesticides in rice farming. Organophosphate insecticides, such as chlorpyrifos ethyl, which are highly toxic to aquatic organisms, are commonly used in the Mekong Delta. This study shows that the brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in climbing perch fingerlings cultured in rice fields, was significantly inhibited by a single application of chlorpyrifos ethyl, at doses commonly applied by rice farmers (0.32-0.64 kg/ha). The water concentration of chlorpyrifos ethyl decreased below the detection level within 3 days, but the inhibition of brain AChE activity remained for more than 12 days. In addition, the chlorpyrifos ethyl treatments had a significant impact on the survival and growth rates of climbing perch fingerlings, which were proportional to the exposure levels. The results indicate that the high use of pesticides among rice farmers in the Mekong Delta could have a negative impact on aquatic organisms and fish yields, with implications for the aquatic biodiversity, local people's livelihoods and the aquaculture industry in the Mekong Delta. PMID:25828891

  11. Magnesium and Space Flight

    Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.


    Magnesium is an essential nutrient for muscle, cardiovascular, and bone health on Earth, and during space flight. We sought to evaluate magnesium status in astronauts before, during, and after space missions, in 43 astronauts (34 male, 9 female) on 4-6 month space flight missions. We also studied individuals participating in a ground analog of space flight, (head-down tilt bed rest, n=27, 35 +/- 7 y). We evaluated serum concentration and 24-hour urinary excretion of magnesium along with estimates of tissue magnesium status from sublingual cells. Serum magnesium increased late in flight, while urinary magnesium excretion was higher over the course of 180-d space missions. Urinary magnesium increased during flight but decreased significantly at landing. Neither serum nor urinary magnesium changed during bed rest. For flight and bed rest, significant correlations existed between the area under the curve of serum and urinary magnesium and the change in total body bone mineral content. Tissue magnesium concentration was unchanged after flight and bed rest. Increased excretion of magnesium is likely partially from bone and partially from diet, but importantly, it does not come at the expense of muscle tissue stores. While further study is needed to better understand the implications of these findings for longer space exploration missions, magnesium homeostasis and tissue status seem well maintained during 4- to 6-month space missions.

  12. An on-board near-optimal climb-dash energy management

    Weston, A. R.; Cliff, E. M.; Kelley, H. J.


    On-board real time flight control is studied in order to develop algorithms which are simple enough to be used in practice, for a variety of missions involving three dimensional flight. The intercept mission in symmetric flight is emphasized. Extensive computation is required on the ground prior to the mission but the ensuing on-board exploitation is extremely simple. The scheme takes advantage of the boundary layer structure common in singular perturbations, arising with the multiple time scales appropriate to aircraft dynamics. Energy modelling of aircraft is used as the starting point for the analysis. In the symmetric case, a nominal path is generated which fairs into the dash or cruise state. Feedback coefficients are found as functions of the remaining energy to go (dash energy less current energy) along the nominal path.

  13. On-board near-optimal climb-dash energy management

    Weston, A. R.; Cliff, E. M.; Kelley, H. J.


    On-board real time flight control is studied in order to develop algorithms which are simple enough to be used in practice, for a variety of missions involving three dimensional flight. The intercept mission in symmetric flight is emphasized. Extensive computation is required on the ground prior to the mission but the ensuing on-board exploitation is extremely simple. The scheme takes advantage of the boundary layer structure common in singular perturbations, arising with the multiple time scales appropriate to aircraft dynamics. Energy modelling of aircraft is used as the starting point for the analysis. In the symmetric case, a nominal path is generated which fairs into the dash or cruise state.

  14. Insect flight muscle metabolism

    Horst, D.J. van der; Beenakkers, A.M.Th.; Marrewijk, W.J.A. van


    The flight of an insect is of a very complicated and extremely energy-demanding nature. Wingbeat frequency may differ between various species but values up to 1000 Hz have been measured. Consequently metabolic activity may be very high during flight and the transition from rest to flight is accompanied by an increase of 50-100-fold in metabolic rate. Small mammals running at maximal speed and flying birds achieve metabolic rates exceeding resting levels by only 7-14-fold. The exaggerated meta...

  15. Flight Systems Monitor Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I project will develop the Flight System Monitor which will use non-intrusive electrical monitoring (NEMO). The electronic system health of...


    Gopala Krishna, G.; Krishna Shankar, B.; Ahmad, A.


    Insect aerodynamics is drawing the attention of a number of researchers belonging to different disciplines with a view to understand its aerodynamic capabilities so as to revolutionise the aircraft technology. It is possible to understand, to some extent, the insect aerodynamics by experimentally determining the frequency of wing beat in its fethered state of flight by using flight sound technique and computing rate of mass flow, velocity, acceleration and mass of air induced in downward dire...

  17. Electronic flight instrument system

    Hauptman, Luka


    This thesis describes basic concepts in research and development of a simple electronic flight instrument system, which displays piston engine data to the pilot. The main purpose is to build a functional prototype and acquire knowledge, which will enable us to further develop the system. The second chapter presents fundamentals of electronic flight instrument systems used in large commercial aircrafts. A detailed description of basic approaches to system implementation used by two of the b...

  18. Adaptive structures flight experiments

    Martin, Maurice

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: adaptive structures flight experiments; enhanced resolution using active vibration suppression; Advanced Controls Technology Experiment (ACTEX); ACTEX program status; ACTEX-2; ACTEX-2 program status; modular control patch; STRV-1b Cryocooler Vibration Suppression Experiment; STRV-1b program status; Precision Optical Bench Experiment (PROBE); Clementine Spacecraft Configuration; TECHSAT all-composite spacecraft; Inexpensive Structures and Materials Flight Experiment (INFLEX); and INFLEX program status.

  19. Flight Crew Scheduling

    Graves, Glenn W.; Richard D. McBride; Ira Gershkoff; Diane Anderson; Deepa Mahidhara


    A new crew scheduling optimization system has been developed for United Airlines. The system was developed to permit quick response to schedule changes and to reduce crew scheduling costs. It was designed to work efficiently for both the medium sized problems (300 flights daily) and the very large problems (1,700 flights daily) that United must solve. The system has two main components, a generator and an optimizer. The generator creates pairings (candidate crew trips) which are fed as variab...

  20. Interprofessional Flight Camp.

    Alfes, Celeste M; Rowe, Amanda S


    The Dorothy Ebersbach Academic Center for Flight Nursing in Cleveland, OH, holds an annual flight camp designed for master's degree nursing students in the acute care nurse practitioner program, subspecializing in flight nursing at the Frances Payne Bolton School of Nursing at Case Western Reserve University. The weeklong interprofessional training is also open to any health care provider working in an acute care setting and focuses on critical care updates, trauma, and emergency care within the critical care transport environment. This year, 29 graduate nursing students enrolled in a master's degree program from Puerto Rico attended. Although the emergency department in Puerto Rico sees and cares for trauma patients, there is no formal trauma training program. Furthermore, the country only has 1 rotor wing air medical transport service located at the Puerto Rico Medical Center in San Juan. Flight faculty and graduate teaching assistants spent approximately 9 months planning for their participation in our 13th annual flight camp. Students from Puerto Rico were extremely pleased with the learning experiences at camp and expressed particular interest in having more training time within the helicopter flight simulator. PMID:27021671

  1. Magnesium and Space Flight

    Scott M. Smith


    Full Text Available Magnesium is an essential nutrient for muscle, cardiovascular, and bone health on Earth, and during space flight. We sought to evaluate magnesium status in 43 astronauts (34 male, 9 female; 47 ± 5 years old, mean ± SD before, during, and after 4–6-month space missions. We also studied individuals participating in a ground analog of space flight (head-down-tilt bed rest; n = 27 (17 male, 10 female, 35 ± 7 years old. We evaluated serum concentration and 24-h urinary excretion of magnesium, along with estimates of tissue magnesium status from sublingual cells. Serum magnesium increased late in flight, while urinary magnesium excretion was higher over the course of 180-day space missions. Urinary magnesium increased during flight but decreased significantly at landing. Neither serum nor urinary magnesium changed during bed rest. For flight and bed rest, significant correlations existed between the area under the curve of serum and urinary magnesium and the change in total body bone mineral content. Tissue magnesium concentration was unchanged after flight and bed rest. Increased excretion of magnesium is likely partially from bone and partially from diet, but importantly, it does not come at the expense of muscle tissue stores. While further study is needed to better understand the implications of these findings for longer space exploration missions, magnesium homeostasis and tissue status seem well maintained during 4–6-month space missions.

  2. What does "arboreal locomotion" mean exactly and what are the relationships between "climbing", environment and morphology?

    Preuschoft, Holger


    The characteristics of "climbing" in the sense of locomotion or posture on three-dimensional substrates are discussed from a biomechanical viewpoint. For this purpose, the mechanical conditions of the most widely spread modes of locomotion or gaits used in arboreal surroundings are reviewed. This allows precise identification of morphological characteristics of traits that are advantageous, and therefore have a positive selective value. Further, at least some of the environmental and substrate characteristics that need to be present for using a specific gait, are noted. It turns out that the extremity which is placed lower on the substrate, has to carry a higher load. If this extremity is consistently the hindlimb--which actually is the case in primates, because of understandable, though complex reasons--a division of labor is likely to occur between the limbs: the hindlimb becoming stronger and the forelimb weaker, but more versatile. A very specific, and advantageous feature of the primates is their possession of prehensile hands and feet. That means the autopodia are able (1) to produce by themselves, without the aid of body weight, very high frictional resistance, and (2) to transmit tensile forces as well as torsional moments on the substrate. The above-mentioned division of labor between fore- and hindlimbs implies that the former make the first contacts with and explore the properties of parts of the environment. As a next step, prehensile hands on long arms may easily replace length and mobility of the neck in getting hold of food items. So very characteristic traits of human body shape can be derived to a large extent from the necessities of arboreal locomotion: Prehensile hands, long arms, concentration of body weight on the hindlimbs, shortness of the trunk in comparison to limb length. PMID:12050891

  3. Magnetic flux leakage-based steel cable NDE and damage visualization on a cable climbing robot

    Kim, Ju-Won; Lee, Changgil; Park, Seunghee; Lee, Jong Jae


    The steel cables in long span bridges such as cable-stayed bridges and suspension bridges are critical members which suspend the load of main girders and bridge floor slabs. Damage of cable members can occur in the form of crosssectional loss caused by fatigue, wear, and fracture, which can lead to structural failure due to concentrated stress in the cable. Therefore, nondestructive examination of steel cables is necessary so that the cross-sectional loss can be detected. Thus, an automated cable monitoring system using a suitable NDE technique and a cable climbing robot is proposed. In this study, an MFL (Magnetic Flux Leakage- based inspection system was applied to monitor the condition of cables. This inspection system measures magnetic flux to detect the local faults (LF) of steel cable. To verify the feasibility of the proposed damage detection technique, an 8-channel MFL sensor head prototype was designed and fabricated. A steel cable bunch specimen with several types of damage was fabricated and scanned by the MFL sensor head to measure the magnetic flux density of the specimen. To interpret the condition of the steel cable, magnetic flux signals were used to determine the locations of the flaws and the level of damage. Measured signals from the damaged specimen were compared with thresholds set for objective decision making. In addition, the measured magnetic flux signal was visualized into a 3D MFL map for convenient cable monitoring. Finally, the results were compared with information on actual inflicted damages to confirm the accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed cable monitoring method.

  4. Non Conventional Seismic Events Along the Himalayan Arc Detected in the Hi-Climb Dataset

    Vergne, J.; Nàbĕlek, J. L.; Rivera, L.; Bollinger, L.; Burtin, A.


    From September 2002 to August 2005, more than 200 broadband seismic stations were operated across the Himalayan arc and the southern Tibetan plateau in the framework of the Hi-Climb project. Here, we take advantage of the high density of stations along the main profile to look for coherent seismic wave arrivals that can not be attributed to ordinary tectonic events. An automatic detection algorithm is applied to the continuous data streams filtered between 1 and 10 Hz, followed by a visual inspection of all detections. We discovered about one hundred coherent signals that cannot be attributed to local, regional or teleseismic earthquakes and which are characterized by emergent arrivals and long durations ranging from one minute to several hours. Most of these non conventional seismic events have a low signal to noise ratio and are thus only observed above 1 Hz in the frequency band where the seismic noise is the lowest. However, a small subset of them are strong enough to be observed in a larger frequency band and show an enhancement of long periods compared to standard earthquakes. Based on the analysis of the relative amplitude measured at each station or, when possible, on the correlation of the low frequency part of the signals, most of these events appear to be located along the High Himalayan range. But, because of their emergent character and the main orientation of the seismic profile, their longitude and depth remain poorly constrained. The origin of these non conventional seismic events is still unsealed but their seismic signature shares several characteristics with non volcanic tremors, glacial earthquakes and/or debris avalanches. All these phenomena may occur along the Himalayan range but were not seismically detected before. Here we discuss the pros and cons for each of these postulated candidates based on the analysis of the recorded waveforms and slip models.

  5. Flight guidance research for recovery from microburst wind shear

    Hinton, David A.


    Research is in progress to develop flight strategy concepts for avoidance and recovery from microburst wind shears. The objectives of this study are to evaluate the performance of various strategies for recovery from wind shear encountered during the approach-to-landing, examine the associated piloting factors, and evaluate the payoff of forward-look sensing. Both batch and piloted simulations are utilized. The industry-recommended manual recovery technique is used as a baseline strategy. Two advanced strategies were selected for the piloted tests. The first strategy emulates the recovery characteristics shown by prior optimal trajectory analysis, by initially tracking the glideslope, then commanding a shallow climb. The second strategy generates a flight path angle schedule that is a function of airplane energy state and the instantaneous shear strength. All three strategies are tested with reactive sensing only and with forward-look sensing. Piloted simulation tests are in progress. Tentative results indicate that, using only reactive alerts, there appears to be little difference in performance between the various strategies. With forward-look alerts, the advanced guidance strategies appear to have advantages over the baseline strategy. Relatively short forward-look alert times, on the order of 10 or 15 seconds, produce a far greater recovery benefit than optimizing a recovery from a reactive alert.

  6. Flight test investigation of certification issues pertaining to general-aviation-type aircraft with natural laminar flow

    Doty, Wayne A.


    Development of Natural Laminar Flow (NLF) technology for application to general aviation-type aircraft has raised some question as to the adequacy of FAR Part 23 for certification of aircraft with significant NLF. A series of flight tests were conducted with a modified Cessna T210R to allow quantitative comparison of the aircraft's ability to meet certification requirements with significant NLF and with boundary layer transition fixed near the leading edge. There were no significant differences between the two conditions except an increasing in drag, which resulted in longer takeoff distances and reduced climb performance.

  7. X-2 in flight


    This inflight photograph of the X-2 (46-674) shows the twin set of shock-diamonds, characteristic of supersonic conditions in the exhaust plume from the two-chamber rocket engine. The Curtiss-Wright XLR-25 rocket engine caused one of several problems that delayed flight of the X-2. At one point, people in the project suggested its replacement. It was the first 'man-rated' (in the terminology of the day) rocket engine that was throttleable, and the technology was not yet mature. Other problems included the X-2's landing gear and the replacement of the planned electronic flight controls with a conventional hydromechanical system like that used in the F-86. The X-2 was a swept-wing, rocket-powered aircraft designed to fly faster than Mach 3 (three times the speed of sound). It was built for the U.S. Air Force by the Bell Aircraft Company, Buffalo, New York. The X-2 was flown to investigate the problems of aerodynamic heating as well as stability and control effectiveness at high altitudes and high speeds (in excess of Mach 3). Bell aircraft built two X-2 aircraft. These were constructed of K-monel (a copper and nickel alloy) for the fuselage and stainless steel for the swept wings and control surfaces. The aircraft had ejectable nose capsules instead of ejection seats because the development of ejection seats had not reached maturity at the time the X-2 was conceived. The X-2 ejection canopy was successfully tested using a German V-2 rocket. The X-2 used a skid-type landing gear to make room for more fuel. The airplane was air launched from a modified Boeing B-50 Superfortress Bomber. X-2 Number 1 made its first unpowered glide flight on Aug. 5, 1954, and made a total of 17 (4 glide and 13 powered) flights before it was lost Sept. 27, 1956. The pilot on Flight 17, Capt. Milburn Apt, had flown the aircraft to a record speed of Mach 3.2 (2,094 mph), thus becoming the first person to exceed Mach 3. During that last flight, inertial coupling occurred and the pilot was

  8. DAST in Flight


    The modified BQM-34 Firebee II drone with Aeroelastic Research Wing (ARW-1), a supercritical airfoil, during a 1980 research flight. The remotely-piloted vehicle, which was air launched from NASA's NB-52B mothership, participated in the Drones for Aerodynamic and Structural Testing (DAST) program which ran from 1977 to 1983. The DAST 1 aircraft (Serial #72-1557), pictured, crashed on 12 June 1980 after its right wing ripped off during a test flight near Cuddeback Dry Lake, California. The crash occurred on the modified drone's third free flight. These are the image contact sheets for each image resolution of the NASA Dryden Drones for Aerodynamic and Structural Testing (DAST) Photo Gallery. From 1977 to 1983, the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, (under two different names) conducted the DAST Program as a high-risk flight experiment using a ground-controlled, pilotless aircraft. Described by NASA engineers as a 'wind tunnel in the sky,' the DAST was a specially modified Teledyne-Ryan BQM-34E/F Firebee II supersonic target drone that was flown to validate theoretical predictions under actual flight conditions in a joint project with the Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. The DAST Program merged advances in electronic remote control systems with advances in airplane design. Drones (remotely controlled, missile-like vehicles initially developed to serve as gunnery targets) had been deployed successfully during the Vietnamese conflict as reconnaissance aircraft. After the war, the energy crisis of the 1970s led NASA to seek new ways to cut fuel use and improve airplane efficiency. The DAST Program's drones provided an economical, fuel-conscious method for conducting in-flight experiments from a remote ground site. DAST explored the technology required to build wing structures with less than normal stiffness. This was done because stiffness requires structural weight but ensures freedom from flutter-an uncontrolled, divergent oscillation of

  9. 14 CFR 121.493 - Flight time limitations: Flight engineers and flight navigators.


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Flight engineers and flight navigators. 121.493 Section 121.493 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight...

  10. Flight Planning in the Cloud

    Flores, Sarah L.; Chapman, Bruce D.; Tung, Waye W.; Zheng, Yang


    This new interface will enable Principal Investigators (PIs), as well as UAVSAR (Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar) members to do their own flight planning and time estimation without having to request flight lines through the science coordinator. It uses an all-in-one Google Maps interface, a JPL hosted database, and PI flight requirements to design an airborne flight plan. The application will enable users to see their own flight plan being constructed interactively through a map interface, and then the flight planning software will generate all the files necessary for the flight. Afterward, the UAVSAR team can then complete the flight request, including calendaring and supplying requisite flight request files in the expected format for processing by NASA s airborne science program. Some of the main features of the interface include drawing flight lines on the map, nudging them, adding them to the current flight plan, and reordering them. The user can also search and select takeoff, landing, and intermediate airports. As the flight plan is constructed, all of its components are constantly being saved to the database, and the estimated flight times are updated. Another feature is the ability to import flight lines from previously saved flight plans. One of the main motivations was to make this Web application as simple and intuitive as possible, while also being dynamic and robust. This Web application can easily be extended to support other airborne instruments.

  11. Lessons from dragonfly flight

    Wang, Z. Jane


    I will describe two lessons we learned from analyzing dragonfly flight using computers and table-top experiments. Part I: The role of drag in insect flight. Airplanes and helicopters are airborne via aerodynamic lift, not drag. However, it is not a priori clear that insects use only lift to fly. We find that dragonfly uses mainly drag to hover, which explains an anomalous factor of four in previous estimates of dragonfly lift coefficients, where drag was assumed to be negligible. Moreover, we show that the use of drag for flight is efficient at insect size. This suggests a re-consideration of the hovering efficiency of flapping flight, which is no longer described by the lift to drag ratio. Part II. Fore-hind wing interaction in dragonfly flight. A distinctive feature of dragonflies is their use of two pairs of wings which are driven by separate direct muscles. Dragonflies can actively modulate the phase delay between fore-hind wings during different maneuver. We compute the Navier-Stokes equation around two wings following the motion measured from our tethered dragonfly experiments, and find an explanation of the advantage of counter-stroking during hovering.

  12. Aerodynamics of bird flight

    Dvořák Rudolf


    Full Text Available Unlike airplanes birds must have either flapping or oscillating wings (the hummingbird. Only such wings can produce both lift and thrust – two sine qua non attributes of flying.The bird wings have several possibilities how to obtain the same functions as airplane wings. All are realized by the system of flight feathers. Birds have also the capabilities of adjusting the shape of the wing according to what the immediate flight situation demands, as well as of responding almost immediately to conditions the flow environment dictates, such as wind gusts, object avoidance, target tracking, etc. In bird aerodynamics also the tail plays an important role. To fly, wings impart downward momentum to the surrounding air and obtain lift by reaction. How this is achieved under various flight situations (cruise flight, hovering, landing, etc., and what the role is of the wing-generated vortices in producing lift and thrust is discussed.The issue of studying bird flight experimentally from in vivo or in vitro experiments is also briefly discussed.

  13. Aerodynamics of bird flight

    Dvořák, Rudolf


    Unlike airplanes birds must have either flapping or oscillating wings (the hummingbird). Only such wings can produce both lift and thrust - two sine qua non attributes of flying.The bird wings have several possibilities how to obtain the same functions as airplane wings. All are realized by the system of flight feathers. Birds have also the capabilities of adjusting the shape of the wing according to what the immediate flight situation demands, as well as of responding almost immediately to conditions the flow environment dictates, such as wind gusts, object avoidance, target tracking, etc. In bird aerodynamics also the tail plays an important role. To fly, wings impart downward momentum to the surrounding air and obtain lift by reaction. How this is achieved under various flight situations (cruise flight, hovering, landing, etc.), and what the role is of the wing-generated vortices in producing lift and thrust is discussed.The issue of studying bird flight experimentally from in vivo or in vitro experiments is also briefly discussed.

  14. Flight calls and orientation

    Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Andersen, Bent Bach; Kropp, Wibke;


      In a pilot experiment a European Robin, Erithacus rubecula, expressing migratory restlessness with a stable orientation, was video filmed in the dark with an infrared camera and its directional migratory activity was recorded. The flight overhead of migrating conspecifics uttering nocturnal...... flight calls was simulated by sequential computer controlled activation of five loudspeakers placed in a linear array perpendicular to the bird's migration course. The bird responded to this stimulation by changing its migratory course in the direction of that of the ‘flying conspecifics' but after about...... 30 minutes it drifted back to its original migration course. The results suggest that songbirds migrating alone at night can use the flight calls from conspecifics as additional cues for orientation and that they may compare this information with other cues to decide what course to keep....

  15. A multi-component stair climbing promotional campaign targeting calorific expenditure for worksites; a quasi-experimental study testing effects on behaviour, attitude and intention

    Eves Frank F


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accumulation of lifestyle physical activity is a current aim of health promotion, with increased stair climbing one public health target. While the workplace provides an opportunity for regular stair climbing, evidence for effectiveness of point-of-choice interventions is equivocal. This paper reports a new approach to worksite interventions, aimed at changing attitudes and, hence, behaviour. Methods Pre-testing of calorific expenditure messages used structured interviews with members of the public (n = 300. Effects of multi-component campaigns on stair climbing were tested with quasi-experimental, interrupted time-series designs. In one worksite, a main campaign poster outlining the amount of calorific expenditure obtainable from stair climbing and a conventional point-of-choice prompt were used (Poster alone site. In a second worksite, additional messages in the stairwell about calorific expenditure reinforced the main campaign (Poster + Stairwell messages site. The outcome variables were automated observations of stair and lift ascent (28,854 and descent (29,352 at baseline and for three weeks after the intervention was installed. Post-intervention questionnaires for employees at the worksites assessed responses to the campaign (n = 253. Analyses employed Analysis of Variance with follow-up Bonferroni t-tests (message pre-testing, logistic regression of stair ascent and descent (campaign testing, and Bonferroni t-tests and multiple regression (follow-up questionnaire. Results Pre-testing of messages based on calorific expenditure suggested they could motivate stair climbing if believed. The new campaign increased stair climbing, with greater effects at the Poster + Stairwell messages site (OR = 1.52, 95% CI = 1.40-1.66 than Posters alone (OR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.15-1.34. Follow-up revealed higher agreement with two statements about calorific outcomes of stair climbing in the site where they

  16. Principles of expert fuzzy controller design: AI mobile wall climbing robots for decontamination of nuclear power-station

    The arrangement principles for a complex control framework of artificial intelligence control systems are introduced. The notions of intelligence levels with the top boundary (intelligence in large) and the bottom boundary (intelligence in small) are defined. A special methodology for the design of an artificial intelligence control system design for the decontamination of a nuclear power plant using a wall climbing robot with different intelligence levels is presented. The application of WARP (Weight Associative Rule Processor) to the design of an automatic fuzzy controller for the fuzzy correction of the motion of the manipulator and WCR is examined

  17. Cy-mag3D: a simple and miniature climbing robot with advance mobility in ferromagnetic environment

    Fujimoto, Hideo; Tokhi, Mohammad O.; Mochiyama, Hiromi; Virk, Gurvinder S.; Rochat, Frédéric; Schoeneich, Patrick; Lüthi, Barthélémy; Mondada, Francesco; Bleuler, Hannes


    Cy-mag3D is a miniature climbing robot with advanced mobility and magnetic adhesion. It is very compact: a cylindrical shape with 28 mm of diameter and 62 mm of width. Its design is very simple: two wheels, hence two degrees of freedom, and an advanced magnetic circuit. Despite its simplicity, Cy-mag3D has an amazing mobility on ferromagnetic sheets. From an horizontal sheet, it can make transition to almost any intersecting sheet from 10° to 360° - we baptise the last one surface ip. It pas...

  18. Pegasus hypersonic flight research

    Curry, Robert E.; Meyer, Robert R., Jr.; Budd, Gerald D.


    Hypersonic aeronautics research using the Pegasus air-launched space booster is described. Two areas are discussed in the paper: previously obtained results from Pegasus flights 1 and 2, and plans for future programs. Proposed future research includes boundary-layer transition studies on the airplane-like first stage and also use of the complete Pegasus launch system to boost a research vehicle to hypersonic speeds. Pegasus flight 1 and 2 measurements were used to evaluate the results of several analytical aerodynamic design tools applied during the development of the vehicle as well as to develop hypersonic flight-test techniques. These data indicated that the aerodynamic design approach for Pegasus was adequate and showed that acceptable margins were available. Additionally, the correlations provide insight into the capabilities of these analytical tools for more complex vehicles in which design margins may be more stringent. Near-term plans to conduct hypersonic boundary-layer transition studies are discussed. These plans involve the use of a smooth metallic glove at about the mid-span of the wing. Longer-term opportunities are proposed which identify advantages of the Pegasus launch system to boost large-scale research vehicles to the real-gas hypersonic flight regime.

  19. Overbooking Airline Flights.

    Austin, Joe Dan


    The problems involved in making reservations for airline flights is discussed in creating a mathematical model designed to maximize an airline's income. One issue not considered in the model is any public relations problem the airline may have. The model does take into account the issue of denied boarding compensation. (MP)

  20. X-1A in flight over lakebed


    The Bell Aircraft Corporation X-1A (48-1384) returning from an Air Force test flight over Edwards Air Force Base, California in late 1953. A North American F-86A Sabre as chase plane will follow the X-1A to touchdown. The Rogers Dry Lake is the whitish area under the planes with the airfield at the edge of the dry lake. Bell test pilot Jean 'Skip' Ziegler made six flights between 14 February and 25 April 1953. Air Force test pilots Maj. Charles 'Chuck' Yeager and Maj. Arthur 'Kit' Murray made 18 test flights between 21 November 1953 and 26 August 1954. NACA test pilot Joseph Walker made one successful flight on 20 July 1955. During a second flight attempt, on 8 August 1955, an explosion damaged the aircraft shortly before launch. Walker, unhurt, climbed up into the JTB-29A mothership, and the X-1A was jettisoned over the Edwards AFB bombing range. There were five versions of the Bell X-1 rocket-powered research aircraft that flew at the NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station, Edwards, California. The bullet-shaped X-1 aircraft were built by Bell Aircraft Corporation, Buffalo, N.Y. for the U.S. Army Air Forces (after 1947, U.S. Air Force) and the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The X-1 Program was originally designated the XS-1 for EXperimental Sonic. The X-1's mission was to investigate the transonic speed range (speeds from just below to just above the speed of sound) and, if possible, to break the 'sound barrier.' Three different X-1s were built and designated: X-1-1, X-1-2 (later modified to become the X-1E), and X-1-3. The basic X-1 aircraft were flown by a large number of different pilots from 1946 to 1951. The X-1 Program not only proved that humans could go beyond the speed of sound, it reinforced the understanding that technological barriers could be overcome. The X-1s pioneered many structural and aerodynamic advances including extremely thin, yet extremely strong wing sections; supersonic fuselage configurations; control system

  1. Short-term exposure to predation affects body elemental composition, climbing speed and survival ability in Drosophila melanogaster

    Eichler Inwood, Sarah; Trakimas, Giedrius; Krams, Ronalds; Burghardt, Gordon M.; Butler, David M.; Luoto, Severi; Krama, Tatjana


    Factors such as temperature, habitat, larval density, food availability and food quality substantially affect organismal development. In addition, risk of predation has a complex impact on the behavioural and morphological life history responses of prey. Responses to predation risk seem to be mediated by physiological stress, which is an adaptation for maintaining homeostasis and improving survivorship during life-threatening situations. We tested whether predator exposure during the larval phase of development has any influence on body elemental composition, energy reserves, body size, climbing speed and survival ability of adult Drosophila melanogaster. Fruit fly larvae were exposed to predation by jumping spiders (Phidippus apacheanus), and the percentage of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) content, extracted lipids, escape response and survival were measured from predator-exposed and control adult flies. The results revealed predation as an important determinant of adult phenotype formation and survival ability. D. melanogaster reared together with spiders had a higher concentration of body N (but equal body C), a lower body mass and lipid reserves, a higher climbing speed and improved adult survival ability. The results suggest that the potential of predators to affect the development and the adult phenotype of D. melanogaster is high enough to use predators as a more natural stimulus in laboratory experiments when testing, for example, fruit fly memory and learning ability, or when comparing natural populations living under different predation pressures. PMID:27602281

  2. Reduction of GABA/sub B/ receptor binding induced by climbing fiber degeneration in the rat cerebellum

    When the rat cerebellar climbing fibers degenerated, as induced by lesioning the inferior olive with 3-acetylpyridine (3-AP), GABA/sub B/ receptor binding determined with 3H-(+/-)baclofen was reduced in the cerebellum but not in the cerebral cortex of rats. Computer analysis of saturation data revealed two components of the binding sites, and indicated that decrease of the binding in the cerebellum was due to reduction in receptor density, mainly of the high-affinity sites, the B/sub max/ of which was reduced to one-third that in the control animals. In vitro treatment with 3-AP, of the membranes prepared from either the cerebellum or the cerebral cortex, induced no alteration in the binding sites, thereby indicating that the alteration of GABA/sub B/ sites induced by in vivo treatment with 3-AP is not due to a direct action of 3-AP on the receptor. GABA/sub A/ and benzodiazepine receptor binding labelled with 3H-muscimol and 3H-diazepam, respectively, in both of brain regions was not affected by destruction of the inferior olive. These results provide evidence that some of the GABA/sub B/ sites but neither GABA/sub A/ nor benzodiazepine receptors in the cerebellum are located at the climbing fiber terminals. 28 references, 4 figures, 2 tables

  3. Reduction of GABA/sub B/ receptor binding induced by climbing fiber degeneration in the rat cerebellum

    Kato, K.; Fukuda, H.


    When the rat cerebellar climbing fibers degenerated, as induced by lesioning the inferior olive with 3-acetylpyridine (3-AP), GABA/sub B/ receptor binding determined with /sup 3/H-(+/-)baclofen was reduced in the cerebellum but not in the cerebral cortex of rats. Computer analysis of saturation data revealed two components of the binding sites, and indicated that decrease of the binding in the cerebellum was due to reduction in receptor density, mainly of the high-affinity sites, the B/sub max/ of which was reduced to one-third that in the control animals. In vitro treatment with 3-AP, of the membranes prepared from either the cerebellum or the cerebral cortex, induced no alteration in the binding sites, thereby indicating that the alteration of GABA/sub B/ sites induced by in vivo treatment with 3-AP is not due to a direct action of 3-AP on the receptor. GABA/sub A/ and benzodiazepine receptor binding labelled with /sup 3/H-muscimol and /sup 3/H-diazepam, respectively, in both of brain regions was not affected by destruction of the inferior olive. These results provide evidence that some of the GABA/sub B/ sites but neither GABA/sub A/ nor benzodiazepine receptors in the cerebellum are located at the climbing fiber terminals. 28 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

  4. Effective Pneumatic Scheme and Control Strategy of a Climbing Robot for Class Wall Cleaning on High-rise Buildings

    Guanghua Zong


    Full Text Available A new kind of pneumatic climbing robot is presented to meet the requirements of glass-wall cleaning for high-rise buildings, which is totally actuated by pneumatic cylinders and attached to the glass wall with vacuum suckers. Using the pneumatic actuators the climbing robot can be made lightweight and dexterous. At the same time the movement driven by pneumatic actuators has the characteristic of passive compliance. In order to solve the problems of high speed movement for the Y cylinder and precise position control of the X cylinder, the applied pneumatic schemes of X and Y cylinders are employed to drive the high-speed on-off solenoid valves and an ordinary valve to adjust the air-flow and pressure to the cylinders. Furthermore a method of segment and variable bang-bang controller is proposed to implement the accurate control of the position servo system for the X cylinder during the sideways movement. Testing results show that the novel approach can effectively improve the control quality. This cleaning robot can meet the requirements of realization.

  5. Tolerance of Organ Transplant Recipients to Physical Activity during a High-Altitude Expedition: Climbing Mount Kilimanjaro.

    Edwin J van Adrichem

    Full Text Available It is generally unknown to what extent organ transplant recipients can be physically challenged. During an expedition to Mount Kilimanjaro, the tolerance for strenuous physical activity and high-altitude of organ transplant recipients after various types of transplantation was compared to non-transplanted controls.Twelve organ transplant recipients were selected to participate (2 heart-, 2 lung-, 2 kidney-, 4 liver-, 1 allogeneic stem cell- and 1 small bowel-transplantation. Controls comprised the members of the medical team and accompanying family members (n = 14. During the climb, cardiopulmonary parameters and symptoms of acute mountain sickness were recorded twice daily. Capillary blood analyses were performed three times during the climb and once following return.Eleven of the transplant participants and all controls began the final ascent from 4700 meters and reached over 5000 meters. Eight transplant participants (73% and thirteen controls (93% reached the summit (5895m. Cardiopulmonary parameters and altitude sickness scores demonstrated no differences between transplant participants and controls. Signs of hyperventilation were more pronounced in transplant participants and adaptation to high-altitude was less effective, which was related to a decreased renal function. This resulted in reduced metabolic compensation.Overall, tolerance to strenuous physical activity and feasibility of a high-altitude expedition in carefully selected organ transplant recipients is comparable to non-transplanted controls.

  6. Body Unloading Associated with Space Flight and Bed-rest Impacts Functional Performance

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Ballard, K. L.; Batson, C. D.; Buxton, R. E.; Feiveson, A. H.; Kofman, I. S.; Lee, S. M. C.; Miller, C. A.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; Phillips, T.; Platts, S. H.; Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.; Reschke, M. F.; Ryder, J. W.; Stenger, M. B.; Taylor, L. C.; Wood, S. J.


    The goal of the Functional Task Test study is to determine the effects of space flight on functional tests that are representative of high priority exploration mission tasks and to identify the key underlying physiological factors that contribute to decrements in performance. Ultimately this information will be used to assess performance risks and inform the design of countermeasures for exploration class missions. We are currently conducting studies on both ISS crewmembers and on subjects experiencing 70 days of 6 degrees head-down bed-rest as an analog for space flight. Bed-rest provides the opportunity for us to investigate the role of prolonged axial body unloading in isolation from the other physiological effects produced by exposure to the microgravity environment of space flight. This allows us to parse out the contribution of the body unloading component on functional performance. In this on-going study both ISS crewmembers and bed-rest subjects were tested using an interdisciplinary protocol that evaluated functional performance and related physiological changes before and after 6 months in space and 70 days of 6? head-down bed-rest, respectively. Functional tests included ladder climbing, hatch opening, jump down, manual manipulation of objects and tool use, seat egress and obstacle avoidance, recovery from a fall, and object translation tasks. Crewmembers were tested three times before flight, and on 1, 6 and 30 days after landing. Bed-rest subjects were tested three times before bed-rest and immediately after getting up from bed-rest as well as 1, 6 and 12 days after reambulation. A comparison of bed-rest and space flight data showed a significant concordance in performance changes across all functional tests. Tasks requiring a greater demand for dynamic control of postural equilibrium (i.e. fall recovery, seat egress/obstacle avoidance during walking, object translation, jump down) showed the greatest decrement in performance. Functional tests with

  7. Boeing flight deck design philosophy

    Stoll, Harty


    Information relative to Boeing flight deck design philosophy is given in viewgraph form. Flight deck design rules, design considerations, functions allocated to the crew, redundancy and automation concerns, and examples of accident data that were reviewed are listed.

  8. Flight Simulation for Tomorrow's Aviation

    Durak, Umut


    Flight simulators have been operated within the aeronautics community for human factor studies and flight systems development for the last half century. They are virtual test beds, to evaluate concepts, conduct pilot-in-the-loop experiments and collect valuable user experience data. The German Aerospace Center (DLR) Institute of Flight Systems is involved in developing and employing research flight simulators for more than 40 years. The first generation ground based simulator of DLR was built...

  9. Cardiovascular physiology in space flight

    Charles, John B.; Bungo, Michael W.


    The effects of space flight on the cardiovascular system have been studied since the first manned flights. In several instances, the results from these investigations have directly contradicted the predictions based on established models. Results suggest associations between space flight's effects on other organ systems and those on the cardiovascular system. Such findings provide new insights into normal human physiology. They must also be considered when planning for the safety and efficiency of space flight crewmembers.

  10. Bisphosphonate ISS Flight Experiment

    LeBlanc, Adrian; Matsumoto, Toshio; Jones, Jeffrey; Shapiro, Jay; Lang, Thomas; Shackleford, Linda; Smith, Scott M.; Evans, Harlan; Spector, Elizabeth; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Sibonga, Jean; Keyak, Joyce; Nakamura, Toshitaka; Kohri, Kenjiro; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Moralez, Gilbert


    The bisphosphonate study is a collaborative effort between the NASA and JAXA space agencies to investigate the potential for antiresorptive drugs to mitigate bone changes associated with long-duration spaceflight. Elevated bone resorption is a hallmark of human spaceflight and bed rest (common zero-G analog). We tested whether an antiresorptive drug in combination with in-flight exercise would ameliorate bone loss and hypercalcuria during longduration spaceflight. Measurements include DXA, QCT, pQCT, and urine and blood biomarkers. We have completed analysis of 7 crewmembers treated with alendronate during flight and the immediate postflight (R+<2 week) data collection in 5 of 10 controls without treatment. Both groups used the advanced resistive exercise device (ARED) during their missions. We previously reported the pre/postflight results of crew taking alendronate during flight (Osteoporosis Int. 24:2105-2114, 2013). The purpose of this report is to present the 12-month follow-up data in the treated astronauts and to compare these results with preliminary data from untreated crewmembers exercising with ARED (ARED control) or without ARED (Pre-ARED control). Results: the table presents DXA and QCT BMD expressed as percentage change from preflight in the control astronauts (18 Pre-ARED and the current 5 ARED-1-year data not yet available) and the 7 treated subjects. As shown previously the combination of exercise plus antiresorptive is effective in preventing bone loss during flight. Bone measures for treated subjects, 1 year after return from space remain at or near baseline values. Except in one region, the treated group maintained or gained bone 1 year after flight. Biomarker data are not currently available for either control group and therefore not presented. However, data from other studies with or without ARED show elevated bone resorption and urinary Ca excretion while bisphosphonate treated subjects show decreases during flight. Comparing the two control

  11. Dynamic flight stability of a bumblebee in forward flight

    Yan Xiong; Mao Sun


    The longitudinal dynamic flight stability of a bumblebee in forward flight is studied.The method of computational fluid dynamics is used to compute the aerodynamic derivatives and the techniques of eigenvalue and eigenvector analysis are employed for solving the equations of motion.The primary findings are as the following.The forward flight of the bumblebee is not dynamically stable due to the existence of one(or two)unstable or approximately neutrally stable natural modes of motion.At hovering to medium flight speed[flight speed ue=(0-3.5)m s-1;advance ratio J=0-0.44],the flight is weakly unstable or approximately neutrally stable;at high speed(ue=4.5 m s-1;J=0.57),the flight becomes strongly unstable(initial disturbance double its value in only 3.5 wingbeats).

  12. MARS Flight Engineering Status

    Fast, James E.; Dorow, Kevin E.; Morris, Scott J.; Thompson, Robert C.; Willett, Jesse A.


    The Multi-sensor Airborne Radiation Survey Flight Engineering project (MARS FE) has designed a high purity germanium (HPGe) crystal array for conducting a wide range of field measurements. In addition to the HPGe detector system, a platform-specific shock and vibration isolation system and environmental housing have been designed to support demonstration activities in a maritime environment on an Unmanned Surface Vehicle (USV). This report describes the status of the equipment as of the end of FY09.

  13. Ordos Takes Flight



    @@ China's vast hinterland has long conjured up images of rugged mountains and countrysides dotted by villages all but untouched by the hands of time. But after a recent one-hour flight west from Beijing,Anna Chennault,Chair of the Council for International Cooperation (CIC),a Washington,D.C.-based non-profit organization that helps promote development in China,found something altogether different-a city called Ordos.

  14. The Flight from Maturity

    Gary B. Gorton; Andrew Metrick; Lei Xie


    Why did the failure of Lehman Brothers make the financial crisis dramatically worse? The financial crisis was a process of a build-up of risk during the crisis prior to the Lehman failure. Market participants tried to preserve an option or exit by shortening maturities - the "flight from maturity". With increasingly short maturities, lenders created the possibility of fast exit. The failure of Lehman Brothers was the tipping point of this build-up of systemic fragility. We produce a chronolog...

  15. Flight Crew Health Maintenance

    Gullett, C. C.


    The health maintenance program for commercial flight crew personnel includes diet, weight control, and exercise to prevent heart disease development and disability grounding. The very high correlation between hypertension and overweight in cardiovascular diseases significantly influences the prognosis for a coronary prone individual and results in a high rejection rate of active military pilots applying for civilian jobs. In addition to physical fitness the major items stressed in pilot selection are: emotional maturity, glucose tolerance, and family health history.

  16. Flight Software Math Library

    McComas, David


    The flight software (FSW) math library is a collection of reusable math components that provides typical math utilities required by spacecraft flight software. These utilities are intended to increase flight software quality reusability and maintainability by providing a set of consistent, well-documented, and tested math utilities. This library only has dependencies on ANSI C, so it is easily ported. Prior to this library, each mission typically created its own math utilities using ideas/code from previous missions. Part of the reason for this is that math libraries can be written with different strategies in areas like error handling, parameters orders, naming conventions, etc. Changing the utilities for each mission introduces risks and costs. The obvious risks and costs are that the utilities must be coded and revalidated. The hidden risks and costs arise in miscommunication between engineers. These utilities must be understood by both the flight software engineers and other subsystem engineers (primarily guidance navigation and control). The FSW math library is part of a larger goal to produce a library of reusable Guidance Navigation and Control (GN&C) FSW components. A GN&C FSW library cannot be created unless a standardized math basis is created. This library solves the standardization problem by defining a common feature set and establishing policies for the library s design. This allows the libraries to be maintained with the same strategy used in its initial development, which supports a library of reusable GN&C FSW components. The FSW math library is written for an embedded software environment in C. This places restrictions on the language features that can be used by the library. Another advantage of the FSW math library is that it can be used in the FSW as well as other environments like the GN&C analyst s simulators. This helps communication between the teams because they can use the same utilities with the same feature set and syntax.

  17. The IBEX Flight Segment

    Scherrer, J.; Carrico, J.; Crock, J.; Cross, W.; Delossantos, A.; Dunn, A.; Dunn, G.; Epperly, M.; Fields, B.; Fowler, E.; Gaio, T.; Gerhardus, J.; Grossman, W.; Hanley, J.; Hautamaki, B.; Hawes, D.; Holemans, W.; Kinaman, S.; Kirn, S.; Loeffler, C.; McComas, D. J.; Osovets, A.; Perry, T.; Peterson, M.; Phillips, M.; Pope, S.; Rahal, G.; Tapley, M.; Tyler, R.; Ungar, B.; Walter, E.; Wesley, S.; Wiegand, T.


    IBEX provides the observations needed for detailed modeling and in-depth understanding of the interstellar interaction (McComas et al. in Physics of the Outer Heliosphere, Third Annual IGPP Conference, pp. 162-181, 2004; Space Sci. Rev., 2009a, this issue). From mission design to launch and acquisition, this goal drove all flight system development. This paper describes the management, design, testing and integration of IBEX’s flight system, which successfully launched from Kwajalein Atoll on October 19, 2008. The payload is supported by a simple, Sun-pointing, spin-stabilized spacecraft with no deployables. The spacecraft bus consists of the following subsystems: attitude control, command and data handling, electrical power, hydrazine propulsion, RF, thermal, and structures. A novel 3-step orbit approach was employed to put IBEX in its highly elliptical, 8-day final orbit using a Solid Rocket Motor, which provided large delta-V after IBEX separated from the Pegasus launch vehicle; an adapter cone, which interfaced between the SRM and Pegasus; Motorized Lightbands, which performed separation from the Pegasus, ejection of the adapter cone, and separation of the spent SRM from the spacecraft; a ShockRing isolation system to lower expected launch loads; and the onboard Hydrazine Propulsion System. After orbit raising, IBEX transitioned from commissioning to nominal operations and science acquisition. At every phase of development, the Systems Engineering and Mission Assurance teams supervised the design, testing and integration of all IBEX flight elements.

  18. Space flight visual simulation.

    Xu, L


    In this paper, based on the scenes of stars seen by astronauts in their orbital flights, we have studied the mathematical model which must be constructed for CGI system to realize the space flight visual simulation. Considering such factors as the revolution and rotation of the Earth, exact date, time and site of orbital injection of the spacecraft, as well as its orbital flight and attitude motion, etc., we first defined all the instantaneous lines of sight and visual fields of astronauts in space. Then, through a series of coordinate transforms, the pictures of the scenes of stars changing with time-space were photographed one by one mathematically. In the procedure, we have designed a method of three-times "mathematical cutting." Finally, we obtained each instantaneous picture of the scenes of stars observed by astronauts through the window of the cockpit. Also, the dynamic conditions shaded by the Earth in the varying pictures of scenes of stars could be displayed. PMID:11542842

  19. 一种新型爬壁机器人的研究%Research on a New Wall-climbing Robot

    张捷; 袁祖强; 吴航


    A new wall-climbing robot of permanent magnetic adsorption is presented. A triangular body structure was included in using with two triangular pedrail wheels and a universal wheel,which was suitable for cylindrical or spherical wall of pressure vessel. The solid model was established by using Pro/E software,than imported data into ADAMS software. Then its constraints were created, and the material properties and the contact,and adding driving force and etc. were defined to establish dynamics model. The two movement patterns were simulated as moving on a cylinder with a radius of 2 m and crossing over the welding line above 5 mm high at the speed of 6 m/min,and were compared with the traditional four-wheeled robot. Simulation results prove that the wall-climbing ro-bot can effectively adapt to the cylindrical wall,reliably absorb to wall surface,and dramatically reduce the shock and vibration while climbing over welding line.%提出一种新型永磁吸附式爬壁机器人,采用三角形车身结构,两个三角履带前轮和一个万向后轮,适用于压力容器的圆柱形或球形壁面。利用Pro/E软件建立实体模型,将数据导入ADAMS软件中,并对其建立约束、定义材料属性和接触、添加驱动等完成动力学模型建立。以6 m/min的速度进行半径2 m的圆柱面爬行仿真和爬越5 mm余高焊缝仿真,并与传统四轮式机器人对比。仿真结果表明,该爬壁机器人可有效适应圆柱形壁面,与壁面贴合可靠,同时爬越焊缝时可大大减小冲击和振动。

  20. Optimal power-to-mass ratios when predicting flat and hill-climbing time-trial cycling.

    Nevill, A M; Jobson, S A; Davison, R C R; Jeukendrup, A E


    The purpose of this article was to establish whether previously reported oxygen-to-mass ratios, used to predict flat and hill-climbing cycling performance, extend to similar power-to-mass ratios incorporating other, often quick and convenient measures of power output recorded in the laboratory [maximum aerobic power (W(MAP)), power output at ventilatory threshold (W(VT)) and average power output (W(AVG)) maintained during a 1 h performance test]. A proportional allometric model was used to predict the optimal power-to-mass ratios associated with cycling speeds during flat and hill-climbing cycling. The optimal models predicting flat time-trial cycling speeds were found to be (W(MAP)m(-0.48))(0.54), (W(VT)m(-0.48))(0.46) and (W(AVG)m(-0.34))(0.58) that explained 69.3, 59.1 and 96.3% of the variance in cycling speeds, respectively. Cross-validation results suggest that, in conjunction with body mass, W(MAP) can provide an accurate and independent prediction of time-trial cycling, explaining 94.6% of the variance in cycling speeds with the standard deviation about the regression line, s=0.686 km h(-1). Based on these models, there is evidence to support that previously reported VO2-to-mass ratios associated with flat cycling speed extend to other laboratory-recorded measures of power output (i.e. Wm(-0.32)). However, the power-function exponents (0.54, 0.46 and 0.58) would appear to conflict with the assumption that the cyclists' speeds should be proportional to the cube root (0.33) of power demand/expended, a finding that could be explained by other confounding variables such as bicycle geometry, tractional resistance and/or the presence of a tailwind. The models predicting 6 and 12% hill-climbing cycling speeds were found to be proportional to (W(MAP)m(-0.91))(0.66), revealing a mass exponent, 0.91, that also supports previous research. PMID:16685550

  1. Decrease in myostatin by ladder-climbing training is associated with insulin resistance in diet-induced obese rats

    Tang Liang; Luo Kai; Liu Chentao; Wang Xudan; Zhang Didi; Chi Aiping; Zhang Jing


    Background Suppression of myostatin (MSTN) has been associated with skeletal muscle atrophy and insulin resistance (IR).However,few studies link MSTN suppression by ladder-climbing training (LCT) and IR.Therefore,we intended to identify the correlation with IR between LCT and to analyze the signaling pathways through which MSTN suppression by LCT regulates IR.Methods The rats were randomly assigned to two types of diet:normal pellet diet (NPD,n=8) and high-fat diet (HFD,n=16).After 8 weeks,the HFD rats were randomly re-assigned to two groups (n=8 for each group):HFD sedentary (HFD-S) and high-fat diet ladder-climbing training (HFD-LCT).HFD-LCT rats were assigned to LCT for 8 weeks.Western blotting,immunohistochemistry and enzyme assays were used to measure expression levels and activities of MSTN,GLUT4,PI3K,Akt and Akt-activated targets (mTOR,FoxO1 and GSK-3β).Results The LCT significantly improved IR and whole-body insulin sensitivity in HDF-fed rats.MSTN protein levels decreased in matching serum (42%,P=0.007) and muscle samples (25%,P=0.035) and its receptor mRNA expression also decreased (16%,P=0.041) from obese rats after LCT.But the mRNA expression of insulin receptor had no obvious changes in LCT group compared with NPD and HFD-S groups (P=0.074).The ladder-climbing training significantly enhanced PI3K activity (1.7-fold,P=0.024) and Akt phosphorylation (83.3%,P=0.022) in HFD-fed rats,significantly increased GLUT4 protein expression (84.5%,P=-0.036),enhanced phosphorylation of mTOR (4.8-fold,P <0.001) and inhibited phosphorylation of FoxO1 (57.7%,P=0.020),but did not affect the phosphorylation of GSK-3β.Conclusions The LCT significantly reduced IR in diet-induced obese rats.MSTN may play an important role in regulating IR and fat accumulation by LCT via PI3K/Akt/mTOR and PI3K/Akt/FoxO1 signaling pathway in HFD-fed rats.

  2. Vertical and lateral flight optimization algorithm and missed approach cost calculation

    Murrieta Mendoza, Alejandro

    Flight trajectory optimization is being looked as a way of reducing flight costs, fuel burned and emissions generated by the fuel consumption. The objective of this work is to find the optimal trajectory between two points. To find the optimal trajectory, the parameters of weight, cost index, initial coordinates, and meteorological conditions along the route are provided to the algorithm. This algorithm finds the trajectory where the global cost is the most economical. The global cost is a compromise between fuel burned and flight time, this is determined using a cost index that assigns a cost in terms of fuel to the flight time. The optimization is achieved by calculating a candidate optimal cruise trajectory profile from all the combinations available in the aircraft performance database. With this cruise candidate profile, more cruises profiles are calculated taken into account the climb and descend costs. During cruise, step climbs are evaluated to optimize the trajectory. The different trajectories are compared and the most economical one is defined as the optimal vertical navigation profile. From the optimal vertical navigation profile, different lateral routes are tested. Taking advantage of the meteorological influence, the algorithm looks for the lateral navigation trajectory where the global cost is the most economical. That route is then selected as the optimal lateral navigation profile. The meteorological data was obtained from environment Canada. The new way of obtaining data from the grid from environment Canada proposed in this work resulted in an important computation time reduction compared against other methods such as bilinear interpolation. The algorithm developed here was evaluated in two different aircraft: the Lockheed L-1011 and the Sukhoi Russian regional jet. The algorithm was developed in MATLAB, and the validation was performed using Flight-Sim by Presagis and the FMS CMA-9000 by CMC Electronics -- Esterline. At the end of this work a

  3. Sensory cues employed for the acquisition of familiarity-dependent recognition of a shoal of conspecifics by climbing perch (Anabas testudineus Bloch)

    VV Binoy; Rajesh Kasturirangan; Anindya Sinha


    In this study we showed that a freshwater fish, the climbing perch (Anabas testudineus) is incapable of using chemical communication but employs visual cues to acquire familiarity and distinguish a familiar group of conspecifics from an unfamiliar one. Moreover, the isolation of olfactory signals from visual cues did not affect the recognition and preference for a familiar shoal in this species.

  4. Efficacy of exogenous hormone (GnRHa) for induced breeding of climbing perch Anabas testudineus (Bloch, 1792) and influence of operational sex ratio on spawning success.

    Mandal, Babita; Kumar, Rajesh; Jayasankar, P


    The climbing perch, Anabas testudineus, is an air-breathing fish having great consumer preference as a food fish and is considered a prime candidate species for aquaculture. Spawning success is an important issue while using hormones for captive induced breeding. In the first experiment, a trial was conducted to assess the efficacy of a synthetic Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone analog (sGnRHa) on the spawning success of climbing perch. Female fish were administered six different doses each with a single intramuscular injection of sGnRHa hormone at 0.002 (TOD1), 0.005 (TOD2), 0.01 (TOD3), 0.015 (TOD4), 0.02 (TOD5), 0.03 (TOD6) μg/g body weight. Similarly, males were administered half of the hormone dose of females in all the respective treatment groups. The greatest (Psuccess in climbing perch. For this study a different female to male ratio (1:1, 1:2, 1:3 and 1:4) and male to female ratio (1:1, 1:2 and 1:3) were used. There were a greater (Psuccess in the climbing perch. PMID:27346586

  5. Flight Test of an Intelligent Flight-Control System

    Davidson, Ron; Bosworth, John T.; Jacobson, Steven R.; Thomson, Michael Pl; Jorgensen, Charles C.


    The F-15 Advanced Controls Technology for Integrated Vehicles (ACTIVE) airplane (see figure) was the test bed for a flight test of an intelligent flight control system (IFCS). This IFCS utilizes a neural network to determine critical stability and control derivatives for a control law, the real-time gains of which are computed by an algorithm that solves the Riccati equation. These derivatives are also used to identify the parameters of a dynamic model of the airplane. The model is used in a model-following portion of the control law, in order to provide specific vehicle handling characteristics. The flight test of the IFCS marks the initiation of the Intelligent Flight Control System Advanced Concept Program (IFCS ACP), which is a collaboration between NASA and Boeing Phantom Works. The goals of the IFCS ACP are to (1) develop the concept of a flight-control system that uses neural-network technology to identify aircraft characteristics to provide optimal aircraft performance, (2) develop a self-training neural network to update estimates of aircraft properties in flight, and (3) demonstrate the aforementioned concepts on the F-15 ACTIVE airplane in flight. The activities of the initial IFCS ACP were divided into three Phases, each devoted to the attainment of a different objective. The objective of Phase I was to develop a pre-trained neural network to store and recall the wind-tunnel-based stability and control derivatives of the vehicle. The objective of Phase II was to develop a neural network that can learn how to adjust the stability and control derivatives to account for failures or modeling deficiencies. The objective of Phase III was to develop a flight control system that uses the neural network outputs as a basis for controlling the aircraft. The flight test of the IFCS was performed in stages. In the first stage, the Phase I version of the pre-trained neural network was flown in a passive mode. The neural network software was running using flight data

  6. Orion Pad Abort 1 Flight Test - Ground and Flight Operations

    Hackenbergy, Davis L.; Hicks, Wayne


    This paper discusses the ground and flight operations aspects to the Pad Abort 1 launch. The paper details the processes used to plan all operations. The paper then discussions the difficulties of integration and testing, while detailing some of the lessons learned throughout the entire launch campaign. Flight operational aspects of the launc are covered in order to provide the listener with the full suite of operational issues encountered in preparation for the first flight test of the Orion Launch Abort System.

  7. The Impact of Airline Flight Schedules on Flight Delays

    Vinayak Deshpande; Mazhar Arıkan


    Airline flight delays have come under increased scrutiny lately in the popular press, with the Federal Aviation Administration data revealing that airline on-time performance was at its worst level in 13 years in 2007. Flight delays have been attributed to several causes such as weather conditions, airport congestion, airspace congestion, use of smaller aircraft by airlines, etc. In this paper, we examine the impact of the scheduled block time allocated for a flight, a factor controlled by ai...

  8. Flight to America

    Güneli Gün


    Güneli Gün’s memoir piece truly combines the excitement of the young traveler with the humor of the mature narrator. Born in Izmir, Turkey, she breaks her engagement to a young but conservative Turkish architect and overcomes her father’s concerns to eventually study at Hollins College, Virginia. Addressing topics such as breaking out of a traditional society, being torn between the home country and the imagined new home, and finding comfort in the arts, “Flight to America” compellingly refle...

  9. Rocket Flight Path

    Jamie Waters


    This project uses Newton’s Second Law of Motion, Euler’s method, basic physics, and basic calculus to model the flight path of a rocket. From this, one can find the height and velocity at any point from launch to the maximum altitude, or apogee. This can then be compared to the actual values to see if the method of estimation is a plausible. The rocket used for this project is modeled after Bullistic-1 which was launched by the Society of Aeronautics and Rocketry at the University of South Fl...

  10. Rocket Flight Path

    Jamie Waters


    Full Text Available This project uses Newton’s Second Law of Motion, Euler’s method, basic physics, and basic calculus to model the flight path of a rocket. From this, one can find the height and velocity at any point from launch to the maximum altitude, or apogee. This can then be compared to the actual values to see if the method of estimation is a plausible. The rocket used for this project is modeled after Bullistic-1 which was launched by the Society of Aeronautics and Rocketry at the University of South Florida.